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Sample records for primary human hepatocyte

  1. Bile acid formation in primary human hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Einarsson, Curt; Ellis, Ewa; Abrahamsson, Anna; Ericzon, Bo-Göran; Björkhem, Ingemar; Axelson, Magnus

    2000-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate a culture system for bile acid formation in primary human hepatocytes in comparison with HepG2 cells. METHODS: Hepatocytes were isolated from normal human liver tissue and were cultured in serum-free William’s E medium. The medium was collected and re newed every 24 h. Bile acids and their precursors in media were finally analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. RESULTS: Cholic acid (CA) and chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) conjugated with glycine or taurine accounted for 70% and 25% of total steroids. A third of CDC A was also conjugated with sulphuric acid. Dexamethasone and thyroid hormone alone or in combination did not significantly effect bile acid formation. The addit ion of cyclosporin A (10 μmol/L) inhibited the synthesis of CA and CDCA by about 13% and 30%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Isolated human hepatocytes in primary culture behave as in the intact liver by converting cholesterol to conjugated CA and CDCA. This is in contrast to cultured HepG2 cells, which release large amounts of bile acid precursors and unconjugated bile acids into the medium. PMID:11819640

  2. 3D Cultivation Techniques for Primary Human Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Bachmann, Anastasia; Moll, Matthias; Gottwald, Eric; Nies, Cordula; Zantl, Roman; Wagner, Helga; Burkhardt, Britta; Sánchez, Juan J. Martínez; Ladurner, Ruth; Thasler, Wolfgang; Damm, Georg; Nussler, Andreas K.

    2015-01-01

    One of the main challenges in drug development is the prediction of in vivo toxicity based on in vitro data. The standard cultivation system for primary human hepatocytes is based on monolayer cultures, even if it is known that these conditions result in a loss of hepatocyte morphology and of liver-specific functions, such as drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters. As it has been demonstrated that hepatocytes embedded between two sheets of collagen maintain their function, various hydrogels and scaffolds for the 3D cultivation of hepatocytes have been developed. To further improve or maintain hepatic functions, 3D cultivation has been combined with perfusion. In this manuscript, we discuss the benefits and drawbacks of different 3D microfluidic devices. For most systems that are currently available, the main issues are the requirement of large cell numbers, the low throughput, and expensive equipment, which render these devices unattractive for research and the drug-developing industry. A higher acceptance of these devices could be achieved by their simplification and their compatibility with high-throughput, as both aspects are of major importance for a user-friendly device. PMID:27600213

  3. Helicobacter hepaticus Induces an Inflammatory Response in Primary Human Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kleine, Moritz; Worbs, Tim; Schrem, Harald; Vondran, Florian W. R.; Kaltenborn, Alexander; Klempnauer, Jürgen; Förster, Reinhold; Josenhans, Christine; Suerbaum, Sebastian; Bektas, Hüseyin

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter hepaticus can lead to chronic hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma in certain strains of mice. Until now the pathogenic role of Helicobacter species on human liver tissue is still not clarified though Helicobacter species identification in human liver cancer was successful in case controlled studies. Therefore we established an in vitro model to investigate the interaction of primary human hepatocytes (PHH) with Helicobacter hepaticus. Successful co-culturing of PHH with Helicobacter hepaticus was confirmed by visualization of motile bacteria by two-photon-microscopy. Isolated human monocytes were stimulated with PHH conditioned media. Changes in mRNA expression of acute phase cytokines and proteins in PHH and stimulated monocytes were determined by Real-time PCR. Furthermore, cytokines and proteins were analyzed in PHH culture supernatants by ELISA. Co-cultivation with Helicobacter hepaticus induced mRNA expression of Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), Tumor necrosis factor-alpha, Interleukin-8 (IL-8) and Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) in PHH (p<0.05) resulting in a corresponding increase of IL-8 and MCP-1 concentrations in PHH supernatants (p<0.05). IL-8 and IL-1β mRNA expression was induced in monocytes stimulated with Helicobacter hepaticus infected PHH conditioned media (p<0.05). An increase of Cyclooxygenase-2 mRNA expression was observed, with a concomitant increase of prostaglandin E2 concentration in PHH supernatants at 24 and 48 h (p<0.05). In contrast, at day 7 of co-culture, no persistent elevation of cytokine mRNA could be detected. High expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 on PHH cell membranes after co-culture was shown by two-photon-microscopy and confirmed by flow-cytomety. Finally, expression of Cytochrome P450 3A4 and albumin mRNA were downregulated, indicating an impairment of hepatocyte synthesis function by Helicobacter hepaticus presence. This is the first in vitro model demonstrating a pathogenic effect of a

  4. Helicobacter hepaticus induces an inflammatory response in primary human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Kleine, Moritz; Worbs, Tim; Schrem, Harald; Vondran, Florian W R; Kaltenborn, Alexander; Klempnauer, Jürgen; Förster, Reinhold; Josenhans, Christine; Suerbaum, Sebastian; Bektas, Hüseyin

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter hepaticus can lead to chronic hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma in certain strains of mice. Until now the pathogenic role of Helicobacter species on human liver tissue is still not clarified though Helicobacter species identification in human liver cancer was successful in case controlled studies. Therefore we established an in vitro model to investigate the interaction of primary human hepatocytes (PHH) with Helicobacter hepaticus. Successful co-culturing of PHH with Helicobacter hepaticus was confirmed by visualization of motile bacteria by two-photon-microscopy. Isolated human monocytes were stimulated with PHH conditioned media. Changes in mRNA expression of acute phase cytokines and proteins in PHH and stimulated monocytes were determined by Real-time PCR. Furthermore, cytokines and proteins were analyzed in PHH culture supernatants by ELISA. Co-cultivation with Helicobacter hepaticus induced mRNA expression of Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), Tumor necrosis factor-alpha, Interleukin-8 (IL-8) and Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) in PHH (p<0.05) resulting in a corresponding increase of IL-8 and MCP-1 concentrations in PHH supernatants (p<0.05). IL-8 and IL-1β mRNA expression was induced in monocytes stimulated with Helicobacter hepaticus infected PHH conditioned media (p<0.05). An increase of Cyclooxygenase-2 mRNA expression was observed, with a concomitant increase of prostaglandin E2 concentration in PHH supernatants at 24 and 48 h (p<0.05). In contrast, at day 7 of co-culture, no persistent elevation of cytokine mRNA could be detected. High expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 on PHH cell membranes after co-culture was shown by two-photon-microscopy and confirmed by flow-cytometry. Finally, expression of Cytochrome P450 3A4 and albumin mRNA were downregulated, indicating an impairment of hepatocyte synthesis function by Helicobacter hepaticus presence. This is the first in vitro model demonstrating a pathogenic effect of a

  5. CYP2E1-dependent hepatotoxicity and oxidative damage after ethanol administration in human primary hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lie-Gang; Yan, Hong; Yao, Ping; Zhang, Wen; Zou, Li-Jun; Song, Fang-Fang; Li, Ke; Sun, Xiu-Fa

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To observe the relationship between ethanol-induced oxidative damage in human primary cultured hepatocytes and cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) activity, in order to address if inhibition of CYP2E1 could attenuate ethanol-induced cellular damage. METHODS: The dose-dependent (25-100 mmol/L) and time-dependent (0-24 h) exposures of primary human cultured hepatocytes to ethanol were carried out. CYP2E1 activity and protein expression were detected by spectrophotometer and Western blot analysis respectively. Hepatotoxicity was investigated by determination of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and aspartate transaminase (AST) level in hepatocyte culture supernatants, as well as the intracellular formation of malondialdehyde (MDA). RESULTS: A dose-and time-dependent response between ethanol exposure and CYP2E1 activity in human hepatocytes was demonstrated. Moreover, there was a time-dependent increase of CYP2E1 protein after 100 mmol/L ethanol exposure. Meanwhile, ethanol exposure of hepatocytes caused a time-dependent increase of cellular MDA level, LDH, and AST activities in supernatants. Furthermore, the inhibitor of CYP2E1, diallyl sulfide (DAS) could partly attenuate the increases of MDA, LDH, and AST in human hepatocytes. CONCLUSION: A positive relationship between ethanol-induced oxidative damage in human primary cultured hepatocytes and CYP2E1 activity was exhibited, and the inhibition of CYP2E1 could partly attenuate ethanol-induced oxidative damage. PMID:16052683

  6. Bile acid-induced necrosis in primary human hepatocytes and in patients with obstructive cholestasis

    SciTech Connect

    Woolbright, Benjamin L.; Dorko, Kenneth; Antoine, Daniel J.; Clarke, Joanna I.; Gholami, Parviz; Li, Feng; Kumer, Sean C.; Schmitt, Timothy M.; Forster, Jameson; Fan, Fang; Jenkins, Rosalind E.; Park, B. Kevin; Hagenbuch, Bruno; Olyaee, Mojtaba; Jaeschke, Hartmut

    2015-03-15

    Accumulation of bile acids is a major mediator of cholestatic liver injury. Recent studies indicate bile acid composition between humans and rodents is dramatically different, as humans have a higher percent of glycine conjugated bile acids and increased chenodeoxycholate content, which increases the hydrophobicity index of bile acids. This increase may lead to direct toxicity that kills hepatocytes, and promotes inflammation. To address this issue, this study assessed how pathophysiological concentrations of bile acids measured in cholestatic patients affected primary human hepatocytes. Individual bile acid levels were determined in serum and bile by UPLC/QTOFMS in patients with extrahepatic cholestasis with, or without, concurrent increases in serum transaminases. Bile acid levels increased in serum of patients with liver injury, while biliary levels decreased, implicating infarction of the biliary tracts. To assess bile acid-induced toxicity in man, primary human hepatocytes were treated with relevant concentrations, derived from patient data, of the model bile acid glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDC). Treatment with GCDC resulted in necrosis with no increase in apoptotic parameters. This was recapitulated by treatment with biliary bile acid concentrations, but not serum concentrations. Marked elevations in serum full-length cytokeratin-18, high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1), and acetylated HMGB1 confirmed inflammatory necrosis in injured patients; only modest elevations in caspase-cleaved cytokeratin-18 were observed. These data suggest human hepatocytes are more resistant to human-relevant bile acids than rodent hepatocytes, and die through necrosis when exposed to bile acids. These mechanisms of cholestasis in humans are fundamentally different to mechanisms observed in rodent models. - Highlights: • Cholestatic liver injury is due to cytoplasmic bile acid accumulation in hepatocytes. • Primary human hepatocytes are resistant to BA-induced injury

  7. Micropatterned coculture of primary human hepatocytes and supportive cells for the study of hepatotropic pathogens.

    PubMed

    March, Sandra; Ramanan, Vyas; Trehan, Kartik; Ng, Shengyong; Galstian, Ani; Gural, Nil; Scull, Margaret A; Shlomai, Amir; Mota, Maria M; Fleming, Heather E; Khetani, Salman R; Rice, Charles M; Bhatia, Sangeeta N

    2015-12-01

    The development of therapies and vaccines for human hepatropic pathogens requires robust model systems that enable the study of host-pathogen interactions. However, in vitro liver models of infection typically use either hepatoma cell lines that exhibit aberrant physiology or primary human hepatocytes in culture conditions in which they rapidly lose their hepatic phenotype. To achieve stable and robust in vitro primary human hepatocyte models, we developed micropatterned cocultures (MPCCs), which consist of primary human hepatocytes organized into 2D islands that are surrounded by supportive fibroblast cells. By using this system, which can be established over a period of days, and maintained over multiple weeks, we demonstrate how to recapitulate in vitro hepatic life cycles for the hepatitis B and C viruses and the Plasmodium pathogens P. falciparum and P. vivax. The MPCC platform can be used to uncover aspects of host-pathogen interactions, and it has the potential to be used for drug and vaccine development.

  8. Serum-Derived Hepatitis C Virus Infection of Primary Human Hepatocytes Is Tetraspanin CD81 Dependent▿

    PubMed Central

    Molina, Sonia; Castet, Valerie; Pichard-Garcia, Lydiane; Wychowski, Czeslaw; Meurs, Eliane; Pascussi, Jean-Marc; Sureau, Camille; Fabre, Jean-Michel; SaCunha, Antonio; Larrey, Dominique; Dubuisson, Jean; Coste, Joliette; McKeating, Jane; Maurel, Patrick; Fournier-Wirth, Chantal

    2008-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus-positive serum (HCVser, genotypes 1a to 3a) or HCV cell culture (JFH1/HCVcc) infection of primary normal human hepatocytes was assessed by measuring intracellular HCV RNA strands. Anti-CD81 antibodies and siRNA-CD81 silencing markedly inhibited (>90%) HCVser infection irrespective of HCV genotype, viral load, or liver donor, while hCD81-large intracellular loop (LEL) had no effect. However, JFH1/HCVcc infection of hepatocytes was modestly inhibited (40 to 60%) by both hCD81-LEL and anti-CD81 antibodies. In conclusion, CD81 is involved in HCVser infection of human hepatocytes, and comparative studies of HCVser versus JFH1/HCVcc infection of human hepatocytes and Huh-7.5 cells revealed that the cell-virion combination is determinant of the entry process. PMID:17942559

  9. Maintenance of Hepatic Functions in Primary Human Hepatocytes Cultured on Xeno-Free and Chemical Defined Human Recombinant Laminins.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Masaaki; Zemack, Helen; Johansson, Helene; Hagbard, Louise; Jorns, Carl; Li, Meng; Ellis, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    Refined methods for maintaining specific functions of isolated hepatocytes under xeno-free and chemical defined conditions is of great importance for the development of hepatocyte research and regenerative therapy. Laminins, a large family of heterotrimeric basement membrane adhesion proteins, are highly cell and tissue type specific components of the extracellular matrix and strongly influence the behavior and function of associated cells and/or tissues. However, detailed biological functions of many laminin isoforms are still to be evaluated. In this study, we determined the distribution of laminin isoforms in human liver tissue and isolated primary human hepatocytes by western blot analysis, and investigated the efficacy of different human recombinant laminin isoforms on hepatic functions during culture. Protein expressions of laminin-chain α2, α3, α4, β1, β3, γ1, and γ2 were detected in both isolated human hepatocytes and liver tissue. No α1 and α5 expression could be detected in liver tissue or hepatocytes. Hepatocytes were isolated from five different individual livers, and cultured on human recombinant laminin isoforms -111, -211, -221, -332, -411, -421, -511, and -521 (Biolamina AB), matrigel (extracted from Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm sarcoma), or collagen type IV (Collagen). Hepatocytes cultured on laminin showed characteristic hexagonal shape in a flat cell monolayer. Viability, double stranded DNA concentration, and Ki67 expression for hepatocytes cultured for six days on laminin were comparable to those cultured on EHS and Collagen. Hepatocytes cultured on laminin also displayed production of human albumin, alpha-1-antitrypsin, bile acids, and gene expression of liver-enriched factors, such as hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha, glucose-6-phosphate, cytochrome P450 3A4, and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2. We conclude that all forms of human recombinant laminin tested maintain cell viability and liver-specific functions of primary human

  10. Chemically induced hepatotoxicity in human stem cell-induced hepatocytes compared with primary hepatocytes and HepG2.

    PubMed

    Kang, Seok-Jin; Lee, Hyuk-Mi; Park, Young-Il; Yi, Hee; Lee, Hunjoo; So, ByungJae; Song, Jae-Young; Kang, Hwan-Goo

    2016-10-01

    Stem cell-induced hepatocytes (SC-iHeps) have been suggested as a valuable model for evaluating drug toxicology. Here, human-induced pluripotent stem cells (QIA7) and embryonic stem cells (WA01) were differentiated into hepatocytes, and the hepatotoxic effects of acetaminophen (AAP) and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) were compared with primary hepatocytes (p-Heps) and HepG2. In a cytotoxicity assay, the IC50 of SC-iHeps was similar to that in p-Heps and HepG2 in the AAP groups but different from that in p-Heps of the AFB1 groups. In a multi-parameter assay, phenotypic changes in mitochondrial membrane potential, calcium influx and oxidative stress were similar between QIA7-iHeps and p-Heps following AAP and AFB1 treatment but relatively low in WA01-iHeps and HepG2. Most hepatic functional markers (hepatocyte-specific genes, albumin/urea secretion, and the CYP450 enzyme activity) were decreased in a dose-dependent manner following AAP and AFB1 treatment in SC-iHeps and p-Heps but not in HepG2. Regarding CYP450 inhibition, the cell viability of SC-iHeps and p-Heps was increased by ketoconazole, a CYP3A4 inhibitor. Collectively, SC-iHeps and p-Heps showed similar cytotoxicity and hepatocyte functional effects for AAP and AFB1 compared with HepG2. Therefore, SC-iHeps have phenotypic characteristics and sensitivity to cytotoxic chemicals that are more similar to p-Heps than to HepG2 cells.

  11. Ultrastructural and biochemical alterations induced in human, rat and mouse hepatocytes in primary culture exposed to selected carcinogens

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, K.H.

    1987-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB{sub 1}), dimethylnitrosamine (DMN), 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF) and actinomycin D are all potential human liver carcinogens. In order to investigate carcinogenic susceptibility of human liver to these agents, primary cultures of normal human hepatocytes were exposed to the four carcinogens. In the first series of experiments, human, rat, and mouse hepatocytes in primary culture were exposed to actinomycin D, AFB{sub 1}, and DMN for 24 h and examined for ultrastructural alterations. In an effort to relate the ultrastructural effects with total covalent binding of the carcinogen to DNA, human, rat and mouse hepatocytes were exposed to 2.0 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} M ({sup 3}H)AFB{sub 1} for 24 h. Hepatocytes from male rats had the highest degree of ({sup 3}H)AFB{sub 1}-DNA binding. Human hepatocytes contained the next highest binding level, while hepatocytes from female rats bound 38 pmoles/mg DNA. The AFB{sub 1}-DNA binding level in mouse hepatocytes was 1.4 pmoles/mg DNA. In similar experiments, human, and male and female rat hepatocytes in primary culture were exposed to the carcinogen 2-acetylamino (9-{sup 14}C)fluorene for 24 h. It was determined that male rat hepatocytes had the highest amount of radiolabeled 2-AAF bound to their DNA, female rats contained 0.57 nmoles/mg DNA, while human hepatocytes contained 0.29 nmoles/mg DNA.

  12. Primary human hepatocytes versus hepatic cell line: assessing their suitability for in vitro nanotoxicology.

    PubMed

    Kermanizadeh, Ali; Gaiser, Birgit K; Ward, Michael B; Stone, Vicki

    2013-11-01

    The use of hepatocyte cell lines as a replacement for animal models have been heavily criticised mainly due to low expression of metabolism enzymes. This study compares primary human hepatocytes with the C3A cell line and with respect to their response to a panel of nanomaterials (NMs; two ZnO, two MWCNTs, one Ag and one positively functionalised TiO₂). The cell line was very comparable with the primary hepatocytes with regards to their cytotoxic response to the NMs (Ag > uncoated ZnO > coated ZnO). The LC₅₀ was not attained in the presence of the MWCNTs and the TiO₂ NMs. All NMs significantly increased IL-8 production, with no change in levels of TNF-α and IL-6. Albumin production was measured as an indicator of hepatic function. The authors found no change in levels of albumin with the exception of the coated ZnO NM at the LC₅₀ concentration. NM uptake was similar for both the primary hepatocytes and C3A cells as investigated by TEM. Meanwhile, the authors confirmed greater levels of CYP450 activity in untreated primary cells. This study demonstrates that the C3A cell line is a good model for investigating NM-induced hepatocyte responses with respect to uptake, cytotoxicity, pro-inflammatory cytokine production and albumin production.

  13. Cytotoxicity evaluation using cryopreserved primary human hepatocytes in various culture formats.

    PubMed

    Richert, Lysiane; Baze, Audrey; Parmentier, Céline; Gerets, Helga H J; Sison-Young, Rowena; Dorau, Martina; Lovatt, Cerys; Czich, Andreas; Goldring, Christopher; Park, B Kevin; Juhila, Satu; Foster, Alison J; Williams, Dominic P

    2016-09-06

    Sixteen training compounds selected in the IMI MIP-DILI consortium, 12 drug-induced liver injury (DILI) positive compounds and 4 non-DILI compounds, were assessed in cryopreserved primary human hepatocytes. When a ten-fold safety margin threshold was applied, the non-DILI-compounds were correctly identified 2h following a single exposure to pooled human hepatocytes (n=13 donors) in suspension and 14-days following repeat dose exposure (3 treatments) to an established 3D-microtissue co-culture (3D-MT co-culture, n=1 donor) consisting of human hepatocytes co-cultured with non-parenchymal cells (NPC). In contrast, only 5/12 DILI-compounds were correctly identified 2h following a single exposure to pooled human hepatocytes in suspension. Exposure of the 2D-sandwich culture human hepatocyte monocultures (2D-sw) for 3days resulted in the correct identification of 11/12 DILI-positive compounds, whereas exposure of the human 3D-MT co-cultures for 14days resulted in identification of 9/12 DILI-compounds; in addition to ximelagatran (also not identified by 2D-sw monocultures, Sison-Young et al., 2016), the 3D-MT co-cultures failed to detect amiodarone and bosentan. The sensitivity of the 2D human hepatocytes co-cultured with NPC to ximelagatran was increased in the presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), but only at high concentrations, therefore preventing its classification as a DILI positive compound. In conclusion (1) despite suspension human hepatocytes having the greatest metabolic capacity in the short term, they are the least predictive of clinical DILI across the MIP-DILI test compounds, (2) longer exposure periods than 72h of human hepatocytes do not allow to increase DILI-prediction rate, (3) co-cultures of human hepatocytes with NPC, in the presence of LPS during the 72h exposure period allow the assessment of innate immune system involvement of a given drug.

  14. Resveratrol Differentially Regulates NAMPT and SIRT1 in Hepatocarcinoma Cells and Primary Human Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Schuster, Susanne; Penke, Melanie; Gorski, Theresa; Petzold-Quinque, Stefanie; Damm, Georg; Gebhardt, Rolf; Kiess, Wieland; Garten, Antje

    2014-01-01

    Resveratrol is reported to possess chemotherapeutic properties in several cancers. In this study, we wanted to investigate the molecular mechanisms of resveratrol-induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis as well as the impact of resveratrol on NAMPT and SIRT1 protein function and asked whether there are differences in hepatocarcinoma cells (HepG2, Hep3B cells) and non-cancerous primary human hepatocytes. We found a lower basal NAMPT mRNA and protein expression in hepatocarcinoma cells compared to primary hepatocytes. In contrast, SIRT1 was significantly higher expressed in hepatocarcinoma cells than in primary hepatocytes. Resveratrol induced cell cycle arrest in the S- and G2/M- phase and apoptosis was mediated by activation of p53 and caspase-3 in HepG2 cells. In contrast to primary hepatocytes, resveratrol treated HepG2 cells showed a reduction of NAMPT enzymatic activity and increased p53 acetylation (K382). Resveratrol induced NAMPT release from HepG2 cells which was associated with increased NAMPT mRNA expression. This effect was absent in primary hepatocytes where resveratrol was shown to function as NAMPT and SIRT1 activator. SIRT1 inhibition by EX527 resembled resveratrol effects on HepG2 cells. Furthermore, a SIRT1 overexpression significantly decreased both p53 hyperacetylation and resveratrol-induced NAMPT release as well as S-phase arrest in HepG2 cells. We could show that NAMPT and SIRT1 are differentially regulated by resveratrol in hepatocarcinoma cells and primary hepatocytes and that resveratrol did not act as a SIRT1 activator in hepatocarcinoma cells. PMID:24603648

  15. Retroviral-mediated gene transfer and expression of human phenylalanine hydroxylase in primary mouse hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, H.; Armentano, D.; Mackenzie-Graham, L.; Shen, R.F.; Darlington, G.; Ledley, F.D.; Woo, S.L.C. )

    1988-11-01

    Genetic therapy for phenylketonuria (severe phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency) may require introduction of a normal phenylalanine hydroxylase gene into hepatic cells of patients. The authors report development of a recombinant retrovirus based on the N2 vector for gene transfer and expression of human phenylalanine hydroxylase cDNA in primary mouse hepatocytes. This construct contains an internal promoter of the human {alpha}{sub 1}-antitrypsin gene driving transcription of the phenylalanine hydroxylase cDNA. Primary mouse hepatocytes were isolated from newborn mice, infected with the recombinant virus, and selected for expression of the neomycin-resistance gene. Hepatocytes transformed with the recombinant virus contained high levels of human phenylalanine hydroxylase mRNA transcripts originating from the retroviral and internal promoters. These results demonstrate that the transcriptional regulatory elements of the {alpha}{sub 1} antitrypsin gene retain their tissue-specific function in the recombinant provirus and establish a method for efficient transfer and high-level expression of human phenylalanine hydroxylase in primary hepatocytes.

  16. IFNL3 genotype is associated with differential induction of IFNL3 in primary human hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kurbanov, Fuat; Kim, Yonghak; Latanich, Rachel; Chaudhari, Pooja; El-Diwany, Ramy; Knabel, Matt; Kandathil, Abraham J; Cameron, Andrew; Cox, Andrea; Jang, Yoon-Young; Thomas, David L; Balagopal, Ashwin

    2016-01-01

    Background Lambda interferons (IFNLs) have potent antiviral activity against HCV, and polymorphisms within the IFNL gene cluster near the IFNL3 gene strongly predict spontaneous- and treatment-related HCV infection outcomes. The mechanism(s) linking IFNL polymorphisms and HCV control is currently elusive. Methods IFNL induction was studied in primary human hepatocytes (PHH) from 18 human donors, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 18 human donors, multiple cell lines and induced pluripotent stem cell-derived hepatocyte-like cells (iPSC-hepatocytes) from 7 human donors. After stimulation with intracellular RNA and infectious HCV, quantitative PCR (qPCR) primers and probes were designed to distinguish and quantify closely related IFNL messenger (m)RNAs from IFNL1, IFNL2 and IFNL3. Results PHH demonstrated the most potent induction of IFNLs, although had lower pre-stimulation levels compared to PBMCs, monocytes and cell lines. PHH stimulation with cytoplasmic poly I:C induced >1,000-fold expression of IFNL1, IFNL2 and IFNL3. PHH from donors who were homozygous for the favourable IFNL3 allele (IFNL3-CC) had higher IFNL3 induction compared to PHH from IFNL3-TT donors (P=0.03). Baseline IFNL mRNA expression and induction was also tested in iPSC-hepatocytes: iPSC-hepatocytes had significantly higher baseline expression of IFNLs compared to PHH (P<0.0001), and IFNL3 induction was marginally different in iPSC-hepatocytes by IFNL genotype (P=0.07). Conclusions Hepatocytes express IFNLs when stimulated by a synthetic viral RNA that signals the cell through the cytoplasm. IFNL induction may be greater in persons with the favourable IFNL3 allele. These data provide insight into the strong linkage between IFNL3 genetics and control of HCV infection. PMID:26109548

  17. Gene expression analysis of primary normal human hepatocytes infected with human hepatitis B virus

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Hyun Mi; Park, Sung Gyoo; Yea, Sung Su; Jang, Won Hee; Yang, Young-Il; Jung, Guhung

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To find the relationship between hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatocytes during the initial state of infection by cDNA microarray. METHODS: Primary normal human hepatocytes (PNHHs) were isolated and infected with HBV. From the PNHHs, RNA was isolated and inverted into complement DNA (cDNA) with Cy3- or Cy5- labeled dUTP for microarray analysis. The labeled cDNA was hybridized with microarray chip, including 4224 cDNAs. From the image of the microarray, expression profiles were produced and some of them were confirmed by RT-PCR, immunoblot analysis, and NF-κB luciferase reporter assay. RESULTS: From the cDNA microarray, we obtained 98 differentially regulated genes. Of the 98 genes, 53 were up regulated and 45 down regulated. Interestingly, in the up regulated genes, we found the TNF signaling pathway-related genes: LT-α, TRAF2, and NIK. By using RT-PCR, we confirmed the up-regulation of these genes in HepG2, Huh7, and Chang liver cells, which were transfected with pHBV1.2×, a plasmid encoding all HBV messages. Moreover, these three genes participated in HBV-mediated NF-κB activation. CONCLUSION: During the initial state of HBV infection, hepatocytes facilitate the activation of NF-κB through up regulation of LT-α, TRAF2, and NIK. PMID:16937494

  18. Xenobiotic-Metabolizing Enzyme and Transporter Gene Expression in Primary Cultures of Human Hepatocytes Modulated by Toxcast Chemicals

    EPA Science Inventory

    Primary human hepatocyte cultures are useful in vitro model systems of human liver because when cultured under appropriate conditions the hepatocytes retain liver-like functionality such as metabolism, transport, and cell signaling. This model system was used to characterize the ...

  19. Xenobiotic-Metabolizing Enzyme and Transporter Gene Expression in Primary Cultures of Human Hepatocytes Modulated by Toxcast Chemicals

    EPA Science Inventory

    Primary human hepatocyte cultures are useful in vitro model systems of human liver because when cultured under appropriate conditions the hepatocytes retain liver-like functionality such as metabolism, transport, and cell signaling. This model system was used to characterize the ...

  20. Three Dimensional Primary Hepatocyte Culture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoffe, Boris

    1998-01-01

    Our results demonstrated for the first time the feasibility of culturing PHH in microgravity bioreactors that exceeded the longest period obtained using other methods. Within the first week of culture, isolated hepatocytes started to form aggregates, which continuously increased in size (up to 1 cm) and macroscopically appeared as a multidimensional tissue-like assembly. To improve oxygenation and nutrition within the spheroids we performed experiments with the biodegradable nonwoven fiber-based polymers made from PolyGlycolic Acid (PGA). It has been shown that PGA scaffolds stimulate isolated cells to regenerate tissue with defined sizes and shapes and are currently being studied for various tissue-engineering applications. Our data demonstrated that culturing hepatocytes in the presence of PGA scaffolds resulted in more efficient cell assembly and formations of larger cell spheroids (up to 3 cm in length, see figure). The histology of cell aggregates cultured with PGA showed polymer fibers with attached hepatocytes. We initiated experiments to co-culture primary human hepatocytes with human microvascular endothelial cells in the bioreactor. The presence of endothelial cells in co-cultures were established by immunohistochemistry using anti-CD34 monoclonal Ab. Our preliminary data demonstrated that cultures of purified hepatocytes with human microvascular endothelial cells exhibited better growth and expressed higher levels of albumin MRNA for a longer period of time than cultures of ppfified, primary human hepatocytes cultured alone. We also evaluated microsomal deethylation activity of hepatocytes cultured in the presence of endothelial cells.In summary, we have established liver cell culture, which mimicked the structure and function of the parent tissue.

  1. Organochlorine pesticides induce epithelial to mesenchymal transition of human primary cultured hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Zucchini-Pascal, Nathalie; Peyre, Ludovic; de Sousa, Georges; Rahmani, Roger

    2012-11-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are a group of organic or chemicals that adversely affect human health and are persistent in the environment. These highly toxic compounds include industrial chemicals, pesticides such as organochlorines, and unwanted wastes such as dioxins. Although studies have described the general toxicity effects of organochlorine pesticides, the mechanisms underlying its potential carcinogenic effects in the liver are not well understood. In this study, we analyzed the effect of three organochlorine pesticides (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, heptachlore and endosulfan) and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) on the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) in primary cultured human hepatocytes. We found that these compounds modified the hepatocyte phenotype, inducing cell spread, formation of lamellipodia structures and reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton in stress fibers. These morphological alterations were accompanied by disruption of cell-cell junctions, E-cadherin repression and albumin down-regulation. Interestingly, these characteristic features of dedifferentiating hepatocytes were correlated with the gain of expression of various mesenchymal genes, including vimentin, fibronectin and its receptor ITGA5. These various results show that organochlorines and TCDD accelerate cultured human hepatocyte dedifferentiation and EMT processes. These events could account, at least in part, for the carcionogenic and/or fibrogenic activities of these POPs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Imaging of primary human hepatocytes performed with micron-sized iron oxide particles and clinical magnetic resonance tomography.

    PubMed

    Raschzok, Nathanael; Morgul, Mehmet H; Pinkernelle, Jens; Vondran, Florian W R; Billecke, Nils; Kammer, Nora N; Pless, Gesine; Adonopoulou, Michaela K; Leist, Christian; Stelter, Lars; Teichgraber, Ulf; Schwartlander, Ruth; Sauer, Igor M

    2008-08-01

    Transplantation of primary human hepatocytes is a promising approach in certain liver diseases. For the visualization of the hepatocytes during and following cell application and the ability of a timely response to potential complications, a non-invasive modality for imaging the transplanted cells has to be established. The aim of this study was to label primary human hepatocytes with micron-sized iron oxide particles (MPIOs), enabling the detection of cells by clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Primary human hepatocytes isolated from 13 different donors were used for the labelling experiments. Following the dose-finding studies, hepatocytes were incubated with 30 particles/cell for 4 hrs in an adhesion culture. Particle incorporation was investigated via light, fluorescence and electron microscopy, and labelled cells were fixed and analysed in an agarose suspension by a 3.0 Tesla MR scanner. The hepatocytes were enzymatically resuspended and analysed during a 5-day reculture period for viability, total protein, enzyme leakage (aspartate aminotransferase [AST], lactate dehydrogenase [LDH]) and metabolic activity (urea, albumin). A mean uptake of 18 particles/cell could be observed, and the primary human hepatocytes were clearly detectable by MR instrumentation. The particle load was not affected by resuspension and showed no alternations during the culture period. Compared to control groups, labelling and resuspension had no adverse effects on the viability, enzyme leakage and metabolic activity of the human hepatocytes. The feasibility of preparing MPIO-labelled primary human hepatocytes detectable by clinical MR equipment was shown in vitro. MPIO-labelled cells could serve for basic research and quality control in the clinical setting of human hepatocyte transplantation.

  3. Troglitazone increases cytochrome P-450 3A protein and activity in primary cultures of human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, V; Kostrubsky, V E; Komoroski, B J; Zhang, S; Dorko, K; Esplen, J E; Strom, S C; Venkataramanan, R

    1999-10-01

    Troglitazone (TRO) is an insulin sensitizer used in the treatment of type II diabetes. TRO is known to increase the activity of cytochrome P-450 (CYP) 3A in vivo. We have investigated the effect of TRO on CYP3A protein content and the activity of CYP3A (as measured by the formation of 6beta-hydroxytestosterone formation) in primary cultures of human hepatocytes in comparison with rifampicin (RIF). Hepatocytes were isolated from four human livers by perfusion with collagenase, plated on collagen-coated plates, and maintained in William's E medium. After 48 h in culture, cells were exposed to RIF (10 microM) or TRO (0-50 microM) twice, each over a period of 24 h, and the activity of CYP3A was measured. TRO increased the activity of CYP3A in a concentration-dependent manner, reaching a maximal response at 5 microM. Pretreatment of the hepatocytes with 10 microM TRO or 10 microM RIF resulted in a 4- to 15-fold increase in the activity of CYP3A. Maximum increase in CYP3A protein was observed at 5 microM TRO. There was a significant correlation (R(2) = 0.89) between the content of immunoreactive CYP3A protein in the hepatocytes and the rate of formation of 6beta-hydroxytestosterone. These results indicate that TRO is a potent inducer of CYP3A and is similar to RIF in inducing CYP3A in human hepatocytes. At concentrations of 25 microM and above, TRO was toxic to the cells, as determined by a decrease in the activity of CYP3A, a reduction in the amount of immunoreactive protein, and changes in the morphology of the cells.

  4. Entry of hepatitis B virus into immortalized human primary hepatocytes by clathrin-dependent endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hsiu-Chen; Chen, Chun-Chi; Chang, Wen-Cheng; Tao, Mi-Hua; Huang, Cheng

    2012-09-01

    The lack of a suitable in vitro hepatitis B virus (HBV) infectivity model has limited examination of the early stages of the virus-cell interaction. In this study, we used an immortalized cell line derived from human primary hepatocytes, HuS-E/2, to study the mechanism of HBV infection. HBV infection efficiency was markedly increased after dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)-induced differentiation of the cells. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated the presence of intact HBV particles in DMSO-treated HBV-infected HuS-E/2 cells, which could be infected with HBV for up to at least 50 passages. The pre-S1 domain of the large HBsAg (LHBsAg) protein specifically interacted with clathrin heavy chain (CHC) and clathrin adaptor protein AP-2. Short hairpin RNA knockdown of CHC or AP-2 in HuS-E/2 cells significantly reduced their susceptibility to HBV, indicating that both are necessary for HBV infection. Furthermore, HBV entry was inhibited by chlorpromazine, an inhibitor of clathrin-mediated endocytosis. LHBsAg also interfered with the clathrin-mediated endocytosis of transferrin by human hepatocytes. This infection system using an immortalized human primary hepatocyte cell line will facilitate investigations into HBV entry and in devising therapeutic strategies for manipulating HBV-associated liver disorders.

  5. Entry of Hepatitis B Virus into Immortalized Human Primary Hepatocytes by Clathrin-Dependent Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hsiu-Chen; Chen, Chun-Chi; Chang, Wen-Cheng; Tao, Mi-Hua

    2012-01-01

    The lack of a suitable in vitro hepatitis B virus (HBV) infectivity model has limited examination of the early stages of the virus-cell interaction. In this study, we used an immortalized cell line derived from human primary hepatocytes, HuS-E/2, to study the mechanism of HBV infection. HBV infection efficiency was markedly increased after dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)-induced differentiation of the cells. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated the presence of intact HBV particles in DMSO-treated HBV-infected HuS-E/2 cells, which could be infected with HBV for up to at least 50 passages. The pre-S1 domain of the large HBsAg (LHBsAg) protein specifically interacted with clathrin heavy chain (CHC) and clathrin adaptor protein AP-2. Short hairpin RNA knockdown of CHC or AP-2 in HuS-E/2 cells significantly reduced their susceptibility to HBV, indicating that both are necessary for HBV infection. Furthermore, HBV entry was inhibited by chlorpromazine, an inhibitor of clathrin-mediated endocytosis. LHBsAg also interfered with the clathrin-mediated endocytosis of transferrin by human hepatocytes. This infection system using an immortalized human primary hepatocyte cell line will facilitate investigations into HBV entry and in devising therapeutic strategies for manipulating HBV-associated liver disorders. PMID:22740403

  6. Flame Retardant BDE-47 Effectively Activates Nuclear Receptor CAR in Human Primary Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Sueyoshi, Tatsuya

    2014-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ether BDE-47 (2,2′,4,4′-tetrabromodiphenyl ether) is a thyroid hormone disruptor in mice; hepatic induction of various metabolic enzymes and transporters has been suggested as the mechanism for this disruption. Utilizing Car −/− and Pxr −/− mice as well as human primary hepatocytes, here we have demonstrated that BDE-47 activated both mouse and human nuclear receptor constitutive activated/androstane receptor (CAR). In mouse livers, CAR, not PXR, was responsible for Cyp2b10 mRNA induction by BDE-47. In human primary hepatocytes, BDE-47 was able to induce translocation of YFP-tagged human CAR from the cytoplasm to the nucleus andCYP2B6 and CYP3A4 mRNAs expressions. BDE-47 activated human CAR in a manner akin to the human CAR ligand CITCO (6-(4-Chlorophenyl)imidazo[2,1-b][1,3]thiazole-5-carbaldehyde-O-(3,4-dichlorobenzyl)oxime) in luciferase-reporter assays using Huh-7 cells. In contrast, mouse CAR was not potently activated by BDE-47 in the same reporter assays. Furthermore, human pregnane X receptor (PXR) was effectively activated by BDE-47 while mouse PXR was weakly activated in luciferase-reporter assays. Our results indicate that BDE-47 induces CYP genes through activation of human CAR in addition to the previously identified pathway through human PXR. PMID:24218150

  7. Gene expression profiling and differentiation assessment in primary human hepatocyte cultures, established hepatoma cell lines, and human liver tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Olsavsky, Katy M.; Page, Jeanine L.; Johnson, Mary C.; Zarbl, Helmut; Strom, Stephen C.; Omiecinski, Curtis J. . E-mail: cjo10@psu.edu

    2007-07-01

    Frequently, primary hepatocytes are used as an in vitro model for the liver in vivo. However, the culture conditions reported vary considerably, with associated variability in performance. In this study, we characterized the differentiation character of primary human hepatocytes cultured using a highly defined, serum-free two-dimensional sandwich system, one that configures hepatocytes with collagen I as the substratum together with a dilute extracellular matrix (Matrigel{sup TM}) overlay combined with a defined serum-free medium containing nanomolar levels of dexamethasone. Gap junctional communication, indicated by immunochemical detection of connexin 32 protein, was markedly enhanced in hepatocytes cultured in the Matrigel sandwich configuration. Whole genome expression profiling enabled direct comparison of liver tissues to hepatocytes and to the hepatoma-derived cell lines, HepG2 and Huh7. PANTHER database analyses were used to identify biological processes that were comparatively over-represented among probe sets expressed in the in vitro systems. The robustness of the primary hepatocyte cultures was reflected by the extent of unchanged expression character when compared directly to liver, with more than 77% of the probe sets unchanged in each of the over-represented categories, representing such genes as C/EBP{alpha}, HNF4{alpha}, CYP2D6, and ABCB1. In contrast, HepG2 and Huh7 cells were unchanged from the liver tissues for fewer than 48% and 55% of these probe sets, respectively. Further, hierarchical clustering of the hepatocytes, but not the cell lines, shifted from donor-specific to treatment-specific when the probe sets were filtered to focus on phenobarbital-inducible genes, indicative of the highly differentiated nature of the hepatocytes when cultured in a highly defined two-dimensional sandwich system.

  8. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) affects distinct molecular signalling pathways in human primary hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Buhrke, Thorsten; Krüger, Eileen; Pevny, Sophie; Rößler, Manuela; Bitter, Katja; Lampen, Alfonso

    2015-07-03

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was shown to damage the liver of rodents and to impair embryonic development. At the molecular level, the hepatotoxic effects were attributed to the PFOA-mediated activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα). In general, PPARα-dependent effects are less pronounced in humans than in rodents, and the hazard potential of PFOA for humans is controversially discussed. To analyse the effects of PFOA in human hepatocytes, a microarray analysis was conducted to screen for PFOA-mediated alterations in the transcriptome of human primary hepatocytes. A subsequent network analysis revealed that PFOA had an impact on several signalling pathways in addition to the well-known activation of PPARα. The microarray data confirmed earlier findings that PFOA: (i) affects the estrogen receptor ERα, (ii) activates the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), and (iii) inhibits the function of the hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF4α) which is an essential factor for liver development and embryogenesis. Finally, as a novel finding, PFOA was shown to stimulate gene expression of the proto-oncogenes c-Jun and c-Fos. This was confirmed by using the HepG2 cell line as a model for human hepatocytes. PFOA stimulated cellular proliferation and the metabolic activity of the cells, and upregulated the expression of various cyclins which have a central function in the regulation of cell cycle control. Functional studies, however, indicated that PFOA had no impact on c-Jun and c-Fos phosphorylation and on AP-1-dependent gene transcription, thus demonstrating that PFOA-induced proliferation occurs largely independent of c-Jun and c-Fos. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Tracking of primary human hepatocytes with clinical MRI: initial results with Tat-peptide modified superparamagnetic iron oxide particles.

    PubMed

    Morgul, M H; Raschzok, N; Schwartlander, R; Vondran, F W; Michel, R; Stelter, L; Pinkernelle, J; Jordan, A; Teichgraber, U; Sauer, I M

    2008-03-01

    The transplantation of primary human hepatocytes is a promising approach in the treatment of specific liver diseases. However, little is known about the fate of the cells following application. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) could enable real-time tracking and long-term detection of transplanted hepatocytes. The use of superparamagnetic iron oxide particles as cellular contrast agents should allow for the non-invasive detection of labelled cells on high-resolution magnetic resonance images. Experiments were performed on primary human hepatocytes to transfer the method of detecting labelled cells via clinical MRI into human hepatocyte transplantation. For labelling, Tat-peptide modified nano-sized superparamagnetic MagForce particles were used. Cells were investigated via a clinical MR scanner at 3.0 Tesla and the particle uptake within single hepatocytes was estimated using microscopic examinations. The labelled primary human hepatocytes were clearly detectable by MRI, proving the feasibility of this new concept. Therefore, this method is a useful tool to investigate the effects of human hepatocyte transplantation and to improve safety aspects of this method.

  10. Hepatic Stellate Cells Improve Engraftment of Human Primary Hepatocytes: A Preclinical Transplantation Study in an Animal Model.

    PubMed

    Dusabineza, Ange-Clarisse; Najimi, Mustapha; van Hul, Noémi; Legry, Vanessa; Khuu, Dung Ngoc; van Grunsven, Leo A; Sokal, Etienne; Leclercq, Isabelle A

    2015-01-01

    Human hepatocytes are used for liver cell therapy, but the small number of engrafting cells limits the benefit of cell transplantation. We tested whether cotransplantation of hepatocytes with hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) could improve hepatocyte engraftment in vivo. Human primary hepatocytes were transplanted into SCID mice either alone or in a mixture with HSCs (quiescent or after culture activation) or LX-2 cells (ratio 20:1). Four weeks after transplantation into mouse livers, human albumin-positive (huAlb(+)) hepatocytes were found scattered. When cotransplanted in a mixture with HSCs or LX-2 cells, huAlb(+) hepatocytes formed clusters and were more numerous occupying 2- to 5.9-fold more surface on the tissue section than in livers transplanted with hepatocytes alone. Increased huAlb mRNA expression in livers transplanted with the cell mixtures confirmed those results. The presence of HSCs increased the number of hepatocytes entrapped in the host liver at an early time point posttransplantation but not their proliferation in situ as assessed by cumulative incorporation of BrdU. Importantly, 4 weeks posttransplantation, we found no accumulation of αSMA(+)-activated HSCs or collagen deposition. To follow the fate of transplanted HSCs, HSCs derived from GFP(+) mice were injected into GFP(-) littermates: 17 h posttransplant, GFP(+) HSCs were found in the sinusoids, without proliferating or actively producing ECM; they were undetectable at later time points. Coculture with HSCs improved the number of adherent hepatocytes, with best attachment obtained when hepatocytes were seeded in contact with activated HSCs. In vivo, cotransplantation of hepatocytes with HSCs into a healthy liver recipient does not generate fibrosis, but significantly improves the engraftment of hepatocytes, probably by ameliorating cell homing.

  11. Generation of Endoderm derived Human iPS cells from Primary Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hua; Ye, Zhaohui; Kim, Yong-Hak; Sharkis, Saul; Jang, Yoon-Young

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell research significantly changed our perspective on regenerative medicine. Patient specific iPS cells have been derived not only for disease modeling but also as sources for cell replacement therapy. However, there have been insufficient data to prove that iPS cells are functionally equivalent to hES cells or safer than hES cells. There are several important issues which need to be addressed and foremost are the safety and efficacy of human iPS cells from different origins. Human iPS cells have been derived mostly from cells originated from mesoderm, with a few cases from ectoderm. So far there has been no report of endoderm derived human iPS cells, preventing comprehensive comparative investigations on the quality of human iPS cells from different origins. Here we show for the first time reprogramming of human endoderm derived cells (i.e. primary hepatocytes) to pluripotency. Hepatocyte-derived iPS cells appear indistinguishable from human embryonic stem cells in colony morphology, growth properties, expression of pluripotency-associated transcription factors and surface markers, and differentiation potential in embryoid body formation and teratoma assays. In addition, these cells were able to directly differentiate into definitive endoderm, hepatic progenitors, and mature hepatocytes. The technology to develop endoderm derived human iPS cell lines, together with other established cell lines, will provide a foundation to elucidate the mechanisms of cellular reprogramming and to study the safety and efficacy of differentially originated human iPS cells for cell therapy. For studying liver disease pathogenesis, this technology also provides a potentially more amenable system to generate liver disease specific iPS cells. PMID:20432258

  12. Effect of Dimethyl Sulfoxide and Melatonin on the Isolation of Human Primary Hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Solanas, Estela; Sostres, Carlos; Serrablo, Alejandro; García-Gil, Agustín; García, Joaquín J; Aranguren, Francisco J; Jiménez, Pilar; Hughes, Robin D; Serrano, María T

    2015-01-01

    The availability of fully functional human hepatocytes is critical for progress in human hepatocyte transplantation and the development of bioartificial livers and in vitro liver systems. However, the cell isolation process impairs the hepatocyte status and determines the number of viable cells that can be obtained. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and melatonin in the human hepatocyte isolation protocol. Human hepatocytes were isolated from liver pieces resected from 10 patients undergoing partial hepatectomy. Each piece was dissected into 2 equally sized pieces and randomized, in 5 of 10 isolations, to perfusion with 1% DMSO-containing perfusion buffer or buffer also containing 5 mM melatonin using the 2-step collagenase perfusion technique (experiment 1), and in the other 5 isolations to standard perfusion or perfusion including 1% DMSO (experiment 2). Tissues perfused with DMSO yielded 70.6% more viable hepatocytes per gram of tissue (p = 0.076), with a 26.1% greater albumin production (p < 0.05) than those perfused with control buffer. Melatonin did not significantly affect (p > 0.05) any of the studied parameters, but cell viability, dehydrogenase activity, albumin production, urea secretion, and 7-ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase activity were slightly higher in cells isolated with melatonin-containing perfusion buffer compared to those isolated with DMSO. In conclusion, addition of 1% DMSO to the hepatocyte isolation protocol could improve the availability and functionality of hepatocytes for transplantation, but further studies are needed to clarify the mechanisms involved.

  13. Persistent hepatitis C virus infection in microscale primary human hepatocyte cultures.

    PubMed

    Ploss, Alexander; Khetani, Salman R; Jones, Christopher T; Syder, Andrew J; Trehan, Kartik; Gaysinskaya, Valeriya A; Mu, Kathy; Ritola, Kimberly; Rice, Charles M; Bhatia, Sangeeta N

    2010-02-16

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) remains a major public health problem, affecting approximately 130 million people worldwide. HCV infection can lead to cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and end-stage liver disease, as well as extrahepatic complications such as cryoglobulinemia and lymphoma. Preventative and therapeutic options are severely limited; there is no HCV vaccine available, and nonspecific, IFN-based treatments are frequently ineffective. Development of targeted antivirals has been hampered by the lack of robust HCV cell culture systems that reliably predict human responses. Here, we show the entire HCV life cycle recapitulated in micropatterned cocultures (MPCCs) of primary human hepatocytes and supportive stroma in a multiwell format. MPCCs form polarized cell layers expressing all known HCV entry factors and sustain viral replication for several weeks. When coupled with highly sensitive fluorescence- and luminescence-based reporter systems, MPCCs have potential as a high-throughput platform for simultaneous assessment of in vitro efficacy and toxicity profiles of anti-HCV therapeutics.

  14. Mechanisms of acetaminophen-induced cell death in primary human hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Yuchao; McGill, Mitchell R.; Dorko, Kenneth; Kumer, Sean C.; Schmitt, Timothy M.; Forster, Jameson; Jaeschke, Hartmut

    2014-09-15

    Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose is the most prevalent cause of drug-induced liver injury in western countries. Numerous studies have been conducted to investigate the mechanisms of injury after APAP overdose in various animal models; however, the importance of these mechanisms for humans remains unclear. Here we investigated APAP hepatotoxicity using freshly isolated primary human hepatocytes (PHH) from either donor livers or liver resections. PHH were exposed to 5 mM, 10 mM or 20 mM APAP over a period of 48 h and multiple parameters were assessed. APAP dose-dependently induced significant hepatocyte necrosis starting from 24 h, which correlated with the clinical onset of human liver injury after APAP overdose. Interestingly, cellular glutathione was depleted rapidly during the first 3 h. APAP also resulted in early formation of APAP-protein adducts (measured in whole cell lysate and in mitochondria) and mitochondrial dysfunction, indicated by the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential after 12 h. Furthermore, APAP time-dependently triggered c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation in the cytosol and translocation of phospho-JNK to the mitochondria. Both co-treatment and post-treatment (3 h) with the JNK inhibitor SP600125 reduced JNK activation and significantly attenuated cell death at 24 h and 48 h after APAP. The clinical antidote N-acetylcysteine offered almost complete protection even if administered 6 h after APAP and a partial protection when given at 15 h. Conclusion: These data highlight important mechanistic events in APAP toxicity in PHH and indicate a critical role of JNK in the progression of injury after APAP in humans. The JNK pathway may represent a therapeutic target in the clinic. - Highlights: • APAP reproducibly causes cell death in freshly isolated primary human hepatocytes. • APAP induces adduct formation, JNK activation and mitochondrial dysfunction in PHH. • Mitochondrial adducts and JNK translocation are delayed in PHH compared to

  15. Two compartment model of diazepam biotransformation in an organotypical culture of primary human hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Acikgoez, Ali; Karim, Najibulla; Giri, Shibashish; Schmidt-Heck, Wolfgang; Bader, Augustinus

    2009-01-15

    Drug biotransformation is one of the most important parameters of preclinical screening tests for the registration of new drug candidates. Conventional existing tests rely on nonhuman models which deliver an incomplete metabolic profile of drugs due to the lack of proper CYP450 expression as seen in human liver in vivo. In order to overcome this limitation, we used an organotypical model of human primary hepatocytes for the biotransformation of the drug diazepam with special reference to metabolites in both the cell matrix phase and supernatant and its interaction of three inducers (phenobarbital, dexamethasone, aroclor 1254) in different time responses (1, 2, 4, 8, 24 h). Phenobarbital showed the strongest inducing effect in generating desmethyldiazepam and induced up to a 150 fold increase in oxazepam-content which correlates with the increased availability of the precursor metabolites (temazepam and desmethyldiazepam). Aroclor 1254 and dexamethasone had the strongest inducing effect on temazepam and the second strongest on oxazepam. The strong and overlapping inductive role of phenobarbital strengthens the participation of CYP2B6 and CYP3A in diazepam N-demethylation and CYP3A in temazepam formation. Aroclor 1254 preferentially generated temazepam due to the interaction with CYP3A and potentially CYP2C19. In parallel we represented these data in the form of a mathematical model with two compartments explaining the dynamics of diazepam metabolism with the effect of these other inducers in human primary hepatocytes. The model consists of ten differential equations, with one for each concentration c{sub i,j} (i = diazepam, temazepam, desmethyldiazepam, oxazepam, other metabolites) and one for each compartment (j = cell matrix phase, supernatant), respectively. The parameters p{sub k} (k = 1, 2, 3, 4, 13) are rate constants describing the biotransformation of diazepam and its metabolites and the other parameters (k = 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 14, 15) explain the

  16. Proliferation of primary human hepatocytes and prevention of hepatitis B virus reinfection efficiently deplete nuclear cccDNA in vivo.

    PubMed

    Allweiss, Lena; Volz, Tassilo; Giersch, Katja; Kah, Janine; Raffa, Giuseppina; Petersen, Joerg; Lohse, Ansgar W; Beninati, Concetta; Pollicino, Teresa; Urban, Stephan; Lütgehetmann, Marc; Dandri, Maura

    2017-04-20

    The stability of the covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) in nuclei of non-dividing hepatocytes represents a key determinant of HBV persistence. Contrarily, studies with animal hepadnaviruses indicated that hepatocyte turnover can reduce cccDNA loads but knowledge on the proliferative capacity of HBV-infected primary human hepatocytes (PHHs) in vivo and the fate of cccDNA in dividing PHHs is still lacking. This study aimed to determine the impact of human hepatocyte division on cccDNA stability in vivo. PHH proliferation was triggered by serially transplanting hepatocytes from HBV-infected humanised mice into naïve recipients. Cell proliferation and virological changes were assessed by quantitative PCR, immunofluorescence and RNA in situ hybridisation. Viral integrations were analysed by gel separation and deep sequencing. PHH proliferation strongly reduced all infection markers, including cccDNA (median 2.4 log/PHH). Remarkably, cell division appeared to cause cccDNA dilution among daughter cells and intrahepatic cccDNA loss. Nevertheless, HBV survived in sporadic non-proliferating human hepatocytes, so that virological markers rebounded as hepatocyte expansion relented. This was due to reinfection of quiescent PHHs since treatment with the entry inhibitor myrcludex-B or nucleoside analogues blocked viral spread and intrahepatic cccDNA accumulation. Viral integrations were detected both in donors and recipient mice but did not appear to contribute to antigen production. We demonstrate that human hepatocyte division even without involvement of cytolytic mechanisms triggers substantial cccDNA loss. This process may be fundamental to resolve self-limiting acute infection and should be considered in future therapeutic interventions along with entry inhibition strategies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  17. Mechanisms of acetaminophen-induced cell death in primary human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yuchao; McGill, Mitchell R; Dorko, Kenneth; Kumer, Sean C; Schmitt, Timothy M; Forster, Jameson; Jaeschke, Hartmut

    2014-09-15

    Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose is the most prevalent cause of drug-induced liver injury in western countries. Numerous studies have been conducted to investigate the mechanisms of injury after APAP overdose in various animal models; however, the importance of these mechanisms for humans remains unclear. Here we investigated APAP hepatotoxicity using freshly isolated primary human hepatocytes (PHH) from either donor livers or liver resections. PHH were exposed to 5mM, 10mM or 20mM APAP over a period of 48 h and multiple parameters were assessed. APAP dose-dependently induced significant hepatocyte necrosis starting from 24h, which correlated with the clinical onset of human liver injury after APAP overdose. Interestingly, cellular glutathione was depleted rapidly during the first 3h. APAP also resulted in early formation of APAP-protein adducts (measured in whole cell lysate and in mitochondria) and mitochondrial dysfunction, indicated by the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential after 12h. Furthermore, APAP time-dependently triggered c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation in the cytosol and translocation of phospho-JNK to the mitochondria. Both co-treatment and post-treatment (3h) with the JNK inhibitor SP600125 reduced JNK activation and significantly attenuated cell death at 24h and 48h after APAP. The clinical antidote N-acetylcysteine offered almost complete protection even if administered 6h after APAP and a partial protection when given at 15 h. These data highlight important mechanistic events in APAP toxicity in PHH and indicate a critical role of JNK in the progression of injury after APAP in humans. The JNK pathway may represent a therapeutic target in the clinic. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The isolation of primary hepatocytes from human tissue: optimising the use of small non-encapsulated liver resection surplus.

    PubMed

    Green, Charlotte J; Charlton, Catriona A; Wang, Lai-Mun; Silva, Michael; Morten, Karl J; Hodson, Leanne

    2017-07-17

    Two-step perfusion is considered the gold standard method for isolating hepatocytes from human liver tissue. As perfusion may require a large tissue specimen, which is encapsulated and has accessible vessels for cannulation, only a limited number of tissue samples may be suitable. Therefore, the aim of this work was to develop an alternative method to isolate hepatocytes from non-encapsulated and small samples of human liver tissue. Healthy tissue from 44 human liver resections were graded for steatosis and tissue weights between 7.8 and 600 g were used for hepatocyte isolations. Tissue was diced and underwent a two-step digestion (EDTA and collagenase). Red cell lysis buffer was used to prevent red blood cell contamination and toxicity. Isolated hepatocyte viability was determined by trypan blue exclusion. Western blot and biochemical analyses were undertaken to ascertain cellular phenotype and function. Liver tissue that weighed ≥50 g yielded significantly higher (P < 0.01) cell viability than tissue <50 g. Viable cells secreted urea and displayed the phenotypic hepatocyte markers albumin and cytochrome P450. Presence of steatosis in liver tissue or intra-hepatocellular triglyceride content had no effect on cell viability. This methodology allows for the isolation of viable primary human hepatocytes from small amounts of "healthy" resected liver tissue which are not suitable for perfusion. This work provides the opportunity to increase the utilisation of resection surplus tissue, and may ultimately lead to an increased number of in vitro cellular studies being undertaken using the gold-standard model of human primary hepatocytes.

  19. Xenobiotic Metabolizing Enzyme and Transporter Gene Expression in Primary Cultures of Human Hepatocytes Modulated by ToxCast Chemicals

    EPA Science Inventory

    ToxCast chemicals were assessed for induction or suppression of xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme and transporter gene expression using primary human hepatocytes. The mRNA levels of 14 target and 2 control genes were measured: ABCB1, ABCB11, ABCG2, SLCO1B1, CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2B6, C...

  20. Modulation of Xenobiotic Metabolizing Enzyme and Transporter Gene Expression in Primary Cultures of Human Hepatocytes by ToxCast Chemicals

    EPA Science Inventory

    ToxCast chemicals were assessed for induction or suppression of xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme and transporter gene expression using primary human hepatocytes. The mRNA levels of 14 target and 2 control genes were measured: ABCB1, ABCB11, ABCG2, SLCO1B1, CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2B6, C...

  1. Xenobiotic Metabolizing Enzyme and Transporter Gene Expression in Primary Cultures of Human Hepatocytes Modulated by ToxCast Chemicals

    EPA Science Inventory

    ToxCast chemicals were assessed for induction or suppression of xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme and transporter gene expression using primary human hepatocytes. The mRNA levels of 14 target and 2 control genes were measured: ABCB1, ABCB11, ABCG2, SLCO1B1, CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2B6, C...

  2. Modulation of Xenobiotic Metabolizing Enzyme and Transporter Gene Expression in Primary Cultures of Human Hepatocytes by ToxCast Chemicals

    EPA Science Inventory

    ToxCast chemicals were assessed for induction or suppression of xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme and transporter gene expression using primary human hepatocytes. The mRNA levels of 14 target and 2 control genes were measured: ABCB1, ABCB11, ABCG2, SLCO1B1, CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2B6, C...

  3. Expression profiling of interindividual variability following xenobiotic exposures in primary human hepatocyte cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Goyak, Katy M.O.; Johnson, Mary C.; Strom, Stephen C.; Omiecinski, Curtis J.

    2008-09-01

    To examine the magnitude of human variability across the entire transcriptome after chemical challenge, we profiled gene expression responses to three different prototypic chemical inducers in primary human hepatocyte cultures from ten independent donors. Correlation between basal expression in any two hepatocyte donors ranged from r{sup 2} values of 0.967 to 0.857, and chemical treatment tended to negatively impact correlation between donors. Including anticipated target genes, 10,812, 8373, and 7847 genes were changed in at least one donor by Aroclor 1254 (A1254), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), and phenobarbital (PB), respectively. A subset of these gene targets (n = 41) were altered with a high level of reproducibility in at least 9 donors, gene responses that correlated well with literature-reported mechanism of action. Filtering responses to the level of gene subsets clarified the biological impact associated with the respective chemical effectors, in lieu of substantial interindividual variation among donor responses. In these respects, the use of hierarchical clustering methods successfully grouped seven of the ten donors into chemical-specific rather than donor-specific clusters. However, at the whole-genome level, the magnitude of conserved gene expression changes among donors was surprisingly small, with fewer than 50% of the gene responses altered by a single chemical conserved in more than one donor. The use of higher level descriptors, such as those defined by the PANTHER classification system, may enable more consistent categorization of gene expression changes across individuals, as increased reproducibility was identified using this method.

  4. Sex Differences in Liver Toxicity—Do Female and Male Human Primary Hepatocytes React Differently to Toxicants In Vitro?

    PubMed Central

    Mennecozzi, Milena; Landesmann, Brigitte; Palosaari, Taina; Harris, Georgina; Whelan, Maurice

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing amount of evidence for sex variation in drug efficiency and toxicity profiles. Women are more susceptible than men to acute liver injury from xenobiotics. In general, this is attributed to sex differences at a physiological level as well as differences in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, but neither of these can give a sufficient explanation for the diverse responses to xenobiotics. Existing data are mainly based on animal models and limited data exist on in vitro sex differences relevant to humans. To date, male and female human hepatocytes have not yet been compared in terms of their responses to hepatotoxic drugs. We investigated whether sex-specific differences in acute hepatotoxicity can be observed in vitro by comparing hepatotoxic drug effects in male and female primary human hepatocytes. Significant sex-related differences were found for certain parameters and individual drugs, showing an overall higher sensitivity of female primary hepatocytes to hepatotoxicants. Moreover, our work demonstrated that high content screening is feasible with pooled primary human hepatocytes in suspension. PMID:25849576

  5. Sex differences in liver toxicity-do female and male human primary hepatocytes react differently to toxicants in vitro?

    PubMed

    Mennecozzi, Milena; Landesmann, Brigitte; Palosaari, Taina; Harris, Georgina; Whelan, Maurice

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing amount of evidence for sex variation in drug efficiency and toxicity profiles. Women are more susceptible than men to acute liver injury from xenobiotics. In general, this is attributed to sex differences at a physiological level as well as differences in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, but neither of these can give a sufficient explanation for the diverse responses to xenobiotics. Existing data are mainly based on animal models and limited data exist on in vitro sex differences relevant to humans. To date, male and female human hepatocytes have not yet been compared in terms of their responses to hepatotoxic drugs. We investigated whether sex-specific differences in acute hepatotoxicity can be observed in vitro by comparing hepatotoxic drug effects in male and female primary human hepatocytes. Significant sex-related differences were found for certain parameters and individual drugs, showing an overall higher sensitivity of female primary hepatocytes to hepatotoxicants. Moreover, our work demonstrated that high content screening is feasible with pooled primary human hepatocytes in suspension.

  6. Morphological behaviour and metabolic capacity of cryopreserved human primary hepatocytes cultivated in a perfused multiwell device.

    PubMed

    Vivares, Aurelie; Salle-Lefort, Sandrine; Arabeyre-Fabre, Catherine; Ngo, Robert; Penarier, Geraldine; Bremond, Michele; Moliner, Patricia; Gallas, Jean-François; Fabre, Gerard; Klieber, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    1. The quantitative prediction of the pharmacokinetic parameters of a drug from data obtained using human in vitro systems remains a significant challenge i.e. prediction of metabolic clearance in humans and estimation of the relative contribution of enzymes involved in the clearance. This has become particularly problematic for low turnover compounds. 2. Having human hepatocytes with stable cellular function over several days that adequately mimic the complexity of the physiological environment would be a major advance. Thus, we evaluated human hepatocytes, maintained in culture during 7 days in the microfluidic LiverChip™ system, in terms of morphological appearance, relative mRNA expression of phase I and II enzymes and transporters as a function of time, and metabolic capacity using probe substrates. 3. The results showed that mRNA levels of the major genes for enzymes involved in drug metabolism were well-maintained over a 7-day period of culture. Furthermore, after 4 days of culture, in the Liverchip™ device, human hepatocytes exhibited higher or similar CYPs activities compared to 1 day of culture in 2D-static conditions. 4. The functional data were supported by light/electron microscopies and immunohistochemistry showing viable tissue structure and well-differentiated human hepatocytes: presence of cell junctions, glycogen storage, and bile canaliculi.

  7. Primary human hepatocytes from metabolic-disordered children recreate highly differentiated liver-tissue-like spheroids on alginate scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Bierwolf, Jeanette; Lutgehetmann, Marc; Deichmann, Steffen; Erbes, Johannes; Volz, Tassilo; Dandri, Maura; Cohen, Smadar; Nashan, Bjoern; Pollok, Joerg-Matthias

    2012-07-01

    Human hepatocyte transplantation has not been routinely established as an alternative to liver transplantation in liver disease due to low cell engraftment rates. Preimplantation in vitro engineering of liver tissue using primary human hepatocytes on three-dimensional scaffolds could be an alternative model. Alginate bioscaffolds were seeded with 1×10(6) hepatocytes freshly isolated from the livers of three children suffering from different metabolic disorders. During a culture period of 14 days only a marginal loss of hepatocytes was observed via measurement of DNA content per scaffold. Formation of hepatocyte spheroids was detected from day 3 onward using transmission light microscopy. Biochemical assays for albumin, α1-antitrypsin, and urea revealed excellent metabolic function with its maximum at day 7. Low lactate dehydrogenase enzyme release demonstrated minor cellular membrane damage. Hematoxylin and eosin and periodic acid Schiff staining displayed high cell viability and well-preserved glycogen storage until day 7. Immunofluorescent staining of hepatocyte nuclear factor 4, zonula occludens protein 1, and cytokeratin 18 revealed highly differentiated hepatocytes in spheroids with a tissue-like structure on scaffolds. Fluorescent labeling of cytochrome P450 and bile canaliculi demonstrated detoxification ability as well as a well-shaped bile canaliculi network. Almost constant expression levels in most target genes were detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The results of TUNEL reaction implicated a safe scaffold-dissolving procedure. Our results indicate that alginate scaffolds provide a favorable microenvironment for liver neo-tissue recreation and regeneration. Further, we demonstrate that livers from children with inherited metabolic disorders could serve as an alternative cell source for in vitro experiments.

  8. Arsenite Effects on Mitochondrial Bioenergetics in Human and Mouse Primary Hepatocytes Follow a Nonlinear Dose Response

    PubMed Central

    Christudoss, Pamela; Mickey, Kristen; Tessman, Robert; Ni, Hong-min; Swerdlow, Russell

    2017-01-01

    Arsenite is a known carcinogen and its exposure has been implicated in a variety of noncarcinogenic health concerns. Increased oxidative stress is thought to be the primary cause of arsenite toxicity and the toxic effect is thought to be linear with detrimental effects reported at all concentrations of arsenite. But the paradigm of linear dose response in arsenite toxicity is shifting. In the present study we demonstrate that arsenite effects on mitochondrial respiration in primary hepatocytes follow a nonlinear dose response. In vitro exposure of primary hepatocytes to an environmentally relevant, moderate level of arsenite results in increased oxidant production that appears to arise from changes in the expression and activity of respiratory Complex I of the mitochondrial proton circuit. In primary hepatocytes the excess oxidant production appears to elicit adaptive responses that promote resistance to oxidative stress and a propensity to increased proliferation. Taken together, these results suggest a nonlinear dose-response characteristic of arsenite with low-dose arsenite promoting adaptive responses in a process known as mitohormesis, with transient increase in ROS levels acting as transducers of arsenite-induced mitohormesis. PMID:28163822

  9. Characterization of Drug-Specific Signaling Between Primary Human Hepatocytes and Immune Cells.

    PubMed

    Ogese, Monday O; Faulkner, Lee; Jenkins, Roz E; French, Neil S; Copple, Ian M; Antoine, Daniel J; Elmasry, Mohamed; Malik, Hasan; Goldring, Christopher E; Park, Brian Kevin; Betts, Catherine J; Naisbitt, Dean J

    2017-07-01

    It is now apparent that antigen-specific T-cells are activated in certain patients with drug-induced liver injury (DILI). Since cross-talk between hepatocytes and immune cells is likely to be critical in determining the outcome of drug exposure, the aim of this study was to profile the signals released by drug-treated hepatocytes and to characterize the impact of these molecules on dendritic cells. Human hepatocytes were exposed to 3 drugs (flucloxacillin, amoxicillin, and isoniazid) associated with DILI potentially mediated by the adaptive immune system as drug-specific T-cells have been isolated from DILI patients, and the metabolite nitroso-sulfamethoxazole (SMX-NO). Hepatocyte toxicity, cytokine release and activation of oxidative stress pathways were measured. Supernatants were transferred to monocyte-derived dendritic cells and cell phenotype and function were assessed. High-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) and lactate dehydrogenase release as well as adenosine triphosphate depletion occurred in a drug-, time-, and concentration-dependent manner with SMX-NO and flucloxacillin, whereas isoniazid and amoxicillin were nontoxic. Furthermore, drug-induced activation of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 marker genes was observed when hepatocytes were exposed to test drugs. The disulfide isoform of HMGB1 stimulated dendritic cell cytokine release and enhanced the priming of naive T-cells. Incubation of dendritic cells with supernatant from drug-treated hepatocytes resulted in 2 distinct cytokine profiles. SMX-NO/flucloxacillin stimulated secretion of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1α, and IL-1-β. Isoniazid which did not induce significant hepatocyte toxicity, compared with SMX-NO and flucloxacillin, stimulated the release of a panel of cytokines including the above and IFN-γ, IL-12, IL-17A, IP-10, and IL-10. Collectively, our study identifies drug-specific signaling pathways between hepatocytes and immune cells that could influence whether drug exposure will

  10. Comparison of primary human hepatocytes and hepatoma cell line Hepg2 with regard to their biotransformation properties.

    PubMed

    Wilkening, Stefan; Stahl, Frank; Bader, Augustinus

    2003-08-01

    Cultures of primary hepatocytes and hepatoma cell line HepG2 are frequently used in in vitro models for human biotransformation studies. In this study, we characterized and compared the capacity of these model systems to indicate the presence of different classes of promutagens. Genotoxic sensitivity, enzyme activity, and gene expression were monitored in response to treatment with food promutagens benzo[a]pyrene, dimethylnitrosamine (DMN), and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP). DNA damage could be detected reliably with the comet assay in primary human hepatocytes, which were maintained in sandwich culture. All three promutagens caused DNA damage in primary cells, but in HepG2 no genotoxic effects of DMN and PhIP could be detected. We supposed that the lack of specific enzymes accounts for their inability to process these promutagens. Therefore, we quantified the expression of a broad range of genes coding for drug-metabolizing enzymes with real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The genes code for cytochromes p450 and, in addition, for a series of important phase II enzymes. The expression level of these genes in human hepatocytes was similar to those previously reported for human liver samples. On the other hand, expression levels in HepG2 differed significantly from that in human. Activity and expression, especially of phase I enzymes, were demonstrated to be extremely low in HepG2 cells. Up-regulation of specific genes by test substances was similar in both cell types. In conclusion, human hepatocytes are the preferred model for biotransformation in human liver, whereas HepG2 cells may be useful to study regulation of drug-metabolizing enzymes.

  11. Biokinetics of chlorpromazine in primary rat and human hepatocytes and human HepaRG cells after repeated exposure.

    PubMed

    Broeders, Jessica J W; Parmentier, Céline; Truisi, Germaine L; Jossé, Rozenn; Alexandre, Eliane; Savary, Camille C; Hewitt, Philip G; Mueller, Stefan O; Guillouzo, André; Richert, Lysiane; van Eijkeren, Jan C H; Hermens, Joop L M; Blaauboer, Bas J

    2015-12-25

    Since drug induced liver injury is difficult to predict in animal models, more representative tests are needed to better evaluate these effects in humans. Existing in vitro systems hold great potential to detect hepatotoxicity of pharmaceuticals. In this study, the in vitro biokinetics of the model hepatotoxicant chlorpromazine (CPZ) were evaluated in three different liver cell systems after repeated exposure in order to incorporate repeated-dose testing into an in vitro assay. Primary rat and human hepatocytes, cultured in sandwich configuration and the human HepaRG cell line were treated daily with CPZ for 14 days. Samples were taken from medium, cells and well plastic at specific time points after the first and last exposure. The samples were analysed by HPLC-UV to determine the amount of CPZ in these samples. Based on cytotoxicity assays, the three models were tested at 1-2 μM CPZ, while the primary rat hepatocytes and the HepaRG cell line were in addition exposed to a higher concentration of 15-20 μM. Overall, the mass balance of CPZ decreased in the course of 24 h, indicating the metabolism of the compound within the cells. The largest decrease in parent compound was seen in the primary cultures; in the HepaRG cell cultures the mass balance only decreased to 50%. CPZ accumulated in the cells during the 14-day repeated exposure. Possible explanations for the accumulation of CPZ are a decrease in metabolism over time, inhibition of efflux transporters or binding to phospholipids. The biokinetics of CPZ differed between the three liver cell models and were influenced by specific cell properties as well as culture conditions. These results support the conclusion that in vitro biokinetics data are necessary to better interpret chemical-induced cytotoxicity data. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Interindividual variation in gene expression responses and metabolite formation in acetaminophen-exposed primary human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Jetten, Marlon J A; Ruiz-Aracama, Ainhoa; Coonen, Maarten L J; Claessen, Sandra M; van Herwijnen, Marcel H M; Lommen, Arjen; van Delft, Joost H M; Peijnenburg, Ad A C M; Kleinjans, Jos C S

    2016-05-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) is a readily available over-the-counter drug and is one of the most commonly used analgesics/antipyretics worldwide. Large interindividual variation in susceptibility toward APAP-induced liver failure has been reported. However, the exact underlying factors causing this variability in susceptibility are still largely unknown. The aim of this study was to better understand this variability in response to APAP by evaluating interindividual differences in gene expression changes and APAP metabolite formation in primary human hepatocytes (PHH) from several donors (n = 5) exposed in vitro to a non-toxic to toxic APAP dose range. To evaluate interindividual variation, gene expression data/levels of metabolites were plotted against APAP dose/donor. The correlation in APAP dose response between donors was calculated by comparing data points from one donor to the data points of all other donors using a Pearson-based correlation analysis. From that, a correlation score/donor for each gene/metabolite was defined, representing the similarity of the omics response to APAP in PHH of a particular donor to all other donors. The top 1 % highest variable genes were selected for further evaluation using gene set overrepresentation analysis. The biological processes in which the genes with high interindividual variation in expression were involved include liver regeneration, inflammatory responses, mitochondrial stress responses, hepatocarcinogenesis, cell cycle, and drug efficacy. Additionally, the interindividual variation in the expression of these genes could be associated with the variability in expression levels of hydroxyl/methoxy-APAP and C8H13O5N-APAP-glucuronide. The before-mentioned metabolites or their derivatives have also been reported in blood of humans exposed to therapeutic APAP doses. Possibly these findings can contribute to elucidating the causative factors of interindividual susceptibility toward APAP.

  13. Differential Expression Profile of lncRNAs from Primary Human Hepatocytes Following DEET and Fipronil Exposure.

    PubMed

    Mitchell Iii, Robert D; Wallace, Andrew D; Hodgson, Ernest; Roe, R Michael

    2017-10-07

    While the synthesis and use of new chemical compounds is at an all-time high, the study of their potential impact on human health is quickly falling behind, and new methods are needed to assess their impact. We chose to examine the effects of two common environmental chemicals, the insect repellent N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET) and the insecticide fluocyanobenpyrazole (fipronil), on transcript levels of long non-protein coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in primary human hepatocytes using a global RNA-Seq approach. While lncRNAs are believed to play a critical role in numerous important biological processes, many still remain uncharacterized, and their functions and modes of action remain largely unclear, especially in relation to environmental chemicals. RNA-Seq showed that 100 µM DEET significantly increased transcript levels for 2 lncRNAs and lowered transcript levels for 18 lncRNAs, while fipronil at 10 µM increased transcript levels for 76 lncRNAs and decreased levels for 193 lncRNAs. A mixture of 100 µM DEET and 10 µM fipronil increased transcript levels for 75 lncRNAs and lowered transcript levels for 258 lncRNAs. This indicates a more-than-additive effect on lncRNA transcript expression when the two chemicals were presented in combination versus each chemical alone. Differentially expressed lncRNA genes were mapped to chromosomes, analyzed by proximity to neighboring protein-coding genes, and functionally characterized via gene ontology and molecular mapping algorithms. While further testing is required to assess the organismal impact of changes in transcript levels, this initial analysis links several of the dysregulated lncRNAs to processes and pathways critical to proper cellular function, such as the innate and adaptive immune response and the p53 signaling pathway.

  14. Integrative "-Omics" Analysis in Primary Human Hepatocytes Unravels Persistent Mechanisms of Cyclosporine A-Induced Cholestasis.

    PubMed

    Wolters, Jarno E J; van Herwijnen, Marcel H M; Theunissen, Daniel H J; Jennen, Danyel G J; Van den Hof, Wim F P M; de Kok, Theo M C M; Schaap, Frank G; van Breda, Simone G J; Kleinjans, Jos C S

    2016-12-19

    Cyclosporine A (CsA) is an undecapeptide with strong immunosuppressant activities and is used a lot after organ transplantation. Furthermore, it may induce cholestasis in the liver. In general, the drug-induced cholestasis (DIC) pathway includes genes involved in the uptake, synthesis, conjugation, and secretion of bile acids. However, whether CsA-induced changes in the cholestasis pathway in vitro are persistent for repeated dose toxicity has not yet been investigated. To explore this, primary human hepatocytes (PHH) were exposed to a subcytotoxic dose of 30 μM CsA daily for 3 and 5 days. To investigate the persistence of induced changes upon terminating CsA exposure after 5 days, a subset of PHH was subjected to a washout period (WO-period) of 3 days. Multiple -omics analyses, comprising whole genome analysis of DNA methylation, gene expression, and microRNA expression, were performed. The CsA-treatment resulted after 3 and 5 days, respectively, in 476 and 20 differentially methylated genes (DMGs), 1353 and 1481 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), and in 22 and 29 differentially expressed microRNAs (DE-miRs). Cholestasis-related pathways appeared induced during CsA-treatment. Interestingly, 828 persistent DEGs and 6 persistent DE-miRs but no persistent DMGs were found after the WO-period. These persistent DEGs and DE-miRs showed concordance for 22 genes. Furthermore, 29 persistent DEGs changed into the same direction as observed in livers from cholestasis patients. None of those 29 DEGs which among others relate to oxidative stress and lipid metabolism are yet present in the DIC pathway or cholestasis adverse outcome pathway (AOP) thus presenting novel findings. In summary, we have demonstrated for the first time a persistent impact of repeated dose administration of CsA on genes and microRNAs related to DIC in the gold standard human liver in vitro model with PHH.

  15. Differences in the Epigenetic Regulation of Cytochrome P450 Genes between Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Hepatocytes and Primary Hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Park, Han-Jin; Choi, Young-Jun; Kim, Ji Woo; Chun, Hang-Suk; Im, Ilkyun; Yoon, Seokjoo; Han, Yong-Mahn; Song, Chang-Woo; Kim, Hyemin

    2015-01-01

    Human pluripotent stem cell-derived hepatocytes have the potential to provide in vitro model systems for drug discovery and hepatotoxicity testing. However, these cells are currently unsuitable for drug toxicity and efficacy testing because of their limited expression of genes encoding drug-metabolizing enzymes, especially cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes. Transcript levels of major CYP genes were much lower in human embryonic stem cell-derived hepatocytes (hESC-Hep) than in human primary hepatocytes (hPH). To verify the mechanism underlying this reduced expression of CYP genes, including CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP1B1, CYP2D6, and CYP2E1, we investigated their epigenetic regulation in terms of DNA methylation and histone modifications in hESC-Hep and hPH. CpG islands of CYP genes were hypermethylated in hESC-Hep, whereas they had an open chromatin structure, as represented by hypomethylation of CpG sites and permissive histone modifications, in hPH. Inhibition of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) during hepatic maturation induced demethylation of the CpG sites of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2, leading to the up-regulation of their transcription. Combinatorial inhibition of DNMTs and histone deacetylases (HDACs) increased the transcript levels of CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP1B1, and CYP2D6. Our findings suggest that limited expression of CYP genes in hESC-Hep is modulated by epigenetic regulatory factors such as DNMTs and HDACs.

  16. Differences in the Epigenetic Regulation of Cytochrome P450 Genes between Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Hepatocytes and Primary Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Park, Han-Jin; Choi, Young-Jun; Kim, Ji Woo; Chun, Hang-Suk; Im, Ilkyun; Yoon, Seokjoo; Han, Yong-Mahn; Song, Chang-Woo; Kim, Hyemin

    2015-01-01

    Human pluripotent stem cell-derived hepatocytes have the potential to provide in vitro model systems for drug discovery and hepatotoxicity testing. However, these cells are currently unsuitable for drug toxicity and efficacy testing because of their limited expression of genes encoding drug-metabolizing enzymes, especially cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes. Transcript levels of major CYP genes were much lower in human embryonic stem cell-derived hepatocytes (hESC-Hep) than in human primary hepatocytes (hPH). To verify the mechanism underlying this reduced expression of CYP genes, including CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP1B1, CYP2D6, and CYP2E1, we investigated their epigenetic regulation in terms of DNA methylation and histone modifications in hESC-Hep and hPH. CpG islands of CYP genes were hypermethylated in hESC-Hep, whereas they had an open chromatin structure, as represented by hypomethylation of CpG sites and permissive histone modifications, in hPH. Inhibition of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) during hepatic maturation induced demethylation of the CpG sites of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2, leading to the up-regulation of their transcription. Combinatorial inhibition of DNMTs and histone deacetylases (HDACs) increased the transcript levels of CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP1B1, and CYP2D6. Our findings suggest that limited expression of CYP genes in hESC-Hep is modulated by epigenetic regulatory factors such as DNMTs and HDACs. PMID:26177506

  17. Bosentan and Rifampin Interactions Modulate Influx Transporter and Cytochrome P450 Expression and Activities in Primary Human Hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Han, Kyoung-Moon; Ahn, Sun-Young; Seo, Hyewon; Yun, Jaesuk; Cha, Hye Jin; Shin, Ji-Soon; Kim, Young-Hoon; Kim, Hyungsoo; Park, Hye-Kyung; Lee, Yong-Moon

    2017-02-06

    The incidence of polypharmacy-which can result in drug-drug interactions-has increased in recent years. Drug-metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters are important polypharmacy modulators. In this study, the effects of bosentan and rifampin on the expression and activities of organic anion-transporting peptide (OATP) and cytochrome P450 (CYP450) 2C9 and CYP3A4 were investigated in vitro. HEK293 cells and primary human hepatocytes overexpressing the target genes were treated with bosentan and various concentrations of rifampin, which decreased the uptake activities of OATP transporters in a dose-dependent manner. In primary human hepatocytes, CYP2C9 and CYP3A4 gene expression and activities decreased upon treatment with 20 μM bosentan+200 μM rifampin. Rifampin also reduced gene expression of OATP1B1, OATP1B3, and OATP2B1 transporter, and inhibited bosentan influx in human hepatocytes at increasing concentrations. These results confirm rifampin- and bosentan-induced interactions between OATP transporters and CYP450.

  18. Lipid-mediated transfection of normal adult human hepatocytes in primary culture.

    PubMed

    Ourlin, J C; Vilarem, M J; Daujat, M; Harricane, M C; Domergue, J; Joyeux, H; Baulieux, J; Maurel, P

    1997-04-05

    The aim of this work was to develop a procedure for the lipid-mediated transfection of DNA into normal adult human hepatocytes in culture. Cells were plated in a serum-free culture medium at various cell densities, on plastic or collagen-coated dishes, both in the absence and in the presence of epidermal growth factor (EGF). The cells were incubated for various periods of time with mixtures of DNA-lipofectin or DNA-3 beta[N-(N',N'-dimethylaminoethane)-carbamoyl] cholesterol (DC-chol) liposomes, and the efficiency of transfection was assessed by measuring the activity of reporter genes, beta-galactosidase or chloramphenicol acetyl-transferase (CAT). For comparison, similar experiments were carried out with human cell lines including HepG2, Caco-2, and WRL68. The efficiency of transfection (in percentage of cells) was not significantly different after transfection with lipofectin or DC-chol and comprised between 0.04 and 1.7% (extreme values) for different cultures. The efficiency of transfection decreased as the age or density of the culture increased and increased in cultures treated with EGF. Direct measurement of the rate of DNA synthesis suggested that the efficiency of transfection was related to the number of cells entering the S phase. Under the same conditions, the efficiency of transfection was one to two orders of magnitude greater in the three cell lines. A plasmid harboring 660 bp of the 5'-flanking region of CYP1A1 (containing two xenobiotic enhancer elements) fused upstream of the promoter of thymidine kinase and the CAT reporter gene was constructed. When this plasmid was transfected in human hepatocytes, CAT activity was induced as expected. We conclude that normal adult human hepatocytes can be transfected with exogenous DNA and that the transfected construct is regulated in the manner expected from in vivo studies.

  19. Primary human hepatocytes on biodegradable poly(l-lactic acid) matrices: a promising model for improving transplantation efficiency with tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Török, Eva; Lutgehetmann, Marc; Bierwolf, Jeanette; Melbeck, Stefan; Düllmann, Jochen; Nashan, Bjoern; Ma, Peter X; Pollok, Joerg M

    2011-02-01

    Liver transplantation is an established treatment for acute and chronic liver disease. However, because of the shortage of donor organs, it does not fulfill the needs of all patients. Hepatocyte transplantation is promising as an alternative method for the treatment of end-stage liver disease and as bridging therapy until liver transplantation. Our group has been working on the optimization of matrix-based hepatocyte transplantation. In order to increase cell survival after transplantation, freshly isolated human hepatocytes were seeded onto biodegradable poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) polymer scaffolds and were cultured in a flow bioreactor. PLLA discs were seeded with human hepatocytes and exposed to a recirculated medium flow for 6 days. Human hepatocytes formed spheroidal aggregates with a liver-like morphology and active metabolic function. Phase contrast microscopy showed increasing numbers of spheroids of increasing diameter during the culture period. Hematoxylin and eosin histology showed viable and intact hepatocytes inside the spheroids. Immunohistochemistry confirmed sustained hepatocyte function and a preserved hepatocyte-specific cytoskeleton. Albumin, alpha-1-antitrypsin, and urea assays showed continued production during the culture period. Northern blot analysis demonstrated increasing albumin signals. Scanning electron micrographs showed hepatocyte spheroids with relatively smooth undulating surfaces and numerous microvilli. Transmission electron micrographs revealed intact hepatocytes and junctional complexes with coated pits and vesicles inside the spheroids. Therefore, we conclude that primary human hepatocytes, precultured in a flow bioreactor on a PLLA scaffold, reorganize to form morphologically intact liver neotissue, and this might offer an optimized method for hepatocyte transplantation because of the expected reduction of the initial cell loss, the high regenerative potential in vivo, and the preformed functional integrity. Copyright © 2011

  20. Explanted diseased livers - a possible source of metabolic competent primary human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Kleine, Moritz; Riemer, Marc; Krech, Till; DeTemple, Daphne; Jäger, Mark D; Lehner, Frank; Manns, Michael P; Klempnauer, Jürgen; Borlak, Jürgen; Bektas, Hueseyin; Vondran, Florian W R

    2014-01-01

    Being an integral part of basic, translational and clinical research, the demand for primary human hepatocytes (PHH) is continuously growing while the availability of tissue resection material for the isolation of metabolically competent PHH remains limited. To overcome current shortcomings, this study evaluated the use of explanted diseased organs from liver transplantation patients as a potential source of PHH. Therefore, PHH were isolated from resected surgical specimens (Rx-group; n = 60) and explanted diseased livers obtained from graft recipients with low labMELD-score (Ex-group; n = 5). Using established protocols PHH were subsequently cultured for a period of 7 days. The viability and metabolic competence of cultured PHH was assessed by the following parameters: morphology and cell count (CyQuant assay), albumin synthesis, urea production, AST-leakage, and phase I and II metabolism. Both groups were compared in terms of cell yield and metabolic function, and results were correlated with clinical parameters of tissue donors. Notably, cellular yields and viabilities were comparable between the Rx- and Ex-group and were 5.3±0.5 and 2.9±0.7×106 cells/g liver tissue with 84.3±1.3 and 76.0±8.6% viability, respectively. Moreover, PHH isolated from the Rx- or Ex-group did not differ in regards to loss of cell number in culture, albumin synthesis, urea production, AST-leakage, and phase I and II metabolism (measured by the 7-ethoxycoumarin-O-deethylase and uracil-5'-diphosphate-glucuronyltransferase activity). Likewise, basal transcript expressions of the CYP monooxygenases 1A1, 2C8 and 3A4 were comparable as was their induction when treated with a cocktail that consisted of 3-methylcholantren, rifampicin and phenobarbital, with increased expression of CYP 1A1 and 3A4 mRNA while transcript expression of CYP 2C8 was only marginally changed. In conclusion, the use of explanted diseased livers obtained from recipients with low labMELD-score might represent

  1. The current status of primary hepatocyte culture

    PubMed Central

    Mitaka, Toshihiro

    1998-01-01

    Recently, there have been significant advances toward the development of culture conditions that promote proliferation of primary rodent hepatocytes. There are two major methods for the multiplication of hepatocytes in vitro: one is the use of nicotinamide, the other is the use of a nutrient-rich medium. In the medium containing a high concentration of nicotinamide and a growth factor, primary hepatocytes can proliferate well. In this culture condition small mononucleate cells, which are named small hepatocytes, appear and form colonies. Small hepatocytes have a high potential to proliferate while maintaining hepatic characteristics, and can differentiate into mature ones. On the other hand, combining the nutrient-rich medium with 2% DMSO, the proliferated hepatocytes can recover the hepatic differentiated functions and maintain them for a long time. In this review I describe the culture conditions for the proliferation and differentiation of primary hepatocytes and discuss the small hepatocytes, especially their roles in liver growth. PMID:10319020

  2. Characterization of primary human hepatocyte spheroids as a model system for drug-induced liver injury, liver function and disease

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Catherine C.; Hendriks, Delilah F. G.; Moro, Sabrina M. L.; Ellis, Ewa; Walsh, Joanne; Renblom, Anna; Fredriksson Puigvert, Lisa; Dankers, Anita C. A.; Jacobs, Frank; Snoeys, Jan; Sison-Young, Rowena L.; Jenkins, Rosalind E.; Nordling, Åsa; Mkrtchian, Souren; Park, B. Kevin; Kitteringham, Neil R.; Goldring, Christopher E. P.; Lauschke, Volker M.; Ingelman-Sundberg, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    Liver biology and function, drug-induced liver injury (DILI) and liver diseases are difficult to study using current in vitro models such as primary human hepatocyte (PHH) monolayer cultures, as their rapid de-differentiation restricts their usefulness substantially. Thus, we have developed and extensively characterized an easily scalable 3D PHH spheroid system in chemically-defined, serum-free conditions. Using whole proteome analyses, we found that PHH spheroids cultured this way were similar to the liver in vivo and even retained their inter-individual variability. Furthermore, PHH spheroids remained phenotypically stable and retained morphology, viability, and hepatocyte-specific functions for culture periods of at least 5 weeks. We show that under chronic exposure, the sensitivity of the hepatocytes drastically increased and toxicity of a set of hepatotoxins was detected at clinically relevant concentrations. An interesting example was the chronic toxicity of fialuridine for which hepatotoxicity was mimicked after repeated-dosing in the PHH spheroid model, not possible to detect using previous in vitro systems. Additionally, we provide proof-of-principle that PHH spheroids can reflect liver pathologies such as cholestasis, steatosis and viral hepatitis. Combined, our results demonstrate that the PHH spheroid system presented here constitutes a versatile and promising in vitro system to study liver function, liver diseases, drug targets and long-term DILI. PMID:27143246

  3. Efavirenz and 8-hydroxyefavirenz induce cell death via a JNK- and BimEL-dependent mechanism in primary human hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Bumpus, Namandje N.

    2011-12-15

    Chronic use of efavirenz (EFV) has been linked to incidences of hepatotoxicity in patients receiving EFV to treat HIV-1. While recent studies have demonstrated that EFV stimulates hepatic cell death a role for the metabolites of efavirenz in this process has yet to be examined. In the present study, incubation of primary human hepatocytes with synthetic 8-hydroxyEFV (8-OHEFV), which is the primary metabolite of EFV, resulted in cell death, caspase-3 activation and reactive oxygen species formation. The metabolite exerted these effects at earlier time points and using lower concentrations than were required for the parent compound. In addition, pharmacological inhibition of cytochrome P450-dependent metabolism of EFV using 1-aminobenzotriazole markedly decreased reactive oxygen species formation and cell death. Treatment of primary human hepatocytes with EFV and 8-OHEFV also stimulated phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) as well as phosphorylation of the JNK substrate c-Jun. Further, the mRNA and protein expression of an isoform of Bim (Bcl-2 interacting mediator of cell death) denoted as BimEL, which is proapoptotic and has been shown to be modulated by JNK, was increased. Inhibition of JNK using SP600125 prevented the EFV- and 8-OHEFV-mediated cell death. Silencing of Bim using siRNA transfected into hepatocytes also prevented cell death resulting from 8-OHEFV-treatment. These data suggest that the oxidative metabolite 8-OHEFV is a more potent inducer of hepatic cell death than the parent compound EFV. Further, activation of the JNK signaling pathway and BimEL mRNA expression appear to be required for EFV- and 8-OHEFV-mediated hepatocyte death. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 8-Hydroxyefavirenz is a more potent stimulator of cell death than efavirenz. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Efavirenz and 8-hydroxyefavirenz increase JNK activity and BimEL mRNA expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer JNK and Bim are required for efavirenz- and 8

  4. Inhibition of hepatitis B viral entry by nucleic acid polymers in HepaRG cells and primary human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Guillot, Clément; Martel, Nora; Berby, Françoise; Bordes, Isabelle; Hantz, Olivier; Blanchet, Matthieu; Sureau, Camille; Vaillant, Andrew; Chemin, Isabelle

    2017-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains a major public health concern worldwide with 240 million individuals chronically infected and at risk of developing cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Current treatments rarely cure chronic hepatitis B infection, highlighting the need for new anti-HBV drugs. Nucleic acid polymers (NAPs) are phosphorothioated oligonucleotides that have demonstrated a great potential to inhibit infection with several viruses. In chronically infected human patients, NAPs administration lead to a decline of blood HBsAg and HBV DNA and to HBsAg seroconversion, the expected signs of functional cure. NAPs have also been shown to prevent infection of duck hepatocytes with the Avihepadnavirus duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) and to exert an antiviral activity against established DHBV infection in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we investigated the specific anti-HBV antiviral activity of NAPs in the HepaRG human hepatoma cell line and primary cultures of human hepatocytes. NAPs with different chemical features (phosphorothioation, 2'O-methyl ribose, 5-methylcytidine) were assessed for antiviral activity when provided at the time of HBV inoculation or post-inoculation. NAPs dose-dependently inhibited HBV entry in a phosphorothioation-dependent, sequence-independent and size-dependent manner. This inhibition of HBV entry by NAPs was impaired by 2'O-methyl ribose modification. NAP treatment after viral inoculation did not elicit any antiviral activity.

  5. Primary Human Hepatocytes Repopulate Livers of Mice After In Vitro Culturing and Lentiviral-Mediated Gene Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Bierwolf, Jeanette; Volz, Tassilo; Lütgehetmann, Marc; Allweiss, Lena; Riecken, Kristoffer; Warlich, Michael; Fehse, Boris; Kalff, Joerg C.; Dandri, Maura

    2016-01-01

    Cell-based therapies represent a promising alternative to orthotopic liver transplantation. However, therapeutic effects are limited by low cell engraftment rates. We recently introduced a technique creating human hepatocyte spheroids for potential therapeutic application. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether these spheroids are suitable for engraftment in diseased liver tissues. Intrasplenic spheroid transplantation into immunodeficient uPA/SCID/beige mice was performed. Hepatocyte transduction ability prior to transplantation was tested by lentiviral labeling using red-green-blue (RGB) marking. Eight weeks after transplantation, animals were sacrificed and livers were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. To investigate human hepatocyte-specific gene expression profiles in mice, quantitative real-time-PCR was applied. Human albumin and alpha-1-antitrypsin concentrations in mouse serum were quantified to assess the levels of human chimerism. Precultured human hepatocytes reestablished their physiological liver tissue architecture and function upon transplantation in mice. Positive immunohistochemical labeling of the proliferating cell nuclear antigen revealed that human hepatocytes retained their in vivo proliferation capacity. Expression profiles of human genes analyzed in chimeric mouse livers resembled levels determined in native human tissue. Extensive vascularization of human cell clusters was detected by demonstration of von Willebrand factor activity. To model gene therapy approaches, lentiviral transduction was performed ex vivo and fluorescent microscopic imaging revealed maintenance of RGB marking in vivo. Altogether, this is the first report demonstrating that cultured and retroviral transduced human hepatocyte spheroids are able to engraft and maintain their regenerative potential in vivo. PMID:27068494

  6. Comparison of basal gene expression profiles and effects of hepatocarcinogens on gene expression in cultured primary human hepatocytes and HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Harris, Angela J; Dial, Stacey L; Casciano, Daniel A

    2004-05-18

    Toxicogenomics is a relatively new discipline of toxicology. Microarrays and bioinformatics tools are being used successfully to understand the effects of toxicants on in vivo and in vitro model systems, and to gain a better understanding of the relevance of in vitro models commonly used in toxicological studies. In this study, cDNA filter arrays were used to determine the basal expression patterns of human cultured primary hepatocytes from different male donors; compare the gene expression profile of HepG2 to that of primary hepatocytes; and analyze the effects of three genotoxic hepatocarcinogens; aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)), 2-acetylaminofluorene (2AAF), and dimethylnitrosamine (DMN), as well as one non-gentoxic hepatotoxin, acetaminophen (APAP) on gene expression in both in vitro systems. Real-time PCR was used to verify differential gene expression for selected genes. Of the approximately 31,000 genes screened, 3-6% were expressed in primary hepatocytes cultured on matrigel for 16 h. Of these genes, 867 were expressed in cultured hepatocytes from all donors. HepG2 cells expressed about 98% of the genes detectable in cultured primary hepatocytes, however, 31% of the HepG2 transcriptome was unique to the cell line. A number of these genes are expressed in human liver but expression is apparently lost during culture. There was considerable variability in the response to chemical carcinogen exposure in primary hepatocytes from different donors. The transcription factors, E2F1 and ID1 mRNA were increased three-fold and six-fold (P < 0.05, P < 0.01), respectively, in AFB(1) treated primary human hepatocytes but were not altered in HepG2. ID1 expression was also increased by dimethylnitrosamine, acetylaminofluorene and acetaminophen in both primary hepatocytes and HepG2. Identification of genes that are expressed in primary hepatocytes from most donors, as well as those genes with variable expression, will aid in understanding the variability in human reactions to drugs

  7. Protocol for Isolation of Primary Human Hepatocytes and Corresponding Major Populations of Non-parenchymal Liver Cells.

    PubMed

    Kegel, Victoria; Deharde, Daniela; Pfeiffer, Elisa; Zeilinger, Katrin; Seehofer, Daniel; Damm, Georg

    2016-03-30

    Beside parenchymal hepatocytes, the liver consists of non-parenchymal cells (NPC) namely Kupffer cells (KC), liver endothelial cells (LEC) and hepatic Stellate cells (HSC). Two-dimensional (2D) culture of primary human hepatocyte (PHH) is still considered as the "gold standard" for in vitro testing of drug metabolism and hepatotoxicity. It is well-known that the 2D monoculture of PHH suffers from dedifferentiation and loss of function. Recently it was shown that hepatic NPC play a central role in liver (patho-) physiology and the maintenance of PHH functions. Current research focuses on the reconstruction of in vivo tissue architecture by 3D- and co-culture models to overcome the limitations of 2D monocultures. Previously we published a method to isolate human liver cells and investigated the suitability of these cells for their use in cell cultures in Experimental Biology and Medicine(1). Based on the broad interest in this technique the aim of this article was to provide a more detailed protocol for the liver cell isolation process including a video, which will allow an easy reproduction of this technique. Human liver cells were isolated from human liver tissue samples of surgical interventions by a two-step EGTA/collagenase P perfusion technique. PHH were separated from the NPC by an initial centrifugation at 50 x g. Density gradient centrifugation steps were used for removal of dead cells. Individual liver cell populations were isolated from the enriched NPC fraction using specific cell properties and cell sorting procedures. Beside the PHH isolation we were able to separate KC, LEC and HSC for further cultivation. Taken together, the presented protocol allows the isolation of PHH and NPC in high quality and quantity from one donor tissue sample. The access to purified liver cell populations could allow the creation of in vivo like human liver models.

  8. Similarities and Differences in the Expression of Drug-Metabolizing Enzymes between Human Hepatic Cell Lines and Primary Human HepatocytesS⃞

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Lei; Dial, Stacey; Shi, Leming; Branham, William; Liu, Jie; Fang, Jia-Long; Green, Bridgett; Deng, Helen; Kaput, Jim

    2011-01-01

    In addition to primary human hepatocytes, hepatoma cell lines, and transfected nonhepatoma, hepatic cell lines have been used for pharmacological and toxicological studies. However, a systematic evaluation and a general report of the gene expression spectra of drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters (DMETs) in these in vitro systems are not currently available. To fill this information gap and to provide references for future studies, we systematically characterized the basal gene expression profiles of 251 drug-metabolizing enzymes in untreated primary human hepatocytes from six donors, four commonly used hepatoma cell lines (HepG2, Huh7, SK-Hep-1, and Hep3B), and one transfected human liver epithelial cell line. A large variation in DMET expression spectra was observed between hepatic cell lines and primary hepatocytes, with the complete absence or much lower abundance of certain DMETs in hepatic cell lines. Furthermore, the basal DMET expression spectra of five hepatic cell lines are summarized, providing references for researchers to choose carefully appropriate in vitro models for their studies of drug metabolism and toxicity, especially for studies with drugs in which toxicities are mediated through the formation of reactive metabolites. PMID:21149542

  9. Predictivity of dog co-culture model, primary human hepatocytes and HepG2 cells for the detection of hepatotoxic drugs in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Atienzar, Franck A.; Novik, Eric I.; Gerets, Helga H.; Parekh, Amit; Delatour, Claude; Cardenas, Alvaro; MacDonald, James; Yarmush, Martin L.; Dhalluin, Stéphane

    2014-02-15

    Drug Induced Liver Injury (DILI) is a major cause of attrition during early and late stage drug development. Consequently, there is a need to develop better in vitro primary hepatocyte models from different species for predicting hepatotoxicity in both animals and humans early in drug development. Dog is often chosen as the non-rodent species for toxicology studies. Unfortunately, dog in vitro models allowing long term cultures are not available. The objective of the present manuscript is to describe the development of a co-culture dog model for predicting hepatotoxic drugs in humans and to compare the predictivity of the canine model along with primary human hepatocytes and HepG2 cells. After rigorous optimization, the dog co-culture model displayed metabolic capacities that were maintained up to 2 weeks which indicates that such model could be also used for long term metabolism studies. Most of the human hepatotoxic drugs were detected with a sensitivity of approximately 80% (n = 40) for the three cellular models. Nevertheless, the specificity was low approximately 40% for the HepG2 cells and hepatocytes compared to 72.7% for the canine model (n = 11). Furthermore, the dog co-culture model showed a higher superiority for the classification of 5 pairs of close structural analogs with different DILI concerns in comparison to both human cellular models. Finally, the reproducibility of the canine system was also satisfactory with a coefficient of correlation of 75.2% (n = 14). Overall, the present manuscript indicates that the dog co-culture model may represent a relevant tool to perform chronic hepatotoxicity and metabolism studies. - Highlights: • Importance of species differences in drug development. • Relevance of dog co-culture model for metabolism and toxicology studies. • Hepatotoxicity: higher predictivity of dog co-culture vs HepG2 and human hepatocytes.

  10. Nonsterol Isoprenoids Activate Human Constitutive Androstane Receptor in an Isoform-Selective Manner in Primary Cultured Mouse Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Rondini, Elizabeth A.; Duniec-Dmuchowski, Zofia

    2016-01-01

    Our laboratory previously reported that accumulation of nonsterol isoprenoids following treatment with the squalene synthase inhibitor, squalestatin 1 (SQ1) markedly induced cytochrome P450 (CYP)2B1 mRNA and reporter activity in primary cultured rat hepatocytes, which was dependent on activation of the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR). The objective of the current study was to evaluate whether isoprenoids likewise activate murine CAR (mCAR) or one or more isoforms of human CAR (hCAR) produced by alternative splicing (SPTV, hCAR2; APYLT, hCAR3). We found that SQ1 significantly induced Cyp2b10 mRNA (∼3.5-fold) in primary hepatocytes isolated from both CAR–wild-type and humanized CAR transgenic mice, whereas the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitor pravastatin had no effect. In the absence of CAR, basal Cyp2b10 mRNA levels were reduced by 28-fold and the effect of SQ1 on Cyp2b10 induction was attenuated. Cotransfection with an expression plasmid for hCAR1, but not hCAR2 or hCAR3, mediated SQ1-induced CYP2B1 and CYP2B6 reporter activation in hepatocytes isolated from CAR-knockout mice. This effect was also observed following treatment with the isoprenoid trans,trans-farnesol. The direct agonist CITCO increased interaction of hCAR1, hCAR2, and hCAR3 with steroid receptor coactivator-1. However, no significant effect on coactivator recruitment was observed with SQ1, suggesting an indirect activation mechanism. Further results from an in vitro ligand binding assay demonstrated that neither farnesol nor other isoprenoids are direct ligands for hCAR1. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that SQ1 activates CYP2B transcriptional responses through farnesol metabolism in an hCAR1-dependent manner. Further, this effect probably occurs through an indirect mechanism. PMID:26798158

  11. Transcriptional profiling suggests that Nevirapine and Ritonavir cause drug induced liver injury through distinct mechanisms in primary human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Terelius, Ylva; Figler, Robert A; Marukian, Svetlana; Collado, Maria S; Lawson, Mark J; Mackey, Aaron J; Manka, David; Qualls, Charles W; Blackman, Brett R; Wamhoff, Brian R; Dash, Ajit

    2016-08-05

    Drug induced liver injury (DILI), a major cause of pre- and post-approval failure, is challenging to predict pre-clinically due to varied underlying direct and indirect mechanisms. Nevirapine, a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) and Ritonavir, a protease inhibitor, are antiviral drugs that cause clinical DILI with different phenotypes via different mechanisms. Assessing DILI in vitro in hepatocyte cultures typically requires drug exposures significantly higher than clinical plasma Cmax concentrations, making clinical interpretations of mechanistic pathway changes challenging. We previously described a system that uses liver-derived hemodynamic blood flow and transport parameters to restore primary human hepatocyte biology, and drug responses at concentrations relevant to in vivo or clinical exposure levels. Using this system, primary hepatocytes from 5 human donors were exposed to concentrations approximating clinical therapeutic and supra-therapeutic levels of Nevirapine (11.3 and 175.0 μM) and Ritonavir (3.5 and 62.4 μM) for 48 h. Whole genome transcriptomics was performed by RNAseq along with functional assays for metabolic activity and function. We observed effects at both doses, but a greater number of genes were differentially expressed with higher probability at the toxic concentrations. At the toxic doses, both drugs showed direct cholestatic potential with Nevirapine increasing bile synthesis and Ritonavir inhibiting bile acid transport. Clear differences in antigen presentation were noted, with marked activation of MHC Class I by Nevirapine and suppression by Ritonavir. This suggests CD8+ T cell involvement for Nevirapine and possibly NK Killer cells for Ritonavir. Both compounds induced several drug metabolizing genes (including CYP2B6, CYP3A4 and UGT1A1), mediated by CAR activation in Nevirapine and PXR in Ritonavir. Unlike Ritonavir, Nevirapine did not increase fatty acid synthesis or activate the respiratory electron chain

  12. Quantitative Nuclease Protection Assays (qNPA) as Windows into Chemical-Induced Adaptive Response in Cultures of Primary Human Hepatocytes (Concentration and Time-Response)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cultures of primary human hepatocytes have been shown to be dynamic in vitro model systems that retain liver-like functionality (e.g. metabolism, transport, induction). We have utilized these culture models to interrogate 309 ToxCast chemicals. The study design characterized both...

  13. Quantitative Nuclease Protection Assays (qNPA) as Windows into Chemical-Induced Adaptive Response in Cultures of Primary Human Hepatocytes (Concentration and Time-Response)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cultures of primary human hepatocytes have been shown to be dynamic in vitro model systems that retain liver-like functionality (e.g. metabolism, transport, induction). We have utilized these culture models to interrogate 309 ToxCast chemicals. The study design characterized both...

  14. Effect of rifampin and nelfinavir on the metabolism of methadone and buprenorphine in primary cultures of human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Moody, David E; Fang, Wenfang B; Lin, Shen-Nan; Weyant, Denise M; Strom, Stephen C; Omiecinski, Curtis J

    2009-12-01

    We tested the hypothesis that primary cultures of human hepatocytes could predict potential drug interactions with methadone and buprenorphine. Hepatocytes (five donors) were preincubated with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) (vehicle), rifampin, or nelfinavir before incubation with methadone or buprenorphine. Culture media (0-60 min) was analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for R- and S-methadone and R- and S-2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP) or for buprenorphine, norbuprenorphine, and their glucuronides [buprenorphine-3-glucuronide (B-3-G) and norbuprenorphine-3-glucuronide (N-3-G)]. R- and S-EDDP were detected in three of five, four of five, and five of five media from cells pretreated with DMSO, nelfinavir, and rifampin. R-EDDP increased 3.1- and 26.5-fold, and S-EDDP increased 2.5- and 21.3-fold after nelfinavir and rifampin. The rifampin effect was significant. B-3-G production was detected in media of all cells incubated with buprenorphine and accounted for most of the buprenorphine loss from culture media; it was not significantly affected by either pretreatment. Norbuprenorphine and N-3-G together were detected in three of five, four of five, and five of five donors pretreated with DMSO, nelfinavir and rifampin, and norbuprenorphine in one of five, one of five, and two of five donors. Although there was a trend for norbuprenorphine (2.8- and 4.9-fold) and N-3-G (1.7- and 1.9-fold) to increase after nelfinavir and rifampin, none of the changes were significant. To investigate low norbuprenorphine production, buprenorphine was incubated with human liver and small intestine microsomes fortified to support both N-dealkylation and glucuronidation; N-dealkylation predominated in small intestine and glucuronidation in liver microsomes. These studies support the hypothesis that methadone metabolism and its potential for drug interactions can be predicted with cultured human hepatocytes, but for buprenorphine the combined

  15. Development of an in vitro high content imaging assay for quantitative assessment of CAR-dependent mouse, rat, and human primary hepatocyte proliferation.

    PubMed

    Soldatow, Valerie; Peffer, Richard C; Trask, O Joseph; Cowie, David E; Andersen, Melvin E; LeCluyse, Edward; Deisenroth, Chad

    2016-10-01

    Rodent liver tumors promoted by constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) activation are known to be mediated by key events that include CAR-dependent gene expression and hepatocellular proliferation. Here, an in vitro high content imaging based assay was developed for quantitative assessment of nascent DNA synthesis in primary hepatocyte cultures from mouse, rat, and human species. Detection of DNA synthesis was performed using direct DNA labeling with the nucleoside analog 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU). The assay was multiplexed to enable direct quantitation of DNA synthesis, cytotoxicity, and cell count endpoints. An optimized defined medium cocktail was developed to sensitize hepatocytes to cell cycle progression. The baseline EdU response to defined medium was greatest for mouse, followed by rat, and then human. Hepatocytes from all three species demonstrated CAR activation in response to the CAR agonists TCPOBOP, CITCO, and phenobarbital based on increased gene expression for Cyp2b isoforms. When evaluated for a proliferation phenotype, TCPOBOP and CITCO exhibited significant dose-dependent increases in frequency of EdU labeling in mouse and rat hepatocytes that was not observed in hepatocytes from three human donors. The observed species differences are consistent with CAR activators inducing a proliferative response in rodents, a key event in the liver tumor mode of action that is not observed in humans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Regulation of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL anti-apoptotic protein expression by nuclear receptor PXR in primary cultures of human and rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Zucchini, Nathalie; de Sousa, Georges; Bailly-Maitre, Béatrice; Gugenheim, Jean; Bars, Rémi; Lemaire, Géraldine; Rahmani, Roger

    2005-08-15

    The pregnane X receptor (PXR) plays a major role in the protection of the body by regulating the genes involved in the metabolism and elimination of potentially toxic xeno- and endobiotics. We previously described that PXR activator dexamethasone protects hepatocytes from spontaneous apoptosis. We hypothesise a PXR-dependent co-regulation process between detoxication and programmed cell death. Using primary cultured human and rat hepatocytes, we investigated to determine if PXR is implicated in the regulation of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, two crucial apoptosis inhibitors. In the present study we demonstrated that the treatment of primary cultured hepatocytes with PXR agonists increased hepatocyte viability and protects them from staurosporine-induced apoptosis. The anti-apoptotic capacity of PXR activation was correlated with Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL induction at both the transcriptional and protein levels in man and rats, respectively. The inhibition of PXR expression by antisense oligonucleotide abolished PXR activators Bcl-xL induction. Accordingly, PXR overexpression in HepG2 cells led to bcl-2 induction upon clotrimazole treatment and protects cells against Fas-induced apoptosis. Our results demonstrate that PXR expression is required for Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL up-regulation upon PXR activators treatment in human and rat hepatocytes. They also suggest that PXR may protect the liver against chemicals by simultaneously regulating detoxication and the apoptotic pathway.

  17. Evaluation of transcriptomic signature as a valuable tool to study drug-induced cholestasis in primary human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Parmentier, Céline; Couttet, Philippe; Wolf, Armin; Zaccharias, Thomas; Heyd, Bruno; Bachellier, Philippe; Uteng, Marianne; Richert, Lysiane

    2017-02-10

    Primary human hepatocyte (PHH) sandwich cultures from five different donors were daily exposed to cyclosporine A (CsA), ibuprofen (IBU), chlorpromazine (CPZ), amiodarone (AMI) and paracetamol (APAP) at their respective Cmax (total) for short-term (1-3 days) and long-term treatment (14 days). Whole genome mRNA profiles (34,693 genes in total) were conducted using an Illumina microarray platform. The impact of compound treatments on gene signatures involved in liver differentiation, cholestasis and in bile acid homeostasis was evaluated. Notably, PHH from the five donors showed a highly comparable phenotype of terminally differentiated hepatocytes. As expected, PHH exposed to 100 µM APAP showed no signs of hepatotoxicity both after short- and long-term treatment. CsA at 0.7 µM, IBU at 100 µM, AMI at 2.5 µM and CPZ at 0.1-0.2 µM presented, in line with their cholestatic syndromes reported at therapeutic doses, transcriptomic signatures of cholestasis in PHH cultures; deregulation of genes involved in bile acid homeostasis further confirmed this finding. The strength of the cholestasis signature obtained after treatment with CsA, IBU and AMI could be directly related to the basal expression of the respective drug metabolizing enzymes in the various PHH cultures from different individuals. Our data show that the PHH model system combined with transcriptomics carries the future promise to identify individual gene expression profiles predictive of increased cholestasis risk. As the present work suggests possible correlation between mRNA levels of ADME relevant genes and a transcriptomic signature of cholestasis, particular focus on this research question could be the emphasis of additional data collection.

  18. Labeling of primary human hepatocytes with micron-sized iron oxide particles in suspension culture suitable for large-scale preparation.

    PubMed

    Kammer, Nora N; Billecke, Nils; Morgul, Mehmet H; Adonopoulou, Michaela K; Mogl, Martina; Huang, Mao D; Florek, Stefan; Schmitt, Katharina R L; Raschzok, Nathanael; Sauer, Igor M

    2011-04-01

    Labeling of hepatocytes with micron-sized iron oxide particles (MPIOs) enables cell detection using clinical magnetic resonance equipment. For clinical applications, large numbers of cells must be labeled in a simple and rapid manner and have to be applied in suspension. However, all existing protocols are based on adhesion culture labeling with subsequent resuspension, only suitable for small experimental settings. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of preparing MPIO-labeled primary human hepatocytes in a temporary suspension culture. Human hepatocytes were isolated from 16 donors and labeled with MPIOs in suspension, using the Rotary Cell Culture System. Particle incorporation was investigated by light and electron microscopy. Cells were compared with adhesion culture-labeled and subsequently enzymatically resuspended cells. During a period of 5 days, hepatocyte-specific parameters of cell damage (aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase) and metabolic activity (urea and albumin) were analyzed (n=7). Suspension cultures showed a higher outcome in cell recovery compared with the conventional labeling method. When incubated with 180 particles/viable cell for 4 h, the mean particle uptake was 28.8 particles/cell at a labeling efficiency of 95.1%. Labeling in suspension had no adverse effects on cell integrity or metabolic activity. We conclude that labeling of human hepatocytes in suspension is feasible and simple and may serve future large-scale processing of cells. © 2011, Copyright the Authors. Artificial Organs © 2011, International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Inhibition of bile salt transport by drugs associated with liver injury in primary hepatocytes from human, monkey, dog, rat, and mouse.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; He, Kan; Cai, Lining; Chen, Yu-Chuan; Yang, Yifan; Shi, Qin; Woolf, Thomas F; Ge, Weigong; Guo, Lei; Borlak, Jürgen; Tong, Weida

    2016-08-05

    Interference of bile salt transport is one of the underlying mechanisms for drug-induced liver injury (DILI). We developed a novel bile salt transport activity assay involving in situ biosynthesis of bile salts from their precursors in primary human, monkey, dog, rat, and mouse hepatocytes in suspension as well as LC-MS/MS determination of extracellular bile salts transported out of hepatocytes. Glycine- and taurine-conjugated bile acids were rapidly formed in hepatocytes and effectively transported into the extracellular medium. The bile salt formation and transport activities were time‒ and bile-acid-concentration‒dependent in primary human hepatocytes. The transport activity was inhibited by the bile salt export pump (BSEP) inhibitors ketoconazole, saquinavir, cyclosporine, and troglitazone. The assay was used to test 86 drugs for their potential to inhibit bile salt transport activity in human hepatocytes, which included 35 drugs associated with severe DILI (sDILI) and 51 with non-severe DILI (non-sDILI). Approximately 60% of the sDILI drugs showed potent inhibition (with IC50 values <50 μM), but only about 20% of the non-sDILI drugs showed this strength of inhibition in primary human hepatocytes and these drugs are associated only with cholestatic and mixed hepatocellular cholestatic (mixed) injuries. The sDILI drugs, which did not show substantial inhibition of bile salt transport activity, are likely to be associated with immune-mediated liver injury. Twenty-four drugs were also tested in monkey, dog, rat and mouse hepatocytes. Species differences in potency were observed with mouse being less sensitive than other species to inhibition of bile salt transport. In summary, a novel assay has been developed using hepatocytes in suspension from human and animal species that can be used to assess the potential for drugs and/or drug-derived metabolites to inhibit bile salt transport and/or formation activity. Drugs causing sDILI, except those by immune

  20. Mitochondrial protein adducts formation and mitochondrial dysfunction during N-acetyl-m-aminophenol (AMAP)-induced hepatotoxicity in primary human hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yuchao; McGill, Mitchell R.; Du, Kuo; Dorko, Kenneth; Kumer, Sean C.; Schmitt, Timothy M.; Ding, Wen-Xing; Jaeschke, Hartmut

    2015-01-01

    3′-Hydroxyacetanilide or N-acetyl-meta-aminophenol (AMAP) is generally regarded as a non-hepatotoxic analog of acetaminophen (APAP). Previous studies demonstrated absence of toxicity after AMAP in mice, hamsters, primary mouse hepatocytes and several cell lines. In contrast, experiments with liver slices suggested that it may be toxic to human hepatocytes; however, the mechanism of toxicity is unclear. To explore this, we treated primary human hepatocytes (PHH) with AMAP or APAP for up to 48 h and measured several parameters to assess metabolism and injury. Although less toxic than APAP, AMAP dose-dependently triggered cell death in PHH as indicated by alanine aminotransferase (ALT) release and propidium iodide (PI) staining. Similar to APAP, AMAP also significantly depleted glutathione (GSH) in PHH and caused mitochondrial damage as indicated by glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) release and the JC-1 assay. However, unlike APAP, AMAP treatment did not cause relevant c-jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation in the cytosol or phospho-JNK translocation to mitochondria. To compare, AMAP toxicity was assessed in primary mouse hepatocytes (PMH). No cytotoxicity was observed as indicated by the lack of lactate dehydrogenase release and no PI staining. Furthermore, there was no GSH depletion or mitochondrial dysfunction after AMAP treatment in PMH. Immunoblotting for arylated proteins suggested that AMAP treatment caused extensive mitochondrial protein adducts formation in PHH but not in PMH. In conclusion, AMAP is hepatotoxic in PHH and the mechanism involves formation of mitochondrial protein adducts and mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:26431796

  1. Long-term exposure to abnormal glucose levels alters drug metabolism pathways and insulin sensitivity in primary human hepatocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, Matthew D.; Ballinger, Kimberly R.; Khetani, Salman R.

    2016-06-01

    Hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus has been linked to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, which can progress to inflammation, fibrosis/cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Understanding how chronic hyperglycemia affects primary human hepatocytes (PHHs) can facilitate the development of therapeutics for these diseases. Conversely, elucidating the effects of hypoglycemia on PHHs may provide insights into how the liver adapts to fasting, adverse diabetes drug reactions, and cancer. In contrast to declining PHH monocultures, micropatterned co-cultures (MPCCs) of PHHs and 3T3-J2 murine embryonic fibroblasts maintain insulin-sensitive glucose metabolism for several weeks. Here, we exposed MPCCs to hypo-, normo- and hyperglycemic culture media for ~3 weeks. While albumin and urea secretion were not affected by glucose level, hypoglycemic MPCCs upregulated CYP3A4 enzyme activity as compared to other glycemic states. In contrast, hyperglycemic MPCCs displayed significant hepatic lipid accumulation in the presence of insulin, while also showing decreased sensitivity to insulin-mediated inhibition of glucose output relative to a normoglycemic control. In conclusion, we show for the first time that PHHs exposed to hypo- and hyperglycemia can remain highly functional, but display increased CYP3A4 activity and selective insulin resistance, respectively. In the future, MPCCs under glycemic states can aid in novel drug discovery and mechanistic investigations.

  2. Long-term exposure to abnormal glucose levels alters drug metabolism pathways and insulin sensitivity in primary human hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Matthew D.; Ballinger, Kimberly R.; Khetani, Salman R.

    2016-01-01

    Hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus has been linked to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, which can progress to inflammation, fibrosis/cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Understanding how chronic hyperglycemia affects primary human hepatocytes (PHHs) can facilitate the development of therapeutics for these diseases. Conversely, elucidating the effects of hypoglycemia on PHHs may provide insights into how the liver adapts to fasting, adverse diabetes drug reactions, and cancer. In contrast to declining PHH monocultures, micropatterned co-cultures (MPCCs) of PHHs and 3T3-J2 murine embryonic fibroblasts maintain insulin-sensitive glucose metabolism for several weeks. Here, we exposed MPCCs to hypo-, normo- and hyperglycemic culture media for ~3 weeks. While albumin and urea secretion were not affected by glucose level, hypoglycemic MPCCs upregulated CYP3A4 enzyme activity as compared to other glycemic states. In contrast, hyperglycemic MPCCs displayed significant hepatic lipid accumulation in the presence of insulin, while also showing decreased sensitivity to insulin-mediated inhibition of glucose output relative to a normoglycemic control. In conclusion, we show for the first time that PHHs exposed to hypo- and hyperglycemia can remain highly functional, but display increased CYP3A4 activity and selective insulin resistance, respectively. In the future, MPCCs under glycemic states can aid in novel drug discovery and mechanistic investigations. PMID:27312339

  3. Genomewide comparison of the inducible transcriptomes of nuclear receptors CAR, PXR and PPARα in primary human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Kandel, Benjamin A; Thomas, Maria; Winter, Stefan; Damm, Georg; Seehofer, Daniel; Burk, Oliver; Schwab, Matthias; Zanger, Ulrich M

    2016-09-01

    The ligand-activated nuclear receptor pregnane X receptor (PXR, NR1I2) and the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR, NR1I3) are two master transcriptional regulators of many important drug metabolizing enzymes and transporter genes (DMET) in response to xenobiotics including many drugs. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα, NR1C1), the target of lipid lowering fibrate drugs, primarily regulates fatty acid catabolism and energy-homeostasis. Recent research has shown that there are substantial overlaps in the regulated genes of these receptors. For example, both CAR and PXR also modulate the transcription of key enzymes involved in lipid and glucose metabolism and PPARα also functions as a direct transcriptional regulator of important DMET genes including cytochrome P450s CYP3A4 and CYP2C8. Despite their important and widespread influence on liver metabolism, comparative data are scarce, particularly at a global level and in humans. The major objective of this study was to directly compare the genome-wide transcriptional changes elucidated by the activation of these three nuclear receptors in primary human hepatocytes. Cultures from six individual donors were treated with the prototypical ligands for CAR (CITCO), PXR (rifampicin) and PPARα (WY14,643) or DMSO as vehicle control. Genomewide mRNA profiles determined with Affymetrix microarrays were analyzed for differentially expressed genes and metabolic functions. The results confirmed known prototype target genes and revealed strongly overlapping sets of coregulated but also distinctly regulated and novel responsive genes and pathways. The results further specify the role of PPARα as a regulator of drug metabolism and the role of the xenosensors PXR and CAR in lipid metabolism and energy homeostasis. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Xenobiotic nuclear receptors: New Tricks for An Old Dog, edited by Dr. Wen Xie. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. HCMV Activates the IL-6-JAK-STAT3 Axis in HepG2 Cells and Primary Human Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Amit; Tripathy, Manoj K.; Herbein, Georges

    2013-01-01

    Objectives There has been increased interest in the possible role of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) in carcinogenesis during the last decade. HCMV seroprevalence was enhanced in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) but a possible relationship between HCC and HCMV infection remained to be assessed. The aim of this work was to investigate the pro-tumor influence of HCMV on primary human hepatocytes (PHH) and HepG2 cells. Methods Following infection of PHH and HepG2 cells by two different strains of HCMV, we measured the production of IL-6 in culture supernatants by ELISA and the protein levels of STAT3, pSTAT3, JAK, cyclin D1, survivin, p53, p21, and Mdm2 by western Blotting in infected and uninfected cells. Cell proliferation and transformation were investigated using Ki67Ag expression measurement and soft-agar colony formation assay respectively. Results Infection of HepG2 cells and PHH by HCMV resulted in the production of IL-6 and the subsequent activation of the IL-6R-JAK-STAT3 pathway. HCMV increased the expression of cyclin D1 and survivin. Cell proliferation was enhanced in HepG2 and PHH infected with HCMV, despite a paradoxical overexpression of p53 and p21. More importantly, we observed the formation of colonies in soft agar seeded with PHH infected with HCMV and when we challenged the HepG2 cultures to form tumorspheres, we found that the HCMV-infected cultures formed 2.5-fold more tumorspheres than uninfected cultures. Conclusion HCMV activated the IL-6-JAK-STAT3 pathway in PHH and HepG2 cells, favored cellular proliferation, induced PHH transformation and enhanced HepG2 tumorsphere formation. Our observations raise the possibility that HCMV infection might be involved in the genesis of hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:23555719

  5. A study of the mechanism of in vitro cytotoxicity of metal oxide nanoparticles using catfish primary hepatocytes and human HepG2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yonggang; Aker, Winfred G.; Hwang, Huey-min; Yedjou, Clement G.; Yu, Hongtao; Tchounwou, Paul B.

    2011-01-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs), including nano metal oxides, are being used in diverse applications such as medicine, clothing, cosmetics and food. In order to promote the safe development of nanotechnology, it is essential to assess the potential adverse health consequences associated with human exposure. The liver is a target site for NP toxicity, due to NP accumulation within it after ingestion, inhalation or absorption. The toxicity of nano-ZnO, TiO2, CuO and Co3O4 was investigated using a primary culture of channel catfish hepatocytes and human HepG2 cells as in vitro model systems for assessing the impact of metal oxide NPs on human and environmental health. Some mechanisms of nanotoxicity were determined by using phase contrast inverted microscopy, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays, reactive oxygen species (ROS) assays, and flow cytometric assays. Nano-CuO and ZnO showed significant toxicity in both HepG2 cells and catfish primary hepatocytes. The results demonstrate that HepG2 cells are more sensitive than catfish primary hepatocytes to the toxicity of metal oxide NPs. The overall ranking of the toxicity of metal oxides to the test cells is as follows: TiO2 < Co3O4< ZnO < CuO. The toxicity is due not only to ROS-induced cell death, but also damages to cell and mitochondrial membranes. PMID:21851965

  6. Differences in hypolipidaemic effects of two statins on Hep G2 cells or human hepatocytes in primary culture.

    PubMed Central

    Clerc, T.; Sbarra, V.; Domingo, N.; Rault, J. P.; Diaconescu, N.; Moutardier, V.; Hasselot, N.; Lafont, H.; Jadot, G.; Laruelle, C.; Chanussot, F.

    1996-01-01

    1. The objective of this study was to compare in cultured human hepatocytes or Hep G2 cells, changes in the fate of unesterified low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol induced by crilvastatin, a new cholesterol lowering drug and a reference statin, simvastatin. 2. The experiments were carried out for 20 h, each well contained 4.2 x 10(5)/cm2 Hep G2 cells or 0.5 x 10(5)/Cm2 human hepatocytes, 130 microM ursodeoxycholate, 0.68 microCi or 1.59 microCi unesterified human [14C]-LDL-cholesterol, crilvastatin or simvastatin at 0 or 50 microM (both cell types) or 300 microM (Hep-G2 cells). Incubation with the two drugs resulted in increased amounts of unesterified [14C]-LDL-cholesterol taken by the two cell types, compared to control. 3. Crilvastatin 50 microM led to significantly higher quantities of [14C]-glyco-tauro-conjugated bile salts, compared to simvastatin. Statins reduced the apo B100 level secreted by the two cell types (simvastatin) or human hepatocytes (crilvastatin). Crilvastatin enhanced both the level of apo A1 secreted by the Hep G2 cells and the level of APF, a high density lipoprotein (HDL) and biliary apoprotein. 4. Crilvastatin not only acts by stimulating LDL-cholesterol uptake by hepatocytes, but also by enhancing the catabolism of LDL-cholesterol in bile salts and probably by stimulating HDL and/or bile component secretion. Such a mechanism was not previously described for HMG CoA reductase inhibitors. Our results on APF show that this apoprotein could be considered also as an indicator of changes in bile and/or HDL compartments. 5. The human hepatocyte model appeared to be a suitable and relevant model in the pharmacological-metabolic experiments carried out in this study. It led to more consistent data than those obtained with Hep G2 cells. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8842455

  7. Effects of artificial sweeteners on the AhR- and GR-dependent CYP1A1 expression in primary human hepatocytes and human cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kamenickova, Alzbeta; Pecova, Michaela; Bachleda, Petr; Dvorak, Zdenek

    2013-12-01

    Food constituents may cause a phenomenon of food-drug interactions. In the current study, we examined the effects of artificial sweeteners (aspartame, acesulfame, cyclamate, saccharin) on the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-dependent expression of CYP1A1 in human hepatocytes, hepatic HepG2 and intestinal LS174T cancer cell lines. Sweeteners were tested in concentrations up to those occurring in non-alcoholic beverages. Basal and ligand-inducible AhR- and GR-dependent reporter gene activation in stably transfected HepG2 and HeLa cells, respectively, were not affected by either of the sweeteners tested after 24h of incubation. The expression of CYP1A1 mRNA and protein in primary cultures of human hepatocytes and in LS174T and HepG2 cells was not induced by any of the tested sweeteners. Overall, aspartame, acesulfame, saccharin and cyclamate had no effects on CYP1A1 expression and transcriptional activities of AhR and GR. These data imply the safety of artificial sweeteners in terms of interference with AhR, GR and CYP1A1.

  8. Induction of influx and efflux transporters and cytochrome P450 3A4 in primary human hepatocytes by rifampin, rifabutin, and rifapentine.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Beth; Dooley, Kelly E; Zhang, Yuan; Back, David J; Owen, Andrew

    2013-12-01

    Rifampin is a potent inducer of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes and transporters. Drug-drug interactions during tuberculosis treatment are common. Induction by rifapentine and rifabutin is understudied. Rifampin and rifabutin significantly induced CYP3A4 (80-fold and 20-fold, respectively) in primary human hepatocytes. The induction was concentration dependent. Rifapentine induced CYP3A4 in hepatocytes from 3 of 6 donors. Data were also generated for ABCB1, ABCC1, ABCC2, organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1), and OATP1B3. This work serves as a basis for further study of the extent to which rifamycins induce key metabolism and transporter genes.

  9. Induction of Influx and Efflux Transporters and Cytochrome P450 3A4 in Primary Human Hepatocytes by Rifampin, Rifabutin, and Rifapentine

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Beth; Dooley, Kelly E.; Zhang, Yuan; Back, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Rifampin is a potent inducer of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes and transporters. Drug-drug interactions during tuberculosis treatment are common. Induction by rifapentine and rifabutin is understudied. Rifampin and rifabutin significantly induced CYP3A4 (80-fold and 20-fold, respectively) in primary human hepatocytes. The induction was concentration dependent. Rifapentine induced CYP3A4 in hepatocytes from 3 of 6 donors. Data were also generated for ABCB1, ABCC1, ABCC2, organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1), and OATP1B3. This work serves as a basis for further study of the extent to which rifamycins induce key metabolism and transporter genes. PMID:24060875

  10. Comparative Localization and Functional Activity of the Main Hepatobiliary Transporters in HepaRG Cells and Primary Human Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Bachour-El Azzi, Pamela; Sharanek, Ahmad; Burban, Audrey; Li, Ruoya; Guével, Rémy Le; Abdel-Razzak, Ziad; Stieger, Bruno; Guguen-Guillouzo, Christiane; Guillouzo, André

    2015-01-01

    The role of hepatobiliary transporters in drug-induced liver injury remains poorly understood. Various in vivo and in vitro biological approaches are currently used for studying hepatic transporters; however, appropriate localization and functional activity of these transporters are essential for normal biliary flow and drug transport. Human hepatocytes (HHs) are considered as the most suitable in vitro cell model but erratic availability and inter-donor functional variations limit their use. In this work, we aimed to compare localization of influx and efflux transporters and their functional activity in differentiated human HepaRG hepatocytes with fresh HHs in conventional (CCHH) and sandwich (SCHH) cultures. All tested influx and efflux transporters were correctly localized to canalicular [bile salt export pump (BSEP), multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2), multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1), and MDR3] or basolateral [Na+-taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide (NTCP) and MRP3] membrane domains and were functional in all models. Contrary to other transporters, NTCP and BSEP were less abundant and active in HepaRG cells, cellular uptake of taurocholate was 2.2- and 1.4-fold and bile excretion index 2.8- and 2.6-fold lower, than in SCHHs and CCHHs, respectively. However, when taurocholate canalicular efflux was evaluated in standard and divalent cation-free conditions in buffers or cell lysates, the difference between the three models did not exceed 9.3%. Interestingly, cell imaging showed higher bile canaliculi contraction/relaxation activity in HepaRG hepatocytes and larger bile canaliculi networks in SCHHs. Altogether, our results bring new insights in mechanisms involved in bile acids accumulation and excretion in HHs and suggest that HepaRG cells represent a suitable model for studying hepatobiliary transporters and drug-induced cholestasis. PMID:25690737

  11. Serum-free culture of primary human hepatocytes in a miniaturized hollow-fibre membrane bioreactor for pharmacological in vitro studies.

    PubMed

    Lübberstedt, Marc; Müller-Vieira, Ursula; Biemel, Klaus M; Darnell, Malin; Hoffmann, Stefan A; Knöspel, Fanny; Wönne, Eva C; Knobeloch, Daniel; Nüssler, Andreas K; Gerlach, Jörg C; Andersson, Tommy B; Zeilinger, Katrin

    2015-09-01

    Primary human hepatocytes represent an important cell source for in vitro investigation of hepatic drug metabolism and disposition. In this study, a multi-compartment capillary membrane-based bioreactor technology for three-dimensional (3D) perfusion culture was further developed and miniaturized to a volume of less than 0.5 ml to reduce demand for cells. The miniaturized bioreactor was composed of two capillary layers, each made of alternately arranged oxygen and medium capillaries serving as a 3D culture for the cells. Metabolic activity and stability of primary human hepatocytes was studied in this bioreactor in the presence of 2.5% fetal calf serum (FCS) under serum-free conditions over a culture period of 10 days. The miniaturized bioreactor showed functions comparable to previously reported data for larger variants. Glucose and lactate metabolism, urea production, albumin synthesis and release of intracellular enzymes (AST, ALT, GLDH) showed no significant differences between serum-free and serum-supplemented bioreactors. Activities of human-relevant cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoenzymes (CYP1A2, CYP3A4/5, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, CYP2B6) analyzed by determination of product formation rates from selective probe substrates were also comparable in both groups. Gene expression analysis showed moderately higher expression in the majority of CYP enzymes, transport proteins and enzymes of Phase II metabolism in the serum-free bioreactors compared to those maintained with FCS. In conclusion, the miniaturized bioreactor maintained stable function over the investigated period and thus provides a suitable system for pharmacological studies on primary human hepatocytes under defined serum-free conditions. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Drug biokinetic and toxicity assessments in rat and human primary hepatocytes and HepaRG cells within the EU-funded Predict-IV project.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Stefan O; Guillouzo, André; Hewitt, Philip G; Richert, Lysiane

    2015-12-25

    The overall aim of Predict-IV (EU-funded collaborative project #202222) was to develop improved testing strategies for drug safety in the late discovery phase. One major focus was the prediction of hepatotoxicity as liver remains one of the major organ leading to failure in drug development, drug withdrawal and has a poor predictivity from animal experiments. In this overview we describe the use and applicability of the three cell models employed, i.e., primary rat hepatocytes, primary human hepatocytes and the human HepaRG cell line, using four model compounds, chlorpromazine, ibuprofen, cyclosporine A and amiodarone. This overview described the data generated on mode of action of liver toxicity after long-term repeat-dosing. Moreover we have quantified parent compound and its distribution in various in vitro compartments, which allowed us to develop biokinetic models where we could derive real exposure concentrations in vitro. In conclusion, the complex data set enables quantitative measurements that proved the concept that we can define human relevant free and toxic exposure levels in vitro. Further compounds have to be analyzed in a broader concentration range to fully exploit these promising results for improved prediction of hepatotoxicity and hazard assessment for humans.

  13. The mycotoxin, patulin, increases the expression of PXR and AhR and their target cytochrome P450s in primary cultured human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Ayed-Boussema, Imen; Pascussi, Jean Marc; Rjiba, Karima; Maurel, Patrick; Bacha, Hassen; Hassen, Wafa

    2012-07-01

    The mycotoxin, patulin (PAT), which is frequently found in apples, grapes, oranges, pear, peaches, and in apple juices, has previously been shown to be cytotoxic, genotoxic, and mutagenic. In this study, we have investigated the effect of PAT on mRNA level of pregnane X receptor (PXR), constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), and their corresponding target cytochrome P450s. Using primary cultures of adult human hepatocytes, we evaluated PAT cytotoxicity on hepatocytes after 24 hours of treatment. Real time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction procedure was employed to determine the effect of PAT on receptors (PXR, CAR, and AhR) and cytochrome (CYP3A4, 2B6, 3A5, 2C9, 1A1, and 1A2) genes. Our results showed that PAT reduced hepatocyte viability. At a noncytotoxic range of PAT concentrations, PAT induced an upregulation of the PXR gene in the three treated hepatocytes cultures, whereas CAR was overexpressed in only 1 treated liver. PXR gene induction was accompanied by the enhancement of CYP2B6, 3A5, 2C9, and 3A4 expression. PAT was also found to induce an overexpression of AhR and CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 mRNA expression. These findings suggested that PAT may activate PXR and/or CAR and AhR. However, further investigations are needed to confirm nuclear receptor activation by PAT and to elucidate the molecular mechanism of PAT action.

  14. Interspecies differences in metabolism of arsenic by cultured primary hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Drobna, Zuzana; Walton, Felecia S.; Harmon, Anne W.; Thomas, David J.; Styblo, Miroslav

    2010-05-15

    Biomethylation is the major pathway for the metabolism of inorganic arsenic (iAs) in many mammalian species, including the human. However, significant interspecies differences have been reported in the rate of in vivo metabolism of iAs and in yields of iAs metabolites found in urine. Liver is considered the primary site for the methylation of iAs and arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (As3mt) is the key enzyme in this pathway. Thus, the As3mt-catalyzed methylation of iAs in the liver determines in part the rate and the pattern of iAs metabolism in various species. We examined kinetics and concentration-response patterns for iAs methylation by cultured primary hepatocytes derived from human, rat, mice, dog, rabbit, and rhesus monkey. Hepatocytes were exposed to [{sup 73}As]arsenite (iAs{sup III}; 0.3, 0.9, 3.0, 9.0 or 30 nmol As/mg protein) for 24 h and radiolabeled metabolites were analyzed in cells and culture media. Hepatocytes from all six species methylated iAs{sup III} to methylarsenic (MAs) and dimethylarsenic (DMAs). Notably, dog, rat and monkey hepatocytes were considerably more efficient methylators of iAs{sup III} than mouse, rabbit or human hepatocytes. The low efficiency of mouse, rabbit and human hepatocytes to methylate iAs{sup III} was associated with inhibition of DMAs production by moderate concentrations of iAs{sup III} and with retention of iAs and MAs in cells. No significant correlations were found between the rate of iAs methylation and the thioredoxin reductase activity or glutathione concentration, two factors that modulate the activity of recombinant As3mt. No associations between the rates of iAs methylation and As3mt protein structures were found for the six species examined. Immunoblot analyses indicate that the superior arsenic methylation capacities of dog, rat and monkey hepatocytes examined in this study may be associated with a higher As3mt expression. However, factors other than As3mt expression may also contribute to

  15. Reciprocal regulation of farnesoid X receptor α activity and hepatitis B virus replication in differentiated HepaRG cells and primary human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Radreau, Pauline; Porcherot, Marine; Ramière, Christophe; Mouzannar, Karim; Lotteau, Vincent; André, Patrice

    2016-09-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and bile salt metabolism seem tightly connected. HBV enters hepatocytes by binding to sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP), the genome of which contains 2 active farnesoid X receptor (FXR) α response elements that participate in HBV transcriptional activity. We investigated in differentiated HepaRG cells and in primary human hepatocytes (PHHs) effects of FXR activation on HBV replication and of infection on the FXR pathway. In HepaRG cells, FXR agonists (6-ethyl chenodeoxycholic acid and GW4064), but no antagonist, and an FXR-unrelated bile salt inhibited viral mRNA, DNA, and protein production (IC50, 0.1-0.5 μM) and reduced covalently closed circular DNA pool size. These effects were independent of the NTCP inhibitor cyclosporine-A, which suggests inhibition occurred at a postentry step. Similar results were obtained in PHHs with GW4064. Infection of these cells increased expression of FXR and modified expression of FXR-regulated genes SHP, APOA1, NTCP, CYP7A1, and CYP8B1 with a more pronounced effect in PHHs than in HepaRG cells. FXR agonists reversed all but one of the HBV-induced FXR gene profile modifications. HBV replication and FXR regulation seem to be interdependent, and altered bile salt metabolism homeostasis might contribute to the persistence of HBV infection.-Radreau, P., Porcherot, M., Ramière, C., Mouzannar, K., Lotteau, V., André, P. Reciprocal regulation of farnesoid X receptor α activity and hepatitis B virus replication in differentiated HepaRG cells and primary human hepatocytes.

  16. In vitro evaluation of major in vivo drug metabolic pathways using primary human hepatocytes and HepaRG cells in suspension and a dynamic three-dimensional bioreactor system.

    PubMed

    Darnell, Malin; Ulvestad, Maria; Ellis, Ewa; Weidolf, Lars; Andersson, Tommy B

    2012-10-01

    Major human specific metabolites, not detected during in vivo and in vitro preclinical studies, may cause unexpected drug interactions and toxicity in human and delays in clinical programs. Thus, reliable preclinical tools for the detection of major human metabolites are of high importance. The aim of this study was to compare major drug metabolic pathways in HepaRG cells, a human hepatoma cell line, to fresh human hepatocytes, cryopreserved human hepatocytes, and human in vivo data. Furthermore, the maintenance of cytochrome P450 (P450) and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) activities in a dynamic three-dimensional (3D) bioreactor were evaluated over time by using HepaRG cells and human hepatocytes. (14)C-diclofenac and a candidate from AstraZeneca's drug development program, (14)C-AZD6610, which are metabolized by P450 and UGT in vivo, were used as model substrates. The proportion of relevant biotransformation pathways of the investigated drug was clearly different in the various cell systems. The hydroxylation route was favored in primary human hepatocytes, whereas the glucuronidation route was favored in HepaRG cells. The human in vivo metabolite profile of AZD6610 was best represented by human hepatocytes, whereas all major diclofenac metabolites were detected in HepaRG cells. Moreover, the metabolite profiles in cryopreserved and fresh human hepatocytes were essentially the same. The liver bioreactor using both fresh human hepatocytes and HepaRG cells retained biotransformation capacity over 1 week. Thus, the incubation time can be increased from a few hours in suspension to several days in 3D cultures, which opens up for detection of metabolites from slowly metabolized drugs.

  17. High-Throughput Platform for Identifying Molecular Factors Involved in Phenotypic Stabilization of Primary Human Hepatocytes In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Shan, Jing; Logan, David J; Root, David E; Carpenter, Anne E; Bhatia, Sangeeta N

    2016-10-01

    Liver disease is a leading cause of morbidity worldwide and treatment options are limited, with organ transplantation being the only form of definitive management. Cell-based therapies have long held promise as alternatives to whole-organ transplantation but have been hindered by the rapid loss of liver-specific functions over a period of days in cultured hepatocytes. Hypothesis-driven studies have identified a handful of factors that modulate hepatocyte functions in vitro, but our understanding of the mechanisms involved remains incomplete. We thus report here the development of a high-throughput platform to enable systematic interrogation of liver biology in vitro. The platform is currently configured to enable genetic knockdown screens and includes an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-based functional assay to quantify albumin output as a surrogate marker for hepatocyte synthetic functions as well as an image-based viability assay that counts hepatocyte nuclei. Using this platform, we identified 12 gene products that may be important for hepatocyte viability and/or liver identity in vitro. These results represent important first steps in the elucidation of mechanisms instrumental to the phenotypic maintenance of hepatocytes in vitro, and we hope that the tools reported here will empower additional studies in various fields of liver research. © 2016 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  18. In utero Transplanted Human Hepatocytes Allows for Postnatal Engraftment of Human Hepatocytes in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, James E; Lillegard, Joseph B; Mckenzie, Travis J; Rodysill, Brian R; Wettstein, Peter J; Nyberg, Scott L

    2012-01-01

    In utero cell transplantation (IUCT) can lead to postnatal engraftment of human cells in the xenogeneic recipient. Most reports of IUCTs have involved hematopoietic stem cells. It is unknown if human hepatocytes used for IUCT in fetal pigs will lead to engraftment of these same cells in the postnatal environment. In this study, fetal pigs received direct liver injections of 1×107 human hepatocytes in utero and were delivered by cesarean-section at term. Piglets received a second direct liver injection of 5×107 human hepatocytes 1 week postnatally. Serum was analyzed for human albumin at 2, 4, and 6 weeks post-engraftment. Piglet livers were harvested 6 weeks after transplantation and examined by immunohistochemistry, PCR and fluorescence in situ hybridization for human specific sequences. Piglets receiving IUCT with human hepatocytes that were postnatally engrafted with human hepatocytes showed significant levels of human albumin production in their serum at all post-engraftment time points. Human albumin gene expression, the presence of human hepatocytes and the presence of human beta-2 microglobulin were all confirmed 6 weeks post-engraftment. IUCT in fetal pigs using human hepatocytes early in gestation allowed for engraftment of human hepatocytes, which remained viable and functional for weeks after transplantation. IUCT followed by postnatal engraftment may provide a future means for large scale expansion of human hepatocytes in genetically-engineered pigs. PMID:23280879

  19. Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4A improves hepatic differentiation of immortalized adult human hepatocytes and improves liver function and survival.

    PubMed

    Hang, Hua-Lian; Liu, Xin-Yu; Wang, Hai-Tian; Xu, Ning; Bian, Jian-Min; Zhang, Jian-Jun; Xia, Lei; Xia, Qiang

    2017-09-06

    Immortalized human hepatocytes (IHH) could provide an unlimited supply of hepatocytes, but insufficient differentiation and phenotypic instability restrict their clinical application. This study aimed to determine the role of hepatocyte nuclear factor 4A (HNF4A) in hepatic differentiation of IHH, and whether encapsulation of IHH overexpressing HNF4A could improve liver function and survival in rats with acute liver failure (ALF). Primary human hepatocytes were transduced with lentivirus-mediated catalytic subunit of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) to establish IHH. Cells were analyzed for telomerase activity, proliferative capacity, hepatocyte markers, and tumorigenicity (c-myc) expression. Hepatocyte markers, hepatocellular functions, and morphology were studied in the HNF4A-overexpressing IHH. Hepatocyte markers and karyotype analysis were completed in the primary hepatocytes using shRNA knockdown of HNF4A. Nuclear translocation of β-catenin was assessed. Rat models of ALF were treated with encapsulated IHH or HNF4A-overexpressing IHH. A HNF4A-positive IHH line was established, which was non-tumorigenic and conserved properties of primary hepatocytes. HNF4A overexpression significantly enhanced mRNA levels of genes related to hepatic differentiation in IHH. Urea levels were increased by the overexpression of HNF4A, as measured 24h after ammonium chloride addition, similar to that of primary hepatocytes. Chromosomal abnormalities were observed in primary hepatocytes transfected with HNF4A shRNA. HNF4α overexpression could significantly promote β-catenin activation. Transplantation of HNF4A overexpressing IHH resulted in better liver function and survival of rats with ALF compared with IHH. HNF4A improved hepatic differentiation of IHH. Transplantation of HNF4A-overexpressing IHH could improve the liver function and survival in a rat model of ALF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Endogenous and xenobiotic metabolic stability of primary human hepatocytes in long-term 3D spheroid cultures revealed by a combination of targeted and untargeted metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Vorrink, Sabine U; Ullah, Shahid; Schmidt, Staffan; Nandania, Jatin; Velagapudi, Vidya; Beck, Olof; Ingelman-Sundberg, Magnus; Lauschke, Volker M

    2017-03-06

    Adverse reactions or lack of response to medications are important concerns for drug development programs. However, faithful predictions of drug metabolism and toxicity are difficult because animal models show only limited translatability to humans. Furthermore, current in vitro systems, such as hepatic cell lines or primary human hepatocyte (PHH) 2-dimensional (2D) monolayer cultures, can be used only for acute toxicity tests because of their immature phenotypes and inherent instability. Therefore, the migration to novel phenotypically stable models is of prime importance for the pharmaceutical industry. Novel 3-dimensional (3D) culture systems have been shown to accurately mimic in vivo hepatic phenotypes on transcriptomic and proteomic level, but information about their metabolic stability is lacking. Using a combination of targeted and untargeted high-resolution mass spectrometry, we found that PHHs in 3D spheroid cultures remained metabolically stable for multiple weeks, whereas metabolic patterns of PHHs from the same donors cultured as conventional 2D monolayers rapidly deteriorated. Furthermore, pharmacokinetic differences between donors were maintained in 3D spheroid cultures, enabling studies of interindividual variability in drug metabolism and toxicity. We conclude that the 3D spheroid system is metabolically stable and constitutes a suitable model for in vitro studies of long-term drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics.-Vorrink, S. U., Ullah, S., Schmid, S., Nandania, J., Velagapudi, V., Beck, O., Ingelman-Sundberg, M., Lauschke, V. M. Endogenous and xenobiotic metabolic stability of primary human hepatocytes in long-term 3D spheroid cultures revealed by a combination of targeted and untargeted metabolomics.

  1. Endogenous and xenobiotic metabolic stability of primary human hepatocytes in long-term 3D spheroid cultures revealed by a combination of targeted and untargeted metabolomics

    PubMed Central

    Vorrink, Sabine U.; Ullah, Shahid; Schmidt, Staffan; Nandania, Jatin; Velagapudi, Vidya; Beck, Olof; Ingelman-Sundberg, Magnus; Lauschke, Volker M.

    2017-01-01

    Adverse reactions or lack of response to medications are important concerns for drug development programs. However, faithful predictions of drug metabolism and toxicity are difficult because animal models show only limited translatability to humans. Furthermore, current in vitro systems, such as hepatic cell lines or primary human hepatocyte (PHH) 2-dimensional (2D) monolayer cultures, can be used only for acute toxicity tests because of their immature phenotypes and inherent instability. Therefore, the migration to novel phenotypically stable models is of prime importance for the pharmaceutical industry. Novel 3-dimensional (3D) culture systems have been shown to accurately mimic in vivo hepatic phenotypes on transcriptomic and proteomic level, but information about their metabolic stability is lacking. Using a combination of targeted and untargeted high-resolution mass spectrometry, we found that PHHs in 3D spheroid cultures remained metabolically stable for multiple weeks, whereas metabolic patterns of PHHs from the same donors cultured as conventional 2D monolayers rapidly deteriorated. Furthermore, pharmacokinetic differences between donors were maintained in 3D spheroid cultures, enabling studies of interindividual variability in drug metabolism and toxicity. We conclude that the 3D spheroid system is metabolically stable and constitutes a suitable model for in vitro studies of long-term drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics.—Vorrink, S. U., Ullah, S., Schmid, S., Nandania, J., Velagapudi, V., Beck, O., Ingelman-Sundberg, M., Lauschke, V. M. Endogenous and xenobiotic metabolic stability of primary human hepatocytes in long-term 3D spheroid cultures revealed by a combination of targeted and untargeted metabolomics. PMID:28264975

  2. Aniline Induces Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis of Primary Cultured Hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue; Gao, Hong; Na, Xiao-Lin; Dong, Shu-Ying; Dong, Hong-Wei; Yu, Jia; Jia, Li; Wu, Yong-Hui

    2016-11-30

    The toxicity and carcinogenicity of aniline in humans and animals have been well documented. However, the molecular mechanism involved in aniline-induced liver toxicity and carcinogenesis remains unclear. In our research, primary cultured hepatocytes were exposed to aniline (0, 1.25, 2.50, 5.0 and 10.0 μg/mL) for 24 h in the presence or absence of N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC). Levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA), and glutathione (GSH), activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), mitochondrial membrane potential, DNA damage, cell viability, and apoptosis were detected. Levels of ROS and MDA were significantly increased and levels of GSH and CAT, activity of SOD, and mitochondrial membrane potential in hepatocytes were significantly decreased by aniline compared with the negative control group. The tail moment and DNA content of the tail in exposed groups were significantly higher than those in the negative control group. Cell viability was reduced and apoptotic death was induced by aniline in a concentration-dependent manner. The phenomena of ROS generation, oxidative damage, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, DNA damage and apoptosis could be prevented if ROS inhibitor NAC was added. ROS generation is involved in the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and DNA injury, which may play a role in aniline-induced apoptosis in hepatocytes. Our study provides insight into the mechanism of aniline-induced toxicity and apoptosis of hepatocytes.

  3. Aniline Induces Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis of Primary Cultured Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yue; Gao, Hong; Na, Xiao-Lin; Dong, Shu-Ying; Dong, Hong-Wei; Yu, Jia; Jia, Li; Wu, Yong-Hui

    2016-01-01

    The toxicity and carcinogenicity of aniline in humans and animals have been well documented. However, the molecular mechanism involved in aniline-induced liver toxicity and carcinogenesis remains unclear. In our research, primary cultured hepatocytes were exposed to aniline (0, 1.25, 2.50, 5.0 and 10.0 μg/mL) for 24 h in the presence or absence of N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC). Levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA), and glutathione (GSH), activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), mitochondrial membrane potential, DNA damage, cell viability, and apoptosis were detected. Levels of ROS and MDA were significantly increased and levels of GSH and CAT, activity of SOD, and mitochondrial membrane potential in hepatocytes were significantly decreased by aniline compared with the negative control group. The tail moment and DNA content of the tail in exposed groups were significantly higher than those in the negative control group. Cell viability was reduced and apoptotic death was induced by aniline in a concentration-dependent manner. The phenomena of ROS generation, oxidative damage, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, DNA damage and apoptosis could be prevented if ROS inhibitor NAC was added. ROS generation is involved in the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and DNA injury, which may play a role in aniline-induced apoptosis in hepatocytes. Our study provides insight into the mechanism of aniline-induced toxicity and apoptosis of hepatocytes. PMID:27916916

  4. INTERINDIVIDUAL VARIATION IN THE METABOLISM OF ARSENIC IN HUMAN HEPATOCYTES

    EPA Science Inventory


    The liver is the major site for the enzymatic methylation of inorganic arsenic (iAs) in humans. Primary cultures of normal human hepatocytes isolated from tissue obtained at surgery or from donor livers have been used to study interindividual variation in the capacity of live...

  5. INTERINDIVIDUAL VARIATION IN THE METABOLISM OF ARSENIC IN HUMAN HEPATOCYTES

    EPA Science Inventory


    The liver is the major site for the enzymatic methylation of inorganic arsenic (iAs) in humans. Primary cultures of normal human hepatocytes isolated from tissue obtained at surgery or from donor livers have been used to study interindividual variation in the capacity of live...

  6. Strategies for immortalization of primary hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Eva, Ramboer; Bram, De Craene; Joery, De Kock; Tamara, Vanhaecke; Geert, Berx; Vera, Rogiers; Mathieu, Vinken

    2014-01-01

    The liver has the unique capacity to regenerate in response to a damaging event. Liver regeneration is hereby largely driven by hepatocyte proliferation, which in turn relies on cell cycling. The hepatocyte cell cycle is a complex process that is tightly regulated by several well-established mechanisms. In vitro, isolated hepatocytes do not longer retain this proliferative capacity. However, in vitro cell growth can be boosted by immortalization of hepatocytes. Well-defined immortalization genes can be artificially overexpressed in hepatocytes or the cells can be conditionally immortalized leading to controlled cell proliferation. This paper discusses the current immortalization techniques and provides a state-of-the-art overview of the actually available immortalized hepatocyte-derived cell lines and their applications. PMID:24911463

  7. The role of organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs/SLCOs) in the toxicity of different microcystin congeners in vitro: A comparison of primary human hepatocytes and OATP-transfected HEK293 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, A.; Hoeger, S.J.; Stemmer, K.; Feurstein, D.J.; Knobeloch, D.; Nussler, A.; Dietrich, D.R.

    2010-05-15

    Cellular uptake of microcystins (MCs), a family of cyclic cyanobacterial heptapeptide toxins, occurs via specific organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs), where MCs inhibit serine/threonine-specific protein phosphatase (PP). Despite comparable PP-inhibitory capacity, MCs differ greatly in their acute toxicity, thus raising the question whether this discrepancy results from MC-specific toxikokinetic rather than toxicodynamic differences. OATP-mediated uptake of MC congeners MCLR, -RR, -LW and -LF was compared in primary human hepatocytes and HEK293 cells stably expressing recombinant human OATP1B1/SLCO1B1 and OATP1B3/SLCO1B3 in the presence/absence of OATP substrates taurocholate (TC) and bromosulfophthalein (BSP) and measuring PP-inhibition and cytotoxicity. Control vector expressing HEK293 were resistant to MC cytotoxicity, while TC and BSP competition experiments reduced MC cytotoxicity in HEK293-OATP transfectants, thus confirming the requirement of OATPs for trans-membrane transport. Despite comparable PP-inhibiting capabilities, MCLW and -LF elicited cytotoxic effects at lower equimolar concentrations than MCLR and MCRR, hence suggesting congener selective transport into HEK293-OATP transfectants and primary human hepatocytes. Primary human hepatocytes appeared one order of magnitude more sensitive to MC congeners than the corresponding HEK293 -OATP transfectants. Although the latter maybe due to a much lower level of PPs in primary human hepatocytes, the presence of OATPs other than 1B1 or 1B3 may have added to an increased uptake of MCs. In view of the high sensitivity of human hepatocytes and currently MCLR-only based risk calculations, the actual risk of human MC-intoxication and ensuing liver damage could be underestimated in freshwater cyanobacterial blooms where MCLW and-LF predominate.

  8. Cyclosporin A drug interactions. Screening for inducers and inhibitors of cytochrome P-450 (cyclosporin A oxidase) in primary cultures of human hepatocytes and in liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Pichard, L; Fabre, I; Fabre, G; Domergue, J; Saint Aubert, B; Mourad, G; Maurel, P

    1990-01-01

    In previous papers we demonstrated that cyclosporin A (CsA) was specifically oxidized in rabbit and human liver by cytochrome P-450IIIA. We therefore anticipated that any drug that is an inducer or an inhibitor of this cytochrome should lead to interaction with CsA when given in association with it. In order to confirm this hypothesis, primary cultures of human hepatocytes and human liver microsomes were used to "reproduce" in vitro clinically significant interactions observed between CsA and drugs known either as specific inducers (i.e., rifampicin) or as specific inhibitors (i.e., erythromycin) of P-450IIIA. Our results were in close agreement with the clinical reports. Human hepatocytes maintained in primary cultures for 72 hr in the presence of 50 microM rifampicin exhibited increased levels of P-450IIIA, determined by Western blot using specific antibodies, and concomitant increase in CsA oxidase activity, determined by HPLC analysis of extra and intracellular media. Conversely, these cultures exhibited erythromycin concentration-dependent decreases in CsA oxidase activity when incubated in the presence of 5, 20, and 100 microM erythromycin. In addition, a Lineweaver-Burk analysis of the erythromycin-mediated inhibition of CsA oxidase activity in human liver microsomes revealed competitive inhibition (with Ki of 75 microM) as expected, this macrolide being a specific substrate of P-450IIIA. Using this experimental approach, 59 molecules representative of 17 different therapeutic classes were screened for inducers and inhibitors of CsA oxidase activity. Our results allowed us to elucidate the molecular mechanism of previously observed, but unexplained, drug interactions involving CsA, and to detect drugs that should interfere with CsA metabolism as inducers or inhibitors. Drugs detected as potential inducers of CsA oxidase included: rifampicin, sulfadimidine, phenobarbital, phenytoin, phenylbutazone, dexamethasone, sulfinpyrazone, and carbamazepine. Drugs

  9. Analysis of DNA strand breaks induced in rodent liver in vivo, hepatocytes in primary culture, and a human cell line by chlorinated acetic acids and chlorinated acetaldehydes

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, L.W.; Daniel, F.B. ); DeAngelo, A.B. )

    1992-01-01

    An alkaline unwinding assay was used to quantitate the induction of DNA strand breaks (DNA SB) in the livers of rats and mice treated in vivo, in rodent hepatocytes in primary culture, and in CCRF-CEM cells, a human lymphoblastic leukemia cell line, following treatment with tri-(TCA), di-(CA), and mono-(MCA) chloroacetic acid and their corresponding aldehydes, tri-(chloralhydrate, CH), di(DCAA) and mono-(CAA) chloroacetaldehyde. None of the chloracetic acids induced DNA SB in the livers of rats at 4 hr following a single administration of 1-10 mmole/kg. TCA (10 mmole/kg) and DCA (5 and 10 mmole/kg) did produce a small amount of strand breakage in mice (7% at 4hr) but not at 1 hr. N-nitrosodiethylamine (DENA), an established alkylating agent and a rodent hepatocarcinogen, produced DNA SB in the livers of both species. TCA, DCA, and MCA also failed to induce DNA strand breaks in splenocytes and epithelial cells derived from the stomach and duodenum of mice treated in vivo. None of the three chloroacetaldehydes induced DNA SB in either mouse or rat liver. These studies provide further evidence that the chloroacetic acids lack genotoxic activity not only in rodent liver, a tissue in that they induce tumors, but in a variety of other rodent tissues and cultured cell types. Two of the chloroacetaldehydes, DCAA and CAA, are direct acting DNA damaging agents in CCRF-CEM cells, but not in liver or splenocytes in vivo or in cultured hepatocytes. CH showed no activity in any system investigated. 58 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Prediction of the metabolic clearance of benzophenone-2, and its interaction with isoeugenol and coumarin using cryopreserved human hepatocytes in primary culture.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Georges; Teng, Sophie; Salle-Siri, Romain; Pery, Alexandre; Rahmani, Roger

    2016-04-01

    Benzophenone-2 (BP2) is widely used as a UV screen in both industrial products and cosmetic formulations, where it is frequently found associated with fragrance compounds, such as isoeugenol and coumarin. BP2 is now recognized as an endocrine disruptor, but to date, no information has been reported on its fate in humans. The intrinsic clearance (Clint) and metabolic interactions of BP2 were explored using cryopreserved human hepatocytes in primary cultures. In vitro kinetic experiments were performed to estimate the Michaelis-Menten parameters. The substrate depletion method demonstrated that isoeugenol was cleared more rapidly than BP2 or coumarin (Clint = 259, 94.7 and 0.40 μl/min/10(6) cells respectively). This vitro model was also used to study the metabolic interactions between BP2 and isoeugenol and coumarin. Coumarin exerted no effects on either isoeugenol or BP2 metabolism, because of its independent metabolic pathway (CYP2A6). Isoeugenol appeared to be a potent competitive substrate inhibitor of BP2 metabolism, equivalent to the specific UGT1A1 substrate: estradiol. Despite the fact that inhibition of UGT by xenobiotics is not usually considered to be a major concern, the involvement of UGT1A1 in BP2 metabolism may have pharmacokinetic and pharmacological consequences, due to the its polymorphisms in humans and its pure estrogenic effect.

  11. Rifampicin induction of lidocaine metabolism in cultured human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Li, A P; Rasmussen, A; Xu, L; Kaminski, D L

    1995-08-01

    In our laboratory, cultured human hepatocytes are being evaluated as an experimental system to study drug interactions. We report the effect of a known cytochrome P450 (CYP) inducer, rifampicin, on the metabolism of lidocaine by primary human hepatocytes. Rifampicin has been shown to induce CYP3A4, a major human hepatic CYP isozyme that is known to metabolize lidocaine to its primary metabolite, monoethylglycinexylidide. Human hepatocytes were cultured on collagen-coated plates in serum-free, hormone-supplemented Waymouth medium for a 3-day period before they were treated with rifampicin at 50 microM for 1 to 3 days. Hepatocytes isolated from five individuals were studied, and, in all cases, lidocaine metabolism was found to be induced by rifampicin, as demonstrated by a higher rate of monoethylglycinexylidide formation than concurrent controls. For three of the hepatocyte cultures, lidocaine metabolism was evaluated at various times after treatment. Induction was observed at 1 day after treatment, and reached higher levels at day 2 or 3. The level of induction was found to be approximately 100% for two hepatocyte isolations and approximately 600% for one isolation. In a separate experiment, hepatocytes were treated with rifampicin for a 2-day period. Rate of lidocaine metabolism at multiple substrate concentrations (10-120 microM) were then studied. Rifampicin induction of lidocaine metabolism (approximately 100%) was observed at all the lidocaine concentrations studied. Lineweaver-Burk plot of the data showed an increase in Vmax and a less significant change in Km. Induction of lidocaine metabolism by rifampicin (concentrations of 0.1-50 microM) was found to be dose-dependent, with significant induction observed at 1 microM and higher concentrations. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Coculture with mesenchymal stem cells results in improved viability and function of human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Emer; Wu, Yue; Dhadda, Paramjeet; Hughes, Robin D; Mitry, Ragai R; Qin, Hong; Lehec, Sharon C; Heaton, Nigel D; Dhawan, Anil

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocyte transplantation is becoming an accepted therapy for acute liver failure, either as a bridge to liver regeneration or to organ transplantation. Hepatocytes provide liver function in place of the failing organ. The maintenance of sufficient viability and function of the transplanted hepatocytes is a concern. There is a lot of recent interest in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for the provision of structural and trophic support to hepatocytes, but few studies currently use primary human hepatocytes. The aim of this study was to investigate if coculture of human MSCs with cryopreserved human hepatocytes may improve their function and viability, thus with potential for cellular therapy of liver disease. MSCs were isolated from human umbilical cord or adipose tissue. Hepatocytes were isolated from donor organs unsuitable for transplantation. MSCs and hepatocytes were cocultured in both direct and indirect contact. Conditioned medium (CM) from cocultured MSCs and hepatocytes was also used on hepatocytes. Viability and liver-specific function were compared between test and controls. Human hepatocytes that were cocultured directly with MSCs demonstrated improved production of albumin from day 5 to day 25 of culture. This effect was most prominent at day 15. Likewise, urea production was improved in coculture from day 5 to 25. Indirect coculture demonstrated improved albumin production by day 4 (1,107 ng/ml) versus hepatocyte monoculture (940 ng/ml). Hepatocytes in CM demonstrated a nonsignificant improvement in function. The viability of cocultured hepatocytes was superior to that of monocultured cells with up to a 16% improvement. Thus, coculture of human hepatocytes with MSCs demonstrates both improved function and viability. The effect is seen mainly with direct coculture but can also be seen in indirect culture and with CM. Such coculture conditions may convey major advantages in hepatocyte survival and function for cell transplantation.

  13. In Vitro Model for Hepatotoxicity Studies Based on Primary Human Hepatocyte Cultivation in a Perfused 3D Bioreactor System.

    PubMed

    Knöspel, Fanny; Jacobs, Frank; Freyer, Nora; Damm, Georg; De Bondt, An; van den Wyngaert, Ilse; Snoeys, Jan; Monshouwer, Mario; Richter, Marco; Strahl, Nadja; Seehofer, Daniel; Zeilinger, Katrin

    2016-04-16

    Accurate prediction of the potential hepatotoxic nature of new pharmaceuticals remains highly challenging. Therefore, novel in vitro models with improved external validity are needed to investigate hepatic metabolism and timely identify any toxicity of drugs in humans. In this study, we examined the effects of diclofenac, as a model substance with a known risk of hepatotoxicity in vivo, in a dynamic multi-compartment bioreactor using primary human liver cells. Biotransformation pathways of the drug and possible effects on metabolic activities, morphology and cell transcriptome were evaluated. Formation rates of diclofenac metabolites were relatively stable over the application period of seven days in bioreactors exposed to 300 µM diclofenac (300 µM bioreactors (300 µM BR)), while in bioreactors exposed to 1000 µM diclofenac (1000 µM BR) metabolite concentrations declined drastically. The biochemical data showed a significant decrease in lactate production and for the higher dose a significant increase in ammonia secretion, indicating a dose-dependent effect of diclofenac application. The microarray analyses performed revealed a stable hepatic phenotype of the cells over time and the observed transcriptional changes were in line with functional readouts of the system. In conclusion, the data highlight the suitability of the bioreactor technology for studying the hepatotoxicity of drugs in vitro.

  14. In Vitro Model for Hepatotoxicity Studies Based on Primary Human Hepatocyte Cultivation in a Perfused 3D Bioreactor System

    PubMed Central

    Knöspel, Fanny; Jacobs, Frank; Freyer, Nora; Damm, Georg; De Bondt, An; van den Wyngaert, Ilse; Snoeys, Jan; Monshouwer, Mario; Richter, Marco; Strahl, Nadja; Seehofer, Daniel; Zeilinger, Katrin

    2016-01-01

    Accurate prediction of the potential hepatotoxic nature of new pharmaceuticals remains highly challenging. Therefore, novel in vitro models with improved external validity are needed to investigate hepatic metabolism and timely identify any toxicity of drugs in humans. In this study, we examined the effects of diclofenac, as a model substance with a known risk of hepatotoxicity in vivo, in a dynamic multi-compartment bioreactor using primary human liver cells. Biotransformation pathways of the drug and possible effects on metabolic activities, morphology and cell transcriptome were evaluated. Formation rates of diclofenac metabolites were relatively stable over the application period of seven days in bioreactors exposed to 300 µM diclofenac (300 µM bioreactors (300 µM BR)), while in bioreactors exposed to 1000 µM diclofenac (1000 µM BR) metabolite concentrations declined drastically. The biochemical data showed a significant decrease in lactate production and for the higher dose a significant increase in ammonia secretion, indicating a dose-dependent effect of diclofenac application. The microarray analyses performed revealed a stable hepatic phenotype of the cells over time and the observed transcriptional changes were in line with functional readouts of the system. In conclusion, the data highlight the suitability of the bioreactor technology for studying the hepatotoxicity of drugs in vitro. PMID:27092500

  15. Phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase p110γ Contributes to Bile Salt-Induced Apoptosis in Primary Rat Hepatocytes and Human Hepatoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hohenester, Simon; Gates, Anna; Wimmer, Ralf; Beuers, Ulrich; Anwer, M. Sawkat; Rust, Christian; Webster, Cynthia R.L.

    2010-01-01

    Background & Aims Glycochenodeoxycholate (GCDC) and taurolithocholate (TLC) are hepatotoxic and cholestatic bile salts, whereas tauroursodeoxycholate (TUDC) is cytoprotective and anticholestatic. Yet they all act, in part, through phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase(PI3K)-dependent mechanisms (“PI3K-paradox”). Hepatocytes express three catalytic PI3K Class I isoforms (p110α/β/γ), specific functions of which, in liver, are unclear. In other cell types, p110γ is associated with detrimental effects. To shed light on the PI3K enigma, we determined whether hydrophobic and hydrophilic bile salts differentially activate distinct p110 isoforms in hepatocytes, and whether p110γ mediates bile salt-induced hepatocyte cell death. Methods Isoform-specific PI3K activity assays were established to determine isoform activation by bile salts in rat hepatocytes. Activation of Akt and JNK were determined by immunoblotting. Following stimulation with hydrophobic bile salts, hepatocellular apoptosis was determined morphologically after Hoechst staining and by analysis of caspase-3/-7 activity or caspase-3 cleavage. Activity or expression of PI3K p110γ was inhibited pharmacologically (AS604850) or by knockdown using specific siRNA. Results All bile salts tested activated p110β, while p110α was activated by TUDC and GCDC. Intriguingly, only hydrophobic bile salts activated p110γ. Inhibition of p110γ attenuated GCDC-induced Akt- and JNK-activation, but did not alter TUDC- or cAMP-induced Akt signaling in rat hepatocytes. Inhibition or knockdown of p110γ markedly attenuated hydrophobic bile salt-induced apoptosis in rat hepatocytes and human hepatoma cell lines but did not alter Fas-, tumor necrosis factor α- and etoposide-induced apoptosis. Depletion of Ca++ prevented GCDC-induced toxicity in rat hepatocytes but did not affect GCDC-induced Akt- and JNK-activation. Conclusions PI3K p110γ is activated by hydrophobic, but not hydrophilic bile salts. Bile salt-induced hepatocyte

  16. Phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase p110γ contributes to bile salt-induced apoptosis in primary rat hepatocytes and human hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Hohenester, Simon; Gates, Anna; Wimmer, Ralf; Beuers, Ulrich; Anwer, M Sawkat; Rust, Christian; Webster, Cynthia R L

    2010-11-01

    Glycochenodeoxycholate (GCDC) and taurolithocholate (TLC) are hepatotoxic and cholestatic bile salts, whereas tauroursodeoxycholate (TUDC) is cytoprotective and anticholestatic. Yet they all act, in part, through phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase(PI3K)-dependent mechanisms ("PI3K-paradox"). Hepatocytes express three catalytic PI3K Class I isoforms (p110α/β/γ), specific functions of which, in liver, are unclear. In other cell types, p110γ is associated with detrimental effects. To shed light on the PI3K enigma, we determined whether hydrophobic and hydrophilic bile salts differentially activate distinct p110 isoforms in hepatocytes, and whether p110γ mediates bile salt-induced hepatocyte cell death. Isoform-specific PI3K activity assays were established to determine isoform activation by bile salts in rat hepatocytes. Activation of Akt and JNK was determined by immunoblotting. Following stimulation with hydrophobic bile salts, hepatocellular apoptosis was determined morphologically after Hoechst staining and by analysis of caspase-3/-7 activity or caspase-3 cleavage. Activity or expression of PI3K p110γ was inhibited pharmacologically (AS604850) or by knock-down using specific siRNA. All bile salts tested activated p110β, while p110α was activated by TUDC and GCDC. Intriguingly, only hydrophobic bile salts activated p110γ. Inhibition of p110γ attenuated GCDC-induced Akt- and JNK-activation, but did not alter TUDC- or cAMP-induced Akt-signaling in rat hepatocytes. Inhibition or knock-down of p110γ markedly attenuated hydrophobic bile salt-induced apoptosis in rat hepatocytes and human hepatoma cell lines but did not alter Fas-, tumor necrosis factor α- and etoposide-induced apoptosis. Depletion of Ca(++) prevented GCDC-induced toxicity in rat hepatocytes but did not affect GCDC-induced Akt- and JNK-activation. PI3K p110γ is activated by hydrophobic, but not hydrophilic bile salts. Bile salt-induced hepatocyte apoptosis is partly mediated via a PI3K p110

  17. Transplantation of human stem cell-derived hepatocytes in an animal model of acute liver failure.

    PubMed

    Ramanathan, Rajesh; Pettinato, Giuseppe; Beeston, John T; Lee, David D; Wen, Xuejun; Mangino, Martin J; Fisher, Robert A

    2015-08-01

    Hepatocyte cell transplantation can be life-saving in patients with acute liver failure (ALF); however, primary human hepatocyte transplantation is limited by the scarcity of donor hepatocytes. We investigated the effect of stem cell-derived, hepatocyte-like cells in an animal xenotransplant model of ALF. Intraperitoneal d-galactosamine was used to develop a lethal model of ALF in the rat. Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC), human mesenchymal stem cells, and human iPSC combined with human endothelial cells (iPSC + EC) were differentiated into hepatocyte-like cells and transplanted into the spleens of athymic nude rats with ALF. A reproducible lethal model of ALF was achieved with nearly 90% death within 3 days. Compared with negative controls, rats transplanted with stem cell-derived, hepatocyte-like cells were associated with increased survival. Human albumin was detected in the rat serum 3 days after transplantation in more than one-half the animals transplanted with hepatocyte-like cells. Only animals transplanted with iPSC + EC-derived hepatocytes had serum human albumin at 14 days posttransplant. Transplanted hepatocyte-like cells homed to the injured rat liver, whereas the ECs were only detected in the spleen. Transplantation of stem cell-derived, hepatocyte-like cells improved survival with evidence of in vivo human albumin production. Combining ECs may prolong cell function after transplantation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Zearalenone activates pregnane X receptor, constitutive androstane receptor and aryl hydrocarbon receptor and corresponding phase I target genes mRNA in primary cultures of human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Ayed-Boussema, Imen; Pascussi, Jean Marc; Maurel, Patrick; Bacha, Hassen; Hassen, Wafa

    2011-01-01

    The mycotoxin zearalenone (ZEN) is found worldwide as a contaminant in cereals and grains. ZEN subchronic and chronic toxicities are dominated by reproductive disorders in different mammalian species which have made ZEN established mammalian endocrine disrupter. Over the last 30 years of ZEN biotransformation study, the toxin was thought to undergo reductive metabolism only, with the generation in several species of α- and β-isomers of zearalenol. However, recent investigations have noticed that the mycoestrogen is prone to oxidative metabolism leading to hydroxylation of ZEN though the involvement of different cytochromes P450 (CYPs) isoforms. The aim of the present study was to further explore the effect of ZEN on regulation of some CYPs using primary cultures of human hepatocytes. For this aim, using real time RT-PCR, we monitored in a first time, the effect of ZEN on mRNA levels of pregnane X receptor (PXR), constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), nuclear receptors known to be involved in the regulation of some CYPs. In a second time, we looked for ZEN effect on expression of PXR, CAR and AhR corresponding phase I target genes (CYP3A4, CYP3A5, CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP1A1 and CYP1A2). Finally, we realised the luciferase assay in HepG2 treated with the toxin and transiently transfected with p-CYP3A4-Luc in the presence of a hPXR vector or transfected with p-CYPA1-Luc.Our results clearly showed that ZEN activated human PXR, CAR and AhR mRNA levels in addition to some of their phase I target genes mainly CYP3A4, CYP2B6 and CYP1A1 and at lesser extent CYP3A5 and CYP2C9 at ZEN concentrations as low as 0.1 μM.

  19. Skatole (3-Methylindole) Is a Partial Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Agonist and Induces CYP1A1/2 and CYP1B1 Expression in Primary Human Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Balaguer, Patrick; Ekstrand, Bo; Daujat-Chavanieu, Martine; Gerbal-Chaloin, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Skatole (3-methylindole) is a product of bacterial fermentation of tryptophan in the intestine. A significant amount of skatole can also be inhaled during cigarette smoking. Skatole is a pulmonary toxin that induces the expression of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) regulated genes, such as cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1), in human bronchial cells. The liver has a high metabolic capacity for skatole and is the first organ encountered by the absorbed skatole; however, the effect of skatole in the liver is unknown. Therefore, we investigated the impact of skatole on hepatic AhR activity and AhR-regulated gene expression. Using reporter gene assays, we showed that skatole activates AhR and that this is accompanied by an increase of CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 expression in HepG2-C3 and primary human hepatocytes. Specific AhR antagonists and siRNA-mediated AhR silencing demonstrated that skatole-induced CYP1A1 expression is dependent on AhR activation. The effect of skatole was reduced by blocking intrinsic cytochrome P450 activity and indole-3-carbinole, a known skatole metabolite, was a more potent inducer than skatole. Finally, skatole could reduce TCDD-induced CYP1A1 expression, suggesting that skatole is a partial AhR agonist. In conclusion, our findings suggest that skatole and its metabolites affect liver homeostasis by modulating the AhR pathway. PMID:27138278

  20. A food contaminant ochratoxin A suppresses pregnane X receptor (PXR)-mediated CYP3A4 induction in primary cultures of human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Doricakova, Aneta; Vrzal, Radim

    2015-11-04

    Ochratoxin A (OCHA) is a mycotoxin, which can be found in food such as coffee, wine, cereals, meat, nuts. Since it is absorbed via gastrointestinal tract, it is reasonable to anticipate that the liver will be the first organ to which OCHA comes into the contact before systemic circulation. Many xenobiotics are metabolically modified after the passage of the liver to biologically more active substances, sometimes with more harmful activity. Promoting own metabolism is often achieved via transcriptional regulation of biotransformation enzymes through ligand-activated transcription factors. Pregnane X receptor (PXR) belongs to such a group of regulators and it was demonstrated to be activated by many compounds of synthetic as well as natural origin. Our intention was to investigate if OCHA is capable of activating the PXR with consequent induction of PXR-regulated CYP3A4 gene. We found that OCHA does not activate PXR but displays antagonist-like behavior when combined with rifampicin (RIF) in gene reporter assay in human embryonal kidney cells (Hek293T). It was very weak inducer of CYP3A4 mRNA in primary cultures of human hepatocytes and it antagonized RIF-mediated CYP3A4 induction of mRNA as well as protein. In addition, it caused the decline of PXR protein as well as mRNA which was faster than that with actinomycin D, a transcription inhibitor. Since we found that OCHA induced the expression of miR-148a, which was described to regulate PXR expression, we conclude that antagonist-like behavior of OCHA is not due to the antagonism itself but due to the downregulation of PXR gene expression. Herein we provide important findings which bring a piece of puzzle into the understanding of mechanism of toxic action of ochratoxin A.

  1. Steatotic rat hepatocytes in primary culture are more susceptible to the acute toxic effect of acetaminophen.

    PubMed

    Kučera, O; Al-Dury, S; Lotková, H; Roušar, T; Rychtrmoc, D; Červinková, Z

    2012-01-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose is the most common cause of acute liver failure in humans. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is the most frequent chronic liver disease in developed countries. The aim of our work was to compare the effect of APAP on intact rat hepatocytes and hepatocytes isolated from steatotic liver in primary cultures. Male Wistar rats were fed with standard diet (10 % energy from fat) and high-fat diet (71 % energy from fat) for 6 weeks and then hepatocytes were isolated. After cell attachment, APAP (1; 2.5; 3.75 and 5 mM) was added to culture media (William's E medium) and hepatocytes were cultured for up to 24 hours. APAP caused more severe dose-dependent damage of steatotic hepatocytes as documented by increased release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and LDH leakage, decreased activity of cellular dehydrogenases (WST-1 test) and reduced albumin production. Intact steatotic hepatocytes contained lower amount of reduced glutathione (GSH). Treatment with APAP (1 and 2.5 mmol/l) caused more pronounced decrease in GSH in steatotic hepatocytes. ROS (reactive oxygen species) formation after 24-hour incubation was significantly higher in fatty hepatocytes using APAP at concentration of 3.75 and 5 mmol/l. Interleukin 6 (IL-6) production was elevated in 2.5 mM APAP-treated nonsteatotic and steatotic hepatocyte cultures at 8 hours, compared to appropriate controls. In conclusions, our results indicate that steatotic hepatocytes exert higher sensitivity to the toxic action of APAP. This sensitivity may be caused by lower content of GSH in intact steatotic hepatocytes and by more pronounced APAP-induced decrease in intracellular concentration of GSH.

  2. Profiling primaquine metabolites in primary human hepatocytes by UPLC-QTOF-MS with 13c stable isotope labeling

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Primaquine (PQ) is an important antimalarial agent because of its activity against exoerythrocytic forms of Plasmodium spp. However, hemolytic anemia is a dose-limiting side effect of primaquine therapy that limits its widespread use. The major plasma metabolite identified in humans and animals, car...

  3. Augmenter of liver regeneration (ALR) protects human hepatocytes against apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Ilowski, Maren; Kleespies, Axel; Toni, Enrico N. de; Donabauer, Barbara; Jauch, Karl-Walter; Hengstler, Jan G.; Thasler, Wolfgang E.

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} ALR decreases cytochrome c release from mitochondria. {yields} ALR protects hepatocytes against apoptosis induction by ethanol, TRAIL, anti-Apo, TGF-{beta} and actinomycin D. {yields} ALR exerts a liver-specific anti-apoptotic effect. {yields} A possible medical usage of ALR regarding protection of liver cells during apoptosis inducing therapies. -- Abstract: Augmenter of liver regeneration (ALR) is known to support liver regeneration and to stimulate proliferation of hepatocytes. However, it is not known if ALR exerts anti-apoptotic effects in human hepatocytes and whether this protective effect is cell type specific. This is relevant, because compounds that protect the liver against apoptosis without undesired effects, such as protection of metastatic tumour cells, would be appreciated in several clinical settings. Primary human hepatocytes (phH) and organotypic cancer cell lines were exposed to different concentrations of apoptosis inducers (ethanol, TRAIL, anti-Apo, TGF-{beta}, actinomycin D) and cultured with or without recombinant human ALR (rhALR). Apoptosis was evaluated by the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria and by FACS with propidium iodide (PI) staining. ALR significantly decreased apoptosis induced by ethanol, TRAIL, anti-Apo, TGF-{beta} and actinomycin D. Further, the anti-apoptotic effect of ALR was observed in primary human hepatocytes and in HepG2 cells but not in bronchial (BC1), colonic (SW480), gastric (GC1) and pancreatic (L3.6PL) cell lines. Therefore, the hepatotrophic growth factor ALR acts in a liver specific manner with regards to both its mitogenic and its anti-apoptotic effect. Unlike the growth factors HGF and EGF, rhALR acts in a liver specific manner. Therefore, ALR is a promising candidate for further evaluation as a possible hepatoprotective factor in clinical settings.

  4. TEMPORAL CHANGE IN GAP JUNCTION FUNCTION IN PRIMARY HEPATOCYTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    TEMPORAL CHANGES IN GAP JUNCTION FUNCTION IN PRIMARY *

    The objective of this study was to examine the reduction in gap junction communication (GJC) in primary hepatocytes due to coincident melatonin and magnetic field treatments to determine if these conditions could prov...

  5. TEMPORAL CHANGE IN GAP JUNCTION FUNCTION IN PRIMARY HEPATOCYTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    TEMPORAL CHANGES IN GAP JUNCTION FUNCTION IN PRIMARY *

    The objective of this study was to examine the reduction in gap junction communication (GJC) in primary hepatocytes due to coincident melatonin and magnetic field treatments to determine if these conditions could prov...

  6. Metabolism of lipoproteins by human fetal hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, B.R.

    1987-12-01

    The rate of clearance of lipoproteins from plasma appears to play a role in the development of atherogenesis. The liver may account for as much as two thirds of the removal of low-density lipoprotein and one third of the clearance of high-density lipoprotein in certain animal species and humans, mainly by receptor-mediated pathways. The purpose of the present investigation was to determine if human fetal hepatocytes maintained in vitro take up and degrade lipoproteins. We first determined that the maximal binding capacity of iodine 125-iodo-LDL was approximately 300 ng of low-density lipoprotein protein/mg of membrane protein and an apparent dissociation constant of approximately 60 micrograms low-density lipoprotein protein/ml in membranes prepared from human fetal liver. We found that the maximal uptake of (/sup 125/I)iodo-LDL and (/sup 125/I)iodo-HDL by fetal hepatocytes occurred after 12 hours of incubation. Low-density lipoprotein uptake preceded the appearance of degradation products by 4 hours, and thereafter the degradation of low-density lipoprotein increased linearly for at least 24 hours. In contrast, high-density lipoprotein was not degraded to any extent by fetal hepatocytes. (/sup 125/I)Iodo-LDL uptake and degradation were inhibited more than 75% by preincubation with low-density lipoprotein but not significantly by high-density lipoprotein, whereas (/sup 125/I)iodo-HDL uptake was inhibited 70% by preincubation with high-density lipoprotein but not by low-density lipoprotein. In summary, human fetal hepatocytes take up and degrade low-density lipoprotein by a receptor-mediated process similar to that described for human extrahepatic tissues.

  7. Epigenetic Modifications as Antidedifferentiation Strategy for Primary Hepatocytes in Culture.

    PubMed

    Bolleyn, Jennifer; Fraczek, Joanna; Rogiers, Vera; Vanhaecke, Tamara

    2015-01-01

    A well-known problem of cultured primary hepatocytes is their rapid dedifferentiation. During the last years, several strategies to counteract this phenomenon have been developed, of which changing the in vitro environment is the most popular one. However, mimicking the in vivo setting in vitro by adding soluble media additives or the restoration of both cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix contacts is not sufficient and only delays the dedifferentiation process instead of counteracting it. In this chapter, new strategies to prevent the deterioration of the liver-specific phenotype of primary hepatocytes in culture by targeting the (epi)genetic mechanisms that drive hepatocellular gene expression are described.

  8. Treatment of surgically induced acute liver failure with transplantation of highly differentiated immortalized human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, N; Miyazaki, M; Fukaya, K; Inoue, Y; Sakaguchi, M; Noguchi, H; Matsumura, T; Watanabe, T; Totsugawa, T; Tanaka, N; Namba, M

    2000-01-01

    Primary human hepatocytes are an ideal source of hepatic function in bioartficial liver (BAL), but the shortage of human livers available for hepatocyte isolation limits this modality. To resolve this issue, primary human fetal hepatocytes were immortalized using simian virus 40 large T antigen. One of the immortal cell lines, OUMS-29, showed highly differentiated liver functions. Intrasplenic transplantation of OUMS-29 cells protected 90% hepatectomized rats from hyperammonemia and significantly prolonged their survival. Essentially unlimited availability of OUMS-29 cells supports their clinical use for BAL treatment.

  9. COVALENT BINDING OF TRICHLOROETHYLENE TO PROTEINS IN HUMAN AND RAT HEPATOCYTES. (R826409)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The environmental contaminant and occupational solvent trichloroethylene is metabolized to a reactive intermediate that covalently binds to specific hepatic proteins in exposed mice and rats. In order to compare covalent binding between humans and rodents, primary hepatocyte c...

  10. Acetaminophen metabolism, cytotoxicity, and genotoxicity in rat primary hepatocyte cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Milam, K.M.; Byard, J.L.

    1985-06-30

    Acetaminophen (APAP) metabolism, cytotoxicity, and genotoxicity were measured in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes. Although 3 mM APAP caused a slight increase in cellular release of lactate dehydrogenase into the culture medium, cellular glutathione concentration (an index of APAP metabolism) was reduced by 50%. APAP at 7 mM was significantly more toxic to these hepatocytes and had a similar but more marked effect on glutathione concentrations. In spite of its cytotoxicity, neither dose of APAP stimulated DNA repair synthesis when monitored by the rate of incorporation of (/sup 3/H)thymidine into DNA following exposure to APAP. Thus, although APAP has been shown to be both hepato- and nephrotoxic in several in vivo and in vitro systems, the reactive toxic metabolite of APAP is not genotoxic in rat primary hepatocyte cultures.

  11. Differential effects of cytokines on the inducible expression of CYP1A1, CYP1A2, and CYP3A4 in human hepatocytes in primary culture.

    PubMed

    Muntané-Relat, J; Ourlin, J C; Domergue, J; Maurel, P

    1995-10-01

    We have investigated the effect of cytokines, including interleukin-6 (Il-6), interleukin-1 alpha (Il-1 alpha), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), on the inducible expression of cytochrome P450s (CYP) CYP1A1, CYP1A2, and CYP3A4 in human hepatocytes in primary culture. The ability of these cultures to mimic the acute phase response when stimulated with cytokines was evaluated using immunoblotting to measure the production of albumin, ferritin, fibrinogen, and ceruloplasmin. The cytokines exhibited specific patterns of action on the production of these proteins. Albumin was depressed by all the cytokines. In contrast to Il-6 and Il-1 alpha, TNF-alpha reduced the production of fibrinogen and ceruloplasmin but stimulated the production of ferritin. When cells were treated with the CYP inducer alone, large increases in the expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 by beta-naphthoflavone and of CYP3A4 by rifampicin were observed at messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels, by ribonuclease protection and immunoblotting, respectively. When the cells were treated with the inducer plus cytokines, the induction of mRNA was greatly reduced. Again, specific patterns of action were revealed: Il-6 had the most potent effect on CYP3A4, whereas TNF-alpha was the most potent with CYP1A genes. In all cases, changes at the protein levels paralleled changes at the mRNA levels. In cells preinduced with beta-naphthoflavone or rifampicin, the decay with time of the levels of the CYP1A2 or CYP3A4 proteins, after the removal of the inducer, was not affected by cytokines. We conclude that cytokines strongly repress the inducibility of CYP1As and CYP3A4 genes at a transcriptional or a posttranscriptional level, but affect neither the rate of translation of CYP mRNAs nor the rate of degradation of the CYP proteins in these cultures.

  12. Hepatitis B virus infection and replication in a new cell culture system established by fusing HepG2 cells with primary human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Sai, Lin-Tao; Yao, Yong-Yuan; Guan, Yan-Yan; Shao, Li-Hua; Ma, Rui-Ping; Ma, Li-Xian

    2016-08-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is strictly species and tissue specific, therefore none of the cell models established previously can reproduce the natural infection process of HBV in vitro. The aim of this study was to establish a new cell line that is susceptible to HBV and can support the replication of HBV. A hybrid cell line was established by fusing primary human hepatocytes with HepG2 cells. The hybrid cells were incubated with HBV-positive serum for 12 hours. HBV DNA was detected by quantitative fluorescence polymerase chain reaction (QF-PCR). HBsAg (surface antigen) and HBeAg (extracellular form of core antigen) were observed by electrochemiluminescence (ECL). HBcAg (core antigen) was detected by the indirect immunofluorescence technique. HBV covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) was analyzed by Southern blot hybridization and quantified using real-time PCR. A new cell line was established and named HepCHLine-7. The extracellular HBV DNA was observed from Day 2 and the levels ranged from 9.80 (± 0.32) × 10(2) copies/mL to 3.12 (± 0.03) × 10(4) copies/mL. Intracellular HBV DNA was detected at Day 2 after infection and the levels ranged from 7.92 (± 1.08) × 10(3) copies/mL to 5.63 (± 0.11) × 10(5) copies/mL. HBsAg in the culture medium was detected from Day 4 to Day 20. HBeAg secretion was positive from Day 5 to Day 20. HBcAg constantly showed positive signals in approximately 20% (± 0.82%) of hybrid cells. Intracellular HBV cccDNA could be detected as early as 2 days postinfection and the highest level was 15.76 (± 0.26) copies/cell. HepCHLine-7 cells were susceptible to HBV and supported the replication of HBV. They are therefore suitable for studying the complete life cycle of HBV. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Caffeine induces CYP1A2 expression in rat hepatocytes but not in human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Vaynshteyn, David; Jeong, Hyunyoung

    2012-06-01

    Caffeine is the active constituent in coffee. Continual consumption of caffeine can lead to an attenuated response also known as tolerance. Results from rat studies have shown that caffeine is an inducer of CYP1A2, the enzyme responsible for caffeine's metabolism. This suggests that CYP1A2 induction by caffeine may be in part responsible for caffeine tolerance. However, whether caffeine induces CYP1A2 expression in humans remains unknown. Our results from luciferase assays performed in HepG2 cells showed that caffeine is not an activator of the aromatic hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a major transcription factor involved in upregulation of CYP1A2. Furthermore, caffeine did not induce CYP1A2 expression in primary human hepatocytes at a concentration attained by ordinary coffee drinking. On the other hand, caffeine enhanced CYP1A2 expression by 9-fold in rat hepatocytes. Our results suggest that caffeine from ordinary coffee drinking does not induce CYP1A2 expression in humans and that factors other than CYP1A2 induction by caffeine likely contribute to development of caffeine tolerance in humans.

  14. Effects of anthocyanidins and anthocyanins on the expression and catalytic activities of CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C9, and CYP3A4 in primary human hepatocytes and human liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Srovnalova, Alzbeta; Svecarova, Michaela; Zapletalova, Michaela Kopecna; Anzenbacher, Pavel; Bachleda, Petr; Anzenbacherova, Eva; Dvorak, Zdenek

    2014-01-22

    Anthocyanidins and anthocyanins are pharmacologically active constituents of various berry fruits, such as blueberry and cranberry. These compounds are also contained in massively used nutritional supplements based on extracts or dry matter from berry fruits. The current study evaluated the effects of anthocyanidins and anthocyanins on the expression and catalytic activity of major drug-metabolizing enzymes CYP2C9, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, and CYP3A4 in primary cultures of human hepatocytes and human liver microsomes. Expression of mRNA was quantified by qRT-PCR. Expression of proteins was evaluated by Western blotting and immunochemiluminescence. The catalytic activity of CYP enzymes was measured by HPLC using specific enzyme substrates. Tested anthocyanidins (6) and anthocyanins (21) did not induce the expression of mRNA and protein of CYP2C9, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, and CYP3A4 genes in human hepatocytes. Catalytic activities of CYP2C9, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, and CYP3A4 enzymes were inhibited by all anthocyanidins to different extents (e.g., delphinidin inhibits CYP3A4 by >90% at 100 μM with IC50 = 32 μM). Of 21 anthocyanins tested, only cyanidin-3-O-rhamnoside (CYP3A4 by >75% at 100 μM with IC50 = 44 μM) and two glycosides of delphinidin significantly inhibited examined cytochromes P450. It may be concluded that in the ranges of common ingestion of either food or dietary supplement an induction or significant inhibition of CYP2C9, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, and CYP3A4 activity is most probably not expected.

  15. Mangifera indica L. extract and mangiferin modulate cytochrome P450 and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase enzymes in primary cultures of human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Rodeiro, Idania; José Gómez-Lechón, M; Perez, Gabriela; Hernandez, Ivones; Herrera, José Alfredo; Delgado, Rene; Castell, José V; Teresa Donato, M

    2013-05-01

    The aqueous stem bark extract of Mangifera indica L. (MSBE) has been reported to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. In previous studies, we showed that MSBE and mangiferin, its main component, lower the activity of some cytochrome P-450 (P450) enzymes in rat hepatocytes and human liver microsomes. In the present study, the effects of MSBE and mangiferin on several P450 enzymes and UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) in human-cultured hepatocytes have been examined. After hepatocytes underwent a 48-h treatment with sub-cytotoxic concentrations of the products (50-250 µg/mL), a concentration-dependent decrease of the activity of the five P450 enzymes measured (CYP1A2, 2A6, 2C9, 2D6 and 3A4) was observed. For all the activities, a reduction of at least 50% at the highest concentration (250 µg/mL) was observed. In addition, UGT activities diminished. MSBE considerably reduced UGT1A9 activity (about 60% at 250 µg/mL) and lesser effects on the other UGTs. In contrast, 250 µg/mL mangiferin had greater effects on UGT1A1 and 2B7 than on UGT1A9 (about 55% vs. 35% reduction, respectively). Quantification of specific mRNAs revealed reduced CYP3A4 and 3A5 mRNAs content, and an increase in CYP1A1, CYP1A2, UGT1A1 and UGT1A9 mRNAs. No remarkable effects on the CYP2A6, 2B6, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6 and 2E1 levels were observed. Our results suggest that the activity and/or expression of major P450 and UGT enzymes is modulated by MSBE and that potential herb-drugs interactions could arise after a combined intake of this extract with conventional medicines. Therefore, the potential safety risks of this natural product derived by altering the ADMET properties of co-administered drugs should be examined.

  16. Engineering of human hepatocyte lines for cell therapies in humans: prospects and remaining hurdles.

    PubMed

    Kobayashit, Naoya; Tanaka, Noriaki

    2002-01-01

    Hepatocyte-based biological therapies are increasingly envisioned for temporary support in acute liver failure and provision of specific-liver functions in liver-based metabolic deficiency. One of the hurdles to develop such therapies is severe shortage of human livers for hepatocyte isolation. To address the issue, we have focused on reversible immortalization of human hepatocytes. Such technology can allow rapid preparation of functional and uniform human hepatocytes. Here we present our strategy to construct transplantable human hepatocyte cell lines.

  17. Engineering of Human Hepatocyte Lines for Cell Therapies in Humans: Prospects and Remaining Hurdles.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Naoya; Tanaka, Noriaki

    2002-07-01

    Hepatocyte-based biological therapies are increasingly envisioned for temporary support in acute liver failure and provision of specific-liver functions in liver-based metabolic deficiency. One of the hurdles to develop such therapies is severe shortage of human livers for hepatocyte isolation. To address the issue, we have focused on reversible immortalization of human hepatocytes. Such technology can allow rapid preparation of functional and uniform human hepatocytes. Here we present our strategy to construct transplantable human hepatocyte cell lines.

  18. Gene network activity in cultivated primary hepatocytes is highly similar to diseased mammalian liver tissue.

    PubMed

    Godoy, Patricio; Widera, Agata; Schmidt-Heck, Wolfgang; Campos, Gisela; Meyer, Christoph; Cadenas, Cristina; Reif, Raymond; Stöber, Regina; Hammad, Seddik; Pütter, Larissa; Gianmoena, Kathrin; Marchan, Rosemarie; Ghallab, Ahmed; Edlund, Karolina; Nüssler, Andreas; Thasler, Wolfgang E; Damm, Georg; Seehofer, Daniel; Weiss, Thomas S; Dirsch, Olaf; Dahmen, Uta; Gebhardt, Rolf; Chaudhari, Umesh; Meganathan, Kesavan; Sachinidis, Agapios; Kelm, Jens; Hofmann, Ute; Zahedi, René P; Guthke, Reinhard; Blüthgen, Nils; Dooley, Steven; Hengstler, Jan G

    2016-10-01

    It is well known that isolation and cultivation of primary hepatocytes cause major gene expression alterations. In the present genome-wide, time-resolved study of cultivated human and mouse hepatocytes, we made the observation that expression changes in culture strongly resemble alterations in liver diseases. Hepatocytes of both species were cultivated in collagen sandwich and in monolayer conditions. Genome-wide data were also obtained from human NAFLD, cirrhosis, HCC and hepatitis B virus-infected tissue as well as mouse livers after partial hepatectomy, CCl4 intoxication, obesity, HCC and LPS. A strong similarity between cultivation and disease-induced expression alterations was observed. For example, expression changes in hepatocytes induced by 1-day cultivation and 1-day CCl4 exposure in vivo correlated with R = 0.615 (p < 0.001). Interspecies comparison identified predominantly similar responses in human and mouse hepatocytes but also a set of genes that responded differently. Unsupervised clustering of altered genes identified three main clusters: (1) downregulated genes corresponding to mature liver functions, (2) upregulation of an inflammation/RNA processing cluster and (3) upregulated migration/cell cycle-associated genes. Gene regulatory network analysis highlights overrepresented and deregulated HNF4 and CAR (Cluster 1), Krüppel-like factors MafF and ELK1 (Cluster 2) as well as ETF (Cluster 3) among the interspecies conserved key regulators of expression changes. Interventions ameliorating but not abrogating cultivation-induced responses include removal of non-parenchymal cells, generation of the hepatocytes' own matrix in spheroids, supplementation with bile salts and siRNA-mediated suppression of key transcription factors. In conclusion, this study shows that gene regulatory network alterations of cultivated hepatocytes resemble those of inflammatory liver diseases and should therefore be considered and exploited as disease models.

  19. Hepatocyte differentiation.

    PubMed

    Olsavsky Goyak, Katy M; Laurenzana, Elizabeth M; Omiecinski, Curtis J

    2010-01-01

    Increasingly, research suggests that for certain systems, animal models are insufficient for human toxicology testing. The development of robust, in vitro models of human toxicity is required to decrease our dependence on potentially misleading in vivo animal studies. A critical development in human toxicology testing is the use of human primary hepatocytes to model processes that occur in the intact liver. However, in order to serve as an appropriate model, primary hepatocytes must be maintained in such a way that they persist in their differentiated state. While many hepatocyte culture methods exist, the two-dimensional collagen "sandwich" system combined with a serum-free medium, supplemented with physiological glucocorticoid concentrations, appears to robustly maintain hepatocyte character. Studies in rat and human hepatocytes have shown that when cultured under these conditions, hepatocytes maintain many markers of differentiation including morphology, expression of plasma proteins, hepatic nuclear factors, phase I and II metabolic enzymes. Functionally, these culture conditions also preserve hepatic stress response pathways, such as the SAPK and MAPK pathways, as well as prototypical xenobiotic induction responses. This chapter will briefly review culture methodologies but will primarily focus on hallmark hepatocyte structural, expression and functional markers that characterize the differentiation status of the hepatocyte.

  20. Cellular toxicity of hydrazine in primary rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Saber M; Frazier, John M

    2002-10-01

    Hydrazine (HzN) is an aircraft fuel and propellant used by the U.S. Air Force. The current study was undertaken to evaluate the acute toxicity of HzN in primary rat hepatocytes in vitro with reference to oxidative stress. The effects of short-term exposure (4 h) of hepatocytes to HzN were investigated with reference to viability, mitochondrial function, and biomarkers of oxidative stress. The viability data showed an increase in lactate dehydrogenase leakage and a decrease in mitochondrial activity with increasing concentration of HzN. The results of studies of oxidative stress biomarkers showed a depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH) and an increase in oxidized GSH, increased reactive oxygen species generation, lipid peroxidation, and reduced catalase activity. Furthermore, depletion of GSH and catalase activity in hepatocytes by buthionine sulfoximine and 3-amino triazole, respectively, prior to exposure to HzN, increased its toxicity. The results suggest that acute HzN-induced cytotoxicity in rat hepatocytes is likely to be mediated through oxidative stress.

  1. DEC1 binding to the proximal promoter of CYP3A4 ascribes to the downregulation of CYP3A4 expression by IL-6 in primary human hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Gang, Cao; Wei, Liu; Jing, Xiong; Gang, Hu; Ruini, Chen; Rui, Ning; Wei, Shang; Jian, Yang; Bingfang, Yan

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we provided molecular evidences that IL-6 contributed to the decreased capacity of oxidative biotransformation in human liver by suppressing the expression of CYP3A4. After human hepatocytes were treated with IL-6, DEC1 expression rapidly increased, and subsequently, the CYP3A4 expression decreased continuously. Furthermore, the repression of CYP3A4 by IL-6 occurred after the increase of DEC1 in primary human hepatocytes. In HepG2 cells, knockdown of DEC1 increased the CYP3A4 expression and its enzymatic activity. In addition, it partially abolished the decreased CYP3A4 expression as well as its enzymatic activity induced by IL-6. Consistent with this, overexpression of DEC1 markedly reduced the CYP3A4 promoter activity and the CYP3A4 expression as well as its enzymatic activity. Using sequential truncation and site directed mutagenesis of CYP3A4 proximal promoter with DEC1 construct, we showed that DEC1 specifically bound to CCCTGC sequence in the proximal promoter of CYP3A4, which was validated by EMSA and ChIP assay. These findings suggest that the repression of CYP3A4 by IL-6 is achieved through increasing the DEC1 expression in human hepatocytes, the increased DEC1 binds to the CCCTGC sequence in the promoter of CYP3A4 to form CCCTGC-DEC1 complex, and the complex downregulates the CYP3A4 expression and its enzymatic activity. PMID:22728071

  2. Polyethylene glycol protects primary hepatocytes during supercooling preservation.

    PubMed

    Puts, C F; Berendsen, T A; Bruinsma, B G; Ozer, Sinan; Luitje, Martha; Usta, O Berk; Yarmush, M L; Uygun, K

    2015-08-01

    Cold storage (at 4°C) offers a compromise between the benefits and disadvantages of cooling. It allows storage of organs or cells for later use that would otherwise quickly succumb to warm ischemia, but comprises cold ischemia that, when not controlled properly, can result in severe damage as well by both similar and unique mechanisms. We hypothesized that polyethylene glycol (PEG) 35 kDa would ameliorate these injury pathways and improve cold primary hepatocyte preservation. We show that reduction of the storage temperature to below zero by means of supercooling, or subzero non-freezing, together with PEG supplementation increases the viable storage time of primary rat hepatocytes in University of Wisconsin (UW) solution from 1 day to 4 days. We find that the addition of 5% PEG 35 kDa to the storage medium prevents cold-induced lipid peroxidation and maintains hepatocyte viability and functionality during storage. These results suggest that PEG supplementation in combination with supercooling may enable a more optimized cell and organ preservation.

  3. Polyethylene glycol protects primary hepatocytes during supercooling preservation

    PubMed Central

    Puts, C.F.; Berendsen, T.A.; Bruinsma, B.G.; Ozer, Sinan; Luitje, Martha; Usta, O. Berk; Yarmush, M.L.; Uygun, K.

    2015-01-01

    Cold storage (at 4 °C) offers a compromise between the benefits and disadvantages of cooling. It allows storage of organs or cells for later use that would otherwise quickly succumb to warm ischemia, but comprises cold ischemia that, when not controlled properly, can result in severe damage as well by both similar and unique mechanisms. We hypothesized that polyethylene glycol (PEG) 35 kDa would ameliaorate these injury pathways and improve cold primary hepatocyte preservation. We show that reduction of the storage temperature to below zero by means of supercooling, or subzero non-freezing, together with PEG supplementation increases the viable storage time of primary rat hepatocytes in University of Wisconsin (UW) solution from 1 day to 4 days. We find that the addition of 5% PEG 35 kDa to the storage medium prevents cold-induced lipid peroxidation and maintains hepatocyte viability and functionality during storage. These results suggest that PEG supplementation in combination with supercooling may enable a more optimized cell and organ preservation. PMID:25936340

  4. Toxicogenomics directory of chemically exposed human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Grinberg, Marianna; Stöber, Regina M; Edlund, Karolina; Rempel, Eugen; Godoy, Patricio; Reif, Raymond; Widera, Agata; Madjar, Katrin; Schmidt-Heck, Wolfgang; Marchan, Rosemarie; Sachinidis, Agapios; Spitkovsky, Dimitry; Hescheler, Jürgen; Carmo, Helena; Arbo, Marcelo D; van de Water, Bob; Wink, Steven; Vinken, Mathieu; Rogiers, Vera; Escher, Sylvia; Hardy, Barry; Mitic, Dragana; Myatt, Glenn; Waldmann, Tanja; Mardinoglu, Adil; Damm, Georg; Seehofer, Daniel; Nüssler, Andreas; Weiss, Thomas S; Oberemm, Axel; Lampen, Alfons; Schaap, Mirjam M; Luijten, Mirjam; van Steeg, Harry; Thasler, Wolfgang E; Kleinjans, Jos C S; Stierum, Rob H; Leist, Marcel; Rahnenführer, Jörg; Hengstler, Jan G

    2014-12-01

    A long-term goal of numerous research projects is to identify biomarkers for in vitro systems predicting toxicity in vivo. Often, transcriptomics data are used to identify candidates for further evaluation. However, a systematic directory summarizing key features of chemically influenced genes in human hepatocytes is not yet available. To bridge this gap, we used the Open TG-GATES database with Affymetrix files of cultivated human hepatocytes incubated with chemicals, further sets of gene array data with hepatocytes from human donors generated in this study, and publicly available genome-wide datasets of human liver tissue from patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), cirrhosis, and hepatocellular cancer (HCC). After a curation procedure, expression data of 143 chemicals were included into a comprehensive biostatistical analysis. The results are summarized in the publicly available toxicotranscriptomics directory ( http://wiki.toxbank.net/toxicogenomics-map/ ) which provides information for all genes whether they are up- or downregulated by chemicals and, if yes, by which compounds. The directory also informs about the following key features of chemically influenced genes: (1) Stereotypical stress response. When chemicals induce strong expression alterations, this usually includes a complex but highly reproducible pattern named 'stereotypical response.' On the other hand, more specific expression responses exist that are induced only by individual compounds or small numbers of compounds. The directory differentiates if the gene is part of the stereotypical stress response or if it represents a more specific reaction. (2) Liver disease-associated genes. Approximately 20 % of the genes influenced by chemicals are up- or downregulated, also in liver disease. Liver disease genes deregulated in cirrhosis, HCC, and NASH that overlap with genes of the aforementioned stereotypical chemical stress response include CYP3A7, normally expressed in fetal liver; the

  5. Generation of human pluripotent stem cell-derived hepatocyte-like cells for drug toxicity screening.

    PubMed

    Takayama, Kazuo; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki

    2017-02-01

    Because drug-induced liver injury is one of the main reasons for drug development failures, it is important to perform drug toxicity screening in the early phase of pharmaceutical development. Currently, primary human hepatocytes are most widely used for the prediction of drug-induced liver injury. However, the sources of primary human hepatocytes are limited, making it difficult to supply the abundant quantities required for large-scale drug toxicity screening. Therefore, there is an urgent need for a novel unlimited, efficient, inexpensive, and predictive model which can be applied for large-scale drug toxicity screening. Human embryonic stem (ES) cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are able to replicate indefinitely and differentiate into most of the body's cell types, including hepatocytes. It is expected that hepatocyte-like cells generated from human ES/iPS cells (human ES/iPS-HLCs) will be a useful tool for drug toxicity screening. To apply human ES/iPS-HLCs to various applications including drug toxicity screening, homogenous and functional HLCs must be differentiated from human ES/iPS cells. In this review, we will introduce the current status of hepatocyte differentiation technology from human ES/iPS cells and a novel method to predict drug-induced liver injury using human ES/iPS-HLCs.

  6. Human hepatocyte functions in a crossed hollow fiber membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    De Bartolo, Loredana; Salerno, Simona; Curcio, Efrem; Piscioneri, Antonella; Rende, Maria; Morelli, Sabrina; Tasselli, Franco; Bader, Augustinus; Drioli, Enrico

    2009-05-01

    An important challenge in liver tissue engineering is the development of bioartificial systems that are able to favour the liver reconstruction and to modulate liver cell behaviour. A crossed hollow fiber membrane bioreactor was developed to support the long-term maintenance and differentiation of human hepatocytes. The bioreactor consists of two types of hollow fiber (HF) membranes with different molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) and physico-chemical properties cross-assembled in alternating manner: modified polyetheretherketone (PEEK-WC) and polyethersulfone (PES), used for the medium inflow and outflow, respectively. The combination of these two fiber set produces an extracapillary network for the adhesion of cells and a high mass exchange through the cross-flow of culture medium. The transport of liver specific products such as albumin and urea together with the transport of drug such as diazepam was modelled and compared with the experimental metabolic data. The theoretical metabolite concentration differed 7.5% for albumin and 5% for urea with respect to experimental data. The optimised perfusion conditions of the bioreactor allowed the maintenance of liver functions in terms of urea synthesis, albumin secretion and diazepam biotransformation up to 18 days of culture. In particular the good performance of the bioreactor was confirmed by the high rate of urea synthesis (28.7 microg/h 10(6) cells) and diazepam biotransformation. In the bioreactor human hepatocytes expressed at high levels the individual cytochrome P450 isoenzymes involved in the diazepam metabolism. The results demonstrated that crossed HF membrane bioreactor is able to support the maintenance of primary human hepatocytes preserving their liver specific functions for all investigated period. This device may be a potential tool in the liver tissue engineering for drug metabolism/toxicity testing and study of disease pathogenesis alternatively to animal experimentation.

  7. Induction of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and NAD[P]H: quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) by a phenolic antioxidant, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and its metabolite, tert-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ) in primary-cultured human and rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Keum, Young-Sam; Han, Yong-Hae; Liew, Celine; Kim, Jung-Hwan; Xu, Changjiang; Yuan, Xiaoling; Shakarjian, Michael P; Chong, Saeho; Kong, Ah-Ng

    2006-11-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the effects of a phenolic antioxidant, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and its metabolite, tert-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ) on the induction of HO-1, NQO1 and Nrf2 proteins and their regulatory mechanisms in primary-cultured hepatocytes. After exposure of BHA and tBHQ to primary-cultured rat and human hepatocytes and mouse neonatal fibroblasts (MFs), Western blot, semi-quantitative RT-PCR and microarray analysis were conducted. Induction of HO-1, NQO1 and Nrf2 proteins and activation of ERK1/2 and JNK1/2 were observed after BHA and tBHQ treatments in primary-cultured rat and human hepatocytes. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR study and microarray analysis revealed that HO-1 and NQO1 were transcriptionally activated in primary-cultured rat hepatocytes and a substantial transcriptional activation, including HO-1 occurred in primary-cultured human hepatocytes after BHA treatment. Whereas BHA failed to induce HO-1 in wild-type and Nrf2 knock-out MFs, tBHQ strongly induced HO-1 in wild-type, but not in Nrf2 knock-out MFs. Our data demonstrate that both BHA and tBHQ are strong chemical inducers of HO-1, NQO1 and Nrf2 proteins in primary-cultured human and rat hepatocytes with the activation of MAPK ERK1/2 and JNK1/2. However, in MFs, BHA failed to induce HO-1, whereas tBHQ strongly induced HO-1 in Nrf2 wild-type but not in Nrf2 knock-out, suggesting that Nrf2 is indispensable for tBHQ-induced HO-1 in MF.

  8. Pyrrolizidine alkaloid clivorine induced oxidative injury on primary cultured rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Ji, LiLi; Liu, TianYu; Wang, ZhengTao

    2010-04-01

    Clivorine is an otonecine-type hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloid (HPAs), to which humans are exposed when consuming herbs containing such components. In the present study, we investigated clivorine-induced oxidative stress injury on primary cultured rat hepatocytes. Rat hepatocytes were treated with various concentrations of clivorine (1-100 microM) for 48 hours, and then cell viability was detected by 3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl) 2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, while lipid peroxidation (LPO) level, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were determined to evaluate the oxidative injury. The results of MTT assay showed that clivorine decreased cell viability in a concentration-dependent manner. Clivorine also increased LPO amounts in rat hepatocytes at the concentrations of 50 microM and 100 microM. Further results showed that clivorine decreased GPx, GST and GR activities, which are all reduced glutathione (GSH)-related antioxidant enzymes. CAT and SOD are both important antioxidant enzymes, and the results showed that clivorine increased CAT activity at the low concentration of 5 muM and decreased cellular SOD activity at all concentrations. Taken together, our results demonstrated that clivorine induced toxicity on primary cultured rat hepatocytes by causing the damage on cellular redox balance.

  9. Evaluation of multiple mechanism-based toxicity endpoints in primary cultured human hepatocytes for the identification of drugs with clinical hepatotoxicity: Results from 152 marketed drugs with known liver injury profiles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Doshi, Utkarsh; Suzuki, Ayako; Chang, Ching-Wei; Borlak, Jürgen; Li, Albert P; Tong, Weida

    2016-08-05

    We report here the results of a collaborative research program to develop a robust and reliable in vitro system to allow an accurate definition of the drug-induced liver injury (DILI) potential of new drug entities during drug development. The in vitro hepatotoxic potential of 152 drugs with known DILI profiles were evaluated in primary cultured human hepatocytes with four mechanistically-relevant endpoints: cellular ATP depletion, reactive oxygen species (ROS), glutathione (GSH) depletion, and caspase activation for apoptosis. The drugs, 80 in the testing set and 72 in the validation set, were classified based on serious clinical/regulatory outcomes as defined by reported acute liver failure, black-box warning, and/or withdrawal. The drugs were further sub-categorized for dominant types of liver injury. Logistic regression models were performed to calculate the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUROC) and to evaluate the prediction potential of the selected endpoints for serious clinical/regulatory outcomes. The ROS/ATP ratio was found to yield an excellent AUROC in both the testing (0.8989, P < 0.0001) and validation set (0.8545, P < 0.0001), and was found to distinguish drugs associated with severe from non-severe DILI cases (p < 0.0001). The results suggest that evaluation of drugs in primary human hepatocytes using the ROS/ATP ratio endpoint may aid the definition of their potential to cause severe DILI. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison of acetaminophen toxicity in primary hepatocytes isolated from transgenic mice with different appolipoprotein E alleles.

    PubMed

    Mezera, V; Kucera, O; Moravcova, A; Peterova, E; Rousar, T; Rychtrmoc, D; Sobotka, O; Cervinkova, Z

    2015-12-01

    The nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor, important for combating electrophilic and oxidative stress in the liver and other organs. This encompasses detoxification of hepatotoxic drugs, including acetaminophen (APAP). Recently, an association between apolipoprotein E (ApoE) genotype and Nrf2 expression was described. We compared the toxicity of APAP on primary culture hepatocytes isolated from transgenic mice carrying two different human ApoE alleles and wild-type controls. The cells were exposed to APAP in concentrations from 0.5 to 4 mM for up to 24 hours. APAP led to a dose-dependent hepatotoxicity from 1 mM after 16 h exposure in all mice tested. The toxicity was higher in hepatocytes isolated from both transgenic strains than in wild-type controls and most pronounced in ApoE3 mice. Concurrently, there was a decline in mitochondrial membrane potential, especially in ApoE3 hepatocytes. The formation of reactive oxygen species was increased after 24 hours with 2.5 mM APAP in hepatocytes of all strains tested, with the highest increase being in the ApoE3 genotype. The activity of caspases 3 and 7 did not differ among groups and was minimal after 24 hour incubation with 4 mM APAP. We observed higher lipid accumulation in hepatocytes isolated from both transgenic strains than in wild-type controls. The expression of Nrf2-dependent genes was higher in ApoE3 than in ApoE4 hepatocytes and some of these genes were induced by APAP treatment. In conclusion, transgenic mice with ApoE4 and ApoE3 alleles displayed higher susceptibility to acute APAP toxicity in vitro than wild-type mice. Of the two transgenic genotypes tested, ApoE3 allele carriers were more prone to injury.

  11. Characterization of rat or human hepatocytes cultured in microphysiological systems (MPS) to identify hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shih-Yu; Voellinger, Jenna L; Van Ness, Kirk P; Chapron, Brian; Shaffer, Rachel M; Neumann, Thomas; White, Collin C; Kavanagh, Terrance J; Kelly, Edward J; Eaton, David L

    2017-04-01

    The liver is the main site for drug and xenobiotics metabolism, including inactivation or bioactivation. In order to improve the predictability of drug safety and efficacy in clinical development, and to facilitate the evaluation of the potential human health effects from exposure to environmental contaminants, there is a critical need to accurately model human organ systems such as the liver in vitro. We are developing a microphysiological system (MPS) based on a new commercial microfluidic platform (Nortis, Inc.) that can utilize primary liver cells from multiple species (e.g., rat and human). Compared to conventional monolayer cell culture, which typically survives for 5-7days or less, primary rat or human hepatocytes in an MPS exhibited higher viability and improved hepatic functions, such as albumin production, expression of hepatocyte marker HNF4α and canaliculi structure, for up to 14days. Additionally, induction of Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A and 3A4 in cryopreserved human hepatocytes was observed in the MPS. The acute cytotoxicity of the potent hepatotoxic and hepatocarcinogen, aflatoxin B1, was evaluated in human hepatocytes cultured in an MPS, demonstrating the utility of this model for acute hepatotoxicity assessment. These results indicate that MPS-cultured hepatocytes provide a promising approach for evaluating chemical toxicity in vitro. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. In vitro culture of isolated primary hepatocytes and stem cell-derived hepatocyte-like cells for liver regeneration.

    PubMed

    Hu, Chenxia; Li, Lanjuan

    2015-08-01

    Various liver diseases result in terminal hepatic failure, and liver transplantation, cell transplantation and artificial liver support systems are emerging as effective therapies for severe hepatic disease. However, all of these treatments are limited by organ or cell resources, so developing a sufficient number of functional hepatocytes for liver regeneration is a priority. Liver regeneration is a complex process regulated by growth factors (GFs), cytokines, transcription factors (TFs), hormones, oxidative stress products, metabolic networks, and microRNA. It is well-known that the function of isolated primary hepatocytes is hard to maintain; when cultured in vitro, these cells readily undergo dedifferentiation, causing them to lose hepatocyte function. For this reason, most studies focus on inducing stem cells, such as embryonic stem cells (ESCs), induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs), and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), to differentiate into hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs) in vitro. In this review, we mainly focus on the nature of the liver regeneration process and discuss how to maintain and enhance in vitro hepatic function of isolated primary hepatocytes or stem cell-derived HLCs for liver regeneration. In this way, hepatocytes or HLCs may be applied for clinical use for the treatment of terminal liver diseases and may prolong the survival time of patients in the near future.

  13. HBV life cycle is restricted in mouse hepatocytes expressing human NTCP

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hanjie; Zhuang, Qiuyu; Wang, Yuze; Zhang, Tianying; Zhao, Jinghua; Zhang, Yali; Zhang, Junfang; Lin, Yi; Yuan, Quan; Xia, Ningshao; Han, Jiahuai

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed that human sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (SLC10A1 or NTCP) is a functional cellular receptor for hepatitis B virus (HBV). However, whether human NTCP can support HBV infection in mouse hepatocyte cell lines has not been clarified. Because an HBV-permissible mouse model would be helpful for the study of HBV pathogenesis, it is necessary to investigate whether human NTCP supports the susceptibility of mouse hepatocyte cell lines to HBV. The results show that exogenous human NTCP expression can render non-susceptible HepG2 (human), Huh7 (human), Hepa1–6 (mouse), AML-12 (mouse) cell lines and primary mouse hepatocyte (PMH) cells susceptible to hepatitis D virus (HDV) which employs HBV envelope proteins. However, human NTCP could only introduce HBV susceptibility in human-derived HepG2 and Huh7 cells, but not in mouse-derived Hepa1–6, AML-12 or PMH cells. These data suggest that although human NTCP is a functional receptor that mediates HBV infection in human cells, it cannot support HBV infection in mouse hepatocytes. Our study indicated that the restriction of HBV in mouse hepatocytes likely occurs after viral entry but prior to viral transcription. We have excluded the role of mouse hepatocyte nuclear factors in the restriction of the HBV life cycle and showed that knockdown or inhibition of Sting, TBK1, IRF3 or IRF7, the components of the anti-viral signaling pathways, had no effect on HBV infection in mouse hepatocytes. Therefore, murine restriction factors that limit HBV infection need to be identified before a HBV-permissible mouse line can be created. PMID:24509445

  14. Direct reprogramming of human fibroblasts to functional and expandable hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Pengyu; Zhang, Ludi; Gao, Yimeng; He, Zhiying; Yao, Dan; Wu, Zhitao; Cen, Jin; Chen, Xiaotao; Liu, Changcheng; Hu, Yiping; Lai, Dongmei; Hu, Zhenlei; Chen, Li; Zhang, Ying; Cheng, Xin; Ma, Xiaojun; Pan, Guoyu; Wang, Xin; Hui, Lijian

    2014-03-06

    The generation of large numbers of functional human hepatocytes for cell-based approaches to liver disease is an important and unmet goal. Direct reprogramming of fibroblasts to hepatic lineages could offer a solution to this problem but so far has only been achieved with mouse cells. Here, we generated human induced hepatocytes (hiHeps) from fibroblasts by lentiviral expression of FOXA3, HNF1A, and HNF4A. hiHeps express hepatic gene programs, can be expanded in vitro, and display functions characteristic of mature hepatocytes, including cytochrome P450 enzyme activity and biliary drug clearance. Upon transplantation into mice with concanavalin-A-induced acute liver failure and fatal metabolic liver disease due to fumarylacetoacetate dehydrolase (Fah) deficiency, hiHeps restore the liver function and prolong survival. Collectively, our results demonstrate successful lineage conversion of nonhepatic human cells into mature hepatocytes with potential for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications.

  15. Multilayered heparin hydrogel microwells for cultivation of primary hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    You, Jungmok; Shin, Dong-Sik; Patel, Dipali; Gao, Yandong; Revzin, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The biomaterial scaffolds for regenerative medicine need to be rationally designed to achieve the desired cell fate and function. This paper describes the development of hydrogel microstructures for cultivation of primary hepatocytes. Four different micropatterned surfaces are tested: 1) poly(ethyelene glycol) (PEG) microwells patterned on glass, 2) heparin hydrogel microwells patterned on glass, 3) PEG microwells patterned on heparin hydrogel-coated substrates, and 4) heparin hydrogel microwells patterned on heparin hydrogel-coated substrates. The latter surfaces are constructed by a combination of micromolding and microcontact printing techniques to create microwells with both walls and floor composed of heparin hydrogel. Individual microwell dimensions are 200 μm diameter and 20 μm in height. In all cases, the floor of the microwells is modified with collagen I to promote cell adhesion. Cultivation of hepatocytes followed by analysis of hepatic markers (urea production, albumin synthesis, and E-cadherin expression) reveals that the all-heparin gel microwells are most conducive to hepatic phenotype maintenance. For example, ELISA analysis shows 2.3 to 13.1 times higher levels of albumin production in all-heparin gel wells compared with other micropatterned surfaces. Importantly, hepatic phenotype expression can be further enhanced by culturing fibroblasts on the heparin gel walls of the microwells. In the future, multicomponent all-heparin gel microstructures may be employed in designing hepatic niche for liver-specific differentiation of stem cells.

  16. Three-dimensional (3D) printing of mouse primary hepatocytes to generate 3D hepatic structure.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yohan; Kang, Kyojin; Jeong, Jaemin; Paik, Seung Sam; Kim, Ji Sook; Park, Su A; Kim, Wan Doo; Park, Jisun; Choi, Dongho

    2017-02-01

    The major problem in producing artificial livers is that primary hepatocytes cannot be cultured for many days. Recently, 3-dimensional (3D) printing technology draws attention and this technology regarded as a useful tool for current cell biology. By using the 3D bio-printing, these problems can be resolved. To generate 3D bio-printed structures (25 mm × 25 mm), cells-alginate constructs were fabricated by 3D bio-printing system. Mouse primary hepatocytes were isolated from the livers of 6-8 weeks old mice by a 2-step collagenase method. Samples of 4 × 10(7) hepatocytes with 80%-90% viability were printed with 3% alginate solution, and cultured with well-defined culture medium for primary hepatocytes. To confirm functional ability of hepatocytes cultured on 3D alginate scaffold, we conducted quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescence with hepatic marker genes. Isolated primary hepatocytes were printed with alginate. The 3D printed hepatocytes remained alive for 14 days. Gene expression levels of Albumin, HNF-4α and Foxa3 were gradually increased in the 3D structures. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that the primary hepatocytes produced hepatic-specific proteins over the same period of time. Our research indicates that 3D bio-printing technique can be used for long-term culture of primary hepatocytes. It can therefore be used for drug screening and as a potential method of producing artificial livers.

  17. Three-dimensional (3D) printing of mouse primary hepatocytes to generate 3D hepatic structure

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yohan; Kang, Kyojin; Jeong, Jaemin; Paik, Seung Sam; Kim, Ji Sook; Park, Su A; Kim, Wan Doo; Park, Jisun

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The major problem in producing artificial livers is that primary hepatocytes cannot be cultured for many days. Recently, 3-dimensional (3D) printing technology draws attention and this technology regarded as a useful tool for current cell biology. By using the 3D bio-printing, these problems can be resolved. Methods To generate 3D bio-printed structures (25 mm × 25 mm), cells-alginate constructs were fabricated by 3D bio-printing system. Mouse primary hepatocytes were isolated from the livers of 6–8 weeks old mice by a 2-step collagenase method. Samples of 4 × 107 hepatocytes with 80%–90% viability were printed with 3% alginate solution, and cultured with well-defined culture medium for primary hepatocytes. To confirm functional ability of hepatocytes cultured on 3D alginate scaffold, we conducted quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescence with hepatic marker genes. Results Isolated primary hepatocytes were printed with alginate. The 3D printed hepatocytes remained alive for 14 days. Gene expression levels of Albumin, HNF-4α and Foxa3 were gradually increased in the 3D structures. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that the primary hepatocytes produced hepatic-specific proteins over the same period of time. Conclusion Our research indicates that 3D bio-printing technique can be used for long-term culture of primary hepatocytes. It can therefore be used for drug screening and as a potential method of producing artificial livers. PMID:28203553

  18. Comparative Gene Expression Profiles Induced by PPARγ and PPARα/γ Agonists in Human Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Rogue, Alexandra; Lambert, Carine; Jossé, Rozenn; Antherieu, Sebastien; Spire, Catherine; Claude, Nancy; Guillouzo, André

    2011-01-01

    Background Several glitazones (PPARγ agonists) and glitazars (dual PPARα/γ agonists) have been developed to treat hyperglycemia and, simultaneously, hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia, respectively. However, most have caused idiosyncratic hepatic or extrahepatic toxicities through mechanisms that remain largely unknown. Since the liver plays a key role in lipid metabolism, we analyzed changes in gene expression profiles induced by these two types of PPAR agonists in human hepatocytes. Methodology/Principal Findings Primary human hepatocytes and the well-differentiated human hepatoma HepaRG cells were exposed to different concentrations of two PPARγ (troglitazone and rosiglitazone) and two PPARα/γ (muraglitazar and tesaglitazar) agonists for 24 h and their transcriptomes were analyzed using human pangenomic Agilent microarrays. Principal Component Analysis, hierarchical clustering and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis® revealed large inter-individual variability in the response of the human hepatocyte populations to the different compounds. Many genes involved in lipid, carbohydrate, xenobiotic and cholesterol metabolism, as well as inflammation and immunity, were regulated by both PPARγ and PPARα/γ agonists in at least a number of human hepatocyte populations and/or HepaRG cells. Only a few genes were selectively deregulated by glitazars when compared to glitazones, indicating that PPARγ and PPARα/γ agonists share most of their target genes. Moreover, some target genes thought to be regulated only in mouse or to be expressed in Kupffer cells were also found to be responsive in human hepatocytes and HepaRG cells. Conclusions/Significance This first comprehensive analysis of gene regulation by PPARγ and PPARα/γ agonists favor the conclusion that glitazones and glitazars share most of their target genes and induce large differential changes in gene profiles in human hepatocytes depending on hepatocyte donor, the compound class and/or individual compound, thereby

  19. Co-regulation of Primary Mouse Hepatocyte Viability and Function by Oxygen and Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Buck, Lorenna D.; Inman, S. Walker; Rusyn, Ivan; Griffith, Linda G.

    2014-01-01

    Although oxygen and extracellular matrix cues both influence differentiation state and metabolic function of primary rat and human hepatocytes, relatively little is known about how these factors together regulate behaviors of primary mouse hepatocytes in culture. To determine the effects of pericellular oxygen tension on hepatocellular function, we employed 2 methods of altering oxygen concentration in the local cellular microenvironment of cells cultured in the presence or absence of an extracellular matrix (Matrigel) supplement. By systematically altering medium depth and gas phase oxygen tension, we created multiple oxygen regimes (hypoxic, normoxic, and hyperoxic) and measured the local oxygen concentrations in the pericellular environment using custom-designed oxygen microprobes. From these measurements of oxygen concentrations, we derived values of oxygen consumption rates under a spectrum of environmental contexts, thus providing the first reported estimates of these values for primary mouse hepatocytes. Oxygen tension and matrix microenvironment were found to synergistically regulate hepatocellular survival and function as assessed using quantitative image analysis for cells stained with vital dyes, and assessment of secretion of albumin. Hepatocellular viability was affected only at strongly hypoxic conditions. Surprisingly, albumin secretion rates were greatest at a moderately supra-physiological oxygen concentration, and this effect was mitigated at still greater supra-physiological concentrations. Matrigel enhanced the effects of oxygen on retention of function. This study underscores the importance of carefully controlling cell density, medium depth and gas phase oxygen, as the effects of these parameters on local pericellular oxygen tension and subsequent hepatocellular function are profound. PMID:24222008

  20. Comparison of rat and hamster hepatocyte primary culture/DNA repair assays

    SciTech Connect

    Kornbrust, D.J.; Barfknect, T.R.

    1984-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated marked differences in the capacity of hepatocytes from rats or hamsters to mediate the metabolic activation of chemical carcinogens to genotoxic (i.e., mutagenic) products. Thus far, very few investigations of species differences in DNA repair have been performed. Therefore, a comparison of the relative extent of DNA repair elicited by various genotoxic chemicals in rat and hamster hepatocyes was conducted, using the hepatocyte primary culture/DNA repair (HPC/DR) assay. Of the ll chemicals tested, eight were more potent in inducing DNA repair in hamster hepatocytes than in rat hepatocytes. Dimethylnitrosamine, diethylnitrosamine, 2-acetylaminofluorene, 9-aminoacridine, pararosaniline hydrochloride, 1-naphthylamine, benzidine and 1,2,3,4-diepoxybutane were all active in hamster hepatocytes at a concentration at least ten times less than the lowest effective concentration in rat hepatocytes. The direct-acting alkylating agent, methylmethane sulfonate, was equipotent inducing DNA repair in both rat and hamster hepatocytes, indicating that the differences in DNA repair observed for the other chemicals were probably not a result of species differences in DNA repair capacities. In contrast, 1-nitropyrene produced a greater DNA repair response in rat hepatocyes than hamster hepatocytes, while the bacterial mutagen 3-(chloromethyl)pyridine hydrochloride was inactive in both hepatocyte systems. These studies demonstrate the feasibility of using hamster hepatocytes in the HPC/DR assay and illustrate the utility of performing the assay with hepatocytes from more than one species.

  1. Effect of Concentrated Fibroblast-Conditioned Media on In Vitro Maintenance of Rat Primary Hepatocyte.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Dayeong; Han, Chungmin; Kang, Inhye; Park, Hyun Taek; Kim, Jiyoon; Ryu, Hayoung; Gho, Yong Song; Park, Jaesung

    2016-01-01

    The effects of concentrated fibroblast-conditioned media were tested to determine whether hepatocyte function can be maintained without direct contact between hepatocytes and fibroblasts. Primary rat hepatocytes cultured with a concentrated conditioned media of NIH-3T3 J2 cell line (final concentration of 55 mg/ml) showed significantly improved survival and functions (albumin and urea) compared to those of control groups. They also showed higher expression levels of mRNA, albumin and tyrosine aminotransferase compared to hepatocyte monoculture. The results suggest that culture with concentrated fibroblast-conditioned media could be an easy method for in vitro maintenance of primary hepatocytes. They also could be contribute to understand and analyze co-culture condition of hepatocyte with stroma cells.

  2. Hepatocyte Growth Factor Reduces Free Cholesterol-Mediated Lipotoxicity in Primary Hepatocytes by Countering Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Domínguez-Pérez, Mayra; Nuño-Lámbarri, Natalia; Clavijo-Cornejo, Denise; Luna-López, Armando; Souza, Verónica; Bucio, Leticia; Miranda, Roxana U.; Muñoz, Linda; Gomez-Quiroz, Luis Enrique; Uribe-Carvajal, Salvador; Gutiérrez-Ruiz, María Concepción

    2016-01-01

    Cholesterol overload in the liver has shown toxic effects by inducing the aggravation of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease to steatohepatitis and sensitizing to damage. Although the mechanism of damage is complex, it has been demonstrated that oxidative stress plays a prominent role in the process. In addition, we have proved that hepatocyte growth factor induces an antioxidant response in hepatic cells; in the present work we aimed to figure out the protective effect of this growth factor in hepatocytes overloaded with free cholesterol. Hepatocytes from mice fed with a high-cholesterol diet were treated or not with HGF, reactive oxygen species present in cholesterol overloaded hepatocytes significantly decreased, and this effect was particularly associated with the increase in glutathione and related enzymes, such as γ-gamma glutamyl cysteine synthetase, GSH peroxidase, and GSH-S-transferase. Our data clearly indicate that HGF displays an antioxidant response by inducing the glutathione-related protection system. PMID:27143995

  3. Hepatocyte Growth Factor Reduces Free Cholesterol-Mediated Lipotoxicity in Primary Hepatocytes by Countering Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Pérez, Mayra; Nuño-Lámbarri, Natalia; Clavijo-Cornejo, Denise; Luna-López, Armando; Souza, Verónica; Bucio, Leticia; Miranda, Roxana U; Muñoz, Linda; Gomez-Quiroz, Luis Enrique; Uribe-Carvajal, Salvador; Gutiérrez-Ruiz, María Concepción

    2016-01-01

    Cholesterol overload in the liver has shown toxic effects by inducing the aggravation of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease to steatohepatitis and sensitizing to damage. Although the mechanism of damage is complex, it has been demonstrated that oxidative stress plays a prominent role in the process. In addition, we have proved that hepatocyte growth factor induces an antioxidant response in hepatic cells; in the present work we aimed to figure out the protective effect of this growth factor in hepatocytes overloaded with free cholesterol. Hepatocytes from mice fed with a high-cholesterol diet were treated or not with HGF, reactive oxygen species present in cholesterol overloaded hepatocytes significantly decreased, and this effect was particularly associated with the increase in glutathione and related enzymes, such as γ-gamma glutamyl cysteine synthetase, GSH peroxidase, and GSH-S-transferase. Our data clearly indicate that HGF displays an antioxidant response by inducing the glutathione-related protection system.

  4. Vascularized subcutaneous human liver tissue from engineered hepatocyte/fibroblast sheets in mice.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Yusuke; Yamanouchi, Kosho; Ohashi, Kazuo; Koike, Makiko; Utoh, Rie; Hasegawa, Hideko; Muraoka, Izumi; Suematsu, Takashi; Soyama, Akihiko; Hidaka, Masaaki; Takatsuki, Mitsuhisa; Kuroki, Tamotsu; Eguchi, Susumu

    2015-10-01

    Subcutaneous liver tissue engineering is an attractive and minimally invasive approach used to curative treat hepatic failure and inherited liver diseases. However, graft failure occurs frequently due to insufficient infiltration of blood vessels (neoangiogenesis), while the maintenance of hepatocyte phenotype and function requires in vivo development of the complex cellular organization of the hepatic lobule. Here we describe a subcutaneous human liver construction allowing for rapidly vascularized grafts by transplanting engineered cellular sheets consisting of human primary hepatocytes adhered onto a fibroblast layer. The engineered hepatocyte/fibroblast sheets (EHFSs) showed superior expression levels of vascularization-associated growth factors (vascular endothelial growth factor, transforming growth factor beta 1, and hepatocyte growth factor) in vitro. EHFSs developed into vascularized subcutaneous human liver tissues contained glycogen stores, synthesized coagulation factor IX, and showed significantly higher synthesis rates of liver-specific proteins (albumin and alpha 1 anti-trypsin) in vivo than tissues from hepatocyte-only sheets. The present study describes a new approach for vascularized human liver organogenesis under mouse skin. This approach could prove valuable for establishing novel cell therapies for liver diseases.

  5. Preclinical characterization of primary porcine hepatocytes in a clinically relevant flat membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Maringka, Michael; Giri, Shibashish; Bader, Augustinus

    2010-01-01

    Using primary porcine hepatocytes, artificial extracorporeal liver support (AEL) is a therapy that carries out the liver functions of liver failure patients until their own organs have been regenerated or until whole organ transplantation. Significant variation exists with regard to current bioreactor designs for AEL, and they may not reflect the in vivo architecture of the liver since each individual hepatocyte has its own direct contact with blood plasma for oxygen and nutrient supply and detoxification. The present study, based on our flat membrane bioreactor (FMB), aimed at in vivo liver architecture and to meet authentic clinical levels of human plasma exposure. Since many existing preclinical AELs are based on commercial culture medium with or without nonhuman serum, they may not authentically reflect the clinical situation in human patients, and little research has been done on human plasma exposure in in vitro culture-based bioreactors. To address this situation, herein we examined liver-specific functions such as albumin secretion, urea synthesis, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT), cell membrane stability by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) test and ammonia clearance by using human plasma and serum-free medium in long-term culture of primary porcine hepatocytes to show the potential of our clinically relevant FMB. We observed that the organotypical double-gel (DG) culture is superior to conventional collagen-coated single-gel (SG) cultures. The performance of liver-specific functions by the FMB has long-term stability with intact cell morphology for up to 20 days under both plasma exposure and serum-free media. Our three focus points (long-term culture that correlates with the generation time of spontaneous regeneration, high-density culture, organotypical culture model using human plasma) may provide valuable clinical clues for AEL.

  6. Prediction of Differentiation Tendency Toward Hepatocytes from Gene Expression in Undifferentiated Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yanagihara, Kana; Liu, Yujung; Kanie, Kei; Takayama, Kazuo; Kokunugi, Minako; Hirata, Mitsuhi; Fukuda, Takayuki; Suga, Mika; Nikawa, Hiroki; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki; Kato, Ryuji

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Functional hepatocytes derived from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) have potential as tools for predicting drug-induced hepatotoxicity in the early phases of drug development. However, the propensity of hPSC lines to differentiate into specific lineages is reported to differ. The ability to predict low propensity of hPSCs to differentiate into hepatocytes would facilitate the selection of useful hPSC clones and substantially accelerate development of hPSC-derived hepatocytes for pharmaceutical research. In this study, we compared the expression of genes associated with hepatic differentiation in five hPSC lines including human ES cell line, H9, which is known to differentiate into hepatocytes, and an hPSC line reported with a poor propensity for hepatic differentiation. Genes distinguishing between undifferentiated hPSCs, hPSC-derived hepatoblast-like differentiated cells, and primary human hepatocytes were drawn by two-way cluster analysis. The order of expression levels of genes in undifferentiated hPSCs was compared with that in hPSC-derived hepatoblast-like cells. Three genes were selected as predictors of low propensity for hepatic differentiation. Expression of these genes was investigated in 23 hPSC clones. Review of representative cells by induction of hepatic differentiation suggested that low prediction scores were linked with low hepatic differentiation. Thus, our model using gene expression ranking and bioinformatic analysis could reasonably predict poor differentiation propensity of hPSC lines. PMID:27733097

  7. Prediction of Differentiation Tendency Toward Hepatocytes from Gene Expression in Undifferentiated Human Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Yanagihara, Kana; Liu, Yujung; Kanie, Kei; Takayama, Kazuo; Kokunugi, Minako; Hirata, Mitsuhi; Fukuda, Takayuki; Suga, Mika; Nikawa, Hiroki; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki; Kato, Ryuji; Furue, Miho K

    2016-12-15

    Functional hepatocytes derived from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) have potential as tools for predicting drug-induced hepatotoxicity in the early phases of drug development. However, the propensity of hPSC lines to differentiate into specific lineages is reported to differ. The ability to predict low propensity of hPSCs to differentiate into hepatocytes would facilitate the selection of useful hPSC clones and substantially accelerate development of hPSC-derived hepatocytes for pharmaceutical research. In this study, we compared the expression of genes associated with hepatic differentiation in five hPSC lines including human ES cell line, H9, which is known to differentiate into hepatocytes, and an hPSC line reported with a poor propensity for hepatic differentiation. Genes distinguishing between undifferentiated hPSCs, hPSC-derived hepatoblast-like differentiated cells, and primary human hepatocytes were drawn by two-way cluster analysis. The order of expression levels of genes in undifferentiated hPSCs was compared with that in hPSC-derived hepatoblast-like cells. Three genes were selected as predictors of low propensity for hepatic differentiation. Expression of these genes was investigated in 23 hPSC clones. Review of representative cells by induction of hepatic differentiation suggested that low prediction scores were linked with low hepatic differentiation. Thus, our model using gene expression ranking and bioinformatic analysis could reasonably predict poor differentiation propensity of hPSC lines.

  8. Inhibition of Drp1 protects against senecionine-induced mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in primary hepatocytes and in mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao; Wang, Hua; Ni, Hong-Min; Xiong, Aizhen; Wang, Zhengtao; Sesaki, Hiromi; Ding, Wen-Xing; Yang, Li

    2017-03-02

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are a group of compounds found in various plants and some of them are widely consumed in the world as herbal medicines and food supplements. PAs are potent hepatotoxins that cause irreversible liver injury in animals and humans. However, the mechanisms by which PAs induce liver injury are not clear. In the present study, we determined the hepatotoxicity and molecular mechanisms of senecionine, one of the most common toxic PAs, in primary cultured mouse and human hepatocytes as well as in mice. We found that senecionine administration increased serum alanine aminotransferase levels in mice. H&E and TUNEL staining of liver tissues revealed increased hemorrhage and hepatocyte apoptosis in liver zone 2 areas. Mechanistically, senecionine induced loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, release of mitochondrial cytochrome c as well as mitochondrial JNK translocation and activation prior to the increased DNA fragmentation and caspase-3 activation in primary cultured mouse and human hepatocytes. SP600125, a specific JNK inhibitor, and ZVAD-fmk, a general caspase inhibitor, alleviated senecionine-induced apoptosis in primary hepatocytes. Interestingly, senecionine also caused marked mitochondria fragmentation in hepatocytes. Pharmacological inhibition of dynamin-related protein1 (Drp1), a protein that is critical to regulate mitochondrial fission, blocked senecionine-induced mitochondrial fragmentation and mitochondrial release of cytochrome c and apoptosis. More importantly, hepatocyte-specific Drp1 knockout mice were resistant to senecionine-induced liver injury due to decreased mitochondrial damage and apoptosis. In conclusion, our results uncovered a novel mechanism of Drp1-mediated mitochondrial fragmentation in senecionine-induced liver injury. Targeting Drp1-mediated mitochondrial fragmentation and apoptosis may be a potential avenue to prevent and treat hepatotoxicity induced by PAs.

  9. Effects of methylmercury on primary cultured rat hepatocytes: Cell injury and inhibition of growth factor stimulated DNA synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Tanno, Keiichi; Fukazawa, Toshiyuki; Tajima, Shizuko; Fujiki, Motoo )

    1992-08-01

    Many more studies deal with the toxicity of methylmercury on nervous tissue than on its toxicity to the liver. Methylmercury accumulates in the liver in higher concentrations than brain and the liver has the primary function of detoxifying methylmercury. According to recent studies, hepatocyte mitochondrial membranes are destroyed by methylmercury and DNA synthesis is inhibited by methylmercury during hepatocyte regeneration. Methylmercury alters the membrane ion permeability of isolate skate hepatocytes, and inhibits the metal-sensitive alcohol dehydrogenase and glutathione reductase of primary cultured rat hepatocytes. However, little is known about the effect of methylmercury on hepatocyte proliferation in primary cultured rat hepatocytes. We therefore used the primary cultured rat hepatocytes to investigate the effects of methylmercury on cell injury and growth factor stimulate DNA synthesis. The primary effect of methylmercury is to inhibit hepatocyte proliferation rather than to cause direct cell injury. 16 refs., 4 figs.

  10. Allicin modulates the antioxidation and detoxification capabilities of primary rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chih-Chung; Chu, Yung-Lin; Sheen, Lee-Yan

    2012-10-01

    The effect of allicin, an active ingredient of garlic, on lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage, lipid peroxidation, glutathione (GSH) content, and GSH-related enzyme activity was investigated in primary hepatocytes. In this study, allicin was synthesized in our laboratory as an experimental material, and primary hepatocytes isolated from Sprague-Dawley rats were used as an experimental model. According to the results, hepatocytes treated with 10 μM allicin did not differ from the control on LDH leakage during various incubation times. When the hepatocytes were treated with 10 μM allicin, their levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive-substances (TBARS) did not differ significantly from that of the control within the 8-h incubation. However, the TBARS values of hepatocytes treated with 30 and 50 μM allicin were higher compared to the control after incubation for 4 h and 8 h, respectively. The hepatocyte intracellular GSH content was significantly higher than that of the control after 30 μM allicin treatment, but treatment with 50 μM allicin caused a significant GSH depletion after incubation for 4 h or longer. In addition, when hepatocytes were treated for 24 h with 10 or 30 μM allicin, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity was significantly increased compared to that of the control, whereas 50 μM allicin treatment for 24 h or longer significantly decreased the GPx activity. Glutathione reductase (GRd) activity was significantly increased when the hepatocytes were treated with 10 μM allicin for 24 h, but GRd activity significantly decreased when the hepatocytes were treated with 50 μM allicin. However, hepatocytes treated for 24 h with 10 or 30 μM allicin showed significantly increased glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity compared to the control. These results suggest that 10 μM allicin potentially enhances the antioxidation and detoxification capabilities of primary rat hepatocytes.

  11. Allicin Modulates the Antioxidation and Detoxification Capabilities of Primary Rat Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chih-Chung; Chu, Yung-Lin; Sheen, Lee-Yan

    2012-01-01

    The effect of allicin, an active ingredient of garlic, on lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage, lipid peroxidation, glutathione (GSH) content, and GSH-related enzyme activity was investigated in primary hepatocytes. In this study, allicin was synthesized in our laboratory as an experimental material, and primary hepatocytes isolated from Sprague-Dawley rats were used as an experimental model. According to the results, hepatocytes treated with 10 μM allicin did not differ from the control on LDH leakage during various incubation times. When the hepatocytes were treated with 10 μM allicin, their levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive-substances (TBARS) did not differ significantly from that of the control within the 8-h incubation. However, the TBARS values of hepatocytes treated with 30 and 50 μM allicin were higher compared to the control after incubation for 4 h and 8 h, respectively. The hepatocyte intracellular GSH content was significantly higher than that of the control after 30 μM allicin treatment, but treatment with 50 μM allicin caused a significant GSH depletion after incubation for 4 h or longer. In addition, when hepatocytes were treated for 24 h with 10 or 30 μM allicin, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity was significantly increased compared to that of the control, whereas 50 μM allicin treatment for 24 h or longer significantly decreased the GPx activity. Glutathione reductase (GRd) activity was significantly increased when the hepatocytes were treated with 10 μM allicin for 24 h, but GRd activity significantly decreased when the hepatocytes were treated with 50 μM allicin. However, hepatocytes treated for 24 h with 10 or 30 μM allicin showed significantly increased glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity compared to the control. These results suggest that 10 μM allicin potentially enhances the antioxidation and detoxification capabilities of primary rat hepatocytes. PMID:24716147

  12. Comparative Transcriptomic Analysis of Primary Duck Hepatocytes Provides Insight into Differential Susceptibility to DHBV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Gang; Liu, Lei; Yu, Yao; Ding, Guohui; Zhao, Yanfeng; Li, Yixue; Xie, Youhua; Zhang, Junqi; Qu, Di

    2016-01-01

    Primary duck hepatocytes (PDH) displays differential susceptibility to duck hepatitis B virus when maintained in the media supplemented with fetal bovine serum or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) which has been widely used for the maintenance of hepatocytes, and prolonging susceptibility to hepadnavirus. However the mechanism underlying maintenance of susceptibility to hepadnavirus by DMSO treatment remains unclear. In this study, a global transcriptome analysis of PDHs under different culture conditions was conducted for investigating the effects of DMSO on maintenance of susceptibility of PDH to DHBV in vitro. The 384 differential expressed genes (DEGs) were identified by comparisons between each library pair (PDHs cultured with or without DMSO or fresh isolated PDH). We analyzed canonical pathways in which the DEGs were enriched in Hepatic Fibrosis / Hepatic Stellate Cell Activation, Bile Acid Biosynthesis and Tight Junction signaling. After re-annotation against human genome data, the 384 DEGs were pooled together with proteins belonging to hepatitis B pathway to construct a protein-protein interaction network. The combination of decreased expression of liver-specific genes (CYP3A4, CYP1E1, CFI, RELN and GSTA1 et al) with increased expression of hepatocyte-dedifferentiation-associated genes (PLA2G4A and PLCG1) suggested that in vitro culture conditions results in the fading of hepatocyte phenotype in PDHs. The expression of seven DEGs associated with tight junction formation (JAM3, PPP2R2B, PRKAR1B, PPP2R2C, MAGI2, ACTA2 and ACTG2) was up-regulated after short-term culture in vitro, which was attenuated in the presence of DMSO. Those results could shed light on DHBV infection associated molecular events affected by DMSO. PMID:26900848

  13. Cholesterol Enhances the Toxic Effect of Ethanol and Acetaldehyde in Primary Mouse Hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    López-Islas, Anayelly; Chagoya-Hazas, Victoria; Pérez-Aguilar, Benjamin; Palestino-Domínguez, Mayrel; Souza, Verónica; Miranda, Roxana U; Bucio, Leticia; Gómez-Quiroz, Luis Enrique; Gutiérrez-Ruiz, María-Concepción

    2016-01-01

    Obesity and alcohol consumption are risk factors for hepatic steatosis, and both commonly coexist. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of ethanol and acetaldehyde on primary hepatocytes obtained from mice fed for two days with a high cholesterol (HC) diet. HC hepatocytes increased lipid and cholesterol content. HC diet sensitized hepatocytes to the toxic effect of ethanol and acetaldehyde. Cyp2E1 content increased with HC diet, as well as in those treated with ethanol or acetaldehyde, while the activity of this enzyme determined in microsomes increased in the HC and in all ethanol treated hepatocytes, HC and CW. Oxidized proteins were increased in the HC cultures treated or not with the toxins. Transmission electron microscopy showed endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and megamitochondria in hepatocytes treated with ethanol as in HC and the ethanol HC treated hepatocytes. ER stress determined by PERK content was increased in ethanol treated hepatocytes from HC mice and CW. Nuclear translocation of ATF6 was observed in HC hepatocytes treated with ethanol, results that indicate that lipids overload and ethanol treatment favor ER stress. Oxidative stress, ER stress, and mitochondrial damage underlie potential mechanisms for increased damage in steatotic hepatocyte treated with ethanol.

  14. Cholesterol Enhances the Toxic Effect of Ethanol and Acetaldehyde in Primary Mouse Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    López-Islas, Anayelly; Chagoya-Hazas, Victoria; Pérez-Aguilar, Benjamin; Palestino-Domínguez, Mayrel; Souza, Verónica; Miranda, Roxana U.; Bucio, Leticia; Gómez-Quiroz, Luis Enrique; Gutiérrez-Ruiz, María-Concepción

    2016-01-01

    Obesity and alcohol consumption are risk factors for hepatic steatosis, and both commonly coexist. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of ethanol and acetaldehyde on primary hepatocytes obtained from mice fed for two days with a high cholesterol (HC) diet. HC hepatocytes increased lipid and cholesterol content. HC diet sensitized hepatocytes to the toxic effect of ethanol and acetaldehyde. Cyp2E1 content increased with HC diet, as well as in those treated with ethanol or acetaldehyde, while the activity of this enzyme determined in microsomes increased in the HC and in all ethanol treated hepatocytes, HC and CW. Oxidized proteins were increased in the HC cultures treated or not with the toxins. Transmission electron microscopy showed endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and megamitochondria in hepatocytes treated with ethanol as in HC and the ethanol HC treated hepatocytes. ER stress determined by PERK content was increased in ethanol treated hepatocytes from HC mice and CW. Nuclear translocation of ATF6 was observed in HC hepatocytes treated with ethanol, results that indicate that lipids overload and ethanol treatment favor ER stress. Oxidative stress, ER stress, and mitochondrial damage underlie potential mechanisms for increased damage in steatotic hepatocyte treated with ethanol. PMID:26788255

  15. Hepatobiliary disposition of 17-OHPC and taurocholate in fetal human hepatocytes: a comparison with adult human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Shringi; Ellis, Ewa C S; Gramignoli, Roberto; Dorko, Kenneth; Tahan, Veysel; Hansel, Marc; Mattison, Donald R; Caritis, Steve N; Hines, Ronald N; Venkataramanan, Raman; Strom, Stephen C

    2013-02-01

    Little information is available in the literature regarding the expression and activity of transporters in fetal human liver or cultured cells. A synthetic progesterone structural analog, 17α-hydroxyprogesterone caproate (17-OHPC), is used in the prevention of spontaneous abortion in women with a history of recurrent miscarriage (habitual abortion). 17-OHPC has been reported to traverse the placental barrier and gain access to fetal circulation. In this study, the role of transporters in the disposition of 17-OHPC in fetal and adult human hepatocytes was examined. Progesterone metabolites have been reported to induce trans-inhibition of bile acid transporter, ABCB11. Thus, we investigated the effect of 17-OHPC or its metabolites on [(3)H]taurocholic acid transport in sandwich-cultured human fetal and adult hepatocytes. 17-OHPC was taken up rapidly into the cells and transported out partially by an active efflux process that was significantly inhibited by cold temperature, cyclosporine, verapamil, and rifampin. The active efflux mechanism was observed in both adult and fetal hepatocyte cultures. 17-OHPC produced a concentration-dependent inhibition of taurocholate efflux into canaliculi in sandwich-cultured adult and fetal human hepatocytes. However, given the high concentrations required to cause inhibition of these transport processes, no adverse effects would be anticipated from therapeutic levels of 17-OHPC. We also evaluated the expression of various hepatic transporters (ABCB1, ABCB4, SLCO1B1, SLCO1B3, SLCO2B1, ABCB11, SLC10A1, ABCC2, ABCC3, ABCC4, and ABCG2) in fetal and adult hepatocytes. With the exception of ABCB4, all transporters examined were expressed, albeit at lower mRNA levels in fetal hepatocytes compared with adults.

  16. Hepatobiliary Disposition of 17-OHPC and Taurocholate in Fetal Human Hepatocytes: A Comparison with Adult Human Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Shringi; Ellis, Ewa C. S.; Gramignoli, Roberto; Dorko, Kenneth; Tahan, Veysel; Hansel, Marc; Mattison, Donald R.; Caritis, Steve N.; Hines, Ronald N.; Venkataramanan, Raman

    2013-01-01

    Little information is available in the literature regarding the expression and activity of transporters in fetal human liver or cultured cells. A synthetic progesterone structural analog, 17α-hydroxyprogesterone caproate (17-OHPC), is used in the prevention of spontaneous abortion in women with a history of recurrent miscarriage (habitual abortion). 17-OHPC has been reported to traverse the placental barrier and gain access to fetal circulation. In this study, the role of transporters in the disposition of 17-OHPC in fetal and adult human hepatocytes was examined. Progesterone metabolites have been reported to induce trans-inhibition of bile acid transporter, ABCB11. Thus, we investigated the effect of 17-OHPC or its metabolites on [3H]taurocholic acid transport in sandwich-cultured human fetal and adult hepatocytes. 17-OHPC was taken up rapidly into the cells and transported out partially by an active efflux process that was significantly inhibited by cold temperature, cyclosporine, verapamil, and rifampin. The active efflux mechanism was observed in both adult and fetal hepatocyte cultures. 17-OHPC produced a concentration-dependent inhibition of taurocholate efflux into canaliculi in sandwich-cultured adult and fetal human hepatocytes. However, given the high concentrations required to cause inhibition of these transport processes, no adverse effects would be anticipated from therapeutic levels of 17-OHPC. We also evaluated the expression of various hepatic transporters (ABCB1, ABCB4, SLCO1B1, SLCO1B3, SLCO2B1, ABCB11, SLC10A1, ABCC2, ABCC3, ABCC4, and ABCG2) in fetal and adult hepatocytes. With the exception of ABCB4, all transporters examined were expressed, albeit at lower mRNA levels in fetal hepatocytes compared with adults. PMID:23129211

  17. Optimizing human hepatocyte models for metabolic phenotype and function: effects of treatment with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO).

    PubMed

    Nikolaou, Nikolaos; Green, Charlotte J; Gunn, Pippa J; Hodson, Leanne; Tomlinson, Jeremy W

    2016-11-01

    Primary human hepatocytes are considered to be the "gold standard" cellular model for studying hepatic fatty acid and glucose metabolism; however, they come with limitations. Although the HepG2 cell line retains many of the primary hepatocyte metabolic functions they have a malignant origin and low rates of triglyceride secretion. The aim of this study was to investigate whether dimethyl sulfoxide supplementation in the media of HepG2 cells would enhance metabolic functionality leading to the development of an improved in vitro cell model that closely recapitulates primary human hepatocyte metabolism. HepG2 cells were cultured in media containing 1% dimethyl sulfoxide for 2, 4, 7, 14, and 21 days. Gene expression, protein levels, intracellular triglyceride, and media concentrations of triglyceride, urea, and 3-hydroxybutyrate concentrations were measured. Dimethyl sulfoxide treatment altered the expression of genes involved in lipid (FAS, ACC1, ACC2, DGAT1, DGAT2, SCD) and glucose (PEPCK, G6Pase) metabolism as well as liver functionality (albumin, alpha-1-antitrypsin, AFP). mRNA changes were paralleled by alterations at the protein level. DMSO treatment decreased intracellular triglyceride content and lactate production and increased triglyceride and 3-hydroxybutyrate concentrations in the media in a time-dependent manner. We have demonstrated that the addition of 1% dimethyl sulfoxide to culture media changes the metabolic phenotype of HepG2 cells toward a more primary human hepatocyte phenotype. This will enhance the currently available in vitro model systems for the study of hepatocyte biology related to pathological processes that contribute to disease and their response to specific therapeutic interventions.

  18. Evaluating the uptake and intracellular fate of polystyrene nanoparticles by primary and hepatocyte cell lines in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, Helinor J.; Semmler-Behnke, Manuela; Kreyling, Wolfgang; Stone, Vicki

    2010-01-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) are being used within diverse applications such as medicines, clothing, cosmetics and food. In order to promote the safe development of such nanotechnologies it is essential to assess the potential adverse health consequences associated with human exposure. The liver is recognised as a target site for NP toxicity, due to NP accumulation within this organ subsequent to injection, inhalation or instillation. The uptake of fluorescent polystyrene carboxylated particles (20 nm or 200 nm diameter) by hepatocytes was determined using confocal microscopy; with cells imaged 'live' during particle exposure or after exposure within fixed cells. Comparisons between the uptake of polystyrene particles by primary rat hepatocytes, and human hepatocyte cell lines (C3A and HepG2) were made. Uptake of particles by hepatocytes was size, time, and serum dependent. Specifically, the uptake of 200 nm particles was limited, but 20 nm NPs were internalised by all cell types from 10 min onwards. At 10 min, 20 nm NP fluorescence co-localised with the tubulin cytoskeleton staining; after 30 min NP fluorescence compartmentalised into structures located within and/or between cells. The fate of internalised NPs was considered and they were not contained within early endosomes or lysosomes, but within mitochondria of cell lines. NPs accumulated within bile canaliculi to a limited extent, which suggests that NPs can be eliminated within bile. This is in keeping with the finding that gold NPs were eliminated in bile following intravenous injection into rats. The findings were, in the main, comparable between primary rat hepatocytes and the different human hepatocyte cell lines.

  19. Defined and Scalable Generation of Hepatocyte-like Cells from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Alhaque, Sharmin; Cameron, Kate; Meseguer-Ripolles, Jose; Lucendo-Villarin, Baltasar; Rashidi, Hassan; Hay, David C

    2017-03-02

    Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) possess great value for biomedical research. hPSCs can be scaled and differentiated to all cell types found in the human body. The differentiation of hPSCs to human hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs) has been extensively studied, and efficient differentiation protocols have been established. The combination of extracellular matrix and biological stimuli, including growth factors, cytokines, and small molecules, have made it possible to generate HLCs that resemble primary human hepatocytes. However, the majority of procedures still employ undefined components, giving rise to batch-to-batch variation. This serves as a significant barrier to the application of the technology. To tackle this issue, we developed a defined system for hepatocyte differentiation using human recombinant laminins as extracellular matrices in combination with a serum-free differentiation process. Highly efficient hepatocyte specification was achieved, with demonstrated improvements in both HLC function and phenotype. Importantly, this system is easy to scale up using research and GMP-grade hPSC lines promising advances in cell-based modelling and therapies.

  20. Effects on 2,2’,4,4’-Tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE 47) on Thyroxine Metabolism and Transport in Primary Rat and Human Hepatocytes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), a major class of brominated flame retardants, are used in consumer products including furniture, electronics, textiles, and plastics. PBDEs bioaccumulate in wildlife and humans; BDE 47 is the predominant PBDE congener detected and typicall...

  1. Effects on 2,2’,4,4’-Tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE 47) on Thyroxine Metabolism and Transport in Primary Rat and Human Hepatocytes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), a major class of brominated flame retardants, are used in consumer products including furniture, electronics, textiles, and plastics. PBDEs bioaccumulate in wildlife and humans; BDE 47 is the predominant PBDE congener detected and typicall...

  2. RNAi screening in primary human hepatocytes of genes implicated in genome-wide association studies for roles in type 2 diabetes identifies roles for CAMK1D and CDKAL1, among others, in hepatic glucose regulation.

    PubMed

    Haney, Steven; Zhao, Juan; Tiwari, Shiwani; Eng, Kurt; Guey, Lin T; Tien, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Genome-wide association (GWA) studies have described a large number of new candidate genes that contribute to of Type 2 Diabetes (T2D). In some cases, small clusters of genes are implicated, rather than a single gene, and in all cases, the genetic contribution is not defined through the effects on a specific organ, such as the pancreas or liver. There is a significant need to develop and use human cell-based models to examine the effects these genes may have on glucose regulation. We describe the development of a primary human hepatocyte model that adjusts glucose disposition according to hormonal signals. This model was used to determine whether candidate genes identified in GWA studies regulate hepatic glucose disposition through siRNAs corresponding to the list of identified genes. We find that several genes affect the storage of glucose as glycogen (glycolytic response) and/or affect the utilization of pyruvate, the critical step in gluconeogenesis. Of the genes that affect both of these processes, CAMK1D, TSPAN8 and KIF11 affect the localization of a mediator of both gluconeogenesis and glycolysis regulation, CRTC2, to the nucleus in response to glucagon. In addition, the gene CDKAL1 was observed to affect glycogen storage, and molecular experiments using mutant forms of CDK5, a putative target of CDKAL1, in HepG2 cells show that this is mediated by coordinate regulation of CDK5 and PKA on MEK, which ultimately regulates the phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6, a critical step in the insulin signaling pathway.

  3. Sex and strain differences in the hepatocyte primary culture/DNA repair test

    SciTech Connect

    McQueen, C.A.; Way, B.M. )

    1991-01-01

    The hepatocyte primary culture (HPC)/DNA repair test was developed using hepatocytes isolated from male F-344 rats. A number of genetic polymorphisms have been shown to occur in inbred strains of rats, which may lead to variation in biotransformation of xenobiotics resulting in differences in susceptibility to genotoxins. The effect of the strain utilized as a source of hepatocytes was investigated with female Lewis, F-344, and DA rats. Variation was observed when hepatocytes from the three strains were exposed to aflatoxin B{sub 1} (AFB{sub 1}). No clearcut strain differences were seen when cells were exposed to diethylnitrosamine (DEN) or 2-acetylaminofluorene. These results demonstrate that both the strain and the sex of the animal used as a source of hepatocytes can affect the HPC/DNA repair test.

  4. Applicability of second-generation upcyte® human hepatocytes for use in CYP inhibition and induction studies

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandran, Sarada D; Vivarès, Aurélie; Klieber, Sylvie; Hewitt, Nicola J; Muenst, Bernhard; Heinz, Stefan; Walles, Heike; Braspenning, Joris

    2015-01-01

    Human upcyte® hepatocytes are proliferating hepatocytes that retain many characteristics of primary human hepatocytes. We conducted a comprehensive evaluation of the application of second-generation upcyte® hepatocytes from four donors for inhibition and induction assays using a selection of reference inhibitors and inducers. CYP1A2, CYP2B6, CYP2C9, and CYP3A4 were reproducibly inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner and the calculated IC50 values for each compound correctly classified them as potent inhibitors. Upcyte® hepatocytes were responsive to prototypical CYP1A2, CYP2B6, CYP2C9, and CYP3A4 inducers, confirming that they have functional AhR-, CAR-, and PXR-mediated CYP regulation. A panel of 11 inducers classified as potent, moderate or noninducers of CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 were tested. There was a good fit of data from upcyte® hepatocytes to three different predictive models for CYP3A4 induction, namely the Relative Induction Score (RIS), AUCu/F2, and Cmax,u/Ind50. In addition, PXR (rifampicin) and CAR-selective (carbamazepine and phenytoin) inducers of CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 induction, respectively, were demonstrated. In conclusion, these data support the use of second-generation upcyte® hepatocytes for CYP inhibition and induction assays. Under the culture conditions used, these cells expressed CYP activities that were equivalent to or higher than those measured in primary human hepatocyte cultures, which could be inhibited or induced by prototypical CYP inhibitors and inducers, respectively. Moreover, they can be used to predict in vivo CYP3A4 induction potential using three prediction models. Bulk availability of cells from multiple donors makes upcyte® hepatocytes suitable for DDI screening, as well as more in-depth mechanistic investigations. PMID:26516577

  5. Characterization of aldehyde oxidase enzyme activity in cryopreserved human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Hutzler, J Matthew; Yang, Young-Sun; Albaugh, Daniel; Fullenwider, Cody L; Schmenk, Jennifer; Fisher, Michael B

    2012-02-01

    Substrates of aldehyde oxidase (AO), for which human clinical pharmacokinetics are reported, were selected and evaluated in pooled mixed-gender cryopreserved human hepatocytes in an effort to quantitatively characterize AO activity. Estimated hepatic clearance (Cl(h)) for BIBX1382, carbazeran, O⁶-benzylguanine, zaleplon, and XK-469 using cryopreserved hepatocytes was 18, 17, 12, <4.3, and <4.3 ml · min⁻¹ · kg⁻¹, respectively. The observed metabolic clearance in cryopreserved hepatocytes was confirmed to be a result of AO-mediated metabolism via two approaches. Metabolite identification after incubations in the presence of H₂¹⁸O confirmed that the predominant oxidative metabolite was generated by AO, as expected isotope patterns in mass spectra were observed after analysis by high-resolution mass spectrometry. Second, clearance values were efficiently attenuated upon coincubation with hydralazine, an inhibitor of AO. The low exposure after oral doses of BIBX1382 and carbazeran (∼5% F) would have been fairly well predicted using simple hepatic extraction (f(h)) values derived from cryopreserved hepatocytes. In addition, the estimated hepatic clearance value for O⁶-benzylguanine was within ∼80% of the observed total clearance in humans after intravenous administration (15 ml · min⁻¹ · kg⁻¹), indicating a reasonable level of quantitative activity from this in vitro system. However, a 3.5-fold underprediction of total clearance was observed for zaleplon, despite the 5-oxo metabolite being clearly observed. These data taken together suggest that the use of cryopreserved hepatocytes may be a practical approach for assessing AO-mediated metabolism in discovery and potentially useful for predicting hepatic clearance of AO substrates.

  6. MicroRNA-561 promotes acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in HepG2 cells and primary human hepatocytes through downregulation of the nuclear receptor corepressor dosage-sensitive sex-reversal adrenal hypoplasia congenital critical region on the X chromosome, gene 1 (DAX-1).

    PubMed

    Li, Minghua; Yang, Yinxue; He, Zhi-Xu; Zhou, Zhi-Wei; Yang, Tianxin; Guo, Peixuan; Zhang, Xueji; Zhou, Shu-Feng

    2014-01-01

    One of the major mechanisms involved in acetaminophen (APAP)-induced hepatotoxicity is hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF4α)-mediated activation of pregnane X receptor (PXR) and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR). In the present study, we investigated the role of miR-561 and its target gene DAX-1 encoding a corepressor of HNF4α in the process of APAP-induced hepatotoxicity. We used both human hepatocellular liver carcinoma cell line (HepG2) cells and primary human hepatocytes in this study and monitored the levels of reactive oxygen species, lactate dehydrogenase, and glutathione. Our bioinformatics study suggests an association between miR-561 and DAX-1, but not HNF4α. Treatment of HepG2 cells with APAP significantly reduced the expression of DAX-1 in a concentration-dependent manner. miR-561 was induced by APAP treatment in HepG2 cells. Transfection of HepG2 cells with an miR-561 mimic exacerbated APAP-induced hepatotoxicity. HNF4α is physically associated with DAX-1 in HepG2 cells. A decreased protein level of DAX-1 by APAP treatment was also enhanced by miR-561 mimic transfection in HepG2 cells and primary human hepatocytes. The basal and APAP-induced expression of PXR and CAR was enhanced by miR-561 mimic transfection; however, transfection of HepG2 cells or primary human hepatocytes with a miR-561 inhibitor or DAX-1 small interfering RNA reversed these effects. Additionally, the chromatin immunoprecipitation assay revealed that recruitment of DAX-1 onto the PXR promoter was inversely correlated with the recruitment of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α coactivator-1α and HNF4α on APAP treatment. These results indicate that miR-561 worsens APAP-induced hepatotoxicity via inhibition of DAX-1 and consequent transactivation of nuclear receptors.

  7. Comparative metabolism of geranyl nitrile and citronellyl nitrile in mouse, rat, and human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Kemper, Raymond A; Nabb, Diane L; Gannon, Shawn A; Snow, Timothy A; Api, Anne Marie

    2006-06-01

    Geranyl nitrile (GN) and citronellyl nitrile (CN) are fragrance components used in consumer and personal care products. Differences in the clastogenicity of these two terpenes are postulated to result from differential biotransformation, presumably involving the conjugated nitrile moiety. The metabolic clearance and biotransformation of GN and CN were compared in primary hepatocytes from mice, rats, and humans. For determination of intrinsic clearance, GN and CN were incubated with hepatocytes in sealed vials, and the headspace was sampled periodically by solid-phase microextraction and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. For metabolite identification, GN and CN were incubated with hepatocytes from each species for 60 min, and reaction mixtures were extracted and analyzed by mass spectroscopy. Both GN and CN were rapidly metabolized in hepatocytes from all species (T1/2, 0.7-11.6 min). Within a species, intrinsic clearance was similar for both compounds and increased in the order human < rat < mouse. Major common pathways for biotransformation of GN and CN involved 1) epoxidation of the 6-alkenyl moiety followed by conjugation with glutathione, 2) hydroxylation of the terminal methyl group(s) followed by direct conjugation with glucuronic acid in rodents or further oxidation to the corresponding acid in human cells, and 3) hydroxylation of the allylic C5 position. No evidence for either phase I or phase II metabolism of the conjugated nitrile moiety was obtained. Thus, the presumed metabolic basis for differences in genotoxicity remains elusive.

  8. Determination of Fatty Acid Oxidation and Lipogenesis in Mouse Primary Hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Akie, Thomas E; Cooper, Marcus P

    2015-08-27

    Lipid metabolism in liver is complex. In addition to importing and exporting lipid via lipoproteins, hepatocytes can oxidize lipid via fatty acid oxidation, or alternatively, synthesize new lipid via de novo lipogenesis. The net sum of these pathways is dictated by a number of factors, which in certain disease states leads to fatty liver disease. Excess hepatic lipid accumulation is associated with whole body insulin resistance and coronary heart disease. Tools to study lipid metabolism in hepatocytes are useful to understand the role of hepatic lipid metabolism in certain metabolic disorders. In the liver, hepatocytes regulate the breakdown and synthesis of fatty acids via β-fatty oxidation and de novo lipogenesis, respectively. Quantifying metabolism in these pathways provides insight into hepatic lipid handling. Unlike in vitro quantification, using primary hepatocytes, making measurements in vivo is technically challenging and resource intensive. Hence, quantifying β-fatty acid oxidation and de novo lipogenesis in cultured mouse hepatocytes provides a straight forward method to assess hepatocyte lipid handling. Here we describe a method for the isolation of primary mouse hepatocytes, and we demonstrate quantification of β-fatty acid oxidation and de novo lipogenesis, using radiolabeled substrates.

  9. Circadian Rhythms of PER2::LUC in Individual Primary Mouse Hepatocytes and Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Molyneux, Penny C.; Yu, Jimmy K.; Li, Alexander S.; Leise, Tanya L.; Harrington, Mary E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Hepatocytes, the parenchymal cells of the liver, express core clock genes, such as Period2 and Cryptochrome2, which are involved in the transcriptional/translational feedback loop of the circadian clock. Whether or not the liver is capable of sustaining rhythms independent of a central pacemaker is controversial. Whether and how circadian information may be shared among cells in the liver in order to sustain oscillations is currently unknown. Results In this study we isolated primary hepatocytes from transgenic Per2Luc mice and used bioluminescence as a read-out of the state of the circadian clock. Hepatocytes cultured in a collagen gel sandwich configuration exhibited persistent circadian rhythms for several weeks. The amplitude of the rhythms damped, but medium changes consistently reset the phase and amplitude of the cultures. Cry2−/− Per2Luc cells oscillated robustly and expressed a longer period. Co-culturing with wildtype cells did not significantly shorten the period, indicating that coupling among hepatocytes is insufficient to synchronize cells with significantly differing periods. However, spatial patterns revealed by cellular imaging of wildtype cultures provided evidence of weak local coupling among the hepatocytes. Conclusions Our results with primary hepatocyte cultures demonstrate that cultured hepatocytes are weakly coupled. While this coupling is not sufficient to sustain global synchrony, it does increase local synchrony, which may stabilize the circadian rhythms of peripheral oscillators, such as the liver, against noise in the entraining signals. PMID:24498336

  10. Cholesterol can stimulate secretion of apolipoprotein B by cultured human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Kosykh, V A; Preobrazhensky, S N; Fuki, I V; Zaikina, O E; Tsibulsky, V P; Repin, V S; Smirnov, V N

    1985-10-02

    During a 5 day cultivation of human hepatocytes in a primary culture the secretion of apolipoprotein B was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Density-gradient ultracentrifugation demonstrated that the majority of the secreted apolipoprotein B was associated with the very-low-density lipoprotein fraction. Exposure of the cells to cholesterol (5-100 micrograms/ml) resulted in a dose-dependent increase in apolipoprotein B secretion rate.

  11. Nanofabricated Collagen-Inspired Synthetic Elastomers for Primary Rat Hepatocyte Culture

    PubMed Central

    Bettinger, Christopher J.; Kulig, Katherine M.; Vacanti, Joseph P.

    2009-01-01

    Synthetic substrates that mimic the properties of extracellular matrix proteins hold significant promise for use in systems designed for tissue engineering applications. In this report, we designed a synthetic polymeric substrate that is intended to mimic chemical, mechanical, and topological characteristics of collagen. We found that elastomeric poly(ester amide) substrates modified with replica-molded nanotopographic features enhanced initial attachment, spreading, and adhesion of primary rat hepatocytes. Further, hepatocytes cultured on nanotopographic substrates also demonstrated reduced albumin secretion and urea synthesis, which is indicative of strongly adherent hepatocytes. These results suggest that these engineered substrates can function as synthetic collagen analogs for in vitro cell culture. PMID:18847357

  12. Regulation of adiponectin receptor 1 in human hepatocytes by agonists of nuclear receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Neumeier, Markus; Weigert, Johanna; Schaeffler, Andreas; Weiss, Thomas; Kirchner, Stefan; Laberer, Sabine; Schoelmerich, Juergen; Buechler, Christa . E-mail: christa.buechler@klinik.uni-regensburg.de

    2005-09-02

    The adiponectin receptors AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 have been identified to mediate the insulin-sensitizing effects of adiponectin. Although AdipoR2 was suggested to be the main receptor for this adipokine in hepatocytes, AdipoR1 protein is highly abundant in primary human hepatocytes and hepatocytic cell lines. Nuclear receptors are main regulators of lipid metabolism and activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {alpha} and {gamma}, retinoid X receptor (RXR), and liver X receptor (LXR) by specific ligands may influence AdipoR1 abundance. AdipoR1 protein is neither altered by RXR or LXR agonists nor by pioglitazone. In contrast, fenofibric acid reduces AdipoR1 whereas hepatotoxic troglitazone upregulates AdipoR1 protein in HepG2 cells. Taken together this work shows for the first time that AdipoR1 protein is expressed in human hepatocytes but that it is not a direct target gene of nuclear receptors. Elevated AdipoR1 induced by hepatotoxic troglitazone may indicate a role of this receptor in adiponectin-mediated beneficial effects in liver damage.

  13. Cryopreservation of isolated human hepatocytes for transplantation: State of the art.

    PubMed

    Terry, Claire; Dhawan, Anil; Mitry, Ragai R; Hughes, Robin D

    2006-10-01

    Hepatocytes isolated from unused donor livers are being used for transplantation in patients with acute liver failure and liver-based metabolic defects. As large numbers of hepatocytes can be prepared from a single liver and hepatocytes need to be available for emergency and repeated treatment of patients it is essential to be able to cryopreserve and store cells with good thawed cell function. This review considers the current status of cryopreservation of human hepatocytes discussing the different stages involved in the process. These include pre-treatment of cells, freezing solution, cryoprotectants and freezing and thawing protocols. There are detrimental effects of cryopreservation on hepatocyte structure and metabolic function, including cell attachment, which is important to the engraftment of transplanted cells in the liver. Cryopreserved human hepatocytes have been successfully used in clinical transplantation, with evidence of replacement of missing function. Further optimisation of hepatocyte cryopreservation protocols is important for their use in hepatocyte transplantation.

  14. U. v. -enhanced reactivation of u. v. -irradiated herpes virus by primary cultures of rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Zurlo, J.; Yager, J.D. )

    1984-04-01

    Carcinogen treatment of cultured mammalian cells prior to infection with u.v.-irradiated virus results in enhanced virus survival and mutagenesis suggesting the induction of SOS-type processes. The development of a primary rat hepatocyte culture system is reported to investigate cellular responses to DNA damage which may be relevant to hepatocarcinogenesis in vivo. Enhanced reactivation of u.v.-irradiated Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) occurred in hepatocytes irradiated with u.v. Cultured hepatocytes were pretreated with u.v. at the time of enhanced DNA synthesis. These treatments caused an inhibition followed by a recovery of DNA synthesis. At various times after pretreatment, the hepatocytes were infected with control or u.v.-irradiated HSV-1 at low multiplicity, and virus survival was measured. U.v.-irradiated HSV-1 exhibited the expected two-component survival curve in control or u.v. pretreated hepatocytes. The magnitude of enhanced reactivation of HSV-1 was dependent on the u.v. dose to the hepatocytes, the time of infection following u.v. pretreatment, and the level of DNA synthesis at the time of pretreatment. These results suggest that u.v. treatment of rat hepatocytes causes the induction of SOS-type functions tht may have a role in the initiation of hepatocarcinogenesis.

  15. Acquisition of susceptibility to hepatitis C virus replication in HepG2 cells by fusion with primary human hepatocytes: establishment of a quantitative assay for hepatitis C virus infectivity in a cell culture system.

    PubMed

    Ito, T; Yasui, K; Mukaigawa, J; Katsume, A; Kohara, M; Mitamura, K

    2001-09-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) replicates in human and chimpanzee hepatocytes. To characterize the nature of HCV and evaluate antiviral agents, the development of an HCV replication system in a cell culture is essential. We developed a cell line derived from human hepatocytes by fusing them with a hepatoblastoma cell line, HepG2, and obtained several clones. When we tested the clones for their ability to support HCV replication by nested RT-PCR, we found 1 clone (IMY-N9) that was more susceptible to HCV replication than HepG2. The negative-strand HCV RNA was detected in IMY-N9 by strand-specific RT-PCR, and viral RNA was identified in culture supernatant during the culture. Then we monitored HCV RNA titers in IMY-N9 and HepG2, respectively, by real-time detection PCR throughout the culture. A significant increase in the HCV RNA titer was observed only in IMY-N9. Serial passages of HCV culture supernatant were shown in the culture system. Furthermore, we tested several infectious materials for viral infectivity by monitoring HCV RNA titers and/or 50% tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50) of HCV on IMY-N9. In each material, HCV showed various growth patterns and a different TCID50 even though the PCR titer in each material was identical. The results showed that HCV in each material served various growth patterns and different TCID50 even though PCR titer in each material was identical. This cell line is useful for estimating viral activity and for studying cellular factors that may be necessary to HCV replication in human hepatocytes.

  16. New physiologically-relevant liver tissue model based on hierarchically cocultured primary rat hepatocytes with liver endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Wenjin; Perry, Guillaume; Komori, Kikuo; Sakai, Yasuyuki

    2015-11-01

    To develop an in vitro liver tissue equivalent, hepatocytes should be cocultured with liver non-parenchymal cells to mimic the in vivo physiological microenvironments. In this work, we describe a physiologically-relevant liver tissue model by hierarchically organizing layers of primary rat hepatocytes and human liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (TMNK-1) on an oxygen-permeable polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membrane, which facilitates direct oxygenation by diffusion through the membrane. This in vivo-mimicking hierarchical coculture was obtained by simply proceeding the overlay of TMNK-1 cells on the hepatocyte layer re-formed on the collagen immobilized PDMS membranes. The comparison of hepatic functionalities was achieved between coculture and sandwich culture with Matrigel, in the presence and absence of direct oxygenation. A complete double-layered structure of functional liver cells with vertical contact between hepatocytes and TMNK-1 was successfully constructed in the coculture with direct oxygen supply and was well-maintained for 14 days. The hepatocytes in this hierarchical culture exhibited improved survival, functional bile canaliculi formation, cellular level polarization and maintenance of metabolic activities including Cyp1A1/2 activity and albumin production. By contrast, the two cell populations formed discontinuous monolayers on the same surfaces in the non-oxygen-permeable cultures. These results demonstrate that (i) the direct oxygenation through the PDMS membranes enables very simple formation of a hierarchical structure consisting of a hepatocyte layer and a layer of TMNK-1 and (ii) we may include other non-parenchymal cells in this format easily, which can be widely applicable to other epithelial organs.

  17. Primary hepatocyte cultures as in vitro tools for toxicity testing: quo vadis?

    PubMed

    Vinken, Mathieu; Vanhaecke, Tamara; Rogiers, Vera

    2012-04-01

    Cultures of primary hepatocytes are versatile tools that can serve many in vitro toxicity testing purposes. However, they cope with dedifferentiation, a process that is already initiated during the hepatocyte isolation procedure and that is manifested as the progressive loss of functionality upon subsequent cultivation. A number of strategies to prevent dedifferentiation have been introduced over the last decades, all which aim at re-establishing the in vivo hepatocyte micro-environment in vitro, but that are of merely limited success. Recent mechanistic insight into the mechanisms that underlie hepatocyte dedifferentiation has opened new avenues for the development of novel approaches that target the actual causes of this deteriorative process and thus for the generation of a long-term hepatic in vitro tool. Such experimental system is urgently needed, especially in the light of the stringent European legislative modifications that are currently encountered by the pharmaceutical, chemical and, particularly, the cosmetic industry.

  18. [An experimental study on the protective effect of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) for the primary cultured hepatocytes obtained from iron-loaded rats].

    PubMed

    Yoshida, J

    1995-01-01

    Pathological iron deposition in liver is often found in various liver diseases. The deposited iron is thought to be one of the most important factor of liver cell injury, not only in hemochromotosis but also in cirrhosis following hepatitis virus B or C infection. To investigate the influence of the deposited iron on damage and regeneration of hepatocyte, primary cultured hepatocytes obtained from carbonyl iron-loaded rats were treated with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in the presence or absence of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). Although the section of liver from carbonyl iron-loaded rats showed no necrosis and fibrosis, iron-loaded hepatocytes contained about twofold more iron than control. The damage of iron-loaded hepatocytes induced by CCl4 was more serious than that of control, and HGF decreased this injury only in iron-loaded hepatocytes but not in control. There is no difference in DNA synthesis stimulated by HGF between iron-loaded hepatocytes and control. These findings suggest that the pathological iron deposition induces the fragility of hepatocyte and that cytoprotective effect of HGF is induced by this pathological iron.

  19. Hepatitis B virus modulates store-operated calcium entry to enhance viral replication in primary hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Casciano, Jessica C; Duchemin, Nicholas J; Lamontagne, R Jason; Steel, Laura F; Bouchard, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    Many viruses modulate calcium (Ca2+) signaling to create a cellular environment that is more permissive to viral replication, but for most viruses that regulate Ca2+ signaling, the mechanism underlying this regulation is not well understood. The hepatitis B virus (HBV) HBx protein modulates cytosolic Ca2+ levels to stimulate HBV replication in some liver cell lines. A chronic HBV infection is associated with life-threatening liver diseases, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and HBx modulation of cytosolic Ca2+ levels could have an important role in HBV pathogenesis. Whether HBx affects cytosolic Ca2+ in a normal hepatocyte, the natural site of an HBV infection, has not been addressed. Here, we report that HBx alters cytosolic Ca2+ signaling in cultured primary hepatocytes. We used single cell Ca2+ imaging of cultured primary rat hepatocytes to demonstrate that HBx elevates the cytosolic Ca2+ level in hepatocytes following an IP3-linked Ca2+ response; HBx effects were similar when expressed alone or in the context of replicating HBV. HBx elevation of the cytosolic Ca2+ level required extracellular Ca2+ influx and store-operated Ca2+ (SOC) entry and stimulated HBV replication in hepatocytes. We used both targeted RT-qPCR and transcriptome-wide RNAseq analyses to compare levels of SOC channel components and other Ca2+ signaling regulators in HBV-expressing and control hepatocytes and show that the transcript levels of these various proteins are not affected by HBV. We also show that HBx regulation of SOC-regulated Ca2+ accumulation is likely the consequence of HBV modulation of a SOC channel regulatory mechanism. In support of this, we link HBx enhancement of SOC-regulated Ca2+ accumulation to Ca2+ uptake by mitochondria and demonstrate that HBx stimulates mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake in primary hepatocytes. The results of our study may provide insights into viral mechanisms that affect Ca2+ signaling to regulate viral replication and virus-associated diseases.

  20. Hepatitis B virus modulates store-operated calcium entry to enhance viral replication in primary hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Casciano, Jessica C.; Duchemin, Nicholas J.; Lamontagne, R. Jason; Steel, Laura F.; Bouchard, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    Many viruses modulate calcium (Ca2+) signaling to create a cellular environment that is more permissive to viral replication, but for most viruses that regulate Ca2+ signaling, the mechanism underlying this regulation is not well understood. The hepatitis B virus (HBV) HBx protein modulates cytosolic Ca2+ levels to stimulate HBV replication in some liver cell lines. A chronic HBV infection is associated with life-threatening liver diseases, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and HBx modulation of cytosolic Ca2+ levels could have an important role in HBV pathogenesis. Whether HBx affects cytosolic Ca2+ in a normal hepatocyte, the natural site of an HBV infection, has not been addressed. Here, we report that HBx alters cytosolic Ca2+ signaling in cultured primary hepatocytes. We used single cell Ca2+ imaging of cultured primary rat hepatocytes to demonstrate that HBx elevates the cytosolic Ca2+ level in hepatocytes following an IP3-linked Ca2+ response; HBx effects were similar when expressed alone or in the context of replicating HBV. HBx elevation of the cytosolic Ca2+ level required extracellular Ca2+ influx and store-operated Ca2+ (SOC) entry and stimulated HBV replication in hepatocytes. We used both targeted RT-qPCR and transcriptome-wide RNAseq analyses to compare levels of SOC channel components and other Ca2+ signaling regulators in HBV-expressing and control hepatocytes and show that the transcript levels of these various proteins are not affected by HBV. We also show that HBx regulation of SOC-regulated Ca2+ accumulation is likely the consequence of HBV modulation of a SOC channel regulatory mechanism. In support of this, we link HBx enhancement of SOC-regulated Ca2+ accumulation to Ca2+ uptake by mitochondria and demonstrate that HBx stimulates mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake in primary hepatocytes. The results of our study may provide insights into viral mechanisms that affect Ca2+ signaling to regulate viral replication and virus-associated diseases

  1. Early oxidative damage in primary cultured trout hepatocytes: a time course study.

    PubMed

    Ferraris, Michela; Radice, Sonia; Catalani, Paolo; Francolini, Maura; Marabini, Laura; Chiesara, Enzo

    2002-09-24

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the two-step hepatocyte isolation procedure on primary cultured trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) hepatocytes over time. We characterised the possible changes of a variety of some cellular parameters within the first 24-48 h after seeding. We followed the time dependent changes of these parameters during subsequent culture times in order to see if the cells maintained a differentiated status. Scanning electron microscopy revealed bleb formation and 20% cell damage in freshly isolated hepatocytes. During subsequent culture times the bleb dimension appear to be reduced. Heat shock proteins 70 and 50 (HSP70, HSP50) were induced by hepatocyte isolation. During the first 4 h of culture, the hepatocytes showed a variation in mitochondrial activity, an increase in free radical species (ROS), and a decrease in both glutathione (GSH) content and catalase (CAT) activity; the generation of free radicals led to an increase in the formation of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in the DNA. The cells showed detectable ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity after 4 h of culture, which had rapidly increased by the 24th hour. After 24 h, mitochondrial and CAT activity, free radical production, and the content of GSH and 8-OHdG returned to their original levels. P450 activity was retained for at least 48 h after seeding. Our data show that trout hepatocytes suffer significant cell injury as a result of the isolation procedure, but primary cultured cells metabolically recover from this stress after a few hours: they are capable of repairing their damaged surfaces, recovering their antioxidant defences and retaining their ability to repair DNA. Our results also confirm that trout hepatocytes in a primary culture maintain their in vivo-like metabolic activities for 3-8 days.

  2. A novel mouse model for stable engraftment of a human immune system and human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Strick-Marchand, Helene; Dusséaux, Mathilde; Darche, Sylvie; Huntington, Nicholas D; Legrand, Nicolas; Masse-Ranson, Guillemette; Corcuff, Erwan; Ahodantin, James; Weijer, Kees; Spits, Hergen; Kremsdorf, Dina; Di Santo, James P

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic infections by hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and Plasmodium parasites leading to acute or chronic diseases constitute a global health challenge. The species tropism of these hepatotropic pathogens is restricted to chimpanzees and humans, thus model systems to study their pathological mechanisms are severely limited. Although these pathogens infect hepatocytes, disease pathology is intimately related to the degree and quality of the immune response. As a first step to decipher the immune response to infected hepatocytes, we developed an animal model harboring both a human immune system (HIS) and human hepatocytes (HUHEP) in BALB/c Rag2-/- IL-2Rγc-/- NOD.sirpa uPAtg/tg mice. The extent and kinetics of human hepatocyte engraftment were similar between HUHEP and HIS-HUHEP mice. Transplanted human hepatocytes were polarized and mature in vivo, resulting in 20-50% liver chimerism in these models. Human myeloid and lymphoid cell lineages developed at similar frequencies in HIS and HIS-HUHEP mice, and splenic and hepatic compartments were humanized with mature B cells, NK cells and naïve T cells, as well as monocytes and dendritic cells. Taken together, these results demonstrate that HIS-HUHEP mice can be stably (> 5 months) and robustly engrafted with a humanized immune system and chimeric human liver. This novel HIS-HUHEP model provides a platform to investigate human immune responses against hepatotropic pathogens and to test novel drug strategies or vaccine candidates.

  3. Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles Trigger Loss of Function and Perturbation of Mitochondrial Dynamics in Primary Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Natarajan, Vaishaali; Wilson, Christina L.; Hayward, Stephen L.; Kidambi, Srivatsan

    2015-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles are one of the most highly manufactured and employed nanomaterials in the world with applications in copious industrial and consumer products. The liver is a major accumulation site for many nanoparticles, including TiO2, directly through intentional exposure or indirectly through unintentional ingestion via water, food or animals and increased environmental contamination. Growing concerns over the current usage of TiO2 coupled with the lack of mechanistic understanding of its potential health risk is the motivation for this study. Here we determined the toxic effect of three different TiO2 nanoparticles (commercially available rutile, anatase and P25) on primary rat hepatocytes. Specifically, we evaluated events related to hepatocyte functions and mitochondrial dynamics: (1) urea and albumin synthesis using colorimetric and ELISA assays, respectively; (2) redox signaling mechanisms by measuring reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) activity and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP); (3) OPA1 and Mfn-1 expression that mediates the mitochondrial dynamics by PCR; and (4) mitochondrial morphology by MitoTracker Green FM staining. All three TiO2 nanoparticles induced a significant loss (p < 0.05) in hepatocyte functions even at concentrations as low as 50 ppm with commercially used P25 causing maximum damage. TiO2 nanoparticles induced a strong oxidative stress in primary hepatocytes. TiO2 nanoparticles exposure also resulted in morphological changes in mitochondria and substantial loss in the fusion process, thus impairing the mitochondrial dynamics. Although this study demonstrated that TiO2 nanoparticles exposure resulted in substantial damage to primary hepatocytes, more in vitro and in vivo studies are required to determine the complete toxicological mechanism in primary hepatocytes and subsequently liver function. PMID:26247363

  4. Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles Trigger Loss of Function and Perturbation of Mitochondrial Dynamics in Primary Hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Natarajan, Vaishaali; Wilson, Christina L; Hayward, Stephen L; Kidambi, Srivatsan

    2015-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles are one of the most highly manufactured and employed nanomaterials in the world with applications in copious industrial and consumer products. The liver is a major accumulation site for many nanoparticles, including TiO2, directly through intentional exposure or indirectly through unintentional ingestion via water, food or animals and increased environmental contamination. Growing concerns over the current usage of TiO2 coupled with the lack of mechanistic understanding of its potential health risk is the motivation for this study. Here we determined the toxic effect of three different TiO2 nanoparticles (commercially available rutile, anatase and P25) on primary rat hepatocytes. Specifically, we evaluated events related to hepatocyte functions and mitochondrial dynamics: (1) urea and albumin synthesis using colorimetric and ELISA assays, respectively; (2) redox signaling mechanisms by measuring reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) activity and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP); (3) OPA1 and Mfn-1 expression that mediates the mitochondrial dynamics by PCR; and (4) mitochondrial morphology by MitoTracker Green FM staining. All three TiO2 nanoparticles induced a significant loss (p < 0.05) in hepatocyte functions even at concentrations as low as 50 ppm with commercially used P25 causing maximum damage. TiO2 nanoparticles induced a strong oxidative stress in primary hepatocytes. TiO2 nanoparticles exposure also resulted in morphological changes in mitochondria and substantial loss in the fusion process, thus impairing the mitochondrial dynamics. Although this study demonstrated that TiO2 nanoparticles exposure resulted in substantial damage to primary hepatocytes, more in vitro and in vivo studies are required to determine the complete toxicological mechanism in primary hepatocytes and subsequently liver function.

  5. Pregnane X Receptor Modulates the Inflammatory Response in Primary Cultures of Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Mengxi; Cui, Wenqi; Woody, Sarah K.

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial sepsis is characterized by a rapid increase in the expression of inflammatory mediators to initiate the acute phase response in liver. Inflammatory mediator release is counterbalanced by the coordinated expression of anti-inflammatory molecules such as interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL1-Ra) through time. This study determined whether activation of pregnane X receptor (PXR, NR1I2) alters the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-inducible gene expression program in primary cultures of hepatocytes (PCHs). Preactivation of PXR for 24 hours in PCHs isolated from wild-type mice suppressed the subsequent LPS-inducible expression of the key inflammatory mediators interleukin 1β (IL-1β), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) but not in PCHs isolated from Pxr-null (PXR-knockout [KO]) mice. Basal expression of key inflammatory cytokines was elevated in PCHs from PXR-KO mice. Stimulation of PCHs from PXR-KO mice with LPS alone produced enhanced levels of IL-1β when compared with wild-type mice. Experiments performed using PCHs from both humanized-PXR transgenic mice as well as human donors indicate that prolonged activation of PXR produces an increased secretion of IL1-Ra from cells through time. Our data reveal a working model that describes a pivotal role for PXR in both inhibiting as well as in resolving the inflammatory response in hepatocytes. Understanding the molecular details of how PXR is converted from a positive regulator of drug-metabolizing enzymes into a transcriptional suppressor of inflammation in liver will provide new pharmacologic strategies for modulating inflammatory-related diseases in the liver and intestine. PMID:25527709

  6. Methamphetamine enhances Hepatitis C virus replication in human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Ye, L; Peng, J S; Wang, X; Wang, Y J; Luo, G X; Ho, W Z

    2008-04-01

    Very little is known about the interactions between hepatitis C virus (HCV) and methamphetamine, which is a highly abused psychostimulant and a known risk factor for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/HCV infection. This study examined whether methamphetamine has the ability to inhibit innate immunity in the host cells, facilitating HCV replication in human hepatocytes. Methamphetamine inhibited intracellular interferon alpha expression in human hepatocytes, which was associated with the increase in HCV replication. In addition, methamphetamine also compromised the anti-HCV effect of recombinant interferon alpha. Further investigation of mechanism(s) responsible for the methamphetamine action revealed that methamphetamine was able to inhibit the expression of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 1, a key modulator in interferon-mediated immune and biological responses. Methamphetamine also down-regulated the expression of interferon regulatory factor-5, a crucial transcriptional factor that activates the interferon pathway. These in vitro findings that methamphetamine compromises interferon alpha-mediated innate immunity against HCV infection indicate that methamphetamine may have a cofactor role in the immunopathogenesis of HCV disease.

  7. Methamphetamine enhances Hepatitis C virus replication in human hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Ye, L.; Peng, J. S.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y. J.; Luo, G. X.; Ho, W. Z.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Very little is known about the interactions between hepatitis C virus (HCV) and methamphetamine, which is a highly abused psychostimulant and a known risk factor for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/HCV infection. This study examined whether methamphetamine has the ability to inhibit innate immunity in the host cells, facilitating HCV replication in human hepatocytes. Methamphetamine inhibited intracellular interferon alpha expression in human hepatocytes, which was associated with the increase in HCV replication. In addition, methamphetamine also compromised the anti-HCV effect of recombinant interferon alpha. Further investigation of mechanism(s) responsible for the methamphetamine action revealed that methamphetamine was able to inhibit the expression of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 1, a key modulator in interferon-mediated immune and biological responses. Methamphetamine also down-regulated the expression of interferon regulatory factor-5, a crucial transcriptional factor that activates the interferon pathway. These in vitro findings that methamphetamine compromises interferon alpha-mediated innate immunity against HCV infection indicate that methamphetamine may have a cofactor role in the immunopathogenesis of HCV disease. PMID:18307590

  8. Influence of commonly used clinical antidotes on antioxidant systems in human hepatocyte culture intoxicated with alpha-amanitin.

    PubMed

    Magdalan, Jan; Piotrowska, Aleksandra; Gomułkiewicz, Agnieszka; Sozański, Tomasz; Szeląg, Adam; Dziegięl, Piotr

    2011-01-01

    α-Amanitin (α-AMA) is the main toxin of Amanita phalloides and its subspecies (A. virosa and A. verna). The primary mechanism of α-AMA toxicity is associated with protein synthesis blocking in hepatocytes. Additionally, α-AMA exhibits prooxidant properties that may contribute to its severe hepatotoxicity. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of α-AMA on lipid peroxidation and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in human hepatocyte culture. The effects of benzylpenicillin (BPCN), N-acetyl-L-cysteine (ACC), and silibinin (SIL) on SOD and CAT activities and on lipid peroxidation in human hepatocyte culture intoxicated with α-AMA were also examined. In human hepatocyte culture, 48-hour exposure to α-AMA at a 2-μM concentration caused an increase in SOD activity, a reduction of CAT activity, and a significant increase in lipid peroxidation. Changes in SOD and CAT activity caused by α-AMA could probably enhance lipid peroxidation by increased generation of hydrogen peroxide combined with reduced detoxification of that oxygen radical. The addition of antidotes (ACC or SIL) to the culture medium provided more effective protection against lipid peroxidation in human hepatocytes intoxicated with α-AMA than the addition of BPCN, possessing no antioxidant properties.

  9. Magnetic Cell Labeling of Primary and Stem Cell-Derived Pig Hepatocytes for MRI-Based Cell Tracking of Hepatocyte Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Roach, Dwayne R.; Garrett, Wesley M.; Welch, Glenn; Caperna, Thomas J.; Talbot, Neil C.; Shapiro, Erik M.

    2015-01-01

    Pig hepatocytes are an important investigational tool for optimizing hepatocyte transplantation schemes in both allogeneic and xenogeneic transplant scenarios. MRI can be used to serially monitor the transplanted cells, but only if the hepatocytes can be labeled with a magnetic particle. In this work, we describe culture conditions for magnetic cell labeling of cells from two different pig hepatocyte cell sources; primary pig hepatocytes (ppHEP) and stem cell-derived hepatocytes (PICM-19FF). The magnetic particle is a micron-sized iron oxide particle (MPIO) that has been extensively studied for magnetic cell labeling for MRI-based cell tracking. ppHEP could endocytose MPIO with labeling percentages as high as 70%, achieving iron content as high as ~55 pg/cell, with >75% viability. PICM-19FF had labeling >97%, achieving iron content ~38 pg/cell, with viability >99%. Extensive morphological and functional assays indicated that magnetic cell labeling was benign to the cells. The results encourage the use of MRI-based cell tracking for the development and clinical use of hepatocyte transplantation methodologies. Further, these results generally highlight the importance of functional cell assays in the evaluation of contrast agent biocompatibility. PMID:25856627

  10. Magnetic cell labeling of primary and stem cell-derived pig hepatocytes for MRI-based cell tracking of hepatocyte transplantation.

    PubMed

    Roach, Dwayne R; Garrett, Wesley M; Welch, Glenn; Caperna, Thomas J; Talbot, Neil C; Shapiro, Erik M

    2015-01-01

    Pig hepatocytes are an important investigational tool for optimizing hepatocyte transplantation schemes in both allogeneic and xenogeneic transplant scenarios. MRI can be used to serially monitor the transplanted cells, but only if the hepatocytes can be labeled with a magnetic particle. In this work, we describe culture conditions for magnetic cell labeling of cells from two different pig hepatocyte cell sources; primary pig hepatocytes (ppHEP) and stem cell-derived hepatocytes (PICM-19FF). The magnetic particle is a micron-sized iron oxide particle (MPIO) that has been extensively studied for magnetic cell labeling for MRI-based cell tracking. ppHEP could endocytose MPIO with labeling percentages as high as 70%, achieving iron content as high as ~55 pg/cell, with >75% viability. PICM-19FF had labeling >97%, achieving iron content ~38 pg/cell, with viability >99%. Extensive morphological and functional assays indicated that magnetic cell labeling was benign to the cells. The results encourage the use of MRI-based cell tracking for the development and clinical use of hepatocyte transplantation methodologies. Further, these results generally highlight the importance of functional cell assays in the evaluation of contrast agent biocompatibility.

  11. FREQUENCY-DEPENDENT CHANGES IN GAP JUNCTION FUNCTION IN PRIMARY HEPATOCYTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    FREQUENCY-DEPENDENT CHANGES IN GAP JUNCTION FUNCTION IN PRIMARY HEPATOCYTES. X. Wang1 *, D.E. Housel *, J. Page2, C.F. Blackmanl. 1 National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, USEPA, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711 USA, 2Oakland, California USA
    ...

  12. FREQUENCY-DEPENDENT CHANGES IN GAP JUNCTION FUNCTION IN PRIMARY HEPATOCYTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    FREQUENCY-DEPENDENT CHANGES IN GAP JUNCTION FUNCTION IN PRIMARY HEPATOCYTES. X. Wang1 *, D.E. Housel *, J. Page2, C.F. Blackmanl. 1 National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, USEPA, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711 USA, 2Oakland, California USA
    ...

  13. SELENIUM MODIFIES THE METABOLISM AND TOXICITY OF ARSENIC IN PRIMARY RAT HEPATOCYTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT
    Selenium Modifies the Metabolism and Toxicity of Arsenic in Primary Rat Hepatocytes. Miroslav Styblo, David J. Thomas (2000) Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.
    Arsenic and selenium are metalloids with similar chemical properties and metabolic fates. Inorganic arsenic (iAs...

  14. Distribution and origin of the basement membrane component perlecan in rat liver and primary hepatocyte culture.

    PubMed Central

    Rescan, P. Y.; Loréal, O.; Hassell, J. R.; Yamada, Y.; Guillouzo, A.; Clément, B.

    1993-01-01

    Basement membranes contain three major components (ie collagen IV, laminin, and the heparan sulfate proteoglycan termed perlecan). Although the distribution and origin of both collagen IV and laminin have been well documented in the liver, perlecan has been poorly investigated, so far. We have studied the distribution and cellular origin of perlecan in rat livers in various conditions as well as in hepatocyte primary culture. By immunolocalization in both adult and 18-day-old fetal liver, perlecan was found in portal spaces, around central veins, and throughout the lobule. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed its presence at the level of basement membranes surrounding bile ducts and blood vessels, and in the space of Disse discontinuously interacting with hepatocyte microvilli. Precursors of perlecan were detected in the rough endoplasmic reticulum of bile duct cells and both vascular and sinusoidal endothelial cells. Both hepatocytes and Ito cells were negative. Northern-blot analysis confirmed the lack of appreciable expression of perlecan in hepatocytes isolated from either fetal or adult livers. In 18-month-diethylnitrosamine-treated rat liver, perlecan was abundant in neoplastic nodules. Electron microscopic investigation revealed an almost continuous layer of perlecan in the space of Disse and intracellular staining in sinusoidal endothelial cells, only. Perlecan mRNAs were detectable in malignant nodules, and absent in hepatocytes from nontumorous areas. Hepatocytes expressed high levels of perlecan mRNAs only when put in culture. This expression was reduced in conditions that allow improvement of hepatocyte survival and function (ie addition of corticoids, dimethylsulfoxide or nicotinamide to the medium, or in coculture with liver epithelial cells from biliary origin). Immunolocalization by light and electron microscopy showed that deposition of the proteoglycan occurred in coculture, in basement membranelike structures located around hepatocyte cords. In

  15. Oxidative stress is involved in Dasatinib-induced apoptosis in rat primary hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Xue, Tao; Luo, Peihua; Zhu, Hong; Zhao, Yuqin; Wu, Honghai; Gai, Renhua; Wu, Youping; Yang, Bo; Yang, Xiaochun; He, Qiaojun

    2012-06-15

    Dasatinib, a multitargeted inhibitor of BCR–ABL and SRC kinases, exhibits antitumor activity and extends the survival of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). However, some patients suffer from hepatotoxicity, which occurs through an unknown mechanism. In the present study, we found that Dasatinib could induce hepatotoxicity both in vitro and in vivo. Dasatinib reduced the cell viability of rat primary hepatocytes, induced the release of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in vitro, and triggered the ballooning degeneration of hepatocytes in Sprague–Dawley rats in vivo. Apoptotic markers (chromatin condensation, cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved PARP) were detected to indicate that the injury induced by Dasatinib in hepatocytes in vitro was mediated by apoptosis. This result was further validated in vivo using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assays. Here we found that Dasatinib dramatically increased the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in hepatocytes, reduced the intracellular glutathione (GSH) content, attenuated the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), generated malondialdehyde (MDA), a product of lipid peroxidation, decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential, and activated nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) related to oxidative stress and survival. These results confirm that oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in Dasatinib-mediated hepatotoxicity. N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a typical antioxidant, can scavenge free radicals, attenuate oxidative stress, and protect hepatocytes against Dasatinib-induced injury. Thus, relieving oxidative stress is a viable strategy for reducing Dasatinib-induced hepatotoxicity. -- Highlights: ►Dasatinib shows potential hepatotoxicity both in vitro and in vivo. ►Apoptosis plays a vital role in Dasatinib

  16. Repopulation of adult and neonatal mice with human hepatocytes: a chimeric animal model.

    PubMed

    Bissig, Karl-Dimiter; Le, Tam T; Woods, Niels-Bjarne; Verma, Inder M

    2007-12-18

    We report the successful transplantation of human hepatocytes in immunodeficient, fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase-deficient (fah(-/-)) mice. Engraftment occurs over the entire liver acinus upon transplantation. A few weeks after transplantation, increasing concentrations of human proteins (e.g., human albumin and human C3a) can be measured in the blood of the recipient mouse. No fusion between mouse and human hepatocytes can be detected. Three months after transplantation, up to 20% of the mouse liver is repopulated by human hepatocytes, and sustained expression of lentiviral vector transduced gene can be observed. We further report the development of a hepatocyte transplantation method involving a transcutaneous, intrahepatic injection in neonatal mice. Human hepatocytes engraft over the entire injected lobe with an expansion pattern similar to those observed with intrasplenic transplantation.

  17. Toxicokinetics of acrylamide in primary rat hepatocytes: coupling to glutathione is faster than conversion to glycidamide.

    PubMed

    Watzek, Nico; Scherbl, Denise; Schug, Markus; Hengstler, Jan G; Baum, Matthias; Habermeyer, Michael; Richling, Elke; Eisenbrand, Gerhard

    2013-08-01

    Acrylamide (AA), classified as class 2A carcinogen (probably carcinogenic to humans) by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), is formed during heating of food from reducing carbohydrates and asparagine by Maillard reaction chemistry. After dietary uptake, AA is in part metabolically converted into the proximate genotoxic phase I metabolite glycidamide (GA). GA reacts with nucleophilic base positions in DNA, primarily forming N7-(2-carbamoyl-2-hydroxyethyl)guanine (N7-GA-Gua) adducts. In a competing phase II biotransformation pathway AA, as well as its phase I metabolite GA, is coupled to glutathione (GSH). The GSH coupling products are further biotransformed and excreted via urine as mercapturic acids (MA), N-acetyl-S-(2-carbamoylethyl)cysteine (AAMA), and N-acetyl-S-(2-hydroxy-2-carbamoylethyl)cysteine (GAMA). In the present study, hepatic biotransformation pathways and DNA adduct formation were studied in primary rat hepatocytes, incubated with AA (0.2-2,000 μM) for up to 24 h. Contents of AA-GSH, GA, AAMA, and GAMA were measured in the cell culture medium after solid phase extraction (SPE). N7-GA-Gua adducts in DNA of hepatocytes were determined by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS after lysis of the cells and neutral thermal hydrolysis. Formation of AA-GSH was linear with AA concentration and incubation time and became detectable already at 0.2 μM (4 h). In contrast to AA, GA was not detected before 16 h incubation at 10-fold higher AA concentration (2 μM). In summary, the rate of AA-GSH formation was found to be about 1.5-3 times higher than that of GA formation. N7-GA-Gua adducts were found only at the highest AA concentration tested (2,000 μM).

  18. Species-specific toxicity of troglitazone on rats and human by gel entrapped hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Chong; Meng, Qin; Zhang, Guoliang

    2012-01-01

    Troglitazone, despite passing preclinical trials on animals, was shortly withdrawn from market due to its severe hepatotoxicity in clinic. As rat hepatocyte monolayer consistently showed sensitive troglitazone toxicity as human hepatocyte monolayer in contrast to the species-specific toxicity in vivo, this paper utilized both hepatocytes in three-dimensional culture of gel entrapment to reflect the species difference on hepatotoxicity. Rat hepatocytes in gel entrapment did not show obvious cellular damage even under a long-term exposure for 21 days while gel entrapped human hepatocytes significantly displayed oxidative stress, steatosis, mitochondrial damage and cell death at a short exposure for 4 days. As a result, the detected species-specific toxicity of troglitazone between gel entrapped rat and human hepatocytes consisted well with the situation in vivo but was in a sharp contrast to the performance of two hepatocytes by monolayer culture. Such contradictory toxicity of rat hepatocytes between monolayer and gel entrapment culture could be explained by the fact that troglitazone was cleared more rapidly in gel entrapment than in monolayer culture. Similarly, the differential clearance of troglitazone in rat and human might also explain its species-specific toxicity. Therefore, gel entrapment of hepatocytes might serve as a platform for evaluation of drug toxicity at early stage of drug development by reducing costs, increasing the likelihood of clinical success and limiting human exposure to unsafe drugs. -- Highlights: ► Species-specific toxicity of troglitazone reflected by rat/human hepatocytes ► 3D hepatocytes in 21 days’ long-term culture used for drug hepatotoxicity ► Oversensitive toxicity in hepatocyte monolayer by slow troglitazone clearance.

  19. Hydroxylation, conjugation and sulfation of bile acids in primary monolayer cultures of rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Princen, H.M.; Meijer, P.

    1988-08-15

    Hydroxylation of lithocholic, chenodeoxycholic, deoxycholic and cholic acids was studied in monolayers of rat hepatocytes cultured for 76 h. The majority of added lithocholic and chenodeoxycholic acids was metabolized to beta-muricholic acid (56-76%). A small part of these bile acids (9%), however, and a considerable amount of deoxycholic and cholic acids (21%) were converted into metabolites more polar than cholic acid in the first culture period. Formation of these compounds decreased during the last day of culture. Bile acids synthesized after addition of (4-/sup 14/C)-cholesterol were almost entirely (97%) sulfated and/or conjugated, predominantly with taurine (54-66%), during culture. Sulfated bile acids were mainly composed of free bile acids. The ability of hepatocytes to sulfurylate bile acids declined with culture age. Thus, rat hepatocytes in primary monolayer culture are capable to sulfurylate bile acids and to hydroxylate trihydroxylated bile acids, suggesting formation of polyhydroxylated metabolites.

  20. Induction of an Inflammatory Response in Primary Hepatocyte Cultures from Mice.

    PubMed

    Czaya, Brian; Singh, Saurav; Yanucil, Christopher; Schramm, Karla; Faul, Christian; Grabner, Alexander

    2017-03-10

    The liver plays a decisive role in the regulation of systemic inflammation. In chronic kidney disease in particular, the liver reacts in response to the uremic milieu, oxidative stress, endotoxemia and the decreased clearance of circulating proinflammatory cytokines by producing a large number of acute-phase reactants. Experimental tools to study inflammation and the underlying role of hepatocytes are crucial to understand the regulation and contribution of hepatic cytokines to a systemic acute phase response and a prolonged pro-inflammatory scenario, especially in an intricate setting such as chronic kidney disease. Since studying complex mechanisms of inflammation in vivo remains challenging, resource-intensive and usually requires the usage of transgenic animals, primary isolated hepatocytes provide a robust tool to gain mechanistic insights into the hepatic acute-phase response. Since this in vitro technique features moderate costs, high reproducibility and common technical knowledge, primary isolated hepatocytes can also be easily used as a screening approach. Here, we describe an enzymatic-based method to isolate primary murine hepatocytes, and we describe the assessment of an inflammatory response in these cells using ELISA and quantitative real-time PCR.

  1. Assessment of mitochondrial dysfunction-related, drug-induced hepatotoxicity in primary rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cong; Sekine, Shuichi; Ito, Kousei

    2016-07-01

    Evidence that mitochondrial dysfunction plays a central role in drug-induced liver injury is rapidly accumulating. In contrast to physiological conditions, in which almost all adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in hepatocytes is generated in mitochondria via aerobic respiration, the high glucose content and limited oxygen supply of conventional culture systems force primary hepatocytes to generate most ATP via cytosolic glycolysis. Thus, such anaerobically poised cells are resistant to xenobiotics that impair mitochondrial function, and are not suitable to identify drugs with mitochondrial liabilities. In this study, primary rat hepatocytes were cultured in galactose-based medium, instead of the conventional glucose-based medium, and in hyperoxia to improve the reliance of energy generation on aerobic respiration. Activation of mitochondria was verified by diminished cellular lactate release and increased oxygen consumption. These conditions improved sensitivity to the mitochondrial complex I inhibitor rotenone. Since oxidative stress is also a general cause of mitochondrial impairment, cells were exposed to test compounds in the presence of transferrin to increase the generation of reactive oxygen species via increased uptake of iron. Finally, 14 compounds with reported mitochondrial liabilities were tested to validate this new drug-induced mitochondrial toxicity assay. Overall, the culture of primary rat hepatocytes in galactose, hyperoxia and transferrin is a useful model for the identification of mitochondrial dysfunction-related drug-induced hepatotoxicity.

  2. Cytotoxic mechanisms of hydrosulfide anion and cyanide anion in primary rat hepatocyte cultures.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Rodney W; Valentine, Holly L; Valentine, William M

    2003-06-30

    Hydrogen sulfide and hydrogen cyanide are known to compromise mitochondrial respiration through inhibition of cytochrome c oxidase and this is generally considered to be their primary mechanism of toxicity. Experimental studies and the efficiency of current treatment protocols suggest that H(2)S may exert adverse physiological effects through additional mechanisms. To evaluate the role of alternative mechanisms in H(2)S toxicity, the relative contributions of electron transport inhibition, uncoupling of mitochondrial respiration, and opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) to hydrosulfide and cyanide anion cytotoxicity in primary hepatocyte cultures were examined. Supplementation of hepatocytes with the glycolytic substrate, fructose, rescued hepatocytes from cyanide anion induced toxicity, whereas fructose supplementation increased hydrosulfide anion toxicity suggesting that hydrosulfide anion may compromise glycolysis in hepatocytes. Although inhibitors of the MPTP opening were protective for hydrosulfide anion, they had no effect on cyanide anion toxicity, consistent with an involvement of the permeability transition pore in hydrosulfide anion toxicity but not cyanide anion toxicity. Exposure of isolated rat liver mitochondria to hydrosulfide did not result in large amplitude swelling suggesting that if H(2)S induces the permeability transition it does so indirectly through a mechanism requiring other cellular components. Hydrosulfide anion did not appear to be an uncoupler of mitochondrial respiration in hepatocytes based upon the inability of oligomycin and fructose to protect hepatocytes from hydrosulfide anion toxicity. These findings support mechanisms additional to inhibition of cytochrome c oxidase in hydrogen sulfide toxicity. Further investigations are required to assess the role of the permeability transition in H(2)S toxicity, determine whether similar affects occur in other cell types or in vivo and evaluate whether this may

  3. The comparative effects of diethyldithiocarbamate-copper complex with established proteasome inhibitors on expression levels of CYP1A2/3A4 and their master regulators, aryl hydrocarbon and pregnane X receptor in primary cultures of human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Vrzal, Radim; Dvorak, Zdenek

    2016-12-01

    In the recent years, a therapeutic potential of disulfiram (Antabuse) complex with copper, as an anticancer drug, was recognized towards several cancer cell lines. The proteasome was suggested as one of the cellular targets for this compound. As the therapeutic use of diethyldithiocarbamate-copper complex (CuET) is expected to increase, it is of great interest to know whether this compound may be the source of drug-drug interactions via the induction of biotransformation enzymes, especially cytochromes P450 (CYPs). To this purpose, we examined the effect of CuET and compared it with typical inducers (rifampicin and dioxin) of CYPs and with well-established proteasome inhibitors (MG132 and bortezomib). Diethyldithiocarbamate-copper complex revealed inconsistent and rather modulatory effect on the expression of CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 in several cultures of human hepatocytes. Moreover, it was able to cause neither ubiquitin accumulation nor significant and dose-dependent inhibition of proteasome activity. It had no effect on essential transcription factors involved in regulation of selected CYPs, aryl hydrocarbon (AhR) nor pregnane X receptor (PXR). However, the AhR protein was increased in majority of examined hepatocyte cultures. The main finding of this study is that: (i) disulfiram-copper complex is not the cause of drug-drug interactions via CYP1A2/3A4 induction; (ii) proteasome inhibitors may have different impact on studied parameters in given in vitro system. © 2016 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  4. Sulodexide induces hepatocyte growth factor release in humans.

    PubMed

    Borawski, Jacek; Dubowski, Miroslaw; Pawlak, Krystyna; Mysliwiec, Michal

    2007-03-08

    Heparin influences numerous pleiotropic growth factors, including hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), partially by their release from endothelial and extracellular matrix stores. The effects of sulodexide, a heparin-like glycosaminoglycan medication of growing importance in medicine, on HGF liberation are not known. We performed a 2-week open-label sulodexide trial in healthy male volunteers. The drug was initially administered intravenously (i.v.) in a single dose of 1200 Lipoprotein Lipase Releasing Units (LRU), then -- orally for 12 days (500 LRU twice a day), and -- again by i.v. route (1200 LRU) on day 14. Intravenous sulodexide injections were repeatedly found to induce marked and reproducible increases in immunoreactive plasma HGF levels (more than 3500% vs baseline after 10 min, and more than 1200% after 120 min), and remained unchanged when measured 120 min following oral sulodexide administration. The percentage increments in plasma HGF evoked by i.v. sulodexide at both time points and on both days inversely correlated with baseline levels of the growth factor. On day 14, the HGF levels after 120 min and their percentage increase vs baseline were strongly and directly dependent on i.v. sulodexide dose per kg of body weight. This study shows that sulodexide has a novel, remarkable and plausibly biologically important stimulating effect on the release of pleiotropic hepatocyte growth factor in humans.

  5. Glucose metabolism by adult hepatocytes in primary culture and by cell lines from rat liver.

    PubMed

    Bissell, D M; Levine, G A; Bissell, M J

    1978-03-01

    The metabolic fate of [U-14C]glucose has been examined in detail in adult rat hepatocytes in primary monolayer culture, as well as in two permanent cell lines--Buffalo rat liver (BRL) and transplantable rat hepatoma (HTC) cells-derived from normal rat liver and from rat hepatoma, respectively. Under defined conditions of incubation, at a glucose concentration of 5.5 mM, the three types of cultured liver cells exhibited pronounced differences in glucose metabolism. Primary cultures, like the intact liver, differed from the cell lines in consuming relatively small amounts of glucose and converting approximately 50% of the total metabolized glucose to lactate. By contrast, the permantent cell lines consumed glucose at a 40-fold greater rate than did primary cultures, converting 80--90% of the carbohydrate to lactate. Oxidative metabolism of glucose carbon also differed among the three types of liver culture. Of the total [U-14C]glucose consumed, primary cultures converted approximately 30% to labeled CO2 per hour, whereas the liver cell lines converted 5--10%. Finally, glucose metabolism in primary culture exhibited adaptation as hepatocytes aged in culture, shifting progressively toward the pattern exhibited by the permanent cell lines. This change occurred over a time course similar to that for other kinds of functional change in hepatocytes in primary culture and thus may be relevant to the general problem of phenotypic alteration in liver cell culture.

  6. Proteomic Characterization of Primary Mouse Hepatocytes in Collagen Monolayer and Sandwich Culture.

    PubMed

    Orsini, Malina; Sperber, Saskia; Noor, Fozia; Hoffmann, Esther; Weber, Susanne N; Hall, Rabea A; Lammert, Frank; Heinzle, Elmar

    2017-06-08

    Dedifferentiation of primary hepatocytes in vitro makes their application in long-term studies difficult. Embedding hepatocytes in a sandwich of extracellular matrix is reported to delay the dedifferentiation process to some extent. In this study, we compared the intracellular proteome of primary mouse hepatocytes (PMH) in conventional monolayer cultures (ML) to collagen sandwich culture (SW) after 1 day and 5 days of cultivation. Quantitative proteome analysis of PMH showed no differences between collagen SW and ML cultures after 1 day. Glycolysis and gluconeogenesis were strongly affected by long-term cultivation in both ML and SW cultures. Interestingly, culture conditions had no effect on cellular lipid metabolism. After 5 days, PMH in collagen SW and ML cultures exhibit characteristic indications of oxidative stress. However, in the SW culture the defense system against oxidative stress is significantly up-regulated to deal with this, whereas in the ML culture a down-regulation of these important enzymes takes place. Regarding the multiple effects of ROS and oxidative stress in cells, we conclude that the down-regulation of these enzymes seem to play a role in the loss of hepatic function observed in the ML cultivation. In addition, enzymes of the urea cycle were clearly down-regulated in ML culture. Proteomics confirms lack in oxidative stress defense mechanisms as the major characteristic of hepatocytes in monolayer cultures compared to sandwich cultures. J. Cell. Biochem. 9999: 1-8, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Isolation and cultivation of adult primary bovine hepatocytes from abattoir derived liver

    PubMed Central

    Ehrhardt, Sonja; Schmicke, Marion

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to establish a cell culture of adult primary bovine hepatocytes obtained from liver following slaughter and to cultivate the cells in a sandwich culture. Cells and medium samples were taken after separation of cells (day 0), during monolayer (days 1, 2 and 3) and during sandwich culture (days 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 10 and 14). The mRNA expression of BAX, BCL2L, FAS, IGF-1 and GHR1A was measured as well as urea and LDH. Hepatocytes were obtained by using a two-step collagenase perfusion and were purified thereafter by density gradient centrifugation. The viability was 68.2 ± 9.5 %. In sandwich culture, cells have a typical polygonal hepatocyte-like shape, build cell-cell contacts, and show irregularity of cell borders suggesting bile canaliculi generation. The BAX mRNA expression increased on day 1 as well but decreased steadily until day 3 and remained constant for 14 days. Urea- and LDH-concentrations increased from day 4 to day 7. In conclusion, we found that it is possible to gather viable primary hepatocytes from adult bovine liver after slaughter, and that cells gathered this way show typical morphologies, urea-production and low LDH-leakage especially at day 4 in a sandwich system. PMID:28275320

  8. Superior In vivo Transduction of Human Hepatocytes Using Engineered AAV3 Capsid.

    PubMed

    Vercauteren, Koen; Hoffman, Brad E; Zolotukhin, Irene; Keeler, Geoffrey D; Xiao, Jing W; Basner-Tschakarjan, Etiena; High, Katherine A; Ertl, Hildegund Cj; Rice, Charles M; Srivastava, Arun; de Jong, Ype P; Herzog, Roland W

    2016-06-01

    Adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors are currently being tested in multiple clinical trials for liver-directed gene transfer to treat the bleeding disorders hemophilia A and B and metabolic disorders. The optimal viral capsid for transduction of human hepatocytes has been under active investigation, but results across various models are inconsistent. We tested in vivo transduction in "humanized" mice. Methods to quantitate percent AAV transduced human and murine hepatocytes in chimeric livers were optimized using flow cytometry and confocal microscopy with image analysis. Distinct transduction efficiencies were noted following peripheral vein administration of a self-complementary vector expressing a gfp reporter gene. An engineered AAV3 capsid with two amino acid changes, S663V+T492V (AAV3-ST), showed best efficiency for human hepatocytes (~3-times, ~8-times, and ~80-times higher than for AAV9, AAV8, and AAV5, respectively). AAV5, 8, and 9 were more efficient in transducing murine than human hepatocytes. AAV8 yielded the highest transduction rate of murine hepatocytes, which was 19-times higher than that for human hepatocytes. In summary, our data show substantial differences among AAV serotypes in transduction of human and mouse hepatocytes, are the first to report on AAV5 in humanized mice, and support the use of AAV3-based vectors for human liver gene transfer.

  9. Clonal Expansion of Normal-Appearing Human Hepatocytes during Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Mason, William S.; Liu, Chen; Aldrich, Carol E.; Litwin, Samuel; Yeh, Matthew M.

    2010-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections are associated with persistent immune killing of infected hepatocytes. Hepatocytes constitute a largely self-renewing population. Thus, immune killing may exert selective pressure on the population, leading it to evolve in order to survive. A gradual course of hepatocyte evolution toward an HBV-resistant state is suggested by the substantial decline in the fraction of infected hepatocytes that occurs during the course of chronic infections. Consistent with hepatocyte evolution, clones of >1,000 hepatocytes develop postinfection in the noncirrhotic livers of chimpanzees chronically infected with HBV and of woodchucks infected with woodchuck hepatitis virus (W. S. Mason, A. R. Jilbert, and J. Summers, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 102:1139-1144, 2005; W. S. Mason et al., J. Virol. 83:8396-8408, 2009). The present study was carried out to determine (i) if extensive clonal expansion of hepatocytes also occurred in human HBV carriers, particularly in the noncirrhotic liver, and (ii) if clonal expansion included normal-appearing hepatocytes, not just hepatocytes that appear premalignant. Host DNA extracted from fragments of noncancerous liver, collected during surgical resection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), was analyzed by inverse PCR for randomly integrated HBV DNA as a marker of expanding hepatocyte lineages. This analysis detected extensive clonal expansion of hepatocytes, as previously found in chronically infected chimpanzees and woodchucks. Tissue sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E), and DNA was extracted from the adjacent section for inverse PCR to detect integrated HBV DNA. This analysis revealed that clonal expansion can occur among normal-appearing human hepatocytes. PMID:20519397

  10. Improved transduction of primary murine hepatocytes by recombinant adeno-associated virus 2 vectors in vivo.

    PubMed

    Zhong, L; Li, W; Yang, Z; Chen, L; Li, Y; Qing, K; Weigel-Kelley, K A; Yoder, M C; Shou, W; Srivastava, A

    2004-07-01

    Adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV) vectors are currently in use in Phase I/II clinical trials for gene therapy of cystic fibrosis and hemophilia B. Although 100% of murine hepatocytes can be targeted by AAV vectors, the transgene expression is limited to approximately 5% of hepatocytes. Since the viral genome is a single-stranded DNA, and single strands of both polarities are encapsidated with equal frequency, it has been suggested that failure to undergo DNA strand-annealing accounts for the lack of efficient transgene expression. We and others, on the other hand, have proposed that failure to undergo viral second-strand DNA synthesis attributes to the observed low efficiency of transgene expression. We have previously documented that a cellular protein, designated FKBP52, when present in phosphorylated forms, inhibits the viral second-strand DNA synthesis, and consequently, limits transgene expression in nonhepatic cells, whereas unphosphorylated forms of FKBP52 have no effect. To further evaluate whether phosphorylated FKBP52 is also involved in regulating AAV-mediated transgene expression in murine hepatocytes, we generated transgenic mice overexpressing the cellular T-cell protein tyrosine phosphatase (TC-PTP) protein, known to catalyze dephosphorylation of FKBP52, as well as mice deficient in FKBP52. We demonstrate here that dephosphorylation of FKBP52 in TC-PTP transgenic (TC-PTP-TG) mice, and removal of FKBP52 in FKBP52-knockout (FKBP52-KO) mice results in efficient transduction of murine hepatocytes following tail-vein injection of recombinant AAV vectors. We also document efficient viral second-strand DNA synthesis in hepatocytes from both TC-PTP-TG and FKBP52-KO mice. Thus, our data strongly support the contention that the viral second-strand DNA synthesis, rather than DNA strand-annealing, is the rate-limiting step in the efficient transduction of hepatocytes, which should have implications in the optimal use of recombinant AAV vectors in human gene therapy.

  11. Exposure of primary rat hepatocytes in long-term DMSO culture to selected transition metals induces hepatocyte proliferation and formation of duct-like structures.

    PubMed

    Cable, E E; Isom, H C

    1997-12-01

    We previously showed that primary rat hepatocytes plated on a rat-tail collagen coated dish and fed a chemically-defined medium supplemented with 2% dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) can be maintained in a well-differentiated, non-replicating state for periods of several months. In this study, we show that the addition of copper, iron, and zinc to the DMSO-containing chemically defined medium induced DNA synthesis and cell replication during the first two months in culture without loss of hepatic differentiation. DNA synthesis occurred throughout the hepatocyte population without regard to cellular size. No changes were observed in properties indicative of well-differentiated hepatocytes, including cellular morphology, ultrastructure, albumin, or cytokeratin-8 expression. During the third month in culture, after the hepatocytes had become confluent, pseudoduct structures became apparent. Examination of cells lining the ducts by immunohistochemistry showed that these cells lost the ability to express albumin and stained more intensely for cytokeratin 19 and laminin. The ultrastructure of the cells lining the ducts was altered and became more characteristic of bile duct cells. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed that connexin 43, a marker of bile-duct proliferation, was expressed in the duct-like cells. We conclude that under these specific nutritive conditions, primary rat hepatocytes proliferate and, with time, begin to form duct-like structures with altered gene expression and ultrastructural properties.

  12. Impaired mitochondrial functions contribute to 3-bromopyruvate toxicity in primary rat and mouse hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Sobotka, Ondřej; Endlicher, René; Drahota, Zdeněk; Kučera, Otto; Rychtrmoc, David; Raad, Marjan; Hakeem, Khurum; Červinková, Zuzana

    2016-08-01

    A compound with promising anticancer properties, 3-bromopyruvate (3-BP) is a synthetic derivative of a pyruvate molecule; however, its toxicity in non-malignant cells has not yet been fully elucidated. Therefore, we elected to study the effects of 3-BP on primary hepatocytes in monolayer cultures, permeabilized hepatocytes and isolated mitochondria. After a 1-h treatment with 100 μM 3-BP cell viability of rat hepatocytes was decreased by 30 % as measured by the WST-1 test (p < 0.001); after 3-h exposure to ≥200 μM 3-BP lactate dehydrogenase leakage was increased (p < 0.001). Reactive oxygen species production was increased in the cell cultures after a 1-h treatment at concentrations ≥100 μmol/l (p < 0.01), and caspase 3 activity was increased after a 20-h incubation with 150 μM and 200 μM 3-BP (p < 0.001). This toxic effect of 3-BP was also proved using primary mouse hepatocytes. In isolated mitochondria, 3-BP induced a dose- and time-dependent decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential during a 10-min incubation both with Complex I substrates glutamate + malate or Complex II substrate succinate, although this decrease was more pronounced with the latter. We also measured the effect of 3-BP on respiration of isolated mitochondria. ADP-activated respiration was inhibited by 20 μM 3-BP within 10 min. Similar effects were also found in permeabilized hepatocytes of both species.

  13. Superior In vivo Transduction of Human Hepatocytes Using Engineered AAV3 Capsid

    PubMed Central

    Vercauteren, Koen; Hoffman, Brad E; Zolotukhin, Irene; Keeler, Geoffrey D; Xiao, Jing W; Basner-Tschakarjan, Etiena; High, Katherine A; Ertl, Hildegund CJ; Rice, Charles M; Srivastava, Arun; de Jong, Ype P; Herzog, Roland W

    2016-01-01

    Adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors are currently being tested in multiple clinical trials for liver-directed gene transfer to treat the bleeding disorders hemophilia A and B and metabolic disorders. The optimal viral capsid for transduction of human hepatocytes has been under active investigation, but results across various models are inconsistent. We tested in vivo transduction in “humanized” mice. Methods to quantitate percent AAV transduced human and murine hepatocytes in chimeric livers were optimized using flow cytometry and confocal microscopy with image analysis. Distinct transduction efficiencies were noted following peripheral vein administration of a self-complementary vector expressing a gfp reporter gene. An engineered AAV3 capsid with two amino acid changes, S663V+T492V (AAV3-ST), showed best efficiency for human hepatocytes (~3-times, ~8-times, and ~80-times higher than for AAV9, AAV8, and AAV5, respectively). AAV5, 8, and 9 were more efficient in transducing murine than human hepatocytes. AAV8 yielded the highest transduction rate of murine hepatocytes, which was 19-times higher than that for human hepatocytes. In summary, our data show substantial differences among AAV serotypes in transduction of human and mouse hepatocytes, are the first to report on AAV5 in humanized mice, and support the use of AAV3-based vectors for human liver gene transfer. PMID:27019999

  14. Role of aquaporin 9 in cellular accumulation of arsenic and its cytotoxicity in primary mouse hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Shinkai, Yasuhiro; Sumi, Daigo; Toyama, Takashi; Kaji, Toshiyuki; Kumagai, Yoshito

    2009-06-01

    Aquaporin (AQP) 9 is a member of the aquaglyceroporin subfamily of AQPs in the transfer of water and small solutes such as glycerol and arsenite. It is well recognized that arsenic toxicity is associated with intracellular accumulation of this metalloid. In the present study, we examined the contribution of AQP9 to the uptake of inorganic arsenite, thereby increasing arsenic-induced cytotoxicity in primary mouse hepatocytes. Pretreatment with sorbitol as a competitive inhibitor of AQP9 and siRNA-mediated knockdown of AQP9 resulted in a significant decrease of arsenite uptake in the cell and its cytotoxicity. Furthermore, overexpression of AQP9 in HEK293 cells led to the enhancement of intracellular arsenic concentration, resulting in enhanced cytotoxicity after arsenite exposure. These results suggest that AQP9 is a channel to define arsenite sensitivity in primary mouse hepatocytes.

  15. Establishment and Characterization of an Immortalized Human Hepatic Stellate Cell Line for Applications in Co-Culturing with Immortalized Human Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Pan, XiaoPing; Wang, Yini; Yu, XiaoPeng; Li, JianZhou; Zhou, Ning; Du, WeiBo; Zhang, YanHong; Cao, HongCui; Zhu, DanHua; Chen, Yu; Li, LanJuan

    2015-01-01

    Background and objective. The liver-specific functions of hepatocytes are improved by co-culturing hepatocytes with primary hepatic stellate cells (HSC). However, primary HSC have a short lifespan in vitro, which is considered a major limitation for their use in various applications. This study aimed to establish immortalized human HSC using the simian virus 40 large T antigen (SV40LT) for applications in co-culturing with hepatocytes and HSC in vitro. Methods. Primary human HSC were transfected with a recombinant retrovirus containing SV40LT. The immortalized human HSC were characterized by analyzing their gene expression and functional characteristics. The liver-specific functions of hepatocytes were evaluated in a co-culture system incorporating immortalized human hepatocytes with HSC-Li cells. Results. The immortalized HSC line, HSC-Li, was obtained after infection with a recombinant retrovirus containing SV40LT. The HSC-Li cells were longitudinally spindle-like and had numerous fat droplets in their cytoplasm as shown using electron microscopy. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), VEGF Receptor 1(Flt-1), collagen type Iα1 and Iα2 mRNA expression levels were observed in the HSC-Li cells by RT-PCR. Immunofluorescence staining showed that the HSC-Li cells were positive for α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), platelet-derived growth factor receptor-beta (PDGFR-β), vimentin, and SV40LT protein expression. The HSC-Li cells produced both HGF and transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1) in a time-dependent manner. Real-time PCR showed that albumin, CYP3A5, CYP2E1, and UGT2B7 mRNA expression generally increased in the co-culture system. The enzymatic activity of CYP1A2 under the co-culture conditions also generally increased as compared to the monoculture of immortalized human hepatocytes. Conclusions. We successfully established the immortalized human HSC cell line HSC-Li. It has the specific phenotypic and functional characteristics of primary human HSC, which would be

  16. A pump-free microfluidic 3D perfusion platform for the efficient differentiation of human hepatocyte-like cells.

    PubMed

    Ong, Louis Jun Ye; Chong, Lor Huai; Jin, Lin; Singh, Pawan Kumar; Lee, Poh Seng; Yu, Hanry; Ananthanarayanan, Abhishek; Leo, Hwa Liang; Toh, Yi-Chin

    2017-10-01

    The practical application of microfluidic liver models for in vitro drug testing is partly hampered by their reliance on human primary hepatocytes, which are limited in number and have batch-to-batch variation. Human stem cell-derived hepatocytes offer an attractive alternative cell source, although their 3D differentiation and maturation in a microfluidic platform have not yet been demonstrated. We develop a pump-free microfluidic 3D perfusion platform to achieve long-term and efficient differentiation of human liver progenitor cells into hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs). The device contains a micropillar array to immobilize cells three-dimensionally in a central cell culture compartment flanked by two side perfusion channels. Constant pump-free medium perfusion is accomplished by controlling the differential heights of horizontally orientated inlet and outlet media reservoirs. Computational fluid dynamic simulation is used to estimate the hydrostatic pressure heads required to achieve different perfusion flow rates, which are experimentally validated by micro-particle image velocimetry, as well as viability and functional assessments in a primary rat hepatocyte model. We perform on-chip differentiation of HepaRG, a human bipotent progenitor cell, and discover that 3D microperfusion greatly enhances the hepatocyte differentiation efficiency over static 2D and 3D cultures. However, HepaRG progenitor cells are highly sensitive to the time-point at which microperfusion is applied. Isolated HepaRG cells that are primed as static 3D spheroids before being subjected to microperfusion yield a significantly higher proportion of HLCs (92%) than direct microperfusion of isolated HepaRG cells (62%). This platform potentially offers a simple and efficient means to develop highly functional microfluidic liver models incorporating human stem cell-derived HLCs. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 2360-2370. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Perfused human hepatocyte microtissues identify reactive metabolite-forming and mitochondria-perturbing hepatotoxins.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Cliff; Shaeri, Mohsen; Large, Emma; Cornforth, Terri; Robinson, Angela; Kostrzewski, Tomasz; Sison-Young, Rowena; Goldring, Christopher; Park, Kevin; Hughes, David

    2017-09-15

    Hepatotoxins cause liver damage via many mechanisms but the formation of reactive metabolites and/or damage to liver mitochondria are commonly implicated. We assess 3D human primary hepatocyte microtissues as a platform for hepatotoxicity studies with reactive metabolite-forming and mitochondria-perturbing compounds. We show that microtissues formed from cryopreserved human hepatocytes had bile canaliculi, transcribed mRNA from genes associated with xenobiotic metabolism and expressed functional cytochrome P450 enzymes. Hierarchical clustering was used to distinguish dose-dependent hepatotoxicity elicited by clozapine, fialuridine and acetaminophen (APAP) from control cultures and less liver-damaging compounds, olanzapine and entecavir. The regio-isomer of acetaminophen, N-acetyl-meta-aminophenol (AMAP) clustered with the hepatotoxic compounds. The principal metabolites of APAP were formed and dose-dependent changes in metabolite profile similar to those seen in patient overdose was observed. The toxicological profile of APAP was indistinguishable from that of AMAP, confirming AMAP as a human hepatotoxin. Tissue oxygen consumption rate was significantly decreased within 2h of exposure to APAP or AMAP, concomitant with glutathione depletion. These data highlight the potential utility of perfused metabolically functional human liver microtissues in drug development and mechanistic toxicology. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Role of Phosphatidic Acid Phosphatase Domain Containing 2 in Squalestatin 1-Mediated Activation of the Constitutive Androstane Receptor in Primary Cultured Rat Hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Pant, Asmita; Kocarek, Thomas A

    2016-03-01

    Farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) is a branch-point intermediate in the mevalonate pathway that is normally converted mainly to squalene by squalene synthase in the first committed step of sterol biosynthesis. Treatment with the squalene synthase inhibitor squalestatin 1 (SQ1) causes accumulation of FPP, its dephosphorylated metabolite farnesol, and several oxidized farnesol-derived metabolites. In addition, SQ1 treatment of primary cultured rat hepatocytes increases CYP2B expression through a mechanism that requires FPP synthesis and activation of the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR). Because direct farnesol treatment also increases CYP2B expression, it seems likely that SQ1-mediated CAR activation requires FPP dephosphorylation to farnesol. The lipid phosphatase, phosphatidic acid phosphatase domain containing 2 (PPAPDC2), was recently reported to catalyze FPP dephosphorylation. We therefore determined the effect of overexpressing or knocking down PPAPDC2 on SQ1-mediated CAR activation in primary cultured rat hepatocytes. Cotransfection of rat hepatocytes with a plasmid expressing rat or human PPAPDC2 enhanced SQ1-mediated activation of a CAR-responsive reporter by 1.7- or 2.4-fold over the SQ1-mediated activation that was produced when hepatocytes were cotransfected with empty expression plasmid. Similarly, transduction of rat hepatocytes with a recombinant adenovirus expressing PPAPDC2 enhanced SQ1-mediated CYP2B1 mRNA induction by 1.4-fold over the induction that was seen in hepatocytes transduced with control adenovirus. Cotransfection with a short hairpin RNA targeting PPAPDC2 reduced SQ1-mediated CAR activation by approximately 80% relative to the activation that occurred in hepatocytes transfected with nontargeting short hairpin RNA. These results indicate that PPAPDC2 plays an important role in SQ1-mediated CAR activation, most likely by catalyzing the conversion of FPP to farnesol. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and

  19. Functional human induced hepatocytes (hiHeps) with bile acid synthesis and transport capacities: A novel in vitro cholestatic model

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Xuan; Gao, Yimeng; Wu, Zhitao; Ma, Leilei; Chen, Chen; Wang, Le; Lin, Yunfei; Hui, Lijian; Pan, Guoyu

    2016-01-01

    Drug-induced cholestasis is a leading cause of drug withdrawal. However, the use of primary human hepatocytes (PHHs), the gold standard for predicting cholestasis in vitro, is limited by their high cost and batch-to-batch variability. Mature hepatocyte characteristics have been observed in human induced hepatocytes (hiHeps) derived from human fibroblast transdifferentiation. Here, we evaluated whether hiHeps could biosynthesize and excrete bile acids (BAs) and their potential as PHH alternatives for cholestasis investigations. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and western blotting indicated that hiHeps highly expressed BA synthases and functional transporters. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) showed that hiHeps produced normal intercellular unconjugated BAs but fewer conjugated BAs than human hepatocytes. When incubated with representative cholestatic agents, hiHeps exhibited sensitive drug-induced bile salt export pump (BSEP) dysfunction, and their response to cholestatic agent-mediated cytotoxicity correlated well with that of PHHs (r2 = 0.8032). Deoxycholic acid (DCA)-induced hepatotoxicity in hiHeps was verified by elevated aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and γ-glutamyl-transferase (γ-GT) levels. Mitochondrial damage and cell death suggested DCA-induced toxicity in hiHeps, which were attenuated by hepatoprotective drugs, as in PHHs. For the first time, hiHeps were reported to biosynthesize and excrete BAs, which could facilitate predicting cholestatic hepatotoxicity and screening potential therapeutic drugs against cholestasis. PMID:27934920

  20. A hybrid substratum for primary hepatocyte culture that enhances hepatic functionality with low serum dependency.

    PubMed

    Meng, Qingyuan; Tao, Chunsheng; Qiu, Zhiye; Akaike, Toshihiro; Cui, Fuzhai; Wang, Xiumei

    2015-01-01

    Cell culture systems have proven to be crucial for the in vitro maintenance of primary hepatocytes and the preservation of hepatic functional expression at a high level. A poly-(N-p-vinylbenzyl-4-O-β-D-galactopyranosyl-D-gluconamide) matrix can recognize cells and promote liver function in a spheroid structure because of a specific galactose-asialoglycoprotein receptor interaction. Meanwhile, a fusion protein, E-cadherin-Fc, when incubated with various cells, has shown an enhancing effect on cellular viability and metabolism. Therefore, a hybrid substratum was developed for biomedical applications by using both of these materials to combine their advantages for primary hepatocyte cultures. The isolated cells showed a monolayer aggregate morphology on the coimmobilized surface and displayed higher functional expression than cells on traditional matrices. Furthermore, the hybrid system, in which the highest levels of cell adhesion and hepatocellular metabolism were achieved with the addition of 1% fetal bovine serum, showed a lower serum dependency than the collagen/gelatin-coated surface. Accordingly, this substrate may attenuate the negative effects of serum and further contribute to establishing a defined culture system for primary hepatocytes.

  1. [Study on the interface of human hepatocyte L-02 polypropylene:simple culture method of human hepatocyte with spheroidal aggregate culture].

    PubMed

    Peng, Cheng-hong; Han, Bao-san; Gao, Chang-you; Ma, Zu-wei; Zhao, Zhi-ming; Wang, Yong; Liu, Hong; Zhang, Gui-di; Yang, Mei-juan

    2004-09-07

    To found new interface of human hepatocyte/poly propylene with good cytocompatibility for made polypropylene hollow fibers bioreactor of bioartificial liver in future. Using the macromolecular hydroperoxide groups on the polypropylene membrane surface as initiators, acrylamides were polymerized on the polypropylene membranes, under induction by both UV irradiation and Fe2+ reduction. Growth characteristics of human hepatocyte L-02 were detected when it was cultured on polystyrene, polypropylene and modified polypropylene membrane surface. Water contact angle measurement of the polypropylene and the modified polypropylene membranes decreased from (72 +/- 5) degrees to (30 +/- 4) degrees , which indicated that the hydrophilicity of the membrane was improved obviously after the grafting modification. Human hepatocyte L-02 could not adhere and spread on modified polypropylene membrane surface, and grown in spheroidal aggregate with higher density and higher proliferation ratio measured by MTT method. Acrylamide polymerized on the polypropylene membranes is a good method which not only improved human hepatocytes cytocompatibility but also found a new simple culture method with spheroidal aggregate culture of human hepatocyte.

  2. Induced pluripotent stem cell-derived hepatocytes as an alternative to human adult hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Katsuda, Takeshi; Sakai, Yasuyuki; Ochiya, Takahiro

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell research have attracted much attention. The ability to generate such cells from somatic cells has implications for overcoming both immunological rejection and the ethical issues associated with embryonic stem (ES) cells. Hepatocytes derived from patient-specific iPS cells offer a possible solution to the shortage of cell sources in cell replacement therapy, drug screening, and disease model. Despite such great promise, however, recent articles have questioned the viability of the therapeutic applications of iPS cells. These cells must, therefore, satisfy stringent criteria prior to practical use. The main focus of this review is a description of the current status of hepatic differentiation technology of iPS cells and a discussion of the concerns regarding the practical use of these techniques in cell replacement therapy, drug screening, and disease model. The current status of strategies for generating iPS cells and the accumulated knowledge on strategies for differentiating ES cells into hepatocytes will be summarized. We also refer to the possibility of direct conversion of adult somatic cells into functional hepatocytes.

  3. Maintenance of human hepatocyte function in vitro by liver-derived extracellular matrix gels.

    PubMed

    Sellaro, Tiffany L; Ranade, Aarati; Faulk, Denver M; McCabe, George P; Dorko, Kenneth; Badylak, Stephen F; Strom, Stephen C

    2010-03-01

    Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine (TE&RM) approaches to treating liver disease have the potential to provide temporary support with biohybrid-liver-assist devices or long-term therapy by replacing the diseased liver with functional constructs. A rate-limiting step for TE&RM strategies has been the loss of hepatocyte-specific functions after hepatocytes are isolated from their highly specialized in vivo microenvironment and placed in in vitro culture systems. The identification of a biologic substrate that can maintain a functional hepatocyte differentiation profile during in vitro culture would advance potential TE&RM therapeutic strategies. The present study compared two different biologic substrates for their ability to support human hepatocyte function in vitro: porcine-liver-derived extracellular matrix (PLECM) or Matrigel. Because Matrigel has been shown to be the most useful matrix for static, traditional hepatocyte culture, we directly compared PLECM with Matrigel in each experiment. Albumin secretion, hepatic transport activity, and ammonia metabolism were used to determine hepatocyte function. Hepatocytes cultured between two layers of PLECM or Matrigel showed equally high levels of albumin expression and secretion, ammonia metabolism, and hepatic transporter expression and function. We conclude that like Matrigel, PLECM represents a favorable substrate for in vitro culture of human hepatocytes.

  4. The cytochrome P450 inhibitor SKF-525A disrupts autophagy in primary rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yong; Yang, Xi; Shi, Qiang

    2016-08-05

    The cytochrome P450 (CYP) inhibitor SKF-525A is commonly used to study drug metabolism and toxicity, particularly hepatotoxicity. By using Western blot and immunofluorescence staining, we unexpectedly found that SKF-525A at 2-20 μM caused remarkable accumulation of microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 II (LC3-II) in primary rat hepatocytes at 1, 4 and 24 h, indicating that autophagy was disrupted. SKF-525A showed no effects on chloroquine induced LC3-II accumulation, suggesting that autophagic flux was blocked, which is further supported by the increased level of the p62 protein after SKF-525A treatment. SKF-525A did not affect proteasome activities or gene expression of LC3-II or p62. Immunofluorescence of green fluorescent protein fused lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP1, a specific protein marker for lysosomes) and LC3-II showed that co-localization of these two proteins was partially abolished by SKF-525A, indicating that autophagosome-lysosome fusion was blocked. The other five CYP inhibitors, metyrapone, 1-aminobenzotriazole, alpha-naphthoflavone, ticlopidine, and ketoconazole, showed no effects in parallel experiments. These findings provide novel insights into the mechanisms by which various CYP inhibitors differentially affect a same drug's toxicity in hepatocytes. The data also indicate that SKF-525A is not an ideal chemical inhibitor for probing the relation between CYP mediated metabolism and toxicity in primary hepatocytes.

  5. Trichostatin A, a critical factor in maintaining the functional differentiation of primary cultured rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Henkens, Tom . E-mail: Tom.Henkens@vub.ac.be; Papeleu, Peggy; Elaut, Greetje; Vinken, Mathieu; Rogiers, Vera; Vanhaecke, Tamara

    2007-01-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDI) have been shown to increase differentiation-related gene expression in several tumor-derived cell lines by hyperacetylating core histones. Effects of HDI on primary cultured cells, however, have hardly been investigated. In the present study, the ability of trichostatin A (TSA), a prototype hydroxamate HDI, to counteract the loss of liver-specific functions in primary rat hepatocyte cultures has been investigated. Upon exposure to TSA, it was found that the cell viability of the cultured hepatocytes and their albumin secretion as a function of culture time were increased. TSA-treated hepatocytes also better maintained cytochrome P450 (CYP)-mediated phase I biotransformation capacity, whereas the activity of phase II glutathione S-transferases (GST) was not affected. Western blot and qRT-PCR analysis of CYP1A1, CYP2B1 and CYP3A11 protein and mRNA levels, respectively, further revealed that TSA acts at the transcriptional level. In addition, protein expression levels of the liver-enriched transcription factors (LETFs) hepatic nuclear factor 4 alpha (HNF4{alpha}) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha (C/EBP{alpha}) were accordingly increased by TSA throughout culture time. In conclusion, these findings indicate that TSA plays a major role in the preservation of the differentiated hepatic phenotype in culture. It is suggested that the effects of TSA on CYP gene expression are mediated via controlling the expression of LETFs.

  6. Docosahexaenoic Acid Ameliorates Fructose-Induced Hepatic Steatosis Involving ER Stress Response in Primary Mouse Hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jinying; Peng, Chuan; Ai, Yanbiao; Wang, Heng; Xiao, Xiaoqiu; Li, Jibin

    2016-01-20

    The increase in fructose consumption is considered to be a risk factor for developing nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We investigated the effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on hepatic lipid metabolism in fructose-treated primary mouse hepatocytes, and the changes of Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathways in response to DHA treatment. The hepatocytes were treated with fructose, DHA, fructose plus DHA, tunicamycin (TM) or fructose plus 4-phenylbutyric acid (PBA) for 24 h. Intracellular triglyceride (TG) accumulation was assessed by Oil Red O staining. The mRNA expression levels and protein levels related to lipid metabolism and ER stress response were determined by real-time PCR and Western blot. Fructose treatment led to obvious TG accumulation in primary hepatocytes through increasing expression of fatty acid synthase (FAS) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), two key enzymes in hepatic de novo lipogenesis. DHA ameliorates fructose-induced TG accumulation by upregulating the expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A (CPT-1α) and acyl-CoA oxidase 1 (ACOX1). DHA treatment or pretreatment with the ER stress inhibitor PBA significantly decreased TG accumulation and reduced the expression of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), total inositol-requiring kinase 1 (IRE1α) and p-IRE1α. The present results suggest that DHA protects against high fructose-induced hepatocellular lipid accumulation. The current findings also suggest that alleviating the ER stress response seems to play a role in the prevention of fructose-induced hepatic steatosis by DHA.

  7. Intracellular cholesterol-binding proteins enhance HDL-mediated cholesterol uptake in cultured primary mouse hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Storey, Stephen M; McIntosh, Avery L; Huang, Huan; Landrock, Kerstin K; Martin, Gregory G; Landrock, Danilo; Payne, H Ross; Atshaves, Barbara P; Kier, Ann B; Schroeder, Friedhelm

    2012-04-15

    A major gap in our knowledge of rapid hepatic HDL cholesterol clearance is the role of key intracellular factors that influence this process. Although the reverse cholesterol transport pathway targets HDL to the liver for net elimination of free cholesterol from the body, molecular details governing cholesterol uptake into hepatocytes are not completely understood. Therefore, the effects of sterol carrier protein (SCP)-2 and liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP), high-affinity cholesterol-binding proteins present in hepatocyte cytosol, on HDL-mediated free cholesterol uptake were examined using gene-targeted mouse models, cultured primary hepatocytes, and 22-[N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)-amino]-23,24-bisnor-5-cholen-3β-ol (NBD-cholesterol). While SCP-2 overexpression enhanced NBD-cholesterol uptake, counterintuitively, SCP-2/SCP-x gene ablation also 1) enhanced the rapid molecular phase of free sterol uptake detectable in <1 min and initial rate and maximal uptake of HDL free cholesterol and 2) differentially enhanced free cholesterol uptake mediated by the HDL3, rather than the HDL2, subfraction. The increased HDL free cholesterol uptake was not due to increased expression or distribution of the HDL receptor [scavenger receptor B1 (SRB1)], proteins regulating SRB1 [postsynaptic density protein (PSD-95)/Drosophila disk large tumor suppressor (dlg)/tight junction protein (ZO1) and 17-kDa membrane-associated protein], or other intracellular cholesterol trafficking proteins (steroidogenic acute response protein D, Niemann Pick C, and oxysterol-binding protein-related proteins). However, expression of L-FABP, the single most prevalent hepatic cytosolic protein that binds cholesterol, was upregulated twofold in SCP-2/SCP-x null hepatocytes. Double-immunogold electron microscopy detected L-FABP sufficiently close to SRB1 for direct interaction, similar to SCP-2. These data suggest a role for L-FABP in HDL cholesterol uptake, a finding confirmed with SCP-2

  8. Intracellular cholesterol-binding proteins enhance HDL-mediated cholesterol uptake in cultured primary mouse hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Storey, Stephen M.; McIntosh, Avery L.; Huang, Huan; Landrock, Kerstin K.; Martin, Gregory G.; Landrock, Danilo; Payne, H. Ross; Atshaves, Barbara P.; Kier, Ann B.

    2012-01-01

    A major gap in our knowledge of rapid hepatic HDL cholesterol clearance is the role of key intracellular factors that influence this process. Although the reverse cholesterol transport pathway targets HDL to the liver for net elimination of free cholesterol from the body, molecular details governing cholesterol uptake into hepatocytes are not completely understood. Therefore, the effects of sterol carrier protein (SCP)-2 and liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP), high-affinity cholesterol-binding proteins present in hepatocyte cytosol, on HDL-mediated free cholesterol uptake were examined using gene-targeted mouse models, cultured primary hepatocytes, and 22-[N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)-amino]-23,24-bisnor-5-cholen-3β-ol (NBD-cholesterol). While SCP-2 overexpression enhanced NBD-cholesterol uptake, counterintuitively, SCP-2/SCP-x gene ablation also 1) enhanced the rapid molecular phase of free sterol uptake detectable in <1 min and initial rate and maximal uptake of HDL free cholesterol and 2) differentially enhanced free cholesterol uptake mediated by the HDL3, rather than the HDL2, subfraction. The increased HDL free cholesterol uptake was not due to increased expression or distribution of the HDL receptor [scavenger receptor B1 (SRB1)], proteins regulating SRB1 [postsynaptic density protein (PSD-95)/Drosophila disk large tumor suppressor (dlg)/tight junction protein (ZO1) and 17-kDa membrane-associated protein], or other intracellular cholesterol trafficking proteins (steroidogenic acute response protein D, Niemann Pick C, and oxysterol-binding protein-related proteins). However, expression of L-FABP, the single most prevalent hepatic cytosolic protein that binds cholesterol, was upregulated twofold in SCP-2/SCP-x null hepatocytes. Double-immunogold electron microscopy detected L-FABP sufficiently close to SRB1 for direct interaction, similar to SCP-2. These data suggest a role for L-FABP in HDL cholesterol uptake, a finding confirmed with SCP-2

  9. Investigation of functional and morphological integrity of freshly isolated and cryopreserved human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Ostrowska, A; Bode, D C; Pruss, J; Bilir, B; Smith, G D; Zeisloft, S

    2000-01-01

    There is a pressing need for alternative therapeutic methods effective in the treatment of patients with liver insufficiency. Isolated human hepatocytes may be a viable alternative or adjunct to orthotopic liver transplantation in such patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the viability and functional integrity of freshly isolated and cryopreserved human hepatocytes, in preparation for a multi-center human hepatocyte transplantation trial. We are currently processing transplant-grade human parenchymal liver cells from nondiseased human livers that are obtained through a network of organ procurement organizations (OPOs). Thus far, sixteen hepatocyte transplants have been performed using hepatocytes processed by our methods. At the time of referral all specimens were deemed unsuitable for transplantation due to anatomical anomalies, high fat content, medical history, etc. Hepatocytes were isolated from encapsulated liver sections by a modified two-step perfusion technique. Isolated cells were cryopreserved and stored in liquid nitrogen for one to twelve months. The total yield of freshly isolated hepatocytes averaged 3.7x10(7) cells per gram of wet tissue. Based on trypan blue exclusion, fresh preparations contained an average of 85% viable hepatocytes vs. 70% in cryopreserved samples. The plating efficiencies of cells seeded immediately after isolation ranged from 87% to 98%, while those of cryopreserved/thawed cells were markedly lower. Flow cytometry analysis of cells labeled with 5,6-carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE) showed that there was no significant difference in viability compared with trypan blue staining. Both freshly isolated hepatocytes and those recovered from cryopreservation showed typical and intact morphology as demonstrated by light and electron microscopy. The product of the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) reaction was always expressed more intensely in cultures of freshly

  10. Utilization of supplemental methionine sources by primary cultures of chick hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Dibner, J.J.

    1983-10-01

    Utilization of 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio) butanoic acid (HMB) as a substrate for protein synthesis was studied by using primary cultures of chick liver cells. Cultures were prepared by enzymatic dissociation of livers from week old Hubbard broiler chicks and were maintained for 4 days under nonproliferative conditions. Hepatocyte differentiation was verified by using dexamethasone induction of tyrosine aminotransferase activity. Conversion of (14C)HMB to L-methionine was shown by chromatographic analysis of hepatocyte protein hydrolysate and incorporation into protein was proven by cycloheximide inhibition of synthesis. When incorporation of HMB was compared to that of DL-methionine (DLM) equimolar quantities of the two sources were found in liver cell protein. These results support, at a cellular level, the conclusion that HMB and DLM are biochemically equivalent sources of methionine for protein synthesis.

  11. Correction of hyperoxaluria by liver repopulation with hepatocytes in a mouse model of primary hyperoxaluria type-1.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jinlan; Salido, Eduardo C; Guha, Chandan; Wang, Xia; Moitra, Rituparna; Liu, Laibin; Roy-Chowdhury, Jayanta; Roy-Chowdhury, Namita

    2008-05-15

    Primary hyperoxaluria type-1 (PH1) is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by excessive oxalate production by hepatocytes caused by the deficiency of peroxisomal alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT) activity. Persistent hyperoxaluria causes nephrocalcinosis and urolithiasis, leading to renal failure, followed by tissue oxalosis with life-threatening complications. Combined liver-kidney transplantation is the only definitive treatment of PH1. Hepatocyte transplantation, which is much less invasive, could have offered an attractive alternative. However, because the AGT-deficient hepatocytes overproduce oxalate, a large fraction of the mutant host hepatocytes must be replaced by AGT-competent cells, which is beyond the capacity of current hepatocyte transplantation procedures. Here, we have evaluated a preparative irradiation-based method of liver repopulation in an Agxt-deleted mouse model of PH1 (Agxt-/-). Hepatocytes (10(6) viable cells) isolated from congeneic mice ([ROSA]26 C57BL/6J) expressing Escherichia coli beta-galactosidase were transplanted into Agxt-/- mice by intrasplenic injection. The preparative regimen consisted of X-irradiation of the host liver and mitotic stimulation of the hepatocytes by adenovector-based expression of hepatocyte growth factor. The procedure resulted in progressive replacement of the mutant host hepatocytes with the AGT-competent hepatocytes, leading to correction of urinary oxalate excretion. Oral ethylene glycol challenge (0.7% for 1 week) resulted in nephrocalcinosis and microlithiasis in untreated Agxt-/- mice, but not in the mice after hepatic repopulation. The results indicate that hepatocyte transplantation after appropriate preparative regimens may permit sufficient repopulation of the liver to ameliorate hyperoxaluria, and therefore should be evaluated further as a potential treatment of PH1.

  12. Senescent human hepatocytes express a unique secretory phenotype and promote macrophage migration

    PubMed Central

    Irvine, Katharine M; Skoien, Richard; Bokil, Nilesh J; Melino, Michelle; Thomas, Gethin P; Loo, Dorothy; Gabrielli, Brian; Hill, Michelle M; Sweet, Matthew J; Clouston, Andrew D; Powell, Elizabeth E

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To develop a model of stress-induced senescence to study the hepatocyte senescence associated secretory phenotype (SASP). METHODS: Hydrogen peroxide treatment was used to induce senescence in the human HepG2 hepatocyte cell line. Senescence was confirmed by cytochemical staining for a panel of markers including Ki67, p21, heterochromatin protein 1β, and senescence-associated-β-galactosidase activity. Senescent hepatocytes were characterised by gene expression arrays and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), and conditioned media was used in proteomic analyses, a human chemokine protein array, and cell migration assays to characterise the composition and function of the hepatocyte SASP. RESULTS: Senescent hepatocytes induced classical markers of senescence (p21, heterochromatin protein 1β, and senescence-associated-β-galactosidase activity); and downregulated the proliferation marker, Ki67. Hepatocyte senescence induced a 4.6-fold increase in total secreted protein (P = 0.06) without major alterations in the protein profile. Senescence-induced genes were identified by microarray (Benjamini Hochberg-corrected P < 0.05); and, consistent with the increase in secreted protein, gene ontology analysis revealed a significant enrichment of secreted proteins among inducible genes. The hepatocyte SASP included characteristic factors such as interleukin (IL)-8 and IL-6, as well as novel components such as SAA4, IL-32 and Fibrinogen, which were validated by qPCR and/or chemokine protein array. Senescent hepatocyte-conditioned medium elicited migration of inflammatory (granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor, GM-CSF-derived), but not non-inflammatory (CSF-1-derived) human macrophages (P = 0.022), which could contribute to a pro-inflammatory microenvironment in vivo, or facilitate the clearance of senescent cells. CONCLUSION: Our novel model of hepatocyte senescence provides insights into mechanisms by which senescent hepatocytes may promote chronic

  13. One Standardized Differentiation Procedure Robustly Generates Homogenous Hepatocyte Cultures Displaying Metabolic Diversity from a Large Panel of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Asplund, Annika; Pradip, Arvind; van Giezen, Mariska; Aspegren, Anders; Choukair, Helena; Rehnström, Marie; Jacobsson, Susanna; Ghosheh, Nidal; El Hajjam, Dorra; Holmgren, Sandra; Larsson, Susanna; Benecke, Jörg; Butron, Mariela; Wigander, Annelie; Noaksson, Karin; Sartipy, Peter; Björquist, Petter; Edsbagge, Josefina; Küppers-Munther, Barbara

    2016-02-01

    Human hepatocytes display substantial functional inter-individual variation regarding drug metabolizing functions. In order to investigate if this diversity is mirrored in hepatocytes derived from different human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC) lines, we evaluated 25 hPSC lines originating from 24 different donors for hepatic differentiation and functionality. Homogenous hepatocyte cultures could be derived from all hPSC lines using one standardized differentiation procedure. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of a standardized hepatic differentiation procedure that is generally applicable across a large panel of hPSC lines without any adaptations to individual lines. Importantly, with regard to functional aspects, such as Cytochrome P450 activities, we observed that hepatocytes derived from different hPSC lines displayed inter-individual variation characteristic for primary hepatocytes obtained from different donors, while these activities were highly reproducible between repeated experiments using the same line. Taken together, these data demonstrate the emerging possibility to compile panels of hPSC-derived hepatocytes of particular phenotypes/genotypes relevant for drug metabolism and toxicity studies. Moreover, these findings are of significance for applications within the regenerative medicine field, since our stringent differentiation procedure allows the derivation of homogenous hepatocyte cultures from multiple donors which is a prerequisite for the realization of future personalized stem cell based therapies.

  14. Hepatic Hyperplasia Associated with Discordant Xenogeneic Parenchymal-Nonparenchymal Interactions in Human Hepatocyte-Repopulated Mice

    PubMed Central

    Utoh, Rie; Tateno, Chise; Kataoka, Miho; Tachibana, Asato; Masumoto, Norio; Yamasaki, Chihiro; Shimada, Takashi; Itamoto, Toshiyuki; Asahara, Toshimasa; Yoshizato, Katsutoshi

    2010-01-01

    Liver mass is optimized in relation to body mass. Rat (r) and human (h) hepatocytes were transplanted into liver-injured immunodeficient mice and allowed to proliferate for 3 or 11 weeks, respectively, when the transplants stopped proliferating. Liver/body weight ratio was normal throughout in r-hepatocyte-bearing mice (r-hep-mice), but increased continuously in h-hepatocyte-bearing mice (h-hep-mice), until reaching approximately three times the normal m-liver size, which was considered to be hyperplasia of h-hepatocytes because there were no significant differences in cell size among host (mouse [m-]) and donor (r- and h-) hepatocytes. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) type I receptor, TGF-β type II receptor, and activin A type IIA receptor mRNAs in proliferating r-hepatocytes of r-hep-mice were lower than in resting r-hepatocytes (normal levels) and increased to normal levels during the termination phase. Concomitantly, m-hepatic stellate cells began to express TGF-β proteins. In stark contrast, TGF-β type II receptor and activin A type IIA receptor mRNAs in h-hepatocytes remained low throughout and m-hepatic stellate cells did not express TGF-β in h-hep-mice. As expected, Smad2 and 3 translocated into nuclei in r-hep-mice but not in h-hep-mice. Histological analysis showed a paucity of m-stellate cells in h-hepatocyte colonies of h-hep-mouse liver. We conclude that m-stellate cells are able to normally interact with concordant r-hepatocytes but not with discordant h-hepatocytes, which seems to be at least partly responsible for the failure of the liver size optimization in h-hep-mice. PMID:20522646

  15. Induction of cytochrome P4501A in African brown house snake (Lamprophis fuliginosus) primary hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Hecker, Markus; Murphy, Margaret B; Giesy, John P; Hopkins, William A

    2006-02-01

    Although there have been numerous studies involving fish, birds, and mammals, little is known about the response of the cytochrome P4501A system of snakes to halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (HAHs). The present study describes the induction of ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) in primary hepatocytes of the African brown house snake (Lamprophis fuliginosus). Hepatocytes were exposed in multiwell plates to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and four different non-ortho-substituted coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs 77, 81, 126, and 169). Exposure to TCDD and PCB 126 resulted in a dose-dependent increase in EROD activity, with maximum inducible EROD activities of 177 +/- 56 (mean +/- SEM) and 101.1 +/- 55 pmol/min/mg protein for TCDD and PCB 126, respectively. None of the other PCBs caused a measurable induction of EROD, which suggests reduced inducibility of snake hepatocytes compared to some vertebrate taxa. Median effective concentrations (EC50s) were 0.16 +/- 0.03 nM for TCDD and 8.25 +/- 4.14 nM for PCB 126. The relative potency (REP20-80) range for PCB 126 was 0.044 to 0.046. Compared to results from in vitro systems using other vertebrate species, both the maximum inducibility and the REPs estimated for L. fuliginosus were within the same range as those reported for mammals and the more sensitive bird species but were greater than the values reported for most fish species. In conclusion, induction of EROD activity in primary hepatocytes appears to be a useful approach for evaluating the dioxin-like potencies of aryl hydrocarbon-receptor agonists in snakes. The test system offers a method for rapid screening of reptilian responsiveness to these compounds using smaller numbers of organisms than with in vivo studies, an important consideration for many declining reptile species.

  16. Screening for drug-induced hepatotoxicity in primary mouse hepatocytes using acetaminophen, amiodarone, and cyclosporin a as model compounds: an omics-guided approach.

    PubMed

    Van Summeren, Anke; Renes, Johan; Lizarraga, Daneida; Bouwman, Freek G; Noben, Jean-Paul; van Delft, Joost H M; Kleinjans, Jos C S; Mariman, Edwin C M

    2013-02-01

    Drug-induced hepatotoxicity is a leading cause of attrition for candidate pharmaceuticals in development. New preclinical screening methods are crucial to predict drug toxicity prior to human studies. Of all in vitro hepatotoxicity models, primary human hepatocytes are considered as 'the gold standard.' However, their use is hindered by limited availability and inter-individual variation. These barriers may be overcome by using primary mouse hepatocytes. We used differential in gel electrophoresis (DIGE) to study large-scale protein expression of primary mouse hepatocytes. These hepatocytes were exposed to three well-defined hepatotoxicants: acetaminophen, amiodarone, and cyclosporin A. Each hepatotoxicant induces a different hepatotoxic phenotype. Based on the DIGE results, the mRNA expression levels of deregulated proteins from cyclosporin A-treated cells were also analyzed. We were able to distinguish cyclosporin A from controls, as well as acetaminophen and amiodarone-treated samples. Cyclosporin A induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and altered the ER-Golgi transport. Moreover, liver carboxylesterase and bile salt sulfotransferase were differentially expressed. These proteins were associated with a protective adaptive response against cyclosporin A-induced cholestasis. The results of this study are comparable with effects in HepG2 cells. Therefore, we suggest both models can be used to analyze the cholestatic properties of cyclosporin A. Furthermore, this study showed a conserved response between primary mouse hepatocytes and HepG2 cells. These findings collectively lend support for use of omics strategies in preclinical toxicology, and might inform future efforts to better link preclinical and clinical research in rational drug development.

  17. Screening for Drug-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Primary Mouse Hepatocytes Using Acetaminophen, Amiodarone, and Cyclosporin A as Model Compounds: An Omics-Guided Approach

    PubMed Central

    Van Summeren, Anke; Renes, Johan; Lizarraga, Daneida; Bouwman, Freek G.; Noben, Jean-Paul; van Delft, Joost H. M.; Kleinjans, Jos C. S.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Drug-induced hepatotoxicity is a leading cause of attrition for candidate pharmaceuticals in development. New preclinical screening methods are crucial to predict drug toxicity prior to human studies. Of all in vitro hepatotoxicity models, primary human hepatocytes are considered as ‘the gold standard.’ However, their use is hindered by limited availability and inter-individual variation. These barriers may be overcome by using primary mouse hepatocytes. We used differential in gel electrophoresis (DIGE) to study large-scale protein expression of primary mouse hepatocytes. These hepatocytes were exposed to three well-defined hepatotoxicants: acetaminophen, amiodarone, and cyclosporin A. Each hepatotoxicant induces a different hepatotoxic phenotype. Based on the DIGE results, the mRNA expression levels of deregulated proteins from cyclosporin A-treated cells were also analyzed. We were able to distinguish cyclosporin A from controls, as well as acetaminophen and amiodarone-treated samples. Cyclosporin A induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and altered the ER-Golgi transport. Moreover, liver carboxylesterase and bile salt sulfotransferase were differentially expressed. These proteins were associated with a protective adaptive response against cyclosporin A-induced cholestasis. The results of this study are comparable with effects in HepG2 cells. Therefore, we suggest both models can be used to analyze the cholestatic properties of cyclosporin A. Furthermore, this study showed a conserved response between primary mouse hepatocytes and HepG2 cells. These findings collectively lend support for use of omics strategies in preclinical toxicology, and might inform future efforts to better link preclinical and clinical research in rational drug development. PMID:23308384

  18. Human hepatocytes as an effective alternative experimental system for the evaluation of human drug properties: general concepts and assay procedures.

    PubMed

    Li, Albert P

    2008-01-01

    Human-based in vitro hepatic experimental systems are now used routinely in drug development. The rationale for the use of human-based in vitro systems is based on the known species-species differences in drug properties. Human-specific drug properties, by definition, cannot be defined using nonhuman experimental animals, and therefore can only be assessed in the preclinical phase of drug development using in vitro human-based approaches. A widely applied human-based in vitro experimental system for preclinical evaluation of drug properties is human hepatocytes. Our laboratory was one of the first to successfully isolate highly viable and functional hepatocytes from human livers, and we recently developed cryopreservation procedures to retain high viability and high attachment efficiency of the isolated hepatocytes. Successful cryopreservation of human hepatocytes greatly enhances the utility of this valuable in vitro experimental system, allowing storage, transport, convenient scheduling of experimentation and repeat experimentation using hepatocytes isolated from the same donors. Effective assays have been developed with cryopreserved human hepatocytes using multiwell plates for the evaluation of critical drug properties, including metabolic stability, drug-drug interaction potential, and drug toxicity. Human hepatocytes represent an alternative experimental system that plays a significant role in the 3Rs - the reduction, refinement, and replacement of the use of animals in preclinical drug development research.

  19. Metabolic activation capacity by primary hepatocytes expands the applicability of the embryonic stem cell test as alternative to experimental animal testing.

    PubMed

    Hettwer, Michael; Reis-Fernandes, Marcos A; Iken, Marcus; Ott, Michael; Steinberg, Pablo; Nau, Heinz

    2010-08-01

    The murine embryonic stem cell test (EST) represents a validated alternative method for in vivo embryotoxicity testing. In the present study, primary hepatocytes were combined with the EST by a preincubation approach to improve its predictivity on bioactivation caused teratogenicity. As substances the well-known proteratogens cyclophosphamide (CPA) and valpromide (VPD) were used. The embryotoxic potential of CPA was detected by a strong decrease of the resulting ID(50)-concentration (50% inhibition of ES cell differentiation) after incubation with murine hepatocytes. Interspecies variation in metabolism was detected by testing VPD. After incubation of VPD with murine hepatocytes no inhibition of ES cell differentiation was observed, since hardly any teratogenic VPD metabolites were formed. In contrast, with human hepatocytes a significant conversion of VPD into the teratogen valproic acid (VPA) was observed. In summary we developed a co-culture approach for embryotoxicity testing, whereby the test compounds were incubated with hepatocytes and the supernatant was added to the ES cell culture to obtain a dose dependency of the preincubated test substances. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Use of cryopreserved human hepatocytes in sandwich culture to measure hepatobiliary transport.

    PubMed

    Bi, Yi-an; Kazolias, Diana; Duignan, David B

    2006-09-01

    Fresh hepatocytes cultured in a sandwich configuration allow for the development of intact bile canaliculi and the ability to measure hepatic uptake and biliary clearance. A disadvantage of this model is its dependence upon hepatocytes from fresh tissue. Therefore, the ability to use cryopreserved human hepatocytes in this model would be a great advantage. Multiple variables were tested, and the recommended conditions for culturing cryopreserved human hepatocytes in a sandwich configuration in 24-well plates are as follows: BioCoat plates, a cell density of 0.35 x 10(6) cells/well in 500 microl, an overlay of Matrigel and InVitroGRO media. These conditions resulted in good hepatocyte morphology and the formation of distinct bile canaliculi. The function of multiple uptake and efflux transporters was tested in multiple lots of cryopreserved and fresh human hepatocytes. For taurocholate [Na+ taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide/organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) uptake/bile salt export pump efflux], the average apparent uptake, apparent intrinsic biliary clearance, and biliary excretion index among five cryopreserved hepatocyte lots was high, ranging from 11 to 17 pmol/min/mg protein, 5.8 to 10 microl/min/mg protein, and 41 to 63%, respectively. The corresponding values for digoxin (OATP-8 uptake/multidrug resistance protein 1 efflux) were 0.69 to 1.5 pmol/min/mg protein, 0.60 to 1.5 microl/min/mg protein, and 37 to 63%. Both substrates exhibited similar results when fresh human hepatocytes were used. In addition, substrates of breast cancer resistance protein and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 were also tested in this model, and all cryopreserved lots showed functional transport of these substrates. The use of cryopreserved human hepatocytes in 24-well sandwich culture to form intact bile canaliculi and to exhibit functional uptake and efflux transport has been successfully demonstrated.

  1. Glycyrrhizic acid modulates t-BHP induced apoptosis in primary rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, M; Singh, B K; Kakkar, P

    2009-02-01

    Glycyrrhizic acid (GA) is the main bioactive ingredient of licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra). The object of this study was to evaluate the protective effects of GA on tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP) induced oxidative injury leading to apoptosis in cultured primary rat hepatocytes. Throughout the study silymarin was used as positive control. Molecular mechanisms involved in apoptotic pathways induced in hepatocytes by t-BHP at 250 microM were explored in detail. DNA fragmentation, activation of caspases and cytochrome c release were demonstrated. In addition, changes in the mitochondrial membrane potential and ROS generation were detected confirming involvement of mitochondrial pathway. Pre-treatment with GA (4 microg) protected the hepatocytes against t-BHP induced oxidative injury and the results were comparable to the pre-treatment with positive control, i.e. silymarin. The protective potential against cell death was achieved mainly by preventing intracellular GSH depletion, decrease in ROS formation as well as inhibition of mitochondrial membrane depolarization. GA was found to modulate critical end points of oxidative stress induced apoptosis and could be beneficial against liver diseases where oxidative stress is known to play a crucial role.

  2. Reprogramming of Mice Primary Hepatocytes into Insulin-Producing Cells by Transfection with Multicistronic Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Haizhao; Chen, Rongping; Yang, Rui; Liu, Yan; Chen, Youping; Chen, Hong

    2014-01-01

    The neogenesis of insulin-producing cells (IPCs) from non-beta-cells has emerged as a potential method for treating diabetes mellitus (DM). Many groups have documented that activation of pancreatic transcription factor(s) in hepatocytes can improve the hyperglycemia in diabetic mice. In the present study, we explored a novel protocol that reprogrammed primary hepatocytes into functional IPCs by using multicistronic vectors carrying pancreatic and duodenal homeobox-1 (Pdx1), neurogenin 3 (Ngn3), and v-musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene homolog A (MafA). These triple-transfected cells activated multiple beta-cell genes, synthesized and stored considerable amounts of insulin, and released the hormone in a glucose-regulated manner in vitro. Furthermore, when transplanted into streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice, the cells markedly ameliorated glucose tolerance. Our results indicated that ectopic expression of Pdx1, Ngn3, and MafA facilitated hepatocytes-to-IPCs reprogramming. This approach may offer opportunities for treatment of DM. PMID:25006589

  3. Rapid and random turnover of mitochondrial DNA in rat hepatocytes of primary culture.

    PubMed

    Kai, Yoichiro; Takamatsu, Chihiro; Tokuda, Kentaro; Okamoto, Mayumi; Irita, Kazuo; Takahashi, Shosuke

    2006-12-01

    It is known that mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) replication is independent of the cell cycle. Even in post-mitotic cells in which nuclear DNA replication has ceased, mtDNA is believed to still be replicating. Here, we investigated the turnover rate of mtDNA in primary rat hepatocytes, which are quiescent cells. Southwestern blot analysis using 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) was employed to estimate the activity of full-length mtDNA replication and to determine efficient doses of replication inhibitors. Southern blot analysis showed that a two-day treatment with 20mM 2',3'-dideoxycytidine and 0.2mug/ml ethidium bromide caused a 37% reduction in the amount of mtDNA, indicating that the hepatocytes had a considerably high rate of turnover of mtDNA. Further, pulse-chase analysis using Southwestern analysis showed that the amount of newly synthesized mtDNA labeled with BrdU declined to 60% of the basal level within two days. Because the rate of reduction of the new mtDNA was very similar to the overall turnover rate described above, it appears that degrading mtDNA molecules were randomly chosen. Thus, we demonstrated that there is highly active and random turnover of mtDNA in hepatocytes.

  4. Triacsin C reduces lipid droplet formation and induces mitochondrial biogenesis in primary rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Dechandt, Carlos R P; Zuccolotto-Dos-Reis, Felippe H; Teodoro, Bruno G; Fernandes, Anna Maria A P; Eberlin, Marcos N; Kettelhut, Isis C; Curti, Carlos; Alberici, Luciane C

    2017-09-16

    Intracellular long-chain acyl-CoA synthetases (ACSL) activate fatty acids to produce acyl-CoA, which undergoes β-oxidation and participates in the synthesis of esterified lipids such as triacylglycerol (TAG). Imbalances in these metabolic routes are closely associated with the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Triacsin C is one of the few compounds that inhibit TAG accumulation into lipid droplets (LD) by suppressing ACSL activity. Here we report that treatment of primary rat hepatocytes with triacsin C at concentrations lower than the IC50 (4.1 μM) for LD formation: (i) diminished LD number in a concentration-dependent manner; (ii) increased mitochondrial amount; (iii) markedly improved mitochondrial metabolism by enhancing the β-oxidation efficiency, electron transport chain capacity, and degree of coupling - treatment of isolated rat liver mitochondria with the same triacsin C concentrations did not affect the last two parameters; (iv) decreased the GSH/GSSG ratio and elevated the protein carbonyl level, which suggested an increased reactive oxygen species production, as observed in isolated mitochondria. The hepatocyte mitochondrial improvements were not related to either the transcriptional levels of PGC-1α or the content of mTOR and phosphorylated AMPK. Triacsin C at 10 μM induced hepatocyte death by necrosis and/or apoptosis through mechanisms associated with mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening, as demonstrated by experiments using isolated mitochondria. Therefore, triacsin C at sub-IC50 concentrations modulates the lipid imbalance by shifting hepatocytes to a more oxidative state and enhancing the fatty acid consumption, which can in turn accelerate lipid oxidation and reverse NAFLD in long-term therapies.

  5. Mechanisms of chloroform and carbon tetrachloride toxicity in primary cultured mouse hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Ruch, R.J.; Klaunig, J.E.; Schultz, N.E.; Askari, A.B.; Lacher, D.A.; Pereira, M.A.; Goldblatt, P.J.

    1986-11-01

    Mechanisms of chloroform (CHCl/sub 3/) and carbon tetrachloride (CCl/sub 4/) toxicity to primary cultured male B6C3F1 mouse hepatocytes were investigated. The cytotoxicity of both CHCl/sub 3/ and CCl/sub 4/ was dose- and duration-dependent. Maximal hepatocyte toxicity, as determined by lactate dehydrogenase leakage into the culture medium, occurred with the highest concentrations of CHCl/sub 3/ (5 mM) and CCl/sub 4/ (2.5 mM) used and with the longest duration of treatment (20 hr). CCl/sub 4/ was approximately 16 times more toxic than CHCl/sub 3/ to the hepatocytes. The toxicity of these compounds was decreased by adding the mixed function oxidase system (MFOS) inhibitor, SKF-525A (25..mu..M) to the cultures. The addition of diethyl maleate (0.25 mM), which depletes intracellular glutathione (GSH)-potentiated CHCl/sub 3/ and CCl/sub 4/ toxicity. The toxicity of CHCl/sub 3/ and CCl/sub 4/ could also be decreased by adding the antioxidants N,N'-diphenyl-p-phenylenediamine (DPPD) (25..mu..M), ..cap alpha..-tocopherol acetate (Vitamin E) (0.1 mM), or superoxide dismutase (SOD) (100 U/mL) to the cultures. These results suggest that: in mouse hepatocytes, both CHCl/sub 3/ and CCl/sub 4/ are metabolized to toxic components by the MFOS; GSH plays a role in detoxifying those metabolites; free radicals are produced during the metabolism of CHCl/sub 3/ and CCl/sub 4/; and free radicals may be important mediators of the toxicity of these two halomethanes.

  6. Replication of hepatitis B virus in primary duck hepatocytes transfected with linear viral DNA

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Yun-Qing; Zhang, Ding-Feng; Tang, Ni; Huang, Ai-Long; Zou, Xiao-Yi; Xiao, Jiang-Feng; Luo, Yun; Zhang, Da-Zhi; Wang, Bo; Zhou, Wei-Ping; Ren, Hong; Liu, Qi; Guo, Shu-Hua

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To explore the expression and replication of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA in primary duck hepatocytes (PDHs). METHODS: Complete HBV genome was transfected into PDHs by electroporation (transfected group, 1.19×1012 copies of linear HBV DNA/1×107 PDHs). After 1-5 d of transfection, HBsAg and HBeAg in the supernatant and lysate of PDHs were measured with the IMX System. Meanwhile, replicative intermediates of HBV DNA were analyzed by Southern blotting and Dot blotting. PDHs electroporated were used as control group. RESULTS: HBsAg in the hepatocyte lysates of transfected group was 15.24 (1 d), 14.55 (3 d) and 5.13 (5 d; P/N values, positive≥2.1) respectively. HBeAg was negative (<2.1). Both HBsAg and HBeAg were negative in the supernatant of transfected group. Dot blotting revealed that HBV DNA was strongly positive in the transfected group and negative in the control group. Southern blot analysis of intracellular total DNA indicated that there were relaxed circular (rc DNA), covalently closed circular (ccc DNA), and single-stranded (ss DNA) HBV DNA replicative intermediates in the transfected group, there was no integrated HBV DNA in the cellular genome. These parameters were negative in control group. CONCLUSION: Expression and replication of HBV genes can occur in hepatocytes from non-mammalian species. HBV replication has no critical species-specificity, and yet hepatic-specific regulating factors in hepatocytes may be essential for viral replication. PMID:16124057

  7. Mechanisms of chloroform and carbon tetrachloride toxicity in primary cultured mouse hepatocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Ruch, R J; Klaunig, J E; Schultz, N E; Askari, A B; Lacher, D A; Pereira, M A; Goldblatt, P J

    1986-01-01

    Mechanisms of chloroform (CHCl3) and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) toxicity to primary cultured male B6C3F1 mouse hepatocytes were investigated. The cytotoxicity of both CHCl3 and CCl4 was dose- and duration-dependent. Maximal hepatocyte toxicity, as determined by lactate dehydrogenase leakage into the culture medium, occurred with the highest concentrations of CHCl3 (5 mM) and CCl4 (2.5 mM) used and with the longest duration of treatment (20 hr). CCl4 was approximately 16 times more toxic than CHCl3 to the hepatocytes. The toxicity of these compounds was decreased by adding the mixed function oxidase system (MFOS) inhibitor, SKF-525A (25 microM) to the cultures. The addition of diethyl maleate (0.25 mM), which depletes intracellular glutathione (GSH)-potentiated CHCl3 and CCl4 toxicity. The toxicity of CHCl3 and CCl4 could also be decreased by adding the antioxidants N,N'-diphenyl-p-phenylenediamine (DPPD) (25 microM), alpha-tocopherol acetate (Vitamin E) (0.1 mM), or superoxide dismutase (SOD) (100 U/mL) to the cultures. These results suggest that: in mouse hepatocytes, both CHCl3 and CCl4 are metabolized to toxic components by the MFOS; GSH plays a role in detoxifying those metabolites; free radicals are produced during the metabolism of CHCl3 and CCl4; and free radicals may be important mediators of the toxicity of these two halomethanes. PMID:3816733

  8. Protectivity of blue honeysuckle extract against oxidative human endothelial cells and rat hepatocyte damage.

    PubMed

    Palíková, Irena; Valentová, Katerina; Oborná, Ivana; Ulrichová, Jitka

    2009-08-12

    The effect of Lonicera caerulea L. (blue honeysuckle) phenolic fraction (18.5% anthocyanins) on cell viability and against oxidative damage in low density lipoproteins (oxLDL), in rat microsomes and in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), was tested. The phenolic fraction was nontoxic to rat hepatocytes and HUVEC at tested concentrations (1-1000 microg/mL) and time intervals up to 24 h inclusive. Phenolic fraction inhibited rat liver microsome peroxidation, induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tBH), with IC(50) values of 160 +/- 20 microg/mL. The fraction at 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 microg/mL delayed LDL oxidation, induced by Cu(2+), by 130 +/- 20%, 200 +/- 30%, and 400 +/- 10%, respectively. The treatment of HUVEC with oxidatively modified LDL induced an increase in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) formation, and resulted in lower formazan formation from 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) uptake, most pronounced for 200 microg/mL (24 h oxidation) after 2 h of incubation. The protective effect of the phenolic fraction against cell damage caused by oxLDL was noted at 0.1 microg/mL for HUVEC and against tBH at 1000 microg/mL for both HUVEC and hepatocytes. The observed protective effects were probably due to the antioxidant properties of L. caerulea constituents, mainly anthocyanins. Microsome peroxidation and LDL oxidation inhibition results provide promising perspectives into the prevention of some oxidative stress-associated diseases. Other data are important in in vitro systems but seem to be accidental in vivo.

  9. Comparative nucleic acid transfection efficacy in primary hepatocytes for gene silencing and functional studies

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Primary hepatocytes are the best resource for in vitro studies directed at understanding hepatic processes at the cellular and molecular levels, necessary for novel drug development to treat highly prevalent diseases such as non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. There is a need to identify simple methods to genetically manipulate primary hepatocytes and conduct functional studies with plasmids, small interfering RNA (siRNA) or microRNA (miRNA). New lipofection reagents are available that have the potential to yield higher levels of transfection with reduced toxicity. Findings We have tested several liposome-based transfection reagents used in molecular biology research. We show that transfection efficiency with one of the most recently developed formulations, Metafectene Pro, is high with plasmid DNA (>45% cells) as well as double stranded RNA (>90% with siRNA or microRNA). In addition, negligible cytotoxicity was present with all of these nucleic acids, even if cells were incubated with the DNA:lipid complex for 16 hours. To provide the proof of concept that these conditions can be used not only for overexpression of a gene of interest, but also in RNA interference applications, we targeted two liver expressed genes, Sterol Regulatory Element-Binding Protein-1 and Fatty Acid Binding Protein 5 using plasmid-mediated short hairpin RNA expression. In addition, similar transfection conditions were used to optimally deliver siRNA and microRNA. Conclusions We have identified a lipid-based reagent for primary hepatocyte transfection of nucleic acids currently used in molecular biology laboratories. The conditions described here can be used to expedite a large variety of research applications, from gene function studies to microRNA target identification. PMID:21244687

  10. Comparative Metabolism, Cytotoxicity, and Genotoxicity of Chemical Carcinogens in Primary Cultures of Hepatocytes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-05-01

    death and regeneration. Cytotoxicity is easily assessed in primary hepatocyte cultures by light microscopic observation (Green ott al., 1981) and/or the...The recent development of a sensitive scintillation detection of repair provides a three day assay (Loury and Byard, 1983). A UV light positive control...RATS FED 0.5% BUTYLATED HYDROXYTOLUENEa Amount of ascron.•,cut./cultur-b P10o0. Al’"I boumd/t ,acrtmooletuloc Ratlo of bound producto k’ontro I WN

  11. Human but Not Mouse Hepatocytes Respond to Interferon-Lambda In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Hermant, Pascale; Demarez, Céline; Mahlakõiv, Tanel; Staeheli, Peter; Meuleman, Philip; Michiels, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The type III interferon (IFN) receptor is preferentially expressed by epithelial cells. It is made of two subunits: IFNLR1, which is specific to IFN-lambda (IFN-λ) and IL10RB, which is shared by other cytokine receptors. Human hepatocytes express IFNLR1 and respond to IFN-λ. In contrast, the IFN-λ response of the mouse liver is very weak and IFNLR1 expression is hardly detectable in this organ. Here we investigated the IFN-λ response at the cellular level in the mouse liver and we tested whether human and mouse hepatocytes truly differ in responsiveness to IFN-λ. When monitoring expression of the IFN-responsive Mx genes by immunohistofluorescence, we observed that the IFN-λ response in mouse livers was restricted to cholangiocytes, which form the bile ducts, and that mouse hepatocytes were indeed not responsive to IFN-λ. The lack of mouse hepatocyte response to IFN-λ was observed in different experimental settings, including the infection with a hepatotropic strain of influenza A virus which triggered a strong local production of IFN-λ. With the help of chimeric mice containing transplanted human hepatocytes, we show that hepatocytes of human origin readily responded to IFN-λ in a murine environment. Thus, our data suggest that human but not mouse hepatocytes are responsive to IFN-λ in vivo. The non-responsiveness is an intrinsic property of mouse hepatocytes and is not due to the mouse liver micro-environment. PMID:24498220

  12. Cytotoxicity of luteolin in primary rat hepatocytes: the role of CYP3A-mediated ortho-benzoquinone metabolite formation and glutathione depletion.

    PubMed

    Shi, Fuguo; Zhao, Peng; Li, Xiaobing; Pan, Hong; Ma, Shiping; Ding, Li

    2015-11-01

    Luteolin (LUT), an active ingredient in traditional Chinese medicines and an integral part of the human diet, has shown promising pharmacological activities with a great potential for clinical use. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of cytochrome P450 (CYP450)-mediated reactive ortho-benzoquinone metabolites formation and glutathione (GSH) depletion in LUT-induced cytotoxicity in primary rat hepatocytes. A reactive ortho-benzoquinone metabolite was identified by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in rat liver microsomes (RLMs) and rat hepatocytes. Using a specific chemical inhibitor method, the CYP3A subfamily was found to be responsible for the reactive metabolite formation in RLMs. Induction of CYP3A by dexamethasone enhanced LUT-induced cytotoxicity, whereas inhibition of CYP3A by ketoconazole (Keto) decreased the cytotoxicity. The cytotoxicity and cell apoptosis induced by LUT were related to the amount of reactive metabolite formation. Furthermore, Keto inhibited the LUT-induced GSH exhaustion. The cytotoxicity was significantly enhanced by pretreatment with L-buthionine sulfoximine to deplete the intracellular GSH. A time course experiment showed that GSH depletion by LUT was not via oxidation of GSH and occurred prior to the increase in 2', 7'-dichlorofluorescein in hepatocytes. Collectively, these data suggest that CYP3A-mediated reactive metabolite formation plays a critical role in LUT-induced hepatotoxicity, and the direct GSH depletion is an initiating event in LUT-mediated cytotoxicity in primary rat hepatocytes.

  13. Expression of human. alpha. sub 1 -antitrypsin in dogs after autologous transplantation of retroviral transduced hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Kay, M.A.; Baley, P.; Rothenberg, S.; Leland, F; Fleming, L.; Ponder, K.P.; Liu, Tajen; Finegold, M.; Darlington, G.; Pokorny, W.; Woo, S.L.C. )

    1992-01-01

    The liver represents an excellent organ for gene therapy since many genetic disorders result from the deficiency of liver-specific gene products. The authors have previously demonstrated that transgenic mouse hepatocytes can be heterologously transplanted into congenic recipients where they survived indefinitely and continued to function as hepatocytes. Here they demonstrate the autologous transplantation of retrovirally transduced canine hepatocytes. In two animals they have transplanted hepatocytes transduced with a retroviral vector containing the human {alpha}{sub 1}-antitrypsin cDNA under transcriptional control of the cytomegalovirus promotor. Both animals had significant human {alpha}{sub 1}-antitrypsin in the serum for 1 month. The results suggest that gene therapy of hepatic deficiencies may be achieved by hepatocellular transplantation after genetic reconstruction with the use of promoters of cellular genes that are active in the normal liver.

  14. Adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate involvement in hepatic triacylglyceride lipase release from prazosin-stimulated primary cultured rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Tetsuya; Morita, Tetsuo

    2014-01-01

    We recently found that hepatic triglyceride lipase (HTGL) was released from primary cultured rat hepatocytes after treatment with prazosin, an antagonist of alpha-1 adrenoceptors. However, the details of prazosin-induced HTGL release remain uncertain. Here we investigated whether changes in cAMP levels in hepatocytes were related to HTGL release from prazosin-stimulated hepatocytes. When hepatocytes were treated with prazosin, cAMP levels during stimulated release of HTGL increased in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Stimulated release of HTGL was suppressed by the adenylate cyclase inhibitors MDL-12,330A and 2',5'-dideoxyadenosine. Further, cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) activity in prazosin-stimulated hepatocytes also increased in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Moreover, prazosin-stimulated HTGL release was suppressed by the PKA inhibitors H-89 and KT5720. These results suggest that prazosin-stimulated HTGL release from hepatocytes was due to cAMP production and partly due to subsequent PKA activation in hepatocytes.

  15. In vitro drug metabolism of green tea catechins in human, monkey, dog, rat and mouse hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wendy W; Qin, Geng-Yao; Zhang, Ting; Feng, Wan-Yong

    2012-06-01

    The metabolic fate of green tea catechins [(-)-epicatechin ((-)-EC), (-)-epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG) (-)- epigallocatechin (EGC) and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG)] in cryopreserved human, monkey, dog, rat and mouse hepatocytes was studied. Methylation, glucuronidation, sulfation and isomerization pathways of (-)-EC in all five species were found. Methylation, glucuronidation, sulfation, hydrolysis, isomerization and glucosidation pathways of ECG were found. Species differences in metabolism of (-)-EC or ECG were observed. Surprisingly, no metabolites of EGC or EGCG were detected, but chemical oxidation and polymerization were observed under these experimental conditions. It appeared that enzymatic reactions and chemical reactions were differentiated by an additional hydroxyl group on the B-ring between (-)-EC/ECG and EGC/EGCG. For (-)-EC, thirty-five metabolites including isomerized (M6. M10 and M25), glucuronidated (M3, M5 and M11), sulfated (M7, M15, M16, M18, M20, M23, M26), methylated (M2, M9, M12, M17, M19, M21, M27, M30, M32), glucuronated/methylated (M4, M8, M13, M14), sulfated/methylated (M22, M24, M28, M29, M31, M33, M34, M35) and diglucuronidate (M1), were detected and characterized. M11, M18, M19 and M23 were major metabolites in human hepatocytes; M11, M26 and M31 were major metabolites in monkey hepatocytes; M10, M20, M22, M26 and M31 were major metabolites in dog hepatocytes; M5, M6 and M10 were major metabolites in rat hepatocytes; and M5, M6 and M13 were major metabolites in mouse hepatocytes. For ECG, twelve metabolites including isomerized (M1), hydrolyzed (M3), glucosidated (M2), glucuronidated (M4 and M6), sulfated (M9, M11 and M12), methylated (M7), sulfated/glucuronidated/methylated (M8 and M10) and diglucuronidated (M5), were detected and characterized. M4, M11 and M12 were major metabolites in human hepatocytes; M11 and M12 were major metabolites in monkey hepatocytes; M3 and M11 were major metabolites in dog hepatocytes; M4, M6 and

  16. Generation of major human excretory and circulating drug metabolites using a hepatocyte relay method.

    PubMed

    Ballard, T Eric; Orozco, Christine C; Obach, R Scott

    2014-05-01

    The prediction of human drug metabolites using in vitro experiments containing human-derived reagents is an important approach in modern drug research; however, this can be challenging for drugs that are slowly metabolized. In this report, we describe the use of a recently developed human hepatocyte relay method for the purpose of predicting human drug metabolite profiles. Five compounds for which in vivo human metabolism data were available were selected for the investigation of this method, and the results were compared with data gathered in hepatocyte suspensions as well as previous data from a micropatterned hepatocyte coculture method. The hepatocyte relay method demonstrated an improved performance (generation of 75% of human in vivo metabolites) for those drugs for which previous methods showed a relatively low rate of success (50% of human in vivo metabolites). Metabolites included those arising from both oxidative and conjugative reactions and metabolites that required sequential reactions. Two 4-hour relays were shown to adequately generate metabolites, and no further benefit was derived from more relays. Overall, it can be concluded that the hepatocyte relay assay method can be successfully used in the generation of relevant human metabolites, even for challenging drugs.

  17. Copper Nanoparticles and Copper Sulphate Induced Cytotoxicity in Hepatocyte Primary Cultures of Epinephelus coioides.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Chen, Xiaoyan; Long, Xiaohua; Liu, Zhaopu; Yan, Shaohua

    2016-01-01

    Copper nanoparticles (Cu-NPs) were widely used in various industrial and commercial applications. The aim of this study was to analyze the cytotoxicity of Cu-NPs on primary hepatocytes of E.coioides compared with copper sulphate (CuSO4). Cultured cells were exposed to 0 or 2.4 mg Cu L-1 as CuSO4or Cu-NPs for 24-h. Results showed either form of Cu caused a dramatic loss in cell viability, more so in the CuSO4 than Cu-NPs treatment. Compared to control, either CuSO4 or Cu-NPs significantly increased reactive oxygen species(ROS) and malondialdehyde(MDA) concentration in hepatocytes by overwhelming total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) activity, catalase(CAT) activity and glutathione(GSH) concentration. In addition, the antioxidative-related genes [SOD (Cu/Zn), SOD (Mn), CAT, GPx4] were also down-regulated. The apoptosis and necrosis percentage was significantly higher after the CuSO4 or Cu-NPs treatment than the control. The apoptosis was induced by the increased cytochrome c concentration in the cytosol and elevated caspase-3, caspase-8 and caspase-9 activities. Additionally, the apoptosis-related genes (p53, p38β and TNF-α) and protein (p53 protein) were up-regulated after the CuSO4 or Cu-NPs treatment, with CuSO4 exposure having a greater effect than Cu-NPs. In conclusion, Cu-NPs had similar types of toxic effects as CuSO4 on primary hepatocytes of E.coioides, but toxicity of CuSO4 was more severe than that of Cu-NPs.

  18. Copper Nanoparticles and Copper Sulphate Induced Cytotoxicity in Hepatocyte Primary Cultures of Epinephelus coioides

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tao; Chen, Xiaoyan; Long, Xiaohua; Liu, Zhaopu; Yan, Shaohua

    2016-01-01

    Copper nanoparticles (Cu-NPs) were widely used in various industrial and commercial applications. The aim of this study was to analyze the cytotoxicity of Cu-NPs on primary hepatocytes of E.coioides compared with copper sulphate (CuSO4). Cultured cells were exposed to 0 or 2.4 mg Cu L-1 as CuSO4or Cu-NPs for 24-h. Results showed either form of Cu caused a dramatic loss in cell viability, more so in the CuSO4 than Cu-NPs treatment. Compared to control, either CuSO4 or Cu-NPs significantly increased reactive oxygen species(ROS) and malondialdehyde(MDA) concentration in hepatocytes by overwhelming total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) activity, catalase(CAT) activity and glutathione(GSH) concentration. In addition, the antioxidative-related genes [SOD (Cu/Zn), SOD (Mn), CAT, GPx4] were also down-regulated. The apoptosis and necrosis percentage was significantly higher after the CuSO4 or Cu-NPs treatment than the control. The apoptosis was induced by the increased cytochrome c concentration in the cytosol and elevated caspase-3, caspase-8 and caspase-9 activities. Additionally, the apoptosis-related genes (p53, p38β and TNF-α) and protein (p53 protein) were up-regulated after the CuSO4 or Cu-NPs treatment, with CuSO4 exposure having a greater effect than Cu-NPs. In conclusion, Cu-NPs had similar types of toxic effects as CuSO4 on primary hepatocytes of E.coioides, but toxicity of CuSO4 was more severe than that of Cu-NPs. PMID:26890000

  19. Tanshinone I increases CYP1A2 protein expression and enzyme activity in primary rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wayne Y W; Zhou, Xuelin; Or, Penelope M Y; Kwan, Yiu Wa; Yeung, John H K

    2012-01-15

    This study investigated the effects of Danshen and its active ingredients on the protein expression and enzymatic activity of CYP1A2 in primary rat hepatocytes. The ethanolic extract of Danshen roots (containing mainly tanshinones) inhibited CYP1A2-catalyzed phenacetin O-deethylation (IC(50)=24.6 μg/ml) in primary rat hepatocytes while the water extract containing mainly salvianolic acid B and danshenshu had no effect. Individual tanshinones such as cryptotanshinone, dihydrotanshinone, tanshinone IIA inhibited the CYP1A2-mediated metabolism with IC(50) values at 12.9, 17.4 and 31.9 μM, respectively. After 4-day treatment of the rat hepatocytes, the ethanolic extract of Danshen and tanshinone I increased rat CYP1A2 activity by 6.8- and 5.2-fold, respectively, with a concomitant up-regulation of CYP1A2 protein level by 13.5- and 6.5-fold, respectively. CYP1A2 induction correlated with the up-regulation of mRNA level of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), which suggested a positive feedback mechanism of tanshinone I-mediated CYP1A2 induction. A formulated Danshen pill (containing mainly danshensu and salvianolic acid B and the tanshinones) up-regulated CYP1A2 protein expression and enzyme activity, but danshensu and salvianolic acid B, when used individually, did not affect CYP1A2 activity. This study was the first report on the Janus action of the tanshinones on rat CYP1A2 activity.

  20. Docosahexaenoic Acid Ameliorates Fructose-Induced Hepatic Steatosis Involving ER Stress Response in Primary Mouse Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jinying; Peng, Chuan; Ai, Yanbiao; Wang, Heng; Xiao, Xiaoqiu; Li, Jibin

    2016-01-01

    The increase in fructose consumption is considered to be a risk factor for developing nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We investigated the effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on hepatic lipid metabolism in fructose-treated primary mouse hepatocytes, and the changes of Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathways in response to DHA treatment. The hepatocytes were treated with fructose, DHA, fructose plus DHA, tunicamycin (TM) or fructose plus 4-phenylbutyric acid (PBA) for 24 h. Intracellular triglyceride (TG) accumulation was assessed by Oil Red O staining. The mRNA expression levels and protein levels related to lipid metabolism and ER stress response were determined by real-time PCR and Western blot. Fructose treatment led to obvious TG accumulation in primary hepatocytes through increasing expression of fatty acid synthase (FAS) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), two key enzymes in hepatic de novo lipogenesis. DHA ameliorates fructose-induced TG accumulation by upregulating the expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A (CPT-1α) and acyl-CoA oxidase 1 (ACOX1). DHA treatment or pretreatment with the ER stress inhibitor PBA significantly decreased TG accumulation and reduced the expression of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), total inositol-requiring kinase 1 (IRE1α) and p-IRE1α. The present results suggest that DHA protects against high fructose-induced hepatocellular lipid accumulation. The current findings also suggest that alleviating the ER stress response seems to play a role in the prevention of fructose-induced hepatic steatosis by DHA. PMID:26805874

  1. Preincubation of rat and human hepatocytes with cytoprotectants prior to cryopreservation can improve viability and function upon thawing.

    PubMed

    Terry, Claire; Dhawan, Anil; Mitry, Ragai R; Lehec, Sharon C; Hughes, Robin D

    2005-12-01

    Cryopreservation of human hepatocytes is important for the treatment of liver disease by hepatocyte transplantation and also for the use of hepatocytes as an in vitro model of the liver. One factor in the success of cryopreservation is the quality of cells before freezing. Preincubation of hepatocytes with cytoprotective compounds to allow recovery from the isolation process prior to cryopreservation, such as those that will boost cellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content or antioxidants, may improve the viability and function of cells upon thawing. Rat hepatocytes were used to investigate the effects of preincubation with 10 compounds: precursors (glucose, fructose, glutathione, and S-adenosyl-L-methionine), antioxidants (ascorbic acid and alpha-lipoic acid), and compounds with multiple effects (N-acetylcysteine, pentoxifylline, prostaglandin E(1), and tauroursodeoxycholic acid). Human hepatocytes were then used to investigate 5 of the original 10 compounds (glucose, fructose, alpha-lipoic acid, S-adenosyl-L-methionine, and pentoxifylline). Glucose preincubation (100-300 mM) improved the viability and attachment efficiency of rat hepatocytes and improved the viability and reduced lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage of human hepatocytes. Fructose preincubation (100-300 mM) improved the viability and attachment efficiency of rat hepatocytes and improved the attachment efficiency of human hepatocytes. alpha-lipoic acid preincubation (0.5-5 mM) improved the viability and attachment efficiency of both rat and human hepatocytes. At a concentration of 2.5 mM alpha-lipoic acid also improved the albumin production of human hepatocytes. In conclusion, preincubation of hepatocytes prior to cryopreservation can improve the viability and function of thawed cells and may provide a method of obtaining better-quality cryopreserved hepatocytes for transplantation.

  2. Troglitazone, but not rosiglitazone, damages mitochondrial DNA and induces mitochondrial dysfunction and cell death in human hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Rachek, Lyudmila I.; Yuzefovych, Larysa V.; LeDoux, Susan P.; Julie, Neil L.; Wilson, Glenn L.

    2009-11-01

    Thiazolidinediones (TZDs), such as troglitazone (TRO) and rosiglitazone (ROSI), improve insulin resistance by acting as ligands for the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma). TRO was withdrawn from the market because of reports of serious hepatotoxicity. A growing body of evidence suggests that TRO caused mitochondrial dysfunction and induction of apoptosis in human hepatocytes but its mechanisms of action remain unclear. We hypothesized that damage to mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is an initiating event involved in TRO-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and hepatotoxicity. Primary human hepatocytes were exposed to TRO and ROSI. The results obtained revealed that TRO, but not ROSI at equimolar concentrations, caused a substantial increase in mtDNA damage and decreased ATP production and cellular viability. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger, N-acetyl cystein (NAC), significantly diminished the TRO-induced cytotoxicity, suggesting involvement of ROS in TRO-induced hepatocyte cytotoxicity. The PPARgamma antagonist (GW9662) did not block the TRO-induced decrease in cell viability, indicating that the TRO-induced hepatotoxicity is PPARgamma-independent. Furthermore, TRO induced hepatocyte apoptosis, caspase-3 cleavage and cytochrome c release. Targeting of a DNA repair protein to mitochondria by protein transduction using a fusion protein containing the DNA repair enzyme Endonuclease III (EndoIII) from Escherichia coli, a mitochondrial translocation sequence (MTS) and the protein transduction domain (PTD) from HIV-1 TAT protein protected hepatocytes against TRO-induced toxicity. Overall, our results indicate that significant mtDNA damage caused by TRO is a prime initiator of the hepatoxicity caused by this drug.

  3. Troglitazone, but not rosiglitazone, damages mitochondrial DNA and induces mitochondrial dysfunction and cell death in human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Rachek, Lyudmila I; Yuzefovych, Larysa V; Ledoux, Susan P; Julie, Neil L; Wilson, Glenn L

    2009-11-01

    Thiazolidinediones (TZDs), such as troglitazone (TRO) and rosiglitazone (ROSI), improve insulin resistance by acting as ligands for the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma). TRO was withdrawn from the market because of reports of serious hepatotoxicity. A growing body of evidence suggests that TRO caused mitochondrial dysfunction and induction of apoptosis in human hepatocytes but its mechanisms of action remain unclear. We hypothesized that damage to mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is an initiating event involved in TRO-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and hepatotoxicity. Primary human hepatocytes were exposed to TRO and ROSI. The results obtained revealed that TRO, but not ROSI at equimolar concentrations, caused a substantial increase in mtDNA damage and decreased ATP production and cellular viability. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger, N-acetyl cystein (NAC), significantly diminished the TRO-induced cytotoxicity, suggesting involvement of ROS in TRO-induced hepatocyte cytotoxicity. The PPARgamma antagonist (GW9662) did not block the TRO-induced decrease in cell viability, indicating that the TRO-induced hepatotoxicity is PPARgamma-independent. Furthermore, TRO induced hepatocyte apoptosis, caspase-3 cleavage and cytochrome c release. Targeting of a DNA repair protein to mitochondria by protein transduction using a fusion protein containing the DNA repair enzyme Endonuclease III (EndoIII) from Escherichia coli, a mitochondrial translocation sequence (MTS) and the protein transduction domain (PTD) from HIV-1 TAT protein protected hepatocytes against TRO-induced toxicity. Overall, our results indicate that significant mtDNA damage caused by TRO is a prime initiator of the hepatoxicity caused by this drug.

  4. Troglitazone, but not rosiglitazone, damages mitochondrial DNA and induces mitochondrial dysfunction and cell death in human hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Rachek, Lyudmila I.; Yuzefovych, Larysa V.; LeDoux, Susan P.; Julie, Neil L.; Wilson, Glenn L.

    2009-01-01

    Thiazolidinediones (TZDs), such as troglitazone (TRO) and rosiglitazone (ROSI), improve insulin resistance by acting as ligands for the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ). TRO was withdrawn from the market because of reports of serious hepatotoxicity. A growing body of evidence suggests that TRO caused mitochondrial dysfunction and induction of apoptosis in human hepatocytes but its mechanisms of action remain unclear. We hypothesized that damage to mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is an initiating event involved in TRO-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and hepatotoxicity. Primary human hepatocytes were exposed to TRO and ROSI. The results obtained revealed that TRO, but not ROSI at equimolar concentrations, caused a substantial increase in mtDNA damage and decreased ATP production and cellular viability. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger, N-acetyl cystein (NAC), significantly diminished the TRO-induced cytotoxicity, suggesting involvement of ROS in TRO-induced hepatocyte cytotoxicity. The PPARγ antagonist (GW9662) did not block the TRO-induced decrease in cell viability, indicating that the TRO-induced hepatotoxicity is PPARγ-independent. Furthermore, TRO induced hepatocyte apoptosis, caspase-3 cleavage and cytochrome c release. Targeting of a DNA repair protein to mitochondria by protein transduction using a fusion protein containing the DNA repair enzyme Endonuclease III (EndoIII) from Escherichia coli, a mitochondrial translocation sequence (MTS) and the protein transduction domain (PTD) from HIV-1 TAT protein protected hepatocytes against TRO-induced toxicity. Overall, our results indicate that significant mtDNA damage caused by TRO is a prime initiator of the hepatoxicity caused by this drug. PMID:19632256

  5. Sex differences in DNA damage produced by the carcinogen 2-acetylaminofluorene in cultured human hepatocytes compared to rat liver and cultured rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Williams, Gary M; Duan, Jian-Dong; Iatropoulos, Michael J; Perrone, Carmen E

    2016-02-01

    Male rats are more susceptible to the induction of liver cancer by the aromatic amine 2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF) than are females. To assess the basis for this difference and to determine whether sex differences in susceptibility to AAF are present in human liver cells, the DNA reactivity of AAF was measured in livers of male and female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and in cultured SD rat and human hepatocytes of both sexes. In livers of rats administered oral doses of AAF, the total levels of adducts measured by nucleotide postlabelling at up to 8 weeks were about twofold greater in males than in females. Similarly, the level of AAF-DNA adducts formed in cultured male rat hepatocytes dosed with AAF was about twofold greater than in female rat hepatocytes. Also, the level of DNA repair synthesis was about threefold greater in AAF-dosed cultured male rat hepatocytes compared with female, indicating that the greater adduct levels in males was not due to lesser repair. In contrast, in cultured human hepatocytes of both sexes, AAF produced similar levels of adducts and DNA repair synthesis, which were intermediate between those produced in male and female rat hepatocytes. Thus, the greater susceptibility of male rats to AAF hepatocarcinogenicity is due at least in part to greater bioactivation and formation of AAF-DNA adducts in hepatocytes. Moreover, the data from human hepatocytes suggest that human liver could be less susceptible than male rat liver to the carcinogenic effects of aromatic amine carcinogens of the AAF type.

  6. [Use of hepatocytes in primary cultures to predict potential hepatocarcinogenicity of compounds

    PubMed

    Bieri, F.; Muakkassah-Kelly, S.; Bentley, P.

    1990-01-01

    Short-term tests for genotoxic activity will detect a variety of potential carcinogens. However, experience over the last few years has shown that many chemical carcinogens are not detected in these tests. A large proportion of these non-mutagenic (non-genotoxic) carcinogens induce tumors in the rodent liver after life-long feeding. One class of such carcinogens are the hypolipidemic drugs many of which induce a characteristic hepatomegaly upon subchronic treatment. Typically this liver enlargement is accompanied by increased mitotic activity and a proliferation of the hepatic peroxisome compartment. Results also suggest a correlation between the degree and the nature of the hepatomegalic response to a compound, and its hepatocarcinogenic potency, but it remains unclear whether the growth stimulation and/or the peroxisome proliferation is correlated with the carcinogenicity. Both, the induction of peroxisomal enzyme and of replicative DMA synthesis may be measured in primary cultures of adult rat hepatocytes following in vitro exposition. Moreover, the ability of the compounds tested to induce in vitro replicative DNA synthesis in primary cultures of adult rat hepatocytes correlated well with the potency of the hepatomegalic response induced in vivo in treated rodents. Consequently, studies using such cultures might be useful to characterize and possibly predict in vitro the hepatocarcinogenic potency of some new compounds. The early recognition of the possible carcinogenic property of a new substance might accordingly contribute to the reduction of a number of life-long studies.

  7. Protective effect of butylated hydroxylanisole against hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis in primary cultured mouse hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Geun Hye; Jeon, Yu Jin; Han, Ho Jae; Park, Soo Hyun; Baek, Kyoung Min; Chang, Woochul; Kim, Joong Sun; Kim, Lark Kyun; Lee, You-Mie; Lee, Sangkyu; Bae, Jong-Sup; Jee, Jun-Goo; Lee, Min Young

    2015-01-01

    Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) is a synthetic phenolic compound consisting of a mixture of two isomeric organic compounds: 2-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole and 3-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole. We examined the effect of BHA against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced apoptosis in primary cultured mouse hepatocytes. Cell viability was significantly decreased by H2O2 in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, H2O2 treatment increased Bax, decreased Bcl-2, and promoted PARP-1 cleavage in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment with BHA before exposure to H2O2 significantly attenuated the H2O2-induced decrease of cell viability. H2O2 exposure resulted in an increase of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation that was significantly inhibited by pretreatment with BHA or N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC, an ROS scavenger). H2O2-induced decrease of cell viability was also attenuated by pretreatment with BHA and NAC. Furthermore, H2O2-induced increase of Bax, decrease of Bcl-2, and PARP-1 cleavage was also inhibited by BHA. Taken together, results of this investigation demonstrated that BHA protects primary cultured mouse hepatocytes against H2O2-induced apoptosis by inhibiting ROS generation.

  8. Antioxidant lignans from Machilus thunbergii protect CCl4-injured primary cultures of rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Yu, Y U; Kang, S Y; Park, H Y; Sung, S H; Lee, E J; Kim, S Y; Kim, Y C

    2000-09-01

    Eleven lignans (1-11) were isolated from the CH2Cl2 fraction of the bark of Machilus thunbergii Sieb. et Zucc. (Lauraceae). These were identified as (-)-acuminatin (1), (-)-isoguaiacin (2), meso-dihydroguaiaretic acid (3), (+)-galbacin (4), (-)-sesamin (5), (+)-galbelgin (6), machilin A (7), machilin G (8), licarin A (9), and nectandrin A (10) and B (11). Primary cultures of rat hepatocytes were co-incubated for 90 min with the hepatotoxin CCl4 and each of the 11 lignans (50 microM). Hepatoprotective activity was determined by measuring the level of glutamic pyruvic transaminase released into the medium from the primary cultures of rat hepatocytes. (-)-Acuminatin, (-)-isoguaiacin and meso-dihydroguaiaretic acid all significantly reduced the level of glutamic pyruvic transaminase released. Further investigation revealed that these three compounds significantly preserved the levels and the activities of glutathione, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase. (-)-Acuminatin, (-)-isoguaiacin and meso-dihydroguaiaretic acid also ameliorated lipid peroxidation as demonstrated by a reduction of malondialdehyde production. These results suggest that (-)-acuminatin, (-)-isoguaiacin and meso-dihydroguaiaretic acid exert diverse hepatoprotective activities, perhaps by serving as potent antioxidants.

  9. Protective effect of butylated hydroxylanisole against hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis in primary cultured mouse hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Geun Hye; Jeon, Yu Jin; Han, Ho Jae; Park, Soo Hyun; Baek, Kyoung Min; Chang, Woochul; Kim, Joong Sun; Kim, Lark Kyun; Lee, You-Mie; Lee, Sangkyu; Bae, Jong-Sup; Jee, Jun-Goo

    2015-01-01

    Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) is a synthetic phenolic compound consisting of a mixture of two isomeric organic compounds: 2-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole and 3-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole. We examined the effect of BHA against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced apoptosis in primary cultured mouse hepatocytes. Cell viability was significantly decreased by H2O2 in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, H2O2 treatment increased Bax, decreased Bcl-2, and promoted PARP-1 cleavage in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment with BHA before exposure to H2O2 significantly attenuated the H2O2-induced decrease of cell viability. H2O2 exposure resulted in an increase of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation that was significantly inhibited by pretreatment with BHA or N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC, an ROS scavenger). H2O2-induced decrease of cell viability was also attenuated by pretreatment with BHA and NAC. Furthermore, H2O2-induced increase of Bax, decrease of Bcl-2, and PARP-1 cleavage was also inhibited by BHA. Taken together, results of this investigation demonstrated that BHA protects primary cultured mouse hepatocytes against H2O2-induced apoptosis by inhibiting ROS generation. PMID:25798044

  10. Hepatoprotective Flavonoids in Opuntia ficus-indica Fruits by Reducing Oxidative Stress in Primary Rat Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung Wha; Kim, Tae Bum; Kim, Hyun Woo; Park, Sang Wook; Kim, Hong Pyo; Sung, Sang Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Background: Liver disorder was associated with alcohol consumption caused by hepatic cellular damages. Opuntia ficus-indica fruit extracts (OFIEs), which contain betalain pigments and polyphenols including flavonoids, have been introduced as reducing hangover symptoms and liver protective activity. Objective: To evaluate hepatoprotective activity of OFIEs and isolated compounds by high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC). Materials and Methods: The extract of O. ficus-indica fruits was fractionated into methylene chloride and n-butanol. The n-butanol fraction was isolated by HSCCC separation (methylene chloride-methanol-n-butanol-water, 5:4:3:5, v/v/v/v). The hepatoprotective activity of OFIEs and isolated compounds was evaluated on rat primary hepatocytes against ethanol-induced toxicity. Antioxidative parameters such as glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) enzymes and the GSH content were measured. Results: Two flavonoids, quercetin 3-O-methyl ester (1) and (+)-taxifolin, and two flavonoid glycosides, isorhamnetin 3-O-β-d-glucoside (3) and narcissin (4), were isolated from the n-butanol fraction by HSCCC separation. Among them, compound 2 significantly protected rat primary hepatocytes against ethanol exposure by preserving antioxidative properties of GR and GSH-Px. Conclusions: OFIEs and (+)-taxifolin were suggested to reduce hepatic damage by alcoholic oxidative stress. SUMMARY Hepatoprotective Flavonoids were isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica by high -speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC). PMID:28839374

  11. Hepatoprotective Flavonoids in Opuntia ficus-indica Fruits by Reducing Oxidative Stress in Primary Rat Hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung Wha; Kim, Tae Bum; Kim, Hyun Woo; Park, Sang Wook; Kim, Hong Pyo; Sung, Sang Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Liver disorder was associated with alcohol consumption caused by hepatic cellular damages. Opuntia ficus-indica fruit extracts (OFIEs), which contain betalain pigments and polyphenols including flavonoids, have been introduced as reducing hangover symptoms and liver protective activity. To evaluate hepatoprotective activity of OFIEs and isolated compounds by high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC). The extract of O. ficus-indica fruits was fractionated into methylene chloride and n-butanol. The n-butanol fraction was isolated by HSCCC separation (methylene chloride-methanol-n-butanol-water, 5:4:3:5, v/v/v/v). The hepatoprotective activity of OFIEs and isolated compounds was evaluated on rat primary hepatocytes against ethanol-induced toxicity. Antioxidative parameters such as glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) enzymes and the GSH content were measured. Two flavonoids, quercetin 3-O-methyl ester (1) and (+)-taxifolin, and two flavonoid glycosides, isorhamnetin 3-O-β-d-glucoside (3) and narcissin (4), were isolated from the n-butanol fraction by HSCCC separation. Among them, compound 2 significantly protected rat primary hepatocytes against ethanol exposure by preserving antioxidative properties of GR and GSH-Px. OFIEs and (+)-taxifolin were suggested to reduce hepatic damage by alcoholic oxidative stress. Hepatoprotective Flavonoids were isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica by high -speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC).

  12. Human hepatocyte and kidney cell metabolism of 2-acetylaminofluorene and comparison to the respective rat cells.

    PubMed

    Langenbach, R; Rudo, K

    1988-12-01

    The metabolism and mutagenic activation of 2-acetylaminofluorene by human and rat hepatocytes and kidney cells were measured. High performance liquid chromatography was used to separate the 2-acetylaminofluorene metabolites, and a cell-mediated Salmonella typhimurium mutagenesis assay was used to detect mutagenic intermediates. Rat and human differences were observed with cells from both organs and levels of metabolism and mutagenesis were higher in human cells. Within a species, liver and kidney cell differences were also evident, with levels of hepatocyte-mediated metabolism and mutagenesis being greater than kidney cells. Human inter-individual variation was apparent with cells from both organs, but the variation observed was significantly greater in hepatocytes than kidney cells. A knowledge of such differences, including an understanding that they may vary with the chemical being studied, should be useful in the extrapolation of rodent carcinogenesis data to humans.

  13. Byakangelicin induces cytochrome P450 3A4 expression via transactivation of pregnane X receptors in human hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jian; Luan, Xiaofei; Gui, Haiyan; Yan, Peng; Yang, Dongfang; Song, Xiulong; Liu, Wei; Hu, Gang; Yan, Bingfang

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Byakangelicin is found in extracts of the root of Angelica dahurica, used in Korea and China as a traditional medicine to treat colds, headache and toothache. As byakangelicin can inhibit the effects of sex hormones, it may increase the catabolism of endogenous hormones. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of byakangelicin on the cytochrome P450 isoform cytochrome (CY) P3A4 in human hepatocytes. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Cultures of human hepatocytes and a hepatoma cell line (Huh7 cells) were used. mRNA and protein levels were measured by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. Plasmid constructs and mutants were prepared by cloning and site-directed mutagenesis. Reporter (luciferase) activity was determined by transient co-transfection experiments. KEY RESULTS In human primary hepatocytes, byakangelicin markedly induced the expression of CYP3A4 both at the mRNA level (approximately fivefold) and the protein level (approximately threefold) but did not affect expression of human pregnane X receptor (hPXR). In reporter assays, byakangelicin activated CYP3A4 promoter in a concentration-dependent manner (EC50= 5 µM), and this activation was enhanced by co-transfection with hPXR. Further reporter assays demonstrated that the eNR4 binding element in the CYP3A4 promoter was required for the transcriptional activation of CYP3A4 by byakangelicin. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Byakangelicin induced expression and activity of CYP3A4 in human hepatocytes. This induction was achieved by the transactivation of PXR and not by increased expression of PXR. Therefore, byakangelicin is likely to increase the expression of all PXR target genes (such as MDR1) and induce a wide range of drug–drug interactions. PMID:20942813

  14. Apelin protects against liver X receptor-mediated steatosis through AMPK and PPARα in human and mouse hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jin; Kang, Saeromi; Park, Soo-Jin; Im, Dong-Soon

    2017-11-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is the most commonly occurring chronic liver disease, and hepatic steatosis, a condition defined as extensive lipid accumulation in hepatocytes, is associated with liver dysfunction and metabolic diseases, such as, obesity and type II diabetes. Apelin is an adipokine that acts on a G protein-coupled receptor named APJ, and has been established to play pivotal roles in various physiological conditions. However, the function of apelin in hepatocytes has not been fully investigated. In order to assess the functional roles of apelin and APJ in hepatocytes, we used an in vitro model of liver X receptor (LXR)-mediated hepatocellular steatosis. In Hep3B human hepatoma cells, T0901317 (a specific LXR activator) induced lipid accumulation and this was inhibited by apelin. T0901317 also induced the expression of SREBP-1c, a key transcription factor for lipogenesis. Apelin not only inhibited SREBP-1c induction at the mRNA and protein levels but also induced lipolytic PPARα expression. Furthermore, these protective effects of apelin were inhibited by apelin F13A (a specific APJ antagonist). Furthermore, silencing of APJ by siRNA transfection also inhibited the actions of apelin. Specific inhibitors of cellular signaling components showed inhibition of lipid accumulation by apelin was mediated through Gi/o proteins, AMPK, and SREBP-1c suppression during the early stage and through AMPK, ERKs, and PPARα induction during the late stage. In addition, the protective effect of apelin was confirmed in mouse primary hepatocytes. Our observations suggest apelin-APJ signaling in hepatocytes functions to protect against lipid accumulation in liver through two signaling pathways, that is, via AMPK activation and PPARα induction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparison of 2,2-bis(bromomethyl)-1,3-propanediol induced genotoxicity in UROtsa cells and primary rat hepatocytes: relevance of metabolism and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Kong, Weixi; Gu, Pengfei; Knudsen, Gabriel A; Sipes, I Glenn

    2013-10-09

    2,2-Bis(bromomethyl)-1,3-propanediol (BMP) is a brominated flame retardant used in urethane foams and polyester resins. In a two year dietary study, BMP caused neoplastic lesions at multiple sites including the urinary bladder of both rats and mice. However, liver was not a target tissue. We previously reported that BMP elicited oxidative DNA damage in a human uroepithelial cell line (UROtsa). The present in vitro study investigated the susceptibility of target (UROtsa cells) and non-target cells (primary rat hepatocytes) to BMP-induced genotoxicity. In contrast to hepatocytes, BMP exhibited greater genotoxic potential in UROtsa cells as evidenced by the concentration dependent increase in DNA strand breaks and DNA binding. Total content of intracellular GSH quantified in UROtsa cells (2.7±1.0nmol/mg protein) was 4 fold lower than that in hepatocytes (10.7±0.3nmol/mg protein). HPLC analysis indicated BMP was not metabolized and/or consumed in UROtsa cells at any of the concentrations tested (10-250μM) but was extensively converted to a mono-glucuronide in hepatocytes. These results demonstrate that a target cell line such as UROtsa cells are more susceptible to BMP-induced DNA damage when compared to non-target cells. This increased susceptibility may relate to the deficiency of antioxidant and/or metabolic capabilities in UROtsa cells.

  16. Endogenous bile acid disposition in rat and human sandwich-cultured hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Marion, Tracy L.; Perry, Cassandra H.; St Claire, Robert L.; Brouwer, Kim L.R.

    2012-05-15

    Sandwich-cultured hepatocytes (SCH) are used commonly to investigate hepatic transport protein-mediated uptake and biliary excretion of substrates. However, little is known about the disposition of endogenous bile acids (BAs) in SCH. In this study, four endogenous conjugated BAs common to rats and humans [taurocholic acid (TCA), glycocholic acid (GCA), taurochenodeoxycholic acid (TCDCA), and glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDCA)], as well as two BA species specific to rodents (α- and β-tauromuricholic acid; α/β TMCA), were profiled in primary rat and human SCH. Using B-CLEAR{sup ®} technology, BAs were measured in cells + bile canaliculi, cells, and medium of SCH by LC-MS/MS. Results indicated that, just as in vivo, taurine-conjugated BA species were predominant in rat SCH, while glycine-conjugated BAs were predominant in human SCH. Total intracellular BAs remained relatively constant over days in culture in rat SCH. Total BAs in control (CTL) cells + bile, cells, and medium were approximately 3.4, 2.9, and 8.3-fold greater in human than in rat. The estimated intracellular concentrations of the measured total BAs were 64.3 ± 5.9 μM in CTL rat and 183 ± 56 μM in CTL human SCH, while medium concentrations of the total BAs measured were 1.16 ± 0.21 μM in CTL rat SCH and 9.61 ± 6.36 μM in CTL human SCH. Treatment of cells for 24 h with 10 μM troglitazone (TRO), an inhibitor of the bile salt export pump (BSEP) and the Na{sup +}-taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP), had no significant effect on endogenous BAs measured at the end of the 24-h culture period, potentially due to compensatory mechanisms that maintain BA homeostasis. These data demonstrate that BAs in SCH are similar to in vivo, and that SCH may be a useful in vitro model to study alterations in BA disposition if species differences are taken into account. -- Highlights: ► Bile acids (BAs) were measured in rat and human sandwich-cultured hepatocytes (SCH). ► Cell and medium BA

  17. Effect of curcumin analog on gamma-radiation-induced cellular changes in primary culture of isolated rat hepatocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, M; Sudheer, A Ram; Rajasekaran, K N; Menon, Venugopal P

    2008-10-22

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the radioprotective effect of curcumin analog, on gamma-radiation-induced toxicity in primary cultures of isolated rat hepatocytes. Hepatocytes were isolated from the liver of rats by collagenase perfusion. The DNA damage was analysed by single cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay). An increase in the severity of DNA damage was observed with the increase in gamma-radiation dose at 1-4 Gy in cultured rat hepatocytes. The levels of lipid peroxidative indices like thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARSs) were increased significantly, whereas the levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) and antioxidant enzymes were significantly decreased in gamma-irradiated groups. The maximum damage to hepatocytes was observed at 4Gy gamma-irradiation. Pretreatment with different concentrations of curcumin analog (1.38, 6.91 and 13.82 microM) shows a significant decrease in the levels of TBARS and DNA damage. Pretreatment with curcumin analog prevents the loss of enzymic and non-enzymic antioxidants like GSH upon gamma-irradiation. The maximum protection of hepatocytes was observed at 6.91 microM of curcumin analog pretreatment. Thus, our result shows that pretreatment with curcumin analog protects the hepatocytes against gamma-radiation-induced cellular damage.

  18. SIRT1 Disruption in Human Fetal Hepatocytes Leads to Increased Accumulation of Glucose and Lipids

    PubMed Central

    Tobita, Takamasa; Guzman-Lepe, Jorge; Takeishi, Kazuki; Nakao, Toshimasa; Wang, Yang; Meng, Fanying; Deng, Chu-Xia; Collin de l’Hortet, Alexandra; Soto-Gutierrez, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    There are unprecedented epidemics of obesity, such as type II diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD) in developed countries. A concerning percentage of American children are being affected by obesity and NAFLD. Studies have suggested that the maternal environment in utero might play a role in the development of these diseases later in life. In this study, we documented that inhibiting SIRT1 signaling in human fetal hepatocytes rapidly led to an increase in intracellular glucose and lipids levels. More importantly, both de novo lipogenesis and gluconeogenesis related genes were upregulated upon SIRT1 inhibition. The AKT/FOXO1 pathway, a major negative regulator of gluconeogenesis, was decreased in the human fetal hepatocytes inhibited for SIRT1, consistent with the higher level of gluconeogenesis. These results indicate that SIRT1 is an important regulator of lipid and carbohydrate metabolisms within human fetal hepatocytes, acting as an adaptive transcriptional response to environmental changes. PMID:26890260

  19. Methanethiol and dimethylsulfide formation from 3-methylthiopropionate in human and rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Blom, H J; van den Elzen, J P; Yap, S H; Tangerman, A

    1988-11-18

    This study was designed to investigate the metabolism of methanethiol, and the involvement of methanethiol and its metabolites in the transamination pathway of methionine. Gaseous methanethiol, methanethiol-mixed disulfides and dimethylsulfide were formed from 3-methylthiopropionate, a metabolite in the transamination pathway of methionine, during incubation with human and rat hepatocytes. An increase of the 3-methylthiopropionate concentration resulted in an increased formation of the products, up to a substrate concentration of 4.4 mM. Higher substrate levels resulted in a decreased methanethiol formation, probably due to poisoning of the system. However, in human hepatocytes the formation of dimethylsulfide increased up to a 3-methylthiopropionate concentration of 12.5 mM. The formation of methanethiol, dimethylsulfide and methanethiol-mixed disulfides from 3-methylthiopropionate in hepatocytes of both human and rat support the hypothesis that methanethiol can be formed from methionine via the transamination pathway.

  20. Establishment of human hair follicle mesenchymal stem cells with overexpressed human hepatocyte growth factor.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Dan; Cheng, Hongjing; Liu, Jinyu; Zhang, Lei

    2017-06-01

    Chronic liver disease has become a major health problem that causes serious damage to human health. Since the existing treatment effect was not ideal, we need to seek new treatment methods. We utilized the gene recombination technology to obtain the human hair mesenchymal stem cells which overexpression of human hepatocyte growth factor (hHGF). Furthermore, we verified the property of transfected cells through detecting surface marker by flow cytometry. We show here establishment of the hHGF-overexpressing lentivirus vector, and successfully transfection to human hair follicle mesenchymal stem cells. The verified experiments could demonstrate the human hair follicle mesenchymal stem cells which have been transfected still have the properties of stem cells. We successfully constructed human hair follicle mesenchymal stem cells which overexpression hHGF, and maintain the same properties compared with pro-transfected cells.

  1. Spontaneous hepatic repopulation in transgenic mice expressing mutant human α1-antitrypsin by wild-type donor hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jianqiang; Yannam, Govardhana R; Roy-Chowdhury, Namita; Hidvegi, Tunda; Basma, Hesham; Rennard, Stephen I; Wong, Ronald J; Avsar, Yesim; Guha, Chandan; Perlmutter, David H; Fox, Ira J; Roy-Chowdhury, Jayanta

    2011-05-01

    α1-Antitrypsin deficiency is an inherited condition that causes liver disease and emphysema. The normal function of this protein, which is synthesized by the liver, is to inhibit neutrophil elastase, a protease that degrades connective tissue of the lung. In the classical form of the disease, inefficient secretion of a mutant α1-antitrypsin protein (AAT-Z) results in its accumulation within hepatocytes and reduced protease inhibitor activity, resulting in liver injury and pulmonary emphysema. Because mutant protein accumulation increases hepatocyte cell stress, we investigated whether transplanted hepatocytes expressing wild-type AAT might have a competitive advantage relative to AAT-Z-expressing hepatocytes, using transgenic mice expressing human AAT-Z. Wild-type donor hepatocytes replaced 20%-98% of mutant host hepatocytes, and repopulation was accelerated by injection of an adenovector expressing hepatocyte growth factor. Spontaneous hepatic repopulation with engrafted hepatocytes occurred in the AAT-Z-expressing mice even in the absence of severe liver injury. Donor cells replaced both globule-containing and globule-devoid cells, indicating that both types of host hepatocytes display impaired proliferation relative to wild-type hepatocytes. These results suggest that wild-type hepatocyte transplantation may be therapeutic for AAT-Z liver disease and may provide an alternative to protein replacement for treating emphysema in AAT-ZZ individuals.

  2. Efficient programming of human mesenchymal stem cell-derived hepatocytes by epigenetic regulations.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Wei-Lun; Yeh, Po-Hung; Tsai, Chia-Yun; Ting, Chin-Tsung; Chiu, Yen-Hui; Tao, Mi-Hua; Li, Wan-Chun; Hung, Shih-Chieh

    2017-01-01

    In view of its unique properties of detoxification and involvement of metabolic and biochemical functions, in vitro hepatocyte culture serves as a valuable material for drug screening and mechanistic analysis for pathology of liver diseases. The restriction of rapid de-differentiation and inaccessibility of human hepatocytes from routine clinical procedure, however, limits its use. To address this issue, the effort to direct human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) into hepatocytes using a modified protocol was proposed. With the additional treatment of histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) and DNA methyltransferase inhibitor (DNMTi), in vitro hMSC-derived hepatocytes were cultivated and their hepatic characteristics were examined. By using a modified protocol, it was shown that Trichostatin A and 5-aza-2-deoxycitidine protected differentiating cells from death and could sufficiently trigger a wide range of liver-specific markers as well as liver functions including albumin production, glycogen storage, and urea cycle in hMSC-derived hepatocytes. The increased mRNA expression for hepatitis C virus (HCV) entry including CD81, Occludin, LDL receptor, and scavenger receptor class B type I in hMSC-derived hepatocytes was also detected, implying its potential to be utilized as an in vitro model to analyze dynamic HCV infection. The present study successfully established a protocol to direct hMSCs into hepatocyte-like cells suggesting the beneficial impact to apply HDACi and DNMTi as potent modulators for hMSCs to liver differentiation. © 2016 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  3. Functional Analysis of Claudin-6 and Claudin-9 as Entry Factors for Hepatitis C Virus Infection of Human Hepatocytes by Using Monoclonal Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Fofana, Isabel; Zona, Laetitia; Thumann, Christine; Heydmann, Laura; Durand, Sarah C.; Lupberger, Joachim; Blum, Hubert E.; Pessaux, Patrick; Gondeau, Claire; Reynolds, Gary M.; McKeating, Jane A.; Grunert, Fritz; Thompson, John; Zeisel, Mirjam B.

    2013-01-01

    The relevance of claudin-6 and claudin-9 in hepatitis C virus (HCV) entry remains elusive. We produced claudin-6- or claudin-9-specific monoclonal antibodies that inhibit HCV entry into nonhepatic cells expressing exogenous claudin-6 or claudin-9. These antibodies had no effect on HCV infection of hepatoma cells or primary hepatocytes. Thus, although claudin-6 and claudin-9 can serve as entry factors in cell lines, HCV infection into human hepatocytes is not dependent on claudin-6 and claudin-9. PMID:23864633

  4. Human foreskin fibroblast-like stromal cells can differentiate into functional hepatocytic cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hsing-I; Chen, Shao-Kuan; Wang, Robert Y-L; Shen, Chia-Rui; Cheng, Yu-Che

    2013-12-01

    Foreskin fibroblast-like stromal cells (FDSCs) are progenitors isolated from human tissue that can differentiate into diverse cell types. Many types of stem cells can differentiate into hepatocyte-like cells, which could be used for drug testing or in liver regeneration therapy, but whether FDSCs can be converted into functional hepatocytes is unknown. FDSCs show divergent properties when cultured in distinct media, forming spheres in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) containing F12, epidermal growth factor (EGF), and basic fibroblast growth factor (b-FGF), but have fibroblast-like morphology when cultured in DMEM-based growth medium. Both cell populations express the typical mesenchymal stem cell markers CD90, CD105, and CD73, but the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) was detected only in FDSC spheres. Both types of FDSCs can differentiate into hepatocyte-like cells, which express typical liver markers, including albumin and hepatocyte paraffin 1 (Hep Par1), along with liver-specific biological activities. When plasmids containing the human hepatitis B virus (HBV) genome were transfected transiently into FDSCs, differentiated hepatocyte-like cells secrete large amounts of HBe and HBs antigens. FDSCs could be used for clinical hepatic therapy and/or serve as a model of HBV.

  5. High Content Analysis of Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Derived Hepatocytes Reveals Drug Induced Steatosis and Phospholipidosis

    PubMed Central

    Pradip, Arvind; Steel, Daniella; Jacobsson, Susanna; Holmgren, Gustav; Ingelman-Sundberg, Magnus; Sartipy, Peter; Björquist, Petter; Johansson, Inger; Edsbagge, Josefina

    2016-01-01

    Hepatotoxicity is one of the most cited reasons for withdrawal of approved drugs from the market. The use of nonclinically relevant in vitro and in vivo testing systems contributes to the high attrition rates. Recent advances in differentiating human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) into pure cultures of hepatocyte-like cells expressing functional drug metabolizing enzymes open up possibilities for novel, more relevant human cell based toxicity models. The present study aimed to investigate the use of hiPSC derived hepatocytes for conducting mechanistic toxicity testing by image based high content analysis (HCA). The hiPSC derived hepatocytes were exposed to drugs known to cause hepatotoxicity through steatosis and phospholipidosis, measuring several endpoints representing different mechanisms involved in drug induced hepatotoxicity. The hiPSC derived hepatocytes were benchmarked to the HepG2 cell line and generated robust HCA data with low imprecision between plates and batches. The different parameters measured were detected at subcytotoxic concentrations and the order of which the compounds were categorized (as severe, moderate, mild, or nontoxic) based on the degree of injury at isomolar concentration corresponded to previously published data. Taken together, the present study shows how hiPSC derived hepatocytes can be used as a platform for screening drug induced hepatotoxicity by HCA. PMID:26880940

  6. Prediction of Drug Clearance and Drug-Drug Interactions in Microscale Cultures of Human Hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Lin, Christine; Shi, Julianne; Moore, Amanda; Khetani, Salman R

    2016-01-01

    Accurate prediction of in vivo hepatic drug clearance using in vitro assays is important to properly estimate clinical dosing regimens. Clearance of low-turnover compounds is especially difficult to predict using short-lived suspensions of unpooled primary human hepatocytes (PHHs) and functionally declining PHH monolayers. Micropatterned cocultures (MPCCs) of PHHs and 3T3-J2 fibroblasts have been shown previously to display major liver functions for several weeks in vitro. In this study, we first characterized long-term activities of major cytochrome P450 enzymes in MPCCs created from unpooled cryopreserved PHH donors. MPCCs were then used to predict the clearance of 26 drugs that exhibit a wide range of turnover rates in vivo (0.05-19.5 ml/min per kilogram). MPCCs predicted 73, 92, and 96% of drug clearance values for all tested drugs within 2-fold, 3-fold, and 4-fold of in vivo values, respectively. There was good correlation (R(2) = 0.94, slope = 1.05) of predictions between the two PHH donors. On the other hand, suspension hepatocytes and conventional monolayers created from the same donor had significantly reduced predictive capacity (i.e., 30-50% clearance values within 4-fold of in vivo), and were not able to metabolize several drugs. Finally, we modulated drug clearance in MPCCs by inducing or inhibiting P450s. Rifampin-mediated CYP3A4 induction increased midazolam clearance by 73%, while CYP3A4 inhibition with ritonavir decreased midazolam clearance by 79%. Similarly, quinidine-mediated CYP2D6 inhibition reduced clearance of dextromethorphan and desipramine by 71 and 22%, respectively. In conclusion, MPCCs created using cryopreserved unpooled PHHs can be used for drug clearance predictions and to model drug-drug interactions.

  7. Evaluation of the LacZ reporter assay in cryopreserved primary hepatocytes for In vitro genotoxicity testing.

    PubMed

    Luijten, Mirjam; Zwart, Edwin P; Dollé, Martijn E T; de Pooter, Maaike; Cox, Julie A; White, Paul A; van Benthem, Jan

    2016-12-01

    Assessment of genotoxic potential is an important step in the safety evaluation of chemical substances. Under most regulatory jurisdictions, the first tier of testing comprises a standard battery of in vitro genotoxicity tests in bacterial and mammalian cells. However, the mammalian cell tests commonly used exhibit a relatively high rate of misleading positive results, which may lead to unnecessary in vivo testing. We previously established a proof-of-concept for the LacZ reporter assay in proliferating primary hepatocytes as a promising alternative genotoxicity test. Here, cryopreserved instead of freshly isolated hepatocytes were used and the assay was evaluated in more detail. We examined the effect of cryopreservation on phenotype and metabolic capacity of the LacZ hepatocytes, and assessed the predictive performance of the assay by testing a set of substances comprising true positive, true negative, and misleading positive substances. Additionally, a historical negative control database was created and the type of mutations induced was analyzed for two of the substances tested. Our findings indicate that proliferating cryopreserved primary hepatocytes derived from LacZ plasmid mice retain their hepatocyte-specific characteristics and metabolic competence. Furthermore, we demonstrate that both gene mutations and genome rearrangements due to large deletions can be detected with the LacZ reporter assay. The assay seems to have a lower rate of misleading positive test results compared to the assays currently used. Together, our findings strongly support the use of the LacZ reporter assay in cryopreserved primary hepatocytes as follow-up to the standard in vitro test battery for genotoxicity testing. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 57:643-655, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Transcriptional Regulation of CYP2B6 Expression by Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 3β in Human Liver Cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Linhao; Li, Daochuan; Heyward, Scott; Wang, Hongbing

    2016-01-01

    CYP2B6 plays an increasingly important role in xenobiotic metabolism and detoxification. The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and the pregnane X receptor (PXR) have been established as predominant regulators for the inductive expression of CYP2B6 gene in human liver. However, there are dramatic interindividual variabilities in CYP2B6 expression that cannot be fully explained by the CAR/PXR-based modulation alone. Here, we show that expression level of CYP2B6 was correlated with that of hepatocyte nuclear factor 3β (HNF3β) in human primary hepatocytes prepared from 35 liver donors. Utilizing recombinant virus-mediated overexpression or knockdown of HNF3β in HepG2 cells, as well as constructs containing serial deletion and site-directed mutation of HNF3β binding motifs in CYP2B6 luciferase reporter assays, we demonstrated that the presence or lack of HNF3β expression markedly correlated with CYP2B6 gene expression and its promoter activity. Novel enhancer modules of HNF3β located upstream of the CYP2B6 gene transcription start site were identified and functionally validated as key elements governing HNF3β-mediated CYP2B6 expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays in human primary hepatocytes and surface plasmon resonance binding affinity experiments confirmed the essential role of these enhancers in the recruitment of HNF3β to the promoter of CYP2B6 gene. Overall, these findings indicate that HNF3β represents a new liver enriched transcription factor that is involved in the transcription of CYP2B6 gene and contributes to the large interindividual variations of CYP2B6 expression in human population.

  9. Hepatocyte growth factor and transforming growth factor beta regulate 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase gene expression in rat hepatocyte primary cultures.

    PubMed Central

    Joaquin, M; Rosa, J L; Salvadó, C; López, S; Nakamura, T; Bartrons, R; Gil, J; Tauler, A

    1996-01-01

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) are believed to be of major importance for hepatic regeneration after liver damage. We have studied the effect of these growth factors on fructose 2,6-bisphosphate (Fru-2,6-P2) levels and the expression of 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase (6PF2K/Fru-2,6-BPase) in rat hepatocyte primary cultures. Our results demonstrate that HGF activates the expression of the 6PF2K/Fru-2,6-BPase gene by increasing the levels of its mRNA. As a consequence of this activation, the amount of 6PF2K/Fru-2,6-BPase protein and 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase activity increased, which was reflected by a rise in Fru-2,6-P2 levels. In contrast, TGF-beta decreased the levels of 6PF2K/Fru-2,6-BPase mRNA, which led to a decrease in the amount of 6PF2K/Fru-2,6-BPase protein and Fru-2,6-P2. The different actions of HGF and TGF-beta on 6PF2K/Fru-2,6-BPase gene expression are concomitant with their effect on cell proliferation. Here we show that, in the absence of hormones, primary cultures of hepatocytes express the F-type isoenzyme. In addition, HGF increases the expression of this isoenzyme, and dexamethasone activates the L-type isoform. HGF and TGF-beta were able to inhibit this activation. PMID:8660288

  10. Environmental pollutants parathion, paraquat and bisphenol A show distinct effects towards nuclear receptors-mediated induction of xenobiotics-metabolizing cytochromes P450 in human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Vrzal, Radim; Zenata, Ondrej; Doricakova, Aneta; Dvorak, Zdenek

    2015-10-01

    Environmental pollutants parathion, bisphenol A and paraquat were not systematically studied towards the effects on the expression of phase I xenobiotics-metabolizing cytochromes P450 (CYPs). We monitored their effects on the expression of selected CYPs in primary cultures of human hepatocytes. Moreover, we investigated their effects on the receptors regulating these CYPs, particularly arylhydrocarbon receptor (AhR), pregnane X receptor (PXR) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) by gene reporter assays. We found that parathion and bisphenol A are the activators of AhR. Moreover, they are the inducers of CYP1A1 mRNA in hepatoma cells HepG2 as well as in human hepatocytes by AhR-dependent mechanism via formation of AhR-DNA-binding complex, as revealed by gel shift assay. All three compounds possessed anti-glucocorticoid action as revealed by GR-dependent gene reporter assay and a decline in tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) gene expression in human hepatocytes. Moreover, parathion and bisphenol A are the activators of PXR and inducers of CYP3A4 mRNA and protein in the primary cultures of human hepatocytes. In conclusion, the studied compounds displayed distinct activities towards nuclear receptors involved in many biological processes and these findings may help us to better understand their adverse actions in pathological states followed after their exposure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. S-adenosylmethionine and methylthioadenosine are antiapoptotic in cultured rat hepatocytes but proapoptotic in human hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Ansorena, Eduardo; García-Trevijano, Elena R; Martínez-Chantar, Maria L; Huang, Zong-Zhi; Chen, Lixin; Mato, José M; Iraburu, Maria; Lu, Shelly C; Avila, Matías A

    2002-02-01

    S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) is an essential compound in cellular transmethylation reactions and a precursor of polyamine and glutathione synthesis in the liver. In liver injury, the synthesis of AdoMet is impaired and its availability limited. AdoMet administration attenuates experimental liver damage, improves survival of alcoholic patients with cirrhosis, and prevents experimental hepatocarcinogenesis. Apoptosis contributes to different liver injuries, many of which are protected by AdoMet. The mechanism of AdoMet's hepatoprotective and chemopreventive effects are largely unknown. The effect of AdoMet on okadaic acid (OA)-induced apoptosis was evaluated using primary cultures of rat hepatocytes and human hepatoma cell lines. AdoMet protected rat hepatocytes from OA-induced apoptosis dose dependently. It attenuated mitochondrial cytochrome c release, caspase 3 activation, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage. These effects were independent from AdoMet-dependent glutathione synthesis, and mimicked by 5'-methylthioadenosine (MTA), which is derived from AdoMet. Interestingly, AdoMet and MTA did not protect HuH7 cells from OA-induced apoptosis; conversely both compounds behaved as proapoptotic agents. AdoMet's proapoptotic effect was dose dependent and observed also in HepG2 cells. In conclusion, AdoMet exerts opposing effects on apoptosis in normal versus transformed hepatocytes that could be mediated through its conversion to MTA. These effects may participate in the hepatoprotective and chemopreventive properties of this safe and well-tolerated drug.

  12. Effects of nutritional and hormonal factors on the metabolism of retinol-binding protein by primary cultures of rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, J.L.; Goodman, D.S.

    1987-01-01

    Studies were conducted to explore hormonal and nutritional factors that might be involved in the regulation of retinol-binding protein (RBP) synthesis and secretion by the liver. The studies employed primary cultures of hepatocytes from normal rats. When cells were cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium alone, a high rate of RBP secretion was observed initially, which declined and became quite low by 24 hr. Supplementing the medium with amino acids maintained RBP and albumin secretion at moderate (but less than initial) rates for at least 3 days. Further addition of dexamethasone maintained the production and secretion rates of RBP, transthyretin, and albumin close to the initial rates for up to 3-5 days in culture as measured by radioimmunoassay. Hormonally treated hepatocytes produced and secreted RBP, transthyretin, and albumin at both absolute and relative rates similar to physiological values, as estimated from rates reported by others from studies in vivo and with perfused livers. Glucagon addition partially maintained the secretion rates of these 3 proteins, but less effectively than did dexamethasone. A number of other hormones, added singly or in combination, did not affect RBP production or secretion. Addition of retinol to the cultured normal hepatocytes was without effect upon RBP secretion. These studies show that supplementing the culture medium of hepatocytes with amino acids and dexamethasone maintains RBP production and secretion for several days. In normal hepatocytes, with ample supply of retinol available within the cell, addition of exogenous retinol does not appear to influence RBP metabolism or secretion by the cells.

  13. Protective effect of dieckol against chemical hypoxia-induced cytotoxicity in primary cultured mouse hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Yu Jin; Kim, Hyoung Seok; Song, Kyung-Sik; Han, Ho Jae; Park, Soo Hyun; Chang, Woochul; Lee, Min Young

    2015-04-01

    Hepatic ischemic injury is a major complication arising from liver surgery, transplantation, or other ischemic diseases, and both reactive oxygen species (ROS) and pro-inflammatory mediators play the role of key mediators in hepatic ischemic injury. In this study, we examined the effect of dieckol in chemical hypoxia-induced injury in mouse hepatocytes. Cell viability was significantly decreased after treatment with cobalt chloride (CoCl2), a well-known hypoxia mimetic agent in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment with dieckol before exposure to CoCl2 significantly attenuated the CoCl2-induced decrease of cell viability. Additionally, pretreatment with dieckol potentiated the CoCl2-induced decrease of Bcl-2 expression and attenuated the CoCl2-induced increase in the expression of Bax and caspase-3. Treatment with CoCl2 resulted in an increased intracellular ROS generation, which is inhibited by dieckol or N-acetyl cysteine (NAC, a ROS scavenger), and p38 MAPK phosphorylation, which is also blocked by dieckol or NAC. In addition, dieckol and SB203580 (p38 MAPK inhibitor) increased the CoCl2-induced decrease of Bcl-2 expression and decreased the CoCl2-induced increase of Bax and caspase-3 expressions. CoCl2-induced decrease of cell viability was attenuated by pretreatment with dieckol, NAC, and SB203580. Furthermore, dieckol attenuated CoCl2-induced COX-2 expression. Similar to the effect of dieckol, NAC also blocked CoCl2-induced COX-2 expression. Additionally, CoCl2-induced decrease of cell viability was attenuated not only by dieckol and NAC but also by NS-398 (a selective COX-2 inhibitor). In conclusion, dieckol protects primary cultured mouse hepatocytes against CoCl2-induced cell injury through inhibition of ROS-activated p38 MAPK and COX-2 pathway.

  14. Fatty acids-stress attenuates gluconeogenesis induction and glucose production in primary hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Hepatic gluconeogenesis tightly controls blood glucose levels in healthy individuals, yet disorders of fatty acids (FAs) oxidation are characterized by hypoglycemia. We studied the ability of free-FAs to directly inhibit gluconeogenesis, as a novel mechanism that elucidates the hypoglycemic effect of FAs oxidation defects. Methods Primary rat hepatocytes were pre-treated with FAs prior to gluconeogenic stimuli with glucagon or dexamethasone and cAMP. Results Pre-treatment with 1 mM FAs (mixture of 2:1 oleate:palmitate) for 1 hour prior to gluconeogenic induction, significantly decreases the induced expression of the gluconeogenic genes phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6pase) as well as the induced glucose production by the cells. The inhibitory effect of FAs upon gluconeogenesis is abolished when pre-treatment is elongated to 18 hours, allowing clearance of FAs into triglycerides by the cells. Replacement of palmitate with the non-metabolic fatty acid 2-bromopalmitate inhibits esterification of FAs into triglycerides. Accordingly, the increased exposure to unesterified-FAs allows their inhibitory effect to be extended even when pre-treatment is elongated to 18 hours. Similar changes were caused by FAs to the induction of peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α (PGC1α) expression, indicating this transcriptional coactivator as the mediating link of the effect. This inhibitory effect of FAs upon gluconeogenic induction is shown to involve reduced activation of cAMP response element-binding (CREB) transcription factor. Conclusions The present results demonstrate that free-FAs directly inhibit the induced gluconeogenic response in hepatocytes. Hence, high levels of free-FAs may attenuate hepatic gluconeogenesis, and liver glucose output. PMID:22676303

  15. Fatty acids-stress attenuates gluconeogenesis induction and glucose production in primary hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Budick-Harmelin, Noga; Anavi, Sarit; Madar, Zecharia; Tirosh, Oren

    2012-07-09

    Hepatic gluconeogenesis tightly controls blood glucose levels in healthy individuals, yet disorders of fatty acids (FAs) oxidation are characterized by hypoglycemia. We studied the ability of free-FAs to directly inhibit gluconeogenesis, as a novel mechanism that elucidates the hypoglycemic effect of FAs oxidation defects. Primary rat hepatocytes were pre-treated with FAs prior to gluconeogenic stimuli with glucagon or dexamethasone and cAMP. Pre-treatment with 1 mM FAs (mixture of 2:1 oleate:palmitate) for 1 hour prior to gluconeogenic induction, significantly decreases the induced expression of the gluconeogenic genes phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6pase) as well as the induced glucose production by the cells. The inhibitory effect of FAs upon gluconeogenesis is abolished when pre-treatment is elongated to 18 hours, allowing clearance of FAs into triglycerides by the cells. Replacement of palmitate with the non-metabolic fatty acid 2-bromopalmitate inhibits esterification of FAs into triglycerides. Accordingly, the increased exposure to unesterified-FAs allows their inhibitory effect to be extended even when pre-treatment is elongated to 18 hours. Similar changes were caused by FAs to the induction of peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α (PGC1α) expression, indicating this transcriptional coactivator as the mediating link of the effect. This inhibitory effect of FAs upon gluconeogenic induction is shown to involve reduced activation of cAMP response element-binding (CREB) transcription factor. The present results demonstrate that free-FAs directly inhibit the induced gluconeogenic response in hepatocytes. Hence, high levels of free-FAs may attenuate hepatic gluconeogenesis, and liver glucose output.

  16. Differentiation of hepatocytes from induced pluripotent stem cells derived from human hair follicle mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xu; Lv, Shuang; He, Xia; Liu, Xiaomei; Sun, Meiyu; Li, Meiying; Chi, Guangfan; Li, Yulin

    2016-10-01

    Due to the limitations of organ donors and immune rejection in severe liver diseases, stem cell-based therapy presents a promising application for tissue repair and regeneration. As a novel cell source, mesenchymal stem cells separated from human hair follicles (HF-MSCs) are convenient to obtain and have no age limit. To date, the differentiation of HF-MSCs into hepatocytes has not been reported. In this study, we explored whether HF-MSCs and HF-MSC-derived-induced pluripotent stem cells (HF-iPS) could differentiate into hepatocytes in vitro. Flow cytometry, Oil Red O stain and Alizarin Red stain were used to identify the characteristics of HF-MSCs. The expression of liver-specific gene was detected by immunofluorescence and Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction. Periodic Acid-Schiff stain, Indocyanine Green stain and Low-Density Lipoprotein stain were performed to evaluate the functions of induced hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs). HF-MSCs were unable to differentiate into HLCs using previously reported procedures for MSCs from other tissues. However, HF-iPS efficiently induced the generation of HLCs that expressed hepatocyte markers and drug metabolism-related genes. HF-iPS can be used as novel and alternative cellular tools for inducing hepatocytes in vitro, simultaneously benefiting from utilizing HF-MSCs as a noninvasive and convenient cell source for reprogramming.

  17. APPARENT SEXUAL DIFFERENCES IN METABOLISM OF INORGANIC ARSENIC IN HUMAN HEPATOCYTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    APPARENT SEXUAL DIFFERENCES IN METABOLISM OF INORGANIC ARSENIC IN HUMAN HEPATOCYTES. M Styblo1, G A Hamilton1, E L LeCluyse1 and D J Thomas2. 1University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; 2US EPA, ORD, NHEERL, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA.
    The liver is considered a m...

  18. APPARENT SEXUAL DIFFERENCES IN METABOLISM OF INORGANIC ARSENIC IN HUMAN HEPATOCYTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    APPARENT SEXUAL DIFFERENCES IN METABOLISM OF INORGANIC ARSENIC IN HUMAN HEPATOCYTES. M Styblo1, G A Hamilton1, E L LeCluyse1 and D J Thomas2. 1University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; 2US EPA, ORD, NHEERL, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA.
    The liver is considered a m...

  19. Evaluation of estrogenic activities and mechanism of action of perfluorinated chemicals determined by vitellogenin induction in primary cultured tilapia hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chunsheng; Du, Yongbing; Zhou, Bingsheng

    2007-12-30

    Perfluorochemicals (PFCs) are emerging persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and are widely present in the environment, wildlife and humans. Recently, reports have suggested that PFCs may have endocrine-disrupting activities. In the present study, we have developed a non-competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method to investigate estrogenic activities of selected PFCs using vitellogenin (VTG) induction in primary cultured hepatocytes of freshwater male tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Cultured hepatocytes were exposed to various concentrations of perfluorooctanyl sulfonate (PFOS), pentadecafluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-nonafluoro-1-hexanol (4:2 FTOH), 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-perfluorooctanol (6:2 FTOH) and 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-perfluoro-1-decanol (8:2 FTOH) for 48 h, while 17beta-estradiol (E2) and 4-nonylphenol (4-NP) were used as positive controls. A dose-dependent induction of VTG was observed in E2-, 4-NP-, PFOS-, PFOA- and 6:2 FTOH-treated cells, whereas VTG levels remained unchanged in the 4:2 FTOH and 8:2 FTOH exposure groups at the concentrations tested. The estimated 48-h EC(50) values for E2, 4-NP, PFOS, PFOA and 6:2 FTOH were 4.7 x 10(-7), 7.1 x 10(-6), 1.5 x 10(-5), 2.9 x 10(-5) and 2.8 x 10(-5)M, respectively. In the time-course study, significant VTG induction took place at 24 h (E2), 6 h (4-NP), 48 h (PFOS), 48 h (PFOA), 72 h (4:2 FTOH), 12 h (6:2 FTOH), 72 h (8:2 FTOH), and increased further after 96 h of exposure. Co-exposure to binary mixtures of individual PFCs and E2 for 48 h significantly inhibited E2-induced hepatocellular VTG production in a dose-dependent manner except for 4:2 FTOH. The estimated 48-h IC(50) (concentration of a compound that elicits 50% inhibition of maximally E2-induced VTG) values for PFOS, PFOA, 6:2 FTOH and 8:2 FTOH were 3.1 x 10(-7), 5.1 x 10(-7), 1.1 x 10(-6) and 7.5 x 10(-7)M, respectively. In order to further investigate the estrogenic mechanism of PFCs, the hepatocytes were co-exposed to binary mixtures

  20. Co-culturing human prostate carcinoma cells with hepatocytes leads to increased expression of E-cadherin

    PubMed Central

    Yates, C C; Shepard, C R; Stolz, D B; Wells, A

    2007-01-01

    Metastasis is a multi-step process wherein tumour cells detach from the primary mass, migrate through barrier matrices, gain access to conduits to disseminate, and subsequently survive and proliferate in an ectopic site. During the initial invasion stage, prostate carcinoma cells undergo epithelial–mesenchymal-like transition with gain of autocrine signalling and loss of E-cadherin, hallmarks that appear to enable invasion and dissemination. However, some metastases express E-cadherin, and we found close connections between prostate carcinoma cells and hepatocytes in a liver microtissue bioreactor. We hypothesise that phenotypic plasticity occurs late in prostate cancer progression at the site of ectopic seeding. Immunofluorescence staining for E-cadherin in co-cultures of hepatocytes and DU-145 prostate cancer cells revealed E-cadherin upregulation at peripheral sites of contact by day 2 of co-culture; E-cadherin expression also increased in PC-3 cells in co-culture. These carcinoma cells bound to hepatocytes in an E-cadherin-dependent manner. Although the signals by which the hepatocytes elicited E-cadherin expression remain undetermined, it appeared related to downregulation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signalling. Inhibition of autocrine EGFR signalling increased E-cadherin expression and cell–cell heterotypic adhesion; further, expression of a downregulation-resistant EGFR variant prevented E-cadherin upregulation. These findings were supported by finding E-cadherin and catenins but not activated EGFR in human prostate metastases to the liver. We conclude that the term epithelial–mesenchymal transition only summarises the transient downregulation of E-cadherin for invasion with re-expression of E-cadherin being a physiological consequence of metastatic seeding. PMID:17406365

  1. In vitro metabolism of beta-lapachone (ARQ 501) in mammalian hepatocytes and cultured human cells.

    PubMed

    Miao, Xiu-Sheng; Zhong, Caiyun; Wang, Yunxia; Savage, Ronald E; Yang, Rui-Yang; Kizer, Darin; Volckova, Erika; Ashwell, Mark A; Chan, Thomas C K

    2009-01-01

    ARQ 501 (3,4-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-2H-naphthol[1,2-b]pyran-5,6-dione, beta-lapachone) is an anticancer agent, currently in multiple phase II clinical trials as monotherapy and in combination with other cytotoxic drugs. This study focuses on in vitro metabolism in cryopreserved hepatocytes from mice, rats, dogs and humans using [(14)C]-labeled ARQ 501. Metabolite profiles were characterized using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry combined with an accurate radioactivity counter. Ion trap mass spectrometry was employed for further structural elucidation. A total of twelve metabolites were detected in the mammalian hepatocytes studied; all of which but one were generated from phase II conjugation reactions. Ten of the observed metabolites were produced by conjugations occurring at the reduced ortho-quinone carbonyl groups of ARQ 501. The metabolite profiles revealed that glucuronidation was the major biotransformation pathway in mouse and human hepatocytes. Monosulfation was the major pathway in dog, while, in rat, it appears glucuronidation and sulfation pathways contributed equally. Three major metabolites were found in rats: monoglucuronide M1, monosulfate M6, and glucuronide-sulfate M9. Two types of diconjugation metabolites were formed by attachment of the second glycone to an adjacent hydroxyl or to an existing glycone. Of the diconjugation metabolites, glucosylsulfate M10, diglucuronide M5, and glucuronide-glucoside M11 represent rarely observed phase II metabolites in mammals. The only unconjugated metabolite was generated through hydrolysis and was observed in rat, dog and human hepatocytes. ARQ 501 appeared less stable in human hepatocytes than in those of other species. To further elucidate the metabolism of ARQ 501 in extrahepatic sites, its metabolism in human kidney, lung and intestine cells was also studied, and only monoglucuronide M1 was observed in all the cell types examined. (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Farnesoid X Receptor Inhibits the Transcriptional Activity of Carbohydrate Response Element Binding Protein in Human Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Caron, Sandrine; Huaman Samanez, Carolina; Dehondt, Hélène; Ploton, Maheul; Briand, Olivier; Lien, Fleur; Dorchies, Emilie; Dumont, Julie; Postic, Catherine; Cariou, Bertrand; Lefebvre, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The glucose-activated transcription factor carbohydrate response element binding protein (ChREBP) induces the expression of hepatic glycolytic and lipogenic genes. The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a nuclear bile acid receptor controlling bile acid, lipid, and glucose homeostasis. FXR negatively regulates hepatic glycolysis and lipogenesis in mouse liver. The aim of this study was to determine whether FXR regulates the transcriptional activity of ChREBP in human hepatocytes and to unravel the underlying molecular mechanisms. Agonist-activated FXR inhibits glucose-induced transcription of several glycolytic genes, including the liver-type pyruvate kinase gene (L-PK), in the immortalized human hepatocyte (IHH) and HepaRG cell lines. This inhibition requires the L4L3 region of the L-PK promoter, known to bind the transcription factors ChREBP and hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF4α). FXR interacts directly with ChREBP and HNF4α proteins. Analysis of the protein complex bound to the L4L3 region reveals the presence of ChREBP, HNF4α, FXR, and the transcriptional coactivators p300 and CBP at high glucose concentrations. FXR activation does not affect either FXR or HNF4α binding to the L4L3 region but does result in the concomitant release of ChREBP, p300, and CBP and in the recruitment of the transcriptional corepressor SMRT. Thus, FXR transrepresses the expression of genes involved in glycolysis in human hepatocytes. PMID:23530060

  3. Antagonism of TCDD-induced ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylation activity by polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in primary cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Peters, A K; Sanderson, J T; Bergman, A; van den Berg, M

    2006-07-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are widespread environmental pollutants, and the levels of certain congeners have been increasing in biota and abiota in recent decades. Some PBDEs are lipophilic and persistent, resulting in bioaccumulation in the environment. Their structural similarity to other polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAHs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) has raised concerns that PBDEs might act as agonists for the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Recent studies in our laboratory with human and rat cell lines indicated no AhR mediated CYP1A1 induction for PBDEs. However, an earlier in vitro study by Van der Burght et al. (1999) [Van der Burght, A.S., Clijsters, P.J., Horbach, G.J., Andersson, P.L., Tysklind, M., van den Berg, M., 1999. Structure-dependent induction of CYP1A by polychlorinated biphenyls in hepatocytes of cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 155, 13-23] indicated that in cynomolgus monkey (M. fascicularis) hepatocytes PCBs with a non-planar configuration could induce CYP1A. As PBDEs show a structural similarity with non-planar (ortho substituted) PCBs, our present study focused on the possible CYP1A induction by PBDEs (BDE-47, -99, -100, -153, -154, -183, and -77) in individual preparations (n=4) of primary hepatocytes of cynomolgus monkeys (M. fascicularis). 7-Ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) was used as a marker for CYP1A-mediated catalytic activity. Cells were exposed for 48 h to various PBDE concentrations (0.01-10 microM), positive controls 2,3,7,8-TCDD (0.001-2.5 nM) and PCB-126 (0.01-10nM), and negative control (DMSO vehicle alone). No statistically significant induction of CYP1A was observed in the hepatocytes after 48 h of exposure to all environmentally relevant PBDEs. After exposing hepatocytes to PBDEs in combination with TCDD, a concentration-dependent decrease in TCDD-induced EROD activity was observed. All PBDEs tested showed a similar reduction in each of four

  4. Automated detection of hepatotoxic compounds in human hepatocytes using HepaRG cells and image-based analysis of mitochondrial dysfunction with JC-1 dye

    SciTech Connect

    Pernelle, K.; Le Guevel, R.; Glaise, D.; Stasio, C. Gaucher-Di; Le Charpentier, T.; Bouaita, B.; Corlu, A.; Guguen-Guillouzo, C.

    2011-08-01

    In this study, our goal was to develop an efficient in situ test adapted to screen hepatotoxicity of various chemicals, a process which remains challenging during the early phase of drug development. The test was based on functional human hepatocytes using the HepaRG cell line, and automation of quantitative fluorescence microscopy coupled with automated imaging analysis. Differentiated HepaRG cells express most of the specific liver functions at levels close to those found in primary human hepatocytes, including detoxifying enzymes and drug transporters. A triparametric analysis was first used to evaluate hepatocyte purity and differentiation status, mainly detoxication capacity of cells before toxicity testing. We demonstrated that culturing HepaRG cells at high density maintained high hepatocyte purity and differentiation level. Moreover, evidence was found that isolating hepatocytes from 2-week-old confluent cultures limited variations associated with an ageing process occurring over time in confluent cells. Then, we designed a toxicity test based on detection of early mitochondrial depolarisation associated with permeability transition (MPT) pore opening, using JC-1 as a metachromatic fluorescent dye. Maximal dye dimerization that would have been strongly hampered by efficient efflux due to the active, multidrug-resistant (MDR) pump was overcome by coupling JC-1 with the MDR inhibitor verapamil. Specificity of this test was demonstrated and its usefulness appeared directly dependent on conditions supporting hepatic cell competence. This new hepatotoxicity test adapted to automated, image-based detection should be useful to evaluate the early MPT event common to cell apoptosis and necrosis and simultaneously to detect involvement of the multidrug resistant pump with target drugs in a human hepatocyte environment. - Highlights: > We define conditions to preserve differentiation of selective pure HepaRG hepatocyte cultures. > In these conditions, CYPs

  5. Generation of functional hepatocyte-like cells from human deciduous periodontal ligament stem cells.

    PubMed

    Vasanthan, Punitha; Jayaraman, Pukana; Kunasekaran, Wijenthiran; Lawrence, Anthony; Gnanasegaran, Nareshwaran; Govindasamy, Vijayendran; Musa, Sabri; Kasim, Noor Hayaty Abu

    2016-08-01

    Human deciduous periodontal ligament stem cells have been introduced for as an easily accessible source of stem cells from dental origin. Although recent studies have revealed the ability of these stem cells in multipotential attribute, their efficiency of hepatic lineage differentiation has not been addressed so far. The aim of this study is to investigate hepatic lineage fate competence of periodontal ligament stem cells through direct media induction. Differentiation of periodontal ligament stem cells into hepatocyte-like cells was conducted by the exposure of two phase media induction. First phase was performed in the presence of hepatocyte growth factors to induce a definitive endoderm formation. In the subsequent phase, the cells were treated with oncostatin M and dexamethosone followed by insulin and transferrin to generate hepatocyte-like cells. Hepatic-related characters of the generated hepatocyte-like cells were determined at both mRNA and protein level followed by functional assays. Foremost changes observed in the generation of hepatocyte-like cells were the morphological features in which these cells were transformed from fibroblastic shape to polygonal shape. Temporal expression of hepatic markers ranging from early endodermal up to late markers were detected in the hepatocyte-like cells. Crucial hepatic markers such as glycogen storage, albumin, and urea secretion were also shown. These findings exhibited the ability of periodontal ligament stem cells of dental origin to be directed into hepatic lineage fate. These cells can be regarded as an alternative autologous source in the usage of stem cell-based treatment for liver diseases.

  6. Generation of functional hepatocyte-like cells from human deciduous periodontal ligament stem cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasanthan, Punitha; Jayaraman, Pukana; Kunasekaran, Wijenthiran; Lawrence, Anthony; Gnanasegaran, Nareshwaran; Govindasamy, Vijayendran; Musa, Sabri; Kasim, Noor Hayaty Abu

    2016-08-01

    Human deciduous periodontal ligament stem cells have been introduced for as an easily accessible source of stem cells from dental origin. Although recent studies have revealed the ability of these stem cells in multipotential attribute, their efficiency of hepatic lineage differentiation has not been addressed so far. The aim of this study is to investigate hepatic lineage fate competence of periodontal ligament stem cells through direct media induction. Differentiation of periodontal ligament stem cells into hepatocyte-like cells was conducted by the exposure of two phase media induction. First phase was performed in the presence of hepatocyte growth factors to induce a definitive endoderm formation. In the subsequent phase, the cells were treated with oncostatin M and dexamethosone followed by insulin and transferrin to generate hepatocyte-like cells. Hepatic-related characters of the generated hepatocyte-like cells were determined at both mRNA and protein level followed by functional assays. Foremost changes observed in the generation of hepatocyte-like cells were the morphological features in which these cells were transformed from fibroblastic shape to polygonal shape. Temporal expression of hepatic markers ranging from early endodermal up to late markers were detected in the hepatocyte-like cells. Crucial hepatic markers such as glycogen storage, albumin, and urea secretion were also shown. These findings exhibited the ability of periodontal ligament stem cells of dental origin to be directed into hepatic lineage fate. These cells can be regarded as an alternative autologous source in the usage of stem cell-based treatment for liver diseases.

  7. Expression of human factor IX in rabbit hepatocytes by retrovirus-mediated gene transfer: Potential for gene therapy of hemophilia B

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, A.R. Puget Sound Blood Center, Seattle, WA ); Darlington, G. ); Armentano, D.; Woo, S.L.C.

    1990-08-01

    Hemophilia B (Christmas disease) is a chromosome X-linked blood clotting disorder which results when factor IX is deficient or functionally defective. The enzyme is synthesized in the liver, and the existence of animal models for this genetic disease will permit the development of somatic gene therapy protocols aimed at transfer of the functional gene into the liver. The authors report the construction of an N2-based recombinant retroviral vector, NCMVFIX, for efficient transfer and expression of human factor IX cDNA in primary rabbit hepatocytes. In this construct the human cytomegalovirus immediate early promoter directs the expression of factor IX. Hepatocytes were isolated from 3-week-old New Zealand White rabbits, infected with the recombinant virus, and analyzed for secretion of active factor IX. The infected rabbit hepatocytes produced human factor IX that is indistinguishable from enzyme derived from normal human plasma. The recombinant protein is sufficiently {gamma}-carboxylated and is functionally active in clotting assays. These results establish the feasibility of using infected hepatocytes for the expression of this protein and are a step toward the goal of correcting hemophilia B by hepatic gene transfer.

  8. Activation-dependent mitochondrial translocation of Foxp3 in human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Joselyn; Teran-Angel, Guillermo; Barbosa, Luisa; Peterson, Darrell L; Berrueta, Lisbeth; Salmen, Siham

    2016-05-01

    Foxp3 is considered to be the master regulator for the development and function of regulatory T cells (Treg). Recently Foxp3, has been detected in extra lymphoid tissue, and in hepatocytes and has been associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), although its role has not been defined. Since it is expected that there is a relationship between protein localization, activity and cellular function, the aim of this study was to explore the subcellular localization of Foxp3 in resting and stimulated human hepatocytes. Foxp3 expression was measured by flow cytometry, subcellular fractioning, and immunofluorescence, and this data was used to track the shuttling of Foxp3 in different subcellular compartments in hepatocytes (HepG2 cell line), stimulated by using the PKC activators (PMA), core and preS1/2 antigen from hepatitis B virus (HBV). Our data shows that besides the nuclear location, mitochondrial translocation was detected after stimulation with PMA and at to a lesser extent, with preS1/2. In addition, Foxp3 is localizes at outer mitochondrial membrane. These results suggest a non-canonical role of Foxp3 in the mitochondrial compartment in human hepatocytes, and opens a new field about their role in liver damages during HBV infection.

  9. Nuclear lactate dehydrogenase modulates histone modification in human hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Castonguay, Zachary; Auger, Christopher; Thomas, Sean C.; Chahma, M’hamed; Appanna, Vasu D.

    2014-11-07

    Highlights: • Nuclear LDH is up-regulated under oxidative stress. • SIRT1 is co-immunoprecipitated bound to nuclear LDH. • Nuclear LDH is involved in histone deacetylation and epigenetics. - Abstract: It is becoming increasingly apparent that the nucleus harbors metabolic enzymes that affect genetic transforming events. Here, we describe a nuclear isoform of lactate dehydrogenase (nLDH) and its ability to orchestrate histone deacetylation by controlling the availability of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD{sup +}), a key ingredient of the sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) deacetylase system. There was an increase in the expression of nLDH concomitant with the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) in the culture medium. Under oxidative stress, the NAD{sup +} generated by nLDH resulted in the enhanced deacetylation of histones compared to the control hepatocytes despite no discernable change in the levels of SIRT1. There appeared to be an intimate association between nLDH and SIRT1 as these two enzymes co-immunoprecipitated. The ability of nLDH to regulate epigenetic modifications by manipulating NAD{sup +} reveals an intricate link between metabolism and the processing of genetic information.

  10. Human Cord Blood Stem Cells Generate Human Cytokeratin 18-Negative Hepatocyte-Like Cells in Injured Mouse Liver

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Amar Deep; Cantz, Tobias; Richter, Rudolf; Eckert, Klaus; Henschler, Reinhard; Wilkens, Ludwig; Jochheim-Richter, Andrea; Arseniev, Lubomir; Ott, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Differentiation of adult bone marrow (BM) cells into nonhematopoietic cells is a rare phenomenon. Several reports, however, suggest that human umbilical cord blood (hUCB)-derived cells give rise to hepatocytes after transplantation into nonobese diabetic-severe combined immunodeficient (NOD-SCID) mice. Therefore, we analyzed the hepatic differentiation potential of hUCB cells and compared the frequency of newly formed hepatocyte-like cells in the livers of recipient NOD-SCID mice after transplantation of hUCB versus murine BM cells. Mononuclear cell preparations of hUCB cells or murine BM from enhanced green fluorescent protein transgenic or wild-type mice were transplanted into sublethally irradiated NOD-SCID mice. Liver regeneration was induced by carbon tetrachloride injury with and without sub-sequent hepatocyte growth factor treatment. By immunohistochemistry and reverse transcriptasepolymerase chain reaction, we detected clusters of hepatocyte-like cells in the livers of hUCB-transplanted mice. These cells expressed human albumin and Hep Par 1 but mouse CK18, suggesting the formation of chimeric hepatocyte-like cells. Native fluorescence microscopy and double immunofluorescence failed to detect single hepatocytes derived from transplanted enhanced green fluorescent protein-transgenic mouse BM. Fluorescent in situ hybridization rarely revealed donor-derived hepatocyte-like cells after cross-gender mouse BM transplantation. Thus, hUCB cells have differentiation capabilities different from murine BM cells after transplantation into NOD-SCID mice, demonstrating the importance of further testing before hUCB cells can be used therapeutically. PMID:16049339

  11. Kavalactones Yangonin and Methysticin induce apoptosis in human hepatocytes (HepG2) in vitro.

    PubMed

    Tang, J; Dunlop, R A; Rowe, A; Rodgers, K J; Ramzan, I

    2011-03-01

    While cases of severe kava hepatotoxicity have been reported, studies examining the toxicity of individual kavalactones are limited. The present study examined the in vitro hepatotoxicity of kavain, methysticin and yangonin on human hepatocytes (HepG2) and the possible mechanism(s) involved. Cytotoxicity was assessed using lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and ethidium bromide (EB) assays. The mode of cell death was analysed with acridine orange/ethidium bromide dual staining with fluorescence microscopy. Glutathione oxidation was measured using the ortho-phthalaldehyde (OPT) fluorescence assay. Kavain had minimal cytotoxicity, methysticin showed moderate concentration-dependent toxicity and yangonin displayed marked toxicity with ~ 40% reduction in viability in the EB assay. Acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining showed the predominant mode of cell death was apoptosis rather than necrosis. No significant changes were observed in glutathione levels, excluding this as the primary mechanism of cell death in this model. Further studies may elucidate the precise apoptotic pathways responsible and whether toxic kavalactone metabolites are involved.

  12. 3D cultured immortalized human hepatocytes useful to develop drugs for blood-borne HCV

    SciTech Connect

    Aly, Hussein Hassan; Shimotohno, Kunitada; Hijikata, Makoto

    2009-02-06

    Due to the high polymorphism of natural hepatitis C virus (HCV) variants, existing recombinant HCV replication models have failed to be effective in developing effective anti-HCV agents. In the current study, we describe an in vitro system that supports the infection and replication of natural HCV from patient blood using an immortalized primary human hepatocyte cell line cultured in a three-dimensional (3D) culture system. Comparison of the gene expression profile of cells cultured in the 3D system to those cultured in the existing 2D system demonstrated an up-regulation of several genes activated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR{alpha}) signaling. Furthermore, using PPAR{alpha} agonists and antagonists, we also analyzed the effect of PPAR{alpha} signaling on the modulation of HCV replication using this system. The 3D in vitro system described in this study provides significant insight into the search for novel anti-HCV strategies that are specific to various strains of HCV.

  13. Benzylpenicillin, acetylcysteine and silibinin as antidotes in human hepatocytes intoxicated with alpha-amanitin.

    PubMed

    Magdalan, Jan; Ostrowska, Alina; Piotrowska, Aleksandra; Gomułkiewicz, Agnieszka; Podhorska-Okołów, Marzena; Patrzałek, Dariusz; Szelag, Adam; Dziegiel, Piotr

    2010-07-01

    Fatalities due to mushroom poisonings are increasing worldwide, with high mortality rate resulting from ingestion of amanitin-producing species. Intoxications caused by amanitin-containing mushrooms represent an unresolved problem in clinical toxicology since no specific and fully efficient antidote is available. The objective of this study was a comparative evaluation of benzylpenicillin (BPCN), acetylcysteine (ACC) and silibinin (SIL) as an antidotes in human hepatocytes intoxicated with alpha-amanitin (alpha-AMA). All experiments were performed on cultured human hepatocytes. Cytotoxicity evaluation of cultured cells using MTT assay and measurement of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity was performed at 12, 24 and 48h of exposure to alpha-AMA and/or antidotes. The significant decline of cell viability and significant increase of LDH activity were observed in all experimental hepatocyte cultures after 12, 24 and 36h exposure to alpha-AMA at concentration 2microM. Exposure of the cells to alpha-AMA resulted also in significant reduction of cell spreading and attachment. However, addition of tested antidotes to experimental cultures significantly stimulated cell proliferation and attachment. In cell cultures exposed simultaneously to alpha-AMA and tested antidotes cytotoxic parameters (MTT and LDH) were not significantly different from control incidences. The cytoprotective effect of all antidotes was not dose-related, which reflects a high efficacy of all these substances. Administration of studied antidotes was not associated with any adverse effects in hepatocytes. The administration of ACC, BPCN or SIL to human hepatocyte cultures showed a similar strong protective effect against cell damage in alpha-AMA toxicity.

  14. Identification of 20(S)-protopanaxadiol metabolites in human liver microsomes and human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Li, Liang; Chen, Xiaoyan; Li, Dan; Zhong, Dafang

    2011-03-01

    20(S)-Protopanaxadiol (PPD, 1) is one of the aglycones of the ginsenosides and has a wide range of pharmacological activities. At present, PPD has progressed to early clinical trials as an antidepressant. In this study, its fate in mixed human liver microsomes (HLMs) and human hepatocytes was examined for the first time. By using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization ion trap mass spectrometry, 24 metabolites were found. Four metabolites were isolated, and their structures were elucidated as (20S,24S)-epoxydammarane-3,12,25-triol (2), (20S,24R)-epoxydammarane-3,12,25-triol (3), (20S,24S)-epoxydammarane-12,25-diol-3-one (4), and (20S,24R)-epoxydammarane-12,25-diol-3-one (5) based on a detailed analysis of their spectroscopic data. The predominant metabolic pathway of PPD observed was the oxidation of the 24,25-double bond to yield 24,25-epoxides, followed by hydrolysis and rearrangement to form the corresponding 24,25-vicinal diol derivatives (M6) and the 20,24-oxide form (2 and 3). Further sequential metabolites (M2-M5) were also detected through the hydroxylation and dehydrogenation of 2 and 3. All of the phase I metabolites except for M1-1 possess a hydroxyl group at C-25 of the side chain, which was newly formed by biotransformation. Two glucuronide conjugates (M7) attributed to 2 and 3 were detected in human hepatocyte incubations, and their conjugation sites were tentatively assigned to the 25-hydroxyl group. The findings of this study strongly suggested that the formation of the 25-hydroxyl group is very important for the elimination of PPD.

  15. Enantioselective metabolism and toxic effects of metalaxyl on primary hepatocytes from rat.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinru; Zhu, Wentao; Qiu, Jing; Zhang, Ping; Wang, Yao; Zhou, Zhiqiang

    2016-09-01

    Enantiomers of chiral compounds often exhibit enantioselective adverse effects and biochemical processes in non-target organisms. In this study, enantioselective metabolism and toxic effects of metalaxyl enantiomers on primary rat hepatocytes were investigated. Stereoselectivity was observed on both degradation of metalaxyl and formation of metabolites. (-)-R-metalaxyl eliminated faster than (+)-S-metalaxyl, while the hydroxylmetalaxyl, demethylmetalaxyl, and didemethylmetalaxyl metabolites derived from 50-μM (+)-S-metalaxyl after 24 h of incubation were approximately 1.57, 1.43, and 1.86 times more than that of (-)-R-metalaxyl, respectively. According to the methyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay, the EC50 values (24 h) for rac-, (+)-S-, and (-)-R-metalaxyl were 1788.22, 2066.73, and 2263.71 μM, respectively. An accordant enantioselective effect on oxidative stress suggested that the enantioselective cytotoxicity induced by metalaxyl enantiomers may partly contribute to enantioselective oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction. Such results could be of great importance for credible environmental and toxicological risk assessment of metalaxyl.

  16. Antioxidant effect of a fermented powder of Lady Joy bean in primary rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    La Marca, Margherita; Pucci, Laura; Bollini, Roberto; Russo, Rossella; Sparvoli, Francesca; Gabriele, Morena; Longo, Vincenzo

    2015-03-01

    The role and beneficial effects of plant and food extracts against various diseases induced by oxidative stress have received much attention in recent years. Legumes are rich in bioactive compounds, and some studies suggest a correlation between their consumption and a reduced incidence of diseases. Primary cultures of rat hepatocytes were used to investigate whether and how an extract obtained from a fermented powder of bean named Lady Joy (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is able to regulate antioxidant and detoxifying enzymes through the NRF2 pathway, inhibit NF-kB activation, and reduce H2O2-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. All of the antioxidant and detoxifying enzymes studied were significantly up-regulated by Lady Joy treatment. Western blot showed that Nrf2 was activated by Lady Joy treatment. Also, cells treated with this fermented bean were partially protected against NF-kB activation resulting from H2O2 stress. As a link between oxidative stress and ER dysfunction is hypothesized, we verified whether Lady Joy was able to protect cells from H2O2-induced ER stress, by studying the response of the proteins CHOP, BiP and caspase 12. The results of this study show that Lady Joy can induce the Nrf2 pathway, inhibit NF-kB, and protect ER from stress induced by H2O2.

  17. Measuring Changes in Cytosolic Calcium Levels in HBV- and HBx-Expressing Cultured Primary Hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Casciano, Jessica C; Bouchard, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    Chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) remains a major worldwide health concern and is the leading cause of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The HBV X protein (HBx) is the only regulatory protein encoded in the HBV genome; HBx stimulates HBV replication in vivo and in vitro. HBx also regulates cytosolic Ca(2+) signaling, and altered Ca(2+) signaling is associated with the development of many diseases, including HCC. Importantly, many HBx functions, including HBx modulation of cell proliferation, apoptosis, and transcription pathways, have been linked to changes in cytosolic Ca(2+) signaling. Additionally, several stages of HBV replication, including capsid formation and activation of the HBV polymerase, are dependent on intracellular Ca(2+). Consequently, defining the molecular mechanism that underlies HBV and HBx modulation of cytosolic Ca(2+) levels is important for understanding HBV pathogenesis and the role of HBx in HBV replication. Here, we describe a single-cell Ca(2+)-imaging protocol that we use to investigate HBV and HBx effects on the level of cytosolic Ca(2+). We specifically outline two methods that we use to evaluate HBV and HBx regulation of cytosolic Ca(2+) levels in cultured primary hepatocytes. This protocol can also be adapted for use in liver cell lines.

  18. Mechanistic Approach for Toxic Effects of Bupropion in Primary Rat Hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Ahmadian, Elham; Babaei, Hossein; Mohajjel Nayebi, Alireza; Eftekhari, Aziz; Eghbal, Mohammad Ali

    2017-04-01

    Bupropion is a widely prescribed antidepressant/smoke cessation drug. However, hepatotoxicity is one of its side effects reported in some recipients. The mechanisms by which bupropion induces hepatotoxicity is not clear yet. This experiment was intended to assess the cytotoxic mechanisms of bupropion toward primary rat hepatocytes. Additionally, the effect of α-tocopherol succinate (ALPHA-TOS) and N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) and mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) pore sealing agent cyclosporine A (Cs A) on this toxicity was investigated. Cell death, LDH leakage, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, lipid peroxidation (LPO), and mitochondrial depolarization were examined as toxicity indicators. Results revealed that bupropion led to a surge in ROS formation, depletion of intracellular glutathione, elevation of LPO, and mitochondrial collapse. ALPHA-TOS, NAC and Cs A administration diminished the intensity of cellular damage caused by bupropion. This experiment suggests the protective role of ALPHA-TOS, NAC and Cs A against bupropion-mediated cytotoxicity possibly through their reactive radical scavenging properties and their impacts on mitochondria. Furthermore, mitochondria might be contributed to the oxidative stress response and subsequent toxicological results observed by bupropion. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Oxidative damage induced by copper in mouse primary hepatocytes by single-cell analysis.

    PubMed

    Jing, Mingyang; Liu, Yang; Song, Wei; Yan, Yunxing; Yan, Wenbao; Liu, Rutao

    2016-01-01

    Copper can disturb the intracellular redox balance, induce oxidative stress, and subsequently cause irreversible damage, leading to a variety of diseases. In the present study, mouse primary hepatocytes were chosen to elucidate the in vitro oxidative damage of short-term copper exposure (10-200 μM) by single-cell analysis. We evaluated the toxicity of copper by reactive oxygen species (ROS), glutathione (GSH), and oxidative DNA damage at the single-cell level. Oxidative damage induced by copper was verified by the morphological changes, persistent elevations of excessive ROS and malondialdehyde (MDA), a decrease in GSH level, and the oxidative DNA damage. Furthermore, the average ROS generation, GSH consumption, and the indicators in DNA damage did not significantly change at relatively low concentrations (10 or 50 μM), but we can find the alterations of parameters in some single cells clearly. Emphasis on the analysis of single cells is conducive to gain a better understanding on the toxicity of copper. This study will also complement studies on the environmental risk assessment of copper pollution.

  20. Fermented wheat powder induces the antioxidant and detoxifying system in primary rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    La Marca, Margherita; Beffy, Pascale; Pugliese, Annalisa; Longo, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    Many plants exhibit antioxidant properties which may be useful in the prevention of oxidative stress reactions, such as those mediated by the formation of free radical species in different pathological situations. In recent years a number of studies have shown that whole grain products in particular have strong antioxidant activity. Primary cultures of rat hepatocytes were used to investigate whether and how a fermented powder of wheat (Lisosan G) is able to modulate antioxidant and detoxifying enzymes, and whether or not it can activate Nrf2 transcription factor or inhibit NF-kB activation. All of the antioxidant and detoxifying enzymes studied were significantly up-regulated by 0.7 mg/ml Lisosan G treatment. In particular, quinone oxidoreductase and heme oxygenase-1 were induced, although to different degrees, at the transcriptional, protein and/or activity levels by the treatment. As for the Nrf2 transcription factor, a partial translocation of its protein from the cytosol to the nucleus after 1 h of Lisosan G treatment was revealed by immunoblotting. Lisosan G was also observed to decrease H2O2-induced toxicity Taken together, these results show that this powder of wheat is an effective inducer of ARE/Nrf2-regulated antioxidant and detoxifying genes and has the potential to inhibit the translocation of NF-kB into the nucleus.

  1. Metronidazole reduces the expression of cytochrome P450 enzymes in HepaRG cells and cryopreserved human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Toshiyuki; Endo, Yumiko; Taguchi, Rina; Yatsu, Masami; Ito, Kiyomi

    2015-05-01

    1. Blood levels of S-warfarin have been reported to be increased by concomitant administration of metronidazole (MTZ), an antiprotozoal imidazole derivative. 2. To elucidate the mechanism of this interaction and to identify other possible drug-drug interactions, we conducted an in vitro study with the human hepatoma HepaRG cells and cryopreserved human hepatocytes on the ability of MTZ to reduce the expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) as well as nuclear receptors that regulate the expression of these enzymes. 3. HepaRG cells and cryopreserved human hepatocytes were treated with MTZ (20 to 500 µM) and were then analyzed by real-time RT-PCR to determine mRNA levels of drug-metabolizing enzymes and nuclear receptors. 4. In both cells, the expressions of CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP3A4 and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) were decreased by MTZ treatment. Particularly, in HepaRG cells, their mRNA levels were decreased by MTZ treatment in a concentration-dependent manner. 5. Our findings suggest that the interaction between MTZ and S-warfarin may be due to the MTZ-induced down-regulation of CYP2C9, the primary enzyme responsible for S-warfarin hydroxylation, and CAR, which regulates CYP2C9 expression. We also found that MTZ use may alter the disposition of drugs metabolized by the CYP isozymes investigated.

  2. Transcriptional, Functional, and Mechanistic Comparisons of Stem Cell–Derived Hepatocytes, HepaRG Cells, and Three-Dimensional Human Hepatocyte Spheroids as Predictive In Vitro Systems for Drug-Induced Liver Injury

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Catherine C.; Vorrink, Sabine U.; Palmgren, Henrik; Duffin, Rodger; Andersson, Tommy B.; Ingelman-Sundberg, Magnus

    2017-01-01

    Reliable and versatile hepatic in vitro systems for the prediction of drug pharmacokinetics and toxicity are essential constituents of preclinical safety assessment pipelines for new medicines. Here, we compared three emerging cell systems—hepatocytes derived from induced pluripotent stem cells, HepaRG cells, and three-dimensional primary human hepatocyte (PHH) spheroids—at transcriptional and functional levels in a multicenter study to evaluate their potential as predictive models for drug-induced hepatotoxicity. Transcriptomic analyses revealed widespread gene expression differences between the three cell models, with 8148 of 17,462 analyzed genes (47%) being differentially expressed. Expression levels of genes involved in the metabolism of endogenous as well as xenobiotic compounds were significantly elevated in PHH spheroids, whereas genes involved in cell division and endocytosis were significantly upregulated in HepaRG cells and hepatocytes derived from induced pluripotent stem cells, respectively. Consequently, PHH spheroids were more sensitive to a panel of drugs with distinctly different toxicity mechanisms, an effect that was amplified by long-term exposure using repeated treatments. Importantly, toxicogenomic analyses revealed that transcriptomic changes in PHH spheroids were in compliance with cholestatic, carcinogenic, or steatogenic in vivo toxicity mechanisms at clinically relevant drug concentrations. Combined, the data reveal important phenotypic differences between the three cell systems and suggest that PHH spheroids can be used for functional investigations of drug-induced liver injury in vivo in humans. PMID:28137721

  3. Protective Role of Morin, a Flavonoid, against High Glucose Induced Oxidative Stress Mediated Apoptosis in Primary Rat Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kapoor, Radhika; Kakkar, Poonam

    2012-01-01

    Apoptosis is an early event of liver damage in diabetes and oxidative stress has been linked to accelerate the apoptosis in hepatocytes. Therefore, the compounds that can scavenge ROS may confer regulatory effects on high-glucose induced apoptosis. In the present study, primary rat hepatocytes were exposed to high concentration (40 mM) of glucose. At this concentration decreased cell viability and enhanced ROS generation was observed. Depleted antioxidant status of hepatocytes under high glucose stress was also observed as evident from transcriptional level and activities of antioxidant enzymes. Further, mitochondrial depolarisation was accompanied by the loss of mitochondrial integrity and altered expression of Bax and Bcl-2. Increased translocation of apoptotic proteins like AIF (Apoptosis inducing factor) & Endo-G (endonuclease-G) from its resident place mitochondria to nucleus was also observed. Cyt-c residing in the inter-membrane space of mitochondria also translocated to cytoplasm. These apoptotic proteins initiated caspase activation, DNA fragmentation, chromatin condensation, increased apoptotic DNA content in glucose treated hepatocytes, suggesting mitochondria mediated apoptotic mode of cell death. Morin, a dietary flavonoid from Psidium guajava was effective in increasing the cell viability and decreasing the ROS level. It maintained mitochondrial integrity, inhibited release of apoptotic proteins from mitochondria, prevented DNA fragmentation, chromatin condensation and hypodiploid DNA upon exposure to high glucose. This study confirms the capacity of dietary flavonoid Morin in regulating apoptosis induced by high glucose via mitochondrial mediated pathway through intervention of oxidative stress. PMID:22899998

  4. The effect of oleic and palmitic acid on induction of steatosis and cytotoxicity on rat hepatocytes in primary culture.

    PubMed

    Moravcová, A; Červinková, Z; Kučera, O; Mezera, V; Rychtrmoc, D; Lotková, H

    2015-01-01

    In vitro models serve as a tool for studies of steatosis. Palmitic and oleic acids can induce steatosis in cultured hepatocytes. The aim of our study was to verify steatogenic and cytotoxic effects of palmitic acid (PA), oleic acid (OA) and their combinations as well as their impact on functional capacity of rat primary hepatocytes. Hepatocytes were exposed to OA or PA (0.125-2 mmol/l) or their combination at ratios of 3:1, 2:1 or 1:1 at the final concentrations of 0.5-1 mmol/l. Both OA and PA caused a dose-dependent increase in triacylglycerol content in hepatocytes. PA was more steatogenic at 0.25 and 0.5 mmol/l while OA at 0.75 and 1 mmol/l. PA exhibited a dose-dependent cytotoxic effect associated with ROS production, present markers of apoptosis and necrosis and a decrease in albumin production. OA induced a damage of the cytoplasmic membrane from 1 mM concentration. Mixture of OA and PA induced lower cytotoxicity with less weakened functional capacity than did PA alone. Extent of steatosis was comparable to that after exposure to OA alone. In conclusion, OA or combination of OA with PA is more suitable for simulation of simple steatosis than PA alone.

  5. Switch from type II to I Fas/CD95 death signaling upon in vitro culturing of primary hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Walter, Dorothée; Schmich, Kathrin; Vogel, Sandra; Pick, Robert; Kaufmann, Thomas; Hochmuth, Florian Christoph; Haber, Angelika; Neubert, Karin; McNelly, Sabine; von Weizsäcker, Fritz; Merfort, Irmgard; Maurer, Ulrich; Strasser, Andreas; Borner, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    Fas/CD95-induced apoptosis of hepatocytes in vivo proceeds through the so-called type II pathway, requiring the pro-apoptotic BH3-only Bcl-2 family member Bid for mitochondrial death signaling. Consequently, Bid-deficient mice are protected from anti-Fas antibody injection induced fatal hepatitis. Here we report the unexpected finding that freshly isolated mouse hepatocytes, cultured on collagen or Matrigel™, become independent of Bid for Fas-induced apoptosis, thereby switching death signaling from type II to type I. In such in vitro cultures, FasL activates caspase-3 without Bid cleavage, Bax/Bak activation or cytochrome c release, and neither Bid ablation nor Bcl-2 overexpression is protective. The type II to type I switch depends on extracellular matrix adhesion, as primary hepatocytes in suspension die in a Bid-dependent manner. Moreover, the switch is specific for FasL-induced apoptosis as collagen-plated Bid-deficient hepatocytes are protected from TNFα/ActD-induced apoptosis. Conclusion Our data suggest a selective crosstalk between extracellular matrix and Fas-mediated signaling which favours mitochondria-independent type I apoptosis induction. PMID:19003879

  6. Label-free Characterization of Rapid Lipid Accumulation in Living Primary Hepatocytes after Exposure to Lipoprotein Lipolysis Products

    PubMed Central

    Schie, Iwan W.; Wu, Jian; Zern, Mark; Rutledge, John C.; Huser, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The increased accumulation of intracellular lipid droplets within hepatocytes is a pathologic hallmark of liver injury of various etiologies, especially non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The dynamics, subcellular origin, and chemical composition of lipid droplets under various pathophysiologic conditions, however, remain poorly understood. We used coherent Raman microscopy and spontaneous Raman spectroscopy to monitor and analyze the formation of lipid droplets in living primary rat hepatocytes exposed to VLDL lipolysis products. After exposure to lipolysis products for 30 minutes, new lipid droplets rapidly appeared within hepatocytes and increased in size and number over the observation period of 205 minutes. Intracellular lipid droplet transport appears to be greatly reduced after lipolysis product treatment. Spontaneous Raman spectroscopy of individual intracellular lipid droplets before and after exposure to VLDL lipolysis products reveals that the major components of these droplets are esterified unsaturated fatty acids. The fatty acid unsaturation ratio increases with droplet size. In response to simultaneous exposure to an oxidized form of linoleic acid, 13-hydroxy-9,11-octadecadienoic acid (13-HODE) and palmitic acid, a marked increase in saturated fat content was found when compared to treatment with palmitic acid alone. Lipid aggregation in hepatocytes induced by VLDL lipolysis products may be the initial event leading to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). PMID:20878906

  7. Toxicity monitoring with primary cultured hepatocytes underestimates the acetaminophen-induced inflammatory responses of the mouse liver.

    PubMed

    Tachibana, Shinjiro; Shimomura, Akiko; Inadera, Hidekuni

    2011-01-01

    In vitro gene expression profiling with isolated hepatocytes has been used to assess the hepatotoxicity of certain chemicals because of animal welfare issues. However, whether an in vitro system can completely replace the in vivo system has yet to be elucidated in detail. Using a focused microarray established in our laboratory, we examined gene expression profiles in the mouse liver and primary cultured hepatocytes after treatment with different doses of acetaminophen, a widely used analgesic that frequently causes liver injury. The acute hepatotoxicity of acetaminophen was confirmed by showing the induction of an oxidative stress marker, heme oxygenase-1, elevated levels of serum transaminase, and histopathological findings. In vivo microarray and network analysis showed that acetaminophen treatment provoked alterations in relation to the inflammatory response, and that tumor necrosis factor-α plays a central role in related pathway alterations. By contrast, pathway analyses in in vitro isolated hepatocytes did not find such prominent changes in the inflammation-related networks compared with the in vivo situation. Thus, although in vitro gene expression profiles are useful for evaluating the direct toxicity of chemicals, indirect toxicities including inflammatory responses mediated by cell-cell interactions or secondary toxicity due to pathophysiological changes in the whole body may be overlooked. Our results indicate that the in vitro hepatotoxicity prediction system using isolated hepatocytes does not fully reflect the in vivo cellular response. An in vitro system may be appropriate, therefore, for high throughput screening to detect the direct hepatotoxicity of a test compound.

  8. Nitric oxide-mediated antiplasmodial activity in human and murine hepatocytes induced by gamma interferon and the parasite itself: enhancement by exogenous tetrahydrobiopterin.

    PubMed Central

    Mellouk, S; Hoffman, S L; Liu, Z Z; de la Vega, P; Billiar, T R; Nussler, A K

    1994-01-01

    Expression of inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase has been shown to inhibit the development of several pathogens, including fungi, bacteria, parasites, and viruses. However, there is still controversy as to whether this effector mechanism can inhibit the development of human pathogens. We now report that gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) induces the elimination of Plasmodium falciparum-infected primary human hepatocytes from cultures and that the antimalarial activity is dependent on NO. Infection with the parasite alone in the absence of added IFN-gamma caused a 10-fold increase in NO formation. Both spontaneous inhibition and IFN-gamma-induced inhibition of Plasmodium yoelii-infected murine hepatocytes were increased with the addition of the NO synthase cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin, or sepiapterin, which is converted to tetrahydrobiopterin. These results indicate that under in vitro conditions the parasite itself provides a signal that triggers induction of the NO pathway in human and murine hepatocytes and that NO formation in infected hepatocytes is limited by tetrahydrobiopterin availability. PMID:8063424

  9. Featured Article: Isolation, characterization, and cultivation of human hepatocytes and non-parenchymal liver cells

    PubMed Central

    Pfeiffer, Elisa; Kegel, Victoria; Zeilinger, Katrin; Hengstler, Jan G; Nüssler, Andreas K; Seehofer, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Primary human hepatocytes (PHH) are considered to be the gold standard for in vitro testing of xenobiotic metabolism and hepatotoxicity. However, PHH cultivation in 2D mono-cultures leads to dedifferentiation and a loss of function. It is well known that hepatic non-parenchymal cells (NPC), such as Kupffer cells (KC), liver endothelial cells (LEC), and hepatic stellate cells (HSC), play a central role in the maintenance of PHH functions. The aims of the present study were to establish a protocol for the simultaneous isolation of human PHH and NPC from the same tissue specimen and to test their suitability for in vitro co-culture. Human PHH and NPC were isolated from tissue obtained by partial liver resection by a two-step EDTA/collagenase perfusion technique. The obtained cell fractions were purified by Percoll density gradient centrifugation. KC, LEC, and HSC contained in the NPC fraction were separated using specific adherence properties and magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS®). Identified NPC revealed a yield of 1.9 × 106 KC, 2.7 × 105 LEC and 4.7 × 105 HSC per gram liver tissue, showing viabilities >90%. Characterization of these NPC showed that all populations went through an activation process, which influenced the cell fate. The activation of KC strongly depended on the tissue quality and donor anamnesis. KC became activated in culture in association with a loss of viability within 4–5 days. LEC lost specific features during culture, while HSC went through a transformation process into myofibroblasts. The testing of different culture conditions for HSC demonstrated that they can attenuate, but not prevent dedifferentiation in vitro. In conclusion, the method described allows the isolation and separation of PHH and NPC in high quality and quantity from the same donor. PMID:25394621

  10. Long-Term Coculture Strategies for Primary Hepatocytes and Liver Sinusoidal Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bale, Shyam Sundhar; Golberg, Inna; Jindal, Rohit; McCarty, William J.; Luitje, Martha; Hegde, Manjunath; Bhushan, Abhinav; Usta, Osman Berk

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocytes and their in vitro models are essential tools for preclinical screening studies for drugs that affect the liver. Most of the current models primarily focus on hepatocytes alone and lack the contribution of non-parenchymal cells (NPCs), which are significant through both molecular and the response of the NPCs themselves. Models that incorporate NPCs alongside hepatocytes hold the power to enable more realistic recapitulation and elucidation of cell interactions and cumulative drug response. Hepatocytes and liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) account for ∼80% of the liver mass where the LSECs line the walls of blood vessels, and act as a barrier between hepatocytes and blood. Culturing LSECs with hepatocytes to generate multicellular physiologically relevant in vitro liver models has been a major hurdle since LSECs lose their phenotype rapidly after isolation. To this end, we describe the application of collagen gel (1) in a sandwich and (2) as an intervening extracellular matrix layer to coculture hepatocytes with LSECs for extended periods. These coculture configurations provide environments wherein hepatocyte and LSECs, through cell–cell contacts and/or secretion factors, lead to enhanced function and stability of the cocultures. Our results show that in these configurations, hepatocytes and LSECs maintained their phenotypes when cultured together as a mixture, and showed stable secretion and metabolic activity for up to 4 weeks. Immunostaining for sinusoidal endothelial 1 (SE-1) antibody demonstrated retention of LSEC phenotype during the culture period. In addition, LSECs cultured alone maintained high viability and SE-1 expression when cultured within a collagen sandwich configuration up to 4 weeks. Albumin production of the cocultures was 10–15 times higher when LSECs were cultured as a bottom layer (with an intervening collagen layer) and as a mixture in a sandwich configuration, and native CYP 1A1/2 activity was at least 20 times

  11. Long-term coculture strategies for primary hepatocytes and liver sinusoidal endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Bale, Shyam Sundhar; Golberg, Inna; Jindal, Rohit; McCarty, William J; Luitje, Martha; Hegde, Manjunath; Bhushan, Abhinav; Usta, Osman Berk; Yarmush, Martin L

    2015-04-01

    Hepatocytes and their in vitro models are essential tools for preclinical screening studies for drugs that affect the liver. Most of the current models primarily focus on hepatocytes alone and lack the contribution of non-parenchymal cells (NPCs), which are significant through both molecular and the response of the NPCs themselves. Models that incorporate NPCs alongside hepatocytes hold the power to enable more realistic recapitulation and elucidation of cell interactions and cumulative drug response. Hepatocytes and liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) account for ∼ 80% of the liver mass where the LSECs line the walls of blood vessels, and act as a barrier between hepatocytes and blood. Culturing LSECs with hepatocytes to generate multicellular physiologically relevant in vitro liver models has been a major hurdle since LSECs lose their phenotype rapidly after isolation. To this end, we describe the application of collagen gel (1) in a sandwich and (2) as an intervening extracellular matrix layer to coculture hepatocytes with LSECs for extended periods. These coculture configurations provide environments wherein hepatocyte and LSECs, through cell-cell contacts and/or secretion factors, lead to enhanced function and stability of the cocultures. Our results show that in these configurations, hepatocytes and LSECs maintained their phenotypes when cultured together as a mixture, and showed stable secretion and metabolic activity for up to 4 weeks. Immunostaining for sinusoidal endothelial 1 (SE-1) antibody demonstrated retention of LSEC phenotype during the culture period. In addition, LSECs cultured alone maintained high viability and SE-1 expression when cultured within a collagen sandwich configuration up to 4 weeks. Albumin production of the cocultures was 10-15 times higher when LSECs were cultured as a bottom layer (with an intervening collagen layer) and as a mixture in a sandwich configuration, and native CYP 1A1/2 activity was at least 20 times higher

  12. Use of mRNA expression to detect the induction of drug metabolising enzymes in rat and human hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Richert, L. Tuschl, G.; Pekthong, D.; Mantion, G.; Weber, J.-C.; Mueller, S.O.

    2009-02-15

    It is important to investigate the induction of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes by drugs. The most relevant end point is enzyme activity; however, this requires many cells and is low throughput. We have compared the CYP1A, CYP2B and CYP3A induction response to eight inducers in rat and human hepatocytes using enzyme activities (CYP1A2 (ethoxyresorufin), 2B (benzoxyresorufin for rat and bupropion for human) and CYP3A (testosterone)) and Taqman{sup TM} Low Density Array (TLDA) analysis. There was a good correlation between the induction of CYP1A2, CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 enzyme activities and mRNA expression in human hepatocytes. In contrast, BROD activities and mRNA expression in rat hepatocytes correlated poorly. However, bupropion hydroxylation correlated well with Cyp2b1 expression in rat hepatocytes. TLDA analysis of a panel of mRNAs encoding for CYPs, phase 2 enzymes, nuclear receptors and transporters revealed that the main genes induced by the 8 compounds tested were the CYPs. AhR ligands also induced UDP-glucuronosyltransferases and glutathione S-transferases in rat and human hepatocytes. The transporters, MDR1, MDR3 and OATPA were the only transporter genes significantly up-regulated in human hepatocytes. In rat hepatocytes Bsep, Mdr2, Mrp2, Mrp3 and Oatp2 were up-regulated. We could then show a good in vivo:in vitro correlation in the induction response of isolated rat hepatocytes and ex-vivo hepatic microsomes for the drug development candidate, EMD392949. In conclusion, application of TLDA methodology to investigate the potential of compounds to induce enzymes in rat and human hepatocytes increases the throughput and information gained from one assay, without reducing the predictive capacity.

  13. Dynamic Interplay of Flow and Collagen Stabilizes Primary Hepatocytes Culture in a Microfluidic Platform

    PubMed Central

    Hegde, Manjunath; Jindal, Rohit; Bhushan, Abhinav; Bale, Shyam Sundhar; McCarty, William J; Golberg, Inna; Usta, O. Berk; Yarmush, Martin L.

    2014-01-01

    The creation of stable flow cultures of hepatocytes is highly desirable for the development of platforms for drug toxicity screening, bio-artificial liver support devices, and models for investigating liver physiology and pathophysiology. Given that hepatocytes cultured using the collagen overlay or ‘sandwich’ configuration maintain a wide range of differentiated functions, we describe a simple method for adapting this culture configuration within a microfluidic device. The device design consists of a porous membrane sandwiched between two layers of PDMS resulting in a two-chambered device. In the bottom chamber, hepatocytes are cultured in the collagen sandwich configuration, while the top chamber is accessible for flow. We demonstrate that hepatocytes cultured under flow exhibit higher albumin and urea secretion, and induce cytochrome P450 1A1 activity in comparison to static cultures. Furthermore, over two weeks, hepatocytes cultured under flow show a well-connected cellular network with bile canaliculi formation, whereas static cultures result in the formation of gaps in the cellular network that progressively increase over time. Although enhanced functional response of hepatocytes cultured under flow has been observed in multiple prior studies, the exact mechanism for this flow induced effect remains unknown. In our work, we identified that hepatocytes secrete higher level of collagen in the flow cultures; inhibiting collagen secretion within the flow cultures reduced albumin secretion and restored the appearance of gaps in the cellular network similar to the static cultures. These results demonstrate the importance of the increased collagen secretion by hepatocytes cultured under flow as a mechanism to maintain well-connected cellular network and differentiated function. PMID:24770663

  14. Dynamic interplay of flow and collagen stabilizes primary hepatocytes culture in a microfluidic platform.

    PubMed

    Hegde, Manjunath; Jindal, Rohit; Bhushan, Abhinav; Bale, Shyam Sundhar; McCarty, William J; Golberg, Inna; Usta, O Berk; Yarmush, Martin L

    2014-06-21

    The creation of stable flow cultures of hepatocytes is highly desirable for the development of platforms for drug toxicity screening, bio-artificial liver support devices, and models for investigating liver physiology and pathophysiology. Given that hepatocytes cultured using the collagen overlay or in 'sandwich' configuration maintain a wide range of differentiated functions, we describe a simple method for adapting this culture configuration within a microfluidic device. The device design consists of a porous membrane sandwiched between two layers of PDMS resulting in a two-chambered device. In the bottom chamber, hepatocytes are cultured in the collagen sandwich configuration, while the top chamber is accessible for flow. We demonstrate that hepatocytes cultured under flow exhibit higher albumin and urea secretions and induce cytochrome P450 1A1 activity in comparison to static cultures. Furthermore, over two weeks, hepatocytes cultured under flow show a well-connected cellular network with bile canaliculi formation, whereas static cultures show formation of gaps in the cellular network that progressively increase over time. Although enhanced functional response of hepatocytes cultured under flow has been observed in multiple prior studies, the exact mechanism for this flow induced effect remains unknown. In our work, we identified that hepatocytes secrete a higher level of collagen in the flow cultures; inhibiting collagen secretion within the flow cultures reduced albumin secretion and restored the appearance of gaps in the cellular network similar to the static cultures. These results demonstrate the importance of the increased collagen secretion by hepatocytes cultured under flow as a mechanism to maintain a well-connected cellular network and a differentiated function.

  15. Assessment of a micropatterned hepatocyte coculture system to generate major human excretory and circulating drug metabolites.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wendy WeiWei; Khetani, Salman R; Krzyzewski, Stacy; Duignan, David B; Obach, R Scott

    2010-10-01

    Metabolism is one of the important determinants of the overall disposition of drugs, and the profile of metabolites can have an impact on efficacy and safety. Predicting which drug metabolites will be quantitatively predominant in humans has become increasingly important in the research and development of new drugs. In this study, a novel micropatterned hepatocyte coculture system was evaluated for its ability to generate human in vivo metabolites. Twenty-seven compounds of diverse chemical structure and subject to a range of drug biotransformation reactions were assessed for metabolite profiles in the micropatterned coculture system using pooled cryopreserved human hepatocytes. The ability of this system to generate metabolites that are >10% of dose in excreta or >10% of total drug-related material in circulation was assessed and compared to previously reported data obtained in human hepatocyte suspensions, liver S-9 fraction, and liver microsomes. The micropatterned coculture system was incubated for up to 7 days without a change in medium, which offered an ability to generate metabolites for slowly metabolized compounds. The micropatterned coculture system generated 82% of the excretory metabolites that exceed 10% of dose and 75% of the circulating metabolites that exceed 10% of total circulating drug-related material, exceeds the performance of hepatocyte suspension incubations and other in vitro systems. Phase 1 and phase 2 metabolites were generated, as well as metabolites that arise via two or more sequential reactions. These results suggest that this in vitro system offers the highest performance among in vitro metabolism systems to predict major human in vivo metabolites.

  16. Upcyte Human Hepatocytes: a Potent In Vitro Tool for the Prediction of Hepatic Clearance of Metabolically Stable Compounds.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Michelle; Schänzle, Gerhard; Bischoff, Daniel; Süssmuth, Roderich D

    2016-03-01

    In vitro models based on primary human hepatocytes (PHH) have been advanced for clearance (CL) prediction of metabolically stable compounds, representing state-of-the-art assay systems for drug discovery and development. Yet, limited cell availability and large interindividual variability of metabolic profiles remain shortcomings of PHH. Upcyte human hepatocytes (UHH) represent a novel hepatic cell system derived from PHH, exhibiting proliferative capacity for approximately 35 population doublings. UHH from three donors were evaluated during culture for up to 18 days, investigating relative mRNA expression and in situ enzyme activity of cytochrome P450s (P450s), UDP-glucuronosyltransferases, and sulfotransferases. Furthermore, UHH were used for predicting hepatic CL of 21 marketed low to intermediate CL drugs. In a typical experiment, expansion from 3.9 × 10(6) up to 8.5 × 10(7) cells was achieved during subculture. When maintained at confluence, transcripts of major P450s were expressed at donor-specific levels with sustained activities for the majority of isoforms, showing generally low CYP1A2 and high CYP2B6 activity levels. For donor 151-03, CL prediction based on depletion experiments resulted in an average fold error of 2.0, and 80% of compounds being predicted within twofold to in vivo CL for a subset of 10 low CL drugs. UHH showed sustained and consistent activity of drug-metabolizing enzymes (DME), resulting in highly reproducible CL prediction performance. In conclusion, UHH show promising potential as alternative to PHH for standardized in vitro applications in discovery research based on their stable, hepatocyte-like DME phenotype and virtually unlimited cell availability. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  17. Metabolism of Carfentanil, an Ultra-Potent Opioid, in Human Liver Microsomes and Human Hepatocytes by High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Feasel, Michael G; Wohlfarth, Ariane; Nilles, John M; Pang, Shaokun; Kristovich, Robert L; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2016-11-01

    Carfentanil is an ultra-potent synthetic opioid. No human carfentanil metabolism data are available. Reportedly, Russian police forces used carfentanil and remifentanil to resolve a hostage situation in Moscow in 2002. This alleged use prompted interest in the pharmacology and toxicology of carfentanil in humans. Our study was conducted to identify human carfentanil metabolites and to assess carfentanil's metabolic clearance, which could contribute to its acute toxicity in humans. We used Simulations Plus's ADMET Predictor™ and Molecular Discovery's MetaSite™ to predict possible metabolite formation. Both programs gave similar results that were generally good but did not capture all metabolites seen in vitro. We incubated carfentanil with human hepatocytes for up to 1 h and analyzed samples on a Sciex 3200 QTRAP mass spectrometer to measure parent compound depletion and extrapolated that to represent intrinsic clearance. Pooled primary human hepatocytes were then incubated with carfentanil up to 6 h and analyzed for metabolite identification on a Sciex 5600+ TripleTOF (QTOF) high-resolution mass spectrometer. MS and MS/MS analyses elucidated the structures of the most abundant metabolites. Twelve metabolites were identified in total. N-Dealkylation and monohydroxylation of the piperidine ring were the dominant metabolic pathways. Two N-oxide metabolites and one glucuronide metabolite were observed. Surprisingly, ester hydrolysis was not a major metabolic pathway for carfentanil. While the human liver microsomal system demonstrated rapid clearance by CYP enzymes, the hepatocyte incubations showed much slower clearance, possibly providing some insight into the long duration of carfentanil's effects.

  18. Modulation of Mitochondrial DNA Copy Number to Induce Hepatocytic Differentiation of Human Amniotic Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Vaghjiani, Vijesh; Cain, Jason E; Lee, William; Vaithilingam, Vijayaganapathy; Tuch, Bernard E; St John, Justin C

    2017-09-05

    Mitochondrial deoxyribonucleic acid (mtDNA) copy number is tightly regulated during pluripotency and differentiation. There is increased demand of cellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) during differentiation for energy-intensive cell types such as hepatocytes and neurons to meet the cell's functional requirements. During hepatocyte differentiation, mtDNA copy number should be synchronously increased to generate sufficient ATP through oxidative phosphorylation. Unlike bone marrow mesenchymal cells, mtDNA copy number failed to increase by 28 days of differentiation of human amniotic epithelial cells (hAEC) into hepatocyte-like cells (HLC) despite their expression of some end-stage hepatic markers. This was due to higher levels of DNA methylation at exon 2 of POLGA, the mtDNA-specific replication factor. Treatment with a DNA demethylation agent, 5-azacytidine, resulted in increased mtDNA copy number, reduced DNA methylation at exon 2 of POLGA, and reduced hepatic gene expression. Depletion of mtDNA followed by subsequent differentiation did not increase mtDNA copy number, but reduced DNA methylation at exon 2 of POLGA and increased expression of hepatic and pluripotency genes. We encapsulated hAEC in barium alginate microcapsules and subsequently differentiated them into HLC. Encapsulation resulted in no net increase of mtDNA copy number but a significant reduction in DNA methylation of POLGA. RNAseq analysis showed that differentiated HLC express hepatocyte-specific genes but also increased expression of inflammatory interferon genes. Differentiation in encapsulated cells showed suppression of inflammatory genes as well as increased expression of genes associated with hepatocyte function pathways and networks. This study demonstrates that an increase in classical hepatic gene expression can be achieved in HLC through encapsulation, although they fail to effectively regulate mtDNA copy number.

  19. Inhibition of MDR3 Activity in Human Hepatocytes by Drugs Associated with Liver Injury.

    PubMed

    He, Kan; Cai, Lining; Shi, Qin; Liu, Hao; Woolf, Thomas F

    2015-10-19

    MDR3 dysfunction is associated with liver diseases. We report here a novel MDR3 activity assay involving in situ biosynthesis in primary hepatocytes of deuterium (d9)-labeled PC and LC-MS/MS determination of transported extracellular PC-d9. Several drugs associated with DILI such as chlorpromazine, imipramine, itraconazole, haloperidol, ketoconazole, sequinavir, clotrimazole, ritonavir, and troglitazone inhibit MDR3 activity. MDR3 inhibition may play an important role in drug-induced cholestasis and vanishing bile duct syndrome. Several lines of evidence demonstrate that the reported assay is physiologically relevant and can be used to assess the potential of chemical entities and their metabolites to modulate MDR3 activity and/or PC biosynthesis in hepatocytes.

  20. Effect of honokiol on the induction of drug-metabolizing enzymes in human hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Yong-Yeon; Jeong, Hyeon-Uk; Kim, Jeong-Han; Lee, Hye Suk

    2014-01-01

    Honokiol, 2-(4-hydroxy-3-prop-2-enyl-phenyl)-4-prop-2-enyl-phenol, an active component of Magnolia officinalis and Magnolia grandiflora, exerts various pharmacological activities such as antitumorigenic, antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, neurotrophic, and antithrombotic effects. To investigate whether honokiol acts as a perpetrator in drug interactions, messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) levels of phase I and II drug-metabolizing enzymes, including cytochrome P450 (CYP), UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT), and sulfotransferase 2A1 (SULT2A1), were analyzed by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction following 48-hour honokiol exposure in three independent cryopreserved human hepatocyte cultures. Honokiol treatment at the highest concentration tested (50 μM) increased the CYP2B6 mRNA level and CYP2B6-catalyzed bupropion hydroxylase activity more than two-fold in three different hepatocyte cultures, indicating that honokiol induces CYP2B6 at higher concentrations. However, honokiol treatment (0.5–50 μM) did not significantly alter the mRNA levels of phase I enzymes (CYP1A2, CYP3A4, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, and CYP2C19) or phase II enzymes (UGT1A1, UGT1A4, UGT1A9, UGT2B7, and SULT2A1) in cryopreserved human hepatocyte cultures. CYP1A2-catalyzed phenacetin O-deethylase and CYP3A4-catalyzed midazolam 1′-hydroxylase activities were not affected by 48-hour honokiol treatment in cryopreserved human hepatocytes. These results indicate that honokiol is a weak CYP2B6 inducer and is unlikely to increase the metabolism of concomitant CYP2B6 substrates and cause pharmacokinetic-based drug interactions in humans. PMID:25395831

  1. Effect of honokiol on the induction of drug-metabolizing enzymes in human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Cho, Yong-Yeon; Jeong, Hyeon-Uk; Kim, Jeong-Han; Lee, Hye Suk

    2014-01-01

    Honokiol, 2-(4-hydroxy-3-prop-2-enyl-phenyl)-4-prop-2-enyl-phenol, an active component of Magnolia officinalis and Magnolia grandiflora, exerts various pharmacological activities such as antitumorigenic, antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, neurotrophic, and antithrombotic effects. To investigate whether honokiol acts as a perpetrator in drug interactions, messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) levels of phase I and II drug-metabolizing enzymes, including cytochrome P450 (CYP), UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT), and sulfotransferase 2A1 (SULT2A1), were analyzed by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction following 48-hour honokiol exposure in three independent cryopreserved human hepatocyte cultures. Honokiol treatment at the highest concentration tested (50 μM) increased the CYP2B6 mRNA level and CYP2B6-catalyzed bupropion hydroxylase activity more than two-fold in three different hepatocyte cultures, indicating that honokiol induces CYP2B6 at higher concentrations. However, honokiol treatment (0.5-50 μM) did not significantly alter the mRNA levels of phase I enzymes (CYP1A2, CYP3A4, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, and CYP2C19) or phase II enzymes (UGT1A1, UGT1A4, UGT1A9, UGT2B7, and SULT2A1) in cryopreserved human hepatocyte cultures. CYP1A2-catalyzed phenacetin O-deethylase and CYP3A4-catalyzed midazolam 1'-hydroxylase activities were not affected by 48-hour honokiol treatment in cryopreserved human hepatocytes. These results indicate that honokiol is a weak CYP2B6 inducer and is unlikely to increase the metabolism of concomitant CYP2B6 substrates and cause pharmacokinetic-based drug interactions in humans.

  2. CRISPR-Cas9 Targeting of PCSK9 in Human Hepatocytes In Vivo-Brief Report.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao; Raghavan, Avanthi; Chen, Tao; Qiao, Lyon; Zhang, Yongxian; Ding, Qiurong; Musunuru, Kiran

    2016-05-01

    Although early proof-of-concept studies of somatic in vivo genome editing of the mouse ortholog of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (Pcsk9) in mice have established its therapeutic potential for the prevention of cardiovascular disease, the unique nature of genome-editing technology-permanent alteration of genomic DNA sequences-mandates that it be tested in vivo against human genes in normal human cells with human genomes to give reliable preclinical insights into the efficacy (on-target mutagenesis) and safety (lack of off-target mutagenesis) of genome-editing therapy before it can be used in patients. We used a clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated (Cas) 9 genome-editing system to target the human PCSK9 gene in chimeric liver-humanized mice bearing human hepatocytes. We demonstrated high on-target mutagenesis (approaching 50%), greatly reduced blood levels of human PCSK9 protein, and minimal off-target mutagenesis. This work yields important information on the efficacy and safety of CRISPR-Cas9 therapy targeting the human PCSK9 gene in human hepatocytes in vivo, and it establishes humanized mice as a useful platform for the preclinical assessment of applications of somatic in vivo genome editing. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Highly purified hexachlorobenzene induces cytochrome P4501A in primary cultures of chicken embryo hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Mundy, Lukas J.; Jones, Stephanie P.; Crump, Doug; Herve, Jessica C.; Konstantinov, Alex; Utley, Fiona; Potter, David; Kennedy, Sean W.

    2010-11-01

    Some uncertainty exists regarding the purity of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) used in past toxicity studies. It has been suggested that reported toxic and biochemical effects initially attributed to HCB exposure may have actually been elicited by contamination of HCB by polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Herein, primary cultures of chicken embryo hepatocytes (CEH) were used to compare the potencies of two lots of reagent-grade hexachlorobenzene (HCB-old [HCB-O] and HCB-new [HCB-N]), highly purified HCB (HCB-P) and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) as inducers of ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity, cytochrome P4501A4 (CYP1A4) messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) and CYP1A5 mRNA. The study also compared the EROD- and CYP1A4/5 mRNA-inducing potencies of HCB to the potencies of two mono-ortho substituted polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 2,3,3',4,4'-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 105) and 2,3'4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 118). HCB-O, HCB-N and HCB-P all induced EROD activity and up-regulated CYP1A4 and CYP1A5 mRNAs. Induction was not caused by contamination of HCB with PCDDs or PCDFs. Based upon a comparison of the EC{sub 50} and EC{sub threshold} values for EROD and CYP1A4/5 mRNA concentration-response curves, the potency of HCB relative to the potency of TCDD was 0.0001, and was similar to that of PCB 105 and PCB 118. The maximal EROD activity and CYP1A4/5 mRNA expression differed greatly between HCB and TCDD, and may contribute to an overestimation of the ReP value calculated for highly purified HCB.

  4. Highly purified hexachlorobenzene induces cytochrome P4501A in primary cultures of chicken embryo hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Mundy, Lukas J; Jones, Stephanie P; Crump, Doug; Hervé, Jessica C; Konstantinov, Alex; Utley, Fiona; Potter, David; Kennedy, Sean W

    2010-11-01

    Some uncertainty exists regarding the purity of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) used in past toxicity studies. It has been suggested that reported toxic and biochemical effects initially attributed to HCB exposure may have actually been elicited by contamination of HCB by polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Herein, primary cultures of chicken embryo hepatocytes (CEH) were used to compare the potencies of two lots of reagent-grade hexachlorobenzene (HCB-old [HCB-O] and HCB-new [HCB-N]), highly purified HCB (HCB-P) and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) as inducers of ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity, cytochrome P4501A4 (CYP1A4) messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) and CYP1A5 mRNA. The study also compared the EROD- and CYP1A4/5 mRNA-inducing potencies of HCB to the potencies of two mono-ortho substituted polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 2,3,3',4,4'-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 105) and 2,3'4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 118). HCB-O, HCB-N and HCB-P all induced EROD activity and up-regulated CYP1A4 and CYP1A5 mRNAs. Induction was not caused by contamination of HCB with PCDDs or PCDFs. Based upon a comparison of the EC(50) and EC(threshold) values for EROD and CYP1A4/5 mRNA concentration-response curves, the potency of HCB relative to the potency of TCDD was 0.0001, and was similar to that of PCB 105 and PCB 118. The maximal EROD activity and CYP1A4/5 mRNA expression differed greatly between HCB and TCDD, and may contribute to an overestimation of the ReP value calculated for highly purified HCB. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Assessing the therapeutic potential of lab-made hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Rezvani, Milad; Grimm, Andrew A; Willenbring, Holger

    2016-07-01

    Hepatocyte transplantation has potential as a bridge or even alternative to whole-organ liver transplantation. Because donor livers are scarce, realizing this potential requires the development of alternative cell sources. To be therapeutically effective, surrogate hepatocytes must replicate the complex function and ability to proliferate of primary human hepatocytes. Ideally, they are also autologous to eliminate the need for immune suppression, which can have severe side effects and may not be sufficient to prevent rejection long term. In the past decade, several methods have been developed to generate hepatocytes from other readily and safely accessible somatic cells. These lab-made hepatocytes show promise in animal models of liver diseases, supporting the feasibility of autologous liver cell therapies. Here, we review recent preclinical studies exemplifying different types of lab-made hepatocytes that can potentially be used in autologous liver cell therapies. To define the therapeutic efficacy of current lab-made hepatocytes, we compare them to primary human hepatocytes, focusing on engraftment efficiency and posttransplant proliferation and function. In addition to summarizing published results, we discuss animal models and assays effective in assessing therapeutic efficacy. This analysis underscores the therapeutic potential of current lab-made hepatocytes, but also highlights deficiencies and uncertainties that need to be addressed in future studies aimed at developing liver cell therapies with lab-made hepatocytes. (Hepatology 2016;64:287-294). © 2016 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  6. Endogenous Bile Acid Disposition in Rat and Human Sandwich-Cultured Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Marion, Tracy L.; Perry, Cassandra H.; St. Claire, Robert L.; Brouwer, Kim L. R.

    2013-01-01

    Sandwich-cultured hepatocytes (SCH) are used commonly to investigate hepatic transport protein-mediated uptake and biliary excretion of substrates. However, little is known about the disposition of endogenous bile acids (BAs) in SCH. In this study, four endogenous conjugated BAs common to rats and humans [taurocholic acid (TCA), glycocholic acid (GCA), taurochenodeoxycholic acid (TCDCA), and glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDCA)], as well as two BA species specific to rodents (α- and β-tauromuricholic acid; α/β TMCA), were profiled in primary rat and human SCH. Using B-CLEAR® technology, BAs were measured in cells+bile canaliculi, cells, and medium of SCH by LC-MS/MS. Results indicated that, just as in vivo, taurine-conjugated BA species were predominant in rat SCH, while glycine-conjugated BAs were predominant in human SCH. Total intracellular BAs remained relatively constant over days in culture in rat SCH. Total BAs in control (CTL) cells+bile, cells, and medium were approximately 3.4, 2.9, and 8.3-fold greater in human than in rat. The estimated intracellular concentrations of the measured total BAs were 64.3 ± 5.85 μM in CTL rat and 183 ± 55.6 μM in CTL human SCH, while medium concentrations of the total BAs measured were 1.16 ± 0.210 μM in CTL rat SCH and 9.61 ± 6.36 μM in CTL human SCH. Treatment of cells for 24 h with 10 μM troglitazone (TRO), an inhibitor of the bile salt export pump (BSEP) and the Na+-taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP), had no significant effect on endogenous BAs measured at the end of the 24-h culture period, potentially due to compensatory mechanisms that maintain BA homeostasis. These data demonstrate that BAs in SCH are similar to in vivo, and that SCH may be a useful in vitro model to study alterations in BA disposition if species differences are taken into account. PMID:22342602

  7. DNA Adduct Formation of 4-Aminobiphenyl and Heterocyclic Aromatic Amines in Human Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Nauwelaers, Gwendoline; Bessette, Erin E.; Gu, Dan; Tang, Yijin; Rageul, Julie; Fessard, Valérie; Yuan, Jian-Min; Yu, Mimi C.; Langouët, Sophie; Turesky, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    DNA adduct formation of the aromatic amine, 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP), a known human carcinogen present in tobacco smoke, and the heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs), 2-amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (AαC), 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), and 2-amino-3,8-dimethylmidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), potential human carcinogens, which are also present in tobacco smoke or formed during the high-temperature cooking of meats, was investigated in freshly cultured human hepatocytes. The carcinogens (10 μM) were incubated with hepatocytes derived from eight different donors for time periods up to 24 h. The DNA adducts were quantified by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry with a linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer. The principal DNA adducts formed for all of the carcinogens were N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl) (dG-C8) adducts. The levels of adducts ranged from 3.4 to 140 adducts per 107 DNA bases. The highest level of adduct formation occurred with AαC, followed by 4-ABP, then by PhIP, MeIQx, and IQ. Human hepatocytes formed dG-C8-HAA-adducts at levels that were up to 100-fold greater than the amounts of adducts produced in rat hepatocytes. In contrast to HAA adducts, the levels of dG-C8-4-ABP adduct formation were similar in human and rat hepatocytes. These DNA binding data demonstrate that the rat, an animal model that is used for carcinogenesis bioassays, significantly underestimates the potential hepatic genotoxicity of HAAs in humans. The high level of DNA adducts formed by AαC, a carcinogen produced in tobacco smoke at levels that are up to 100-fold higher than the amounts of 4-ABP, is noteworthy. The possible causal role of AαC in tobacco-associated cancers warrants investigation. PMID:21456541

  8. Hep-G2 cells and primary rat hepatocytes differ in their response to inhibitors of HMG-CoA reductase.

    PubMed

    Shaw, M K; Newton, R S; Sliskovic, D R; Roth, B D; Ferguson, E; Krause, B R

    1990-07-31

    CI-981, a novel synthetic inhibitor of HMG-CoA reductase, was previously reported to be highly liver-selective using an ex vivo approach. In order to determine liver-selectivity at the cellular level, CI-981 was evaluated in cell culture and compared to lovastatin, pravastatin, fluvastatin and BMY-21950. Using human cell lines, none of the compounds tested showed liver-selectivity, i.e. strong inhibition of cholesterol synthesis in Hep-G2 cells (liver model) but weak inhibition in human fibroblasts (peripheral cell model). In contrast, all drugs tested produced equal and potent inhibition of sterol synthesis in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes, and CI-981, pravastatin and BMY-21950 were more than 100-fold more potent in rat hepatocytes compared to human fibroblasts. Since all compounds were also equally potent at inhibiting sterol synthesis in a rat subcellular system and in vivo, the data suggest that the use of Hep-G2 cells may not be the cell system of choice in which to study inhibition of hepatic cholesterogenesis or to demonstrate liver selectivity of inhibitors of HMG-CoA reductase.

  9. Hepatoprotective effects of Poly-[hemoglobin-superoxide dismutase-catalase-carbonic anhydrase] on alcohol-damaged primary rat hepatocyte culture in vitro.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wenhua; Bian, Yuzhu; Wang, Zhenghui; Chang, Thomas Ming Swi

    2017-02-01

    We have prepared a novel nanobiotherapeutic, Poly-[hemoglobin-superoxide dismutase-catalase-carbonic anhydrase], which not only transports both oxygen and carbon dioxide but also a therapeutic antioxidant. Our previous study in a severe sustained 90 min hemorrhagic shock rat model shows that it has a hepatoprotective effect. We investigate its hepatoprotective effect further in this present report using an alcohol-damaged primary hepatocyte culture model. Results show that it significantly reduced ethanol-induced AST release, lipid peroxidation, and ROS production in rat primary hepatocytes culture. It also significantly enhanced the viability of ethanol-treated hepatocytes. Thus, the result shows that Poly-[hemoglobin-superoxide dismutase-catalase-carbonic anhydrase] also has some hepatoprotective effects against alcohol-induced injury in in vitro rat primary hepatocytes cell culture. This collaborate our previous observation of its hepatoprotective effect in a severe sustained 90-min hemorrhagic shock rat model.

  10. Repression of multiple CYP2D genes in mouse primary hepatocytes with a single siRNA construct.

    PubMed

    Elraghy, Omaima; Baldwin, William S

    2015-01-01

    The Cyp2d subfamily is the second most abun-dant subfamily of hepatic drug-metabolizing CYPs. In mice, there are nine Cyp2d members that are believed to have redundant catalytic activity. We are testing and optimizing the ability of one short interfering RNA (siRNA) construct to knockdown the expression of multiple mouse Cyp2ds in primary hepatocytes. Expression of Cyp2d10, Cyp2d11, Cyp2d22, and Cyp2d26 was observed in the primary male mouse hepatocytes. Cyp2d9, which is male-specific and growth hormone-dependent, was not expressed in male primary hepatocytes, potentially because of its dependence on pulsatile growth hormone release from the anterior pituitary. Several different siRNAs at different concentrations and with different reagents were used to knockdown Cyp2d expression. siRNA constructs designed to repress only one construct often mildly repressed several Cyp2d isoforms. A construct designed to knockdown every Cyp2d isoform provided the best results, especially when incubated with transfection reagents designed specifically for primary cell culture. Interestingly, a construct designed to knockdown all Cyp2d isoforms, except Cyp2d10, caused a 2.5× increase in Cyp2d10 expression, presumably because of a compensatory response. However, while RNA expression is repressed 24 h after siRNA treatment, associated changes in Cyp2d-mediated metabolism are tenuous. Overall, this study provides data on the expression of murine Cyp2ds in primary cell lines, valuable information on designing siRNAs for silencing multiple murine CYPs, and potential pros and cons of using siRNA as a tool for repressing Cyp2d and estimating Cyp2d's role in murine xenobiotic metabolism.

  11. Secretion of albumin and induction of CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 in novel three-dimensional culture system for human hepatocytes using micro-space plate.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Masuhiro; Hagi, Mieko; Ejiri, Yoko; Kishimoto, Sanae; Horie, Toru; Narimatsu, Shizuo; Naito, Shinsaku

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated a novel primary three-dimensional culture system for human hepatocytes using micro-space plates. The functional activity of human hepatocytes in primary culture was determined by measuring albumin secretion from hepatocytes to medium and measuring expression levels of albumin, CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 mRNA. Albumin secretion was higher in micro-space plates compared with traditional plates after 72 h of culture; the levels of albumin secretion from hepatocytes to medium in culture using micro-space plates after 96 h of culture were 2.7-fold higher than those in culture using traditional plates, and secretion of albumin in micro-space plate culture subsequently remained constant. Expression levels of albumin, CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 mRNA in the culture of hepatocytes were significantly higher using micro-space plates than using traditional plates. The inducibility of CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 mRNA after exposure to inducers in hepatocyte culture on micro-space plates was comparable to that in culture on traditional plates, while expression of CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 mRNA after exposure to inducers was higher on micro-space plates than on traditional plates. The present study demonstrates that a novel primary three-dimensional culture system of cryopreserved human hepatocytes using micro-space plates could be used for evaluating the induction of drug-metabolizing enzymes in humans. This in vitro method may thus be useful for screening the induction potency of new drug candidates.

  12. New markers for tracking endoderm induction and hepatocyte differentiation from human pluripotent stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Holtzinger, Audrey; Streeter, Philip R.; Sarangi, Farida; Hillborn, Scott; Niapour, Maryam; Ogawa, Shinichiro; Keller, Gordon

    2015-01-01

    The efficient generation of hepatocytes from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) requires the induction of a proper endoderm population, broadly characterized by the expression of the cell surface marker CXCR4. Strategies to identify and isolate endoderm subpopulations predisposed to the liver fate do not exist. In this study, we generated mouse monoclonal antibodies against human embryonic stem cell-derived definitive endoderm with the goal of identifying cell surface markers that can be used to track the development of this germ layer and its specification to a hepatic fate. Through this approach, we identified two endoderm-specific antibodies, HDE1 and HDE2, which stain different stages of endoderm development and distinct derivative cell types. HDE1 marks a definitive endoderm population with high hepatic potential, whereas staining of HDE2 tracks with developing hepatocyte progenitors and hepatocytes. When used in combination, the staining patterns of these antibodies enable one to optimize endoderm induction and hepatic specification from any hPSC line. PMID:26493401

  13. BOLISM OF ARSENITE IN CULTURED PRIMARY HEPATOCYTES FROM SIX MAMMALIAN SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Inorganic arsenic (iAs) is an environmental toxin and carcinogen. Biomethylation is the major pathway for the metabolism of iAs in many mammalian species, including the human. The liver is considered the primary site for iAs methylation and As (+3 oxidation state) methyltransfera...

  14. BOLISM OF ARSENITE IN CULTURED PRIMARY HEPATOCYTES FROM SIX MAMMALIAN SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Inorganic arsenic (iAs) is an environmental toxin and carcinogen. Biomethylation is the major pathway for the metabolism of iAs in many mammalian species, including the human. The liver is considered the primary site for iAs methylation and As (+3 oxidation state) methyltransfera...

  15. DHA down-regulates phenobarbital-induced cytochrome P450 2B1 gene expression in rat primary hepatocytes by attenuating CAR translocation

    SciTech Connect

    Li, C.-C.; Lii, C.-K.; Liu, K.-L.; Yang, J.-J.; Chen, H.-W.

    2007-12-15

    The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) plays an important role in regulating the expression of detoxifying enzymes, including cytochrome P450 2B (CYP 2B). Phenobarbital (PB) induction of human CYP 2B6 and mouse CYP 2b10 has been shown to be mediated by CAR. Our previous study showed that PB-induced CYP 2B1 expression in rat primary hepatocytes is down-regulated by both n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA); however, the mechanism for this down-regulation by DHA was previously unknown. The objective of the present study was to determine whether change in CAR translocation is involved in the down-regulation by n-6 and n-3 PUFAs of PB-induced CYP 2B1 expression in rat primary hepatocytes. We used 100 {mu}M arachidonic acid, linoleic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and DHA to test this hypothesis. PB triggered the translocation of CAR from the cytosol into the nucleus in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner in our hepatocyte system, and the CAR distribution in rat primary hepatocytes was significantly affected by DHA. DHA treatment decreased PB-inducible accumulation of CAR in the nuclear fraction and increased it in the cytosolic fraction in a dose-dependent manner. The down-regulation of CYP 2B1 expression by DHA occurred in a dose-dependent manner, and a similar pattern was found for the nuclear accumulation of CAR. The results of immunoprecipitation showed a CAR/RXR heterodimer bound to nuclear receptor binding site 1 (NR-1) of the PB-responsive enhancer module (PBREM) of the CYP 2B1gene. The EMSA results showed that PB-induced CAR binding to NR-1 was attenuated by DHA. Taken together, these results suggest that attenuation of CAR translocation and decreased subsequent binding to NR-1 are involved in DHA's down-regulation of PB-induced CYP 2B1 expression.

  16. Nuclear and Mitochondrial DNA Methylation Patterns Induced by Valproic Acid in Human Hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Wolters, Jarno E J; van Breda, Simone G J; Caiment, Florian; Claessen, Sandra M; de Kok, Theo M C M; Kleinjans, Jos C S

    2017-09-13

    Valproic acid (VPA) is one of the most widely prescribed antiepileptic drugs in the world. Despite its pharmacological importance, it may cause liver toxicity and steatosis through mitochondrial dysfunction. The aim of this study is to further investigate VPA-induced mechanisms of steatosis by analyzing changes in patterns of methylation in nuclear DNA (nDNA) and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Therefore, primary human hepatocytes (PHHs) were exposed to an incubation concentration of VPA that was shown to cause steatosis without inducing overt cytotoxicity. VPA was administered daily for 5 days, and this was followed by a 3 day washout (WO). Methylated DNA regions (DMRs) were identified by using the methylated DNA immunoprecipitation-sequencing (MeDIP-seq) method. The nDNA DMRs after VPA treatment could indeed be classified into oxidative stress- and steatosis-related pathways. In particular, networks of the steatosis-related gene EP300 provided novel insight into the mechanisms of toxicity induced by VPA treatment. Furthermore, we suggest that VPA induces a crosstalk between nDNA hypermethylation and mtDNA hypomethylation that plays a role in oxidative stress and steatosis development. Although most VPA-induced methylation patterns appeared reversible upon terminating VPA treatment, 31 nDNA DMRs (including 5 zinc finger protein genes) remained persistent after the WO period. Overall, we have shown that MeDIP-seq analysis is highly informative in disclosing novel mechanisms of VPA-induced toxicity in PHHs. Our results thus provide a prototype for the novel generation of interesting methylation biomarkers for repeated dose liver toxicity in vitro.

  17. Cross-species transmission of gibbon and orangutan hepatitis B virus to uPA/SCID mice with human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Sa-Nguanmoo, Pattaratida; Tanaka, Yasuhito; Ratanakorn, Parntep; Sugiyama, Masaya; Murakami, Shuko; Payungporn, Sunchai; Sommanustweechai, Angkana; Mizokami, Masashi; Poovorawan, Yong

    2011-06-01

    To investigate the potential of cross-species transmission of non-human primate HBV to humans, severe combined immunodeficiency mice transgenic for urokinase-type plasminogen activator, in which the mouse liver has been engrafted with human hepatocytes, were inoculated with non-human primate HBV. HBV-DNA positive serum samples from a gibbon or orangutan were inoculated into 6 chimeric mice. HBV-DNA, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), and HB core-related antigen in sera and HBV cccDNA in liver were detectable in 2 of 3 mice each from the gibbon and orangutan. Likewise, applying immunofluorescence HBV core protein was only found in human hepatocytes expressing human albumin. The HBV sequences from mouse sera were identical to those from orangutan and gibbon sera determined prior to inoculation. In conclusion, human hepatocytes have been infected with gibbon/orangutan HBV.

  18. Primary cultured cells as sensitive in vitro model for assessment of toxicants--comparison to hepatocytes and gill epithelia.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Bingsheng; Liu, Chunsheng; Wang, Jingxian; Lam, Paul K S; Wu, Rudolf S S

    2006-11-16

    In an effort to develop cultured cell models for toxicity screening and environmental biomonitoring, we compared primary cultured gill epithelia and hepatocytes from freshwater tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) to assess their sensitivity to AhR agonist toxicants. Epithelia were cultured on permeable supports (terephthalate membranes, "filters") and bathed on the apical with waterborne toxicants (pseudo in vivo asymmetrical culture conditions). Hepatocytes were cultured in multi-well plates and exposed to toxicants in culture medium. Cytochrome P4501A (measured as 7-Ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase, EROD) was selected as a biomarker. For cultured gill epithelia, the integrity of the epithelia remained unchanged on exposure to model toxicants, such as 1,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), benzo(a)pyrene B[a]P, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixture (Aroclor 1254), and polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) mixture (DE71). A good concentration-dependent response of EROD activity was clearly observed in both cultured gill epithelia and hepatocytes. The time-course response of EROD was measured as early as 3h, and was maximal after 6h of exposure to TCDD, B[a]P and Aroclor 1254. The estimated 6h EC50 for TCDD, B[a]P, and Aroclor 1254 was 1.2 x 10(-9), 5.7 x 10(-8) and 6.6 x 10(-6)M. For the cultured hepatocytes, time-course study showed that a significant induction of EROD took place at 18 h, and the maximal induction of EROD was observed at 24h after exposure. The estimated 24h EC50 for TCDD, B[a]P, and Aroclor 1254 was 1.4 x 10(-9), 8.1 x 10(-8) and 7.3 x 10(-6)M. There was no induction or inhibition of EROD in DE71 exposure to both gill epithelia and hepatocytes. The results show that cultured gill epithelia more rapidly induce EROD and are slightly more sensitive than cultured hepatocytes, and could be used as a rapid and sensitive tool for screening chemicals and monitoring environmental AhR agonist toxicants.

  19. Pathway Analysis and Modeling of the Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells into Hepatocyte-like Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daskalaki, Andriani; Jozefczuk, Justyna; Lehrach, Hans; Adjaye, James; Wierling, Christoph

    2011-06-01

    A more detailed understanding of the differentiation of human embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells into hepatocyte-like cells can help to improve therapies for liver diseases, like steatohepatitis. In this work we used microarray-based expression data to analyze the in vitro differentiation of human embryonic stem cells into hepatocytes. Pathway analysis has been carried out on gene expression data of different stages of the differentiation process from embryonic stem cells into hepatocyte-like cells via definitive endoderm and hepatic endoderm. Based on pathway analysis we identified signaling pathways, like the GPCR signaling pathway as well as FOXA2 regulatory networks. Based on these highly enriched pathways we constructed a model prototype to better understand and study the differentiation of stem cells into hepatocytes.

  20. Differential effects of long-term exposure to Aroclor 1254 on lipid secretion by primary cultures of adult rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Mendoza-Figueroa, T.; Hernandez, A.; Lopez, L.

    1992-06-01

    PCBs produce hepatic triglyceride (TG) accumulation (fatty liver) in experimental animals and humans exposed accidentally and occupationally. It has been suggested that this effect could be due to a block in TG secretion. On the other hand, increased levels of plasmatic TG and cholesterol have been described in rats after dietary exposure to Aroclor 1254 (Aro) and other PCBs; hypertriglyceridemia and hypertension have been also described in humans exposed for long periods to low concentrations of PCBs. Since the study of hepatic lipid metabolism and its alteration by toxic chemicals is complicated in the whole animal, short term cultures of adult rat hepatocytes have been used. We have described a system for the long term culture of adult rat hepatocytes which for several weeks maintain differentiated functions, like fatty acid and TG synthesis and their export to the culture medium. In this paper we used this culture system to study the effect of long-term exposure to micromolar concentrations of Aro on the secretion of lipids by cultured hepatocytes. 27 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Induction of ethoxy-resorufin-O-deethylase activity by halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in primary hepatocytes of the green frog (Rana esculenta).

    PubMed

    Rankouhi, Tanja Rouhani; Koomen, Bas; Sanderson, J Thomas; Bosveld, Albertus T C; Seinen, Willem; van den Berg, Martin

    2005-06-01

    In this study, we measured the ethoxy-resorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity in primary hepatocytes of the common green frog Rana esculenta as a biomarker for cytochrome P4501A induction. We exposed hepatocytes derived from male and female frogs to several halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons, such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (PCDF), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB-126, PCB-118), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), chrysene, anthracene, and pyrene. Exposure to PCB-118, anthracene, and pyrene, up to 1 microM, did not induce EROD activity, whereas TCDD and PCDF induced EROD activity maximally. In our primary frog hepatocytes, exposure to chrysene and BaP resulted in median effective concentration values (EC50) in the high nM range (82-1035 nM). Exposure to TCDD, PCDF, and PCB-126 resulted in EC50 values of 0.4 to 8, 0.07 to 0.7, and 3 to 133 nM, respectively, which is in the same range as EC50 values found in primary hepatocytes of birds. Compared to our frog hepatocytes, primary rat hepatocytes seem to be more sensitive to TCDD, chrysene, and BaP.

  2. Effects of inhibiting PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway on lipid metabolism homeostasis in goose primary hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Liu, D D; Han, C C; Wan, H F; He, F; Xu, H Y; Wei, S H; Du, X H; Xu, F

    2016-08-01

    Phosphatidylinositol-3 kinases (PI3K)-Protein kinase B (Akt)-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway plays an important role in the synthesis and secretion of triacylglycerol. However, the mechanism of PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway in regulating lipid metabolism of goose liver was poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to determine how PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway regulating lipid metabolic homeostasis in goose hepatocytes. Goose primary hepatocytes were treated with different PI3K-Akt-mTOR signal inhibitors (LY294002, rapamycin and NVP-BEZ235) for 24 h. The results showed that these inhibitors evidently inhibited PI3K-Akt-mTOR downstream signaling. Meanwhile, these PI3K-Akt-mTOR inhibitors reduced intracellular lipid accumulation, decreased the mRNA expression and protein content of genes involved in the de novo fatty acid synthesis, while increased the transcriptional and protein level of key factors involved in fatty acid oxidation and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) assembly and secretion. These findings suggested that the reduction of lipids accumulation induced-by inhibiting PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway was closely linked to the decrease of lipogenesis, the increase of fatty acids oxidation, and the increase of VLDL assembly and secretion in goose hepatocytes.

  3. Molecular mechanism of catalase activity change under sodium dodecyl sulfate-induced oxidative stress in the mouse primary hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Wang, Jiaxi; Xu, Chi; Liu, Rutao; Chen, Yadong

    2016-04-15

    Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) contributes to adverse effects of organisms probably because of its ability to induce oxidative stress via changing the activity of antioxidant enzyme catalase (CAT). But the underlying molecular mechanisms still remain unclear. This study characterized the harmful effects of SDS-induced oxidative stress on the mouse primary hepatocytes as well as the structure and function of CAT molecule and investigated the underlying molecular mechanism. After 12h SDS (0.1μM to 0.2mM) exposure, no significant change was observed in CAT activity of the hepatocytes. After 0.5 and 0.8mM SDS exposure, the state of oxidative stress stimulated CAT production in the hepatocytes. The inhibition of CAT activity induced by directly interacting with SDS was unable to catch the synthesis of CAT and therefore resulted in the increased activity and elevated ROS level. Further molecular experiments showed that SDS prefers to bind to the interface with no direct effect on the active site and the structure of heme groups of CAT molecule. When the sites in the interface is saturated, SDS interacts with VAL 73, HIS 74, ASN 147 and PHE 152, the key residues of the enzyme activity, and leads to the decrease of CAT activity.

  4. Amylin impairment of insulin effects on glycogen synthesis and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase gene expression in rat primary cultured hepatocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Baqué, S; Guinovart, J J; Gómez-Foix, A M

    1994-01-01

    The ability of amylin to impair hepatic insulin action is controversial. We have found that the effect of amylin in primary cultured hepatocytes is strongly dependent on the culture conditions. Only in hepatocytes preincubated in the presence of fetal serum did amylin, at concentrations ranging from 1 to 100 nM, reduce insulin-stimulated glycogen synthesis rate and glycogen accumulation without showing direct effects. Neither basal glycogen synthase nor glycogen phosphorylase activity was modified by amylin treatment. Nevertheless, amylin (100 nM) blocked the activation of glycogen synthase by insulin. Amylin also proved capable of opposing the reduction in the expression of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) gene induced by insulin, whereas the basal mRNA level of PEPCK was unaffected by amylin treatment. Thus, these results show that, in cultured rat hepatocytes, amylin is indeed able to interfere with insulin regulation of glycogenesis and PEPCK gene expression, favouring the hypothesis that amylin may modulate liver sensitivity to insulin. Images Figure 3 PMID:7998979

  5. Mechanistic insights from comparing intrinsic clearance values between human liver microsomes and hepatocytes to guide drug design.

    PubMed

    Di, Li; Keefer, Christopher; Scott, Dennis O; Strelevitz, Timothy J; Chang, George; Bi, Yi-An; Lai, Yurong; Duckworth, Jonathon; Fenner, Katherine; Troutman, Matthew D; Obach, R Scott

    2012-11-01

    Metabolic stability of drug candidates are often determined in both liver microsome and hepatocyte assays. Comparison of intrinsic clearance values between the two assays provides additional information to guide drug design. Intrinsic clearance values from human liver microsomes and hepatocytes were compared for a set of commercial drugs with known metabolic pathways and transporter characteristics. The results showed that for compounds that were predominately metabolized by CYP mediated mechanisms, the intrinsic clearance values from the two assays were comparable. For compounds with non-CYP pathways, such as UGT and AO, intrinsic clearance was faster in hepatocytes than in microsomes. Substrates of uptake or efflux transporters in this study did not have significant differences of intrinsic clearance between microsomes and hepatocytes, when uptake into the hepatocytes was not the rate-limiting step. When hepatic uptake was rate limiting, intrinsic clearance in microsomes was faster than that in hepatocytes, which was more prevalent for compounds with rapid metabolism. Low passive permeability can limit the exposure to drug molecules to the metabolizing enzymes in the hepatocytes in relationship to the rate of metabolism. The faster the rate of metabolism, the higher permeability is needed for molecule to enter the cells and not becoming rate-limiting. The findings are very useful for drug discovery programs to gain additional insights on mechanistic information to help drug design without added experiments. Follow-up studies can then be designed to address specific questions.

  6. Modulation of protein synthesis and secretion by substratum in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Sudhakaran, P.R.; Stamatoglou, S.C.; Hughes, R.C.

    1986-12-01

    Hepatocytes isolated by perfusion of adult rat liver and cultured on substrata consisting of one or more of the major components of the liver biomatrix (fibronectin, laminin, type IV collagen) have been examined for the synthesis of defined proteins. Under these conditions, tyrosine amino transferase, a marker of hepatocyte function, is maintained at similar levels in response to dexamethasone over 5 days in culture on each substratum, and total cellular protein synthesis remains constant. By contrast, there is a rapid decrease in synthesis and secretion of albumin and a 3-7-fold increase in synthesis and section of ..cap alpha..-fetoprotein which are most marked on a laminin substratum, but least evident on type IV collagen, and an increased synthesis of fibronectin and type IV collagen. The newly synthesized matrix proteins are present in the cell layer as well as in cell secretions. The enhanced synthesis of fibronectin is less in cells seeded onto a fibronectin substratum than on laminin or type IV collagen substrata. These results indicate that hepatocytes cultured in serum-free medium on substrata composed of components of the liver biomatrix maintain certain functions of the differentiated state (tyrosine amino transferase), lose others (albumin secretion) and switch to increased synthesis of matrix components as well as fetal markers such as ..cap alpha..-fetoprotein. The magnitude of these effects depends on the substratum on which the hepatocytes are cultured.

  7. 3D co-culturing model of primary pancreatic islets and hepatocytes in hybrid spheroid to overcome pancreatic cell shortage.

    PubMed

    Jun, Yesl; Kang, Ah Ran; Lee, Jae Seo; Jeong, Gi Seok; Ju, Jongil; Lee, Dong Yun; Lee, Sang-Hoon

    2013-05-01

    Here, a spheroidal 3D co-culture model of primary (rat) pancreatic islets and hepatocytes with uniform size and shape was developed using hemispheric concave microwell arrays. We conducted morphological and functional analyses of hybrid spheroids versus mono-cultures of islets or hepatocytes (controls). For the establishment of a 3D hybrid model, a broad range of cell ratios - 1:1, 1:3, 1:5, 1:7, 3:1, 5:1 and 7:1 mixture - of hepatocytes and pancreatic islets were used. As control, each hepatocyte and pancreatic islet were mono-cultured forming 3D spheroids. The transient morphology of spheroid formation in 9 culture models was observed using optical microscopy. Cell viability under these culture environments was assessed, and the morphologies of the outer and inner porous cell-spheroid structures were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and imaging of stained spheroid sections. The pancreatic islet-specific function of hybrid spheroids was evaluated by measuring insulin secretion and in vivo test by xenotransplantation of encapsulated spheroids in microfibers with a consistent maintenance of normal blood glucose levels over 4 weeks, while liver-specific functions were measured in terms of albumin secretion, urea secretion and cytochrome P450 activity. These diverse observations and evaluations validated the positive and bidirectional effects of co-cultured 3D spheroids. The proposed 3D co-culture model demonstrated that both cells appeared to support each other's functions strongly in spheroids, even though smaller proportions of each cell type was evaluated compared to mono-culture models, suggesting that the proposed model could help overcome the problem of cell shortages in clinical applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Metabolism of Oxycodone in Human Hepatocytes from Different Age Groups and Prediction of Hepatic Plasma Clearance

    PubMed Central

    Korjamo, Timo; Tolonen, Ari; Ranta, Veli-Pekka; Turpeinen, Miia; Kokki, Hannu

    2012-01-01

    Oxycodone is commonly used to treat severe pain in adults and children. It is extensively metabolized in the liver in adults, but the maturation of metabolism is not well understood. Our aim was to study the metabolism of oxycodone in cryopreserved human hepatocytes from different age groups (3 days, 2 and 5 months, 4 years, adult pool) and predict hepatic plasma clearance of oxycodone using these data. Oxycodone (0.1, 1, and 10 μM) was incubated with hepatocytes for 4 h, and 1 μM oxycodone also with CYP3A inhibitor ketoconazole (1 μM). Oxycodone and noroxycodone concentrations were determined at several time points with liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. In vitro clearance of oxycodone was used to predict hepatic plasma clearance, using the well-stirred model and published physiological parameters. Noroxycodone was the major metabolite in all batches and ketoconazole inhibited the metabolism markedly in most cases. A clear correlation between in vitro oxycodone clearance and CYP3A4 activity was observed. The predicted hepatic plasma clearances were typically much lower than the published median total plasma clearance from pharmacokinetic studies. The data suggests that there are no children-specific metabolites of oxycodone. Moreover, CYP3A activity seems to be the major determinant in metabolic clearance of oxycodone regardless of age group or individual variability in hepatocyte batches. PMID:22291644

  9. Foxa1 Reduces Lipid Accumulation in Human Hepatocytes and Is Down-Regulated in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver

    PubMed Central

    Moya, Marta; Benet, Marta; Guzmán, Carla; Tolosa, Laia; García-Monzón, Carmelo; Pareja, Eugenia; Castell, José Vicente; Jover, Ramiro

    2012-01-01

    Triglyceride accumulation in nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) results from unbalanced lipid metabolism which, in the liver, is controlled by several transcription factors. The Foxa subfamily of winged helix/forkhead box (Fox) transcription factors comprises three members which play important roles in controlling both metabolism and homeostasis through the regulation of multiple target genes in the liver, pancreas and adipose tissue. In the mouse liver, Foxa2 is repressed by insulin and mediates fasting responses. Unlike Foxa2 however, the role of Foxa1 in the liver has not yet been investigated in detail. In this study, we evaluate the role of Foxa1 in two human liver cell models, primary cultured hepatocytes and HepG2 cells, by adenoviral infection. Moreover, human and rat livers were analyzed to determine Foxa1 regulation in NAFL. Results demonstrate that Foxa1 is a potent inhibitor of hepatic triglyceride synthesis, accumulation and secretion by repressing the expression of multiple target genes of these pathways (e.g., GPAM, DGAT2, MTP, APOB). Moreover, Foxa1 represses the fatty acid transporter protein FATP2 and lowers fatty acid uptake. Foxa1 also increases the breakdown of fatty acids by inducing peroxisomal fatty acid β-oxidation and ketone body synthesis. Finally, Foxa1 is able to largely up-regulate UCP1, thereby dissipating energy and consistently decreasing the mitochondria membrane potential. We also report that human and rat NAFL have a reduced Foxa1 expression, possibly through a protein kinase C-dependent pathway. We conclude that Foxa1 is an antisteatotic factor that coordinately tunes several lipid metabolic pathways to block triglyceride accumulation in hepatocytes. However, Foxa1 is down-regulated in human and rat NAFL and, therefore, increasing Foxa1 levels could protect from steatosis. Altogether, we suggest that Foxa1 could be a novel therapeutic target for NAFL disease and insulin resistance. PMID:22238690

  10. Sulindac and Its Metabolites Inhibit Multiple Transport Proteins in Rat and Human Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jin Kyung; Paine, Mary F.

    2010-01-01

    Sulindac is a commonly used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. This study tested the hypothesis that sulindac-mediated drug–drug interactions and/or hepatotoxicity may be caused, in part, by inhibition of proteins responsible for the hepatic transport of drugs and/or bile acids by sulindac and/or sulindac metabolites [sulindac sulfone (S-sulfone) and sulindac sulfide (S-sulfide)]. The uptake and excretion of model substrates, [3H]taurocholate (TC), [3H]estradiol 17-β-glucuronide (E217G), and nitrofurantoin (NF), were investigated in rat and human suspended and sandwich-cultured hepatocytes (SCH). In suspended rat hepatocytes, S-sulfone and S-sulfide inhibited Na+-dependent TC initial uptake (IC50 of 24.9 ± 6.4 and 12.5 ± 1.8 μM, respectively) and Na+-independent E217G initial uptake (IC50 of 12.1 ± 1.6 and 6.3 ± 0.3 μM, respectively). In rat SCH, sulindac metabolites (100 μM) decreased the in vitro biliary clearance (Clbiliary) of TC, E217G, and NF by 38 to 83%, 81 to 97%, and 33 to 57%, respectively; S-sulfone and S-sulfide also decreased the TC and NF biliary excretion index by 39 to 55%. In suspended human hepatocytes, S-sulfone and S-sulfide inhibited Na+-dependent TC initial uptake (IC50 of 42.2 and 3.1 μM, respectively); S-sulfide also inhibited the TC Clbiliary in human SCH. Sulindac/metabolites markedly inhibited hepatic uptake and biliary excretion of E217G by 51 to 100% in human SCH. In conclusion, sulindac and metabolites are potent inhibitors of the uptake and biliary clearance of bile acids in rat and human hepatocytes and also inhibit substrates of rat breast cancer resistance protein, rat and human organic anion-transporting polypeptides, and human multidrug resistance-associated protein 2. Inhibition of multiple hepatic transport proteins by sulindac/metabolites may play an important role in clinically significant sulindac-mediated drug–drug interactions and/or liver injury. PMID:20430841

  11. Sulindac and its metabolites inhibit multiple transport proteins in rat and human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin Kyung; Paine, Mary F; Brouwer, Kim L R

    2010-08-01

    Sulindac is a commonly used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. This study tested the hypothesis that sulindac-mediated drug-drug interactions and/or hepatotoxicity may be caused, in part, by inhibition of proteins responsible for the hepatic transport of drugs and/or bile acids by sulindac and/or sulindac metabolites [sulindac sulfone (S-sulfone) and sulindac sulfide (S-sulfide)]. The uptake and excretion of model substrates, [(3)H]taurocholate (TC), [(3)H]estradiol 17-beta-glucuronide (E217G), and nitrofurantoin (NF), were investigated in rat and human suspended and sandwich-cultured hepatocytes (SCH). In suspended rat hepatocytes, S-sulfone and S-sulfide inhibited Na(+)-dependent TC initial uptake (IC(50) of 24.9 +/- 6.4 and 12.5 +/- 1.8 microM, respectively) and Na(+)-independent E217G initial uptake (IC(50) of 12.1 +/- 1.6 and 6.3 +/- 0.3 microM, respectively). In rat SCH, sulindac metabolites (100 microM) decreased the in vitro biliary clearance (Cl(biliary)) of TC, E217G, and NF by 38 to 83%, 81 to 97%, and 33 to 57%, respectively; S-sulfone and S-sulfide also decreased the TC and NF biliary excretion index by 39 to 55%. In suspended human hepatocytes, S-sulfone and S-sulfide inhibited Na(+)-dependent TC initial uptake (IC(50) of 42.2 and 3.1 microM, respectively); S-sulfide also inhibited the TC Cl(biliary) in human SCH. Sulindac/metabolites markedly inhibited hepatic uptake and biliary excretion of E217G by 51 to 100% in human SCH. In conclusion, sulindac and metabolites are potent inhibitors of the uptake and biliary clearance of bile acids in rat and human hepatocytes and also inhibit substrates of rat breast cancer resistance protein, rat and human organic anion-transporting polypeptides, and human multidrug resistance-associated protein 2. Inhibition of multiple hepatic transport proteins by sulindac/metabolites may play an important role in clinically significant sulindac-mediated drug-drug interactions and/or liver injury.

  12. Differentiation of human foreskin fibroblast-derived induced pluripotent stem cells into hepatocyte-like cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianjun; Zhao, Ping; Wan, Zhihong; Jin, Xueyuan; Cheng, Yongqian; Yan, Tao; Qing, Song; Ding, Ning; Xin, Shaojie

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the differentiation potential of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from human foreskin fibroblasts (HFFs) into hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs). The iPSCs were firstly induced by transduction of OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, and c-MYC into HFFs using retrovirus. Afterwards, expressions of pluripotency factors were identified by semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescence staining, and karyotype, embryoid, and teratoma were observed by microscope. Then, iPSCs were gradually differentiated into endoderm cells, hepatic progenitor cells, and mature HLCs by special culture medium. During this process, differentiation efficiency into each kind of cells was evaluated by detecting SOX17, HNF4a, and ALB using flow cytometry, respectively. Besides, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was conducted to detect the secretion of ALB in iPSC-induced HLCs and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was performed to detect the expression levels of hepatocyte-specific genes. The iPSCs were successfully induced by HFFs, which exhibited typical embryonic stem cells morphology, positive alkaline phosphatase staining, normal diploid karyotype, and positive expression of various pluripotency factors. Meanwhile, spherical embryoid and teratoma with 3 germ layers were formed by iPSCs. The iPSCs were consecutively induced into endoderm cells, hepatic progenitor cells and mature HLCs, and the differentiation efficiency was 55.7 ± 2.9%, 45.7 ± 4.8%, and 35.0 ± 3.9%, respectively. Besides, the secretion of ALB and expression of various hepatocyte-specific genes was highly detected in iPSC-induced HLCs. The iPSCs were successfully derived from HFFs and then differentiated into HLCs, which proved a new source for hepatocyte transplantation.

  13. Insulin-Regulated Srebp-1c and Pck1 mRNA Expression in Primary Hepatocytes from Zucker Fatty but Not Lean Rats Is Affected by Feeding Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Chen, Wei; Li, Rui; Li, Yang; Ge, Yuebin; Chen, Guoxun

    2011-01-01

    Insulin regulates the transcription of genes for hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism. We hypothesized that this action may be impaired in hepatocytes from insulin resistant animals. Primary hepatocytes from insulin sensitive Zucker lean (ZL) and insulin resistant Zucker fatty (ZF) rats in ad libitum or after an overnight fasting were isolated, cultured and treated with insulin and other compounds for analysis of gene expression using real-time PCR. The mRNA levels of one insulin-induced (Srebp-1c) and one insulin-suppressed (Pck1) genes in response to insulin, glucagon, and compactin treatments in hepatocytes from ad libitum ZL and ZF rats were analyzed. Additionally, the effects of insulin and T1317 on their levels in hepatocytes from ad libitum or fasted ZL or ZF rats were compared. The mRNA levels of Srebp-1c, Fas, and Scd1, but not that of Insr, Gck and Pck1, were higher in freshly isolated hepatocytes from ad libitum ZF than that from ZL rats. These patterns of Srebp-1c and Pck1 mRNA levels remained in primary hepatocyte cultured in vitro. Insulin's ability to regulate Srebp-1c and Pck1 expression was diminished in hepatocytes from ad libitum ZF, but not ZL rats. Glucagon or compactin suppressed Srebp-1c mRNA expression in lean, but not fatty hepatocytes. However, glucagon induced Pck1 mRNA expression similarly in hepatocytes from ad libitum ZL and ZF rats. Insulin caused the same dose-dependent increase of Akt phosphorylation in hepatocytes from ad libitum ZL and ZF rats. It synergized with T1317 to induce Srebp-1c, and suppressed Pck1 mRNA levels in hepatocytes from fasted, but not that from ad libitum ZF rats. We demonstrated that insulin was unable to regulate its downstream genes' mRNA expression in hepatocytes from ad libitum ZF rats. This impairment can be partially restored in hepatocytes from ZF rats after an overnight fasting, a phenomenon that deserves further investigation. PMID:21731709

  14. Toxicity of green tea extracts and their constituents in rat hepatocytes in primary culture.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, M; Schmitz, H-J; Baumgart, A; Guédon, D; Netsch, M I; Kreuter, M-H; Schmidlin, C B; Schrenk, D

    2005-02-01

    Recent reports on sporadic cases of liver disorders (acute hepatitis, icterus, hepatocellular necrosis) after ingestion of dietary supplements based on hydro-alcoholic extracts from green tea leaves led to restrictions of the marketing of such products in certain countries of the EU. Since green tea is considered to exert a number of beneficial health effects, and, therefore, green tea products are widely used as dietary supplements, we were interested in the possible mechanism of hepatotoxicity of green tea extracts and in the components involved in such effects. Seven hours after seeding on collagen, rat hepatocytes in primary culture were treated with various hydro-alcoholic green tea extracts (two different native 80% ethanolic dry extracts and an 80% ethanolic dry extract cleared from lipophilic compounds). Cells were washed, and reduction of resazurin, used as a viability parameter monitoring intact mitochondrial function, was determined. It was found that all seven green tea extracts examined enhanced resazurin reduction significantly at a concentration range of 100-500 microg/ml medium, while a significant decrease was observed at 1-3mg/ml medium. Decreased levels were concomitant with abundant necrosis as observed by microscopic inspection of the cultures and with increased leakage of lactate dehydrogenase activity from the cells. In a separate series of experiments, the green tea constituents (-)-epicatechin, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate, caffeine and theanine were tested at concentrations reflecting their levels in a typical green tea extract. Synthetic (+)-epigallocatechin (200 microM) was used for comparison. Cytotoxicity was found with (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate only. The concomitant addition of 0.25 mM ascorbate/0.05 mM alpha-tocopherol had no influence on cytotoxicity. In conclusion, our results suggest that high concentrations of green tea extract can exert acute toxicity in rat liver cells. (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate seems to be a key

  15. Definition of metabolism-dependent xenobiotic toxicity with co-cultures of human hepatocytes and mouse 3T3 fibroblasts in the novel integrated discrete multiple organ co-culture (IdMOC) experimental system: results with model toxicants aflatoxin B1, cyclophosphamide and tamoxifen.

    PubMed

    Li, Albert P; Uzgare, Aarti; LaForge, Yumiko S

    2012-07-30

    The integrated discrete multiple organ co-culture system (IdMOC) allows the co-culturing of multiple cell types as physically separated cells interconnected by a common overlying medium. We report here the application of IdMOC with two cell types: the metabolically competent primary human hepatocytes, and a metabolically incompetent cell line, mouse 3T3 fibroblasts, in the definition of the role of hepatic metabolism on the cytotoxicity of three model toxicants: cyclophosphamide (CPA), aflatoxin B1 (AFB) and tamoxifen (TMX). The presence of hepatic metabolism in IdMOC with human hepatocytes was demonstrated by the metabolism of the P450 isoform 3A4 substrate, luciferin-IPA. The three model toxicants showed three distinct patterns of cytotoxic profile: TMX was cytotoxic to 3T3 cells in the absence of hepatocytes, with slightly lower cytotoxicity towards both 3T3 cells and hepatocytes in the IdMOC. AFB was selective toxic towards the human hepatocytes and relatively noncytotoxic towards 3T3 cells both in the presence and absence of the hepatocytes. CPA cytotoxicity to the 3T3 cells was found to be significantly enhanced by the presence of the hepatocytes, with the cytotoxicity dependent of the number of hepatocytes, and with the cytotoxicity attenuated by the presence of a non-specific P450 inhibitor, 1-aminobenzotriazole. We propose here the following classification of toxicants based on the role of hepatic metabolism as defined by the human hepatocyte-3T3 cell IdMOC assay: type I: direct-acting cytotoxicants represented by TMX as indicated by cytotoxicity in 3T3 cells in the absence of hepatocytes; type II: metabolism-dependent cytotoxicity represented by AFB1 with effects localized within the site of metabolic activation (i. e. hepatocytes); and type III: metabolism-dependent cytotoxicity with metabolites that can diffuse out of the hepatocytes to cause toxicity in cells distal from the site of metabolism, as exemplified by CPA.

  16. Lignans from Opuntia ficus-indica seeds protect rat primary hepatocytes and HepG2 cells against ethanol-induced oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung Wha; Yang, Heejung; Kim, Hyeon Woo; Kim, Hong Pyo; Sung, Sang Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Bioactivity-guided isolation of Opuntia ficus-indica (Cactaceae) seeds against ethanol-treated primary rat hepatocytes yielded six lignan compounds. Among the isolates, furofuran lignans 4-6, significantly protected rat hepatocytes against ethanol-induced oxidative stress by reducing intracellular reactive oxygen species levels, preserving antioxidative defense enzyme activities, and maintaining the glutathione content. Moreover, 4 dose-dependently induced the heme oxygenase-1 expression in HepG2 cells.

  17. Ferritin-stimulated lipid peroxidation, lysosomal leak, and macroautophagy promote lysosomal "metastability" in primary hepatocytes determining in vitro cell survival.

    PubMed

    Krenn, Margit A; Schürz, Melanie; Teufl, Bernhard; Uchida, Koji; Eckl, Peter M; Bresgen, Nikolaus

    2015-03-01

    Several pathologies are associated with elevated levels of serum ferritin, for which growth inhibitory properties have been reported; however, the underlying mechanisms are still poorly defined. Previously we have described cytotoxic properties of isoferritins released from primary hepatocytes in vitro, which induce apoptosis in an iron and oxidative stress-dependent mode. Here we show that this ferritin species stimulates endosome clustering and giant endosome formation in primary hepatocytes accompanied by enhanced lysosomal membrane permeability (LMP). In parallel, protein modification by lipid peroxidation-derived 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) is strongly promoted by ferritin, the HNE-modified proteins (HNE-P) showing remarkable aggregation. Emphasizing the prooxidant context, GSH is rapidly depleted and the GSH/GSSG ratio is substantially declining in ferritin-treated cells. Furthermore, ferritin triggers a transient upregulation of macroautophagy which is abolished by iron chelation and apparently supports HNE-P clearance. Macroautophagy inhibition by 3-methyladenine strongly amplifies ferritin cytotoxicity in a time- and concentration-dependent mode, suggesting an important role of macroautophagy on cellular responses to ferritin endocytosis. Moreover, pointing at an involvement of lysosomal proteolysis, ferritin cytotoxicity and lysosome fragility are aggravated by the protease inhibitor leupeptin. In contrast, EGF which suppresses ferritin-induced cell death attenuates ferritin-mediated LMP. In conclusion, we propose that HNE-P accumulation, lysosome dysfunction, and macroautophagy stimulated by ferritin endocytosis provoke lysosomal "metastability" in primary hepatocytes which permits cell survival as long as in- and extrinsic determinants (e.g., antioxidant availability, damage repair, EGF signaling) keep the degree of lysosomal destabilization below cell death-inducing thresholds.

  18. Identification of early target genes of aflatoxin B1 in human hepatocytes, inter-individual variability and comparison with other genotoxic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Josse, Rozenn; Dumont, Julie; Fautrel, Alain; Robin, Marie-Anne; Guillouzo, André

    2012-01-15

    Gene expression profiling has recently emerged as a promising approach to identify early target genes and discriminate genotoxic carcinogens from non-genotoxic carcinogens and non-carcinogens. However, early gene changes induced by genotoxic compounds in human liver remain largely unknown. Primary human hepatocytes and differentiated HepaRG cells were exposed to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) that induces DNA damage following enzyme-mediated bioactivation. Gene expression profile changes induced by a 24 h exposure of these hepatocyte models to 0.05 and 0.25 μM AFB1 were analyzed by using oligonucleotide pangenomic microarrays. The main altered signaling pathway was the p53 pathway and related functions such as cell cycle, apoptosis and DNA repair. Direct involvement of the p53 protein in response to AFB1 was verified by using siRNA directed against p53. Among the 83 well-annotated genes commonly modulated in two pools of three human hepatocyte populations and HepaRG cells, several genes were identified as altered by AFB1 for the first time. In addition, a subset of 10 AFB1-altered genes, selected upon basis of their function or tumor suppressor role, was tested in four human hepatocyte populations and in response to other chemicals. Although they exhibited large variable inter-donor fold-changes, several of these genes, particularly FHIT, BCAS3 and SMYD3, were found to be altered by various direct and other indirect genotoxic compounds and unaffected by non-genotoxic compounds. Overall, this comprehensive analysis of early gene expression changes induced by AFB1 in human hepatocytes identified a gene subset that included several genes representing potential biomarkers of genotoxic compounds. -- Highlights: ► Gene expression profile changes induced by aflatoxin B1 in human hepatocytes. ► AFB1 modulates various genes including tumor suppressor genes and proto-oncogenes. ► Important inter-individual variations in the response to AFB1. ► Some genes also altered by other

  19. Decreased hepatocyte membrane potential differences and GABAA-beta3 expression in human hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Minuk, Gerald Y; Zhang, Manna; Gong, Yuewen; Minuk, Leonard; Dienes, Hans; Pettigrew, Norman; Kew, Michael; Lipschitz, Jeremy; Sun, Dongfeng

    2007-03-01

    To determine whether hepatocyte membrane potential differences (PDs) are depolarized in human HCC and whether depolarization is associated with changes in GABAA receptor expression, hepatocyte PDs and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptor messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression were documented in HCC tissues via microelectrode impalement, real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, and Western blot analysis, respectively. HCC tissues were significantly depolarized (-19.8+/-1.3 versus -25.9+/-3.2 mV, respectively [P<0.05]), and GABAA-beta3 expression was down-regulated (GABAA-beta3 mRNA and protein expression in HCC; 5,693+/-1,385 and 0.29+/-0.11 versus 11,046+/-4,979 copies/100 mg RNA and 0.62+/-0.16 optical density in adjacent tumor tissues, respectively [P=0.002 and P<0.0001, respectively]) when compared with adjacent nontumor tissues. To determine the physiological relevance of the down-regulation, human malignant hepatocytes deficient in GABAA-beta3 receptor expression (Huh-7 cells) were transfected with GABAA-beta3 complementary DNA (cDNA) or vector alone and injected into nu/nu nude mice (n=16-17 group). Tumors developed after a mean (+/-SD) of 51+/-6 days (range: 41-60 days) in 7/16 (44%) mice injected with vector-transfected cells and 70+/-12 days (range: 59-86 days) in 4/17 (24%) mice injected with GABAA-beta3 cDNA-transfected cells (P<0.005). The results of this study indicate that (1) human HCC tissues are depolarized compared with adjacent nontumor tissues, (2) hepatic GABAA-beta3 receptor expression is down-regulated in human HCC, and (3) restoration of GABAA-beta3 receptor expression results in attenuated in vivo tumor growth in nude mice.

  20. Effects of Aflatoxin B1 and Fumonisin B1 on the Viability and Induction of Apoptosis in Rat Primary Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Deise H. B.; Ferreira, Fabiane L.; da Silva, Valéria N.; Aquino, Simone; Corrêa, Benedito

    2010-01-01

    The present study evaluated the effect of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and fumonisin B1 (FB1) either alone, or in association, on rat primary hepatocyte cultures. Cell viability was assessed by flow cytometry after propidium iodine intercalation. DNA fragmentation and apoptosis were assessed by agarose gel electrophoresis and acridine orange and ethidium bromide staining. At the concentrations of AFB1 and FB1 used, the toxins did not decrease cell viability, but did induce apoptosis in a concentration and time-dependent manner. PMID:20480051

  1. Sulforaphane, an activator of Nrf2, suppresses cellular accumulation of arsenic and its cytotoxicity in primary mouse hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Shinkai, Yasuhiro; Sumi, Daigo; Fukami, Ikuo; Ishii, Tetsuro; Kumagai, Yoshito

    2006-03-20

    Sulforaphane (SFN) is an activator of the transcription factor Nrf2, which plays a critical role in metabolism and excretion of xenobiotics. Exposure of primary mouse hepatocytes to SFN resulted in activation of Nrf2 and significant elevation of protein expressions responsible for excretion of arsenic into extracellular space. Pretreatment with SFN 24 h prior to arsenite exposure reduced not only arsenic accumulation in the cells but also cellular toxicity of this metalloid. Therefore, our findings indicate a potential function of SFN in reducing cellular arsenic levels, thereby diminishing arsenic toxicity.

  2. Tryptophan pyrolysis products, Trp-P-1 and Trp-P-2 induce apoptosis in primary cultured rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Ashida, H; Shiotani, B; Adachi, H; Hashimoto, T; Kanazawa, K; Danno, G

    1998-11-01

    The cytotoxicity of heterocyclic amines, dietary carcinogens derived from cooked foods, to primary cultured rat hepatocytes was studied. A tryptophan pyrolysis product, 3-amino-1,4-dimethyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole (Trp-P-1) was the most cytotoxic of 11 compounds tested. Trp-P-1 was found to induce apoptosis as measured by morphological changes in nuclear chromatin and internucleosomal DNA fragmentation. 3-Amino-1-methyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b] indole (Trp-P-2) showed a moderate apoptotic effect, and other compounds had a similar but weaker effect.

  3. Human induced-pluripotent stem cell-derived hepatocyte-like cells as an in vitro model of human hepatitis B virus infection.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Fuminori; Mitani, Seiji; Yamamoto, Tatsuro; Takayama, Kazuo; Tachibana, Masashi; Watashi, Koichi; Wakita, Takaji; Iijima, Sayuki; Tanaka, Yasuhito; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki

    2017-04-04

    In order to understand the life cycle of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and to develop efficient anti-HBV drugs, a useful in vitro cell culture system which allows HBV infection and recapitulates virus-host interactions is essential; however, pre-existing in vitro HBV infection models are often problematic. Here, we examined the potential of human induced-pluripotent stem (iPS) cell-derived hepatocyte-like cells (iPS-HLCs) as an in vitro HBV infection model. Expression levels of several genes involved in HBV infection, including the sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP) gene, were gradually elevated as the differentiation status of human iPS cells proceeded to iPS-HLCs. The mRNA levels of these genes were comparable between primary human hepatocytes (PHHs) and iPS-HLCs. Following inoculation with HBV, we found significant production of HBV proteins and viral RNAs in iPS-HLCs. The three major forms of the HBV genome were detected in iPS-HLCs by Southern blotting analysis. Anti-HBV agents entecavir and Myrcludex-B, which are a nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitor and a synthetic pre-S1 peptide, respectively, significantly inhibited HBV infection in iPS-HLCs. These data demonstrate that iPS-HLCs can be used as a promising in vitro HBV infection model.

  4. Human induced-pluripotent stem cell-derived hepatocyte-like cells as an in vitro model of human hepatitis B virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Sakurai, Fuminori; Mitani, Seiji; Yamamoto, Tatsuro; Takayama, Kazuo; Tachibana, Masashi; Watashi, Koichi; Wakita, Takaji; Iijima, Sayuki; Tanaka, Yasuhito; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki

    2017-01-01

    In order to understand the life cycle of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and to develop efficient anti-HBV drugs, a useful in vitro cell culture system which allows HBV infection and recapitulates virus-host interactions is essential; however, pre-existing in vitro HBV infection models are often problematic. Here, we examined the potential of human induced-pluripotent stem (iPS) cell-derived hepatocyte-like cells (iPS-HLCs) as an in vitro HBV infection model. Expression levels of several genes involved in HBV infection, including the sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP) gene, were gradually elevated as the differentiation status of human iPS cells proceeded to iPS-HLCs. The mRNA levels of these genes were comparable between primary human hepatocytes (PHHs) and iPS-HLCs. Following inoculation with HBV, we found significant production of HBV proteins and viral RNAs in iPS-HLCs. The three major forms of the HBV genome were detected in iPS-HLCs by Southern blotting analysis. Anti-HBV agents entecavir and Myrcludex-B, which are a nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitor and a synthetic pre-S1 peptide, respectively, significantly inhibited HBV infection in iPS-HLCs. These data demonstrate that iPS-HLCs can be used as a promising in vitro HBV infection model. PMID:28374759

  5. Suppression of cytochrome P450- and UDP glucuronosyl transferase-dependent enzyme activities by proinflammatory cytokines and possible role of nitric oxide in primary cultures of pig hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Monshouwer, M; Witkamp, R F; Nujmeijer, S M; Van Amsterdam, J G; Van Miert, A S

    1996-04-01

    Proinflammatory cytokines play an important role in the depression of cytochrome P450 (CYP450)-dependent drug metabolism in mammals during inflammation and infection. Although much has been learned concerning the effects and mechanisms of cytokine-mediated suppression of CYP450, there is limited knowledge about how cytokines affect UDP glucuronosyl transferases (UDPGT). The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects and dose dependency of recombinant human proinflammatory cytokines on both CYP450- and UDPGT-dependent enzyme activities in primary cultures of pig hepatocytes. A possible role of nitric oxide in cytokine-induced suppression of enzyme activities was studied by incubating hepatocytes in the presence of N G-nitro-L-arginine (L-NAME), a competitive inhibitor of nitric oxide (NO) biosynthesis. Incubation of hepatocytes with interleukin-1alpha (IL-1alpha), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) decreased both oxidation and glucuronidation activities dose dependently, in which the effects on glucuronidation activities were even more pronounced. IL-6 differed from IL-1alpha and TNF-alpha by inhibiting CYP450 and UDPFT more effectively after 24 hr of incubation, whereas the inhibition by IL-1alpha and TNF-alpha was more pronounced after 12 hr. Only at a concentration of 500 U/ml did interferon-gamma (IFN-ganna) inhibit CYP450 and UDPGT. The inhibition of CYP450 enzyme activities by cytokines was probably not due to the production of NO, because L-NAME totally blocked NO production but had no effect on the cytokine-induced suppression of CYP450 enzyme activities. However, there might be a role for NO in the decrease of glucuronidation by cytokines, as L-NAME slightly though significantly prevented the inhibition of glucuronidation.

  6. Genetic heterogeneity among slow acetylator N-acetyltransferase 2 phenotypes in cryopreserved human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Doll, Mark A; Hein, David W

    2017-07-01

    Genetic polymorphisms in human N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) modify the metabolism of numerous drugs and carcinogens. These genetic polymorphisms modify both drug efficacy and toxicity and cancer risk associated with carcinogen exposure. Previous studies have suggested phenotypic heterogeneity among different NAT2 slow acetylator genotypes. NAT2 phenotype was investigated in vitro and in situ in samples of human hepatocytes obtained from various NAT2 slow and intermediate NAT2 acetylator genotypes. NAT2 gene dose response (NAT2*5B/*5B > NAT2*5B/*6A > NAT2*6A/*6A) was observed towards the N-acetylation of the NAT2-specific drug sulfamethazine by human hepatocytes both in vitro and in situ. N-acetylation of 4-aminobiphenyl, an arylamine carcinogen substrate for both N-acetyltransferase 1 and NAT2, showed the same trend both in vitro and in situ although the differences were not significant (p > 0.05). The N-acetylation of the N-acetyltransferase 1-specific substrate p-aminobenzoic acid did not follow this trend. In comparisons of NAT2 intermediate acetylator genotypes, differences in N-acetylation between NAT2*4/*5B and NAT2*4/*6B hepatocytes were not observed in vitro or in situ towards any of these substrates. These results further support phenotypic heterogeneity among NAT2 slow acetylator genotypes, consistent with differential risks of drug failure or toxicity and cancer associated with carcinogen exposure.