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Sample records for primary cultured bovine

  1. Primary cell cultures of bovine colon epithelium: isolation and cell culture of colonocytes.

    PubMed

    Föllmann, W; Weber, S; Birkner, S

    2000-10-01

    Epithelial cells from bovine colon were isolated by mechanical preparation combined with an enzymatic digestion from colon specimens derived from freshly slaughtered animals. After digestion with collagenase I, the isolated tissue was centrifuged on a 2% D-sorbitol gradient to separate epithelial crypts which were seeded in collagen I-coated culture flasks. By using colon crypts and omitting the seeding of single cells a contamination by fibroblasts was prevented. The cells proliferated under the chosen culture conditions and formed monolayer cultures which were maintained for several weeks, including subcultivation steps. A population doubling time of about 21 hr was estimated in the log phase of the corresponding growth curve. During the culture period the cells were characterized morphologically and enzymatically. By using antibodies against cytokeratine 7 and 13 the isolated cells were identified as cells of epithelial origin. Antibodies against vimentin served as negative control. Morphological features such as microvilli, desmosomes and tight junctions, which demonstrated the ability of the cultured cells to restore an epithelial like monolayer, were shown by ultrastructural investigations. The preservation of the secretory function of the cultured cells was demonstrated by mucine cytochemistry with alcian blue staining. A stable expression of enzyme activities over a period of 6 days in culture occurred for gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase, acid phosphatase and NADH-dehydrogenase activity under the chosen culture conditions. Activity of alkaline phosphatase decreased to about 50% of basal value after 6 days in culture. Preliminary estimations of the metabolic competence of these cells revealed cytochrome P450 1A1-associated EROD activity in freshly isolated cells which was stable over 5 days in cultured cells. Then activity decreased completely. This culture system with primary epithelial cells from the colon will be used further as a model for the colon

  2. Establishment of primary bovine intestinal epithelial cell culture and clone method.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Kang; Lin, Miao; Liu, Ming-Mei; Sui, Yang-Nan; Zhao, Guo-Qi

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish bovine intestinal epithelial cell (BIEC) line and provide a novel clone cell method. Although various strategies of bovine cell culture and clone techniques have been reported, these methods remain not established. Here, we culture successfully primary BIECs and establish a novel clone cell method. Our result showed that BIECs could be successfully cultured and passaged about generation 5. These cellular aggregates and clusters were adherent loosely at day 2 of culture. Cell aggregates and clusters start to proliferate after approximately 4 d. The BIECs showed positive reaction against cytokeratin 18, E-cadherin, and characteristics of epithelial-like morphology. In addition, the fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs), villin, and intestinal peptidase (IP) band were positive in BIECs. Our results suggest that the establishment of culturing and clone BIEC methods will apply to isolate and clone other primary cells. These BIECs could therefore contribute to the study of bovine intestinal nutrient absorption and regulation, immune regulation, and the pathogenesis of the bovine intestinal disease, which will provide intestinal cell model in vitro.

  3. Growth and antrum formation of bovine primary follicles in long-term culture in vitro.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing; Li, Xiangdong

    2013-09-01

    Successful antral formation in vitro from bovine preantral follicles (145-170 μm) has been described previously, but antrum formation from the primary follicle (50-70 μm) has not yet been achieved in vitro. The aim of the study was to establish an optimal culture system supporting the growth and maturation of bovine primary follicles (50-70 μm) in vitro. Bovine primary follicles were cultured in a three-dimensional culture system for 13 or 21 days in alpha-minimum essential medium. Various treatments including follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), 17β-estradiol (E2), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) were tested. The follicular diameter and antrum formation rate were recorded, and follicular maturation markers (P450 aromatase, CYP19A1; anti-Mullerian hormone, AMH; growth differentiation factor-9, GDF9; bone morphogenetic protein-15, BMP15; and type III transforming growth factor β receptor, TGFβR3) were analyzed by real-time RT-PCR. After 21 days of culture under each treatment condition, the follicular diameter was significantly enlarged in the presence of FSH + LH + E2 + bFGF or FSH + LH + E2 + bFGF + EGF (p<0.05). An addition of 50 ng/ml bFGF or bFGF +25 ng/ml EGF initiated antrum formation by day 19 and day 17 of culture, and the antral cavity formation rate was 16.7% and 33.3% by 21 days of culture, respectively. The expression of follicular maturation markers (CYP19A1, AMH, GDF9, BMP15 and TGFβR3) was significantly altered. We conclude that addition of 50 ng/ml bFGF +25 ng/ml EGF to media containing FSH + LH + E2 turned out to be the most effective optimized culture conditions to support the growth and maturation of bovine primary follicles in vitro.

  4. Transcriptomic comparison of primary bovine horn core carcinoma culture and parental tissue at early stage

    PubMed Central

    Shil, Sharadindu; Joshi, R. S.; Joshi, C. G.; Patel, A. K.; Shah, Ravi K.; Patel, Namrata; Jakhesara, Subhash J.; Kundu, Sumana; Reddy, Bhaskar; Koringa, P. G.; Rank, D. N.

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Squamous cell carcinoma or SCC of horn in bovines (bovine horn core carcinoma) frequently observed in Bos indicus affecting almost 1% of cattle population. Freshly isolated primary epithelial cells may be closely related to the malignant epithelial cells of the tumor. Comparison of gene expression in between horn’s SCC tissue and its early passage primary culture using next generation sequencing was the aim of this study. Materials and Methods: Whole transcriptome sequencing of horn’s SCC tissue and its early passage cells using Ion Torrent PGM were done. Comparative expression and analysis of different genes and pathways related to cancer and biological processes associated with malignancy, proliferating capacity, differentiation, apoptosis, senescence, adhesion, cohesion, migration, invasion, angiogenesis, and metabolic pathways were identified. Results: Up-regulated genes in SCC of horn’s early passage cells were involved in transporter activity, catalytic activity, nucleic acid binding transcription factor activity, biogenesis, cellular processes, biological regulation and localization and the down-regulated genes mainly were involved in focal adhesion, extracellular matrix receptor interaction and spliceosome activity. Conclusion: The experiment revealed similar transcriptomic nature of horn’s SCC tissue and its early passage cells. PMID:28246447

  5. A defined, controlled culture system for primary bovine chromaffin progenitors reveals novel biomarkers and modulators.

    PubMed

    Masjkur, Jimmy; Levenfus, Ian; Lange, Sven; Arps-Forker, Carina; Poser, Steve; Qin, Nan; Vukicevic, Vladimir; Chavakis, Triantafyllos; Eisenhofer, Graeme; Bornstein, Stefan R; Ehrhart-Bornstein, Monika; Androutsellis-Theotokis, Andreas

    2014-07-01

    We present a method to efficiently culture primary chromaffin progenitors from the adult bovine adrenal medulla in a defined, serum-free monolayer system. Tissue is dissociated and plated for expansion under support by the mitogen basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). The cultures, although not homogenous, contain a subpopulation of cells expressing the neural stem cell marker Hes3 that also propagate. In addition, Hes3 is also expressed in the adult adrenal medulla from where the tissue is taken. Differentiation is induced by bFGF withdrawal and switching to Neurobasal medium containing B27. Following differentiation, Hes3 expression is lost, and cells acquire morphologies and biomarker expression patterns of chromaffin cells and dopaminergic neurons. We tested the effect of different treatments that we previously showed regulate Hes3 expression and cell number in cultures of fetal and adult rodent neural stem cells. Treatment of the cultures with a combination of Delta4, Angiopoietin2, and a Janus kinase inhibitor increases cell number during the expansion phase without significantly affecting catecholamine content levels. Treatment with cholera toxin does not significantly affect cell number but reduces the ratio of epinephrine to norepinephrine content and increases the dopamine content relative to total catecholamines. These data suggest that this defined culture system can be used for target identification in drug discovery programs and that the transcription factor Hes3 may serve as a new biomarker of putative adrenomedullary chromaffin progenitor cells.

  6. Effects of lipid-related factors on adipocyte differentiation of bovine stromal-vascular cells in primary culture.

    PubMed

    Wu, P; Sato, K; Suzuta, F; Hikasa, Y; Kagota, K

    2000-09-01

    The effects of several factors related to lipids on bovine adipocyte differentiation were investigated in primary culture. Adipocyte differentiation was assessed by development of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) activity and morphological observation. Addition of triglyceride mixture (Intralipid), caprylic acid and very low-, low- and high-density lipoproteins (VLDL, LDL and HDL) stimulated bovine preadipocyte differentiation in serum-free condition. Especially, VLDL strongly increased both cell protein contents and GPDH activity, suggesting that it stimulated both proliferation and differentiation of bovine preadipocytes. Under Intralipid-induced condition, differentiation of preadipocytes from subcutaneous adipose tissues was more evident than those from omental adipose tissues. However, such depot difference was not observed in medium supplemented with indomethacin, which is a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma agonist. This suggests that the differentiation capacity of bovine preadipocytes was different between depots and such difference is dependent on the ability to utilize lipids as endogenous PPARgamma ligands. Therefore, lipid metabolites have the stimulatory effects on bovine adipocyte differentiation in vitro, and lipoproteins, especially VLDL, may play an important role in development of bovine adipose tissues in vivo.

  7. Establishment of a 3D cell culture model of primary bovine mammary epithelial cells extracted from fresh milk.

    PubMed

    Hillreiner, Maria; Müller, Nadine I; Koch, Heiner M; Schmautz, Christiane; Küster, Bernhard; Pfaffl, Michael W; Kliem, Heike

    2017-06-22

    For the investigation of molecular processes underlying diseases of the bovine mammary gland, primary bovine mammary epithelial cells (pbMEC) are used. They are known to contribute to the innate immune system of the bovine mammary gland. The functionality of pbMEC depends on the maintenance of in vivo characteristics. So far, the optimization of pbMEC culture conditions was intended in a variety of experiments. For this purpose, most of the studies used stable cell lines or primary cells obtained from udder biopsies of slaughtered animals. By contrast, within our study, pbMEC of healthy and first lactating Brown Swiss cows were non-invasively isolated from fresh milk. The non-invasively isolated pbMEC were cultivated on the extracellular matrix-like scaffold Matrigel®. Further, they were challenged with different compositions of proliferation media, containing lactogenic hormones and/or the essential amino acid L-lysine. Changes in expression levels of genes coding for milk proteins and for components of the janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK-STAT) and mTOR pathways were analyzed by RT-qPCR. The secreted proteins were analyzed by LC-MS/MS measurements. We showed for the first time the establishment of a physiologically functional 3D cell culture model of pbMEC isolated from fresh milk. This represents a primary cell culture model system, based on non-invasive cell collection, that can be used to unravel physiological processes in an unbiased manner.

  8. Hyaline cartilage tissue is formed through the co-culture of passaged human chondrocytes and primary bovine chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Drew W; Ahmed, Nazish; Hayes, Anthony J; Ferguson, Peter; Gross, Allan E; Caterson, Bruce; Kandel, Rita A

    2012-08-01

    To circumvent the problem of a sufficient number of cells for cartilage engineering, the authors previously developed a two-stage culture system to redifferentiate monolayer culture-expanded dedifferentiated human articular chondrocytes by co-culture with primary bovine chondrocytes (bP0). The aim of this study was to analyze the composition of the cartilage tissue formed in stage 1 and compare it with bP0 grown alone to determine the optimal length of the co-culture stage of the system. Biochemical data show that extracellular matrix accumulation was evident after 2 weeks of co-culture, which was 1 week behind the bP0 control culture. By 3 to 4 weeks, the amounts of accumulated proteoglycans and collagens were comparable. Expression of chondrogenic genes, Sox 9, aggrecan, and collagen type II, was also at similar levels by week 3 of culture. Immunohistochemical staining of both co-culture and control tissues showed accumulation of type II collagen, aggrecan, biglycan, decorin, and chondroitin sulfate in appropriate zonal distributions. These data indicate that co-cultured cells form cartilaginous tissue that starts to resemble that formed by bP0 after 3 weeks, suggesting that the optimal time to terminate the co-culture stage, isolate the now redifferentiated cells, and start stage 2 is just after 3 weeks.

  9. Culture of Primary Bovine Chondrocytes on a Continuously Expanding Surface Inhibits Dedifferentiation

    PubMed Central

    Rosenzweig, Derek H.; Matmati, Mourad; Khayat, Ghazaleh; Chaudhry, Sidharth; Hinz, Boris

    2012-01-01

    Expansion of autologous chondrocytes in vitro is used to generate adequate populations for cell-based therapies. However, standard (SD) culture methods cause loss of chondrocyte phenotype and dedifferentiation to fibroblast-like cells. Here, we use a novel surface expansion culture system in an effort to inhibit chondrocyte dedifferentiation. A highly elastic silicone rubber culture surface was continuously stretched over a 13-day period to 600% of its initial surface area. This maintained cells at a high density while limiting contact inhibition and reducing the need for passaging. Gene expression analysis, biochemical assays, and immunofluorescence microscopy of follow-on pellet cultures were used to characterize the results of continuous expansion (CE) culture versus SD cultures on rigid polystyrene. CE culture yielded cells with a more chondrocyte-like morphology and higher RNA-level expression of the chondrogenic markers collagen type II, aggrecan, and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein. Furthermore, the expression of collagen type I RNA and α-smooth muscle actin protein were significantly reduced, indicating suppression of fibroblastic features. Pellet cultures from CE chondrocytes contained more sulphated glycosaminoglycan and collagen type II than pellets from SD culture. Additional control cultures on static (unexpanded) silicone (SS culture) indicated that benefits of CE culture were partially due to features of the culture surface itself and partially due to the reduced passaging which that surface enabled through CE. Chondrocytes grown in CE culture may, therefore, be a superior source for cell-based therapies. PMID:22738340

  10. Culture of primary bovine chondrocytes on a continuously expanding surface inhibits dedifferentiation.

    PubMed

    Rosenzweig, Derek H; Matmati, Mourad; Khayat, Ghazaleh; Chaudhry, Sidharth; Hinz, Boris; Quinn, Thomas M

    2012-12-01

    Expansion of autologous chondrocytes in vitro is used to generate adequate populations for cell-based therapies. However, standard (SD) culture methods cause loss of chondrocyte phenotype and dedifferentiation to fibroblast-like cells. Here, we use a novel surface expansion culture system in an effort to inhibit chondrocyte dedifferentiation. A highly elastic silicone rubber culture surface was continuously stretched over a 13-day period to 600% of its initial surface area. This maintained cells at a high density while limiting contact inhibition and reducing the need for passaging. Gene expression analysis, biochemical assays, and immunofluorescence microscopy of follow-on pellet cultures were used to characterize the results of continuous expansion (CE) culture versus SD cultures on rigid polystyrene. CE culture yielded cells with a more chondrocyte-like morphology and higher RNA-level expression of the chondrogenic markers collagen type II, aggrecan, and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein. Furthermore, the expression of collagen type I RNA and α-smooth muscle actin protein were significantly reduced, indicating suppression of fibroblastic features. Pellet cultures from CE chondrocytes contained more sulphated glycosaminoglycan and collagen type II than pellets from SD culture. Additional control cultures on static (unexpanded) silicone (SS culture) indicated that benefits of CE culture were partially due to features of the culture surface itself and partially due to the reduced passaging which that surface enabled through CE. Chondrocytes grown in CE culture may, therefore, be a superior source for cell-based therapies.

  11. Usage of a selective media (EMJH-STAFF) in primary culturing of pathogenic leptospires from bovine clinical samples.

    PubMed

    Loureiro, A P; Martins, G; Pinto, P; Narduche, L; Teixeira, R C; Lilenbaum, W

    2015-12-01

    Isolation of local strains is mandatory for the success of control programs. However, clinical samples are typically contaminated by other bacteria, which impair leptospires growth. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of a previously reported EMJH-STAFF media in the recovery of pathogenic leptospires from bovine clinical samples, namely urine (n = 123) and vaginal fluid-VF (n = 102). EMJH-STAFF presented less contamination than EMJH (<0·005), which was more evident in VF culture tubes. Nine pure leptospires cultures were obtained, six from urine (4·9%) and three from VF (2·9%). From those, seven grew on EMJH-STAFF, one on EMJH and one in both media. All the isolates were confirmed as pathogenic leptospires by lipL32-PCR, and sequencing of partial rrs showed them to belong to Leptospira noguchii, Leptospira santarosai and Leptospira interrogans species. EMJH-STAFF media was an important tool in the recovery of leptospires from bovine clinical samples. The slow growth of leptospires and overgrowth of co-existing micro-organisms from environmental and microbiota are the major difficult to recovery Leptospira from animal clinical samples. Implementing an efficient control programme is essential to determine circulating leptospires in the region and their reservoirs. This study evaluated the relationship of a selective media (EMJH-STAFF) on the recovery of pathogenic leptospires (Leptospira noguchii, Leptospira santarosai and Leptospira interrogans), from bovine clinical samples (urine and vaginal fluid). EMJH-STAFF seems to be an important tool in obtaining local strains for epidemiological and control purposes. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. Transcriptomal profiling of bovine ovarian granulosa and theca interna cells in primary culture in comparison with their in vivo counterparts

    PubMed Central

    Hatzirodos, Nicholas; Glister, Claire; Hummitzsch, Katja; Irving-Rodgers, Helen F.; Knight, Philip G.; Rodgers, Raymond J.

    2017-01-01

    In vitro culture of ovarian granulosa cells and theca cells has been very important for our understanding of their function and regulation. One of the most eagerly sought attributes of cell culture is the use of chemically-defined conditions. However, even under such in vitro conditions cell behaviour could differ from the in vivo situation because of differences in oxygen tension, nutrients, adhesion matrix and other factors. To examine this further we compared the transcriptomes of both granulosa cells and cells from the theca interna that were cultured in what are arguably the best in vitro conditions for maintaining the ‘follicular’ phenotypes of both tissue types, as displayed by their respective freshly-isolated counterparts. The array data analysed are from recently published data and use the same sizes of bovine follicles (small antral 3–6 mm) and the same Affymetrix arrays. We conducted analysis using Partek, Ingenuity Pathway Analysis and GOEAST. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering clearly separated the in vivo from the in vitro groups for both cells types and transcriptomes were more homogeneous upon culture. In both cell cultures behaviours associated with cell adhesion, migration and interaction with matrix or substrate were more abundant. However, the pathways involved generally differed between the two cell types. With the thecal cultures a gene expression signature of an immune response was more abundant, probably by leukocytes amongst the cells cultured from the theca interna. These results indicate differences between in vivo and in vitro that should be considered when interpreting in vitro data. PMID:28282394

  13. Halothane inhibits the cholinergic-receptor-mediated influx of calcium in primary culture of bovine adrenal medulla cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yashima, N.; Wada, A.; Izumi, F.

    1986-04-01

    Adrenal medulla cells are cholinoceptive cells. Stimulation of the acetylcholine receptor causes the influx of Ca to the cells, and Ca acts as the coupler of the stimulus-secretion coupling. In this study, the authors investigated the effects of halothane on the receptor-mediated influx of /sup 45/Ca using cultured bovine adrenal medulla cells. Halothane at clinical concentrations (0.5-2%) inhibited the influx of /sup 45/Ca caused by carbachol, with simultaneous inhibition of catecholamine secretion. The influx of /sup 45/Ca and the secretion of catecholamines caused by K depolarization were inhibited by a large concentration of Mg, which competes with Ca at Ca channels, but not inhibited by halothane. Inhibition of the /sup 45/Ca influx by halothane was not overcome by increase in the carbachol concentration. Inhibition of the /sup 45/Ca influx by halothane was examined in comparison with that caused by a large concentration of Mg by the application of Scatchard analysis as the function of the external Ca concentration. Halothane decreased the maximal influx of /sup 45/Ca without altering the apparent kinetic constant of Ca to Ca channels. On the contrary, a large concentration of Mg increased the apparent kinetic constant without altering the maximal influx of /sup 45/Ca. Based on these findings, the authors suggest that inhibition of the /sup 45/Ca influx by halothane was not due to the direct competitive inhibition of Ca channels, nor to the competitive antagonism of agonist-receptor interaction. As a possibility, halothane seems to inhibit the receptor-mediated activation of Ca channels through the interference of coupling between the receptor and Ca channels.

  14. Effects of cell culture techniques on gene expression and cholesterol efflux in primary bovine mammary epithelial cells derived from milk and tissue.

    PubMed

    Sorg, D; Potzel, A; Beck, M; Meyer, H H D; Viturro, E; Kliem, H

    2012-10-01

    Primary bovine mammary epithelial cells (pbMEC) are often used in cell culture to study metabolic and inflammatory processes in the udder of dairy cows. The most common source is udder tissue from biopsy or after slaughter. However, it is also possible to culture them from milk, which is non-invasive, repeatable and yields less contamination with fibroblasts. Generally, not much is known about the influence of cell origin and cell culture techniques such as cryopreservation on pbMEC functionality. Cells were extracted from milk and udder tissue to evaluate if milk-derived pbMEC are a suitable alternative to tissue-derived pbMEC and to test what influence cryopreservation has. The cells were cultivated for three passages and stored in liquid nitrogen. The relative gene expression of the five target genes kappa-casein, lingual antimicrobial peptide (LAP), lactoferrin, lysozyme (LYZ1) and the prolactin receptor normalised with keratin 8 showed a tendency to decrease in the tissue cultures, but not in the milk-derived cultures, suggesting a greater influence of the cultivation process on tissue-derived cells, freezing lowered expression levels in both cultures. Overall expression of LAP and LYZ1 tended to be higher in milk cells. Cholesterol efflux was measured to compare passages one to seven in milk-derived cells. Passage number did not alter the efflux rate (p ≤ 0.05). We showed for the first time that the extraction of pbMEC from milk can be a suitable alternative to tissue extraction.

  15. Bovine primary chondrocyte culture in synthetic matrix metalloproteinase-sensitive poly(ethylene glycol)-based hydrogels as a scaffold for cartilage repair.

    PubMed

    Park, Yongdoo; Lutolf, Matthias P; Hubbell, Jeffrey A; Hunziker, Ernst B; Wong, Marcy

    2004-01-01

    A poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-based hydrogel was used as a scaffold for chondrocyte culture. Branched PEG-vinylsulfone macromers were end-linked with thiol-bearing matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-sensitive peptides (GCRDGPQGIWGQDRCG) to form a three-dimensional network in situ under physiologic conditions. Both four- and eight-armed PEG macromer building blocks were examined. Increasing the number of PEG arms increased the elastic modulus of the hydrogels from 4.5 to 13.5 kPa. PEG-dithiol was used to prepare hydrogels that were not sensitive to degradation by cell-derived MMPs. Primary bovine calf chondrocytes were cultured in both MMP-sensitive and MMP-insensitive hydrogels, formed from either four- or eight-armed PEG. Most (>90%) of the cells inside the gels were viable after 1 month of culture and formed cell clusters. Gel matrices with lower elastic modulus and sensitivity to MMP-based matrix remodeling demonstrated larger clusters and more diffuse, less cell surface-constrained cell-derived matrix in the chondron, as determined by light and electron microscopy. Gene expression experiments by real-time RT-PCR showed that the expression of type II collagen and aggrecan was increased in the MMP-sensitive hydrogels, whereas the expression level of MMP-13 was increased in the MMP-insensitive hydrogels. These results indicate that cellular activity can be modulated by the composition of the hydrogel. This study represents one of the first examples of chondrocyte culture in a bioactive synthetic material that can be remodeled by cellular protease activity.

  16. Transport of monocarboxylic acids at the blood-brain barrier: Studies with monolayers of primary cultured bovine brain capillary endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Terasaki, T.; Takakuwa, S.; Moritani, S.; Tsuji, A. )

    1991-09-01

    The kinetics and mechanism of the transport of monocarboxylic acids (MCAs) were studied by using primary cultured bovine brain capillary endothelial cells. Concentration-dependent uptake of acetic acid was observed, and the kinetic parameters were estimated as follows: the Michaelis constant, Kt, was 3.41 {plus minus} 1.87 mM, the maximum uptake rate, Jmax, was 144.7 {plus minus} 55.7 nmol/mg of protein/min and the nonsaturable first-order rate constant, Kd, was 6.66 {plus minus} 1.98 microliters/mg of protein/min. At medium pH below 7.0, the uptake rate of (3H)acetic acid increased markedly with decreasing medium pH, whereas pH-independent uptake was observed in the presence of 10 mM acetic acid. An energy requirement for (3H)acetic acid uptake was also demonstrated, because metabolic inhibitors (2,4-dinitrophenol and rotenone) reduced significantly the uptake rate (P less than .05). Carbonylcyanide-p-trifluoro-methoxyphenylhydrazone, a protonophore, inhibited significantly the uptake of (3H)acetic acid at medium pH of 5.0 and 6.0, whereas 4,4{prime}-diisothiocyanostilben-2,2{prime}-disulfonic acid did not. Several MCAs inhibited significantly the uptake rate of (3H)acetic acid, whereas di- and tricarboxylic acids did not. The uptake of (3H)acetic acid was competitively inhibited by salicylic acid, with an inhibition constant, Ki, of 3.60 mM, suggesting a common transport system between acetic acid and salicylic acid. Moreover, at the medium pH of 7.4, salicylic acid and valproic acid inhibited significantly the uptake of (3H)acetic acid, demonstrating that the transport of MCA drugs could also be ascribed to the MCA transport system at the physiologic pH.

  17. Growth and metabolism of murine and bovine embryos in bovine uterine flushing-supplemented culture media.

    PubMed Central

    Rondeau, M; Guay, P; Goff, A K; Cooke, G M

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the development and metabolic activity of cultured murine and bovine embryos in 2 standard media (HAM F-10 and RPMI) in the presence or absence of bovine uterine flushings. Murine morulae (n = 653) and day 7 bovine embryos (n = 273) were cultured for 18 h or 36 h in either HAM F-10 or RPMI in the presence or absence of bovine uterine flushings. After culture, the development, quality, and metabolic activity (glucose utilization or methionine uptake and incorporation) of embryos was assessed. It was found that HAM F-10 (without uterine flushings) was a more suitable medium than RPMI for optimal development and metabolism of murine and bovine embryos. Poor quality and development, as well as decreased metabolism, were evident after culture of murine embryos in RPMI; in contrast, this medium had no adverse effects on bovine embryos in culture. Supplementation of HAM F-10 with bovine uterine flushings improved the growth of murine embryos and the protein synthesis (as measured by an increased methionine incorporation) for both murine and bovine embryos. However, supplementation with bovine uterine flushings could not overcome deficiencies of an inappropriate medium (RPMI) for murine embryos. Supplementation of a well-defined culture medium with uterine flushings increased metabolism of embryos in culture, and thus might help to increase pregnancy rates after transfer of such embryos to recipient cows. PMID:8825988

  18. Fertilizability and developmental capacity of individually cultured bovine oocytes.

    PubMed

    Fukui, Y; Kikuchi, Y; Kondo, H; Mizushima, S

    2000-05-01

    Culture of single oocytes throughout in vitro maturation (IVM), fertilization (IVF) and culture (IVC) provides detailed information on maturity, fertilizability and developmental capacity of individual bovine oocytes and embryos. In the present study, effects of sperm concentration (Experiment 1), microdrop size (Experiment 2), and the addition of hypotaurine (HT) or glutathione (GSH; Experiment 3) during IVF were investigated. In Experiment 4, in vitro maturity and developmental capacity of bovine oocytes cultured for IVM in a medium supplemented with fetal calf serum (FCS), bovine serum albumin (BSA) or polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) during IVM were investigated. In Experiments 1 to 3, the percentages of normal (2 pronuclei with a spermtail) and polyspermic fertilization in singly cultured oocytes were similar to those of group IVF culture (5 oocytes/drop). The addition of GSH during single oocyte IVF significantly increased the proportion of normal fertilization and decreased the polyspermic fertilization compared with addition of HT or of the control. The rates of mature oocytes (62.4 and 67.7%) and blastocyst development (12.9 and 15.2%) for single oocyte IVM cultures (Experiment 4) were also similar compared with the group culture; PVA supplementation significantly increased the matured oocyte rate, but decreased blastocyst development significantly (7.1%) as compared with FCS (19.5%) or BSA (15.6%). These results indicate that a single oocyte culture system throughout in vitro production of bovine embryos provides similar maturity, fertilizability and developmental capacity to oocytes cultured in groups.

  19. Primary Postnatal Dorsal Root Ganglion Culture from Conventionally Slaughtered Calves

    PubMed Central

    Fadda, A.; Bärtschi, M.; Hemphill, A.; Widmer, H. R.; Zurbriggen, A.; Perona, P.; Vidondo, B.; Oevermann, A.

    2016-01-01

    Neurological disorders in ruminants have an important impact on veterinary health, but very few host-specific in vitro models have been established to study diseases affecting the nervous system. Here we describe a primary neuronal dorsal root ganglia (DRG) culture derived from calves after being conventionally slaughtered for food consumption. The study focuses on the in vitro characterization of bovine DRG cell populations by immunofluorescence analysis. The effects of various growth factors on neuron viability, neurite outgrowth and arborisation were evaluated by morphological analysis. Bovine DRG neurons are able to survive for more than 4 weeks in culture. GF supplementation is not required for neuronal survival and neurite outgrowth. However, exogenously added growth factors promote neurite outgrowth. DRG cultures from regularly slaughtered calves represent a promising and sustainable host specific model for the investigation of pain and neurological diseases in bovines. PMID:27936156

  20. IL-10 release by bovine epithelial cells cultured with Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus.

    PubMed

    Vilela, Ricardo Chaves; Benchimol, Marlene

    2013-02-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus are parasitic protists of the human and bovine urogenital tracts, respectively. Several studies have described the cytotoxic effects of trichomonads on urogenital tract epithelial cells. However, little is known about the host cell response against trichomonads. The aim of this study was to determine whether T. foetus and T. vaginalis stimulated the release of the cytokine interleukin (IL)-10 from cultured bovine epithelial cells. To characterise the inflammatory response induced by these parasites, primary cultures of bovine oviduct epithelial cells were exposed to either T. vaginalis or T. foetus. Within 12 h after parasite challenge, supernatants were collected and cytokine production was analysed. Large amounts of IL-10 were detected in the supernatants of cultures that had been stimulated with T. foetus. Interestingly, T. vaginalis induced only a small increase in the release of IL-10 upon exposure to the same bovine cells. Thus, the inflammatory response of the host cell is species-specific. Only T. foetus and not T. vaginalis induced the release of IL-10 by bovine oviduct epithelial cells.

  1. Bovine lactotroph cultures for the study of prolactin synthesis functions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianfa; Yang, Zhanqing; Fu, Shoupeng; Liu, Bingrun; Wu, Dianjun; Wang, Wei; Sun, Dongbo; Wu, Rui; Liu, Juxiong

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to establish a bovine anterior pituitary-derived lactotroph (BAPDL) line that expresses prolactin (PRL) in vitro to study the mechanisms of bovine PRL synthesis and secretion. Immunohistochemistry assay of PRL in the newborn calves' anterior pituitary glands showed that most lactotrophs were located within the superior border of the lateral wings of the anterior pituitary. Tissues of the superior border of the lateral wings of the anterior pituitary were dispersed and cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS). The limiting dilution method was used to establish BAPDL from single cell clone. BAPDL cells constantly expressed mRNAs for PRL and pituitary-specific transcription factor 1 (Pit-1) gene and grew steadily and rapidly in the DMEM supplemented with 10% FBS. PRL immunoreactivity was present in BAPDL at passage 20. The concentration of bovine PRL in BAPDL at passage 20 culture supernatant was decreased to below 35% compared with that in BAPDL at passage 1. The effects of human epidermal growth factor (hEGF) and dopamine (DA) on the expression and secretion of PRL in BAPDL at passage 4 were also investigated. The results are consistent with those of previous studies. Thus, it can be used successfully for studying the mechanisms of stimuli regulating PRL synthesis and release.

  2. Development of a bovine luteal cell in vitro culture system suitable for co-culture with early embryos.

    PubMed

    Batista, M; Torres, A; Diniz, P; Mateus, L; Lopes-da-Costa, L

    2012-10-01

    The cross talk between the corpus luteum (CL) and the early embryo, potentially relevant to pregnancy establishment, is difficult to evaluate in the in vivo bovine model. In vitro co-culture of bovine luteal cells and early embryos (days 2-8 post in vitro fertilization) may allow the deciphering of this poorly understood cross talk. However, early embryos and somatic cells require different in vitro culture conditions. The objective of this study was to develop a bovine luteal cell in vitro culture system suitable for co-culture with early embryos in order to evaluate their putative steroidogenic and prostanoid interactions. The corpora lutea of the different stages of the estrous cycle (early, mid, and late) were recovered postmortem and enriched luteal cell populations were obtained. In experiments 1 and 2, the effects of CL stage, culture medium (TCM, DMEM-F12, or SOF), serum concentration (5 or 10%), atmosphere oxygen tension (5 or 20%), and refreshment of the medium on the ability of luteal cells to produce progesterone (P(4)) were evaluated. The production of P(4) was significantly increased in early CL cultures, and luteal cells adapted well to simple media (SOF), low serum concentrations (5%), and oxygen tensions (5%). In experiment 3, previous luteal cell cryopreservation did not affect the production of P(4), PGF(2α), and PGE(2) compared to fresh cell cultures. This enables the use of pools of frozen-thawed cells to decrease the variation in cell function associated with primary cell cultures. In experiment 4, mineral oil overlaying culture wells resulted in a 50-fold decrease of the P(4) quantified in the medium, but had no effect on PGF(2α) and PGE(2) quantification. In conclusion, a luteal cell in vitro culture system suitable for the 5-d-long co-culture with early embryos was developed.

  3. Three Dimensional Primary Hepatocyte Culture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoffe, Boris

    1998-01-01

    Our results demonstrated for the first time the feasibility of culturing PHH in microgravity bioreactors that exceeded the longest period obtained using other methods. Within the first week of culture, isolated hepatocytes started to form aggregates, which continuously increased in size (up to 1 cm) and macroscopically appeared as a multidimensional tissue-like assembly. To improve oxygenation and nutrition within the spheroids we performed experiments with the biodegradable nonwoven fiber-based polymers made from PolyGlycolic Acid (PGA). It has been shown that PGA scaffolds stimulate isolated cells to regenerate tissue with defined sizes and shapes and are currently being studied for various tissue-engineering applications. Our data demonstrated that culturing hepatocytes in the presence of PGA scaffolds resulted in more efficient cell assembly and formations of larger cell spheroids (up to 3 cm in length, see figure). The histology of cell aggregates cultured with PGA showed polymer fibers with attached hepatocytes. We initiated experiments to co-culture primary human hepatocytes with human microvascular endothelial cells in the bioreactor. The presence of endothelial cells in co-cultures were established by immunohistochemistry using anti-CD34 monoclonal Ab. Our preliminary data demonstrated that cultures of purified hepatocytes with human microvascular endothelial cells exhibited better growth and expressed higher levels of albumin MRNA for a longer period of time than cultures of ppfified, primary human hepatocytes cultured alone. We also evaluated microsomal deethylation activity of hepatocytes cultured in the presence of endothelial cells.In summary, we have established liver cell culture, which mimicked the structure and function of the parent tissue.

  4. Isolation and cultivation of adult primary bovine hepatocytes from abattoir derived liver

    PubMed Central

    Ehrhardt, Sonja; Schmicke, Marion

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to establish a cell culture of adult primary bovine hepatocytes obtained from liver following slaughter and to cultivate the cells in a sandwich culture. Cells and medium samples were taken after separation of cells (day 0), during monolayer (days 1, 2 and 3) and during sandwich culture (days 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 10 and 14). The mRNA expression of BAX, BCL2L, FAS, IGF-1 and GHR1A was measured as well as urea and LDH. Hepatocytes were obtained by using a two-step collagenase perfusion and were purified thereafter by density gradient centrifugation. The viability was 68.2 ± 9.5 %. In sandwich culture, cells have a typical polygonal hepatocyte-like shape, build cell-cell contacts, and show irregularity of cell borders suggesting bile canaliculi generation. The BAX mRNA expression increased on day 1 as well but decreased steadily until day 3 and remained constant for 14 days. Urea- and LDH-concentrations increased from day 4 to day 7. In conclusion, we found that it is possible to gather viable primary hepatocytes from adult bovine liver after slaughter, and that cells gathered this way show typical morphologies, urea-production and low LDH-leakage especially at day 4 in a sandwich system. PMID:28275320

  5. Native and recombinant bovine growth hormone antagonize insulin action in cultured bovine adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Etherton, T D; Evock, C M; Kensinger, R S

    1987-08-01

    The current study was undertaken to determine if pituitary bovine GH (pbGH) and recombinant bGH (rbGH) antagonized insulin action in bovine adipose tissue after acute (2-h) and chronic (48-h) exposure and whether this was an intrinsic property of bGH. Insulin action (measured as the effect on incorporation of acetate-carbon into long-chain fatty acids) was unaffected by bGH in short term incubations regardless of whether hydrocortisone (HC) was present. After 48 h of culture, however, both pbGH and rbGH similarly antagonized the ability of insulin to maintain lipogenic capacity. This antagonism was dependent upon the presence of HC and was dose dependent, with half-maximal inhibition of insulin action occurring at about 0.5 ng/ml bGH. Bovine PRL did not mimic the effects of bGH on insulin action. These results establish that bGH antagonizes insulin action in bovine adipose tissue and that this effect is dependent upon long term exposure and the inclusion of HC in the culture medium. The fact that both rbGH and pbGH acted similarly indicates that this is an intrinsic property of bGH. The effect of bGH on insulin-dependent maintenance of lipogenic capacity may play an important role in redirecting nutrients away from adipose tissue to other tissues, such as muscle or mammary tissue. It is speculated that this metabolic effect of bGH plays an important role in the adaptive response to chronic bGH treatment, which increases milk yield of dairy cows and growth performance of beef cattle.

  6. Angiotensin II binding to cultured bovine adrenal chromaffin cells: identification of angiotensin II receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, V.L.; Printz, M.P.

    1986-03-05

    Physiological experiments have provided evidence that angiotensin II stimulates catecholamine secretion from the adrenal gland. Their laboratory and others have now shown by receptor autoradiography the presence of angiotensin II receptors (AIIR) in bovine and rat adrenal medulla. In order to extend these studies they have undertaken to define AIIR on cultured bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. Cells were isolated using the method of Levitt including cell enrichment with Percoll gradient centrifugation. Primary cultures of bovine adrenal medullary cells were maintained in DME/F12 medium containing 10% FCS. Cells were characterized by immunocytochemistry for Met- and Leu-enkephalin, PNMT, DBH and Chromagranin A. Cultured cells bind with high affinity and specificity (/sup 125/I)-ANG II yielding a K/sub D/ of 0.74 nM and B/sub max/ of 24,350 sites/cell. After Percoll treatment values of .77 nm and 34,500 sites/cell are obtained. K/sub D/ values are in close agreement with that obtained in adrenal slices by Healy. Competition studies identify a rank order of binding by this receptor similar to that of other tissues. They conclude that cultured chromaffin cells provide a suitable model system for the investigation and characterization of the ANG II receptor and for cellular studies of its functional significance.

  7. In vitro development of bovine embryos cultured with activin A.

    PubMed

    Trigal, B; Gómez, E; Díez, C; Caamaño, J N; Martín, D; Carrocera, S; Muñoz, M

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of activin A on development, differential cell counts and apoptosis/necrosis rates of bovine embryos produced in vitro. Presumptive zygotes were cultured up to Day 8 in synthetic oviduct fluid containing aminoacids, citrate, myo-inositol and BSA. In Experiment 1, activin (10 ng mL(-1)) was added: 1/from Day 1 to Day 3; 2/from Day 1 to Day 8; 3/from Day 3 to Day 8; or 4/absent (control). In Experiment 2, 10 ng mL(-1) activin were added either before (Day 3 to Day 5) or after (Day 5 to Day 8) the early morula stage. In Experiment 1, activin during the first 72 h of culture reduced Day 3 cleavage, 5-8 cell rates and blastocyst development, while hatching rates increased. No changes were observed within differential cell counts. In experiment 2, activin improved blastocyst development after, and had no effect before, the Day 5 morula stage. However, trophectoderm (TE) cell numbers decreased with activin both before and after the Day 5 morula stage, suggesting that activin inhibits TE differentiation. The presence of activin during the whole culture had no effect on TUNEL positive cells, but when added at shorter periods activin increased apoptotic rates. Effects of activin during in vitro bovine embryo development, depends on timing of its addition to the culture medium. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Foetal bovine serum-derived exosomes affect yield and phenotype of human cardiac progenitor cell culture

    PubMed Central

    Angelini, Francesco; Ionta, Vittoria; Rossi, Fabrizio; Miraldi, Fabio; Messina, Elisa; Giacomello, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) represent a powerful tool in cardiac regenerative medicine. Pre-clinical studies suggest that most of the beneficial effects promoted by the injected cells are due to their paracrine activity exerted on endogenous cells and tissue. Exosomes are candidate mediators of this paracrine effects. According to their potential, many researchers have focused on characterizing exosomes derived from specific cell types, but, up until now, only few studies have analyzed the possible in vitro effects of bovine serum-derived exosomes on cell proliferation or differentiation. Methods: The aim of this study was to analyse, from a qualitative and quantitative point of view, the in vitro effects of bovine serum exosomes on human CPCs cultured either as cardiospheres or as monolayers of cardiosphere-forming cells. Results: Effects on proliferation, yield and molecular patterning were detected. We show, for the first time, that exogenous bovine exosomes support the proliferation and migration of human cardiosphere-forming cells, and that their depletion affects cardiospheres formation, in terms of size, yield and extra-cellular matrix production. Conclusion: These results stress the importance of considering differential biological effects of exogenous cell culture supplements on the final phenotype of primary human cell cultures. PMID:27340620

  9. Antigenicity of Influenza Vaccine from Bovine Cell Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Leiderman, Eduardo; Mogabgab, William J.

    1969-01-01

    An experimental vaccine prepared from influenza virus strains propagated in bovine kidney cell cultures, purified by zonal centrifugation, and further treated with ether was studied in man for the incidence of clinical reactions and hemagglutination-inhibition antibody levels induced. The results were equivalent to those obtained in a simultaneous study made with a commercially licensed influenza vaccine derived from viruses propagated in the embryonated egg and also purified by zonal centrifugation, but not treated with ether. Comparison of the macromethod and the micromethod for determination of hemagglutination-inhibition antibody titers revealed that lower initial titers and lesser increments in antibody levels following vaccination were obtained by the microtechnique. PMID:4905036

  10. [Characterization of epithelial primary culture from human conjunctiva].

    PubMed

    Rivas, L; Blázquez, A; Muñoz-Negrete, F J; López, S; Rebolleda, G; Domínguez, F; Pérez-Esteban, A

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate primary cultures from human conjunctiva supplemented with fetal bovine serum, autologous serum, and platelet-rich autologous serum, over human amniotic membrane and lens anterior capsules. One-hundred and forty-eight human conjunctiva explants were cultured in CnT50(®) supplemented with 1, 2.5, 5 and 10% fetal bovine serum, autologous serum and platelet-rich autologous serum. Conjunctival samples were incubated at 37°C, 5% CO2 and 95% HR, for 3 weeks. The typical phenotype corresponding to conjunctival epithelial cells was present in all primary cultures. Conjunctival cultures had MUC5AC-positive secretory cells, K19-positive conjunctival cells, and MUC4-positive non-secretory conjunctival cells, but were not corneal phenotype (cytokeratin K3-negative) and fibroblasts (CD90-negative). Conjunctiva epithelial progenitor cells were preserved in all cultures; thus, a cell culture in CnT50(®) supplemented with 1 to 5% autologous serum over human amniotic membrane can provide better information of epithelial cell differentiation for the conjunctival surface reconstruction. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Culture of bovine embryos on a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microwell plate.

    PubMed

    Akagi, Satoshi; Hosoe, Misa; Matsukawa, Kazutsugu; Ichikawa, Akihiko; Tanikawa, Tamio; Takahashi, Seiya

    2010-08-01

    We fabricated a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based microwell plate (PDMS-MP) containing 100 microwells with a rounded bottom and examined whether it can be used for culture of individual in vitro fertilized (IVF) embryos or parthenogenetically activated zona-free embryos in cattle. In Experiment 1, we examined the in vitro developmental ability of IVF embryos cultured individually on PDMS-MP. After IVF, 20 embryos were transferred into 100 microl drops on PDMS-MP and cultured individually in each well of PDMS-MP (PDMS group). After 7 days of culture, the embryos in the PDMS group developed to the blastocyst stage at the same rate of those in the control group cultured in a group of 20 embryos without PDMS-MP. There were no differences in total number of cells and the ratio of inner cell mass to total cells between the PDMS and control groups. In Experiment 2, we examined the in vitro developmental ability of parthenogenetically activated zona-free bovine embryos cultured individually on PDMS-MP. The zona-free embryos were cultured individually in each well of a PDMS-MP or in each well produced by pressing a darning needle onto the bottom of a culture dish (WOW group). After 7 days of culture, the blastocyst formation rate and cell number of blastocysts in the PDMS group did not differ from those of the zona-intact embryos in the control group. Also, there were no differences in the blastocyst formation rate and cell number of blastocysts between the WOW and PDMS groups. These results suggest that the culture system using PDMS-MP is useful for individual embryos or zona-free embryos in cattle.

  12. Culturing bovine nucleus pulposus explants by balancing medium osmolarity.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, Bart; Potier, Esther; Ito, Keita

    2011-11-01

    Regenerative therapies are promising treatments for early intervertebral disc degeneration. To test their efficacy, an in vitro tissue-level model would be valuable. Nucleus pulposus (NP) explant culture may constitute such a model, as the earliest signs of degeneration are in the NP. However, in NP explant cultures, balancing tissue osmolarity is crucial to preventing swelling, proteoglycan (PG) loss and, therefore, maintaining a native cell environment. In this study, we investigated the effect of medium osmolarity on NP explants. We hypothesized that balancing the inherent tissue osmolarity would prevent swelling and thus maintain NP tissue in a native state. Bovine NP explants were cultured for 21 days in hypo-, iso-, and hyper-tonic conditions using either sucrose or polyethylene glycol (PEG) to raise medium osmolarity. Explants were analyzed for water and biochemical content, cell viability, gene expression, and tissue histology, and compared to day 0 samples. In hypo-tonic and both sucrose cultures, swelling was not prevented, resulting in PG loss and changes in cell behavior. Only PEG cultures maintained water and biochemical content and a histological aspect similar to those of native tissue, with better results for hyper- than for iso-tonic conditions. Using PEG to raise culture medium osmolarity, we were able to maintain the NP tissue specific matrix composition, important for disc cell behavior. This approach, thus, constitutes a promising model to test regenerative therapies for early intervertebral disc degeneration.

  13. Three-dimensional culture system can induce expression of casein in immortalized bovine mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Kang; Lin, Miao; Liu, MingMei; Sui, YangNan; Babekir, Haitham Mohammed; Zhao, GuoQi

    2017-05-01

    Primary bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMECs) are not ideal models for long-term studies of lactation mechanisms because these cells in a monolayer culture system cannot be polarized to simulate the physiological functions in vitro. We investigate the effects of different culture models and karyotypes on casein expression in a three-dimensional (3D) culture system. The immortalized cells' karyotypes were analyzed at passages 10, 20, 30 and 40 to detect the effects of chromosome stability. Western blotting examined that whether or not the immortalized cells at passages 5, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 could induce expression of casein in a 3D culture system. The proper polarization of the acinar structures was monitored. BMECs were successfully immortalized. The cell karyotype at passage 30 remained at 60 chromosomes and the average value was 57.1 ± 0.40 after passage 40. The polarized protein's levels were up-regulated in 3D culture compared to 2D culture. Expression of αs1, β and κ-casein could be detectable in a passage range in 3D culture. Expression of αs2-casein was undetectable in all experimental groups. However, all casein expressions were barely detectable in traditional 2D culture system. Therefore, 3D culture system is an important tool for the long-term study of lactation mechanisms in vitro. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  14. Basic features of bovine spermatogonial culture and effects of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor.

    PubMed

    Aponte, Pedro M; Soda, Takeshi; van de Kant, H J G; de Rooij, Dirk G

    2006-06-01

    Spermatogonial stem cells (SSC) are a small self-renewing subpopulation of type A spermatogonia, which for the rest are composed of differentiating cells with a very similar morphology. We studied the development of primary co-cultures of prepubertal bovine Sertoli cells and A spermatogonia and the effect of glial cell line-derived neurotropic factor (GDNF) on the numbers and types of spermatogonia, the formation of spermatogonial colonies and the capacity of the cultured SSC to colonize a recipient mouse testis. During the first week of culture many, probably differentiating, A spermatogonia entered apoptosis while others formed pairs and chains of A spermatogonia. After 1 week colonies started to appear that increased in size with time. Numbers of single (A(s)) and paired (A(pr)) spermatogonia were significantly higher in GDNF treated cultures at Days 15 and 25 (P < 0.01 and 0.05, respectively), and the ratio of A(s) to A(pr) and spermatogonial chains (A(al)) was also higher indicating enhanced self-renewal of the SSC. Furthermore, spermatogonial outgrowths in the periphery of the colonies showed a significantly higher number of A spermatogonia with a more primitive morphology under the influence of GDNF (P < 0.05). Spermatogonial stem cell transplantation experiments revealed a 2-fold increase in stem cell activity in GDNF treated spermatogonial cultures (P < 0.01). We conclude that GDNF rather than inducing proliferation, enhances self-renewal and increases survival rates of SSC in the bovine spermatogonial culture system.

  15. The minotaur proteome: avoiding cross-species identifications deriving from bovine serum in cell culture models.

    PubMed

    Bunkenborg, Jakob; García, Guadalupe Espadas; Paz, Marcia Ivonne Peña; Andersen, Jens S; Molina, Henrik

    2010-08-01

    Cell culture is a fundamental tool in proteomics where mammalian cells are cultured in vitro using a growth medium often supplemented with 5-15% FBS. Contamination by bovine proteins is difficult to avoid because of adherence to the plastic vessel and the cultured cells. We have generated peptides from bovine serum using four sample preparation methods and analyzed the peptides by high mass accuracy LC-MS/MS. Distinguishing between bovine and human peptides is difficult because of a considerable overlap of identical tryptic peptide sequences. Pitfalls in interpretation, different database search strategies to minimize erroneous identifications and an augmented contaminant database are presented.

  16. Hypertrophy of cultured bovine aortic endothelium following irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, E.M.; Vinter, D.W.; Goldberg, I.D.

    1989-03-01

    The vascular endothelium is a vital multifunctional tissue which covers the entire luminal surface of the circulatory system. Loss of continuity of the endothelial lining normally results in cell migration and proliferation to make up for cell loss and to ensure that exposure of the thrombogenic subendothelium to platelets and clotting factors is minimized. We showed that ionizing radiation (400-3000 cGy) causes dose-dependent cell loss from confluent monolayer cultures of bovine aortic endothelium, which cannot immediately be compensated by cell proliferation. Within 24 h, the remaining attached cells undergo substantial somatic hypertrophy (evidenced by increased protein content, cell volume, and attachment area) but remain diploid. If cell loss is not excessive, monolayer continuity is restored within several days. Although reduced protein degradation may contribute, most of the protein accumulation is due to synthesis of new protein. Unlike endothelium, irradiation of smooth muscle cultures causes neither cell loss nor increased protein synthesis. Hypertrophy of irradiated endothelial cells appears to be a consequence of a proliferative stimulus (cell loss) in a population of cells which is unable to divide. It can be modulated by replating irradiated cells at different densities. We suggest that endothelial hypertrophy is an early vascular homeostatic response before clonal proliferation of surviving cells or repopulation by cells from outside of the irradiated field can compensate for cell loss.

  17. Proteomic analysis of Escherichia coli O157 cultured in bovine rumen fluid

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To obtain insights into Escherichia coli O157 (O157) adaptation and survival in the bovine rumen, the first anatomical compartment encountered by this pathogen during transit through the bovine gastrointestinal tract to sites of colonization, we defined the proteome of O157 cultured in rumen fluid (...

  18. Optimal 3-D culture of primary articular chondrocytes for use in the Rotating Wall Vessel Bioreactor

    PubMed Central

    Mellor, Liliana F.; Baker, Travis L.; Brown, Raquel J.; Catlin, Lindsey W.; Oxford, Julia Thom

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Reliable culturing methods for primary articular chondrocytes are essential to study the effects of loading and unloading on joint tissue at the cellular level. Due to the limited proliferation capacity of primary chondrocytes and their tendency to dedifferentiate in conventional culture conditions, long-term culturing conditions of primary chondrocytes can be challenging. The goal of this study was to develop a suspension culturing technique that not only would retain the cellular morphology but also maintain gene expression characteristics of primary articular chondrocytes. METHODS Three-dimensional culturing methods were compared and optimized for primary articular chondrocytes in the rotating wall vessel bioreactor, which changes the mechanical culture conditions to provide a form of suspension culture optimized for low shear and turbulence. We performed gene expression analysis and morphological characterization of cells cultured in alginate beads, Cytopore-2 microcarriers, primary monolayer culture, and passaged monolayer cultures using reverse transcription-PCR and laser scanning confocal microscopy. RESULTS Primary chondrocytes grown on Cytopore-2 microcarriers maintained the phenotypical morphology and gene expression pattern observed in primary bovine articular chondrocytes, and retained these characteristics for up to 9 days. DISCUSSION Our results provide a novel and alternative culturing technique for primary chondrocytes suitable for studies that require suspension such as those using the rotating wall vessel bioreactor. In addition, we provide an alternative culturing technique for primary chondrocytes that can impact future mechanistic studies of osteoarthritis progression, treatments for cartilage damage and repair, and cartilage tissue engineering. PMID:25199120

  19. Human autologous serum as a substitute for fetal bovine serum in human Schwann cell culture.

    PubMed

    Goodarzi, Parisa; Arjmand, Babak; Emami-Razavi, Seyed Hassan; Soleimani, Masoud; Khodadadi, Abbas; Mohamadi-Jahani, Fereshteh; Aghayan, Hamid Reza

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, cell -based and tissue engineered products have opened new horizons in treatment of incurable nervous system disorders. The number of studies on the role of Schwann cells (SC) in treating nervous disorders is higher than other cell types. Different protocols have been suggested for isolation and expansion of SC which most of them have used multiple growth factors, mitogens and fetal bovine sera (FBS) in culture medium. Because of potential hazards of animal-derived reagents, this study was designed to evaluate the effect of replacing FBS with human autologous serum (HAS) on SC's yield and culture parameters. Samples from 10 peripheral nerve biopsies were retrieved and processed under aseptic condition. The isolated cells cultured in FBS (1st group) or autologous serum (2nd group). After primary culture the cells were seeded at 10000 cell/cm2 in a 12 wells cell culture plate for each group. At 100% confluency, the cell culture parameters (count, viability, purity and culture duration) of 2 groups were compared using paired t-test. The average donors' age was 35.80 (SD=13.35) and except for 1 sample the others cultured successfully. In first group, the averages of cell purity, viability and culture duration were 97% (SD=1.32), 97/33% (SD=1.22) and 11.77 (SD=2.58) days respectively. This parameters were 97.33% (SD=1.00), 97.55% (SD=1.33) and 10.33 days (SD=1.65) in second group. The difference of cell count, purity and viability were not significant between 2 groups (P>0.05). The cells of second group reached to 100% confluency in shorter period of time (P=0.03). The results of this study showed that autologous serum can be a good substitute for FBS in human SC culture. This can reduce the costs and improve the safety of cell product for clinical application.

  20. Enhancement by GABA of the stimulation-evoked catecholamine release from cultured bovine adrenal chromaffin cells.

    PubMed

    Kitayama, S; Morita, K; Dohi, T; Tsujimoto, A

    1990-05-01

    The possible involvement of GABAergic mechanisms in the catecholamine (CA) release from adrenal medulla was investigated in a primary culture of bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. GABA elicited CA release and enhanced acetylcholine (ACh)-, excess K(+)- and veratridine-evoked CA release. Muscimol, a selective GABAA receptor agonist, mimicked the action of GABA on CA release. On the other hand, baclofen, a GABAB receptor agonist, failed to affect basal or evoked CA release. Furthermore, bicuculline and picrotoxin blocked the enhancement by GABA of veratridine-evoked CA release without affecting basal CA release and CA release evoked by veratridine. In Ca2(+)-free medium, GABA failed to affect basal and caffeine-evoked CA release. ACh-evoked CA release was slightly reduced by bicuculline, whereas excess K(+)-evoked CA release was not, suggesting the involvement of endogenous GABA in CA release evoked by ACh. These results suggest a facilitatory modulation by GABA of basal and evoked release of CA from bovine adrenal medulla through GABAA receptor-mediated mechanisms.

  1. Ethanolamine metabolism in cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lipton, B.A.; Davidson, E.P.; Ginsberg, B.H.; Yorek, M.A. )

    1990-05-05

    The role of extracellular ethanolamine in phospholipid synthesis was examined in cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells. Serine and ethanolamine were both readily accumulated by these cells and incorporated into phospholipid. Exposing cells to extracellular ethanolamine for 4-6 weeks had no effect on cell growth, yet increased the phosphatidylethanolamine content of these cells by 31% as compared to control cells. The intracellular content of ethanolamine was measured by high performance liquid chromatography, and results showed that the ethanolamine-treated cells contained a significantly greater amount of free ethanolamine compared to control cells. Ethanolamine-treated cells also had decreased accumulation and incorporation into lipid of (3H)ethanolamine throughout a 48-h incubation and increased K'm and V'max parameters of ethanolamine transport as compared to control cells. Studies were also done to examine the effect of ethanolamine on the generation of free ethanolamine from phosphatidylserine. In pulse-chase experiments with (3H)serine, a physiological concentration of ethanolamine decreased the amount of 3H-labeled phosphatidylethanolamine produced from 3H-labeled phosphatidylserine by 12 h as compared to the amount of 3H-labeled phosphatidyl-ethanolamine produced in the absence of ethanolamine in the chase incubation. Furthermore, ethanolamine-treated cells accumulated 20% less labeled ethanolamine in the aqueous pool from (3H)serine after 24 h of incubation than did control cells. These results can be explained by isotope dilution with the ethanolamine pool that accumulates in these cells with time when exposed to media supplemented with a physiological concentration of ethanolamine and by an effect of ethanolamine on ethanolamine generation from phosphatidylserine.

  2. Increasing cell plating density mimics an early post-LH stage in cultured bovine granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Baufeld, Anja; Vanselow, Jens

    2013-12-01

    Cultured ovarian granulosa cells are essential models to study molecular mechanisms of gene regulation during folliculogenesis. Here, we characterize primary tissue culture models for bovine granulosa cells by morphological and physiological parameters and by novel molecular luteinization markers, as transcript abundance and DNA methylation levels. The data show that: (1) collagen substrate increased the number of attached, viable cells; (2) the expression of the key transcripts of estrogen synthesis, CYP19A1, could be induced and maintained in granulosa cells from small to medium but not from large follicles, whereas (3) only granulosa cells from large but not from smaller follicles were responsive to LH; (4) serum supplementation unfavorably transformed the cellular phenotype, induced proliferation and PCNA expression, reduced or abolished the transcript abundance of steroidogenic key genes and of gonadotropin receptor genes, CYP11A1, CYP19A1, FSHR and LHCGR but, however, did not increase the abundance of the luteinization-specific marker transcripts PTGS2, PTX3, RGS2 and VNN2; but (5) by increasing the plating density, estradiol production and the abundance of CYP19A1 transcripts, in particular those derived from the main ovarian promoter P2, were decreased concurrently leaving P2-specific DNA methylation levels unchanged, whereas progesterone secretion was stimulated and the expression of both luteinization-specific marker transcripts, RGS2 and VNN2, was significantly induced. From these data, we conclude that increasing the plating density induces a different, partly complementary, physiological and gene expression profile in cultured bovine granulosa cells and drives the cells towards an early post-LH stage of luteinization, even in the absence of luteinizing agents.

  3. Coxiella burnetii Infects Primary Bovine Macrophages and Limits Their Host Cell Response.

    PubMed

    Sobotta, Katharina; Hillarius, Kirstin; Mager, Marvin; Kerner, Katharina; Heydel, Carsten; Menge, Christian

    2016-06-01

    Although domestic ruminants have long been recognized as the main source of human Q fever, little is known about the lifestyle that the obligate intracellular Gram-negative bacterium Coxiella burnetii adopts in its animal host. Because macrophages are considered natural target cells of the pathogen, we established primary bovine monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) as an in vitro infection model to study reservoir host-pathogen interactions at the cellular level. In addition, bovine alveolar macrophages were included to take cell type peculiarities at a host entry site into account. Cell cultures were inoculated with the virulent strain Nine Mile I (NMI; phase I) or the avirulent strain Nine Mile II (NMII; phase II). Macrophages from both sources internalized NMI and NMII. MDM were particularly permissive for NMI internalization, but NMI and NMII replicated with similar kinetics in these cells. MDM responded to inoculation with a general upregulation of Th1-related cytokines such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-12, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) early on (3 h postinfection). However, inflammatory responses rapidly declined when C. burnetii replication started. C. burnetii infection inhibited translation and release of IL-1β and vastly failed to stimulate increased expression of activation markers, such as CD40, CD80, CD86, and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules. Such capability of limiting proinflammatory responses may help Coxiella to protect itself from clearance by the host immune system. The findings provide the first detailed insight into C. burnetii-macrophage interactions in ruminants and may serve as a basis for assessing the virulence and the host adaptation of C. burnetii strains.

  4. Coxiella burnetii Infects Primary Bovine Macrophages and Limits Their Host Cell Response

    PubMed Central

    Sobotta, Katharina; Hillarius, Kirstin; Mager, Marvin; Kerner, Katharina; Heydel, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    Although domestic ruminants have long been recognized as the main source of human Q fever, little is known about the lifestyle that the obligate intracellular Gram-negative bacterium Coxiella burnetii adopts in its animal host. Because macrophages are considered natural target cells of the pathogen, we established primary bovine monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) as an in vitro infection model to study reservoir host-pathogen interactions at the cellular level. In addition, bovine alveolar macrophages were included to take cell type peculiarities at a host entry site into account. Cell cultures were inoculated with the virulent strain Nine Mile I (NMI; phase I) or the avirulent strain Nine Mile II (NMII; phase II). Macrophages from both sources internalized NMI and NMII. MDM were particularly permissive for NMI internalization, but NMI and NMII replicated with similar kinetics in these cells. MDM responded to inoculation with a general upregulation of Th1-related cytokines such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-12, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) early on (3 h postinfection). However, inflammatory responses rapidly declined when C. burnetii replication started. C. burnetii infection inhibited translation and release of IL-1β and vastly failed to stimulate increased expression of activation markers, such as CD40, CD80, CD86, and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules. Such capability of limiting proinflammatory responses may help Coxiella to protect itself from clearance by the host immune system. The findings provide the first detailed insight into C. burnetii-macrophage interactions in ruminants and may serve as a basis for assessing the virulence and the host adaptation of C. burnetii strains. PMID:27021246

  5. Generation of large pig and bovine blastocysts by culturing in human induced pluripotent stem cell medium.

    PubMed

    Gao, Qing-Shan; Jin, Long; Li, Suo; Zhu, Hai-Ying; Guo, Qing; Li, Xiao-Chen; Jin, Qing-Guo; Kang, Jin-Dan; Yan, Chang-Guo; Yin, Xi-Jun

    2016-04-01

    We investigated the effect of human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPS) medium on porcine somatic cell nuclear transfer and bovine in vitro fertilized early blastocysts, in comparison with North Carolina State University (NCSU)-37 medium and in vitro culture (IVC)-II medium. After 2 days of culture, the diameter of the portion of the blastocyst that was extruded from the zona pellucid dramatically differed between porcine blastocysts cultured in hiPS medium and those cultured in NCSU-37 medium (221.47 ± 38.94 μm versus 481.87 ± 40.61 μm, P < 0.01). Moreover, the diameter of the portion of the blastocyst significantly differed between bovine blastocysts cultured in hiPS medium and those cultured in IVC-II medium (150.30 ± 29.49 μm versus 195.58 ± 41.59 μm, P < 0.01). Furthermore, the total number of cells per porcine and bovine blastocyst was more than two-fold higher in blastocysts cultured in hiPS medium than in those cultured in NCSU-37 medium (44.33 ± 5.28 and 143.33 ± 16.05, P < 0.01) or IVC-II medium (172.12 ± 45.08 and 604.83 ± 242.64, P < 0.01), respectively. These results indicate that hiPS medium markedly improves the quality of porcine and bovine blastocysts.

  6. Alkaline buffers release EDRF from bovine cultured aortic endothelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, J. A.; de Nucci, G.; Warner, T. D.; Vane, J. R.

    1991-01-01

    1. Release of endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF) and prostacyclin (PGI2) from bovine cultured aortic endothelial cells (EC) was measured by bioassay and radioimmunoassay, respectively. 2. Bradykinin (BK, 3-30 pmol), adenosine diphosphate (ADP, 2-6 nmol) or the sodium ionophore monensin (40-100 nmol) injected through a column of EC released EDRF. L-Arginine free base (FB; 10-20 mumol) or D-arginine FB (10-20 mumol) injected through the column of EC released similar amounts of EDRF and also caused an increase in pH of the Krebs solution perfusing the EC from 7.5-8.0 to 8.6-9.5. Sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) an alkaline buffer which caused the same changes in the pH of the Krebs solution also induced the same release of EDRF. The hydrochloride salts of L- or D-arginine did not cause either release of EDRF when injected through the column of EC or increases in the pH of the Krebs solution. 3. Inhibitors of either diacylglycerol lipase (RHC 80267) or kinase (R59022) inhibited the release of EDRF induced by BK or ADP but potentiated the release induced by L-arginine FB, monensin (40-100 nmol) or alkaline buffer (Na2CO3). R59022 and RHC 80267 infused through the EC increased the basal release of EDRF. 4. When calcium chloride was omitted from the Krebs solution the release of EDRF induced by alkaline buffer (Na2CO3; pH 8.6-9.5) or L-arginine FB (10-20 mumol) was selectively inhibited when compared to that induced by BK (3-30 pmol) or ADP (2-6 nmol). This inhibition was reversed when calcium (2.5 mM) was restored. 5. NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (NMMA; 30 microM) inhibited release of EDRF induced by BK (10-30 pmol) or alkaline buffers (Na2CO3 or D-arginine FB; pH 8.6-9.5). This inhibition was partially reversed by L- but not D-arginine FB or HCl (30-100 microM). 6. Prostacyclin was released when BK (10 pmol), ADP (2 nmol) or arachidonic acid (30 nmol) were injected through the column of EC. However, monensin (40 nmol) or alkaline buffers (pH 8.6-9.5) did not release

  7. The current status of primary hepatocyte culture

    PubMed Central

    Mitaka, Toshihiro

    1998-01-01

    Recently, there have been significant advances toward the development of culture conditions that promote proliferation of primary rodent hepatocytes. There are two major methods for the multiplication of hepatocytes in vitro: one is the use of nicotinamide, the other is the use of a nutrient-rich medium. In the medium containing a high concentration of nicotinamide and a growth factor, primary hepatocytes can proliferate well. In this culture condition small mononucleate cells, which are named small hepatocytes, appear and form colonies. Small hepatocytes have a high potential to proliferate while maintaining hepatic characteristics, and can differentiate into mature ones. On the other hand, combining the nutrient-rich medium with 2% DMSO, the proliferated hepatocytes can recover the hepatic differentiated functions and maintain them for a long time. In this review I describe the culture conditions for the proliferation and differentiation of primary hepatocytes and discuss the small hepatocytes, especially their roles in liver growth. PMID:10319020

  8. The Effect of Culture Methods and Serum Supplementation on Developmental Competence of Bovine Embryos Cultured In Vitro

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to compare the developmental competence of bovine in vitro fertilized embryos in three different culture methods; microdrop method (50 µl of medium under mineral oil in petri dishes) compared to tube methods (1 ml of medium in tubes) with or without oil overlay, and t...

  9. Comparative Analysis of Root Dentin Morphology and Structure of Human Versus Bovine Primary Teeth.

    PubMed

    Costa, Bruna M; Iwamoto, Alexsandra S; Puppin-Rontani, Regina M; Pascon, Fernanda M

    2015-06-01

    This study evaluated the structural and morphological differences between human and bovine primary root canals. Primary human maxillary central incisors (H) (n=9) and primary bovine incisors (B) (n=9) were selected. The roots were sectioned in the vestibular-lingual direction, planed and delimited in cervical, middle, and apical thirds. Tubule density (number of tubules per mm2) and diameter were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (1,000 and 5,000×) using Image J 1.47 software. Data were submitted to two-way repeated measures ANOVA and Tukey tests (α=0.05). The highest tubule density was observed for B (28.527±1.717 mm2) compared with H (15.931±0.170 mm2) (p<0.01). Regarding root thirds, the cervical third presented a greater tubule density (26.417±11.654 mm2) than the apical third (17.999±5.873 mm2). The diameter of the dentin tubules was not different for cervical (3.50±0.08 µm), middle (3.45±0.30 µm) and apical thirds (3.42±0.33 µm) and substrate (H-3.29±0.14 µm; B-3.63±0.06 µm). It could be concluded that: (1) the radicular dentin structure of human and bovine primary teeth and root thirds differ in terms of the tubule density; (2) the radicular dentin morphology of human and bovine primary teeth and root thirds are similar in terms of the diameter of the dentin tubules.

  10. PRIMARY CULTURES OF DISSOCIATED SYMPATHETIC NEURONS

    PubMed Central

    Mains, Richard E.; Patterson, Paul H.

    1973-01-01

    Rat sympathetic ganglia were disrupted by mechanical agitation to yield dissociated primary neurons, and the conditions for long-term growth in culture of the isolated neurons were examined. The neurons were grown with or without non-neural cells, simply by the addition or deletion of bicarbonate during growth in culture. Fluorescence histochemistry indicated that the isolated neurons contained catecholamines; incubations with radioactive precursors were used to verify the synthesis and accumulation of both dopamine and norepinephrine. The neurons also produced octopamine using tyramine as precursor, but not with tyrosine as the precursor. In the presence of eserine, older cultures synthesized and stored small amounts of acetylcholine. The cultures did not synthesize and accumulate detectable levels of radioactive γ-aminobutyric acid, 5-hydroxytryptamine, or histamine. PMID:4616046

  11. Culture of bovine embryos in intermediate host oviducts with emphasis on the isolated mouse oviduct.

    PubMed

    Rizos, D; Ramirez, M A; Pintado, B; Lonergan, P; Gutierrez-Adan, A

    2010-04-01

    The oviduct provides the optimal environment for the transport of sperm and oocyte at the earliest stages of mammalian embryo development. During the early postfertilization period, several major developmental events occur in the embryo including (i) the first cleavage division, (ii) activation of the embryonic genome, (iii) compaction of the morula, and (iv) formation of the blastocyst. Most of these events are initiated in the oviduct. The absence of assistance from the oviduct may compromise the developmental ability of the cattle embryo under in vitro culture conditions. The oviducts of several mammalian species, including rabbits, cow, sheep (in situ), and mice (organ culture), can sustain early bovine embryos and yield blastocysts of better quality compared with those of culture conditions in vitro, leading to normal pregnancy rates in recipient animals. This review focuses on the use of oviducts in vitro or in vivo as intermediate hosts for postfertilization culture environment of bovine in vitro-produced zygotes with emphasis on the mouse model.

  12. Bovine milk RNases modulate pro-inflammatory responses induced by nucleic acids in cultured immune and epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sandeep K; Haigh, Brendan J; Seyfert, Hans-Martin; Griffin, Frank J; Wheeler, Thomas T

    2017-03-01

    Activation of innate immune receptors by exogenous substances is crucial for the detection of microbial pathogens and a subsequent inflammatory response. The inflammatory response to microbial lipopolysaccharide via Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is facilitated by soluble accessory proteins, but the role of such proteins in the activation of other pathogen recognition receptors for microbial nucleic acid is not well understood. Here we demonstrate that RNase4 and RNase5 purified from bovine milk bind to Salmonella typhimurium DNA and stimulate pro-inflammatory responses induced by nucleic acid mimetics and S. typhimurium DNA in an established mouse macrophage cell culture model, RAW264.7, as well as in primary bovine mammary epithelial cells. RNase4 and 5 also modulated pro-inflammatory signalling in response to nucleic acids in bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells, although producing a distinct response. These results support a role for RNase4 and RNase5 in mediating inflammatory signals in both immune and epithelial cells, involving mechanisms that are cell-type specific.

  13. Dependability of sensitivity tests in primary culture.

    PubMed Central

    Waterworth, P M; Del Piano, M

    1976-01-01

    Primary sensitivity tests were done on 90 specimens of infected urine, and the results were compared with those of secondary tests on pure cultures done by three diffusion methods. There was good correlation between the four methods. In a second study, the reliability of primary tests prepared in the clinical laboratory on specimens of pus was assessed, and the frequency with which a definitive result was obtained with different types of specimen was determined. Recommendations are made for the economic use of these tests. Images PMID:1270599

  14. Molluscan cells in culture: primary cell cultures and cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Yoshino, T. P.; Bickham, U.; Bayne, C. J.

    2013-01-01

    In vitro cell culture systems from molluscs have significantly contributed to our basic understanding of complex physiological processes occurring within or between tissue-specific cells, yielding information unattainable using intact animal models. In vitro cultures of neuronal cells from gastropods show how simplified cell models can inform our understanding of complex networks in intact organisms. Primary cell cultures from marine and freshwater bivalve and gastropod species are used as biomonitors for environmental contaminants, as models for gene transfer technologies, and for studies of innate immunity and neoplastic disease. Despite efforts to isolate proliferative cell lines from molluscs, the snail Biomphalaria glabrata Say, 1818 embryonic (Bge) cell line is the only existing cell line originating from any molluscan species. Taking an organ systems approach, this review summarizes efforts to establish molluscan cell cultures and describes the varied applications of primary cell cultures in research. Because of the unique status of the Bge cell line, an account is presented of the establishment of this cell line, and of how these cells have contributed to our understanding of snail host-parasite interactions. Finally, we detail the difficulties commonly encountered in efforts to establish cell lines from molluscs and discuss how these difficulties might be overcome. PMID:24198436

  15. Development of bovine embryos cultured in CR1aa and IVD101 media using different oxygen tensions and culture systems.

    PubMed

    Somfai, Tamás; Inaba, Yasushi; Aikawa, Yoshio; Ohtake, Masaki; Kobayashi, Shuji; Konishi, Kazuyuki; Nagai, Takashi; Imai, Kei

    2010-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to optimise the culture conditions for the in vitro production of bovine embryos. The development of in vitro fertilised bovine oocytes in CR1aa supplemented with 5% calf serum and IVD101 culture media were compared using traditional microdrops and Well of the Well (WOW) culture systems either under 5% or 20% oxygen tension. After 7 days of culture, a significantly higher blastocyst formation rate was obtained for embryos cultured in CR1aa medium compared to those cultured in IVD101, irrespective of O2 tensions and culture systems. The blastocyst formation in IVD101 was suppressed under 20% O2 compared to 5% O2 . Despite their similar total cell numbers, higher rates of inner cell mass (ICM) cells were observed in blastocysts developed in IVD101 medium than in those developed in CR1aa, irrespective of O2 tensions. There was no significant difference in blastocyst formation, total, ICM and trophectoderm (TE) cell numbers between embryos obtained by microdrop and WOW culture systems irrespective of the culture media and O2 tensions used. In conclusion, CR1aa resulted in higher blastocyst formation rates irrespective of O2 tension, whereas IVD101 supported blastocyst formation only under low O2 levels but enhanced the proliferation of ICM cells.

  16. Characterization of bovine embryos cultured under conditions appropriate for sustaining human naïve pluripotency

    PubMed Central

    van Tol, Helena T. A.; Groot Koerkamp, Marian J. A.; Wubbolts, Richard W.; Haagsman, Henk P.; Roelen, Bernard A. J.

    2017-01-01

    In mammalian preimplantation development, pluripotent cells are set aside from cells that contribute to extra-embryonic tissues. Although the pluripotent cell population of mouse and human embryos can be cultured as embryonic stem cells, little is known about the pathways involved in formation of a bovine pluripotent cell population, nor how to maintain these cells in vitro. The objective of this study was to determine the transcriptomic profile related to bovine pluripotency. Therefore, in vitro derived embryos were cultured in various culture media that recently have been reported capable of maintaining the naïve pluripotent state of human embryonic cells. Gene expression profiles of embryos cultured in these media were compared using microarray analysis and quantitative RT-PCR. Compared to standard culture conditions, embryo culture in ‘naïve’ media reduced mRNA expression levels of the key pluripotency markers NANOG and POU5F1. A relatively high percentage of genes with differential expression levels were located on the X-chromosome. In addition, reduced XIST expression was detected in embryos cultured in naïve media and female embryos contained fewer cells with H3K27me3 foci, indicating a delay in X-chromosome inactivation. Whole embryos cultured in one of the media, 5iLA, could be maintained until 23 days post fertilization. Together these data indicate that ‘naïve’ conditions do not lead to altered expression of known genes involved in pluripotency. Interestingly, X-chromosome inactivation and development of bovine embryos were dependent on the culture conditions. PMID:28241084

  17. Effect of the Ketone Body Beta-Hydroxybutyrate on the Innate Defense Capability of Primary Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Flinspach, Claudia; Pfaffl, Michael W.; Kliem, Heike

    2016-01-01

    Negative energy balance and ketosis are thought to cause impaired immune function and to increase the risk of clinical mastitis in dairy cows. The present in vitro study aimed to investigate the effect of elevated levels of the predominant ketone body β-hydroxybutyrate on the innate defense capability of primary bovine mammary epithelial cells (pbMEC) challenged with the mastitis pathogen Escherichia coli (E. coli). Therefore, pbMEC of healthy dairy cows in mid- lactation were isolated from milk and challenged in culture with 3 mM BHBA and E. coli. pbMEC stimulated with E. coli for 6 h or 30 h showed an up-regulation of several innate immune genes, whereas co-stimulation of pbMEC with 3 mM BHBA and E. coli resulted in the down-regulation of CCL2, SAA3, LF and C3 gene expression compared to the challenge with solely the bacterial stimulus. These results indicated that increased BHBA concentrations may be partially responsible for the higher mastitis susceptibility of dairy cows in early lactation. Elevated levels of BHBA in blood and milk during negative energy balance and ketosis are likely to impair innate immune function in the bovine mammary gland by attenuating the expression of a broad range of innate immune genes. PMID:27310007

  18. [In vitro fertilization of bovine oocytes in in-vitro protein-free culture system].

    PubMed

    Smetanina, I G; Tatarinova, L V; Krivokharchenko, A S

    2006-01-01

    We studied the possibility of fertilization of bovine oocyte-cumulus complexes, matured in vitro in a protein-free medium, in a protein-free culture system without preliminary capacitation of spermatozoa. The development of embryos to the morula-blastocyst and blastocyst stage was considered as a criterion of successful fertilization. It was shown that replacement of bovine serum albumin for polyvinyl alcohol or polyvinylpyrrolidone in Tyrode medium for fertilization did not affect significantly the development to the morula-blastocyst stage and the number of cells in blastocysts. It was also found that replacement bovine serum albumin for polyvinyl alcohol in all used media, Tyrode medium for washing of oocytes, medium for sperm preparation to fertilization, and Tyrode medium for fertilization, did not affect significantly the development to the morula-blastocyst and blastocyst stages, as well as on the number of cells in blastocysts. The results obtained suggest that in vitro fertilization of bovine oocyte-cumulus complexes is possible in a protein-free culture system without significant reduction in the capacity for in vitro development of the obtained embryos and number of cells in blastocysts.

  19. Identification of bovine embryos cultured in groups by attachment of barcodes to the zona pellucida.

    PubMed

    Novo, Sergi; Morató, Roser; Penon, Oriol; Duran, Sara; Barrios, Leonardo; Nogués, Carme; Plaza, José Antonio; Pérez-García, Luisa; Mogas, Teresa; Ibáñez, Elena

    2014-06-01

    The low number of oocytes collected from unstimulated donors by ovum pick-up means that embryos produced from each individual female have to be cultured individually or in very small groups. However, it has been demonstrated that single-embryo culture is less efficient than embryo culture in groups. To overcome this limitation, we developed a direct embryo-tagging system, which allows the collective culture of embryos from different origins whilst preserving their pedigree. Presumptive bovine zygotes were tagged with eight wheat-germ agglutinin biofunctionalised polysilicon barcodes attached to the outer surface of the zona pellucida (ZP). Four different barcodes were used to encode groups of 20-25 embryos, which were then cultured in the same drop. Cleavage, Day-7 and Day-8 blastocysts and barcode retention rates were assessed. In addition, Day-7 blastocysts were vitrified and warmed. Barcode attachment to the ZP of bovine embryos affected neither in vitro embryo development nor post-warming survival of the tagged embryos. All the embryos maintained barcodes attached until Day 8 of culture (3.63±0.37 barcodes per embryo) and could be identified. In conclusion, identification of embryos by barcodes attached to the ZP is feasible and will allow the culture of embryos from different donors in the same drop.

  20. Effects of timolol on bovine corneal endothelial cultures.

    PubMed

    Staatz, W D; Radius, R L; Van Horn, D L; Schultz, R O

    1981-04-01

    The chronic use of timolol (Timoptic) maleate to control glaucoma may produce cytotoxic complications in the cornea. We have therefore compared the relative toxic effects of the commercial ophthalmic preparation with that of the pure compound. Commercial vehicle, either with or without 16 mM timolol maleate, killed cultures within the first five minutes of exposure. Pure timolol maleate, however, caused rapid but reversible cellular contractions, and cells remained viable in it for over 24 hours. Dilution with culture medium reduced both the cytotoxicity and the speed of the contractions. Incubation in 1:100 dilutions of vehicle or commercial drug preparations or in 0.16 mM pure timolol maleate did not alter cellular morphology. The results indicate that while undiluted vehicle is toxic, timolol maleate is not.

  1. Variation in pestivirus growth in testicle primary cell culture is more dependent on the individual cell donor than cattle breed.

    PubMed

    Weber, Matheus N; Bauermann, Fernando V; Gómez-Romero, Ninnet; Herring, Andy D; Canal, Cláudio W; Neill, John D; Ridpath, Julia F

    2017-03-01

    The causes of bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) are multifactorial and include infection with both viral and bacterial pathogens. Host factors are also involved as different breeds of cattle appear to have different susceptibilities to BRDC. Infection with bovine pestiviruses, including bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 (BVDV1), BVDV2 and 'HoBi'-like viruses, is linked to the development of BRDC. The aim of the present study was to compare the growth of different bovine pestiviruses in primary testicle cell cultures obtained from taurine, indicine and mixed taurine and indicine cattle breeds. Primary cells strains, derived from testicular tissue, were generated from three animals from each breed. Bovine pestivirus strains used were from BVDV-1a, BVDV-1b, BVDV-2a and 'HoBi'-like virus. Growth was compared by determining virus titers after one passage in primary cells. All tests were run in triplicate. Virus titers were determined by endpoint dilution and RT-qPCR. Statistical analysis was performed using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by the Tukey's Multiple Comparison Test (P˂0.05). Significant differences in virus growth did not correlate with cattle breed. However, significant differences were observed between cells derived from different individuals regardless of breed. Variation in the replication of virus in primary cell strains may reflect a genetic predisposition that favors virus replication.

  2. Effects of IGF-1 on In Vitro Culture of Bovine Preantral Follicles are Dose-Dependent.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, C R; de Azevedo, J L; Silveira, R G; Penitente-Filho, J; Carrascal-Triana, E L; Zolini, A M; Araujo, V R; Torres, Caa; Gonçalves, W G

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed at assessing the effect of different concentrations of the growth factor similar to insulin 1 (IGF-1) in the development, survival and ultrastructure of the bovine preantral follicles cultured in situ. Fragments of bovine ovarian cortical tissue were cultured during 1 and 7 days in 1 ml of α-MEM(+) , supplemented with different concentrations of human recombinant IGF-1 (0, 30, 70 and 100 ng/ml), in an incubator at 37°C and 5% of CO2 in 24-well plates with total replacement of the medium every 2 days. Non-cultured ovarian fragments (control) and ovarian fragments cultured during 1 and 7 days were processed for classic histology, mechanical isolation and electron transmission microscopy (ETM). Parameters such as normality, viability, activation, development, diameter and ultrastructure were evaluated. All statistical analyses were carried out using sas Version 9.2. The results showed that the percentage of follicles morphologically normal in the IGF-1 30 ng/ml treatment was similar to the fresh control (p > 0.05) both on the day 1 and on the day 7 of in vitro culture. In the viability analysis, the cultured treatments maintained the percentage of viable follicles during the entire culture period (p > 0.05). After 7 days of culture, the IGF-1 30 ng/ml treatment showed higher percentages of developing follicles (48.33%) than those of the fresh control (22.22%) and the cultured treatments (p < 0.05). Also, after 7 days of culture, IGF-1 30 ng/ml presented a higher follicular diameter when compared to the control and other concentrations of IGF-1 tested. Ultrastructurally, the non-cultured control and IGF-1 30 ng/ml, after 7 days of culture, showed conserved oocytes, nuclei and organelles. Hence, it is concluded that IGF-1 30 ng/ml was the most efficient concentration for the development of bovine preantral follicles cultured in vitro.

  3. The global effect of heat on gene expression in cultured bovine mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Lian; Sun, Yu; Wu, Jie; Li, Xiaojuan; Luo, Man; Wang, Genlin

    2015-03-01

    Heat stress (HS) in hot climates is a major cause that strongly negatively affects milk yield in dairy cattle, leading to immeasurable economic loss. The heat stress response of bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMECs) is one component of the acute systemic response to HS. Gene networks of BMECs respond to environmental heat loads with both intra- and extracellular signals that coordinate cellular and whole-animal metabolism. Our experimental objective was to characterize the direct effects of heat stress on the cultured bovine mammary epithelial cells by microarray analyses. The data identified 2716 differentially expressed genes in 43,000 transcripts which were changed significantly between heat-stressed and normal bovine mammary epithelial cells (fold change ≥2, P ≤ 0.001). Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis showed that these differentially expressed genes are involved in different pathways that regulate cytoskeleton, cell cycle, and stress response processes. Our study provides an overview of gene expression profile and the interaction between gene expression and heat stress, which will lead to further understanding of the potential effects of heat stress on bovine mammary glands.

  4. Morphological and functional characterization of bovine oviductal epithelial cell monolayers cultured on polarizing membranes.

    PubMed

    Gómez, E; Uría, H

    1997-01-01

    Several characteristics of oviductal cells, cultured under either polarizing or nonpolarizing conditions, were studied. In vitro produced bovine embryos tested the embryotrophic abilities of the respective conditioned media. Conditioned medium from the apical face of polarized cell monolayers supported higher rates of development to blastocyst and expanded blastocysts. In contrast, conditioned medium from the basal face supported embryo development only to the 8-16 cell stage; however, these embryos were able to continue development to the morula stage when cultured in medium from the apical and basal faces, indicating total cell confluence and a clear functional polarization. At the ultrastructural level, cells cultured in polarizing conditions displayed characteristics nearer to the same cells in vivo and signs of a metabolic activity higher than that in cells cultured under non-polarizing conditions. It can be concluded that cell-polarization, in our culture conditions, is beneficial to embryo development.

  5. Effect of sericin on preimplantation development of bovine embryos cultured individually.

    PubMed

    Isobe, T; Ikebata, Y; Onitsuka, T; Wittayarat, M; Sato, Y; Taniguchi, M; Otoi, T

    2012-09-01

    The silk protein sericin has been identified as a potent antioxidant in mammalian cells. This study was conducted to examine the effects of sericin on preimplantation development and quality of bovine embryos cultured individually. When two-cell-stage embryos were cultured individually for 7 days in CR1aa medium supplemented with 0, 0.1, 0.5, or 1% sericin, rates of total blastocyst formation and development to expanded blastocysts from embryos cultured with 0.5% sericin were higher (P < 0.05) than those from embryos cultured with 0 or 1% sericin. When embryos were cultured individually for 7 days in the CR1aa medium supplemented with 0 or 0.5% sericin under two oxidative stress conditions (50 or 100 μm H(2)O(2)), the addition of sericin significantly improved the blastocyst formation rate of embryos exposed to 100 μm H(2)O(2). However, the protective effect of sericin was not observed in development of embryos exposed to 50 μm H(2)O(2). When embryos were exposed to 100 μm H(2)O(2) during culture, the DNA fragmentation index of total blastocysts from embryos cultured with 0.5% sericin was lower than blastocysts derived from embryos cultured without sericin (4.4 vs. 6.8%; P < 0.01). In conclusion, the addition of 0.5% sericin to in vitro culture medium improved preimplantation development and quality of bovine embryos cultured individually by preventing oxidative stress.

  6. A retrospective epidemiological analysis of risk factors for a primary necropsy diagnosis of bovine respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Murray, G M; Cassidy, J P; Clegg, T A; Tratalos, J A; McClure, J; O'Neill, R G; Sammin, D J; Casey, M J; McElroy, M; Earley, B; Bourke, N; More, S J

    2016-09-15

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is a multifactorial disease and the primary cause of both bovine morbidity and mortality in Ireland. The risk factors associated with a primary necropsy diagnosis of BRD among cattle in the traditional (non-feedlot) husbandry systems prevalent in Ireland have not been investigated previously. The aim of this case-control study was to investigate those risk factors among cattle of all ages over an 8 year period. A total of 3,090 BRD cases and 5,236 controls were matched by submitting veterinary practitioner. Univariable and multivariable analyses were performed to examine the association of selected animallevel, herd-level and environmental risk factors with case or control status using a conditional logistical regression model. Male cattle aged more than 31 days were significantly more likely to record a primary necropsy diagnosis of BRD than female cattle. Older cattle of both sexes were at increased odds of a BRD necropsy diagnosis than younger calves with the exception of female cattle aged greater than 165 days. The risk of a primary necropsy diagnosis of BRD increased with increasing herd size and decreased with increasing time in days since the last animal movement into the submitting herd. There were significantly reduced odds of a primary necropsy diagnosis of BRD in the summer (June to August) when compared with the autumn (September to November). These findings identify significant risk factors for a necropsy diagnosis of BRD under non-feedlot-type husbandry conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Temporal sensitivity of bovine embryos to culture environment after fertilization and the implications for blastocyst quality.

    PubMed

    Lonergan, P; Rizos, D; Kanka, J; Nemcova, L; Mbaye, A M; Kingston, M; Wade, M; Duffy, P; Boland, M P

    2003-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the temporal sensitivity of bovine embryos to culture environment after fertilization to determine which period, if any, is most critical in determining blastocyst quality. Bovine zygotes produced in vitro were divided into six groups and cultured either in vitro (in synthetic oviductal fluid, SOF), in vivo (in the ewe oviduct) or in a combination of both systems. Development to the blastocyst stage, the ability of the blastocysts to withstand cryopreservation and the relative abundance of several gene transcripts were examined. Culture in SOF for either 2 or 4 days, followed by subsequent culture in the ewe oviduct, resulted in a significantly lower yield of blastocysts than did all other methods, the effect being most marked in embryos that were cultured in SOF for 4 days. In contrast, culture in vivo for the first 2 or 4 days after fertilization followed by culture in vitro did not have such a marked effect on blastocyst development. Blastocysts produced after culture in the oviduct for 6 days had the highest rates of survival over 72 h after warming (100% survival at 24 h; >95% survival at 72 h). The embryos that spent the last 4 days of culture in vivo also had relatively high rates of survival (100% at 24 h, 73.7% at 72 h). Blastocysts produced entirely in SOF had very low rates of survival after vitrification, with <40% viable at 24 h and <20% survival at 72 h. Blastocysts derived from embryos that spent the first 2 days in vivo and the last 4 days in vitro had the lowest rates of survival (6.7%), whereas those that spent the last 2 days only in SOF had intermediate rates of survival (40.6%). These differences were reflected in the relative abundance of transcripts for the Bax gene.

  8. Effects of bovine serum proteins in culture medium on post-warming survival of bovine blastocysts developed in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ohboshi, S; Etoh, T; Sakamoto, K; Fujihara, N; Yoshida, T; Tomogane, H

    1997-04-15

    Experiments were conducted to investigate the factors affecting the survival of bovine blastocysts produced in vitro after cryopreservation by vitrification. Zygotes were obtained by in vitro maturation and fertilization of oocytes. Embryos used in this study were developed in vitro at Day 7 and 8 (Day 0 = insemination day) in modified synthetic oviduct fluid medium supplemented with calf serum or BSA. Embryos were cryopreserved in a two-step protocol consisting of exposure to 10% ethylene glycol for 5 min, followed by the original vitrification solution (designated as VS) consisting of 40% (v/v) ethylene glycol, 6% (w/v) polyethylene glycol and 0.5 M sucrose in phosphate-buffered saline for 1 min. After warming, embryos were cultured in modified TCM-199 for an in vitro survival assay. The highest survival rate was obtained from the warmed embryos developed at Day 7 in medium supplemented with BSA (82.6%), and there were significant differences between results with calf scrum and BSA treatment (42.4 and 70.7%, respectively; P < 0.01). However, there were no significant differences in the cell numbers of embryos among the treatments. These results suggest that the survival of embryos developed in medium with BSA is superior to that of embryos developed in medium containing calf serum, although the cell numbers of the embryos developed under both media were similar.

  9. Bovine whole-blood culture as a tool for the measurement of endotoxin activities in Gram-negative bacterial vaccines.

    PubMed

    Imamura, Saiki; Nakamizo, Mari; Kawanishi, Michiko; Nakajima, Nao; Yamamoto, Kinya; Uchiyama, Mariko; Hirano, Fumiya; Nagai, Hidetaka; Kijima, Mayumi; Ikebuchi, Ryoyo; Mekata, Hirohisa; Murata, Shiro; Konnai, Satoru; Ohashi, Kazuhiko

    2013-05-15

    In order to analyze bovine immune reactions against the Gram-negative bacterial vaccine, bovine whole-blood culture was used to investigate the pro-inflammatory cytokine responses stimulated with lipopolysaccharides (LPS) extracted from Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. We also examined the interaction between LPS and aluminum hydroxide gel for endotoxin activity and pro-inflammatory cytokine responses of whole bovine blood. Alteration in the mRNA concentrations of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-10 in whole-blood culture at 4h after stimulation with different doses of LPS was observed and determined by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The mRNA concentrations of TNF-α and IL-1β changed in a dose-dependent manner and differed depending on the type of LPS. Limulus test revealed that endotoxin activity was remarkably reduced when aluminum hydroxide gel was added to LPS. In contrast, the mRNA concentration of TNF-α in whole bovine blood was enhanced by LPS mixed with aluminum hydroxide gel. These results suggest that bovine whole-blood culture can be utilized to detect endotoxin activity of Gram-negative bacterial vaccines. In addition, whole-blood culture offers several advantages, such as ease of performance, few preparation artifacts, and a physiological cell environment, for investigating bovine immune response compared with the Limulus test.

  10. Systematic evaluation of sericin protein as a substitute for fetal bovine serum in cell culture

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Liyuan; Wang, Jinhuan; Duan, Shengchang; Chen, Lei; Xiang, Hui; Dong, Yang; Wang, Wen

    2016-01-01

    Fetal bovine serum (FBS) shows obvious deficiencies in cell culture, such as low batch to batch consistency, adventitious biological contaminant risk, and high cost, which severely limit the development of the cell culture industry. Sericin protein derived from the silkworm cocoon has become increasingly popular due to its diverse and beneficial cell culture characteristics. However, systematic evaluation of sericin as a substitute for FBS in cell culture medium remains limited. In this study, we conducted cellular morphological, physiological, and transcriptomic evaluation on three widely used mammalian cells. Compared with cells cultured in the control, those cultured in sericin-substitute medium showed similar cellular morphology, similar or higher cellular overall survival, lower population doubling time (PDT), and a higher percentage of S-phase with similar G2/G1 ratio, indicating comparable or better cell growth and proliferation. At the transcriptomic level, differentially expressed genes between cells in the two media were mainly enriched in function and biological processes related to cell growth and proliferation, reflecting that genes were activated to facilitate cell growth and proliferation. The results of this study suggest that cells cultured in sericin-substituted medium perform as well as, or even better than, those cultured in FBS-containing medium. PMID:27531556

  11. Evaluation of different culture systems on the in vitro production of bovine embryos.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Daniela Costa; Dode, Margot Alves Nunes; Rumpf, Rodolfo

    2005-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the development potential and quality of in vitro produced bovine embryos cultured individually or in groups. After IVM and IVF, presumptive zygotes were cultured in groups or individually, either in drops or in the modified "well of the well" (mWOW) system. In Experiment 1, four culture systems were utilized: T1: drop in group (control); T2: mWOW in groups; T3: mWOW individually; and T4: drop individually. Cleavage and blastocyst rates at Days 6, 7 and 8 and total cell number of Day 6 blastocysts were similar (P > 0.05) for all treatments. However, in Day 7 blastocysts, total cell number was lower (P < 0.05) in embryos cultured individually in a small drop than those cultured in the mWOW. In Experiment 2, blastocysts of T1, T2 and T3 were allocated into two groups, control and vitrified. After warming, the vitrified embryos were cultured for 72 h. At 48 h, the development of the Days 6 and 7 embryos was similar (P > 0.05) for all treatments in the control group. For the vitrified embryos, lower hatching rates (P < 0.05) were observed in the T3 group. In conclusion, embryos cultured in groups in the mWOW system had the same blastocyst rates but better quality (measured by their survival after vitrification) than those cultured individually in the mWOW system.

  12. Tetrodotoxin-insensitive Na+ channel activator palytoxin inhibits tyrosine uptake into cultured bovine adrenal chromaffin cells

    SciTech Connect

    Morita, K.; Teraoka, K.; Azuma, M.; Oka, M.; Hamano, S. )

    1991-07-01

    The effects of the tetrodotoxin-insensitive Na+ channel activator palytoxin on both the secretion of endogenous catecholamines and the formation of 14C-catecholamines from (14C)tyrosine were examined using cultured bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. Palytoxin was shown to cause the stimulation of catecholamine secretion in a concentration-dependent manner. However, this toxin caused the reduction rather than the stimulation of 14C-catecholamine formation at the same concentrations. Palytoxin failed to cause any alteration in the activity of tyrosine hydroxylase prepared from bovine adrenal medulla. Furthermore, the uptake of (14C)tyrosine into the cells was shown to be inhibited by this toxin under the conditions in which the suppression of 14C-catecholamine formation was observed, and this inhibitory action on tyrosine uptake was closely correlated with that on catecholamine formation. The inhibitory action of palytoxin on tyrosine uptake into the cells was observed to be noncompetitive, and this effect was not altered by the removal of Na+ from the incubation mixture. These results suggest that palytoxin may be able to inhibit the uptake of (14C)tyrosine into the cells, resulting in the suppression of 14C-catecholamine formation, probably through its direct action on the plasma membranes of bovine adrenal chromaffin cells.

  13. Isolation and Culture of Bovine Oviductal Epithelial Cells for Use in the Anatomy and Physiology Laboratory and Undergraduate Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Way, Amy L.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents methods for the isolation and culture of epithelial cells from the bovine oviduct for use in both research and the teaching laboratory and provides examples of ways that an oviductal cell culture can be incorporated into an undergraduate research program. Cow reproductive tracts are readily available from area butchers, and…

  14. Isolation and Culture of Bovine Oviductal Epithelial Cells for Use in the Anatomy and Physiology Laboratory and Undergraduate Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Way, Amy L.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents methods for the isolation and culture of epithelial cells from the bovine oviduct for use in both research and the teaching laboratory and provides examples of ways that an oviductal cell culture can be incorporated into an undergraduate research program. Cow reproductive tracts are readily available from area butchers, and…

  15. High revivability of vitrified-warmed bovine mature oocytes after recovery culture with α-tocopherol.

    PubMed

    Yashiro, Ikuko; Tagiri, Miho; Ogawa, Hayato; Tashima, Kazuya; Takashima, Seiji; Hara, Hiromasa; Hirabayashi, Masumi; Hochi, Shinichi

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether developmental competence of vitrified-warmed bovine oocytes can be improved by antioxidant treatment during recovery culture. In experiment 1, one of the two antioxidants (either l-ascorbic acid or α-tocopherol) was added as a supplement to the recovery culture medium to which postwarming oocytes were exposed for 2 h before IVF. The exposure to α-tocopherol had a positive effect on rescuing the oocytes as assessed by the blastocyst yield 8 days after the IVF (35.1-36.3% vs 19.2-25.8% in untreated postwarming oocytes). Quality of expanding blastocysts harvested on Day 8 was comparable between α-tocopherol-treated vitrification group and fresh control group in terms of total cell number and chromosomal ploidy. In experiment 2, level of reactive oxygen species, mitochondrial activity, and distribution of cortical granules in α-tocopherol-treated postwarming oocytes were assessed. No obvious differences from the control data were found in these parameters. However, the treatment with α-tocopherol increased the percentage of zygotes exhibiting normal single aster formation (90.3% vs 48.0% in untreated postwarming oocytes; 10 h post-IVF). It was concluded that α-tocopherol treatment of vitrified-warmed bovine mature oocytes during recovery culture can improve their revivability, as shown by the high blastocyst yield and the higher mean total cell number in the blastocysts.

  16. Bovine mammary epithelial cells retain stem-like phenotype in long-term cultures.

    PubMed

    Cravero, Diego; Diego, Cravero; Martignani, Eugenio; Eugenio, Martignani; Miretti, Silvia; Silvia, Miretti; Macchi, Elisabetta; Elisabetta, Macchi; Accornero, Paolo; Paolo, Accornero; Baratta, Mario; Mario, Baratta

    2014-10-01

    The detection and characterization of bovine mammary stem cells may give a better understanding of the cyclic characteristic of mammary gland development. In turn, this could potentially offer techniques to manipulate lactation yield and for regenerative medicine. We previously demonstrated that adult stem cells reside in the bovine mammary gland and possess an intrinsic regenerative potential. In vitro maintenance and expansion of this primitive population is a challenging task that could make easier the study of adult mammary stem cells. The aim of this study is to investigate this possibility. Different subpopulations of mammary epithelial cells emerge when they are cultured in two defined culture conditions. Specific cell differentiation markers as cytokeratin 18 (CK18) and cytokeratin 14 (CK14) were expressed with significant differences according to culture conditions. Vimentin, a well-known fibroblast marker was observed to increase significantly (P < 0.5) only after day 20. In both conditions, after prolonged culture (25 days) a subset of cells still retained regenerative capabilities. These cells were able to form organized pseudo-alveoli when transplanted in immunodeficient mice as shown by the expression of cytokeratin 14 (CK14), cytokeratin 18 (CK18), p63 (a mammary basal cell layer marker) and Epithelial Cell Adhesion Molecule (EpCAM). We also were able to observe the presence of milk proteins signal in these regenerated structures, which is a specific marker of functional mammary alveoli. Progenitor content was also analyzed in vitro through Colony-Forming Cell (CFC) assays with no substantial differences among culture conditions and time points. These results demonstrate that long-term culture of a multipotent cell subpopulation with intrinsic regenerative potential is possible.

  17. Evaluation of human platelet lysate versus fetal bovine serum for culture of mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Hemeda, Hatim; Giebel, Bernd; Wagner, Wolfgang

    2014-02-01

    Culture media for therapeutic cell preparations-such as mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs)-usually comprise serum additives. Traditionally, fetal bovine serum is supplemented in basic research and in most clinical trials. Within the past years, many laboratories adapted their culture conditions to human platelet lysate (hPL), which further stimulates proliferation and expansion of MSCs. Particularly with regard to clinical application, human alternatives for fetal bovine serum are clearly to be preferred. hPL is generated from human platelet units by disruption of the platelet membrane, which is commonly performed by repeated freeze and thaw cycles. Such culture supplements are notoriously ill-defined, and many parameters contribute to batch-to-batch variation in hPL such as different amounts of plasma, a broad range of growth factors and donor-specific effects. The plasma components of hPL necessitate addition of anticoagulants such as heparins to prevent gelatinization of hPL medium, and their concentration must be standardized. Labels for description of hPL-such as "xenogen-free," "animal-free" and "serum free"-are not used consistently in the literature and may be misleading if not critically assessed. Further analysis of the precise composition of relevant growth factors, attachment factors, microRNAs and exosomes will pave the way for optimized and defined culture conditions. The use of hPL has several advantages and disadvantages: they must be taken into account because the choice of cell culture additive has major impact on cell preparations.

  18. Sodium-calcium exchange in cultured bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Sage, S O; van Breemen, C; Cannell, M B

    1991-01-01

    1. Intracellular free calcium ([Ca2+]i) was measured in cultured bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cell monolayers loaded with the fluorescent calcium indicator Fura-2. 2. Resting [Ca2+]i was 112 +/- 10 nM. Application of ouabain (20 microM) was without effect on [Ca2+]i for periods of up to 1 h. Monensin (10 microM) resting [Ca2+]i to 145 +/- 32 nM over approximately 2 min. In the presence of ouabain (20 microM), 10 microM-monensin increased [Ca2+]i to 146 +/- 15 nM. 3. Removal of extracellular sodium was without effect in resting cells or cells exposed to ouabain alone. However, in the presence of monensin, replacement of extracellular Na+ with Li+ resulted in a prompt increase in [Ca2+]i to a peak of 280 +/- 37 nM, which then returned towards resting levels. When Na+ was removed in the presence of both ouabain and monensin, [Ca2+]i reached a peak of 585 +/- 53 nM. 4. When extracellular Na+ was replaced with K+, to achieve simultaneous Na+ removal and depolarization, [Ca2+]i reached a peak of 568 +/- 63 nM, compared with a peak of 462 +/- 38 nM when Li+ was used as a Na+ substitute in paired experiments. The transient increase in [Ca2+]i evoked by sodium removal peaked earlier when K+ was used as the sodium substitute, showing that depolarization increased the rate of calcium influx into the cell when sodium was removed from the bathing medium. 5. Removal of extracellular K+ had no effect on the low-Na(+)-evoked increase in [Ca2+]i. 6. Returning extracellular Na+ during the increase in [Ca2+]i resulting from Na+ removal increased the rate of return of [Ca2+]i towards basal levels. In the absence of Na+, [Ca2+]i took 41 +/- 5 s to decline from 400 to 200 nM, and this was reduced to 26 +/- 6 s (n = 4, S.E.M.) when Na+ was returned to the bathing solution. 7. These results indicate endothelial cells possess a voltage-dependent Na(+) -Ca2+ exchange mechanism in the surface membrane. However, this mechanism does not appear to be of primary importance in the

  19. Fresh and vitrified bovine preantral follicles have different nutritional requirements during in vitro culture.

    PubMed

    Castro, S V; Carvalho, A A; Silva, C M G; Santos, F W; Campello, C C; Figueiredo, J R; Rodrigues, A P R

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the efficiency of different media for the in vitro culturing of fresh and vitrified bovine ovarian tissues. Fragments of the ovarian cortex were subjected to vitrification and histological and viability analyses or were immediately cultured in vitro using the alfa minimum essential medium, McCoy's 5A medium (McCoy), or medium 199 (M199). Samples of different culture media were collected on days 1 (D1) and 5 (D5) for quantification of reactive oxygen species and for hormonal assays. In non-vitrified (i.e., fresh) ovarian tissue cultures, the percentage of morphologically normal follicles was significantly greater than that recorded for the other media (e.g., M199). In the case of previously vitrified tissues, the McCoy medium was significantly superior to the other media in preserving follicular morphology up until the last culture day (i.e., D5), thus maintaining a similar percentage from D1 to D5. Reactive oxygen species levels were higher in D1 vitrified cultured tissues, but there were no differences in the levels among the three media after 5 days. The hormonal assays showed that in the case of previously vitrified tissues, at D5, progesterone levels increased on culture in the M199 medium and estradiol levels increased on culture in the McCoy medium. In conclusion, our results indicate that the use of M199 would be recommended for fresh tissue cultures and of McCoy for vitrified tissue cultures.

  20. Development of primary cell cultures using hemocytes and phagocytic tissue cells of Locusta migratoria: an application for locust immunity studies.

    PubMed

    Duressa, Tewodros Firdissa; Huybrechts, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Insect cell cultures played central roles in unraveling many insect physiological and immunological processes. Regardless, despite imminent needs, insect cell lines were developed primarily from Dipteran and Lepidopteran orders, leaving many important insects such as Orthopteran locusts under-represented. Besides the lack of cell lines, the slow progress in development of in vitro techniques is attributed to poor communications between different laboratories regarding optimized primary cell cultures. Therefore, we report here about methods developed for primary cell culture of Locusta migratoria hemocyte and phagocytic tissue cells by which we could maintain viable hemocytes in vitro for over 5 d and phagocytic tissue cells for over 12 d. 2-Mercaptoethanol and phenyl-thiourea supplements in Grace's medium together with addition of fetal bovine serum 30 min after cell seeding resulted in a successful setup of the primary cell cultures and a week-long survival of the hemocytes and phagocytic tissue cells in vitro.

  1. Evaluation of biofilm-forming capacity of Moraxella bovis, the primary causative agent of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Prieto, Claudia; Serra, Diego Omar; Martina, Pablo; Jacobs, Melisa; Bosch, Alejandra; Yantorno, Osvaldo M

    2013-10-25

    The difficulties in preventing and treating infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) and the consequent impact on the cattle industry worldwide emphasize the need to better understand this infectious process along with the biology of Moraxella bovis, its primary causative agent. Although there is increasing evidence that bacterial biofilms participate in a variety of ocular infections by direct biofilm formation on the surfaces of the eye, IBK has not been considered as a biofilm-based disease so far, and even more, no information is currently available regarding the ability of M. bovis to adopt a biofilm lifestyle. In the present research, we demonstrated the capacity of M. bovis clinical isolates and reference strains to form biofilms on different abiotic surfaces and culture conditions, and provided qualitative and quantitative information on the biofilm growth and architecture of mature biofilms. In addition, our data indicated that the type IV pili play a critical role in the biofilm formation in vitro. Most significantly, we proved that through exposure to MgCl2 type IV pili are removed from the cell surface, not only preventing M. bovis biofilm formation but also disassembling preformed biofilms. These results could constitute a new approach in the understanding of M. bovis colonization process in cattle eye and/or nasal cavity, and may aid in the development of future antimicrobial strategies for the control of IBK.

  2. Primary Teacher Identity, Commitment and Career in Performative School Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troman, Geoff

    2008-01-01

    The research reported here maps changes in primary teachers' identity, commitment and perspectives and subjective experiences of occupational career in the context of performative primary school cultures. The research aimed to provide in-depth knowledge of performative school culture and teachers' subjective experiences in their work of teaching.…

  3. Long-term viability and differentiation of bovine oviductal monolayers: bidimensional versus three-dimensional culture.

    PubMed

    Gualtieri, R; Mollo, V; Braun, S; Barbato, V; Fiorentino, I; Talevi, R

    2012-10-15

    Different in vitro models have been developed to study the interaction of gametes and embryos with the maternal tract. In cattle, the interaction of the oviduct with gametes and embryos have been classically studied using oviductal explants or monolayers (OMs). Explants are well differentiated but have to be used within 24 h after collection, whereas OMs can be used for a longer time after cell confluence but dedifferentiate during culture, losing cell polarity and ciliation. Herein, OMs were cultured either in M199 plus 10% fetal calf serum or in a semidefined culture medium (Gray's medium), in an immersed condition on collagen-coated coated microporous polyester or polycarbonate inserts under air-liquid interface conditions. The influence of culture conditions on long-term viability and differentiation of OMs was evaluated through scanning electron microscopy, localization of centrin and tubulin at the confocal laser scanning microscope, and assessment of maintenance of viability of sperm bound to OMs. Findings demonstrated that OMs cultured in an immersed condition with Gray's medium retain a better morphology, do not exhibit signs of crisis at least until 3 wks postconfluence, and maintain the viability of bound sperm significantly better than parallel OMs cultured in M199 plus 10% fetal calf serum. OM culture with Gray's medium in air-liquid interface conditions on porous inserts promotes cell polarity, ciliation, and maintenance of bound sperm viability at least until 3 wks postconfluence. In conclusion, oviduct culture in Gray's medium in an immersed or air-liquid condition allows long-term culture and, in the latter case, also ciliation of bovine OMs, and may represent in vitro systems that mimick more closely the biological processes modulated by the oviduct in vivo. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Platelet-rich plasma can replace fetal bovine serum in human meniscus cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Veronica K; de Mulder, Eric L W; de Boer, Trix; Hannink, Gerjon; van Tienen, Tony G; van Heerde, Waander L; Buma, Pieter

    2013-11-01

    Concerns over fetal bovine serum (FBS) limit the clinical application of cultured tissue-engineered constructs. Therefore, we investigated if platelet-rich plasma (PRP) can fully replace FBS for meniscus tissue engineering purposes. Human PRP and platelet-poor plasma (PPP) were isolated from three healthy adult donors. Human meniscal fibrochondrocytes (MFCs) were isolated from resected tissue after a partial meniscectomy on a young patient. Passage-4 MFCs were cultured in monolayer for 24 h, and 3 and 7 days. Six different culture media were used containing different amounts of either PRP or PPP and compared to a medium containing 10% FBS. dsDNA was quantified, and gene expression levels of collagen types I and II and aggrecan were measured at different time points with quantitative polymerase chain reaction in the cultured MFCs. After 7 days, the dsDNA quantity was significantly higher in MFCs cultured in 10% and 20% PRP compared to the other PRP and PPP conditions, but equal to 10% FBS. Collagen type I expression was lower in MFCs cultured with medium containing 5% PRP, 10% and 20% PPP compared to FBS. When medium with 10% PRP or 20% PRP was used, expressions were not significantly different from medium containing 10% FBS. Collagen type II expression was absent in all medium conditions. Aggrecan expression did not show differences between the different media used. However, after 7 days a higher aggrecan expression was measured in most culture conditions, except for 5% PRP, which was similar compared to FBS. Statistical significance was found between donors at various time points in DNA quantification and gene expression, but the same donors were not statistically different in all conditions. At 7 days cell cultured with 10% PRP and 20% PRP showed a higher density, with large areas of clusters, compared to other conditions. In an MFC culture medium, FBS can be replaced by 10% PRP or 20% PRP without altering proliferation and gene expression of human MFCs.

  5. Suboptimal culture conditions induce more deviations in gene expression in male than female bovine blastocysts.

    PubMed

    Heras, Sonia; De Coninck, Dieter I M; Van Poucke, Mario; Goossens, Karen; Bogado Pascottini, Osvaldo; Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip; Deforce, Dieter; De Sutter, Petra; Leroy, Jo L M R; Gutierrez-Adan, Alfonso; Peelman, Luc; Van Soom, Ann

    2016-01-22

    Since the development of in vitro embryo production in cattle, different supplements have been added to culture media to support embryo development, with serum being the most popular. However, the addition of serum during embryo culture can induce high birthweights and low viability in calves (Large Offspring Syndrome). Analysis of global gene expression in bovine embryos produced under different conditions can provide valuable information to optimize culture media for in vitro embryo production. We used RNA sequencing to examine the effect of in vitro embryo production, in either serum-containing or serum-free media, on the global gene expression pattern of individual bovine blastocysts. Compared to in vivo derived embryos, embryos produced in serum-containing medium had five times more differentially expressed genes than embryos produced in serum-free conditions (1109 vs. 207). Importantly, in vitro production in the presence of serum appeared to have a different impact on the embryos according to their sex, with male embryos having three times more genes differentially expressed than their female counterparts (1283 vs. 456). On the contrary, male and female embryos produced in serum-free conditions showed the same number (191 vs. 192) of genes expressed differentially; however, only 44 of those genes were common in both comparisons. The pathways affected by in vitro production differed depending on the type of supplementation. For example, embryos produced in serum-containing conditions had a lower expression of genes related to metabolism while embryos produced in serum-free conditions showed aberrations in genes involved in lipid metabolism. Serum supplementation had a major impact on the gene expression pattern of embryos, with male embryos being the most affected. The transcriptome of embryos produced in serum-free conditions showed a greater resemblance to that of in vivo derived embryos, although genes involved in lipid metabolism were altered. Male

  6. Silkworm (Bombyx mori) hemolymph unable to substitute fetal bovine serum in insect cell culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suparto, Irma H.; Khalam, Chandra Nur; Praira, Willy; Sajuthi, Dondin

    2014-03-01

    Fetal Bovine Serum (FBS) in animal cell culture media is an important source of nutrients for cell growth. However, the harvest and collection of FBS cause bioethical concerns. Efforts to reduce and preferably replace FBS with synthetic or other natural alternatives are continually being explored. Hemolymph silkworm (Bombyx mori) contains many nutrients needed for the process of metamorphosis. Therefore, there is possibility as an alternative nutritional supplement for cell culture to reduce the use of FBS. The objective of this study was to evaluate the macrocomponent of hemolymph and the possibility as medium supplement for Spodoptera fugiperda (Sf9) cell culture. Proximate analyses showed that hemolymph contains 89.76% of water, 2.52 mg/mL carbohydrate, 2.35% fat and 55.61 mg/mL protein. Further protein analysis, it consists of 15 fractions containing molecular weight of 22 - 152 kDa. The use of hemolymph as FBS substitution in Sf9 cell culture with various concentrations was unable to maintain and support cell growth. Further research still needed by prior adaptation of the tissue culture to minimal nutrition media before introduction of the hemolymph as supplement.

  7. Examining School Culture in Flemish and Chinese Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Chang; Devos, Geert; Tondeur, Jo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research is to gain understanding about school culture characteristics of primary schools in the Flemish and Chinese context. The study was carried out in Flanders (Belgium) and China, involving a total of 44 Flemish schools and 40 Chinese schools. The School Culture Scales were used to measure five school culture dimensions with…

  8. Predicting Organizational Commitment from Organizational Culture in Turkish Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ipek, Cemalettin

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to describe organizational culture and commitment and to predict organizational commitment from organizational culture in Turkish primary schools. Organizational Culture Scale (Ipek "1999") and Organizational Commitment Scale (Balay "2000") were used in the data gathering process. The data were collected from…

  9. Predicting Organizational Commitment from Organizational Culture in Turkish Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ipek, Cemalettin

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to describe organizational culture and commitment and to predict organizational commitment from organizational culture in Turkish primary schools. Organizational Culture Scale (Ipek "1999") and Organizational Commitment Scale (Balay "2000") were used in the data gathering process. The data were collected from…

  10. Examining School Culture in Flemish and Chinese Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Chang; Devos, Geert; Tondeur, Jo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research is to gain understanding about school culture characteristics of primary schools in the Flemish and Chinese context. The study was carried out in Flanders (Belgium) and China, involving a total of 44 Flemish schools and 40 Chinese schools. The School Culture Scales were used to measure five school culture dimensions with…

  11. Effects of Growth Hormone on In Situ Culture of Bovine Preantral Follicles are Dose Dependent.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, C R; de Azevedo, J L; Silveira, R G; Penitente-Filho, J; Carrascal-Triana, E L; Zolini, A M; Araújo, V R; Torres, Caa

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate different concentrations of growth hormone (GH) on the development of bovine preantral follicles cultured included in the ovarian tissue (in situ) on the rates of morphologically normal, viable, primordial and developing follicles, as well as the oocyte and follicle diameter and ultrastructural analysis. Ovarian fragments collected from cows with no cross-breeds defined were cultured in situ for 1 and 7 days in minimal essential medium (α-MEM+) supplemented with different concentrations of recombinant human GH (0, 10, 25, 50 ng/ml). The ovarian fragments non-cultured (control) and cultured were processed for classic histology, mechanical isolation and electron transmission microscopy (MET). The parameters underwent anova (Tukey's and Dunnett's tests) and chi-square test (χ(2) ). After 7 days of culture, the treatment with 50 ng/ml GH showed no differences with fresh control (p > 0.05) and had greater effectiveness than in the 0, 10 and 25 ng/ml GH concentrations of the morphologically normal follicles. Regarding the primordial follicles, a reduction was observed in the 50 ng/ml GH concentration concomitant with the significant increase in developing follicles, differing from both the fresh control and the other GH concentrations tested. In addition, 50 ng/ml GH showed a larger follicle and oocyte diameter when compared to the other treatments cultured. Similar structures were ultrastructurally observed in the control group, 50 ng/ml GH. Follicles cultured in 10 ng/ml GH showed nuclear invagination, vacuoles and lesioned basal membrane. Hence, it is concluded that 50 ng/ml GH is the most effective concentration for the development of preantral follicles cultured in situ. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Perifusion culture system for bovine embryos: improvement of embryo development by use of bovine oviduct epithelial cells, an antioxidant and polyvinyl alcohol.

    PubMed

    Lim, J M; Reggio, B C; Godke, R A; Hansel, W

    1997-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted in an attempt to improve a continuous flow-perifusion system capable of maintaining embryo development for long periods of time. Bovine embryos (8-16 cells) obtained from static co-culture with cumulus cells in a serum-free medium were perifused in an ACUSYST-S cell culture incubator. Culture chambers of the incubator consisted of a 0.2-mL unit (Chamber 1) connected to a 1.5-mL unit (Chamber 2), with the outflow from Chamber 1 routed to the inlet to Chamber 2. A bovine embryo culture medium supplemented with 3 mg mL-1 bovine serum albumin (BSA) and 25 mM HEPES was used as a perifusion culture medium (PCM). Embryos were perifused in Chamber 2 for 24, 48 and 72 h and further co-cultured in a static system up to 216 h after insemination. In Experiment 1, conditioning PCM with frozen-thawed bovine oviduct epithelial cells (BOEC) placed in Chamber 1 enhanced (P < 0.05) blastocyst formation of embryos in Chamber 2, after 24, 48 and 72 h of perifusion culture. The proportion of blastocysts was not further increased by placing BOEC in Chamber 2 along with the embryos. In Experiment 2, embryos were perifused with PCM conditioned with BOEC in Chamber 1 for 48 h or 72 h. A higher proportion of perifused embryos developed to the blastocyst stage after addition of 25 U mL-1 or 50 U mL-1 of superoxide dismutase (SOD) to PCM than in its absence. However, blastocyst formation of embryos perifused for 72 h was not increased after addition of 50 U mL-1 SOD compared with its absence. In Experiment 3, the proportions of morulae and blastocysts were not decreased by replacement of 3 mg mL-1 BSA with 1 mg mL-1 polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) in a BOEC-conditioned medium containing 50 U mL-1 SOD after perifusion for 48 h. In conclusion, PCM conditioning with BOEC and addition of an antioxidant to the perifusion medium improved the developmental capacity of perifused embryos. PVA is an adequate replacement for BSA in the perifusion medium.

  13. Teaching Cultural History from Primary Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carson, Robert N.

    2004-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between specific cultural events such as Galileo's work with the pendulum and a curriculum design that seeks to establish in skeletal form a comprehensive epic narrative about the co-evolution of cultural systems and human consciousness. The article explores some of the challenges and some of the strategies…

  14. Teaching Cultural History from Primary Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carson, Robert N.

    2004-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between specific cultural events such as Galileo's work with the pendulum and a curriculum design that seeks to establish in skeletal form a comprehensive epic narrative about the co-evolution of cultural systems and human consciousness. The article explores some of the challenges and some of the strategies…

  15. Infection of cultured bovine cells with bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) or Sendai virus induces different beta interferon subtypes

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Leticia Frizzo

    2011-01-01

    In contrast to mice or humans, cattle contain three beta interferon (IFN-β) genes with distinct transcriptional promoters suggesting IFN-β gene expression is not stimulated the same by different viruses. To test this hypothesis, we compared expression of the three IFN-β subtypes after infection with a RNA virus, Sendai, versus a large DNA virus, bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1). Infection of low passage bovine kidney (BK) or established bovine kidney cells (CRIB) with Sendai virus has consistently led to high levels of IFN-β1 RNA. Conversely, infection of CRIB cells, but not BK cells, with BHV-1 increased IFN-β3 RNA levels and to a lesser extent the other two IFN-β subtypes. Inhibition of de novo protein synthesis with cycloheximide resulted in higher levels of IFN-β1 and IFN-β2 RNA levels after BHV-1 infection. Further studies demonstrated that BHV-1 immediate early and/or early genes were primarily responsible for inhibiting the IFN response in BK cells. The three bovine IFN-β promoters were cloned upstream of a reporter gene construct, and their properties analyzed in transient transfection assays. Only the IFN-β3 promoter was trans-activated by IRF3 (interferon responsive factor 3). IRF7 and double stranded RNA (polyIC) stimulated IFN-β1 and IFN-β3 promoter activity, but not IFN-β2. Relative to the human IFN-β promoter, the IFN-β3 promoter contained fewer nucleotide differences in the positive regulatory domain III (PRD III), PRD IV, and PRD I compared to the IFN-β1 and IFN-β2 promoter. Collectively, these studies provide evidence that virus infection differentially stimulates expression of the three bovine IFN-β genes. PMID:21316405

  16. Defined media optimization for in vitro culture of bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Jun; Xiong, Xian-Rong; Zhang, Hui; Li, Yan-Yan; Li, Qian; Wang, Yong-Sheng; Xu, Wen-Bing; Hua, Song; Zhang, Yong

    2012-12-01

    The objective was to establish an efficient defined culture medium for bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos. In this study, modified synthetic oviductal fluid (mSOF) without bovine serum albumin (BSA) was used as the basic culture medium (BCM), whereas the control medium was BCM with BSA. In Experiment 1, adding polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) to BCM supported development of SCNT embryos to blastocyst stage, but blastocyst formation rate and blastocyst cell number were both lower (P < 0.05) compared to the undefined group (6.1 vs. 32.6% and 67.3 ± 3.4 vs. 109.3 ± 4.5, respectively). In Experiment 2, myo-inositol, a combination of insulin, transferrin and selenium (ITS), and epidermal growth factor (EGF) were added separately to PVA-supplemented BCM. The blastocyst formation rate and blastocyst cell number of those three groups were dramatically improved compared with that of PVA-supplemented group in Experiment 1 (18.5, 23.0, 24.1 vs. 6.1% and 82.7 ± 2.0, 84.3 ± 4.2, 95.3 ± 3.8 vs. 67.3 ± 3.4, respectively, P < 0.05), but were still lower compared with that of undefined group (33.7% and 113.8 ± 3.4, P < 0.05). In Experiment 3, when a combination of myo-inositol, ITS and EGF were added to PVA-supplemented BCM, blastocyst formation rate and blastocyst cell number were similar to that of undefined group (30.4 vs. 31.1% and 109.3 ± 4.4 vs. 112.0 ± 3.6, P > 0.05). In Experiment 4, when blastocysts were cryopreserved and subsequently thawed, there were no significant differences between the optimized defined group (Experiment 3) and undefined group in survival rate and 24 and 48 h hatching blastocyst rates. Furthermore, there were no significant differences in expression levels of H19, HSP70 and BAX in blastocysts derived from optimized defined medium and undefined medium, although the relative expression abundance of IGF-2 was significantly decreased in the former. In conclusion, a defined culture medium containing PVA, myo-inositol, ITS, and EGF

  17. Responses of bovine early embryos to S-adenosyl methionine supplementation in culture.

    PubMed

    Shojaei Saadi, Habib A; Gagné, Dominic; Fournier, Éric; Baldoceda Baldeon, Luis Manuel; Sirard, Marc-André; Robert, Claude

    2016-08-01

    There is a growing concern about the potential adverse effects of high dose folic acid (FA) supplementation before and during pregnancy. FA metabolism generates S-adenosyl methionine (SAM) which is an important cofactor of epigenetic programming. We sought to assess the impact of a large dose of SAM on early embryo development. In vitro cultured bovine embryos were treated with SAM from the eight-cell stage to the blastocyst stage. In addition to the phenotype, the genome-wide epigenetic and transcription profiles were analyzed. Treatment significantly improved embryo hatching and caused a shift in sex ratio in favor of males. SAM caused genome-wide hypermethylation mainly in exonic regions and in CpG islands. Although differentially expressed genes were associated with response to nutrients and developmental processes, no correspondence was found with the differentially methylated regions, suggesting that cellular responses to SAM treatment during early embryo development may not require DNA methylation-driven changes. Since bovine embryos were not indifferent to SAM, effects of large-dose FA supplements on early embryonic development in humans cannot be ruled out.

  18. Evaluation of Tualang honey as a supplement to fetal bovine serum in cell culture.

    PubMed

    Kannan, Thirumulu Ponnuraj; Ali, Abdulaziz Qaid; Abdullah, Siti Fadilah; Ahmad, Azlina

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate Tualang honey as a supplement to fetal bovine serum in cell cultures using MTT assay, chromosome aberration test and gene expression analyses. The MTT assay showed the highest percentage of cell proliferation (105.3% increment than control) of human osteoblast cell line (CRL 1543) in 0.0195% honey in Dulbecco's modified eagle medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum and 1% penicillin/streptomycin. There was enhanced cell proliferation corresponding to the decrease in concentrations of honey as indicated by the mitotic index values when the osteoblast cell line was incubated at 37 degrees C for 48 hours. There were no chromosome aberrations both in the honey treated as well as distilled water treated (negative control) cell lines. In the case of gene expression analyses, fibroblast cell lines (CCL 171) were treated with honey (0.0195%) for 24 and 48 hours separately. Though there was over expression for the bcl-xl gene at both 24 and 48 hours, under expression for bcl-xs gene at 24 hours and over expression at 48 hours and under expression for both c-myc and p53 genes at both 24 and 48 hours, none of them were statistically significant in altering the expression of mRNA.

  19. Characterization of Silver Nanoparticles in Cell Culture Medium Containing Fetal Bovine Serum.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Ulf; Thünemann, Andreas F

    2015-06-23

    Nanoparticles are being increasingly used in consumer products worldwide, and their toxicological effects are currently being intensely debated. In vitro tests play a significant role in nanoparticle risk assessment, but reliable particle characterization in the cell culture medium with added fetal bovine serum (CCM) used in these tests is not available. As a step toward filling this gap, we report on silver ion release by silver nanoparticles and on changes in the particle radii and in their protein corona when incubated in CCM. Particles of a certified reference material, p1, and particles of a commercial silver nanoparticle material, p2, were investigated. The colloidal stability of p1 is provided by the surfactants polyethylene glycol-25 glyceryl trioleate and polyethylene glycol-20 sorbitan monolaurate, whereas p2 is stabilized by polyvinylpyrrolidone. Dialyses of p1 and p2 reveal that their silver ion release rates in CCM are much larger than in water. Particle characterization was performed with asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation, small-angle X-ray scattering, dynamic light scattering, and electron microscopy. p1 and p2 have similar hydrodynamic radii of 15 and 16 nm, respectively. The silver core radii are 9.2 and 10.2 nm. Gel electrophoresis and subsequent peptide identification reveal that albumin is the main corona component of p1 and p2 after incubation in CCM that consists of Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium with 10% fetal bovine serum added.

  20. Effects of air-polishing devices with different abrasives on bovine primary and second teeth and deciduous human teeth.

    PubMed

    Khalefa, Mohammad; Finke, Christian; Jost-Brinkmann, Paul-Georg

    2013-09-01

    The present study investigates the effect of air polishing using different combinations of devices and abrasive powders on bovine secondary and primary dentition and on human deciduous teeth. Lower incisors of freshly slaughtered calves and cows were partially embedded in polyurethane and polished flat. Human deciduous incisors and second molars were subjected to the same procedure. These various tooth types (bovine secondary, bovine primary, human deciduous) were then randomly assigned to 22 groups containing 10 teeth each. The specimens in each group were treated by a specific combination of an air-polishing device (n=2; PROPHYflex 3®, Air-Flow® Handy 2+) and an abrasive (n=3; Air-Flow® Pulver Classic, ClinPro™ Prophy Powder, PROPHYpearls®) applied from a distance of 5±0.5 mm at maximum setting for 60 s. Additional groups of specimens were polished with CCS® 40 or Cleanic® pastes applied with a rotating brush at low speed. A Perthometer PCV profilometer was used to analyze the degrees of surface roughness and enamel reduction in each group. PROPHYpearls® created significantly (p<0.05; t-test) more surface roughness and enamel reduction than both Air-Flow® and ClinPro™. There was no significant difference between the latter two abrasives. Any surface changes created by blasting or polishing were significantly (p<0.05; t-test) smaller on the bovine secondary teeth than on bovine primary or human deciduous teeth, with no significant difference between the latter two. The degrees of surface roughness induced by air polishing surpassed the effect of CCS® 40 paste but resembled the effect of Cleanic® paste. Both Air-Flow® Handy 2+ and PROPHYflex 3® are appropriate devices to remove plaque and discoloration from the surface of deciduous teeth. PROPHYpearls® powder is excessively aggressive.

  1. Identification and characterization of an angiotensin II receptor on cultured bovine adrenal chromaffin cells

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, V.L.

    1987-01-01

    The presence of an angiotensin II receptor on cultured bovine adrenal chromaffin cells was demonstrated by radioligand binding. A single class of finding sites with a K/sub D/ of 0.7 nM was characterized. The use of radioligands also allows the localization of receptors by autoradiography. Autoradiography demonstrated that approximately 50% of the isolated cells bound angiotensin II. It was of interest to see if angiotensin II bound to a cell that possessed a certain phenotype. In order to evaluate this possibility a technique was developed that combined autoradiography and immunocytochemistry. Results indicated that angiotensin II binding sites were not localized preferentially to either norepinephrine or epinephrine cells. Binding of angiotensin II was associated with the release of intracellular catecholamine stores. Cells were pre-loaded with /sup 3/H-norepinephrine and secretion was monitored by following radioactivity released into the supernatant. Alternatively, release of endogenous catecholamines was determined by fluorometric assay.

  2. Monolayer co-culture of rat heart cells and bovine adrenal chromaffin paraneurons.

    PubMed

    Trifaró, J M; Tang, R; Novas, M L

    1990-04-01

    This paper describes a method for the preparation of co-cultures of rat heart cells and bovine adrenal chromaffin paraneurons. The most suitable condition for heart cell isolation was when a combination of trypsin-DNAse I in Locke's solution was used for digestion. The best co-culture conditions were obtained when 10(6) heart cells were plated on 7- to 8-d-old adrenal chromaffin paraneuron cultures containing 0.5 x 10(6) cells per 35-mm diameter culture dishes. Measurements of DNA (heart cells and chromaffin paraneurons), monitoring of beating frequency (heart cells), and catecholamine (chromaffin paraneurons) levels and release indicated that both cell types remain viable and functional for several weeks. Heart cells started their characteristic contractile activity 24 h earlier when plated either on viable or lysed chromaffin paraneurons, an effect apparently due to faster surface adhesion of heart cells. The beating frequency of heart cells increased after treatment of co-cultures with either noradrenaline or nicotine, with the latter agent acting indirectly through the release of chromaffin paraneuron catecholamines. Propranolol produced a dose-related inhibition of the responses to either noradrenaline or nicotine, thus suggesting that the increase in myocyte's beating activity was mediated through beta-receptors. Anti-myosin and anti-dopamine-beta-hydroxylase immunostaining was used for cell type identification and for the demonstration of body-to-body and process-to-process contacts between adrenal chromaffin paraneurons and heart cells. This co-culture system will serve as a starting point of further studies directed to understand a) the influence of a cell type on the development and on the phenotypic characteristics of a second cell type and b) the interaction of cells derived from different organs and species.

  3. Development, molecular composition and freeze tolerance of bovine embryos cultured in TCM-199 supplemented with hyaluronan.

    PubMed

    Palasz, A T; Breña, P Beltrán; Martinez, Marcelo F; Perez-Garnelo, S S; Ramirez, M A; Gutiérrez-Adán, A; De la Fuente, J

    2008-02-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) is glycosaminoglycan that is present from the start of embryonic development and its role and concentration increases with embryo development. The objective of this study was to evaluate if the presence of HA in TCM-199 culture medium had an effect on the development and quality of bovine embryos. There was no effect of HA on the total number of zygotes developing to blastocysts on day 7, however more expanded and hatched blastocyst stages were observed on days 8 and 9 in the group supplemented with HA (p<0.05). Following freeze/thawing, significantly more (p<0.05) embryos cultured in medium supplemented with HA hatched than those cultured in TCM-199 alone or those with BSA. Medium supplemented with HA and BSA significantly increased the level of expression of glucose metabolism Glut-1 gene and embryo compaction Cx43 gene (p<0.05), and had no effect on Glut-5 and IGF-II expression. In addition, HA presence in culture decreased the level of expression of apoptosis Bax and oxidative stress SOX genes (p<0.05). There was significant difference in total number of nuclei between TCM-199 medium only and the remaining media containing BSA or HA plus BSA, between which there was no difference. In summary, our results indicate that the addition of high molecular weight HA to TCM-199 medium that contains BSA on day 4 of culture improved embryo development to hatching and hatched blastocysts and the quality of produced embryos, which were superior to embryos cultured without HA addition.

  4. Transcriptional analysis of diverse strains Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in primary bovine monocyte derived macrophages.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaochun; Tu, Zheng J; Coussens, Paul M; Kapur, Vivek; Janagama, Harish; Naser, Saleh; Sreevatsan, Srinand

    2008-10-01

    In this study we analyzed the macrophage-induced gene expression of three diverse genotypes of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). Using selective capture of transcribed sequences (SCOTS) on three genotypically diverse MAP isolates from cattle, human, and sheep exposed to primary bovine monocyte derived macrophages for 48 h and 120 h we created and sequenced six cDNA libraries. Sequence annotations revealed that the cattle isolate up-regulated 27 and 241 genes; the human isolate up-regulated 22 and 53 genes, and the sheep isolate up-regulated 35 and 358 genes, at the two time points respectively. Thirteen to thirty-three percent of the genes identified did not have any annotated function. Despite variations in the genes identified, the patterns of expression fell into overlapping cellular functions as inferred by pathway analysis. For example, 10-12% of the genes expressed by all three strains at each time point were associated with cell-wall biosynthesis. All three strains of MAP studied up-regulated genes in pathways that combat oxidative stress, metabolic and nutritional starvation, and cell survival. Taken together, this comparative transcriptional analysis suggests that diverse MAP genotypes respond with similar modus operandi for survival in the host.

  5. Insulin-like growth factor-II stimulates steroidogenesis in cultured bovine thecal cells.

    PubMed

    Spicer, L J; Voge, J L; Allen, D T

    2004-11-30

    The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II) on luteinizing hormone (LH)-induced progesterone and androstenedione production by bovine thecal cells and compare it to that of insulin and IGF-I. Cells from large (>7.9 mm) bovine follicles were collected and cultured for 2 days in the presence of 10% fetal calf serum. Then cells were cultured for an additional 1 or 2 days in serum-free medium with various doses of recombinant human IGF-II, bovine LH (30 ng/ml), IGF-I, and(or) insulin. Cell numbers were determined at the end of treatments via Coulter counting and used to correct steroid production data. In the presence of LH, 1-day treatment with 3-300 ng/ml of IGF-II had no significant effect on progesterone or androstenedione production, whereas 2-day treatment with 30, 100 and 300 ng/ml of IGF-II increased (P < 0.05) both progesterone and androstenedione production by 2-3-fold. The estimated effective dose of IGF-II stimulating 50% of the maximal steroidogenic response was calculated to be 25 ng/ml. In the absence of LH, 2-day treatment of IGF-I or -II had no effect on thecal androstenedione production but increased (P < 0.05) thecal progesterone production. In the presence of LH, 100 ng/ml of IGF-I increased progesterone and androstenedione production to a greater degree than did 100 ng/ml of IGF-II. Maximal effects of IGF-I and insulin on thecal steroidogenesis were similar and were not additive. Anti-IGF type I receptor antibodies attenuated (P < 0.05) the stimulatory effect of both IGF-I and IGF-II on thecal cell steroidogenesis. Use of radioligand assays demonstrated that specific receptors for (125)I-IGF-II existed in thecal cells with a 25 ng/well of IGF-II causing 50% inhibition of binding. IGF-I cross-reactivity with (125)I-IGF-II receptors averaged 3% whereas cross-reactivity of IGF-II with (125)I-IGF-I receptors averaged 114%. These results indicate that the stimulatory effects of IGF-II on

  6. Effect of quinine on the release of catecholamines from bovine cultured chromaffin cells.

    PubMed Central

    Tang, R.; Novas, M. L.; Glavinovic, M. I.; Trifaró, J. M.

    1990-01-01

    1. The effects of quinine on catecholamine release from cultured bovine chromaffin cells were studied. 2. Quinine (25-400 microM) produced a dose-related inhibition of catecholamine release in response to depolarizing concentrations (12.5-50 mM) of K+. 3. The inhibition of the secretory response to high K+ produced by quinine decreased with the increase in the extracellular concentration of Ca2+. 4. Stimulation of cultured chromaffin cells with 50 mM K+ produced a significant increase in Ca2+ influx. In the presence of 100 microM quinine a 54% inhibition of the K(+)-induced Ca2+ influx was observed. 5. Quinine treatment of chromaffin cell cultures produced a small but significant decrease in membrane resting potential and a less pronounced depolarization in response to 50 mM K+. 6. The results suggest that the inhibition of the K(+)-evoked release of catecholamines produced by quinine is at least partly due to a decrease in Ca2+ influx. Ca2+ influx is lower because quinine reduces the sensitivity of the membrane potential to changes in extracellular K+ but direct effects of quinine on Ca2+ channels cannot be excluded. PMID:2158846

  7. A hybrid substratum for primary hepatocyte culture that enhances hepatic functionality with low serum dependency.

    PubMed

    Meng, Qingyuan; Tao, Chunsheng; Qiu, Zhiye; Akaike, Toshihiro; Cui, Fuzhai; Wang, Xiumei

    2015-01-01

    Cell culture systems have proven to be crucial for the in vitro maintenance of primary hepatocytes and the preservation of hepatic functional expression at a high level. A poly-(N-p-vinylbenzyl-4-O-β-D-galactopyranosyl-D-gluconamide) matrix can recognize cells and promote liver function in a spheroid structure because of a specific galactose-asialoglycoprotein receptor interaction. Meanwhile, a fusion protein, E-cadherin-Fc, when incubated with various cells, has shown an enhancing effect on cellular viability and metabolism. Therefore, a hybrid substratum was developed for biomedical applications by using both of these materials to combine their advantages for primary hepatocyte cultures. The isolated cells showed a monolayer aggregate morphology on the coimmobilized surface and displayed higher functional expression than cells on traditional matrices. Furthermore, the hybrid system, in which the highest levels of cell adhesion and hepatocellular metabolism were achieved with the addition of 1% fetal bovine serum, showed a lower serum dependency than the collagen/gelatin-coated surface. Accordingly, this substrate may attenuate the negative effects of serum and further contribute to establishing a defined culture system for primary hepatocytes.

  8. mRNA fragments in in vitro culture media are associated with bovine preimplantation embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Kropp, Jenna; Khatib, Hasan

    2015-01-01

    In vitro production (IVP) systems have been used to bypass problems of fertilization and early embryonic development. However, embryos produced by IVP are commonly selected for implantation based on morphological assessment, which is not a strong indicator of establishment and maintenance of pregnancy. Thus, there is a need to identify additional indicators of embryonic developmental potential. Previous studies have identified microRNA expression in in vitro culture media to be indicative of embryo quality in both bovine and human embryos. Like microRNAs, mRNAs have been shown to be secreted from cells into the extracellular environment, but it is unknown whether or not these RNAs are secreted by embryos. Thus, the objective of the present study was to determine whether mRNAs are secreted into in vitro culture media and if their expression in the media is indicative of embryo quality. In vitro culture medium was generated and collected from both blastocyst and degenerate (those which fail to develop from the morula to blastocyst stage) embryos. Small-RNA sequencing revealed that many mRNA fragments were present in the culture media. A total of 17 mRNA fragments were differentially expressed between blastocyst and degenerate conditioned media. Differential expression was confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR for fragments of mRNA POSTN and VSNL-1, in four additional biological replicates of media. To better understand the mechanisms of mRNA secretion into the media, the expression of a predicted RNA binding protein of POSTN, PUM2, was knocked down using an antisense oligonucleotide gapmer. Supplementation of a PUM2 gapmer significantly reduced blastocyst development and decreased secretion of POSTN mRNA into the media. Overall, differential mRNA expression in the media was repeatable and sets the framework for future study of mRNA biomarkers in in vitro culture media to improve predictability of reproductive performance.

  9. In vitro culture of Babesia bovis in a bovine serum-free culture medium supplemented with insulin, transferrin, and selenite.

    PubMed

    Rojas Martínez, C; Rodríguez-Vivas, R I; Figueroa Millán, J V; Acosta Viana, K Y; Gutiérrez Ruiz, E J; Álvarez Martínez, J A

    2016-11-01

    Bovine serum is an important factor for the optimal growth of Babesia bovis in vitro. This protozoan can be cultured in M-199 with Earle's salts medium (M-199) supplemented with 40% bovine serum (BS). In the present study, four media were assessed along with the control medium M-199. The effect on the proliferation of B. bovis in vitro was tested when these media were combined with insulin (Ins), transferrin (Trans) and selenite (Sel) in the absence of bovine serum. Treatment with Advanced DMEM/F12 medium (A-DMEM/F12) achieved the highest percentage of parasitized erythrocytes (PPE), reaching a maximum value of 9.59%. A-DMEM/F12 medium supplemented with a mixture of Ins (2000 mg/L), Trans (1100 mg/L), and Sel (1.34 mg/L) allowed for the adaptation and proliferation of B. bovis without bovine serum, showed a constant increase in PPE, and reached a maximum value of 9.7% during seven cycles of in vitro culture. It was concluded that continuous proliferation of B. bovis in vitro could be achieved using A-DMEM/F12 medium supplemented with Ins-Trans-Sel, without bovine serum. After adaptation for proliferation in serum-free medium, the B. bovis strain of parasites could have future use in the study of this economically important protozoan species that affects cattle.

  10. Culture of bovine embryos in polyester mesh sections: the effect of pore size and oxygen tension on in vitro development.

    PubMed

    Somfai, T; Inaba, Y; Aikawa, Y; Ohtake, M; Kobayashi, S; Akai, T; Hattori, H; Konishi, K; Imai, K

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of polyester mesh culture for the in vitro production of bovine embryos, as polyester mesh is an alternative way for tracking individual embryos throughout culture using time-lapse cinematography (TLC). Bovine embryos were isolated during in vitro culture using sections of three different polyethylene terephthalate (PET) mesh products. In vitro matured and fertilized bovine oocytes were cultured in the 217 × 217, 230 × 230 or 238 × 238-μm openings of PET mesh sections or in simple micro-drops (control) for 7 days under either 20% or 5% O(2) tensions. No difference in embryo developmental rates was found between the culture groups in terms of cleavage, blastocyst formation and blastocyst expansion irrespective of O(2) tension. In contrast, under 20% O(2) tension, blastocysts that developed in PET mesh with 217 × 217-μm opening had significantly higher numbers of total and trophectoderm (TE) cells than control embryos; however, the numbers and proportions of inner cell mass (ICM) cells did not differ. Under 5% O(2) tension, no difference was found among the culture groups in the numbers of total, ICM and TE cells in embryos. All three PET mesh products investigated in this study were proven to be effective to prevent embryo movement. The results demonstrate that bovine embryos can be cultured in PET mesh sections without negative side-effects and suggest that embryo distance determined by the mesh affects embryo quality at atmospheric oxygen tension. Polyethylene terephthalate mesh with 217 × 217-μm openings was found to be the most suitable for further application in TLC.

  11. Pertussis toxin treatment does not block inhibition by atrial natriuretic factor of aldosterone secretion in cultured bovine zona glomerulosa cells

    SciTech Connect

    De Lean, A.; Cantin, M.

    1986-03-05

    The authors have previously reported that atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) potently inhibits PGE or forskolin-stimulation aldosterone secretion in bovine zona glomerulosa (ZG) by acting through specific high affinity receptors. In order to evaluate the functional role of the regulatory protein N/sub i/ and the inhibition of adenylate cyclase activity (AC) in ZG, the authors have studied the effect of treatment with PT on inhibition by ANF of aldosterone production. Primary cultures of ZG were treated for 18 hours in serum-free F12 medium with (0-100 ng/ml PT). No effect of PT pretreatment was observed either on basal, PGE-stimulated or ANF-inhibited levels of steroidogenesis. When membranes prepared from control ZG were ADP-ribosylated with (/sup 32/P) NAD in the presence of PT, two toxin-specific bands with 39 Kd and 41 Kd were documented on SDS gel. Cell pretreatment with as low as 1 ng/ml drastically reduced further labelling of these two bands while higher doses completely abolished them. Since PT treatment covalently modifies completely the toxin substrate without altering ANF inhibition of adrenal steroidogenesis, the authors conclude that N/sub i/ is not involved in the mode of action of ANF on aldosterone production.

  12. Intersections between interprofessional practice, cultural competency and primary healthcare.

    PubMed

    Oelke, Nelly D; Thurston, Wilfreda E; Arthur, Nancy

    2013-09-01

    The concepts of interprofessional collaborative practice (IPCP), cultural competency and primary healthcare (PHC) appear to be linked in theory and practice. This discussion article provides arguments explicating the potential linkages between IPCP and cultural competency. We argue that cultural competency is an important component of IPCP both for relationships with patients and/or communities in which providers work and between team members. Organizational structures also play an important role in facilitating IPCP and cultural competency. The integration of both IPCP and cultural competency has the potential to enhance positive health outcomes. Furthermore, we argue IPCP and cultural competency have important implications for PHC service design, given interprofessional teams are a key component of PHC systems. Linking these concepts in providing PHC services can be essential for impacting outcomes at all levels of primary healthcare, including patient, provider and systems.

  13. Replacing serum in culture medium with albumin and insulin, transferrin and selenium is the key to successful bovine embryo development in individual culture.

    PubMed

    Wydooghe, E; Heras, S; Dewulf, J; Piepers, S; Van den Abbeel, E; De Sutter, P; Vandaele, L; Van Soom, A

    2014-06-01

    Individual culture of bovine embryos is usually associated with low blastocyst development. However, during preliminary experiments in our laboratory we observed high blastocyst development after individual embryo culture in a serum-free culture system. We therefore hypothesised that serum has a negative effect on embryos cultured individually whereas embryos in groups can counteract this. First, we determined whether the timing of removal of serum (during maturation or culture) had an influence on individual embryo development. The results clearly showed that removal of serum during embryo culture was the main contributing factor since high blastocyst development was observed after individual culture in synthetic oviductal fluid supplemented with bovine serum albumin (BSA) and insulin, transferrin and selenium (ITS), independent of the maturation medium. Second, we investigated whether an individual factor of the ITS supplement was essential for individual embryo development. We demonstrated that repeatable high blastocyst percentages were due to the synergistic effect of ITS. Finally, we investigated if a group-culture effect can still be observed under serum-free conditions. Group culture generated blastocysts with higher total cell numbers and less apoptosis. These data show that individual culture in serum-free conditions leads to high blastocyst development, but group culture still improves blastocyst quality.

  14. Grounding Signs of Culture: Primary Intersubjectivity in Social Semiosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowley, Stephen J.; Moodley, Sheshni; Fiori-Cowley, Agnese

    2004-01-01

    The article examines how infants are first permeated by culture. Building on Thibault (2000), semiogenesis is traced to the joint activity of primary intersubjectivity. Using an African example, analysis shows how--at 14 weeks--an infant already uses culturally specific indicators of "what a caregiver wants." Human predispositions and…

  15. Grounding Signs of Culture: Primary Intersubjectivity in Social Semiosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowley, Stephen J.; Moodley, Sheshni; Fiori-Cowley, Agnese

    2004-01-01

    The article examines how infants are first permeated by culture. Building on Thibault (2000), semiogenesis is traced to the joint activity of primary intersubjectivity. Using an African example, analysis shows how--at 14 weeks--an infant already uses culturally specific indicators of "what a caregiver wants." Human predispositions and…

  16. Elevated non-esterified fatty acid concentrations hamper bovine oviductal epithelial cell physiology in three different in vitro culture systems.

    PubMed

    Jordaens, L; Arias-Alvarez, M; Pintelon, I; Thys, S; Valckx, S; Dezhkam, Y; Bols, P E J; Leroy, J L M R

    2015-10-01

    Elevated non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs) have been recognized as an important link between lipolytic metabolic conditions and impaired fertility in high-yielding dairy cows. However, NEFA effects on the oviductal micro-environment currently remain unknown. We hypothesize that elevated NEFAs may contribute to the complex pathology of subfertility by exerting a negative effect on bovine oviductal epithelial cell (BOEC) physiology. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to elucidate direct NEFA effects on BOEC physiology in three different in vitro cell culture systems. Bovine oviductal epithelial cells (four replicates) were mechanically isolated, pooled, and cultured as conventional monolayers, as explants, and in a polarized cell culture system with Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium/F12-based culture medium. Bovine oviductal epithelial cells were exposed to an NEFA mixture of oleic, stearic, and palmitic acids for 24 hours at both physiological and pathologic concentrations. A control (0 μM NEFA) and a solvent control (0 μM NEFA + 0.45% ethanol) group were implemented. Bovine oviductal epithelial cells physiology was assessed by means of cell number and viability, a sperm binding assay, transepithelial electric resistance (TER), and a wound-healing assay. Bovine oviductal epithelial cell morphology was assessed by scanning electron microscopy on cell polarity, presence of microvilli and cilia, and monolayer integrity. Bovine oviductal epithelial cell number was negatively affected by increasing NEFAs, however, cell viability was not. Sperm binding affinity significantly decreased with increasing NEFAs and tended (P = 0.051) to be more affected by the direction of NEFA exposure in the polarized cell culture system. The absolute TER increase after NEFA exposure in the control (110 ± 11 Ω.cm(2)) was significantly higher than that in all the other treatments and was also different depending on the exposure side. Bidirectional exposed monolayers were even

  17. Effects of in vitro growth culture duration and prematuration culture on maturational and developmental competences of bovine oocytes derived from early antral follicles.

    PubMed

    Huang, Weiping; Nagano, Masashi; Kang, Sung-Sik; Yanagawa, Yojiro; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki

    2013-10-15

    Bovine ovaries offer a large pool of oocytes that could be used for in vitro production of embryos of genetically valuable animals. The effects of in vitro growth (IVG) culture duration (10, 12, and 14 days) on the viability and growth of bovine oocytes derived from early antral follicles (0.5-1 mm diameter) in this study. In addition, the effect of pre-IVM culture with phosphodiesterase inhibitor (3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine) on nuclear maturation of IVG oocytes was also evaluated. In experiment 1, oocyte viability observed after 10 or 12 days of IVG culture was greater (P < 0.05) than that observed after 14 days of culture. Oocyte diameters and proportions of oocytes at metaphase II stage were greater (P < 0.05) when 12 or 14 days of IVG culture where used when compared with 10 days culture. In addition, the proportion of oocytes at metaphase II stage was greater (P < 0.05) when pre-IVM culture was performed for oocytes derived from 12 and 14 days of IVG culture. When 12 and 14 days of IVG culture followed by pre-IVM culture were compared in experiment 2, cumulus cell membrane integrity was greater (P < 0.05) after 12 days. Blastocyst production rate for oocytes obtained after 12 days of IVG culture (24.5%) was greater (P < 0.05) than for oocytes obtained after 14 days (9.9%). In conclusion, 12 days IVG followed by pre-IVM culture was considered the optimal processing system for bovine oocytes derived from early antral follicles when oocyte viability, diameter, maturation, and development competences were considered.

  18. In vitro maturation system for individual culture of bovine oocytes using micro-volume multi-well plate.

    PubMed

    Nagano, Masashi; Kang, Sung-Sik; Koyama, Keisuke; Huang, Weiping; Yanagawa, Yojiro; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki

    2013-11-01

    As a preliminary study for the development of individual in vitro maturation (IVM) culture of bovine oocytes, a multi-well (MW) plate was used. Maturation, fertilization and development to blastocysts were examined and compared with those of IVM oocytes cultured in 50-microl droplets in groups and in 10-microl droplets individually. The maturation rates were similar in all experimental groups. Normal fertilization rates in MW and 50-microl droplets were similar, but lower in 10-microl droplets (p < 0.01). The blastocyst rate in 10-microl droplets tended to be lower than those in MW (p = 0.15) and 50-microl droplets (p = 0.19). These results indicate that an IVM system using MW supports the acquisition of developmental competence by bovine oocytes the same as conventional group IVM culture.

  19. Proliferation Rates of Bovine Primary Muscle Cells Relate to Liveweight and Carcase Weight in Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Coles, Chantal A.; Wadeson, Jenny; Leyton, Carolina P.; Siddell, Jason P.; Greenwood, Paul L.; White, Jason D.; McDonagh, Matthew B.

    2015-01-01

    Muscling in cattle is largely influenced by genetic background, ultimately affecting beef yield and is of major interest to the beef industry. This investigation aimed to determine whether primary skeletal muscle cells isolated from different breeds of cattle with a varying genetic potential for muscling differ in their myogenic proliferative capacity. Primary skeletal muscle cells were isolated and cultured from the Longissimus muscle (LM) of 6 month old Angus, Hereford and Wagyu X Angus cattle. Cells were assessed for rate of proliferation and gene expression of PAX7, MYOD, MYF5, and MYOG. Proliferation rates were found to differ between breeds of cattle whereby myoblasts from Angus cattle were found to proliferate at a greater rate than those of Hereford and Wagyu X Angus during early stages of growth (5–20 hours in culture) in vitro (P < 0.05). The proliferation rates of myoblasts during early stages of culture in vitro were also found to be positively related to the liveweight and carcase weight of cattle (P < 0.05). Gene expression of MYF5 was also found to be significantly down-regulated in WagyuX compared with Angus cattle (P < 0.05). These findings suggest that early events during myogenesis are important for determining liveweight and caracase weights in cattle. PMID:25875203

  20. Proliferation rates of bovine primary muscle cells relate to liveweight and carcase weight in cattle.

    PubMed

    Coles, Chantal A; Wadeson, Jenny; Leyton, Carolina P; Siddell, Jason P; Greenwood, Paul L; White, Jason D; McDonagh, Matthew B

    2015-01-01

    Muscling in cattle is largely influenced by genetic background, ultimately affecting beef yield and is of major interest to the beef industry. This investigation aimed to determine whether primary skeletal muscle cells isolated from different breeds of cattle with a varying genetic potential for muscling differ in their myogenic proliferative capacity. Primary skeletal muscle cells were isolated and cultured from the Longissimus muscle (LM) of 6 month old Angus, Hereford and Wagyu X Angus cattle. Cells were assessed for rate of proliferation and gene expression of PAX7, MYOD, MYF5, and MYOG. Proliferation rates were found to differ between breeds of cattle whereby myoblasts from Angus cattle were found to proliferate at a greater rate than those of Hereford and Wagyu X Angus during early stages of growth (5-20 hours in culture) in vitro (P < 0.05). The proliferation rates of myoblasts during early stages of culture in vitro were also found to be positively related to the liveweight and carcase weight of cattle (P < 0.05). Gene expression of MYF5 was also found to be significantly down-regulated in WagyuX compared with Angus cattle (P < 0.05). These findings suggest that early events during myogenesis are important for determining liveweight and caracase weights in cattle.

  1. Methylmalonate toxicity in primary neuronal cultures.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, B A; Nelson, D; Silver, I A; Erecinska, M; Chesselet, M F

    1998-09-01

    Several inhibitors of mitochondrial complex II cause neuronal death in vivo and in vitro. The goal of the present work was to characterize in vitro the effects of malonate (a competitive blocker of the complex) which induces neuronal death in a pattern similar to that seen in striatum in Huntington's disease. Exposure of striatal and cortical cultures from embryonic rat brain for 24 h to methylmalonate, a compound which produces malonate intracellularly, led to a dose-dependent cell death. Methylmalonate (10 mM) caused >90% mortality of neurons although cortical cells were unexpectedly more vulnerable. Cell death was attenuated in a medium containing antioxidants. Further characterization revealed that DNA laddering could be detected after 3 h of treatment. Morphological observations (videomicroscopy and Hoechst staining) showed that both necrotic and apoptotic cell death occurred in parallel; apoptosis was more prevalent. A decrease in the ATP/ADP ratio was observed after 3 h of treatment with 10 mM methylmalonate. In striatal cultures it occurred concomitantly with a decline in GABA and a rise in aspartate content and the aspartate/glutamate ratio. Changes in ion concentrations were measured in similar cortical cultures from mouse brain. Neuronal [Na+]i increased while [K+]i and membrane potential decreased after 20 min of continuous incubation in 10 mM methylmalonate. These changes progressed with time, and a rise in [Ca2+]i was also observed after 1 h. The results demonstrate that malonate collapses cellular ion gradients, restoration of which imposes an additional load on the already compromised ATP-generation machinery. An early elevation in [Ca2+]i may trigger an increase in activity of proteases, lipases and endonucleases and production of free radicals and DNA damage which, ultimately, leads to cells death. The data also suggest that maturational and/or extrinsic factors are likely to be critical for the increased vulnerability of striatal neurons to

  2. Interaction between embryos and culture conditions during in vitro development of bovine early embryos.

    PubMed

    Nagao, Yoshikazu; Iijima, Rumi; Saeki, Kazuhiro

    2008-05-01

    Various factors such as embryo density and substances in the medium can influence embryo development in vitro. These factors and the embryos probably interact with each other, however the interactions are not fully understood. To investigate the interactions, we examined the effects of the number of embryos, drop size, oxygen concentration and glucose and inorganic phosphate in the medium during protein-free culture of bovine IVM/IVF embryos. In Experiment 1, different numbers of embryos were cultured in a 50 microl drop of medium. The frequencies of blastocyst development in the groups with 25, 50 and 100 embryos per drop were higher than in the other groups. One, five and 25 embryos were cultured in different drop sizes (Experiment 2), a 50 microl drop of medium at different O2 concentrations (Experiment 3) and a 50 microl drop of medium excluding glucose and/or inorganic phosphate (Experiment 4). In Experiment 2, the size of the medium drops did not improve blastocyst development. In Experiment 3, the highest frequency of blastocyst development for one, five and 25 embryos per drop was obtained at 1, 2.5 and 5% O2, respectively. In Experiment 4, blastocyst development for one and five embryos per drop were improved in the medium excluded inorganic phosphate. These results indicate that there is a cooperative interaction among embryos during culture and that this interaction may be mediated by reduction of toxic factors in the medium. At low embryo density, reduced oxygen concentration or the exclusion of inorganic phosphate enhanced blastocyst development.

  3. Influence of "Solcoseryl" during culture on the sex-dependent repair of bovine demi-embryos.

    PubMed

    Tominaga, K; Yoneda, K; Utsumi, K

    1996-03-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to determine the effect of culture conditions on the development of split embryos after bisection and on the sex ratio of resultant bovine demi-embryos. Embryos that had developed into blastocysts on days 6 1/2 to 7 or on days 7 1/2 to 8 from oocytes matured and fertilized in vitro were bisected in BMOC-3 medium supplemented with 33% calf serum. The medium also contained 0%, 0.1% or 1.0% Solcoseryl, a deproteinized hemodialysate product from calf blood. The demi-embryos were first cultured for 4 hours in the same medium in which they had been bisected and then co-cultured with cumulus cells in TCM199 supplemented with 1% calf serum for an additional 20 hr. The rate of production of good to excellent quality demi-embryos obtained from days 6 1/2 to 7 blastocysts was higher than from those on days 7 1/2 to 8. The rate was also significantly improved when blastocysts were bisected in medium containing 0.1% or 1.0% Solcoseryl, compared to the medium without Solcoseryl. Male embryos seemed to recover more rapidly than female embryos, as assessed by morphological quality at 4 hr, although the quality of female embryos had improved by 24 hr. The percentage of males after culture was higher in the medium without Solcoseryl than in its presence. Thus, addition of Solcoseryl at either 0.1% or 1.0% to BMOC-3 medium seemed to improve the production efficiency of good quality demi-embryos, but did not influence the sex ratio. It appears as if female demi-embryos required more time than male embryos to be repaired after bisection.

  4. Upregulation of norepinephrine transporter function by prolonged exposure to nicotine in cultured bovine adrenal medullary cells.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Hideaki; Toyohira, Yumiko; Ueno, Susumu; Saeki, Satoru; Zhang, Han; Furuno, Yumi; Takahashi, Kojiro; Tsutsui, Masato; Hachisuka, Kenji; Yanagihara, Nobuyuki

    2010-09-01

    Nicotine acts on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the adrenal medulla and brain, thereby stimulating the release of monoamines such as norepinephrine (NE). In the present study, we examined the effects of prolonged exposure to nicotine on NE transporter (NET) activity in cultured bovine adrenal medullary cells. Treatment of adrenal medullary cells with nicotine increased [(3)H]NE uptake in both a time- (1-5 days) and concentration-dependent (0.1-10 muM) manner. Kinetic analysis showed that nicotine induced an increase in the V (max) of [(3)H]NE uptake with little change in K (m). This increase in NET activity was blocked by cycloheximide, an inhibitor of ribosomal protein synthesis, but not by actinomycin D, a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase inhibitor. [(3)H]NE uptake induced by nicotine was strongly inhibited by hexamethonium and mecamylamine but not by alpha-bungarotoxin, and was abolished by elimination of Ca(2+) from the culture medium. KN-93, an inhibitor of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, attenuated not only nicotine-induced [(3)H]NE uptake but also (45)Ca(2+) influx in the cells. The present findings suggest that long-term exposure to nicotine increases NET activity through a Ca(2+)-dependent post-transcriptional process in the adrenal medulla.

  5. Expression of XIST sense and antisense in bovine fetal organs and cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Farazmand, Ali; Basrur, Parvathi K; Stranzinger, Gerald; Graphodatskaya, Daria; Reyes, Ed R; King, W Allan

    2004-01-01

    Untranslated RNAs transcribed from sense and antisense strands of a gene referred to as X-inactive specific transcript (XIST) play crucial roles in the genetic inactivation and condensation of one of the two X chromosomes in the somatic cells of female mammals. X inactivation is also thought to occur in mammalian male germ cells mainly based on the formation of a condensed structure referred to as a sex body or XY-body, during spermatogenesis. Molecular identity of the sex body, the roles of sense and antisense XIST RNAs in its formation, and the relevance of the sex body to spermatogenesis are not known. Here we report the results of our strand-specific RT-PCR approach to identify the amplicon detected in fetal bovine testes previously referred to as XIST and to test for sense/antisense expression in male and female organs and cell cultures of different sex chromosome constitution. Our results showed that the transcript detected consistently in male gonads and variably in somatic organs represents XIST antisense RNA and that XIST sense and antisense RNAs are co-expressed in female somatic tissues and cultured cells including cells of sex chromosome aneuploids (XXY and XXX). Our results, which differ from those of other investigators in this area, are discussed in the light of the recently reported differences in the expression pattern of murine Xist/Tsix loci and their structural and functional differences in different mammalian species.

  6. Enhanced production of cellobiose dehydrogenase in cultures of Phanerochaete chrysosporium supplemented with bovine calf serum.

    PubMed

    Habu, N; Igarashi, K; Samejima, M; Pettersson, B; Eriksson, K E

    1997-10-01

    The enzyme cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH), produced by many wood-degrading fungi has, in recent years, attracted considerable interest for its possible role in both cellulose and lignin degradation. To characterize the enzyme better and to identify its role in the degradation of wood and wood components, it is desirable to produce it in higher amounts. We report here that the addition of bovine calf serum to cellulose-grown cultures of Phanerochaete chrysosporium enhances the production of certain enzymes, CDH in particular. The highest CDH production was obtained with 45 ml of serum/litre of medium added on day 3 or 4. The resultant CDH yield was approx. 700-800 units/litre, which was 3.5-4 times higher than that in cultures without serum. Serum addition also enhanced the production of beta-glucosidase. However, the impact on CDH production was the most dramatic. The enhanced enzyme production cannot be explained by increased rates of spore germination, simple nutrient effects or cofactor effects. Fractionation of serum by Cohn's fractionation technique showed that the albumin (BSA) fraction had almost the same effect as whole serum. However, purified BSA had less effect than crude BSA (fraction V of Cohn's fractions), suggesting that an additional factor, probably a protease inhibitor in serum, also contributed to the effect of serum.

  7. Primary cell culture of human adenocarcinomas--practical considerations.

    PubMed

    Lerescu, Lucian; Tucureanu, Cătălin; Caraş, Iuliana; Neagu, Stefan; Melinceanu, Laura; Sălăgeanu, Aurora

    2008-01-01

    Cell culture is one of the major tools for oncology research, being an excellent system in which to study the biochemistry and molecular biology associated with individual cancer types and to understand cancer cell physiology. Progress in understanding the biology of any type of carcinoma has been impeded by the inability to culture adequately malignant cells from most epithelial tissues. The ultimate in vitro tumor model would completely reflect the in vivo tumor microenvironment in function and mechanism. Unfortunately, such a model does not currently exist. Homogeneous cell lines that can be continuously propagated on plastic surfaces have been extensively used as a surrogate for tumor environment; however they are very different from the in vivo tumor cells. Model systems involving primary culture represent the situation most closely related to the original tissue although they have a number of disadvantages over cell lines, such as the limited ability to repeat studies with a well characterized culture system that can be used in multiple laboratories. The primary culture may contain many types of stromal and infiltrating cell types potentially complicating the interpretation of data. Yet, their properties better reflect the cellular interactions present in intact tissue. The present article reviews the critical steps in obtaining, routine maintenance and cryopreservation of primary tumor cell cultures, based on information from literature and personal experience on the subject. The article also includes an updated protocol for primary tumor cell isolation and culture.

  8. Changes in adipose tissue stromal-vascular cells in primary culture due to porcine sera

    SciTech Connect

    Jewell, D.E.; Hausman, G.J.

    1986-03-01

    This study was conducted to determine the response of rat stromal-vascular cells to pig sea. Sera were collected from unselected contemporary (lean) and high backfat thickness selected (obese) pigs. Sera from obese pigs were collected either by exsanguination or cannulation. sera from lean pigs during the growing phase (45 kg) and the fattening phase (100-110 kg) were collected. Stromal-vascular cells derived rom rat inguinal tissue were cultured on either 25 cm/sup 2/ flasks, collagen-coated coverslips or petri dishes. Cell proliferation was measured by (/sup 3/H)-thymidine incorporation during the fourth day of culture. Coverslip cultures were used for histochemical analysis. Petri dish cultures were used for analysis of Sn-glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) activity. All cells were plated for 24 hours in media containing 10 fetal bovine sera. Test media contained 2.5, 5.0, 10.0% sera. Sera from obese pigs increased GPDH activity and fat cell production when compared to the lean controls. The increased concentration of sera increased esterase activity and lipid as measured with oil red O. The sera from obese pigs collected at slaughter stimulated more fat cell production than obese sera collected by cannulation. These studies show there are adipogenic factors in obese pigs sera which promote fat cell development in primary cell culture.

  9. L-ergothioneine supplementation during culture improves quality of bovine in vitro-produced embryos.

    PubMed

    Zullo, G; Albero, G; Neglia, G; De Canditiis, C; Bifulco, G; Campanile, G; Gasparrini, B

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether supplementation of bovine culture medium with the natural antioxidant L-ergothioneine (LE), improves in vitro blastocyst development and quality, assessed as resistance to cryopreservation, total cells number, cellular differentiation, and apoptosis index. Abattoir-derived oocytes were matured and fertilized in vitro according to standard procedure. Twenty hours after IVF, presumptive zygotes were cultured in synthetic oviduct fluid with 0, 0.05 mM, 0.1 mM, 0.5 mM, and 1 mM of LE (experiment 1) at 39 °C under humidified air with 5% CO2, 7% O2, and 88% N2. On the basis of the results of this dose-response trial, the range of concentrations to test was reduced in experiment 2, in which presumptive zygotes were cultured with 0, 0.05 mM, and 0.1 mM of LE. On Day 7, embryo yields were assessed, and the blastocysts (BL) were vitrified by Cryotop method in 16.5% ethylene glycol, 16.5% DMSO and 0.5 M sucrose. Finally, BL produced on Day 8 in the absence (control) and presence of 0.1 mM LE were used for transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling and differential staining to evaluate, respectively the apoptotic rate and the allocation of cells into inner cell mass (ICM) and trophectoderm lineages (experiment 3). Despite similar blastocyst yields, supplementation of culture medium with 0.1 mM LE improved the cryotolerance of in vitro-produced (IVP) embryos compared to the control group, as indicated by higher (P < 0.05) hatching rates recorded after 48-hour post-warming culture (48.5%, 50.0%, and 63.8%, respectively with 0, 0.05, and 0.1 mM LE). Interestingly, when embryos were cultured in the presence of 0.1 mM LE, the percentage of BL with the most physiological ICM:total cells ratio (20%-40%) increased (85.1 vs. 66.0%, P < 0.05), confirming a beneficial effect on embryo quality. Furthermore, 0.1 mM LE decreased (P < 0.01) both the average number (4.3 ± 0.2 vs. 9.1 ± 0.3) and the proportion (3.6 ± 0.3 vs. 8.1 ± 0.5) of

  10. Inclusion of bovine lipoproteins and the vitamin E analogue, Trolox, during in vitro culture of bovine embryos changes both embryo and fetal development.

    PubMed

    Rooke, J A; Watt, R G; Ashworth, C J; McEvoy, T G

    2012-01-01

    This experiment investigated effects of lipoproteins and Trolox (vitamin E analogue) on bovine embryo and fetal development. The treatments were: in vitro culture (IVC) in synthetic oviducal fluid alone (SOF); with bovine lipoproteins (2% v/v; SOFLP); with Trolox (100μM; SOFT); and with lipoproteins and Trolox (SOFLPT). In vitro culture with lipoproteins increased fatty acid content of blastocysts (P<0.001) whereas inclusion of Trolox had no effect (P>0.05). Whereas lipoproteins reduced zygote development to blastocysts (P=0.03), Trolox facilitated increased development (P<0.001) and counteracted the reduction observed with lipoproteins (interaction, P=0.009). Lipoproteins also compromised (P<0.001) but presence of Trolox (P>0.05) had no effect on blastocyst morphological grade. Pregnancy rates resulting from synchronous transfer of IVP embryos were not affected by IVC treatment. At Day 70 of pregnancy, compared with SOF, fetal weight was lower in SOFLP but not SOFLPT (interaction, P<0.001). Liver weight (g kg(-1) fetal weight) was greater (P=0.03) in treatments containing Trolox. Placentome numbers were greater in SOF and SOFLPT compared with SOFLP and SOFT (interaction, P=0.002); superior embryo grades were also associated with increased numbers of placentomes (P=0.024). In conclusion, the interactive effects of lipoprotein and Trolox inclusion on in vitro embryo development were also evident in fetal development at Day 70.

  11. Relevant principal factors affecting the reproducibility of insect primary culture.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Norichika; Iwabuchi, Kikuo

    2017-02-22

    The primary culture of insect cells often suffers from problems with poor reproducibility in the quality of the final cell preparations. The cellular composition of the explants (cell number and cell types), surgical methods (surgical duration and surgical isolation), and physiological and genetic differences between donors may be critical factors affecting the reproducibility of culture. However, little is known about where biological variation (interindividual differences between donors) ends and technical variation (variance in replication of culture conditions) begins. In this study, we cultured larval fat bodies from the Japanese rhinoceros beetle, Allomyrina dichotoma, and evaluated, using linear mixed models, the effect of interindividual variation between donors on the reproducibility of the culture. We also performed transcriptome analysis of the hemocyte-like cells mainly seen in the cultures using RNA sequencing and ultrastructural analyses of hemocytes using a transmission electron microscope, revealing that the cultured cells have many characteristics of insect hemocytes.

  12. Isolation, Purification, and Culture of Primary Murine Sensory Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Katzenell, Sarah; Cabrera, Jorge R.; North, Brian J.; Leib, David A.

    2017-01-01

    Cultured primary neurons have been of extraordinary value for the study of neuronal anatomy, cell biology, and physiology. While use of neuronal cell lines has ease and utility, there are often caveats that arise due to their mitotic nature. This methods article presents detailed methodology for the preparation, purification, and culture of adult murine sensory neurons for the study of herpes simplex virus lytic and latent infections. While virology is the application for our laboratory, these cultures also have broad utility for neurobiologists and cell biologists. While these primary cultures have been highly informative, the methodology is challenging to many investigators. Through publication of this highly detailed protocol, it is our hope that the use of this culture system can spread in the field to allow more rapid progress in furthering our understanding of neurotropic virus infection. PMID:28808974

  13. Bovine oviductal epithelial cells: long term culture characterization and impact of insulin on cell morphology.

    PubMed

    Palma-Vera, S; Einspanier, R; Schoen, J

    2014-09-01

    In vitro models that resemble cell function in vivo are needed to understand oviduct physiology. This study aimed to assess cell functions and insulin effects on bovine oviductal epithelial cells (BOECs) cultured in an air-liquid interface. BOECs (n=6) were grown in conditioned Ham's F12, DMEM or Ham's F12/DMEM with 10% fetal calf serum (FCS) for 3 weeks. After selecting the most suitable medium (Ham's F12), increasing insulin concentrations (1 ng/mL, 20 ng/mL and 5 μg/mL) were applied, and cell morphology and trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER; n=4) were evaluated after 3 and 6 weeks. Keratin immunohistochemistry and mRNA expression of oviductal glycoprotein 1 (OVGP1) and progesterone receptor (PGR) were conducted (n=4) to assess cell differentiation. BOECs grown without insulin supplementation or with 1 ng/mL of insulin displayed polarization and secretory activity. However, cells exhibited only 50% of the height of their in vivo counterparts. Cultures supplemented with 20 ng/mL insulin showed the highest quality, but the 5 μg/mL concentration induced massive growth. TEER correlated negatively with insulin concentration (r=-0.459; p=0.009). OVGP1 and PGR transcripts were still detectable after 3 and 6 weeks. Cellular localization of keratins closely resembled that of BOECs in vivo. Cultures showed heterogeneous expression of PGR and OVGP1 in response to estradiol (10 pg/mL). In summary, BOECs grown for long term in an air-liquid interface expressed markers of cell differentiation. Additionally, insulin supplementation (20 ng/mL) improved the cell morphology in vitro.

  14. [Efficiency of bacteriological culture and the immunofluorescent assay to detect Campylobacter fetus in bovine genital fluids].

    PubMed

    Marcellino, Romanela B; Morsella, Claudia G; Cano, Dora; Paolicchi, Fernando A

    2015-01-01

    Bovine genital campylobacteriosis is a reproductive disease that affects cattle production. It is caused by Campylobacter fetus subspecies, C. fetus fetus (Cff) and C. fetus venerealis (Cfv). The aim of this study was to identify the presence of C. fetus in genital fluids by bacteriological culture and direct immunofluorescence (DIF) and to compare the results. Two groups of 6 heifers and 5 bulls, one infected with Cff (Cff group) and the other with Cfv (Cfv group) were formed. Two heifers and 2 bulls, all of them uninfected, made up the control group. Samples of cervicovaginal mucus and preputial fluid were processed by culture and DIF. In the Cff group, 100% of the heifers and 80% of the bulls were infected, while in the Cfv group, 50% of the heifers and 60% of the bulls were infected. The degree of agreement (Kappa values) from benchmarking diagnostic techniques were 0.57 for heifers in the Cff group and 0.52 for heifers in the Cfv group, whereas the values for bulls were 0.17 and 0.27, respectively. Heifers yielded more positive results in the DIF assay than in the culture, exhibiting 5.6% increase in the Cff group and 7.4% in the Cfv group. The lowest percentage of positive results for DIF in bulls, 40% less for the Cff group and 5.2% for the Cfv group, could be due to improper sampling. Kappa values showed moderate agreement for the heifers and low for the bulls. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Primary culture of gustatory receptor neurons from the blowfly, Phormia regina.

    PubMed

    Murata, Yoshihiro; Ozaki, Mamiko; Nakamura, Tadashi

    2006-07-01

    Flies provide a powerful model system for exploring signaling systems in gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs). To elucidate the cellular and molecular bases of these signaling systems, we sought to develop techniques to dissociate GRNs. We developed a primary culture of GRNs isolated from the labella of the blowfly, Phormia regina, 4-5 days after pupation. Dissected labella were treated with papain in a low Ca2+ saline solution and shaken in Leibovitz's L-15 medium supplemented with 20-hydroxyecdysone, L-ascorbic acid, and trehalose with a test tube mixer. Released cells were plated and kept at 29 degrees C in a medium containing fetal bovine serum. After a minimum of 2 days in culture, we observed survival or growth of bipolar cells with the characteristic morphology of GRNs. We also examined taste responsiveness by monitoring intracellular Ca2+ with a Ca2+-sensitive fluorescent dye, fluo-3. For some bipolar cells, application of sucrose, NaCl, or LiCl for 5-20 s transiently increased the intracellular Ca2+ levels in cell bodies for 20-30 s. The primary cell culture described here is useful for functional analysis of GRNs.

  16. Sterile filtered paraffin oil supports in vitro developmental competence in bovine embryos comparable to co-culture.

    PubMed

    Tae, Jin Cheol; Kim, Eun Young; Lee, Won Don; Park, Se Pill; Lim, Jin Ho

    2006-03-01

    To investigate whether sterile filtered light paraffin oil (SPO) overlaying is superior to washed light mineral oil (WMO) in supporting the in vitro developmental competence of bovine follicular oocytes. In addition, the effects of the two types of oil overlaying were compared with oil overlaying plus co-culture (CC) on bovine embryo development in vitro. Bovine follicular oocytes retrieved from abattoir-derived ovary were in vitro matured, fertilized and cultured in 50 microL drops overlayed with WMO or SPO and were subsequently evaluated for development rates. In second experiment, day 2 embryos grown under WMO overlaying were further cultured for 6 days in the presence (WMO+CC and SPO+CC) or absence of adult ear skin fibroblast-based co-culture system overlaid with WMO or SPO. Blastocysts from each group were evaluated for total nuclei number or were further cultured for 48 h to evaluate post-hatching development. SPO overlaying resulted in significant higher (p < 0.05) development rate to morula (44.8% versus 30.6%) and blastocyst (32.8% versus 21.7%) than WMO. Also, treatment of the day 2 embryo cultures with SPO overlaying or oil plus CC (WMO+CC or SPO+CC groups) reached significantly higher development rates from the morula stage compared to embryo cultures treated with the WMO overlaying (p < 0.05). However, the development rates of the SPO treatment group (morula: 72.7%; blastocyst: 53.1%) were slightly high compared to development of the culture treated with WMO+CC (69.6 and 50.4%, respectively). This similar developmental competence pattern was also observed in cell number and embryo hatching rate. SPO overlaying is superior to WMO and WMO+CC in supporting in vitro development of bovine embryos. The development rates are further enhanced when embryos are cultured in co-culture system overlaid with SPO. Thus, these data suggest that overlaying oil can significantly influence the pre-implantation embryo development in vitro.

  17. Reevaluation of Cl-/HCO3- exchange in cultured bovine corneal endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Bonanno, J A; Yi, G; Kang, X J; Srinivas, S P

    1998-12-01

    To determine the apical versus basolateral polarity of the putative anion exchanger in cultured bovine corneal endothelial cells (BCECs) and to examine the influence of Cl--dependent membrane potential (Em) changes on HCO3- transport. BCECs grown on permeable supports were used for independent perfusion of apical and basolateral surfaces. Intracellular pH (pHi) was measured using the fluorescent dye BCECF. Relative changes in Em were measured using the fluorescent dye bis-oxonol. Western blot analysis was used to detect immunoreactivity against the anion exchanger (AE1 or AE2). Cl- removal from apical and basolateral surfaces produced cellular alkalinization (apical side, 0.07 pH units; basolateral side, 0.06 pH units; both sides, 0.20 pH units). Application of 100 microM H2-4,4'-diisothiocyanatodihydrostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS), an anion exchange inhibitor, on the apical side produced an alkalinization (0.02 pH units) followed by acidification (-0.05 pH units), whereas basolateral H2DIDS caused a substantial acidification (-0.16 pH units). In the absence of Na+, Cl- removal from the apical side caused a transient alkalinization (0.03 pH units) followed by a return to baseline; Cl- removal from the basolateral side caused a small (-0.03) acidification. In Na+-free Ringer, apical H2DIDS produced a transient alkalinization (0.02 pH units), whereas basolateral exposure had no effect. 5-Nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)benzoic acid (NPPB), N-phenylanthranilic acid (DPC), and niflumic acid (50-200 microM), known Cl- channel blockers, produced cellular acidification in control Ringer. Niflumic acid hyperpolarized Em and inhibited depolarization after Cl- removal. Western blot analysis failed to detect AE2 expression in cultured BCECs. However, fresh BCECs produced a trace response. Physiological activity of an apical anion exchanger is weak in cultured BCECs. Cultured BCECs have significant Cl- conductance. Thus, cellular alkalinization after Cl- removal is caused

  18. Uterine tubal cells remain uninfected after culture with in vitro-produced embryos exposed to bovine viral diarrhea virus.

    PubMed

    Givens, M D; Galik, P K; Riddell, K P; Stringfellow, D A

    1999-10-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) has been isolated from washed and sonicated, in vitro-produced embryos, but the infectivity of BVDV associated with intact, developing, embryos has not been demonstrated. The objective of this study was to determine if a dose of BVDV infective for co-culture cells was associated with individual, developing embryos, following artificial exposure to the virus and washing. In 5 replicates, zona pellucida-intact, in vitro-produced embryos were assigned to a negative control embryo group, or were incubated in 10(5)-10(6) cell culture infective doses (50%, CCID50) per milliliter of a type I, noncytopathic (strain SD-1) BVDV for 2 h. Unexposed negative control embryos and exposed positive control embryos were washed, sonicated and assayed for BVDV using virus isolation with immunoperoxidase monolayer assay. Immediately or following cryopreservation, remaining virally-exposed, washed embryos were co-cultured individually with BVDV-negative cultures of bovine uterine tubal cells in a medium free of BVDV-neutralizing activity. After two days in culture, uterine tubal cells and embryos (including the zona pellucida) were separated and washed. The culture medium, uterine tubal cells and embryos were then assayed for BVDV. Bovine viral diarrhea virus was not isolated from any negative control embryo group, but was isolated from all positive control embryo groups. Although all uterine tubal cell populations were confirmed to be susceptible to BVDV, virus was never isolated from uterine tubal cells or embryos from post-exposure culture. In conclusion, although BVDV remains associated with washed in vitro-produced embryos, the virus associated with unsonicated embryos was not infective for uterine tubal cells in vitro.

  19. Primary cell culture method for the honeybee Apis mellifera.

    PubMed

    Ju, Hyunhee; Ghil, Sungho

    2015-10-01

    Honeybees are among the most important pollinators in nature, and honeybee-associated products are useful in various areas, including the food industry. However, honeybees may be infected by various types of pathogens. The study of honeybee-associated diseases would greatly benefit from a successful cell culture system, but although some honeybee cell culture techniques have been introduced, these methods have not yet been fully established. Here, we describe a primary cell culture method for the honeybee, Apis mellifera. We isolated, sterilized, and seeded egg cells into non-coated cell culture dishes to generate cell aggregates. After approximately 10 d, aggregates were dissociated and seeded to cell culture dishes. Cell passages were continuously performed, with sub-culturing every 3-4 d. The cells expressed non-adherent phenotypes. Their growth increased with the passage number when they were cultured in growth medium based on L-15 insect medium but not Schneider's insect medium. Finally, polymerase chain reaction confirmed that the cells originated from A. mellifera. Our results suggest that the culturing methods described herein are appropriate for isolating primary cells from honeybee eggs. These methods could thus facilitate the study of honeybee-associated pathogenesis, development, and toxicology.

  20. Effects of Fetal Bovine Serum deprivation in cell cultures on the production of Anticarsia gemmatalis Multinucleopolyhedrovirus

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Anticarsia gemmatalis is a pest in South America's soybean crops, which could be controlled by the Multinucleopolyhedrovirus of A. gemmatalis (AgMNPV). Currently, its commercial production is based on infected larvae. However, the possibility of using modified baculoviruses in Integrated Pest Management programs has stimulated an interest to develop alternative multiplication processes. This study evaluated the AgMNPV production in UFL-Ag-286 cells previously deprived Fetal Bovine Serum. Results Culture media containing 1% FBS during the previous 48 hours achieved a synchronized condition where 90% of cells were found in G0/G1 stage, showing the presence of non-filamentous actin. All characteristics were estimated from cellular viability tests, cell actin detection trials and flow cytometer cell cycle analysis. AgMNPV production was tested by transcript studies and budded viruses (BVs) and occlusion bodies (OBs) yield quantitation. Results showed that the productivity in FBS deprived cells was 9.8 times more in BVs and 3.8 times more in OBs with respect to non-treated cells. Conclusions UFL-Ag-286 cells previously deprived in FBS shown to be a better host for AgMNPV propagation, increasing the useful for both in vitro bioinsecticide production and applications such as recombinant protein expression or gene delivery. PMID:20843354

  1. Loading-Induced Heat-Shock Response in Bovine Intervertebral Disc Organ Culture

    PubMed Central

    Chooi, Wai Hon; Chan, Samantha Chun Wai; Gantenbein, Benjamin; Chan, Barbara Pui

    2016-01-01

    Mechanical loading has been shown to affect cell viability and matrix maintenance in the intervertebral disc (IVD) but there is no investigation on how cells survive mechanical stress and whether the IVD cells perceive mechanical loading as stress and respond by expression of heat shock proteins. This study investigates the stress response in the IVD in response to compressive loading. Bovine caudal disc organ culture was used to study the effect of physiological range static loading and dynamic loading. Cell activity, gene expression and immunofluorescence staining were used to analyze the cell response. Cell activity and cytoskeleton of the cells did not change significantly after loading. In gene expression analysis, significant up-regulation of heat shock protein-70 (HSP70) was observed in nucleus pulposus after two hours of loading. However, the expression of the matrix remodeling genes did not change significantly after loading. Similarly, expressions of stress response and matrix remodeling genes changed with application and removal of the dynamic loading. The results suggest that stress response was induced by physiological range loading without significantly changing cell activity and upregulating matrix remodeling. This study provides direct evidence on loading induced stress response in IVD cells and contributes to our understanding in the mechanoregulation of intervertebral disc cells. PMID:27580124

  2. Loading-Induced Heat-Shock Response in Bovine Intervertebral Disc Organ Culture.

    PubMed

    Chooi, Wai Hon; Chan, Samantha Chun Wai; Gantenbein, Benjamin; Chan, Barbara Pui

    2016-01-01

    Mechanical loading has been shown to affect cell viability and matrix maintenance in the intervertebral disc (IVD) but there is no investigation on how cells survive mechanical stress and whether the IVD cells perceive mechanical loading as stress and respond by expression of heat shock proteins. This study investigates the stress response in the IVD in response to compressive loading. Bovine caudal disc organ culture was used to study the effect of physiological range static loading and dynamic loading. Cell activity, gene expression and immunofluorescence staining were used to analyze the cell response. Cell activity and cytoskeleton of the cells did not change significantly after loading. In gene expression analysis, significant up-regulation of heat shock protein-70 (HSP70) was observed in nucleus pulposus after two hours of loading. However, the expression of the matrix remodeling genes did not change significantly after loading. Similarly, expressions of stress response and matrix remodeling genes changed with application and removal of the dynamic loading. The results suggest that stress response was induced by physiological range loading without significantly changing cell activity and upregulating matrix remodeling. This study provides direct evidence on loading induced stress response in IVD cells and contributes to our understanding in the mechanoregulation of intervertebral disc cells.

  3. Epigenetic Modifications as Antidedifferentiation Strategy for Primary Hepatocytes in Culture.

    PubMed

    Bolleyn, Jennifer; Fraczek, Joanna; Rogiers, Vera; Vanhaecke, Tamara

    2015-01-01

    A well-known problem of cultured primary hepatocytes is their rapid dedifferentiation. During the last years, several strategies to counteract this phenomenon have been developed, of which changing the in vitro environment is the most popular one. However, mimicking the in vivo setting in vitro by adding soluble media additives or the restoration of both cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix contacts is not sufficient and only delays the dedifferentiation process instead of counteracting it. In this chapter, new strategies to prevent the deterioration of the liver-specific phenotype of primary hepatocytes in culture by targeting the (epi)genetic mechanisms that drive hepatocellular gene expression are described.

  4. Development and pattern of mRNA relative abundance of bovine embryos cultured in the isolated mouse oviduct in organ culture.

    PubMed

    Rizos, D; Pintado, B; de la Fuente, J; Lonergan, P; Gutiérrez-Adán, A

    2007-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the development of bovine zygotes in isolated mouse oviducts (IMO) and the quality of the blastocysts produced. In vitro produced bovine zygotes were transferred into the ampullae of the IMO and cultured in SOF or KSOM. Control embryos were cultured in droplets of the same media. Following 6 days of culture, blastocysts were processed for nuclei counts or mRNA abundance. Culture in the IMO did not affect the proportion of zygotes developing to the blastocyst stage compared to the respective control droplets (SOF: 17.7 +/- 3.2% vs. 18.8 +/- 2.7%; KSOM: 20.7 +/- 2.6% vs. 22.2 +/- 2.8%). Culture in the IMO in KSOM resulted in an increased number of inner cell mass (ICM) nuclei; however, total nuclei number or incidence of apoptosis was unaffected. Culture in the IMO in SOF resulted in an increase (P < 0.05) in abundance of transcripts in blastocysts for Oct-4 and SOX, and reduced abundance of Glut-1, Na/K, Cx43, and survivin compared to blastocysts derived from culture in SOF alone. In contrast, culture in the IMO in KSOM resulted in increased abundance of transcripts for Glut-1, Cx43, Oct-4, and survivin and reduced expression of Na/K and SOX compared to KSOM alone. Transcripts for G6PDH, IFN-tau, and E-Cad were unaffected. These data confirm that the IMO is capable of supporting development of bovine embryos. Depending on the basal medium used, the pattern of transcript abundance in embryos derived from the IMO is similar to that of in vivo derived embryos.

  5. Inhibitory effects of organochlorine pesticides on intercellular transfer of Lucifer Yellow in cultured bovine oviductal cells.

    PubMed

    Tiemann, U; Pöhland, R

    1999-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), methoxychlor (MXC), and gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (gammaHCH, lindane) on gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) in cultured bovine oviductal cells. GJIC was evaluated by microinjecting fluorescent dye Lucifer Yellow and observing the inhibition of the spreading of dye into adjacent cells. After incubation for 1 h at 37 degrees C, a dose-dependent inhibition of GJIC was observed over a concentration range of 16 to 128 microM DDT, MXC, or gammaHCH compared with nonexposed controls. A significant inhibition began at 32 microM DDT, MXC, or gammaHCH. After incubation for 5 h, a dose-dependent inhibition of GJIC was obtained in the concentration range from 8 to 64 microM of the pesticides. The first significant inhibitory effect on GJIC was caused by 8 microM DDT, 16 microM MXC, and 32 microM gammaHCH. The 128 microM concentration of the pesticides was toxic. At pesticide concentration of 64 microM, the decrease in dye-coupling observed was not due to lethal cell injury, as is indicated by the use of trypan blue dye exclusion. After removal of 64 microM DDT from the culture medium, intercellular communication was reestablished within 3 h. Measurement of cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration [Ca2+]i in fura-2/AM-loaded oviductal cells showed that the inhibition of GJIC by addition of DDT, MXC, or gammaHCH was not associated with a detectable increase in [Ca2+]i. Coincubation of the DDT with dibutyryl-cAMP prevented the 64 microM DDT-induced inhibition of intercellular communication in adherent oviduct cells. It is suggested that organochlorine pesticides can influence cells responsible for reproduction.

  6. Where Cultural Games Count: The Voices of Primary Classroom Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nabie, Michael Johnson

    2015-01-01

    This study explored Ghanaian primary school teachers' values and challenges of integrating cultural games in teaching mathematics. Using an In-depth conversational interview, ten (10) certificated teachers' voices on the values and challenges of integrating games were examined. Thematic data analysis was applied to the qualitative data from the…

  7. Creativity and Performativity Policies in Primary School Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troman, Geoff; Jeffrey, Bob; Raggl, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    Cultures of performativity in English primary schools refer to systems and relationships of: target-setting; Ofsted inspections; school league tables constructed from pupil test scores; performance management; performance related pay; threshold assessment; and advanced skills teachers. Systems which demand that teachers "perform" and in…

  8. Optimal concentration of hyaluronan and plant protein in different culture systems for in vitro maturation of bovine oocytes.

    PubMed

    Opiela, Jolanta; Latasiewicz, Ewa; Smorag, Zdzisław

    2012-12-01

    With a view to search for optimal concentration of hyaluronan (HA) and plant protein (PP) in different culture systems for in vitro maturation of bovine oocytes, cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were matured in vitro in 2 culture systems (first co-cultured with granulose cells and estrus calf serum (ECS) in 2 mL volume, second without co-culture where ECS was replaced by exogenous hormones and BSA or PP in 100 microL dose under mineral oil). Seven types of media were used; 3 in first system and 4 in second system. To evaluate HA and PP effect on oocytes after in vitro culture an estimation of meiosis stage and a level of DNA fragmentation was performed by TUNEL staining. The highest meiotic maturation (84%) was observed in oocytes cultured in medium enriched with ECS in co-culture with granulose cells (1st system). The lowest meiotic maturation was noted in medium with addition of BSA (43%). The addition of HA in the medium enriched with BSA significantly increased the rate of matured oocytes (67%) and also didn't affect the chromatin quality of individual oocytes. The addition of HA to the culture medium supplemented with a PP decreased the rate of matured oocytes to 54% but no statistical differences were noted. The results of the present study showed that HA supplementation didn't have a detrimental impact on oocyte chromatin integrity and improved bovine oocytes' meiotic maturation in medium supplemented only with BSA without co-culture of granulose cells.

  9. [Studies on the biosynthesis and secretion of parathyroid hormone in monolayer cultures of bovine parathyroid cells (I) (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Okano, K; Nakai, R; Goto, H; Yoshikawa, M

    1976-11-20

    We have developed a preparation of monolayer cultures of bovine parathyroid cells in order to elucidate the control mechanism of the biosynthesis and secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH) at cellular level. Dispersion of parathyroid cells was performed by stirring minced bovine parathyroid tissues in Hanks' BSS containing 0.3 yields to 0.5 percent collagenase at 37 degrees C for 60 min. Dispersed cells were cultured at 37 degrees C in MEM-Hanks' BSS containing 10 percent fetal calf serum and 15 mM HEPES. On the 5th day of the culture, the medium was replaced with 1 percent BSA-MEM-Hanks-HEPES buffer, and the cells were incubated with 3H-leucine or in the media containing various concentrations of calcium, magnesium, PGE1, PGE2 or DBcAMP. At the end of incubation, the cells were detouched and homogenized in 8M urea, 0.2 N HCL and 0.01 M cysteine solution. The isolation of proparathyroid hormone (ProPTH) and PTH was performed through the preparation of TCA-powder followed by CMC column chromatography. PTH in the incubation medium was determined by radioimmunoassay. It was demonstrated that the monolayer cultures of bovine parathyroid cells were synthesizing ProPTH and converting it to PTH. The cultures exhibited linear secretion rates of PTH into the medium. The secretion of PTH was markedly increased by PGE1, PGE2 or DBcAMP in the range of 10(-7) yields to 10(-5)M in the former and 10(-5) yields to 10(-3)M in the latter, while calcium or magnesium changed secretion rate in the range of 0.3 yields to 4.4 mM.

  10. Acetaminophen metabolism, cytotoxicity, and genotoxicity in rat primary hepatocyte cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Milam, K.M.; Byard, J.L.

    1985-06-30

    Acetaminophen (APAP) metabolism, cytotoxicity, and genotoxicity were measured in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes. Although 3 mM APAP caused a slight increase in cellular release of lactate dehydrogenase into the culture medium, cellular glutathione concentration (an index of APAP metabolism) was reduced by 50%. APAP at 7 mM was significantly more toxic to these hepatocytes and had a similar but more marked effect on glutathione concentrations. In spite of its cytotoxicity, neither dose of APAP stimulated DNA repair synthesis when monitored by the rate of incorporation of (/sup 3/H)thymidine into DNA following exposure to APAP. Thus, although APAP has been shown to be both hepato- and nephrotoxic in several in vivo and in vitro systems, the reactive toxic metabolite of APAP is not genotoxic in rat primary hepatocyte cultures.

  11. Prostaglandin E synthase interacts with inducible heat shock protein 70 after heat stress in bovine primary dermal fibroblast cells.

    PubMed

    Richter, Constanze; Viergutz, Torsten; Schwerin, Manfred; Weitzel, Joachim M

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to heat stress in dairy cows leads to undesired side effects that are reflected by complex alterations in endocrine parameters, such as reduced progesterone, estradiol, and thyroid hormone concentrations. These endocrine maladaptation leads to failure to resume cyclicity, a poor uterine environment and inappropriate immune responses in postpartum dairy cows. Prostaglandins (PG's) are lipid mediators, which serve as signal molecules in response to various external stimuli as well as to cell-specific internal signal molecules. A central role in PG synthesis plays prostaglandin E synthase (PGES) that catalyzes the isomerization of PGH2 to PGE2 .The present study was conducted to investigate heat stress associated PGES expression. Expression of PGES and inducible heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), as a putative chaperonic protein, was studied in bovine primary fibroblasts under different heat shock conditions. Bovine primary fibroblasts produce PGE2 at homoiothermical norm temperature (38.5°C in bovine), but reduce PGE2 production rates under extreme heat stress (at 45°C for 6 h). By contrast, PGE2 production rates are maintained after a milder heat stress (at 41.5°C for 6 h). PGE2 synthesis is abolished by application of cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin, indicating de novo synthesis. Heat stress increases HSP70 but not PGES protein concentrations. HSP70 physically interacts with PGES and the PGES-HSP70 complex did not dissociate upon heat stress at 45°C even after returning the cells to 37°C. The PGE2 production negatively correlates with the portion of PGES-HSP70 complex. These results suggest a protein interaction between HSP70 and PGES in dermal fibroblast cells. Blockage of PGES protein by HSP70 seems to interfere with the regulatory processes essential for cellular adaptive protection. © 2014 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. © 2014 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  12. Culture-bound syndromes in Hispanic primary care patients.

    PubMed

    Bayles, Bryan P; Katerndahl, David A

    2009-01-01

    We sought to document Hispanic primary care patients' knowledge and experience of five culture-bound syndromes (CBS), as well as the basic socio-cultural correlates of these disorders. A convenience sample of 100 adult Hispanic patients presenting in an urban South Texas primary care clinic was recruited to complete a brief cross-sectional survey, presented in an oral format. Interviews sought information concerning five culture-bound syndromes--susto, empacho, nervios, mal de ojo, and ataques de nervios. Additional demographic, socio-economic, and acculturation data was collected. Descriptive and bivariate statistics (chi square, Fisher's) were used to assess relationships among variables and experience with each CBS. A multivariate logistic analysis was conducted to determine the possible contributions of age, gender, acculturation, and education to the personal experience of a culture-bound syndrome. Results indicate that 77% of respondents had knowledge of all five syndromes, with 42% reporting having personally experienced at least one CBS. Nervios was the most commonly suffered disorder, being reported by 30 respondents. This was followed, in declining order ofprevalence, by susto, mal de ojo, empacho, and ataques de nervios. Multivariate logistic regression analysis found that higher education beyond high school was associated with a slightly decreased likelihood of reporting having suffered from any culture-bound syndrome. While co-occurrence among these disorders occurred, the patterns of predictors suggest that the co-occurrence is not a reflection of mislabeling of one common syndrome. Knowledge of and experience with culture-bound syndromes is common among Hispanic primary care patients in South Texas. Healthcare providers ought to consider discussing these illnesses in a non-judgmental manner with patients who present with symptoms that are consistent with these syndromes. Future studies, with larger sample sizes, are warranted to elucidate the nature

  13. Morphological changes in cultured bovine lymphoid cell lines associated with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) single and dual infections with bovine leukemia virus (BLV)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Currently, American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) makes available two cell lines derived from the same lymphoblast-like suspension cell that have been confirmed by next-generation sequencing and RT-PCR to have either a single contaminate of BVDV2a (CRL-8037) or dual contaminates of both BVDV and BL...

  14. Cytotoxicity Testing of Temporary Luting Cements with Two- and Three-Dimensional Cultures of Bovine Dental Pulp-Derived Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ülker, Hayriye Esra; Ülker, Mustafa; Gümüş, Hasan Önder; Yalçın, Muhammet; Şengün, Abdulkadir

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the cytotoxicity of eugenol-containing and eugenol-free temporary luting cements. For cytotoxicity testing, bovine pulp-derived cells transfected with Simian virus 40 Large T antigen were exposed to extracts of eugenol-containing (Rely X Temp E) and eugenol-free (Provicol, PreVISION CEM, and Rely X Temp NE) temporary luting cements for 24 h. The cytotoxicity of the same materials was also evaluated in a dentin barrier test device using three-dimensional cell cultures of bovine pulp-derived cells. The results of the cytotoxicity studies with two-dimensional cultures of bovine dental pulp-derived cells revealed that cell survival with the extracts of Rely X Temp E, Provicol, PreVISION CEM, and Rely X Temp NE was 89.1%, 84.9%, 92.3%, and 66.8%, respectively. Rely X Temp NE and Provicol showed cytotoxic effects on bovine dental pulp-derived cells (P < 0.05). The results of the dentin barrier test revealed that cell survival with the above-mentioned temporary cement was 101.5%, 91.9%, 93.5%, and 90.6%, respectively. None of the temporary luting cements significantly reduced cell survival compared with the negative control in the dentin barrier test (P > 0.05). Biologically active materials released from temporary luting cements may not influence the dentine-pulp complex if the residual dentine layer is at least 0.5 mm thick. PMID:23984419

  15. Energy independent uptake and release of polystyrene nanoparticles in primary mammalian cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Fiorentino, Ilaria; Gualtieri, Roberto; Barbato, Vincenza; Mollo, Valentina; Braun, Sabrina; Angrisani, Alberto; Turano, Mimmo; Furia, Maria; Netti, Paolo A; Guarnieri, Daniela; Fusco, Sabato; Talevi, Riccardo

    2015-01-15

    Nanoparticle (NPs) delivery systems in vivo promises to overcome many obstacles associated with the administration of drugs, vaccines, plasmid DNA and RNA materials, making the study of their cellular uptake a central issue in nanomedicine. The uptake of NPs may be influenced by the cell culture stage and the NPs physical-chemical properties. So far, controversial data on NPs uptake have been derived owing to the heterogeneity of NPs and the general use of immortalized cancer cell lines that often behave differently from each other and from primary mammalian cell cultures. Main aims of the present study were to investigate the uptake, endocytosis pathways, intracellular fate and release of well standardized model particles, i.e. fluorescent 44 nm polystyrene NPs (PS-NPs), on two primary mammalian cell cultures, i.e. bovine oviductal epithelial cells (BOEC) and human colon fibroblasts (HCF) by confocal microscopy and spectrofluorimetric analysis. Different drugs and conditions that inhibit specific internalization routes were used to understand the mechanisms that mediate PS-NP uptake. Our data showed that PS-NPs are rapidly internalized by both cell types 1) with similar saturation kinetics; 2) through ATP-independent processes, and 3) quickly released in the culture medium. Our results suggest that PS-NPs are able to rapidly cross the cell membrane through passive translocation during both uptake and release, and emphasize the need to carefully design NPs for drug delivery, to ensure their selective uptake and to optimize their retainment in the targeted cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Gene expression profiling of single bovine embryos uncovers significant effects of in vitro maturation, fertilization and culture.

    PubMed

    Smith, Sadie L; Everts, Robin E; Sung, Li-Ying; Du, Fuliang; Page, Raymond L; Henderson, Boyd; Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra L; Nedambale, Tshimangadzo L; Renard, Jean-Paul; Lewin, Harris A; Yang, Xiangzhong; Tian, X Cindy

    2009-01-01

    In vitro production (IVP) has been shown to affect embryonic gene expression and often result in large offspring syndrome (LOS) in cattle and sheep. To dissect the effects of in vitro maturation, fertilization and culture on bovine embryos, we compared the expression profiles of single blastocysts generated by: (1) in vitro maturation, fertilization and culture (IVF); (2) in vivo maturation, fertilization and in vitro culture (IVD); and (3) in vivo maturation, fertilization and development (AI). To conduct expression profiling, total RNA was isolated from individual embryos, linearly amplified and hybridized to a custom bovine cDNA microarray containing approximately 6,300 unique genes. There were 306, 367, and 200 genes differentially expressed between the AI and IVD, IVF and IVD, and AI and IVF comparisons, respectively. Interestingly, 44 differentially expressed genes were identified between the AI embryos and both the IVF and IVD embryos, making these potential candidates for LOS. There were 60 genes differentially expressed between the IVF embryos and the AI and IVD embryos. The Gene Ontology category "RNA processing" was over-represented among the genes that were down-regulated in the IVF embryos, indicating an effect of in vitro oocyte maturation/fertilization on the ability to transcribe maternal RNA stores. A culture effect on the expression of genes involved in translation was also observed by the comparison of AI with IVD embryos.

  17. Supplementation of bovine embryo culture medium with L-arginine improves embryo quality via nitric oxide production.

    PubMed

    Santana, Priscila Di Paula Bessa; Silva, Thiago Velasco Guimarães; da Costa, Nathália Nogueira; da Silva, Bruno Barauna; Carter, Timothy Frederick; Cordeiro, Marcela da Silva; da Silva, Bruno José Martins; Santos, Simone do Socorro Damasceno; Herculano, Anderson Manoel; Adona, Paulo Roberto; Ohashi, Otávio Mitio; Miranda, Moysés dos Santos

    2014-10-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a cell-signaling molecule that regulates a variety of molecular pathways. We investigated the role of NO during preimplantation embryonic development by blocking its production with an inhibitor or supplementing in vitro bovine embryo cultures with its natural precursor, L-arginine, over different periods. Endpoints evaluated included blastocyst rates, development kinetics, and embryo quality. Supplementation with the NO synthase inhibitor N-Nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester (L-NAME) from Days 1 to 8 of culture decreased blastocyst (P < 0.05) and hatching (P < 0.05) rates. When added from Days 1 to 8, 50 mM L-arginine decreased blastocyst rates (P < 0.001); in contrast, when added from Days 5 to 8, 1 mM L-arginine improved embryo hatching rates (P < 0.05) and quality (P < 0.05) as well as increased POU5F1 gene expression (P < 0.05) as compared to the untreated control. Moreover, NO levels in the medium during this culture period positively correlated with the increased embryo hatching rates and quality (P < 0.05). These data suggest exerts its positive effects during the transition from morula to blastocyst stage, and that supplementing the embryo culture medium with L-arginine favors preimplantation development of bovine embryos.

  18. Oncogenic transformation of diverse gastrointestinal tissues in primary organoid culture

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xingnan; Nadauld, Lincoln; Ootani, Akifumi; Corney, David C.; Pai, Reetesh K.; Gevaert, Olivier; Cantrell, Michael A.; Rack, Paul G.; Neal, James T.; Chan, Carol W-M.; Yeung, Trevor; Gong, Xue; Yuan, Jenny; Wilhelmy, Julie; Robine, Sylvie; Attardi, Laura D.; Plevritis, Sylvia K.; Hung, Kenneth E.; Chen, Chang-Zheng; Ji, Hanlee P.; Kuo, Calvin J.

    2014-01-01

    The application of primary organoid cultures containing epithelial and mesenchymal elements to cancer modeling holds promise for combining the accurate multilineage differentiation and physiology of in vivo systems with the facile in vitro manipulation of transformed cell lines. Here, a single air-liquid interface culture method was used without modification to engineer oncogenic mutations into primary epithelial/mesenchymal organoids from mouse colon, stomach and pancreas. Pancreatic and gastric organoids exhibited dysplasia upon KrasG12D expression and/or p53 loss, and readily generated adenocarcinoma upon in vivo transplantation. In contrast, primary colon organoids required combinatorial Apc, p53, KrasG12D and Smad4 mutations for progressive transformation to invasive adenocarcinoma-like histology in vitro and tumorigenicity in vivo, recapitulating multi-hit models of colorectal cancer (CRC), and versus more promiscuous transformation of small intestinal organoids. Colon organoid culture functionally validated the microRNA miR-483 as a dominant driver oncogene at the Insulin-like growth factor-2 (IGF2) 11p15.5 CRC amplicon, inducing dysplasia in vitro and tumorigenicity in vivo. These studies demonstrate the general utility of a highly tractable primary organoid system for cancer modeling and driver oncogene validation in diverse gastrointestinal tissues. PMID:24859528

  19. Cultural significance of primary teeth for caregivers in Northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nations, Marilyn K; Calvasina, Paola Gondim; Martin, Michele N; Dias, Hilma Fontenele

    2008-04-01

    This anthropological study critically evaluates Brazilian caregivers' symbolic production and significance of their malnourished offspring's primary teeth, as well as their own, and describes popular dental practices. From January to June 2004, ethnographic interviews of 27 poor, low-literacy mothers were conducted at a public Malnutrition Treatment Center in Fortaleza, Ceará State. Participant observation of clinical pathways and home environments supplemented the data. Content analysis was performed. Results confirm that primary teeth are imbued with cultural significance in Northeast Brazil. Mothers examine mouths, perceive signs of decay, associate primary with permanent tooth healthiness, identify ethnodental illnesses, seek assistance, and perform rituals with exfoliated teeth. The mother's motivation to care for primary teeth is sparked by her memories of past toothache and attempts to avoid stigma and discrimination. Social determinants, not mothers' beliefs or behaviors, are the most critical obstacles to effective dental care. Legitimizing lay knowledge and empowering caregivers and children can improve oral health in Northeast Brazil.

  20. Establishment of Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri) primary cultures.

    PubMed

    Marutani-Hert, Mizuri; Hunter, Wayne B; Hall, David G

    2009-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid (AsCP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is a highly competent vector of the phloem-inhabiting bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus associated with the citrus disease huanglongbing (HLB). Commonly referred to as citrus greening disease in the USA, HLB causes reduced fruit yields, quality, and ultimately tree death and is considered the most serious citrus disease. HLB has become a major limiting factor to the production of citrus worldwide. Studies of HLB have been impeded by the fact that C. Liberibacter has not yet been cultured on artificial nutrient media. After being acquired by a psyllid, C. Liberibacter asiaticus is reported to replicate within the psyllid and is retained by the psyllid throughout its life span. We therefore hypothesized that C. Liberibacter asiaticus could be cultured in vitro using psyllid cell cultures as the medium and investigated the establishment of a pure culture for AsCP cells. Several commercially available insect cell culture media along with some media we developed were screened for viability to culture cells from AsCP embryos. Cells from psyllid tissues adhered to the plate and migration was observed within 24 h. Cells were maintained at 20 degrees C. We successfully established primary psyllid cell cultures, referred to as DcHH-1, for D. citri Hert-Hunter-1, with a new media, Hert-Hunter-70.

  1. Liposomal clodronate selectively eliminates microglia from primary astrocyte cultures

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There is increasing interest in astrocyte biology because astrocytes have been demonstrated to play prominent roles in physiological and pathological conditions of the central nervous system, including neuroinflammation. To understand astrocyte biology, primary astrocyte cultures are most commonly used because of the direct accessibility of astrocytes in this system. However, this advantage can be hindered by microglial contamination. Although several authors have warned regarding microglial contamination in this system, complete microglial elimination has never been achieved. Methods The number and proliferative potential of contaminating microglia in primary astrocyte cultures were quantitatively assessed by immunocytologic and flow cytometric analyses. To examine the utility of clodronate for microglial elimination, primary astrocyte cultures or MG-5 cells were exposed to liposomal or free clodronate, and then immunocytologic, flow cytometric, and gene expression analyses were performed. The gene expression profiles of microglia-eliminated and microglia-contaminated cultures were compared after interleukin-6 (IL-6) stimulation. Results The percentage of contaminating microglia exceeded 15% and continued to increase because of their high proliferative activity in conventional primary astrocyte cultures. These contaminating microglia were selectively eliminated low concentration of liposomal clodronate. Although primary microglia and MG-5 cells were killed by both liposomal and free clodronate, free clodronate significantly affected the viability of astrocytes. In contrast, liposomal clodronate selectively eliminated microglia without affecting the viability, proliferation or activation of astrocytes. The efficacy of liposomal clodronate was much higher than that of previously reported methods used for decreasing microglial contamination. Furthermore, we observed rapid tumor necrosis factor-α and IL-1b gene induction in conventional primary astrocyte

  2. Effect of resveratrol supplementation during culture on the quality and cryotolerance of bovine in vitro produced embryos.

    PubMed

    Salzano, A; Albero, G; Zullo, G; Neglia, G; Abdel-Wahab, A; Bifulco, G; Zicarelli, L; Gasparrini, B

    2014-12-30

    The aim of the study was to evaluate whether resveratrol supplementation of bovine culture medium improves in vitro blastocyst development, embryo cryotolerance and cell numbers. Abattoir-derived oocytes were matured and fertilized in vitro according to standard procedure. Twenty hours after IVF, zygotes were cultured in SOF medium, supplemented with 0 (control, n=439), 0.25μM (n=422), 0.5μM (n=447) and 1μM resveratrol (n=416). On Day 7 (IVF=Day 0) blastocysts were vitrified by cryotop in 16.5% ethylene glycol, 16.5% dimethyl sulfoxide and 0.5M sucrose. Development rate, i.e. the percentage of embryos resuming development to reach a more advanced stage, and hatching rate were evaluated after 24 and 48h culture. Blastocysts cultured with (0.5μM) and without resveratrol underwent differential staining to count inner cell mass (ICM) and trophectoderm (TE) cells. Resveratrol during culture did not increase blastocyst yields (57.1, 57.7, 59.2 and 46.6%, respectively in 0, 0.25, 0.5 and 1μM resveratrol). However, 0.5μM resveratrol improved embryo cryotolerance compared to the control, as indicated by higher development rates (67.3% vs 50.3%, respectively; P<0.01) and hatching rates (58.9% vs 30.9%, respectively; P<0.01) recorded after 48h post-warming culture. Blastocysts produced in the control and in 0.5μM resveratrol groups had similar numbers of ICM (34.1 and 36.4, respectively), TE (88.1 and 85.3, respectively) and total (122.2 and 121.7, respectively) cells. In conclusion, low levels of resveratrol during in vitro culture improve the quality of IVP bovine embryos, as indicated by their increased resistance to cryopreservation.

  3. Characterization of secretory proteins from cultured cauda epididymal cells that significantly sustain bovine sperm motility in vitro.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Moreno, Carlos; Boilard, Mathieu; Sullivan, Robert; Sirard, Marc-André

    2002-12-01

    Epididymis provides a safe environment in which stored-spermatozoa could survive for days before ejaculation. In vitro studies suggested that epididymal proteins seem to be implicated in sperm survival during coincubation with cultured epididymal cells. This study was basically designed to confirm if secretory proteins from bovine epididymal cell cultures provide sperm protection against rapid loss of sperm motility in vitro. Bovine spermatozoa were incubated in conditioned media (CM), which were prepared from cultured cauda epididymal cell (CEC). Motion parameters were recorded using a computer-assisted sperm analyzer. Sperm-free protein extracts from CM were fractionated by ultrafiltration through a 10-kDa cut off membrane. A significantly positive effect on sperm motility was observed when spermatozoa were incubated in CM (54 +/- 4%) and CM > 10 kDa (57 +/- 4%) compared to CM < 10-kDa fraction (30 +/- 3%) or fresh media (34 +/- 3%), after a 6-hr incubation period. This beneficial effect on sperm motility was abolished when the CM > 10-kDa fraction was heat-treated at 100 degrees C for 10 min. The CM > 10 kDa fraction provides factors that remained active even though spermatozoa were washed twice after a 2-hr preincubation period. To identify potential beneficial factors, bovine spermatozoa were incubated with radiolabeled proteins obtained using (35)S-methionine in culture medium. SDS-PAGE analysis of proteins extracted from CM-preincubated spermatozoa revealed the presence of a 42-kDa protein strongly associated to the sperm surface. This 42-kDa spot was trypsin-digested and identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) as a protein homologue to a 35-kDa bovine estrogen-sulfotransferase. This protein can play a role in epididymal biology and sperm function. Taken together, these results suggest that specific epididymal proteins can be implicated in the sperm protection in vitro, and can be characterized in our cell culture

  4. Intracellular [Na+], Na+ pathways, and fluid transport in cultured bovine corneal endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Kunyan; Li, Yansui; Yiming, Maimaiti; Sánchez, José M; Iserovich, Pavel; Cragoe, E J; Diecke, Friedrich P J; Fischbarg, Jorge

    2004-07-01

    The mechanism of fluid transport across corneal endothelium remains unclear. We examine here the relative contributions of cellular mechanisms of Na+ transport and the homeostasis of intracellular [Na+] in cultured bovine corneal endothelial cells, and the influence of ambient Na+ and HCO3- on the deturgescence of rabbit cornea. Bovine corneal endothelial cells plated on glass coverslips were incubated for 60 min with 10 microm of the fluorescent Na+ indicator SBFI precursor in HCO3- HEPES (BH) Ringer's solution. After loading, cells were placed in a perfusion chamber. Indicator fluorescence (490 nm) was determined with a Chance-Legallais time-sharing fluorometer. Its voltage output was the ratio of the emissions excited at 340 and 380 nm. For calibration, cells were treated with gramicidin D. For fluid transport measurements, rabbit corneas were mounted in a Dikstein-Maurice chamber, and stromal thickness was measured with a specular microscope. The steady-state [Na+]i in BH was 14.36+/-0.38 mM (n = mean+/-s.e.). Upon exposure to Na+ -free BH solution (choline substituted), [Na+]i decreased to 1.81+/-0.20mM (n = 19). When going from Na+ -free plus 100 microm ouabain to BH plus ouabain, [Na+]i increased to 46.17+/-2.50 (n = 6) with a half time of 1.26+/-0.04 min; if 0.1 microm phenamil plus ouabain were present, it reached only 21.78+/-1.50mm. The exponential time constants (min-1) were: 0.56+/-0.04 for the Na+ pump; 0.39+/-0.01 for the phenamil sensitive Na+ channel; and 0.17+/-0.02 for the ouabain-phenamil-insensitive pathways. In HCO3- free medium (gluconate substituted), [Na+]i was 14.03+/-0.11mM; upon changing to BH medium, it increased to 30.77+/-0.74 mm. This last [Na+]i increase was inhibited 66% by 100 microm DIDS. Using BH medium, corneal thickness remained nearly constant, increasing at a rate of only 2.9+/-0.9 microm hr-1 during 3 hr. However, stromal thickness increased drastically (swelling rate 36.1+/-2.6 microm hr-1) in corneas superfused with BH

  5. Induction of interferon and interferon-induced antiviral effector genes following a primary bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) respiratory infection.

    PubMed

    Osman, Rahwa; Gonzalez-Cano, Patricia; Brownlie, Robert; Griebel, Philip J

    2017-07-01

    Invitro investigations have identified a variety of mechanisms by which herpesviruses evade interferon-stimulated antiviral effector mechanisms. However, these immune evasion mechanisms have not been evaluated during a bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) infection. This study investigated the transcription and secretion of type I and II interferons (IFNs) and the transcription of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) during a primary BHV-1 infection of the upper respiratory tract (URT) in naïve calves. IFN-α, -β and -γ transcription in nasal turbinates and protein levels in nasal secretions increased following infection. Increased IFN type I and II secretion was detected 3 days post-infection (p.i.) and IFN production increased in parallel with virus shedding. Expression of ISGs, including Mx1, OAS and BST-2, also increased significantly (P<0.05) in nasal turbinates on day 3 p.i. and elevated ISG expression persisted throughout the period of viral shedding. In contrast, RNAase L gene expression was not induced during the BHV-1 infection in the nasal turbinates, but was induced on day 10 p.i. in the trachea. In vitro studies confirmed that recombinant bovine (rBo)IFN-α, -β and -γ induced expression of Mx1, OAS and BST-2, but decreased RNAse L transcript in bovine epithelial cells. Relative to vesicular stomatitisvirus (VSV), BHV-1 was resistant to the antiviral activity of rBoIFN-α and -γ, but treatment of epithelial cells with 10 ng rBoIFN-β ml-1 effected an 80 % inhibition of BHV-1 replication and complete inhibition of VSV replication. These observations confirm that the transcription and translation of type I and II IFNs increase during BHV-1 infection, while the transcription of some ISGs is not inhibited.

  6. Cross-cultural aspects of depression management in primary care.

    PubMed

    Hails, Katherine; Brill, Charlotte D; Chang, Trina; Yeung, Albert; Fava, Maurizio; Trinh, Nhi-Ha

    2012-08-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a prevalent illness in minority populations. Minority patients with MDD are often unrecognized and untreated. This review examines promising interventions to address MDD in primary care settings, where minority groups are more likely to seek care. Since 2010, eleven interventions have been developed to address patient-specific and provider-specific barriers, many of which are adaptations of the collaborative care model. Other promising interventions include cultural tailoring of the collaborative care model, as well as the addition of telepsychiatry, motivational interviewing, cultural consultation, and innovations in interpreting. Overall, collaborative care was found feasible and improved satisfaction and treatment engagement of depressed minority patients in primary care. It remains inconclusive whether these newer intervention models improve MDD treatment outcomes. Future research will be needed to establish the effectiveness of these intervention models in improving the treatment outcomes of minority populations with MDD.

  7. Microbiologic and clinical value of primary broth cultures of wound specimens collected with swabs.

    PubMed Central

    Silletti, R P; Ailey, E; Sun, S; Tang, D

    1997-01-01

    In order to assess the microbiologic and clinical value of primary broth culture of wound specimens collected with swabs and submitted to the laboratory in transport medium, we compared the results of primary agar culture with the results of a corresponding primary broth culture for 344 aerobic specimens and 176 anaerobic specimens. While 8.7% (45 of 520) of the specimens yielded organisms from the primary broth culture that were not recovered from the corresponding primary agar culture, only 5.0% (26 of 520) of the specimens yielded organisms from the primary broth culture other than Staphylococcus epidermidis, viridans group streptococci, and Corynebacterium spp. Moreover, the primary broth culture of only 0.6% (3 of 520) of the specimens yielded organisms not recovered from the primary agar culture that caused a change in the therapy of the patient. Our conclusion is that primary broth cultures are unnecessary for the processing of wound specimens properly collected with swabs. PMID:9230370

  8. Frozen and fresh ovarian tissue require different culture media to promote in vitro development of bovine preantral follicles.

    PubMed

    Castro, Simone Vieira; Carvalho, Adeline Andrade; Silva, Cleidson Manoel Gomes; Santos, Francielli Weber; Campello, Cláudio Cabral; de Figueiredo, José Ricardo; Rodrigues, Ana Paula Ribeiro

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of different media in the in vitro culture of bovine preantral follicles that were used either fresh or following slow freezing treatment. Frozen and fresh noncultured or cultured ovarian fragments were processed for histological, viability, and cell proliferation analyses. For cryopreservation, a solution containing 1.5 M ethylene glycol was frozen in a programmable biological freezer. After thawing, a portion of the samples was destined for frozen controls. The remainder were cultured in vitro for 5 days in three media: α-MEM, McCoy, or M199. Samples from these culture media were collected on days 1 and 5 for quantification of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and for hormonal assays. In fresh-cultured tissues, the percentage of morphologically normal follicles was significantly higher when cultured in M199 compared to that in the other media. In frozen-cultured tissues, McCoy medium was significantly superior to the other media, and was the only treatment that helped in maintaining the viability similar to fresh and frozen controls. Upon quantification of the nucleolus organizer region, we observed greater proliferation of granulosa cells in the frozen-cultured tissues with McCoy medium, and lesser proliferation in fresh-cultured tissues only with α-MEM. In frozen-cultured tissues, ROS levels were highest at day 1 and progressively reduced during culture, independent of the media used. In conclusion, under the conditions used in this study, the M199 and McCoy media are recommended for the culture of follicles derived from fresh and frozen ovarian tissues, respectively.

  9. Enhancement in colonization of bovine spermatogonial stem cells following addition of knock-out serum replacement to culture medium

    PubMed Central

    Youssefi, Reza; Tajik, Parviz; Movahedin, Mansoureh; Akbarinejad, Vahid

    2016-01-01

    Enrichment of cell suspension with germ cells prior to injection into recipient seminiferous tubules is of importance in spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) transplantation. Knock-out serum replacement (KSR) has been reported to enhance the proliferation of murine SSCs and human embryonic stem cells. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of KSR versus fetal bovine serum (FBS) and their interaction on colonization of bovine SSCs in vitro. When FBS (10%) was replaced with KSR (10%), a significant increase in the colonization of SSCs and the expression of Thy1, as marker for enrichment of SSCs, was observed. It was revealed that the lesser proliferative effect of FBS as well as the greater proliferative impact of KSR on SSCs colonization were not irreversible as cells having been cultured with FBS (10%) for three days with low colonization showed high rate of colonization in response to KSR (10%) and cells having been cultured with KSR (10%) with high colonization experienced low rate of colonization in response to FBS (10%). Further, it was shown that FBS did not contain factors inhibiting SSCs colonization and it simply lacked factors essential for SSCs proliferation because the combination of FBS (5%) and KSR (5%) resulted in even greater rate of colonization than did KSR (10%). In conclusion, the present study showed that addition of KSR to culture medium would significantly increase SSCs proliferation. PMID:28144417

  10. Enhancement in colonization of bovine spermatogonial stem cells following addition of knock-out serum replacement to culture medium.

    PubMed

    Youssefi, Reza; Tajik, Parviz; Movahedin, Mansoureh; Akbarinejad, Vahid

    2016-01-01

    Enrichment of cell suspension with germ cells prior to injection into recipient seminiferous tubules is of importance in spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) transplantation. Knock-out serum replacement (KSR) has been reported to enhance the proliferation of murine SSCs and human embryonic stem cells. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of KSR versus fetal bovine serum (FBS) and their interaction on colonization of bovine SSCs in vitro. When FBS (10%) was replaced with KSR (10%), a significant increase in the colonization of SSCs and the expression of Thy1, as marker for enrichment of SSCs, was observed. It was revealed that the lesser proliferative effect of FBS as well as the greater proliferative impact of KSR on SSCs colonization were not irreversible as cells having been cultured with FBS (10%) for three days with low colonization showed high rate of colonization in response to KSR (10%) and cells having been cultured with KSR (10%) with high colonization experienced low rate of colonization in response to FBS (10%). Further, it was shown that FBS did not contain factors inhibiting SSCs colonization and it simply lacked factors essential for SSCs proliferation because the combination of FBS (5%) and KSR (5%) resulted in even greater rate of colonization than did KSR (10%). In conclusion, the present study showed that addition of KSR to culture medium would significantly increase SSCs proliferation.

  11. Establishment of Primary Cell Culture From Ascitic Fluid and Solid Tumor Obtained From Epithelial Ovarian Carcinoma Patients.

    PubMed

    Kar, Rajarshi; Chawla, Diwesh; Gupta, Bindiya; Mehndiratta, Mohit; Wadhwa, Neelam; Agarwal, Rachna

    2017-08-16

    Ovarian cancer is the seventh leading cause of cancer death worldwide. This is mainly due to late diagnosis and high rate of relapse and resistance following chemotherapy. In the present study, we describe simple and cost-effective method to establish primary culture from ascitic fluid and solid tumor obtained from epithelial ovarian carcinoma patient, which may provide a better tool for in vitro testing of drug sensitivity and designing individualized treatment protocol. Complete Dulbecco modified Eagle medium (DMEM) was prepared by supplementing DMEM with 10% fetal bovine serum and antibiotics (ciprofloxacin and amphotericin B). Establishment of primary culture of ovarian cancer cells from ascites fluid and solid tumor was done by using complete DMEM media. Primary cultures of ovarian cancer cells were established from ascitic fluid and solid tumor tissue. Of the 7 ascitic fluid samples, we were able to establish 5 primary cultures of ovarian cancer cells. All the 7 samples were diagnosed as serous papillary adenocarcinoma. Some fibroblasts were also attached to culture flask on day 4; they were removed by exposing them to trypsin for a brief period. On day 7, grape-like clusters were visualized under inverted microscope. The cells became confluent on the 10th and 11th day and showed cobblestone appearance, which is a hallmark of ovarian cancer cells. Senescent irregularly shaped cells that have ceased dividing were seen after 8 to 10 passages. This study highlights the fact that establishing primary cultures from ascitic fluid or solid tumor tissue may help us to understand the molecular profile of the cancer cells, which allow us to select the best chemotherapeutic agent for ovarian cancer patients and thus take a step toward patient-tailored therapy so that patients are not exposed to drugs to which they are not likely to respond.

  12. Bovine Oviduct Epithelial Cells Dedifferentiate Partly in Culture, While Maintaining their Ability to Improve Early Embryo Development Rate and Quality.

    PubMed

    Schmaltz-Panneau, B; Locatelli, Y; Uzbekova, S; Perreau, C; Mermillod, P

    2015-10-01

    There are convincing arguments to suggest that the success of early reproductive events is reliant on a satisfactory dialogue between gametes-embryo and the oviduct epithelium. The aim of this study was to develop and characterize an in vitro model to study these interactions. Cattle zygotes produced in vitro were cultured in either SOF or TCM-199 in the presence or absence of bovine oviduct cell monolayers (BOEC), under 20% or 5% O2 . The embryonic development rate and its quality (cell numbers, cryosurvival) were evaluated, as were the BOEC contents in 11 candidate transcripts (real-time PCR) at different time points. A BOEC co-culture did indeed increase the rate of development in both media under 5% O2 (41 vs 27% and 28 vs 10% of Day 8 blastocysts in SOF and TCM-199, respectively; p < 0.05). The effect of BOEC on the developmental rate was more pronounced under 20% O2 (35 vs 6% and 27 vs 4% of Day 8 blastocysts in SOF and TCM-199, respectively; p < 0.05). BOEC significantly increased the embryonic cell count in TCM-199 (122.5 ± 11.1 vs 70.3 ± 9.6; p < 0.05) and embryonic cryosurvival in both media. The expression levels of SOD, FGF2 and TGF-β1 in BOEC remained steady during culture, although mRNA levels of OGP, C3, PGR and ESR2 were clearly reduced, suggesting a dedifferentiation of BOEC during culture. However, SSP1 and GPX4 transcripts were slightly increased during culture, this rise becoming significant by the end of the culture period. In conclusion, our co-culture system with bovine oviduct epithelial cells used for the development of bovine zygotes produced in vitro enhanced blastocyst formation and above all the quality of the resulting embryos, which was associated with specific transcriptomic changes.

  13. Organizational culture in the primary healthcare setting of Cyprus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The concept of organizational culture is important in understanding the behaviour of individuals in organizations as they manage external demands and internal social changes. Cyprus healthcare system is under restructuring and soon a new healthcare scheme will be implemented starting at the Primary Healthcare (PHC) level. The aim of the study was to investigate the underlying culture encountered in the PHC setting of Cyprus and to identify possible differences in desired and prevailing cultures among healthcare professionals. Methods The population of the study included all general practitioners (GPs) and nursing staff working at the 42 PHC centres throughout the island. The shortened version of the Organizational Culture Profile questionnaire comprising 28 statements on organizational values was used in the study. The instrument was already translated and validated in Greek and cross-cultural adaptation was performed. Participants were required to indicate the organization’s characteristic cultural values orientation along a five-point Likert scale ranging from “Very Much = 1” to “Not at all= 5”. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 16.0. Student t-test was used to compare means between two groups of variables whereas for more than two groups analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied. Results From the total of 306 healthcare professionals, 223 participated in the study (72.9%). The majority of participants were women (75.3%) and mean age was 42.6 ± 10.7 years. Culture dimension “performance orientation” was the desired culture among healthcare professionals (mean: 1.39 ± 0.45). “Supportiveness” and “social responsibility” were the main cultures encountered in PHC (means: 2.37 ± 0.80, 2.38 ± 0.83). Statistical significant differences were identified between desired and prevailing cultures for all culture dimensions (p= 0.000). Conclusions This was the first study performed in Cyprus assessing organizational culture in

  14. Organizational culture in the primary healthcare setting of Cyprus.

    PubMed

    Zachariadou, Theodora; Zannetos, Savvas; Pavlakis, Andreas

    2013-03-24

    The concept of organizational culture is important in understanding the behaviour of individuals in organizations as they manage external demands and internal social changes. Cyprus healthcare system is under restructuring and soon a new healthcare scheme will be implemented starting at the Primary Healthcare (PHC) level. The aim of the study was to investigate the underlying culture encountered in the PHC setting of Cyprus and to identify possible differences in desired and prevailing cultures among healthcare professionals. The population of the study included all general practitioners (GPs) and nursing staff working at the 42 PHC centres throughout the island. The shortened version of the Organizational Culture Profile questionnaire comprising 28 statements on organizational values was used in the study. The instrument was already translated and validated in Greek and cross-cultural adaptation was performed. Participants were required to indicate the organization's characteristic cultural values orientation along a five-point Likert scale ranging from "Very Much = 1" to "Not at all= 5". Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 16.0. Student t-test was used to compare means between two groups of variables whereas for more than two groups analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied. From the total of 306 healthcare professionals, 223 participated in the study (72.9%). The majority of participants were women (75.3%) and mean age was 42.6 ± 10.7 years. Culture dimension "performance orientation" was the desired culture among healthcare professionals (mean: 1.39 ± 0.45). "Supportiveness" and "social responsibility" were the main cultures encountered in PHC (means: 2.37 ± 0.80, 2.38 ± 0.83). Statistical significant differences were identified between desired and prevailing cultures for all culture dimensions (p= 0.000). This was the first study performed in Cyprus assessing organizational culture in the PHC setting. In the forthcoming health system reform

  15. Bacterial community profiling of milk samples as a means to understand culture-negative bovine clinical mastitis.

    PubMed

    Kuehn, Joanna S; Gorden, Patrick J; Munro, Daniel; Rong, Ruichen; Dong, Qunfeng; Plummer, Paul J; Wang, Chong; Phillips, Gregory J

    2013-01-01

    Inflammation and infection of bovine mammary glands, commonly known as mastitis, imposes significant losses each year in the dairy industry worldwide. While several different bacterial species have been identified as causative agents of mastitis, many clinical mastitis cases remain culture negative, even after enrichment for bacterial growth. To understand the basis for this increasingly common phenomenon, the composition of bacterial communities from milk samples was analyzed using culture independent pyrosequencing of amplicons of 16S ribosomal RNA genes (16S rDNA). Comparisons were made of the microbial community composition of culture negative milk samples from mastitic quarters with that of non-mastitic quarters from the same animals. Genomic DNA from culture-negative clinical and healthy quarter sample pairs was isolated, and amplicon libraries were prepared using indexed primers specific to the V1-V2 region of bacterial 16S rRNA genes and sequenced using the Roche 454 GS FLX with titanium chemistry. Evaluation of the taxonomic composition of these samples revealed significant differences in the microbiota in milk from mastitic and healthy quarters. Statistical analysis identified seven bacterial genera that may be mainly responsible for the observed microbial community differences between mastitic and healthy quarters. Collectively, these results provide evidence that cases of culture negative mastitis can be associated with bacterial species that may be present below culture detection thresholds used here. The application of culture-independent bacterial community profiling represents a powerful approach to understand long-standing questions in animal health and disease.

  16. Bradykinin-stimulated calcium influx in cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Schilling, W.P.; Ritchie, A.K.; Navarro, L.T.; Eskin, S.G. Univ. of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston )

    1988-08-01

    Bradykinin (BK)-stimulated release of endothelium-derived relaxing factor has been linked to a rise in cytosolic Ca{sup 2+} concentration and a change of K{sup +} permeability of the endothelial cell. In the present study, measurement of BK-induced changes in fura-2 fluorescence and {sup 86}Rb{sup +} efflux were used to monitor changes in cytosolic Ca{sup 2+} and K{sup +} permeability in cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells. In the presence of normal extracellular Ca{sup 2+}, BK induced a fourfold increase in cytosolic Ca{sup 2+}, which peaked at 20 s and declined within 1 min to a value that was 50% of the peak level. Subsequently, cytosolic Ca{sup 2+} decreased and approached basal levels within 8 min. In the absence of Ca{sup 2+}, BK produced a 1.5- to 2-fold increase in cytosolic Ca{sup 2+} that peaked within 20 s and declined to basal levels within 2 min. Addition of Ca{sup 2+} to the Ca-free reaction buffer 3-5 min after addition of BK resulted in a two-to three-fold increase in cytosolic Ca{sup 2+} that declined slowly back to basal levels. Thus Ca{sup 2+} influx can occur in response to BK at a time when there is minimal elevation of cytosolic Ca{sup 2+} above the resting level. Under all conditions tested, {sup 86}Rb{sup +} efflux paralleled changes in the cytosolic Ca{sup 2+}, suggesting that efflux occurred through Ca{sup 2+}-activated K{sup +} channels. Isosmotic substitution of Na{sup +} with N-methyl-D-glucamine did not affect the BK-stimulated changes in cytosolic Ca{sup 2+} or {sup 86}Rb{sup +} efflux, suggesting that Na{sup +}-Ca{sup 2+} exchange plays little role in the BK response. These results suggest that BK stimulates Ca{sup 2+} influx via a BK receptor-operated channel or a channel activated by some internal messenger other than Ca{sup 2+}.

  17. Assay of bovine interferons in cultures of the porcine cell line IB-RS-2.

    PubMed Central

    Ahl, R; Rump, A

    1976-01-01

    An assay for bovine interferons has been developed using the porcine cell line IB-RS-2 and a bovine enterovirus, CBV-D, as challenge virus. The method is based on estimation of cytopathic effect measured by uptake of neutral red. Teh assay is simple, sensitive, and reproducible. A comparative test of different viruses in IB-RS-2 cells and secondary calf kidney cells revealed that the sensitivity of a virus to interferon can vary up to 1,000-fold in the two cell systems. Vesicular stomatitis virus was found to be rather insensitive to interferon in IB-RS-2 cells. PMID:184049

  18. The effects of BmNPV on biochemical changes in primary cultures of Bombyx mori embryonic tissue.

    PubMed

    Matindoost, Leila; Sendi, Jalal Jalali; Soleimanjahi, Hoorieh; Etebari, Kayvan; Rahbarizade, Fateme

    2008-01-01

    The effect of Bombyx mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus (BmNPV) on biochemical changes of TC-100 medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) in embryonic primary cultures of silkworm was investigated. The primary cultures that reached 60% confluence were infected by 0.5, 1, and 2-ml viral inoculums (diluted with TC-100 medium representing multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 0.25, 0.5, and 1). Glucose, uric acid, urea, total protein, cholesterol, and alkaline phosphatase were measured in the medium of BmNPV-infected primary cultures. All biochemical compounds showed significant changes. Glucose decreased considerably by about 55 mg/ml, while different concentrations of the virus inoculums did not demonstrate significant differences among them. Total protein had only increased in 2 ml concentration and there were no changes in other concentrations. Uric acid as a by-product accumulated dramatically in all concentrations, while the amount of urea reduced in all treatments and this reduction was more evident in lower concentrations. Cholesterol consumption was high in cultures postinfection, while alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity decreased in infected cells.

  19. Importance of culturing primary lymphocytes at physiological oxygen levels

    PubMed Central

    Atkuri, Kondala R.; Herzenberg, Leonard A.; Niemi, Anna-Kaisa; Cowan, Tina; Herzenberg, Leonore A.

    2007-01-01

    Although studies with primary lymphocytes are almost always conducted in CO2 incubators maintained at atmospheric oxygen levels (atmosO2; 20%), the physiological oxygen levels (physO2; 5%) that cells encounter in vivo are 2–4 times lower. We show here that culturing primary T cells at atmosO2 significantly alters the intracellular redox state (decreases intracellular glutathione, increases oxidized intracellular glutathione), whereas culturing at physO2 maintains the intracellular redox environment (intracellular glutathione/oxidized intracellular glutathione) close to its in vivo status. Furthermore, we show that CD3/CD28-induced T cell proliferation (based on proliferation index and cell yield) is higher at atmosO2 than at physO2. This apparently paradoxical finding, we suggest, may be explained by two additional findings with CD3/CD28-stimulated T cells: (i) the intracellular NO (iNO) levels are higher at physO2 than at atmosO2; and (ii) the peak expression of CD69 is significantly delayed and more sustained at physO2 that at atmosO2. Because high levels of intracellular NO and sustained CD69 tend to down-regulate T cell responses in vivo, the lower proliferative T cell responses at physO2 likely reflect the in vitro operation of the natural in vivo regulatory mechanisms. Thus, we suggest caution in culturing primary lymphocytes at atmosO2 because the requisite adaptation to nonphysiological oxygen levels may seriously skew T cell responses, particularly after several days in culture. PMID:17360561

  20. Effects of different cryopreservation methods on post-thaw culture conditions of in vitro produced bovine embryos.

    PubMed

    Nicacio, Alessandra Corallo; Simões, Renata; de Paula-Lopes, Fabiola Freitas; de Barros, Flavia Regina Oliveira; Peres, Maria Angelica; Assumpção, Mayra Elena Ortiz D'Avila; Visintin, Jose Antonio

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of cryopreservation protocols on subsequent development of in vitro produced bovine embryos under different culture conditions. Expanded in vitro produced blastocysts (n = 600) harvested on days 7-9 were submitted to controlled freezing [slow freezing group: 10% ethylene glycol (EG) for 10 min and 1.2°C/min cryopreservation]; quick-freezing [rapid freezing group: 10% EG for 10 min, 20% EG + 20% glycerol (Gly) for 30 s]; or vitrification [vitrification group: 10% EG for 10 min, 25% EG + 25% Gly for 30 s] protocols. Control group embryos were not exposed to cryoprotectant or cryopreservation protocols and the hatching rate was evaluated on day 12 post-insemination. In order to evaluate development, frozen-thawed embryos were subjected to granulosa cell co-culture in TCM199 or SOFaa for 4 days. Data were analyzed by PROC MIXED model using SAS Systems for Windows®. Values were significant at p < 0.05. The hatching rate of the control group was 46.09%. In embryos cultured in TCM199, slow freezing and vitrification group hatching rates were 44.65 ± 5.94% and 9.43 ± 6.77%, respectively. In embryos cultured in SOFaa, slow freezing and vitrification groups showed hatching rates of 11.65 ± 3.37 and 8.67 ± 4.47%, respectively. In contrast, the rapid freezing group embryos did not hatch, regardless of culture medium. The slow freezing group showed higher hatching rates than other cryopreservation groups. Under such conditions, controlled freezing (1.2°C/min) can be an alternative to cryopreservation of in vitro produced bovine embryos.

  1. Effects of Ranolazine on Astrocytes and Neurons in Primary Culture.

    PubMed

    Aldasoro, Martin; Guerra-Ojeda, Sol; Aguirre-Rueda, Diana; Mauricio, M Dolores; Vila, Jose M; Marchio, Patricia; Iradi, Antonio; Aldasoro, Constanza; Jorda, Adrian; Obrador, Elena; Valles, Soraya L

    2016-01-01

    Ranolazine (Rn) is an antianginal agent used for the treatment of chronic angina pectoris when angina is not adequately controlled by other drugs. Rn also acts in the central nervous system and it has been proposed for the treatment of pain and epileptic disorders. Under the hypothesis that ranolazine could act as a neuroprotective drug, we studied its effects on astrocytes and neurons in primary culture. We incubated rat astrocytes and neurons in primary cultures for 24 hours with Rn (10-7, 10-6 and 10-5 M). Cell viability and proliferation were measured using trypan blue exclusion assay, MTT conversion assay and LDH release assay. Apoptosis was determined by Caspase 3 activity assay. The effects of Rn on pro-inflammatory mediators IL-β and TNF-α was determined by ELISA technique, and protein expression levels of Smac/Diablo, PPAR-γ, Mn-SOD and Cu/Zn-SOD by western blot technique. In cultured astrocytes, Rn significantly increased cell viability and proliferation at any concentration tested, and decreased LDH leakage, Smac/Diablo expression and Caspase 3 activity indicating less cell death. Rn also increased anti-inflammatory PPAR-γ protein expression and reduced pro-inflammatory proteins IL-1 β and TNFα levels. Furthermore, antioxidant proteins Cu/Zn-SOD and Mn-SOD significantly increased after Rn addition in cultured astrocytes. Conversely, Rn did not exert any effect on cultured neurons. In conclusion, Rn could act as a neuroprotective drug in the central nervous system by promoting astrocyte viability, preventing necrosis and apoptosis, inhibiting inflammatory phenomena and inducing anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agents.

  2. Effects of Ranolazine on Astrocytes and Neurons in Primary Culture

    PubMed Central

    Aldasoro, Martin; Guerra-Ojeda, Sol; Aguirre-Rueda, Diana; Mauricio, Mª Dolores; Vila, Jose Mª; Marchio, Patricia; Iradi, Antonio; Aldasoro, Constanza; Jorda, Adrian; Obrador, Elena; Valles, Soraya L.

    2016-01-01

    Ranolazine (Rn) is an antianginal agent used for the treatment of chronic angina pectoris when angina is not adequately controlled by other drugs. Rn also acts in the central nervous system and it has been proposed for the treatment of pain and epileptic disorders. Under the hypothesis that ranolazine could act as a neuroprotective drug, we studied its effects on astrocytes and neurons in primary culture. We incubated rat astrocytes and neurons in primary cultures for 24 hours with Rn (10−7, 10−6 and 10−5 M). Cell viability and proliferation were measured using trypan blue exclusion assay, MTT conversion assay and LDH release assay. Apoptosis was determined by Caspase 3 activity assay. The effects of Rn on pro-inflammatory mediators IL-β and TNF-α was determined by ELISA technique, and protein expression levels of Smac/Diablo, PPAR-γ, Mn-SOD and Cu/Zn-SOD by western blot technique. In cultured astrocytes, Rn significantly increased cell viability and proliferation at any concentration tested, and decreased LDH leakage, Smac/Diablo expression and Caspase 3 activity indicating less cell death. Rn also increased anti-inflammatory PPAR-γ protein expression and reduced pro-inflammatory proteins IL-1 β and TNFα levels. Furthermore, antioxidant proteins Cu/Zn-SOD and Mn-SOD significantly increased after Rn addition in cultured astrocytes. Conversely, Rn did not exert any effect on cultured neurons. In conclusion, Rn could act as a neuroprotective drug in the central nervous system by promoting astrocyte viability, preventing necrosis and apoptosis, inhibiting inflammatory phenomena and inducing anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agents. PMID:26950436

  3. Effects of proteins on the permeability of monolayers of cultured bovine arterial endothelium.

    PubMed Central

    Turner, M R

    1992-01-01

    1. Monolayers of arterial endothelium on porous membranes were exposed to a pressure of 15 cmH2O at 37 degrees C, or of 30 cmH2O at 0 degree C. At constant pressure, the rate of liquid flow per unit area (Jv/A) through each monolayer decreased with time, in the way previously described for cultured endothelium. This phenomenon has been called sealing. After Jv/A stabilized, the pressure was reduced and the hydraulic permeability (Lp) of the endothelium was calculated from the relationship between Jv/A and pressure. Endothelium was seen to be damaged after some experiments at 37 degrees C, but appeared undamaged after experiments at 0 degree C. 2. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) did not influence the Lp of cultured endothelium. At 37 degrees C, the mean (+/- S.E.M.) endothelial Lp was 47.2 +/- 7.3 x 10(-7) cm s-1 cmH2O-1 (n = 10) in the presence of BSA (5 g (100 ml)-1). This is not significantly different from the mean (+/- S.E.M.) Lp of 53.4 +/- 9.0 x 10(-7) cm s-1 cmH2O-1 (n = 9) in the absence of added protein (P greater than 0.10). At 0 degree C also, there was no significant difference between mean Lps in the presence of BSA (0.1 g (100 ml)-1) and in the absence of added protein. 3. Solutions of BSA (5 g (100 ml)-1 or of the neutral polymer Ficoll 70 (4 g (100 ml)-1) did not exert any effective osmotic pressure across endothelium at 37 or 0 degrees C, respectively. 4. BSA (0.1 g (100 ml)-1) did not enable solutions of Ficoll 70 (4 g (100 ml)-1) to exert an effective osmotic pressure across endothelium at 0 degree C. 5. The mean Lp of endothelium at 0 degree C was significantly lower in the presence of cationized ferritin (CF; 0.1 g (100 ml)-1) than in the absence of added protein (P less than 0.001). Native ferritin (NF; 0.1 g (100 ml)-1) had no effect on Lp. 6. In the presence of CF (0.1 g (100 ml)-1), solutions of Ficoll 70 (4 g (100 ml)-1) exerted a mean effective osmotic pressure of 27.7 cmH2O (n = 5) across endothelium at 0 degree C. The mean effective osmotic

  4. Factors controlling the proliferative rate, final cell density, and life span of bovine vascular smooth muscle cells in culture

    PubMed Central

    1981-01-01

    Low density vascular smooth muscle (VSM) cell cultures maintained on extracellular-matrix(ECM)-coated dishes and plated in the presence of either plasma or serum will proliferate actively when serum-containing medium is replaced by a synthetic medium supplemented with three factors: high density lipoprotein (HDL, 250 micrograms protein/ml); insulin (2.5 micrograms/ml) or somatomedin C (10 ng/ml); and fibroblast growth factor (FGF, 100 ng/ml) or epidermal growth factor (EGF, 50 ng/ml). The omission of any of these three factors from the synthetic medium results in a lower growth rate of the cultures, as well as in a lower final cell density once cultures reach confluence. When cells are plated in the total absence of serum, transferrin (10 micrograms/ml) is also required to induce optimal cell growth. The effects of the substrate and medium supplements on the life span of VSM cultures have also been analyzed. Cultures maintained on plastic and exposed to medium supplemented with 5% bovine serum underwent 15 generations. However, when maintained on ECM-coated dishes the serum-fed cultures had a life span of at least 88 generations. Likewise, when cultures were maintained in a synthetic medium supplemented with HDL and either FGF or EGF, an effect on the tissue culture life span by the substrate was observed. Cultures maintained on plastic underwent 24 generations, whereas those maintained on ECM-coated dishes could be passaged repeatedly for 58 generations. These experiments demonstrate the influence of the ECM-substrate only in promoting cell growth but also in increasing the longevity of the cultures. PMID:6454694

  5. [Comparison of human cord blood mesenchymal stem cell culture between using human umbilical cord plasma and using fetal bovine serum].

    PubMed

    Ding, Yan; Lu, Zhiyong; Yuan, Yahong; Wang, Xiaoli; Li, Dongsheng; Zeng, Yi

    2013-12-01

    To investigate whether human umbilical cord plasma (HUP) can be used to culture human cord blood mesenchymal stem cells (HUCMSCs), we collected 20 surplus HUP. After being treated with salting out and diasysis, the HUP were used to culture HUCMSCs as 10% volume, and compared with fetal bovine serum (FBS). Morphological characteristics, growth curve and reproductive activity of HUCMSCs cells were observed. The concentration of bFGF and noggin secreted by HUCMSCs cultured with HUP and FBS medium were detected by ELISA. It was found that compared to FBS, the morphology, reproductive activity and characteristic of HUCMSCs cell cultured with HUP were not distinctively different from FBS. The concentration of bFGF in HUP group was significantly higher than that of FBS group, and the concentration of noggin was also different in the two groups. So we concluded that HUP could be used to culture HUCMSCs for a long-time, and the HUP mediumcoild could be more suitable for the culture of human embryonic stem cell (hESC).

  6. Analysis of bovine herpesvirus 1 transcripts during a primary infection of trigeminal ganglia of cattle.

    PubMed Central

    Schang, L M; Jones, C

    1997-01-01

    During an infection of nonneuronal cells, bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) gene expression proceeds in a well-defined cascade. Products of immediate-early (IE) genes are expressed first, and they activate expression of early (E) and late (L) genes. Although the same cascade is assumed to occur during an infection of neurons in trigeminal ganglia (TG) of cattle, no experimental data is available to support this hypothesis. Consequently, we analyzed BHV-1 gene expression in bovine TG at 1, 2, 4, 7, and 15 days postinfection (dpi). Infectious virus was detected in ocular swabs from 1 to 7 dpi but not 15 dpi. By reverse transcription (RT)-PCR, IE (bICP4), E (thymidine kinase, ribonucleotide reductase [RR]), L (glycoprotein C, and alpha trans-inducing factor), and dual-kinetic (bICP0 and bICP22) transcripts were analyzed. When cDNA synthesis was primed with random hexamers, IE and E transcripts were detected at the same time. However, full-length and poly(A)+ (FL&P) RR or bICP22 RNAs were detected before FL&P IE RNAs. Furthermore, FL&P IE transcripts were not detected until viral DNA increased in TG. IE transcripts were detected before E or L RNAs when rabbit kidney cells were infected with a low multiplicity of infection and the same RT-PCR detection method was used. These studies suggested that expression of full-length and polyadenylated IE transcripts in trigeminal ganglia was not efficient compared to that of RR and bICP22 transcripts. PMID:9261403

  7. PRIMARY CULTURE OF CHOROIDAL EPITHELIAL CELLS: CHARACTERIZATION OF AN IN VITRO MODEL OF BLOOD-CSF BARRIER

    PubMed Central

    ZHENG, WEI; ZHAO, QIUQU; GRAZIANO, JOSEPH H.

    2016-01-01

    Summary A primary rat choroidal epithelial cell culture system was developed to investigate mechanisms of heavy metal toxicity on the blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier. Epithelial cells were dissociated from choroidal tissue by pronase digestion and cultured in standard DMEM culture media supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum and 10 ng epithelial growth factor per ml. The procedure yielded 2–5 × 104 cells from pooled plexuses of three to four rats, and a viability of 77–85%. The cultures displayed a dominant polygonal type of epithelial cells, with a population doubling time of 2–3 d. The cultures were of distinct choroidal epithelial origins. For example, immunocytochemical studies using monospecific rabbit anti-rat TTR polyclonal antibody revealed a strong positive stain of transthyretin (TTR), a thyroxine transport protein exclusively produced by the choroidal epithelia. Also, reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR) confirmed the presence of specific TTR mRNA in the cultures. The cultures were further adapted to grow on a freely permeable membrane sandwiched between two culture chambers. The formation of an impermeable confluent monolayer occurred within 5 d after seeding and was verified by the presence of a steady electrical resistance across the membrane (80 ± 10 ohm per cm2). The epithelial barriers appeared to actively transport [125I]-thyroxine from the basal to apical chamber. These results suggest that this primary cell culture system possesses typical choroidal epithelial characteristics and appears to be a suitable model for in vitro mechanistic investigations of blood–CSF barrier. PMID:9542634

  8. Culturing primary rat inner medullary collecting duct cells.

    PubMed

    Faust, Dörte; Geelhaar, Andrea; Eisermann, Beate; Eichhorst, Jenny; Wiesner, Burkhard; Rosenthal, Walter; Klussmann, Enno; Klussman, Enno

    2013-06-21

    Arginine-vasopressin (AVP) facilitates water reabsorption by renal collecting duct principal cells and thereby fine-tunes body water homeostasis. AVP binds to vasopressin V2 receptors (V2R) on the surface of the cells and thereby induces synthesis of cAMP. This stimulates cellular signaling processes leading to changes in the phosphorylation of the water channel aquaporin-2 (AQP2). Protein kinase A phoshorylates AQP2 and thereby triggers the translocation of AQP2 from intracellular vesicles into the plasma membrane facilitating water reabsorption from primary urine. Aberrations of AVP release from the pituitary or AVP-activated signaling in principal cells can cause central or nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, respectively; an elevated blood plasma AVP level is associated with cardiovascular diseases such as chronic heart failure and the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion. Here, we present a protocol for cultivation of primary rat inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) cells, which express V2R and AQP2 endogenously. The cells are suitable for elucidating molecular mechanisms underlying the control of AQP2 and thus to discover novel drug targets for the treatment of diseases associated with dysregulation of AVP-mediated water reabsorption. IMCD cells are obtained from rat renal inner medullae and are used for experiments six to eight days after seeding. IMCD cells can be cultured in regular cell culture dishes, flasks and micro-titer plates of different formats, the procedure only requires a few hours, and is appropriate for standard cell culture laboratories.

  9. Culturing Primary Rat Inner Medullary Collecting Duct Cells

    PubMed Central

    Faust, Dörte; Geelhaar, Andrea; Eisermann, Beate; Eichhorst, Jenny; Wiesner, Burkhard; Rosenthal, Walter; Klussman, Enno

    2013-01-01

    Arginine-vasopressin (AVP) facilitates water reabsorption by renal collecting duct principal cells and thereby fine-tunes body water homeostasis. AVP binds to vasopressin V2 receptors (V2R) on the surface of the cells and thereby induces synthesis of cAMP. This stimulates cellular signaling processes leading to changes in the phosphorylation of the water channel aquaporin-2 (AQP2). Protein kinase A phoshorylates AQP2 and thereby triggers the translocation of AQP2 from intracellular vesicles into the plasma membrane facilitating water reabsorption from primary urine. Aberrations of AVP release from the pituitary or AVP-activated signaling in principal cells can cause central or nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, respectively; an elevated blood plasma AVP level is associated with cardiovascular diseases such as chronic heart failure and the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion. Here, we present a protocol for cultivation of primary rat inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) cells, which express V2R and AQP2 endogenously. The cells are suitable for elucidating molecular mechanisms underlying the control of AQP2 and thus to discover novel drug targets for the treatment of diseases associated with dysregulation of AVP-mediated water reabsorption. IMCD cells are obtained from rat renal inner medullae and are used for experiments six to eight days after seeding. IMCD cells can be cultured in regular cell culture dishes, flasks and micro-titer plates of different formats, the procedure only requires a few hours, and is appropriate for standard cell culture laboratories. PMID:23852264

  10. Dual effects of nobiletin, a citrus polymethoxy flavone, on catecholamine secretion in cultured bovine adrenal medullary cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Han; Toyohira, Yumiko; Ueno, Susumu; Shinohara, Yuko; Itoh, Hideaki; Furuno, Yumi; Yamakuni, Tohru; Tsutsui, Masato; Takahashi, Kojiro; Yanagihara, Nobuyuki

    2010-08-01

    Nobiletin, a compound of polymethoxy flavones found in citrus fruits, possesses a wide range of pharmacological activities. Here we report the effects of nobiletin on catecholamine secretion in cultured bovine adrenal medullary cells. Nobiletin (1.0-100 microM) concentration-dependently stimulated catecholamine secretion and (45)Ca(2+) influx. Its stimulatory effect of nobiletin on catecholamine secretion was abolished by deprivation of extracellular Ca(2+) and partially inhibited by specific inhibitors of voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels and Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchangers. On the other hand, nobiletin suppressed catecholamine secretion and (22)Na(+) and (45)Ca(2+) influx induced by acetylcholine, an agonist of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, in a concentration-dependent manner. It also inhibited catecholamine secretion, (22)Na(+) influx and/or (45)Ca(2+) influx induced by veratridine, an activator of voltage-dependent Na(+) channels, and 56 mM K(+), an activator of voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels. In Xenopus oocytes expressing alpha3beta4 neuronal acetylcholine receptors, nobiletin directly inhibited the current evoked by acetylcholine in a concentration-dependent manner similar to that observed in catecholamine secretion. The present findings suggest that nobiletin, by itself, stimulates catecholamine secretion via activation of voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels or Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchangers, whereas it inhibits catecholamine secretion induced by acetylcholine through the suppression of Na(+) influx and Ca(2+) influx in cultured bovine adrenal medullary cells.

  11. Supplementation of culture medium with L-carnitine improves development and cryotolerance of bovine embryos produced in vitro.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Toshikiyo; Inaba, Yasushi; Somfai, Tamas; Kaneda, Masahiro; Geshi, Masaya; Nagai, Takashi; Manabe, Noboru

    2013-01-01

    High lipid content in embryos is associated with low freezing tolerance. This study assessed the effects of exogenous L-carnitine, an enhancer of lipid metabolism, on the in vitro development and freezing survival of bovine embryos. Also, effects on metabolic activity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptosis were investigated. Supplementation of embryo culture medium with 1.518 mM or 3.030 mM L-carnitine significantly increased the rates of zygote development to the blastocyst stage and blastocyst cell numbers whereas 6.072 mM of this compound did not improve embryo development. Survival rates after slow freezing of blastocysts were significantly higher when embryos were cultured in the presence of 1.518 mM or 3.030 mM L-carnitine compared with the control. A lower density of lipid droplets was detected in L-carnitine-treated blastocysts compared with the control. L-carnitine significantly reduced ROS levels in 2-cell embryos but did not reduce ROS levels at later stages. The apoptotic cell rate was not different between control and L-carnitine-treated blastocysts. L-carnitine significantly increased ATP levels in 2-cell embryos but not at the 8-cell or blastocyst stages. L-carnitine increased the expression of metabolism-related ATP6 and COX1 genes in blastocysts. In conclusion, L-carnitine supplementation enhanced lipid metabolism in embryos resulting in improved development and cryotolerance of bovine blastocysts produced in vitro.

  12. Basolateral Cl channels in primary airway epithelial cultures.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Horst; Illek, Beate; Finkbeiner, Walter E; Widdicombe, Jonathan H

    2007-06-01

    Salt and water absorption and secretion across the airway epithelium are important for maintaining the thin film of liquid lining the surface of the airway epithelium. Movement of Cl across the apical membrane involves the CFTR Cl channel; however, conductive pathways for Cl movement across the basolateral membrane have been little studied. Here, we determined the regulation and single-channel properties of the Cl conductance (G(Cl)) in airway surface epithelia using epithelial cultures from human or bovine trachea and freshly isolated ciliated cells from the human nasal epithelium. In Ussing chamber studies, a swelling-activated basolateral G(Cl) was found, which was further stimulated by forskolin and blocked by N-phenylanthranilic acid (DPC) = sucrose > flufenamic acid = niflumic acid = glibenclamide > CdCl(2) = 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)benzoic acid (NPPB) = DIDS = ZnCl(2) > tamoxifen > 4,4'-dinitro-2,2'-stilbene-disulfonate disodium salt (DNDS). In whole cell patch-clamp experiments, three types of G(Cl) were identified: 1) a voltage-activated, DIDS- (but not Cd-) blockable and osmosensitive G(Cl); 2) an inwardly rectifying, hyperpolarization-activated and Cd-sensitive G(Cl); and 3) a forskolin-activated, linear G(Cl), which was insensitive to Cd and DIDS. In cell-attached patch-clamp recordings, the basolateral pole of isolated ciliated cells expressed three types of Cl channels: 1) an outwardly rectifying, swelling-activated Cl channel; 2) a strongly inwardly rectifying Cl channel; and 3) a forskolin-activated, low-conductance channel. We propose that, depending on the driving force for Cl across the apical membrane, basolateral Cl channels confine Cl(-) secretion or support transcellular Cl(-) absorption.

  13. In vitro developmental competence of in vitro-matured bovine oocytes fertilized and cultured in completely defined media.

    PubMed

    Keskintepe, L; Brackett, B G

    1996-08-01

    The objective was to establish an in vitro system in which bovine oocytes can be matured, fertilized, and cultured up to the blastocyst stage without support of serum, BSA, or somatic cells. Media consisted of modified tissue culture medium 199 (mTCM 199) with ovine LH (oLH) for maturation (IVM), experimental alterations of modified defined medium (mDM) for sperm selection and insemination (IVF), and citrate+synthetic oviductal fluid+nonessential amino acids (c-SOF+NEA) for zygote/embryo culture (IVC). Effects of heparin, BSA, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), penicillamine (P), Hepes, and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) were studied. Results included proportions of oocytes that cleaved by 48 h and that reached morulae by 120 h, blastocysts by 168 h, and expanded blastocysts by 216 h postinsemination (pi). Best results were obtained when the IVF medium included 0.5 mg P+1.0 mg PVA per milliliter with no more than 10 mM Hepes, and when 3.0 mg PVA/ml and 10 mM Hepes were present for IVC. Different concentrations of NaHCO3, up to 50 mM from 25 mM, during IVF did not alter results. Embryos produced in defined conditions yielding the best results remained viable after vitrification as evidenced by continued development in vitro for 96 h postthawing. Bovine oocytes matured in defined medium supplemented with LH were fertilized and cultured up to the blastocyst stage in chemically defined conditions that afforded results comparable to those reported earlier after inclusion of serum, BSA, and/or somatic cells.

  14. Effect of primary culture medium type for culture of canine fibroblasts on production of cloned dogs.

    PubMed

    Kim, Geon A; Oh, Hyun Ju; Kim, Min Jung; Jo, Young Kwang; Choi, Jin; Kim, Jin Wook; Lee, Tae Hee; Lee, Byeong Chun

    2015-09-01

    Fibroblasts are common source of donor cells for SCNT. It is suggested that donor cells' microenvironment, including the primary culture, affects development of reconstructed embryos. To prove this, canine embryos were cloned with fibroblasts that were cultured in two different primary media (RCMEp vs. Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium [DMEM]) and in vivo developments were compared with relative amount of stemness, reprogramming, apoptosis gene transcripts, and telomerase activity. Donor cells cultured in RCMEp contained a significantly higher amount of SOX2, NANOG, DPPA2, REXO1, HDAC, DNMT1, MECP2 and telomerase activity than those cultured in DMEM (P < 0.05). In vivo developmental potential of cloned embryos with donor cells cultured in RCMEp had a higher birth rate than that of embryos derived from DMEM (P < 0.05). The culture medium can induce changes in gene expression of donor cells and telomerase activity, and these alterations can also affect in vivo developmental competence of the cloned embryos.

  15. Insulin Cannot Induce Adipogenic Differentiation in Primary Cardiac Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Parameswaran, Sreejit; Sharma, Rajendra K.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac tissue contains a heterogeneous population of cardiomyocytes and nonmyocyte population especially fibroblasts. Fibroblast differentiation into adipogenic lineage is important for fat accumulation around the heart which is important in cardiac pathology. The differentiation in fibroblast has been observed both spontaneously and due to increased insulin stimulation. The present study aims to observe the effect of insulin in adipogenic differentiation of cardiac cells present in primary murine cardiomyocyte cultures. Oil Red O (ORO) staining has been used for observing the lipid accumulations formed due to adipogenic differentiation in murine cardiomyocyte cultures. The accumulated lipids were quantified by ORO assay and normalized using protein estimation. The lipid accumulation in cardiac cultures did not increase in presence of insulin. However, addition of other growth factors like insulin-like growth factor 1 and epidermal growth factor promoted adipogenic differentiation even in the presence of insulin and other inhibitory molecules such as vitamins. Lipid accumulation also increased in cells grown in media without insulin after an initial exposure to insulin-containing growth media. The current study adds to the existing knowledge that the insulin by itself cannot induce adipogenic induction in the cardiac cultures. The data have significance in the understanding of cardiovascular health especially in diabetic patients. PMID:27574386

  16. In vitro methods to culture primary human breast epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Raouf, Afshin; Sun, Yu Jia

    2013-01-01

    Current evidence suggests that much like leukemia, breast tumors are maintained by a small subpopulation of tumor cells that have stem cell properties. These cancer stem cells are envisaged to be responsible for tumor formation and relapse. Therefore, knowledge about their nature will provide a platform to develop therapies to eliminate these breast cancer stem cells. This concept highlights the need to understand the mechanisms that regulate the normal functions of the breast stem cells and their immediate progeny as alterations to these same mechanisms can cause these primitive cells to act as cancer stem cells. The study of the primitive cell functions relies on the ability to isolate them from primary sources of breast tissue. This chapter describes processing of discarded tissue from reduction mammoplasty samples as sources of normal primary human breast epithelial cells and describes cell culture systems to grow single-cell suspensions prepared from these reduction samples in vitro.

  17. Culture of bovine ovarian follicle wall sections maintained the highly estrogenic profile under basal and chemically defined conditions.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, R B; Salles, L P; Oliveira e Silva, I; Gulart, L V M; Souza, D K; Torres, F A G; Bocca, A L; Rosa e Silva, A A M

    2013-08-01

    Follicle cultures reproduce in vitro the functional features observed in vivo. In a search for an ideal model, we cultured bovine antral follicle wall sections (FWS) in a serum-free defined medium (DM) known to induce 17β-estradiol (E2) production, and in a nondefined medium (NDM) containing serum. Follicles were sectioned and cultured in NDM or DM for 24 or 48 h. Morphological features were determined by light microscopy. Gene expression of steroidogenic enzymes and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) receptor were determined by RT-PCR; progesterone (P4) and E2 concentrations in the media were measured by radioimmunoassay. DM, but not NDM, maintained an FWS morphology in vitro that was similar to fresh tissue. DM also induced an increase in the expression of all steroidogenic enzymes, except FSH receptor, but NDM did not. In both DM and NDM, there was a gradual increase in P4 throughout the culture period; however, P4 concentration was significantly higher in NDM. In both media, E2 concentration was increased at 24 h, followed by a decrease at 48 h. The E2:P4 ratio was higher in DM than in NDM. These results suggest that DM maintains morphological structure, upregulates the expression of steroidogenic enzyme genes, and maintains steroid production with a high E2:P4 ratio in FWS cultures.

  18. Culture of bovine ovarian follicle wall sections maintained the highly estrogenic profile under basal and chemically defined conditions

    PubMed Central

    Vasconcelos, R.B.; Salles, L.P.; Silva, I. Oliveira e; Gulart, L.V.M.; Souza, D.K.; Torres, F.A.G.; Bocca, A.L.; Silva, A.A.M. Rosa e

    2013-01-01

    Follicle cultures reproduce in vitro the functional features observed in vivo. In a search for an ideal model, we cultured bovine antral follicle wall sections (FWS) in a serum-free defined medium (DM) known to induce 17β-estradiol (E2) production, and in a nondefined medium (NDM) containing serum. Follicles were sectioned and cultured in NDM or DM for 24 or 48 h. Morphological features were determined by light microscopy. Gene expression of steroidogenic enzymes and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) receptor were determined by RT-PCR; progesterone (P4) and E2 concentrations in the media were measured by radioimmunoassay. DM, but not NDM, maintained an FWS morphology in vitro that was similar to fresh tissue. DM also induced an increase in the expression of all steroidogenic enzymes, except FSH receptor, but NDM did not. In both DM and NDM, there was a gradual increase in P4 throughout the culture period; however, P4 concentration was significantly higher in NDM. In both media, E2 concentration was increased at 24 h, followed by a decrease at 48 h. The E2:P4 ratio was higher in DM than in NDM. These results suggest that DM maintains morphological structure, upregulates the expression of steroidogenic enzyme genes, and maintains steroid production with a high E2:P4 ratio in FWS cultures. PMID:23969977

  19. Morphology of primary human venous endothelial cell cultures before and after culture medium exchange.

    PubMed

    Krüger-Genge, A; Fuhrmann, R; Jung, F; Franke, R P

    2015-01-01

    The evaluation of the interaction of human, venous endothelial cells (HUVEC) with body foreign materials on the cellular level cannot be performed in vivo, but is investigated in vitro under standard culture conditions. To maintain the vitality, proliferation and morphology of HUVEC seeded on body foreign substrates over days, the cell culture medium is usually exchanged every second day. It is well known, that alterations in the microenvironment of cells bear the risk of influencing cell morphology and function. In the current study the influence of cell culture medium exchange on HUVEC cytoskeletal microfilament structure and function was investigated. HUVEC in the third passage were seeded on extracellular matrix (ECM) - which was secreted from bovine corneal endothelial cells on glass- until functional confluence was reached. The experiment started 11 days after HUVEC seeding with an exchange of the cell culture medium followed by a staining of the actin microfilaments with phalloidin-rhodamin 1.5 and 5 minutes after medium exchange. The microfilaments were documented by use of an Olympus microscope (IMT-2) equipped with a UV lamp and online connected to a TV chain (Sony XC 50 ST/monochrome) implying an OPTIMAS - Image analysis system. Prostacyclin was analysed in the cell culture supernatant. 1.5 min after culture medium exchange in the functionally confluent cultures a slight disturbance of the actin microfilament structure with a broadening of the marginal filament band, a partial disconnection of cell-cell contacts and the appearance of intercellular fenestrations were observed. 5 minutes after medium exchange a redevelopment of the slightly disturbed microfilament structure with a condensation and narrowing of the marginal filament band was seen. 12 h later a further consolidation of the microfilament structure occurred. In addition, a perturbation of the cultured HUVEC occurred after cell culture medium exchange. The prostacyclin concentration in the

  20. The Effect of Dexamethasone and Triiodothyronine on Terminal Differentiation of Primary Bovine Chondrocytes and Chondrogenically Differentiated Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Randau, Thomas M.; Schildberg, Frank A.; Alini, Mauro; Wimmer, Matthias D.; Haddouti, El-Mustapha; Gravius, Sascha; Ito, Keita; Stoddart, Martin J.

    2013-01-01

    The newly evolved field of regenerative medicine is offering solutions in the treatment of bone or cartilage loss and deficiency. Mesenchymal stem cells, as well as articular chondrocytes, are potential cells for the generation of bone or cartilage. The natural mechanism of bone formation is that of endochondral ossification, regulated, among other factors, through the hormones dexamethasone and triiodothyronine. We investigated the effects of these hormones on articular chondrocytes and chondrogenically differentiated mesenchymal stem cells, hypothesizing that these hormones would induce terminal differentiation, with chondrocytes and differentiated stem cells being similar in their response. Using a 3D-alginate cell culture model, bovine chondrocytes and chondrogenically differentiated stem cells were cultured in presence of triiodothyronine or dexamethasone, and cell proliferation and extracellular matrix production were investigated. Collagen mRNA expression was measured by real-time PCR. Col X mRNA and alkaline phosphatase were monitored as markers of terminal differentiation, a prerequisite of endochondral ossification. The alginate culture system worked well, both for the culture of chondrocytes and for the chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. Dexamethasone led to an increase in glycosaminoglycan production. Triiodothyronine increased the total collagen production only in chondrocytes, where it also induced signs of terminal differentiation, increasing both collagen X mRNA and alkaline phosphatase activity. Dexamethasone induced terminal differentiation in the differentiated stem cells. The immature articular chondrocytes used in this study seem to be able to undergo terminal differentiation, pointing to their possible role in the onset of degenerative osteoarthritis, as well as their potential for a cell source in bone tissue engineering. When chondrocyte-like cells, after their differentiation, can indeed be moved on towards terminal

  1. Effect of nitrogen-rich cell culture surfaces on type X collagen expression by bovine growth plate chondrocytes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Recent evidence indicates that osteoarthritis (OA) may be a systemic disease since mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from OA patients express type X collagen, a marker of late stage chondrocyte hypertrophy (associated with endochondral ossification). We recently showed that the expression of type X collagen was suppressed when MSCs from OA patients were cultured on nitrogen (N)-rich plasma polymer layers, which we call "PPE:N" (N-doped plasma-polymerized ethylene, containing up to 36 atomic percentage (at.% ) of N. Methods In the present study, we examined the expression of type X collagen in fetal bovine growth plate chondrocytes (containing hypertrophic chondrocytes) cultured on PPE:N. We also studied the effect of PPE:N on the expression of matrix molecules such as type II collagen and aggrecan, as well as on proteases (matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13) and molecules implicated in cell division (cyclin B2). Two other culture surfaces, "hydrophilic" polystyrene (PS, regular culture dishes) and nitrogen-containing cation polystyrene (Primaria®), were also investigated for comparison. Results Results showed that type X collagen mRNA levels were suppressed when cultured for 4 days on PPE:N, suggesting that type X collagen is regulated similarly in hypertrophic chondrocytes and in human MSCs from OA patients. However, the levels of type X collagen mRNA almost returned to control value after 20 days in culture on these surfaces. Culture on the various surfaces had no significant effects on type II collagen, aggrecan, MMP-13, and cyclin B2 mRNA levels. Conclusion Hypertrophy is diminished by culturing growth plate chondrocytes on nitrogen-rich surfaces, a mechanism that is beneficial for MSC chondrogenesis. Furthermore, one major advantage of such "intelligent surfaces" over recombinant growth factors for tissue engineering and cartilage repair is potentially large cost-saving. PMID:21244651

  2. Primary bovine viral diarrhoea virus infection in calves following direct contact with a persistently viraemic calf.

    PubMed

    Tråvén, M; Alenius, S; Fossum, C; Larsson, B

    1991-08-01

    Six calves, aged 24 to 58 days and not previously exposed to bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV), were infected with this agent by nose-to-nose contact with a persistently BVDV viraemic calf. The study was conducted in two trials, using 3 calves in each. All 6 calves showed a peak interferon level in serum at 4 days post infection (dpi), and they seroconverted to BVDV at 16-21 dpi. The calves in trial 1 had diarrhoea for 2 or 3 days between 2 and 6 dpi and one calf again from 9 to 11 dpi. During the periods of fever, the calves were slightly depressed. Those in trial 2 were more depressed and their oral and nasal mucous membranes were reddened but they never had diarrhoea. In both trials, fever (up to 41.3 degrees C) was a prominent symptom at 8 to 9 dpi and 2 calves showed a diphasic fever course. Respiratory affection was mild and no medical treatment was required. Haematological assessment demonstrated a transient but significant leukopenia and lymphopenia at 4 dpi (P less than 0.01 and P less than 0.05 respectively) and 11 dpi (P less than 0.05 and P less than 0.01 respectively). A significant decrease in thrombocyte count was seen at 4 dpi (P less than 0.05, n = 3). This study has demonstrated that nose-to-nose contact is an effective way of transmitting BVDV from persistently infected to susceptible cattle.

  3. Toxicity of redox cycling pesticides in primary mesencephalic cultures.

    PubMed

    Bonneh-Barkay, Dafna; Langston, William J; Di Monte, Donato A

    2005-01-01

    A loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons is the primary neurodegenerative feature of Parkinson's disease. Paraquat, a known redox cycling herbicide, has recently been shown to kill selectively nigrostriatal dopaminergic cells in the mouse model. The purpose of this study was to test the ability of paraquat and other redox cycling pesticides to damage dopaminergic neurons in primary mesencephalic cultures. Addition of paraquat, diquat, or benzyl viologen to mesencephalic cultures induced morphological changes (e.g., dystrophic neuronal processes) consistent with dopaminergic cell injury. The three pesticides also caused cell death as assessed by a reduction of the number of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive neurons and a dose-dependent decrease in [(3)H]dopamine uptake. Quite interestingly, diquat and benzyl viologen were significantly more toxic than paraquat, probably reflecting their more pronounced ability to trigger redox cycling reactions. The data support a role of redox cycling as a mechanism of dopaminergic cell degeneration and suggest that the property of redox cycling should be taken into consideration when evaluating putative environmental risk factors for Parkinson's disease.

  4. Zinc Modulates Nanosilver-Induced Toxicity in Primary Neuronal Cultures.

    PubMed

    Ziemińska, Elżbieta; Strużyńska, Lidia

    2016-02-01

    Silver nanoparticles (NAg) have recently become one of the most commonly used nanomaterials. Since the ability of nanosilver to enter the brain has been confirmed, there has been a need to investigate mechanisms of its neurotoxicity. We previously showed that primary neuronal cultures treated with nanosilver undergo destabilization of calcium homeostasis via a mechanism involving glutamatergic NMDA receptors. Considering the fact that zinc interacts with these receptors, the aim of the present study was to examine the role of zinc in mechanisms of neuronal cell death in primary cultures. In cells treated with nanosilver, we noted an imbalance between extracellular and intracellular zinc levels. Thus, the influence of zinc deficiency and supplementation on nanosilver-evoked cytotoxicity was investigated by treatment with TPEN (a chelator of zinc ions), or ZnCl(2), respectively. Elimination of zinc leads to complete death of nanosilver-treated CGCs. In contrast, supplementation with ZnCl(2) increases viability of CGCs in a dose-dependent manner. Addition of zinc provided protection against the extra/intracellular calcium imbalance in a manner similar to MK-801, an antagonist of NMDA receptors. Zinc chelation by TPEN decreases the mitochondrial potential and dramatically increases the rate of production of reactive oxygen species. Our results indicate that zinc supplementation positively influences nanosilver-evoked changes in CGCs. This is presumed to be due to an inhibitory effect on NMDA-sensitive calcium channels.

  5. A reporter assay for target validation in primary neuronal cultures.

    PubMed

    Pollio, G; Roncarati, R; Seredenina, T; Terstappen, G C; Caricasole, A

    2008-07-15

    The deposition of beta-amyloid peptides (Abeta42 and Abeta40) in neuritic plaques is one of the hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and genes modulating their brain levels and neuronal effects could result in future disease modifying therapies. The causal association of candidate targets with AD is of paramount importance in current drug discovery, as a lack of efficacy of many candidate drugs is often due to inadequate validation of their pharmacological target. In Alzheimer's as well as in other neurodegenerative diseases, in vitro target validation is hampered by the difficulty of transfecting primary neuronal cultures and assaying the effects of genes on neuronal viability. Here we describe a rapid, sensitive and simple reporter-based assay for the validation of genes putatively associated with Abeta-mediated neurotoxicity, which can in principle be extended to the validation of targets in the context of other neuronal insults. The assay is suitable for the generation of robust and reproducible data in primary neuronal cultures allowing the dissection at a molecular level of complex pathways activated by the toxic insult in a cellular context that more closely represents the real disease situation.

  6. Quasispecies of bovine enteric and respiratory coronaviruses based on complete genome sequences and genetic changes after tissue culture adaptation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinsheng; Hasoksuz, Mustafa; Spiro, David; Halpin, Rebecca; Wang, Shiliang; Vlasova, Anastasia; Janies, Daniel; Jones, Leandro R; Ghedin, Elodie; Saif, Linda J

    2007-06-20

    The genetic diversity of 2 pairs (AH65 and AH187) of wild type bovine coronaviruses (BCoV) sequenced directly from nasal (respiratory) and rectal (enteric) swabs of two feedlot calves with respiratory and enteric symptoms [Hasoksuz, M., Sreevatsan, S., Cho, K.O., Hoet, A.E., Saif, L.J., 2002b. Molecular analysis of the S1 subunit of the spike glycoprotein of respiratory and enteric bovine coronavirus isolates. Virus Res. 84 (1-2), 101-109.]. was analyzed. Sequence analysis of the complete genomes revealed differences at 123 and 149 nucleotides (nt) throughout the entire genome between the respiratory and enteric strains for samples AH65 and AH187, respectively, indicating the presence of intra-host BCoV quasispecies. In addition, significant numbers of sequence ambiguities were found in the genomes of some BCoV-R and BCoV-E strains, suggesting intra-isolate quasispecies. The tissue culture (TC) passaged counterparts of AH65 respiratory BCoV (AH65-R-TC) and enteric BCoV (AH65-E-TC) were also sequenced after 14 and 15 passages and 1 plaque purification in human rectal tumor cells (HRT-18), respectively. Compared to the parental wild type strains, tissue culture passage generated 104 nt changes in the AH65-E-TC isolate but only 8 nt changes in the AH65-R-TC isolate. Particularly noteworthy, the majority of nucleotide changes in the AH65-E-TC isolate occurred at the identical positions as the mutations occurring in the AH65-R strain from the same animal. These data suggest that BCoV evolves through quasispecies development, and that enteric BCoV isolates are more prone to genetic changes and may mutate to resemble respiratory BCoV strains after tissue culture passage.

  7. Aspergillus fumigatus biofilm on primary human sinonasal epithelial culture.

    PubMed

    Singhal, Deepti; Baker, Leonie; Wormald, Peter-John; Tan, Lorwai

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial biofilms have been implicated in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). However, direct evidence in support of fungal biofilms in sinus disease is lacking in the literature. This study was designed to develop and characterize an in vitro Aspergillus fumigatus biofilm model on primary human sinonasal epithelial cell culture. Sinonasal biopsy specimens harvested during endoscopic sinus surgery of six CRS patients and three pituitary tumor (control) patients were cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagle media (DMEM; Invitrogen)/Hams F12 airway media to encourage epithelial cell proliferation. Epithelial cells separated by immunomagnetic beads were seeded in tissue culture-treated Y-shaped microslides. At confluence the primary cultures were inoculated with A. fumigatus spores. Fungus was allowed to germinate and form biofilms under two in vitro conditions: (1) static (no flow through of media) and (2) continuous flow coculture (continuous flow movement of media). At regular intervals cocultures were stained with FUN-1, concanavalin A-alexa fluor 488, and examined by confocal scanning laser microscopy. Comstat software was used to assess biomass and thickness. A. fumigatus formed three-dimensional biofilm structures with parallel-packed, cross-linked hyphae and channels/passages. Metabolically active hyphae showed orange-red fluorescing intravacuolar structures. Extracellular matrix (ECM) between/around the hyphae fluoresced intense green. A. fumigatus biofilms development occurred in five stages: (1) conidial attachment to epithelial cells, (2) hyphal proliferation, (3) ECM production, (4) hyphal parallel packing and cross-linking, and (5) channel/pores formation. Mature biofilms showed basal conidial, middle hyphal, and superficial ECM layers. Biofilms formed under flow conditions displayed more robust and faster growth kinetics when compared with that under static conditions, with a thick, stocky, wrinkly/undulating hyphal growth and extensive ECM production. The

  8. Besnoitia besnoiti infections activate primary bovine endothelial cells and promote PMN adhesion and NET formation under physiological flow condition.

    PubMed

    Maksimov, P; Hermosilla, C; Kleinertz, S; Hirzmann, J; Taubert, A

    2016-05-01

    Besnoitia besnoiti is an obligate intracellular and emerging coccidian parasite of cattle that mainly infects host endothelial cells during acute infection. We here analyzed early innate immune reactions of B. besnoiti-infected primary bovine umbilical vein endothelial cells (BUVEC). B. besnoiti infections significantly activated BUVEC since the gene transcripts of several adhesion molecules (P-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule 1(ICAM-1)), chemokines (CXCL1, CXCL8, CCL5), and of COX-2 were significantly upregulated during in vitro infection. Overall, the highest upregulation of most transcripts was observed at 24 or 48 h post infection (p.i.). Enhanced adhesion molecule expression in infected host cells was confirmed by PMN adhesion assays being performed under physiological flow conditions revealing a significantly increased PMN adhesion on B. besnoiti-infected BUVEC layers at 24 h p.i. Furthermore, we were able to illustrate neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) being released by PMN under physiological flow conditions after adhesion to B. besnoiti-infected BUVEC layers. The present study shows that B. besnoiti infections of primary BUVEC induce a cascade of pro-inflammatory reactions and triggers early innate immune responses.

  9. Accumulation of silver nanoparticles by cultured primary brain astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Luther, Eva M; Koehler, Yvonne; Diendorf, Joerg; Epple, Matthias; Dringen, Ralf

    2011-09-16

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNP) are components of various food industry products and are frequently used for medical equipment and materials. Although such particles enter the vertebrate brain, little is known on their biocompatibility for brain cells. To study the consequences of an AgNP exposure of brain cells we have treated astrocyte-rich primary cultures with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-coated AgNP. The incubation of cultured astrocytes with micromolar concentrations of AgNP for up to 24 h resulted in a time- and concentration-dependent accumulation of silver, but did not compromise the cell viability nor lower the cellular glutathione content. In contrast, the incubation of astrocytes for 4 h with identical amounts of silver as AgNO(3) already severely compromised the cell viability and completely deprived the cells of glutathione. The accumulation of AgNP by astrocytes was proportional to the concentration of AgNP applied and significantly lowered by about 30% in the presence of the endocytosis inhibitors chloroquine or amiloride. Incubation at 4 °C reduced the accumulation of AgNP by 80% compared to the values obtained for cells that had been exposed to AgNP at 37 °C. These data demonstrate that viable cultured brain astrocytes efficiently accumulate PVP-coated AgNP in a temperature-dependent process that most likely involves endocytotic pathways.

  10. Accumulation of silver nanoparticles by cultured primary brain astrocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luther, Eva M.; Koehler, Yvonne; Diendorf, Joerg; Epple, Matthias; Dringen, Ralf

    2011-09-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNP) are components of various food industry products and are frequently used for medical equipment and materials. Although such particles enter the vertebrate brain, little is known on their biocompatibility for brain cells. To study the consequences of an AgNP exposure of brain cells we have treated astrocyte-rich primary cultures with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-coated AgNP. The incubation of cultured astrocytes with micromolar concentrations of AgNP for up to 24 h resulted in a time- and concentration-dependent accumulation of silver, but did not compromise the cell viability nor lower the cellular glutathione content. In contrast, the incubation of astrocytes for 4 h with identical amounts of silver as AgNO3 already severely compromised the cell viability and completely deprived the cells of glutathione. The accumulation of AgNP by astrocytes was proportional to the concentration of AgNP applied and significantly lowered by about 30% in the presence of the endocytosis inhibitors chloroquine or amiloride. Incubation at 4 °C reduced the accumulation of AgNP by 80% compared to the values obtained for cells that had been exposed to AgNP at 37 °C. These data demonstrate that viable cultured brain astrocytes efficiently accumulate PVP-coated AgNP in a temperature-dependent process that most likely involves endocytotic pathways.

  11. Comparison of culture and a multiplex probe PCR for identifying Mycoplasma species in bovine milk, semen and swab samples

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Alysia M.; House, John K.; Hazelton, Mark S.; Bosward, Katrina L.; Sheehy, Paul A.

    2017-01-01

    Mycoplasma spp. are a major cause of mastitis, arthritis and pneumonia in cattle, and have been associated with reproductive disorders in cows. While culture is the traditional method of identification the use of PCR has become more common. Several investigators have developed PCR protocols to detect M. bovis in milk, yet few studies have evaluated other sample types or other important Mycoplasma species. Therefore the objective of this study was to develop a multiplex PCR assay to detect M. bovis, M. californicum and M. bovigenitalium, and evaluate its analytical performance against traditional culture of bovine milk, semen and swab samples. The PCR specificity was determined and the limit of detection evaluated in spiked milk, semen and swabs. The PCR was then compared to culture on 474 field samples from individual milk, bulk tank milk (BTM), semen and swab (vaginal, preputial, nose and eye) samples. Specificity analysis produced appropriate amplification for all M. bovis, M. californicum and M. bovigenitalium isolates. Amplification was not seen for any of the other Mollicutes or eubacterial isolates. The limit of detection of the PCR was best in milk, followed by semen and swabs. When all three Mycoplasma species were present in a sample, the limit of detection increased. When comparing culture and PCR, overall there was no significant difference in the proportion of culture and PCR positive samples. Culture could detect significantly more positive swab samples. No significant differences were identified for semen, individual milk or BTM samples. PCR identified five samples with two species present. Culture followed by 16S-23S rRNA sequencing did not enable identification of more than one species. Therefore, the superior method for identification of M. bovis, M. californicum and M. bovigenitalium may be dependent on the sample type being analysed, and whether the identification of multiple target species is required. PMID:28264012

  12. Comparison of culture and a multiplex probe PCR for identifying Mycoplasma species in bovine milk, semen and swab samples.

    PubMed

    Parker, Alysia M; House, John K; Hazelton, Mark S; Bosward, Katrina L; Sheehy, Paul A

    2017-01-01

    Mycoplasma spp. are a major cause of mastitis, arthritis and pneumonia in cattle, and have been associated with reproductive disorders in cows. While culture is the traditional method of identification the use of PCR has become more common. Several investigators have developed PCR protocols to detect M. bovis in milk, yet few studies have evaluated other sample types or other important Mycoplasma species. Therefore the objective of this study was to develop a multiplex PCR assay to detect M. bovis, M. californicum and M. bovigenitalium, and evaluate its analytical performance against traditional culture of bovine milk, semen and swab samples. The PCR specificity was determined and the limit of detection evaluated in spiked milk, semen and swabs. The PCR was then compared to culture on 474 field samples from individual milk, bulk tank milk (BTM), semen and swab (vaginal, preputial, nose and eye) samples. Specificity analysis produced appropriate amplification for all M. bovis, M. californicum and M. bovigenitalium isolates. Amplification was not seen for any of the other Mollicutes or eubacterial isolates. The limit of detection of the PCR was best in milk, followed by semen and swabs. When all three Mycoplasma species were present in a sample, the limit of detection increased. When comparing culture and PCR, overall there was no significant difference in the proportion of culture and PCR positive samples. Culture could detect significantly more positive swab samples. No significant differences were identified for semen, individual milk or BTM samples. PCR identified five samples with two species present. Culture followed by 16S-23S rRNA sequencing did not enable identification of more than one species. Therefore, the superior method for identification of M. bovis, M. californicum and M. bovigenitalium may be dependent on the sample type being analysed, and whether the identification of multiple target species is required.

  13. Bacterial Community Profiling of Milk Samples as a Means to Understand Culture-Negative Bovine Clinical Mastitis

    PubMed Central

    Kuehn, Joanna S.; Gorden, Patrick J.; Munro, Daniel; Rong, Ruichen; Dong, Qunfeng; Plummer, Paul J.; Wang, Chong; Phillips, Gregory J.

    2013-01-01

    Inflammation and infection of bovine mammary glands, commonly known as mastitis, imposes significant losses each year in the dairy industry worldwide. While several different bacterial species have been identified as causative agents of mastitis, many clinical mastitis cases remain culture negative, even after enrichment for bacterial growth. To understand the basis for this increasingly common phenomenon, the composition of bacterial communities from milk samples was analyzed using culture independent pyrosequencing of amplicons of 16S ribosomal RNA genes (16S rDNA). Comparisons were made of the microbial community composition of culture negative milk samples from mastitic quarters with that of non-mastitic quarters from the same animals. Genomic DNA from culture-negative clinical and healthy quarter sample pairs was isolated, and amplicon libraries were prepared using indexed primers specific to the V1–V2 region of bacterial 16S rRNA genes and sequenced using the Roche 454 GS FLX with titanium chemistry. Evaluation of the taxonomic composition of these samples revealed significant differences in the microbiota in milk from mastitic and healthy quarters. Statistical analysis identified seven bacterial genera that may be mainly responsible for the observed microbial community differences between mastitic and healthy quarters. Collectively, these results provide evidence that cases of culture negative mastitis can be associated with bacterial species that may be present below culture detection thresholds used here. The application of culture-independent bacterial community profiling represents a powerful approach to understand long-standing questions in animal health and disease. PMID:23634219

  14. Prevalence of apoptosis and inner cell allocation in bovine embryos cultured under different oxygen tensions with or without cysteine addition.

    PubMed

    Van Soom, A; Yuan, Y Q; Peelman, L J; de Matos, D G; Dewulf, J; Laevens, H; de Kruif, A

    2002-03-15

    Supraphysiological oxygen tension during embryo culture can generate reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can induce apoptosis. Antioxidants such as thiol compounds (cysteine, cysteamine) can be used to prevent ROS damage to the embryo. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of apoptosis during bovine embryo development and to evaluate the effect of the presence or absence of cysteine 0.6 mM in modified synthetic oviduct fluid (mSOF) on in vitro produced cattle embryos cultured under two different oxygen tensions (5% O2 versus 20% O2). Effects were assessed by checking embryo development at Days 7, 8 and 9 and by evaluating Day 9 hatched blastocysts for differentiation by means of differential staining and for apoptosis by means of TUNEL-assay. Apoptotic cells were present in 94% of Day 7 blastocysts and in 100% of Days 8 and 9 blastocysts. Cysteine addition affected Day 8 blastocyst rates in a negative way (P < 0.05) regardless of the oxygen tension. In fact, cysteine addition to the mSOF culture medium had a negative effect upon embryo development in terms of blastocyst rates, hatching rates and apoptotic cell ratio. Embryos cultured under 5% O2 in the presence of cysteine, however, possessed significantly higher numbers of ICM cells. This finding corroborates the theoretical assumption that antioxidants are beneficial for ICM development.

  15. High density lipoproteins stimulate the production and secretion of endothelin-1 from cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Hu, R M; Chuang, M Y; Prins, B; Kashyap, M L; Frank, H J; Pedram, A; Levin, E R

    1994-03-01

    The concentration of HDL in the blood inversely correlates with the incidence of cardiovascular disease, probably related to the ability of these lipoproteins to efflux cholesterol from vascular cells. it is also possible that HDL affect the production or action of vasoactive peptides implicated in the development of vascular diseases. Therefore, we determined the effects of human HDL on the production and secretion of endothelin-1 (ET-1) from cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells. HDL produced a highly significant stimulation of endothelin secretion (maximum 240% of control), even at very low levels of lipoproteins (1 microgram/ml). HDL also stimulated the translation of ET-1 by twofold in the bovine aortic endothelial cells. In contrast, HDL had no significant effect on steady state mRNA levels, transcript degradation, or transcription. Stimulation of ET-1 secretion by HDL was dependent on protein kinase C activation. Purified apo A-I, the major apoprotein of HDL, increased ET-1 secretion and translation approximately 85% as potently as HDL. Our results indicate that low concentrations of human HDL strongly stimulate the production of ET-1, a powerful vasoconstrictor and mitogen for the vascular smooth muscle cell. We propose that HDL may participate in the regulation of vasomotor tone through this potentially important effect in the vasculature.

  16. Effect of supplemented sericin on the development, cell number, cryosurvival and number of lipid droplets in cultured bovine embryos.

    PubMed

    Hosoe, Misa; Inaba, Yasushi; Hashiyada, Yutaka; Imai, Kei; Kajitani, Kenji; Hasegawa, Yuichi; Irie, Mamoru; Teramoto, Hidetoshi; Takahashi, Toru; Niimura, Sueo

    2017-02-01

    Sericin was investigated as an alternative to fetal bovine serum (FBS) for bovine embryo culture. In vitro matured oocytes were developed using 0.05%, 0.1% or 0.15% sericin. The developmental rate, cryosurvival rate and blastulation time of these embryos were compared with those of embryos developed using 5% FBS. The number of lipid droplets was compared among the blastocysts developed using 5% FBS, using 0.05% sericin and in vivo. The rate of cleavage and blastocyst formation was similar among all groups. Blastulation occurred significantly earlier in the embryos developed using 5% FBS than in those developed using sericin at any concentration (P < 0.05). At 72 h after thawing, the cryosurvival rate of the blastocysts developed using 5% FBS and 0.05% sericin were significantly higher compared with those developed using 0.1% and 0.15% sericin (P < 0.05). The blastocysts developed using 0.05% sericin and in vivo produced a significantly fewer number of medium and large lipid droplets than those developed using 5% FBS. These results suggest that the blastocysts developed using 0.05% sericin show characteristics similar to those of the blastocysts developed in vivo and that the use of sericin as an alternative to FBS is feasible.

  17. A Serum Neutralization Test for Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis Based on Colour Reaction and Cytopathic effects in Cell Culture

    PubMed Central

    Greig, A. S.

    1969-01-01

    A serum neutralization (SN) test based on a combination of indicator colour change in medium and cytopathic (CP) effect in cells has been devised for the detection of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis antibodies. Serum dilutions of 1:6, 1:18 and 1:54 are made in a medium containing phenol red and are mixed in equal quantities with a suspension of virus containing 100 cell culture infectious doses (CCID50) per volume of mixture. The serum-virus mixtures are held in small glass tubes and are covered with a layer of mineral oil. Following a two hour period of incubation at 37°C a quantity of bovine fetal kidney cells is added to each tube to detect the presence of unneutralized virus. After four to six days incubation the results of the SN test may be read by microscopic examination for CP effect by means of an inverted microscope, or by observing the colour of the phenol red. PMID:4305762

  18. Deep Sequencing and Screening of Differentially Expressed MicroRNAs Related to Milk Fat Metabolism in Bovine Primary Mammary Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Shen, Binglei; Zhang, Liying; Lian, Chuanjiang; Lu, Chunyan; Zhang, Yonghong; Pan, Qiqi; Yang, Runjun; Zhao, Zhihui

    2016-02-17

    Milk fat is a key factor affecting milk quality and is also a major trait targeted in dairy cow breeding. To determine how the synthesis and the metabolism of lipids in bovine milk is regulated at the miRNA level, primary mammary epithelial cells (pMEC) derived from two Chinese Holstein dairy cows that produced extreme differences in milk fat percentage were cultured by the method of tissue nubbles culture. Small RNA libraries were constructed from each of the two pMEC groups, and Solexa sequencing and bioinformatics analysis were then used to determine the abundance of miRNAs and their differential expression pattern between pMECs. Target genes and functional prediction of differentially expressed miRNAs by Gene Ontology and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analysis illustrated their roles in milk fat metabolism. Results show that a total of 292 known miRNAs and 116 novel miRNAs were detected in both pMECs. Identification of known and novel miRNA candidates demonstrated the feasibility and sensitivity of sequencing at the cellular level. Additionally, 97 miRNAs were significantly differentially expressed between the pMECs. Finally, three miRNAs including bta-miR-33a, bta-miR-152 and bta-miR-224 whose predicted target genes were annotated to the pathway of lipid metabolism were screened and verified by real-time qPCR and Western-blotting experiments. This study is the first comparative profiling of the miRNA transcriptome in pMECs that produce different milk fat content.

  19. Bovine chromaffin cells in culture show carboxylesterase activities sensitive to organophosphorus compounds.

    PubMed

    Sogorb, M A; Vilanova, E; Quintanar, J L; Viniegra, S

    1996-09-01

    Carboxylesterase activities are widely distributed in a great variety of tissues; however, the biological function of these enzymes remains unclear. Some organophosphorus compounds induce a neurodegenarative syndrome related to the covalent modification of a carboxylesterase known as neuropathy target esterase. We investigated the expression of neuropathy target esterase and related carboxylesterase in bovine chromaffin cells with the aim of developing a potential in vitro model for studying the cellular function of carboxylesterase enzymes and toxic effects of organophosphorus compounds. Total phenyl valerate esterase exhibited an activity of 1.27 +/- 0.19 mU/10(5) cells (SD, n = 15). From the phenyl valerate esterase paraoxon and mipafox inhibition curves the following activities have been determined: B-activity (resistant to 40 microM paraoxon), 1.05 +/- 0.08 mU/10(5) cells (n = 8); C-activity (resistant to 40 microM paraoxon plus 250 microM mipafox), 0.12 +/- 0.05 mU/10(5) cells (n = 8); and neuropathy target esterase, calculated by the difference between B- and C-activities, 0.93 +/- 0.08 mU/10(5) cells (n = 8). All of these activities increased linearly with the number of cells and time of incubation with the substrate. Most of the phenol product of the reaction was released and detected in the extracellular medium. None of the components of the reaction were shown to affect cell viability when assessed by trypan blue exclusion. The study shows that bovine chromaffin cells possess carboxylesterase activities and respond to inhibition by paraoxon and mipafox, thus facilitating the discrimination of neuropathy target esterase. In conclusion, bovine chromaffin cells are appropriate as an in vitro cell model for studying toxic effects of organophosphorus compounds.

  20. Effect of diet on ability of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A (VEGFA) isoforms to alter follicular progression in bovine ovarian cortical cultures

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of changes in diet on ability of VEGFA isoforms to alter follicle progression in bovine ovarian cortex cultures. Our hypothesis was that diet would affect the magnitude of VEGFA isoform actions on follicular development. Heifers (n = 30) receiv...

  1. Spontaneous and electrically-evoked catecholamine secretion from long-term cultures of bovine adrenal chromaffin cells.

    PubMed

    Noga, Brian R; Pinzon, Alberto

    2013-09-05

    Catecholamine release was measured from bovine adrenal medullary chromaffin cell (CC) cultures maintained over a period of three months. Cells were plated over simple biocompatible cell platforms with electrical stimulation capability and at specified times transferred to an acrylic superfusion chamber designed to allow controlled flow of superfusate over the culture. Catecholamine release was measured from the superfusates using fast cyclic voltammetry before, during and after electrical stimulation of the cells. Immunocytochemical staining of CC cultures revealed that they were composed of epinephrine (EP) and/or norepinephrine (NE) type cells. Both spontaneous and evoked-release of catecholamines from CCs were observed throughout the testing period. EP predominated during spontaneous release, whereas NE was more prevalent during electrically-evoked release. Electrical stimulation for 20 s, increased total catecholamine release by 60-130% (measured over a period of 500 s) compared to that observed for an equivalent 20 s period of spontaneous release. Stimulus intensity was correlated with the amount of evoked release, up to a plateau which was observed near the highest intensities. Shorter intervals between stimulation trials did not significantly affect the initial amount of release, and the amount of evoked release was relatively stable over time and did not decrease significantly with age of the culture. The present study demonstrates long-term survival of CC cultures in vitro and describes a technique useful for rapid assessment of cell functionality and release properties of cultured monoaminergic cell types that later can be transplanted for neurotransmitter replacement following injury or disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Bovine ovarian stem cells differentiate into germ cells and oocyte-like structures after culture in vitro.

    PubMed

    de Souza, G B; Costa, Jjn; da Cunha, E V; Passos, Jrs; Ribeiro, R P; Saraiva, Mva; van den Hurk, R; Silva, Jrv

    2017-04-01

    Stem cells have been isolated from ovaries, and their ability to differentiate into oocytes in vitro has been demonstrated for mice and human, but not for bovine species. The aims of this study were to isolate germline stem cells from bovine ovaries and to evaluate the effects of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) 2 and 4, and follicular fluid on the differentiation of these stem cells into oocyte-like structures. The ovarian stem cells were isolated and cultured in α-MEM(+) supplemented with BMP2, BMP4 or follicular fluid. On days 0 and 14, cells were evaluated for their morphological appearance, viability, expression of alkaline phosphatase and for markers of germ cell formation (VASA and DAZL) and oocyte development (GDF9, ZPA and SCP3) by qPCR. Levels of mRNA were analysed using ANOVA and Bonferroni test (p < .05). The results showed that at day 0, ovarian stem cells expressed specific markers of pluripotency (OCT4, SOX). In addition, these cells were positive for alkaline phosphatase, which is a marker commonly used to identify primordial germ cells (PGCs). After the period of differentiation, cells had morphological features that resemble PGCs and oocyte-like cells (OLCs). An increase, ranging from five to 14 times, in the expression of VASA was observed in cells cultured in medium supplemented with BMPs and follicular fluid, while the increase in DAZL expression ranged from four to six times. In addition, OLCs had an increase in expression of mRNAs for GDF9, ZPA and SCP3 that ranged from two to eight times. In conclusion, OLCs can be differentiated in vitro from ovarian stem cells and BMPs and follicular fluid are effective in stimulating the expression of mRNAs for germ cell and oocyte markers. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. (-) deprenyl attenuates aluminium induced neurotoxicity in primary cortical cultures.

    PubMed

    Munirathinam, S; Lakshmana, M K; Raju, T R

    1996-06-01

    The role of (-) deprenyl in offering neuroprotection to cortical neurons exposed to Aluminium chloride (AlCl3) was examined. Primary cortical cultures derived from newborn rats were exposed to AlCl3 on 6th day in vitro, at 100,200,400,600,800 and 1000 microM concentrations of AlCl3. After 48 h of AlCl3 exposure, many nerve cell bodies were swollen; a beading of neurites and a disruption of the neuritic network were also observed suggesting neurodegeneration. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) efflux increased in a dose-dependent manner (59-120%). (-) Deprenyl co-exposure at concentrations of 10(-7), 10(-8) and 10(-9) M significantly attenuated both the morphological alterations and the LDH efflux induced by AlCl3. This in vitro study has demonstrated that (-) deprenyl can protect neurons from aluminium induced neurotoxicity.

  4. Assessment of cell viability in primary neuronal cultures.

    PubMed

    Aras, Mandar A; Hartnett, Karen A; Aizenman, Elias

    2008-07-01

    This unit contains five protocols for assaying cell viability in vitro using primary neuronal cultures, including a novel method for use with transfected neurons. Three of the assays are based on the principle that cell death cascades alter membrane permeability. The lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assay measures the amount of the cytoplasmic enzyme released into the bathing medium, while the trypan blue and propidium iodide assays measure the ability of cells to exclude dye from their cytoplasm. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay measures the mitochondrial activity of viable cells by quantifying the conversion of the tetrazolium salt to its formazan product. Finally, the fifth assay details the measurement of luciferase expression as an indication of neuronal viability within a relatively small population of transfected neurons.

  5. Low serum concentration in bovine embryo culture enhances early blastocyst rates on Day-6 with quality traits in the expanded blastocyst stage similar to BSA-cultured embryos.

    PubMed

    Murillo, A; Muñoz, M; Martín-González, D; Carrocera, S; Martínez-Nistal, A; Gómez, E

    2017-06-01

    In bovine, single in vitro embryo culture in protein-free medium from Day-6 to Day-7 leads to expanded blastocyst (XB) with improved pregnancy and birth rates after cryopreservation. Under these conditions, early blastocysts (EB) progress to the XB stage at higher rates than morulae (M). However, embryo production with BSA in culture prior to Day-6 leads to low EB rates. We investigated whether a very low FCS concentration (0.1%) in culture from Day-1 to Day-6 would improve EB rates and, subsequently, increase XB rates on Day-7 after single culture in protein-free medium. The quality of embryos produced was evaluated in terms of survival to cryopreservation, apoptosis percentage, lipid accumulation and transfer to recipients. On Day-6, EB rates from embryos cultured with FCS were higher than with BSA (P=0.022). On Day-7, XB rates were higher in embryos from Day-6 EB than from Day-6M, both with and without FCS (P<0.005). After vitrification/warming of Day-7 XB, 100% embryos survived at 24h in all treatments, and total cell number and apoptosis percentage were not affected by the presence of FCS or embryonic stage on Day-6. Cryopreserved and fresh embryos produced with FCS until Day-6, and then deprived of protein and cultured individually, led to pregnancies after ET. In conclusion, minute FCS concentration improves EB rates on Day-6 leading, after one-day single culture without protein, to more XBs. The quality of XB produced with FCS compares well with XB produced with BSA in terms of apoptosis, lipid accumulation and pregnancy. Copyright © 2017 Society for Biology of Reproduction & the Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of Polish Academy of Sciences in Olsztyn. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  6. Contribution of oocyte source and culture conditions to phenotypic and transcriptomic variation in commercially produced bovine blastocysts.

    PubMed

    Plourde, Dany; Vigneault, Christian; Lemay, Alexandra; Breton, Lévéke; Gagné, Dominic; Laflamme, Isabelle; Blondin, Patrick; Robert, Claude

    2012-07-01

    Bovine embryo production is practiced worldwide for commercial purposes. A major concern of embryo suppliers is the impact of in vitro production systems on embryo quality. In the present study, we compared Buffalo Rat Liver cell coculture with semidefined, medium-based culture, oocytes recovered postmortem with those obtained from live animals, and in vitro with in vivo embryo development. Gene expression levels in expanded blastocysts were measured using microarray and quantitative RT-PCR. The systems were similar in terms of blastocyst yield and rate of development, whereas embryo productivity was greater for immature oocytes collected in vivo. Although immature oocytes collected in vivo had greater developmental competence, they yielded blastocysts that were indistinguishable (in terms of level of gene expression) from embryos derived from immature oocytes recovered postmortem. Culture conditions had a significant impact on gene expression, particularly among genes involved in lipid metabolism. Numerous uncharacterized novel transcript regions were also influenced by in vitro treatments. In conclusion, ovum pick-up combined with in vitro culture in semidefined medium provided a high blastocyst yield, without the deleterious effects associated with coculture.

  7. Regulation of human renin expression in chorion cell primary cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, K.G.; Haidar, M.A.; Baxter, J.D.; Reudelhuber, T.L. )

    1990-10-01

    The human renin gene is expressed in the kidney, placenta, and several other sites. The release of renin or its precursor, prorenin, can be affected by several regulatory agents. In this study, primary cultures of human placental cells were used to examine the regulation of prorenin release and renin mRNA levels and of the transfected human renin promoter linked to chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter sequences. Treatment of the cultures with a calcium ionophore alone, calcium ionophore plus forskolin (that activates adenylate cyclase), or forskolin plus a phorbol ester increased prorenin release and renin mRNA levels 1.3{endash} to 6{endash}fold, but several classes of steroids did not affect prorenin secretion or renin RNA levels. These results suggest that (i) the first 584 base pairs of the renin gene 5'{endash}flanking DNA do not contain functional glucocorticoid or estrogen response elements, (ii) placental prorenin release and renin mRNA are regulated by calcium ion and by the combinations of cAMP with either C kinase or calcium ion, and (iii) the first 100 base pairs of the human renin 5'{endash}flanking DNA direct accurate initiation of transcription and can be regulated by cAMP. Thus, some control of renin release in the placenta (and by inference in other tissues) occurs via transcriptional influences on its promoter.

  8. ATP stimulates calcium influx in primary astrocyte cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Neary, J.T.; van Breemen, C.; Forster, E.; Norenberg, L.O.; Norenberg, M.D.

    1988-12-30

    The effect of ATP and other purines on /sup 45/Ca uptake was studied in primary cultures of rat astrocytes. Treatment of the cells with ATP for 1 to 30 min brought about an increase in cellular /sup 45/Ca. Stimulation of calcium influx by ATP was investigated using a 90 sec exposure to /sup 45/Ca and over a concentration range of 0.1 nM to 3 mM; a biphasic dose-response curve was obtained with EC50 values of 0.3 nM and 9 uM, indicating the presence of low and high affinity purinergic binding sites. Similar levels of /sup 45/Ca influx at 90 sec were observed with ATP, ADP and adenosine (all at 100 uM). Prior treatment of the cultures with LaCl3 blocked the purine-induced /sup 45/Ca influx. These findings indicate that one pathway for calcium entry in astrocytes involves purinergic receptor-operated, calcium channels.

  9. Political, cultural and economic foundations of primary care in Europe.

    PubMed

    Kringos, Dionne S; Boerma, Wienke G W; van der Zee, Jouke; Groenewegen, Peter P

    2013-12-01

    This article explores various contributing factors to explain differences in the strength of the primary care (PC) structure and services delivery across Europe. Data on the strength of primary care in 31 European countries in 2009/10 were used. The results showed that the national political agenda, economy, prevailing values, and type of healthcare system are all important factors that influence the development of strong PC. Wealthier countries are associated with a weaker PC structure and lower PC accessibility, while Eastern European countries seemed to have used their growth in national income to strengthen the accessibility and continuity of PC. Countries governed by left-wing governments are associated with a stronger PC structure, accessibility and coordination of PC. Countries with a social-security based system are associated with a lower accessibility and continuity of PC; the opposite is true for transitional systems. Cultural values seemed to affect all aspects of PC. It can be concluded that strengthening PC means mobilising multiple leverage points, policy options, and political will in line with prevailing values in a country.

  10. Altered gene expression in human adipose stem cells cultured with fetal bovine serum compared to human supplements.

    PubMed

    Bieback, Karen; Ha, Viet Anh-Thu; Hecker, Andrea; Grassl, Melanie; Kinzebach, Sven; Solz, Hermann; Sticht, Carsten; Klüter, Harald; Bugert, Peter

    2010-11-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are promising candidates for innovative cell therapeutic applications. For clinical scale manufacturing regulatory agencies recommend to replace fetal bovine serum (FBS) commonly used in MSC expansion media as soon as equivalent alternative supplements are available. We already demonstrated that pooled blood group AB human serum (HS) and thrombin-activated platelet releasate plasma (tPRP) support the expansion of multipotent adipose tissue-derived MSCs (ASCs). Slight differences in size, growth pattern and adhesion prompted us to investigate the level of equivalence by compiling the transcriptional profiles of ASCs cultivated in these supplements. A whole genome gene expression analysis was performed and data verified by polymerase chain reaction and protein analyses. Microarray-based screening of 34,039 genes revealed 102 genes differentially expressed in ASCs cultured with FBS compared to HS or tPRP supplements. A significantly higher expression in FBS cultures was found for 90 genes (fold change ≥2). Only 12 of the 102 genes showed a lower expression in FBS compared to HS or tPRP cultures (fold change ≤0.5). Differences between cells cultivated in HS and tPRP were hardly evident. Supporting previous observations of reduced adhesion of cells cultivated in the human alternatives we detected a number of adhesion and extracellular matrix-associated molecules expressed at lower levels in ASCs cultivated with human supplements. Confirmative assays analyzing transcript or protein expression with selected genes supported these results. Likewise a number of mesodermal differentiation-associated genes were higher expressed in cells grown in FBS. Quantifying adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation lacked to demonstrate a clear correlation to the supplement due to donor-specific variances. Our results emphasize the necessity of comparability studies as they indicate that FBS induces a culture adaptation exceeding that of ex vivo

  11. Effect of cryopreservation and in vitro culture of bovine fibroblasts on histone acetylation levels and in vitro development of hand-made cloned embryos

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chacon, L.; Gomez, M.C.; Jenkins, J.A.; Leibo, S.P.; Wirtu, G.; Dresser, B.L.; Pope, C.E.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the relative acetylation levels of histone 3 in lysine 9 (H3K9ac) in cultured and cryopreserved bovine fibroblasts was measured and we determined the influence of the epigenetic status of three cultured (C1, C2 and C3) donor cell lines on the in vitro development of reconstructed bovine embryos. Results showed that cryopreservation did not alter the overall acetylation levels of H3K9 in bovine fibroblasts analysed immediately after thawing (frozen/thawed) compared with fibroblasts cultured for a period of time after thawing. However, reduced cleavage rates were noted in embryos reconstructed with fibroblasts used immediately after thawing. Cell passage affects the levels of H3K9ac in bovine fibroblasts, decreasing after P1 and donor cells with lower H3K9ac produced a greater frequency of embryo development to the blastocyst stage. Cryopreservation did not influence the total cell and ICM numbers, or the ICM/TPD ratios of reconstructed embryos. However, the genetic source of donor cells did influence the total number of cells and the trophectoderm cell numbers, and the cell passage influenced the total ICM cell numbers. ?? Copyright Cambridge University Press 2010.

  12. Increasing of blastocyst rate and gene expression in co-culture of bovine embryos with adult adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Moysés S; Nascimento, Hamilton S; Costa, Mayra P R; Costa, Nathália N; Brito, Karynne N L; Lopes, Cinthia T A; Santos, Simone S D; Cordeiro, Marcela S; Ohashi, Otávio M

    2016-10-01

    Despite advances in the composition of defined embryo culture media, co-culture with somatic cells is still used for bovine in vitro embryo production (IVEP) in many laboratories worldwide. Granulosa cells are most often used for this purpose, although recent work suggests that co-culture with stem cells of adult or embryonic origin or their derived biomaterials may improve mouse, cattle, and pig embryo development. In experiment 1, in vitro produced bovine embryos were co-cultured in the presence of two concentrations of bovine adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal cells (b-ATMSCs; 10(3) and 10(4) cells/mL), in b-ATMSC preconditioned medium (SOF-Cond), or SOF alone (control). In experiment 2, co-culture with 10(4) b-ATMSCs/mL was compared to the traditional granulosa cell co-culture system (Gran). In experiment 1, co-culture with 10(4) b-ATMSCs/mL improved blastocyst rates in comparison to conditioned and control media (p < 0.05). Despite that it did not show difference with 10(3) b-ATMSCs/mL (p = 0.051), group 10(4) b-ATMSCs/mL yielded higher results of blastocyst production. In experiment 2, when compared to group Gran, co-culture with 10(4) b-ATMSCs/mL improved not only blastocyst rates but also quality as assessed by increased total cell numbers and mRNA expression levels for POU5F1 and G6PDH (p < 0.05). Co-culture of bovine embryos with b-ATMSCs was more beneficial than the traditional co-culture system with granulosa cells. We speculate that the microenvironmental modulatory potential of MSCs, by means of soluble substances and exosome secretions, could be responsible for the positive effects observed. Further experiments must be done to evaluate if this beneficial effect in vitro also translates to an increase in offspring following embryo transfer. Moreover, this study provides an interesting platform to study the basic requirements during preimplantation embryo development, which, in turn, may aid the improvement of embryo culture protocols in

  13. mRNA expression pattern of selected candidate genes differs in bovine oviductal epithelial cells in vitro compared with the in vivo state and during cell culture passages.

    PubMed

    Danesh Mesgaran, Sadjad; Sharbati, Jutta; Einspanier, Ralf; Gabler, Christoph

    2016-08-15

    The mammalian oviduct provides the optimal environment for gamete maturation including sperm capacitation, fertilization, and development of the early embryo. Various cell culture models for primary bovine oviductal epithelial cells (BOEC) were established to reveal such physiological events. The aim of this study was to evaluate 17 candidate mRNA expression patterns in oviductal epithelial cells (1) in transition from in vivo cells to in vitro cells; (2) during three consecutive cell culture passages; (3) affected by the impact of LOW or HIGH glucose content media; and (4) influenced by different phases of the estrous cycle in vivo and in vitro. In addition, the release of a metabolite and proteins from BOEC at two distinct cell culture passage numbers was estimated to monitor the functionality. BOEC from 8 animals were isolated and cultured for three consecutive passages. Total RNA was extracted from in vivo and in vitro samples and subjected to reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction to reveal mRNA expression of selected candidate genes. The release of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), oviduct-specific glycoprotein 1 (OVGP1) and interleukin 8 (IL8) by BOEC was measured by EIA or ELISA after 24 h. Almost all candidate genes (prostaglandin synthases, enzymes of cellular metabolism and mucins) mRNA expression pattern differed compared in vivo with in vitro state. In addition, transcription of most candidate genes was influenced by the number of cell culture passages. Different glucose medium content did not affect mRNA expression of most candidate genes. The phase of the estrous cycle altered some candidate mRNA expression in BOEC in vitro at later passages. The release of PGE2 and OVGP1 between passages did not differ. However, BOEC in passage 3 released significantly higher amount of IL8 compared with cells in passage 0. This study supports the hypothesis that candidate mRNA expression in BOEC was influenced by transition from the in vivo situation

  14. First description of an in vitro culture system for Eimeria ovinoidalis macromeront formation in primary host endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Carrau, Tessa; Silva, Liliana Machado Ribeiro; Pérez, David; Ruiz de Ybáñez, Rocio; Taubert, Anja; Hermosilla, Carlos

    2016-10-01

    The apicomplexan parasite Eimeria ovinoidalis is distributed worldwide and causes clinical ovine coccidiosis. As one of the most pathogenic species in sheep, the principal clinical sign is profuse diarrhoea in young animals, which leads to important economic losses in the ovine industry. We here aimed to establish an in vitro culture system for the development of E. ovinoidalis macromeronts, as no suitable systems are currently available for any ovine Eimeria species. Faecal samples containing more than 90% of E. ovinoidalis oocysts were collected from naturally infected lambs and ewes in Murcia Region (Spain). E. ovinoidalis oocysts were collected, left to sporulate in potassium dichromate and stored at 4°C until further studies were conducted. Moreover, a suitable excystation protocol was effectively established, resulting in the release of viable sporozoites, which were allowed to infect primary bovine umbilical vein endothelial cells (BUVEC) and permanent bovine colonic epithelial cells (BCEC). In vitro first merogony was successfully accomplished exclusively in BUVEC leading to macromeront formation (up to 100μm) and the release of fully developed and viable merozoites I stages. Given that we were able to establish a suitable in vitro system for the first merogony of such pathogenic Eimeria species in sheep, advances might be further made not only on studies regarding the control of ovine coccidiosis, such as drug screenings, but also on the better understanding of molecular parasite-host cell interactions as already demonstrated for other ruminant Eimeria species.

  15. Evaluation of a simple Theileria annulata culture protocol from experimentally infected bovine whole blood.

    PubMed

    Gharbi, M; Latrach, R; Sassi, L; Darghouth, M A

    2012-08-01

    We have evaluated a new simple technique using whole blood from experimentally infected cattle for the isolation and cultivation of Theileria annulata. The study was carried out on 20 Holstein-Frisian bovines that had been experimentally infected with a virulent lethal dose of Theileria annulata. This technique has been compared to the classical peripheral blood monocyte isolation with Ficoll carried out on 22 experimentally infected Holstein-Friesian calves. The effectiveness of the reference technique was estimated to 86.4%, whilst the effectiveness of the new technique was 100%. Moreover, this new technique leads to time and money saving estimated to € 3.06 per sample. It decreases the contamination risks by reducing the steps of sample manipulation.

  16. Hot topic: Bovine milk samples yielding negative or nonspecific results in bacterial culturing--the possible role of PCR-single strand conformation polymorphism in mastitis diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Schwaiger, K; Wimmer, M; Huber-Schlenstedt, R; Fehlings, K; Hölzel, C S; Bauer, J

    2012-01-01

    A large proportion of mastitis milk samples yield negative or nonspecific results (i.e., no mastitis pathogen can be identified) in bacterial culturing. Therefore, the culture-independent PCR-single strand conformation polymorphism method was applied to the investigation of bovine mastitis milk samples. In addition to the known mastitis pathogens, the method was suitable for the detection of fastidious bacteria such as Mycoplasma spp., which are often missed by conventional culturing methods. The detection of Helcococcus ovis in 4 samples might indicate an involvement of this species in pathogenesis of bovine mastitis. In conclusion, PCR-single-strand conformation polymorphism is a promising tool for gaining new insights into the bacteriological etiology of mastitis.

  17. Optimization and characterization of an in vitro bovine mammary cell culture system to study regulation of milk protein synthesis and mammary differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Talhouk, R.S.

    1988-01-01

    A long term bovine mammary cell culture system that maintains normal mammary cell function was established and optimized to study milk protein synthesis and secretion and mammary differentiation. This culture system used bovine mammary acini isolated from developing or lactating mammary gland by enzymatic dissociation, and cryopreserved until thawed and plated for growth in vitro for these studies. Cells in M199 with lactogenic hormones {plus minus} fetal calf serum (FCS) were cultured on plastic, 100ul and 500ul type I collagen, and Matrigel, or embedded within type I collagen. Cell morphology, cell number, and total TCA-precipitable {sup 35}S-labelled proteins were monitored. Milk protein ({alpha}{sub s,1}-casein, lactoferrin (LF), {alpha}-lactalbumin, and {beta}-lactoglobulin) secretion and intracellular levels were determined by an ELISA assay.

  18. Oocyte development in bovine primordial follicles is promoted by activin and FSH within a two-step serum-free culture system.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Marie; Telfer, Evelyn E

    2010-06-01

    Quiescent follicles of large mammals initiate growth within cultured pieces of ovarian cortex. Systems capable of sustaining in vitro development from this early stage until oocyte maturation would allow investigation of mechanisms regulating oocyte development in its entirety. The aims of this study were 1) to determine whether bovine follicles initiated to grow in vitro could be isolated from the cortical environment, and could undergo further development and 2) to evaluate the effect of activin and FSH on the development of secondary follicles derived from primordial follicles. Fragments of bovine ovarian cortex were cultured in serum-free medium for 6 days; thereafter, secondary follicles were isolated for further culture. After a maximum total of 21 days in vitro, follicles were either processed for histological assessment or opened to release the oocyte-cumulus complexes for inspection by light microscopy. Compared with control, significant follicle and oocyte growth were observed in activin-exposed follicles, with or without FSH, with some oocyte diameters measuring over 100 microns following a total in vitro period of 15 days. Significant oestradiol secretion was observed in follicles cultured in activin alone after a total of 9 days in vitro compared with other treatment groups; however, this effect was not sustained. In summary, this study demonstrates the promotion of primordial bovine follicle development within a two-step serum-free culture system with oocyte diameters >100 mum achieved over 15 days in vitro. Further development of this system is needed to support complete oocyte growth and thereafter in vitro maturation.

  19. Primary Cultures of Glomerular Parietal Epithelial Cells or Podocytes with Proven Origin

    PubMed Central

    Schulte, Kevin; Sechi, Antonio; Sauer-Lehnen, Sibille; Tag, Carmen; Boor, Peter; Kuppe, Christoph; Warsow, Gregor; Schordan, Sandra; Mostertz, Jörg; Chilukoti, Ravi Kumar; Homuth, Georg; Endlich, Nicole; Tacke, Frank; Weiskirchen, Ralf; Fuellen, Georg; Endlich, Karlhans; Floege, Jürgen; Smeets, Bart; Moeller, Marcus J.

    2012-01-01

    Parietal epithelial cells (PECs) are crucially involved in the pathogenesis of rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (RPGN) as well as in focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). In this study, transgenic mouse lines were used to isolate pure, genetically tagged primary cultures of PECs or podocytes using FACsorting. By this approach, the morphology of primary glomerular epithelial cells in culture could be resolved: Primary podocytes formed either large cells with intracytoplasmatic extensions or smaller spindle shaped cells, depending on specific culture conditions. Primary PECs were small and exhibited a spindle-shaped or polygonal morphology. In the very early phases of primary culture, rapid changes in gene expression (e.g. of WT-1 and Pax-2) were observed. However, after prolonged culture primary PECs and podocytes still segregated clearly in a transcriptome analysis - demonstrating that the origin of primary cell cultures is important. Of the classical markers, synaptopodin and podoplanin expression were differentially regulated the most in primary PEC and podocyte cultures. However, no expression of any endogenous gene allowed to differentiate between the two cell types in culture. Finally, we show that the transcription factor WT1 is also expressed by PECs. In summary, genetic tagging of PECs and podocytes is a novel and necessary tool to derive pure primary cultures with proven origin. These cultures will be a powerful tool for the emerging field of parietal epithelial cell biology. PMID:22529955

  20. Proinflammatory responses of a hTERT-transformed, immortalized line of cultured bovine mammary epithelial cells (BME)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Primary cultures BME were generated from healthy mammary glands as described (Vet Immunol Immunopath 101(3-4):191-202, 2004). Towards immortalization, BME from four cows were pooled and transfected with pCI neo-hEST2-HA , a human telomerase segment containing a neomycin/Geneticin resistance select...

  1. Lysosomes are involved in induction of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) gene expression and progesterone synthesis through low-density lipoprotein in cultured bovine granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin-You; Wu, Yi; Zhao, Shuan; Liu, Zhen-Xing; Zeng, Shen-Ming; Zhang, Gui-Xue

    2015-09-15

    Progesterone is an important steroid hormone in the regulation of the bovine estrous cycle. The steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) is an indispensable component for transporting cholesterol to the inner mitochondrial membrane, which is one of the rate-limiting steps for progesterone synthesis. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) supplies cholesterol precursors for progesterone formation, and the lysosomal degradation pathway of LDL is essential for progesterone biosynthesis in granulosa cells after ovulation. However, it is currently unknown how LDL and lysosomes coordinate the expression of the StAR gene and progesterone production in bovine granulosa cells. Here, we investigated the role of lysosomes in LDL-treated bovine granulosa cells. Our results reported that LDL induced expression of StAR messenger RNA and protein as well as expression of cholesterol side-chain cleavage cytochrome P-450 (CYP11A1) messenger RNA and progesterone production in cultured bovine granulosa cells. The number of lysosomes in the granulosa cells was also significantly increased by LDL; whereas the lysosomal inhibitor, chloroquine, strikingly abolished these LDL-induced effects. Our results indicate that LDL promotes StAR expression, synthesis of progesterone, and formation of lysosomes in bovine granulosa cells, and lysosomes participate in the process by releasing free cholesterol from hydrolyzed LDL.

  2. Evidence of bovine immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) protease activity in partially purified culture supernate of Pasteurella haemolytica A1.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, C W; Shewen, P E

    1996-01-01

    In the bovine respiratory tract, IgG1 is a major secretory immunoglobulin (Ig), and both IgG1 and IgG2 are believed to be important in defense against pneumonic pasteurellosis (shipping fever) in calves. Here we provide evidence for hydrolysis of IgG1 in the presence of partially purified culture supernate (ppCS) from the respiratory pathogen Pasteurella haemolytica A1. Bovine IgG1 was hydrolysed sequentially into three distinct bands (approximately 39, 12, and 7 kDa respectively). Furthermore, partial hydrolysis of bovine IgG2 was observed, but neither bovine IgA nor IgM were affected by incubation with ppCS. These findings suggest that the production of an IgG1-specific protease by P. haemolytica A1 may be a virulence mechanism contributing to the pathogenesis of bovine pneumonic pasteurellosis. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. PMID:8785718

  3. Growth and development of rabbit oocytes in vitro: effect of fetal bovine serum concentration on culture medium.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, H; Kida, Y; Miyamoto, Y; Kitada, K; Matsumoto, K; Saeki, K; Taniguchi, T; Hosoi, Y

    2012-09-15

    The objective was to develop a culture system that produced blastocyst stage embryos from rabbit oocytes grown in vitro. Two experiments were performed. First, various concentrations of fetal bovine serum (FBS, 0, 0.05, 0.5 and 5%) were used in the culture medium for in vitro growth (IVG) of oocytes recovered from follicles 200 to 299 μm in diameter. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) was performed on mature oocytes obtained after IVG for 8 days and in vitro maturation for 14 to 16 h. Rates of survival and pronuclear formation after ICSI were higher for oocytes grown in a medium with 0.05% FBS compared to oocytes grown in a medium lacking FBS (97.6 vs. 76.9%, 97.5 vs. 70%, P < 0.1). The rate of development to the blastocyst stage was also higher in the medium containing 0.05% FBS than in the medium lacking FBS (9.5 vs. 17.9%, P < 0.05). Next, using oocytes recovered from follicles 200 to 399 μm in diameter which were cultured in 0.05% FBS, oxygen consumption and the number of cells were analyzed. Blastocysts from oocytes grown in vitro with 0.05% FBS had reduced oxygen consumption and number of cells compared with those from ovulated oocytes (21.66 ± 4.54 × 10(14) vs. 50.19 ± 4.61 × 10(14) mol/sec, 244 ± 25 vs. 398 ± 24, P < 0.05). Rabbit oocytes grown in vitro with 0.05% FBS achieved pregnancy, but pregnancies were not maintained to term. In conclusion, the addition of 0.05% FBS to the culture medium for IVG improved developmental competence of rabbit oocytes grown in vitro.

  4. Effect of environmental particulates on cultured human and bovine endothelium. Cellular injury via an oxidant-dependent pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, J.G.; Dodson, R.F.; Callahan, K.S.

    1989-07-01

    The effects of respirable environmental fibers on cultures of human umbilical vein and bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cell monolayers were studied. Interaction among endothelial cell monolayers and amosite and chrysotile asbestos, attapulgite, fiberglass, or latex beads resulted in rapid phagocytosis of the particulates. A gradient of time-dependent and concentration-dependent endothelial cell injury (measured by specific 51Cr release) was observed with amosite and attapulgite being markedly toxic. Chrysotile and fiberglass were much less toxic, and latex beads were not significantly injurious at any time or dose examined. Responses of bovine pulmonary artery and human endothelial vein endothelial cells to fiber phagocytosis and fiber-induced injury were similar. In human umbilical cell monolayers, fiber-mediated stimulation of the arachidonate metabolite prostacyclin paralleled endothelial cell injury; i.e. amosite and attapulgite were stimulatory, whereas fiberglass (0-500 micrograms/ml) and latex beads (10(9) beads/ml) did not significantly increase prostacyclin generation. Although chrysotile was only weakly cytotoxic, significant stimulation of prostacyclin was observed at the highest dose tested (500 micrograms/ml). To investigate whether toxic oxygen species may be involved in fiber-induced cytotoxicity, oxidant scavengers or inhibitors were used in injury studies. Both superoxide dismutase (a scavenger of O2-) and catalase (an inhibitor of H2O2) produced significant protection against fiber-mediated endothelial cell injury. In addition, chelation by deferoxamine of elemental Fe present in the fiber preparations was also protective, suggesting Fe, via the modified Haber-Weiss reaction, may promote hydroxyl radical formation and contribute to endothelial cell injury induced by these particulates.

  5. Recovery of mitochondrial function and endogenous antioxidant systems in vitrified bovine oocytes during extended in vitro culture.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xue-Ming; Du, Wei-Hua; Wang, Dong; Hao, Hai-Sheng; Liu, Yan; Qin, Tong; Zhu, Hua-Bin

    2011-12-01

    This study was designed to examine the recovery of mitochondrial function and endogenous antioxidant systems in vitrified oocytes during extended incubations. After 16 hr of in vitro maturation, bovine meiosis-II oocytes were vitrified, and then surviving oocytes were cultured an additional 8 hr. ATP content, ATP synthase activity, expression of ATP synthase F0 subunit 6 (ATP6) and 8 (ATP8) genes, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were investigated in the vitrified oocytes during this additional period (4 or 8 hr). The results showed that: (1) the ATP content and ATP synthase activities in vitrified oocytes at 8 hr post-warming (754.6 fmol, 25.9 nmol NADH/min/mg) were significantly higher than in oocytes immediately warmed (568.3 fmol, 8.7 nmol NADH/min/mg), but still lower than in control oocytes (901.5 fmol, 30.7 nmol NADH/min/mg); (2) the relative expression of ATP6 and ATP8 was initially down-regulated in oocytes when they were first warmed, increased by 4 hr post-warming, and were again down-regulated by 8 hr post-warming; (3) ROS levels in oocytes at 0, 4, and 8 hr post-warming were significantly higher than in control oocytes; and (4) after parthenogenetic activation, the blastocyst rate of oocytes at 8 hr post-warming (26.7%) was significantly higher than that of oocytes immediately warmed (16.9%). These results indicated that mitochondrial function and endogenous antioxidant systems recovered significantly better in vitrified-thawed bovine oocytes with 8 hr of additional incubation, but they did not achieve the activity levels found in fresh oocytes.

  6. Reference gene for primary culture of prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Souza, Aline Francielle Damo; Brum, Ilma Simoni; Neto, Brasil Silva; Berger, Milton; Branchini, Gisele

    2013-04-01

    Selection of reference genes to normalize mRNA levels between samples is critical for gene expression studies because their expression can vary depending on the tissues or cells used and the experimental conditions. We performed ten cell cultures from samples of prostate cancer. Cells were divided into three groups: control (with no transfection protocol), cells transfected with siRNA specific to knockdown the androgen receptor and cells transfected with inespecific siRNAs. After 24 h, mRNA was extracted and gene expression was analyzed by Real-time qPCR. Nine candidates to reference genes for gene expression studies in this model were analyzed (aminolevulinate, delta-, synthase 1 (ALAS1); beta-actin (ACTB); beta-2-microglobulin (B2M); glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH); hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase 1 (HPRT1); succinate dehydrogenase complex, subunit A, flavoprotein (Fp) (SDHA); TATA box binding protein (TBP); ubiquitin C (UBC); tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, zeta polypeptide (YWHAZ)). Expression stability was calculated NormFinder algorithm to find the most stable genes. NormFinder calculated SDHA as the most stable gene and the gene with the lowest intergroup and intragroup variation, and indicated GAPDH and SDHA as the best combination of two genes for the purpose of normalization. Androgen receptor mRNA expression was evaluated after normalization by each candidate gene and showed statistical difference in the transfected group compared to control group only when normalized by combination of GAPDH and SDHA. Based on the algorithm analysis, the combination of SDHA and GAPDH should be used to normalize target genes mRNA levels in primary culture of prostate cancer cells submitted to transfection with siRNAs.

  7. Accumulation of iron oxide nanoparticles by cultured primary neurons.

    PubMed

    Petters, Charlotte; Dringen, Ralf

    2015-02-01

    Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) are frequently used for biomedical applications. Although nanoparticles can enter the brain, little is known so far on the uptake of IONPs in neurons and on their neurotoxic potential. Hence, we applied dimercaptosuccinate (DMSA)-coated IONPs to cultured primary rat cerebellar granule neurons. These IONPs had average hydrodynamic diameters of around 80 nm and 120 nm when dispersed in incubation medium in the absence and the presence of 10% fetal calf serum, respectively. Acute exposure of neurons with IONPs for up to 6 h did neither alter the cell morphology nor compromise cell viability, although neurons accumulated large amounts of IONPs in a time- and concentration-dependent manner which caused delayed toxicity. For the first 30 min of incubation of neurons at 37 °C with IONPs the cellular iron content increased proportionally to the concentration of IONPs applied irrespective of the absence and the presence of serum. IONP-exposure in the absence of serum generated maximal cellular iron contents of around 3000 nmol iron/mg protein after 4 h of incubation, while the accumulation in the presence of 10% serum was slower and reached already within 1 h maximal values of around 450 nmol iron/mg protein. For both incubation conditions was the increase in cellular iron contents significantly lowered by reducing the incubation temperature to 4 °C. Application of inhibitors of endocytotic pathways did not affect neuronal IONP accumulation in the absence of serum, while inhibitors of clathrin-mediated endocytosis lowered significantly the IONP accumulation in the presence of serum. These data demonstrate that DMSA-coated IONPs are not acutely toxic to cultured neurons and that a protein corona around the particles strongly affects their interaction with neurons. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Interspecies differences in metabolism of arsenic by cultured primary hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Drobna, Zuzana; Walton, Felecia S.; Harmon, Anne W.; Thomas, David J.; Styblo, Miroslav

    2010-05-15

    Biomethylation is the major pathway for the metabolism of inorganic arsenic (iAs) in many mammalian species, including the human. However, significant interspecies differences have been reported in the rate of in vivo metabolism of iAs and in yields of iAs metabolites found in urine. Liver is considered the primary site for the methylation of iAs and arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (As3mt) is the key enzyme in this pathway. Thus, the As3mt-catalyzed methylation of iAs in the liver determines in part the rate and the pattern of iAs metabolism in various species. We examined kinetics and concentration-response patterns for iAs methylation by cultured primary hepatocytes derived from human, rat, mice, dog, rabbit, and rhesus monkey. Hepatocytes were exposed to [{sup 73}As]arsenite (iAs{sup III}; 0.3, 0.9, 3.0, 9.0 or 30 nmol As/mg protein) for 24 h and radiolabeled metabolites were analyzed in cells and culture media. Hepatocytes from all six species methylated iAs{sup III} to methylarsenic (MAs) and dimethylarsenic (DMAs). Notably, dog, rat and monkey hepatocytes were considerably more efficient methylators of iAs{sup III} than mouse, rabbit or human hepatocytes. The low efficiency of mouse, rabbit and human hepatocytes to methylate iAs{sup III} was associated with inhibition of DMAs production by moderate concentrations of iAs{sup III} and with retention of iAs and MAs in cells. No significant correlations were found between the rate of iAs methylation and the thioredoxin reductase activity or glutathione concentration, two factors that modulate the activity of recombinant As3mt. No associations between the rates of iAs methylation and As3mt protein structures were found for the six species examined. Immunoblot analyses indicate that the superior arsenic methylation capacities of dog, rat and monkey hepatocytes examined in this study may be associated with a higher As3mt expression. However, factors other than As3mt expression may also contribute to

  9. Osteopontin, osteocalcin and OB-cadherin expression in Synthetic nanohydroxyapatite vs bovine hydroxyapatite cultured Osteoblastic-like cells.

    PubMed

    Santarelli, A; Mascitti, M; Orsini, G; Memè, L; Rocchetti, R; Tiriduzzi, P; Sampalmieri, F; Putignano, A; Procaccini, M; Lo Muzio, L; Bambini, F

    2014-01-01

    Calcium phosphate ceramics have been applied in bone replacement for several decades due to their excellent biocompatibility, bioactivity, osteo-conductivity and mechanical strength. Several studies have demonstrated that porous hydroxyapatite (HA) is an excellent scaffold for osteogenic proliferation and differentiation of the osteoprogenitor cells. However, different methods of synthesis and production of HA ceramic-based materials may have considerable effect on the physical and biological properties. In the present work, two hydroxyapatite-based materials, a natural hydroxyapatite ceramic of bovine origin and a synthetic nano-cristalline hydroxyapatite were tested in vitro with MG63 cell line. The results displayed that both the materials demonstrated a good biocompatibility. The immunocytochemical stain revealed a different positivity of the osteogenic markers between the cultures with the biomaterials, and the control culture. Western blot data confirmed the immunocytochemical stain. Both the materials tested in the present study demonstrated a good biocompatibility with the osteoblastic cells allowing, at the same time, the osteogenic differentiation, and they may be useful in clinical use.

  10. Accumulation of pyrethroid compounds in primary cultures of rat cortical neurons

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent studies have demonstrated that lipophilic compounds (e.g. methylmercury, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs)) rapidly accumulate in cells in culture to concentrations much higher than in the surrounding media. Primary cultures of neur...

  11. Accumulation of pyrethroid compounds in primary cultures of rat cortical neurons

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent studies have demonstrated that lipophilic compounds (e.g. methylmercury, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs)) rapidly accumulate in cells in culture to concentrations much higher than in the surrounding media. Primary cultures of neur...

  12. Lithium increases PGC-1alpha expression and mitochondrial biogenesis in primary bovine aortic endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Struewing, Ian T; Barnett, Corey D; Tang, Tao; Mao, Catherine D

    2007-06-01

    Lithium is a therapeutic agent commonly used to treat bipolar disorder and its beneficial effects are thought to be due to a combination of activation of the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway via inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3beta and depletion of the inositol pool via inhibition of the inositol monophosphatase-1. We demonstrated that lithium in primary endothelial cells induced an increase in mitochondrial mass leading to an increase in ATP production without any significant change in mitochondrial efficiency. This increase in mitochondrial mass was associated with an increase in the mRNA levels of mitochondrial biogenesis transcription factors: nuclear respiratory factor-1 and -2beta, as well as mitochondrial transcription factors A and B2, which lead to the coordinated upregulation of oxidative phosphorylation components encoded by either the nuclear or mitochondrial genome. These effects of lithium on mitochondrial biogenesis were independent of the inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3beta and independent of inositol depletion. Also, expression of the coactivator PGC-1alpha was increased, whereas expression of the coactivator PRC was not affected. Lithium treatment rapidly induced a decrease in activating Akt-Ser473 phosphorylation and inhibitory Forkhead box class O (FOXO1)-Thr24 phosphorylation, as well as an increase in activating c-AMP responsive element binding (CREB)-Ser133 phosphorylation, two mechanisms known to control PGC-1alpha expression. Together, our results show that lithium induces mitochondrial biogenesis via CREB/PGC-1alpha and FOXO1/PGC-1alpha cascades, which highlight the pleiotropic effects of lithium and reveal also novel beneficial effects via preservation of mitochondrial functions.

  13. Preparation of extracellular matrices produced by cultured and primary fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Franco-Barraza, Janusz; Beacham, Dorothy A.; Amatangelo, Michael D.; Cukierman, Edna

    2016-01-01

    Fibroblasts secrete and organize extracellular matrix (ECM), which provides structural support for their adhesion, migration, and tissue organization, besides regulating cellular functions such as growth and survival. Cell-to-matrix interactions are vital for vertebrate development. Disorders in these processes have been associated with fibrosis, developmental malformations, cancer, and other diseases. This unit describes a method for preparing a three-dimensional matrix derived from fibroblastic cells; the matrix is three-dimensional, cell and debris free, and attached to a two-dimensional culture surface. Cell adhesion and spreading are normal on these matrices. This matrix can also be compressed into a two-dimensional matrix and solubilized to study the matrix biochemically. Culturing fibroblasts on traditional two-dimensional (2-D) substrates induces an artificial polarity between lower and upper surfaces of these normally nonpolar cells. Not surprisingly, fibroblast morphology and migration differ once suspended in three-dimensional (3-D) collagen gels (Friedl and Brocker, 2000). However, the molecular composition of collagen gels does not mimic the natural fibroblast (i.e., mesenchymal) microenvironment. Fibroblasts secrete and organize ECM, which provides structural support for their adhesion, migration, and tissue organization, in addition to regulating cellular functions such as growth and survival (Buck and Horwitz, 1987; Hay, 1991; Hynes, 1999; Geiger et al., 2001). Cell-to-matrix interactions are vital for vertebrate development. Disorders in these processes have been associated with fibrosis, developmental malformations, cancer (i.e., desmoplastic tumor microenvironment), and other diseases (Rybinski et al., 2014). This unit describes methods for generating tissue culture surfaces coated with a fibroblast-derived 3-D ECM produced and deposited by both established and primary fibroblasts. The matrices closely resemble in vivo mesenchymal matrices and

  14. Transport Mechanism of Nicotine in Primary Cultured Alveolar Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Takano, Mikihisa; Nagahiro, Machi; Yumoto, Ryoko

    2016-02-01

    Nicotine is absorbed from the lungs into the systemic circulation during cigarette smoking. However, there is little information concerning the transport mechanism of nicotine in alveolar epithelial cells. In this study, we characterized the uptake of nicotine in rat primary cultured type II (TII) and transdifferentiated type I-like (TIL) epithelial cells. In both TIL and TII cells, [(3)H]nicotine uptake was time and temperature-dependent, and showed saturation kinetics. [(3)H]Nicotine uptake in these cells was not affected by Na(+), but was sensitive to extracellular and intracellular pH, suggesting the involvement of a nicotine/proton antiport system. The uptake of [(3)H]nicotine in these cells was potently inhibited by organic cations such as clonidine, diphenhydramine, and pyrilamine, but was not affected by substrates and/or inhibitors of known organic cation transporters such as carnitine, 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium, and tetraethylammonium. In addition, the uptake of [(3)H]nicotine in TIL cells was stimulated by preloading the cells with unlabeled nicotine, pyrilamine, and diphenhydramine, but not with tetraethylammonium. These results suggest that a novel proton-coupled antiporter is involved in the uptake of nicotine in alveolar epithelial cells and its absorption from the lungs into the systemic circulation.

  15. Aniline Induces Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis of Primary Cultured Hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue; Gao, Hong; Na, Xiao-Lin; Dong, Shu-Ying; Dong, Hong-Wei; Yu, Jia; Jia, Li; Wu, Yong-Hui

    2016-11-30

    The toxicity and carcinogenicity of aniline in humans and animals have been well documented. However, the molecular mechanism involved in aniline-induced liver toxicity and carcinogenesis remains unclear. In our research, primary cultured hepatocytes were exposed to aniline (0, 1.25, 2.50, 5.0 and 10.0 μg/mL) for 24 h in the presence or absence of N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC). Levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA), and glutathione (GSH), activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), mitochondrial membrane potential, DNA damage, cell viability, and apoptosis were detected. Levels of ROS and MDA were significantly increased and levels of GSH and CAT, activity of SOD, and mitochondrial membrane potential in hepatocytes were significantly decreased by aniline compared with the negative control group. The tail moment and DNA content of the tail in exposed groups were significantly higher than those in the negative control group. Cell viability was reduced and apoptotic death was induced by aniline in a concentration-dependent manner. The phenomena of ROS generation, oxidative damage, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, DNA damage and apoptosis could be prevented if ROS inhibitor NAC was added. ROS generation is involved in the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and DNA injury, which may play a role in aniline-induced apoptosis in hepatocytes. Our study provides insight into the mechanism of aniline-induced toxicity and apoptosis of hepatocytes.

  16. Mitochondrial-dependent manganese neurotoxicity in rat primary astrocyte cultures

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Zhaoobao; Aschner, Judy L.; Santos, Ana Paula dos; Aschner, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Chronic exposure to excessive levels of Mn results in a movement disorder termed manganism, which resembles Parkinson’s disease (PD). The pathogenic mechanisms underlying this disorder are not fully understood. Several lines of evidence implicate astrocytes as an early target of Mn neurotoxicity. In the present study, we investigated the effects of Mn on mitochondrial function. Primary astrocyte cultures were prepared from cerebral cortices of one-day-old Sprague–Dawley rats. We have examined the cellular toxicity of Mn and its effects on the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and activation of the precursor protein of caspase-3. The potentiometric dye, tetramethylrhodamine ethyl ester (TMRE), was used to assess the effect of Mn on astrocytic mitochondrial inner membrane potential (ΔΨm). Our studies show that, in a concentration-dependent manner, Mn induces significant (p<0.05) activation of astrocyte caspase-3 and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK). Mn treatment (1 and 6 hrs) also significantly (p<0.01) dissipates the ΔΨm in astrocytes as evidenced by a decrease in mitochondrial TMRE fluorescence. These results suggest that activations of astrocytic caspase-3 and ERK are involved in Mn-induced neurotoxicity via mitochondrial-dependent pathways. PMID:18313649

  17. Aniline Induces Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis of Primary Cultured Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yue; Gao, Hong; Na, Xiao-Lin; Dong, Shu-Ying; Dong, Hong-Wei; Yu, Jia; Jia, Li; Wu, Yong-Hui

    2016-01-01

    The toxicity and carcinogenicity of aniline in humans and animals have been well documented. However, the molecular mechanism involved in aniline-induced liver toxicity and carcinogenesis remains unclear. In our research, primary cultured hepatocytes were exposed to aniline (0, 1.25, 2.50, 5.0 and 10.0 μg/mL) for 24 h in the presence or absence of N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC). Levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA), and glutathione (GSH), activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), mitochondrial membrane potential, DNA damage, cell viability, and apoptosis were detected. Levels of ROS and MDA were significantly increased and levels of GSH and CAT, activity of SOD, and mitochondrial membrane potential in hepatocytes were significantly decreased by aniline compared with the negative control group. The tail moment and DNA content of the tail in exposed groups were significantly higher than those in the negative control group. Cell viability was reduced and apoptotic death was induced by aniline in a concentration-dependent manner. The phenomena of ROS generation, oxidative damage, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, DNA damage and apoptosis could be prevented if ROS inhibitor NAC was added. ROS generation is involved in the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and DNA injury, which may play a role in aniline-induced apoptosis in hepatocytes. Our study provides insight into the mechanism of aniline-induced toxicity and apoptosis of hepatocytes. PMID:27916916

  18. Transcriptional Induction of Metallothionein by Tris(pentafluorophenyl)stibane in Cultured Bovine Aortic Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Fujie, Tomoya; Murakami, Masaki; Yoshida, Eiko; Yasuike, Shuji; Kimura, Tomoki; Fujiwara, Yasuyuki; Yamamoto, Chika; Kaji, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Vascular endothelial cells cover the luminal surface of blood vessels and contribute to the prevention of vascular disorders such as atherosclerosis. Metallothionein (MT) is a low molecular weight, cysteine-rich, metal-binding, inducible protein, which protects cells from the toxicity of heavy metals and active oxygen species. Endothelial MT is not induced by inorganic zinc. Adequate tools are required to investigate the mechanisms underlying endothelial MT induction. In the present study, we found that an organoantimony compound, tris(pentafluorophenyl)stibane, induces gene expression of MT-1A and MT-2A, which are subisoforms of MT in bovine aortic endothelial cells. The data reveal that MT-1A is induced by activation of both the MTF-1–MRE and Nrf2–ARE pathways, whereas MT-2A expression requires only activation of the MTF-1–MRE pathway. The present data suggest that the original role of MT-1 is to protect cells from heavy metal toxicity and oxidative stress in the biological defense system, while that of MT-2 is to regulate intracellular zinc metabolism. PMID:27563876

  19. Massive depletion of bovine leukemia virus proviral clones located in genomic transcriptionally active sites during primary infection.

    PubMed

    Gillet, Nicolas A; Gutiérrez, Gerónimo; Rodriguez, Sabrina M; de Brogniez, Alix; Renotte, Nathalie; Alvarez, Irene; Trono, Karina; Willems, Luc

    2013-01-01

    Deltaretroviruses such as human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and bovine leukemia virus (BLV) induce a persistent infection that remains generally asymptomatic but can also lead to leukemia or lymphoma. These viruses replicate by infecting new lymphocytes (i.e. the infectious cycle) or via clonal expansion of the infected cells (mitotic cycle). The relative importance of these two cycles in viral replication varies during infection. The majority of infected clones are created early before the onset of an efficient immune response. Later on, the main replication route is mitotic expansion of pre-existing infected clones. Due to the paucity of available samples and for ethical reasons, only scarce data is available on early infection by HTLV-1. Therefore, we addressed this question in a comparative BLV model. We used high-throughput sequencing to map and quantify the insertion sites of the provirus in order to monitor the clonality of the BLV-infected cells population (i.e. the number of distinct clones and abundance of each clone). We found that BLV propagation shifts from cell neoinfection to clonal proliferation in about 2 months from inoculation. Initially, BLV proviral integration significantly favors transcribed regions of the genome. Negative selection then eliminates 97% of the clones detected at seroconversion and disfavors BLV-infected cells carrying a provirus located close to a promoter or a gene. Nevertheless, among the surviving proviruses, clone abundance positively correlates with proximity of the provirus to a transcribed region. Two opposite forces thus operate during primary infection and dictate the fate of long term clonal composition: (1) initial integration inside genes or promoters and (2) host negative selection disfavoring proviruses located next to transcribed regions. The result of this initial response will contribute to the proviral load set point value as clonal abundance will benefit from carrying a provirus in transcribed

  20. Massive Depletion of Bovine Leukemia Virus Proviral Clones Located in Genomic Transcriptionally Active Sites during Primary Infection

    PubMed Central

    Gillet, Nicolas A.; Renotte, Nathalie; Alvarez, Irene; Trono, Karina; Willems, Luc

    2013-01-01

    Deltaretroviruses such as human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and bovine leukemia virus (BLV) induce a persistent infection that remains generally asymptomatic but can also lead to leukemia or lymphoma. These viruses replicate by infecting new lymphocytes (i.e. the infectious cycle) or via clonal expansion of the infected cells (mitotic cycle). The relative importance of these two cycles in viral replication varies during infection. The majority of infected clones are created early before the onset of an efficient immune response. Later on, the main replication route is mitotic expansion of pre-existing infected clones. Due to the paucity of available samples and for ethical reasons, only scarce data is available on early infection by HTLV-1. Therefore, we addressed this question in a comparative BLV model. We used high-throughput sequencing to map and quantify the insertion sites of the provirus in order to monitor the clonality of the BLV-infected cells population (i.e. the number of distinct clones and abundance of each clone). We found that BLV propagation shifts from cell neoinfection to clonal proliferation in about 2 months from inoculation. Initially, BLV proviral integration significantly favors transcribed regions of the genome. Negative selection then eliminates 97% of the clones detected at seroconversion and disfavors BLV-infected cells carrying a provirus located close to a promoter or a gene. Nevertheless, among the surviving proviruses, clone abundance positively correlates with proximity of the provirus to a transcribed region. Two opposite forces thus operate during primary infection and dictate the fate of long term clonal composition: (1) initial integration inside genes or promoters and (2) host negative selection disfavoring proviruses located next to transcribed regions. The result of this initial response will contribute to the proviral load set point value as clonal abundance will benefit from carrying a provirus in transcribed

  1. Evaluation of the major royal jelly proteins as an alternative to fetal bovine serum in culturing human cell lines.

    PubMed

    Chen, Di; Xin, Xiao-Xuan; Qian, Hao-Cheng; Yu, Zhang-Yin; Shen, Li-Rong

    2016-06-01

    Royal jelly (RJ) is a well-known bioactive substance. It contains large amounts of major royal jelly proteins (MRJPs), which express growth-factor-like activity in several animal and human cell lines. However, the question on whether MRJPs possess growth-factor-like activity on all types of cell cultures remains. In order to determine whether MRJPs can be used as an alternative to fetal bovine serum (FBS) in different types of human cell culture, the proliferation of the complex serum with different ratios of MRJPs/FBS (M/F) was evaluated on five cell lines: 293T, HFL-I, 231, HCT116, and Changliver using MTT (3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide) assay. The proliferation activity of the combination of the complex M/F serum with cytokines on the test cell lines was also measured. The results demonstrated that the complex serum with M/F 6/4 possessed the highest proliferation activity similar to or in excess of FBS. However, no activity of complex medium with M/F 6/4 was observed in 231 cells, indicating a selectivity of MRJPs on cell types. Compared with the complex medium with M/F 6/4, the complex medium with M/F 6/4 together with two cytokines, epidermal growth factor (EGF) and insulin-transferrin-selenium (ITS), promoted proliferations of Changliver, 293T, HCT116, and HFL-I by 18.73%‒56.19% (P<0.01). Our findings demonstrate that MRJPs could partially replace FBS in culturing many human cell lines.

  2. Isolation, in vitro culture and identification of a new type of mesenchymal stem cell derived from fetal bovine lung tissues.

    PubMed

    Hu, Pengfei; Pu, Yabin; Li, Xiayun; Zhu, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Yuhua; Guan, Weijun; Ma, Yuehui

    2015-09-01

    Lung‑derived mesenchymal stem cells (LMSCs) are considered to be important in lung tissue repair and regenerative processes. However, the biological characteristics and differentiation potential of LMSCs remain to be elucidated. In the present study, fetal lung‑derived mesenchymal stem cells (FLMSCs) were isolated from fetal bovine lung tissues by collagenase digestion. The in vitro culture conditions were optimized and stabilized and the self‑renewal ability and differentiation potential were evaluated. The results demonstrated that the FLMSCs were morphologically consistent with fibroblasts, were able to be cultured and passaged for at least 33 passages and the cell morphology and proliferative ability were stable during the first 10 passages. In addition, FLMSCs were found to express CD29, CD44, CD73 and CD166, however, they did not express hematopoietic cell specific markers, including CD34, CD45 and BOLA‑DRα. The growth kinetics of FLMSCs consisted of a lag phase, a logarithmic phase and a plateau phase, and as the passages increased, the proliferative ability of cells gradually decreased. The majority of FLMSCs were in G0/G1 phase. Following osteogenic induction, FLMSCs were positive for the expression of osteopontin and collagen type I α2. Following neurogenic differentiation, the cells were morphologically consistent with neuronal cells and positive for microtubule‑associated protein 2 and nestin expression. It was concluded that the isolated FLMSCs exhibited typical characteristics of mesenchymal stem cells and that the culture conditions were suitable for their proliferation and the maintenance of stemness. The present study illustrated the potential application of lung tissue as an adult stem cell source for regenerative therapies.

  3. Effect of Removal of Spermatogonial Stem Cells (SSCs) from In Vitro Culture on Gene Expression of Niche Factors in Bovine

    PubMed Central

    Akbarinejad, Vahid; Tajik, Parviz; Movahedin, Mansoureh; Youssefi, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Niche cells, regulating Spermatogonial Stem Cells (SSCs) fate are believed to have a reciprocal communication with SSCs. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of SSC elimination on the gene expression of Glial cell line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (GDNF), Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 (FGF2) and Kit Ligand (KITLG), which are the main growth factors regulating SSCs development and secreted by niche cells, primarily Sertoli cells. Methods: Following isolation, bovine testicular cells were cultured for 12 days on extracellular matrix-coated plates. In the germ cell-removed group, the SSCs were removed from the in vitro culture using differential plating; however, in the control group, no intervention in the culture was performed. Colony formation of SSCs was evaluated using an inverted microscope. The gene expression of growth factors and spermatogonia markers were assessed using quantitative real time PCR. Results: SSCs colonies were developed in the control group but they were rarely observed in the germ cell-removed group; moreover, the expression of spermatogonia markers was detected in the control group while it was not observed in the germ cell-removed group, substantiating the success of SSCs removal. The expression of Gdnf and Fgf2 was greater in the germ cell-removed than control group (p<0.05), whereas the expression of Kitlg was lower in the germ cell-removed than control group (p< 0.05). Conclusion: In conclusion, the results revealed that niche cells respond to SSCs removal by upregulation of GDNF and FGF2, and downregulation of KITLG in order to stimulate self-renewal and arrest differentiation. PMID:27563426

  4. The relation of RNA synthesis to chondroitin sulphate biosynthesis in cultured bovine cartilage.

    PubMed Central

    McQuillan, D J; Handley, C J; Robinson, H C; Ng, K; Tzaicos, C

    1986-01-01

    Addition of actinomycin D (or cordycepin, an alternative inhibitor of RNA synthesis) to cartilage cultures resulted in a first-order decrease in the rate of incorporation of [35S]sulphate into proteoglycan (half-life = 7.5 +/- 1.1 h). Addition of 1.0 mM-benzyl beta-D-xyloside relieved the initial inhibition of glycosaminoglycan synthesis induced by actinomycin D; however, after a lag of about 10 h the rate of xyloside-initiated glycosaminoglycan synthesis also decreased with apparent first-order kinetics (half-life = 7.1 +/- 1.8 h), which paralleled the decrease in the rate of core-protein-initiated glycosaminoglycan synthesis. The hydrodynamic size of the proteoglycans formed in the presence of actinomycin D remained essentially constant (Kav. 0.21-0.23), whereas the constituent glycosaminoglycan chains were larger than those formed by control cultures, which suggested that the core protein was substituted with fewer but larger glycosaminoglycan chains. Proteoglycans formed in the presence of beta-D-xyloside were significantly smaller (Kav. approximately 0.33) than those synthesized by control cultures, and were further diminished in size after exposure of cultures to actinomycin D. Glycosaminoglycan chains synthesized by these same cultures on to both core-protein and xyloside acceptors were also smaller than those of control cultures. The decrease in synthesis observed after exposure to actinomycin D was not reflected by any significant decrease in the activities of several glycosyltransferases involved in chondroitin sulphate synthesis (galactosyltransferase-I, galactosyltransferase-II, N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase and glucuronosyltransferase-II). PMID:2427073

  5. Effect of extracellular matrix on testosterone production during in vitro culture of bovine testicular cells.

    PubMed

    Akbarinejad, Vahid; Tajik, Parviz; Movahedin, Mansoureh; Youssefi, Reza

    2017-01-01

    Testosterone is believed to play a significant role in spermatogenesis, but its contribution to the process of spermatogenesis is not completely understood. Given that extracellular matrix (ECM) facilitates differentiation of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) during culture, the present study was conducted to elucidate whether testosterone contribute to the permissive effect of ECM on SSCs differentiation. In experiment 1, testosterone production was measured in testicular cells cultured for 12 days on ECM or plastic (control). In experiment 2, testosterone production was assessed in testicular cells cultured on ECM or plastic (control) and exposed to different concentrations of hCG. In experiment 3, the gene expression of factors involved in testosterone production was analyzed. Testosterone concentration was lower in ECM than in the control group in experiment 1 (p < 0.05). In experiment 2, testosterone concentration was increased in response to hCG in both groups but cells cultured on ECM were more responsive to hCG than those cultured on plastic (p < 0.05). In the experiment 3, qRT-PCR revealed the inhibitory effect of ECM on the gene expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) (p < 0.05). Nevertheless, the expression of LH receptor was greater in ECM-exposed than in unexposed cells (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the present study showed that inhibiting the expression of StAR, ECM could lower testosterone production by Leydig cells during in vitro culture. In addition, the results indicated that ECM could augment the responsiveness of Leydig cells to hCG through stimulating the expression of LH receptor.

  6. Effect of C-reactive protein on Fcgamma receptor II in cultured bovine endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Escribano-Burgos, Marta; López-Farré, Antonio; del Mar González, María; Macaya, Carlos; García-Méndez, Antonio; Mateos-Cáceres, Petra J; Alonso-Orgaz, Sergio; Carrasco, Carolina; Rico, Luis A; Porres Cubero, Juan Carlos

    2005-01-01

    The major CRP (C-reactive protein) receptor on leucocytes has been identified as the low-affinity IgG receptor Fcgamma receptor II (CD32). Our aim was to assess whether inflammation may modify the presence of the CD32 receptor in BAEC (bovine aortic endothelial cells). Confocal microscopy experiments showed a weak expression of the CD32 receptor in control BAEC that was slightly increased by 10 microg/ml CRP. Incubation of BAEC with TNF-alpha (tumour necrosis factor-alpha) did not modify the fluorescence signal of CD32. Addition of CRP to TNF-alpha-incubated BAEC enhanced the fluorescence signal of the CD32 receptors. The CD32 receptors showed a perinuclear cytoplasmic localization in BAEC. An alteration of the NO (nitric oxide)-dependent vasorelaxation has been defined as endothelial dysfunction. Endothelial dysfunction has been associated with the presence of superoxide anion and with a reduction in the expression of the eNOS (endothelial NO synthase). A concentration of CRP similar to that detected in patients with cardiovascular risk (10 microg/ml) failed to modify the generation of superoxide anion stimulated by TNF-alpha. Western blot experiments showed that TNF-alpha decreased the expression of the eNOS protein, which was partially protected by treatment with 10 microg/ml CRP. The protective effect of 10 microg/ml CRP on eNOS expression in TNF-alpha-incubated BAEC was prevented by an antibody against CD32 receptors. In conclusion, the present results suggest that, although CRP has been associated with inflammation, CRP may protect the expression of eNOS protein against pro-inflammatory mediators such as TNF-alpha.

  7. Purification and physiochemical properties of a recombinant bovine growth hormone produced by cultured murine fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Leung, F C; Jones, B; Steelman, S L; Rosenblum, C I; Kopchick, J J

    1986-10-01

    Mouse fibroblast cell lines which secrete bovine (b) GH have been generated. This was accomplished by cotransforming mouse L cells (thymidine kinase-negative [TK-] and adenine phosphoribosyl transferase-negative [APRT-]) with DNA molecules encoding the Rous sarcoma virus-long-terminal repeat and bGH genes along with the herpes viral TK gene and the hamster APRT gene. One stable cell line, Pd lambda-pbGH 4-13, was found to secrete approximately 75 micrograms bGH per 24 h/5.0 X 10(6) cells. Media from this cell line were collected for purification of recombinant bGH (rbGH). Purification involved (NH4)2SO4 fractionation, ion-exchange chromatography, and gel filtration on Sephacryl S-200. The rbGH was characterized by bioassay, RIA, radioreceptor assay, and sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis. Results of these analyses were compared with those obtained with a highly purified pituitary bGH. In the rat tibia bioassay, rbGH was found to be as potent as pituitary bGH. Results from the RIA, radioreceptor assay, and sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis and Western blot analysis also suggested that the rbGH was similar to that of pituitary origin. Amino acid composition, partial (amino-terminal) sequence, and tryptic peptide maps were also found to be similar between the rbGH and pituitary bGH preparations. The amino terminus of the rbGH showed similar heterogeneity to that of the bGH of pituitary origin. We conclude that rbGH which was synthesized, processed, and secreted from transformed mouse fibroblasts possessed almost exactly the same physiochemical properties as pituitary bGH.

  8. 78 SUPPLEMENTATION WITH CARNOSINE DURING IN VITRO CULTURE IMPROVES THE QUALITY OF IN VITRO-PRODUCED BOVINE EMBRYOS.

    PubMed

    Le Bourhis, D; Verachten, M; Salvetti, P; Hochet, M; Schibler, L

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of supplementation of culture medium with carnosine (β-alanyl-l-histidine; Sigma, St-Quentin Fallavier, France), a reactive oxygen species scavenger, on in vitro bovine embryo development and survival following cryopreservation. Abattoir-derived bovine oocytes (4 replicates) were in vitro matured and fertilized with frozen-thawed semen of one bull, according to our standard procedures. In Experiment 1, 20h after IVF, groups of presumptive zygotes were cultured in 30μL of SOF BSAaa+1% oestrus cow serum with 0 (control; n=205) or 5μgmL(-1) of carnosine (n=209) under humidified air with 5% CO2, 5% O2, and 88% N2. Cleavage rates were determined on Day 2, and the blastocyst rates and grade were assessed on Day 7 according to IETS classification. Day 7 grade 1 expanded blastocysts (n=25 control and n=27 carnosine) were frozen in 1.5M ethylene glycol+0.1M sucrose. Embryos were thawed and then cultured for 72h in SOF-BSAaa+1% oestrus cow serum for re-expansion and hatching rate assessments at +24h, +48h, and +72h post-thawing. In Experiment 2, presumed zygotes were cultured in SOF BSAaa+1% oestrus cow serum with 0 (control; n=48) or 5μgmL(-1) of carnosine (n=48) in a WOW dish and observed with Time Laps Cinematography (Primo Vision®, VitroLife, Göteborg, Sweden). Images were recorded every 15min for up to 168h post-insemination. For embryos that reached the blastocyst stage, mean timing of the first cleavage (C1; 2-cell stage), second cleavage (C2; 4-cell stage), second cleavage to compaction (C3), and blastocoel cavity appearance (B4) were recorded. Chi-square test for Experiment 1 and Student's t-test for Experiment 2 were used, and differences were considered significant at P<0.05. In Experiment 1, no differences were observed in cleavage rate, blastocyst rate on Day 7, and grade 1 blastocyst rate between both control and carnosine groups (84.0±4.2v.85.2±3.8, P=0.7; 46.9±7.1v. 45.0±7.5, P=0.7; 24

  9. Effect of embryo density on in vitro development and gene expression in bovine in vitro-fertilized embryos cultured in a microwell system.

    PubMed

    Sugimura, Satoshi; Akai, Tomonori; Hashiyada, Yutaka; Aikawa, Yoshio; Ohtake, Masaki; Matsuda, Hideo; Kobayashi, Shuji; Kobayashi, Eiji; Konishi, Kazuyuki; Imai, Kei

    2013-01-01

    To identify embryos individually during in vitro development, we previously developed the well-of-the-well (WOW) dish, which contains 25 microwells. Here we investigated the effect of embryo density (the number of embryos per volume of medium) on in vitro development and gene expression of bovine in vitro-fertilized embryos cultured in WOW dishes. Using both conventional droplet and WOW culture formats, 5, 15, and 25 bovine embryos were cultured in 125 μl medium for 168 h. The blastocysts at Day 7 were analyzed for number of cells and expression of ten genes (CDX2, IFN-tau, PLAC8, NANOG, OCT4, SOX2, AKR1B1, ATP5A1, GLUT1 and IGF2R). In droplet culture, the rates of formation of >4-cell cleavage embryos and blastocysts were significantly lower in embryos cultured at 5 embryos per droplet than in those cultured at 15 or 25 embryos per droplet, but not in WOW culture. In both droplet and WOW culture, developmental kinetics and blastocyst cell numbers did not differ among any groups. IFN-tau expression in embryos cultured at 25 embryos per droplet was significantly higher than in those cultured at 15 embryos per droplet and in artificial insemination (AI)-derived blastocysts. Moreover, IGF2R expression was significantly lower in the 25-embryo group than in the 5-embryo group and in AI-derived blastocysts. In WOW culture, these expressions were not affected by embryo density and were similar to those in AI-derived blastocysts. These results suggest that, as compared with conventional droplet culture, in vitro development and expression of IFN-tau and IGF2R in the microwell system may be insensitive to embryo density.

  10. Effect of Embryo Density on In Vitro Development and Gene Expression in Bovine In Vitro-fertilized Embryos Cultured in a Microwell System

    PubMed Central

    SUGIMURA, Satoshi; AKAI, Tomonori; HASHIYADA, Yutaka; AIKAWA, Yoshio; OHTAKE, Masaki; MATSUDA, Hideo; KOBAYASHI, Shuji; KOBAYASHI, Eiji; KONISHI, Kazuyuki; IMAI, Kei

    2012-01-01

    Abstract To identify embryos individually during in vitro development, we previously developed the well-of-the-well (WOW) dish, which contains 25 microwells. Here we investigated the effect of embryo density (the number of embryos per volume of medium) on in vitro development and gene expression of bovine in vitro-fertilized embryos cultured in WOW dishes. Using both conventional droplet and WOW culture formats, 5, 15, and 25 bovine embryos were cultured in 125 µl medium for 168 h. The blastocysts at Day 7 were analyzed for number of cells and expression of ten genes (CDX2, IFN-tau, PLAC8, NANOG, OCT4, SOX2, AKR1B1, ATP5A1, GLUT1 and IGF2R). In droplet culture, the rates of formation of >4-cell cleavage embryos and blastocysts were significantly lower in embryos cultured at 5 embryos per droplet than in those cultured at 15 or 25 embryos per droplet, but not in WOW culture. In both droplet and WOW culture, developmental kinetics and blastocyst cell numbers did not differ among any groups. IFN-tau expression in embryos cultured at 25 embryos per droplet was significantly higher than in those cultured at 15 embryos per droplet and in artificial insemination (AI)-derived blastocysts. Moreover, IGF2R expression was significantly lower in the 25-embryo group than in the 5-embryo group and in AI-derived blastocysts. In WOW culture, these expressions were not affected by embryo density and were similar to those in AI-derived blastocysts. These results suggest that, as compared with conventional droplet culture, in vitro development and expression of IFN-tau and IGF2R in the microwell system may be insensitive to embryo density. PMID:23154384

  11. Catecholamine release from cultured bovine adrenal medullary chromaffin cells in the presence of 60-Hz magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Craviso, Gale L; Chatterjee, Indira; Publicover, Nelson G

    2003-04-01

    Effects of powerline frequency (50/60 Hz) electric and magnetic fields on the central nervous system may involve altered neurotransmitter release. This possibility was addressed by determining whether 60-Hz linearly polarized sinusoidal magnetic fields (MFs) alter the release of catecholamines from cultured bovine adrenal chromaffin cells, a well-characterized model of neural-type cells. Dishes of cells were placed in the center of each of two four-coil Merritt exposure systems that were enclosed within mu-metal chambers in matched incubators for simultaneous sham and MF exposure. Following 15-min MF exposure of the cells to flux densities of 0.01, 0.1, 1.0 or 2 mT, norepinephrine and epinephrine release were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with electrochemical detection. No significant differences in the release of either norepinephrine or epinephrine were detected between sham-exposed cells and cells exposed to MFs in either the absence or presence of Bay K-8644 (2 microM) or dimethylphenylpiperazinium (DMPP, 10 microM). Consistent with these null findings is the lack of effect of MF exposure on calcium influx. We conclude that catecholamine release from chromaffin cells is not sensitive to 60-Hz MFs at magnetic flux densities in the 0.01-2 mT range.

  12. Oxidized LDL binding to LOX-1 upregulates VEGF expression in cultured bovine chondrocytes through activation of PPAR-{gamma}

    SciTech Connect

    Kanata, Sohya; Akagi, Masao . E-mail: makagi@med.kindai.ac.jp; Nishimura, Shunji; Hayakawa, Sumio; Yoshida, Kohji; Sawamura, Tatsuya; Munakata, Hiroshi; Hamanishi, Chiaki

    2006-09-29

    It has been reported that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptors play an important role in the destruction of articular cartilage in osteoarthritis through increased production of matrix metalloproteinases. We investigated whether the oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) binding to lectin-like ox-LDL receptor-1 (LOX-1) upregulates VEGF expression in cultured bovine articular chondrocytes (BACs). Ox-LDL markedly increased VEGF mRNA expression and protein release in time- and dose-dependent manners, which was significantly suppressed by anti-LOX-1 antibody pretreatment. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-{gamma} was evident in BACs with ox-LDL addition and was attenuated by anti-LOX-1 antibody. The specific PPAR-{gamma} inhibitor GW9662 suppressed ox-LDL-induced VEGF expression. These results suggest that the ox-LDL/LOX-1 system upregulates VEGF expression in articular cartilage, at least in part, through activation of PPAR-{gamma} and supports the hypothesis that ox-LDL is involved in cartilage degradation via LOX-1.

  13. Bovine serum albumin contained in culture medium used in artificial insemination is an important anaphylaxis risk factor.

    PubMed

    Pagán, Juan A; Postigo, Idoia; Rodríguez-Pacheco, Jorge R; Peña, Maribel; Guisantes, Jorge A; Martínez, Jorge

    2008-11-01

    To analyze the cause of the anaphylactic reaction after a standard artificial insemination process in a patient diagnosed with asthma. Case report. Residencia Sanitaria Virgen de la Arrixaca (Murcia, Spain) and University of the Basque Country (Vitoria, Spain). A 30-year-old woman with a previous medical history compatible with respiratory allergy who suffered an anaphylactic reaction after an artificial insemination with spermatozoids in capable medium (Upgraded B2 INRA medium; Laboratories CCD, Paris, France). Cutaneous tests and specific IgE levels to inhalant allergens, grass and Olea pollens, and insemination medium were performed. Specific IgE levels to mammal epithelia and bovine serum albumin (BSA). Skin prick tests were positive for inhalant allergens such as mites, cat, dog, horse, and rabbit epithelia, grasses and Olea pollens, and the insemination medium. The beta-lactamic tests were negative. The determination of specific IgE demonstrated positive values to mammal epithelia and mammal serum albumins including BSA. We report a case of an anaphylactic reaction to the BSA included in the insemination culture medium induced by a subclinical sensitivity to serum albumins of mammal epithelia. A previous testing with the medium is recommended and specific testing might be needed in women who have a history of animal epithelium allergies.

  14. Inhibition of cultured bovine aortic endothelial cell proliferation by sodium spirulan, a new sulfated polysaccharide isolated from Spirulina platensis.

    PubMed

    Kaji, Toshiyuki; Fujiwara, Yasuyuki; Hamada, Chieko; Yamamoto, Chika; Shimada, Satomi; Lee, Jung-Bum; Hayashi, Toshimitsu

    2002-06-01

    Sodium spirulan (Na-SP) is a sulfated polysaccharide isolated from the blue-green alga Spirulina platensis, which consists of two types of disaccharide repeating units, O-hexuronosyl-rhamnose (aldobiuronic acid) and O-rhamnosyl-3-O-methylrhamnose (acofriose) with sulfate groups, other minor saccharides and sodium ion. Vascular endothelial cells are present on the inner surface of blood vessels in a monolayer and have anticoagulant properties. To address the question whether Na-SP influences the maintenance of endothelial cell monolayers, we investigated the proliferation of cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells treated with Na-SP. It was found that Na-SP has an inhibitory activity on endothelial cell proliferation accompanied with suppression of whole protein synthesis but without non-specific cell damage. The inhibitory activity of Na-SP was the strongest when compared to that of heparan sulfate, heparin, dextran sulfate, dermatan sulfate, chondroitin sulfate A/C and hyaluronan. Furthermore, it was shown that the inhibitory activity of Na-SP disappeared by either desulfation or depolymerization. The present data suggest that Na-SP is a unique sulfated polysaccharide that strongly inhibits vascular endothelial cell proliferation, and the inhibitory activity requires polymerization of sulfated O-rhamnosyl-acofriose repeating units.

  15. Oleic acid induces specific alterations in the morphology, gene expression and steroid hormone production of cultured bovine granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Yenuganti, Vengala Rao; Viergutz, Torsten; Vanselow, Jens

    2016-06-01

    After parturition, one of the major problems related to nutritional management that is faced by the majority of dairy cows is negative energy balance (NEB). During NEB, excessive lipid mobilization takes place and hence the levels of free fatty acids, among them oleic acid, increase in the blood, but also in the follicular fluid. This accumulation can be associated with serious metabolic and reproductive disorders. In the present study, we analyzed the effects of physiological concentrations of oleic acid on cell morphology, apoptosis, necrosis, proliferation and steroid production, and on the abundance of selected transcripts in cultured bovine granulosa cells. Increasing oleic acid concentrations induced intracellular lipid droplet accumulation, thus resulting in a foam cell-like morphology, but had no effects on apoptosis, necrosis or proliferation. Oleic acid also significantly reduced the transcript abundance of the gonadotropin hormone receptors, FSHR and LHCGR, steroidogenic genes STAR, CYP11A1, HSD3B1 and CYP19A1, the cell cycle regulator CCND2, but not of the proliferation marker PCNA. In addition, treatment increased the transcript levels of the fatty acid transporters CD36 and SLC27A1, and decreased the production of 17-beta-estradiol and progesterone. From these data it can be concluded that oleic acid specifically affects morphological and physiological features and gene expression levels thus altering the functionality of granulosa cells. Suggestively, these effects might be partly due to the reduced expression of FSHR and thus the reduced responsiveness to FSH stimulation.

  16. Glucose metabolism by adult hepatocytes in primary culture and by cell lines from rat liver.

    PubMed

    Bissell, D M; Levine, G A; Bissell, M J

    1978-03-01

    The metabolic fate of [U-14C]glucose has been examined in detail in adult rat hepatocytes in primary monolayer culture, as well as in two permanent cell lines--Buffalo rat liver (BRL) and transplantable rat hepatoma (HTC) cells-derived from normal rat liver and from rat hepatoma, respectively. Under defined conditions of incubation, at a glucose concentration of 5.5 mM, the three types of cultured liver cells exhibited pronounced differences in glucose metabolism. Primary cultures, like the intact liver, differed from the cell lines in consuming relatively small amounts of glucose and converting approximately 50% of the total metabolized glucose to lactate. By contrast, the permantent cell lines consumed glucose at a 40-fold greater rate than did primary cultures, converting 80--90% of the carbohydrate to lactate. Oxidative metabolism of glucose carbon also differed among the three types of liver culture. Of the total [U-14C]glucose consumed, primary cultures converted approximately 30% to labeled CO2 per hour, whereas the liver cell lines converted 5--10%. Finally, glucose metabolism in primary culture exhibited adaptation as hepatocytes aged in culture, shifting progressively toward the pattern exhibited by the permanent cell lines. This change occurred over a time course similar to that for other kinds of functional change in hepatocytes in primary culture and thus may be relevant to the general problem of phenotypic alteration in liver cell culture.

  17. Human platelet lysate as a fetal bovine serum substitute improves human adipose-derived stromal cell culture for future cardiac repair applications.

    PubMed

    Naaijkens, B A; Niessen, H W M; Prins, H-J; Krijnen, P A J; Kokhuis, T J A; de Jong, N; van Hinsbergh, V W M; Kamp, O; Helder, M N; Musters, R J P; van Dijk, A; Juffermans, L J M

    2012-04-01

    Adipose-derived stromal cells (ASC) are promising candidates for cell therapy, for example to treat myocardial infarction. Commonly, fetal bovine serum (FBS) is used in ASC culturing. However, FBS has several disadvantages. Its effects differ between batches and, when applied clinically, transmission of pathogens and antibody development against FBS are possible. In this study, we investigated whether FBS can be substituted by human platelet lysate (PL) in ASC culture, without affecting functional capacities particularly important for cardiac repair application of ASC. We found that PL-cultured ASC had a significant 3-fold increased proliferation rate and a significantly higher attachment to tissue culture plastic as well as to endothelial cells compared with FBS-cultured ASC. PL-cultured ASC remained a significant 25% smaller than FBS-cultured ASC. Both showed a comparable surface marker profile, with the exception of significantly higher levels of CD73, CD90, and CD166 on PL-cultured ASC. PL-cultured ASC showed a significantly higher migration rate compared with FBS-cultured ASC in a transwell assay. Finally, FBS- and PL-cultured ASC had a similar high capacity to differentiate towards cardiomyocytes. In conclusion, this study showed that culturing ASC is more favorable in PL-supplemented medium compared with FBS-supplemented medium.

  18. Hepatoma-derived growth factor: from the bovine uterus to the in vitro embryo culture.

    PubMed

    Gómez, E; Correia-Álvarez, E; Caamaño, J N; Díez, C; Carrocera, S; Peynot, N; Martín, D; Giraud-Delville, C; Duranthon, V; Sandra, O; Muñoz, M

    2014-10-01

    Early in cow embryo development, hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF) is detectable in uterine fluid. The origin of HDGF in maternal tissues is unknown, as is the effect of the induction on developing embryos. Herein, we analyze HDGF expression in day 8 endometrium exposed to embryos, as well as the effects of recombinant HDGF (rHDGF) on embryo growth. Exposure to embryos did not alter endometrial levels of HDGF mRNA or protein. HDGF protein localized to cell nuclei in the luminal epithelium and superficial glands and to the apical cytoplasm in deep glands. After uterine passage, levels of embryonic HDGF mRNA decreased and HDGF protein was detected only in the trophectoderm. In fetal fibroblast cultures, addition of rHDGF promoted cell proliferation. In experiments with group cultures of morulae in protein-free medium containing polyvinyl alcohol, adding rHDGF inhibited blastocyst development and did not affect cell counts when the morulae were early (day 5), whereas it enhanced blastocyst development and increased cell counts when the morulae were compact (day 6). In cultures of individual day 6 morulae, adding rHDGF promoted blastocyst development and increased cell counts. Our experiments with rHDGF indicate that the growth factor stimulates embryonic development and cell proliferation. HDGF is synthesized similarly by the endometrium and embryo, and it may exert embryotropic effects by autocrine and/or paracrine mechanisms.

  19. Molecular mechanisms and pathways involved in bovine embryonic genome activation and their regulation by alternative in vivo and in vitro culture conditions.

    PubMed

    Gad, Ahmed; Hoelker, Michael; Besenfelder, Urban; Havlicek, Vitezslav; Cinar, Ulas; Rings, Franca; Held, Eva; Dufort, Isabelle; Sirard, Marc-André; Schellander, Karl; Tesfaye, Dawit

    2012-10-01

    Understanding gene expression patterns in response to altered environmental conditions at different time points of the preimplantation period would improve our knowledge on regulation of embryonic development. Here we aimed to examine the effect of alternative in vivo and in vitro culture conditions at the time of major embryonic genome activation (EGA) on the development and transcriptome profile of bovine blastocysts. Four different blastocyst groups were produced under alternative in vivo and in vitro culture conditions before or after major EGA. Completely in vitro- and in vivo-produced blastocysts were used as controls. We compared gene expression patterns between each blastocyst group and in vivo blastocyst control group using EmbryoGENE's bovine microarray. The data showed that changing culture conditions from in vivo to in vitro or vice versa, either before or after the time of major EGA, had no effect on the developmental rates; however, in vitro conditions during that time critically influenced the transcriptome of the blastocysts produced. The source of oocyte had a critical effect on developmental rates and the ability of the embryo to react to changing culture conditions. Ontological classification highlighted a marked contrast in expression patterns for lipid metabolism and oxidative stress response between blastocysts generated in vivo versus in vitro, with opposite trends. Molecular mechanisms and pathways that are influenced by altered culture conditions during EGA were defined. These results will help in the development of new strategies to modify culture conditions at this critical stage to enhance the development of competent blastocysts.

  20. Induction by Glucocorticoids of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Production from Bovine Endothelial Cells in Culture and Rat Lung In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Mendelsohn, F. A. O.; Lloyd, C. J.; Kachel, C.; Funder, J. W.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of corticosteroids on angiotensin converting enzyme was investigated in endothelial cell cultures and intact rat lung. Cultured endothelial cells from bovine aorta showed net production of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) over 2 d culture in serum-free medium. Dexamethasone (DM) increased cell ACE activity six- to sevenfold at 100 nM with a threshold effect at 0.3 nM. The effect of DM on ACE production was completely inhibited by actinomycin D or cycloheximide. Deoxycorticosterone (DOC) and aldosterone were markedly less active, with a threshold near 100 nM and significant (two to threefold) stimulation of ACE activity at 1 μM. In cells incubated in the presence of 10 nM DM, DOC (10 μM) significantly inhibited ACE production compared with 10 nM DM alone, suggesting that DOC is a partial agonist/partial antagonist in this enzyme system. Protein content of cells or medium was unchanged by steroids at all doses used. In vivo, adrenalectomized rats showed lower pulmonary ACE compared with intact controls, and when injected with DM (40 μg/d for 4 d) showed a significant (twofold, P < 0.002) increase in lung ACE over oil-injected, adrenalectomized controls; serum ACE did not change. Injection with DOC (40 μg/d) or aldosterone (10 μg/d) had no effect on lung or serum ACE. Over a range (0.6 to 2,000 μg) of concentrations of DM administered daily for 7 d, the dose-response curve of DM for induction of pulmonary ACE mirrored that for thymolysis; for both, half-maximal effects were seen at ∼6 μg DM/d, and plateau levels at 60 μg/d. We conclude that glucocorticoids are potent inducers of ACE activity in endothelial cells in culture and in rat lung in vivo, and that the action of aldosterone and DOC reflects occupancy of glucocorticoid receptors. This effect may be of (patho)physiological relevance in regulating levels of ACE in local vascular beds, and thereby modulating local levels of the vasoactive peptides angiotensin II and bradykinin. PMID:6286730

  1. Cytotoxicity of local anesthetics and nonionic contrast agents on bovine intervertebral disc cells cultured in a three-dimensional culture system.

    PubMed

    Chee, Ana V; Ren, Jing; Lenart, Brett A; Chen, Er-Yun; Zhang, Yejia; An, Howard S

    2014-03-01

    Carragee et al. reported an accelerated progression of lumbar intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration after discography in a human trial. Local anesthetics and contrast agents have exhibited toxicity to cardiac, renal, and neuronal cells. We hypothesize that local anesthetics or contrast agents commonly injected into the disc space during discography may result in cytotoxicity in vitro. In this study, we compared the cytotoxicity of these agents, alone or in combination, using nucleus pulposus (NP) and annulus fibrosus (AF) cells in a three-dimensional (3D) culture system. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of local anesthetics and contrast agents on IVD cells to help guide their usage in future clinical practices. Ours was an in vitro study to assess the cytotoxicity of local anesthetics and contrast agents commonly used in discography, using bovine NP and AF cells cultured in a 3D system. Bovine NP and AF cells were isolated and encapsulated in alginate beads and cultured in media completed with serum and ascorbic acid. Beads were transferred to a 24-well plate and treated with local anesthetics, nonionic contrast agents, or with saline as a control for 2, 6, and 16 hours. Three different concentrations of local anesthetics, lidocaine and bupivacaine, were tested: 0.25%, 0.125%, and 0.0625%. Two different dilutions (1:2 or 1:4) of nonionic contras agents, iohexol and iopamidol, were tested. In a parallel study, beads were incubated with a combination of local anesthetics at equipotent concentrations and contrast agents for 6 hours. Cells were then examined with the LIVE/DEAD cell assay. Live cells (fluorescing green) and dead cells (fluorescing red) were visualized using fluorescent microscopy. The percentage of live cells after treatment was determined. More cell death was observed when NP and AF cells were incubated with anesthetics than contrast agents at the concentrations tested. When tested at equipotent concentrations, 0

  2. Bovine myoblast cell production in a microcarriers-based system.

    PubMed

    Verbruggen, Sanne; Luining, Daan; van Essen, Anon; Post, Mark J

    2017-05-03

    For several tissue engineering applications, in particular food products, scaling up culture of mammalian cells is a necessary task. The prevailing method for large scale cell culture is the stirred tank bioreactor where anchor dependent cells are grown on microcarriers suspended in medium. We use a spinner flask system with cells grown on microcarriers to optimize the growth of bovine myoblasts. Freshly isolated primary cells were seeded on microcarriers (Synthemax(®), CellBIND(®) and Cytodex(®) 1 MCs). In this study, we provide proof of principle that bovine myoblasts can be cultured on microcarriers. No major differences were observed between the three tested microcarriers, except that sparsely populated beads were more common with CellBIND(®) and Synthemax(®) II beads suggesting a slower initiation of exponential growth than on Cytodex(®). We also provide direct evidence that bovine myoblasts display bead-to-bead transfer. A remarkable pick up of growth was observed by adding new MCs. Bovine myoblasts seem to behave like human mesenchymal stem cells. Thus, our results provide valuable data to further develop and scale-up the production of bovine myoblasts as a prerequisite for efficient and cost-effective development of cultured meat. Applicability to other anchorage dependent cells can extend the importance of these results to cell culture for medical tissue engineering or cell therapy.

  3. Effect of Organizational Culture on Patient Access, Care Continuity, and Experience of Primary Care.

    PubMed

    Hung, Dorothy; Chung, Sukyung; Martinez, Meghan; Tai-Seale, Ming

    2016-01-01

    This study examined relationships between organizational culture and patient-centered outcomes in primary care. Generalized least squares regression was used to analyze patient access, care continuity, and reported experiences of care among 357 physicians in 41 primary care departments. Compared with a "Group-oriented" culture, a "Rational" culture type was associated with longer appointment wait times, and both "Hierarchical" and "Developmental" culture types were associated with less care continuity, but better patient experiences with care. Understanding the unique effects of organizational culture can enhance the delivery of more patient-centered care.

  4. Exploring Culture in Locally Published English Textbooks for Primary Education in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkgöz, Yasemin; Agçam, Reyhan

    2011-01-01

    Since language and culture are closely interwoven, the integration of culture into textbooks used for teaching English as a second/foreign language has become a widely accepted phenomenon. This study investigates the cultural elements in locally published English textbooks used for Turkish primary schools following two major curriculum innovations…

  5. Stimulatory actions of bioflavenoids on tyrosine uptake into cultured bovine adrenal chromaffin cells

    SciTech Connect

    Morita, K.; Hamano, S.; Oka, M.; Teraoka, K. )

    1990-09-28

    The effects of flavenoids on L-({sup 14}C)tyrosine uptake into cultured adrenal chromaffin cells were examined. Flavone markedly stimulated tyrosine uptake into these cells in a manner dependent on its concentration. Apigenin also caused a moderate stimulatory action, but quercetin had no significant effect on the uptake. Flavone also stimulated the uptake of histidine, but did not affect the uptake of serine, lysine, or glutamic acid. These results are considered to propose the possibility that flavonoids may be able to stimulate the precursor uptake into the cells, resulting in an enhancement of the biogenic amine production.

  6. Proton NMR characterization of intact primary and metastatic melanoma cells in 2D & 3D cultures.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Gokula Krishnan; Yeow, Chen Hua

    2017-03-16

    To characterize the differences between the primary and metastatic melanoma cell lines grown in 2D cultures and 3D cultures. Primary melanoma cells (WM115) and metastatic melanoma cells (WM266) extracted from a single donor was cultured in 2D as well as 3D cultures. These cells were characterized using proton NMR spectrometry, and the qualitative chemical shifts markers were identified and discussed. In monolayer culture (2D), we observed one qualitative chemical shift marker for primary melanoma cells. In spheroid cultures (3D), we observed nine significant chemical shifts, of which eight markers were specific for primary melanoma spheroids, whereas the other one marker was specific to metastatic melanoma spheroids. This study suggests that the glucose accumulation and phospholipid composition vary significantly between the primary and metastatic cells lines that are obtained from a single donor and also with the cell culturing methods. 14 qualitative chemical shift markers were obtained in the comparison between monolayer culture and spheroids cultures irrespective of the differences in the cell lines. Among which 4 were unique to monolayer cultures whereas 10 chemical shifts were unique to the spheroid cultures. This study also shows that the method of cell culture would drastically affect the phospholipid composition of the cells and also depicts that the cells in spheroid culture closely resembles the cells in vivo. This study shows the high specificity of proton NMR spectrometry in characterizing cancer cell lines and also shows the variations in the glucose accumulation and phospholipid composition between the primary and metastatic melanoma cell lines from the same donor. Differences in the cell culture method does plays an important role in phospholipid composition of the cells.

  7. Establishment of a primary culture method for mouse intestinal epithelial cells by organ culture of fetal small intestine.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Kiyoshi; Sato, Kanako; Morishita, Satoru; Kaminogawa, Shuichi; Totsuka, Mamoru

    2009-08-01

    Studies of the physiological functions of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) have been limited by the difficulty of primary culture of IEC. We established a method for primary culture of mouse IEC by culturing fragments of fetal small intestines pretreated with EDTA. This method reproducibly resulted in the expansion of cytokeratin-positive epithelial cells, and vigorous expansion of the epithelial cells was observed only from intestinal fragments of embryonic days 15-16. These cells expressed alkaline phosphatase activity and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules, indicating the mature phenotype of IEC in a small intestine. The cells also presented antigens to CD4(+) T cells. Furthermore, the cells expressed various cytokines and chemokines, and the expression was enhanced by bacterial stimulation. These results indicate that the primary-cultured mouse IEC prepared by the method established here can be a beneficial tool in study of the functions of IECs, especially in mucosal immunity.

  8. In vitro development of cloned bovine embryos produced by handmade cloning using somatic cells from distinct levels of cell culture confluence.

    PubMed

    Gerger, R P C; Ribeiro, E S; Forell, F; Bertolini, L R; Rodrigues, J L; Ambrósio, C E; Miglino, M A; Mezzalira, A; Bertolini, M

    2010-02-18

    The relationship between the level of cell confluence near the plateau phase of growth and blastocyst yield following somatic cell cloning is not well understood. We examined the effect of distinct cell culture confluence levels on in vitro development of cloned bovine embryos. In vitro-matured bovine oocytes were manually bisected and selected by DNA staining. One or two enucleated hemi-cytoplasts were paired and fused with an adult skin somatic cell. Cultured skin cells from an adult Nellore cow harvested at three distinct culture confluence levels (70-80, 80-90, and >95%) were used for construction of embryos and hemi-embryos. After activation, structures were cultured in vitro as one embryo (1 x 100%) or as aggregates of two hemi-embryos (2 x 50%) per microwell. Fusion, cleavage and blastocyst rates were compared using the chi(2) test. The fusion rate for hemi-embryos (51.4%) was lower than for embryos (67.6%), with no influence of degree of cell confluence. However, blastocyst rates improved linearly (7.0, 17.5, and 29.4%) with increases in cell confluence. We conclude that degree of cell culture confluence significantly influences subsequent embryo development; use of a cell population in high confluence (>90%) for nuclear transfer significantly improved blastocyst yield after cloning.

  9. Comparison of colony-formation efficiency of bovine fetal fibroblast cell lines cultured with low oxygen, hydrocortisone, L-carnosine, bFGF, or different levels of FBS.

    PubMed

    Talbot, Neil C; Powell, Anne M; Caperna, Thomas J

    2004-01-01

    A comparison of colony-formation efficiency (CFE) was made between six independent bovine fetal fibroblast (BFF) cell lines used in somatic cell nuclear transfer. Variation in CFE was assessed under different culture conditions. The conditions examined were ambient atmosphere (approximately 20% oxygen) culture versus 5% oxygen culture, three levels of fetal bovine serum (FBS) in the medium (5%, 10% or 20%), and the amendment of 10% FBS medium with basic fibroblast growth factor (1 ng/mL), L-carnosine (20 mM), or hydrocortisone (1 microM). The six BFF cell lines showed significant differences from one another in CFE. No significant difference in CFE was found with reduced oxygen culture. L-Carnosine also had no significant effect on CFE. A FBS concentration of 10% was found to produce the best overall CFE. Hydrocortisone treatment reduced the size of colonies although the number of colonies formed was not affected. Basic FGF increased the size of colonies but the number of colonies formed was not affected. The results showed that different BFF cell lines varied significantly in their CFE. Also, some medium supplements or culture conditions that have shown positive CFE effects on the fibroblasts of other species failed to show significant positive CFE effects on the BFF cell lines tested.

  10. Cultural democracy: the way forward for primary care of hard to reach New Zealanders.

    PubMed

    Finau, Sitaleki A; Finau, Eseta

    2007-09-01

    The use of cultural democracy, the freedom to practice one's culture without fear, as a framework for primary care service provision is essential for improved health service in a multi cultural society like New Zealand. It is an effective approach to attaining health equity for all. Many successful health ventures are ethnic specific and have gone past cultural competency to the practice of cultural democracy. That is, the services are freely taking on the realities of clients without and malice from those of other ethnicities. In New Zealand the scientific health service to improve the health of a multi cultural society are available but there is a need to improve access and utilization by hard to reach New Zealanders. This paper discusses cultural democracy and provide example of how successful health ventures that had embraced cultural democracy were implemented. It suggests that cultural democracy will provide the intellectual impetus and robust philosophy for moving from equality to equity in health service access and utilization. This paper would provide a way forward to improved primary care utilization, efficiency, effectiveness and equitable access especially for the hard to reach populations. use the realities of Pacificans in New Zealand illustrate the use of cultural democracy, and thus equity to address the "inverse care law" of New Zealand. The desire is for primary care providers to take cognizance and use cultural democracy and equity as the basis for the design and practice of primary health care for the hard to reach New Zealanders.

  11. Effect of cell shrinkage on permeability of cultured bovine aortic endothelia and frog mesenteric capillaries.

    PubMed Central

    Kajimura, M; O'Donnell, M E; Curry, F E

    1997-01-01

    1. We have tested the hypothesis that a reduction in endothelial cell volume increases microvessel permeability and that the degree of endothelial cell attachment to their basement membranes determines the magnitude of permeability changes caused by a reduction in endothelial cell volume. 2. A decrease in endothelial cell volume was imposed on both intact microvessels and cultured endothelial monolayers by raising osmolarity by 100 mosmol l-1. 3. We found that hypertonic solutions did not increase the hydraulic permeability (Lp) of individually perfused venular microvessels in frog mesentery when the perfusate contained albumin. Hypertonic solutions did increase Lp, however, after we perfused the microvessels with the peptide Gly-Arg-Gly Asp-Thr-Pro (GRGDTP; 0.3 mmol l-1), to disrupt integrin-dependent endothelial cell (EC) attachment to the extracellular matrix (ECM). 4. After albumin was removed from the perfusate, hypertonic solutions increased Lp of microvessels and the permeability of endothelial monolayers to alpha-lactalbumin. 5. Our findings indicate that endothelial cell integrin-ECM binding plays a role in transducing changes in cell volume and/or shape into changes in permeability. We hypothesize that removal of albumin from the vascular perfusate may compromise EC-ECM interactions via an integrin-dependent mechanism. PMID:9306282

  12. Pericellular oxygen concentration of cultured primary human trophoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Baosheng; Longtine, Mark S.; Nelson, D. Michael

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Oxygen is pivotal in placental development and function. In vitro culture of human trophoblasts provides a useful model to study this phenomenon, but a hotly debated issue is whether or not the oxygen tension of the culture conditions mimics in vivo conditions. We tested the hypothesis that ambient oxygen tensions in culture reflect the pericellular oxygen levels. Methods We used a microelectrode oxygen sensor to measure the concentration of dissolved oxygen in the culture medium equilibrated with 21%, 8% or <0.5% oxygen. Results The concentration of oxygen in medium without cells resembled that in the ambient atmosphere. The oxygen concentration present in medium bathing trophoblasts was remarkably dependent on the depth within the medium where sampling occurred, and the oxygen concentration within the overlying atmosphere was not reflected in medium immediately adjacent to the cells. Indeed, the pericellular oxygen concentration was in a range that most would consider severe hypoxia, at ≤ 0.6% oxygen or about 4.6 mm Hg, when the overlying atmosphere was 21% oxygen. Conclusions We conclude that culture conditions of 21% oxygen are unable to replicate the pO2 of 40–60 mm Hg commonly attributed to the maternal blood in the intervillous space in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. We further surmise that oxygen atmospheres in culture conditions between 0.5% and 21% provide different oxygen fluxes in the immediate pericellular environment yet can still yield insights into the responses of human trophoblast to different oxygen conditions. PMID:23211472

  13. A meta-ethnography of organisational culture in primary care medical practice.

    PubMed

    Grant, Suzanne; Guthrie, Bruce; Entwistle, Vikki; Williams, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, there has been growing international interest in shaping local organisational cultures in primary healthcare. However, the contextual relevance of extant culture assessment instruments to the primary care context has been questioned. The aim of this paper is to derive a new contextually appropriate understanding of the key dimensions of primary care medical practice organisational culture and their inter-relationship through a synthesis of published qualitative research. A systematic search of six electronic databases followed by a synthesis using techniques of meta-ethnography involving translation and re-interpretation. A total of 16 papers were included in the meta-ethnography from the UK, the USA, Canada, Australia and New Zealand that fell into two related groups: those focused on practice organisational characteristics and narratives of practice individuality; and those focused on sub-practice variation across professional, managerial and administrative lines. It was found that primary care organisational culture was characterised by four key dimensions, i.e. responsiveness, team hierarchy, care philosophy and communication. These dimensions are multi-level and inter-professional in nature, spanning both practice and sub-practice levels. The research contributes to organisational culture theory development. The four new cultural dimensions provide a synthesized conceptual framework for researchers to evaluate and understand primary care cultural and sub-cultural levels. The synthesised cultural dimensions present a framework for practitioners to understand and change organisational culture in primary care teams. The research uses an innovative research methodology to synthesise the existing qualitative research and is one of the first to develop systematically a qualitative conceptual framing of primary care organisational culture.

  14. Interaction between cadmium and zinc in the production and sulfation of glycosaminoglycans in cultured bovine vascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ohkawara, S; Kaji, T; Yamamoto, C; Fujiwara, Y; Sakamoto, M; Kozuka, H

    1996-02-09

    Previously, we showed that cadmium stimulates the production of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) but inhibits their sulfation in cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells. The effect of zinc on such alterations of GAGs induced by cadmium was investigated in the present study. The incorporation of [3H]glucosamine and [35S]sulfate into GAGs was determined by the cetylpyridinium chloride precipitation method as a marker of GAG production and GAG sulfation, respectively. The incorporation of both [3H]glucosamine and [35S]sulfate was not changed in GAGs accumulated in the endothelial cell layer and the conditioned medium after exposure to zinc at 20 micrometers or less alone. A simultaneous exposure of the endothelial cell layer to zinc at 20 micrometers or less and cadmium at 2 micrometers resulted in prevention of the cadmium-induced decrease in [35S]sulfate incorporation; however, the cadmium-induced increase in [3H]glucosamine incorporation was not affected by zinc. Characterization of GAGs in the cell layer revealed that such an interaction between zinc and cadmium occurred in both heparan sulfate and the other GAGs. Zinc significantly prevented the inhibition of either [3H]thymidine or [3H]leucine incorporation caused by cadmium with less accumulation of intracellular cadmium suggesting that zinc decreased intracellular cadmium and protected endothelial cells from cadmium-induced inhibition of DNA and protein synthesis. The present data showed that a simultaneous exposure to cadmium and zinc resulted in an increase in heparan sulfate without a reduction of sulfation in the endothelial cell layer. The alteration may potentiate the antihrombogenic property of vascular endothelium.

  15. Interaction between cadmium and zinc in the production and sulfation of glycosaminoglycans in cultured bovine vascular endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ohkawara, Susumu; Kaji, Toshiyuki; Yamamoto, Chika

    1996-02-09

    Previously, we showed that cadmium stimulates the production of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) but inhibits their sulfation in cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells. The effect of zinc on such alterations of GAGs induced by cadmium was investigated in the present study. The incorporation of [{sup 3}H]glucosamine and [{sup 35}S]sulfate into GAGs was determined by the cetylpyridinium chloride precipitation method as a marker of GAG production and GAG sulfation, respectively. The incorporation of both [{sup 3}H]glucosamine and [{sup 35}S]sulfate was not changed in GAGs accumulated in the endothelial cell layer and the conditioned medium after exposure to zinc at 20 {mu}M or less alone. A simultaneous exposure of the endothelial cell layer to zinc at 20 {mu}M or less and cadmium at 2{mu}M resulted in prevention of the cadmium-induced decrease in [{sup 35}S]sulfate incorporation; however, the cadmium-induced increase in [{sup 3}H]glucosamine incorporation was not affected by zinc. Characterization of GAGs in the cell layer revealed that such an interaction between zinc and cadmium occurred in both heparan sulfate and the other GAGs. Zinc significantly prevented the inhibition of either [{sup 3}H]thymidine or [{sup 3}H]leucine incorporation caused by cadmium with cadmium and protected endothelial cells from cadmium-induced inhibition of DNA and protein synthesis. The present data showed that a simultaneous exposure to cadmium and zinc resulted in an increase in heparan sulfate without a reduction of sulfation in the endothelial cell layer. The alteration may potentiate the antithrombogenic property of vascular endothelium. 30 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Characterization of a novel, hydrophilic dihydropyridine, NKY-722, as a Ca2+ antagonist in bovine cultured adrenal chromaffin cells.

    PubMed Central

    Ohue, T.; Lee, K.; Koshimura, K.; Miwa, S.

    1991-01-01

    1. To characterize NKY-722, a novel hydrophilic dihydropyridine derivative, as a Ca2+ antagonist, we examined its effects on 45Ca2+ influx, intracellular free Ca2+ concentrations [( Ca2+]i), and release of noradrenaline and adrenaline in bovine cultured adrenal chromaffin cells. 2. NKY-722 had little effect on basal 45Ca2+ influx into the resting cells, but inhibited high K+ (35.9 mM)-evoked 45Ca2+ influx in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC50 value of 5.2 nM. 3. NKY-722 inhibited high K(+)-evoked increases in [Ca2+]i in a concentration-dependent manner without effect on the resting [Ca2+]i. 4. NKY-722 had little effect on basal release of noradrenaline and adrenaline but inhibited high K(+)-evoked release of noradrenaline and adrenaline in a concentration-dependent manner with IC50 values of 5.0 nM and 4.8 nM, respectively. 5. Nicardipine, a prototype of NKY-722, also inhibited high K(+)-evoked 45Ca2+ influx and release of noradrenaline and adrenaline in a concentration-dependent manner: the IC50 value for high K(+)-evoked 45Ca2+ influx was 51 nM, and the values for high K(+)-evoked release of noradrenaline and adrenaline were 52 nM and 50 nM, respectively. 6. These results show that NKY-722 is a hydrophilic Ca2+ antagonist ten times more potent than nicardipine. PMID:1912977

  17. Preferential adsorption of fetal bovine serum on bare and aromatic thiol-functionalized gold surfaces in cell culture media.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin; Park, Jin-Ho; Ock, Kwang-Su; Ganbold, Erdene-Ochir; Song, Nam Woong; Cho, Keunchang; Lee, So Yeong; Joo, Sang-Woo

    2011-11-01

    Intracellular uptake of serum-coated gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in a single mammalian cell was examined in order to investigate the interactions of cell culture media and aromatic thiol-functionalized gold surfaces using micro-spectroscopic tools. The AuNPs modified by the aromatic thiols of para-aminobenzenethiol (ABT), para-hydroxy benzenethiol (HBT), and para-carboxylic benzenethiol (CBT, para-mercaptobenzoic acid) bearing NH(2), OH, and COOH surface functional groups are presumed to adsorb the serum proteins as indicated from the compiled quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) data. The QCM results indicate that among the constituents, fetal bovine serum (FBS) should be the major adsorbate species on AuNPs incubated in Roswell Park Memorial Institute (RPMI) medium. The functionalized AuNPs were found to be internalized as an aggregation state in mammalian cells as evidenced by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images. We monitored such cellular uptake behaviors of aromatic thiol-modified AuNPs using dark-field microscopy (DFM)-guided confocal surface-enhanced Raman scattering techniques in order to identify the three-dimensional localization inside the single cell. We found that the uptake amounts of ABT, HBT, and CBT were similar by counting up to 70 particles inside the cells incubated in the solution mixture of the aromatic thiol and 1,4-phenylenediisocyanide (PDIC) as a reference. This result indicates for the short aromatic thiol compounds, the AuNPs should enter the cell after the serum-coating regardless of the surface functional groups. Considering that the aromatic thiols have little effect on the serum coating, the DFM/SERS method is an effective tool for monitoring the localization of AuNPs inside a single cell. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Monitoring preantral follicle survival and growth in bovine ovarian biopsies by repeated use of neutral red and cultured in vitro under low and high oxygen tension.

    PubMed

    Jorssen, Ellen P A; Langbeen, An; Fransen, Erik; Martinez, Emilia L; Leroy, Jo L M R; Bols, Peter E J

    2014-08-01

    The development and optimization of preantral follicle culture methods are crucial in fertility preservation strategies. As preantral follicle dynamics are usually assessed by various invasive techniques, the need for alternative noninvasive evaluation tools exists. Recently, neutral red (NR) was put forward to visualize preantral follicles in situ within ovarian cortical fragments. However, intense light exposure of NR-stained tissues can lead to cell death because of increased reactive oxygen species production, which is also associated with elevated oxygen tension. Therefore, we hypothesize that after repeated NR staining, follicle viability and dynamics can be altered by changes in oxygen tension. In the present study, we aim (1) to determine whether NR can be used to repeatedly assess follicular growth, activation, and viability and (2) to assess the effect of a low (5% O2) or high (20% O2) oxygen tension on the viability, growth, and stage transition of preantral follicles cultured in vitro by means of repeated NR staining. Cortical slices (n = 132; six replicates) from bovine ovaries were incubated for 3 hours at 37 °C in a Leibovitz medium with 50 μg/mL NR. NR-stained follicles were evaluated in situ for follicle diameter and morphology. Next, cortical fragments were individually cultured in McCoy's 5A medium for 6 days at 37 °C, 5% CO2, and 5% or 20% O2. On Days 4 and 6, the fragments were restained by adding NR to the McCoy's medium and follicles were reassessed. In both low and high oxygen tension treatment groups, approximately 70% of the initial follicles survived a 6-day in vitro culture, but no significant difference in follicle survival on Day 4 or 6 could be observed compared with Day 0 (P > 0.05). A significant decrease in the number of primordial and increase in primary and secondary follicles was observed within 4 days of culture (P < 0.001). In addition, a significant increase of the mean follicle diameter in NR-stained follicles was

  19. Low oxygen tension and relative defined culture medium with 3, 4-dihydroxyflavone are beneficial for yak-bovine interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer embryo.

    PubMed

    Xiong, X; Li, J; Wang, L; Zhong, J; Zi, X; Wang, Y

    2014-02-01

    With an aim to improve the efficiency of yak-bovine interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT), this study investigated the effect of different culture systems on the development, quality and gene expression profile of yak-bovine iSCNT embryo. Reconstructed embryos were cultured in modified synthetic oviductal fluid (mSOF) or relative defined culture medium (RDCM) with 5% or 20% oxygen tension. Relative mRNA abundance of Oct-4, IFNT, IGF-2, Bax, GPX-1, SOD-1, CAT and GSS was analysed in blastocysts with qRT-PCR. The blastocyst formation rate in RDCM under 5% oxygen tension was significantly higher than that under 20% oxygen tension (P < 0.05). The total cell number of blastocyst derived from RDCM with 20% oxygen tension was lower than that of other groups, whereas the group of RDCM with 5% oxygen tension showed a beneficial effect on apoptosis index and tolerance to cryopreservation (P < 0.05). However, under the same oxygen tension, the mRNA abundance of IFNT of RDCM groups was higher than that of the mSOF groups. In addition, high oxygen tension during in vitro culture (IVC) with RDCM significantly increases the mRNA expression of oxidative stress-related genes (GPX-1, SOD-1, CAT and GSS) (P < 0.05). 3, 4-Dihydroxyflavone (DHF) during high oxygen tension was able to improve the cloned blastocyst formation rate in RDCM (P < 0.05). These results for the first time showed that low oxygen tension and RDCM could improve the developmental competence and quality and alleviate the oxidative stress for yak-bovine iSCNT embryo during IVC. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. An Air-Liquid Interface Culture System for 3D Organoid Culture of Diverse Primary Gastrointestinal Tissues.

    PubMed

    Li, Xingnan; Ootani, Akifumi; Kuo, Calvin

    2016-01-01

    Conventional in vitro analysis of gastrointestinal epithelium usually relies on two-dimensional (2D) culture of epithelial cell lines as monolayer on impermeable surfaces. However, the lack of context of differentiation and tissue architecture in 2D culture can hinder the faithful recapitulation of the phenotypic and morphological characteristics of native epithelium. Here, we describe a robust long-term three-dimensional (3D) culture methodology for gastrointestinal culture, which incorporates both epithelial and mesenchymal/stromal components into a collagen-based air-liquid interface 3D culture system. This system allows vigorously expansion of primary gastrointestinal epithelium for over 60 days as organoids with both proliferation and multilineage differentiation, indicating successful long-term intestinal culture within a microenvironment accurately recapitulating the stem cell niche.

  1. The global effect of follicle-stimulating hormone and tumour necrosis factor α on gene expression in cultured bovine ovarian granulosa cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Oocytes mature in ovarian follicles surrounded by granulosa cells. During follicle growth, granulosa cells replicate and secrete hormones, particularly steroids close to ovulation. However, most follicles cease growing and undergo atresia or regression instead of ovulating. To investigate the effects of stimulatory (follicle-stimulating hormone; FSH) and inhibitory (tumour necrosis factor alpha; TNFα) factors on the granulosa cell transcriptome, bovine ovaries were obtained from a local abattoir and pools of granulosa cells were cultured in vitro for six days under defined serum-free conditions with treatments present on days 3–6. Initially dose–response experiments (n = 4) were performed to determine the optimal concentrations of FSH (0.33 ng/ml) and TNFα (10 ng/ml) to be used for the microarray experiments. For array experiments cells were cultured under control conditions, with FSH, with TNFα, or with FSH plus TNFα (n = 4 per group) and RNA was harvested for microarray analyses. Results Statistical analysis showed primary clustering of the arrays into two groups, control/FSH and TNFα/TNFα plus FSH. The effect of TNFα on gene expression dominated that of FSH, with substantially more genes differentially regulated, and the pathways and genes regulated by TNFα being similar to those of FSH plus TNFα treatment. TNFα treatment reduced the endocrine activity of granulosa cells with reductions in expression of FST, INHA, INBA and AMH. The top-ranked canonical pathways and GO biological terms for the TNFα treatments included antigen presentation, inflammatory response and other pathways indicative of innate immune function and fibrosis. The two most significant networks also reflect this, containing molecules which are present in the canonical pathways of hepatic fibrosis/hepatic stellate cell activation and transforming growth factor β signalling, and these were up regulated. Upstream regulator analyses also predicted TNF, interferons γ and

  2. Transformation of adult rat cardiac myocytes in primary culture.

    PubMed

    Banyasz, Tamas; Lozinskiy, Ilya; Payne, Charles E; Edelmann, Stephanie; Norton, Byron; Chen, Biyi; Chen-Izu, Ye; Izu, Leighton T; Balke, C William

    2008-03-01

    We characterized the morphological, electrical and mechanical alterations of cardiomyocytes in long-term cell culture. Morphometric parameters, sarcomere length, T-tubule density, cell capacitance, L-type calcium current (I(Ca,L)), inward rectifier potassium current (I(K1)), cytosolic calcium transients, action potential and contractile parameters of adult rat ventricular myocytes were determined on each day of 5 days in culture. We also analysed the health of the myocytes using an apoptotic/necrotic viability assay. The data show that myocytes undergo profound morphological and functional changes during culture. We observed a progressive reduction in the cell area (from 2502 +/- 70 microm(2) on day 0 to 1432 +/- 50 microm(2) on day 5), T-tubule density, systolic shortening (from 0.11 +/- 0.02 to 0.05 +/- 0.01 microm) and amplitude of calcium transients (from 1.54 +/- 0.19 to 0.67 +/- 0.19) over 5 days of culture. The negative force-frequency relationship, characteristic of rat myocardium, was maintained during the first 2 days but diminished thereafter. Cell capacitance (from 156 +/- 8 to 105 +/- 11 pF) and membrane currents were also reduced (I(Ca,L), from 3.98 +/- 0.39 to 2.12 +/- 0.37 pA pF; and I(K1), from 34.34p +/- 2.31 to 18.00 +/- 5.97 pA pF(-1)). We observed progressive depolarization of the resting membrane potential during culture (from 77.3 +/- 2.5 to 34.2 +/- 5.9 mV) and, consequently, action potential morphology was profoundly altered as well. The results of the viability assays indicate that these alterations could not be attributed to either apoptosis or necrosis but are rather an adaptation to the culture conditions over time.

  3. Flows of liquid and electrical current through monolayers of cultured bovine arterial endothelium.

    PubMed Central

    Turner, M R

    1992-01-01

    1. Monolayers of arterial endothelium on porous membranes were exposed to a constant pressure between 15 and 35 cmH2O. The rates of liquid flow per unit area (Jv/A) through the monolayers were monitored, together with the electrical resistance (Rm) of the endothelium. 2. At constant pressure, Jv/A decreased with an approximately exponential time course, towards a stable baseline value. This behaviour resembles the sealing previously described for cultured vascular endothelium. At 30-35 cmH2O and 37 degrees C, the mean (+/- S.E.M.) half-time (t1/2) of the decrease in Jv/A (the sealing t1/2) was 548 +/- 141 S (n = 5). The difference between the initial and baseline values of Jv/A was expressed as a fraction of the initial value. The mean (+/- S.E.M.) of this sealing fraction was 0.64 +/- 0.03 (n = 5). Mean (+/- S.E.M.) hydraulic permeability (Lp) was 23.9 +/- 6.4 x 10(-7) cm S-1 cmH2O-1 (n = 9), when measured after sealing. Endothelium appeared damaged after sealing at 30-35 cmH2O and 37 degrees C. 3. Sealing was also observed using glutaraldehyde-fixed endothelium at 30-33 cmH2O and 26-28 degrees C. There was no significant difference between the mean sealing t1/2 of these fixed monolayers, and that of unfixed endothelium at 30-35 cmH2O and 37 degrees C. However, mean sealing fraction was significantly larger for the fixed monolayers than for unfixed endothelium at 30-35 cmH2O and 37 degrees C. There were no significant difference between the post-sealing Lps of these fixed and unfixed monolayers, although the fixed monolayers appeared undamaged after sealing. 4. For unfixed endothelium, Rm was lower after sealing at 30-35 cmH2O and 37 degrees C than before pressure application. There was no significant difference between endothelial Rm before and after sealing, for glutaraldehyde-fixed monolayers. 5. Sealing was also observed at 0 degree C, using unfixed endothelium at 30 cmH2O. Mean sealing t1/2 was not significantly different from that of unfixed endothelium at

  4. Revisiting bovine pyometra--new insights into the disease using a culture-independent deep sequencing approach.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, Lif Rødtness Vesterby; Karstrup, Cecilia Christensen; Pedersen, Hanne Gervi; Agerholm, Jørgen Steen; Jensen, Tim Kåre; Klitgaard, Kirstine

    2015-02-25

    The bacteria present in the uterus during pyometra have previously been studied using bacteriological culturing. These studies identified Fusobacterium necrophorum and Trueperella pyogenes as the major contributors to the pathogenesis of pyometra. However, an increasing number of culture-independent studies have demonstrated that the bacterial diversity in most environments is underestimated in culture-based studies. Consequently, fastidious pyometra-associated pathogens may have been overlooked. Therefore, the primary purpose of this study was to investigate the diversity of bacteria in the uterus of cows with pyometra by using culture-independent 16S rRNA PCR combined with next generation sequencing. We investigated the microbial composition in the uterus of 21 cows with pyometra, which were obtained from a Danish slaughterhouse. Similar to the observations from the culture studies, Fusobacteriaceae, the family that F. necrophorum belongs to, was the operational taxonomic unit (OTU) observed in the largest quantities. By contrast, the Actinomycetaceae family, which includes T. pyogenes, constituted only 1% of the total number of reads. Thus we cannot confirm the previously reported role of species from this family in the pathogenesis of pyometra. Finally, we identified a large number of sequences representing three families of Gram-negative bacteria in the pyometra samples: Porphyromonadaceae, Mycoplasmataceae, and Pasteurellaceae. It is likely that these families comprise potential pathogenic species of a fastidious nature, which have been overlooked in previous studies. Our results increase the knowledge of the complexity of the pyometra microbiota and suggest that pathogens in addition to F. necrophorum may be involved in the pathogenesis of pyometra.

  5. Homophobia, Transphobia and Culture: Deconstructing Heteronormativity in English Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DePalma, Renee; Jennett, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This article presents some of the advances in legal support for addressing homophobia and transphobia in school settings and provides a critique of school-based policies that focus on these phenomena as particular incidents involving bullies and victims. Defining heteronormativity as a cultural phenomenon underpinning recognisable acts of…

  6. Homophobia, Transphobia and Culture: Deconstructing Heteronormativity in English Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DePalma, Renee; Jennett, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This article presents some of the advances in legal support for addressing homophobia and transphobia in school settings and provides a critique of school-based policies that focus on these phenomena as particular incidents involving bullies and victims. Defining heteronormativity as a cultural phenomenon underpinning recognisable acts of…

  7. Pyrethroid insecticide accumulation in primary cultures of cortical neurons in vitro

    EPA Science Inventory

    Primary cultures of neurons have been widely utilized to study the actions of pyrethroids and other neurotoxicants, with the presumption that the media concentration accurately reflects the dose received by the cells. However, recent studies have demonstrated that lipophilic comp...

  8. Establishing and maintaining primary cell cultures derived from the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi.

    PubMed

    Vandepas, Lauren E; Warren, Kaitlyn J; Amemiya, Chris T; Browne, William E

    2017-04-01

    We have developed an efficient method for the preparation and maintenance of primary cell cultures isolated from adult Mnemiopsis leidyi, a lobate ctenophore. Our primary cell cultures are derived from tissue explants or enzymatically dissociated cells, and maintained in a complex undefined ctenophore mesogleal serum. These methods can be used to isolate, maintain and visually monitor ctenophore cells to assess proliferation, cellular morphology and cell differentiation in future studies. Exemplar cell types that can be easily isolated from primary cultures include proliferative ectodermal and endodermal cells, motile amebocyte-like cells, and giant smooth muscle cells that exhibit inducible contractile properties. We have also derived 'tissue envelopes' containing sections of endodermal canal surrounded by mesoglea and ectoderm that can be used to monitor targeted cell types in an in vivo context. Access to efficient and reliably generated primary cell cultures will facilitate the analysis of ctenophore development, physiology and morphology from a cell biological perspective.

  9. Toward a world-class culture in primary care: listening to the voice of the customer.

    PubMed

    Benson, D S

    1996-01-01

    This article on creating a world-class culture in primary care stresses the importance of customers. The concept of patients as external customers is addressed; the emphasis, however, is on healthcare professionals' responsibilities toward one another as internal customers.

  10. Correction: Understanding metal homeostasis in primary cultured neurons. Studies using single neuron subcellular and quantitative metallomics.

    PubMed

    Colvin, Robert A; Lai, Barry; Holmes, William R; Lee, Daewoo

    2015-09-01

    Correction for 'Understanding metal homeostasis in primary cultured neurons. Studies using single neuron subcellular and quantitative metallomics' by Robert A. Colvin et al., Metallomics, 2015, 7, 1111-1123.

  11. Pyrethroid insecticide accumulation in primary cultures of cortical neurons in vitro

    EPA Science Inventory

    Primary cultures of neurons have been widely utilized to study the actions of pyrethroids and other neurotoxicants, with the presumption that the media concentration accurately reflects the dose received by the cells. However, recent studies have demonstrated that lipophilic comp...

  12. Bone-forming capacity of mesenchymal stromal cells when cultured in the presence of human platelet lysate as substitute for fetal bovine serum.

    PubMed

    Prins, Henk-Jan; Rozemuller, Henk; Vonk-Griffioen, Simone; Verweij, Vivienne G M; Dhert, Wouter J A; Slaper-Cortenbach, Ineke C M; Martens, Anton C M

    2009-12-01

    In tissue engineering, strategies are being developed to repair large bone defects by combining biomaterials and bone marrow-derived multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). For expansion of MSCs under good manufacturing practice conditions, human platelet lysate (PL) can serve as substitute for fetal bovine serum (FBS) in culture media. We compared the in vivo bone-forming capacity of passage 3 MSCs cultured with either PL or FBS for nine different human donors. We also tested the growth kinetics, antigen expression profile, and the multilineage differentiation capacity in vitro of these MSCs. The in vivo bone-forming capacity was determined by seeding culture-expanded MSCs onto biphasic calcium phosphate scaffolds. Hybrid constructs were implanted subcutaneously in nude mice, retrieved after 6 weeks, and analyzed using histomorphometry. PL-supplemented cultures resulted in significantly larger colonies, shorter culture time period, and higher population doublings between P1 and P3 compared to FBS-containing cultures. No differences were observed in antigen expression profiles or differentiation capacities into the osteoblastic, chondrogenic, and adipogenic lineages, qualitatively. In vivo bone formation with PL-supplemented cultures of MSCs was demonstrated in 9/9 donors versus 6/9 for FBS-supplemented cultures. These results warrant the use of PL for ex vivo expansion of human MSCs for bone tissue engineering applications.

  13. Cartilaginous constructs using primary chondrocytes from continuous expansion culture seeded in dense collagen gels.

    PubMed

    Rosenzweig, D H; Chicatun, F; Nazhat, S N; Quinn, T M

    2013-12-01

    Cell-based therapies such as autologous chondrocyte implantation require in vitro cell expansion. However, standard culture techniques require cell passaging, leading to dedifferentiation into a fibroblast-like cell type. Primary chondrocytes grown on continuously expanding culture dishes (CE culture) limits passaging and protects against dedifferentiation. The authors tested whether CE culture chondrocytes were advantageous for producing mechanically competent cartilage matrix when three-dimensionally seeded in dense collagen gels. Primary chondrocytes, grown either in CE culture or passaged twice on static silicone dishes (SS culture; comparable to standard methods), were seeded in dense collagen gels and cultured for 3 weeks in the absence of exogenous chondrogenic growth factors. Compared with gels seeded with SS culture chondrocytes, CE chondrocyte-seeded gels had significantly higher chondrogenic gene expression after 2 and 3 weeks in culture, correlating with significantly higher aggrecan and type II collagen protein accumulation. There was no obvious difference in glycosaminoglycan content from either culture condition, yet CE chondrocyte-seeded gels were significantly thicker and had a significantly higher dynamic compressive modulus than SS chondrocyte-seeded gels after 3 weeks. Chondrocytes grown in CE culture and seeded in dense collagen gels produce more cartilaginous matrix with superior mechanical properties, making them more suitable than SS cultured cells for tissue engineering applications. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparison of two DNA extractions and nested PCR, real-time PCR, a new commercial PCR assay, and bacterial culture for detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in bovine feces.

    PubMed

    Christopher-Hennings, Jane; Dammen, Matthew A; Weeks, Shelleen R; Epperson, William B; Singh, Shri N; Steinlicht, Gina L; Fang, Ying; Skaare, Jessica L; Larsen, Jill L; Payeur, Janet B; Nelson, Eric A

    2003-03-01

    In this study, 5 combinations of 2 DNA extractions and 3 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques were compared with culture for the detection of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis directly from bovine feces. These combinations included a new commercial extraction technique combined with a commercial PCR/Southern blot technique, nested PCR (nPCR), or real-time PCR, and a university-developed extraction combined with nPCR or real-time PCR. Four of the 5 combinations had statistically similar sensitivities between 93% and 100% and specificity between 95% and 100%, when compared with culture results from 63 bovine fecal samples. These results indicated that using a commercial extraction with a commercial PCR/Southern blot, nPCR, or real-time PCR, or a university-developed extraction with real-time PCR would result in similar sensitivities to culture for the identification of M. paratuberculosis from bovine feces and are valid alternatives to culture.

  15. Organizational culture predicts job satisfaction and perceived clinical effectiveness in pediatric primary care practices.

    PubMed

    Brazil, Kevin; Wakefield, Dorothy B; Cloutier, Michelle M; Tennen, Howard; Hall, Charles B

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a growing understanding that organizational culture is related to an organization's performance. However, few studies have examined organizational culture in medical group practices. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of organizational culture on provider job satisfaction and perceived clinical effectiveness in primary care pediatric practices. This cross-sectional study included 36 primary care pediatric practices located in Connecticut. There were 374 participants in this study, which included 127 clinicians and 247 nonclinicians. Office managers completed a questionnaire that recorded staff and practice characteristics; all participants completed the Organizational Culture Scale, a questionnaire that assessed the practice on four cultural domains (i.e., group, developmental, rational, and hierarchical), and the Primary Care Organizational Questionnaire that evaluated perceived effectiveness and job satisfaction. Hierarchical linear models using a restricted maximum likelihood estimation method were used to evaluate whether the practice culture types predicted job satisfaction and perceived effectiveness. Group culture was positively associated with both satisfaction and perceived effectiveness. In contrast, hierarchical and rational culture were negatively associated with both job satisfaction and perceived effectiveness. These relationships were true for clinicians, nonclinicians, and the practice as a whole. Our study demonstrates that practice culture is associated with job satisfaction and perceived clinical effectiveness and that a group culture was associated with high job satisfaction and perceived effectiveness.

  16. Family, Culture and Achievement in the Primary Schools of Botswana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Patrick D.

    This paper traces the development of the educational system of Botswana, a small south African country of one million, emphasizing its democratic origins and customs, historical influences, social trends, and economic support. Changes in the educational system, especially in universal primary education, since its independence from Great Britain in…

  17. Adherent Primary Cultures of Mouse Intercostal Muscle Fibers for Isolated Fiber Studies

    PubMed Central

    Robison, Patrick; Hernández-Ochoa, Erick O.; Schneider, Martin F.

    2011-01-01

    Primary culture models of single adult skeletal muscle fibers dissociated from locomotor muscles adhered to glass coverslips are routine and allow monitoring of functional processes in living cultured fibers. To date, such isolated fiber cultures have not been established for respiratory muscles, despite the fact that dysfunction of core respiratory muscles leading to respiratory arrest is the most common cause of death in many muscular diseases. Here we present the first description of an adherent culture system for single adult intercostal muscle fibers from the adult mouse. This system allows for monitoring functional properties of these living muscle fibers in culture with or without electrical field stimulation to drive muscle fiber contraction at physiological or pathological respiratory firing patterns. We also provide initial characterization of these fibers, demonstrating several common techniques in this new model system in the context of the established Flexor Digitorum Brevis muscle primary culture model. PMID:21869860

  18. A Multi-Cultural Interaction through Video Conferencing in Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duygu Eristi, Suzan

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated Turkish and Canadian primary school students' ways of expressing their perception of cultural understanding through video conferencing and that of cultural interaction through video conferencing. The qualitative research data were collected in the form of interviews. The results obtained were analyzed and interpreted based…

  19. Creative Partnerships? Cultural Policy and Inclusive Arts Practice in One Primary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Christine; Thomson, Pat

    2007-01-01

    This article traces the "cultural turn" in UK educational policy through an analysis of the Creative Partnerships policy (New Labour's "flagship programme in the cultural education field") and a consideration of an arts project funded under this initiative in one primary school. It argues that current educational policy…

  20. Contribution to Cultural Organization, Working Motivation and Job Satisfaction on the Performance of Primary School Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murtedjo; Suharningsih

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of this study are: (1) describes the performance of the teacher, organizational culture, work motivation and job satisfaction; (2) determine whether there is a significant direct relationship between organizational culture, work motivation and job satisfaction on the performance of primary school teachers. Through the study of the…

  1. English and French Pedagogical Cultures: Convergence and Divergence in Cameroonian Primary School Teachers' Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esch, Edith

    2012-01-01

    This article approaches the phenomenon of the continuing influence of French and English pedagogical cultures in Africa relying on post-modern notions of time and space. It reports on a project carried out in Cameroon where both cultures are in contact and where the teachers from two primary schools were observed and interviewed over a period of…

  2. A qualitative study of the cultural changes in primary care organisations needed to implement clinical governance.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Martin; Sheaff, Rod; Rogers, Anne; Campbell, Stephen; Halliwell, Shirley; Pickard, Susan; Sibbald, Bonnie; Roland, Martin

    2002-08-01

    It is commony claimed that changing the culture of health organisations is a fundamental prerequisite for improving the National Health Service (NHS). Little is currently known about the nature or importance of culture and cultural change in primary care groups and trusts (PCG/Ts) or their constituent general practices. To investigate the importance of culture and cultural change for the implementation of clinical governance in general practice by PCG/Ts, to identify perceived desirable and undesirable cultural attributes of general practice, and to describe potential facilitators and barriers to changing culture. Qualitative: case studies using data derived from semi-structured interviews and review of documentary evidence. Fifty senior non-clinical and clinical managers from 12 purposely sampled PCGs or trusts in England. Senior primary care managers regard culture and cultural change as fundamental aspects of clinical governance. The most important desirable cultural traits were the value placed on a commitment to public accountability by the practices, their willingness to work together and learn from each other, and the ability to be self-critical and learn from mistakes. The main barriers to cultural change were the high level of autonomy of practices and the perceived pressure to deliver rapid measurable changes in general practice. The culture of general practice is perceived to be an important component of health system reform and quality improvement. This study develops our understanding of a changing organisational culture in primary care; however, further work is required to determine whether culture is a useful practical lever for initiating or managing improvement.

  3. A qualitative study of the cultural changes in primary care organisations needed to implement clinical governance.

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Martin; Sheaff, Rod; Rogers, Anne; Campbell, Stephen; Halliwell, Shirley; Pickard, Susan; Sibbald, Bonnie; Roland, Martin

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is commony claimed that changing the culture of health organisations is a fundamental prerequisite for improving the National Health Service (NHS). Little is currently known about the nature or importance of culture and cultural change in primary care groups and trusts (PCG/Ts) or their constituent general practices. AIMS: To investigate the importance of culture and cultural change for the implementation of clinical governance in general practice by PCG/Ts, to identify perceived desirable and undesirable cultural attributes of general practice, and to describe potential facilitators and barriers to changing culture. DESIGN: Qualitative: case studies using data derived from semi-structured interviews and review of documentary evidence. SETTING: Fifty senior non-clinical and clinical managers from 12 purposely sampled PCGs or trusts in England. RESULTS: Senior primary care managers regard culture and cultural change as fundamental aspects of clinical governance. The most important desirable cultural traits were the value placed on a commitment to public accountability by the practices, their willingness to work together and learn from each other, and the ability to be self-critical and learn from mistakes. The main barriers to cultural change were the high level of autonomy of practices and the perceived pressure to deliver rapid measurable changes in general practice. CONCLUSIONS: The culture of general practice is perceived to be an important component of health system reform and quality improvement. This study develops our understanding of a changing organisational culture in primary care; however, further work is required to determine whether culture is a useful practical lever for initiating or managing improvement. PMID:12171222

  4. The Effect of Organizational Trust on the Culture of Teacher Leadership in Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demir, Kamile

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the effect of the level of trust of primary school teachers towards their organization in relation to their perceptions of the school having a culture of teacher leadership. Participants of the study consisted of 378 teachers working in Burdur public primary schools. The data collection tool used two…

  5. Turkish Primary School Teachers' Perceptions of School Culture Regarding ICT Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tezci, Erdogan

    2011-01-01

    The current study aimed at identifying Turkish primary school teachers' perceptions of school culture regarding ICT integration in education. In addition, the current study was designed to investigate factors that might influence their perceptions. The participants were 1540 primary school teachers. The findings revealed that the teachers'…

  6. Turkish Primary School Teachers' Perceptions of School Culture Regarding ICT Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tezci, Erdogan

    2011-01-01

    The current study aimed at identifying Turkish primary school teachers' perceptions of school culture regarding ICT integration in education. In addition, the current study was designed to investigate factors that might influence their perceptions. The participants were 1540 primary school teachers. The findings revealed that the teachers'…

  7. Meaningful Cultural Learning by Imitative Participation: The Case of Abstract Thinking in Primary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Oers, Bert

    2012-01-01

    The article describes a theory-driven approach to meaningful learning in primary schools, based on the Vygotskian cultural-historical theory of human development and learning. This approach is elaborated into an educational concept called "developmental education" that is implemented in the Netherlands in many primary schools. In this…

  8. Human primary mixed brain cultures: preparation, differentiation, characterization and application to neuroscience research.

    PubMed

    Ray, Balmiki; Chopra, Nipun; Long, Justin M; Lahiri, Debomoy K

    2014-09-16

    Culturing primary cortical neurons is an essential neuroscience technique. However, most cultures are derived from rodent brains and standard protocols for human brain cultures are sparse. Herein, we describe preparation, maintenance and major characteristics of a primary human mixed brain culture, including neurons, obtained from legally aborted fetal brain tissue. This approach employs standard materials and techniques used in the preparation of rodent neuron cultures, with critical modifications. This culture has distinct differences from rodent cultures. Specifically, a significant numbers of cells in the human culture are derived from progenitor cells, and the yield and survival of the cells grossly depend on the presence of bFGF. In the presence of bFGF, this culture can be maintained for an extended period. Abundant productions of amyloid-β, tau and proteins make this a powerful model for Alzheimer's research. The culture also produces glia and different sub-types of neurons. We provide a well-characterized methodology for human mixed brain cultures useful to test therapeutic agents under various conditions, and to carry forward mechanistic and translational studies for several brain disorders.

  9. Proteomic Characterization of Primary Mouse Hepatocytes in Collagen Monolayer and Sandwich Culture.

    PubMed

    Orsini, Malina; Sperber, Saskia; Noor, Fozia; Hoffmann, Esther; Weber, Susanne N; Hall, Rabea A; Lammert, Frank; Heinzle, Elmar

    2017-06-08

    Dedifferentiation of primary hepatocytes in vitro makes their application in long-term studies difficult. Embedding hepatocytes in a sandwich of extracellular matrix is reported to delay the dedifferentiation process to some extent. In this study, we compared the intracellular proteome of primary mouse hepatocytes (PMH) in conventional monolayer cultures (ML) to collagen sandwich culture (SW) after 1 day and 5 days of cultivation. Quantitative proteome analysis of PMH showed no differences between collagen SW and ML cultures after 1 day. Glycolysis and gluconeogenesis were strongly affected by long-term cultivation in both ML and SW cultures. Interestingly, culture conditions had no effect on cellular lipid metabolism. After 5 days, PMH in collagen SW and ML cultures exhibit characteristic indications of oxidative stress. However, in the SW culture the defense system against oxidative stress is significantly up-regulated to deal with this, whereas in the ML culture a down-regulation of these important enzymes takes place. Regarding the multiple effects of ROS and oxidative stress in cells, we conclude that the down-regulation of these enzymes seem to play a role in the loss of hepatic function observed in the ML cultivation. In addition, enzymes of the urea cycle were clearly down-regulated in ML culture. Proteomics confirms lack in oxidative stress defense mechanisms as the major characteristic of hepatocytes in monolayer cultures compared to sandwich cultures. J. Cell. Biochem. 9999: 1-8, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Effect of leptin supplementation during in vitro oocyte maturation and embryo culture on bovine embryo development and gene expression patterns.

    PubMed

    Arias-Alvarez, M; Bermejo-Alvarez, P; Gutierrez-Adan, A; Rizos, D; Lorenzo, P L; Lonergan, P

    2011-03-15

    Leptin is a metabolic hormone related to body condition and nutritional status that influences fertility in assisted reproductive technologies modulating oocyte and embryo quality. The aim of the present study was to establish the effect of various leptin concentrations (0, 10, 100 ng/mL) during in vitro oocyte maturation (IVM) and in vitro embryo culture (IVC) on bovine embryo development and quality in terms of gene expression. The relative mRNA abundance of the genes encoding solute carrier family 2 (facilitated glucose transporter) member 1 (SLC2A1), Bcl-2-associated X protein (BAX), placenta-specific 8 (PLAC8), aldo-keto reductase family 1 member B1 (AKR1B1) and leptin receptor (LEPR) were determined on Day 7 blastocysts by qRT-PCR. Cleavage rate (P < 0.005) and blastocyst yield (P = 0.05) was significantly lower when cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were matured with 100 ng/mL leptin compared to 0 or 10 ng/mL leptin. No significant effect of different concentrations of leptin added during IVC on blastocyst yield was observed. The presence of 100 ng/mL leptin in both IVM and IVC further decreased cleavage rate (P < 0.005) and blastocyst yield compared to the control group without leptin (P = 0.05) and those supplemented with 10 ng/mL leptin or FCS (P < 0.005). There was no evidence of any leptin-induced difference in the relative transcript abundance of SLC2A1, BAX and PLAC8 genes in Day 7 blastocysts. Expression of AKR1B1 was significantly lower in blastocysts from COCs matured with 100 ng/mL leptin compared to those matured with 0 or 10 ng/mL leptin (P < 0.005). LEPR expression was up regulated when leptin concentration was increased from 0 ng/mL during IVM to 10 ng/mL during IVC, but it was down-regulated in the opposite situation (P < 0.005). In conclusion, high leptin concentrations possibly related to obesity seem to be more detrimental rather than the absence of this hormone for preimplantation embryo survival; this effect is independent of LEPR gene

  11. Primary outgrowth cultures are a reliable source of human pancreatic stellate cells.

    PubMed

    Han, Song; Delitto, Daniel; Zhang, Dongyu; Sorenson, Heather L; Sarosi, George A; Thomas, Ryan M; Behrns, Kevin E; Wallet, Shannon M; Trevino, Jose G; Hughes, Steven J

    2015-11-01

    Recent advances demonstrate a critical yet poorly understood role for the pancreatic stellate cell (PSC) in the pathogenesis of chronic pancreatitis (CP) and pancreatic cancer (PC). Progress in this area has been hampered by the availability, fidelity, and/or reliability of in vitro models of PSCs. We examined whether outgrowth cultures from human surgical specimens exhibited reproducible phenotypic and functional characteristics of PSCs. PSCs were cultured from surgical specimens of healthy pancreas, CP and PC. Growth dynamics, phenotypic characteristics, soluble mediator secretion profiles and co-culture with PC cells both in vitro and in vivo were assessed. Forty-seven primary cultures were established from 52 attempts, demonstrating universal α-smooth muscle actin and glial fibrillary acidic protein but negligible epithelial surface antigen expression. Modification of culture conditions consistently led to cytoplasmic lipid accumulation, suggesting induction of a quiescent phenotype. Secretion of growth factors, chemokines and cytokines did not significantly differ between donor pathologies, but did evolve over time in culture. Co-culture of PSCs with established PC cell lines resulted in significant changes in levels of multiple secreted mediators. Primary PSCs co-inoculated with PC cells in a xenograft model led to augmented tumor growth and metastasis. Therefore, regardless of donor pathology, outgrowth cultures produce PSCs that demonstrate consistent growth and protein secretion properties. Primary cultures from pancreatic surgical specimens, including malignancies, may represent a reliable source of human PSCs.

  12. Gelatin for purification and proliferation of primary keratinocyte culture for use in chronic wounds and burns.

    PubMed

    Rahsaz, Marjan; Geramizadeh, Bita; Kaviani, Maryam; Marzban, Saeed

    2015-04-01

    Human epidermal keratinocytes are currently established as a treatment for burns and wounds and have laboratory applications. Keratinocyte culture contamination by unwanted cells and inhibition of cell proliferation are barriers in primary keratinocyte culture. According to the recent literature, these cells are hard to culture. The present study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of gelatin-coated surfaces in keratinocyte cultures. After enzymatic isolation of keratinocytes from normal epidermis by trypsin, the cells were cultured on gelatin-coated flasks in serum-free medium. Another group of cells were cultured as a control group without gelatin coating. We showed positive effects of surface coating with gelatin on the primary culture of keratinocytes. Culture of these cells on a gelatincoated surface showed better proliferation with suitable morphology. By using gelatin, adhesion of these cells to the surface was more efficient and without contamination by small round cells. Successful primary culture of keratinocytes on a gelatin-coated surface may provide better yield and optimal number of cells for research and clinical applications.

  13. Characterization of benzodiazepine receptors in primary cultures of fetal mouse brain and spinal cord neurons.

    PubMed

    Huang, A; Barker, J L; Paul, S M; Moncada, V; Skolnick, P

    1980-05-26

    Primary cultures of fetal mouse brain and spinal cord were examined for the presence of binding sites for [3H]diazepam. Both brain and spinal cord cultures contain high affinity binding sites which resemble benzodiazepine receptors found in mammalian CNS with respect to both pharmacologic profile and response to exogenously applied GABA. These observations, coupled with the electrophysiologic properties of these cells suggest that primary cultures of fetal mouse brain and spinal cord may be valid models for studying the role and regulation of the benzodiazepine receptor.

  14. Cryopreservation and lentiviral-mediated genetic modification of human primary cultured corneal endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Suh, Leejee H; Zhang, Cheng; Chuck, Roy S; Stark, Walter J; Naylor, Stuart; Binley, Katie; Chakravarti, Shukti; Jun, Albert S

    2007-07-01

    To determine the viability and potential usefulness of cryopreserved human primary cultured corneal endothelial cells by characterizing their morphology, gene expression, and ability for genetic modification by the lentiviral vector equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV). Primary cultured endothelial cells were dissociated from human corneas and grown in organ culture medium. Corneal endothelial cell origin was confirmed by morphology and immunostaining with polyclonal anti-collagen VIII antibodies. Cells of different passages were cryopreserved in medium containing dimethyl sulfoxide and were assessed after thawing for morphology, proliferative capacity, gene expression, and ability to form cell-cell junctions. EIAV encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) was used to transduce cryopreserved human corneal endothelial cells. Transduced cells were then sorted by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) and imaged with fluorescence microscopy. Cryopreserved, primary, cultured human corneal endothelial cells are viable and retain their ability to proliferate, produce collagen VIII, and express ZO-1, a tight-junction protein. EIAV-based gene transfer of eGFP is highly efficient and nontoxic to cryopreserved human primary cultured corneal endothelial cells. These genetically modified cells can be selected to nearly pure populations with FACS sorting. Human primary cultured corneal endothelial cells retain their phenotypic properties after cryopreservation. The ability to store, genetically modify, and sort these cells through FACS to pure populations has the potential to greatly expand their future therapeutic application to treat corneal endothelial disorders.

  15. Establishment of a primary culture of polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Lucas Novaes; Montalli, Victor Angelo Martins; de Oliveira, Silvia Borges Pimentel; Toledo, Thais Fernanda Santos; Martinez, Elizabeth Ferreira; de Araújo, Vera Cavalcanti

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to establish a primary cell culture derived from polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma (PLGA). The neoplastic cells were derived from a 57-year-old female patient diagnosed with PLGA. A fragment of the tumor was collected and submitted to enzymatic digestion followed by centrifugation on a Percoll gradient. The cell population was characterized by means of immunofluorescence and detection of PRKD1 gene mutations. Epifluorescence analysis of the primary culture revealed that the malignant epithelial cells were predominantly polygonal in shape and positive for cytokeratin 7, vimentin, and S100. The doubling time of the cell culture was 86.73h. The restriction digestion assay showed that the neoplastic cells possess PRKD1 gene mutations. The establishment of primary cell culture derived from PLGA should be considered a useful tool for molecular analysis of this salivary gland tumor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Equine platelet lysate as an alternative to fetal bovine serum in equine mesenchymal stromal cell culture - too much of a good thing?

    PubMed

    Russell, K A; Koch, T G

    2016-03-01

    Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) are often culture-expanded in vitro. Presently, expansion medium (EM) for MSC is supplemented with fetal bovine serum (FBS). However, increasing cost, variable composition and potential risks associated with bovine antigens call for alternatives. Platelet lysate (PL) has shown promise as an alternative supplement. To determine how equine umbilical cord blood (CB) MSC proliferate in EM enriched with PL or FBS at various concentrations. Randomised dose escalation study. Platelet concentrate was generated from 5 equine whole blood samples through a double centrifugation method and standardised to 1 × 10(12) platelets/l prior to a freeze/thaw cycle to produce PL. Pooled PL or pooled FBS was added to EM at concentrations of 5% to 60%. Proliferation of 4 equine CB-MSC cultures was determined after 4 days using a resazurin semiquantitative assay. Cord blood-MSC proliferated with a dose-dependent response with no significant difference found between PL and FBS up to a 30% concentration. Beyond 30%, proliferation fell in the PL-cultured cells, while continued dose-dependent proliferation was noted in the FBS-cultured cells. Despite reduced cell numbers in high PL concentrations, live/dead staining revealed that adherent cells remained viable. Expansion medium enriched with PL can support short-term equine CB-MSC proliferation at conventional culture concentrations. Based on the unexpected suppression of CB-MSC at higher PL concentrations, an in vivo dose study is indicated to investigate if combinational therapies of CB-MSC and platelet-rich plasma are associated with synergistic or antagonistic effect on CB-MSC function. © 2015 EVJ Ltd.

  17. An improved protocol for primary culture of cardiomyocyte from neonatal mice.

    PubMed

    Sreejit, P; Kumar, Suresh; Verma, Rama S

    2008-01-01

    The primary culture of neonatal mice cardiomyocyte model enables researchers to study and understand the morphological, biochemical, and electrophysiological characteristics of the heart, besides being a valuable tool for pharmacological and toxicological studies. Because cardiomyocytes do not proliferate after birth, primary myocardial culture is recalcitrant. The present study describes an improved method for rapid isolation of cardiomyocytes from neonatal mice, as well as the maintenance and propagation of such cultures for the long term. Immunocytochemical and gene expression data also confirmed the presence of several cardiac markers in the beating cells during the long-term culture condition used in this protocol. The whole culture process can be effectively shortened by reducing the enzyme digestion period and the cardiomyocyte enrichment step.

  18. Investigating the establishment of primary cell culture from different abalone (Haliotis midae) tissues

    PubMed Central

    Auzoux-Bordenave, Stéphanie; Niesler, Carola; Roodt-Wilding, Rouvay

    2010-01-01

    The abalone, Haliotis midae, is the most valuable commodity in South African aquaculture. The increasing demand for marine shellfish has stimulated research on the biology and physiology of target species in order to improve knowledge on growth, nutritional requirements and pathogen identification. The slow growth rate and long generation time of abalone restrict efficient design of in vivo experiments. Therefore, in vitro systems present an attractive alternative for short term experimentation. The use of marine invertebrate cell cultures as a standardised and controlled system to study growth, endocrinology and disease contributes to the understanding of the biology of economically important molluscs. This paper investigates the suitability of two different H. midae tissues, larval and haemocyte, for establishing primary cell cultures. Cell cultures are assessed in terms of culture initiation, cell yield, longevity and susceptibility to contamination. Haliotis midae haemocytes are shown to be a more feasible tissue for primary cell culture as it could be maintained without contamination more readily than larval cell cultures. The usefulness of short term primary haemocyte cultures is demonstrated here with a growth factor trial. Haemocyte cultures can furthermore be used to relate phenotypic changes at the cellular level to changes in gene expression at the molecular level. PMID:20680682

  19. Investigating the establishment of primary cell culture from different abalone (Haliotis midae) tissues.

    PubMed

    van der Merwe, Mathilde; Auzoux-Bordenave, Stéphanie; Niesler, Carola; Roodt-Wilding, Rouvay

    2010-07-01

    The abalone, Haliotis midae, is the most valuable commodity in South African aquaculture. The increasing demand for marine shellfish has stimulated research on the biology and physiology of target species in order to improve knowledge on growth, nutritional requirements and pathogen identification. The slow growth rate and long generation time of abalone restrict efficient design of in vivo experiments. Therefore, in vitro systems present an attractive alternative for short term experimentation. The use of marine invertebrate cell cultures as a standardised and controlled system to study growth, endocrinology and disease contributes to the understanding of the biology of economically important molluscs. This paper investigates the suitability of two different H. midae tissues, larval and haemocyte, for establishing primary cell cultures. Cell cultures are assessed in terms of culture initiation, cell yield, longevity and susceptibility to contamination. Haliotis midae haemocytes are shown to be a more feasible tissue for primary cell culture as it could be maintained without contamination more readily than larval cell cultures. The usefulness of short term primary haemocyte cultures is demonstrated here with a growth factor trial. Haemocyte cultures can furthermore be used to relate phenotypic changes at the cellular level to changes in gene expression at the molecular level.

  20. Primary pulmonary artery sarcoma: a new surgical technique for pulmonary artery reconstruction using a self-made stapled bovine pericardial graft conduit.

    PubMed

    Obeso Carillo, Gerardo Andrés; Casais Pampín, Rocío; Legarra Calderón, Juan José; Pradas Montilla, Gonzalo

    2015-01-01

    Primary pulmonary artery sarcoma is an uncommon neoplasm with a grim prognosis. Complete resection is the only treatment that can improve the patient's survival. The role of multimodality treatment is still controversial, although adjuvant chemotherapy possibly could improve outcomes of these patients. Several pulmonary artery reconstructive techniques have been reported in the scientific literature, such as patch reconstruction, end-to-end anastomosis, synthetic prosthesis or biological grafts. In this article, we propose a new surgical option for pulmonary artery reconstruction after radical tumour resection using a self-made stapled bovine pericardial graft conduit in a patient with a mass in the pulmonary trunk and right pulmonary artery. We believe that the use of this technique adds safety and effectiveness, and reduces the surgical time.

  1. Primary targets in photochemical inactivation of cells in culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, Kristian; Jones, Stuart G.; Prydz, Kristian; Moan, Johan

    1995-01-01

    The mechanisms of photoinactivation of NHIK 3025 cells in culture sensitized by tetrasulfonated phenylporphines (TPPS4) are described). Ultracentrifugation studies on postnuclear supernatants indicated that the intracellular distribution of TPPS4 resembles that of (beta) -N-acetyl-D-glucosaminidase ((beta) -AGA), a lysosomal marker enzyme, and that the cytosolic content of TPPS4 is below the detection limit of the ultracentrifugation method. Upon light exposure more than 90% of TPPS4 was lost from the lysosomal fractions, due to lysosomal rupture. The content of TPPS4 in the postnuclear supernatants was reduced by 30 - 40% upon exposure to light. This is most likely due to binding of TPPS4 to the nuclei, which were removed from the cell extracts before ultracentrifugation, after photochemical treatment. The unpolymerized form of tubulin seems to be an important target for the photochemical inactivation of NHIK 3025 cells. Since TPPS4 is mainly localized in lysosomes it was assumed that a dose of light disrupting a substantial number of lysosomes followed by microtubule depolymerization by nocodazole would enhance the sensitivity of the cells to photoinactivation. This was confirmed by using a colony-forming assay. The increased phototoxic effect exerted by such a treatment regime could be explained by an enhanced sensitivity of tubulin to light. Another cytosolic constituent, lactate dehydrogenase, was not photoinactivated by TPPS4 and light.

  2. Efficient establishment of primary fibroblast cultures from the hawksbill sea turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata).

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Tomokazu; Kurita, Jun; Saito, Tomomi; Yuasa, Kei; Kurita, Masanobu; Donai, Kenichiro; Nitto, Hiroshi; Soichi, Makoto; Nishimori, Katsuhiko; Uchida, Takafumi; Isogai, Emiko; Onuma, Manabu; Sone, Hideko; Oseko, Norihisa; Inoue-Murayama, Miho

    2012-12-01

    The hawksbill sea turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata) is a critically endangered species at a risk of extinction. Preservation of the genomic and cellular information of endangered animals is important for future genetic and biological studies. Here, we report the efficient establishment of primary fibroblast cultures from skin tissue of the hawksbill sea turtle. We succeeded in establishing 19 primary cultures from 20 hawksbill sea turtle individuals (a success rate of 95%). These cells exhibited a fibroblast-like morphology and grew optimally at a temperature of 26°C, but experienced a loss of viability when cultured at 37°C. Chromosomal analysis using the primary cells derived here revealed that hawksbill sea turtles have a 2n = 56 karyotype. Furthermore, we showed that our primary cell cultures are free of several fish-related viruses, and this finding is important for preservation purposes. To our knowledge, this report is the first to describe primary cell cultures established from normal tissues of the hawksbill sea turtle. The results will contribute to the preservation of biodiversity, especially for the sea turtles that are critically endangered owing to human activities.

  3. Measurement tools and process indicators of patient safety culture in primary care. A mixed methods study by the LINNEAUS collaboration on patient safety in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Dianne; Wensing, Michel; Esmail, Aneez; Valderas, Jose M

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: There is little guidance available to healthcare practitioners about what tools they might use to assess the patient safety culture. Objective: To identify useful tools for assessing patient safety culture in primary care organizations in Europe; to identify those aspects of performance that should be assessed when investigating the relationship between safety culture and performance in primary care. Methods: Two consensus-based studies were carried out, in which subject matter experts and primary healthcare professionals from several EU states rated (a) the applicability to their healthcare system of several existing safety culture assessment tools and (b) the appropriateness and usefulness of a range of potential indicators of a positive patient safety culture to primary care settings. The safety culture tools were field-tested in four countries to ascertain any challenges and issues arising when used in primary care. Results: The two existing tools that received the most favourable ratings were the Manchester patient safety framework (MaPsAF primary care version) and the Agency for healthcare research and quality survey (medical office version). Several potential safety culture process indicators were identified. The one that emerged as offering the best combination of appropriateness and usefulness related to the collection of data on adverse patient events. Conclusion: Two tools, one quantitative and one qualitative, were identified as applicable and useful in assessing patient safety culture in primary care settings in Europe. Safety culture indicators in primary care should focus on the processes rather than the outcomes of care. PMID:26339832

  4. Assessment of patient safety culture in primary care setting, Al-Mukala, Yemen.

    PubMed

    Webair, Hana H; Al-Assani, Salwa S; Al-Haddad, Reema H; Al-Shaeeb, Wafa H; Bin Selm, Manal A; Alyamani, Abdulla S

    2015-10-13

    Patient safety culture in primary care is the first step to achieve high quality health care. This study aims to provide a baseline assessment of patient safety culture in primary care settings in Al-Mukala, Yemen as a first published study from a least developed country. A survey was conducted in primary healthcare centres and units in Al-Mukala District, Yemen. A comprehensive sample from the available 16 centres was included. An Arabic version of the Medical Office Survey on Patient Safety Culture was distributed to all health workers (110). Participants were physicians, nurses and administrative staff. The response rate from the participating centres was 71 %. (N = 78). The percent positive responses of the items is equal to the percentage of participants who answered positively. Composite scores were calculated by averaging the percent positive response on the items within a dimension. Positive safety culture was defined as 60 % or more positive responses on items or dimensions. Patient safety culture was perceived to be generally positive with the exception of the dimensions of 'Communication openness', 'Work pressure and pace' and 'Patient care tracking/follow-up', as the percent positive response of these dimensions were 58, 57, and 52 % respectively. Overall, positive rating on quality and patient safety were low (49 and 46 % respectively). Although patient safety culture in Al-Mukala primary care setting is generally positive, patient safety and quality rating were fairly low. Implementation of a safety and quality management system in Al-Mukala primary care setting are paramount. Further research is needed to confirm the applicability of the Medical Office Survey on Patient Safety Culture (MOSPSC) for Al-Mukala primary care.

  5. Evaluation of PFOS-mediated neurotoxicity in rat primary neurons and astrocytes cultured separately or in co-culture.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhenwei; Liu, Qi; Liu, Chang; Li, Chunna; Li, Yachen; Li, Shuangyue; Liu, Xiaohui; Shao, Jing

    2017-02-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a potential neurotoxicant reported by epidemiological investigations and experimental studies, while the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. Astrocytes not only support for the construction of neurons, but also conduct neuronal functions through glutamate-glutamine cycle in astrocyte-neuron crosstalk. In the present study, the effect of PFOS exposure on rat primary hippocampal neurons or cortex astrocytes was evaluated. Then the role of the astrocytes in PFOS-induced toxic effect on neurons was explored with astrocyte-neuron co-culture system. Exposure of rat primary hippocampal neurons to PFOS has led to oxidation-antioxidation imbalance, increased apoptosis and abnormal autophagy. The adverse effect of PFOS on rat primary cortex astrocytes manifested in the form of altered extracellular glutamate and glutamine concentrations, decreased glutamine synthase activity, as well as decreased gene expression of glutamine synthase, glutamate transporters and glutamine transporters in the glutamate-glutamine cycle. Especially, the alleviation of PFOS-inhibited neurite outgrowth in neurons could be observed in astrocyte-neuron co-culture system, though the ability of astrocytes in fostering neurite outgrowth was affected by PFOS. These results indicated that both astrocytes and neurons might be the targets of PFOS-induced neurotoxicity, and astrocytes could protect against PFOS-inhibited neurite outgrowth in primary cultured neurons. Our research might render some information in explaining the mechanisms of PFOS-induced neurotoxicity.

  6. Conditions for initiating Lake Victoria haplochromine (Oreochromis esculentus) primary cell cultures from caudal fin biopsies.

    PubMed

    Filice, Melissa; Lee, C; Mastromonaco, Gabriela F

    2014-10-01

    The global decline of freshwater fishes has created a need to cryopreserve biological materials from endangered species in an effort to conserve the biodiversity within this taxon. Since maternal gametes and embryos from fish are difficult to cryopreserve, somatic cells obtained from caudal fins have become an increasingly popular resource as they contain both maternal and paternal DNA ensuring valuable traits are not lost from the population. Somatic cells stored in cryobanks can be used to supplement endangered populations with genetically valuable offspring with the use of assisted reproductive technologies. However, initiating primary cell cultures from caudal fin biopsies of endangered species can be challenging as standardized protocols have not yet been developed. The objective of this study was to identify culture conditions, including antibiotic supplementation, biopsy size, and culture temperature, suitable for establishing primary cell cultures of ngege (Oreochromis esculentus), a critically endangered African cichlid. Six-millimeter caudal fin biopsies provided sufficient material to develop a primary cell culture when incubated at 25°C using standard fish cell culture medium containing 1× Primocin. Further investigation and application of these culture conditions for other endangered freshwater fishes is necessary.

  7. [Primary culture and morphologic observation of eutopic and ectopic endometrial cells from patients with endometriosis].

    PubMed

    Yu, Chao-Qin; Shi, Shu-Fang; Liu, Yu-Huan; Wang, Rui-Xia; Song, Yan-Hua; Yu, Jin

    2006-03-01

    To explore the method of primary culture for endometriotic cells and to find out the differences in morphological manifestations among endometriotic cells and eutopic endometrial cells sampled from patients with endometriosis and endometriosis-free women. Endometriotic and eutopic endometrial cells were cultured by modified method of primary culture. The endometriotic cell types were observed and differentiated under optical and electron microscopes. The success rates for culture of eutopic endometrial cells from endometriosis-free women and patients with endometriosis were 91.67% and 93.75% respectively. The success rate for culture of endometriotic cells was 75.00%. The size of endometriotic glandular cells was similar to those of eutopic endometrial glandular cells from endometriosis-free women and patients with endometriosis. The chromatin was manifold and the nucleus was augmented in the endometriotic glandular cells. The endometriotic stromal cells were smaller than the eutopic endometrial stromal cells from endometriosis-free women and patients with endometriosis. Many tiny villi and protuberances on plasma membrane could be seen in the endometriotic stromal cells. The success rate for culture of endometriotic cells can be elevated through improving the method of primary culture. The ultrastructures of endometriotic glandular and stromal cells are obviously different from those of eutopic endometrial glandular and stromal cells from endometriosis-free women and patients with endometriosis.

  8. Patient safety culture in primary care: developing a theoretical framework for practical use

    PubMed Central

    Kirk, Susan; Parker, Dianne; Claridge, Tanya; Esmail, Aneez; Marshall, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Objective Great importance has been attached to a culture of safe practice in healthcare organisations, but it has proved difficult to engage frontline staff with this complex concept. The present study aimed to develop and test a framework for making the concept of safety culture meaningful and accessible to managers and frontline staff, and facilitating discussion of ways to improve team/organisational safety culture. Setting Eight primary care trusts and a sample of their associated general practices in north west England. Methods In phase 1 a comprehensive review of the literature and a postal survey of experts helped identify the key dimensions of safety culture in primary care. Semistructured interviews with 30 clinicians and managers explored the application of these dimensions to an established theory of organisational maturity. In phase 2 the face validity and utility of the framework was assessed in 33 interviews and 14 focus groups. Results Nine dimensions were identified through which safety culture is expressed in primary care organisations. Organisational descriptions were developed for how these dimensions might be characterised at five levels of organisational maturity. The resulting framework conceptualises patient safety culture as multidimensional and dynamic, and seems to have a high level of face validity and utility within primary care. It aids clinicians' and managers' understanding of the concept of safety culture and promotes discussion within teams about their safety culture maturity. Conclusions The framework moves the agenda on from rhetoric about the importance of safety culture to a way of understanding why and how the shared values of staff working within a healthcare organisation may be operationalised to create a safe environment for patient care. PMID:17693682

  9. Hydroxylation, conjugation and sulfation of bile acids in primary monolayer cultures of rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Princen, H.M.; Meijer, P.

    1988-08-15

    Hydroxylation of lithocholic, chenodeoxycholic, deoxycholic and cholic acids was studied in monolayers of rat hepatocytes cultured for 76 h. The majority of added lithocholic and chenodeoxycholic acids was metabolized to beta-muricholic acid (56-76%). A small part of these bile acids (9%), however, and a considerable amount of deoxycholic and cholic acids (21%) were converted into metabolites more polar than cholic acid in the first culture period. Formation of these compounds decreased during the last day of culture. Bile acids synthesized after addition of (4-/sup 14/C)-cholesterol were almost entirely (97%) sulfated and/or conjugated, predominantly with taurine (54-66%), during culture. Sulfated bile acids were mainly composed of free bile acids. The ability of hepatocytes to sulfurylate bile acids declined with culture age. Thus, rat hepatocytes in primary monolayer culture are capable to sulfurylate bile acids and to hydroxylate trihydroxylated bile acids, suggesting formation of polyhydroxylated metabolites.

  10. Quantification of Changes in Morphology, Mechanotransduction, and Gene Expression in Bovine Articular Chondrocytes in Response to 2-Dimensional Culture Indicates the Existence of a Novel Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Qusous, Ala

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Matrix-induced autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) offers a potential solution for cartilage repair but is currently hindered by loss of the chondrocyte differentiated phenotype. To further our understanding of the mechanism of dedifferentiation, changes in the phenotype in relation to mechanotransduction were recorded in response to monolayer culture. Methods: Bovine cartilage explants were excised and chondrocytes cultured for 9 days (P1), 14 days (P2), and 21 (P3) days. Changes in morphology and regulatory volume increase (RVI; a mechanotransduction response) were determined by the expression of key genes by RT-PCR and confocal microscopy, respectively. Results: A loss of a differentiated phenotype was observed in P1 with a reduction in sphericity and an overall increase in cell volume from 474.7 ± 32.1 µm3 to 725.2 ± 35.6 µm3. Furthermore, the effect of 2-dimensional (2-D) culture-induced dedifferentiation on mechanotransduction was investigated, whereby RVI and Gd3+-sensitive REV5901-induced calcium rise were only observed in 2-D cultured chondrocytes. A significant up-regulation of types I and II collagens and Sox9 was observed in P1 chondrocytes and no further significant change in type I collagen but a return to baseline levels of type II collagen and Sox9 upon further culture. Conclusion: These data indicated the presence of an intermediate, mesodifferentiated phenotype and highlight the importance of mechanotransduction as a marker of the chondrocytic cell type. PMID:26069635

  11. Correlation between mastitis occurrence and the count of microorganisms in bulk raw milk of bovine dairy herds in four selective culture media.

    PubMed

    Souto, Luís I M; Minagawa, Clarice Y; Telles, Evelise O; Garbuglio, Márcio A; Amaku, Marcos; Melville, Priscilla A; Dias, Ricardo A; Sakata, Sonia T; Benites, Nilson R

    2010-02-01

    Milk is the normal secretion of the mammary gland, practically free of colostrum and obtained by the complete milking of one or more healthy animals. Mastitis is an inflammatory process of the mammary gland and it may cause alterations in the milk. The present work aimed to verify whether it is possible, by means of the counts of microorganism in the bulk raw milk in four selective culture media, to establish a correlation with the occurrence of mastitis and therefore, to monitor this disease in bovine dairy herds. The following selective culture media were used: KF Streptococcus Agar, Edwards Agar, Baird-Parker Agar, Blood Agar plus potassium tellurite. Spearman's correlation coefficient was calculated in order to compare the occurrence of mastitis (percentage) in each herd with respective selective culture media counts of microorganisms in bulk raw milk. Thirty-six possibilities were analysed (Tamis and CMT-positive rates were compared with the log-transformed count in four selective culture media) and there was a negative correlation between Tamis 3 and the Baird-Parker Agar plate count. The total results of microbiological tests showed that there were three correlations of the counts in selective culture media. Fifty-two possibilities were analysed and there was a negative correlation between no-bacterial-growth mastitis rates and log10 of KF Streptoccocus Agar plate count and there were two positive correlations between coagulase-positive staphylococci and log10 of Baird-Parker Agar plate count and Blood Agar plus potassium tellurite plate count.

  12. Effects of bone morphogenic protein 4 (BMP4) and its inhibitor, Noggin, on in vitro maturation and culture of bovine preimplantation embryos.

    PubMed

    La Rosa, Isabel; Camargo, Luiz S A; Pereira, Michele M; Fernandez-Martin, Rafael; Paz, Dante A; Salamone, Daniel F

    2011-02-01

    BMP4 is a member of the transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) superfamily and Noggin is a potent BMP inhibitor that exerts its function by binding to BMPs preventing interactions with its receptors. The aim of this work was to investigate the role of BMP4 and Noggin, on oocytes in vitro maturation (m experiments) and embryos in vitro development (c experiments) of bovine. For m experiments, COCs were collected from slaughterhouse ovaries and in vitro matured in TCM with 100 ng/ml of either BMP4 or Noggin. After 24 h, the nuclear stage of the oocytes was determined by staining with Hoechst 33342. In addition, RT-qPCR was performed on MII oocytes to study the relative concentration of ZAR1, GDF9, BAX, MATER and HSP70 transcripts. Treated oocytes were submitted to parthenogenic activation (PA) or in vitro fertilization (IVF) and cultured in CR2. For c experiments, non-treated matured oocytes were submitted to PA or IVF to generate embryos that were exposed to 100 ng/ml of BMP4 or Noggin in CR2 until day nine of culture. Cleavage, blastocyst and hatching rates, expression pattern of the transcription factor Oct-4 in blastocysts and embryo cell number at day two and nine post-activation or fertilization were evaluated. We found that Noggin, as BMP4, did not affect oocyte nuclear maturation. Noggin supplementation up-regulated the expression of HSP70 and MATER genes in matured oocytes. Moreover, BMP4 during maturation increased the proportion of Oct-4 positive cells in parthenogenic embryos. On the other hand, when Noggin was added to embryo culture medium, developmental rates of parthenogenic and in vitro fertilized embryos were reduced. However, BMP4 addition decreases the development only for in vitro fertilized embryos. BMP4 and Noggin during culture reduced the proportion of Oct-4-expressing cells. Our results show that BMP4 is implicated in bovine oocytes maturation and embryo development. Moreover, our findings demonstrate, for the first time, that a correct

  13. Organization Complexity and Primary Care Providers' Perceptions of Quality Improvement Culture Within the Veterans Health Administration.

    PubMed

    Korom-Djakovic, Danijela; Canamucio, Anne; Lempa, Michele; Yano, Elizabeth M; Long, Judith A

    2016-01-01

    This study examined how aspects of quality improvement (QI) culture changed during the introduction of the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) patient-centered medical home initiative and how they were influenced by existing organizational factors, including VHA facility complexity and practice location. A voluntary survey, measuring primary care providers' (PCPs') perspectives on QI culture at their primary care clinics, was administered in 2010 and 2012. Participants were 320 PCPs from hospital- and community-based primary care practices in Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Delaware, New Jersey, New York, and Ohio. PCPs in community-based outpatient clinics reported an improvement in established processes for QI, and communication and cooperation from 2010 to 2012. However, their peers in hospital-based clinics did not report any significant improvements in QI culture. In both years, compared with high-complexity facilities, medium- and low-complexity facilities had better scores on the scales assessing established processes for QI, and communication and cooperation.

  14. Cellular Microenvironment Dictates Androgen Production by Murine Fetal Leydig Cells in Primary Culture1

    PubMed Central

    Carney, Colleen M.; Muszynski, Jessica L.; Strotman, Lindsay N.; Lewis, Samantha R.; O'Connell, Rachel L.; Beebe, David J.; Theberge, Ashleigh B.; Jorgensen, Joan S.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Despite the fact that fetal Leydig cells are recognized as the primary source of androgens in male embryos, the mechanisms by which steroidogenesis occurs within the developing testis remain unclear. A genetic approach was used to visualize and isolate fetal Leydig cells from remaining cells within developing mouse testes. Cyp11a1-Cre mice were bred to mT/mG dual reporter mice to target membrane-tagged enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP) within steroidogenic cells, whereas other cells expressed membrane-tagged tandem-dimer tomato red. Fetal Leydig cell identity was validated using double-labeled immunohistochemistry against GFP and the steroidogenic enzyme 3beta-HSD, and cells were successfully isolated as indicated by qPCR results from sorted cell populations. Because fetal Leydig cells must collaborate with neighboring cells to synthesize testosterone, we hypothesized that the fetal Leydig cell microenvironment defined their capacity for androgen production. Microfluidic culture devices were used to measure androstenedione and testosterone production of fetal Leydig cells that were cultured in cell-cell contact within a mixed population, were isolated but remained in medium contact via compartmentalized co-culture with other testicular cells, or were isolated and cultured alone. Results showed that fetal Leydig cells maintained their identity and steroidogenic activity for 3–5 days in primary culture. Microenvironment dictated proficiency of testosterone production. As expected, fetal Leydig cells produced androstenedione but not testosterone when cultured in isolation. More testosterone accumulated in medium from mixed cultures than from compartmentalized co-cultures initially; however, co-cultures maintained testosterone synthesis for a longer time. These data suggest that a combination of cell-cell contact and soluble factors constitute the ideal microenvironment for fetal Leydig cell activity in primary culture. PMID:25143354

  15. Cellular microenvironment dictates androgen production by murine fetal Leydig cells in primary culture.

    PubMed

    Carney, Colleen M; Muszynski, Jessica L; Strotman, Lindsay N; Lewis, Samantha R; O'Connell, Rachel L; Beebe, David J; Theberge, Ashleigh B; Jorgensen, Joan S

    2014-10-01

    Despite the fact that fetal Leydig cells are recognized as the primary source of androgens in male embryos, the mechanisms by which steroidogenesis occurs within the developing testis remain unclear. A genetic approach was used to visualize and isolate fetal Leydig cells from remaining cells within developing mouse testes. Cyp11a1-Cre mice were bred to mT/mG dual reporter mice to target membrane-tagged enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP) within steroidogenic cells, whereas other cells expressed membrane-tagged tandem-dimer tomato red. Fetal Leydig cell identity was validated using double-labeled immunohistochemistry against GFP and the steroidogenic enzyme 3beta-HSD, and cells were successfully isolated as indicated by qPCR results from sorted cell populations. Because fetal Leydig cells must collaborate with neighboring cells to synthesize testosterone, we hypothesized that the fetal Leydig cell microenvironment defined their capacity for androgen production. Microfluidic culture devices were used to measure androstenedione and testosterone production of fetal Leydig cells that were cultured in cell-cell contact within a mixed population, were isolated but remained in medium contact via compartmentalized co-culture with other testicular cells, or were isolated and cultured alone. Results showed that fetal Leydig cells maintained their identity and steroidogenic activity for 3-5 days in primary culture. Microenvironment dictated proficiency of testosterone production. As expected, fetal Leydig cells produced androstenedione but not testosterone when cultured in isolation. More testosterone accumulated in medium from mixed cultures than from compartmentalized co-cultures initially; however, co-cultures maintained testosterone synthesis for a longer time. These data suggest that a combination of cell-cell contact and soluble factors constitute the ideal microenvironment for fetal Leydig cell activity in primary culture.

  16. Short-term primary culture of epithelial cells derived from human breast tumours.

    PubMed Central

    Speirs, V.; Green, A. R.; Walton, D. S.; Kerin, M. J.; Fox, J. N.; Carleton, P. J.; Desai, S. B.; Atkin, S. L.

    1998-01-01

    As experimental models for breast cancer, most studies rely on established human breast cancer cell lines. However, many of these lines were established over 20 years ago, many from pleural effusions rather than the primary tumour, so the validity of using them as representative models is questionable. This paper describes our experiences, over a 3-year period, in establishing short-term epithelial-cell-enriched preparations from primary breast tumours based on differential centrifugation followed by culture in selective media. Epithelial cells were successfully cultured from 55% of samples, but culture success did not appear to be correlated with tumour histology, stage, grade or node status. Epithelial cell-enriched cultures were immunopositive for broad-spectrum cytokeratin and epithelial membrane antigen (EMA). Positivity for keratin 19 confirmed that the cultures contained tumour-derived cells, which additionally showed significantly higher activity of the reductive pathway of the steroid-converting enzyme 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type I. That the cultures contained tumour and not normal epithelial cells was further substantiated by the complete absence of the calmodulin-like gene NB-1 in tumour-derived cultures; this is only associated with normal breast epithelia. Eighty-five per cent of cultures established from oestrogen receptor (ER)-positive tumours expressed ER in vitro; this was functional in 66% of cultures, although ER-positive phenotype was gradually lost over time. In conclusion, epithelial cells can be isolated and maintained as short-term cultures from primary breast tumours irrespective of histopathological or clinical details, providing a model system with a greater biological and clinical relevance than breast cancer cell lines. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 5 Figure 7 PMID:9836473

  17. Equine bone marrow mesenchymal or amniotic epithelial stem cells as feeder in a model for the in vitro culture of bovine embryos.

    PubMed

    Lange-Consiglio, Anna; Maggio, Valentina; Pellegrino, Laura; Cremonesi, Fausto

    2012-02-01

    Various studies have shown that the in vitro culture environment is one of the key determinants of the blastocyst output. In the present study we investigated the effects of co-culturing bovine embryos with equine bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) or equine amniotic epithelial stem cells (AE-SCs) on in vitro blastocysts development. BM specimens were obtained aseptically from sternal aspirates of horses under local anaesthesia and the isolated cells were resuspended in Dulbecco Modified Earle's Medium supplemented with 10 ng/ml of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). Amniotic membranes were obtained from fresh placentas and, to release the AE cells, amniotic fragments were incubated with 0.05% trypsin for 45 min. Separated AE cells were plated in standard culture medium containing 10 ng/ml epidermal growth factor (EGF). Seven hundred and five cumulus-oocyte complexes were used and, after IVM and IVF, cumulus-free presumptive zygotes were randomly transferred into one of three co-culture systems in which they were cultured up to day 7: (1) co-culture with cumulus cells (control); (2) co-culture with BM-MSCs; and (3) co-culture with AE-SCs. Statistical analyses were performed by ANOVA. Blastocyst developmental rates were significantly different (p < 0.001) between control, AE-SCs and BM-MSCs (respectively 35.45, 41.84 and 30.09%). In conclusion, the AE-SC monolayer create a more suitable microenvironment necessary for inducing local cell activation and proliferation of the growing embryos in comparison with BM-MSCs and cumulus cells. It can be suggested that these cells secrete biologically active substances, including signalling molecules and growth factors of epithelial nature, different to those of the BM cells of mesenchymal origin.

  18. Set up of a serum-free culture system for bovine embryos: embryo development and quality before and after transient transfer.

    PubMed

    George, F; Daniaux, C; Genicot, G; Verhaeghe, B; Lambert, P; Donnay, I

    2008-03-15

    It is well known that serum in culture medium negatively affects blastocyst quality. The objective of this work was to develop and test a serum-free culture medium which could improve embryo quality, measured by the resistance to freezing, lipid and glutathione content of the resulting blastocysts, as well as the ability of the blastocysts to elongate after transient transfer to recipient cows. In a first experiment we showed that adding a mixture of insulin, transferrin and selenium to serum-free Synthetic Oviduct Fluid medium (SOF-ITS) improved embryo development and quality. In the second experiment, the addition of BSA to SOF-ITS further improved blastocyst development. Moreover, a reduction in lipid content of morulae was observed in SOF-ITS-BSA by comparison with morulae cultured with serum (SOF-FCS). The resistance to freezing measured by hatching rates 24h post-thawing was also improved for blastocysts with a diameter between 160 and 180 microm cultured in SOF-ITS-BSA by comparison to those produced with serum. In order to evaluate the redox potential of the embryos, reduced glutathione content (GSH) was evaluated both before and after cryopreservation. A significant decrease in glutathione was observed after freezing, whatever the culture medium, but no difference was observed between culture conditions. Transient transfers were performed and elongated D-13 embryos were recovered. Elongation was more pronounced and the embryonic disk more often visible in embryos cultured in SOF-ITS-BSA than in embryos cultured with FCS. In conclusion, the serum-free system we developed to produce in vitro bovine embryos meets the developmental and qualitative requirements for a large-scale use.

  19. Cocaine Causes Apoptotic Death in Rat Mesencephalon and Striatum Primary Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Lepsch, Lucilia B.; Planeta, Cleopatra S.; Scavone, Critoforo

    2015-01-01

    To study cocaine's toxic effects in vitro, we have used primary mesencephalic and striatal cultures from rat embryonic brain. Treatment with cocaine causes a dramatic increase in DNA fragmentation in both primary cultures. The toxicity induced by cocaine was paralleled with a concomitant decrease in the microtubule associated protein 2 (MAP2) and/or neuronal nucleus protein (NeuN) staining. We also observed in both cultures that the cell death caused by cocaine was induced by an apoptotic mechanism, confirmed by TUNEL assay. Therefore, the present paper shows that cocaine causes apoptotic cell death and inhibition of the neurite prolongation in striatal and mesencephalic cell culture. These data suggest that if similar neuronal damage could be produced in the developing human brain, it could account for the qualitative or quantitative defects in neuronal pathways that cause a major handicap in brain function following prenatal exposure to cocaine. PMID:26295051

  20. Primary culture of strial marginal cells of guinea pig cochlea: growth, morphologic features, and characterization.

    PubMed

    Achouche, J; Liu, D S; Tran Ba Huy, P; Huy, P T

    1991-12-01

    To further investigate the cellular mechanisms involved in the formation of endolymph, primary cultures of marginal cells of guinea pig were established. Minute explants obtained by mechanical dissociation of stria vascularis were plated on collagen type I precoated impermeable substrate in serum-free, hormone-supplemented medium. A confluent layer of epithelial-like cells was obtained within 2 weeks. The cultured cells formed domes, demonstrating that they retain some of their transepithelial properties. Polarization was also suggested by electron microscopic observation of apical microvilli and tight junctions. Immunohistochemical methods revealed that the cultured cells coexpressed cytokeratin and vimentin, demonstrating their epithelial origin, although some degree of dedifferentiation occurred. Thus, a primary culture of marginal cells can be established that may be a suitable model for an in-depth investigation of the function of the marginal cells.

  1. Cocaine Causes Apoptotic Death in Rat Mesencephalon and Striatum Primary Cultures.

    PubMed

    Lepsch, Lucilia B; Planeta, Cleopatra S; Scavone, Critoforo

    2015-01-01

    To study cocaine's toxic effects in vitro, we have used primary mesencephalic and striatal cultures from rat embryonic brain. Treatment with cocaine causes a dramatic increase in DNA fragmentation in both primary cultures. The toxicity induced by cocaine was paralleled with a concomitant decrease in the microtubule associated protein 2 (MAP2) and/or neuronal nucleus protein (NeuN) staining. We also observed in both cultures that the cell death caused by cocaine was induced by an apoptotic mechanism, confirmed by TUNEL assay. Therefore, the present paper shows that cocaine causes apoptotic cell death and inhibition of the neurite prolongation in striatal and mesencephalic cell culture. These data suggest that if similar neuronal damage could be produced in the developing human brain, it could account for the qualitative or quantitative defects in neuronal pathways that cause a major handicap in brain function following prenatal exposure to cocaine.

  2. Primary isolation and serial passage of hepatitis A virus strains in primate cell cultures.

    PubMed Central

    Binn, L N; Lemon, S M; Marchwicki, R H; Redfield, R R; Gates, N L; Bancroft, W H

    1984-01-01

    Although several primate cell types have been reported to support replication of hepatitis A virus, optimal conditions for the isolation and production of quantities of virus have not been defined. We therefore examined seven different primate cell types for their ability to support replication of primate-passaged and wild-type virus as reflected by intracytoplasmic accumulation of viral antigen (direct immunofluorescence and radioimmunoassay) and propagation of cell culture-adapted virus. Of the cells tested, low-passage African green monkey kidney (AGMK) cells were most sensitive for initial isolation. Viral replication was documented after inoculation of AGMK cells with seven of nine hepatitis A virus antigen-positive fecal specimens (from seven epidemiologically distinct sources). With six inocula, virus was successfully passed in serial cultures. AGMK-adapted virus was readily propagated in continuous AGMK (BS-C-1) cells. The optimal temperature for the growth of virus in BS-C-1 cells was 35 degrees C. Viral release into supernatant fluids was documented in the absence of any cytopathic effect, and infectivity titers in supernatant fluids 21 days after inoculation (50% tissue culture infective does [TCID50], 10(6.0)/ml) equalled or exceeded those in the cell fraction (TCID50, 10(5.5)/ml). Cells maintained in serum-free media readily supported viral growth, with yields of virus (TCID50, 10(6.5)/ml) equal to or greater than those obtained with cells maintained in 2% fetal bovine serum. PMID:6086708

  3. Primary isolation and serial passage of hepatitis A virus strains in primate cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Binn, L N; Lemon, S M; Marchwicki, R H; Redfield, R R; Gates, N L; Bancroft, W H

    1984-07-01

    Although several primate cell types have been reported to support replication of hepatitis A virus, optimal conditions for the isolation and production of quantities of virus have not been defined. We therefore examined seven different primate cell types for their ability to support replication of primate-passaged and wild-type virus as reflected by intracytoplasmic accumulation of viral antigen (direct immunofluorescence and radioimmunoassay) and propagation of cell culture-adapted virus. Of the cells tested, low-passage African green monkey kidney (AGMK) cells were most sensitive for initial isolation. Viral replication was documented after inoculation of AGMK cells with seven of nine hepatitis A virus antigen-positive fecal specimens (from seven epidemiologically distinct sources). With six inocula, virus was successfully passed in serial cultures. AGMK-adapted virus was readily propagated in continuous AGMK (BS-C-1) cells. The optimal temperature for the growth of virus in BS-C-1 cells was 35 degrees C. Viral release into supernatant fluids was documented in the absence of any cytopathic effect, and infectivity titers in supernatant fluids 21 days after inoculation (50% tissue culture infective does [TCID50], 10(6.0)/ml) equalled or exceeded those in the cell fraction (TCID50, 10(5.5)/ml). Cells maintained in serum-free media readily supported viral growth, with yields of virus (TCID50, 10(6.5)/ml) equal to or greater than those obtained with cells maintained in 2% fetal bovine serum.

  4. Optimization of NRU assay in primary cultures of Eisenia fetida for metal toxicity assessment.

    PubMed

    Irizar, Amaia; Duarte, Daniel; Guilhermino, Lucia; Marigómez, Ionan; Soto, Manu

    2014-09-01

    Coelomocytes, immunocompetent cells of lumbricids, have received special attention for ecotoxicological studies due to their sensibility to pollutants. Their in vitro responses are commonly quantified after in vivo exposure to real or spiked soils. Alternatively, quantifications of in vitro responses after in vitro exposure are being studied. Within this framework, the present study aimed at optimizing the neutral red uptake (NRU) assay in primary culture of Eisenia fetida coelomocytes for its application in soil toxicity testing. Optimized assay conditions were: earthworm depuration for 24 h before retrieving coelomocytes by electric extrusion; 2 × 10(5) seeded cells/well (200 µl) for the NRU assay and incubation for 1 h with neutral red dye. Supplementation of the culture medium with serum was not compatible with the NRU assay, but coelomocytes could be maintained with high viability for 3 days in a serum-free medium without replenishment. Thus, primary cultures were used for 24 h in vitro toxicity testing after exposure to different concentrations of Cd, Cu, Ni and Pb (ranging from 0.1 to 100 μg/ml). Primary cultures were sensitive to metals, the viability declining in a dose-dependent manner. The toxicity rank was, from high to low, Pb > Ni > Cd > Cu. Therefore, it can be concluded that the NRU assay in coelomocytes in primary cultures provides a sensitive and prompt response after in vitro exposure to metals.

  5. Methods Development for the Isolation and Culture of Primary Corneal Endothelial Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-02-01

    USAMRICD‐TR‐17‐02  Methods Development for the Isolation and  Culture of Primary Corneal Endothelial  Cells       Robert L. Haggins Jr...Development for the Isolation and Culture of Primary Corneal Endothelial Cells 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...endothelial cells (CECs). If so, cellular therapy intended to replenish CECs lost to injury and age may represent an effective approach in the

  6. Health system factors affecting communication with pediatricians: gendered work culture in primary care.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Sean

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the roles that practice setting, education level, and gender may play in social workers' communication satisfaction with pediatricians. Taking an ethnographic approach, the researcher interviewed social workers and pediatricians who worked together to provide mental health services in primary care. The results suggested that gender at the health system level may be an issue and that gendered work culture in primary care was a factor in communication. In particular, reimbursement, an aspect of the gendered work culture, was a substantial communication barrier, and the implications for Medicaid billing are discussed.

  7. Transmission ratio distortion at the growth hormone gene (GH1) in bovine preimplantation embryos: An in vitro culture-induced phenomenon?

    PubMed

    Murphy, Angela M; Meade, Kieran G; Hayes, Patricia A; Park, Stephen D E; Evans, Alex C O; Lonergan, Patrick; MacHugh, David E

    2008-05-01

    The growth hormone gene (GH1) and its polypeptide product (GH) have a crucial role in reproduction, embryogenesis and general development. A polymorphism present in the fifth exon of the bovine GH1 gene (GH1 p.Leu127Val) has been associated with GH release and milk production in cattle. The objective of the present study was to examine the genotype frequencies of the GH1 p.Leu127Val polymorphism in bovine blastocysts produced in vitro and in vivo to determine if allelic variation of the GH1 gene affects embryo development and survival. A heterozygous (p.Leu127/Val127) sire was used for in vitro fertilization of oocytes of unknown maternal genotype (n = 104) and known maternal genotype (n = 115). PCR amplification and genotyping of the GH1 gene from Day 8 blastocysts derived from these fertilized oocytes demonstrated that there was significant over-representation from the expected Mendelian ratio of GH1 p.Leu127/Leu127 homozygotes from oocytes of known maternal genotype (P = 0.006). Contrary to this, analysis of in vivo-produced bovine blastocysts of known parental GH1 genotype (n = 69) did not reveal an overrepresentation of GH1 p.Leu127/Leu127 homozygotes. These results suggest that developing in vitro-produced embryos are exposed to a selection process, probably due to a less favorable culture environment, that acts to increase the number of GH1 p.Leu127/Leu127 homozygotes, thereby giving rise to the observed transmission ratio distortion (TRD) of GH1 genotypes when compared to in vivo produced embryos.

  8. Establishment of primary cell culture from the temperate symbiotic cnidarian, Anemonia viridis.

    PubMed

    Barnay-Verdier, Stéphanie; Dall'osso, Diane; Joli, Nathalie; Olivré, Juliette; Priouzeau, Fabrice; Zamoum, Thamilla; Merle, Pierre-Laurent; Furla, Paola

    2013-10-01

    The temperate symbiotic sea anemone Anemonia viridis, a member of the Cnidaria phylum, is a relevant experimental model to investigate the molecular and cellular events involved in the preservation or in the rupture of the symbiosis between the animal cells and their symbiotic microalgae, commonly named zooxanthellae. In order to increase research tools for this model, we developed a primary culture from A. viridis animal cells. By adapting enzymatic dissociation protocols, we isolated animal host cells from a whole tentacle in regeneration state. Each plating resulted in a heterogeneous primary culture consisted of free zooxanthellae and many regular, small rounded and adherent cells (of 3-5 μm diameter). Molecular analyses conducted on primary cultures, maintained for 2 weeks, confirmed a specific signature of A. viridis cells. Further serial dilutions and micromanipulation allowed us to obtain homogenous primary cultures of the small rounded cells, corresponding to A. viridis "epithelial-like cells". The maintenance and the propagation over a 4 weeks period of primary cells provide, for in vitro cnidarian studies, a preliminary step for further investigations on cnidarian cellular pathways notably in regard to symbiosis interactions.

  9. Preventive effect of piracetam and vinpocetine on hypoxia-reoxygenation induced injury in primary hippocampal culture.

    PubMed

    Solanki, P; Prasad, D; Muthuraju, S; Sharma, A K; Singh, S B; Ilavzhagan, G

    2011-04-01

    The present study investigates the potential of Piracetam and Vinpocetine (nootropic drugs, known to possess neuroprotective properties) in preventing hypoxia-reoxygenation induced oxidative stress in primary hippocampal cell culture. The hippocampal culture was exposed to hypoxia (95% N(2), 5% CO(2)) for 3h and followed by 1h of reoxygenation (21% O(2) and 5% CO(2)) at 37 °C. The primary hippocampal cultures were supplemented with the optimum dose of Piracetam and Vinpocetine, independently, and the cultures were divided into six groups, viz. Control/Normoxia, Hypoxia, Hypoxia+Piracetam, Hypoxia+Vinpocetine, Normoxia + Piracetam and Normoxia+Vinpocetine. The cell-viability assays and biochemical oxidative stress parameters were evaluated for each of the six groups. Administration of 1mM Piracetam or 500 nM Vinpocetine significantly prevents the culture from hypoxia-reoxygenation injury when determined by Neutral Red assay, LDH release and Acetylcholine esterase activity. Results showed that Piracetam and Vinpocetine supplementation significantly prevented the fall of mitochondrial membrane potential, rise in ROS generation and reduction in antioxidant levels associated with the hypoxia-reoxygenation injury. In conclusion, the present study establishes that both Piracetam and Vinpocetine give neuroprotection against hypoxia-reoxygenation injury in primary hippocampal cell culture. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Protein-engineered scaffolds for in vitro 3D culture of primary adult intestinal organoids.

    PubMed

    DiMarco, Rebecca L; Dewi, Ruby E; Bernal, Gabriela; Kuo, Calvin; Heilshorn, Sarah C

    2015-10-15

    Though in vitro culture of primary intestinal organoids has gained significant momentum in recent years, little has been done to investigate the impact of microenvironmental cues provided by the encapsulating matrix on the growth and development of these fragile cultures. In this work, the impact of various in vitro culture parameters on primary adult murine organoid formation and growth are analyzed with a focus on matrix properties and geometric culture configuration. The air-liquid interface culture configuration was found to result in enhanced organoid formation relative to a traditional submerged configuration. Additionally, through use of a recombinantly engineered extracellular matrix (eECM), the effects of biochemical and biomechanical cues were independently studied. Decreasing mechanical stiffness and increasing cell adhesivity were found to increase organoid yield. Tuning of eECM properties was used to obtain organoid formation efficiency values identical to those observed in naturally harvested collagen I matrices but within a stiffer construct with improved ease of physical manipulation. Increased ability to remodel the surrounding matrix through mechanical or enzymatic means was also shown to enhance organoid formation. As the engineering and tunability of recombinant matrices is essentially limitless, continued property optimization may result in further improved matrix performance and may help to identify additional microenvironmental cues that directly impact organoid formation, development, differentiation, and functional behavior. Continued culture of primary organoids in recombinant matrices could therefore prove to be largely advantageous in the field of intestinal tissue engineering for applications in regenerative medicine and in vitro tissue mimics.

  11. Efficient and simple approach to in vitro culture of primary epithelial cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Janik, Karolina; Popeda, Marta; Peciak, Joanna; Rosiak, Kamila; Smolarz, Maciej; Treda, Cezary; Rieske, Piotr; Stoczynska-Fidelus, Ewelina; Ksiazkiewicz, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Primary cancer cells constitute a favourable testing platform for in vitro research in oncology field as they reflect tumour state more accurately than the most commonly employed stable cell lines. Unfortunately, due to limited availability of material and difficulties with protocols validation, primary models are rarely implemented into laboratory practice. We have compared protocols for primary cultures, differing in media components and plate coatings. In terms of culture establishment, application of Geltrex® coating demonstrated equal efficiency to feeder layer (83% compared with 72% successfully established breast and 80% compared with 80% prostate tumour specimens), yet it was substantially less complicated and easier to validate. Both Geltrex® coating and tissue-specific primary cell medium were permanently required to successfully maintain primary epithelial prostate cancer cells (PEPCs) in culture. In case of primary epithelial breast cancer cells (PEBCs), collagen I coating enabled to obtain comparable number of passages to Geltrex® coating (P=0.438). Commercial primary cell media demonstrated lower efficiency than tissue-specific ones (PEPCs–5 compared with 8 and PEBCs–6 compared with 9 passages). Interestingly, both analysed tumour types were unsusceptible to induction of culture lifespan extension when transduced with SV40LT, BMI-1 or hEST2 genes, commonly applied as potential immortalizing agents. In conclusion, the approach based on extracellular matrix reconstitution and tissue-specific primary cell media is easy to validate and provides in vitro expansion sufficient for analytical purposes (approximately 8 passages). Therefore, it may facilitate implementation of hardly available experimental models for a variety of analyses. PMID:27803125

  12. Rapid Selection of Mesenchymal Stem and Progenitor Cells in Primary Prostate Stromal Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Brennen, W. Nathaniel; Kisteman, L. Nelleke; Isaacs, John T.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are a dominant component of the tumor microenvironment with pro-tumorigenic properties. Despite this knowledge, their physiologic origins remain poorly understood. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be recruited from the bone marrow to areas of tissue damage and inflammation, including prostate cancer. MSCs can generate and have many overlapping properties with CAFs in preclinical models. METHODS Multiparameter flow cytometry and multipotent differentiation assays used to define MSCs in primary prostate stromal cultures derived from young (>25 yrs) organ donors and prostate cancer patients compared with bone marrow-derived stromal cultures. Population doubling times, population doublings, cell size, and differentiation potential determined under multiple culture conditions, including normoxia, hypoxia, and a variety of media. TGF-β measured by ELISA. RESULTS MSCs and stromal progenitors are not only present in normal and malignant prostate tissue, but are quickly selected for in primary stromal cultures derived from these tissues; becoming the dominant population within just a few passages. Growth potential inversely associated with TGF-β concentrations. All conditions generated populations with an average cell diameter >15 μm. All cultures tested had the ability to undergo osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation, but unlike bone marrow-derived MSCs, primary stromal cultures derived from normal prostate tissue lack adipogenic differentiation potential. In contrast, a subset of stromal cultures derived from prostate cancer patients retain the ability to differentiate into adipocytes; a property that is significantly suppressed under hypoxic conditions in both bone marrow- and prostate-derived MSCs. CONCLUSIONS Primary prostate stromal cultures are highly enriched in cells with an MSC or stromal progenitor phenotype. The use of primary cultures such as these to study CAFs raises interesting implications when

  13. Primary structure of bovine pituitary secretory protein I (chromogranin A) deduced from the cDNA sequence

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, T.G.; Cohn, D.V.; Gorr, S.U.; Ornstein, D.L.; Kashdan, M.A.; Levine, M.A.

    1987-07-01

    Secretory protein I (SP-I), also referred to as chromogranin A, is an acidic glycoprotein that has been found in every tissue of endocrine and neuroendocrine origin examined but never in exocrine or epithelial cells. Its co-storage and co-secretion with peptide hormones and neurotransmitters suggest that it has an important endocrine or secretory function. The authors have isolated cDNA clones from a bovine pituitary lambdagt11 expression library using an antiserum to parathyroid SP-I. The largest clone (SP4B) hybridized to a transcript of 2.1 kilobases in RNA from parathyroid, pituitary, and adrenal medulla. Immunoblots of bacterial lysates derived from SP4B lysognes demonstrated specific antibody binding to an SP4B/..beta..-galactosidase fusion protein (160 kDa) with a cDNA-derived component of 46 kDa. Radioimmunoassay of the bacterial lystates with SP-I antiserum yielded parallel displacement curves of /sup 125/I-labeled SP-I by the SP4B lysate and authentic SP-I. SP4B contains a cDNA of 1614 nucleotides that encodes a 449-amino acid protein (calculated mass, 50 kDa). The nucleotide sequences of the pituitary SP-I cDNA and adrenal medullary SP-I cDNAs are nearly identical. Analysis of genomic DNA suggests that pituitary, adrenal, and parathyroid SP-I are products of the same gene.

  14. Time-lapse cinematography-compatible polystyrene-based microwell culture system: a novel tool for tracking the development of individual bovine embryos.

    PubMed

    Sugimura, Satoshi; Akai, Tomonori; Somfai, Tamás; Hirayama, Muneyuki; Aikawa, Yoshio; Ohtake, Masaki; Hattori, Hideshi; Kobayashi, Shuji; Hashiyada, Yutaka; Konishi, Kazuyuki; Imai, Kei

    2010-12-01

    We have developed a polystyrene-based well-of-the-well (WOW) system using injection molding to track individual embryos throughout culture using time-lapse cinematography (TLC). WOW culture of bovine embryos following in vitro fertilization was compared with conventional droplet culture (control). No differences between control- and WOW-cultured embryos were observed during development to the blastocyst stage. Morphological quality and inner cell mass (ICM) and trophectoderm (TE) cell numbers were not different between control- and WOW-derived blastocysts; however, apoptosis in both the ICM and TE cells was reduced in WOW culture (P < 0.01). Oxygen consumption in WOW-derived blastocysts was closer to physiological level than that of control-derived blastocysts. Moreover, WOW culture improved embryo viability, as indicated by increased pregnancy rates at Days 30 and 60 after embryo transfer (P < 0.05). TLC monitoring was performed to evaluate the cleavage pattern and the duration of the first cell cycle of embryos from oocytes collected by ovum pickup; correlations with success of pregnancy were determined. Logistic regression analysis indicated that the cleavage pattern correlated with success of pregnancy (P < 0.05), but cell cycle length did not. Higher pregnancy rates (66.7%) were observed for animals in which transferred blastocysts had undergone normal cleavage, identified by the presence of two blastomeres of the same size without fragmentation, than among those with abnormal cleavage (33.3%). These results suggest that our microwell culture system is a powerful tool for producing and selecting healthy embryos and for identifying viability biomarkers.

  15. Ex Vivo bone formation in bovine trabecular bone cultured in a dynamic 3D bioreactor is enhanced by compressive mechanical strain.

    PubMed

    David, Valentin; Guignandon, Alain; Martin, Aline; Malaval, Luc; Lafage-Proust, Marie-Hélène; Rattner, Aline; Mann, Val; Noble, Brendon; Jones, David B; Vico, Laurence

    2008-01-01

    Our aim was to test cell and trabecular responses to mechanical loading in vitro in a tissue bone explant culture model. We used a new three-dimensional culture model, the ZetOS system, which provides the ability to exert cyclic compression on cancellous bone cylinders (bovine sternum) cultured in forced flow circumfusion chambers, and allows to assess mechanical parameters of the cultivated samples. We evaluated bone cellular parameters through osteocyte viability test, gene and protein expression, and histomorphometric bone formation rate, in nonloaded versus loaded samples. The microarchitecture of bone cores was appraised by in vivo micro-CT imaging. After 3 weeks, the samples receiving daily cyclic compression exhibited increased osteoblast differentiation and activity associated with thicker, more plate-like-shaped trabeculae and higher Young's modulus and ultimate force as compared to unloaded samples. Osteoclast activity was not affected by mechanical strain, although it was responsive to drug treatments (retinoic acid and bisphosphonate) during the first 2 weeks of culture. Thus, in the ZetOS apparatus, we reproduce in vitro the osteogenic effects of mechanical strain known in vivo, making this system a unique and an essential laboratory aid for ex vivo testing of lamellar bone remodeling.

  16. Chinese hamster ovary cells cultured in low concentrations of fetal bovine serum: cloning efficiency, growth in suspension, and selection of drug-resistant mutant phenotypes

    SciTech Connect

    Carver, J.H.; Salazar, E.P.; Knize, M.G.

    1983-09-01

    Reducing serum concentrations in media provides a potential cost advantage. To determine whether such media could be used for applied mutagenesis assays, cloning efficiency and growth parameters in suspension of Chinese hamster ovary cells cultured were measured in reduced serum with or without additives (1 ..mu..g/ml insulin, 3 x 10/sup -7/ M linoleic acid, 1 x 10/sup -8/ M H/sub 2/SeO/sub 3/) or bovine serum albumin (BSA, 1% wt/vol). With the additives and less than or equal to 0.5% fetal bovine serum (FBS), Ham's F12 medium (without hypoxanthine and thymidine) was more optimal than alpha Eagle's minimum essential medium (MEM) (without ribosides and deoxyribosides) for low density cloning and high density suspension growth. The spontaneous frequency of azaadenine-resistant phenotypes (mutant at the aprt locus) in 1% FBS plus BSA was significantly lower than the frequency observed in 2% FBS plus BSA or 10% DFBS. Frequencies of spontaneous mutants resistant to thioguanine (hgprt locus) or fluorodeoxy-uridine (tk locus) were similar with 10% DFBS, 1% FBS plus BSA, or 2% FBS plus BSA. Compared to alpha MEM with 10% DFBS, frequencies of drug-resistant mutants induced by ethyl methanesulfonate or mitomycin C (MMC) were not significantly lower in alpha MEM with 2% FBS plus BSA; observed mutant frequencies induced by dimethylnitrosamine or benzo(a)pyrene seemed to be decreased at lower survival levels.

  17. Stimulatory effect of nobiletin, a citrus polymethoxy flavone, on catecholamine synthesis through Ser19 and Ser40 phosphorylation of tyrosine hydroxylase in cultured bovine adrenal medullary cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Han; Yanagihara, Nobuyuki; Toyohira, Yumiko; Takahashi, Keita; Inagaki, Hirohide; Satoh, Noriaki; Li, Xiaoja; Goa, Xiumei; Tsutsui, Masato; Takahaishi, Kojiro

    2014-01-01

    We previously reported the dual effects of nobiletin, a compound of polymethoxy flavones found in citrus fruits, on catecholamine secretion in cultured bovine adrenal medullary cells. Here, we report the effects of nobiletin on catecholamine synthesis in the cells. Nobiletin increased the synthesis of (14)C-catecholamines from [(14)C]tyrosine in a time (20-30 min)- and concentration (1.0-100 μM)-dependent manner. Nobiletin (10-100 μM) also activated tyrosine hydroxylase activity. The stimulatory effect of nobiletin on (14)C-catecholamine synthesis was not observed when extracellular Ca(2+) was not present in the incubation medium. Protein kinase inhibitors including H-89, an inhibitor of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, and KN-93, an inhibitor of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, suppressed the stimulatory effects of nobiletin on catecholamine synthesis as well as tyrosine hydroxylase activity. Nobiletin also induced the phosphorylation of tyrosine hydroxylase at Ser(19) and Ser(40). Nobiletin (1.0-100 μM) inhibited (14)C-catecholamine synthesis induced by acetylcholine. The present findings suggest that nobiletin, by itself, stimulates catecholamine synthesis through tyrosine hydroxylase phosphorylation at Ser(19) and Ser(40), whereas it inhibits catecholamine synthesis induced by acetylcholine in bovine adrenal medulla.

  18. Addition of erythrocytes to in vitro culture medium attenuates the detrimental effects of reactive oxygen species on bovine preimplantation embryo development.

    PubMed

    Ideta, Atsushi; Tsuchiya, Kanami; Aoyagi, Yoshito

    2012-01-01

    Erythrocytes were recently found to improve the early development of mice embryos by their antioxidant effect. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of erythrocytes on the in vitro development of bovine in vitro fertilized (IVF) embryos in medium supplemented with reactive oxygen species (ROS). IVF embryos were cultured in CR1aa medium supplemented with oxidizing agents, 0.5mmol/L hypoxanthine and 0.01U/mL xanthine oxidase (HX/XOD), in the presence and absence of erythrocytes (5×10(4) , 5×10(5) , 5×10(6) and 5×10(7) erythrocytes/mL). After 8 days, blastocysts were examined with a stereomicroscope. HX/XOD blocked development to the blastocyst stage (HX/XOD: 0%, control: 33%), but in the presence of both erythrocytes and HX/XOD, blastocyst development was restored to about one-third to two-thirds the normal rate (5×10(5) to 5×10(7) erythrocytes/mL: 12 to 23%). Furthermore, adding erythrocytes or erythrocyte hemolysate to medium without HX/XOD increased the blastocyst rate. These results suggest that the addition of erythrocytes can attenuate the detrimental effects of ROS on embryo development in bovine species as well as in mice.

  19. Virus-host interactions in persistently FMDV-infected cells derived from bovine pharynx

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) produces a disease in cattle characterized by vesicular lesions and a persistent infection with asymptomatic low-level production of virus. Here we describe the establishment of a persistently infected primary cell culture derived from bovine pharynx tissue (PBPT)...

  20. Cabergoline protects dopaminergic neurons against rotenone-induced cell death in primary mesencephalic cell culture.

    PubMed

    Meinel, J; Radad, K; Rausch, W-D; Reichmann, H; Gille, G

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, primary mesencephalic cell cultures prepared from embryonic mouse mesencephala were used to investigate the neuroprotective effect of cabergoline, an ergoline D2 receptor agonist, against the pesticide and neurotoxin rotenone relevant to Parkinson disease (PD). Treatment of cultures with cabergoline alone significantly increased the number of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive (THir) neurons and reduced the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) into the culture medium compared to untreated controls. Against rotenone toxicity, cabergoline significantly rescued degenerating THir neurons, reduced the release of LDH into the culture medium and improved the morphology of surviving THir neurons. The neuroprotective effects afforded by cabergoline were independent of dopaminergic stimulation as blocking of dopamine receptors by the dopamine receptor antagonist sulpiride did not prevent them. Furthermore, rotenone-induced formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was significantly reduced by cabergoline. Although cabergoline increased the glutathione (GSH) content in the culture, the protective effect for dopaminergic neurons seemed not to be predominantly mediated by increasing GSH, as depletion of GSH by L-buthionine-(S,R)-sulfoximine (BSO), a GSH biosynthesis inhibitor, did not prevent cabergoline-mediated neuroprotection of THir neurons in rotenone-treated cultures. Moreover, cabergoline significantly increased the ATP/protein ratio in primary mesencephalic cell cultures when added alone or prior to rotenone treatment. These results indicate a neuroprotective effect of cabergoline for dopaminergic neurons against rotenone toxicity. This effect was independent of dopamine receptor stimulation and was at least partially mediated by reducing ROS production and increasing the ATP/protein ratio.

  1. [Application of the cultural competence model in the experience of care in nursing professionals Primary Care].

    PubMed

    Gil Estevan, María Dolores; Solano Ruíz, María Del Carmen

    2017-06-10

    To know the experiences and perceptions of nurses in providing care and health promotion, women belonging to groups at risk of social vulnerability, applying the model of cultural competence Purnell. Phenomenological qualitative study. Department of Health Elda. A total of 22 primary care professional volunteers. Semi-structured interviews and focus groups with recording and content analysis, according to the theory model of cultural competence. Socio-cultural factors influence the relationship between professionals and users of the system. The subtle racism and historical prejudices create uncomfortable situations and mistrust. The language barrier makes it difficult not only communication, but also the monitoring and control of the health-disease process. The physical appearance and stereotypes are determining factors for primary care professionals. Although perceived misuse of health services are also talking about changes. The spiritual aspects of religious beliefs alone are taken into account in the case of Muslim women, not being considered as important in the case of Gypsy women and Romanian women. To provide quality care, consistent and culturally competent, it is necessary to develop training programs for professionals in cultural competence, to know the culture of other, and work without preconceived ideas, and ethnocentric; since the greater the knowledge of the cultural group being served, the better the quality of care provided. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Use of primary cultures of Kenyon cells from bumblebee brains to assess pesticide side effects.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Daniel E; Velarde, Rodrigo A; Fahrbach, Susan E; Mommaerts, Veerle; Smagghe, Guy

    2013-09-01

    Bumblebees are important pollinators in natural and agricultural ecosystems. The latter results in the frequent exposure of bumblebees to pesticides. We report here on a new bioassay that uses primary cultures of neurons derived from adult bumblebee workers to evaluate possible side-effects of the neonicotinoid pesticide imidacloprid. Mushroom bodies (MBs) from the brains of bumblebee workers were dissected and dissociated to produce cultures of Kenyon cells (KCs). Cultured KCs typically extend branched, dendrite-like processes called neurites, with substantial growth evident 24-48 h after culture initiation. Exposure of cultured KCs obtained from newly eclosed adult workers to 2.5 parts per billion (ppb) imidacloprid, an environmentally relevant concentration of pesticide, did not have a detectable effect on neurite outgrowth. By contrast, in cultures prepared from newly eclosed adult bumblebees, inhibitory effects of imidacloprid were evident when the medium contained 25 ppb imidacloprid, and no growth was observed at 2,500 ppb. The KCs of older workers (13-day-old nurses and foragers) appeared to be more sensitive to imidacloprid than newly eclosed adults, as strong effects on KCs obtained from older nurses and foragers were also evident at 2.5 ppb imidacloprid. In conclusion, primary cultures using KCs of bumblebee worker brains offer a tool to assess sublethal effects of neurotoxic pesticides in vitro. Such studies also have the potential to contribute to the understanding of mechanisms of plasticity in the adult bumblebee brain.

  3. Antibiotic Supplements Affect Electrophysiological Properties and Excitability of Rat Hippocampal Pyramidal Neurons in Primary Culture

    PubMed Central

    Bahrami, Farideh; Janahmadi, Mahyar

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Antibiotic supplements are regularly used in neuronal culture media to control contamination; however, they can interfere with the neuronal excitability and affect electrophysiological properties. Therefore, in this study, the effect of penicillin/streptomycin supplements on the spontaneous electrophysiological activity of hippocampal pyramidal neurons was examined. Methods: Electrophysiological whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from rat hippocampal pyramidal cells in primary culture were performed to investigate the effects of antibiotic supplements on the intrinsic excitability of cultured cells. Results: The present findings indicated that presence of antibiotic supplements (penicillin/streptomycin) in the culture medium altered the intrinsic electrical activity of hippocampal pyramidal neurons in primary culture. These alterations included: 1) depolarized resting membrane potential; 2) a significant enhancement in the after-hyperpolarization amplitude; 3) a significant increase in the area under the action potential and in the decay and rise time of the action potential; 4) a significant broadening of action potential and 5) a significant reduction in the firing frequency. Conclusion: These findings suggest that addition of antibiotic supplements to culture media influences the neuronal excitability and alters the electrophysiological properties of cultured neurons, possibly through changing the ionic conductance underlying neuronal excitability. PMID:23567852

  4. A method for establishing human primary gastric epithelial cell culture from fresh surgical gastric tissues.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Faisal; Yang, Xuesong; Wen, Qingping; Yan, Qiu

    2015-08-01

    At present, biopsy specimens, cancer cell lines and tissues obtained by gastric surgery are used in the study and analysis of gastric cancer, including the molecular mechanisms and proteomics. However, fibroblasts and other tissue components may interfere with these techniques. Therefore, the present study aimed to develop a procedure for the isolation of viable human gastric epithelial cells from gastric surgical tissues. A method was developed to culture human gastric epithelial cells using fresh, surgically excised tissues and was evaluated using immunocytochemistry, periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining and cell viability assays. Low cell growth was observed surrounding the gastric tissue on the seventh day of tissue explant culture. Cell growth subsequently increased, and at 12 days post-explant a high number of pure epithelial cells were detected. The gastric cancer cells exhibited rapid growth with a doubling time of 13-52 h, as compared to normal cells, which had a doubling time of 20-53 h. Immunocytochemical analyses of primary gastric cells revealed positive staining for cytokeratin 18 and 19, which indicated that the culture was comprised of pure epithelial cells and contained no fibroblasts. Furthermore, PAS staining demonstrated that the cultured gastric cells produced neutral mucin. Granulin and carbohydrate antigen 724 staining confirmed the purity of gastric cancer and normal cells in culture. This method of cell culture indicated that the gastric cells in primary culture consisted of mucin-secreting gastric epithelial cells, which may be useful for the study of gastric infection with Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer.

  5. Production of avian influenza virus vaccine using primary cell cultures generated from host organs.

    PubMed

    Babar, Mustafeez Mujtaba; Riaz, Muhammad Suleman; Zaidi, Najam-us-Sahar Sadaf; Afzal, Farhan; Farooq, Muhammad Sabir

    2013-06-01

    The global availability of a therapeutically effective influenza virus vaccine during a pandemic remains a major challenge for the biopharmaceutical industry. Long production time, coupled with decreased supply of embryonated chicken eggs (ECE), significantly affects the conventional vaccine production. Transformed cell lines have attained regulatory approvals for vaccine production. Based on the fact that the avian influenza virus would infect the cells derived from its natural host, the viral growth characteristics were studied on chicken embryo-derived primary cell cultures. The viral propagation was determined on avian origin primary cell cultures, transformed mammalian cell lines, and in ECE. A comparison was made between these systems by utilizing various cell culture-based assays. In-vitro substrate susceptibility and viral infection characteristics were evaluated by performing hemagglutination assay (HA), 50 % tissue culture infectious dose (TCID₅₀) and monitoring of cytopathic effects (CPE) caused by the virus. The primary cell culture developed from chicken embryos showed stable growth characteristics with no contamination. HA, TCID₅₀, and CPE exhibited that these cell systems were permissive to viral infection, yielding 2-10 times higher viral titer as compared to mammalian cell lines. Though the viral output from the ECE was equivalent to the chicken cell culture, the time period for achieving it was decreased to half. Some of the prerequisites of inactivated influenza virus vaccine production include generation of higher vial titer, independence from exogenous sources, and decrease in the production time lines. Based on the tests, it can be concluded that chicken embryo primary cell culture addresses these issues and can serve as a potential alternative for influenza virus vaccine production.

  6. Nurses' perceptions of workplace culture in primary health care in Finland.

    PubMed

    Hahtela, N; Paavilainen, E; McCormack, B; Helminen, M; Slater, P; Suominen, T

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to describe nurses' perceptions of workplace culture, especially in regard to stress levels, job satisfaction and the practice environment in primary health care. Health care is facing many challenges related to its attractiveness as a place of employment and the maintenance of a sufficient workforce supply. Previous studies report increasing rates of nurse job dissatisfaction and intentions to leave their current positions both in Finland and also globally. Improving workplace culture is thus vital in meeting the challenges related to recruitment and retention. A cross-sectional descriptive design was used to describe nurses' perceptions of workplace culture. Data were collected by questionnaire from 22 units in nine primary healthcare organizations in Finland, and analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Most of the respondents indicated that they were not certain whether their workplace culture was either positive or negative. Profession, age and work shift characteristics had an effect on the respondents' perceptions of workplace culture. Younger licensed practical and registered nurses assessed their workplace culture more positively, whereas older registered nurses and those working rotating rosters viewed workplace culture more negatively. The findings suggest that both unit and demographic characteristics affect workplace culture. This survey highlights that a positive workplace culture is one of the key factors in retaining and recruiting nurses, and provides an essential evidence that may be considered by other healthcare organizations. Nurse managers and healthcare leaders need to address workload management and take into account the related variables that affect a unit's workplace culture. © 2015 International Council of Nurses.

  7. Primary surveys on molecular epidemiology of bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 infecting goats in Jiangsu province, China.

    PubMed

    Mao, Li; Li, Wenliang; Yang, Leilei; Wang, Jianhui; Cheng, Suping; Wei, Yong; Wang, Qiusheng; Zhang, Wenwen; Hao, Fei; Ding, Yonglong; Sun, Yinhua; Jiang, Jieyuan

    2016-09-05

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a pathogen of domestic and wildlife animals worldwide and is associated with several diseases. In China, there are many reports about genotyping of BVDV strains originated from cattle and pigs, and some of them focused on the geographical distributions of BVDV. Currently, the goat industry in Jiangsu province of China is under going a rapid expansion. Most of these goat farms are backyard enterprises and in close proximity to pig and cattle farms. However, there was very limited information about BVDV infections in goats. The objective of this study was to assess the frequency of BVDV infections of goats, the relationship of these infections to clinical signs and determine what BVDV genotypes are circulating in Jiangsu province. From 236 goat sera collected from six regions in Jiangsu province between 2011 and 2013, BVDV-1 was identified in 29 samples from the five regions by RT-PCR. The BVDV-1 infections occurred with/without clinical signs. Eight different BVDV-1 strains were identified from these positive samples based on the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) sequences, and further clustered into four BVDV-1 subtypes on the phylogenetic analysis. Three were BVDV-1b, two BVDV-1m, two BVDV-1o, and one BVDV-1p, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first report to investigate the occurrence of BVDV and the genotypes of BVDV infecting goats in China. The results indicated that BVDV-1 infections were indeed present and the viruses were with genetic variations in Chinese goat herds. The information would be very useful for prevention and control of BVDV-1 infections in China.

  8. Knowing in Primary Physical Education in the UK: Negotiating Movement Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Gavin; Quennerstedt, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to understand how pupils and teachers actions-in-context constitute being-a-pupil and being-a-teacher within a primary school physical education (PE) movement culture. Dewey and Bentley's theory of transaction, which views organism-in-environment-as-a-whole, enables the researcher to explore how actions-in-ongoing activities…

  9. Resource and Production, A Primary Unit in Cultural Geography. Pupil Text and Workbook and Teacher Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imperatore, William

    This is an instructional unit in cultural geography for the primary grades. The major objective of the unit, which is comprised of a Pupil Text/Workbook and Teacher Manual, is to develop the geographic concepts labeled resource and production. Teaching strategies used include the Pestalozzian method of asking leading questions to draw the students…

  10. CHANGES IN GENE EXPRESSION DURING DIFFERENTIATION OF CULTURED HUMAN PRIMARY BRONCHIAL EPITHELIAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Primary airway epithelial cell cultures are a useful tool for the in vitro study of normal bronchial cell differentiation and function, airway disease mechanisms, and pathogens and toxin response. Growth of these cells at an air-liquid interface for several days results in the f...

  11. Cationic Amino Acid Based Lipids as Effective Nonviral Gene Delivery Vectors for Primary Cultured Neurons

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The delivery of specific genes into neurons offers a potent approach for treatment of diseases as well as for the study of neuronal cell biology. Here we investigated the capabilities of cationic amino acid based lipid assemblies to act as nonviral gene delivery vectors in primary cultured neurons. An arginine-based lipid, Arg-C3-Glu2C14, and a lysine-based lipid, Lys-C3-Glu2C14, with two different types of counterion, chloride ion (Cl–) and trifluoroacetic acid (TFA–), were shown to successfully mediate transfection of primary cultured neurons with plasmid DNA encoding green fluorescent protein. Among four types of lipids, we optimized their conditions such as the lipid-to-DNA ratio and the amount of pDNA and conducted a cytotoxicity assay at the same time. Overall, Arg-C3-Glu2C14 with TFA– induced a rate of transfection in primary cultured neurons higher than that of Lys-C3-Glu2C14 using an optimal weight ratio of lipid-to-plasmid DNA of 1. Moreover, it was suggested that Arg-C3-Glu2C14 with TFA– showed the optimized value higher than that of Lipofectamine2000 in experimental conditions. Thus, Arg-C3-Glu2C14 with TFA– is a promising candidate as a reliable transfection reagent for primary cultured neurons with a relatively low cytotoxicity. PMID:24087930

  12. Cultures of Engagement in Challenging Circumstances: Four Lebanese Primary Schools in Urban Beirut

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nabhani, Mona; Busher, Hugh; Bahous, Rima

    2012-01-01

    This study of four private primary schools in Beirut, Lebanon, investigated why the children in the schools appeared to out-perform their peers in other schools. The study investigated the cultures that teachers and principals constructed in schools with children and their parents, wondering whether they would exhibit characteristics said to…

  13. Resource and Production, A Primary Unit in Cultural Geography. Pupil Text and Workbook and Teacher Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imperatore, William

    This is an instructional unit in cultural geography for the primary grades. The major objective of the unit, which is comprised of a Pupil Text/Workbook and Teacher Manual, is to develop the geographic concepts labeled resource and production. Teaching strategies used include the Pestalozzian method of asking leading questions to draw the students…

  14. Promoting Cultural Understandings through Song across the Tasman: Pre-Service Primary Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Dawn; Trinick, Robyn

    2016-01-01

    As tertiary music educators across the Tasman we argue that music, particularly song, is an effective medium for teaching and learning about non-western music when preparing generalist primary Pre-Service Teachers (PSTs). Using "voice" as a portable and accessible vehicle to transmit cultural understandings, we draw on the Zimbabwean…

  15. Culturally Relevant Literature: What Matters Most to Primary-Age Urban Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cartledge, Gwendolyn; Keesey, Susan; Bennett, Jessica G.; Ramnath, Rajiv; Council, Morris R., III.

    2016-01-01

    The ratings and rationales primary-age urban learners gave culturally relevant reading passages was the focus of this descriptive study. First- and second-grade students each read 30 researcher-developed passages reflecting the students' immediate and historical backgrounds. The students rated the passages and gave a reason for their ratings. A…

  16. Development of Quality Assurance System in Culture and Nation Character Education in Primary Education in Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Susilana, Rudi; Asra

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of national education is to develop skills and build dignified national character and civilization in educating nation life (Act No. 20, 2003). The paper describes a system of quality assurance in culture and character education in primary education. This study employs the six sigma model which consists of the formula DMAIC (Define,…

  17. Promoting Cultural Understandings through Song across the Tasman: Pre-Service Primary Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Dawn; Trinick, Robyn

    2016-01-01

    As tertiary music educators across the Tasman we argue that music, particularly song, is an effective medium for teaching and learning about non-western music when preparing generalist primary Pre-Service Teachers (PSTs). Using "voice" as a portable and accessible vehicle to transmit cultural understandings, we draw on the Zimbabwean…

  18. Knowing in Primary Physical Education in the UK: Negotiating Movement Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Gavin; Quennerstedt, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to understand how pupils and teachers actions-in-context constitute being-a-pupil and being-a-teacher within a primary school physical education (PE) movement culture. Dewey and Bentley's theory of transaction, which views organism-in-environment-as-a-whole, enables the researcher to explore how actions-in-ongoing activities…

  19. Culturally Relevant Literature: What Matters Most to Primary-Age Urban Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cartledge, Gwendolyn; Keesey, Susan; Bennett, Jessica G.; Ramnath, Rajiv; Council, Morris R., III.

    2016-01-01

    The ratings and rationales primary-age urban learners gave culturally relevant reading passages was the focus of this descriptive study. First- and second-grade students each read 30 researcher-developed passages reflecting the students' immediate and historical backgrounds. The students rated the passages and gave a reason for their ratings. A…

  20. Primary-Grade Students' Knowledge and Thinking about Shelter as a Cultural Universal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brophy, Jere; Alleman, Janet

    The traditional K-3 social studies curriculum has focused on food, clothing, shelter, communication, transportation, and other cultural universals. A study was designed to provide information with respect to the topic of shelter, and in the process, to assess claims that primary grade students do not need instruction in the topic because they…

  1. CHANGES IN GENE EXPRESSION DURING DIFFERENTIATION OF CULTURED HUMAN PRIMARY BRONCHIAL EPITHELIAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Primary airway epithelial cell cultures are a useful tool for the in vitro study of normal bronchial cell differentiation and function, airway disease mechanisms, and pathogens and toxin response. Growth of these cells at an air-liquid interface for several days results in the f...

  2. Mucin biosynthesis and secretion in tracheal epithelial cells in primary culture.

    PubMed Central

    Svitacheva, N; Davies, J R

    2001-01-01

    Density-gradient centrifugation of bovine tracheal epithelial cell extracts revealed a 'high-density' (1.48 g/ml) sialic-acid-rich population as well as a 'low-density' (1.42 g/ml) one that reacted more strongly with a periodate-Schiff (PAS) assay. The sialic-acid-rich mucins were oligomeric molecules containing disulphide- bond-linked subunits and large glycosylated domains, whereas the PAS-reactive component seemed to be smaller and 'monomeric'. Only the 'high-density' population was secreted from cells cultured for 5 days on plastic or a collagen type 1, Matrigel or Vitrogen substrate. Release was less from cells grown on plastic than from those on a substrate and the amount was unaffected by increasing the thickness of the collagen layer. For cells grown on collagen, the amount of the sialic-acid-rich mucin increased over 10 days, whereas the PAS-reactive component was largely absent after 24 h, which was consistent with an initial release of stored PAS-reactive molecules and synthesis of the sialic-acid-rich mucins de novo. Both [(3)H]proline and [(35)S]sulphate were poorly incorporated into mucins detected with the chemical assays but molecules with a higher buoyant density than that of either of the previously identified species were labelled with [(35)S]sulphate. The [(35)S]sulphate-labelled material yielded large trypsin-resistant fragments and contained O-linked glycans but was not affected by digestion with chondroitin ABC lyase or heparan sulphate lyase, suggesting that it is a mucin rather than a proteoglycan. [(35)S]Sulphate is thus a poor marker for the major oligomeric mucins produced by bovine tracheal epithelial cells but the radiolabel is incorporated into a heavily labelled mucin-like component. PMID:11115395

  3. Assessment of a bovine co-culture, scaffold-free method for growing meniscus-shaped constructs.

    PubMed

    Aufderheide, Adam C; Athanasiou, Kyriacos A

    2007-09-01

    Using a self-assembly (SA), scaffoldless method, five high-density co-cultures with varied ratios of meniscal fibrochondrocytes (MFCs) and articular chondrocytes (ACs) were seeded into novel meniscus-specific, ring-shaped agarose wells. The following ratios of MFCs to ACs were used: 0% MFC, 25% MFC, 50% MFC, 75% MFC, and 100% MFC. Over 4 weeks, all ratios of cells self-assembled into three-dimensional constructs with varying mechanobiological and morphological properties. All groups stained for collagen II (Col II), and all groups except the 0% MFC group stained for collagen I (Col I). It was found that the tensile modulus was proportional to the percentage of MFCs employed. The 100% MFC group yielded the greatest mechanical stiffness with 432.2 +/- 47 kPa tensile modulus and an ultimate tensile strength of 23.7 +/- 2.4 kPa. On gross inspection, the 50% MFC constructs were the most similar to our idealized meniscus shape, our primary criterion. A second experiment was performed to examine the anisotropy of constructs as well as to directly compare the scaffoldless, SA method with a poly-glycolic acid (PGA) scaffold-based construct. When compared to PGA constructs, the SA groups were 2-4 times stiffer and stronger in tension. Further, at 8 weeks, SA groups exhibited circumferential fiber bundles similar to native tissue. When pulled in the circumferential direction, the SA group had significantly higher tensile modulus (226 +/- 76 kPa) than when pulled in the radial direction (67 +/- 32 kPa). The PGA constructs had neither a directional collagen fiber orientation nor differences in mechanical properties in the radial or circumferential direction. It is suggested that the geometric constraint imposed by the ring-shaped, nonadhesive mold guides collagen fibril directionality and, thus, alters mechanical properties. Co-culturing ACs and MFCs in this manner appears to be a promising new method for tissue engineering fibrocartilaginous tissues exhibiting a spectrum of

  4. Evaluation of different culture systems with low oxygen tension on the development, quality and oxidative stress-related genes of bovine embryos produced in vitro.

    PubMed

    Arias, Maria Elena; Sanchez, Raul; Felmer, Ricardo

    2012-08-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the development, quality and gene expression profile of oxidative stress-related genes of bovine embryos cultured in different culture systems with low oxygen tension (5% CO2, 5% O2 and 90% N2). The systems assessed included: (1) an incubator chamber; (2) a plastic bag; and (3) a foil bag. The choice of culture system had no effect on cleavage rate at 72 h. However, significant differences (P < 0.01) were observed in the rate of blastocysts registered at day 7 (29.8, 20.2 and 12.7% for incubator chamber, plastic bag and foil bag, respectively). Total number of cells did not differ between systems, although the proportion of ICM:total cells was affected particularly in the plastic bag (19.5%), compared with the incubator chamber (31.4%). In addition, significant differences were found in the apoptotic:total cell ratio (3.3, 6.5 and 8.8% for the incubator chamber, plastic bag and foil bag, respectively), with apoptotic nuclei localised mainly in the ICM compartment of the embryo. The amount of reactive oxygen species was also different between culture systems and this effect was correlated with a higher expression of SOD2, GSS and GPX1 genes in embryos cultured in the gassed bags as compared with embryos cultured in the incubator chamber. In conclusion, these results give evidence that, under low oxygen tension, the incubator chamber is more efficient and generates higher number of, and better quality, embryos than gassed bag systems evaluated here and this effect was probably due to an increased level of reactive oxygen species in the gassed bags, which upregulates the expression of some antioxidant enzymes to compensate for hyperoxia conditions.

  5. Rat Sertoli cells acquire a beta-adrenergic response during primary culture.

    PubMed Central

    Kierszenbaum, A L; Spruill, W A; White, M G; Tres, L L; Perkins, J P

    1985-01-01

    Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and the radioligand (-)-[125I]iodopindolol (125I-Pin) have been used to study isoproterenol-dependent protein phosphorylation and beta-adrenergic receptor availability, respectively, in cultured Sertoli cells and freshly isolated seminiferous tubular segments of sexually immature and mature rats. Sertoli cells prepared from sexually immature rats show progressive 125I-Pin binding in primary cultures that correlates with isoproterenol-induced cell shape changes, redistribution of immunoreactive vimentin, and phosphorylation of this intermediate filament protein. The development of 125I-Pin binding to Sertoli cell lysates is blocked by cycloheximide. Seminiferous tubules do not show significant isoproterenol-dependent vimentin phosphorylation nor 125I-Pin binding. However, vimentin phosphorylation can be induced by follicle-stimulating hormone or a cyclic nucleotide analog. This study stresses the need for correlating pharmacological-induced responses observed in Sertoli cell primary cultures with those in the intact seminiferous tubule. Images PMID:2984678

  6. Effects of Two Types of Melatonin-Loaded Nanocapsules with Distinct Supramolecular Structures: Polymeric (NC) and Lipid-Core Nanocapsules (LNC) on Bovine Embryo Culture Model.

    PubMed

    Komninou, Eliza Rossi; Remião, Mariana Härter; Lucas, Caroline Gomes; Domingues, William Borges; Basso, Andrea Cristina; Jornada, Denise Soledade; Deschamps, João Carlos; Beck, Ruy Carlos Ruver; Pohlmann, Adriana Raffin; Bordignon, Vilceu; Seixas, Fabiana Kömmling; Campos, Vinicius Farias; Guterres, Silvia Stanisçuaski; Collares, Tiago

    2016-01-01

    Melatonin has been used as a supplement in culture medium to improve the efficiency of in vitro produced mammalian embryos. Through its ability to scavenge toxic oxygen derivatives and regulate cellular mRNA levels for antioxidant enzymes, this molecule has been shown to play a protective role against damage by free radicals, to which in vitro cultured embryos are exposed during early development. In vivo and in vitro studies have been performed showing that the use of nanocapsules as active substances carriers increases stability, bioavailability and biodistribution of drugs, such as melatonin, to the cells and tissues, improving their antioxidant properties. These properties can be modulated through the manipulation of formula composition, especially in relation to the supramolecular structures of the nanocapsule core and the surface area that greatly influences drug release mechanisms in biological environments. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of two types of melatonin-loaded nanocapsules with distinct supramolecular structures, polymeric (NC) and lipid-core (LNC) nanocapsules, on in vitro cultured bovine embryos. Embryonic development, apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and mRNA levels of genes involved in cell apoptosis, ROS and cell pluripotency were evaluated after supplementation of culture medium with non-encapsulated melatonin (Mel), melatonin-loaded polymeric nanocapsules (Mel-NC) and melatonin-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules (Mel-LNC) at 10-6, 10-9, and 10-12 M drug concentrations. The highest hatching rate was observed in embryos treated with 10-9 M Mel-LNC. When compared to Mel and Mel-NC treatments at the same concentration (10-9 M), Mel-LNC increased embryo cell number, decreased cell apoptosis and ROS levels, down-regulated mRNA levels of BAX, CASP3, and SHC1 genes, and up-regulated mRNA levels of CAT and SOD2 genes. These findings indicate that nanoencapsulation with LNC increases the protective effects of melatonin

  7. Effects of Two Types of Melatonin-Loaded Nanocapsules with Distinct Supramolecular Structures: Polymeric (NC) and Lipid-Core Nanocapsules (LNC) on Bovine Embryo Culture Model

    PubMed Central

    Komninou, Eliza Rossi; Remião, Mariana Härter; Lucas, Caroline Gomes; Domingues, William Borges; Basso, Andrea Cristina; Jornada, Denise Soledade; Deschamps, João Carlos; Beck, Ruy Carlos Ruver; Pohlmann, Adriana Raffin; Bordignon, Vilceu; Seixas, Fabiana Kömmling; Campos, Vinicius Farias; Guterres, Silvia Stanisçuaski; Collares, Tiago

    2016-01-01

    Melatonin has been used as a supplement in culture medium to improve the efficiency of in vitro produced mammalian embryos. Through its ability to scavenge toxic oxygen derivatives and regulate cellular mRNA levels for antioxidant enzymes, this molecule has been shown to play a protective role against damage by free radicals, to which in vitro cultured embryos are exposed during early development. In vivo and in vitro studies have been performed showing that the use of nanocapsules as active substances carriers increases stability, bioavailability and biodistribution of drugs, such as melatonin, to the cells and tissues, improving their antioxidant properties. These properties can be modulated through the manipulation of formula composition, especially in relation to the supramolecular structures of the nanocapsule core and the surface area that greatly influences drug release mechanisms in biological environments. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of two types of melatonin-loaded nanocapsules with distinct supramolecular structures, polymeric (NC) and lipid-core (LNC) nanocapsules, on in vitro cultured bovine embryos. Embryonic development, apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and mRNA levels of genes involved in cell apoptosis, ROS and cell pluripotency were evaluated after supplementation of culture medium with non-encapsulated melatonin (Mel), melatonin-loaded polymeric nanocapsules (Mel-NC) and melatonin-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules (Mel-LNC) at 10−6, 10−9, and 10−12 M drug concentrations. The highest hatching rate was observed in embryos treated with 10−9 M Mel-LNC. When compared to Mel and Mel-NC treatments at the same concentration (10−9 M), Mel-LNC increased embryo cell number, decreased cell apoptosis and ROS levels, down-regulated mRNA levels of BAX, CASP3, and SHC1 genes, and up-regulated mRNA levels of CAT and SOD2 genes. These findings indicate that nanoencapsulation with LNC increases the protective effects of

  8. Liver x receptors stimulate lipogenesis in bovine mammary epithelial cell culture but do not appear to be involved in diet‐induced milk fat depression in cows

    PubMed Central

    Harvatine, Kevin J.; Boisclair, Yves R.; Bauman, Dale E.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Milk fat synthesis of ruminants can be inhibited by intermediates of ruminal fatty acid biohydrogenation including trans‐10, cis‐12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). These biohydrogenation intermediates signal a coordinated downregulation of genes involved in mammary FA synthesis, transport, and esterification. We have previously reported decreased mammary expression of sterol response element‐binding protein 1 (SREBP1), SREBP1‐activating proteins, and thyroid hormone‐responsive spot 14 (S14) in the cow during diet‐induced milk fat depression (MFD), and treatment with trans‐10, cis‐12 CLA. Liver x receptors (LXR) and retinoid x receptors (RXR) regulate lipogenesis and are known to bind polyunsaturated FA and LXR agonist increases lipid synthesis in mammary epithelial cell culture. The current studies investigated if biohydrogenation products of rumen origin inhibit mammary lipogenesis through LXR and/or RXR. Expression of LXRs was not different in lactating compared to nonlactating bovine mammary tissue, and expression of LXRs, RXRα, and selected LXR and RXR target genes was not changed in mammary tissue during diet‐induced or CLA‐induced MFD in the cow. In bovine mammary epithelial cell culture, LXR agonist stimulated lipogenesis and expression of LXRß, ATP‐binding cassette 1 (ABCA1), SREBP1c, and S14, but LXR activation did not overcome CLA inhibition of lipogenesis and downregulation of LXRß, SREBP1c, and S14 expression. Lastly, expression of the LXR‐regulated carbohydrate‐responsive element‐binding protein (ChREBP) was higher in lactating than nonlactating tissue and was decreased during CLA‐induced MFD. We conclude that changes in mammary LXR expression in dairy cows are not involved in MFD and that trans‐10, cis‐12 CLA inhibition of lipogenesis and diet‐induced MFD appears independent of direct LXR signaling. PMID:24760520

  9. Carbon-activated gas filtration during in vitro culture increased pregnancy rate following transfer of in vitro-produced bovine embryos.

    PubMed

    Merton, J S; Vermeulen, Z L; Otter, T; Mullaart, E; de Ruigh, L; Hasler, J F

    2007-04-15

    Many environmental conditions for in vitro embryo production (IVP) systems for cattle have been relatively standardised, e.g. media composition, temperature, pH, water quality, and atmospheric composition. However, little attention has been paid to the quality of ambient laboratory air and the gas environment in incubators. Although a few studies have examined the effects of chemical air contamination on IVP of human embryos, there are no published accounts for domestic animal embryos. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of an intra-incubator carbon-activated air filtration system (CODA) during in vitro culture (IVC) on embryonic development and subsequent pregnancy rate of bovine embryos. Immature cumulus-oocyte-complexes (COCs) were obtained twice-weekly by ultrasonic-guided transvaginal oocyte aspiration. The COCs were matured in TCM199/FCS/LH/FSH, fertilized with frozen-thawed Percoll-separated semen, and subsequently cultured for 7 day in SOFaaBSA. Day 7 embryos were transferred either fresh or frozen/thawed. The experimental design was a 2 x 2 factorial; presumptive zygotes were placed either in a conventional CO(2)-O(2)-N(2) incubator (Control group) or in an identical CO(2)-O(2)-N(2) incubator with a CODA intra-incubator air purification unit (CODA group) for IVC. The embryo production rate at Day 7 was not affected by the CODA air purification unit (23.4 and 24.7% morulae and blastocysts per oocyte for control and CODA, respectively) nor was there any significant effect on embryo stage or quality. However, the pregnancy rate was improved (P=0.043) for both fresh (46.3% versus 41.0%) and frozen/thawed embryos (40.8% versus 35.6%). In conclusion, atmospheric purification by the CODA intra-incubator air purification unit significantly increased pregnancy rate following transfer of in vitro-produced bovine embryos.

  10. Managing change in the culture of general practice: qualitative case studies in primary care trusts.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Martin N; Mannion, Russell; Nelson, Elizabeth; Davies, Huw T O

    2003-09-13

    To explore the potential tension between the need for managers to produce measurable change and the skills required to produce cultural change, and to investigate how managers of primary care trusts are attempting to deal with this tension. Qualitative case studies using data derived from semistructured interviews and a review of published documents. An established cultural framework was to used to help interpret the findings. Six primary care trusts in England purposefully sampled to represent a range of cultural, structural, geographical, and demographic characteristics. 42 interviews with 39 different senior and middle primary care trust managers conducted over an 18 month period. We found two distinct and polarised styles of management. One group of managers adopts a directive style and challenges the prevailing norms and values of clinicians, an approach characteristically seen in organisations with hierarchical cultures. This group is made up mostly of senior managers who are driven principally by the imperative to deliver a political agenda. Managers in the second group are more inclined to work with the prevailing cultures found in general practice, attempting to facilitate change from within rather than forcing change from outside. This management style is characteristically seen in organisations with a clan-type culture. The approach was manifest mostly by middle managers, who seem to act as buffers between the demands of senior managers and their own perception of the ability and willingness of health professionals to cope with change. The different management approaches can lead to tension and dysfunction between tiers of management. The development of primary care depends on high quality managers who are able to draw on a range of different management skills and styles. Managers are most likely to be effective if they appreciate the merits and drawbacks of their different styles and are willing to work in partnership.

  11. Prolactin mediates neuroprotection against excitotoxicity in primary cell cultures of hippocampal neurons via its receptor.

    PubMed

    Vergara-Castañeda, E; Grattan, D R; Pasantes-Morales, H; Pérez-Domínguez, M; Cabrera-Reyes, E A; Morales, T; Cerbón, M

    2016-04-01

    Recently it has been reported that prolactin (PRL) exerts a neuroprotective effect against excitotoxicity in hippocampus in the rat in vivo models. However, the exact mechanism by which PRL mediates this effect is not completely understood. The aim of our study was to assess whether prolactin exerts neuroprotection against excitotoxicity in an in vitro model using primary cell cultures of hippocampal neurons, and to determine whether this effect is mediated via the prolactin receptor (PRLR). Primary cell cultures of rat hippocampal neurons were used in all experiments, gene expression was evaluated by RT-qPCR, and protein expression was assessed by Western blot analysis and immunocytochemistry. Cell viability was assessed by using the MTT method. The results demonstrated that PRL treatment of neurons from primary cultures did not modify cell viability, but that it exerted a neuroprotective effect, with cells treated with PRL showing a significant increase of viability after glutamate (Glu)--induced excitotoxicity as compared with neurons treated with Glu alone. Cultured neurons expressed mRNA for both PRL and its receptor (PRLR), and both PRL and PRLR expression levels changed after the excitotoxic insult. Interestingly, the PRLR protein was detected as two main isoforms of 100 and 40 kDa as compared with that expressed in hypothalamic cells, which was present only as a 30 kDa variant. On the other hand, PRL was not detected in neuron cultures, either by western blot or by immunohistochemistry. Neuroprotection induced by PRL was significantly blocked by specific oligonucleotides against PRLR, thus suggesting that the PRL role is mediated by its receptor expressed in these neurons. The overall results indicated that PRL induces neuroprotection in neurons from primary cell cultures.

  12. Bovine Brain: An in vitro Translational Model in Developmental Neuroscience and Neurodegenerative Research

    PubMed Central

    Peruffo, Antonella; Cozzi, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Animal models provide convenient and clinically relevant tools in the research on neurodegenerative diseases. Studies on developmental disorders extensively rely on the use of laboratory rodents. The present mini-review proposes an alternative translational model based on the use of fetal bovine brain tissue. The bovine (Bos taurus) possesses a large and highly gyrencephalic brain and the long gestation period (41 weeks) is comparable to human pregnancy (38–40 weeks). Primary cultures obtained from fetal bovine brain constitute a validated in vitro model that allows examinations of neurons and/or glial cells under controlled and reproducible conditions. Physiological processes can be also studied on cultured bovine neural cells incubated with specific substrates or by electrically coupled electrolyte-oxide-semiconductor capacitors that permit direct recording from neuronal cells. Bovine neural cells and specific in vitro cell culture could be an alternative in comparative neuroscience and in neurodegenerative research, useful for studying development of normal and altered circuitry in a long gestation mammalian species. Use of bovine tissues would promote a substantial reduction in the use of laboratory animals. PMID:25072040

  13. Successful establishment of primary small airway cell cultures in human lung transplantation

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The study of small airway diseases such as post-transplant bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) is hampered by the difficulty in assessing peripheral airway function either physiologically or directly. Our aims were to develop robust methods for sampling small airway epithelial cells (SAEC) and to establish submerged SAEC cultures for downstream experimentation. Methods SAEC were obtained at 62 post-transplant bronchoscopies in 26 patients using radiologically guided bronchial brushings. Submerged cell cultures were established and SAEC lineage was confirmed using expression of clara cell secretory protein (CCSP). Results The cell yield for SAEC (0.956 ± 0.063 × 106) was lower than for large airway cells (1.306 ± 0.077 × 106) but did not significantly impact on the culture establishment rate (79.0 ± 5.2% vs. 83.8 ± 4.7% p = 0.49). The presence of BOS significantly compromised culture success (independent of cell yield) for SAEC (odds ratio (95%CI) 0.067 (0.01-0.40)) but not LAEC (0.3 (0.05-1.9)). Established cultures were successfully passaged and expanded. Conclusion Primary SAEC can be successfully obtained from human lung transplant recipients and maintained in culture for downstream experimentation. This technique will facilitate the development of primary in vitro models for BOS and other diseases with a small airway component such as asthma, cystic fibrosis and COPD. PMID:19857270

  14. Circadian Rhythms of PER2::LUC in Individual Primary Mouse Hepatocytes and Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Molyneux, Penny C.; Yu, Jimmy K.; Li, Alexander S.; Leise, Tanya L.; Harrington, Mary E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Hepatocytes, the parenchymal cells of the liver, express core clock genes, such as Period2 and Cryptochrome2, which are involved in the transcriptional/translational feedback loop of the circadian clock. Whether or not the liver is capable of sustaining rhythms independent of a central pacemaker is controversial. Whether and how circadian information may be shared among cells in the liver in order to sustain oscillations is currently unknown. Results In this study we isolated primary hepatocytes from transgenic Per2Luc mice and used bioluminescence as a read-out of the state of the circadian clock. Hepatocytes cultured in a collagen gel sandwich configuration exhibited persistent circadian rhythms for several weeks. The amplitude of the rhythms damped, but medium changes consistently reset the phase and amplitude of the cultures. Cry2−/− Per2Luc cells oscillated robustly and expressed a longer period. Co-culturing with wildtype cells did not significantly shorten the period, indicating that coupling among hepatocytes is insufficient to synchronize cells with significantly differing periods. However, spatial patterns revealed by cellular imaging of wildtype cultures provided evidence of weak local coupling among the hepatocytes. Conclusions Our results with primary hepatocyte cultures demonstrate that cultured hepatocytes are weakly coupled. While this coupling is not sufficient to sustain global synchrony, it does increase local synchrony, which may stabilize the circadian rhythms of peripheral oscillators, such as the liver, against noise in the entraining signals. PMID:24498336

  15. Primary cell cultures from sea urchin ovaries: a new experimental tool.

    PubMed

    Mercurio, Silvia; Di Benedetto, Cristiano; Sugni, Michela; Candia Carnevali, M Daniela

    2014-02-01

    In the present work, primary cell cultures from ovaries of the edible sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus were developed in order to provide a simple and versatile experimental tool for researches in echinoderm reproductive biology. Ovary cell phenotypes were identified and characterized by different microscopic techniques. Although cell cultures could be produced from ovaries at all stages of maturation, the cells appeared healthier and viable, displaying a higher survival rate, when ovaries at early stages of gametogenesis were used. In terms of culture medium, ovarian cells were successfully cultured in modified Leibovitz-15 medium, whereas poor results were obtained in minimum essential medium Eagle and medium 199. Different substrates were tested, but ovarian cells completely adhered only on poly-L-lysine. To improve in vitro conditions and stimulate cell proliferation, different serum-supplements were tested. Fetal calf serum and an originally developed pluteus extract were detrimental to cell survival, apparently accelerating processes of cell death. In contrast, cells cultured with sea urchin egg extract appeared larger and healthier, displaying an increased longevity that allowed maintaining them for up to 1 month. Overall, our study provides new experimental bases and procedures for producing successfully long-term primary cell cultures from sea urchin ovaries offering a good potential to study echinoid oogenesis in a controlled system and to investigate different aspects of echinoderm endocrinology and reproductive biology.

  16. Trichostatin A, a critical factor in maintaining the functional differentiation of primary cultured rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Henkens, Tom . E-mail: Tom.Henkens@vub.ac.be; Papeleu, Peggy; Elaut, Greetje; Vinken, Mathieu; Rogiers, Vera; Vanhaecke, Tamara

    2007-01-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDI) have been shown to increase differentiation-related gene expression in several tumor-derived cell lines by hyperacetylating core histones. Effects of HDI on primary cultured cells, however, have hardly been investigated. In the present study, the ability of trichostatin A (TSA), a prototype hydroxamate HDI, to counteract the loss of liver-specific functions in primary rat hepatocyte cultures has been investigated. Upon exposure to TSA, it was found that the cell viability of the cultured hepatocytes and their albumin secretion as a function of culture time were increased. TSA-treated hepatocytes also better maintained cytochrome P450 (CYP)-mediated phase I biotransformation capacity, whereas the activity of phase II glutathione S-transferases (GST) was not affected. Western blot and qRT-PCR analysis of CYP1A1, CYP2B1 and CYP3A11 protein and mRNA levels, respectively, further revealed that TSA acts at the transcriptional level. In addition, protein expression levels of the liver-enriched transcription factors (LETFs) hepatic nuclear factor 4 alpha (HNF4{alpha}) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha (C/EBP{alpha}) were accordingly increased by TSA throughout culture time. In conclusion, these findings indicate that TSA plays a major role in the preservation of the differentiated hepatic phenotype in culture. It is suggested that the effects of TSA on CYP gene expression are mediated via controlling the expression of LETFs.

  17. Fibrin promotes development and function of macaque primary follicles during encapsulated three-dimensional culture.

    PubMed

    Xu, J; Lawson, M S; Yeoman, R R; Molskness, T A; Ting, A Y; Stouffer, R L; Zelinski, M B

    2013-08-01

    Does fibrin introduced into the extracellular matrix affect the growth and maturation of individual primate follicles during encapsulated three-dimensional (3D) culture? While not altering follicle survival, fibrin-alginate (FIBRIN) improves macaque primary, but not secondary, follicle development during encapsulated 3D culture in terms of growth, steroidogenesis, anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH)/vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production and oocyte maturation. Efforts to grow non-human primate ovarian follicles from the secondary to the antral stage during encapsulated 3D culture have been successful. However, the growth and maturation of primary follicles in vitro has not been reported in primates, especially in chemically defined conditions. In vitro follicle maturation was investigated using the rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta). Ovaries (n = 7 pairs) were obtained during the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle (cycle day 1-4). Primary (80-120 µm diameter) and secondary (125-225 µm diameter) follicles were isolated mechanically, randomly assigned to experimental groups, encapsulated into alginate (0.25% w/v) or FIBRIN (25 mg/ml fibrinogen-0.25% alginate) and cultured for 13 and 5 weeks, respectively. Individual follicles were cultured in alpha minimum essential medium supplemented with FSH. Follicle survival and growth were assessed by microscopy. Follicles that reached the antral stage were treated with recombinant hCG. Metaphase II (MII) oocytes were inseminated via ICSI. Follicle morphology was evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. Immunohistochemistry was performed for cytochrome P450 family 17 subfamily A polypeptide 1 (CYP17A1) and 19 subfamily A polypeptide 1 (CYP19A1). Culture medium was analyzed for estradiol (E2) and progesterone by chemiluminescence, androstenedione (A4) by radioimmunoassay, as well as anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A

  18. Early oxidative damage in primary cultured trout hepatocytes: a time course study.

    PubMed

    Ferraris, Michela; Radice, Sonia; Catalani, Paolo; Francolini, Maura; Marabini, Laura; Chiesara, Enzo

    2002-09-24

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the two-step hepatocyte isolation procedure on primary cultured trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) hepatocytes over time. We characterised the possible changes of a variety of some cellular parameters within the first 24-48 h after seeding. We followed the time dependent changes of these parameters during subsequent culture times in order to see if the cells maintained a differentiated status. Scanning electron microscopy revealed bleb formation and 20% cell damage in freshly isolated hepatocytes. During subsequent culture times the bleb dimension appear to be reduced. Heat shock proteins 70 and 50 (HSP70, HSP50) were induced by hepatocyte isolation. During the first 4 h of culture, the hepatocytes showed a variation in mitochondrial activity, an increase in free radical species (ROS), and a decrease in both glutathione (GSH) content and catalase (CAT) activity; the generation of free radicals led to an increase in the formation of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in the DNA. The cells showed detectable ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity after 4 h of culture, which had rapidly increased by the 24th hour. After 24 h, mitochondrial and CAT activity, free radical production, and the content of GSH and 8-OHdG returned to their original levels. P450 activity was retained for at least 48 h after seeding. Our data show that trout hepatocytes suffer significant cell injury as a result of the isolation procedure, but primary cultured cells metabolically recover from this stress after a few hours: they are capable of repairing their damaged surfaces, recovering their antioxidant defences and retaining their ability to repair DNA. Our results also confirm that trout hepatocytes in a primary culture maintain their in vivo-like metabolic activities for 3-8 days.

  19. Sensitivity and specificity of on-farm scoring systems and nasal culture to detect bovine respiratory disease complex in preweaned dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Love, William J; Lehenbauer, Terry W; Van Eenennaam, Alison L; Drake, Christiana M; Kass, Philip H; Farver, Thomas B; Aly, Sharif S

    2016-03-01

    The California (CA) and Wisconsin (WI) clinical scoring systems have been proposed for bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) detection in preweaned dairy calves. The screening sensitivity (SSe), for estimating BRDC prevalence in a cohort of calves, diagnostic sensitivity (DSe), for confirming BRDC in ill calves, and specificity (Sp) were estimated for each of the scoring systems, as well as for nasal swab cultures for aerobic bacteria and mycoplasma species. Thoracic ultrasound and auscultation were used as the reference standard tests interpreted in parallel. A total of 536 calves (221 with BRDC and 315 healthy) were sampled from 5 premises in California. The SSe of 46.8%, DSe of 72.6%, and Sp of 87.4% was determined for the CA system. The SSe of 46.0%, DSe of 71.1%, and Sp of 91.2% was determined for the WI system. For aerobic culture, the SSe was 43.4%, DSe was 52.6%, and Sp was 71.3%; for Mycoplasma spp. culture, the SSe was 57.5%, DSe was 68.9%, and Sp was 59.7%. The screening and diagnostic sensitivities of the scoring systems were not significantly different but the Sp of the WI system was greater by 3.8%. Scoring systems can serve as rapid on-farm tools to determine the burden of BRDC in preweaned dairy calves. However, users may expect the SSe to be less than the DSe when confirming BRDC in an ill calf.

  20. Identification and partial characterization of two major proteins of Mr 47,000 synthesized by bovine retinal endothelial cells in culture.

    PubMed Central

    Canfield, A E; Schor, A M; West, D C; Schor, S L; Grant, M E

    1987-01-01

    Biosynthetic experiments with cultured bovine retinal endothelial cells have identified a glycoprotein of Mr 47,000 (Gp47) as a major component secreted into the medium. Gp47 is a non-collagenous glycoprotein with a pI of 4.6-5.5, which does not bind to either gelatin-Sepharose or heparin-Sepharose but is retained by concanavalin A-Sepharose. The Mr of this species decreases to approx. 42,000 in the presence of tunicamycin, indicating that it contains asparagine-linked oligosaccharides. A second protein of Mr 47,000 (P47) is present in the cell layer/matrix of these cultured cells. The electrophoretic mobility of P47 remains unaltered when synthesized in the presence of tunicamycin. Peptide-mapping experiments using N-chlorosuccinimide and Staphylococcus aureus V8 proteinase demonstrate that Gp47 and P47 are distinct proteins, and are not related to colligin, a membrane-bound collagen-receptor protein of similar size, or to SPARC, a major secreted product of parietal endodermal cells and sparse cultures of aortic endothelial cells. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:3675551

  1. Effects of Macromolecular Crowding on Human Adipose Stem Cell Culture in Fetal Bovine Serum, Human Serum, and Defined Xeno-Free/Serum-Free Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Michelle Hui Ching; Mäkinen, Laura; Ang, Xiu Min; Mannerström, Bettina; Raghunath, Michael; Miettinen, Susanna

    2017-01-01

    Microenvironment plays an important role for stem cell proliferation and differentiation. Macromolecular crowding (MMC) was recently shown to assist stem cells in forming their own matrix microenvironment in vitro. The ability of MMC to support adipose stem cell (ASC) proliferation, metabolism, and multilineage differentiation was studied under different conditions: fetal bovine serum- (FBS-) and human serum- (HS-) based media and xeno- and serum-free (XF/SF) media. Furthermore, the immunophenotype of ASCs under MMC was evaluated. The proliferative capacity of ASCs under MMC was attenuated in each condition. However, osteogenic differentiation was enhanced under MMC, shown by increased deposition of mineralized matrix in FBS and HS cultures. Likewise, significantly greater lipid droplet accumulation and increased collagen IV deposition indicated enhanced adipogenesis under MMC in FBS and HS cultures. In contrast, chondrogenic differentiation was attenuated in ASCs expanded under MMC. The ASC immunophenotype was maintained under MMC with significantly higher expression of CD54. However, MMC impaired metabolic activity and differentiation capacity of ASCs in XF/SF conditions. Both the supportive and inhibitory effects of MMC on ASC are culture condition dependent. In the presence of serum, MMC maintains ASC immunophenotype and enhances adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation at the cost of reduced proliferation. PMID:28465691

  2. Isolation, culture and long-term maintenance of primary mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons from embryonic rodent brains.

    PubMed

    Weinert, Maria; Selvakumar, Tharakeswari; Tierney, Travis S; Alavian, Kambiz N

    2015-02-19

    Degeneration of mesencephalic dopaminergic (mesDA) neurons is the pathological hallmark of Parkinson's diseae. Study of the biological processes involved in physiological functions and vulnerability and death of these neurons is imparative to understanding the underlying causes and unraveling the cure for this common neurodegenerative disorder. Primary cultures of mesDA neurons provide a tool for investigation of the molecular, biochemical and electrophysiological properties, in order to understand the development, long-term survival and degeneration of these neurons during the course of disease. Here we present a detailed method for the isolation, culturing and maintenance of midbrain dopaminergic neurons from E12.5 mouse (or E14.5 rat) embryos. Optimized cell culture conditions in this protocol result in presence of axonal and dendritic projections, synaptic connections and other neuronal morphological properties, which make the cultures suitable for study of the physiological, cell biological and molecular characteristics of this neuronal population.

  3. Uncoupling of attenuated myo-(3H)inositol uptake and dysfunction in Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase pumping activity in hypergalactosemic cultured bovine lens epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Cammarata, P.R.; Tse, D.; Yorio, T. )

    1991-06-01

    Attenuation of both the active transport of myo-inositol and Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase pumping activity has been implicated in the onset of sugar cataract and other diabetic complications in cell culture and animal models of the disease. Cultured bovine lens epithelial cells (BLECs) maintained in galactose-free Eagle's minimal essential medium (MEM) or 40 mM galactose with and without sorbinil for up to 5 days were examined to determine the temporal effects of hypergalactosemia on Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase and myo-inositol uptake. The Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase pumping activity after 5 days of continuous exposure to galactose did not change, as demonstrated by 86Rb uptake. The uptake of myo-(3H)inositol was lowered after 20 h of incubation in galactose and remained below that of the control throughout the 5-day exposure period. The coadministration of sorbinil to the galactose medium normalized the myo-(3H)inositol uptake. No significant difference in the rates of passive efflux of myo-(3H)inositol or 86Rb from preloaded galactose-treated and control cultures was observed. Culture-media reversal studies were also carried out to determine whether the galactose-induced dysfunction in myo-inositol uptake could be corrected. BLECs were incubated in galactose for 5 days, then changed to galactose-free physiological medium with and without sorbinil for a 1-day recovery period. myo-Inositol uptake was reduced to 34% of control after 6 days of continuous exposure to galactose. Within 24 h of media reversal, myo-inositol uptake returned to or exceeded control values in BLECs switched to either MEM or MEM with sorbinil.2+ reversible and occurred independently of changes in Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase pumping activity in cultured lens epithelium, indicating that the two parameters are not strictly associated and that the deficit in myo-inositol uptake occurs rapidly during hypergalactosemia.

  4. A Simplified Method for Ultra-Low Density, Long-Term Primary Hippocampal Neuron Culture.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhongming; Piechowicz, Mariel; Qiu, Shenfeng

    2016-03-05

    Culturing primary hippocampal neurons in vitro facilitates mechanistic interrogation of many aspects of neuronal development. Dissociated embryonic hippocampal neurons can often grow successfully on glass coverslips at high density under serum-free conditions, but low density cultures typically require a supply of trophic factors by co-culturing them with a glia feeder layer, preparation of which can be time-consuming and laborious. In addition, the presence of glia may confound interpretation of results and preclude studies on neuron-specific mechanisms. Here, a simplified method is presented for ultra-low density (~2,000 neurons/cm2), long-term (>3 months) primary hippocampal neuron culture that is under serum free conditions and without glia cell support. Low density neurons are grown on poly-D-lysine coated coverslips, and flipped on high density neurons grown in a 24-well plate. Instead of using paraffin dots to create a space between the two neuronal layers, the experimenters can simply etch the plastic bottom of the well, on which the high density neurons reside, to create a microspace conducive to low density neuron growth. The co-culture can be easily maintained for >3 months without significant loss of low density neurons, thus facilitating the morphological and physiological study of these neurons. To illustrate this successful culture condition, data are provided to show profuse synapse formation in low density cells after prolonged culture. This co-culture system also facilitates the survival of sparse individual neurons grown in islands of poly-D-lysine substrates and thus the formation of autaptic connections.

  5. Multi-cellular 3D human primary liver cell culture elevates metabolic activity under fluidic flow.

    PubMed

    Esch, Mandy B; Prot, Jean-Matthieu; Wang, Ying I; Miller, Paula; Llamas-Vidales, Jose Ricardo; Naughton, Brian A; Applegate, Dawn R; Shuler, Michael L

    2015-05-21

    We have developed a low-cost liver cell culture device that creates fluidic flow over a 3D primary liver cell culture that consists of multiple liver cell types, including hepatocytes and non-parenchymal cells (fibroblasts, stellate cells, and Kupffer cells). We tested the performance of the cell culture under fluidic flow for 14 days, finding that hepatocytes produced albumin and urea at elevated levels compared to static cultures. Hepatocytes also responded with induction of P450 (CYP1A1 and CYP3A4) enzyme activity when challenged with P450 inducers, although we did not find significant differences between static and fluidic cultures. Non-parenchymal cells were similarly responsive, producing interleukin 8 (IL-8) when challenged with 10 μM bacterial lipoprotein (LPS). To create the fluidic flow in an inexpensive manner, we used a rocking platform that tilts the cell culture devices at angles between ±12°, resulting in a periodically changing hydrostatic pressure drop between reservoirs and the accompanying periodically changing fluidic flow (average flow rate of 650 μL min(-1), and a maximum shear stress of 0.64 dyne cm(-2)). The increase in metabolic activity is consistent with the hypothesis that, similar to unidirectional fluidic flow, primary liver cell cultures increase their metabolic activity in response to fluidic flow periodically changes direction. Since fluidic flow that changes direction periodically drastically changes the behavior of other cells types that are shear sensitive, our findings support the theory that the increase in hepatic metabolic activity associated with fluidic flow is either activated by mechanisms other than shear sensing (for example increased opportunities for gas and metabolite exchange), or that it follows a shear sensing mechanism that does not depend on the direction of shear. Our mode of device operation allows us to evaluate drugs under fluidic cell culture conditions and at low device manufacturing and operation

  6. Removal of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy prion from large volumes of cell culture media supplemented with fetal bovine serum by using hollow fiber anion-exchange membrane chromatography.

    PubMed

    Chou, Ming Li; Bailey, Andy; Avory, Tiffany; Tanimoto, Junji; Burnouf, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Cases of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in people who had consumed contaminated meat products from cattle with bovine spongiform encephalopathy emphasize the need for measures aimed at preventing the transmission of the pathogenic prion protein (PrPSc) from materials derived from cattle. Highly stringent scrutiny is required for fetal bovine serum (FBS), a growth-medium supplement used in the production of parenteral vaccines and therapeutic recombinant proteins and in the ex vivo expansion of stem cells for transplantation. One such approach is the implementation of manufacturing steps dedicated to removing PrPSc from materials containing FBS. We evaluated the use of the QyuSpeed D (QSD) adsorbent hollow-fiber anion-exchange chromatographic column (Asahi Kasei Medical, Tokyo, Japan) for the removal of PrPSc from cell culture media supplemented with FBS. We first established that QSD filtration had no adverse effect on the chemical composition of various types of culture media supplemented with 10% FBS or the growth and viability characteristics of human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells, baby hamster kidney (BHK-21) cells, African green monkey kidney (Vero) cells, and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-k1) cells propagated in the various culture-medium filtrates. We used a 0.6-mL QSD column for removing PrPSc from up to 1000 mL of Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium containing 10% FBS previously spiked with the 263K strain of hamster-adapted scrapie. The Western blot analysis, validated alongside an infectivity assay, revealed that the level of PrPSc in the initial 200mL flow-through was reduced by 2.5 to > 3 log10, compared with that of the starting material. These results indicate that QSD filtration removes PrPSc from cell culture media containing 10% FBS, and demonstrate the ease with which QSD filtration can be implemented in at industrial-scale to improve the safety of vaccines, therapeutic recombinant proteins, and ex vivo expanded stem cells produced using growth

  7. Bilaminar Co-culture of Primary Rat Cortical Neurons and Glia

    PubMed Central

    Meucci, Olimpia

    2011-01-01

    This video will guide you through the process of culturing rat cortical neurons in the presence of a glial feeder layer, a system known as a bilaminar or co-culture model. This system is suitable for a variety of experimental needs requiring either a glass or plastic growth substrate and can also be used for culture of other types of neurons. Rat cortical neurons obtained from the late embryonic stage (E17) are plated on glass coverslips or tissue culture dishes facing a feeder layer of glia grown on dishes or plastic coverslips (known as Thermanox), respectively. The choice between the two configurations depends on the specific experimental technique used, which may require, or not, that neurons are grown on glass (e.g. calcium imaging versus Western blot). The glial feeder layer, an astroglia-enriched secondary culture of mixed glia, is separately prepared from the cortices of newborn rat pups (P2-4) prior to the neuronal dissection. A major advantage of this culture system as compared to a culture of neurons only is the support of neuronal growth, survival, and differentiation provided by trophic factors secreted from the glial feeder layer, which more accurately resembles the brain environment in vivo. Furthermore, the co-culture can be used to study neuronal-glial interactions1. At the same time, glia contamination in the neuronal layer is prevented by different means (low density culture, addition of mitotic inhibitors, lack of serum and use of optimized culture medium) leading to a virtually pure neuronal layer, comparable to other established methods1-3. Neurons can be easily separated from the glial layer at any time during culture and used for different experimental applications ranging from electrophysiology4, cellular and molecular biology5-8, biochemistry5, imaging and microscopy4,6,7,9,10. The primary neurons extend axons and dendrites to form functional synapses11, a process which is not observed in neuronal cell lines, although some cell lines do

  8. Reactivity of alveolar epithelial cells in primary culture with type I cell monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Danto, S I; Zabski, S M; Crandall, E D

    1992-03-01

    An understanding of the process of alveolar epithelial cell growth and differentiation requires the ability to trace and analyze the phenotypic transitions that the cells undergo. This analysis demands specific phenotypic probes to type II and, especially, type I pneumocytes. To this end, monoclonal antibodies have been generated to type I alveolar epithelial cells using an approach designed to enhance production of lung-specific clones from a crude lung membrane preparation. The monoclonal antibodies were screened by a combination of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunohistochemical techniques, with the determination of type I cell specificity resting primarily on immunoelectron microscopic localization. Two of these new markers of the type I pneumocyte phenotype (II F1 and VIII B2) were used to analyze primary cultures of type II cells growing on standard tissue culture plastic and on a variety of substrata reported to affect the morphology of these cells in culture. On tissue culture plastic, the antibodies fail to react with early (days 1 to 3) type II cell cultures. The cells become progressively more reactive with time in culture to a plateau of approximately 6 times background by day 8, with a maximum rate of increase between days 3 and 5. This finding is consistent with the hypothesis that type II cells in primary culture undergo at least partial differentiation into type I cells. Type II cells grown on laminin, which reportedly delays the loss of type II cell appearance, and on fibronectin, which has been reported to facilitate cell spreading and loss of type II cell features, develop the type I cell markers during cultivation in vitro with kinetics similar to those on uncoated tissue culture plastic. Cells on type I collagen and on tissue culture-treated Nuclepore filters, which have been reported to support monolayers with type I cell-like morphology, also increase their expression of the II F1 and VIII B2 epitopes around days 3 to 5. Taken

  9. Organelle Transport in Cultured Drosophila Cells: S2 Cell Line and Primary Neurons.

    PubMed Central

    Gelfand, Vladimir I.

    2013-01-01

    Drosophila S2 cells plated on a coverslip in the presence of any actin-depolymerizing drug form long unbranched processes filled with uniformly polarized microtubules. Organelles move along these processes by microtubule motors. Easy maintenance, high sensitivity to RNAi-mediated protein knock-down and efficient procedure for creating stable cell lines make Drosophila S2 cells an ideal model system to study cargo transport by live imaging. The results obtained with S2 cells can be further applied to a more physiologically relevant system: axonal transport in primary neurons cultured from dissociated Drosophila embryos. Cultured neurons grow long neurites filled with bundled microtubules, very similar to S2 processes. Like in S2 cells, organelles in cultured neurons can be visualized by either organelle-specific fluorescent dyes or by using fluorescent organelle markers encoded by DNA injected into early embryos or expressed in transgenic flies. Therefore, organelle transport can be easily recorded in neurons cultured on glass coverslips using living imaging. Here we describe procedures for culturing and visualizing cargo transport in Drosophila S2 cells and primary neurons. We believe that these protocols make both systems accessible for labs studying cargo transport. PMID:24300413

  10. Isolation and primary culture of gill and digestive gland cells from the common mussel Mytilus edulis.

    PubMed

    Faucet, Jérôme; Maurice, Manuelle; Gagnaire, Béatrice; Renault, Tristan; Burgeot, Thierry

    2003-01-01

    As the marine mussel Mytilus edulis is commonly used as a sentinel species, it would be useful to develop a primary culture of the target organs most often in contact with the marine environment. This study reports an improved method for dissociating the digestive gland and gills of M. edulis and considers the effect of mussel storage on cell viability and functionality before culture initiation. Viability and enzymatic activities such as those of esterase and peroxidase were monitored by flow cytometry, a sensitive, objective technique allowing large volumes of cells to be counted within a short time. A primary culture of digestive gland showed more than 75% viability after 72 h. Mussels were maintained in an aquarium containing clean, oxygenated seawater at 12 degrees C for two days before culture initiation, and dissociation was performed mechanically and chemically with Ca-Mg-free saline to obtain digestive gland cells. Application of non-specific esterase activity, using fluorescein diacetate (FDA test) coupled with flow cytometry, characterised the functionality of digestive gland and gill cells in culture.

  11. Organelle transport in cultured Drosophila cells: S2 cell line and primary neurons.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wen; Del Castillo, Urko; Gelfand, Vladimir I

    2013-11-20

    Drosophila S2 cells plated on a coverslip in the presence of any actin-depolymerizing drug form long unbranched processes filled with uniformly polarized microtubules. Organelles move along these processes by microtubule motors. Easy maintenance, high sensitivity to RNAi-mediated protein knock-down and efficient procedure for creating stable cell lines make Drosophila S2 cells an ideal model system to study cargo transport by live imaging. The results obtained with S2 cells can be further applied to a more physiologically relevant system: axonal transport in primary neurons cultured from dissociated Drosophila embryos. Cultured neurons grow long neurites filled with bundled microtubules, very similar to S2 processes. Like in S2 cells, organelles in cultured neurons can be visualized by either organelle-specific fluorescent dyes or by using fluorescent organelle markers encoded by DNA injected into early embryos or expressed in transgenic flies. Therefore, organelle transport can be easily recorded in neurons cultured on glass coverslips using living imaging. Here we describe procedures for culturing and visualizing cargo transport in Drosophila S2 cells and primary neurons. We believe that these protocols make both systems accessible for labs studying cargo transport.

  12. Hydrocortisone effect of arylsulfatase A in primary mouse brain cell cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Marcelo, A.; Pieringer, R.A.

    1986-05-01

    The primary goal of this study was to study the mechanism of action of hydrocortisone (HC) on arylsulfatase A (ASA) in primary cultures of cells that were dissociated from the brains of embryonic mice. Cells were cultured in a defined medium in the absence or in the presence of 3 ..mu..M HC. The specific activity of ASA in nontreated cells was 1.297 U/mg (U = ..mu..mol/hr) while the value for the HC-treated cells was 0.783 U/mg. The authors data shows that HC inhibits ASA activity in these cultures cells (p < 0.001). The determination of the ASA enzyme activity was assayed primarily with the artificial substrate p-nitrocatechol sulfate. However, the natural substrate (cerebroside /sup 35/S-sulfate) also as active and correlated linearly with the activity of p-nitrocatechol sulfate. Purified ASA was isolated from calf brains and used to generate an antibody (Ab) against ASA. The specificity of the Ab for the ASA protein of cell cultures was tested in Ouchterlony double immunodiffusion studies. The Ab was used in a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to quantify the number of ASA molecules in the cell extracts from the embryonic mouse cell cultures. Preliminary data suggest that HC decreases the number of ASA molecules.

  13. Rapid Genotyping of Animals Followed by Establishing Primary Cultures of Brain Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zhengmin; Harata, N. Charles

    2015-01-01

    High-resolution analysis of the morphology and function of mammalian neurons often requires the genotyping of individual animals followed by the analysis of primary cultures of neurons. We describe a set of procedures for: labeling newborn mice to be genotyped, rapid genotyping, and establishing low-density cultures of brain neurons from these mice. Individual mice are labeled by tattooing, which allows for long-term identification lasting into adulthood. Genotyping by the described protocol is fast and efficient, and allows for automated extraction of nucleic acid with good reliability. This is useful under circumstances where sufficient time for conventional genotyping is not available, e.g., in mice that suffer from neonatal lethality. Primary neuronal cultures are generated at low density, which enables imaging experiments at high spatial resolution. This culture method requires the preparation of glial feeder layers prior to neuronal plating. The protocol is applied in its entirety to a mouse model of the movement disorder DYT1 dystonia (ΔE-torsinA knock-in mice), and neuronal cultures are prepared from the hippocampus, cerebral cortex and striatum of these mice. This protocol can be applied to mice with other genetic mutations, as well as to animals of other species. Furthermore, individual components of the protocol can be used for isolated sub-projects. Thus this protocol will have wide applications, not only in neuroscience but also in other fields of biological and medical sciences. PMID:25742545

  14. Prostaglandin E2 synthesis by human primary and metastatic bone tumors in culture.

    PubMed

    Gebhardt, M C; Lippiello, L; Bringhurst, F R; Mankin, H J

    1985-06-01

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is known to stimulate osteolysis in vitro and has been implicated in mediating bone resorption in several animal and human tumors. Little attention has yet to be directed toward local humoral control (including PGE2) of bone resorption in primary and metastatic bone tumors. For investigation of whether histologically identified areas of osteolytic or osteoblastic bone tumors differentially secrete PGE2 under in vitro conditions, culture media from explants of central and peripheral areas of tissue were sterilely collected from 13 surgical specimens of primary and metastatic bone tumors and assayed for (PGE2) radioimmunoassay. The results indicate a marked heterogeneity in the concentration of immunoreactive (I-PGE2) synthesis by tumors of different as well as similar cell type. PGE2 production was time-dependent in culture, and at 72 hours substantial increases were apparent compared to cultures of non-neoplastic fascia controls. Significantly higher levels of I-PGE2 were found in cultures derived from "bone-destructive" tumors. No difference in I-PGE2 synthesis was found between explants of peripheral versus central tissue of the same tumors. PGE2 is synthesized in culture by bone tumors characterized as destructive of bone at higher levels than "bone-forming" tumors, and this synthesis is inhibited by indomethacin.

  15. Nanofabricated Collagen-Inspired Synthetic Elastomers for Primary Rat Hepatocyte Culture

    PubMed Central

    Bettinger, Christopher J.; Kulig, Katherine M.; Vacanti, Joseph P.

    2009-01-01

    Synthetic substrates that mimic the properties of extracellular matrix proteins hold significant promise for use in systems designed for tissue engineering applications. In this report, we designed a synthetic polymeric substrate that is intended to mimic chemical, mechanical, and topological characteristics of collagen. We found that elastomeric poly(ester amide) substrates modified with replica-molded nanotopographic features enhanced initial attachment, spreading, and adhesion of primary rat hepatocytes. Further, hepatocytes cultured on nanotopographic substrates also demonstrated reduced albumin secretion and urea synthesis, which is indicative of strongly adherent hepatocytes. These results suggest that these engineered substrates can function as synthetic collagen analogs for in vitro cell culture. PMID:18847357

  16. Plaque morphology of Teschen disease viruses and certain pig enteroviruses in primary pig kidney monolayer cultures.

    PubMed

    Dardiri, A H

    1968-04-01

    Plaque patterns and diameters of four virulent strains and one tissue culture mutant of Teschen disease virus were compared with six pig enteroviruses isolated in the United States. They are described as they were produced in primary pig kidney monolayer cultures. Reproducible plaques, with similar characteristics and class-types of each of the viruses tested were obtained with the application of a 45-minute virus adsorption time. Their morphologic characteristics and the proportion in which the plaque types appeared may assist in the differentiation of these virus strains.

  17. Comparative Metabolism, Cytotoxicity, and Genotoxicity of Chemical Carcinogens in Primary Cultures of Hepatocytes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-05-01

    death and regeneration. Cytotoxicity is easily assessed in primary hepatocyte cultures by light microscopic observation (Green ott al., 1981) and/or the...The recent development of a sensitive scintillation detection of repair provides a three day assay (Loury and Byard, 1983). A UV light positive control...RATS FED 0.5% BUTYLATED HYDROXYTOLUENEa Amount of ascron.•,cut./cultur-b P10o0. Al’"I boumd/t ,acrtmooletuloc Ratlo of bound producto k’ontro I WN

  18. Lithium treatment elongates primary cilia in the mouse brain and in cultured cells

    SciTech Connect

    Miyoshi, Ko; Kasahara, Kyosuke; Miyazaki, Ikuko; Asanuma, Masato

    2009-10-30

    The molecular mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effects of lithium, a first-line antimanic mood stabilizer, have not yet been fully elucidated. Treatment of the algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii with lithium has been shown to induce elongation of their flagella, which are analogous structures to vertebrate cilia. In the mouse brain, adenylyl cyclase 3 (AC3) and certain neuropeptide receptors colocalize to the primary cilium of neuronal cells, suggesting a chemosensory function for the primary cilium in the nervous system. Here we show that lithium treatment elongates primary cilia in the mouse brain and in cultured cells. Brain sections from mice chronically fed with Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} were subjected to immunofluorescence study. Primary cilia carrying both AC3 and the receptor for melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) were elongated in the dorsal striatum and nucleus accumbens of lithium-fed mice, as compared to those of control animals. Moreover, lithium-treated NIH3T3 cells and cultured striatal neurons exhibited elongation of the primary cilia. The present results provide initial evidence that a psychotropic agent can affect ciliary length in the central nervous system, and furthermore suggest that lithium exerts its therapeutic effects via the upregulation of cilia-mediated MCH sensing. These findings thus contribute novel insights into the pathophysiology of bipolar mood disorder and other psychiatric diseases.

  19. Isolated Primary Blast Inhibits Long-Term Potentiation in Organotypic Hippocampal Slice Cultures.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Edward W; Effgen, Gwen B; Patel, Tapan P; Meaney, David F; Bass, Cameron R Dale; Morrison, Barclay

    2016-04-01

    Over the last 13 years, traumatic brain injury (TBI) has affected over 230,000 U.S. service members through the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan, mostly as a result of exposure to blast events. Blast-induced TBI (bTBI) is multi-phasic, with the penetrating and inertia-driven phases having been extensively studied. The effects of primary blast injury, caused by the shockwave interacting with the brain, remain unclear. Earlier in vivo studies in mice and rats have reported mixed results for primary blast effects on behavior and memory. Using a previously developed shock tube and in vitro sample receiver, we investigated the effect of isolated primary blast on the electrophysiological function of rat organotypic hippocampal slice cultures (OHSC). We found that pure primary blast exposure inhibited long-term potentiation (LTP), the electrophysiological correlate of memory, with a threshold between 9 and 39 kPa·ms impulse. This deficit occurred well below a previously identified threshold for cell death (184 kPa·ms), supporting our previously published finding that primary blast can cause changes in brain function in the absence of cell death. Other functional measures such as spontaneous activity, network synchronization, stimulus-response curves, and paired-pulse ratios (PPRs) were less affected by primary blast exposure, as compared with LTP. This is the first study to identify a tissue-level tolerance threshold for electrophysiological changes in neuronal function to isolated primary blast.

  20. [The features of postsynaptic currents in primary culture of rat cortical neurons].

    PubMed

    Sibarov, D A; Antonov, S M

    2013-06-01

    The generation features of postsynaptic currents were studied in primary culture of cortical neurons at 7-20 days in vitro (DIV). The use of specific blockers of postsynaptic ion channels after 10 DIV revealed all types of electrical activity found in adult cortex including miniature inhibitory (mIPSCs), excitatory (mEPSCs) and spontaneous giant excitatory currents and spikes. The frequency of mEPSCs increased exponentially from 7 to 20 DIV doubling every 2.2 days in parallel with changes in action potentials generation. The mEPSCs generated by NMDA and AMPA or by only AMPA receptor activation were found. The inhibition of NMDA receptors by magnesium ions or AP5 were shown to modulate the frequency and amplitude of mEPSCs, which differ primary culture from brain slices possibly because of the lack of glial control of synaptic transmission.

  1. Habitus and Flow in Primary School Musical Practice: Relations between Family Musical Cultural Capital, Optimal Experience and Music Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valenzuela, Rafael; Codina, Nuria

    2014-01-01

    Based on Bourdieu's idea that cultural capital is strongly related to family context, we describe the relations between family musical cultural capital and optimal experience during compulsory primary school musical practice. We analyse whether children from families with higher levels of musical cultural capital, and specifically with regard to…

  2. Habitus and Flow in Primary School Musical Practice: Relations between Family Musical Cultural Capital, Optimal Experience and Music Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valenzuela, Rafael; Codina, Nuria

    2014-01-01

    Based on Bourdieu's idea that cultural capital is strongly related to family context, we describe the relations between family musical cultural capital and optimal experience during c