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Sample records for primary mixed leucocyte

  1. The induction of suppressor cells in mixed leucocyte cultures and in mixed leucocyte-non-lymphoid cell cultures.

    PubMed Central

    Pawelec, G

    1980-01-01

    X-ray resistant porcine suppressor T cells expressing Ia-like antigens were obtained from mixed cultures of leucocytes and tissue cells (cultured kidney cells, liver cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts or X-irradiated leucocytes), and were assayed by their ability to suppress lymphocyte proliferation in a second mixed culture. All tissues tested induced suppressor cells although quantitative differences existed between them. Suppressor cell induction was under genetic control by at least two loci, one of which was within the major histocompatibility (MHC) complex. Suppressor cell function was restricted by the MHC type of the responding cell but not the stimulating cell in the second culture. PMID:6445866

  2. Method for labelling leucocytes with indium In-111 oxine

    SciTech Connect

    Kaminsky, D.

    1992-03-03

    This patent describes an improved method for radio-labelling leucocytes with Indium In-111 oxine. It comprises separating the leucocytes from whole blood for obtaining separated leucocytes mixed with residual red blood cells; and then labelling the separated leucocytes with Indium In-111 oxine; wherein the improvement comprises the following further step: depleting residual red blood cells from the separated leucocytes by resuspending the leucocytes in an isotonic saline solution, then rocking the resuspended leucocytes for causing the leucocytes to preferentially settle out, and then removing residual red blood cells which remain suspended within the supernatant isotonic saline solution.

  3. Effects of dietary n-3 fatty acids on Toll-like receptor activation in primary leucocytes from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    PubMed

    Arnemo, Marianne; Kavaliauskis, Arturas; Andresen, Adriana Magalhaes Santos; Bou, Marta; Berge, Gerd Marit; Ruyter, Bente; Gjøen, Tor

    2017-03-09

    The shortage of the n-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on the international markets has led to increasing substitution of fish oil by plant oils in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) feed and thereby reducing the EPA and DHA content in salmon. However, the minimum required levels of these fatty acids in fish diets for securing fish health are unknown. Fish were fed with 0, 1 or 2% EPA or DHA alone or in combination of both over a period, growing from 50 to 400 g. Primary head kidney leucocytes were isolated and stimulated with Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands to determine if EPA and DHA deficiency can affect expression of important immune genes and eicosanoid production. Several genes related to viral immune response did not vary between groups. However, there was a tendency that the high-level EPA and DHA groups expressed lower levels of IL-1β in non-stimulated leucocytes. These leucocytes were also more responsive to the TLR ligands, inducing higher expression levels of IL-1β and Mx1 after stimulation. The levels of prostaglandin E2 and leukotriene B4 in serum and media from stimulated leucocytes were lower in both low and high EPA and DHA groups. In conclusion, leucocytes from low EPA and DHA groups seemed to be less responsive towards immunostimulants, like TLR ligands, indicating that low levels or absence of dietary EPA and DHA may have immunosuppressive effects.

  4. Using urinary leucocyte esterase tests as an indicator of infection with gonorrhoea or chlamydia in asymptomatic males in a primary health care setting.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Md Saifur; Beever, Warwick; Skov, Steven; Boffa, John

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate a leucocyte esterase test as a predictor of gonorrhoea or chlamydia in asymptomatic Aboriginal males at the Central Australian Aboriginal Congress Male Clinic (Ingkintja), first-void urine samples and clinical information were collected from consecutive asymptomatic males presenting to the Ingkintja in Alice Springs between March 2008 and December 2009. Urine was tested immediately with a leucocyte esterase test dipstick and then by polymerase chain reaction for gonorrhoea and chlamydia. Among the 292 specimens from asymptomatic males, 15.4% were positive for gonorrhoea or chlamydia. In this group, compared with polymerase chain reaction result for gonorrhoea or chlamydia, leucocyte esterase test alone and in combination with age ≤35 years showed sensitivities of 66.7% and 60%, specificities of 90.7% and 94.7%, positive predictive values of 56.6% and 67.5%, negative predictive values of 93.7% and 92.8% and the area under receiver operating characteristics curve values of 0.79 and 0.85, respectively. Leucocyte esterase tests can reasonably be used as a basis for immediate empirical treatment for gonorrhoea or chlamydia in asymptomatic central Australian Aboriginal men under 35 years of age.

  5. Leucocyte migration inhibition test in coeliac disease - a reappraisal.

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, F G; Field, H P; Howdle, P D; Robertson, D A; Losowsky, M S

    1983-01-01

    Results of the direct leucocyte migration inhibition (LMI) test using gluten fraction III as antigen were unaffected by incorporation of puromycin into the culture medium at concentrations shown to prevent lymphokine mediated inhibition. Results of the LMI test performed with purified polymorphs were similar to and correlated with results of the standard LMI test using mixed leucocytes in both coeliacs and controls. The addition of purified T lymphocytes did not increase migration inhibition. Normal leucocytes incubated with serum from coeliac patients and washed showed marked migration inhibition when incubated with gluten fraction III. This sensitisation of normal leucocytes was prevented by preincubation with aggregated human IgG. These results suggest that leucocyte migration inhibition by gluten in coeliac disease is not due to lymphokine production by sensitised lymphocytes but is caused by cytophilic antibody. PMID:6832627

  6. Primary cicatricial alopecia: Other lymphocytic primary cicatricial alopecias and neutrophilic and mixed primary cicatricial alopecias.

    PubMed

    Bolduc, Chantal; Sperling, Leonard C; Shapiro, Jerry

    2016-12-01

    Primary cicatricial alopecias can be frustrating for both patients and physicians. Proper diagnosis guides more successful management of these challenging conditions. Part II will cover the remaining lymphocytic primary cicatricial alopecias, which include pseudopelade of Brocq, central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia, alopecia mucinosa, and keratosis follicularis spinulosa decalvans. It will also discuss the neutrophilic and mixed primary cicatricial alopecias, namely folliculitis decalvans, dissecting cellulitis, folliculitis keloidalis, folliculitis (acne) necrotica, and erosive pustular dermatosis.

  7. Space maintenance in the primary and mixed dentitions.

    PubMed

    Simon, Thomas; Nwabueze, Ifechide; Oueis, Hassan; Stenger, James

    2012-01-01

    Loss of space in the primary dentition is considered one of the main causes of malocclusion in the permanent dentition. The purpose of this paper is to review ond summarize the indications and use of space maintainers in primary and mixed dentitions as preventive measures of future malocclusion. Two main types of space maintainers are used to maintain the space in primary ond mixed dentitions: fixed and removable appliances. Band and loop is the appliance of choice when a primary maxillary or mandibular first molar is prematurely lost. With the premature loss of a second primary molar, Nance or transpalatal (TPA) appliances can be used on the maxillary arch and the lower lingual holding arch (LLHA) for the mandibular arch.

  8. Investigating Mixed-Ability Teaching in Taiwanese Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Ling-Ying

    2014-01-01

    In 2001, Taiwan reformed English language teaching in primary schools, and a mixed ability approach was taken as an organisational method for this. Many teachers claim that they encounter numerous difficulties in catering for different needs because of the large number of differences between students. However, the debate and comparisons between…

  9. Primary malignant mixed tumor of bone: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Su, Zhansan; Li, Zhi; Liu, Baoan

    2015-01-01

    Background: An extremely rare primary mixed tumor occurring in left proximal femurs of a 47-year old female is reported. Case report: She had left hip pain for three months in April 2004. Radiological examinations revealed that a translucent expansive lesion in the left greater trochanter. She received the curettage of lesion and bone graft surgery. Curettage specimens were diagnosed as malignant mixed tumor, considered to be metastatic. Five months late the lesion recurred. She underwent obturator neurotomy plus total hip replacement of left hip. A long-term of more than ten years follow-up showed there were no evidence of disease recurrence or metastasis and no any signs of other tumor in her body. Discussion: The tumor contained myoepithelial component with positive immunostain of S-100 protein, p63, CK-pan, and vimentin, epithelial component confirmed by CK-pan, CK-LMW and cartilage, which indicated the tumor was a mixed tumor. Cellular atypia, relative high mitosis index, cartilage consistent with grade I chordrosarcoma, focal coagulative necrosis, and infiltration between trabeculae found in the tumor indicated that the tumor had a low grade malignant nature. During long-time follow-up there were no signs of any tumor found in the patient, which strongly suggested that the tumor be a primary one. PMID:26339414

  10. Use of leucocyte migration under agarose to study spontaneous and directed locomotion of leucocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Repo, H; Kostiala, A A; Kosunen, T U

    1978-01-01

    Three different cell attractants, together with the parallel use of the leucocyte migration agarose test (LMAT) and the leading front modification (LFM) of the Boyden chamber technique, were employed in studying whether the maximal migration of normal human polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNs) is higher toward an attractant (chemotaxis) than in the same attractant incorporated in the culture media (chemokinesis). Using LMAT, the maximal migration distance toward zymosan activated serum (ZAS) was found to be significantly longer than that under agarose mixed with ZAS, thus indicating a chemotactic effect exerted by ZAS. When bacterial culture filtrate (BCF) and casein were used as attractants, the corresponding difference was not significant, implying that the stimulatory effect of these substances on cell migration could be explained by increased random locomotion (chemokinesis) alone. In LFM, the migration rate was significantly higher along a casein gradient than without a gradient. Using ZAS, however, only chemokinesis could be demonstrated. BCF was found to attract PMNs into membrane filters only in the presence of human serum albumin. These observations give credence to the view that both LMAT and LFM are applicable to the in vitro assessment of chemotaxis and chemokinesis but the attractant of choice for this is different in each of the two methods. Images Figure 1 PMID:359465

  11. Mucopolysaccharides in Peripheral Leucocytes of Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Riesco, Andres; Leyton, Cecilia

    1971-01-01

    The presence of mucopolysaccharides (MPS) in leucocytes of peripheral blood of 19 cancer patients, 13 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and 14 normal controls, was studied histochemically. MPS was revealed in different proportions in polynuclears and mononuclears. According to the staining technics, the MPS appear to be mainly carboxylated and contain hyaluronic acid and chondroitinsulphate groups. The quantitative analysis revealed that MPS appeared only in around 3% of leucocytes of normal controls, while in the cancer patients 56% of polynuclear and 90% of mononuclears contained it. In the tuberculous patients, 90% of polynuclears and 86% of the mononuclears revealed MPS. The differences between the prevalence of leucocytes containing MPS in controls and in cancer or tuberculous patients are highly significant. The possibility that the difference in MPS content of leucocytes is related with low inmunological activity is postulated. PMID:4256006

  12. Improved leucocyte migration inhibition response of leucocytes from lepromatous leprosy patients with hapten modified M. leprae.

    PubMed Central

    Fotedar, A; Mustafa, A S; Narang, B S; Talwar, G P

    1982-01-01

    Two acetoacetylated derivatives of Mycobacterium leprae with variable hapten groups and a conjugate with tetanus toxoid were prepared. These were tested as antigens along with unmodified M. leprae in the leucocyte migration inhibition response of leucocytes from clinically, bacteriologically and histopathologically confirmed cases of lepromatous leprosy. LMI response was poor with M. leprae, but was significantly enhanced with acetoacetylated M. leprae. PMID:6751637

  13. [Leucocyte alkaline phosphatase in normal and pathological pregnancy (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Stark, K H; Zaki, I; Sobolewski, K

    1981-01-01

    The activities of leucocyte alkaline phosphatase were determined in 511 patients with normal and pathological pregnancy. Mean values were compared and the enzyme followed up, and the conclusion was drawn that leucocyte alkaline phosphatase was no safe indicator of foetal condition. No direct relationship were found to exist between leucocyte alkaline phosphatase, total oestrogens, HSAP, HLAP, HPL, and oxytocinase.

  14. Fetal leucocyte count in rhesus disease.

    PubMed Central

    Davies, N P; Buggins, A G; Snijders, R J; Noble, P N; Layton, D M; Nicolaides, K H

    1992-01-01

    The effect of fetal anaemia on the total and differential leucocyte counts was studied by examining blood samples obtained by cordocentesis from 177 previously untransfused rhesus affected fetuses at 17-36 weeks' gestation. The mean fetal total leucocyte, lymphocyte, and monocyte counts were significantly lower than the corresponding values in normal controls and there were significant associations between the decrease in these cells and the degree of fetal anaemia. Possible mechanisms for leucopenia include (i) stimulation of erythroid progenitor production at the expense of production of myeloid progenitors, (ii) non-specific haemophagocytosis, or (iii) general suppression of haemopoiesis. Further understanding of the underlying mechanism and the implications of leucopenia as well as the previously reported thrombocytopenia and anaemia may provide a basis for improved antenatal and/or postnatal treatment. PMID:1586179

  15. Primary Biliary Mixed Adenoneuroendocrine Carcinoma (MANEC): A Short Review.

    PubMed

    Acosta, Andres M; Wiley, Elizabeth Louise

    2016-10-01

    Mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinomas (MANECs) are composite neoplasms with areas of adenocarcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma intermingled with neuroendocrine carcinoma or neuroendocrine tumor, each composing at least 30% of the neoplasm. MANECs are very infrequent overall, and they are more commonly diagnosed in the appendix, colon, and stomach. Biliary MANECs are particularly rare, and their histogenesis is debated because neuroendocrine cells are seldom identified in the normal biliary tract. They can show one of the 3 different architectural patterns described in Lewin's original classification: collision tumors, combined lesions, or amphicrine neoplasms. The neuroendocrine component is usually of a high grade, with small or large cell cytomorphology, whereas the adenocarcinoma component is either an intestinal or biliary type. Clinical presentation is characterized by locally advanced disease at the time of initial diagnosis. Recent studies suggest that treatment should be guided by the most aggressive histologic component.

  16. Teams and seams: skill mix in primary care.

    PubMed

    Jenkins-Clarke, S; Carr-Hill, R; Dixon, P

    1998-11-01

    The study described in this paper is set against a background of rapid changes in primary (community) care delivery in the United Kingdom (UK) and consequently the methodology of the study has been shaped by three broad issues - workforce changes, increase in workload and changing roles and boundaries. Ten 'ordinary' general practices (general practitioners (GPs) and the 'attached' community nurses) participated in the study and a large amount of data were collected over a 2-week observation period. Three study objectives are described, relating to workload, delegation and attitudes to delegation. The characteristics of the workload of the three main groups of community nurses (practice nurses, district nurses and health visitors) are described and compared. Thirty-nine per cent of all the GP consultations (836) had a delegatable element and 17% were deemed to be delegatable in their entirety. General practitioners most frequently referred to delegation to practice nurses in the current team and nurse practitioners in an enhanced team. The study identified the activities most amenable to delegation to these two groups of nurses. Attitudes to delegation were sought through focus group discussions, with reservations being expressed by both doctors and community nurses. This study provides evidence that GPs are prepared to delegate a considerable proportion of their workload; this clearly has implications for the nursing profession.

  17. Platelets in leucocyte recruitment and function.

    PubMed

    Rossaint, Jan; Zarbock, Alexander

    2015-08-01

    Platelets have a longstanding recognition as an essential cellular component of the coagulation system. However, substantial research over the last decade has added another important aspect to platelet function in that they are also an integral part of the innate immune system. Complex organisms are facing a constant threat of infections by invading pathogens, and they have developed a sophisticated and elegant measure to combat this threat, namely the immune system. Leucocyte recruitment to sites of infections is an essential step at the forefront of the immune response. Platelets have been shown to be involved in several steps of this process and they are an integrated connecting element among haemostasis, host defence, and additional immunological functions (e.g. neutrophil extracellular traps formation). However, the immune system also requires a tight regulation, as an overshooting immune response carries the risk of harming the host itself. This review aims at highlighting the unique features and molecular mechanisms that allow for the interactions of platelets and leucocytes and the regulation of this process. Furthermore, this article identifies the functional relevance of these events for the immune response.

  18. A Mixed Methods Study of Technology Integration in Rural Primary and Secondary High Schools in Jamaica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malcolm-Bell, Arlene

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this concurrent nested mixed methods study was to explore and describe the status of technology integration in primary and secondary high schools in a rural parish in Jamaica to determine whether and how technological innovations were being used in instruction and learning. Diffusion theory is recommended as a framework to guide…

  19. Primary health care experiences of hispanics with serious mental illness: a mixed-methods study.

    PubMed

    Cabassa, Leopoldo J; Gomes, Arminda P; Meyreles, Quisqueya; Capitelli, Lucia; Younge, Richard; Dragatsi, Dianna; Alvarez, Juana; Nicasio, Andel; Druss, Benjamin; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto

    2014-11-01

    This mixed-methods study examines the primary health care experiences of Hispanic patients with serious mental illness. Forty patients were recruited from an outpatient mental health clinic. Participants reported a combination of perceived discrimination and stigmatization when receiving medical care. They rated the quality of chronic illness care as poor and reported low levels of self-efficacy and patient activation. These indicators were positively associated with how patients viewed their relationships with primary care providers. A grounded model was developed to describe the structural, social, and interpersonal processes that shaped participants' primary care experiences.

  20. Primary Health Care Experiences of Hispanics with Serious Mental Illness: A Mixed-Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Cabassa, Leopoldo J.; Gomes, Arminda P.; Meyreles, Quisqueya; Capitelli, Lucia; Younge, Richard; Dragatsi, Dianna; Alvarez, Juana; Nicasio, Andel; Druss, Benjamin; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    This mixed-methods study examines the primary health care experiences of Hispanic patients with serious mental illness. Forty patients were recruited from an outpatient mental health clinic. Participants reported a combination of perceived discrimination and stigmatization when receiving medical care. They rated the quality of chronic illness care as poor and reported low levels of self-efficacy and patient activation. These indicators were positively associated with how patients viewed their relationships with primary care providers. A grounded model was developed to describe the structural, social, and interpersonal processes that shaped participants’ primary care experiences. PMID:24162079

  1. Miniaturized LED primary optics design used for short-distance color mixing.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tsung-Xian; Tsai, Meng-Che; Chang, Shuo-Chieh; Liu, Kuei-Chun

    2016-11-10

    Color-tunable LED light fixtures generally change colors by controlling LEDs of multiple colors. This type of light source requires additional secondary optics and light-mixing distances to deliver color-mixing functions and perform high color uniformity. However, the color-mixing elements increase the optics size, resulting in more difficulties in making tiny lighting fixtures. Therefore, in this study, we introduce a LED primary optics design method that retains standard LED package size while featuring a color-mixing chamber. This method combines a lens having a rotational symmetry with a freeform profile and a zigzag structure by using double total internal reflection to disperse light uniformly. In contrast to a typical hemispherical lens, our design effectively lowers the weighted average color difference from 0.03 to 0.0035, and maintains optical efficiency of at least 90% without using any optical diffuser.

  2. The effects of temporal variability of mixed layer depth on primary productivity around Bermuda

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bissett, W. Paul; Meyers, Mark B.; Walsh, John J.; Mueller-Karger, Frank E.

    1994-01-01

    Temporal variations in primary production and surface chlorophyll concentrations, as measured by ship and satellite around Bermuda, were simulated with a numerical model. In the upper 450 m of the water column, population dynamics of a size-fractionated phytoplankton community were forced by daily changes of wind, light, grazing stress, and nutrient availability. The temporal variations of production and chlorophyll were driven by changes in nutrient introduction to the euphotic zone due to both high- and low-frequency changes of the mixed layer depth within 32 deg-34 deg N, 62 deg-64 deg W between 1979 and 1984. Results from the model derived from high-frequency (case 1) changes in the mixed layer depth showed variations in primary production and peak chlorophyll concentrations when compared with results from the model derived from low-frequency (case 2) mixed layer depth changes. Incorporation of size-fractionated plankton state variables in the model led to greater seasonal resolution of measured primary production and vertical chlorophyll profiles. The findings of this study highlight the possible inadequacy of estimating primary production in the sea from data of low-frequency temporal resolution and oversimplified biological simulations.

  3. Turbulent Mixing of Primary and Secondary Flow Streams in a Rocket-Based Combined Cycle Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cramer, J. M.; Greene, M. U.; Pal, S.; Santoro, R. J.; Turner, Jim (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of the turbulent mixing of primary and secondary flow streams in a rocket-based combined cycle (RBCC) engine. A significant RBCC ejector mode database has been generated, detailing single and twin thruster configurations and global and local measurements. On-going analysis and correlation efforts include Marshall Space Flight Center computational fluid dynamics modeling and turbulent shear layer analysis. Potential follow-on activities include detailed measurements of air flow static pressure and velocity profiles, investigations into other thruster spacing configurations, performing a fundamental shear layer mixing study, and demonstrating single-shot Raman measurements.

  4. Primary Student-Teachers' Conceptual Understanding of the Greenhouse Effect: A mixed method study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratinen, Ilkka Johannes

    2013-04-01

    The greenhouse effect is a reasonably complex scientific phenomenon which can be used as a model to examine students' conceptual understanding in science. Primary student-teachers' understanding of global environmental problems, such as climate change and ozone depletion, indicates that they have many misconceptions. The present mixed method study examines Finnish primary student-teachers' understanding of the greenhouse effect based on the results obtained via open-ended and closed-form questionnaires. The open-ended questionnaire considers primary student-teachers' spontaneous ideas about the greenhouse effect depicted by concept maps. The present study also uses statistical analysis to reveal respondents' conceptualization of the greenhouse effect. The concept maps and statistical analysis reveal that the primary student-teachers' factual knowledge and their conceptual understanding of the greenhouse effect are incomplete and even misleading. In the light of the results of the present study, proposals for modifying the instruction of climate change in science, especially in geography, are presented.

  5. Enumeration of semen leucocytes by fluorescence in situ hybridisation technique

    PubMed Central

    Conte, R A; Luke, S; Verma, R S

    1995-01-01

    Aim—To determine whether the fluorescent in situ hybridisation technique (FISH) using a total human DNA genomic probe can be used to enumerate semen leucocytes. Methods—Semen samples from five donors were subjected to a mild KC1 solution. These samples were then biotin labelled under FISH conditions using a total human DNA genomic probe and the leucocyte counts were determined. To check the accuracy of the technique a monoclonal antibody against the common leucocyte antigen CD45 [KC56(T-200)] served as a control. An isotypic control for [KC56(T-200)], the immunoglobulin [MsIgG1], served as a secondary control. Results—Semen leucocytes stained by the FISH technique were easily detected because of their distinct bright yellow colour, while the sperm cells were red. The leucocyte count ranged from 0·5 to 4·9 × 106 per ml of semen. KC56(T-200) and its isotypic control MsIgG1, which served as control for the FISH technique, accurately identified 94% and 97% of the semen leucocytes of a control donor, respectively. Conclusions—The FISH technique using a total human DNA probe can accurately and effectively enumerate the overall leucocyte population in semen. Images PMID:16696031

  6. In search of mixed anxiety-depressive disorder: a primary care study.

    PubMed

    Means-Christensen, Adrienne J; Sherbourne, Cathy D; Roy-Byrne, Peter P; Schulman, Martin C; Wu, Jennifer; Dugdale, David C; Lessler, Daniel; Stein, Murray B

    2006-01-01

    The diagnosis of mixed anxiety-depressive disorder, as proposed in DSM-IV, is intended to be useful in settings such as primary care, where low-level anxiety and depressive symptoms may cause clinically significant impairment but are undiagnosable using current criteria. Evidence of the prevalence of this diagnosis is, however, lacking, particularly since the publication of the proposed diagnostic criteria in DSM-IV. Our study examined symptoms of anxiety and depression in 65 primary care patients screened for anxiety and depression while visiting their doctor. Results indicated that of the 37 patients without a diagnosable anxiety or depressive disorder, none had symptoms of depression and anxiety accompanied by interference that the patient deemed significant and attributable to his or her symptoms. These data dispute the need for a mixed anxiety-depression category (beyond mood and anxiety syndromes currently in DSM-IV) in future editions of the DSM.

  7. Validation of ACG Case-mix for equitable resource allocation in Swedish primary health care

    PubMed Central

    Zielinski, Andrzej; Kronogård, Maria; Lenhoff, Håkan; Halling, Anders

    2009-01-01

    Background Adequate resource allocation is an important factor to ensure equity in health care. Previous reimbursement models have been based on age, gender and socioeconomic factors. An explanatory model based on individual need of primary health care (PHC) has not yet been used in Sweden to allocate resources. The aim of this study was to examine to what extent the ACG case-mix system could explain concurrent costs in Swedish PHC. Methods Diagnoses were obtained from electronic PHC records of inhabitants in Blekinge County (approx. 150,000) listed with public PHC (approx. 120,000) for three consecutive years, 2004-2006. The inhabitants were then classified into six different resource utilization bands (RUB) using the ACG case-mix system. The mean costs for primary health care were calculated for each RUB and year. Using linear regression models and log-cost as dependent variable the adjusted R2 was calculated in the unadjusted model (gender) and in consecutive models where age, listing with specific PHC and RUB were added. In an additional model the ACG groups were added. Results Gender, age and listing with specific PHC explained 14.48-14.88% of the variance in individual costs for PHC. By also adding information on level of co-morbidity, as measured by the ACG case-mix system, to specific PHC the adjusted R2 increased to 60.89-63.41%. Conclusion The ACG case-mix system explains patient costs in primary care to a high degree. Age and gender are important explanatory factors, but most of the variance in concurrent patient costs was explained by the ACG case-mix system. PMID:19765286

  8. In vitro interactions between Neoparamoeba spp. and salmonid leucocytes; The effect of parasite sonicate on anterior kidney leucocyte function

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gross, K.; Alcorn, S.; Murray, A.; Morrison, R.; Nowak, B.

    2006-01-01

    Sonicated Neoparamoeba spp. (Nspp) did not affect the in vitro respiratory burst response of leucocytes isolated from Atlantic salmon Salmo salar, rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha anterior kidneys (P > 0.05). Atlantic salmon and chinook salmon leucocytes pre-incubated with the parasites, however, responded to phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) stimulation with a greater response compared to cells incubated with PMA on its own (P < 0.05). Sonicated Nspp was not chemo-attractive for anterior kidney leucocytes isolated from all three fish species. ?? 2006 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  9. Characteristics of the transport of ascorbic acid into leucocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Raghoebar, M.; Huisman, J.A.M.; van den Berg, W.B.; van Ginneken, C.A.M.

    1987-02-02

    The degree and the mode of association of (/sup 14/C)-ascorbic acid with leucocytes are examined. The degree of association of ascorbic acid with polymorphonuclear leucocytes (1-3 %) is dependent on cell type, extracellular concentration of ascorbic acid, incubation temperature, intactness of the cells and the extracellular pH. All experiments are performed according to strict protocols as these compounds are labile in aqueous solutions. Further it is noticed that in all experiments an outward gradient of leucocyte endogenic ascorbic acid exists. The results suggest that the association process comprises at least one saturable pathway. The activation of polymorphonuclear leucocytes by phorbol myristate acetate increases the accumulation of ascorbic acid threefold. 30 references, 7 figures, 3 tables.

  10. Avian leucocyte counting using the hemocytometer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dein, F.J.; Wilson, A.; Fischer, D.; Langenberg, P.

    1994-01-01

    Automated methods for counting leucocytes in avian blood are not available because of the presence of nucleated erythrocytes and thrombocytes. Therefore, total white blood cell counts are performed by hand using a hemocytometer. The Natt and Herrick and the Unopette methods are the most common stain and diluent preparations for this procedure. Replicate hemocytometer counts using these two methods were performed on blood from four birds of different species. Cells present in each square of the hemocytometer were counted. Counting cells in the corner, side, or center hemocytometer squares produced statistically equivalent results; counting four squares per chamber provided a result similar to that obtained by counting nine squares; and the Unopette method was more precise for hemocytometer counting than was the Natt and Herrick method. The Unopette method is easier to learn and perform but is an indirect process, utilizing the differential count from a stained smear. The Natt and Herrick method is a direct total count, but cell identification is more difficult.

  11. Primary Care Resident Training for Obesity, Nutrition, and Physical Activity Counseling: A Mixed-Methods Study.

    PubMed

    Antognoli, Elizabeth L; Seeholzer, Eileen L; Gullett, Heidi; Jackson, Brigid; Smith, Samantha; Flocke, Susan A

    2016-07-08

    National guidelines have been established to support the role of primary care physicians in addressing obesity. Preparing primary care residents to recognize and treat overweight/obesity has been identified as an essential component of postgraduate medical training that is currently lacking. This study aims to identify how primary care residency programs are preparing physicians to counsel about obesity, nutrition, and physical activity (ONPA) and to examine program members' perspectives regarding the place of ONPA counseling in the curriculum, and its relevance in primary care training. Using mixed methods, we collected and analyzed data on 25 family medicine, internal medicine, and obstetrics/gynecology residency programs across Ohio. Programs averaged 2.8 hours of ONPA-related didactics per year. Ten programs (42%) taught techniques for health behavior counseling. Having any ONPA-related didactics was associated with greater counseling knowledge (p = .01) among residents but poorer attitudes (p < .001) and poorer perceived professional norms (p = .004) toward ONPA counseling. Findings from interview data highlighted similar perceived barriers to ONPA counseling across all three specialties but variation in perception of responsibility to provide ONPA counseling. While widespread expectations that primary care physicians counsel their overweight and obese patients prevail, few residency programs provide training to support such counseling.

  12. Human leucocytes in asthenozoospermic patients: endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression.

    PubMed

    Buldreghini, E; Hamada, A; Macrì, M L; Amoroso, S; Boscaro, M; Lenzi, A; Agarwal, A; Balercia, G

    2014-12-01

    In a basic study at the Andrology Unit, Department of Clinical and Molecular Sciences, Polytechnic University of Marche, Ancona, Italy, we evaluated the pattern of mRNA endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression in human blood leucocytes isolated from normozoospermic fertile and asthenozoospermic infertile men to elucidate any pathogenic involvement in sperm cell motility. Forty infertile men with idiopathic asthenozoospermia and 45 normozoospermic fertile donors, age-matched, were included. Semen parameters were evaluated, and expression analysis of mRNA was performed in human leucocytes using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Sperm volume, count, motility and morphology were determined, and eNOS expression and Western blotting analyses were performed. A positive correlation was observed between the concentrations of NO and the percentage of immotile spermatozoa. The mRNA of eNOS was more expressed in peripheral blood leucocytes isolated from asthenozoospermic infertile men versus those of fertile normozoospermic men (7.46 ± 0.38 versus 7.06 ± 0.56, P = 0.0355). A significant up-regulation of eNOS gene in peripheral blood leucocytes was 1.52-fold higher than that of fertile donors. It is concluded that eNOS expression and activity are enhanced in blood leucocytes in men with idiopathic asthenozoospermia.

  13. Arteriovenous fistula stent infection diagnosed with radiolabelled leucocyte scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jeong Rae; Heo, Sang Taek; Kim, Miyeon; Kim, Hyun Woo; Chang, Jee Won; Song, Heesung

    2015-07-01

    Infectious complications of haemodialysis in patients with arteriovenous fistula stent are rare. In addition, patients with low-grade infection are more difficult to diagnose. Here, we report the first case of low-grade infection of an arteriovenous fistula stent diagnosed using (99m)Tc-hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO)-labelled leucocyte scintigraphy. A 62-year-old man with end-stage renal disease was referred for prolonged fever. We performed (99m)Tc-HMPAO-labelled leucocyte scintigraphy following a work-up according to fever of unknown origin. A focal uptake on the left forearm compatible with the arteriovenous fistula stent insertion site was shown, and the stent was removed. (99m)Tc-HMPAO-labelled leucocyte scintigraphy could be a suitable method for assessing vascular stent infection in low-grade fever.

  14. OBSERVATIONS ON THE PRODUCTION OF PYROGENIC SUBSTANCES BY RABBIT AND HUMAN LEUCOCYTES

    PubMed Central

    Fessler, J. H.; Cooper, K. E.; Cranston, W. I.; Vollum, R. L.

    1961-01-01

    1. The mechanism of release of a pyrogen from leucocytes has been studied in cells obtained from sterile rabbit peritoneal exudates and from rabbit blood. Attempts were made to induce human leucocytes—from blood—to release a pyrogen. 2. Rabbit leucocytes, kept below 4°C., were not pyrogenic and did not release any pyrogen when disintegrated. Incubating such cells, in various media, at 37°C. led to the formation of a pyrogen which was heat-labile. The maximum yield was attained after 1½ hours' incubation. 3. The formation of rabbit leucocytic pyrogen was prevented by freezing and thawing the leucocytes, by heating them to 56°C. for half an hour before incubation, and by ageing them in the cold. 4. Nitrofurazone (5-nitro-2-furaldehyde semicarbazone) prevents the formation of leucocytic pyrogen when given by mouth to the cell-donor animals, or when added to leucocytes in intro. 5. Leucocytes from rabbit blood formed leucocytic pyrogen, on incubation in saline, and this formation was also inhibited by nitrofurazone. 6. No leucocytic pyrogen was released from human leucocytes subjected to mechanical, osmotic, or thermal damage, and it was not formed when the cells were incubated in saline. 7. The source of rabbit leucocytic pyrogen, the action of nitrofurazone on leucocytes, and the supposed role of leucocytic pyrogen in fever are discussed. PMID:13699218

  15. Skill mix, roles and remuneration in the primary care workforce: who are the healthcare professionals in the primary care teams across the world?

    PubMed

    Freund, Tobias; Everett, Christine; Griffiths, Peter; Hudon, Catherine; Naccarella, Lucio; Laurant, Miranda

    2015-03-01

    World-wide, shortages of primary care physicians and an increased demand for services have provided the impetus for delivering team-based primary care. The diversity of the primary care workforce is increasing to include a wider range of health professionals such as nurse practitioners, registered nurses and other clinical staff members. Although this development is observed internationally, skill mix in the primary care team and the speed of progress to deliver team-based care differs across countries. This work aims to provide an overview of education, tasks and remuneration of nurses and other primary care team members in six OECD countries. Based on a framework of team organization across the care continuum, six national experts compare skill-mix, education and training, tasks and remuneration of health professionals within primary care teams in the United States, Canada, Australia, England, Germany and the Netherlands. Nurses are the main non-physician health professional working along with doctors in most countries although types and roles in primary care vary considerably between countries. However, the number of allied health professionals and support workers, such as medical assistants, working in primary care is increasing. Shifting from 'task delegation' to 'team care' is a global trend but limited by traditional role concepts, legal frameworks and reimbursement schemes. In general, remuneration follows the complexity of medical tasks taken over by each profession. Clear definitions of each team-member's role may facilitate optimally shared responsibility for patient care within primary care teams. Skill mix changes in primary care may help to maintain access to primary care and quality of care delivery. Learning from experiences in other countries may inspire policy makers and researchers to work on efficient and effective teams care models worldwide.

  16. Mixed functional microarchitectures for orientation selectivity in the mouse primary visual cortex

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Satoru; Yoshida, Takashi; Ohki, Kenichi

    2016-01-01

    A minicolumn is the smallest anatomical module in the cortical architecture, but it is still in debate whether it serves as functional units for cortical processing. In the rodent primary visual cortex (V1), neurons with different preferred orientations are mixed horizontally in a salt and pepper manner, but vertical functional organization was not examined. In this study, we found that neurons with similar orientation preference are weakly but significantly clustered vertically in a short length and horizontally in the scale of a minicolumn. Interestingly, the vertical clustering is found only in a part of minicolumns, and others are composed of neurons with a variety of orientation preferences. Thus, the mouse V1 is a mixture of vertical clusters of neurons with various degrees of orientation similarity, which may be the compromise between the brain size and keeping the vertical clusters of similarly tuned neurons at least in a subset of clusters. PMID:27767032

  17. Anterior crossbite correction in primary and mixed dentition with removable inclined plane (Bruckl appliance).

    PubMed

    Jirgensone, Irena; Liepa, Andra; Abeltins, Andris

    2008-01-01

    Anterior crossbite correction in early mixed dentition is highly recommended as this kind of malocclusion do not diminish with age. Uncorrected anterior crossbite may lead to abnormal wear of the lower incisors, dental compensation of mandibular incisors leading to thinning of labial alveolar plate and/or gingival recession. There are several methods for solving this problem. In this article we would like to describe removable inclined plane. This is a removable simple functional appliance on the lower arch (jaw), which works as inclined plane. One of the advantage of the Bruckl appliance is that it can also be used as retention appliance after active treatment as well as it is possible to add acrylic teeth if necessary. Therefore it can be used as a removable partial denture in lower jaw in case where there is a premature loss of the primary teeth. The use of this appliance is illustrated with three cases.

  18. Quantifying subtropical North Pacific gyre mixed layer primary productivity from Seaglider observations of diel oxygen cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholson, David P.; Wilson, Samuel T.; Doney, Scott C.; Karl, David M.

    2015-05-01

    Using autonomous underwater gliders, we quantified diurnal periodicity in dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll, and temperature in the subtropical North Pacific near the Hawaii Ocean Time-series (HOT) Station ALOHA during summer 2012. Oxygen optodes provided sufficient stability and precision to quantify diel cycles of average amplitude of 0.6 µmol kg-1. A theoretical diel curve was fit to daily observations to infer an average mixed layer gross primary productivity (GPP) of 1.8 mmol O2 m-3 d-1. Cumulative net community production (NCP) over 110 days was 500 mmol O2 m-2 for the mixed layer, which averaged 57 m in depth. Both GPP and NCP estimates indicated a significant period of below-average productivity at Station ALOHA in 2012, an observation confirmed by 14C productivity incubations and O2/Ar ratios. Given our success in an oligotrophic gyre where biological signals are small, our diel GPP approach holds promise for remote characterization of productivity across the spectrum of marine environments.

  19. Effects of repetitive low-pressure explosive blast on primary neurons and mixed cultures.

    PubMed

    Zander, Nicole E; Piehler, Thuvan; Banton, Rohan; Benjamin, Richard

    2016-09-01

    Repetitive mild traumatic brain injury represents a considerable health concern, particularly for athletes and military personnel. For blast-induced brain injury, threshold shock-impulse levels required to induce such injuries and cumulative effects with single and/or multiple exposures are not well characterized. Currently, there is no established in vitro experimental model with blast pressure waves generated by live explosives. This study presents results of primary neurons and mixed cultures subjected to our unique in vitro indoor experimental platform that uses real military explosive charges to probe the effects of primary explosive blast at the cellular level. The effects of the blast on membrane permeability, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), uptake of sodium ions, intracellular calcium, and release of glutamate were probed 2 and 24 hr postblast. Significant changes in membrane permeability and sodium uptake among the sham, single-blast-injured, and triple-blast-injured samples were observed. A significant increase in ROS and glutamate release was observed for the triple-blast-injured samples compared with the sham. Changes in intracellular calcium were not significant. These results suggest that blast exposure disrupts the integrity of the plasma membrane, leading to the upset of ion homeostasis, formation of ROS, and glutamate release. Published 2016. †This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  20. Influence of provider mix and regulation on primary care services supplied to US patients.

    PubMed

    Richards, Michael R; Polsky, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Access to medical care and how it differs for various patients remain key policy issues. While existing work has examined clinic structure's influence on productivity, less research has explored the link between provider mix and access for different patient types - which also correspond to different service prices. We exploit experimental data from a large field study spanning 10 US states where trained audit callers were randomly assigned an insurance status and then contacted primary care physician practices seeking new patient appointments. We find clinics with more non-physician clinicians are associated with better access for Medicaid patients and lower prices for office visits; however, these relationships are only found in states granting full practice autonomy to these providers. Substituting more non-physician labor in primary care settings may facilitate greater appointment availability for Medicaid patients, but this likely rests on a favorable policy environment. Relaxing regulations for non-physicians may be an important initiative as US health reforms continue and also relevant to other countries coping with greater demands for medical care and related financial strain.

  1. Comparison of Effects of Running and Playing Exercises on Differential Leucocyte Count in Young Elite Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cenikli, Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    The aims of the present research are to test the effects of running and playing exercises on leucocyte and differential leucocyte accounts, and to test the possible differences between running and playing exercises in terms of leucocyte accounts. They were thirty two male young soccer players. Participants arrived at the laboratory after a 12-hour…

  2. Neoplastic cells obtained from Hodgkin's disease are potent stimulators of human primary mixed lymphocyte cultures.

    PubMed

    Fisher, R I; Bostick-Bruton, F; Sauder, D N; Scala, G; Diehl, V

    1983-06-01

    Neoplastic cells obtained from the pleural effusion of a patient with Hodgkin's disease have been maintained in culture since 1978. These tumor cells have been shown to have the cytologic features, cytochemical staining, and cell surface markers of Reed-Sternberg cells. In this study we demonstrate that the cell line termed L428 is a potent stimulator of the primary human mixed lymphocyte reaction. Significant proliferation occurred when mononuclear leukocytes obtained from normal donors were stimulated with radiated L428 cells at responder:stimulator ratios varying from 200:1 to 20:1. Proliferative responses occurred between days 3 and 6 of the cultures with maximal proliferation on day 5. Under optimal culture conditions, mean net proliferative response of 14 normal donors was 51,000 +/- 10,600 dpm. The mixed lymphocyte response was totally blocked by concentrations of monoclonal anti-Ia antibody that had no effect on concanavalin A-induced proliferation. However, the mixed lymphocyte response was not blocked by an anti-K562 cell monoclonal antibody of the same immunoglobulin subclass that binds to the L428 cells. Antigen processing by responder monocytes or Ia-positive cells was not required for the MLC. When responder T cells from two normals were depleted of Ia-bearing cells and monocytes, the mixed lymphocyte reaction between the two normals was eliminated, yet the stimulation of each normal by the L428 cells was not reduced. The cells that proliferated in response to stimulation by the L428 cells were T cells, primarily of the helper subset. No IL 1 activity could be detected in concentrated supernatants of L428 cultures after stimulation of L428 cells by mitogens, phorbol esters, or muramyl dipeptide, or in the MLC. All of these cultures contain fetal calf serum. However, the L428 cells are capable of producing IL 1, because IL 1 was detected when the L428 cells were stimulated with LPS in the absence of fetal calf serum. These neoplastic cells, obtained

  3. Effect of mixing process on microleakage of glass ionomer cements used in atraumatic restorative treatment on primary molars.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Fernanda de Morais; do Vale, Miriam Pimenta Parreira; Jansen, Wellington Corrêa; Paiva, Saul Martins; Pordeus, Isabela Almeida

    2007-01-01

    Aiming to assess the effect of mixing process on microleakage, 40 primary molars were filled with encapsulated glass ionomer cements (GICs) (Vidrion, RCaps and Fuji, IXGPFAST) or with GICs stored in bottles (Vidrion, R and Fuji, IX). Dye penetration was assessed using scores. Encapsulation and mechanical mixing have reduced significantly marginal microleakage levels in class II restorations performed with conventional GICs if compared to the values obtained by their bottled correspondents (p=0.000).

  4. Involvement of rainbow trout leucocytes in the pathogenesis of infectious hematopoietic necrosis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chilmonczyk, S.; Winton, J.R.

    1994-01-01

    Rainbow trout Oncorhynchus myluss leucocytes were tested for their ability to support replication of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV). Viral replication occurred in vitro uslng leucocytes cultured from peripheral blood, kidney, and thymus where viral titers peaked at 2 to 4 d post-inoculation. Leucocytes collected from trout following waterborne challenge with IHNV were cocultured on EPC cell monolayers. These assays detected IHNV in leucocytes infected in vivo as early as 6 h post-exposure before the challenge virus had undergone replication. These data showed that leucocyte populations could serve as target cells in the initial phase of IHNV infection.

  5. UK NEQAS for leucocyte immunophenotyping: the first 10 years

    PubMed Central

    Reilly, J; Barnett, D

    2001-01-01

    In the past decade, cellular immunophenotyping has become a new discipline in diagnostic haematology and immunology, and is invaluable in the rapid diagnosis of leukaemia and monitoring disease progression in human immunodeficiency virus infected individuals. The introduction of bench top flow cytometers has meant that immunophenotyping is now also used for the quantitation of CD34+ peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs) to ensure the correct timing and adequacy of haematopoietic progenitor cell harvests. Furthermore, flow cytometry has become an important tool for the counting of leucocytes in blood components after leucocyte depletion. Because this new discipline is now such a major diagnostic and prognostic tool in the clinical arena, its use must be subject to both internal and external quality control. Such a requirement was first recognised as early as 1986 when an Inter-Regional Quality Assessment Scheme (IRQAS) was initiated for laboratories that undertook the immunocytochemical diagnosis of leukaemia using the alkaline phosphates anti-alkaline phosphatase technique. This programme began with around 25 UK laboratories. In 1990, after the introduction of two more programmes (one for leukaemia diagnosis using UV microscopy and latterly flow cytometry, and one for the enumeration of CD4+ T cells) the IRQAS achieved UK National External Quality Assessment Scheme (UK NEQAS) status and changed its title to UK NEQAS for Leucocyte Immunophenotyping. In the past decade the once small IRQAS programme has evolved into the largest international scheme of its kind, providing EQA to over 650 laboratories world wide for leukaemia immunophenotyping, lymphocyte subset analysis, PBSCs, and more recently low level leucocyte counting. Over the years, this EQA programme has highlighted important problems, such as the inappropriate use of fluorochromes and antibody titre, and the identification of effective gating strategies, all of which have contributed directly to the high

  6. Evaluation of facial morphology and sagittal relationship between dental arches in primary and mixed dentition

    PubMed Central

    Traldi, Aline; Valdrighi, Heloísa Cristina; de Souza, Luciane Zanin; Vedovello, Silvia Amélia Scudeler

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess facial morphology (Pattern) and sagittal relationship between dental arches (Class), and establish a potential association between them and the variables sex, age and ethnicity, among schoolchildren aged between 4 and 9 years old (mean age of 6.7 years) in primary and mixed dentitions. METHODS: The sample comprised 875 children (457 males and 418 females) attending schools in Descalvado, São Paulo, Brazil. An attempt was made with a view to establish a potential association between children's morphological features with sex, age and ethnicity. RESULTS: Descriptive analysis revealed a predominance of facial Pattern I (69.9 %) and Class I (67.4 %). Statistical tests (p < 0.001) showed that Class I was more frequent among Pattern I children, whereas Class II prevailed among Pattern II, and Class III was frequent among Pattern I and III children. Ethnicity was the only variable associated with facial pattern. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that facial pattern and sagittal relationship between dental arches tend to be correlated. Ethnicity was associated with facial pattern, with Pattern I being the most recurrent among Caucasians and facial Pattern II being recurrent among Afro-descendant subjects. PMID:26352847

  7. Evaluation of Leucocyte Functions Six Years after Tumour Autograft in Human Mammary Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, J. Maxwell; Kelly, F.; Wood, Suzanne E.; Rodger, K. D.; Freshney, R. Ian

    1973-01-01

    Mammary cancer directed and nonspecific immunoassays were made in 3 groups of female patients. One group had primary mammary cancer treated by mastectomy and postoperative radiotherapy plus an autograft of irradiated tumour (AIT) 40-66 months previously. A second age-matched group had mammary cancer comparable to the first group in clinical presentation and treatment except that no AIT was given. The third group consisted of non-cancer-bearing age-matched females. The migration of leucocytes from autografted patients was significantly inhibited in the presence of allogeneic mammary cancer cells from a standardized panel, compared with leucocytes from either non-autograft patients or non-cancer bearers. Selected data from a lymphocyte cytotoxicity test revealed a significantly greater kill of allogeneic mammary cancer target cells by autograft lymphocytes than by those of other groups. These indications of increased cancer directed cell mediated immunity in respect of sensitivity and toxicity in association with AIT require further elucidation under strictly controlled conditions. PMID:4807858

  8. MHC class I antigens and tumour-infiltrating leucocytes in laryngeal cancer: long-term follow-up.

    PubMed Central

    Esteban, F.; Redondo, M.; Delgado, M.; Garrido, F.; Ruiz-Cabello, F.

    1996-01-01

    Alteration in MHC class I expression may be used by cancer cells to avoid immune destruction. Much experimental evidence supports this idea, although survival studies are very scarce. To investigate whether the presence or absence of HLA-A, -B and -C antigens in laryngeal carcinoma influences survival, a series of 60 primary laryngeal tumours treated surgically and normal tissues were evaluated in frozen sections for the expression of MHC class I antigens and tumour-infiltrating leucocytes (CD3, CD4, CD8, CD11b, CD1, CD20 and CD16), using monoclonal antibodies and the APAAP, technique. Long-term follow-up from the patients is available, ranging from 6 to 10 years. Thirteen tumours presented total HLA-ABC loss, five selective losses of HLA-A antigens and one absence of HLA-B antigens. Total losses were statistically associated with several clinical and pathological parameters, but there were no differences regarding tumour-infiltrating leucocytes. After conducting a prospective study, only T and N staging and scoring according to Glanz's malignancy classification were found to be independently related to patients' outcome. From our data, we conclude that neither complete loss of HLA class I antigens nor tumour-infiltrating leucocytes appear to influence survival in squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx. PMID:8956796

  9. Leucocyte adhesion deficiency presenting as a chronic ileocolitis.

    PubMed Central

    D'Agata, I D; Paradis, K; Chad, Z; Bonny, Y; Seidman, E

    1996-01-01

    CD11/CD18 leucocyte glycoprotein deficiency is a rare, congenital adhesion molecule disorder which, in its severe form, is usually fatal. Leucocytes in affected subjects have abnormal migration and adherence, rendering patients susceptible to life threatening infections. The CD11/CD18 integrins, and other adhesion molecules, are considered essential to the normal inflammatory response. It has been postulated that adhesion molecules may be responsible for mediating in part, the inflammatory changes observed in inflammatory bowel diseases and related disorders. This report describes the first case of CD11/CD18 deficiency characterised by a chronic ileocolitis. Bone marrow transplantation completely resolved the gastrointestinal symptoms, supporting a role for neutrophil dysfunction in the pathogenesis of the gut lesions. This case suggests that specific blockade of CD11/CD18 integrins alone may not halt the chronic inflammatory response observed in immune mediated bowel disorders, and that abnormalities of leucocyte function must be included in the differential diagnosis of paediatric Crohn's disease. Images p606-a PMID:8944573

  10. Role of interleukin 8 on leucocyte-endothelial cell adhesion in intestinal inflammation.

    PubMed Central

    Arndt, H; Bolanowski, M A; Granger, D N

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An important action of interleukin 8 (IL8) is stimulation of granulocytes. The object of this study was to assess the contribution of IL8 to the leucocyte-endothelial cell interactions associated with intestinal inflammation in the rat. METHODS: Two indomethacin injections (48 and 24 hours prior to the experiments) induced a longlasting ileitis in rats. The number of adherent and emigrated leucocytes, leucocyte rolling velocity, and shear rate were monitored in normal and inflamed mesenteric postcapillary venules. Some animals received a monoclonal antibody (MAb) against IL8 or CD11b/CD18 at 24 and 12 hours prior to the experiment. RESULTS: Indomethacin elicited a seven-fold increase in leucocyte adherence and a 5.4-fold increase in leucocyte emigration, while leucocyte rolling velocity was reduced by nearly 80%. The indomethacin induced increases in leucocyte adherence and emigration were significantly reduced (by 57% and 67%, respectively) while leucocyte rolling velocity was increased (to 63% of control) by the IL8-specific MAb. The level of inhibition seen with the IL8 MAb was similar to that associated with administration of a MAb directed against the leucocyte adhesion molecule CD11b/CD18. CONCLUSIONS: IL8 contributes to the leucocyte-endothelial cell interactions elicited in mesenteric venules by indomethacin. PMID:8984032

  11. Carbon footprint of patient journeys through primary care: a mixed methods approach

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Elizabeth; Pearson, David; Kelly, Charlotte; Stroud, Laura; Rivas Perez, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Background The NHS has a target of cutting its carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions by 80% below 1990 levels by 2050. Travel comprises 17% of the NHS carbon footprint. This carbon footprint represents the total CO2 emissions caused directly or indirectly by the NHS. Patient journeys have previously been planned largely without regard to the environmental impact. The potential contribution of ‘avoidable’ journeys in primary care is significant. Aim To investigate the carbon footprint of patients travelling to and from a general practice surgery, the issues involved, and potential solutions for reducing patient travel. Design and setting A mixed methods study in a medium-sized practice in Yorkshire. Method During March 2012, 306 patients completed a travel survey. GIS maps of patients’ travel (modes and distances) were produced. Two focus groups (12 clinical and 13 non-clinical staff) were recorded, transcribed, and analysed using a thematic framework approach. Results The majority (61%) of patient journeys to and from the surgery were made by car or taxi; main reasons cited were ‘convenience’, ‘time saving’, and ‘no alternative’ for accessing the surgery. Using distances calculated via ArcGIS, the annual estimated CO2 equivalent carbon emissions for the practice totalled approximately 63 tonnes. Predominant themes from interviews related to issues with systems for booking appointments and repeat prescriptions; alternative travel modes; delivering health care; and solutions to reducing travel. Conclusion The modes and distances of patient travel can be accurately determined and allow appropriate carbon emission calculations for GP practices. Although challenging, there is scope for identifying potential solutions (for example, modifying administration systems and promoting walking) to reduce ‘avoidable’ journeys and cut carbon emissions while maintaining access to health care. PMID:23998839

  12. Harms from discharge to primary care: mixed methods analysis of incident reports

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Huw; Edwards, Adrian; Hibbert, Peter; Rees, Philippa; Prosser Evans, Huw; Panesar, Sukhmeet; Carter, Ben; Parry, Gareth; Makeham, Meredith; Jones, Aled; Avery, Anthony; Sheikh, Aziz; Donaldson, Liam; Carson-Stevens, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Background Discharge from hospital presents significant risks to patient safety, with up to one in five patients experiencing adverse events within 3 weeks of leaving hospital. Aim To describe the frequency and types of patient safety incidents associated with discharge from secondary to primary care, and commonly described contributory factors to identify recommendations for practice. Design and setting A mixed methods analysis of 598 patient safety incident reports in England and Wales related to ‘Discharge’ from the National Reporting and Learning System. Method Detailed data coding (with 20% double-coding), data summaries generated using descriptive statistical analysis, and thematic analysis of special-case sample of reports. Incident type, contributory factors, type, and level of harm were described, informing recommendations for future practice. Results A total of 598 eligible reports were analysed. The four main themes were: errors in discharge communication (n = 151; 54% causing harm); errors in referrals to community care (n = 136; 73% causing harm); errors in medication (n = 97; 87% causing harm); and lack of provision of care adjuncts such as dressings (n = 62; 94% causing harm). Common contributory factors were staff factors (not following referral protocols); and organisational factors (lack of clear guidelines or inefficient processes). Improvement opportunities include developing and testing electronic discharge methods with agreed minimum information requirements and unified referrals systems to community care providers; and promoting a safety culture with ‘safe discharge’ checklists, discharge coordinators, and family involvement. Conclusion Significant harm was evident due to deficits in the discharge process. Interventions in this area need to be evaluated and learning shared widely. PMID:26622036

  13. THE DEFORMABILITY AND THE WETTING PROPERTIES OF LEUCOCYTES AND ERYTHROCYTES.

    PubMed

    Mudd, S; Mudd, E B

    1931-07-20

    The resistance to deformation of polymorphonuclear neutrophile leucocytes under the conditions of our observations has been shown to be on the average considerably less than the resistance to deformation of large mononuclear leucocytes. It is recognized of course that the viscosity of leucocytes, as of other cells, may be markedly influenced by osmotic conditions (17), by the reaction of the suspending medium (18, 19), by temperature, or by injury (20, 21). Although the conditions of our observations were quite different from those of the body, they were nevertheless closely similar to those of simultaneous phagocytosis experiments in which the cells functioned exceedingly well (3). Moreover E. R. and E. L. Clark (22) have noted that polymorphonuclear leucocytes in the tails of living tadpoles were more fluid than the macrophages. And Goss (23) in microdissecting human polymorphonuclear neutrophiles reports that they are more fluid than the clasmatocytes and monocytes studied by Chambers and Borquist (24). Other types of leucocytes have in our experience seemed to fall between the large mononuclear and the polymorphonuclear leucocytes in their average resistance to the interfacial tensions. The leucocyte of each type studied is surrounded by an exceedingly delicate membrane. This membrane appears under the dark-field microscope as a pale, silvery line not distinguishable by inspection alone from a simple phase boundary between two immiscible liquids. That this is a membrane, however, and not a mere interface between immiscible phases, seems certain. In the first place the cell cytoplasm and the suspending medium are not immiscible. When the cell organization is broken down by the interfacial tension the greater part of the cell contents is immediately dissolved or dispersed. Goss (23) has noted that when the membrane is torn with a microdissection needle disintegration at once spreads over the membrane and the cytoplasm undergoes profound change. Moreover it is

  14. Preliminary results of lab-scale investigations of products of incomplete combustion during incineration of primary and mixed digested sludge.

    PubMed

    Braguglia, C M; Bagnuolo, G; Gianico, A; Mininni, G; Pastore, C; Mascolo, G

    2016-03-01

    Separation between primary and secondary sludge treatment could be a valuable solution for sludge management. According to this approach, secondary sludge can be conveniently used in agriculture while primary sludge could be easily dried and incinerated. It follows that some concern may arise from incinerating primary sludge with respect to the current practice to incinerate mixed digested sludge. Incineration of primary and mixed digested municipal sludge was investigated with a lab-scale equipment in terms of emissions of products of incomplete combustion (PICs) during incineration failure modes. PICs can be grouped in three sub-categories, namely aliphatic hydrocarbons (alkanes and alkenes), compounds with a single aromatic ring, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). After-burning temperature was the most important parameter to be controlled in order to minimize emissions of alkanes and alkenes. As for mono-aromatic compounds, benzene and toluene are the most thermally resistant compounds, and in some cases, an after-burning temperature of 1100 °C was not enough to get the complete destruction of benzene leading to a residual emission of 18 mg/kgsludge. PAHs showed an opposite trend with respect to aliphatic and mono-aromatic hydrocarbons being the thermal failure mode the main responsible of PIC emissions. A proper oxygen concentration is more important than elevated temperature thus reflecting the high thermal stability of PAHs. Overall, obtained results, even though obtained under flameless conditions that are different from those of the industrial plants, demonstrated that separation of primary and secondary sludge does not pose any drawbacks or concern regarding primary sludge being disposed of by incineration even though it is more contaminated than mixed digested sludge in terms of organic pollutants.

  15. Social Orders and Interactions among Children in Age-Mixed Classes in Primary Schools--New Perspectives from a Synthesis of Ethnographic Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huf, Christina; Raggl, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The article synthesises data from two ethnographic projects, which both explore interactions of children in age-mixed groups in primary schools. It illuminates critical perspectives on social orders and children's interactions in age-mixed classes by showing how pupils in age-mixed groups become involved in power relations and how the teacher's…

  16. The effect of haemagglutinating factor from boar seminal vesicle fluid on leucocytes.

    PubMed

    Veselský, L; Sedláková, E; Dostál, J; Hruban, V; Pazdera, J

    1981-01-01

    Complete agglutination of porcine, bovine, ovine, and rabbit leucocytes and of porcine and bovine thrombocytes was observed after their exposure to a 1% solution of the haemagglutinating protein isolated from boar seminal fluid. Bull seminal vesicle fluid had the same agglutinating effect on leucocytes, but did not agglutinate thrombocytes. Ram seminal plasma and other fluids from the reproductive tract of boar and bull did not agglutinate either leucocytes or thrombocytes. A viability test showed that the agglutinin of boar seminal vesicle fluid, bull seminal vesicle fluid, and boar prostate fluid were all lethal for leucocytes.

  17. Profiling leucocyte subsets in tuberculosis-diabetes co-morbidity.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Nathella Pavan; Moideen, Kadar; Dhakshinraj, Sharmila D; Banurekha, Vaithilingam V; Nair, Dina; Dolla, Chandrakumar; Kumaran, Paul; Babu, Subash

    2015-10-01

    The immune system plays an important role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary tuberculosis-type 2 diabetes mellitus (PTB-DM) co-morbidity. However, the phenotypic profile of leucocyte subsets at homeostasis in individuals with active or latent tuberculosis (LTB) with coincident diabetes is not known. To characterize the influence of diabetes on leucocyte phenotypes in PTB or LTB, we examined the frequency (Fo ) of leucocyte subsets in individuals with TB with (PTB-DM) or without (PTB) diabetes; individuals with latent TB with (LTB-DM) or without (LTB) diabetes and non-TB-infected individuals with (NTB-DM) or without (NTB) diabetes. Coincident DM is characterized by significantly lower Fo of effector memory CD4(+) T cells in LTB individuals. In contrast, DM is characterized by significantly lower Fo of effector memory CD8(+) T cells and significantly higher Fo of central memory CD8(+) T cells in PTB individuals. Coincident DM resulted in significantly higher Fo of classical memory B cells in PTB and significantly higher Fo of activated memory and atypical B cells in LTB individuals. Coincident DM resulted in significantly lower Fo of classical and intermediate monocytes in PTB, LTB and NTB individuals. Finally, DM resulted in significantly lower Fo of myeloid and plasmacytoid dendritic cells in PTB, LTB and NTB individuals. Our data reveal that coincident diabetes alters the cellular subset distribution of T cells, B cells, dendritic cells and monocytes in both individuals with active TB and those with latent TB, thus potentially impacting the pathogenesis of this co-morbid condition.

  18. Polymorphonuclear leucocyte motility in men with ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed Central

    Pease, C T; Fennell, M; Brewerton, D A

    1989-01-01

    The polymorphonuclear leucocyte (PMN) response to a chemotactic or chemokinetic stimulus is enhanced in men with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). This effect does not parallel the severity of disease activity or the size of the acute phase response, and it is independent of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug treatment. Polymorph function is normal in HLA-B27 positive brothers of probands with AS and in other HLA-B27 positive individuals in the absence of disease. Polymorph motility is also normal in patients with psoriasis vulgaris or Crohn's disease, indicating that enhanced PMN motility is not a non-specific consequence of all inflammatory disorders. PMID:2784306

  19. The Genetic Origin of Leucocytic Mucopolysaccharides in Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Riesco, A.; Coke, R. Cruz

    1973-01-01

    The presence or absence of lymphocytic mucopolysaccharides (MPS) is studied in 223 subjects: 100 normals (controls); 8 cancer patients cured for more than 6 years; 30 cancer patients at the start of their treatment; and 85 relatives of first degree consanguinity of these last patients. The data are studied by statistical and genetic analysis. The results confirm the findings reported earlier and show that the difference in the probability of a high frequency of leucocytic MPS between the relatives of cancer patients and the controls is highly significant. Furthermore, this probability in a relative of first degree of consanguinity of a cancer patient is more than three times greater than in an individual of the general population. Genetic segregation analysis shows that the high leucocytic MPS trait segregates in the families of cancer patients after a classic pattern of dominant autosomal inheritance. Applying Falconer's nomogram it is concluded that the whole of this phenotypic variation is of genetic origin. Its interrelationships with cancer are discussed and it is postulated that this disturbance of the lymphocytic MPS represents a subclinical variant, not known until now, of the clinical mucopolysaccaridoses. PMID:4270340

  20. In vivo leucocyte migration in Behçet's syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Efthimiou, J; Addison, I E; Johnson, B V

    1989-01-01

    Serial studies of leucocyte migration in vivo were carried out in 15 patients with Behçet's syndrome using a skin window technique. Where possible, patients with and without active disease were studied during and in the absence of treatment. In patients with active disease neutrophil migration was frequently greater than normal, particularly with respect to numbers of cells migrating. There was also an increased frequency of emigrating neutrophils with less or more nuclear lobes than normal. In three patients in whom function of skin window neutrophils was studied nitroblue tetrazolium reduction and phagocytosis and killing of Candida guilliermondiae were normal. The monocyte component of the skin window was more often reduced in patients than in normal controls. Corticosteroid treatment did not exert a major effect on leucocyte migration, though the doses involved were relatively small. Neutrophil abnormalities were common in patients and particularly those with active disease. These results suggest that neutrophil hyperactivity may have an important role in the pathogenesis of Behçet's syndrome. PMID:2649027

  1. Ethnicity and Ethnically "Mixed" Identity in Belize: A Study of Primary School-Age Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haug, Sarah Woodbury

    1998-01-01

    Nationalism, as taught in Belize schools, is panethnic and multiethnic, but because the increasingly widespread practice of ethnic mixing is not acknowledged, there is a discrepancy between what is taught and the daily life of students. Research results from 161 elementary school children show that the ethnic self-identification of children is…

  2. A novel somatic MAPK1 mutation in primary ovarian mixed germ cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Zou, Yang; Deng, Wei; Wang, Feng; Yu, Xiao-Hong; Liu, Fa-Ying; Yang, Bi-Cheng; Huang, Mei-Zhen; Guo, Jiu-Bai; Xie, Qiu-Hua; He, Ming; Huang, Ou-Ping

    2016-02-01

    A recent exome-sequencing study revealed prevalent mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (MAPK1) p.E322K mutation in cervical carcinoma. It remains largely unknown whether ovarian carcinomas also harbor MAPK1 mutations. As paralogous gene mutations co‑occur frequently in human malignancies, we analyzed here a total of 263 ovarian carcinomas for the presence of MAPK1 and paralogous MAPK3 mutations by DNA sequencing. A previously unreported MAPK1 p.D321N somatic mutation was identified in 2 out of 18 (11.1%) ovarian mixed germ cell tumors, while no other MAPK1 or MAPK3 mutation was detected in our samples. Of note, OCC‑115, the MAPK1‑mutated sample with bilateral cancerous ovaries affected, harbored MAPK1 mutation in the right ovary while retained the left ovary intact, implicating that the genetic alterations underlying ovarian mixed germ cell tumor may be different, even in patients with similar genetic backgrounds and tumor microenvironments. The results of evolutionary conservation and protein structure modeling analysis implicated that MAPK1 p.D321N mutation may be pathogenic. Additionally, mutations in protein phosphatase 2 regulatory subunit α (PPP2R1A), ring finger protein 43 (RNF43), DNA directed polymerase ε (POLE1), ribonuclease type III (DICER1), CCCTC‑binding factor (CTCF), ribosomal protein L22 (RPL22), DNA methyltransferase 3α (DNMT3A), transformation/transcription domain‑associated protein (TRRAP), isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)1 and IDH2 were not detected in ovarian mixed germ cell tumors, implicating these genetic alterations may be not associated with MAPK1 mutation in the development of this malignancy. The present study identified a previously unreported MAPK1 mutation in ovarian mixed germ cell tumors for the first time, and this mutation may be actively involved in the tumorigenesis of this disease.

  3. Building Secure Attachments for Primary School Children: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ubha, Neerose; Cahill, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    Despite the wide implications of attachment theory there remains a lack of research exploring interventions which encapsulate the principles of an attachment-based framework in the school context. The aim of this research was to address this gap by implementing an intervention for a group of five primary-aged pupils with identified insecure…

  4. Mixed Messages: How Primary Agents of Socialization Influence Adolescent Females Who Identify as Multiracial-Bisexual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Alissa R.

    2013-01-01

    The goals of this study were to highlight the often stigmatized and invisible identities of six female participants who identify as multiracial/biracial-bisexual/pansexual, focusing on the pre-college context. Findings, using in-depth interviews, indicated that the primary socializing agents within the pre-college context strongly influenced…

  5. Novel distribution of the secretory leucocyte proteinase inhibitor in kidney.

    PubMed Central

    Ohlsson, S; Ljungkrantz, I; Ohlsson, K; Segelmark, M; Wieslander, J

    2001-01-01

    The secretory leucocyte proteinase inhibitor (SLPI) is a low molecular weight, tissue-specific inhibitor of, for example, elastase and cathepsin G, which also have antimicrobial capacity. SLPI has been localised to the respiratory, gastrointestinal and genital tracts, but so far not to the kidney. The presence of SLPI in renal tubuli cells was demonstrated using immunohistochemistry and, by means of in situ hybridisation on human renal biopsies, we were able to demonstrate SLPI production. In various inflammatory conditions in the kidneys, the protease-antiprotease balance is disturbed. For this reason, as well as the possible role in the defence against ascending urinary tract infections, it is interesting to establish a source of SLPI in renal tubuli cells. PMID:11817677

  6. Morphology of Mixed Primary and Secondary Organic Particles and the Adsorption of Spectator Organic Gases during Aerosol Formation

    SciTech Connect

    Vaden, Timothy D.; Song, Chen; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Imre, D.; Zelenyuk, Alla

    2010-04-13

    Traditional semi-empirical secondary organic aerosol (SOA) models assume that SOA mixes well with primary organic aerosols (POA), which significantly enhances the modeled SOA yields. These models further assume that the organic compounds in the gas phase do no condense on SOA as it forms. These assumptions were challenged through a detailed experimental investigation of the compositions and morphologies of SOA particles formed during ozonolysis of α-pinene in the presence of dioctyl phthalate (DOP) particles and DOP gas phase component using a single particle mass spectrometer. Ultraviolet (UV) laser depth-profiling experiments were used to characterize different types of mixed SOA/DOP particles: those formed by condensation of the oxidized α-pinene products on size-selected DOP particles and by condensation of DOP on size-selected α-pinene SOA particles. The results of these measurements conclusively show that the hydrophilic SOA and hydrophobic DOP do not mix, but instead form distinct phases. An examination of homogeneously-nucleated SOA particles formed in the presence of DOP shows them to be encapsulated by a thin DOP layer. Thus SOA can adsorb gas-phase DOP even though it has an extremely low vapor pressure (1.3×10-7 Torr), which has significant implications for SOA formation and fate in the atmosphere, where numerous organic compounds with various volatilities are present.

  7. Effect of gonadotropin-releasing hormone on phagocytic leucocytes of rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Yada, Takashi

    2012-03-01

    To clarify the role of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in the fish immune system, in vitro effect of GnRH was examined in phagocytic leucocytes of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Gene expression of GnRH-receptor was detected by RT-PCR in leucocytes from head kidney. Administration of sGnRH increased proliferation and mRNA levels of a proinflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, in trout leucocytes. Superoxide production in zymosan-stimulated phagocytic leucocytes was also increased by sGnRH in a dose-related manner from 0.01 to 100 nM. There was no significant effect of sGnRH on mRNA levels of growth hormone (GH) expressed in trout phagocytic leucocytes. Immunoneutralization of GH by addition of anti-salmon GH serum into the medium could not block the stimulatory effect of sGnRH on superoxide production. These results indicate that GnRH stimulates phagocytosis in fish leucocytes through a GnRH-receptor-dependent pathway, and that the effect of GnRH is not mediated through paracrine GH in leucocytes.

  8. User-generated quality standards for youth mental health in primary care: a participatory research design using mixed methods

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Tanya; Rose, Diana; Murray, Joanna; Ashworth, Mark; Tylee, André

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To develop user-generated quality standards for young people with mental health problems in primary care using a participatory research model. Methods 50 young people aged 16–25 from community settings and primary care participated in focus groups and interviews about their views and experiences of seeking help for mental health problems in primary care, cofacilitated by young service users and repeated to ensure respondent validation. A second group of young people also aged 16–25 who had sought help for any mental health problem from primary care or secondary care within the last 5 years were trained as focus groups cofacilitators (n=12) developed the quality standards from the qualitative data and participated in four nominal groups (n=28). Results 46 quality standards were developed and ranked by young service users. Agreement was defined as 100% of scores within a two-point region. Group consensus existed for 16 quality standards representing the following aspects of primary care: better advertising and information (three); improved competence through mental health training and skill mix within the practice (two); alternatives to medication (three); improved referral protocol (three); and specific questions and reassurances (five). Alternatives to medication and specific questions and reassurances are aspects of quality which have not been previously reported. Conclusions We have demonstrated the feasibility of using participatory research methods in order to develop user-generated quality standards. The development of patient-generated quality standards may offer a more formal method of incorporating the views of service users into quality improvement initiatives. This method can be adapted for generating quality standards applicable to other patient groups. PMID:24920648

  9. Mixed primary squamous cell carcinoma, follicular carcinoma, and micropapillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland: A case report.

    PubMed

    Dong, Su; Song, Xue-Song; Chen, Guang; Liu, Jia

    2016-08-01

    Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid gland is rare, and mixed squamous cell and follicular carcinoma is even rarer still, with only a few cases reported in the literature. The simultaneous presentation of three primary cancers of the thyroid has not been reported previously. Here we report a case of primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid, follicular thyroid carcinoma, and micropapillary thyroid carcinoma. A 62-year-old female patient presented with complaints of pain and a 2-month history of progressively increased swelling in the anterior region of the neck. Fine-needle-aspiration cytology of both lobes indicated the possibility of the presence of a follicular neoplasm. Total thyroidectomy with left-sided modified radical neck dissection was performed. Postoperative pathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of thyroid follicular carcinoma with squamous cell carcinoma and micropapillary carcinoma of the thyroid. Thyroid-stimulating hormone suppressive therapy with l-thyroxine was administered. Radioiodine and radiotherapy also were recommended, but the patient did not complete treatment as scheduled. The patient remained alive more than 9 months after operation. The present case report provides an example of the coexistence of multiple distinct malignancies in the thyroid.

  10. Food safety knowledge, practices and beliefs of primary food preparers in families with young children. A mixed methods study.

    PubMed

    Meysenburg, Rebecca; Albrecht, Julie A; Litchfield, Ruth; Ritter-Gooder, Paula K

    2014-02-01

    Food preparers in families with young children are responsible for safe food preparation and handling to prevent foodborne illness. To explore the food safety perceptions, beliefs, and practices of primary food preparers in families with children 10 years of age and younger, a mixed methods convergent parallel design and constructs of the Health Belief Model were used. A random sampling of 72 primary food handlers (36.2±8.6 years of age, 88% female) within young families in urban and rural areas of two Midwestern states completed a knowledge survey and participated in ten focus groups. Quantitative data were analyzed using SPSS. Transcribed interviews were analyzed for codes and common themes. Forty-four percent scored less than the average knowledge score of 73%. Participants believe children are susceptible to foodborne illness but perceive its severity to be low with gastrointestinal discomfort as the primary outcome. Using safe food handling practices and avoiding inconveniences were benefits of preventing foodborne illness. Childcare duties, time and knowledge were barriers to practicing food safety. Confidence in preventing foodborne illness was high, especially when personal control over food handling is present. The low knowledge scores and reported practices revealed a false sense of confidence despite parental concern to protect their child from harm. Food safety messages that emphasize the susceptibility and severity of foodborne illness in children are needed to reach this audience for adoption of safe food handling practices.

  11. Partial net primary production of a mixed dipterocarp forest: Spatial patterns and temporal dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Zheng-Hong; Deng, Xiao-Bao; Hughes, Alice; Tang, Yong; Cao, Min; Zhang, Wen-Fu; Yang, Xiao-Fei; Sha, Li-Qing; Song, Liang; Zhao, Jun-Fu

    2015-03-01

    We examined how and why partial net primary production (NPPpart) varies across time and space in a Chinese dipterocarp forest. We hypothesize that (1) soil geochemistry explains the spatial pattern of NPPpart within the plot and (2) NPPpart can be used to measure the degree of drought resilience of a natural forest. Spatially, NPPpart was autocorrelated in the range of 75.3 m and homogenous. This spatial pattern could not be well explained by any of the soil properties individually or in combination. If drought sensitivity is defined by marked reduction in NPPpart, the studied forest is drought resilient even when a longer and drier than usual drought hit. Although annual NPPpart was unchanged (vary within 18.24 and 18.52 t ha-1 yr-1) after the drought, the allocation of NPPpart to short-lived litterfall increased, which has further effects on the ecosystem net carbon balance.

  12. Interprofessional mental health training in rural primary care: findings from a mixed methods study.

    PubMed

    Heath, Olga; Church, Elizabeth; Curran, Vernon; Hollett, Ann; Cornish, Peter; Callanan, Terrence; Bethune, Cheri; Younghusband, Lynda

    2015-05-01

    The benefits of interprofessional care in providing mental health services have been widely recognized, particularly in rural communities where access to health services is limited. There continues to be a need for more continuing interprofessional education in mental health intervention in rural areas. There have been few reports of rural programs in which mental health content has been combined with training in collaborative practice. The current study used a sequential mixed-method and quasi-experimental design to evaluate the impact of an interprofessional, intersectoral education program designed to enhance collaborative mental health capacity in six rural sites. Quantitative results reveal a significant increase in positive attitudes toward interprofessional mental health care teams and self-reported increases in knowledge and understanding about collaborative mental health care delivery. The analysis of qualitative data collected following completion of the program, reinforced the value of teaching mental health content within the context of collaborative practice and revealed practice changes, including more interprofessional and intersectoral collaboration. This study suggests that imbedding explicit training in collaborative care in content focused continuing professional education for more complex and chronic health issues may increase the likelihood that professionals will work together to effectively meet client needs.

  13. Investigating Primary Marine Aerosol Properties: CCN Activity of Sea Salt and Mixed Inorganic–Organic Particles

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Sea spray particles ejected as a result of bubbles bursting from artificial seawater containing salt and organic matter in a stainless steel tank were sampled for size distribution, morphology, and cloud condensation nucleus (CCN) activity. Bubbles were generated either by aeration through a diffuser or by water jet impingement on the seawater surface. Three objectives were addressed in this study. First, CCN activities of NaCl and two types of artificial sea salt containing only inorganic components were measured to establish a baseline for further measurements of mixed organic–inorganic particles. Second, the effect of varying bubble residence time in the bulk seawater solution on particle size and CCN activity was investigated and was found to be insignificant for the organic compounds studied. Finally, CCN activities of particles produced from jet impingement were compared with those produced from diffuser aeration. Analyses indicate a considerable amount of organic enrichment in the jet-produced particles relative to the bulk seawater composition when sodium laurate, an organic surfactant, is present in the seawater. In this case, the production of a thick foam layer during impingement may explain the difference in activation and supports hypotheses that particle production from the two methods of generating bubbles is not equal. PMID:22809370

  14. National community pharmacy NHS influenza vaccination service in Wales: a primary care mixed methods study

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Andrew M; Wood, Fiona C; Carter, Ben

    2016-01-01

    Background Influenza is a significant cause of morbidity and excess mortality, yet vaccine coverage in the UK remains below target. Community pharmacies are increasingly being promoted as an alternative to vaccination by GPs. Aim To explore and verify the factors that influence the relative performance of pharmacies providing NHS influenza vaccinations. Design and setting A mixed methods study utilising qualitative, semi-structured interviews and quantitative analysis of predictors of vaccination numbers in community pharmacies in Wales. Method Interviews were conducted with 16 pharmacists who participated in the Welsh national pharmacy influenza service in 2013–2014. A purposive sampling strategy was used. Qualitative findings were analysed using framework analysis. Potential predictors of vaccination numbers were identified from interviews and a literature review, and included in a multivariable regression model. Results The contribution of community pharmacies towards vaccination in Wales is small. Findings suggest that community pharmacies reach younger at-risk individuals, in whom vaccine uptake is low, in greater proportion than influenza vaccination programmes as a whole. Extended opening hours and urban locations were positively associated with the number of vaccinations given, although pharmacists reported that workload, vaccine costs, unforeseen delays, lack of public awareness, and GPs’ views of the service limited their contribution. Pharmacists, aware of the potential for conflict with GPs, moderated their behaviour to mitigate such risk. Conclusion Before community pharmacies take greater responsibility for delivering healthcare services, obstacles including increasing pharmacist capacity, vaccine procurement, health service delays, managing GP–pharmacy relationships, and improving public awareness must be overcome. PMID:26965025

  15. Effects of Silver Nanoparticles on Primary Mixed Neural Cell Cultures: Uptake, Oxidative Stress and Acute Calcium Responses

    PubMed Central

    Haase, Andrea; Rott, Stephanie; Mantion, Alexandre; Graf, Philipp; Plendl, Johanna; Thünemann, Andreas F.; Meier, Wolfgang P.; Taubert, Andreas; Luch, Andreas; Reiser, Georg

    2012-01-01

    In the body, nanoparticles can be systemically distributed and then may affect secondary target organs, such as the central nervous system (CNS). Putative adverse effects on the CNS are rarely investigated to date. Here, we used a mixed primary cell model consisting mainly of neurons and astrocytes and a minor proportion of oligodendrocytes to analyze the effects of well-characterized 20 and 40 nm silver nanoparticles (SNP). Similar gold nanoparticles served as control and proved inert for all endpoints tested. SNP induced a strong size-dependent cytotoxicity. Additionally, in the low concentration range (up to 10 μg/ml of SNP), the further differentiated cultures were more sensitive to SNP treatment. For detailed studies, we used low/medium dose concentrations (up to 20 μg/ml) and found strong oxidative stress responses. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were detected along with the formation of protein carbonyls and the induction of heme oxygenase-1. We observed an acute calcium response, which clearly preceded oxidative stress responses. ROS formation was reduced by antioxidants, whereas the calcium response could not be alleviated by antioxidants. Finally, we looked into the responses of neurons and astrocytes separately. Astrocytes were much more vulnerable to SNP treatment compared with neurons. Consistently, SNP were mainly taken up by astrocytes and not by neurons. Immunofluorescence studies of mixed cell cultures indicated stronger effects on astrocyte morphology. Altogether, we can demonstrate strong effects of SNP associated with calcium dysregulation and ROS formation in primary neural cells, which were detectable already at moderate dosages. PMID:22240980

  16. Cultural responses to pain in UK children of primary school age: a mixed-methods study.

    PubMed

    Azize, Pary M; Endacott, Ruth; Cattani, Allegra; Humphreys, Ann

    2014-06-01

    Pain-measurement tools are often criticized for not addressing the influence of culture and ethnicity on pain. This study examined how children who speak English as a primary or additional language discuss pain. Two methods were used in six focus group interviews with 34 children aged 4-7 years: (i) use of drawings from the Pediatric Pain Inventory to capture the language used by children to describe pain; and (ii) observation of the children's placing of pain drawings on red/amber/green paper to denote perceived severity of pain. The findings demonstrated that children with English as an additional language used less elaborate language when talking about pain, but tended to talk about the pictures prior to deciding where they should be placed. For these children, there was a positive significant relationship between language, age, and length of stay in the UK. The children's placement of pain drawings varied according to language background, sex, and age. The findings emphasize the need for sufficient time to assess pain adequately in children who do not speak English as a first language.

  17. Expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase causes delayed neurotoxicity in primary mixed neuronal-glial cortical cultures.

    PubMed

    Dawson, V L; Brahmbhatt, H P; Mong, J A; Dawson, T M

    1994-11-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a potent biological messenger molecule in the central nervous system (CNS). There are several potential sources of NO production in the CNS, including neurons and endothelial cells which express NO synthase (NOS) constitutively. Astrocytes and microglia can be induced by cytokines to express a NOS isoform similar to macrophage NOS (mNOS). Primary mixed glial cultures exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or a combination of LPS and gamma-interferon (INF-gamma) produce nitrite, a breakdown product of NO formation, in a dose-dependent manner. Nitrite production is detectable at 12 hr, peaks at 48 hr and is sustained for at least 96 hr. The NOS inhibitor, nitro-L-arginine (NArg), inhibits nitrite formation, but the immunosuppressant agent, FK506, does not. In mixed glial-neuronal cultures exposed to 50 ng LPS or 5 ng LPS and 1 microgram INF-gamma, neurons begin to die at 48 hr, approx. 24-36 hr after detectable nitrite production. Neurotoxicity is attenuated by 100 microM NArg. These data indicate that expression of inducible mNOS causes delayed neurotoxicity.

  18. Selective inhibition of mitochondrial respiration and glycolysis in human leukaemic leucocytes by methylglyoxal.

    PubMed

    Biswas, S; Ray, M; Misra, S; Dutta, D P; Ray, S

    1997-04-15

    The effect of methylglyoxal on the oxygen consumption of mitochondria of both normal and leukaemic leucocytes was tested by using different respiratory substrates and complex specific artificial electron donors and inhibitors. The results indicate that methylglyoxal strongly inhibits mitochondrial respiration in leukaemic leucocytes, whereas, at a much higher concentration, methylglyoxal fails to inhibit mitochondrial respiration in normal leucocytes. Methylglyoxal strongly inhibits ADP-stimulated alpha-oxoglutarate and malate plus NAD+-dependent respiration, whereas, at a higher concentration, methylglyoxal fails to inhibit succinate and alpha-glycerophosphate-dependent respiration. Methylglyoxal also fails to inhibit respiration which is initiated by duroquinone and cannot inhibit oxygen consumption when the N,N,N', N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine by-pass is used. NADH oxidation by sub-mitochondrial particles of leukaemic leucocytes is also inhibited by methylglyoxal. Lactaldehyde, a catabolite of methylglyoxal, can exert a protective effect on the inhibition of leukaemic leucocyte mitochondrial respiration by methylglyoxal. Methylglyoxal also inhibits l-lactic acid formation by intact leukaemic leucocytes and critically reduces the ATP level of these cells, whereas methylglyoxal has no effect on normal leucocytes. We conclude that methylglyoxal inhibits glycolysis and the electron flow through mitochondrial complex I of leukaemic leucocytes. This is strikingly similar to our previous studies on mitochondrial respiration, glycolysis and ATP levels in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells [Ray, Dutta, Halder and Ray (1994) Biochem. J. 303, 69-72; Halder, Ray and Ray (1993) Int. J. Cancer 54, 443-449], which strongly suggests that the inhibition of electron flow through complex I of the mitochondrial respiratory chain and inhibition of glycolysis by methylglyoxal may be common characteristics of all malignant cells.

  19. Selective inhibition of mitochondrial respiration and glycolysis in human leukaemic leucocytes by methylglyoxal.

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, S; Ray, M; Misra, S; Dutta, D P; Ray, S

    1997-01-01

    The effect of methylglyoxal on the oxygen consumption of mitochondria of both normal and leukaemic leucocytes was tested by using different respiratory substrates and complex specific artificial electron donors and inhibitors. The results indicate that methylglyoxal strongly inhibits mitochondrial respiration in leukaemic leucocytes, whereas, at a much higher concentration, methylglyoxal fails to inhibit mitochondrial respiration in normal leucocytes. Methylglyoxal strongly inhibits ADP-stimulated alpha-oxoglutarate and malate plus NAD+-dependent respiration, whereas, at a higher concentration, methylglyoxal fails to inhibit succinate and alpha-glycerophosphate-dependent respiration. Methylglyoxal also fails to inhibit respiration which is initiated by duroquinone and cannot inhibit oxygen consumption when the N,N,N', N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine by-pass is used. NADH oxidation by sub-mitochondrial particles of leukaemic leucocytes is also inhibited by methylglyoxal. Lactaldehyde, a catabolite of methylglyoxal, can exert a protective effect on the inhibition of leukaemic leucocyte mitochondrial respiration by methylglyoxal. Methylglyoxal also inhibits l-lactic acid formation by intact leukaemic leucocytes and critically reduces the ATP level of these cells, whereas methylglyoxal has no effect on normal leucocytes. We conclude that methylglyoxal inhibits glycolysis and the electron flow through mitochondrial complex I of leukaemic leucocytes. This is strikingly similar to our previous studies on mitochondrial respiration, glycolysis and ATP levels in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells [Ray, Dutta, Halder and Ray (1994) Biochem. J. 303, 69-72; Halder, Ray and Ray (1993) Int. J. Cancer 54, 443-449], which strongly suggests that the inhibition of electron flow through complex I of the mitochondrial respiratory chain and inhibition of glycolysis by methylglyoxal may be common characteristics of all malignant cells. PMID:9163322

  20. Differences in leucocyte-endothelium interactions between normal and adenocarcinoma bearing tissues in response to radiation.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, N. Z.; Ross, B. A.; Gulledge, C.; Klitzman, B.; Dodge, R.; Dewhirst, M. W.

    1994-01-01

    Previously, we demonstrated that the interaction between leucocytes and endothelial cells in tumour tissues is greatly diminished compared with normal tissues under several induced inflammatory conditions. Radiation has been reported to cause release of inflammatory mediators and to promote neutrophil adhesions to cultured endothelial monolayers. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that radiation would cause increased leucocyte rolling and adhesion in both tumour and normal tissues. We examined these two parameters in response to 6 Gy of gamma-radiation in mammary adenocarcinomas implanted into rat skinfold window chambers as well as normal (i.e. non-tumour-bearing) preparations. Leucocyte rolling and adhesion were measured in terms of flux of rolling leucocytes (F(rolling)) and density of adhering leucocytes (D(adhering)) in microvessels. F(rolling) and D(adhering) were measured in two groups of preparations: irradiated and control. In normal preparations, F(rolling) and D(adhering) were both increased significantly by radiation. In contrast, in adenocarcinoma-bearing preparations, F(rolling) and D(adhering) were either unchanged (in the tumour centre) or reduced (in tumour periphery and the normal tissue surrounding the tumour) by radiation. Radiation did not cause changes in haemodynamics in these preparations, thus the observed changes in leucocyte rolling and adhesion could not be accounted for by haemodynamic factors. These results indicate that: (1) in normal preparations, radiation could cause inflammation as manifested by increased leucocyte rolling and adhesion; and (2) in tumour-bearing preparations, radiation caused changes in the vascular surface properties such that they became less adhesive to leucocytes. Such differences in radiation response may have important implications for radiation therapy and provide new insights into the unique features of tumours. Images Figure 2 PMID:8180019

  1. Cortisol stimulates growth hormone gene expression in rainbow trout leucocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Yada, Takashi; Muto, Kohji; Azuma, Teruo; Hyodo, Susumu; Schreck, Carl B

    2005-05-15

    Extrapituitary expression of the growth hormone (GH) gene has been reported for the immune system of various vertebrates. In the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), GH mRNA could be detected in several lymphoid organs and leucocytes by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). To understand the control of GH expression in the fish immune system, mRNA levels for two distinct GH genes (GH1 and GH2) in trout leucocytes isolated from peripheral blood were quantified using a real-time PCR method. Both GH mRNAs could be detected in trout leucocytes, although their levels were extremely low compared to those in pituitary cells. The levels of GH2 mRNA in leucocytes were several times higher than those of GH1, while no difference was observed between GH1 and GH2 mRNA levels in the pituitary. Administration of dibutyryl cyclic AMP and cortisol produced a significant elevation of GH mRNA levels in trout leucocytes, although the levels were unchanged by T3. GH1 and GH2 mRNA levels showed similarities in responses to those factors. The effect of cortisol on GH mRNA appears biphasic; a dose-depending elevation of GH gene expression was observed in leucocytes treated with cortisol at below 200 nM, however, cortisol had no effect at 2000 nM. Cortisol-treated leucocytes showed no significant change in the mRNA level of beta-actin or proliferative activity during the experiments. Our results thus show that, at the low levels, GH gene expression in trout leucocytes is regulated by cortisol, which has been known as a regulatory factor of GH gene expression in pituitary cells, and suggest a physiological significance of paracrine GH produced in the fish immune system.

  2. Specificity of leucocyte migration inhibition test in coeliac disease. A reassessment using different gluten subfractions.

    PubMed Central

    Corazza, G R; Rawcliffe, P M; Frisoni, M; Sarchielli, P; Londei, M; Campieri, M; Lazzari, R; Gasbarrini, G

    1985-01-01

    Production of leucocyte migration inhibition factor by peripheral blood leucocytes in response to challenge with gluten fractions has been proposed as a reliable in vitro test for the diagnosis of coeliac disease. We have performed the leucocyte migration inhibition test with two different gluten fractions, GFIII and B2, in untreated and treated coeliac patients, patients with other intestinal diseases (abnormal controls) and healthy controls, and evaluated the sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictability of the test for the diagnosis of coeliac disease. Using GFIII as antigen leucocyte migration was significantly inhibited, compared to healthy controls, not only in treated and untreated coeliacs but also in abnormal controls. Using B2 gluten subfraction as antigen only treated coeliacs and abnormal controls differed significantly from healthy controls. The elevated number of abnormal controls showing migration inhibition consistently affected the diagnostic value of the test, which did not vary using B2 subfraction instead of GFIII as antigen. Our study confirms previous observations of gluten sensitization, as detected by leucocyte migration inhibition, in coeliac patients but strongly questions the claim that coeliac disease can be diagnosed on the basis of a positive leucocyte migration inhibition test without the need for intestinal biopsy. PMID:4006297

  3. Leucocyte protein Trojan, a possible regulator of apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Petrov, Petar; Syrjänen, Riikka; Uchida, Tatsuya; Vainio, Olli

    2017-02-01

    Trojan is a leucocyte-specific protein, cloned from chicken embryonic thymocyte cDNA library. The molecule is a type I transmembrane protein with an extracellular CCP domain, followed by two FN3 domains. Its cytoplasmic tail is predicted to possess a MAPK docking and a PKA phosphorylation sites. Trojan has been proposed to have an anti-apoptotic role based on its differential expression on developing thymocyte subpopulations. Using a chicken cell line, our in vitro studies showed that upon apoptosis induction, Trojan expression rises dramatically on the surface of surviving cells and gradually decreases towards its normal levels as cells recover. When sorted based on their expression levels of Trojan, cells with high expression appeared less susceptible to apoptotic induction than those bearing no or low levels of Trojan on their surface. The mechanism by which the molecule exerts its function is yet to be discovered. We found that cells overexpressing Trojan from a cDNA plasmid show elevated steady-state levels of intracellular calcium, suggesting the molecule is able to transmit cytoplasmic signals. The mechanistic nature of Trojan-induced signalling is a target of future investigation. In this article, we conducted a series of experiments that suggest Trojan as an anti-apoptotic regulator.

  4. Patient Safety Incidents Involving Sick Children in Primary Care in England and Wales: A Mixed Methods Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rees, Philippa; Edwards, Adrian; Powell, Colin; Williams, Huw; Carter, Ben; Luff, Donna; Parry, Gareth; Avery, Anthony; Sheikh, Aziz; Donaldson, Liam; Carson-Stevens, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Background The UK performs poorly relative to other economically developed countries on numerous indicators of care quality for children. The contribution of iatrogenic harm to these outcomes is unclear. As primary care is the first point of healthcare contact for most children, we sought to investigate the safety of care provided to children in this setting. Methods and Findings We undertook a mixed methods investigation of reports of primary care patient safety incidents involving sick children from England and Wales’ National Reporting and Learning System between 1 January 2005 and 1 December 2013. Two reviewers independently selected relevant incident reports meeting prespecified criteria, and then descriptively analyzed these reports to identify the most frequent and harmful incident types. This was followed by an in-depth thematic analysis of a purposive sample of reports to understand the reasons underpinning incidents. Key candidate areas for strengthening primary care provision and reducing the risks of systems failures were then identified through multidisciplinary discussions. Of 2,191 safety incidents identified from 2,178 reports, 30% (n = 658) were harmful, including 12 deaths and 41 cases of severe harm. The children involved in these incidents had respiratory conditions (n = 387; 18%), injuries (n = 289; 13%), nonspecific signs and symptoms, e.g., fever (n = 281; 13%), and gastrointestinal or genitourinary conditions (n = 268; 12%), among others. Priority areas for improvement included safer systems for medication provision in community pharmacies; triage processes to enable effective and timely assessment, diagnosis, and referral of acutely sick children attending out-of-hours services; and enhanced communication for robust safety netting between professionals and parents. The main limitations of this study result from underreporting of safety incidents and variable data quality. Our findings therefore require further exploration in longitudinal

  5. Adoption of a Portal for the Primary Care Management of Pediatric Asthma: A Mixed-Methods Implementation Study

    PubMed Central

    DuRivage, Nathalie; Mayne, Stephanie L; Finch, Stacia; Ross, Michelle E; Giacomini, Kelli; Suh, Andrew; McCarn, Banita; Brandt, Elias; Karavite, Dean; Staton, Elizabeth W; Shone, Laura P; McGoldrick, Valerie; Noonan, Kathleen; Miller, Dorothy; Lehmann, Christoph U; Pace, Wilson D; Grundmeier, Robert W

    2016-01-01

    Background Patient portals may improve communication between families of children with asthma and their primary care providers and improve outcomes. However, the feasibility of using portals to collect patient-reported outcomes from families and the barriers and facilitators of portal implementation across diverse pediatric primary care settings have not been established. Objective We evaluated the feasibility of using a patient portal for pediatric asthma in primary care, its impact on management, and barriers and facilitators of implementation success. Methods We conducted a mixed-methods implementation study in 20 practices (11 states). Using the portal, parents of children with asthma aged 6-12 years completed monthly surveys to communicate treatment concerns, treatment goals, symptom control, medication use, and side effects. We used logistic regression to evaluate the association of portal use with child characteristics and changes to asthma management. Ten clinician focus groups and 22 semistructured parent interviews explored barriers and facilitators of use in the context of an evidence-based implementation framework. Results We invited 9133 families to enroll and 237 (2.59%) used the portal (range by practice, 0.6%-13.6%). Children of parents or guardians who used the portal were significantly more likely than nonusers to be aged 6-9 years (vs 10-12, P=.02), have mild or moderate/severe persistent asthma (P=.009 and P=.04), have a prescription of a controller medication (P<.001), and have private insurance (P=.002). Portal users with uncontrolled asthma had significantly more medication changes and primary care asthma visits after using the portal relative to the year earlier (increases of 14% and 16%, respectively). Qualitative results revealed the importance of practice organization (coordinated workflows) as well as family (asthma severity) and innovation (facilitated communication and ease of use) characteristics for implementation success

  6. Morphology of mixed primary and secondary organic particles and the adsorption of spectator organic gases during aerosol formation

    PubMed Central

    Vaden, Timothy D.; Song, Chen; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Imre, Dan; Zelenyuk, Alla

    2010-01-01

    Primary organic aerosol (POA) and associated vapors can play an important role in determining the formation and properties of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). If SOA and POA are miscible, POA will significantly enhance SOA formation and some POA vapor will incorporate into SOA particles. When the two are not miscible, condensation of SOA on POA particles forms particles with complex morphology. In addition, POA vapor can adsorb to the surface of SOA particles increasing their mass and affecting their evaporation rates. To gain insight into SOA/POA interactions we present a detailed experimental investigation of the morphologies of SOA particles formed during ozonolysis of α-pinene in the presence of dioctyl phthalate (DOP) particles, serving as a simplified model of hydrophobic POA, using a single-particle mass spectrometer. Ultraviolet laser depth-profiling experiments were used to characterize two different types of mixed SOA/DOP particles: those formed by condensation of the oxidized α-pinene products on size-selected DOP particles and by condensation of DOP on size-selected α-pinene SOA particles. The results show that the hydrophilic SOA and hydrophobic DOP do not mix but instead form layered phases. In addition, an examination of homogeneously nucleated SOA particles formed in the presence of DOP vapor shows them to have an adsorbed DOP coating layer that is ∼4 nm thick and carries 12% of the particles mass. These results may have implications for SOA formation and behavior in the atmosphere, where numerous organic compounds with various volatilities and different polarities are present. PMID:20194795

  7. Primary production within the sea-ice zone west of the Antarctic Peninsula: I—Sea ice, summer mixed layer, and irradiance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernet, Maria; Martinson, Douglas; Iannuzzi, Richard; Stammerjohn, Sharon; Kozlowski, Wendy; Sines, Karie; Smith, Ray; Garibotti, Irene

    2008-09-01

    In shelf waters of the western Antarctic Peninsula (wAP), with abundant macro- and micronutrients, water-column stability has been suggested as the main factor controlling primary production; freshwater input from sea-ice melting stabilizes the upper water column by forming a shallow summer mixed layer. Retreating sea ice in the spring and summer thus defines the area of influence, the sea-ice zone (SIZ) and the marginal ice zone (MIZ). A 12-year time series (1995-2006) was analyzed to address two main questions: (1) what are the spatial and temporal patterns in primary production; and (2) to what extent and in what ways is primary production related to sea-ice dynamics. Data were collected on cruises performed during January of each year, at the height of the growth season, within the region bounded by 64°S and 64°W to the north and 68°S and 66°W to the south. Average daily integrated primary production varied by an order of magnitude, from ˜250 to ˜1100 mg C m -2 d -1, with an average cruise primary production of 745 mg C m -2 d -1. A strong onshore-offshore gradient was evident along the shelf with higher production observed inshore. Inter-annual regional production varied by a factor of 7: maximum rates were measured in 2006 (1788 mg C m -2 d -1) and minimum in 1999 (248 mg C m -2 d -1). The results support the hypothesis that primary production in the wAP shelf is related to sea-ice dynamics. To first order, shallower summer mixed-layer depths in the shelf correlated with late sea retreat and primary production. Principal component analysis showed that high primary production in January was associated with enhanced shelf production toward the coast and in the south, explaining 63% of the variability in space and time. This first mode captured the inter-annual variability in regional production. Temporal variability in primary production (time series of anomalies defined for each location) showed spatial dependence: higher primary production correlated

  8. Epigenetic changes in peripheral leucocytes as biomarkers in intrauterine growth retardation rat.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xue-Feng; Xu, Shan-Shan; Fu, Lin-Cheng; Hu, Qiong-Yao; Lv, Ying; Du, Li-Zhong

    2016-11-01

    Epigenetics plays an important role in the fetal origins of adult disease. Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) can cause increased histone acetylation of the endothelin-1 (ET-1) gene from pulmonary vascular endothelial cells or the whole lung tissue and persist into later life, likely resulting in increased risk of pulmonary hypertension or asthma later in life. However, little is known regarding the correlation of epigenetic changes between specific tissue and peripheral leucocytes. In the present study, an IUGR rat model was established by maternal nutrient restriction. Peripheral blood leucocytes were isolated to detect the ET-1 expression level. Chromatin immunoprecipitation was used to analyze histone modification of the ET-1 gene promoter. The ET-1 protein expression of leucocytes from the 1-week IUGR group was similar to that from the 1-week control group. ET-1 protein expression of leucocytes from 10-week IUGR rats was obviously higher than that of the other groups (P<0.05). The levels of acetylated histone H3 in the ET-1 promoter of leucocytes from the 1-week IUGR rats were significantly higher than those from the age-matched control group (P=0.004). Furthermore, the trends continued ≤10 weeks after birth. In conclusion, epigenetic modifications of leucocytes can in part reflect the epigenetic changes of lung tissue in IUGR rats. Epigenetics of peripheral leucocytes may be used as a biomarker for predicting the risk of the development of disease, and may be used as a surrogate to investigate the subsequent development of pulmonary vascular disease or asthma.

  9. Epigenetic changes in peripheral leucocytes as biomarkers in intrauterine growth retardation rat

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xue-Feng; Xu, Shan-Shan; Fu, Lin-Cheng; Hu, Qiong-Yao; Lv, Ying; Du, Li-Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetics plays an important role in the fetal origins of adult disease. Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) can cause increased histone acetylation of the endothelin-1 (ET-1) gene from pulmonary vascular endothelial cells or the whole lung tissue and persist into later life, likely resulting in increased risk of pulmonary hypertension or asthma later in life. However, little is known regarding the correlation of epigenetic changes between specific tissue and peripheral leucocytes. In the present study, an IUGR rat model was established by maternal nutrient restriction. Peripheral blood leucocytes were isolated to detect the ET-1 expression level. Chromatin immunoprecipitation was used to analyze histone modification of the ET-1 gene promoter. The ET-1 protein expression of leucocytes from the 1-week IUGR group was similar to that from the 1-week control group. ET-1 protein expression of leucocytes from 10-week IUGR rats was obviously higher than that of the other groups (P<0.05). The levels of acetylated histone H3 in the ET-1 promoter of leucocytes from the 1-week IUGR rats were significantly higher than those from the age-matched control group (P=0.004). Furthermore, the trends continued ≤10 weeks after birth. In conclusion, epigenetic modifications of leucocytes can in part reflect the epigenetic changes of lung tissue in IUGR rats. Epigenetics of peripheral leucocytes may be used as a biomarker for predicting the risk of the development of disease, and may be used as a surrogate to investigate the subsequent development of pulmonary vascular disease or asthma. PMID:27882215

  10. The primary care provider (PCP)-cancer specialist relationship: A systematic review and mixed-methods meta-synthesis.

    PubMed

    Dossett, Lesly A; Hudson, Janella N; Morris, Arden M; Lee, M Catherine; Roetzheim, Richard G; Fetters, Michael D; Quinn, Gwendolyn P

    2017-03-01

    Although they are critical to models of coordinated care, the relationship and communication between primary care providers (PCPs) and cancer specialists throughout the cancer continuum are poorly understood. By using predefined search terms, the authors conducted a systematic review of the literature in 3 databases to examine the relationship and communication between PCPs and cancer specialists. Among 301 articles identified, 35 met all inclusion criteria and were reviewed in-depth. Findings from qualitative, quantitative, and disaggregated mixed-methods studies were integrated using meta-synthesis. Six themes were identified and incorporated into a preliminary conceptual model of the PCP-cancer specialist relationship: 1) poor and delayed communication between PCPs and cancer specialists, 2) cancer specialists' endorsement of a specialist-based model of care, 3) PCPs' belief that they play an important role in the cancer continuum, 4) PCPs' willingness to participate in the cancer continuum, 5) cancer specialists' and PCPs' uncertainty regarding the PCP's oncology knowledge/experience, and 6) discrepancies between PCPs and cancer specialists regarding roles. These data indicate a pervasive need for improved communication, delineation, and coordination of responsibilities between PCPs and cancer specialists. Future interventions aimed at these deficiencies may improve patient and physician satisfaction and cancer care coordination. CA Cancer J Clin 2017;67:156-169. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  11. Evidence for a human leucocyte antigen-DM-induced structural change in human leucocyte antigen-DObeta.

    PubMed

    Deshaies, Francis; Diallo, Djibril A; Fortin, Jean-Simon; O'Rourke, Helen M; Pezeshki, Abdul Mohammad; Bellemare-Pelletier, Angélique; Raby, Nicola; Bédard, Nathalie; Brunet, Alexandre; Denzin, Lisa K; Thibodeau, Jacques

    2009-07-01

    Human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-DO is a non-classical major histocompatibility complex class II molecule which modulates the function of HLA-DM and the loading of antigenic peptides on molecules such as HLA-DR. The bulk of HLA-DO associates with HLA-DM and this interaction is critical for HLA-DO egress from the endoplasmic reticulum. HLA-DM assists the early steps of HLA-DO maturation presumably through the stabilization of the interactions between the N-terminal regions of the alpha and beta chains. To evaluate a possible role for HLA-DM in influencing the conformation of HLA-DO, we made use of a monoclonal antibody, Mags.DO5, that was raised against HLA-DO/DM complexes. Using transfected cells expressing mismatched heterodimers between HLA-DR and -DO chains, we found that the epitope for Mags.DO5 is located on the DObeta chain and that Mags.DO5 reactivity was increased upon cotransfection with HLA-DM. Our results suggest that HLA-DM influences the folding of HLA-DO in the endoplasmic reticulum. A mutant HLA-DO showing reduced capacity for endoplasmic reticulum egress was better recognized by Mags.DO5 in the presence of HLA-DM. On the other hand, an HLA-DO mutant capable of endoplasmic reticulum egress on its own was efficiently recognized by Mags.DO5, irrespective of the presence of HLA-DM. Taken together, our results suggest that HLA-DM acts as a private chaperone, directly assisting the folding of HLA-DO to promote egress from the endoplasmic reticulum.

  12. Phagocytosis and Respiratory Burst Activity in Lumpsucker (Cyclopterus lumpus L.) Leucocytes Analysed by Flow Cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Haugland, Gyri T.; Jakobsen, Ragnhild Aakre; Vestvik, Nils; Ulven, Kristian; Stokka, Lene; Wergeland, Heidrun I.

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, we have isolated leucocytes from peripheral blood, head kidney and spleen from lumpsucker (Cyclopterus lumpus L.), and performed functional studies like phagocytosis and respiratory burst, as well as morphological and cytochemical analyses. Different leucocytes were identified, such as lymphocytes, monocytes/macrophages and polymorphonuclear cells with bean shaped or bilobed nuclei. In addition, cells with similar morphology as described for dendritic cells in trout were abundant among the isolated leucocytes. Flow cytometry was successfully used for measuring phagocytosis and respiratory burst activity. The phagocytic capacity and ability were very high, and cells with different morphology in all three leucocyte preparations phagocytised beads rapidly. Due to lack of available cell markers, the identity of the phagocytic cells could not be determined. The potent non-specific phagocytosis was in accordance with a high number of cells positive for myeloperoxidase, an enzyme involved in oxygen-dependent killing mechanism present in phagocytic cells. Further, high respiratory burst activity was present in the leucocytes samples, verifying a potent oxygen- dependent degradation. At present, the specific antibody immune response could not be measured, as immunoglobulin or B-cells have not yet been isolated. Therefore, analyses of the specific immune response in this fish species await further clarification. The present study presents the first analyses of lumpsucker immunity and also the first within the order Scopaeniformes. PMID:23112870

  13. Protein nitration is predominantly mediated by a peroxynitrite-dependent pathway in cultured human leucocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Galiñanes, Manuel; Matata, Bashir M

    2002-01-01

    Protein nitration is a common characteristic of oxidative injury caused by the invasion of leucocytes into inflammatory lesions. Two distinct pathways of nitration of protein tyrosine residues, namely the peroxynitrite (ONOO(-))-mediated pathway and another catalysed by the haem-containing peroxidases, have been reported under experimental conditions. However, the contribution of these two pathways in human leucocytes is still controversial. The present study demonstrates that the process of phenolic nitration of proteins in cultured human leucocytes is mainly ONOO(-)-mediated and that it differs between granulocytes and mononuclear cells, depending on the cell compartment and the stimuli. We have also shown that NO induces protein nitration via a ONOO(-)-dependent pathway, whereas NO(2)(-), the NO metabolite, does not increase but decreases nitration in PMA-stimulated leucocytes. The inhibition of myeloperoxidase activity did not reduce protein nitration; on the other hand, the myeloperoxidase inhibitor aminobenzoic hydrazide caused increased nitration, which was mediated by ONOO(-). These results suggest that protein nitration is predominantly mediated by a ONOO(-)-dependent pathway in cultured human leucocytes and that the myeloperoxidase-catalysed pathway does not play a significant role in protein nitration. PMID:12099887

  14. Fatty acid binding protein 4 in circulating leucocytes reflects atherosclerotic lesion progression in Apoe(-/-) mice.

    PubMed

    Agardh, Hanna E; Gertow, Karl; Salvado, Dolores M; Hermansson, Andreas; van Puijvelde, Gijs H; Hansson, Göran K; n-Berne, Gabrielle Paulsso; Gabrielsen, Anders

    2013-02-01

    Discovery of novel biomarkers for atherosclerosis is important to aid in early diagnosis of pre-symptomatic patients at high risk of cardiovascular events. The aim of the present study was therefore to identify potential biomarkers in circulating cells reflecting atherosclerotic lesion progression in the vessel wall. We performed gene arrays on circulating leucocytes from atherosclerosis prone Apoe(-/-) mice with increasing ages, using C57BL/6 mice as healthy controls. We identified fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) mRNA to be augmented in mice with established disease compared with young Apoe(-/-) or controls. Interestingly, the transcript FABP4 correlated significantly with lesion size, further supporting a disease associated increase. In addition, validation of our finding on protein level showed augmented FABP4 in circulating leucocytes whereas, importantly, no change could be observed in plasma. Immunofluorescence analysis demonstrated FABP4 to be present mainly in circulating neutrophils and to some extent in monocytes. Moreover, FABP4-positive neutrophils and macrophages could be identified in the subintimal space in the plaque. Using human circulating leucocytes, we confirmed the presence of FABP4 protein in neutrophils and monocytes. In conclusion, we have showed that cellular levels of FABP4 in circulating leucocytes associate with lesion development in the experimental Apoe(-/-) model. The increased expression is primarily localized to neutrophils, but also in monocytes. We have identified FABP4 in leucocytes as a potential and easy accessible biomarker of atherosclerosis which could be of future clinical relevance.

  15. Phagocytosis and respiratory burst activity in lumpsucker (Cyclopterus lumpus L.) leucocytes analysed by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Haugland, Gyri T; Jakobsen, Ragnhild Aakre; Vestvik, Nils; Ulven, Kristian; Stokka, Lene; Wergeland, Heidrun I

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, we have isolated leucocytes from peripheral blood, head kidney and spleen from lumpsucker (Cyclopterus lumpus L.), and performed functional studies like phagocytosis and respiratory burst, as well as morphological and cytochemical analyses. Different leucocytes were identified, such as lymphocytes, monocytes/macrophages and polymorphonuclear cells with bean shaped or bilobed nuclei. In addition, cells with similar morphology as described for dendritic cells in trout were abundant among the isolated leucocytes. Flow cytometry was successfully used for measuring phagocytosis and respiratory burst activity. The phagocytic capacity and ability were very high, and cells with different morphology in all three leucocyte preparations phagocytised beads rapidly. Due to lack of available cell markers, the identity of the phagocytic cells could not be determined. The potent non-specific phagocytosis was in accordance with a high number of cells positive for myeloperoxidase, an enzyme involved in oxygen-dependent killing mechanism present in phagocytic cells. Further, high respiratory burst activity was present in the leucocytes samples, verifying a potent oxygen- dependent degradation. At present, the specific antibody immune response could not be measured, as immunoglobulin or B-cells have not yet been isolated. Therefore, analyses of the specific immune response in this fish species await further clarification. The present study presents the first analyses of lumpsucker immunity and also the first within the order Scopaeniformes.

  16. Paracrine effects of uterine leucocytes on gene expression of human uterine stromal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Germeyer, Ariane; Sharkey, Andrew Mark; Prasadajudio, Mirari; Sherwin, Robert; Moffett, Ashley; Bieback, Karen; Clausmeyer, Susanne; Masters, Leanne; Popovici, Roxana Maria; Hess, Alexandra Petra; Strowitzki, Thomas; von Wolff, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The endometrium contains a distinct population of immune cells that undergo cyclic changes during the menstrual cycle and implantation. The majority of these leucocytes are uterine NK (uNK) cells, however how these cells interact with uterine stromal fibroblasts remains unclear. We therefore investigated the paracrine effect of medium conditioned by uterine decidual leucocytes (which are enriched for uNK cells) on the gene expression profile of endometrial stromal fibroblasts in vitro using a cDNA microarray. Our results, verified by real-time PCR, ELISA and FACS analysis, reveal that soluble factors from uterine leucocytes substantially alter endometrial stromal fibroblast gene expression. The largest group of up-regulated genes found was chemokines and cytokines. These include IL-8, CCL8 and CXCL1, which have also been shown to be stimulated by contact of stromal fibroblasts with trophoblast, suggesting that uNK cells work synergistically to support trophoblast migration during implantation. The decidual leucocytes also up-regulated IL-15 and IL-15Ralpha in stromal fibroblasts which could produce a niche for uNK cells allowing proliferation within and recruitment into the uterus, as seen in bone marrow. Overall this study demonstrates, for the first time, the paracrine communication between uterine leucocytes and uterine stromal fibroblasts, and adds to the understanding of how the uterine immune system contributes to the changes seen within the cycling endometrium.

  17. Leucocyte subset-specific type 1 interferon signatures in SLE and other immune-mediated diseases

    PubMed Central

    Jovanovic, Vojislav; Teo, Boon Wee; Mak, Anselm; Thumboo, Julian; McKinney, Eoin F; Lee, James C; MacAry, Paul; Kemeny, David M; Jayne, David RW; Fong, Kok Yong; Lyons, Paul A; Smith, Kenneth GC

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Type 1 interferons (IFN-1) are implicated in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), but most studies have only reported the effect of IFN-1 on mixed cell populations. We aimed to define modules of IFN-1-associated genes in purified leucocyte populations and use these as a basis for a detailed comparative analysis. Methods CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, monocytes and neutrophils were purified from patients with SLE, other immune-mediated diseases and healthy volunteers and gene expression then determined by microarray. Modules of IFN-1-associated genes were defined using weighted gene coexpression network analysis. The composition and expression of these modules was analysed. Results 1150 of 1288 IFN-1-associated genes were specific to myeloid subsets, compared with 11 genes unique to T cells. IFN-1 genes were more highly expressed in myeloid subsets compared with T cells. A subset of neutrophil samples from healthy volunteers (HV) and conditions not classically associated with IFN-1 signatures displayed increased IFN-1 gene expression, whereas upregulation of IFN-1-associated genes in T cells was restricted to SLE. Conclusions Given the broad upregulation of IFN-1 genes in neutrophils including in some HV, investigators reporting IFN-1 signatures on the basis of whole blood samples should be cautious about interpreting this as evidence of bona fide IFN-1-mediated pathology. Instead, specific upregulation of IFN-1-associated genes in T cells may be a useful biomarker and a further mechanism by which elevated IFN-1 contributes to autoimmunity in SLE. PMID:27252891

  18. Expression of natriuretic peptide receptor mRNA and functional response to atrial natriuretic peptide and C-type natriuretic peptide in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) head kidney leucocytes.

    PubMed

    Powell, M D; McWilliam, H; McLeod, J; Nankervis, S; Butler, R; Toop, T

    2008-04-01

    The stimulatory effect of vasomodulatory natriuretic peptide hormones on macrophages and peripheral blood leucocytes in mammals is well-established. However, the relationship in lower vertebrates has not been characterised. Expression of atrial natriuretic peptide, ventricular natriuretic peptide and C-type natriuretic peptide-1, and the guanylyl cyclase-linked (GC) natriuretic peptide receptor-A and -B-type receptors (NPR-A and NPR-B, respectively) was determined by PCR from the mRNA of rainbow trout head kidney leucocytes yielding gene fragments with 100% homology to the same respective natriuretic peptide and NPR-A and -B sequences obtained from other rainbow trout tissues. A mixed population of isolated rainbow trout head kidney leucocytes was stimulated in vitro with trout atrial natriuretic peptide (specific NPR-A agonist) and trout C-type natriuretic peptide (NPR-A and -B agonist) as well as the cGMP agonist 8-bromo-cGMP or the GC inhibitor 8-bromo-phenyl-eutheno-cGMP. Respiratory burst was stimulated by trout atrial natriuretic peptide, trout C-type natriuretic peptide-1 and 8-bromo-cGMP in a dose dependant manner with the highest activity as a result of stimulation with trout C-type natriuretic peptide-1 in excess of that achieved by phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). Equimolar concentrations of the inhibitor, inhibited the respiratory burst caused by the natriuretic peptides and 8-bromo-cGMP. The natriuretic peptide receptors on rainbow trout head kidney leucocytes appear to have a stimulatory function with regard to respiratory burst that is activated through a cGMP second messenger pathway and the natriuretic peptides expressed in the head kidney leucocytes may well act in a paracrine/autocrine manner.

  19. Rat leucocyte response to the bites of rat fleas (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae).

    PubMed

    Vaughan, J A; Jerse, A E; Azad, A F

    1989-09-01

    The host response to bites of the oriental rat flea, Xenopyslla cheopis Rothschild, was investigated by examining rat blood leucocyte kinetics, histopathology, and the effect that the host response had upon subsequent flea feeding and longevity. Test rats were subjected to controlled exposures of fleas, and leucocyte data from test rats were compared to those of unexposed controls. Of the five leucocyte types examined, only the basophil appeared to play a role in the host blood response to flea bites. Significant increases in blood basophil levels occurred 2-3 d after exposure but subsided to control levels within a week. However, flea feeding did not produce histopathology at the flea feeding sites nor did the basophilic blood response of rats affect subsequent feeding or longevity of the fleas.

  20. Isolation of two polypeptides comprising the neutrophil-immobilizing factor of human leucocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Watt, K W; Brightman, I L; Goetzl, E J

    1983-01-01

    Human leucocyte lysosomal polypeptides of mol. wt 4000-5000, which constitute the neutrophil-immobolizing factor (NIF), were isolated from the 22,000 g supernate of sonicates of human neutrophils by filtration on Sephadex G-75. The larger (NIF-1) and smaller (NIF-2) of the polypeptides were resolved by filtration on Bio-Gel P6 and purified to homogeneity by sequential reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography and paper electrophoresis. The results of analyses of amino acid composition indicated that NIF-1 and NIF-2 are distinct polypeptides composed of an apparent total of 41 and 38 amino acids, respectively. Both NIF polypeptides contain one cysteine and one methionine, lack isoleucine, tyrosine and phenylalanine, and are rich in histidine and proline. The sequence of 20 of the amino-terminal amino acids of both NIF polypeptides is identical, but NIF-2 possesses an additional alanine at the amino-terminus. Highly purified NIF-1 and NIF-2 inhibited human neutrophil random migration and chemotaxis to diverse stimuli in a concentration-dependent manner, with 50% inhibition of chemotaxis by 0.31-1 x 10(-8) M NIF-1 and 1-3 x 10(-7) M NIF-2. Neither NIF polypeptide was cytotoxic for neutrophils, altered neutrophil phagocytosis or release of lysosomal enzymes, or inhibited mononuclear leucocyte chemotaxis. The leucocyte and functional specificity of the NIF polypeptides and the quantitites released upon stimulation of the human leucocytes suggest that the transition to a mononuclear leucocyte population in chronic inflammation may be attributable in part to the NIF derived from the leucocyte infiltrates of acute responses. PMID:6848456

  1. Enhancement of mite antigen-induced histamine release by deuterium oxide from leucocytes of chronic urticarial patients

    SciTech Connect

    Numata, T.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamura, T.

    1981-09-01

    The mite antigen-induced histamine release from leucocytes of chronic urticarial patients was enhanced in the presence of deuterium oxide, which stabilizes microtubules. This enhancing effect of deuterium oxide on the histamine release from leucocytes may provide a useful means for the detection of allergens in vitro in chronic urticaria.

  2. Characterization of binding specificities of Bovine Leucocyte class I molecules: Impacts for rational epitope discovery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The binding of peptides to classical major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class-I proteins is the single most selective step in antigen presentation. However, the peptide binding specificity of cattle MHC (bovine leucocyte antigen, BoLA) class I (BoLA-I) molecules remains poorly characterized. Her...

  3. The Fps/Fes kinase regulates leucocyte recruitment and extravasation during inflammation.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Sean A; Mewburn, Jeffrey D; Truesdell, Peter; Greer, Peter A

    2007-12-01

    Fps/Fes and Fer comprise a distinct subfamily of cytoplasmic protein-tyrosine kinases, and have both been implicated in the regulation of innate immunity. Previous studies showed that Fps/Fes-knockout mice were hypersensitive to systemic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge, and Fer-deficient mice displayed enhanced recruitment of leucocytes in response to localized LPS challenge. We show here for the first time, a role for Fps in the regulation of leucocyte recruitment to areas of inflammation. Using the cremaster muscle intravital microscopy model, we observed increased leucocyte adherence to venules, and increased rates and degrees of transendothelial migration in Fps/Fes-knockout mice relative to wild-type animals subsequent to localized LPS challenge. There was also a decreased vessel wall shear rate in the post-capillary venules of LPS-challenged Fps/Fes-knockout mice, and an increase in neutrophil migration into the peritoneal cavity subsequent to thioglycollate challenge. Using flow cytometry to quantify the expression of surface molecules, we observed prolonged expression of the selectin ligand PSGL-1 on peripheral blood neutrophils from Fps/Fes-knockout mice stimulated ex vivo with LPS. These observations provide important insights into the observed in vivo behaviour of leucocytes in LPS-challenged Fps/Fes-knockout mice and provide evidence that the Fps/Fes kinase plays an important role in the innate immune response.

  4. The haematology of hyperthyroidism: abnormalities of erythrocytes, leucocytes, thrombocytes and haemostasis.

    PubMed Central

    Ford, H. C.; Carter, J. M.

    1988-01-01

    The abnormalities of erythrocytes, leucocytes, thrombocytes and coagulation that have been reported, particularly in more recent years, to be associated with hyperthyroidism are surveyed. Several areas are highlighted where further investigations could lead to clinically useful insights, improved information about the haematological processes involved or to a better understanding of thyroid hormone action. PMID:3076660

  5. VLA-4 blockade by natalizumab inhibits sickle reticulocyte and leucocyte adhesion during simulated blood flow.

    PubMed

    White, Jennell; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Gupta, Dipti; Lancelot, Moira; Moore, Nancy; Sarnaik, Sharada; Hobbs, William E; Light, David R; Hines, Patrick

    2016-09-01

    Very Late Antigen-4 (VLA-4, α4β1-integrin, ITGA4) orchestrates cell-cell and cell-endothelium adhesion. Given the proposed role of VLA-4 in sickle cell disease (SCD) pathophysiology, we evaluated the ability of the VLA-4 blocking antibody natalizumab to inhibit SCD blood cell adhesion. Natalizumab recognized surface VLA-4 on leucocytes and reticulocytes in whole blood from SCD subjects. SCD reticulocytes were positive for VLA-4, while VLA-4 staining of non-SCD reticulocytes was undetectable. Titrations with natalizumab revealed the presence of saturable levels of VLA-4 on both SCD reticulocytes and leucocytes similar to healthy subject leucocytes. Under physiological flow conditions, the adhesion of SCD whole blood cells and isolated SCD leucocytes to immobilized vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) was blocked by natalizumab in a dose-dependent manner, which correlated with cell surface receptor binding. Natalizumab also inhibited >50% of whole blood cell binding to TNF-α activated human umbilical vein endothelial cell monolayers under physiological flow at clinically relevant concentrations (10 to 100 μg/ml). This indicates that VLA-4 is the dominant receptor that drives SCD reticulocyte and mononuclear cell adhesion to VCAM-1 and that the VLA-4 adhesion to VCAM-1 is a significant contributor to SCD blood cell adhesion to endothelium. Thus, VLA-4 blockade may be beneficial in sickle cell disease.

  6. Discriminative protection against hydroxyl and superoxide anion radicals by quercetin in human leucocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wilms, Lonneke C; Kleinjans, Jos C S; Moonen, Edwin J C; Briedé, Jacob J

    2008-03-01

    Antioxidants play a vital role in the cellular protection against oxidative damage. Quercetin is a well-investigated antioxidant and known to be able to protect against cellular oxidative DNA damage. In this study, we tried to relate the protection by quercetin pre-treatment against oxidative DNA damage in human leucocytes in vitro to the interaction of quercetin in solution with hydroxyl and superoxide anion radicals as measured by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometry, using DMPO as a spin trap. Further, scavenging capacity of quercetin-treated leucocytes in vitro was evaluated by ESR spectrometry. Quercetin appears capable of protecting human leucocytes against oxidative DNA damage caused by hydrogen peroxide in a dose-dependent manner. The protection of leucocytes against superoxides is ambiguous. Incubation concentrations of quercetin (1, 10, and 50 microM) reduced levels of superoxide-induced oxidative DNA damage, while at 100 microM the amount of damage was increased. These results are supported by ESR-findings on quercetin in solution, also showing a prooxidant effect at 100 microM. ESR spectroscopy showed rate constant values for the reaction kinetics of quercetin in lowering iron-dependent hydroxyl radical formation and NADH-dependent superoxide anion formation of respectively 3.2 x 10(12)M(-1)s(-1) and 1.1 x 10(4)M(-1)s(-1). This shows that quercetin is a more potent inhibitor of hydroxyl radical formation than a scavenger of superoxide anions.

  7. Interaction between leucocytes and human spermatozoa influencing reactive oxygen intermediates release.

    PubMed

    Fraczek, Monika; Sanocka, Dorota; Kurpisz, Maciej

    2004-04-01

    The relationship between the presence of white blood cells (WBCs) and the fertilizing potential of human semen is still an open question. It is well known that the presence of leucocytes in human semen can be related to the production of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI). Semen samples were obtained from 15 normozoospermic men and leucocytes were isolated from heparinized blood drawn from 15 volunteers. Lucigenin and luminol-mediated chemiluminescence assays were used to determine reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation by non-activated or activated leucocytes through 12-myristate-13-acetate or N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenyalanine (FMLP) before the addition of spermatozoa isolated by swim-up or Percoll procedures. All spermatozoal fractions used in this study were characterized by defining their motility, morphology and viability. The levels of ROS formation by non-activated as well as stimulated leucocytes were significantly decreased after addition of swim-up separated spermatozoa (p < 0.01). The ability to inhibit the basal chemiluminescence was of lower degree for spermatozoa isolated from 90% Percoll fractions than for swim-up sperm. However, addition of sperm cells from 47% Percoll fraction was found to increase both lucigenin and luminol signals. Moreover, the determined ROI levels changed depending on the type of inducing factor used for oxidative burst. Then, spermatozoa selected by swim-up procedure although with only slightly higher viability and morphology than sperm obtained from 90% Percoll fraction clearly exhibited much higher capacity to inhibit ROI secretion by receptor-stimulated leucocytes (FMLP-activation) than Percoll fractionated sperm. Such results may indicate that within normal semen may exist sperm subpopulations with different biochemical mechanisms controlling the interaction between spermatozoa and contaminating leucocytes. When ROI levels contained in normozoospermic semen are dependent on the WBCs activation, it seems that

  8. Differential leucocyte count for ewe milk with low and high somatic cell count.

    PubMed

    Albenzio, Marzia; Caroprese, Mariangela

    2011-02-01

    This study was undertaken to compare flow cytometry (FC) and direct microscopic leucocyte count (MDLC) for the differentiation of macrophages, lymphocytes and polymorphonuclear leucocyte (PMN) and to evaluate leucocyte distribution in ewe milk with low and high somatic cell count (SCC). Milk samples were grouped for somatic cell count in low SCC (LSCC) when the content was lower than 5·00 × 10(5)/ml and high SCC (HSCC) when the content was higher than 1·00 × 10(6)/ml. No differences were found between the two methods tested suggesting that FC could be used as a routine test for rapid discrimination of leucocytes. Percentages of lymphocytes in ewe milk were higher in LSCC (50%) than in HSCC (39%) and count ranged from 273·91 ± 56·62 × 10(3) cells/ml (LSCC) to 308·90 ± 46·15 × 10(3) cells/ml (HSCC). PMN number was lower in LSCC than in HSCC (248·83 ± 46·87 × 10(3) cells/ml v. 444·38 ± 58·62 × 10(3) cells/ml); accordingly the percentage was lower in LSCC (40%) than in HSCC (57%). No differences were found for macrophages which were 36·36 ± 5·51 × 10(3) cells/ml and 39·32 ± 6·83 × 10(3) cells/ml in LSCC and HSCC, respectively. Lymphocytes in ewe milk did not vary with increased number of somatic cells and were the predominant cell type in LSCC. PMN represented the main population detected in HSCC and the correlation with SCC evidenced that this leucocyte class could be useful in differentiating ewe milk cell count, being strictly responsible for the SCC increase.

  9. Connexin36 identified at morphologically mixed chemical/electrical synapses on trigeminal motoneurons and at primary afferent terminals on spinal cord neurons in adult mouse and rat.

    PubMed

    Bautista, W; McCrea, D A; Nagy, J I

    2014-03-28

    Morphologically mixed chemical/electrical synapses at axon terminals, with the electrical component formed by gap junctions, is common in the CNS of lower vertebrates. In mammalian CNS, evidence for morphologically mixed synapses has been obtained in only a few locations. Here, we used immunofluorescence approaches to examine the localization of the neuronally expressed gap junction forming protein connexin36 (Cx36) in relation to the axon terminal marker vesicular glutamate transporter-1 (vglut1) in the spinal cord and the trigeminal motor nucleus (Mo5) of rat and mouse. In adult rodents, immunolabeling for Cx36 appeared exclusively as Cx36-puncta, and was widely distributed at all rostro-caudal levels in most spinal cord laminae and in the Mo5. A high proportion of Cx36-puncta was co-localized with vglut1, forming morphologically mixed synapses on motoneurons, in intermediate spinal cord lamina, and in regions of medial lamina VII, where vglut1-containing terminals associated with Cx36 converged on neurons adjacent to the central canal. Unilateral transection of lumbar dorsal roots reduced immunolabeling of both vglut1 and Cx36 in intermediate laminae and lamina IX. Further, vglut1-terminals displaying Cx36-puncta were contacted by terminals labeled for glutamic acid decarboxylase65, which is known to be contained in presynaptic terminals on large-diameter primary afferents. Developmentally, mixed synapses begin to emerge in the spinal cord only after the second to third postnatal week and thereafter increase to adult levels. Our findings demonstrate that axon terminals of primary afferent origin form morphologically mixed synapses containing Cx36 in broadly distributed areas of adult rodent spinal cord and Mo5.

  10. The effects of ambient temperature and mixing time of glass ionomer cement material on the survival rate of proximal ART restorations in primary molars

    PubMed Central

    Kemoli, Arthur M

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Temperature fluctuations and material mixing times are likely to affect the consistency and integrity of the material mixture, and hence the restoration made out of it. The purpose of the present study was to determine the influence of the ambient temperature and the mixing time of glass ionomer cement (GIC) restorative material on the survival rate of proximal atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) restorations placed in primary molars. Materials and Methods: A total of 804 restorations were placed in the primary molars of 6-8-year-olds using the ART approach. The restorations were then followed for a period of 2 years and evaluated at given intervals. The data collected were analyzed using SPSS computer statistical program, and the results tested and compared using the Chi-square, Kaplan Meier survival analysis and Cox Proportional hazard statistical tests. Results: The cumulative survival rate of the restorations dropped from the initial 94.4% to 30.8% at the end of 2 years. The higher survival rate of the restorations was associated with the experienced operators and assistants when using the rubber dam isolation method. However, there was no statistically significant difference in the survival rate of the restorations when related to the room temperature and the mixing time of the GIC materials used in spite of the variations in the temperature recoded and the methods used in mixing the materials. Conclusion: The ambient temperature and mixing time of GIC did not have a significant effect on the survival of the proximal ART restorations. PMID:24808692

  11. The Assessment of Math Learning Difficulties in a Primary Grade-4 Child with High Support Needs: Mixed Methods Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mundia, Lawrence

    2012-01-01

    This mixed-methods study incorporated elements of survey, case study and action research approaches in investigating an at-risk child. Using an in-take interview, a diagnostic test, an error analysis, and a think-aloud clinical interview, the study identified the child's major presenting difficulties. These included: inability to use the four…

  12. Mechanisms controlling primary and new production in a global ecosystem model Part I: The role of the large-scale upper mixed layer variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popova, E. E.; Coward, A. C.; Nurser, G. A.; de Cuevas, B.; Fasham, M. J. R.; Anderson, T. R.

    2006-07-01

    A global general circulation model coupled to a simple six-compartment ecosystem model is used to study the extent to which global variability in primary and export production can be realistically predicted on the basis of advanced parameterizations of upper mixed layer physics, without recourse to introducing extra complexity in model biology. The ''K profile parameterization'' (KPP) scheme employed, combined with 6-hourly external forcing, is able to capture short-term periodic and episodic events such as diurnal cycling and storm-induced deepening. The model realistically reproduces various features of global ecosystem dynamics that have been problematic in previous global modelling studies, using a single generic parameter set. The realistic simulation of deep convection in the North Atlantic, and lack of it in the North Pacific and Southern Oceans, leads to good predictions of chlorophyll and primary production in these contrasting areas. Realistic levels of primary production are predicted in the oligotrophic gyres due to high frequency external forcing of the upper mixed layer (accompanying paper Popova et al., 2006) and novel parameterizations of zooplankton excretion. Good agreement is shown between model and observations at various JFOFS time series sites: BATS, KERFIX, Papa and station India. One exception is that the high zooplankton grazing rates required to maintain low chlorophyll in high-nutrient low-chlorophyll and oligotrophic systems lessened agreement between model and data in the northern North Atlantic, where mesozooplankton with lower grazing rates may be dominant. The model is therefore not globally robust in the sense that additional parameterizations were needed to realistically simulate ecosystem dynamics in the North Atlantic. Nevertheless, the work emphasises the need to pay particular attention to the parameterization of mixed layer physics in global ocean ecosystem modelling as a prerequisite to increasing the complexity of ecosystem

  13. Effect of hydrocortisone on the mobilisation of leucocytes in corneal wounds.

    PubMed Central

    Basu, P K; Avaria, M; Jankie, R

    1981-01-01

    We have studied in rabbits the effect of subconjunctivally injected hydrocortisone on the polymorphonuclear leucocyte invasion of corneal wounds at different times after an injury. One group of rabbits was treated with the steroid (hydrocortisone group) and the other not (control group). After making nonpenetrating trephine incisions on the cornea we obtained cellular samples by the impression technique at a given postoperative period (2, 4, or 6 hours), and then the animal was killed. The cornea was processed for histological study of the infiltrating cells. At any postoperative period the number of polymorphonuclear leucocytes in the corneal wounds of the hydrocortisone group was significantly less than the number in the identical wounds of the control group (p less than 0.01 to 0.001). Images PMID:7317321

  14. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA in leucocytes in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).

    PubMed

    Lie-Injo, L E; Volberding, P; Golden, J A; Herrera, A R

    1985-01-01

    Earlier reported findings of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA in white blood cells of patients with hepatoma, and in a patient with autoimmune haemolytic anaemia, led to the examination of HBV DNA in a series of twenty three patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), including nine with opportunistic infections and fourteen with Kaposi's sarcoma, by Southern blot hybridization method, using 32P labelled HBV DNA specific probe obtained by nick translation of HBV DNA cloned into plasmid pBR325. Four of the patients were found to be positive for HBV DNA or HBV related DNA in their leucocytes. The HBV DNA was found free or integrated in the leucocytes of the patients.

  15. Opsonic activity of anti-flagellar serum against Clostridium chauvoei by mouse polymorphonuclear leucocytes.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Y; Tanaka, M

    1987-05-01

    The role of anti-flagellar serum against Clostridium chauvoei in phagocytosis by mouse polymorphonuclear leucocytes was examined. Anti-flagellar serum markedly increased phagocytic rate against the flagellated strain Okinawa but not against a non-flagellated mutant (NFM) derived from the same strain, while anti-NFM serum increased the phagocytic rate against both strains. These results indicate that anti-flagellar serum exerts its protective effect by opsonic activity.

  16. Social and environmental factors modulate leucocyte profiles in free-living Greylag geese (Anser anser)

    PubMed Central

    Ludwig, Sonja C.; Hemetsberger, Josef; Kotrschal, Kurt; Wascher, Claudia A.F.

    2017-01-01

    Background Blood parameters such as haematocrit or leucocyte counts are indicators of immune status and health, which can be affected, in a complex way, by exogenous as well as endogenous factors. Additionally, social context is known to be among the most potent stressors in group living individuals, therefore potentially influencing haematological parameters. However, with few exceptions, this potential causal relationship received only moderate scientific attention. Methods In a free-living and individually marked population of the highly social and long-lived Greylag goose, Anser anser, we relate variation in haematocrit (HCT), heterophils to lymphocytes ratio (H/L) and blood leucocyte counts to the following factors: intrinsic (sex, age, raising condition, i.e. goose- or hand-raised), social (pair-bond status, pair-bond duration and parental experience) and environmental (biologically relevant periods, ambient temperature) factors. Blood samples were collected repeatedly from a total of 105 focal birds during three biologically relevant seasons (winter flock, mating season, summer). Results We found significant relationships between haematological parameters and social as well as environmental factors. During the mating season, unpaired individuals had higher HCT compared to paired and family individuals and this pattern reversed in fall. Similarly, H/L ratio was positively related to pair-bond status in a seasonally dependent way, with highest values during mating and successful pairs had higher H/L ratio than unsuccessful ones. Also, absolute number of leucocytes tended to vary depending on raising condition in a seasonally dependent way. Discussion Haematology bears a great potential in ecological and behavioural studies on wild vertebrates. In sum, we found that HTC, H/L ratio and absolute number of leucocytes are modulated by social factors and conclude that they may be considered valid indicators of individual stress load. PMID:28070455

  17. Exposure to anthrax toxin alters human leucocyte expression of anthrax toxin receptor 1.

    PubMed

    Ingram, R J; Harris, A; Ascough, S; Metan, G; Doganay, M; Ballie, L; Williamson, E D; Dyson, H; Robinson, J H; Sriskandan, S; Altmann, D M

    2013-07-01

    Anthrax is a toxin-mediated disease, the lethal effects of which are initiated by the binding of protective antigen (PA) with one of three reported cell surface toxin receptors (ANTXR). Receptor binding has been shown to influence host susceptibility to the toxins. Despite this crucial role for ANTXR in the outcome of disease, and the reported immunomodulatory consequence of the anthrax toxins during infection, little is known about ANTXR expression on human leucocytes. We characterized the expression levels of ANTXR1 (TEM8) on human leucocytes using flow cytometry. In order to assess the effect of prior toxin exposure on ANTXR1 expression levels, leucocytes from individuals with no known exposure, those exposed to toxin through vaccination and convalescent individuals were analysed. Donors could be defined as either 'low' or 'high' expressers based on the percentage of ANTXR1-positive monocytes detected. Previous exposure to toxins appears to modulate ANTXR1 expression, exposure through active infection being associated with lower receptor expression. A significant correlation between low receptor expression and high anthrax toxin-specific interferon (IFN)-γ responses was observed in previously infected individuals. We propose that there is an attenuation of ANTXR1 expression post-infection which may be a protective mechanism that has evolved to prevent reinfection.

  18. Leucocyte profiles of Arctic marine birds: correlates of migration and breeding phenology.

    PubMed

    Mallory, Mark L; Little, Catherine M; Boyd, Ellen S; Ballard, Jennifer; Elliott, Kyle H; Gilchrist, H Grant; Hipfner, J Mark; Petersen, Aevar; Shutler, Dave

    2015-01-01

    Most Arctic marine birds are migratory, wintering south of the limit of annual pack ice and returning north each year for the physiologically stressful breeding season. The Arctic environment is changing rapidly due to global warming and anthropogenic activities, which may influence the timing of breeding in relation to arrival times following migration, as well as providing additional stressors (e.g. disturbance from ships) to which birds may respond. During stressful parts of their annual cycle, such as breeding, birds may reallocate resources so that they have increased heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratios in their white blood cell (leucocyte) profiles. We analysed leucocyte profiles of nine species of marine birds to establish reference ranges for these species in advance of future Arctic change. Leucocyte profiles tended to cluster among taxonomic groups across studies, suggesting that reference values for a particular group can be established, and within species there was evidence that birds from colonies that had to migrate farther had higher heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratios during incubation than those that did not have to travel as far, particularly for species with high wing loading.

  19. Microcystin-LR modulates selected immune parameters and induces necrosis/apoptosis of carp leucocytes.

    PubMed

    Rymuszka, Anna; Sierosławska, Anna; Bownik, Adam; Skowroński, Tadeusz

    2010-03-01

    Microcystins (MCs) are potent hepatotoxins acting by the inhibition of protein phosphatase 1 and 2A, and may promote liver tumors. Moreover, studies also suggest they are nephrotoxic. The aim of the present study was to assess possible in vitro effects of microcystin-LR (which contains the amino acids leucine and arginine, the most widely studied and distributed variant of all microcystins) on the selected immune functions of the cells isolated from the head kidney of carp. In the experiments, pure microcystin-LR (MC-LR), was used at concentrations of 0.01, 0.1, 0.5, and 1 microg/ml RPMI-1640 medium. Leucocytes (lymphocytes and phagocytes) were isolated by centrifugation on a density gradient. Lymphocyte proliferation, intracellular production of reactive oxygen species by phagocytes, and the presence of apoptotic and/or necrotic cells were assessed. The respiratory burst activity of phagocytic cells was increased at the lowest toxin concentration used in the study, but it was decreased at higher concentrations. Using a sensitive luminescent immunoassay, MC-LR was observed to have no influence on the T-cell proliferation but decreased the proliferation of B lymphocytes. Moreover, it was noted that MC-LR induced necrosis to a higher degree than apoptosis in fish leucocytes. The results of the present study suggest the modulatory potency of microcystin-LR on fish leucocytes.

  20. Role of Siglecs on the leucocytes during the process of the joint's inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao; Wang, Yue

    2011-12-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is considered as an autoimmune disease that intermittently causes the chronic and acute inflammation of the patient's small joints which can destroy the tissues around the joints resulting in the limitation of the joint's function. In the synovium and synovia of the joints, the infiltration and/or phagocytosis of the different kinds of leucocytes were demonstrated according to the phases of the acute and chronic inflammation. Also, Siglecs (sialic acid binding Ig-like lectins) were reported on the leucocytes which can induce the active and inhibitory immune response by the specific binding with sialic acid on the conjugates including the sialylation of the immunoglobulin which has been reported there was striking increasing in the synovium and synovia of the small joints, also in the sera on RA cases. This hypothesis proposed Siglecs on the leucocytes which infiltrate into the joint's cavity and the increasing sialic acid conjugates might play a role during the acute and chronic inflammation on RA disease. It might be helpful to explain the mechanism of the different inflammation in different circumstances in the RA.

  1. 111-Indium labelled autologous leucocytes in diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease

    SciTech Connect

    Wandall, J.H.; Edeling, C.J.; Jensen, J.T.; Lund, J.O.; Bonnevie, O.; Haxholdt, H.; Jensen, H.C.; Matzen, P.; Myschetsky, P.S.; Nielsen, A.M.

    1984-01-01

    111-Indium labelled leucocytes have been used to visualize inflammatory lesions in ulcerative colitis (CU) and in Crohn's disease (CD). The aim of this study was to compare findings by scintigraphy, radiology and endoscopy. Material: Twelve patients with CU and 15 patients with CD were studied. All patients were non-febrile. Two patients received prednisolone 5 mg/daily, 8 sulphasalazine. Methods: Autologous leucocytes were labelled with 111-In-Oxine and given i.v. Scintigrams were obtained 3 and 24 hrs. p.i. Double contrast x-ray studies were done of the colon and small intestine after 2 and 14 days respectively. Colonscopy with biopsy was done after 4 days. Results: Active lesions were found in 24 and 27 patients. Scintigrams 24 hrs.p.i. did not give and additional information compared with scintigrams 3 hrs.p.i. Intraluminal activity masked the location and extension of lesions after 24 hrs. Excretion in the stool was 2.4-25.8% of administered activity. Compared with scintigraphy a corresponding extension and location was found by colonscopy. In 4 patients x-ray of the colon was normal but scintigraphy and colonscopy showed active inflammation. Conclusion: Scintigraphy after injection of 111-In labelled leucocytes is a atraumatic method for visualization of inflammatory lesions in UC and CD. Furthermore, it appears to be more sensitive than conventional x-ray studies.

  2. Chemotactic activity of Helicobacter pylori sonicate for human polymorphonuclear leucocytes and monocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, H; Andersen, L P

    1992-01-01

    The immunopathology of Helicobacter pylori associated active chronic gastritis, which is characterised by predominance of polymorphonuclear leucocyte infiltration, is largely unknown. To evaluate the role of bacterial components as inflammatory mediators ultracentrifuged sonicated preparations were made of clinical isolates of Helicobacter pylori. The crude sonicates were shown to exhibit chemotactic activity for human polymorphonuclear leucocytes and blood monocytes in a concentration dependent fashion. The potency was comparable with previously described bacterial derived cytotaxins. The cytotaxin(s) was non-dialysable and completely destroyed by proteinase. Heat treatment did not decrease the chemotactic activity, but in sonicate subjected to 100 degrees C for 15 minutes all activity disappeared after dialysis suggesting the breakdown of a larger protein to small fragments that are still biological active. By ammonium sulphate precipitation at increasing concentrations the cytotaxin(s) was selectively found in 10% ammonium sulphate saturation, and by further molecular gel separation the chemotactic activity was found in the molecular size range from 25 to 35 kDa. The demonstration of a polymorphonuclear leucocyte and monocyte cytotaxin from Helicobacter pylori sonicate may help in understanding the mucosal immune response in gastric inflammatory diseases. PMID:1624151

  3. Leucocyte profiles of Arctic marine birds: correlates of migration and breeding phenology

    PubMed Central

    Mallory, Mark L.; Little, Catherine M.; Boyd, Ellen S.; Ballard, Jennifer; Elliott, Kyle H.; Gilchrist, H. Grant; Hipfner, J. Mark; Petersen, Aevar; Shutler, Dave

    2015-01-01

    Most Arctic marine birds are migratory, wintering south of the limit of annual pack ice and returning north each year for the physiologically stressful breeding season. The Arctic environment is changing rapidly due to global warming and anthropogenic activities, which may influence the timing of breeding in relation to arrival times following migration, as well as providing additional stressors (e.g. disturbance from ships) to which birds may respond. During stressful parts of their annual cycle, such as breeding, birds may reallocate resources so that they have increased heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratios in their white blood cell (leucocyte) profiles. We analysed leucocyte profiles of nine species of marine birds to establish reference ranges for these species in advance of future Arctic change. Leucocyte profiles tended to cluster among taxonomic groups across studies, suggesting that reference values for a particular group can be established, and within species there was evidence that birds from colonies that had to migrate farther had higher heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratios during incubation than those that did not have to travel as far, particularly for species with high wing loading. PMID:27293713

  4. Flow cytometry analyses of phagocytic and respiratory burst activities and cytochemical characterization of leucocytes isolated from wrasse (Labrus bergylta A.).

    PubMed

    Haugland, Gyri T; Rønneseth, Anita; Wergeland, Heidrun I

    2014-07-01

    We have isolated leucocytes from peripheral blood (PBL), head kidney (HKL) and spleen (SL) of wrasse (Labrus bergylta A.) and studied the innate immune responses phagocytosis and respiratory burst using flow cytometry. Further, we have characterized the phenotypic properties of the leucocytes by cytochemical staining. We could differentiate between several subsets of leucocytes; lymphocytes, monocytes/macrophages, neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils and small leucocytes that might be precursor or immature cells. One striking observation was the eosinophils which were present among HKL, PBL and SL. The neutrophils had rounded, bean shaped or bi-lobed nuclei and resembled neutrophils in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) and lumpsucker (Cyclopterus lumpus L.), but were different from the polymorphonucleated neutrophils in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) and humans. Basophils were observed, but they were rare. Phagocytosis and respiratory burst activities were detected among different cell types. Highest phagocytic activity was observed among monocytes/macrophages and small leucocytes. Several different subtypes had ability to perform an oxygen-dependent degradation of microbes, measured as respiratory burst activity. Knowledge of the basic properties of wrasse's leucocytes and innate immunology can benefit further studies on its adaptive immune responses.

  5. [Functional state of endothelium and oxidant activity of leucocytes in patients with ischemic heart disease after coronary bypass surgery].

    PubMed

    Panov, A V; Abesadze, I T; Korzhenevskaia, K V; Nil'k, R Ia; Kozulin, V Iu; Gordeev, M L; Shliakhto, E V

    2007-01-01

    Relationship between disorders of endothelial function, proinflammatory activity of leucocytes and effects of therapy with simvastatin or its combination with ezetimibe was studied in 72 patients with ischemic heart disease subjected to coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Vascular endothelial function was assessed by ultrasound detection of brachial artery response to its compression, oxidant activity of leucocytes - by chemiluminescent microscopy, severity of coronary artery atherosclerosis - by invasive coronary angiography. Twenty two healthy individuals comprised control group. Endothelial function, activity of leucocytes, and lipid levels were evaluated before and in 12 months after CABG. Patients with multivessel involvement revealed more complex disorders of endothelial function and higher levels of leucocytes activity compared to patients with single-vessel disease. CABG resulted in disappearance of anginal attacks and negative stress echo test during 1-year observation in 80.6% of patients. Patients with recurrent angina after CABG had more severe endothelial and leucocytes disorders. Combined lipid lowering therapy (simvastatin plus ezetimibe) compared to simvastatin alone demonstrated higher efficacy in terms of achievement of target lipid levels, improvement of endothelial function and leucocytes disorders.

  6. Leucocyte interactions with the mouse cremaster muscle microcirculation in vivo in response to tumour-conditioned medium.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, N. J.; Reed, M. W.

    1997-01-01

    Leucocyte interactions with the cremaster muscle microcirculation in vivo were investigated in response to culture medium conditioned with different cell types in 25 adult male Swiss mice. Animals were divided into five groups. Three groups received ex vivo fluorescently labelled lymphokine activated killer (LAK) cells systemically and had either tumour (murine melanoma K1735)-conditioned medium (TCM), fibroblast (murine 3T3)-conditioned medium (FCM) or fresh culture medium administered topically to the cremaster muscle. In the two remaining groups, the host leucocytes were labelled fluorescently by systemic administration of acridine red, and either TCM or FCM was applied topically to the cremaster muscle. There was an immediate but transient increase in the frequency of rolling and adherent LAK cells, and a subsequent (90-120 min later) increase in rolling and adherent host leucocytes, demonstrating temporal differences in the response to topical administration of TCM. These increases in contact with the vascular endothelium occurred in all vessel types, venules, arterioles and capillaries, with the greatest response observed in the venules. The FCM and normal culture medium did not affect the distribution and localization of either LAK cells or host leucocytes. These data suggest that there are one or more soluble tumour-specific chemoattractants for leucocytes present in the conditioned medium. The mouse cremaster muscle microcirculation is therefore a useful model to investigate the mechanism of leucocyte-endothelium interactions in tumour biology. PMID:9083334

  7. [A role of the adhesive properties of leucocytes and blood serum in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Zhirnova, I G; Larina, I V; Komel'kova, L V; Tsareva, M I; Gannushkina, I V; Zavalishin, I A

    2008-01-01

    Adhesive properties of leucocytes were studied using an original technique based on the leukocyte adherence inhibition reaction and measuring the values of spontaneous adhesion index (SAI) and adhesion-strengthening effect (ASE) under the influence of autoserum. One hundred patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and 53 controls were included in the study. Immunophenotyping of lymphocytes (LP) with monoclonal antibodies--markers CD3, CD4, CD8, CD16, CD20, CD25, HLA-DR and CD95--and determination of IgG, IgA, IgM and content of immune complexes were carried out in parallel. The increase of adhesion parameters (ASE and SAI) was found in MS. It was most significant in patients with primary progressive course and in disease exacerbation. The greatest changes of phenotypic LP content were associated with debut and exacerbation-remission periods. Significant positive correlations between higher SAI values and phenotypes CD20, CD95, HLA-DR and amount of natural killer cells were revealed in patients with MS in contrast to the negative correlations of SAI with CD3 and CD4 in the control group. A role of membrane and soluble forms of adhesion molecules in the initiation and progression of immunopathological process in MS is discussed.

  8. Differential response of planktonic primary, bacterial, and dimethylsulfide production rates to vertically-moving and static incubations in upper mixed-layer summer sea waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galí, M.; Simó, R.; Pérez, G. L.; Ruiz-González, C.; Sarmento, H.; Royer, S.-J.; Fuentes-Lema, A.; Gasol, J. M.

    2013-05-01

    Microbial plankton experience fluctuations in total solar irradiance and in its spectral composition as they are vertically moved by turbulence in the oceanic upper mixed layer (UML). The fact that the light exposure is not static but dynamic may have important consequences for biogeochemical processes and ocean-atmosphere fluxes. However, most biogeochemical processes other than primary production, like bacterial production or dimethylsulfide (DMS) production, are seldom measured in sunlight and even less often in dynamic light fields. We conducted four experiments in oligotrophic summer stratified Mediterranean waters, where a sample from the UML was incubated in ultraviolet (UV)-transparent bottles at three fixed depths within the UML and on a vertically-moving basket across the same depth range. We assessed the response of the phyto- and bacterioplankton community with physiological indicators based on flow cytometry singe-cell measurements, Fast Repetition Rate fluorometry (FRRf), phytoplankton pigment concentrations and particulate light absorption. Dynamic light exposure caused a disruption of the photoinhibition and photoacclimation processes associated to ultraviolet radiation (UVR), which slightly alleviated bacterial photoinhibition but did not favor primary production. Gross DMS production (GPDMS) decreased sharply with depth in parallel to shortwave UVR, and displayed a dose-dependent response that mixing did not significantly disrupt. To our knowledge, we provide the first measurements of GPDMS under in situ UV-inclusive optical conditions.

  9. Differential response of planktonic primary, bacterial, and dimethylsulfide production rates to static vs. dynamic light exposure in upper mixed-layer summer sea waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galí, M.; Simó, R.; Pérez, G. L.; Ruiz-González, C.; Sarmento, H.; Royer, S.-J.; Fuentes-Lema, A.; Gasol, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    Microbial plankton experience short-term fluctuations in total solar irradiance and in its spectral composition as they are vertically moved by turbulence in the oceanic upper mixed layer (UML). The fact that the light exposure is not static but dynamic may have important consequences for biogeochemical processes and ocean-atmosphere fluxes. However, most biogeochemical processes other than primary production, like bacterial production or dimethylsulfide (DMS) production, are seldom measured in sunlight and even less often in dynamic light fields. We conducted four experiments in oligotrophic summer stratified Mediterranean waters, where a sample from the UML was incubated in ultraviolet (UV)-transparent bottles at three fixed depths within the UML and on a vertically moving basket across the same depth range. We assessed the response of the phyto- and bacterioplankton community with physiological indicators based on flow cytometry singe-cell measurements, fast repetition rate fluorometry (FRRf), phytoplankton pigment concentrations and particulate light absorption. Dynamic light exposure caused a subtle disruption of the photoinhibition and photoacclimation processes associated with ultraviolet radiation (UVR), which slightly alleviated bacterial photoinhibition but did not favor primary production. Gross DMS production (GPDMS) decreased sharply with depth in parallel to shortwave UVR, and displayed a dose-dependent response that mixing did not significantly disrupt. To our knowledge, we provide the first measurements of GPDMS under in situ UV-inclusive optical conditions.

  10. Evaluating process and clinical outcomes of a primary care mental health integration project in rural Rwanda: a prospective mixed-methods protocol

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Stephanie L; Misago, Claire Nancy; Osrow, Robyn A; Franke, Molly F; Iyamuremye, Jean Damascene; Dusabeyezu, Jeanne D'Arc; Mohand, Achour A; Anatole, Manzi; Kayiteshonga, Yvonne; Raviola, Giuseppe J

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Integrating mental healthcare into primary care can reduce the global burden of mental disorders. Yet data on the effective implementation of real-world task-shared mental health programmes are limited. In 2012, the Rwandan Ministry of Health and the international healthcare organisation Partners in Health collaboratively adapted the Mentoring and Enhanced Supervision at Health Centers (MESH) programme, a successful programme of supported supervision based on task-sharing for HIV/AIDS care, to include care of neuropsychiatric disorders within primary care settings (MESH Mental Health). We propose 1 of the first studies in a rural low-income country to assess the implementation and clinical outcomes of a programme integrating neuropsychiatric care into a public primary care system. Methods and analysis A mixed-methods evaluation will be conducted. First, we will conduct a quantitative outcomes evaluation using a pretest and post-test design at 4 purposively selected MESH MH participating health centres. At least 112 consecutive adults with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression or epilepsy will be enrolled. Primary outcomes are symptoms and functioning measured at baseline, 8 weeks and 6 months using clinician-administered scales: the General Health Questionnaire and the brief WHO Disability Assessment Scale. We hypothesise that service users will experience at least a 25% improvement in symptoms and functioning from baseline after MESH MH programme participation. To understand any outcome improvements under the intervention, we will evaluate programme processes using (1) quantitative analyses of routine service utilisation data and supervision checklist data and (2) qualitative semistructured interviews with primary care nurses, service users and family members. Ethics and dissemination This evaluation was approved by the Rwanda National Ethics Committee (Protocol #736/RNEC/2016) and deemed exempt by the Harvard University Institutional Review

  11. Adhesion of leucocytes onto polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) vascular grafts and the effect of low molecular weight dextran (LMWD).

    PubMed

    al-Huneidi, W; Owunwanne, A; Christenson, J T

    1990-01-01

    Platelets are known to interact with the surface of synthetic grafts. In the present study we have investigated another blood constituent, the white blood cell, to evaluate the contribution of leucocyte adhesion onto synthetic vascular graft surfaces. Furthermore the effect of low molecular weight dextran (LMWD) was evaluated in vivo. Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) grafts were interpositioned in the femoral circulation in 12 healthy adult sheep. Autologous leucocytes were labelled with Indium-111-oxine and re-injected i.v. after purity and functional evaluation. Graft uptake of 111In-labelled leucocytes were studied continuously for 2.5 hours and two consecutive days using a gamma camera. Six animals received LMWD, 15 ml/h, i.v. infusion during the first day while the other six animals were infused with normal saline in the same amount and rate (controls). The labelled leucocytes showed normal phagocytosis of bacterias and the leucocyte purity was 74 +/- 6%. There was a rapid increase in graft activity initially. In control animals a continuous increase of graft activity was observed throughout the experiment. In the LMWD-treated animals graft activity remained on a steady level after the initial built up of activity and after 2.5 hours there was a highly significant difference between the groups, p less than 0.001. These differences were confirmed by in vitro activity measurement, autoradiography and histological examination of the grafts at the end of the experiment. It was concluded that leucocyte adhesion onto the surface of PTFE grafts occur during the early period after implantation and could therefore be a contributing factor in the thrombogenesis. Administration of LMWD seems to have a beneficial effect since less leucocyte adhesion occurred in those animals treated with LMWD.

  12. [The comparative evaluation of information value of traditionally analyzed indicators of total blood test and leucocytes index of intoxication in women with physiological and complicated course of pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Skriabina, V V

    2013-12-01

    The article demonstrates that on the basis of retrospective analysis of 34 cases of physiological and 218 cases of complicated course of pregnancy the evaluation of leucocytes index of intoxication is more informative than the standard analysis of leukogram. The increase of leucocytes index of intoxication and tendency of increase of percentage of concentration of leucocytes at early stage of pregnancy are detected mainly in women with complicated course of pregnancy.

  13. Ovarian cavity fluid of the viviparous surfperch Neoditrema ransonnetii suppresses the spontaneous cytotoxic activity of head-kidney leucocytes against xenogeneic targets.

    PubMed

    Yokozawa, N; Nakamura, O; Saito, E; Tsutsui, S

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the effect of ovarian cavity fluid (OCF) from a surfperch Neoditrema ransonnetii on the cytotoxic activity of leucocytes was investigated. In an assay targeting RTG-2, a cell line derived from rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss gonads, leucocytes from both the spleen and head kidney showed spontaneous killing activity. Pre-incubation with OCF significantly suppressed the cytotoxic activity of head-kidney leucocytes towards RTG-2. This suppressive activity was due to the presence of low molecular-mass materials. These results suggest that OCF plays significant roles in pregnancy by its ability to modulate cytotoxicity with maternal leucocytes.

  14. Barriers and facilitators influencing self-management among COPD patients: a mixed methods exploration in primary and affiliated specialist care

    PubMed Central

    Hillebregt, Chantal F; Vlonk, Auke J; Bruijnzeels, Marc A; van Schayck, Onno CP; Chavannes, Niels H

    2017-01-01

    Self-management is becoming increasingly important in COPD health care although it remains difficult to embed self-management into routine clinical care. The implementation of self-management is understood as a complex interaction at the level of patient, health care provider (HCP), and health system. Nonetheless there is still a poor understanding of the barriers and effective facilitators. Comprehension of these determinants can have significant implications in optimizing self-management implementation and give further directions for the development of self-management interventions. Data were collected among COPD patients (N=46) and their HCPs (N=11) in three general practices and their collaborating affiliated hospitals. Mixed methods exploration of the data was conducted and collected by interviews, video-recorded consultations (N=50), and questionnaires on consultation skills. Influencing determinants were monitored by 1) interaction and communication between the patient and HCP, 2) visible and invisible competencies of both the patient and the HCP, and 3) degree of embedding self-management into the health care system. Video observations showed little emphasis on effective behavioral change and follow-up of given lifestyle advice during consultation. A strong presence of COPD assessment and monitoring negatively affects the patient-centered communication. Both patients and HCPs experience difficulties in defining personalized goals. The satisfaction of both patients and HCPs concerning patient centeredness during consultation was measured by the patient feedback questionnaire on consultation skills. The patients scored high (84.3% maximum score) and differed from the HCPs (26.5% maximum score). Although the patient-centered approach accentuating self-management is one of the dominant paradigms in modern medicine, our observations show several influencing determinants causing difficulties in daily practice implementation. This research is a first step

  15. Mindfulness-based stress reduction for GPs: results of a controlled mixed methods pilot study in Dutch primary care

    PubMed Central

    Verweij, Hanne; Waumans, Ruth C; Smeijers, Danique; Lucassen, Peter LBJ; Donders, A Rogier T; van der Horst, Henriëtte E; Speckens, Anne EM

    2016-01-01

    Background Burnout is highly prevalent in GPs and can have a negative influence on their wellbeing, performance, and patient care. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) may be an effective intervention to decrease burnout symptoms and increase wellbeing. Aim To gain insight into the feasibility and effectiveness of MBSR on burnout, empathy, and (work-related) wellbeing in GPs. Design and setting A mixed methods pilot study, including a waiting list-controlled pre-/post-study and a qualitative study of the experiences of participating GPs in the Netherlands. Method Participants were sent questionnaires assessing burnout, work engagement, empathy, and mindfulness skills, before and at the end of the MBSR training/waiting period. Qualitative data on how GPs experienced the training were collected during a plenary session and with evaluation forms at the end of the course. Results Fifty Dutch GPs participated in this study. The MBSR group reported a greater decrease in depersonalisation than the control group (adjusted difference −1.42, 95% confidence interval [CI] = −2.72 to −0.21, P = 0.03). Dedication increased more significantly in the MBSR group than in the control group (adjusted difference 2.17, 95% CI = 0.51 to 3.83, P = 0.01). Mindfulness skills increased significantly in the MBSR group compared with the control group (adjusted difference 6.90, 95% CI = 1.42 to 12.37, P = 0.01). There was no significant change in empathy. The qualitative data indicated that the MBSR course increased their wellbeing and compassion towards themselves and others, including their patients. Conclusion The study shows that MBSR for GPs is feasible and might result in fewer burnout symptoms and increased work engagement and wellbeing. However, an adequately powered randomised controlled trial is needed to confirm the study’s findings. PMID:26823271

  16. Physician self-disclosure in primary care: a mixed methods study of GPs’ attitudes, skills, and behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Emily-Charlotte Frances; Arroll, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Background There is a debate in medicine about the use and value of self-disclosure by the physician as a communication tool. There is little empirical evidence about GPs and self-disclosure. Aim To explore what GPs’ attitudes, skills, and behaviour are with regard to self-disclosure during a clinical consultation and whether there is a need for the development of training resources. Design and setting Mixed methods using open-ended and semi-structured interviews in Auckland, New Zealand, and the surrounding districts. Method Sixteen GPs were interviewed on the issue of self-disclosure in clinical practice. A general inductive approach was used for data analysis. Results Self-disclosure was common in this group of GPs, contrary to training in some of the groups, and was seen as a potentially positive activity. Family and physical topics were most common, yet psychological and relationship issues were also discussed. Knowing patients made self-disclosure more likely, but a GP’s intuition played the main role in determining when to self-disclose, and to whom. GPs have developed their own guidelines, shaped by years of experience; however, there was a consensus that training would be helpful. Conclusion Self-disclosure is common and, in general, seen as positive. Major personal issues were acceptable for some GPs to self-disclose, especially to known patients. Although participants had developed their own guidelines, exposure of trainees to the issue of self-disclosure would be of value to prevent future mistakes and to protect both doctor and patient from any unintended harm, for example, developing a dependent relationship. PMID:26324497

  17. Barriers and facilitators influencing self-management among COPD patients: a mixed methods exploration in primary and affiliated specialist care.

    PubMed

    Hillebregt, Chantal F; Vlonk, Auke J; Bruijnzeels, Marc A; van Schayck, Onno Cp; Chavannes, Niels H

    2017-01-01

    Self-management is becoming increasingly important in COPD health care although it remains difficult to embed self-management into routine clinical care. The implementation of self-management is understood as a complex interaction at the level of patient, health care provider (HCP), and health system. Nonetheless there is still a poor understanding of the barriers and effective facilitators. Comprehension of these determinants can have significant implications in optimizing self-management implementation and give further directions for the development of self-management interventions. Data were collected among COPD patients (N=46) and their HCPs (N=11) in three general practices and their collaborating affiliated hospitals. Mixed methods exploration of the data was conducted and collected by interviews, video-recorded consultations (N=50), and questionnaires on consultation skills. Influencing determinants were monitored by 1) interaction and communication between the patient and HCP, 2) visible and invisible competencies of both the patient and the HCP, and 3) degree of embedding self-management into the health care system. Video observations showed little emphasis on effective behavioral change and follow-up of given lifestyle advice during consultation. A strong presence of COPD assessment and monitoring negatively affects the patient-centered communication. Both patients and HCPs experience difficulties in defining personalized goals. The satisfaction of both patients and HCPs concerning patient centeredness during consultation was measured by the patient feedback questionnaire on consultation skills. The patients scored high (84.3% maximum score) and differed from the HCPs (26.5% maximum score). Although the patient-centered approach accentuating self-management is one of the dominant paradigms in modern medicine, our observations show several influencing determinants causing difficulties in daily practice implementation. This research is a first step

  18. Increased glucocerebrosidase (GBA) 2 activity in GBA1 deficient mice brains and in Gaucher leucocytes.

    PubMed

    Burke, Derek G; Rahim, Ahad A; Waddington, Simon N; Karlsson, Stefan; Enquist, Ida; Bhatia, Kailash; Mehta, Atul; Vellodi, Ashok; Heales, Simon

    2013-09-01

    Lysosomal glucocerebrosidase (GBA1) deficiency is causative for Gaucher disease. Not all individuals with GBA1 mutations develop neurological involvement raising the possibility that other factors may provide compensatory protection. One factor may be the activity of the non-lysosomal β-glucosidase (GBA2) which exhibits catalytic activity towards glucosylceramide and is reported to be highly expressed in brain tissue. Here, we assessed brain GBA2 enzymatic activity in wild type, heterozygote and GBA1 deficient mice. Additionally, we determined activity in leucocytes obtained from 13 patients with Gaucher disease, 10 patients with enzymology consistent with heterozygote status and 19 controls. For wild type animals, GBA2 accounted for over 85 % of total brain GBA activity and was significantly elevated in GBA1 deficient mice when compared to heterozygote and wild types (GBA1 deficient; 92.4 ± 5.6, heterozygote; 71.5 ± 2.4, wild type 76.8 ± 5.1 nmol/h/mg protein). For the patient samples, five Gaucher patients had GBA2 leucocyte activities markedly greater than controls. No difference in GBA2 activity was apparent between the control and carrier groups. Undetectable GBA2 activity was identified in four leucocyte preparations; one in the control group, two in the carrier group and one from the Gaucher disease group. Work is now required to ascertain whether GBA2 activity is a disease modifying factor in Gaucher disease and to identify the mechanism(s) responsible for triggering increased GBA2 activity in GBA1 deficiency states.

  19. Flow cytometry assays of respiratory burst in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) and in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) leucocytes.

    PubMed

    Kalgraff, Cathrine A K; Wergeland, Heidrun I; Pettersen, Eirin Fausa

    2011-09-01

    The oxidation of dihydrorhodamine 123 (DHR) to the fluorescent rhodamine 123 (RHO) was detected using flow cytometry. This assay for detection of respiratory burst activity was established in peripheral blood leucocytes (PBL) and head kidney leucocytes (HKL) of Atlantic salmon and Atlantic cod. The leucocytes were stimulated by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). For cod cells 10 times lower concentration of PMA had to be used compared to salmon cells, as higher concentrations were toxic and resulted in considerable cell death. The cells found to be RHO-positive were monocytes/macrophages and neutrophils based on the scatter dot plots, but for salmon also some small cells were found to have high fluorescence intensity both in the flow cytometry analyses and by fluorescence microscopy of cytospin preparations. The nature of these cells is not known. For cod leucocytes, such cells were not obvious. The instrument settings are a bit more demanding for cod, as cod cells die more easily compared to salmon cells. In both assays the limit between negative and positive cells has to be carefully considered. The presented flow cytometry protocols for measurements of respiratory burst in salmon and cod leucocytes can be applied in various studies where respiratory burst functions are involved, such as to verify if it is activated or suppressed in connection with infections and immunostimulation.

  20. Fatty acid binding protein 4 in circulating leucocytes reflects atherosclerotic lesion progression in Apoe−/− mice

    PubMed Central

    Agardh, Hanna E; Gertow, Karl; Salvado, Dolores M; Hermansson, Andreas; Puijvelde, Gijs H; Hansson, Göran K; n-Berne, Gabrielle Paulsso; Gabrielsen, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Discovery of novel biomarkers for atherosclerosis is important to aid in early diagnosis of pre-symptomatic patients at high risk of cardiovascular events. The aim of the present study was therefore to identify potential biomarkers in circulating cells reflecting atherosclerotic lesion progression in the vessel wall. We performed gene arrays on circulating leucocytes from atherosclerosis prone Apoe−/− mice with increasing ages, using C57BL/6 mice as healthy controls. We identified fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) mRNA to be augmented in mice with established disease compared with young Apoe−/− or controls. Interestingly, the transcript FABP4 correlated significantly with lesion size, further supporting a disease associated increase. In addition, validation of our finding on protein level showed augmented FABP4 in circulating leucocytes whereas, importantly, no change could be observed in plasma. Immunofluorescence analysis demonstrated FABP4 to be present mainly in circulating neutrophils and to some extent in monocytes. Moreover, FABP4-positive neutrophils and macrophages could be identified in the subintimal space in the plaque. Using human circulating leucocytes, we confirmed the presence of FABP4 protein in neutrophils and monocytes. In conclusion, we have showed that cellular levels of FABP4 in circulating leucocytes associate with lesion development in the experimental Apoe−/− model. The increased expression is primarily localized to neutrophils, but also in monocytes. We have identified FABP4 in leucocytes as a potential and easy accessible biomarker of atherosclerosis which could be of future clinical relevance. PMID:23387955

  1. Quantitative effects of a nickel-titanium palatal expander on skeletal and dental structures in the primary and mixed dentition: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Ferrario, Virgilio F; Garattini, Giovanna; Colombo, Anna; Filippi, Vittorio; Pozzoli, Silvio; Sforza, Chiarella

    2003-08-01

    The present study analysed the six-month effects of a nickel-titanium (NiTi) palatal expander on the dental and palatal structures of four primary (mean age 5.8 years) and nine mixed dentition children (mean age 8.7 years), with a posterior unilateral crossbite. Standardized dental and palatal landmarks were digitized using a three-dimensional (3D) electromagnetic instrument. Collected data were analysed with geometric-mathematical models. During a six-month interval, the natural growth and development of the dental arches and hard tissue palate was negligible, as assessed in seven control children (two in the primary dentition, mean age 4.4 years; five in the mixed dentition, mean age 7.7 years). In all children the crossbite was completely corrected. Indeed, dental expansion was always more than or corresponded to the palatal expansion. A smoothing of the size-independent (shape) palatal curvature in the transverse plane was observed. No differences in maximum palatal height were noted. Symmetrical derotation of the anchorage teeth in a distal direction occurred in almost all children. The inclination of the facial axis of the clinical crown (FACC) in the anatomical transverse plane of those teeth with differences between dental and palatal expansion always showed significant modifications (vestibular inclination up to 16.7 degrees). The clinical crown height of anchorage teeth remained nearly the same in all patients. No significant modifications in mandibular arch size were observed. The increase in maxillary arch width, especially in younger children, was probably due to a combination of different effects: opening of the midpalatal suture, tipping of the alveolar process, and molar tipping.

  2. The Impact of Polio Eradication on Routine Immunization and Primary Health Care: A Mixed-Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Closser, Svea; Cox, Kelly; Parris, Thomas M.; Landis, R. Matthew; Justice, Judith; Gopinath, Ranjani; Maes, Kenneth; Banteyerga Amaha, Hailom; Mohammed, Ismaila Zango; Dukku, Aminu Mohammed; Omidian, Patricia A.; Varley, Emma; Tedoff, Pauley; Koon, Adam D.; Nyirazinyoye, Laetitia; Luck, Matthew A.; Pont, W. Frank; Neergheen, Vanessa; Rosenthal, Anat; Nsubuga, Peter; Thacker, Naveen; Jooma, Rashid; Nuttall, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Background. After 2 decades of focused efforts to eradicate polio, the impact of eradication activities on health systems continues to be controversial. This study evaluated the impact of polio eradication activities on routine immunization (RI) and primary healthcare (PHC). Methods. Quantitative analysis assessed the effects of polio eradication campaigns on RI and maternal healthcare coverage. A systematic qualitative analysis in 7 countries in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa assessed impacts of polio eradication activities on key health system functions, using data from interviews, participant observation, and document review. Results. Our quantitative analysis did not find compelling evidence of widespread and significant effects of polio eradication campaigns, either positive or negative, on measures of RI and maternal healthcare. Our qualitative analysis revealed context-specific positive impacts of polio eradication activities in many of our case studies, particularly disease surveillance and cold chain strengthening. These impacts were dependent on the initiative of policy makers. Negative impacts, including service interruption and public dissatisfaction, were observed primarily in districts with many campaigns per year. Conclusions. Polio eradication activities can provide support for RI and PHC, but many opportunities to do so remain missed. Increased commitment to scaling up best practices could lead to significant positive impacts. PMID:24690667

  3. Rapid enrichment of leucocytes and genomic DNA from blood based on bifunctional core shell magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Xin; Nie, Xiaorong; Yu, Bingbin; Zhang, Xu

    2007-04-01

    A series of protocols are proposed to extract genomic DNA from whole blood at different scales using carboxyl-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles as solid-phase absorbents. The enrichment of leucocytes and the adsorption of genomic DNA can be achieved with the same carboxyl-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles. The DNA bound to the bead surfaces can be used directly as PCR templates. By coupling cell separation and DNA purification, the whole operation can be accomplished in a few minutes. Our simplified protocols proved to be rapid, low cost, and biologically and chemically non-hazardous, and are therefore promising for microfabrication of a DNA-preparation chip and routine laboratory use.

  4. Morphologically mixed chemical-electrical synapses formed by primary afferents in rodent vestibular nuclei as revealed by immunofluorescence detection of connexin36 and vesicular glutamate transporter-1

    PubMed Central

    Nagy, James I.; Bautista, Wendy; Blakley, Brian; Rash, John E.

    2013-01-01

    Axon terminals forming mixed chemical/electrical synapses in the lateral vestibular nucleus of rat were described over forty years ago. Because gap junctions formed by connexins are the morphological correlate of electrical synapses, and with demonstrations of widespread expression of the gap junction protein connexin36 (Cx36) in neurons, we investigated the distribution and cellular localization of electrical synapses in the adult and developing rodent vestibular nuclear complex, using immunofluorescence detection of Cx36 as a marker for these synapses. In addition, we examined Cx36 localization in relation to that of the nerve terminal marker vesicular glutamate transporter-1 (vglut-1). An abundance of immunolabelling for Cx36 in the form of Cx36-puncta was found in each of the four major vestibular nuclei of adult rat and mouse. Immunolabelling was associated with somata and initial dendrites of medium and large neurons, and was absent in vestibular nuclei of Cx36 knockout mice. Cx36-puncta were seen either dispersed or aggregated into clusters on the surface of neurons, and were never found to occur intracellularly. Nearly all Cx36-puncta were localized to large nerve terminals immunolabelled for vglut-1. These terminals and their associated Cx36-puncta were substantially depleted after labyrinthectomy. Developmentally, labelling for Cx36 was already present in the vestibular nuclei at postnatal day 5, where it was only partially co-localized with vglut-1, and did not become fully associated with vglut-1-positive terminals until postnatal day 20 to 25. The results show that vglut-1-positive primary afferent nerve terminals form mixed synapses throughout the vestibular nuclear complex, that the gap junction component of these synapses contain Cx36, that multiple Cx36-containing gap junctions are associated with individual vglut-1 terminals and that the development of these mixed synapses is protracted over several postnatal weeks. PMID:23912039

  5. Morphologically mixed chemical-electrical synapses formed by primary afferents in rodent vestibular nuclei as revealed by immunofluorescence detection of connexin36 and vesicular glutamate transporter-1.

    PubMed

    Nagy, J I; Bautista, W; Blakley, B; Rash, J E

    2013-11-12

    Axon terminals forming mixed chemical/electrical synapses in the lateral vestibular nucleus of rat were described over 40 years ago. Because gap junctions formed by connexins are the morphological correlate of electrical synapses, and with demonstrations of widespread expression of the gap junction protein connexin36 (Cx36) in neurons, we investigated the distribution and cellular localization of electrical synapses in the adult and developing rodent vestibular nuclear complex, using immunofluorescence detection of Cx36 as a marker for these synapses. In addition, we examined Cx36 localization in relation to that of the nerve terminal marker vesicular glutamate transporter-1 (vglut-1). An abundance of immunolabeling for Cx36 in the form of Cx36-puncta was found in each of the four major vestibular nuclei of adult rat and mouse. Immunolabeling was associated with somata and initial dendrites of medium and large neurons, and was absent in vestibular nuclei of Cx36 knockout mice. Cx36-puncta were seen either dispersed or aggregated into clusters on the surface of neurons, and were never found to occur intracellularly. Nearly all Cx36-puncta were localized to large nerve terminals immunolabeled for vglut-1. These terminals and their associated Cx36-puncta were substantially depleted after labyrinthectomy. Developmentally, labeling for Cx36 was already present in the vestibular nuclei at postnatal day 5, where it was only partially co-localized with vglut-1, and did not become fully associated with vglut-1-positive terminals until postnatal day 20-25. The results show that vglut-1-positive primary afferent nerve terminals form mixed synapses throughout the vestibular nuclear complex, that the gap junction component of these synapses contains Cx36, that multiple Cx36-containing gap junctions are associated with individual vglut-1 terminals and that the development of these mixed synapses is protracted over several postnatal weeks.

  6. In vivo treatment with progestogens causes immunosuppression of carp Cyprinus carpio leucocytes by affecting nitric oxide production and arginase activity.

    PubMed

    Pietsch, C; Neumann, N; Preuer, T; Kloas, W

    2011-07-01

    In this study, carp Cyprinus carpio were injected with various steroid compounds, including synthetic and natural progestogens and the glucocorticoid cortisol, to investigate effects on leucocytes isolated from their kidneys. Injection of cortisol led to an increased spleeno-somatic index (I(S)) on day 21 post-injection (pi) and immunosuppressive effects measured as decreased nitric oxide (NO) production and increased arginase activity in isolated leucocytes on days 14 and 21 pi, respectively. Moreover, reduced NO production was also observed after injection of the synthetic progestogens, levonorgestrel (LEV) and medroxyprogesterone acetate. In addition, LEV influenced arginase activity in head kidney cells on day 14 and day 21 pi. This study is the first demonstration in fishes that the application of these steroid compounds in vivo affects NO production and arginase activity of isolated leucocytes.

  7. An automated image analysis system can be beneficial in preclassification of leucocytes in children with hematological disease.

    PubMed

    Portakal, Oytun; Tavil, Betul; Kuşkonmaz, Barış; Aytaç, Selin; Hasçelik, Gülşen

    2011-01-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the analytical performance of an automated image analysis system (a pilot model of Diff Master(™) Octavia) for the preclassification of leucocytes in children with hematological disease. Manual microscopy performed by pediatric hematologists was used as the reference method. Five mature cell class and blasts were evaluated. Diff Master Octavia correctly preclassified 87.4% of all leucocytes with a high reproducibility. The overall accuracy was found to be 93.0%. Clinical sensitivity was 97.7% and specificity was 76.0%. The average time per slide for Diff Master(™) Octavia was 2.3  min lower than that of manual method. Our results indicated that the Diff Master(™) Octavia can detect and preclassify leucocytes accurately; therefore, it can be used as an efficient and fast method in pediatric hematology routine.

  8. Adaptive capacity of the Adjusted Clinical Groups Case-Mix System to the cost of primary healthcare in Catalonia (Spain): a observational study

    PubMed Central

    Velasco-Velasco, Soledad; Navarro-Artieda, Ruth; Prados-Torres, Alexandra; Bolibar-Ribas, Buenaventura; Violan-Fors, Concepción

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To describe the adaptive capacity of the Adjusted Clinical Groups (ACG) system to the cost of care in primary healthcare centres in Catalonia (Spain). Design Retrospective study (multicentres) conducted using computerised medical records. Setting 13 primary care teams in 2008 were included. Participants All patients registered in the study centres who required care between 1 January and 31 December 2008 were finally studied. Patients not registered in the study centres during the study period were excluded. Outcome measures Demographic (age and sex), dependent (cost of care) and case-mix variables were studied. The cost model for each patient was established by differentiating the fixed and variable costs. To evaluate the adaptive capacity of the ACG system, Pearson's coefficient of variation and the percentage of outliers were calculated. To evaluate the explanatory power of the ACG system, the authors used the coefficient of determination (R2). Results The number of patients studied was 227 235 (frequency: 5.9 visits per person per year), with a mean of 4.5 (3.2) episodes and 8.1 (8.2) visits per patient per year. The mean total cost was €654.2. The explanatory power of the ACG system was 36.9% for costs (56.5% without outliers). 10 ACG categories accounted for 60.1% of all cases and 19 for 80.9%. 5 categories represented 71% of poor performance (N=78 887, 34.7%), particularly category 0300-Acute Minor, Age 6+ (N=26 909, 11.8%), which had a coefficient of variation =139% and 6.6% of outliers. Conclusions The ACG system is an appropriate manner of classifying patients in routine clinical practice in primary healthcare centres in Catalonia, although improvements to the adaptive capacity through disaggregation of some categories according to age groups and, especially, the number of acute episodes in paediatric patients would be necessary to reduce intra-group variation. PMID:22734115

  9. A comparison of the efficacy of organic and mixed-organic polymers with polyaluminium chloride in chemically assisted primary sedimentation (CAPS).

    PubMed

    De Feo, G; Galasso, M; Landi, R; Donnarumma, A; De Gisi, S

    2013-01-01

    CAPS is the acronym for chemically assisted primary sedimentation, which consists of adding chemicals to raw urban wastewater to increase the efficacy of coagulation, flocculation and sedimentation. The principal benefits of CAPS are: upgrading of urban wastewater treatment plants; increasing efficacy of primary sedimentation; and the major production of energy from the anaerobic digestion of primary sludge. Metal coagulants are usually used because they are both effective and cheap, but they can cause damage to the biological processes of anaerobic digestion. Generally, biodegradable compounds do not have these drawbacks, but they are comparatively more expensive. Both metal coagulants and biodegradable compounds have preferential and penalizing properties in terms of CAPS application. The problem can be solved by means of a multi-criteria analysis. For this purpose, a series of tests was performed in order to compare the efficacy of several organic and mixed-organic polymers with that of polyaluminium chloride (PACl) under specific conditions. The multi-criteria analysis was carried out coupling the simple additive weighting method with the paired comparison technique as a tool to evaluate the criteria priorities. Five criteria with the following priorities were used: chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal > turbidity, SV60 > coagulant dose, and coagulant cost. The PACl was the best alternative in 70% of the cases. The CAPS process using PACl made it possible to obtain an average COD removal of 68% compared with 38% obtained, on average, with natural sedimentation and 61% obtained, on average, with the best PACl alternatives (cationic polyacrylamide, natural cationic polymer, dicyandiamide resin).

  10. Flow cytometry assay for intracellular detection of Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis virus (IPNV) in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) leucocytes.

    PubMed

    Rønneseth, Anita; Pettersen, Eirin Fausa; Wergeland, Heidrun I

    2012-12-01

    Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis virus (IPNV) is traditionally detected in adherent leucocytes using immunofluorescence labelled specific antibodies, PCR or by further cultivation of infected cell material in cell lines. We present a flow cytometry (FCM) assay for detection of intracellular IPNV in salmon leucocytes, where each single cell is analysed for presence of virus. The method is established using in vitro challenge of salmon leucocytes and CHSE-214 cells. For detection of intracellular virus antigen the Cytofix/Cytoperm kit from BD is optimal compared with paraformaldehyde or acetone/methanol for cell permeabilisation. This is combined with labelling procedures allowing both internal virus antigen labelling and external antibody labelling of cell markers to identify B-cells and neutrophils. The secondary antibodies were Alexa Fluor 647 for the internal labelling and RPE for the external labelling of bound cell subtype specific antibodies. The presences of virus within cells are also demonstrated by confocal and light microscopy of infected cells. IPNV is successfully detected in blood and head kidney leucocyte samples. IPNV is found both in B-cells and neutrophils as well as in other types of leucocytes that could not be identified due to lack of cell-specific antibodies. Serial samples from cultivation of in vitro infected leucocytes and CHSE-214 cells analysed by flow cytometry showed that number of infected cells increased with increasing number of days. The flow cytometry protocol for detection of intracellular IPNV is verified using CHSE-214 cells persistently infected with IPNV. These analyses are compared with virus titre and virus infected naive CHSE-214 cells. The detection of IPNV in persistently infected cells indicates that carrier fish can be analysed, as such cells are considered to have virus titres similar to carriers.

  11. Effects of eprosartan on mitochondrial membrane potential and H2O2 levels in leucocytes in hypertension.

    PubMed

    Labiós, M; Martínez, M; Gabriel, F; Guiral, V; Ruiz-Aja, S; Beltrán, B; Muñoz, A

    2008-07-01

    We investigated whether circulating leucocytes from hypertensive patients exhibit more spontaneous, stimulated hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production and greater mitochondrial membrane potential (Deltapsi) than those from normotensive individuals. We also investigated the effects of oral treatment with the angiotensin II (AT II) type 1 receptor blocker eprosartan (600 mg day(-1)) on these markers of oxidative stress. In 25 hypertensive patients and 28 healthy volunteers, spontaneous H2O2 formation was measured by flow cytometry after preincubation of buffy coat-leucocytes from fresh peripheral venous blood at 37 degrees C with 2',7' dichlorofluorescein. Stimulation of H2O2 formation by circulating leucocytes was elicited by the addition of tert-butylhydroperoxide (tBHP). Deltapsi was determined by flow cytometry after the addition of tetramethylrhodamine methyl ester (TMRM). Compared with healthy individuals, lymphocytes from hypertensive patients exhibited higher Deltapsi (12.28+/-3.20 vs 16.25+/-2.88 arbitrary fluorescence units (AFU), respectively; P<0.001) and greater spontaneous H2O2 production (4.75+/-5.15 vs 8.98+/-9.97 AFU, respectively; P<0.05). tBHP stimulation was associated with higher H2O2 levels in circulating leucocytes in patients with uncorrected hypertension than in normotensive individuals. H2O2 overproduction was corrected by eprosartan treatment. These results suggest that oxidative stress could be important in the pathogenesis of hypertension. Furthermore, measurement of leucocyte oxidant activities may be useful for the evaluation of oxidative stress, which may be reduced with the use of antihypertensive drugs. Our results demonstrate that treatment of hypertension with eprosartan normalizes blood pressure and corrects oxidative disturbances, suggesting that leucocytes could be a target for this drug.

  12. Melatonin counteracts alterations in oxidative metabolism and cell viability induced by intracellular calcium overload in human leucocytes: changes with age.

    PubMed

    Espino, Javier; Bejarano, Ignacio; Paredes, Sergio D; González, David; Barriga, Carmen; Reiter, Russel J; Pariente, José A; Rodríguez, Ana B

    2010-07-01

    Ageing is associated with an increased production of free radicals and alterations in the mechanisms of adaptation to oxidative stress. In fact, the free radical theory of ageing proposes that deleterious actions of free radicals are responsible for the functional deterioration associated with ageing. Moreover, a close relationship exists between calcium homeostasis and oxidative stress. The current work was aimed at proving that intracellular calcium overload induced by N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP) and/or thapsigargin leads to oxidative stress. We additionally examined the effect of melatonin on the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cell viability in human leucocytes collected from young (20-30-year-old) and elderly (65-75-year-old) individuals under both basal and oxidative stress-induced conditions. Treatments with 10 nM FMLP and/or 1 microM thapsigargin induced a transient increase in cytosolic free-calcium concentration ([Ca(2 + )](c)) in human leucocytes due to calcium release from internal stores, and led in turn to oxidative stress, as assessed by intracellular ROS measurement. Non-treated leucocytes from aged individuals exhibited higher ROS levels and lower rates of cell survival when compared to leucocytes from young individuals. Similar results were obtained in FMLP and/or thapsigargin-treated leucocytes from elderly individuals when compared to those from the young individuals. Melatonin treatment significantly reduced both hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and superoxide anion levels, likely due to its free-radical scavenging properties, and enhanced leucocyte viability in both age groups. Therefore, melatonin may be a useful tool for the treatment of disease states and processes where an excessive production of oxidative damage occurs.

  13. Response of peripheral blood leucocytes to mitogenic factor(s) in porcine seminal plasma.

    PubMed

    Kovacs, D P; Tekpetey, F R; Armstrong, D T

    1994-04-01

    Porcine seminal plasma (PSP) contains a potent mitogenic substance capable of causing proliferation and extensive agglutination in cultured porcine peripheral blood leucocytes (PBL). In order to determine the specific leucocyte cell population affected by this mitogen, lymphocyte, monocyte and polymorphonuclear (PMN)-enriched cell fractions were separated from PBL and treated with increasing concentrations of PSP (1-8%, v/v). For monocyte cell populations enriched through elutriation and adherence to plastic, cell proliferation in response to PSP treatment was consistently higher than PSP-treated unfractionated PBL. Monocyte-depleted PBL and lymphocyte populations enriched through elutriation demonstrated a decrease in proliferation compared to PSP-treated unfractionated PBL. PMN populations separated from PBL by discontinuous Percoll gradient centrifugation were unresponsive to PSP. Agglutination was observed for the unfractionated PBL and each enriched cell population. These results demonstrate that PSP contains a potent mitogen which induces proliferation in monocyte-enriched cell populations and may reflect the potential of PSP to act as an immune regulator in the uterine environment during early embryo development and implantation.

  14. Increased leucocyte Na-K ATPase in obesity: reversal following weight loss

    SciTech Connect

    Turaihi, K.; Baron, D.N.; Dandona, P.

    1987-09-01

    Ouabain-sensitive /sup 86/Rb influx and (/sup 3/H) ouabain binding capacity were investigated in the leucocytes of 17 obese patients and 15 control subjects. Both were significantly increased in the obese when compared with controls. Following dietary restriction and a 4% to 5% weight reduction in the obese over 2 weeks, (/sup 3/H) ouabain binding and ouabain-sensitive /sup 86/Rb influx (a model for K+ influx) decreased to levels similar to those in controls. This shows that the number of Na-K ATPase sites on leucocyte membranes of the obese are significantly increased and that this is associated with accelerated /sup 86/Rb transport. Since both of these indices decreased following 4% to 5% reduction in body weight while the patients were still obese, increased Na-K ATPase is neither a marker of nor cardinal to the pathogenesis of obesity. We conclude that (1) increase in Na-K ATPase units and /sup 86/Rb influx are not characteristic of obesity itself and (2) dietary restriction over the short-term with limited weight reduction restores Na-K ATPase units and /sup 86/Rb influx to normal.

  15. Effects of fluoxetine on the oxidative status of peripheral blood leucocytes of restraint-stressed mice.

    PubMed

    Novío, Silvia; Núñez, María Jesús; Amigo, Gonzalo; Freire-Garabal, Manuel

    2011-11-01

    Emotional stress can be viewed as a cause of adverse circumstances that induces a wide range of biochemical and behavioural changes. Oxidative stress is a critical route of damage in various psychological stress-induced disorders such as depression. Antidepressants are widely prescribed to treat these conditions; however, no animal study has investigated the effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) on the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species in peripheral blood leucocytes of stressed mice. In this study, mice were immobilized for a period of 6 hr. Fluoxetine (5 mg/kg of body-weight) was administered 30 min. before subjecting the animals to acute stress. The level of intracellular reactive oxygen species in leucocytes of the peripheral blood of stressed mice was investigated using a 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate probe, and the antioxidant response of fluoxetine was evaluated by superoxide dismutase, diaphorase, catalase and reduced glutathione. Our results show that restraint stress significantly increases the generation of reactive oxygen species in the peripheral defence cells. Treatment with fluoxetine partially reverses the adverse effects of stress. The improvement in cellular oxidative status may be an important mechanism underlying the protective pharmacological effects of fluoxetine, which are clinically observed in the treatment of depressive disorders.

  16. Somatotropic gene response to recombinant growth hormone treatment in buffalo leucocytes.

    PubMed

    Castigliego, Lorenzo; Li, Xiao-Ning; Armani, Andrea; Razzano, Maria; Mazzi, Marco; Rosati, Remo; Gianfaldoni, Daniela; Guidi, Alessandra

    2011-12-01

    The use of recombinant bovine growth hormone (rbGH) to increase milk yield in cows is banned in some countries. In others, where it is authorised, it has triggered harsh debates on labelling of dairy products. If many studies have been performed on bovines, there is a lack of information on buffaloes, which are sometimes treated with rbGH and re-present an important economical resource for dairy products in some countries. Analytical methods with legal value for surveillance of rbGH treatments do not yet exist. Research on gene expression biomarkers is one of the most promising approaches to this purpose. For this reason, we treated five buffaloes for 10 weeks with a sustained-release formulation of rbGH and analysed the response of 20 somatotropic axis genes in leucocytes by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Overall changes in gene expression levels were of low magnitude and sometimes affected by the 'time' factor. Only the IGFBP-1 gene showed a significant under-expression (about two-fold; p <0.001) in treated animals. Taken together, these results give evidence that expression analysis of the somatotropic axis genes in leucocytes is little helpful for discrimination of rbGH-treated buffaloes, but do not exclude that another array of genes could provide useful patterns of variation.

  17. Isolation of various canine leucocytes and their characterization by surface marker analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Ho, C K; Babiuk, L A

    1978-01-01

    Various techniques were used to separate canine peripheral blood leucocytes into populations enriched in lymphocytes, polymorphonuclear leucocytes, phagocytic mononuclear cells (monocytes) and macrophages. Surface markers on each cell population were determined by rosette formation. Fc receptors for IgG and complement receptors (C3b and C3d) were present on PMN, monocytes, macrophages as well as on a sub-population of lymphocytes. Purification of the lymphocytes into T-and B-cell-enriched populations revealed that these receptors were present only on the B lymphocytes and not on the T lymphocytes. In addition, a third lymphocyte population, which did not possess surface immunoglobulin, and Fc receptor but not the complement receptor. None of the cell populations exhibited C4 complement receptors or Fc receptors for IgM. When different cell populations were tested for their ability to form rosettes directly with human type 'O' red blood cells it was found that most populations could rosette, suggesting that this technique could not be used as a specific marker for canine T lymphocytes. PMID:309854

  18. Cytokine expression in leucocytes and gut cells of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum, induced by probiotics.

    PubMed

    Kim, Do-Hyung; Austin, Brian

    2006-12-15

    Understanding how the various host cells respond to probiotic bacteria in vitro may provide important insight into elaborate immune responses triggered by beneficial bacteria. The aim of this study was to investigate the detailed pattern of the mRNA expression of cytokines (IL-1beta, IL-8, TNF-alpha and TGF-beta) in head kidney (HK) leucocytes and gut cells isolated from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum) after co-culturing with live probiotics. HK leucocytes and gut cells adjusted to 5 x 10(6) and 2 x 10(6) ml(-1), respectively, in L-15 medium containing 25% decomplemented FCS and 300 mg l(-1) L-glutamine were co-cultured with Carnobacterium maltaromaticum B26 and C. divergens B33 at an multiplicity of infection of 25 for 6 and 12 h. Quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction using SYBR Green I was employed to determine the mRNA expression of studied genes. Although neither probiotic strains significantly induced mRNA of the cytokines in gut cells, expression ratios of IL-1beta and TNF-alpha of HK cells were significantly higher, suggesting that these bacteria can stimulate innate immunity in rainbow trout.

  19. Establishment of a cell line from leucocytes of a cow with chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Adomaitiene, D; Tamosiunas, V; Mauricas, M; Surovas, V; Markevicius, A

    1983-07-01

    A cell line was established from blood leucocytes of a cow with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. The leucocytes were cultured with conditioned medium (culture fluid of mouse cell line L). In vitro cell transformation was demonstrated by adaptation to permanent growth, modification of cell morphology, the alteration of cell surface phenotype, kinetic behaviour and the loss of the euploid stability of the cell karyotype. Ultrastructural studies showed rather a uniform cell pattern in a culture population heterogeneous for degree of cell vacuolization. A wide variation in the expression of surface markers in cells was demonstrated by E-, EA- and EAC-rosetting. In suspension culture the cell population was found to be sIg negative. Expression of leukemia-associated antigens by a fraction of the cultured cells was evidenced by a cytotoxic technique using complement and heterologous antisera against bovine leukemic lymphocytes, absorbed with normal lymphoid cells. Virus-like particles and BLV antigens were not identified. Culture cells failed to show spontaneous or antibody-dependent killer cytotoxicity. Comparison with blood lymphocytes of healthy and leukemic cattle was done. The established culture should be useful as a model for experimental immunology and oncology.

  20. Relationship between somatic cell count, polymorphonuclear leucocyte count and quality parameters in bovine bulk tank milk.

    PubMed

    Wickström, Erik; Persson-Waller, Karin; Lindmark-Månsson, Helena; Ostensson, Karin; Sternesjö, Ase

    2009-05-01

    The somatic cell count (SCC) in bovine bulk tank milk is presently used as an indicator of raw milk quality, reflecting the udder health status of the herd. During mastitis, SCC increases, mostly owing to an influx of polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMN) from blood into milk, with a concomitant change in milk composition. Bulk tank milk samples were categorized according to their SCC, as well as polymorphonuclear leucocyte count (PMNC), to study relationships between SCC, PMNC and various raw milk quality traits, i.e. contents of total protein, whey protein, casein, fat and lactose, casein number, proteolysis and rheological properties. The proportion of PMN, obtained by direct microscopy, was significantly higher in samples with high SCC compared with low SCC samples. SCC and PMNC were strongly correlated, yielding a correlation coefficient of 0.85. High SCC samples had lower lactose and casein contents, lower casein number and more proteolysis than low SCC samples. Samples with high PMNC had a lower casein number than low PMNC samples. Samples with high and low SCC or PMNC did not differ in respect to rheological properties. Our results do not indicate that PMNC is a better biomarker than SCC for raw bulk tank milk quality, as previously proposed.

  1. Type I allergic hypersensitivity reactions due to ethylene oxide sterilised leucocyte filters in patients with thalassaemia: report of four cases

    PubMed Central

    Belen, Burcu; Polat, Meltem

    2015-01-01

    Ethylene oxide (EO) is a highly reactive gas used in sterilisation of heat sensitive medical devices, such as infusion sets, cannulae, intubation materials, ventriculoperitoneal shunts, dialysis catheters and stents. Allergic reactions due to EO have been reported in haemodialysis patients, patients undergoing extracorporeal photopheresis and donors of plasmapheresis. Clinical manifestations vary considerably and generally do not allow differentiation between IgE-mediated anaphylaxis and anaphylactoid reactions. We report four patients with thalassaemia who experienced anaphylaxis during transfusion due to ethylene oxide sterilised leucocyte filters. The aim of this report is to highlight the fact that frequently transfused patients can have allergic reactions due to EO particles left in leucocyte filters. PMID:25725028

  2. Improving the network management of integrated primary mental healthcare for older people in a rural Australian region: protocol for a mixed methods case study

    PubMed Central

    Fuller, Jeffrey; Oster, Candice; Dawson, Suzanne; O'Kane, Deb; Lawn, Sharon; Henderson, Julie; Gerace, Adam; Reed, Richard; Nosworthy, Ann; Galley, Philip; McPhail, Ruth; Cochrane, Eimear Muir

    2014-01-01

    Introduction An integrated approach to the mental healthcare of older people is advocated across health, aged care and social care sectors. It is not clear, however, how the management of integrated servicing should occur, although interorganisational relations theory suggests a reflective network approach using evaluation feedback. This research will test a network management approach to help regional primary healthcare organisations improve mental health service integration. Methods and analysis This mixed methods case study in rural South Australia will test facilitated reflection within a network of health and social care services to determine if this leads to improved integration. Engagement of services will occur through a governance group and a series of three 1-day service stakeholder workshops. Facilitated reflection and evaluation feedback will use information from a review of health sector and local operational policies, a network survey about current service links, gaps and enablers and interviews with older people and their carers about their help seeking journeys. Quantitative and qualitative analysis will describe the policy enablers and explore the current and ideal links between services. The facilitated reflection will be developed to maximise engagement of senior management in the governance group and the service staff at the operational level in the workshops. Benefit will be assessed through indicators of improved service coordination, collective ownership of service problems, strengthened partnerships, agreed local protocols and the use of feedback for accountability. Ethics, benefits and dissemination Ethics approval will deal with the sensitivities of organisational network research where data anonymity is not preserved. The benefit will be the tested utility of a facilitated reflective process for a network of health and social care services to manage linked primary mental healthcare for older people in a rural region. Dissemination will

  3. Endotoxin activation of endothelium for polymorphonuclear leucocyte transendothelial migration and modulation by interferon-gamma.

    PubMed Central

    Issekutz, A C; Lopes, N

    1993-01-01

    Endotoxin [lipopolysaccharide (LPS)] is a potent inflammatory stimulus and can activate human umbilical vein endothelium (HUVE) for leucocyte adhesiveness and transendothelial migration. Here we investigated the role of HUVE-secreted cytokines in this process. When HUVE monolayers were grown on filters and preincubated for 3 hr with LPS, 51Cr-labelled polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNL) migrated across the HUVE in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Maximal PMNL transmigration with LPS (1 ng/ml) was 26 +/- 3% of added PMNL in 75 min. Neutralizing antibodies to interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1 alpha) and IL-1 beta, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), IL-8 or recombinant IL-1 receptor antagonist had no effect on the activation by LPS of the HUVE for supporting migration of PMNL. The HUVE 'activated state' declined with prolonged (22 hr) exposure to LPS, as reflected by a decrease in PMNL transendothelial migration to 5.5 +/- 1% and in the expression of the endothelial cell adhesion molecule, E-selectin, as compared to stimulation with LPS for 3 hr. However, simultaneous exposure to interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) (200 IU/ml) and LPS maintained maximal PMNL transendothelial migration (28 +/- 4%) for at least 24 hr, prolonged E-selectin expression by HUVE and superinduced intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression. The PMNL transendothelial migration was blocked by > 90% by monoclonal antibody (mAb) to CD18 with either 3 hr of LPS or 22 hr LPS + IFN-gamma stimulation. Migration was partially inhibited by mAb to E-selectin (30-40%) or to ICAM-1 (35-45%) and by a combination of both reagents (50-60%) under both stimulation conditions. Thus, LPS activation of HUVE for PMNL transendothelial migration: (a) does not require secretion of IL-1, TNF-alpha or IL-8 by the endothelium, (b) IFN-gamma enhances and prolongs endothelial activation by LPS and may increase leucocyte infiltration in LPS or bacterial inflammatory reactions, and (c) CD18-dependent mechanisms are

  4. Isolation and partial characterisation of a new antiproliferative substance from human leucocytes inhibiting growth of Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Naess-Andresen, C F; Ekeberg, D; Fagerhol, M K; Sandvik, K; Staahl, L

    2003-01-01

    Aim: To purify and partially characterise a fraction from human leucocytes containing a substance cytotoxic to Candida albicans. Methods: Leucocytes were isolated from the buffy coats of healthy blood donors. The cytotoxic factor (CF) was isolated from the soluble fraction of the cells. A cell lysate was passed through a filter with a cut off value of 3 kDa, and the filtrate was processed by anionic exchange chromatography and gel filtration. The purified CF was analysed for its chemical and biological properties. The cytotoxicity of CF was tested on C albicans grown on agar plates. Results: Mass spectrometry showed a molecular mass of 2.148 kDa. CF was found in polymorphonuclear neutrophilic cells only. No amino acids were detected, and a low ultraviolet absorbance at 260 nm and resistance to nuclease indicate the absence of nucleic acids. An anthrone test was positive for carbohydrate. The substance was soluble in water. CF showed a dose related cytotoxicity in the range of 0.1–1 mg/ml. The cytotoxic effect was abrogated by zinc ions. Preliminary testing indicated that CF also had cytotoxic effects against some bacteria. Conclusions: This report describes a factor from isolated human leucocytes that is cytotoxic to C albicans. The substance contains a carbohydrate moiety, whereas no amino acids were detected. The cytotoxicity can be abrogated by zinc ions in vitro. This substance is probably part of the repertoire by which leucocytes prevent infections. PMID:12890745

  5. Toxicological in vitro effects of heavy metals on gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.) head-kidney leucocytes.

    PubMed

    Morcillo, Patricia; Cordero, Héctor; Meseguer, José; Esteban, María Á; Cuesta, Alberto

    2015-12-25

    Heavy metals provoke toxicological effects on aquatic animal species, including fish, though their effects on fish leucocytes and immunotoxicology are still limited. In the present work the effects of heavy metals (Cd, Hg, Pb or As) on viability, oxidative stress and innate immune parameters of isolated head-kidney leucocytes from gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) are studied. Cytotoxicity results indicated that short exposures (30 min or 2h) to Hg promoted both apoptosis and necrosis cell death of leucocytes whilst Cd, Pb and As did only by apoptosis, in all cases in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. In addition, production of free oxygen radicals was induced by Cd, Hg and As heavy metals. Cd failed to change phagocytosis but Hg and As increased the percentage of phagocytic cells but decreased the number of ingested particles per cell whilst Pb increased both phagocytic parameters. On the other hand, respiratory burst activity was significantly reduced by incubation with Cd, Hg and As but increased with Pb. Furthermore, the gene expression profiles partly support the functional finding of this work. This study provides an in vitro approach for elucidating the heavy metals toxicity, and particularly the immunotoxicity, in fish leucocytes.

  6. Measurement of in vitro leucocyte mitogenesis in fish: ELISA based detection of the thymidine analogue 5'-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gauthier, David T.; Cartwright, Deborah D.; Densmore, Christine L.; Blazer, Vicki; Ottinger, Christopher A.

    2003-01-01

    In this study we present a method for the measurement of in vitro mitogenesis in fish leucocytes that is based on the incorporation of the thymidine analogue 5′-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU) into the DNA of replicating cells, followed by ELISA-based detection. This technique, adapted from methods developed for mammalian cells, operates on a similar biological principle to 3H-thymidine incorporation, but circumvents the logistical and safety issues inherent with the radioactive label. Because it directly measures DNA proliferation, the assay has advantages over other colorimetric methods that may be strongly influenced by leucocyte metabolic status. Using BrdU incorporation followed by ELISA, we evaluate the responsiveness of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss [Walbaum]) leucocytes to the mammalian T-cell mitogen Concanavalin A (Con A) as well as the differential response of white perch (Morone americana [Gmelin]) leucocytes to Con A and pokeweed mitogen. Specific considerations intrinsic to the assay system are discussed, including the implications of utilising enzyme-based detection.

  7. A comparison of the quality of life in patients with primary and secondary lower-limb lymphedema: A mixed-methods study

    PubMed Central

    Stolldorf, Deonni P; Dietrich, Mary S.; Ridner, Sheila H.

    2016-01-01

    Patients with lower-limb lymphedema experience symptoms that may differ in intensity and distress. This mixed-methods study compares symptom intensity and distress and the impact of lymphedema on patients’ quality of life by primary and secondary (cancer and non-cancer) lymphedema groups. Individuals completed an online questionnaire (i.e., demographic form, Lymphedema Symptom Intensity and Distress Survey-Leg, and an open-ended question). Analyses included descriptive and inferential statistics (quantitative data) and content analysis (qualitative data). Participants differed statistically significantly by gender, employment status, and lymphedema location. Groups differed significantly in lack of self-confidence (χ2(df=2) =9.19; p=.010). Cancer patients reported higher intensity and distress scores for some symptoms, but these differences were not statistically significant. Patients reported lacking psychosocial well-being and resources and experiencing physical and functional impairments and treatment and care challenges. Patients with lower-limb lymphedema experience psychosocial impairments and problems with quality of and access to care. PMID:27151079

  8. Net primary productivity and rain-use efficiency as affected by warming, altered precipitation, and clipping in a mixed-grass prairie.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xia; Sherry, Rebecca A; Niu, Shuli; Li, Dejun; Luo, Yiqi

    2013-09-01

    Grassland productivity in response to climate change and land use is a global concern. In order to explore the effects of climate change and land use on net primary productivity (NPP), NPP partitioning [fBNPP , defined as the fraction of belowground NPP (BNPP) to NPP], and rain-use efficiency (RUE) of NPP, we conducted a field experiment with warming (+3 °C), altered precipitation (double and half), and annual clipping in a mixed-grass prairie in Oklahoma, USA since July, 2009. Across the years, warming significantly increased BNPP, fBNPP , and RUEBNPP by an average of 11.6%, 2.8%, and 6.6%, respectively. This indicates that BNPP was more sensitive to warming than aboveground NPP (ANPP) since warming did not change ANPP and RUEANPP much. Double precipitation stimulated ANPP, BNPP, and NPP but suppressed RUEANPP , RUEBNPP , and RUENPP while half precipitation decreased ANPP, BNPP, and NPP but increased RUEANPP , RUEBNPP , and RUENPP . Clipping interacted with altered precipitation in impacting RUEANPP , RUEBNPP , and RUENPP , suggesting land use could confound the effects of precipitation changes on ecosystem processes. Soil moisture was found to be a main factor in regulating variation in ANPP, BNPP, and NPP while soil temperature was the dominant factor influencing fBNPP . These findings suggest that BNPP is critical point to future research. Additionally, results from single-factor manipulative experiments should be treated with caution due to the non-additive interactive effects of warming with altered precipitation and land use (clipping).

  9. Promoting Help-Seeking in Response to Symptoms amongst Primary Care Patients at High Risk of Lung Cancer: A Mixed Method Study

    PubMed Central

    Brindle, Lucy; Ewings, Sean; James, Elizabeth; Moore, Mike; Rivas, Carol; Esqueda, Ana Ibanez; Corner, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Background Lung cancer symptoms are vague and difficult to detect. Interventions are needed to promote early diagnosis, however health services are already pressurised. This study explored symptomology and help-seeking behaviours of primary care patients at ‘high-risk’ of lung cancer (≥50 years old, recent smoking history), to inform targeted interventions. Methods Mixed method study with patients at eight general practitioner (GP) practices across south England. Study incorporated: postal symptom questionnaire; clinical records review of participant consultation behaviour 12 months pre- and post-questionnaire; qualitative participant interviews (n = 38) with a purposive sample. Results A small, clinically relevant group (n = 61/908, 6.7%) of primary care patients was identified who, despite reporting potential symptoms of lung cancer in questionnaires, had not consulted a GP ≥12 months. Of nine symptoms associated with lung cancer, 53.4% (629/1172) of total respondents reported ≥1, and 35% (411/1172) reported ≥2. Most participants (77.3%, n = 686/908) had comorbid conditions; 47.8%, (n = 414/908) associated with chest and respiratory symptoms. Participant consulting behaviour significantly increased in the 3-month period following questionnaire completion compared with the previous 3-month period (p = .002), indicating questionnaires impacted upon consulting behaviour. Symptomatic non-consulters were predominantly younger, employed, with higher multiple deprivation scores than their GP practice mean. Of symptomatic non-consulters, 30% (18/61) consulted ≤1 month post-questionnaire, with comorbidities subsequently diagnosed for five participants. Interviews (n = 39) indicated three overarching differences between the views of consulting and non-consulting participants: concern over wasting their own as well as GP time; high tolerance threshold for symptoms; a greater tendency to self-manage symptoms. Conclusions This first study to examine symptoms and

  10. Influence of captopril on glucose and fatty acid oxidation in human thrombocytes and mononuclear leucocytes.

    PubMed

    Haeckel, R; Colic, D

    1991-01-01

    Captopril (CAS 62571-86-2) may be beneficial for the treatment of diabetes because of its activating effect on peripheral glucose consumption besides its well known blood pressure degradation. The glucose oxidation has been found to be activated by captopril in thrombocytes and mononuclear leucocytes, cell types which are usually considered to be independent from insulin. Because the oxidation of pyruvate labelled in position C-1 but not of 2-14C-pyruvate and of 1-14C-acetate was enhanced, captopril most probably stimulated the pyruvate decarboxylation reaction. The metabolism of glucose labelled in positions 1 and 6 was equally activated by captopril indicating another step which may be affected by captopril.

  11. Effects of polymorphonuclear leucocyte depletion on the pathogenesis of experimental Legionnaires' disease.

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgeorge, R. B.; Featherstone, A. S.; Baskerville, A.

    1988-01-01

    Guinea-pigs were depleted of circulating polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMN) by administration of anti-polymorph serum. Groups of animals were then infected by aerosols containing different doses of Legionella pneumophila and the effects compared with those in intact infected controls. Elimination of PMN lowered the dose of L. pneumophila necessary to establish infection, increased bacterial numbers in the lungs and caused much higher mortality. It did not change the nature or extent of pulmonary lesions. The findings confirm the importance of PMN in defence of the lung against L. pneumophila infection and indicate that PMN and their enzymes are not responsible for the pulmonary lesions, which are probably caused directly by the bacteria. PMID:3348954

  12. Experimental transmission of bovine leukosis virus by leucocytes recovered from the stable fly Stomoxys calcitrans L.

    PubMed

    Freitas, T R; Romero, C H

    1991-01-01

    1. Wild stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans) feeding on heifers infected with bovine leukosis virus (BLV) carried viable bovine leucocytes in the midgut and proboscis that, when inoculated by the subcutaneous route into lambs aged 5 to 60 days, elicited the development of antibodies to glycoprotein (gp51) and polypeptide 25 (p25). 2. Antibodies were detected as early as one month later and persisted for an experimental period of 24 or 36 months. Uninoculated control lambs reared together with the experimental animals did not acquire the infection, indicating the lack of horizontal transmission. 3. S. calcitrans reared in the laboratory were intermittently allowed to feed on the skin of BLV-infected heifers and on five lambs over a period of 3-10 months. Although some of these lambs were bitten about 500 times, none developed antibodies to BLV (gp51 or p25) over observation periods of 30 or 36 months.

  13. Neutrophil leucocyte chemotaxis is not induced by a spatial gradient of chemoattractant.

    PubMed

    Vicker, M G; Lackie, J M; Schill, W

    1986-08-01

    Chemotaxis and directed locomotion of neutrophil leucocytes are generally thought to be determined by the directed response of the cell to stable, spatial gradients of chemoattractants. In most cases, however, cells are also exposed to characteristic temporal changes in the attractant concentration during the lifetime of the gradient, especially as it develops. We have attempted to test whether neutrophils can respond to a spatial gradient in which these temporal changes are essentially absent. Gradients of formyl-peptides were made across a narrow barrier of agarose gel that separated two fluid reservoirs, and the cells were observed cinematographically as they moved between gel and glass. In gradients predeveloped at low temperature, at which cell motion and responses to attractant were inhibited, neutrophils showed no tendency to accumulate up-gradient when warmed to 37 degrees C. Yet their speed and turning behaviour was related to the local concentration of formyl-peptide. However, gradients that developed at 37 degrees C, whilst the cells were responsive, elicited directed locomotion. We also tested populations that were either spreading into or already evenly distributed across micropore filters to see how cells might sense directional cues. We reasoned that evenly distributed populations could accumulate in a spatial gradient only if cells were able to 'read' it. However, no redistribution occurred without an applied impulse of attractant. It seems that the oriented, temporal component of an attractant signal is essential if a directed response (i.e. non-random turning) is to occur; a spatial gradient of soluble attractant alone does not induce neutrophil accumulation or taxis. This finding has implications for the termination of the acute inflammatory response, for clinical tests of leucocyte behaviour and for morphogen signal interpretation by cells in developing tissues.

  14. Microarray analysis of the inflammatory and immune responses in head kidney turbot leucocytes treated with resveratrol.

    PubMed

    Domínguez, Berta; Pardo, Belén G; Noia, Manuel; Millán, Adrián; Gómez-Tato, Antonio; Martínez, Paulino; Leiro, José; Lamas, Jesús

    2013-03-01

    A DNA oligo-microarray enriched in genes and involved in inflammatory and immune responses was used to evaluate the effects of resveratrol on gene expression in turbot head kidney leucocytes. Leucocytes were cultured for 3, 6 and 24 h, in the presence or absence of resveratrol, or were stimulated with the membrane fraction of the parasite Philasterides dicentrarchi or with the membrane plus resveratrol. Gene expression changed considerably in control cells, and several of the regulated genes were related to inflammatory and immune responses and to the cytoskeleton. Similar changes in gene expression occurred in control cells and in cells stimulated with P. dicentrarchi membrane fraction. Treatment with resveratrol induced changes in the expression (mostly down-regulation) of several genes involved in immune responses and inflammation. Thus, the down-regulation of the transcription factor PU.1, pentraxin-multidomain protein, heme oxygenase 1, S100 calcium-binding protein A-16 (S100A16) and the signal transducer and activator of transcription 4 was observed after all three incubation times. The down-regulation of the suppressor of cytokine signalling 3a, LPS-induced tumour necrosis alpha, hepcidin, metallothionein, TLR8 and the calcium dependent lectin A was observed after 3 and 6 h. Resveratrol also decreased the expression of CCL20, IL-8, apolipoprotein E and glutathione S-transferase after incubation for 6 and 24 h, and of TNF-α after incubation for 3 and 24 h. Resveratrol also induced strong regulation of several cytoskeleton-related genes. The use of the turbot oligo-microarray enabled us to discover genes whose expression was not previously suspected of being modulated by this polyphenol.

  15. Clinical evaluation of a leucocyte-depleting blood cardioplegia filter (BC1B) for elective open-heart surgery.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, I; Ogoshi, N; Chiba, M; Komatsu, T; Moizumi, Y

    1998-05-01

    Activation of leucocytes during extracorporeal circulation has attracted attention in recent years as a cause of reperfusion injury in open-heart surgery patients. In the present study, 40 adult patients undergoing elective open-heart surgery were randomized into two groups: 20 using the Pall BC1B leucocyte-depleting filter for blood cardioplegia (group 1) and the other 20 without the filter (group 2). In order to determine if the filter was effective in protecting the myocardium, CPK-MB and troponin-T (TnT) were measured. In addition, efforts were also made to determine appropriate sites at which the BC1B blood cardioplegia filter should be positioned. There were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of conditions of perfusion. No adverse effects were seen in either group. The total leucocyte reduction rate through the filter was 98.1% with the passage of 2 liters of blood through the filter. A pressure drop of 4.4 +/- 3.2 mmHg was observed through the filter during use. Statistically significant differences were noted between the two groups in CPK-MB (p = 0.031) and TnT (p = 0.004). Findings obtained in previous studies demonstrate that the various advantages of leucocyte reduction, shown in experimental studies, can be translated into clinical advantages. In conclusion, based on the results in this clinical study showing significant difference in CPK-MB and TnT which are known effective indicators for myocardial injury, between leucoreduced and non-leucoreduced group, the Pall BC1B leucocyte-depleting filter for blood cardioplegia has been shown to be effective in alleviating reperfusion injury in open-heart surgery patients.

  16. Synthesis, structure characterization and biological activity of selected metal complexes of sulfonamide Schiff base as a primary ligand and some mixed ligand complexes with glycine as a secondary ligand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharaby, Carmen M.; Amine, Mona F.; Hamed, Asmaa A.

    2017-04-01

    The current work reports synthesis of metal complexes and mixed ligand complexes of a novel sulfonamide Schiff base ligand (HL) resulted from the condensation of sulfametrole [N‧-(4-methoxy-1,2,5-thiadiazol-3-yl]sulfanilamide and acetyl-acetone as a primary ligand and glycine as a secondary ligand. The metal complexes and mixed ligand complexes of HL Schiff base ligand were synthesized and characterized using different physicochemical studies as elemental analyses, mass spectra, conductivity measurement, IR spectra, 1H NMR spectra, UV-vis Spectra, solid reflectance, magnetic susceptibility, thermal analyses (TGA and DTA) and their microbial and anticancer activities. The spectroscopic data of the complexes suggest their 1:2(L1:M) complex structures and 1:2:2(L1:L2:M) mixed ligand complex structures, where L1 = HL and L2 = glycine. Also, the spectroscopic studies suggested the octahedral structure for all complexes. The synthesized Schiff base, its metal and mixed ligand complexes were screened for their bacterial, antifungal and anticancer activity. The activity data show that the metal complexes and mixed ligand complexes exhibited promising microbial and anticancer activities than their parent HL Schiff base ligand, also the data show that the mixed ligand complexes more effective than the metal complexes.

  17. A pseudo-cryptococcal artefact derived from leucocytes in wet India ink mounts of centrifuged cerebrospinal fluid.

    PubMed

    Thiruchelvan, N; Wuu, K Y; Arseculeratne, S N; Ashraful-Haq, J

    1998-03-01

    Wet India ink mounts of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are useful in the laboratory diagnosis of cryptococcal meningitis. Pseudo-cryptococcal artefacts in such mounts have been attributed to leucocytes in CSF but their mode of formation has not been explained. This report describes the reproduction of such an artefact in cryptococcus free CSF-leucocyte mixtures that had been subjected to high speed centrifugation. The viscosity of DNA that could provide a morphological pseudo-capsule, and the yellow-green fluorescence of the pseudo-capsular material on staining with acridine-orange, suggest that lymphocytic nuclear DNA, which possibly leaked out after damage to the lymphocyte membrane by centrifugation, was responsible for this artefact.

  18. Preliminary studies on the chemotactic potential of dogfish (Scyliorhinus canicula) leucocytes using the bipolar shape formation assay.

    PubMed

    Hunt, T C; Rowley, A F

    1986-06-01

    The bipolar shape formation assay, previously used to determine the chemotactic potential of various factors for mammalian leucocytes, was tested in the present study with granulocytes of the lesser spotted dogfish, Scyliorhinus canicula. Bipolar shape formation was found to be a temperature dependent process with maximal formation observed at 30 degrees C. Addition of the formyl peptide, N-formyl-methionyl-phenylalanine failed to induce any bipolar forms at all temperatures and concentrations tested.

  19. In vitro immunotoxicological effects of heavy metals on European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) head-kidney leucocytes.

    PubMed

    Morcillo, Patricia; Cordero, Héctor; Meseguer, José; Esteban, M Ángeles; Cuesta, Alberto

    2015-11-01

    The knowledge about the direct effects of heavy metals on fish leucocytes is still limited. We investigate the in vitro effects of heavy metals (Cd, Hg, Pb or As) on oxidative stress, viability and innate immune parameters of head-kidney leucocytes (HKLs) from European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Production of free oxygen radicals was induced by Cd, Hg and As, mainly after 30 min of exposure. Cd and Hg promoted both apoptosis and necrosis cell death while Pb and As did only apoptosis, in all cases in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, expression of genes related to oxidative stress and apoptosis was significantly induced by Hg and Pb but down-regulated by As. In addition, the expression of the metallothionein A gene was up-regulated by Cd and Pb exposure though this transcript, as well as the heat shock protein 70, was down-regulated by Hg. Cd, methylmercury (MeHg) and As reduced the phagocytic ability, whereas Hg and Pb increased it. Interestingly, all the heavy metals decreased the phagocytic capacity (the number of ingested particles per cell). Leucocyte respiratory burst changed depending on the metal exposure, usually in a time- and dose-manner. Interestingly, the expression of immune-related genes was slightly affected by Cd, MeHg, As or Pb being Hg the form producing the greatest alterations, which included down-regulation of immunoglobulin M and hepcidin, as well as the up-regulation of interleukin-1 beta mRNA levels. This study provides an in vitro approach for elucidating the heavy metals toxicity, and particularly the immunotoxicity, in fish leucocytes.

  20. Francisella noatunensis subsp. noatunensis replicates within Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) leucocytes and inhibits respiratory burst activity.

    PubMed

    Vestvik, Nils; Rønneseth, Anita; Kalgraff, Cathrine A K; Winther-Larsen, Hanne C; Wergeland, Heidrun I; Haugland, Gyri T

    2013-09-01

    Francisella noatunensis subsp. noatunensis, causing granulomatosis in cod, has been shown to reside within cod immune cells, mainly within monocytes and macrophages. In the present study, we analysed the ability of the bacterium to replicate within adherent cells isolated from head kidney by in vitro infection of leucocytes. Two different technical approaches for flow cytometry analyses were performed for detection of intracellular bacteria. The presence of the wild type was assessed after identification by intracellular binding of specific antibodies to the pathogen. The other way was to use green fluorescent protein (GFP) transformed bacterium for infection studies allowing direct measurements of fluorescence from infected cells. By both methods we found an increase in fluorescence in infected cells, verifying bacterial replication, both after 4 and 28 h post infection in leucocytes isolated from head kidney (HKL). The GFP transformed bacterium was similar to the wild type in growth and infectivity pattern, showing that it can be a valuable tool for further studies of infection routes and pathology. Further, F. noatunensis subsp. noatunensis was found to inhibit respiratory burst activity, a potent pathogen killing mechanism, in cod leucocytes, but not in such cells from salmon. Our findings may indicate that inhibition of respiratory burst during Francisella infection is a key to its intracellular existence. This strategy seems to be conserved through evolution as it is also observed during infections in higher vertebrates caused by bacteria within the Francisella genus. The results presented here, showing the intracellular existence of Francisella, its replication within leucocytes and the inhibitory effect on respiratory burst, strongly support that these factors contribute to disease and pathology in infected cod. The intracellular replication shown in the present study might contribute to explain the problems of obtaining protective vaccines against

  1. Effects of polyamines on cellular innate immune response and the expression of immune-relevant genes in gilthead seabream leucocytes.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Becerril, Martha; Ascencio-Valle, Felipe; Tovar-Ramírez, Dariel; Meseguer, José; Esteban, María Ángeles

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that the polyamines spermidine and spermine, along with the diamine putrescine, are involved in many cellular processes and they are known to play an important role in the control of the innate immune response in higher vertebrates. However, to the best of our knowledge, no studies have focused on their immunological implications in other vertebrates, such as fish. For this reason, the effects of polyamines on the cellular innate immune response and immune-related gene expression were evaluated in vitro, using seabream head-kidney leucocytes (HKL). For this study, head-kidney leucocytes were incubated with the polyamines putrescine, spermine or spermidine (0.005 and 0.0025%) for 0.50, 1, 2 or 4 h. No significant effect was observed on either leucocyte viability or the innate cellular immune responses (peroxidase content and phagocytic and respiratory burst activities). The polyamines produced an increase in respiratory burst and phagocytic ability when leucocytes were incubated principally with putrescine (0.005 and 0.0025%) after 2 and 4 h of the experiment. Finally, the expression levels of immune-associated genes (IgM, MHCIα, MHCIIα, C3, IL-1β, CD8, Hep, NCCRP-1, CSF-1 and TLR) were quantified by real-time PCR and some of them (C3, MHCI, CD8, IgM and Hep) were up-regulated by the higher polyamine concentration. Further studies are needed to ascertain how polyamines control the immune system of seabream as well as which mechanisms are involved.

  2. In vitro immunotoxicity of untreated and treated urban wastewaters using various treatment processes to rainbow trout leucocytes.

    PubMed

    Gagné, François; Fortier, Marlène; Fournier, Michel; Smyth, Shirley-Anne

    2013-07-01

    Municipal effluents are known to impede the immune system of aquatic organisms. The purpose of this study was to examine the immunotoxicity of urban wastewaters before and after 6 treatment processes from 12 cities toward trout leucocytes. Freshly prepared trout leucocytes were exposed to increasing concentrations of solid phase (C18) extracts of wastewaters for 24 hr at 150C. Immunocompetence was determined by following changes in leucocyte viability and the proportion of cells able to ingest at least one (immunoactivity) and at least three (immunoefficiency) fluorescent beads. The influents were treated by six different treatment strategies consisting of facultative aerated lagoons, activated sludge, biological aerated filter, biological nutrient removal, chemically-assisted physical treatment and trickling filter/solid contact. Water quality parameters of the wastewaters revealed that the plants effectively removed total suspended solids and reduced the chemical oxygen demand. The results revealed that the effluents' immunotoxic properties were generally more influenced by the properties of the untreated wastewaters than by the treatment processes. About half of the incoming influents decreased leucocyte viability while 4 treatment plants were able to reduce toxicity. The influents readily increased phagocytosis activity for 8/12 influents while it was decreased in 4/12 influents. This increase was abolished for 4/12 of the effluents using treatments involving biological and oxidative processes. In conclusion, municipal effluents have the potential to alter the immune system in fish and more research will be needed to improve the treatments of wastewaters to better protect the quality of the aquatic environment.

  3. Response of in vivo protein synthesis in T lymphocytes and leucocytes to an endotoxin challenge in healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Januszkiewicz, A; Loré, K; EsséN, P; Andersson, B; Mcnurlan, M A; Garlick, P J; RingdéN, O; Andersson, J; Wernerman, J

    2002-01-01

    In vivo determination of protein synthesis in immune cells reflects metabolic activity and immunological activation. An intravenous injection of endotoxin to healthy volunteers was used as a human sepsis model, and in vivo protein synthesis of T lymphocytes and leucocytes was measured. The results were related to plasma concentrations of selected cytokines, peripheral cell counts and subpopulations of immune cells. The subjects (n = 8 + 8) were randomized to an endotoxin (4 ng/kg) or a saline group. In vivo protein synthesis was determined twice: before and 1–2·5 h after the endotoxin/saline injection. Protein synthesis decreased in isolated T lymphocytes, but increased in leucocytes. Plasma levels of TNF-α, IL-8, IL-6, IL-1 ra and IL-10 were elevated, whereas IL-2 and IFN-γ, produced predominantly by T lymphocytes, did not change in response to endotoxin. Neutrophils increased, whereas lymphocytes and monocytes decreased 2·5 h after the endotoxin injection. Flow cytometry revealed a drop in total CD3+ T lymphocytes and CD56+ natural killer cells, accompanied by an increase in CD15+ granulocytes. In summary, in vivo protein synthesis decreased in T lymphocytes, while the total leucocyte population showed a concomitant increase immediately after the endotoxin challenge. The changes in protein synthesis were accompanied by alterations in immune cell subpopulations and in plasma cytokine levels. PMID:12390314

  4. Third component of complement, immunoglobulin deposition, and leucocyte attachment related to surface sulfate on larval Taenia taeniaeformis.

    PubMed

    Letonja, T; Hammerberg, B

    1983-08-01

    Cysticerci and strobilocerci of Taenia taeniaeformis were incubated with leucocytes from peritoneal washings of normal and T. taeniaeformis-infected rats in the presence of either normal sera or sera from infected rats. Leucocytes from infected and normal rats attached exclusively to the scolices but not the bladders of the larvae in the presence of serum from normal or infected rats. Heat inactivation at 56 C for 30 min destroyed the serum-mediated cell attachment. Histochemical staining of the larval taeniids with acid Alcian Blue demonstrated high concentrations of sulfated mucopolysaccharides on bladders that were not present on scolices. Immunofluorescent staining detected no difference in IgG deposition on the surfaces of bladders and scolices after incubation with rat sera in contrast to the markedly greater amounts of complement protein C3 found on scolices versus bladders. These results indicate that polysulfated substances on the bladder of this larval taeniid are associated with regional resistance to C3 deposition and leucocyte attachment.

  5. Response of in vivo protein synthesis in T lymphocytes and leucocytes to an endotoxin challenge in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Januszkiewicz, A; Loré, K; Essén, P; Andersson, B; McNurlan, M A; Garlick, P J; Ringdén, O; Andersson, J; Wernerman, J

    2002-11-01

    In vivo determination of protein synthesis in immune cells reflects metabolic activity and immunological activation. An intravenous injection of endotoxin to healthy volunteers was used as a human sepsis model, and in vivo protein synthesis of T lymphocytes and leucocytes was measured. The results were related to plasma concentrations of selected cytokines, peripheral cell counts and subpopulations of immune cells. The subjects (n = 8 + 8) were randomized to an endotoxin (4 ng/kg) or a saline group. In vivo protein synthesis was determined twice: before and 1-2.5 h after the endotoxin/saline injection. Protein synthesis decreased in isolated T lymphocytes, but increased in leucocytes. Plasma levels of TNF-alpha, IL-8, IL-6, IL-1 ra and IL-10 were elevated, whereas IL-2 and IFN-gamma, produced predominantly by T lymphocytes, did not change in response to endotoxin. Neutrophils increased, whereas lymphocytes and monocytes decreased 2.5 h after the endotoxin injection. Flow cytometry revealed a drop in total CD3+ T lymphocytes and CD56+ natural killer cells, accompanied by an increase in CD15+ granulocytes. In summary, in vivo protein synthesis decreased in T lymphocytes, while the total leucocyte population showed a concomitant increase immediately after the endotoxin challenge. The changes in protein synthesis were accompanied by alterations in immune cell subpopulations and in plasma cytokine levels.

  6. Factors influencing in vitro respiratory burst assays with head kidney leucocytes from rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum).

    PubMed

    Chettri, J K; Holten-Andersen, L; Buchmann, K

    2010-07-01

    Abstract Head kidney leucocytes are central elements in a number of in vivo and in vitro assays elucidating innate and adaptive immune mechanisms in teleosts following stimulation with various antigens. These systems are sensitive to several factors affecting the outcome of the assays. The present work describes the importance of temperature, cell concentration, exposure time and immune-modulatory molecules on the respiratory burst activity (RBA) of rainbow trout head kidney leucocytes in vitro. Some variation in RBA was observed among individual fish. However, use of cells pooled from four individuals produced satisfactory results following exposure to phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, zymosan and beta-glucan. Temperature was shown to have a significant effect on production of reactive radicals as illustrated by a high activity in cells maintained at 15-20 degrees C and a reduced activity at temperature extremes (1, 4 and 30 degrees C). Highest activity was found at a cell concentration of 1 x 10(7) cells mL(-1). Reactivity showed a clear decline when cells were exposed for more than 4 h. Moreover, incubation of cells with inhibitory substances viz., DiMePE2, cortisol and superoxide dismutase decreased the RBA. It is concluded that several biotic and abiotic factors should be taken into account when conducting RBA assays with head kidney leucocytes for elucidation of rainbow trout immune responses.

  7. Different impact of heat-inactivated and viable lactic acid bacteria of aquatic origin on turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.) head-kidney leucocytes.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Atienza, Estefanía; Araújo, Carlos; Lluch, Nuria; Hernández, Pablo E; Herranz, Carmen; Cintas, Luis M; Magadán, Susana

    2015-05-01

    In aquaculture, several criteria should be considered to select an appropriate probiotic, including the aquatic origin and safety of the strain and its ability to modulate the host immune response. The properties and effects of probiotics are strain-specific and some factors such as viability, dose and duration of diet supplementation may regulate their immunomodulatory activities. In this study, we assessed the in vitro effect of eight heat-inactivated and viable lactic acid bacteria (LAB) of aquatic origin belonging to the genera Enterococcus, Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Leuconostoc, Pediococcus and Weissella on the viability and innate immune response of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.) leucocytes. Head-kidney leucocytes were incubated with viable and heat-inactivated LAB at different concentrations. After incubation, the viability of leucocytes was evaluated using colorimetric assays (MTT and LDH) and flow cytometry (annexin V/propidium iodide). Heat-inactivated LAB showed no cytotoxic effect while viable LAB exerted variable influence on apoptosis of turbot phagocytes and lymphocytes. Leucocyte respiratory burst activity and phagocytosis were also differentially activated, as viable LAB stimulated leucocytes more efficiently than the heat-inactivated LAB. Our results suggest diverse strain-specific mechanisms of interaction between the evaluated LAB and turbot leucocytes. Furthermore, our work sets up in vitro systems to evaluate the effect of LAB as potential probiotics, which will be useful to develop efficient screening.

  8. [Effect of 3-oxypyridine and succinic acid derivatives on endometrial leucocyte infiltration and lipid peroxidation in recrudescence of inflammatory diseases of the uterus and its appendages].

    PubMed

    Volchegorskiĭ, I A; Pravdin, E V; Uzlova, T V

    2013-01-01

    The effect of domestic 3-oxypyridine and succinic acid derivatives (emoxipin, reamberin and mexidol) included in the complex treatment of recrudescence of inflammatory diseases of the uterus and its appendages, as manifested in endometrial leucocyte infiltration (ELI) compared to lipid peroxidation products concentration in blood serum, was assessed in a short-term, prospective placebo-controlled single-blind randomized trial. It has been found that two-week infusions of emoxipin (single dose, 150 mg), reamberin (single dose, 400 ml), and mexidol (single dose, 300 mg) favor a decrease in ELI and influence ambiguously on lipid peroxidation - antioxidant (LPA) system condition in blood serum of patients. It has been found that 3-oxypyridine derivative (emoxipin) decreases the intensity of ELI, but does not affect LPA system condition. Succinic acid derivative (reamberin) is inferior to emoxipin in the degree of decreasing ELI, but reduces the concentration of the antioxidant protein ceruloplasmin. Mexidol, being 3-oxipyridine and succinic acid derivative simultaneously, exceeds reamberin in decreasing ELI, increases concentration of blood antioxidant components (alpha-tocopherol and ceruloplasmin), and decreases the level of primary isopropanol-soluble products of lipid peroxidation.

  9. Natural killer cells, killer immunoglobulin-like receptors and human leucocyte antigen class I in disease

    PubMed Central

    Boyton, R J; Altmann, D M

    2007-01-01

    Natural killer cells constitute a potent, rapid part of the innate immune response to infection or transformation, and also generate a link to priming of adaptive immunity. Their function can encompass direct cytotoxicity as well as the release of cytokines and chemokines. In humans, a major component of natural killer (NK) cell target recognition depends mainly on the surveillance of human leucocyte antigen (HLA) class I molecules by killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR). Different KIR can transmit inhibitory or activatory signals to the cell, and effector function is considered to result from the balance of these contributing signals. The regulation of NK cell responses depends on a number of variables: KIR genotype, HLA genotype, heterozygosity versus homozygosity for these, whether there is cognate recognition between the HLA and KIR products carried by an individual, clonal variation between individual NK cells in KIR expression, and the specific modulation of HLA expression by infection, transformation or peptide binding. Different HLA/KIR genotypes can impart different thresholds of activation to the NK cell repertoire and such genotypic variation has been found to confer altered risk in a number of diseases including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) susceptibility and progression, hepatitis C virus clearance, idiopathic bronchiectasis, autoimmunity and cancer. PMID:17521317

  10. The effects of some antirheumatic drugs on an in vitro model of human polymorphonuclear leucocyte chemokinesis.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, M. J.; Walker, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    1 A rapid, reproducible in vitro assay for studying the chemokinetic movement of human polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNs) is described. Two synthetic peptides, formyl methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP) and formyl methionyl-phenylalanine (FMP), were used as a standard chemokinesins. 2 Maximal chemokinetic movement was observed with peptide concentrations of 2.5 nM (FMLP) and 100 muM (FMP). EC50 values of 650.0 +/- 60.0 pM and 27.0 +/- 3.5 muM respectively are similar to those reported for chemotactic activity of the peptides in micropore filter assays. 3 The PMN chemokinetic response to FMLP was enhanced by histamine (100 nM) and vitamin C (2.5 muM). 4 Human serum albumin was shown to induce chemokinesis but to antagonize the response to FMLP in a dose-related fashion. Fibrinogen similarly antagonized the cell response to peptide. 5 Levamisole (250 nM to 2.5 muM) significantly potentiated the chemokinetic responses to FMLP and FMP in a dose-related manner. The chemokinetic response to FMLP was unaffected by D-penicillamine (250 muM to 10 mM) while alclofenac (500 muM to 1 mM), salicylic acid (250 muM to 10 mM) and indomethacin (100 muM to 1 mM) caused dose-related inhibition. PMID:7397456

  11. Calcium ionophore A23187 induces release of chemokinetic and aggregating factors from polymorphonuclear leucocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Bray, M. A.; Ford-Hutchinson, A. W.; Shipley, M. E.; Smith, M. J.

    1980-01-01

    1. Rat and human polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNs) when exposed to calcium ionophore A23187 10 microM release products which cause aggregation of rat PMNs and chemokinesis of human PMNs. 2. Aggregating and chemokinetic activities are rapidly generated; maximal release occurs after 4 min, and can be detected in dilutions of the supernatant of up to 1:1000. 3. Generation of aggregating and chemokinetic activities is inhibited by nordihydroguaiaretic acid 10(-4) to 10(0-7) M, 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraynoic acid 10(-4) and 10(-5) M, BW 755C 10(-4) M and benoxaprofen 10(-4) M, all compounds known to inhibit lipoxygenase pathways of arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism. 4. Conventional non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents, such as aspirin and indomethacin, inhibited little or not at all the generation of these activities. 5. We conclude that the aggregating and chemokinetic activities induced by A23187 represent generation of biologically active products of lipoxygenase pathways of AA metabolism. PMID:6781577

  12. Nitric oxide production by nurse shark (Ginglymostoma cirratum) and clearnose skate (Raja eglanteria) peripheral blood leucocytes.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Cathy J; Toranto, Jason D; Gilliland, C Taylor; Noyes, David R; Bodine, Ashby B; Luer, Carl A

    2006-01-01

    Reactive nitrogen intermediates, such as nitric oxide (NO), are important immunomodulators in vertebrate immune systems, but have yet to be identified as mediators of host defence in any member of class Chondrichthyes, the cartilaginous fishes. In the present study, production of NO by nurse shark (Ginglymostoma cirratum) peripheral blood leucocytes (PBL) stimulated with bacterial cell wall lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was investigated. PBL were cultured for 24 to 96 h following stimulation with LPS at concentrations ranging from 0 to 25 microg ml(-1), in both serum-supplemented and serum-free culture conditions. Production of NO was measured indirectly using the Griess reaction, with maximal NO production occurring after 72 h using 10% FBS and 10 microg LPS ml(-1). Application of these culture conditions to PBL from another cartilaginous fish (clearnose skate, Raja eglanteria) resulted in a similar NO response. Addition of a specific inhibitor of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), L-N(6)-(1-iminoethyl)lysine (L-NIL), resulted in a significant decrease in the production of NO by PBL from both species.

  13. Characterization of a neutral protease from lysosomes of rabbit polymorphonuclear leucocytes

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Philip; Rita, Giuseppe A.; Krakauer, Kathrin; Weissmann, Gerald

    1971-01-01

    1. The subcellular distribution has been investigated of a protease from rabbit polymorphonuclear leucocytes, obtained from peritoneal exudates. The enzyme, optimally active between pH7.0 and 7.5, hydrolyses histone but not haemoglobin, sediments almost exclusively with a granule fraction rich in other lysosomal enzymes, and is latent until the granules are disrupted by various means. 2. Enzymic analysis of specific and azurophilic granules separated by zonal centrifugation showed that neutral protease activity was confined to fractions rich in enzymes characteristic of azurophile granules. 3. Recovery of neutral protease activity from subcellular fractions was several times greater than that found in whole cells. This finding was explained by the presence of a potent inhibitor of the enzyme activity in the cytoplasm. 4. The effect of the inhibitor was reversed by increasing ionic strength (up to 2.5m-potassium chloride) and by polyanions such as heparin and dextran sulphate, but not by an uncharged polymer, dextran. 5. The enzyme was also inhibited, to a lesser extent, by 1-chloro-4-phenyl-3-l-toluene-p-sulphonamidobutan-2-one, soya-bean trypsin inhibitor and ∈-aminohexanoate (∈-aminocaproate). 6. The granule fractions failed to hydrolyse artificial substrates for trypsin and chymotrypsin. 7. Partial separation of the enzyme was achieved by Sephadex gel filtration at high ionic strength and by isoelectric focusing. The partially separated, activated enzyme showed an approximately 300-fold increase in specific activity over that in whole cells. PMID:5126908

  14. Reduced expression of galectin-1 and galectin-9 by leucocytes in asthma patients.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Cuellar, S; de la Fuente, H; Cruz-Adalia, A; Lamana, A; Cibrian, D; Giron, R M; Vara, A; Sanchez-Madrid, F; Ancochea, J

    2012-12-01

    Accumulating evidence shows that galectins play roles in the initiation and resolution phases of inflammatory responses by promoting anti- or proinflammatory effects. This study investigated the presence of three members of the galectin family (galectin-1, -3 and -9) in induced sputum samples of asthma patients, as well as their possible implication in the immunopathogenesis of human asthma. Levels of interleukin (IL)-5, IL-13, and galectins were determined in leucocytes isolated from induced sputum samples by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) immunofluorescence and flow cytometry. High levels of IL-5 and IL-13 mRNA were detected in sputum cells from asthma patients. In parallel, immunoregulatory proteins galectin-1 and galectin-9 showed a reduced expression on macrophages from sputum samples compared with cells from healthy donors. In-vitro immunoassays showed that galectin-1 and galectin-9, but not galectin-3, are able to induce the production of IL-10 by peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy donors. These findings indicate that macrophages from sputum samples of asthma patients express low levels of galectin-1 and galectin-9, favouring the exacerbated immune response observed in this disease.

  15. Antibiotic uptake by cultured Atlantic cod leucocytes and effect on intracellular Francisella noatunensis subsp. noatunensis replication.

    PubMed

    Kaldestad, Marte; Haugland, Gyri T; Rønneseth, Anita; Wergeland, Heidrun I; Samuelsen, Ole Bent

    2014-02-04

    The granuloma disease caused by Francisella noatunensis subsp. noatunensis in farmed Atlantic cod has not been successfully treated by use of antibacterials, even when antibacterial resistance testing indicates a sufficient effect. The reason for this treatment failure may be the intracellular existence of the bacteria within immune cells, mainly macrophages. To investigate the effect of antibacterials on intracellular Francisella replication, we established a protocol for the detection of drugs within Atlantic cod immune cells using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). When the uptake and intracellular concentrations of oxolinic acid and flumequine were analysed in isolated adherent head kidney leucocytes (HKLs) by HPLC, we found that uptake was rapid and the intracellular concentrations reflected the extracellular exposure concentrations. To investigate the effect of the antibacterial compounds on intracellular bacterial replication, adherent HKLs experimentally infected with the bacteria were analysed using flow cytometry and intracellular labelling of bacteria by specific antibodies. We found that flumequine did not inhibit intracellular bacterial replication. Unexpectedly, the results indicated that the intracellularly effiacy of the drug was reduced. The HPLC method used proved to be highly applicable for accurate determination of intracellular drug concentrations. When combined with sensitive and specific flow cytometry analyses for identification and measurement of intracellular bacterial replication, we suggest that this approach can be very valuable for the design of antibacterial treatments of intracellular pathogens.

  16. Influence of fucoidans and their derivatives on antitumor and phagocytic activity of human blood leucocytes.

    PubMed

    Anisimova, N Yu; Ustyuzhanina, N E; Donenko, F V; Bilan, M I; Ushakova, N A; Usov, A I; Nifantiev, N E; Kiselevskiy, M V

    2015-07-01

    The immunotropic activity of structurally different fucoidans and their derivatives towards isolated immune blood cells, effectors of innate immune system, was studied. The most potent effect was observed for high molecular weight fucoidan CF from the alga Chordaria flagelliformis, whose backbone is built of (1→3)-linked units of α-L-fucopyranose, and branches included residues of α-D-glucuronic acid and α-L-fucofuranose. This compound at the concentration of 0.05 mg/ml potentiated phagocytosis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactobacillus acidophilus by neutrophils, increasing relative quantity of phagocytes as well as their effectiveness. Along with this, 14% increase in the concentration of membrane-bound integrin CD11c molecules was observed. The systemic effect of CF at the dose of 0.01 mg/mouse i.p. led to potentiation of cytotoxic activity of spleen mononuclear leucocytes towards melanoma cells of line B16 by 1.9-fold and towards chronic myelogenous leukemia cells of line K-562 by 1.7-fold. These results indicate that fucoidan CF can stimulate anti-infective and antitumor activity of effectors of the innate immune system via CD11c integrins.

  17. A soluble recombinant form of human leucocyte antigen-G 6 (srHLA-G6).

    PubMed

    Pelá, Flávia Porto; Rustiguel, Joane Kathelen; Rodrigues, Lilian Cataldi; Mendonça Galiote Silva, Jacqueline Nakau; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; Rosa, José Cesar; Nonato, Maria Cristina; Favier, Benoit; Donadi, Eduardo Antônio; Baruffi, Marcelo Dias

    2017-03-29

    Human Leucocyte Antigen-G (HLA-G) is a non classical major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecule that through RNA splicing can encode seven isoforms which are membrane bound (-G1, -G2, -G3 and -G4) and soluble (-G5, -G6 and -G7). HLA-G is described as important immune suppressor endogenous molecule to favor maternal-fetal tolerance, transplant survival and tumor immune scape. HLA-G shows low protein variability and a unique structural complexity that is related with the expression of different isoforms followed by biochemical processes, such as, photolytic cleavage, molecular interactions, and protein ubiquitination. Studies with HLA-G have shown difficult to assess the role of the individual isoforms. Thus, the aim of this work was to obtain a HLA-G6 recombinant form. The results indicated the production of high homogeneous preparations of soluble recombinant HLA-G6 (srHLA-G6) with molecular mass 23,603.76 Da, determined by MALD-TOF/TOF. In addition, native and denatured srHLA-G6 were detected by ELISA, using commercial monoclonal antibodies. Finally, we developed a suitable methodology to express srHLA-G6 that could contribute in structural and functional studies involving specific isoforms.

  18. Induction of apoptosis in a carp leucocyte cell line infected with turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.) rhabdovirus.

    PubMed

    Du, Changsheng; Zhang, Qiya; Li, Chunliang; Miao, Dali; Gui, Jianfang

    2004-05-01

    A rhabdovirus was observed from the diseased turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.) with lethal syndrome. In this study, a carp leucocyte (CLC) cell line was used to investigate the infection process and cell death mechanism occurring during the virus infection. Strong cytopathogenic effect (CPE) and the morphological changes, such as extreme chromatin condensation, nucleus fragmentation, and apoptotic body formation, were observed under fluorescence microscopy after DAPI staining in the infected CLC cells. Transmission electron microscopy analysis showed cell shrinkage, plasma membrane blebbing, cytoplasm vacuolization, chromatin condensation, nuclear breakdown and formation of discrete apoptotic bodies. The bullet-shaped nucleocapsids were measured and ranged in size from 110 to 150 nm in length and 40 to 60 nm in diameter. And therefore the virus is called Scophthalmus maximus rhabdovirus (SMRV). Agarose gel electrophoresis analysis of the DNA extracted from infected cells showed typical DNA ladder in the course of SMRV infection. Flow cytometry analysis of SMRV infected CLC cells detected apoptotic peak in the virus infected CLC cells. Virus titre analysis and electron microscopic observation revealed that the virus replication fastigium was earlier than that of the apoptosis occurrence. No apoptosis was observed in the CLC infected with UV-inactivated SMRV. All these supported that SMRV infected CLC cells undergo apoptosis and the virus replication is necessary for apoptosis induction of CLC cells.

  19. Paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria phenotype cells and leucocyte subset telomere length in childhood acquired aplastic anaemia.

    PubMed

    Tutelman, Perri R; Aubert, Geraldine; Milner, Ruth A; Dalal, Bakul I; Schultz, Kirk R; Deyell, Rebecca J

    2014-03-01

    The significance of paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria (PNH(pos) ) cells and leucocyte subset telomere lengths in paediatric aplastic anaemia (AA) is unknown. Among 22 children receiving immunosuppressive therapy (IST) for AA, 73% (16/22) were PNH(pos) , of whom 94% achieved at least a partial response (PR) to IST; 11/16 (69%) achieved complete response (CR). Only 2/6 (33%) PNH(neg) patients achieved PR. PNH(pos) patients were less likely to fail IST compared to PNH(neg) patients (odds ratio 0·033; 95% confidence interval 0·002-0·468; P = 0·012). Children with AA had short granulocyte (P = 7·8 × 10(-9) ), natural killer cell (P = 6·0 × 10(-4) ), naïve T lymphocyte (P = 0·002) and B lymphocyte (P = 0·005) telomeres compared to age-matched normative data.

  20. Diagnosing tumours on routine surgical sections by immunohistochemistry: use of cytokeratin, common leucocyte, and other markers.

    PubMed Central

    Poston, R N; Sidhu, Y S

    1986-01-01

    Tumours of uncertain tissue of origin were investigated by immunohistochemistry on formalin fixed paraffin embedded sections. Two antibodies--PD7/26, an anti common leucocyte antigen, and CAM5.2, an anticytokeratin--recognised most lymphomas and carcinomas, respectively: 88% of these tumours were identified by the two antibodies alone. These antibodies permitted the separation of the cases into groups: positive with CAM5.2, positive with PD7/26, and a third comprising those negative with both. The negative group contained other tumours and a small number of carcinomas and lymphomas; many of the lymphomas were, apparently, of histiocytic origin. Comparison of CAM5.2 with other epithelial markers showed that it was the most effective. Some further classification of the tumours was carried out with a panel of organ and cell specific antibodies: mesotheliomas were recognised by their pattern of reactivity with epithelial markers. Overall, the tumour type was determined in 90% of cases. Immunohistochemistry performed as described can be a potent aid to the diagnostic histopathology of tumours. Images PMID:2424934

  1. [The changes of peripheral blood leucocytes subpopulation after challenge with CSFV virulent strain Shimen].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yuan-Cheng; Wang, Qin; Fan, Xue-Zheng; Xu, Lu; Xu, Zhi-Wen; Guo, Wan-Zhu; Liu, Jun; Chen, Lei; Tang, Bo

    2009-07-01

    To investigate the effects of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) virulent strain Shimen (SM) infection on piglets peripheral blood leucocytes, the 60-days weanling piglets were infected with the shinen strain and the peripheral blood samples of the piglets were collected to analyze the kinetics of the CSEV nucleic acid, the peripheral blood leucocytes subpopulation and SLA molecule expression on the peripheral blood leukocytes. The results showed that the piglets rectal temperature increased 48 hours after intramuscular injection of CSFV SM strain, the CSFV nucleic acid was detected in the peripheral blood at 2DPI, the content of CSFV nucleic acid increased and up-regulated to a peak at 6DPI as 10 (4.84 +/- 0.98 times as 2DPI. The amount of WBC, LYM and PLT significantly decreased, where in the amount of WBC decreased to 65.87% at 1DPI and 50% at 2DPI respectively; the amount of LYM decreased to 70.68%, 47.88% and 23.29% at 1DPI, 2DPI, and 3DPI, respectively; the amount of PLT decreased day by day and to 34.59% at 6DPI; the amount of NK, gammadeltaT, Tc, Th, CD3+ CD4+ CD8+ and CD3- CD4- CD8- cells decreased after infection; 78.49% of NK cells decreased at 1DPI and then there was no significant change from 2DPI to 6DPI. The amount of gammadeltaT, Tc, CD4- CD8- CD3-,CD4+ CD8+ CD3+ cells decreased to 41.74%, 43.83%, 15.87%, and 32.96% at 3DPI, respectively, However, the amount of T helper cells decreased continually to 42.95% at 6DPI; the amount of SLA I positive lymphocytes decreased significantly and the amount of SLA I positive CD3 cells decreased to 23.07% and 15.38% at 1DPI and 2DPI respectively; the SLA I positive granulocytes increased continually from 92.20% at 1DPI to 98.30% at 3DPI; the amount of CD3 SLA II + cells in lymphocytes decreased from 1.38% at 1DPI to 0.22% at 2DPI, while the SLA II + granulocytes increased continually to a peak at 3DPI and 53.76% of granulocytes expressed the SLA II molecule, but the percentage of the granulocytes expressing SLA

  2. Association of chronic fatigue syndrome with human leucocyte antigen class II alleles

    PubMed Central

    Smith, J; Fritz, E L; Kerr, J R; Cleare, A J; Wessely, S; Mattey, D L

    2005-01-01

    Background: A genetic component to the development of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) has been proposed, and a possible association between human leucocyte antigen (HLA) class II antigens and chronic fatigue immune dysfunction has been shown in some, but not all, studies. Aims: To investigate the role of HLA class II antigens in CFS. Methods: Forty nine patients with CFS were genotyped for the HLA-DRB1, HLA-DQA1, and HLA-DQB1 alleles and the frequency of these alleles was compared with a control group comprising 102 normal individuals from the UK. All patients and controls were from the same region of England and, apart from two patients, were white. Results: Analysis by 2 × 2 contingency tables revealed an increased frequency of HLA-DQA1*01 alleles in patients with CFS (51.0% v 35%; odds ratio (OR), 1.93; p  =  0.008). HLA-DQB1*06 was also increased in the patients with CFS (30.2% v 20.0%; OR, 1.73, p  =  0.052). Only the association between HLA-DQA1*01 and CFS was significant in logistic regression models containing HLA-DQA1*01 and HLA-DRQB1*06, and this was independent of HLA-DRB1 alleles. There was a decreased expression of HLA-DRB1*11 in CFS, although this association disappeared after correction for multiple comparisons. Conclusions: CFS may be associated with HLA-DQA1*01, although a role for other genes in linkage disequilibrium cannot be ruled out. PMID:16049290

  3. SRY gene transferred by extracellular vesicles accelerates atherosclerosis by promotion of leucocyte adherence to endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jin; Guan, Weiwei; Tan, Xiaorong; Chen, Caiyu; Li, Liangpeng; Wang, Na; Zou, Xue; Zhou, Faying; Wang, Jialiang; Pei, Fang; Chen, Xinjian; Luo, Hao; Wang, Xinquan; He, Duofen; Zhou, Lin; Jose, Pedro A; Zeng, Chunyu

    2015-08-01

    We set out to investigate whether and how SRY (sex-determining region, Y) DNAs in plasma EVs (extracellular vesicles) is involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. PCR and gene sequencing found the SRY gene fragment in plasma EVs from male, but not female, patients; EVs from male patients with CAD (coronary artery disease) had a higher SRY GCN (gene copy number) than healthy subjects. Additional studies found that leucocytes, the major source of plasma EVs, had higher SRY GCN and mRNA and protein expression in male CAD patients than controls. After incubation with EVs from SRY-transfected HEK (human embryonic kidney)-293 cells, monocytes (THP-1) and HUVECs (human umbilical vein endothelial cells), which do not endogenously express SRY protein, were found to express newly synthesized SRY protein. This resulted in an increase in the adherence factors CD11-a in THP-1 cells and ICAM-1 (intercellular adhesion molecule 1) in HUVECs. EMSA showed that SRY protein increased the promoter activity of CD11-a in THP-1 cells and ICAM-1 in HUVECs. There was an increase in THP-1 cells adherent to HUVECs after incubation with SRY-EVs. SRY DNAs transferred from EVs have pathophysiological significance in vivo; injection of SRY EVs into ApoE-/- (apolipoprotein-knockout) mice accelerated atherosclerosis. The SRY gene in plasma EVs transferred to vascular endothelial cells may play an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis; this mechanism provides a new approach to the understanding of inheritable CAD in men.

  4. Nitric oxide-generating system as an autocrine mechanism in human polymorphonuclear leucocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Riesco, A; Caramelo, C; Blum, G; Montón, M; Gallego, M J; Casado, S; López Farré, A

    1993-01-01

    Recent data [Lopéz-Farré, Riesco, Moliz, Egido, Casado, Hernando and Caramelo (1991) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 178, 884-891] revealed that endothelin 1 (ET-1) increases intracellular free [Ca2+] in polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMN) by a mechanism that can be inhibited by L-arginine. The aim of the present study was to clarify the mechanisms of the interaction between the effects of ET-1 and L-arginine in human PMN. The experimental findings showed that in human PMN: (a) ET-1 and the chemoattractant peptide N-formylmethionyl- leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP) induce both the metabolism of L-arginine to L-citrulline and cyclic GMP (cGMP) formation; (b) the ET-1-induced cGMP production is inhibitable by the L-arginine antagonist NG-monomethyl-L-arginine, therefore suggesting the involvement of NO; (c) the ET-1- or fMLP-induced NO/cGMP stimulation is critically dependent on the availability of L-arginine; (d) human PMN possess a L-arginine transport system with both Na(+)-dependent and -independent components; (e) the L-arginine transport system in PMN appears to be feedback-regulated by NO/cGMP in ET-1-stimulated conditions, but not under baseline conditions; (f) the L-arginine transport system in PMN is independent of the gamma-glutamyl cycle and is not modified by either ET-1 or fMLP. The L-arginine/NO/cGMP-dependent mechanisms characterized in the present study may be relevant in the regulation of PMN activation in pathophysiological conditions in vivo. PMID:7686367

  5. Human leucocyte antigens: their association with end-stage renal disease in Saudi patients awaiting transplantation.

    PubMed

    Almogren, A; Shakoor, Z; Hamam, K D

    2012-01-01

    Most patients with chronic renal failure develop end-stage renal disease (ESRD) that requires renal transplantation. This study investigates the possible associations between human leucocyte antigen (HLA) Class I and Class II molecules with ESRD. Genotyping data (HLA) obtained between 2005 and 2009 on 235 unrelated Saudi patients (147 males, 88 females; mean age: 58 +/- 7 years) with ESRD awaiting renal transplantation were assessed retrospectively at the King Khalid University Hospital. Data were compared with the results on 60 normal, healthy, unrelated Saudi individuals (37 males and 23 females; mean age: 51 +/- 5 years). HLA Class I and Class II antigens were detected by lymphocytotoxicity and a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method using DNA sequence-specific primers. Although present in small numbers, HLA Cw2 was found in significantly fewer patients (n = 11; 4.68%) compared to normal subjects (n = 9; 15%) and was found to confer protection against ESRD (P = 0.005; relative risk [RR]: 3.594, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.415-9.126). Among the HLA Class II antigens, HLA DQB1*03(8) was detected more frequently in the patient group (n = 65; 27.6%) than in the normal controls (n = 9; 15%) and was positively associated with risk of ESRD (P = 0.04; RR: 0.462, 95% CI: 0.215-0.991). No significant differences were observed between the two groups in respect of HLA-A2, HLA-B50(21), HLA-B51(5) and HLA-Cw7 (HLA Class I), and HLA-DRB1*04, HLA-DRB1*07 and HLA-DQB1*02 (HLA Class II). Occurrence of the most frequent HLA alleles was no different between the ESRD group and the controls. The protective role of HLA-Cw2 and the marginal susceptibility associated with HLA-DQBI*03(8) for ESRD requires further investigation.

  6. Reduction of leucocyte telomere length in radiographic hand osteoarthritis: a population‐based study

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, G; Aviv, A; Hunter, D J; Hart, D J; Gardner, J P; Kimura, M; Lu, X; Valdes, A M; Spector, T D

    2006-01-01

    Background Although age is the strongest predictor of osteoarthritis, the exact mechanism underlying this disorder remains elusive. Objective To examine the association between leucocyte telomere length (LTL), a bio‐indicator of ageing, and radiographic hand osteoarthritis. Methods An unselected, predominantly female sample from the TwinsUK Adult Twin Registry (Twin Research and Genetic Epidemiology Unit, St Thomas Hospital, London, UK) was studied. Radiographs of both hands were obtained with a standard posteroanterior view and assessed for radiographic osteoarthritis according to the Kellgren/Lawrence (K/L) score. Individual radiographic features including osteophytes and joint space narrowing (JSN) were also assessed on a four‐point scale using a standard atlas. Hand osteoarthritis was defined radiographically as having ⩾3 osteoarthritis‐affected joints of both hands (K/L score⩾2). Severity of hand osteoarthritis was indicated semiquantitatively by total K/L scores, osteophytes, JSN scores and proportion of joints affected. Mean LTL was measured by the terminal restriction fragment length using the Southern blot. Results A total of 1086 Caucasian subjects (mean (SD) age 55 (8.0) years) were studied. LTL was 6.95 (0.64) kb and was inversely correlated with age. After adjustment for age, sex, body mass index and smoking, LTL was significantly shorter by 178 bp in subjects with hand osteoarthritis (n = 160) than in those without (n = 926; p = 0.04). LTL was also significantly associated with semicontinuous measures of osteoarthritis (eg, total K/L score, JSN score, osteophyte score and proportion of joints affected) after adjustment (all p⩽0.02) in a dose–response fashion. Conclusion Shorter LTL equivalent to around 11 years of annual loss in normal people is associated with radiographic hand osteoarthritis and disease severity, suggesting potential shared mechanisms between osteoarthritis and ageing, and implicating oxidative

  7. Total Leucocyte Count, C-reactive Protein and Neutrophil Count: Diagnostic Aid in Acute Appendicitis

    PubMed Central

    Shafi, Sheikh Muzamil; Afsheen, Misbha; Reshi, Farooq A.

    2009-01-01

    Background/Aim: Acute appendicitis is one of the most common acute intraabdominal affections seen in surgical departments, which can be treated easily if an accurate diagnosis is made in time. Otherwise, delay in diagnosis and treatment can lead to diffuse peritonitis. Materials and Methods: A study was conducted on 110 patients who were operated for acute appendicitis to determine the role and predictive value of the total leucocyte count (TLC), C-reactive protein (CRP) and percentage of neutrophil count in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Preoperative TLC, CRP and percentage of neutrophil count were determined and were compared with the results of the histopathology of the removed appendix. Results: Of all the patients studied, 92 had histopathologically positive appendicitis. The TLC was found to be significantly high in 90 patients who proved to have acute appendicitis, whereas CRP was high in only 88 patients and neutrophil percentage was raised in 91; four had a normal CRP level. Thus, TLC had a sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of 97.82%, 55.55% and 91.8%, respectively. CRP had a sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of 95.6%, 77.77% and 95.6% respectively. Percentage of neutrophil count had a sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of 98.9%, 38.88% and 89.21%, respectively. When used in combination, there was a marked improvement in the specificity and the positive predictive value to 88.04% and 98.7%, respectively. Conclusion: The inflammatory markers, i.e., TLC, CRP and neutrophil count can be helpful in the diagnosis when measured together as this increases their specificity and positive predictive value. PMID:19568576

  8. Mixing method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Green, Norman W.

    1982-06-15

    Method of mixing particulate materials comprising contacting a primary source and a secondary source thereof whereby resulting mixture ensues; preferably at least one of the two sources has enough motion to insure good mixing and the particulate materials may be heat treated if desired. Apparatus for such mixing comprising an inlet for a primary source, a reactor communicating therewith, a feeding means for supplying a secondary source to the reactor, and an inlet for the secondary source. Feeding means is preferably adapted to supply fluidized materials.

  9. Determinants of Primary School Non-Enrollment and Absenteeism: Results from a Retrospective, Convergent Mixed Methods, Cohort Study in Rural Western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    King, Nia; Dewey, Cate; Borish, David

    2015-01-01

    Background Education is a key element in the socioeconomic development required to improve quality of life in Kenya. Despite the introduction of free primary education, primary school enrollment and attendance levels remain low. Drawing on qualitative and quantitative data, this study explores the determinants of non-enrollment and absenteeism in rural western Kenya and potential mitigation strategies to address these issues. Methods The study was conducted in Bwaliro village in rural western Kenya. A random sample of 64 students was obtained by blocking the village primary school’s student population according to grade level, gender, and orphan status. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected through interviews with parents, guardians, and key informants, and focus group discussions with students. Quantitative data were compared using chi-square tests, Student’s T-test, and Poisson regressions. Qualitative data were analyzed using thematic content analysis. Results Malaria, menstruation, and lack of money were among the most notable determinants of primary school dropout and absenteeism, and these factors disproportionately impacted orphans and female students. Potential mitigation strategies suggested by the community included provision of malaria treatment or prevention, reduction in education costs, expansion of the established school-feeding program, and provision of sanitary pads. Conclusion Despite free primary education, numerous factors continue to prevent children in rural western Kenya from attending primary school. The findings suggest that interventions should primarily target orphaned and female students. Prior to implementation, suggested mitigation strategies should be assessed for cost-effectiveness. PMID:26371885

  10. Detection of DNA strand breaks by comet assay in sputum leucocytes of bitumen-exposed workers: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Marczynski, B; Raulf-Heimsoth, M; Pesch, B; Kendzia, B; Käfferlein, H U; Vosshans, B; Borowitzki, G; Lee, E-H; Bramer, R; Brüning, T

    2010-09-01

    DNA strand breaks were determined in leucocytes of induced sputum (IS) and compared with DNA strand breaks in blood lymphocytes from 42 bitumen-exposed workers pre and post shift. Comet assay results were expressed in arbitrary units based on visual scoring (sputum leucocytes) and Olive tail moment (OTM, blood lymphocytes). DNA damage in IS leucocytes was overall high but did not change during shift. Level of DNA strand breaks in IS samples correlated with total cell count and neutrophil content (Spearman rank correlation coefficient r(s) = 0.47, p = 0.001, r(s)= 0.48, p = 0.001, respectively) and with IL-8 concentration before and after shift (r(s) = 0.31, P = 0.048, and r(s) = 0.43, P = 0.005). DNA damage in IS was not associated with DNA strand breaks in blood lymphocytes (r(s) = -0.04, p = 0.802 before shift, r(s) = 0.27, p = 0.088 after shift). A higher level of DNA strand breaks was measured in blood lymphocytes before shift (median OTM 1.7 before and 1.3 after shift, p = 0.023). A strong correlation was found between the number of neutrophils and IL-8 concentration in IS before and after shift (r(s) = 0.77 and r(s)= 0.75, p < 0.001). This study showed an association between genotoxic and inflammatory effects in the lower airways and compared simultaneously DNA strand breaks in IS and blood of bitumen-exposed workers.

  11. The effects of vitamin A supplementation with measles vaccine on leucocyte counts and in vitro cytokine production.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Kristoffer Jarlov; Fisker, Ane Bærent; Andersen, Andreas; Sartono, Erliyani; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria; Aaby, Peter; Erikstrup, Christian; Benn, Christine Stabell

    2016-02-28

    As WHO recommends vitamin A supplementation (VAS) at vaccination contacts after age 6 months, many children receive VAS together with measles vaccine (MV). We aimed to investigate the immunological effect of VAS given with MV. Within a randomised placebo-controlled trial investigating the effect on overall mortality of providing VAS with vaccines in Guinea-Bissau, we conducted an immunological sub-study of VAS v. placebo with MV, analysing leucocyte counts, whole blood in vitro cytokine production, vitamin A status and concentration of C-reactive protein (CRP). VAS compared with placebo was associated with an increased frequency of CRP ≥ 5 mg/l (28 v. 12%; P=0·005). Six weeks after supplementation, VAS had significant sex-differential effects on leucocyte, lymphocyte, monocyte and basophil cell counts, decreasing them in males but increasing them in females. Mainly in females, the effect of VAS on cytokine responses differed by previous VAS: in previous VAS recipients, VAS increased the pro-inflammatory and T helper cell type 1 (Th1) cytokine responses, whereas VAS decreased these responses in previously unsupplemented children. In previous VAS recipients, VAS was associated with increased IFN-γ responses to phytohaemagglutinin in females (geometric mean ratio (GMR): 3·97; 95% CI 1·44, 10·90) but not in males (GMR 0·44; 95% CI 0·14, 1·42); the opposite was observed in previously unsupplemented children. Our results corroborate that VAS provided with MV has immunological effects, which may depend on sex and previous VAS. VAS may increase the number of leucocytes, but also repress both the innate and lymphocyte-derived cytokine responses in females, whereas this repression may be opposite if the females have previously received VAS.

  12. Influence of inseminate components on porcine leucocyte migration in vitro and in vivo after pre- and post-ovulatory insemination.

    PubMed

    Taylor, U; Schuberth, H J; Rath, D; Michelmann, H W; Sauter-Louis, C; Zerbe, H

    2009-04-01

    A post-breeding migration of leucocytes (PMN) into the uterus is considered to be an important reason for sperm losses. Minimizing such effects may be necessary for successful insemination with low sperm numbers, as required with sex-sorted spermatozoa. We examined the magnitude of PMN influx 3 h after pre- or post-ovulatory insemination with various combinations of seminal plasma (SP), semen extender Androhep (AH; Minitüb, Tiefenbach, Germany) and sperm preparations (S). Pre-ovulatory inseminations with preparations containing 98% AH caused a massive influx of PMN, independent of whether spermatozoa were present (628 +/- 189 x 10(6) leucocytes/uterine horn) or not (580 +/- 153 x 10(6)). Post-ovulatory, 98% AH caused a comparable immigration only in the absence of sperm cells (AH: 569 +/- 198 x 10(6), AH+S: 162 +/- 102 x 10(6)). The presence of SP significantly dampened the numbers of recruited uterine leucocytes. The reaction to all inseminates containing 98% SP both with and without spermatozoa, used before ovulation (SP: 14 +/- 6 x 10(6), SP+S: 73 +/- 27 x 10(6)) and after ovulation (SP: 60 +/- 32 x 10(6), SP+S: 51 +/- 33 x 10(6)) did not differ significantly from controls using phosphate buffered saline (PBS) (pre-ovulatory: 1 +/- 1 x 10(6), post-ovulatory: 11 +/- 9 x 10(6)). Quantitative in vitro transmigration assays with blood-derived PMN proved that AH-induced leucocyte migration into the uterus to be not as a result of direct chemotaxis, because, on account of the chelator citrate, AH significantly inhibited the transmigration towards recombinant human Interleukin-8 (rhCXCL8) (AH: 14 +/- 5% migration rate vs controls: 37 +/- 6%, p < 0.05). Supernatants of spermatozoa incubated in PBS for 1, 12 or 24 h showed neither chemoattractive nor chemotaxis-inhibiting properties. SP at > or =0.1% [v/v] significantly inhibited the in vitro transmigration of PMN. With respect to in vivo migration of neutrophils, the striking difference in the results between semen

  13. Inherited human group IVA cytosolic phospholipase A2 deficiency abolishes platelet, endothelial, and leucocyte eicosanoid generation

    PubMed Central

    Kirkby, Nicholas S.; Reed, Daniel M.; Edin, Matthew L.; Rauzi, Francesca; Mataragka, Stefania; Vojnovic, Ivana; Bishop-Bailey, David; Milne, Ginger L.; Longhurst, Hilary; Zeldin, Darryl C.; Mitchell, Jane A.; Warner, Timothy D.

    2016-01-01

    Eicosanoids are important vascular regulators, but the phospholipase A2 (PLA2) isoforms supporting their production within the cardiovascular system are not fully understood. To address this, we have studied platelets, endothelial cells, and leukocytes from 2 siblings with a homozygous loss-of-function mutation in group IVA cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2α). Chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to determine levels of a broad range of eicosanoids produced by isolated vascular cells, and in plasma and urine. Eicosanoid release data were paired with studies of cellular function. Absence of cPLA2α almost abolished eicosanoid synthesis in platelets (e.g., thromboxane A2, control 20.5 ± 1.4 ng/ml vs. patient 0.1 ng/ml) and leukocytes [e.g., prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), control 21.9 ± 7.4 ng/ml vs. patient 1.9 ng/ml], and this was associated with impaired platelet activation and enhanced inflammatory responses. cPLA2α-deficient endothelial cells showed reduced, but not absent, formation of prostaglandin I2 (prostacyclin; control 956 ± 422 pg/ml vs. patient 196 pg/ml) and were primed for inflammation. In the urine, prostaglandin metabolites were selectively influenced by cPLA2α deficiency. For example, prostacyclin metabolites were strongly reduced (18.4% of control) in patients lacking cPLA2α, whereas PGE2 metabolites (77.8% of control) were similar to healthy volunteer levels. These studies constitute a definitive account, demonstrating the fundamental role of cPLA2α to eicosanoid formation and cellular responses within the human circulation.—Kirkby, N. S., Reed, D. M., Edin, M. L., Rauzi, F., Mataragka, S., Vojnovic, I., Bishop-Bailey, D., Milne, G. L., Longhurst, H., Zeldin, D. C., Mitchell, J. A., Warner, T. D. Inherited human group IVA cytosolic phospholipase A2 deficiency abolishes platelet, endothelial, and leucocyte eicosanoid generation. PMID:26183771

  14. JC Polyomavirus Infection Is Strongly Controlled by Human Leucocyte Antigen Class II Variants

    PubMed Central

    Sundqvist, Emilie; Buck, Dorothea; Warnke, Clemens; Albrecht, Eva; Gieger, Christian; Khademi, Mohsen; Lima Bomfim, Izaura; Fogdell-Hahn, Anna; Link, Jenny; Alfredsson, Lars; Søndergaard, Helle Bach; Hillert, Jan; Oturai, Annette B.; Hemme, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    JC polyomavirus (JCV) carriers with a compromised immune system, such as in HIV, or subjects on immune-modulating therapies, such as anti VLA-4 therapy may develop progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) which is a lytic infection of oligodendrocytes in the brain. Serum antibodies to JCV mark infection occur only in 50–60% of infected individuals, and high JCV-antibody titers seem to increase the risk of developing PML. We here investigated the role of human leukocyte antigen (HLA), instrumental in immune defense in JCV antibody response. Anti-JCV antibody status, as a surrogate for JCV infection, were compared to HLA class I and II alleles in 1621 Scandinavian persons with MS and 1064 population-based Swedish controls and associations were replicated in 718 German persons with MS. HLA-alleles were determined by SNP imputation, sequence specific (SSP) kits and a reverse PCR sequence-specific oligonucleotide (PCR-SSO) method. An initial GWAS screen displayed a strong HLA class II region signal. The HLA-DRB1*15 haplotype was strongly negatively associated to JCV sero-status in Scandinavian MS cases (OR = 0.42, p = 7×10−15) and controls (OR = 0.53, p = 2×10−5). In contrast, the DQB1*06:03 haplotype was positively associated with JCV sero-status, in Scandinavian MS cases (OR = 1.63, p = 0.006), and controls (OR = 2.69, p = 1×10−5). The German dataset confirmed these findings (OR = 0.54, p = 1×10−4 and OR = 1.58, p = 0.03 respectively for these haplotypes). HLA class II restricted immune responses, and hence CD4+ T cell immunity is pivotal for JCV infection control. Alleles within the HLA-DR1*15 haplotype are associated with a protective effect on JCV infection. Alleles within the DQB1*06:03 haplotype show an opposite association. These associations between JC virus antibody response and human leucocyte antigens supports the notion that CD4+ T cells are crucial in the immune defence to JCV and lays

  15. Biodistribution of canine leucocytes labelled with technetium-99m stannous fluoride colloid in whole blood and their ability to localise to sites of induced inflammation.

    PubMed

    Abushhiwa, Mohamed H; Salehi, Nouria S; Lichtenstein, Meir; Lording, Peter M; Finnin, Peter J; Whitton, Robert C; Charles, Jennifer A; Parry, Bruce W

    2010-08-01

    This study assessed the biodistribution of autologous leucocytes radiolabelled with technetium-99m stannous fluoride colloid (99mTcSnC) for detection of foci of induced inflammation in dogs. Venous blood was collected from seven healthy dogs and incubated with 99mTcSnC for 1h at room temperature. Radiolabelled samples were injected intravenously (IV) and the dogs were scanned using a gamma camera. Another seven healthy dogs were injected intradermally with tumour necrosis factor alpha and then IV with 99mTcSnC radiolabelled autologous blood 3h later before being scanned. The radiolabelled leucocytes localised to sites of inflammation by 30 min post-injection. IV injection of autologous leucocytes radiolabelled with 99mTcSnC appears to be a sensitive method for localisation of induced foci of inflammation in dogs.

  16. The Effect of Process Oriented Writing Activities on the Achievement and Attitude of the Preservice Primary School Teachers: An Example of Mixed Method Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özenç, Emine Gül

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to find out whether process oriented writing exercises/activities have any effect on the achievement and attitude of preservice teachers as well as to set forth the opinions of primary preservice teachers on process oriented writing approach. In the research one classroom was designated as experimental group (N = 35)…

  17. Harmonization of light scatter and fluorescence flow cytometry profiles obtained after staining peripheral blood leucocytes for cell surface-only versus intracellular antigens with the Fix & Perm reagent.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Elaine Sobral; Peres, Rodrigo Tosta; Almeida, Julia; Lécrevisse, Quentin; Arroyo, María Elena; Teodósio, Cristina; Pedreira, Carlos Eduardo; van Dongen, Jacques J M; Orfao, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    Staining for intracellular markers with the Fix & Perm reagent is associated with variations in the scatter properties of leucocytes, limiting automated analysis of flow cytometry (FCM) data. Here, we investigated those variables significantly contributing to changes in the light scatter, autofluorescence, and bcl2 staining characteristics of peripheral blood (PB) leucocytes, after fixation with Fix & Perm. Our major aim was to evaluate a new mathematical approach for automated harmonization of FCM data from datafiles corresponding to aliquots of a sample treated with cell-surface-only versus Fix & Perm intracellular staining techniques. Overall, neither the anticoagulant used nor sample storage for <24 h showed significant impact on the light scatter and fluorescence properties of PB leucocytes; similarly, the duration of the fixation period (once >15 min were used) had a minimum impact on the FCM properties of PB leucocytes. Conversely, changes in cell/protein concentrations and the fixative/sample (vol/vol) ratio had a clear impact on the light scatter features of some populations of leucocytes. Accordingly, lower cell/protein concentrations were associated with lower scatter values, particularly for the neutrophils. Such changes could be partially corrected through the use of higher fixative to sample volume ratios. Despite the variable changes detected between aliquots of the same sample treated with cell surface-only versus intracellular staining procedures, the new mathematical approach here proposed and evaluated for automated harmonization of common parameters in both datafiles, could correct the FCM profiles of leucocytes derived from cells undergoing conventional fixation/permeabilization procedures, and made them indistinguishable from those corresponding to aliquots of the same sample treated with cell-surface-only staining techniques.

  18. In vitro effects of metals on isolated head-kidney and blood leucocytes of the teleost fish Sparus aurata L. and Dicentrarchus labrax L.

    PubMed

    Morcillo, Patricia; Meseguer, José; Esteban, M Ángeles; Cuesta, Alberto

    2016-07-01

    The in vitro use of fish leucocytes to test the toxicity of aquatic pollutants, and particularly the immutoxicological effects, could be a valuable alternative to fish bioassays but has received little attention. In this study, head-kidney and peripheral blood leucocytes (HKLs and PBLs, respectively) from gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.) and European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) specimens were exposed to Cd, MeHg (methylmercury), Pb or As for 24 h being evaluated the resulting cytotoxicity. Exposure to metals produced a dose-dependent reduction in the viability, and MeHg showed the highest toxicity followed by Cd, As and Pb. Interestingly, leucocytes from European sea bass are more resistant to metal exposure than those from gilthead seabream. Similarly, HKLs are always more sensitive than those isolated from blood from the same fish species. Moreover, fish leucocytes incubated with metals exhibited alterations in gene expression profiles that were more pronounced in the HKLs in general, being Pb the metal provoking less effects. Concretely, genes related to cellular protection (metallothionein), stress (heat shock protein 70) and oxidative stress (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione reductase) were, in general, down-regulated in seabream HKLs but up-regulated in seabream PBLs and sea bass HKLs and PBLs. In addition, this profile leads to the increase of expression in genes related to apoptosis (Bcl2 associated X protein and caspase 3). Finally, transcription of genes involved in immunity (interleukin-1β and immunoglobulin M) was down-regulated, mainly in seabream leucocytes. This study points to the benefits for evaluating the toxicological mechanisms of marine pollution using fish leucocytes in vitro and insight into the mechanisms at gene level.

  19. Suppression of polymorphonuclear leucocyte chemotaxis by Pseudomonas aeruginosa elastase in vitro: a study of the mechanisms and the correlation with ring abscess in pseudomonal keratitis.

    PubMed Central

    Ijiri, Y.; Matsumoto, K.; Kamata, R.; Nishino, N.; Okamura, R.; Kambara, T.; Yamamoto, T.

    1994-01-01

    Bacteria, or the culture supernatants of an elastase non-producing strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, elicited a chemotactic response from polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMN) in vitro. The chemoattractive capacity was diminished under the presence of Boc-Phe-Leu-Phe-Leu-Phe, a receptor antagonist of N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLP) which is a bacterial chemotactic peptide to PMN. This indicated that the chemoattractant derived from Pseudomonas aeruginosa was a fMLP-like molecule(s). In contrast, culture supernatants of an elastase producing strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa produced negligible chemotactic response from PMN. Indeed, an inhibitory effect of the culture supernatants or of purified Pseudomonas aeruginosa elastase (PAE) on PMN chemotaxis was observed when fMLP was used as a chemoattractant. Another fMLP-induced function of PMN, respiratory burst activation, was also diminished by pretreatment of PMN with PAE. PAE hydrolysed fMLP at the Met-Leu bond and diminished the chemoattractant capacity. In addition, a receptor analysis with fML-3H-P demonstrated a decrease in numbers of fMLP receptors on PMN without changing the dissociation constant values after the treatment of the cells with PAE. In the primary structure of the fMLP receptor previously reported, a preferential amino acid sequence for cleavage by PAE was identified in what was believed to be an extracellular portion of the receptor molecule. These results suggested that PAE could diminish PMN infiltration in response to Pseudomonas aeruginosa in vivo by cleavage of the fMLP-like pseudomonal chemotactic ligand and the receptors on PMN. Images Figure 4 PMID:7734333

  20. A Melanoma Lymph Node Metastasis with a Donor-Patient Hybrid Genome following Bone Marrow Transplantation: A Second Case of Leucocyte-Tumor Cell Hybridization in Cancer Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Duvall, Eric; Grasmick, Zachary; Haedicke, Kay

    2017-01-01

    Background Metastatic disease is the principal cause of mortality in cancer, yet the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Macrophage-cancer cell fusion as a cause of metastasis was proposed more than a century ago by German pathologist Prof. Otto Aichel. Since then this theory has been confirmed in numerous animal studies and recently in a patient with metastatic melanoma. Methods Here we analyzed tumor DNA from a 51-year-old man who, 8 years following an allogeneic BMT from his brother for treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), developed a nodular malignant melanoma on the upper back with spread to an axillary sentinal lymph node. We used laser microdissection to isolate FFPE tumor cells free of leucocytes. They were genotyped using forensic short tandem repeat (STR) length-polymorphisms to distinguish donor and patient genomes. Tumor and pre-transplant blood lymphocyte DNAs were analyzed for donor and patient alleles at 15 autosomal STR loci and the sex chromosomes. Results DNA analysis of the primary melanoma and the nodal metastasis exhibit alleles at each STR locus that are consistent with both the patient and donor. The doses vary between these samples indicative of the relative amounts of genomic DNA derived from the patient and donor. Conclusion The evidence supports fusion and hybridization between donor and patient cells as the initiator of metastasis in this patient. That this phenomenon has now been seen in a second case suggests that fusion is likely to play a significant role for melanoma and other solid tumor metastasis, perhaps leading to new avenues of treatment for this most problematic disease. PMID:28146572

  1. Chemokines, chemokine receptors and adhesion molecules on different human endothelia: discriminating the tissue-specific functions that affect leucocyte migration

    PubMed Central

    HILLYER, P; MORDELET, E; FLYNN, G; MALE, D

    2003-01-01

    The selective accumulation of different leucocyte populations during inflammation is regulated by adhesion molecules and chemokines expressed by vascular endothelium. This study examined how chemokine production and the expression of adhesion molecules and chemokine receptors vary between endothelia from different vascular beds. Human saphenous vein endothelium was compared with lung and dermal microvascular endothelia and with umbilical vein endothelium and a bone-marrow endothelial cell line. All endothelia produced CCL2 and CXCL8 constitutively, whereas CXCL10 and CCL5 were only secreted after tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α or interferon (IFN)-γ stimulation. In combination with TNF-α, IFN-γ suppressed CXCL8 but enhanced CCL5 and CXCL10, whereas transforming growth factor (TGF)-β reduced secretion of all chemokines. Basal chemokine secretion was higher from umbilical vein than other endothelial cells. Chemokine receptors, CXCR1, CXCR3 and CCR3, were present on all endothelia but highest on saphenous vein. CCR4, CCR5, CCR6, CXCR2, CXCR4 and CXCR5 were also detected at variable levels on different endothelia. The variation between endothelia in chemokine secretion was much greater than the variations in adhesion molecules, both on resting cells and following cytokine stimulation. These results indicate that it is the tissue-specific variations in endothelial chemokine secretion rather than variations in adhesion molecules that can explain the different patterns of inflammation and leucocyte traffic seen in non-lymphoid tissues. PMID:14632748

  2. Effect of glucose intake on human leucocyte /sup 86/Rb influx and (/sup 3/H)-ouabain binding

    SciTech Connect

    Turaihi, K.; Baron, D.N.; Dandona, P.

    1988-02-01

    /sup 86/Rb influx and (/sup 3/H) ouabain binding by human leucocytes were measured in eight normal nonobese fasting subjects before and after a challenge with 75 g glucose orally. The mean ouabain-sensitive /sup 86/Rb influx increased significantly from 194 to 283 mmol/kg protein/h (P less than .01), and (/sup 3/H)-ouabain binding increased from 236 to 403 fmol/mg protein. The mean plasma potassium concentration fell from 4.2 to 3.9 mmol/L (P less than .05). Following intravenous glucose infusion, the median /sup 86/Rb transport increased from 186 to 267 mmol/kg protein/h, while median plasma potassium concentration fell from 4.3 to 3.9 mmol/L. Therefore, glucose intake acutely increases Na-K ATPase units, stimulates potassium (Rb) transport, and causes a concomitant fall in plasma potassium concentrations. Nutritional intake is probably an important determinant of Na-K ATPase units and activity in the human leucocyte.

  3. A FIRE-ACE/SHEBA Case Study of Mixed-Phase Arctic Boundary Layer Clouds: Entrainment Rate Limitations on Rapid Primary Ice Nucleation Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fridlin, Ann; vanDiedenhoven, Bastiaan; Ackerman, Andrew S.; Avramov, Alexander; Mrowiec, Agnieszka; Morrison, Hugh; Zuidema, Paquita; Shupe, Matthew D.

    2012-01-01

    Observations of long-lived mixed-phase Arctic boundary layer clouds on 7 May 1998 during the First International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) Regional Experiment (FIRE)Arctic Cloud Experiment (ACE)Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean (SHEBA) campaign provide a unique opportunity to test understanding of cloud ice formation. Under the microphysically simple conditions observed (apparently negligible ice aggregation, sublimation, and multiplication), the only expected source of new ice crystals is activation of heterogeneous ice nuclei (IN) and the only sink is sedimentation. Large-eddy simulations with size-resolved microphysics are initialized with IN number concentration N(sub IN) measured above cloud top, but details of IN activation behavior are unknown. If activated rapidly (in deposition, condensation, or immersion modes), as commonly assumed, IN are depleted from the well-mixed boundary layer within minutes. Quasi-equilibrium ice number concentration N(sub i) is then limited to a small fraction of overlying N(sub IN) that is determined by the cloud-top entrainment rate w(sub e) divided by the number-weighted ice fall speed at the surface v(sub f). Because w(sub c)< 1 cm/s and v(sub f)> 10 cm/s, N(sub i)/N(sub IN)<< 1. Such conditions may be common for this cloud type, which has implications for modeling IN diagnostically, interpreting measurements, and quantifying sensitivity to increasing N(sub IN) (when w(sub e)/v(sub f)< 1, entrainment rate limitations serve to buffer cloud system response). To reproduce observed ice crystal size distributions and cloud radar reflectivities with rapidly consumed IN in this case, the measured above-cloud N(sub IN) must be multiplied by approximately 30. However, results are sensitive to assumed ice crystal properties not constrained by measurements. In addition, simulations do not reproduce the pronounced mesoscale heterogeneity in radar reflectivity that is observed.

  4. Human leucocyte antigen class I‐redirected anti‐tumour CD4+ T cells require a higher T cell receptor binding affinity for optimal activity than CD8+ T cells

    PubMed Central

    Tan, M. P.; Dolton, G. M.; Gerry, A. B.; Brewer, J. E.; Bennett, A. D.; Pumphrey, N. J.; Jakobsen, B. K.

    2016-01-01

    Summary CD4+ T helper cells are a valuable component of the immune response towards cancer. Unfortunately, natural tumour‐specific CD4+ T cells occur in low frequency, express relatively low‐affinity T cell receptors (TCRs) and show poor reactivity towards cognate antigen. In addition, the lack of human leucocyte antigen (HLA) class II expression on most cancers dictates that these cells are often unable to respond to tumour cells directly. These deficiencies can be overcome by transducing primary CD4+ T cells with tumour‐specific HLA class I‐restricted TCRs prior to adoptive transfer. The lack of help from the co‐receptor CD8 glycoprotein in CD4+ cells might result in these cells requiring a different optimal TCR binding affinity. Here we compared primary CD4+ and CD8+ T cells expressing wild‐type and a range of affinity‐enhanced TCRs specific for the HLA A*0201‐restricted NY‐ESO‐1‐ and gp100 tumour antigens. Our major findings are: (i) redirected primary CD4+ T cells expressing TCRs of sufficiently high affinity exhibit a wide range of effector functions, including cytotoxicity, in response to cognate peptide; and (ii) optimal TCR binding affinity is higher in CD4+ T cells than CD8+ T cells. These results indicate that the CD4+ T cell component of current adoptive therapies using TCRs optimized for CD8+ T cells is below par and that there is room for substantial improvement. PMID:27324616

  5. Modulating phenotype and cytokine production of leucocytic retinal infiltrate in experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis following intranasal tolerance induction with retinal antigens

    PubMed Central

    Laliotou, B.; Dick, A.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIM—Nasal administration of retinal antigens induces systemic tolerance which results in suppression of experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis (EAU) when subsequently exposed to antigen. The aim was to establish if tolerance induction alters retinal infiltrating leucocyte phenotype and cytokine profile in tolerised animals when there is significantly reduced tissue destruction despite immunisation with retinal antigen.
METHODS—Female Lewis rats were tolerised by intranasal administration with retinal extract (RE) before immunisation with RE to induce EAU. Control animals were administered phosphate buffered saline (PBS) intranasally. Post immunisation, daily clinical responses were recorded and at the height of disease, retinas were removed and either infiltrating leucocytes isolated for flow cytometric phenotype assessment and intracellular cytokine production, or chorioretina processed for immunohistochemistry. Fellow eyes were assessed for cytokine mRNA by semiquantitative RT-PCR.
RESULTS—Flow cytometric analysis showed that before clinical onset of EAU there is no evidence of macrophage infiltration and no significant difference in circulating T cell populations within the retina. By day 14 a reduced retinal infiltrate in tolerised animals was observed and in particular a reduction in numbers of "activated" (with respect to CD4 and MHC class II expression) macrophages. Immunohistochemistry confirmed these findings and additionally minimal rod outer segment destruction was observed histologically. Cytokine analysis revealed that both IL-10 mRNA and intracellular IL-10 production was increased in tolerised eyes 7 days post immunisation. Although by day 14 post immunisation, IL-10 production was equivalent in both groups, a reduced percentage of IFN-γ+ macrophages and IFN-γ+ CD4+ T cells with increased percentage of IL-4+ CD4+ T cells were observed in tolerised animals.
CONCLUSIONS—Leucocytic infiltrate is not only reduced in number

  6. An analysis of myeloma plasma cell phenotype using antibodies defined at the IIIrd International Workshop on Human Leucocyte Differentiation Antigens.

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, N; Ling, N R; Ball, J; Bromidge, E; Nathan, P D; Franklin, I M

    1988-01-01

    Fresh bone marrow from 43 cases of myeloma and three cases of plasma cell leukaemia has been phenotyped both by indirect immune-rosetting and, on fixed cytospin preparations, by indirect immunofluorescence. Both clustered and unclustered B cell associated antibodies from the IIIrd International Workshop on Human Leucocyte Differentiation Antigens were used. The results confirm the lack of many pan-B antigens on the surface of myeloma plasma cells, i.e. CD19-23, 37, 39, w40. Strong surface reactivity is seen with CD38 antibodies and with one CD24 antibody (HB8). Weak reactions are sometimes obtained with CD9, 10 and 45R. On cytospin preparations CD37, 39 and w40 are sometimes weakly positive, and anti-rough endoplasmic reticulum antibodies are always strongly positive. Specific and surface-reacting antiplasma cell antibodies are still lacking. PMID:3048803

  7. Deleterious effect of Brij 35 on alkyl 2-pyrones and other hydrophobic inhibitors of human sputum and leucocyte elastase.

    PubMed

    Cook, L; Ternai, B

    1988-10-01

    Brij 35 significantly reduced the inhibitory activity of hydrophobic alkyl 2-pyrones, oleic acid and alkyl peptides towards human sputum and leucocyte elastase, whereas 4-methoxy-6-(2'-hydroxy-2'-(carbobutyloxy)-vinyl)-2-pyrone, alpha-1-proteinase inhibitor and a sulfated chitosan were unaffected. The effect of Brij 35 on elastase appeared to be irreversible, since dialysis against Brij-free buffer was not accompanied by a return to inhibitory activity by the first group of inhibitors. However, passage through an ionic-exchange column was effective in removing the detergent from the enzyme. Brij 35 is also an activator of the elastases: kcat for Boc-Ala-4-nitrophenyl ester and methylsuccinyl-Ala-Ala-Pro-Val-4-nitroanilide increased by 20% and 40%, respectively in the presence of 0.015% Brij 35. Binding of the substrates to the enzyme is unaffected, since Km is unchanged.

  8. Cytometric analysis of surface molecules of leucocytes and phagocytic activity of granulocytes and monocytes/macrophages in cows with pyometra.

    PubMed

    Brodzki, P; Kostro, K; Brodzki, A; Niemczuk, K; Lisiecka, U

    2014-10-01

    Pyometra is a serious problem in dairy cow herds, causing large economic losses due to infertility. The development of pyometra depends mainly on the immunological status of the cow. The aim of the study was a comparative evaluation of selected indicators involving non-specific and specific immunity in cows with pyometra and in cows without inflammation of the uterus. The study was performed in 20 cows, which were divided into two groups: pyometra group and healthy group, each comprising 10 cows, based on the results of cytological and ultrasonographic tests. A flow cytometric analysis was performed for the surface molecules CD4, CD8, CD14, CD21, CD25 and CD4(+) CD25(+) on leucocytes, and the phagocytic activity was determined from granulocytes and monocytes/macrophages in the peripheral blood and uterine washings, respectively. It was demonstrated that the percentage of phagocytic granulocytes and monocytes/macrophages in both the peripheral blood and uterine washings was significantly lower in cows with pyometra compared with the healthy group (p < 0.001). Significantly (p ≤ 0.001) lower percentage of CD4(+) , CD14(+) , CD25(+) and CD4(+) CD25(+) phenotype leucocytes was also observed in the peripheral blood of cows from the pyometra group, along with a significantly higher (p < 0.001) percentage of CD8(+) and CD21(+) lymphocytes as compared to the healthy group. The results of work indicate that disfunction of cell immunity coexisting with pyometra may be caused by a bacterial infection and the presence of blocking agents (IL-10), released by the increasing number of CD8(+) lymphocytes what leads to the advanced inflammation of uterus.

  9. Effect of vegetable consumption on the association between peripheral leucocyte telomere length and hypertension: a case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Lian, Fuzhi; Wang, Jinquan; Huang, Xianhong; Wu, Yinyin; Cao, Yifei; Tan, Xiaohua; Xu, Xianrong; Hong, Yu; Yang, Lei; Gao, Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Peripheral leucocyte telomere length has been suggested to be inversely associated with hypertension risk. Both telomere length and hypertension risk can be modified by certain dietary factors, such as fruit and vegetables. This study was to examine the potential effect of these dietary factors on the association between telomere length and hypertension risk. Study design A community-based case–control study. Participants 271 hypertensive patients and 455 normotensive controls aged 40–70 years and living in Yinzhou, Zhejiang Province, China. Outcome measures Peripheral leucocyte relative telomere length (RTL) was measured using quantitative real-time PCR. Dietary intake was assessed by a brief semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. The association between RTL and hypertension risk was analysed using logistic regression, and the modulatory effect of dietary intake on RTL-related hypertension risk was analysed using likelihood ratio tests. Results Among controls, longer age-adjusted RTL was associated with higher vegetable intake (p=0.01). Individuals with longer age-adjusted RTL (based on median value) were 30% less likely to have hypertension (OR=0.70, 95% CI 0.52 to 0.96; p=0.03). The observed RTL-hypertension relationship appeared to be modified by vegetable intake—longer RTL was significantly associated with lower hypertension risk only in those with greater vegetable consumption (OR=0.28, 95% CI 0.14 to 0.57; p<0.001), but not in those with lower vegetable intake (P-interaction=0.008). Conclusions Certain dietary factors might modify telomere-related hypertension risk. PMID:26560064

  10. User Manuals for a Primary Care Electronic Medical Record System: A Mixed Methods Study of User- and Vendor-Generated Documents

    PubMed Central

    Dow, Rustam; Barnsley, Jan; Tu, Karen; Domb, Sharon; Jadad, Alejandro R.; Lemieux-Charles, Louise

    2015-01-01

    Research problem Tutorials and user manuals are important forms of impersonal support for using software applications including electronic medical records (EMRs). Differences between user- and vendor documentation may indicate support needs, which are not sufficiently addressed by the official documentation, and reveal new elements that may inform the design of tutorials and user manuals. Research question What are the differences between user-generated tutorials and manuals for an EMR and the official user manual from the software vendor? Literature review Effective design of tutorials and user manuals requires careful packaging of information, balance between declarative and procedural texts, an action and task-oriented approach, support for error recognition and recovery, and effective use of visual elements. No previous research compared these elements between formal and informal documents. Methodology We conducted an mixed methods study. Seven tutorials and two manuals for an EMR were collected from three family health teams and compared with the official user manual from the software vendor. Documents were qualitatively analyzed using a framework analysis approach in relation to the principles of technical documentation described above. Subsets of the data were quantitatively analyzed using cross-tabulation to compare the types of error information and visual cues in screen captures between user- and vendor-generated manuals. Results and discussion The user-developed tutorials and manuals differed from the vendor-developed manual in that they contained mostly procedural and not declarative information; were customized to the specific workflow, user roles, and patient characteristics; contained more error information related to work processes than to software usage; and used explicit visual cues on screen captures to help users identify window elements. These findings imply that to support EMR implementation, tutorials and manuals need to be customized and

  11. The costs of training a nurse practitioner in primary care: the importance of allowing for the cost of education and training when making decisions about changing the professional-mix.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Lesley; Netten, Ann

    2007-05-01

    What is already known on this topic * Cost containment through the most effective mix of staff achievable within available resources and organisational priorities is of increasing importance in most health systems. However, there is a dearth of information about the full economic implications of changing skill mix. * In the UK a major shift in the primary care workforce is likely in response to the rapidly developing role of nurse practitioners and policies aimed to encourage GP practices to transfer some of their responsibilities to other, less costly, professionals. * Previous research has developed an approach to incorporating the costs of qualifications, and thus the investment required to develop a skilled workforce, for a variety of health service professionals including GPs. What this study adds * This paper describes a methodology of costing nurse practitioners that incorporates the human capital cost implications of developing a skilled nurse practitioner workforce. With appropriate sources of data the method could be adapted for use internationally. * Including the full cost of qualifications results in nearly a 24 per cent increase in the unit cost of a Nurse Practitioner. * Allowing for all investment costs and adjusting for length of consultation, the cost of a GP consultation was nearly 60 per cent higher than that of a Nurse Practitioner.

  12. Mixed cryoglobulinemia

    PubMed Central

    Ferri, Clodoveo

    2008-01-01

    Mixed cryoglobulinemia (MC), type II and type III, refers to the presence of circulating cryoprecipitable immune complexes in the serum and manifests clinically by a classical triad of purpura, weakness and arthralgias. It is considered to be a rare disorder, but its true prevalence remains unknown. The disease is more common in Southern Europe than in Northern Europe or Northern America. The prevalence of 'essential' MC is reported as approximately 1:100,000 (with a female-to-male ratio 3:1), but this term is now used to refer to a minority of MC patients only. MC is characterized by variable organ involvement including skin lesions (orthostatic purpura, ulcers), chronic hepatitis, membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, peripheral neuropathy, diffuse vasculitis, and, less frequently, interstitial lung involvement and endocrine disorders. Some patients may develop lymphatic and hepatic malignancies, usually as a late complication. MC may be associated with numerous infectious or immunological diseases. When isolated, MC may represent a distinct disease, the so-called 'essential' MC. The etiopathogenesis of MC is not completely understood. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is suggested to play a causative role, with the contribution of genetic and/or environmental factors. Moreover, MC may be associated with other infectious agents or immunological disorders, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection or primary Sjögren's syndrome. Diagnosis is based on clinical and laboratory findings. Circulating mixed cryoglobulins, low C4 levels and orthostatic skin purpura are the hallmarks of the disease. Leukocytoclastic vasculitis involving medium- and, more often, small-sized blood vessels is the typical pathological finding, easily detectable by means of skin biopsy of recent vasculitic lesions. Differential diagnoses include a wide range of systemic, infectious and neoplastic disorders, mainly autoimmune hepatitis, Sjögren's syndrome, polyarthritis, and B

  13. Flow cytometry detection of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) within subpopulations of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) leucocytes after vaccination and during the time course of experimental infection.

    PubMed

    Rønneseth, Anita; Haugland, Gyri Teien; Wergeland, Heidrun I

    2013-05-01

    In the present study, intracellular infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) in salmon leucocytes was detected by flow cytometry after experimental cohabitant challenge. IPNV vaccinated, non-vaccinated and intraperitoneally (i.p.) infected salmon (virus shedders) were analysed at different times throughout the period when mortality occurred. Fish that had survived 61 days post challenge (carriers) were also analysed. In particular, we analysed the presence of IPNV in B-cells (C7G7+cells) and in neutrophils (E3D9+ cells) in head kidney leucocytes (HKL) and in peripheral blood leucocytes (PBL). IPNV was present in HKL and PBL from all challenged fish groups at all samplings, including carriers. IPNV was also found intracellular in other leucocytes than B-cells and neutrophils. During the time course of infection there were changes in proportion of B-cells and neutrophils and in proportions of IPNV+ cells. In vaccinated fish, a delay in the changes observed in the proportion of IPNV+ cells and in the proportions of the two subpopulations was identified. The vaccinated fish were protected against disease as no fish died compared to 30.8% of non-vaccinated cohabitant fish. All i.p. infected fish, except one, survived the challenge. This is consistent with previous studies and confirmed that the routes of infection can influence mortality. The analyses in this study could not identify any factors enlightening this absence of mortality in i.p. infected fish, but both flow cytometry and qRT-PCR showed that i.p. infected fish were carriers of IPNV. The present study also found that IPNV was present in both B-cells and neutrophils as well as in other leucocytes in all carriers after cohabitant challenge. These fish had survived 9 weeks post challenge and 4 weeks after mortality has ceased. The fish harbouring virus within their leucocytes might become life long carriers and represent a risk for disease outbreaks, being virus shedders. Such fish are protected from later

  14. Normal platelet function in platelet concentrates requires non-platelet cells: a comparative in vitro evaluation of leucocyte-rich (type 1a) and leucocyte-poor (type 3b) platelet concentrates

    PubMed Central

    Parrish, William R; Roides, Breana; Hwang, Julia; Mafilios, Michael; Story, Brooks; Bhattacharyya, Samir

    2016-01-01

    Background Therapeutic success of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) may vary based on the composition and preparation method. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cellular components of platelet concentrates produced by a leucocyte-rich (LR-PRP) and a leucocyte-poor PRP systems (LP-PRP). Methods Parameters evaluated included platelet recovery, platelet concentration, red blood cell (RBC) and white blood cell (WBC) composition, platelet growth factor release and stimulation of human tendon cell proliferation in vitro. Results Platelet recoveries were 52% for LP-PRP and 89% for LR-PRP. LR-PRP demonstrated greater reproducibility with a 4.2% coefficient of variation (CV) compared with 19.4% for LP-PRP (p<0.001). LR-PRP demonstrated a greater increase in platelet concentration (7.9-fold) than LP-PRP (2.2-fold; p<0.001). LP-PRP showed 5.0-fold reductions in WBCs, while LR-PRP showed a 4.0-fold increase (p<0.001). LP-PRP reduced RBCs to a haematocrit of 0.25, while LR-PRP reduced haematocrit to 11.8. LP-PRP did not coagulate robustly on reactivation with CaCl2, and released significantly lower levels of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) than whole blood (p<0.03). LP-PRP also did not stimulate tendon cell proliferation greater than whole blood. In contrast, LR-PRP showed increases in each growth factor on activation with CaCl2 (p<0.01) and stimulated greater proliferation (p<0.05) compared with whole blood. Forced activation of LP-PRP with exogenous thrombin rescued the coagulation deficiency and induced greater growth factor release than comparable whole blood (p<0.03). Conclusions These data suggest that non-platelet cellular components in platelet concentrates are important for proper platelet function, including thrombin generation, growth factor release and clot retraction. PMID:27900155

  15. Markers of endothelial dysfunction and leucocyte activation in Saudi and non-Saudi haplotypes of sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Al Najjar, Salwa; Adam, Soheir; Ahmed, Nessar; Qari, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an autosomal recessive inherited hemoglobinopathy, characterized by chronic hemolysis and recurrent vaso-occlusive crisis (VOC). This study investigates changes in leucocyte subsets and the relationship between cell adhesion molecule expression and disease manifestations in patients during steady state and acute VOC. We compared soluble E-selectin and P-selectin levels in 84 SCD patients, in steady state and during VOC to 84 healthy controls. Using immunophenotyping, we also compared lymphocyte subsets in these three groups. Further, we compared E-selectin and P-selectin levels in patients of Saudi ethnicity to non-Saudi patients, in all three groups. Lymphocyte subsets showed high percentages of total T lymphocytes, T helper and suppressor lymphocytes, B lymphocytes as well as NK cells in patients with SCD during steady state, while B lymphocytes and NK cells were significantly higher during acute VOC crisis. High levels of both soluble E-selectin (sE-selectin) and soluble P-selectin (sP-selectin) markers were demonstrated in the serum of patients with SCD during both steady state and acute VOC. Levels of selectins were significantly higher in acute VOC. The immunophenotypic expression of L-selectin, on leucocytes, was high in SCD both during steady state and during acute VOC in comparison to normal control subjects. There was no significant difference in all three study groups between Saudi and non-Saudi patients. These findings suggest that patients with SCD have increased expression of adhesion molecules: E-selectin and P-selectin, which play an important role in the pathogenesis of VOC. Despite the distinct phenotype of Saudi patients with SCD, there was no significant difference in levels of soluble E-selectin and soluble P-selectin between Saudi and non-Saudi patients in all three groups. While sickle cell disease is a well-recognized state of chronic inflammation, the role of specific adhesion molecules is steadily unraveling

  16. In vitro effects of prostaglandin E2 on leucocytes from sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) infected and not infected with the cestode Schistocephalus solidus.

    PubMed

    Kutyrev, Ivan A; Franke, Frederik; Büscher, Janine; Kurtz, Joachim; Scharsack, Jörn P

    2014-12-01

    Many helminth parasites have evolved strategies to evade the immune response of their hosts, which includes immunomodulation. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is one of the best-described immunomodulators in mammalian helminth parasite infections. We hypothesized that also in teleost fish anti-helminthic immune responses are regulated via PGE2. We used a model system consisting of the tapeworm Schistocephalus solidus and its host, the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus), to investigate in vitro effects of PGE2 on head kidney leucocytes (HKL) derived from sticklebacks that were experimentally infected with S. solidus. PGE2 was tested alone or in combination with either S. solidus antigens or bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS). After in vitro culture, cell viability and changes in leucocyte subpopulations (granulocytes to lymphocytes ratios) were monitored by flow cytometry and HKL were tested for their capacity to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) with a chemiluminescence assay. In short term (2 h) HKL cultures PGE2 did not change the total numbers of live HKL, but the production of ROS decreased significantly with high (0.1 μmol L(-1)) PGE2 concentrations. In long-term (96 h) cultures high PGE2 concentrations induced a sharp decrease of leucocytes viability, while low (0.1 pmol L(-1)) and intermediate (0.1 nmol L(-1)) concentrations of PGE2 caused elevated leucocyte viability compared to controls. This coincided with reduced ROS production in cultures with high PGE2 and elevated ROS production in cultures with low PGE2. Granulocyte to lymphocyte ratios increased with high PGE2 concentrations alone and in combination with S. solidus antigens and LPS, most prominently with HKL from S. solidus infected sticklebacks. The present study supports the hypothesis that PGE2 might be an immunomodulator in tapeworm-fish parasite-host interactions.

  17. The Potent Humanin Analogue (HNG) Protects Germ Cells and Leucocytes While Enhancing Chemotherapy-Induced Suppression of Cancer Metastases in Male Mice.

    PubMed

    Lue, YanHe; Swerdloff, Ronald; Wan, Junxiang; Xiao, Jialin; French, Samuel; Atienza, Vince; Canela, Victor; Bruhn, Kevin W; Stone, Brian; Jia, Yue; Cohen, Pinchas; Wang, Christina

    2015-12-01

    Humanin is a peptide that is cytoprotective against stresses in many cell types. We investigated whether a potent humanin analogue S14G-humanin (HNG) would protect against chemotherapy-induced damage to normal cells without interfering with the chemotherapy-induced suppression of cancer cells. Young adult male mice were inoculated iv with murine melanoma cells. After 1 week, cancer-bearing mice were randomized to receive either: no treatment, daily ip injection of HNG, a single ip injection of cyclophosphamide (CP), or CP+HNG and killed at the end of 3 weeks. HNG rescued the CP-induced suppression of leucocytes and protected germ cell from CP-induced apoptosis. Lung metastases were suppressed by HNG or CP alone, and further suppressed by CP+HNG treatment. Plasma IGF-1 levels were suppressed by HNG with or without CP treatment. To investigate whether HNG maintains its protective effects on spermatogonial stem cells, sperm output, and peripheral leucocytes after repeated doses of CP, normal adult male mice received: no treatment, daily sc injection of HNG, 6 ip injections of CP at 5-day intervals, and the same regimens of CP+HNG and killed at the end of 4 weeks of treatment. Cauda epididymal sperm counts were elevated by HNG and suppressed by CP. HNG rescued the CP-induced suppression of spermatogonial stem cells, sperm count and peripheral leucocytes. We conclude that HNG 1) protects CP-induced loss of male germ cells and leucocytes, 2) enhances CP-induced suppression of cancer metastases, and 3) acts as a caloric-restriction mimetic by suppressing IGF-1 levels. Our findings suggest that humanin analogues may be promising adjuvants to chemotherapy.

  18. Quantification of leucocytes, T-lymphocytes and macrophages in autoptical endomyocardial tissue from 56 normal human hearts during the first year of life.

    PubMed

    Grasmeyer, Sarah; Oswald, Sylvia; Madea, Burkhard

    2016-05-01

    This study evaluated the normal number of inflammatory cells in the heart in the first year of life using two methods to compare their ability to quantitate physiological myocardial infiltration. Eight endomyocardial samples from both ventricles were obtained at autopsy from 56 structurally normal hearts during the first year of life. In each sample the numbers of leucocytes, T-lymphocytes and macrophages were counted once in 20 randomly chosen high-power fields (400×) as well as in a 10mm(2) area of randomly chosen myocardial tissue (100×) by two independent investigators. Compared to the literature a greater representative proportion of myocardial tissue was analyzed. The results of the enumeration in mm(2) were converted into high-power-fields to compare both methods. The mean numbers and standard deviations for leucocytes, T-lymphocytes and macrophages were calculated. Both counting methods showed similar results with low inflammatory cell counts per single heart and staining. A greater understanding of the physiological myocardial infiltration by leucocytes, T-lymphocytes and macrophages is important for postmortem forensic cases, and for the interpretation of endomyocardial biopsies in infants.

  19. Atomization and Mixing Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrenberg, A.; Hunt, K.; Duesberg, J.

    1985-01-01

    The primary objective was the obtainment of atomization and mixing performance data for a variety of typical liquid oxygen/hydrocarbon injector element designs. Such data are required to establish injector design criteria and to provide critical inputs to liquid rocket engine combustor performance and stability analysis, and computational codes and methods. Deficiencies and problems with the atomization test equipment were identified, and action initiated to resolve them. Test results of the gas/liquid mixing tests indicated that an assessment of test methods was required. A series of 71 liquid/liquid tests were performed.

  20. Effect of medium/ω-6 long chain triglyceride-based emulsion on leucocyte death and inflammatory gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Cury-Boaventura, M F; Gorjão, R; Martins de Lima, T; Fiamoncini, J; Godoy, A B P; Deschamphs, F C; Soriano, F G; Curi, R

    2011-01-01

    Lipid emulsion (LE) containing medium/ω-6 long chain triglyceride-based emulsion (MCT/ω-6 LCT LE) has been recommended in the place of ω-6 LCT-based emulsion to prevent impairment of immune function. The impact of MCT/ω-6 LCT LE on lymphocyte and neutrophil death and expression of genes related to inflammation was investigated. Seven volunteers were recruited and infusion of MCT/ω-6 LCT LE was performed for 6 h. Four volunteers received saline and no change was found. Blood samples were collected before, immediately afterwards and 18 h after LE infusion. Lymphocytes and neutrophils were studied immediately after isolation and after 24 and 48 h in culture. The following determinations were carried out: plasma-free fatty acids, triacylglycerol and cholesterol concentrations, plasma fatty acid composition, neutral lipid accumulation in lymphocytes and neutrophils, signs of lymphocyte and neutrophil death and lymphocyte expression of genes related to inflammation. MCT/ω-6 LCT LE induced lymphocyte and neutrophil death. The mechanism for MCT/ω-6 LCT LE-dependent induction of leucocyte death may involve changes in neutral lipid content and modulation of expression of genes related to cell death, proteolysis, cell signalling, inflammatory response, oxidative stress and transcription. PMID:21682721

  1. Sequential immunological studies on an asbestos-exposed population. I. Factors affecting peripheral blood leucocytes and T lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, M M; Campbell, M J; Edwards, R E

    1979-01-01

    Peripheral blood leucocyte counts, and E binding rosettes were measured on 138 men on five separate occasions. Little effect was seen from age, or length of asbestos exposure. Overall the most marked effect was that obtained from smoking. Most relevant was an increase in percentage of E-rosettes read after 1 1/2 hrs, which was obtained in the group of those with radiological evidence of fibrosis who smoked. Restricted to subjects with small opacities, those who smoke have a significantly higher (P less than 0.05) percentage E 1 1/2 hr rosettes than those who do not smoke. (Percentage E rosettes read overnight remained unaltered by smoking or X-ray). This increase was found on each occasion that it was measured. Since the absolute number of T lymphocytes rosetting at 1 1/2 hr did not increase, it is suggested that there is either no stimulation of the central pool of T lymphocytes or a decrease in the absolute number of T lymphocytes which could only rosette overnight. PMID:316753

  2. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity evaluation of organochalcogens in human leucocytes: a comparative study between ebselen, diphenyl diselenide, and diphenyl ditelluride.

    PubMed

    Caeran Bueno, Diones; Meinerz, Daiane Francine; Allebrandt, Josiane; Waczuk, Emily Pansera; dos Santos, Danúbia Bonfanti; Mariano, Douglas Oscar Ceolin; Rocha, João Batista Teixeira

    2013-01-01

    Organochalcogens, particularly ebselen, have been used in experimental and clinical trials with borderline efficacy. (PhSe)2 and (PhTe)2 are the simplest of the diaryl dichalcogenides and share with ebselen pharmacological properties. In view of the concerns with the use of mammals in studies and the great number of new organochalcogens with potential pharmacological properties that have been synthesized, it becomes important to develop screening protocols to select compounds that are worth to be tested in vivo. This study investigated the possible use of isolated human white cells as a preliminary model to test organochalcogen toxicity. Human leucocytes were exposed to 5-50  μM of ebselen, (PhSe)2, or (PhTe)2. All compounds were cytotoxic (Trypan's Blue exclusion) at the highest concentration tested, and Ebselen was the most toxic. Ebselen and (PhSe)2 were genotoxic (Comet Assay) only at 50  μM, and (PhTe)2 at 5-50  μM. Here, the acute cytotoxicity did not correspond with in vivo toxicity of the compounds. But the genotoxicity was in the same order of the in vivo toxicity to mice. These results indicate that in vitro genotoxicity in white blood cells should be considered as an early step in the investigation of potential toxicity of organochalcogens.

  3. Recruitment of 99m-technetium- or 111-indium-labelled polymorphonuclear leucocytes in experimentally induced pyogranulomas in lambs

    SciTech Connect

    Guilloteau, L.; Pepin, M.; Pardon, P.; Le Pape, A. )

    1990-10-01

    The recruitment of polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNs) during the development of experimental pyogranulomas induced by Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis was followed in nine male lambs by scintigraphic examination. Autologous blood PMNs were labelled with 99m-technetium or 111-indium and were re-injected intravenously into infected lambs. The functional properties of the labelled cells were monitored (1) in vitro by measuring their phagocytic and bactericidal activity against C. pseudotuberculosis and their chemotaxis under agarose, and (2) in vivo by following scintigraphically their capacity to accumulate in an inflammatory focus induced by intradermal injection of latex beads coated with Salmonella abortus equi lipopolysaccharide. Following inoculation of corynebacteria into the right ear of lambs, radioactive foci were observed to be localized in the right ear and in the draining lymph nodes during the 4 days following inoculation. Histopathological examination performed 32 h after inoculation confirmed the intense accumulation of PMNs at these sites. With the exception of one animal, which presented visible foci in the neck 14 days postinoculation, no radioactive foci were observed during the later phases of experimental infection, despite the presence of multiple pyogranulomas which were confirmed by bacteriological examination after necropsy of the lambs. Histopathological examination of these lesions revealed layers of fibroblasts, lymphocytes, and macrophages surrounding a necrotic centre. The results of these studies suggest that the contribution of PMNs during the chronic phase of inflammation is considerably reduced in comparison with the acute inflammatory phase of the infectious process.

  4. Use of a multi-level mixed methods approach to study the effectiveness of a primary care progressive return to activity protocol after acute mild traumatic brain injury/concussion in the military.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Emma; West, Therese A; Cole, Wesley R; Bailie, Jason M; McCulloch, Karen L; Ettenhofer, Mark L; Cecchini, Amy; Qashu, Felicia M

    2017-01-01

    The large number of U.S. service members diagnosed with concussion/mild traumatic brain injury each year underscores the necessity for clear and effective clinical guidance for managing concussion. Relevant research continues to emerge supporting a gradual return to pre-injury activity levels without aggravating symptoms; however, available guidance does not provide detailed standards for this return to activity process. To fill this gap, the Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center released a recommendation for primary care providers detailing a step-wise return to unrestricted activity during the acute phase of concussion. This guidance was developed in collaboration with an interdisciplinary group of clinical, military, and academic subject matter experts using an evidence-based approach. Systematic evaluation of the guidance is critical to ensure positive patient outcomes, to discover barriers to implementation by providers, and to identify ways to improve the recommendation. Here we describe a multi-level, mixed-methods approach to evaluate the recommendation incorporating outcomes from both patients and providers. Procedures were developed to implement the study within complex but ecologically-valid settings at multiple military treatment facilities and operational medical units. Special consideration was given to anticipated challenges such as the frequent movement of military personnel, selection of appropriate design and measures, study implementation at multiple sites, and involvement of multiple service branches (Army, Navy, and Marine Corps). We conclude by emphasizing the need to consider contemporary approaches for evaluating the effectiveness of clinical guidance.

  5. Mixed Dementia

    MedlinePlus

    ... with Lewy bodies , What Is Alzheimer's? NIA-Funded Memory & Aging Project Reveals Mixed Dementia Common Data from ... commonly with Alzheimer's disease. For example, in the Memory and Aging Project study involving long-term cognitive ...

  6. Expandable mixing section gravel and cobble eductor

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Arthur L.; Krawza, Kenneth I.

    1997-01-01

    In a hydraulically powered pump for excavating and transporting slurries in hich it is immersed, the improvement of a gravel and cobble eductor including an expandable mixing section, comprising: a primary flow conduit that terminates in a nozzle that creates a water jet internal to a tubular mixing section of the pump when water pressure is applied from a primary supply flow; a tubular mixing section having a center line in alignment with the nozzle that creates a water jet; a mixing section/exit diffuser column that envelopes the flexible liner; and a secondary inlet conduit that forms an opening at a bas portion of the column and adjacent to the nozzle and water jet to receive water saturated gravel as a secondary flow that mixes with the primary flow inside of the mixing section to form a combined total flow that exits the mixing section and decelerates in the exit diffuser.

  7. Arginine-specific mono(ADP-ribosyl)transferase activity on the surface of human polymorphonuclear neutrophil leucocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Donnelly, L E; Rendell, N B; Murray, S; Allport, J R; Lo, G; Kefalas, P; Taylor, G W; MacDermot, J

    1996-01-01

    An Arg-specific mono(ADP-ribosyl)transferase activity on the surface of human polymorphonuclear neutrophil leucocytes (PMNs) was confirmed by the use of diethylamino-(benzylidineamino)guanidine (DEA-BAG) as an ADP-ribose acceptor. Two separate HPLC systems were used to separate ADP-ribosyl-DEA-BAG from reaction mixtures, and its presence was confirmed by electrospray mass spectrometry. ADP-ribosyl-DEA-BAG was produced in the presence of PMNs, but not in their absence. Incubation of DEA-BAG with ADP-ribose (0.1-10 mM) did not yield ADP-ribosyl-DEA-BAG, which indicates that ADP-ribosyl-DEA-BAG formed in the presence of PMNs was not simply a product of a reaction between DEA-BAG and free ADP-ribose, due possibly to the hydrolysis of NAD+ by an NAD+ glycohydrolase. The assay of mono(ADP-ribosyl)transferase with agmatine as a substrate was modified for intact PMNs, and the activity was found to be approx. 50-fold lower than that in rabbit cardiac membranes. The Km of the enzyme for NAD+ was 100.1 30.4 microM and the Vmax 1.4 0.2 pmol of ADP-ribosylagmatine/h per 10(6) cells. The enzyme is likely to be linked to the cell surface via a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor, since incubation of intact PMNs with phosphoinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) led to a 98% decrease in mono(ADP-ribosyl)transferase activity in the cells. Cell surface proteins were labelled after exposure of intact PMNs to [32P]NAD+. Their molecular masses were 79, 67, 46, 36 and 26 kDa. The time course for labelling was non-linear under these conditions over a period of 4 h. The labelled products were identified as mono(ADP-ribosyl)ated proteins by hydrolysis with snake venom phosphodiesterase to yield 5'-AMP. PMID:8615841

  8. Altered expression of intestinal human leucocyte antigen D-related and immune signalling molecules in juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Arvonen, M; Vähäsalo, P; Turunen, S; Salo, H M; Mäki, M; Laurila, K; Vaarala, O; Karttunen, T J

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to study intestinal immune activation status in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) by assessing intestinal human leucocyte antigen (HLA) class II expression and the mRNA expression levels of the pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators and pattern recognition receptors. HLA-D-related (HLA-DR) expression was assessed using immunohistochemical staining of frozen sections in 11 children with JIA and 17 controls. The gene expression levels of the anti- and proinflammatory cytokines, lymphocyte recognition receptors and pattern recognition receptors were studied with reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT–PCR) in 14 children with JIA and 12 controls. All subjects had various gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms indicating endoscopic examinations, but eventually were not diagnosed with GI disease. In JIA patients, the expression of HLA-DR was increased in the crypt epithelial cells and in the epithelial basement membrane of the ileum when compared with the controls. Positive HLA-DR staining in the ileal mucosa was associated with the presence of high clinical disease activity of JIA and low mRNA expression of anti-inflammatory mediators, such as forkhead box protein P3 (FoxP3), glucocorticoid-induced tumour necrosis factor receptor-related protein (GITR) and transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta. Low ileal expression of interleukin (IL)-10, TGF-β, FoxP3, Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR-2) and TLR-4 transcripts correlated significantly with a high clinical disease activity in the JIA patients. The increased HLA-DR expression suggests enhanced intestinal antigen presentation in JIA. A correlation between clinical disease activity and low gene expression of tolerogenic mediators in the ileum supports the hypothesis that a link exists between the gut immune system and JIA. PMID:23121667

  9. Comparative analysis of portal hepatic infiltrating leucocytes in acute drug-induced liver injury, idiopathic autoimmune and viral hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Foureau, D M; Walling, T L; Maddukuri, V; Anderson, W; Culbreath, K; Kleiner, D E; Ahrens, W A; Jacobs, C; Watkins, P B; Fontana, R J; Chalasani, N; Talwalkar, J; Lee, W M; Stolz, A; Serrano, J; Bonkovsky, H L

    2015-01-01

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is often caused by innate and adaptive host immune responses. Characterization of inflammatory infiltrates in the liver may improve understanding of the underlying pathogenesis of DILI. This study aimed to enumerate and characterize leucocytes infiltrating liver tissue from subjects with acute DILI (n = 32) versus non-DILI causes of acute liver injury (n = 25). Immunostains for CD11b/CD4 (Kupffer and T helper cells), CD3/CD20 (T and B cells) and CD8/CD56 [T cytotoxic and natural killer (NK) cells] were evaluated in biopsies from subjects with acute DILI, either immunoallergic (IAD) or autoimmune (AID) and idiopathic autoimmune (AIH) and viral hepatitis (VH) and correlated with clinical and pathological features. All biopsies showed numerous CD8+ T cells and macrophages. DILI cases had significantly fewer B lymphocytes than AIH and VH and significantly fewer NK cells than VH. Prominent plasma cells were unusual in IAD (three of 10 cases), but were associated strongly with AIH (eight of nine) and also observed in most with AID (six of nine). They were also found in five of 10 cases with VH. Liver biopsies from subjects with DILI were characterized by low counts of mature B cells and NK cells in portal triads in contrast to VH. NK cells were found only in cases of VH, whereas AIH and VH both showed higher counts of B cells than DILI. Plasma cells were associated most strongly with AIH and less so with AID, but were uncommon in IAD. PMID:25418487

  10. The value of theory in programmes to implement clinical guidelines: Insights from a retrospective mixed-methods evaluation of a programme to increase adherence to national guidelines for chronic disease in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Sheringham, Jessica; Solmi, Francesca; Ariti, Cono; Baim-Lance, Abigail; Morris, Steve; Fulop, Naomi J.

    2017-01-01

    Background Programmes have had limited success in improving guideline adherence for chronic disease. Use of theory is recommended but is often absent in programmes conducted in ‘real-world’ rather than research settings. Materials and methods This mixed-methods study tested a retrospective theory-based approach to evaluate a ‘real-world’ programme in primary care to improve adherence to national guidelines for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Qualitative data, comprising analysis of documents generated throughout the programme (n>300), in-depth interviews with planners (clinicians, managers and improvement experts involved in devising, planning, and implementing the programme, n = 14) and providers (practice clinicians, n = 14) were used to construct programme theories, experiences of implementation and contextual factors influencing care. Quantitative analyses comprised controlled before-and-after analyses to test ‘early’ and evolved’ programme theories with comparators grounded in each theory. ‘Early’ theory predicted the programme would reduce emergency hospital admissions (EHA). It was tested using national analysis of standardized borough-level EHA rates between programme and comparator boroughs. ‘Evolved’ theory predicted practices with higher programme participation would increase guideline adherence and reduce EHA and costs. It was tested using a difference-in-differences analysis with linked primary and secondary care data to compare changes in diagnosis, management, EHA and costs, over time and by programme participation. Results Contrary to programme planners’ predictions in ‘early’ and ‘evolved’ programme theories, admissions did not change following the programme. However, consistent with ‘evolved’ theory, higher guideline adoption occurred in practices with greater programme participation. Conclusions Retrospectively constructing theories based on the ideas of programme planners can enable evaluators to

  11. Interactions of allogeneic human mononuclear cells in the two-way mixed leucocyte culture (MLC): influence of cell numbers, subpopulations and cyclosporin

    PubMed Central

    Sato, T; Deiwick, A; Raddatz, G; Koyama, K; Schlitt, H J

    1999-01-01

    With organ allografts considerable numbers of donor-type mononuclear cells are transferred to the recipient, leading to bilateral immunological interactions between donor and recipient lymphocytes. To study such bilateral immune reactions in detail, human two-way MLC were performed. In this model proliferation kinetics, patterns of activation, and survival of the two populations were analysed, and the relevance of initial cell subset composition, relative cell numbers, and the effect of immunosuppression on this co-culture were evaluated. It could be demonstrated that with an initial 50:50 ratio of two populations of allogeneic cells one population dominated after 21 days of co-culture in 78 out of 80 combinations (97%) tested; the other population decreased markedly after an initially stable phase of 6–7 days. With unequal starting conditions the larger population dominated when resting cells were used, but small populations of preactivated cells or separated CD8+ cells could also dominate. Depletion of CD16+ natural killer (NK) cells and of CD2− cells (B cell and monocytes) had no effect on domination. Addition of cyclosporin delayed or blocked the domination process while addition of IL-2 accelerated it. Disappearance of one population was associated with detection of apoptotic cells. The findings indicate that co-cultures of allogeneic mononuclear cells are generally not stable for more than 1 week, but lead to active elimination of one population. CD8+ cells and particularly preactivated cells seem to play the most important role in that process, while NK cells are of less importance. Cyclosporin can prolong survival of allogeneic cells in co-culture. These observations suggest that under the conditions of clinical organ transplantation even small amounts of immunocompetent donor cells transferred by the graft may persist for some time and may, thereby, have the chance to exert immunomodulatory functions. PMID:9933457

  12. Mixing of Supersonic Streams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawk, C. W.; Landrum, D. B.; Muller, S.; Turner, M.; Parkinson, D.

    1998-01-01

    The Strutjet approach to Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) propulsion depends upon fuel-rich flows from the rocket nozzles and turbine exhaust products mixing with the ingested air for successful operation in the ramjet and scramjet modes. It is desirable to delay this mixing process in the air-augmented mode of operation present during low speed flight. A model of the Strutjet device has been built and is undergoing test to investigate the mixing of the streams as a function of distance from the Strutjet exit plane during simulated low speed flight conditions. Cold flow testing of a 1/6 scale Strutjet model is underway and nearing completion. Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) diagnostic methods are being employed to observe the mixing of the turbine exhaust gas with the gases from both the primary rockets and the ingested air simulating low speed, air augmented operation of the RBCC. The ratio of the pressure in the turbine exhaust duct to that in the rocket nozzle wall at the point of their intersection is the independent variable in these experiments. Tests were accomplished at values of 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 for this parameter. Qualitative results illustrate the development of the mixing zone from the exit plane of the model to a distance of about 10 rocket nozzle exit diameters downstream. These data show the mixing to be confined in the vertical plane for all cases, The lateral expansion is more pronounced at a pressure ratio of 1.0 and suggests that mixing with the ingested flow would be likely beginning at a distance of 7 nozzle exit diameters downstream of the nozzle exit plane.

  13. Mixing of Supersonic Streams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawk, C. W.; Landrum, D. B.; Muller, S.; Turner, M.; Parkinson, D.

    1998-01-01

    The Strutjet approach to Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) propulsion depends upon fuel-rich flows from the rocket nozzles and turbine exhaust products mixing with the ingested air for successful operation in the ramjet and scramjet modes. It is desirable to delay this mixing process in the air-augmented mode of operation present during low speed flight. A model of the Strutjet device has been built and is undergoing test to investigate the mixing of the streams as a function of distance from the Strutjet exit plane during simulated low speed flight conditions. Cold flow testing of a 1/6 scale Strutjet model is underway and nearing completion. Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) diagnostic methods are being employed to observe the mixing of the turbine exhaust gas with the gases from both the primary rockets and the ingested air simulating low speed, air augmented operation of the RBCC. The ratio of the pressure in the turbine exhaust duct to that in the rocket nozzle wall at the point of their intersection is the independent variable in these experiments. Tests were accomplished at values of 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 for this parameter. Qualitative results illustrate the development of the mixing zone from the exit plane of the model to a distance of about 19 equivalent rocket nozzle exit diameters downstream. These data show the mixing to be confined in the vertical plane for all cases, The lateral expansion is more pronounced at a pressure ratio of 1.0 and suggests that mixing with the ingested flow would be likely beginning at a distance of 7 nozzle exit diameters downstream of the nozzle exit plane.

  14. Ion mixing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matteson, S.; Nicolet, M.-A.

    1983-01-01

    Recent experimental studies of the ion-mixing phenomenon are summarized. Ion mixing is differentiated from ion implantation and shown to be a useful technique for overcoming the sputter-dependent limitations of implantation processes. The fundamental physical principles of ion/solid interactions are explored. The basic experimental configurations currently in use are characterized: bilayered samples, multilayered samples, and samples with a thin marker layer. A table listing the binary systems (metal-semiconductor or metal-metal) which have been investigated using each configuration is presented. Results are discussed, and some sample data are plotted. The prospects for future application of ion mixing to the alteration of solid surface properties are considered. Practical applications are seen as restricted by economic considerations to the production of small, expensive components or to fields (such as the semiconductor industry) which already have facilities for ion implantation.

  15. Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)-dependent protection and synthesis of chemoattractants for mononuclear leucocytes caused by IL-12 in the lungs of mice infected with Cryptococcus neoformans.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, K; Qureshi, M H; Zhang, T; Koguchi, Y; Shibuya, K; Naoe, S; Saito, A

    1999-07-01

    We have recently demonstrated that IL-12 induced cellular inflammatory responses consisting mainly of accumulation of mononuclear leucocytes in the lungs of mice infected with Cryptococcus neoformans and protected mice against fulminant infection. We examined the involvement of endogenously synthesized IFN-gamma in such a response by investigating the effects of a neutralizing monoclonal antibody against this cytokine. The latter treatment completely abrogated the positive effects of IL-12 on survival of infected mice and prevented IL-12-induced elimination of microbials from the lungs. Histopathological examination showed that accumulation of mononuclear leucocytes in the infected lungs caused by IL-12 was clearly inhibited by anti-IFN-gamma MoAb. We also examined the local production of mononuclear cell-attracting chemokines such as monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), regulated upon activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha (MIP-1alpha), MIP-1beta and IFN-gamma-inducible protein 10 (IP-10) in the lungs using a reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method. We found that these chemokines were not synthesized in the infected lungs, while IL-12 treatment markedly induced their production. Interestingly, neutralizing anti-IFN-gamma MoAb strongly suppressed IL-12-induced production of these chemokines. Similar results were obtained with MCP-1 and MIP-1alpha when their synthesis was measured at the protein level using respective ELISA kits. Our results indicate that IFN-gamma plays a central role in the protective effects of IL-12 by inducing mononuclear leucocyte-attracting chemokines and cellular inflammatory responses.

  16. Four pro-inflammatory cytokines of rohu (Labeo rohita) during early developmental stages, their tissue distribution and expression by leucocytes upon in-vitro stimulation.

    PubMed

    Dash, P; Patel, S; Dixit, A; Garg, L C; Sahoo, P K

    2015-12-01

    Cytokines are important components of both adaptive and innate immunity, and are required to initiate and regulate immune responses following infection. The ontogeny and tissue specific distribution of four pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), IL-8 and IL-1β in rohu (Labeo rohita), and their responses by leucocytes from anterior-kidney/head-kidney (HKLs), spleen (SPLs) and peripheral blood (PBLs) following stimulation with concanavalin A (ConA), ConA with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (ConA/PMA) and formalin-killed Aeromonas hydrophila cells (FAH) were studied. In ontogeny study, mRNA levels of IL-6 and IL-1β were evident in unfertilized egg stages of L. rohita whereas IL-8 and TNF-α transcripts were found from 1 to 3 h post-fertilization (hpf) onwards till day 15 post-fertilization, respectively. Basal level of all four cytokines was observed in all twelve tissues (eye, brain, heart, gill, anterior kidney, posterior kidney, spleen, liver, skin, muscle, hindgut and foregut) of L. rohita juveniles. Expression levels of IL-6 and IL-8 were found to be the highest in liver and heart tissues, respectively, while TNF-α transcripts were high in anterior kidney and liver tissues. Transcripts of IL-1β showed high expression in muscle, heart and spleen. Upon in vitro stimulation of leucocytes, there was variable up-regulation of all the four cytokines following different treatments throughout the experimental time period. Induction of cytokines was more pronounced in PBLs stimulated with FAH compared to other stimuli. However, an up-regulated IL-8 expression was evident in all the leucocytes following stimulation with FAH thus indicating IL-8 could be used as an indicator or indirect marker to monitor vaccine status or health status of L. rohita during bacterial infection.

  17. The in vitro immunomodulatory effect of extracellular products (ECPs) of Vagococcus fluvialis L21 on European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) leucocytes.

    PubMed

    Román, L; Acosta, F; Padilla, D; El Aamri, F; Bravo, J; Vega, B; Rodriguez, E; Vega, J; Déniz, S; Real, F

    2015-02-01

    The immune associated genes, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin 10 (IL-10), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), ciclo-oxigenase-2 (COX-2), and Mx gene were studied by real-time PCR in head-kidney leucocytes of sea bass after incubation with the extracellular products (ECPs) of the probiotic strain Vagococcus fluvialis L21 and polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (POLY I:C), at different times (T1.5, T6, T12, T24, T48 and T72). In general, we can observe how pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6 and COX-2 studied displayed a strong peak after stimulation with 1.5 h of ECPs of V. fluvialis L21, significant differences (P < 0.05) exist with other periods and with the POLY I: C at the same time. Similarly to the case of IL-10 also produced a statistically significant (P < 0.05) peak of expression on leukocytes that were stimulated with the ECPs of V. fluvialis L21. In the case of Mx gene expression, we note that in almost all sampling times there is an up-regulation of the Mx gene in leucocytes incubated with ECPs and POLY I:C compared to the control and Mx expression was higher in leucocytes that were stimulated with the ECPs of V. fluvialis for all times, except in T24. With these results we can consider that the ECPs of V. fluvialis L21 have a great power of stimulating the in vitro expression of immune-related genes and may even be useful as adjuvants for vaccine in aquaculture.

  18. Leucocytes isolated from simply frozen whole blood can be used in human biomonitoring for DNA damage measurement with the comet assay.

    PubMed

    Akor-Dewu, Maryam B; El Yamani, Naouale; Bilyk, Olena; Holtung, Linda; Tjelle, Torunn E; Blomhoff, Rune; Collins, Andrew R

    2014-04-01

    Preservation of human blood cells for DNA damage analysis with the comet assay conventionally involves the isolation of mononuclear cells by centrifugation, suspension in freezing medium and slow freezing to -80 °C-a laborious process. A recent publication (Al-Salmani et al. Free Rad Biol Med 2011; 51: 719-725) describes a simple method in which small volumes of whole blood are frozen to -20 or -80 °C; on subsequent thawing, the comet assay is performed, with no indication of elevated DNA strand breakage resulting from the rapid freezing. However, leucocytes in whole blood (whether fresh or frozen) are abnormally resistant to damage by H2 O2 , and so a common test of antioxidant status (resistance to strand breakage by H2 O2 ) cannot be used. We have refined this method by separating the leucocytes from the thawed blood; we find that, after three washes, the cells respond normally to H2 O2 . In addition, we have measured specific endogenous base damage (oxidized purines) in the isolated leucocytes, using the enzyme formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase. In a study of blood samples from 10 subjects, H2 O2 sensitivity and endogenous damage-both reflecting the antioxidant status of the cells-correlated significantly. This modified approach to sample collection and storage is particularly applicable when the available volume of blood is limited and has great potential in biomonitoring and ecogenotoxicology studies where samples are obtained in the field or at sites remote from the testing laboratory.

  19. Lateral Mixing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    apl.uw.edu/dasaro LONG-TERM GOALS I seek to understand the processes controlling lateral mixing in the ocean, particularly at the submesoscale ...APPROACH During AESOP, Lee and D’Asaro pioneered an innovative approach to measuring submesoscale structure in strong fronts. An adaptive measurement...injection of potential vorticity and scalars is predicted to create an intense ‘ submesoscale soup’ of high small-scale variance. The combination of small

  20. Lateral Mixing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-08

    to mesoscale forcing. APPROACH Figure 1: MVP system deployed from stern of R/V Endeavor in Sargasso Sea . 1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for...integrative efforts with other sea -going investigators and numerical modelers. The Lateral Mixing Experiment project was an ideal opportunity to...2011 I also participated in the sea -going part of this project, taking my group on the R/V Endeavor in June 2011. Our role was to sample around the

  1. Lateral Mixing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-30

    ocean as it responds to mesoscale forcing. APPROACH Figure 1: MVP system deployed from stern of R/V Endeavor in Sargasso Sea . My approach for...therefore requires integrative efforts with other sea -going investigators and numerical modelers. The Lateral Mixing Experiment project was an ideal...also participated in the sea -going part of this project, taking my group on the R/V Endeavor in June 2011. Our role was to sample around the center of

  2. Amenorrhea - primary

    MedlinePlus

    ... of periods - primary Images Primary amenorrhea Normal uterine anatomy (cut section) Absence of menstruation (amenorrhea) References Bulun SE. The physiology and pathology of the female reproductive axis. In: ...

  3. Leucocyte profiles and H/L ratios in chicks of Red-tailed Tropicbirds reflect the ontogeny of the immune system.

    PubMed

    Dehnhard, Nina; Quillfeldt, Petra; Hennicke, Janos C

    2011-07-01

    Immune defence is fundamentally important for the survival prospects of young animals. While innate immunity offers initial protection from a variety of pathogens, acquired immunity responds more specifically to pathogens, but is considered to be more costly and to respond slower. Moreover, the acquired immunity is not yet fully developed in neonatal chicks. Little is known about the ontogeny of the immune system of wild birds. Long-lived seabirds, with their slow chick development, are good models to investigate how young birds invest in both arms of their immune system. We determined leucocyte profiles and heterophil to lymphocyte (H/L) ratios of Red-tailed Tropicbirds (Phaeton rubricauda westralis) on Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. Young chicks (N = 10) had significantly higher H/L ratios than older chicks (N = 19), while adults (N = 47) showed intermediate values and did not differ from either chick age class. High H/L ratios in young chicks were caused by high initial numbers of heterophils per 10,000 erythrocytes that declined with age. In contrast, the number of lymphocytes per 10,000 erythrocytes was similar for young and older chicks. These data suggest that young chicks invested heavily in innate immunity to protect themselves from pathogens, while investment into acquired immunity became more important in older chicks with a functional acquired immune response. Body condition did not have a significant influence on any leucocyte parameter.

  4. Interaction between endometrial epithelial cells and blood leucocytes promotes cytokine release and epithelial barrier function in response to Chlamydia trachomatis lipopolysaccharide stimulation.

    PubMed

    Sze Ho, Lok; He, Qiong; Chen, Jie; Xu, Penghui; Ling Tsang, Lai; Yu, Sidney; Wa Chung, Yiu; Chang Chan, Hsiao

    2010-09-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis infection is currently the most common cause of infection-related sterility in women. However, it remains largely unknown how uterine epithelial cells interact with recruited leucocytes in response to C. trachomatis infection in the female genital tract. To study the defence mechanism of the endometrium against C. trachomatis infection, we established an in vitro co-culture of EEC (endometrial epithelial cells) and PBL (peripheral blood leucocytes) isolated from mice and investigated the immune response of these cells upon C. trachomatis LPS (lipopolysaccharide) challenge using a cytokine antibody array and RT-PCR (reverse transcription-PCR). Our results showed that upon C. trachomatis LPS stimulation, proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines, such as TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, MIPs (macrophage inflammatory proteins), IL-12p40p70, KC, GCSFs (granulocyte colony stimulating factors), IL-6 and TIMPs (tissue inhibition metalloproteinases) are up-regulated and/or released from EEC-PBL co-culture. Further, the TER (transepithelial resistance), measured by the Isc (short-circuit current) technique was significantly increased in EEC/PBL co-cultured cells and also when stimulated with C. trachomatis LPS compared with EEC alone. These changes appear to be mediated by the change in cytokine-induced expression of tight junction-related protein ZO-1. The present results demonstrated that the epithelial-immune cross-talk could promote the release of proinflammatory cytokines and enhance the barrier function of the endometrium against C. trachomatis infection in the female reproductive tract.

  5. Mixing It Up with Acrylics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird, Shirley

    1999-01-01

    Presents an art activity for fifth-grade students in which they learn about basic shapes and what happens when shapes overlap, draw seven overlapping geometric shapes, review the use of acrylic paint and mixing colors, and finally paint with primary colors. (CMK)

  6. A robust rabbit line increases leucocyte counts at weaning and reduces mortality by digestive disorder during fattening.

    PubMed

    García-Quirós, A; Arnau-Bonachera, A; Penadés, M; Cervera, C; Martínez-Paredes, E; Ródenas, L; Selva, L; Viana, D; Corpa, J M; Pascual, J J

    2014-10-15

    The present work evaluates how a rabbit line selected for robustness and two other lines selected for productive criteria, could have affected the physiological maturity and blood leukocytes counts of young rabbits at weaning, as well as their possible effect on the subsequent performance and health status during the growing period. The study was conducted on a total of 2904 young rabbits weaned at 30 days, belonging to three different genetic types (line H, founded for litter size at birth and selected for litter size at weaning during 17 generations; line LP, characterised by robustness founded for reproductive longevity criteria and selected for litter size at weaning for 7 generations; and line R, founded and selected during 25 generations for average daily gain from the 4th to the 9th week of life). Two different diets were used during lactation. The two diets were both isoenergetic and isoprotein but their main energy source differed, being either animal fat (AF) or cereal starch (CS). Leucocyte subsets were characterised at weaning, and growing performance was studied until 58 days of age (feed intake, live weight, mortality by digestive disorders and morbidity) for both medicated and non-medicated dietary versions. At weaning, young rabbits fed an AF lactating diet evidenced greater B lymphocyte count (on av. +8.6 ± 3.5 × 10(6)/L; P < 0.05) than those fed a CS diet. With respect to H and R rabbits, blood from LP ones had higher counts for total (on av. 591 ± 167 × 10(6)/L; P < 0.05), B (on av. +11.05 ± 4.3 × 10(6)/L; P < 0.05), T CD5(+) (on av. +266 ± 83 × 10(6)/L; P < 0.05) and CD8(+) lymphocytes (on av. +72.5 ± 28 × 10(6)/L; P < 0.05), and with respect to R, higher counts of CD4(+) (on av. +121 ± 47 × 10(6)/L; P < 0.05) lymphocytes (on av. +12.3 ± 4.1 × 10(6)/L; P < 0.05), monocytes (on av. +66 ± 32 × 10(6)/L; P < 0.05) and granulocytes (on av. +567 ± 182 × 10(6)/L; P<0.05) at weaning. LP line rabbits also showed lower mortality by

  7. Critical Appraisal of Mixed Methods Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyvaert, Mieke; Hannes, Karin; Maes, Bea; Onghena, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    In several subdomains of the social, behavioral, health, and human sciences, research questions are increasingly answered through mixed methods studies, combining qualitative and quantitative evidence and research elements. Accordingly, the importance of including those primary mixed methods research articles in systematic reviews grows. It is…

  8. Supplementation of arachidonic acid rich oil in European sea bass juveniles (Dicentrarchus labrax) diets: Effects on leucocytes and plasma fatty acid profiles, selected immune parameters and circulating prostaglandins levels.

    PubMed

    Torrecillas, S; Román, L; Rivero-Ramírez, F; Caballero, M J; Pascual, C; Robaina, L; Izquierdo, M S; Acosta, F; Montero, D

    2017-03-27

    The main objective of this study was to assess the effects of graded levels of dietary arachidonic acid (ARA), supplemented from alternative sources, on fatty acid composition of plasma and head kidney leucocytes of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). For that purpose, sea bass juveniles were fed four diets containing graded levels of ARA as follows: 0.5% (ARA0.5), 1% (ARA1), 2% (ARA2) and 4% (ARA4) during 60 days. At the end of the feeding trial fatty acid profiles of plasma and head kidney leucocytes were analyzed. Besides, plasma prostaglandins levels, head kidney leucocytes respiratory burst activity; peroxidase activity and phagocytic index were assayed. Reducing dietary ARA levels below 1% markedly reduced European sea bass growth performance. However, fish fed diet ARA0.5 tried to compensate this dietary ARA deficiency by a selective deposition of ARA on plasma and head kidney leucocytes, reaching similar levels to those fish fed diet ARA1 after 60 days of feeding. Nevertheless, head kidney phagocytic capacity was reduced as dietary ARA content in relation not only to variations on membrane composition but also to changes on fish basal prostaglandins levels. Results obtained demonstrated the importance to supply the necessary quantity n-6 LC-PUFA, and not only n-3 LC-PUFA levels, in European sea bass diets, in relation to not only growth performance but also immune system function.

  9. Intervention with polyphenol-rich fruit juices results in an elevation of glutathione S-transferase P1 (hGSTP1) protein expression in human leucocytes of healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Thomas; Liegibel, Ute; Winterhalter, Peter; Bub, Achim; Rechkemmer, Gerhard; Pool-Zobel, Beatrice Louise

    2006-12-01

    Polyphenols are probably antigenotoxic on account of their antioxidant activities and might alter phase I and II enzymes in a way that results in chemoprotection. We investigated the hypothesis that polyphenols enhance expression of glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), which increases carcinogen detoxification and thereby provides protection against oxidative stress. HGSTP1 protein expression and GST polymorphisms were determined in leucocytes obtained during an intervention study with healthy subjects consuming two fruit juices in an 8 wk trial (polyphenol-free run in phase, juice intervention phase, washout phase, second juice intervention phase, each treatment regime lasted for 2 wk). The study had originally shown that juice intervention significantly reduced oxidative DNA damage in leucocytes at week 8 (Bub, A., Watzl, B., Blockhaus, M., Briviba, K. et al., J. Nutr. Biochem. 2003, 14, 90-98). We reanalysed the levels of DNA damage based on GST genotypes. We also treated leucocytes in vitro with mixtures of polyphenols and determined cytotoxicity and expression of 96 genes related to drug metabolism. Key results with leucocytes of the intervention study were that the initial content of hGSTP1 protein was first suppressed at weeks 4 and 6. At week 8, however, hGSTP1 protein expression was significantly increased. HGSTP1 protein levels and DNA damage were inversely correlated (p = 0.005), but there was no difference for cells obtained from subjects with hGSTM1*1 and hGSTM1*0 genotypes, nor was there any difference between cells from subjects consuming the two different juices. The treatment of leucocytes with polyphenol mixtures in vitro did not result in modulated GST gene expression or total GST activity, but in an up-regulation of other biotransformation enzymes (e. g., members of the cytochrome P450 and the sulphotransferase family). In conclusion, in vitro treatment of leucocytes led to a modulated mRNA expression of selected genes, not directly related to

  10. Primary Hyperparathyroidism

    MedlinePlus

    ... What is PRIMARY HYPERPARATH YROIDIS M? The body’s parathyroid glands—four pea-sized glands in the neck—produce parathyroid hormone (PTH). Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is a condition ...

  11. Primary thrombocythemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... as myeloproliferative disorders. Others include: Chronic myelogenous leukemia Polycythemia vera Primary myelofibrosis This disorder is most common ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 68. Tefferi A. Polycythemia vera, essential thrombocytoemia, and primary myelofibrosis. In: Goldman ...

  12. Primary Aldosteronism

    MedlinePlus

    ... Endocrinology Find an Endocrinologist Value of an Endocrinologist Learn About Clinical Trials Keep Your Body in Balance › Primary Aldosteronism Fact Sheet Primary Aldosteronism March 2012 Download PDFs English Espanol Editors Paul Stewart, MD, FRCP William Young, ...

  13. Long-term immunological reconstitution by peripheral blood leucocytes in severe combined immune deficiency disease: implications for the role of mature lymphocytes in histocompatible bone marrow transplantation.

    PubMed Central

    Polmar, S H; Schacter, B Z; Sorensen, R U

    1986-01-01

    A 7 month old girl with severe combined immunodeficiency disease (SCID) received a single transfusion of peripheral blood leucocytes from her histocompatible grandfather in an attempt to achieve immunological reconstitution. There was rapid restoration of humoral and cellular immunity which has persisted undiminished over a 54 month follow-up period and the patient has remained free of any significant infections. Lymphocytes of donor karyotype were repeatedly demonstrated in the patient's peripheral blood. In contrast, no evidence of donor cell engraftment in her bone marrow could be obtained by karyotypic, antigenic or enzyme phenotypic analyses. These observations suggest that long term immunological reconstitution may be achieved solely by peripheral engraftment of mature lymphocytes. A review of the literature reveals that this mechanism of immunological reconstitution may not be uncommon following histocompatible bone marrow transplantation for treatment of SCID. PMID:3539420

  14. Testing for 'threads' and leucocyte esterase in first-void urine to exclude the diagnosis of non-specific urethritis in asymptomatic men.

    PubMed

    Pallawela, Sanjeeva N S; Sonnex, Christopher; Burdett, Julia; Cooper, Dawn; Nethercott, Katrina; Thomas, Catherina M; Goon, Peter; Webb, Hayley; Carne, Christopher

    2014-07-01

    Recent evidence suggests that asymptomatic nonspecific urethritis (NSU), which is not routinely tested for, is a clinically significant pathology.The aim of this pilot study was to determine if testing for urinary threads, leucocyte esterase (LE) or both in asymptomatic men is a good screening tool for NSU. Of the126 asymptomatic men, 8% met microscopic criteria for the diagnosis of NSU. The positive predictive value for NSU was 71% (95% confidence interval (CI): 29.3-95.5%) and the negative predictive value was 96% (95% CI: 92.8-99.5%). The absence of threads and negative LE makes urethritis highly unlikely, making urinary chlamydia (Chlamydia trachomatis) and gonorrhoea (Neisseria gonorrhoeae) testing sufficient. Incidental findings of further pathology occurred in 7%.

  15. Short telomere length in blood leucocytes contributes to the presence of atherothrombotic stroke and haemorrhagic stroke and risk of post-stroke death.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weili; Chen, Yu; Wang, Yuyao; Liu, Peng; Zhang, Mei; Zhang, Channa; Hu, Frank B; Hui, Rutai

    2013-03-13

    Inter-individual differences in biological aging could affect susceptibility to stroke. To date, the relationship between stroke and telomere shortening remain inconclusive; and sparse data are available for haemorrhagic stroke. A Chinese case-control study was conducted, comprising 1756 cases (767 atherothrombosis, 503 lacunar infarction and 486 haemorrhagic strokes) and 1801 controls. Stroke patients were prospectively followed up for a median of 4.5 (range, 0.1-6.0) years. Individuals with shorter telomere length had a higher presence of atherothrombotic stroke {multivariate OR (odds ratio) 1.37 [95% CI (confidence interval), 1.06-1.77]; P=0.015} or haemorrhagic stroke [multivariate OR 1.48 (95% CI, 1.08-2.02); P=0.016] in comparison of the lowest to highest tertile of telomere length. Particularly, in subjects with a family history of stroke, there was a significant 2.55-fold increased presence of atherothrombotic stroke (95% CI, 1.87-3.48; Ptrend<0.0001) and a 2.33-fold increased presence of haemorrhagic stroke (95% CI, 1.62-3.36; Ptrend<0.0001). During the follow-up, 338 recurrent strokes and 312 deaths (181 from stroke or coronary heart disease and 131 from other causes) were documented. Associations with stroke recurrence were not observed in the follow-up patients, whereas atherothrombotic stroke cases with shorter telomeres had 69% increased risk of post-stroke death [relative risk, 1.69 (95% CI, 1.07-2.67); P=0.02]. Finally, we compared telomere lengths in 12 paired samples of circulating leucocytes and carotid atherosclerotic plaques from patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy; there was a positive correlation between vessel wall tissue and leucocyte telomere length. In conclusion, shorter telomere length may serve as a potential marker for the presence of atherothrombotic and haemorrhagic stroke and for the risk of post-stroke death.

  16. Cytokine expression in head-kidney leucocytes of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) after incubation with the probiotic Vagococcus fluvialis L-21.

    PubMed

    Román, L; Real, F; Padilla, D; El Aamri, F; Déniz, S; Grasso, V; Acosta, F

    2013-10-01

    The European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) is one of the most extensively farmed marine fish in the Mediterranean sea. Under the high-density condition, common in aquaculture, the infectious diseases can cause significant economic losses. Probiotics are presented as an alternative to antibiotics for the control of aquaculture diseases. This study used real-time PCR to investigate in vitro the dynamic of expression of immune-related genes in sea bass after incubation with live and inactivated (heat and Uv-light) probiotic Vagoccus fluvialis L-21 at different times (T1, T12, T24, T48). The immune associated genes, interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin 10 (IL-10), TumourTumour necrosis factor- (TNF-), ciclo-oxigenase-2 (COX-2), caspase-3 (Casp-3) and Mx were studied in head-kidney (HK) leucocytes of sea bass after incubation with the probiotic strain. Transcript of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1, TNF-, COX-2) was highly up-regulated after 1 h of incubation with the probiotic strain V. fluvialis L-21. We found statistically significant difference in pick of expression of TNF-, after 1 h of incubation with Uv-light inactivated probiotic strain. The COX-2 expression was highly up-regulated at all times studied, with the exception of 12 and 24 h post incubation for the Uv-light inactivated bacteria. Transcript of IL-10 and Casp-3 showed the higher statistically significant differences of expression after 48 h post incubation with live bacteria. In the contrast, sea bass HK leucocytes expressed Mx at 12 and 48 h without statistically differences among treatments. Our results suggest that V. fluvialis L-21 is able to stimulate in vitro some immune-related genes associated with the early inflammatory response. Future studies in vivo are necessary to clarify this process in sea bass.

  17. Molecular characterization of ten F8 splicing mutations in RNA isolated from patient's leucocytes: assessment of in silico prediction tools accuracy.

    PubMed

    Martorell, L; Corrales, I; Ramirez, L; Parra, R; Raya, A; Barquinero, J; Vidal, F

    2015-03-01

    Although 8% of reported FVIII gene (F8) mutations responsible for haemophilia A (HA) affect mRNA processing, very few have been fully characterized at the mRNA level and/or systematically predicted their biological consequences by in silico analysis. This study is aimed to elucidate the effect of potential splice site mutations (PSSM) on the F8 mRNA processing, investigate its correlation with disease severity, and assess their concordance with in silico predictions. We studied the F8 mRNA from 10 HA patient's leucocytes with PSSM by RT-PCR and compared the experimental results with those predicted in silico. The mRNA analysis could explain all the phenotypes observed and demonstrated exon skipping in six cases (c.222G>A, c.601+1delG, c.602-11T>G, c.671-3C>G, c.6115+9C>G and c.6116-1G>A) and activation of cryptic splicing sites, both donor (c.1009+1G>A and c.1009+3A>C) and acceptor sites (c.266-3delC and c.5587-1G>A). In contrast, the in silico analysis was able to predict the score variation of most of the affected splice site, but the precise mechanism could only be correctly determined in two of the 10 mutations analysed. In addition, we have detected aberrant F8 transcripts, even in healthy controls, so this must be taken into account as they could mask the actual contribution of some PSSM. We conclude that F8 mRNA analysis using leucocytes still constitutes an excellent approach to investigate the transcriptional effects of the PSSM in HA, whereas prediction in silico is not always reliable for diagnostic decision-making.

  18. Role of adenosine deaminase, ecto-(5'-nucleotidase) and ecto-(non-specific phosphatase) in cyanide-induced adenosine monophosphate catabolism in rat polymorphonuclear leucocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Newby, A C

    1980-01-01

    1. The role of adenosine deaminase (EC 3.5.4.4), ecto-(5'-nucleotidase) (EC 3.1.3.5) and ecto-(non-specific phosphatase) in the CN-induced catabolism of adenine nucleotides in intact rat polymorphonuclear leucocytes was investigated by inhibiting the enzymes in situ. 2. KCN (10mM for 90 min) induced a 20-30% fall in ATP concentration accompanied by an approximately equimolar increase in hypoxanthine, ADP, AMP and adenosine concentrations were unchanged, and IMP and inosine remained undetectable ( less than 0.05 nmol/10(7) cells). 3. Cells remained 98% intact, as judged by loss of the cytoplasmic enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.27). 4. Pentostatin (30 microM), a specific inhibitor of adenosine deaminase, completely inhibited hypoxanthine production from exogenous adenosine (55 microM), but did not black CN-induced hypoxanthine production or cause adenosine accumulation in intact cells. This implied that IMP rather than adenosine was an intermediate in AMP breakdown in response to cyanide. 5. Antibodies raised against purified plasma-membrane 5'-nucleotidase inhibited the ecto-(5'-nucleotidase) by 95-98%. Non-specific phosphatases were blocked by 10 mM-sodium beta-glycerophosphate. 6. These two agents together blocked hypoxanthine production from exogenous AMP and IMP (200 microM) by more than 90%, but had no effect on production from endogenous substrates. 7. These data suggest that ectophosphatases do not participate in CN-induced catabolism of intracellular AMP in rat polymorphonuclear leucocytes. 8. A minor IMPase, not inhibited by antiserum, was detected in the soluble fraction of disrupted cells. PMID:6249264

  19. Nationwide review of mixed and non-mixed components from different manufacturers in total hip arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Rinne M; van Steenbergen, Liza N; Bulstra, Sjoerd K; Zeegers, Adelgunde V C M; Stewart, Roy E; Poolman, Rudolf W; Hosman, Anton H

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose Combining components from different manufacturers in total hip arthroplasty (THA) is common practice worldwide. We determined the proportion of THAs used in the Netherlands that consist of components from different manufacturers, and compared the revision rates of these mixed THAs with those of non-mixed THAs. Patients and methods Data on primary and revision hip arthroplasty are recorded in the LROI, the nationwide population-based arthroplasty register in the Netherlands. We selected all 163,360 primary THAs that were performed in the period 2007–2014. Based on the manufacturers of the components, 4 groups were discerned: non-mixed THAs with components from the same manufacturer (n = 142,964); mixed stem-head THAs with different manufacturers for the femoral stem and head (n = 3,663); mixed head-cup THAs with different head and cup manufacturers (n = 12,960), and mixed stem-head-cup THAs with different femoral stem, head, and cup manufacturers (n = 1,773). Mixed prostheses were defined as THAs (stem, head, and cup) composed of components made by different manufacturers. Results 11% of THAs had mixed components (n = 18,396). The 6-year revision rates were similar for mixed and non-mixed THAs: 3.4% (95% CI: 3.1w–3.7) for mixed THAs and 3.5% (95% CI: 3.4–3.7) for non-mixed THAs. Revision of primary THAs due to loosening of the acetabulum was more common in mixed THAs (16% vs. 12%). Interpretation Over an 8-year period in the Netherlands, 11% of THAs had mixed components—with similar medium-term revision rates to those of non-mixed THAs. PMID:27348544

  20. TANK MIXING STUDY WITH FLOW RECIRCULATION

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.

    2014-06-25

    The primary objective of this work is to quantify the mixing time when two miscible fluids are mixed by one recirculation pump and to evaluate adequacy of 2.5 hours of pump recirculation to be considered well mixed in SRS tanks, JT-71/72. The work scope described here consists of two modeling analyses. They are the steady state flow pattern analysis during pump recirculation operation of the tank liquid and transient species transport calculations based on the initial steady state flow patterns. The modeling calculations for the mixing time are performed by using the 99% homogeneity criterion for the entire domain of the tank contents.

  1. Primary meningococcal conjunctivitis: an unusual case of transmission by saliva

    PubMed Central

    Dryden, Alexander W.S.; Rana, Mrinal; Pandey, Pravin

    2016-01-01

    Summary A 49-year-old diabetic man presented with a 2-day history of a painful right eye associated with a purulent discharge. Prior to becoming symptomatic, he reported that someone spat at him, resulting in direct contact between the saliva and his affected eye. Gram stain revealed numerous leucocytes with Gram-negative diplococci, and culture yielded Neisseria meningitidis (serogroup C). There was no evidence of any systemic infection, and blood cultures were negative for any growth. He was treated for primary meningococcal conjunctivitis (PMC) with intensive topical antibiotic eyedrops as well as systemic antibiotics. One week after commencing treatment he remained systemically well and his symptoms had fully resolved. PMID:27330479

  2. An independent confirmation of the correlation of Uf4 primary peaks and satellite structures of U VI, U V and U IV in mixed valence uranium oxides by two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boily, Jean-François; Ilton, Eugene S.

    2008-12-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) correlation spectroscopy was used to resolve the positions and correlations among U4f primary peaks and satellite structures of U IV, U V and U VI components on a dry mica surface. These different species resulted from the reduction of U VI, initially sorbed/precipitated from solution, upon exposure to a high flux of monochromatic Al Kα X-rays during X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Synchronous and asynchronous 2D maps of these results are consistent with previous assignments to U IV, U V and U VI components of the solid. The synchronous spectra confirmed the negative correlation between U VI and U IV components and the asynchronous spectra confirmed the role of U V as a reactive intermediate in the reduction reaction of U VI to U IV. Simulations of 2D correlation maps using synthetic spectra of the primary peaks showed that the presence of highly overlapped peaks centered within 2 eV of each other cannot be distinguished without the presence of additional cross-peaks. The maps have therefore confirmed the existence of three dominant oxidation states, and identified positions of U IV, U V and U VI U4f primary peaks and satellite structures that are consistent with previous peak-fitting efforts. Satellite structures also showed out-of-phase correlations among the different oxidation states, further confirming their use as reliable indicators of oxidation state.

  3. Human ficolin: cDNA cloning, demonstration of peripheral blood leucocytes as the major site of synthesis and assignment of the gene to chromosome 9.

    PubMed Central

    Lu, J; Tay, P N; Kon, O L; Reid, K B

    1996-01-01

    Pig ficolins and a number of other proteins contain sequences that are homologous to the C-terminal halves of fibrinogen beta- and gamma-chains. To clone the cDNA for human ficolin, two degenerate oligonucleotide primers were synthesized, based on two stretches of protein sequence that were highly conserved among those proteins, and used for PCR with cDNA from a human uterus lambda gt11 library as a template. A PCR product with a predicted size of 300 bp was obtained and this was used to screen a uterus cDNA library. Of the positive clones isolated, two (U1 and U2), containing inserts of 1.7 and 1.1 kb respectively, were found to encode human ficolin. The cDNA-derived amino acid sequence of human ficolin has approx. 75% identity with, and a similar domain organization to, the two pig ficolin sequences, which are characterized by the presence of a leader peptide, a short N-terminal segment followed by a collagen-like region and then by a C-terminal fibrinogen-like domain. The 1.1 kb insert of clone U2 was used in Northern-blot analysis, and a very strong signal for a 1.4 kb mRNA species was detected in mRNA from human peripheral blood leucocytes. This showed that, despite the initial characterization of pig ficolin as a putative receptor on uterine cells for transforming growth factor beta 1, blood leucocytes are probably the major site of human ficolin synthesis. Much weaker signals of the same size were also detected in spleen, lung and thymus and may be due to the presence of tissue macrophages or trapped blood in these tissues. An mRNA species of approx. 1.3 kb in human liver also weakly hybridized to the U2 probe, indicating the presence of a sequence that was distinct from, but related to, ficolin. The gene for human ficolin has been mapped to chromosome 9. PMID:8573080

  4. Primary Hyperparathyroidism

    MedlinePlus

    ... D blood test. This test is recommended because vitamin D deficiency is common in people with primary hyperparathyroidism. How ... bone density measurements every 1 to 2 years. Vitamin D deficiency should be corrected if present. Patients who are ...

  5. LatMix 2011 and 2012 Dispersion Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. LatMix 2011 and 2012 Dispersion Analysis Miles A...continue analysis and publication of results obtained during the “Scalable Lateral Mixing and Coherent Turbulence” (a.k.a., LatMix) DRI. The initial...work included the airborne lidar operations as well as a substantial part of the field operations and analysis . A primary objective of our LatMix

  6. [In vitro comparative study of the protective effect of different theophyllines on the leucocytes' histamine-release induced by antigen (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Biot, N; Grosclaude, M; Kofman, J; Perrin-Fayolle, M

    1980-01-01

    The recent discovery of the protective action of xanthic bases towards histamine-release consecutive to the antigen-antibody reaction led the authors to study the importance of this protection induced by various theophylline derivatives. The technique used was that described by LICHTENSTEIN and OSLER: isolation of leucocytes, measurement of histamine liberated in the presence of antigen, same measurement done in the presence of antigen and theophylline. The antigens used were: house dust, Dermatophagoides pteronyssimus (DP), graminaceae pollens. The tested theophyllines were: the theophylline base, aminophylline, bamiphylline, diprophylline, thio theo, piperazine acefilinate. All these substances studied brought a reduction of the histamine-release but according to a variable frequency and intensity: the thio theo, the diprophylline and the piperazine acefilinate gave the best results. Besides the latters are clearer when the antigen was dust or DP. This study enables the confirmation of the inhibiting action of theophyllines on histamine-release induced by antigen, but complementary studies on a larger number of cases seem necessary in order to determine precisely the most efficient derivatives.

  7. Frequencies of erythrocyte nuclear abnormalities and of leucocytes in the fish Barbus peloponnesius correlate with a pollution gradient in the River Bregalnica (Macedonia).

    PubMed

    Rebok, Katerina; Jordanova, Maja; Slavevska-Stamenković, Valentina; Ivanova, Lozenka; Kostov, Vasil; Stafilov, Trajče; Rocha, Eduardo

    2017-03-10

    Integrated chemical and biomarker approaches were performed to estimate if there is ongoing toxicity in the River Bregalnica, namely connected with the presence of metals. The study was performed in water, sediment, and barbel (Barbus peloponnesius), collected in two seasons, from two suspected polluted and one reference zones. The water analyses revealed higher mean values in polluted sites for most of the examined physicochemical parameters. Metal concentrations (Zn, Cu, Cd, Mn, Pb, and Fe) in water were more or less constant, whereas in sediment, they were higher at the two polluted locations. Condition factor (CF), as a general health indicator, revealed better overall condition in barbel from the reference site. In general, blood parameters revealed higher values in the polluted localities. Irrespective of sex and/or season, the frequency of micronuclei (MN) and vacuolated nuclei (VN) were with higher rates in polluted sites. Similarly, the frequencies of the leucocytes (Le), binuclei (BN), and irregularly shaped nuclei (ISN) were also significantly increased in the polluted localities, but they seemed prone to be influenced by sex and/or season. However, strong positive correlations between blood biomarkers and most water physicochemical parameters and metal in sediment were estimated. Our data support that the River Bregalnica's lower course receives significant genotoxic pollution, likely via metal industry effluents, agricultural runoff, and domestic sewage, and reinforced the utility of MN and other nuclear abnormalities as sensitive and suitable biomarkers for genotoxicity when used in monitoring studies.

  8. Expression of late viral proteins is restricted in nasal mucosal leucocytes but not in epithelial cells during early-stage equine herpes virus-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Gryspeerdt, Annick C; Vandekerckhove, Annelies P; Baghi, Hossein Bannazadeh; Van de Walle, Gerlinde R; Nauwynck, Hans J

    2012-08-01

    Equine herpes virus (EHV)-1 replicates in the epithelial cells of the upper respiratory tract and reaches the lamina propria and bloodstream in infected mononuclear cells. This study evaluated expression of the late viral proteins gB, gC, gD and gM in respiratory epithelial and mononuclear cells using: (1) epithelial-like rabbit kidney cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells infected with EHV-1 in vitro; (2) an equine ex vivo nasal explant system; and (3) nasal mucosa tissue of ponies infected in vivo. The viral proteins were expressed in all late-infected epithelial cells, whereas expression was not observed in infected leucocytes where proteins gB and gM were expressed in 60-90%, and proteins gC and gD in only 20% of infected cells, respectively. The results indicate that expression of these viral proteins during early-stage EHV-1 infection is highly dependent on the cell type infected.

  9. CELL RESPIRATION STUDIES : II. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE OXYGEN CONSUMPTION OF BLOOD FROM NORMAL INDIVIDUALS AND PATIENTS WITH INCREASED LEUCOCYTE COUNTS (SEPSIS; CHRONIC MYELOGENOUS LEUCEMIA).

    PubMed

    Daland, G A; Isaacs, R

    1927-06-30

    1. The oxygen consumption of blood of normal individuals, when the hemoglobin is saturated with oxygen, is practically zero within the limits of experimental error of the microspirometer used. 2. The oxygen consumed in a microspirometer by the blood of patients with chronic myelogenous leucemia with a high white blood cell count, and of one with leucocytosis from sepsis, was proportional to the number of adult polymorphonuclear neutrophils in the blood. 3. No correlation could be made between the rate of oxygen absorption and the total number of white blood cells in the blood, or the total number of immature cells, or the number of red blood cells, or the amount of oxyhemoglobin. 4. The blood of patients with chronic myelogenous leucemia continued to use oxygen in the microspirometer longer than that of normal individuals, and the hemoglobin, in the leucemic bloods, became desaturated even though exposed to air. 5. In blood in which the bulk. of the cells were immature and the mature cells few, the oxygen consumption was lower than in blood in which the mature cells predominated. The rate of oxygen consumption of the immature cells was relatively low as compared to the mature. 6. The slower rate of oxygen absorption by the immature leucocytes in chronic myelogenous leucemia as compared to the mature cells, places them, in accord with Warburg's reports, in the class of the malignant tissues in this respect rather than in the group of young or embryonic cells.

  10. Suppression subtractive hybridization coupled with microarray analysis to examine differential expression of genes in Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus leucocytes during Edwardsiella tarda and viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus infection.

    PubMed

    Matsuyama, Tomomasa; Fujiwara, Atushi; Takano, Tomokazu; Nakayasu, Chihaya

    2011-10-01

    Transcriptional changes in the peripheral blood leucocytes (PBL) of Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus challenged by Edwardsiella tarda and viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) were investigated using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) coupled with cDNA microarray analysis. First, we constructed an SSH cDNA library using mRNA samples isolated from PBL of P. olivaceus that had been experimentally infected with E. tarda. We then examined the transcriptional changes occurring in the PBL due to E. tarda and VHSV infection using a cDNA microarray produced using clones produced from the SSH library. A total of 565 and 180 cDNA sequences corresponding to mRNA species that are either up- or down-regulated by E. tarda infection were isolated by SSH. While host gene expression responses in response to E. tarda and VHSV infection share several response elements, distinct patterns of gene expression were also observed. Specifically, E. tarda infection enhanced the expression of cell adhesion molecules while VHSV enhanced the expression of interferon and proteasome-related genes. In challenge trials of the two infectious agents, expression profiles of chemokines were also observed to differ. The results indicated that distinguishing between viral and bacterial infection is possible based on the RNA expression profiles of PBL from infected fish.

  11. Combined cord blood and bone marrow transplantation from the same human leucocyte antigen-identical sibling donor for children with malignant and non-malignant diseases.

    PubMed

    Tucunduva, Luciana; Volt, Fernanda; Cunha, Renato; Locatelli, Franco; Zecca, Marco; Yesilipek, Akif; Caniglia, Maurizio; Güngör, Tayfun; Aksoylar, Serap; Fagioli, Franca; Bertrand, Yves; Addari, Maria Carmen; de la Fuente, Josu; Winiarski, Jacek; Biondi, Andrea; Sengeloev, Henrik; Badell, Isabel; Mellgren, Karin; de Heredia, Cristina Díaz; Sedlacek, Petr; Vora, Ajay; Rocha, Vanderson; Ruggeri, Annalisa; Gluckman, Eliane

    2015-04-01

    Umbilical cord blood (UCB) from an human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-identical sibling can be used for transplantation of patients with malignant and non-malignant diseases. However, the low cellular content of most UCB units represents a limitation to this approach. An option to increase cell dose is to harvest bone marrow (BM) cells from the same donor and infuse them along with the UCB. We studied 156 children who received such a combined graft between 1992 and 2011. Median age was 7 years and 78% of patients (n = 122) were transplanted for non-malignant diseases, mainly haemoglobinopathies. Acute leukaemia (n = 26) was the most frequent malignant diagnosis. Most patients (91%) received myeloablative conditioning. Median donor age was 1·7 years, median infused nucleated cell dose was 24·4 × 10(7) /kg and median follow-up was 41 months. Sixty-days neutrophil recovery occurred in 96% of patients at a median of 17 d. The probabilities of grade-II-IV acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) were 19% and 10%, respectively. Four-year overall survival was 90% (68% malignant; 97% non-malignant diseases) with 3% probability of death. In conclusion, combined UCB and BM transplantation from an HLA-identical sibling donor is an effective treatment for children with malignant and non-malignant disorders with high overall survival and low incidence of GVHD.

  12. Human leucocyte antigen-G (HLA-G) and its murine functional homolog Qa2 in the Trypanosoma cruzi Infection.

    PubMed

    Dias, Fabrício C; Mendes-Junior, Celso T; Silva, Maria C; Tristão, Fabrine S M; Dellalibera-Joviliano, Renata; Moreau, Philippe; Soares, Edson G; Menezes, Jean G; Schmidt, André; Dantas, Roberto O; Marin-Neto, José A; Silva, João S; Donadi, Eduardo A

    2015-01-01

    Genetic susceptibility factors, parasite strain, and an adequate modulation of the immune system seem to be crucial for disease progression after Trypanosoma cruzi infection. HLA-G and its murine functional homolog Qa2 have well-recognized immunomodulatory properties. We evaluated the HLA-G 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) polymorphic sites (associated with mRNA stability and target for microRNA binding) and HLA-G tissue expression (heart, colon, and esophagus) in patients presenting Chagas disease, stratified according to the major clinical variants. Further, we investigated the transcriptional levels of Qa2 and other pro- and anti-inflammatory genes in affected mouse tissues during T. cruzi experimental acute and early chronic infection induced by the CL strain. Chagas disease patients exhibited differential HLA-G 3'UTR susceptibility allele/genotype/haplotype patterns, according to the major clinical variant (digestive/cardiac/mixed/indeterminate). HLA-G constitutive expression on cardiac muscle and colonic cells was decreased in Chagasic tissues; however, no difference was observed for Chagasic and non-Chagasic esophagus tissues. The transcriptional levels of Qa2 and other anti and proinflammatory (CTLA-4, PDCD1, IL-10, INF-γ, and NOS-2) genes were induced only during the acute T. cruzi infection in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. We present several lines of evidence indicating the role of immunomodulatory genes and molecules in human and experimental T. cruzi infection.

  13. Human Leucocyte Antigen-G (HLA-G) and Its Murine Functional Homolog Qa2 in the Trypanosoma cruzi Infection

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Fabrício C.; Mendes-Junior, Celso T.; Silva, Maria C.; Tristão, Fabrine S. M.; Dellalibera-Joviliano, Renata; Soares, Edson G.; Menezes, Jean G.; Schmidt, André; Dantas, Roberto O.; Marin-Neto, José A.; Silva, João S.; Donadi, Eduardo A.

    2015-01-01

    Genetic susceptibility factors, parasite strain, and an adequate modulation of the immune system seem to be crucial for disease progression after Trypanosoma cruzi infection. HLA-G and its murine functional homolog Qa2 have well-recognized immunomodulatory properties. We evaluated the HLA-G 3′ untranslated region (3′UTR) polymorphic sites (associated with mRNA stability and target for microRNA binding) and HLA-G tissue expression (heart, colon, and esophagus) in patients presenting Chagas disease, stratified according to the major clinical variants. Further, we investigated the transcriptional levels of Qa2 and other pro- and anti-inflammatory genes in affected mouse tissues during T. cruzi experimental acute and early chronic infection induced by the CL strain. Chagas disease patients exhibited differential HLA-G 3′UTR susceptibility allele/genotype/haplotype patterns, according to the major clinical variant (digestive/cardiac/mixed/indeterminate). HLA-G constitutive expression on cardiac muscle and colonic cells was decreased in Chagasic tissues; however, no difference was observed for Chagasic and non-Chagasic esophagus tissues. The transcriptional levels of Qa2 and other anti and proinflammatory (CTLA-4, PDCD1, IL-10, INF-γ, and NOS-2) genes were induced only during the acute T. cruzi infection in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. We present several lines of evidence indicating the role of immunomodulatory genes and molecules in human and experimental T. cruzi infection. PMID:25688175

  14. Primary hyperparathyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Madkhali, Tarıq; Alhefdhi, Amal; Chen, Herbert; Elfenbein, Dawn

    2016-01-01

    Primary hyperparathyroidism is a common endocrine disorder caused by overactivation of parathyroid glands resulting in excessive release of parathyroid hormone. The resultant hypercalcemia leads to a myriad of symptoms. Primary hyperparathyroidism may increase a patient’s morbidity and even mortality if left untreated. During the last few decades, disease presentation has shifted from the classic presentation of severe bone and kidney manifestations to most patients now being diagnosed on routine labs. Although surgery is the only curative therapy, many advances have been made over the past decades in the diagnosis and the surgical management of primary hyperparathyroidism. The aim of this review is to summarize the characteristics of the disease, the work up, and the treatment options. PMID:26985167

  15. Can whales mix the ocean?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavery, T. J.; Roudnew, B.; Seuront, L.; Mitchell, J. G.; Middleton, J.

    2012-07-01

    Ocean mixing influences global climate and enhances primary productivity by transporting nutrient rich water into the euphotic zone. The contribution of the swimming biosphere to diapycnal mixing in the ocean has been hypothesised to occur on scales similar to that of tides or winds, however, the extent to which this contributes to nutrient transport and stimulates primary productivity has not been explored. Here, we introduce a novel method to estimate the diapycnal diffusivity that occurs as a result of a sperm whale swimming through a pycnocline. Nutrient profiles from the Hawaiian Ocean are used to further estimate the amount of nitrogen transported into the euphotic zone and the primary productivity stimulated as a result. We estimate that the 80 sperm whales that travel through an area of 104 km2 surrounding Hawaii increase diapycnal diffusivity by 10-6 m2 s-1 which results in the flux of 105 kg of nitrogen into the euphotic zone each year. This nitrogen input subsequently stimulates 6 × 105 kg of carbon per year. The nutrient input of swimming sperm whales is modest compared to dominant modes of nutrient transport such as nitrogen fixation but occurs more consistently and thus may provide the nutrients necessary to enable phytoplankton growth and survival in the absence of other seasonal and daily nutrient inputs.

  16. [Primary hyperoxaluria].

    PubMed

    Cochat, Pierre; Fargue, Sonia; Bacchetta, Justine; Bertholet-Thomas, Aurélia; Sabot, Jean-François; Harambat, Jérôme

    2011-07-01

    Primary hyperoxalurias are rare recessive inherited inborn errors of glyoxylate metabolism. They are responsible for progressive renal involvement, which further lead to systemic oxalate deposition, which can even occur in infants. Primary hyperoxaluria type 1 is the most common form in Europe and is due to alanine-glyoxylate aminostransferase deficiency, a hepatic peroxisomal pyridoxin-dependent enzyme. Therefore primary hyperoxaluria type 1 is responsible for hyperoxaluria leading to aggressive stone formation and nephrocalcinosis. As glomerular filtration rate decreases, systemic oxalate storage occurs throughout all the body, and mainly in the skeleton. The diagnosis is first based on urine oxalate measurement, then on genotyping, which may also allow prenatal diagnosis to be proposed. Conservative measures - including hydration, crystallization inhibitors and pyridoxine - are safe and may allow long lasting renal survival, provided it is given as soon as the diagnosis has been even suspected. No dialysis procedure can remove enough oxalate to compensate oxalate overproduction from the sick liver, therefore a combined liver and kidney transplantation should be planned before advanced renal disease has occurred, in order to limit/avoid systemic oxalate deposition. In the future, primary hyperoxaluria type 1 may benefit from hepatocyte transplantation, chaperone molecules, etc.

  17. Peripheral mononuclear leucocyte beta adrenoceptors and non-specific bronchial responsiveness to methacholine in young and elderly normal subjects and asthmatic patients.

    PubMed Central

    Connolly, M. J.; Crowley, J. J.; Nielson, C. P.; Charan, N. B.; Vestal, R. E.

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND--As beta adrenoceptor dysfunction occurs in both the normal elderly subject and in young asthmatic patients, the hypothesis was examined that age related beta adrenoceptor changes are important in the pathogenesis of late onset asthma in old age. METHODS--Subjects were non-smokers who comprised 17 young normal subjects of mean (SE) age 29.4 (1.3) years, 17 elderly normal subjects of 67.2 (1.3) years, seven young asthmatic patients of 31.0 (2.8) years, and 17 elderly asthmatic patients of 68.5 (1.4) years. All asthmatic patients withheld inhalers for 12 hours and oral treatment for 24 hours before each study day. Subjects underwent an inhaled methacholine challenge (Newcastle dosimeter method) on two nonconsecutive days. The slope of the flow at 50% of the vital capacity (FEF50) dose-response curve was derived from the percentage fall in FEE50 divided by methacholine dose (sFEF50). Beta-adrenoceptor density (Bmax) and affinity (%KH) were determined with (125I)iodocyanopindolol as the radioligand in membranes prepared from mononuclear leucocytes. RESULTS--Log sFEF50 was shown to be reproducible (repeatability coefficient 0.41) on the two study days and was inversely related to %KH but not to Bmax. Multiple regression analysis (all 58 subjects, overall R2 = 0.57) revealed an inverse relation between log sFEF50 and %KH, and between log sFEF50 and Bmax. The inverse relation between log sFEF50 and %KH was preserved whereas that between log sFEF50 and Bmax was lost when young asthmatic subjects or when all asthmatic subjects were excluded from multiple regression analysis. CONCLUSIONS--The beta adrenoceptor dysfunction observed in late onset asthma may be similar to that seen during ageing. Thus late onset asthma may represent the extreme of a spectrum of age associated beta adrenoceptor dysfunction. PMID:8153936

  18. De novo Assembly of the Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphin Leucocyte Transcriptome to Identify Putative Genes Involved in the Aquatic Adaptation and Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Jia; Yang, Lili; Chen, Jialin; Wu, Yuping; Yi, Meisheng

    2013-01-01

    Background The Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis), a marine mammal species inhabited in the waters of Southeast Asia, South Africa and Australia, has attracted much attention because of the dramatic decline in population size in the past decades, which raises the concern of extinction. So far, this species is poorly characterized at molecular level due to little sequence information available in public databases. Recent advances in large-scale RNA sequencing provide an efficient approach to generate abundant sequences for functional genomic analyses in the species with un-sequenced genomes. Principal Findings We performed a de novo assembly of the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin leucocyte transcriptome by Illumina sequencing. 108,751 high quality sequences from 47,840,388 paired-end reads were generated, and 48,868 and 46,587 unigenes were functionally annotated by BLAST search against the NCBI non-redundant and Swiss-Prot protein databases (E-value<10−5), respectively. In total, 16,467 unigenes were clustered into 25 functional categories by searching against the COG database, and BLAST2GO search assigned 37,976 unigenes to 61 GO terms. In addition, 36,345 unigenes were grouped into 258 KEGG pathways. We also identified 9,906 simple sequence repeats and 3,681 putative single nucleotide polymorphisms as potential molecular markers in our assembled sequences. A large number of unigenes were predicted to be involved in immune response, and many genes were predicted to be relevant to adaptive evolution and cetacean-specific traits. Conclusion This study represented the first transcriptome analysis of the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin, an endangered species. The de novo transcriptome analysis of the unique transcripts will provide valuable sequence information for discovery of new genes, characterization of gene expression, investigation of various pathways and adaptive evolution, as well as identification of genetic markers. PMID:24015242

  19. Quantitative assessment of overall inflammatory bowel disease activity using labelled leucocytes: a direct comparison between indium-111 and technetium-99m HMPAO methods.

    PubMed Central

    Mansfield, J C; Giaffer, M H; Tindale, W B; Holdsworth, C D

    1995-01-01

    The ideal imaging method in inflammatory bowel disease would reliably detect inflammation, identify the correct intestinal location, and assess the severity of the disease. The aim of this study was to compare scintigraphic methods of quantifying overall disease activity using both indium-111 (111In) and technetium-99M (99mTc) HMPAO labelled leucocyte scans. The four day faecal excretion of 111In was measured after 111In scintigraphy in 24 patients known to have inflammatory bowel disease. The same patients also underwent 99mTc HMPAO scanning. The scans were performed 10 days or less apart with no changes in treatment between scans. Bowel activity on the 99mTc HMPAO scans was assessed using a computer based method (scan score) and a visual grading method in a further 54 99mTc HMPAO. The results showed a close correlation between inflammatory activity defined by faecal 111In excretion and the scan score generated from the computer analysis of the 99mTc HMPAO image (Spearman rank correlation: rs = 0.78; p < 0.001). Accurate information to localise inflammatory activity could be obtained by simple visual assessment of both types of scan images, although image quality was superior with 99mTc HMPAO. Qualification of disease activity from 99mTc HMPAO images by visual grading was associated with a large variability, only 69% of scans had similar scores when graded by three observers. Computer generated image analysis was more reproducible. In conclusion, in inflammatory bowel disease 99mTc HMPAO scintigraphy and faecal 111In excretion correlated well. Either method can quantify and localise the inflammation. As 99mTc HMPAO scanning provides a quicker result, with a lower radiation dose, and avoids faecal collection, it may be the preferred method. Images Figure 2 PMID:8549945

  20. Dog leucocyte antigen class II diversity and relationships among indigenous dogs of the island nations of Indonesia (Bali), Australia and New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Runstadler, J A; Angles, J M; Pedersen, N C

    2006-11-01

    The genetic polymorphism at the dog leucocyte antigen (DLA) class II loci DQA1, DQB1 and DRB1 was studied in a large genetically diverse population of feral and wild-type dogs from the large island nations of Indonesia (Bali), Australia and New Guinea (Bali street dog, dingo and New Guinea singing dog, respectively). Sequence-based typing (SBT) of the hypervariable region of DLA-DRB1, -DQA1 and -DQB1 alleles was used to determine genetic diversity. No new DQA1 alleles were recognized among the three dog populations, but five novel DLA-DRB1 and 2 novel DLA-DQB1 allele sequences were detected. Additional unknown alleles were postulated to exist in Bali street dogs, as indicated by the large percentage of individuals (15%-33%) that had indeterminate DRB1, DQA1 and DQB1 alleles by SBT. All three groups of dogs possessed alleles that were relatively uncommon in conventional purebreds. The New Guinea singing dog and dingo shared alleles that were not present in the Bali street dogs. These findings suggested that the dingo was more closely related to indigenous dogs from New Guinea. Feral dog populations, in particular large ones such as that of Bali, show genetic diversity that existed prior to phenotypic selection for breeds originating from their respective regions. This diversity needs to be identified and maintained in the face of progressive Westernization. These populations deserve further study as potential model populations for the evolution of major histocompatibility complex alleles, for the study of canine genetic diversity, for the development of dog breeds and for studies on the comigration of ancestral human and dog populations.

  1. The use of reference strand-mediated conformational analysis for the study of cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) feline leucocyte antigen class II DRB polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Drake, G J C; Kennedy, L J; Auty, H K; Ryvar, R; Ollier, W E R; Kitchener, A C; Freeman, A R; Radford, A D

    2004-01-01

    There is now considerable evidence to suggest the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) has limited genetic diversity. However, the extent of this and its significance to the fitness of the cheetah population, both in the wild and captivity, is the subject of some debate. This reflects the difficulty associated with establishing a direct link between low variability at biologically significant loci and deleterious aspects of phenotype in this, and other, species. Attempts to study one such region, the feline leucocyte antigen (FLA), are hampered by a general reliance on cloning and sequencing which is expensive, labour-intensive, subject to PCR artefact and always likely to underestimate true variability. In this study we have applied reference strand-mediated conformational analysis (RSCA) to determine the FLA-DRB phenotypes of 25 cheetahs. This technique was rapid, repeatable and less prone to polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-induced sequence artefacts associated with cloning. Individual cheetahs were shown to have up to three FLA-DRB genes. A total of five alleles were identified (DRB*ha14-17 and DRB*gd01) distributed among four genotypes. Fifteen cheetahs were DRB*ha14/ha15/ha16/ha17, three were DRB*ha15/ha16/ha17, six were DRB*ha14/ha16/ha17 and one was DRB*ha14/ha15/ha16/ha17/gd01. Sequence analysis of DRB*gd01 suggested it was a recombinant of DRB*ha16 and DRB*ha17. Generation of new alleles is difficult to document, and the clear demonstration of such an event is unusual. This study confirms further the limited genetic variability of the cheetah at a biologically significant region. RSCA will facilitate large-scale studies that will be needed to correlate genetic diversity at such loci with population fitness in the cheetah and other species.

  2. Towards allele-level human leucocyte antigens genotyping - assessing two next-generation sequencing platforms: Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine and Illumina MiSeq.

    PubMed

    Duke, J L; Lind, C; Mackiewicz, K; Ferriola, D; Papazoglou, A; Derbeneva, O; Wallace, D; Monos, D S

    2015-10-01

    Human leucocyte antigens (HLA) typing has been a challenge due to extreme polymorphism of the HLA genes and limitations of the current technologies and protocols used for their characterization. Recently, next-generation sequencing techniques have been shown to be a well-suited technology for the complete characterization of the HLA genes. However, a comprehensive assessment of the different platforms for HLA typing, describing the limitations and advantages of each of them, has not been presented. We have compared the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM) and Illumina MiSeq, currently the two most frequently used platforms for diagnostic applications, for a number of metrics including total output, quality score per position across the reads and error rates after alignment which can all affect the accuracy of HLA genotyping. For this purpose, we have used one homozygous and three heterozygous well-characterized samples, at HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C, HLA-DRB1 and HLA-DQB1. The total output of bases produced by the MiSeq was higher, and they have higher quality scores and a lower overall error rate than the PGM. The MiSeq also has a higher fidelity when sequencing through homopolymer regions up to 9 bp in length. The need to set phase between distant polymorphic sites was more readily achieved with MiSeq using paired-end sequencing of fragments that are longer than those obtained with PGM. Additionally, we have assessed the workflows of the different platforms for complexity of sample preparation, sequencer operation and turnaround time. The effects of data quality and quantity can impact the genotyping results; having an adequate amount of good quality data to analyse will be imperative for confident HLA genotyping. The overall turnaround time can be very comparable between the two platforms; however, the complexity of sample preparation is higher with PGM, while the actual sequencing time is longer with MiSeq.

  3. Persistence of Recipient Human Leucocyte Antigen (HLA) Antibodies and Production of Donor HLA antibodies Following Reduced Intensity Allogeneic Haematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Fasano, Ross M.; Mamcarz, Ewelina; Adams, Sharon; Jerussi, Theresa Donohue; Sugimoto, Kyoko; Tian, Xin; Flegel, Willy A.; Childs, Richard W.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) on human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-alloimmunization and platelet transfusion refractoriness (PTR) following allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (Allo-HSCT) are unknown. We studied HLA-alloantibodies in a cohort of 16 patients (8 HLA-alloimmunized with pre-transplant histories of PTR and 8 non-alloimmunized controls) undergoing Allo-HSCT using fludarabine/cyclophosphamide-based RIC. Pre- and post-transplant serum samples were analysed for HLA-antibodies and compared to myeloid, T-cell and bone marrow plasma cell chimaerism. Among alloimmunized patients, the duration that HLA-antibodies persisted post-transplant correlated strongly with pre-transplant HLA-antibody mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) and PRA levels (Spearman’s rank correlation = 0.954 (p=0.0048) and 0.865 (p=0.0083) respectively). Pre-transplant MFI >10,000 was associated with post-transplant HLA antibody persistence >100 days (p=0.029). HLA-antibodies persisted ≥100 days in 3/8 patients despite recipient chimaerism being undetectable in all lympho-haematopoietic lineages including plasma cells. Post-transplant de-novo HLA-antibodies developed in 3 control patients with 2 developing PTR; the donors for 2 of these patients demonstrated pre-existing HLA-antibodies of equivalent specificity to those in the patient, confirming donor origin. These data show HLA-antibodies may persist for prolonged periods following RIC. Further study is needed to determine the incidence of post-transplant PTR as a consequence of donor–derived HLA alloimmunization before recommendations on donor HLA-antibody screening can be made. PMID:24750103

  4. Determining donor-specific antibody C1q-binding ability improves the prediction of antibody-mediated rejection in human leucocyte antigen-incompatible kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Malheiro, Jorge; Tafulo, Sandra; Dias, Leonídio; Martins, La Salete; Fonseca, Isabel; Beirão, Idalina; Castro-Henriques, António; Cabrita, António

    2017-04-01

    Detrimental impact of preformed donor-specific antibodies (DSAs) against human leucocyte antigens on outcomes after kidney transplantation are well documented, however, the value of their capacity to bind complement for predicting antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) and graft survival still needs to be confirmed. We aimed to study DSA characteristics (strength and C1q binding) that might distinguish harmful DSA from clinically irrelevant ones. We retrospectively studied 60 kidney-transplanted patients with preformed DSA detected by single antigen bead (SAB) assays (IgG and C1q kits), from a cohort of 517 kidney graft recipients (124 with detectable anti-HLA antibodies). Patients were divided into DSA strength (MFI < vs. ≥ 15 000) and C1q-binding ability. AMR frequency was high (30%) and it increased with DSA strength (P = 0.002) and C1q+ DSA (P < 0.001). The performance of DSA C1q-binding ability as a predictor of AMR was better than DSA strength (diagnostic odds ratio 16.3 vs. 6.4, respectively). Furthermore, a multivariable logistic regression showed that C1q+ DSA was a risk factor for AMR (OR = 16.80, P = 0.001), while high MFI DSAs were not. Graft survival was lower in high MFI C1q+ DSA in comparison with patients with C1q- high or low MFI DSA (at 6 years, 38%, 83% and 80%, respectively; P = 0.001). Both DSA strength and C1q-binding ability assessment seem valuable for improving pretransplant risk assessment. Since DSA C1q-binding ability was a better predictor of AMR and correlated with graft survival, C1q-SAB may be a particularly useful tool.

  5. Mixing in astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Fryer, Christopher Lee

    2011-01-07

    Turbulent mixing plays a vital role in many fields in astronomy. Here I review a few of these sites, discuss the importance of this turbulent mixing and the techniques used by astrophysicists to solve these problems.

  6. Mixing in explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhl, A.L.

    1993-12-01

    Explosions always contain embedded turbulent mixing regions, for example: boundary layers, shear layers, wall jets, and unstable interfaces. Described here is one particular example of the latter, namely, the turbulent mixing occurring in the fireball of an HE-driven blast wave. The evolution of the turbulent mixing was studied via two-dimensional numerical simulations of the convective mixing processes on an adaptive mesh. Vorticity was generated on the fireball interface by baroclinic effects. The interface was unstable, and rapidly evolved into a turbulent mixing layer. Four phases of mixing were observed: (1) a strong blast wave phase; (2) and implosion phase; (3) a reshocking phase; and (4) an asymptotic mixing phase. The flowfield was azimuthally averaged to evaluate the mean and r.m.s. fluctuation profiles across the mixing layer. The vorticity decayed due to a cascade process. This caused the corresponding enstrophy parameter to increase linearly with time -- in agreement with homogeneous turbulence calculations of G.K. Batchelor.

  7. Primary hyperparathyroidism.

    PubMed

    Govett, G; White, J

    1989-07-01

    Primary hyperparathyroidism is a pathological entity due to excessive secretion of parathormone from a single or multiple parathyroid glands. The biochemical hallmark of this disorder is an elevated serum calcium. The relationship of the parathyroid glands with the thymus gland in fetal development accounts for the occasional aberrant location of the parathyroids. By utilizing computed tomography or nuclear scanning or both preoperatively, the surgeon can isolate the hyperfunctioning adenoma and resect it, thus minimizing potential complications.

  8. Theoretical study of mixing in liquid clouds - Part 1: Classical concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korolev, Alexei; Khain, Alex; Pinsky, Mark; French, Jeffrey

    2016-07-01

    The present study considers final stages of in-cloud mixing in the framework of classical concept of homogeneous and extreme inhomogeneous mixing. Simple analytical relationships between basic microphysical parameters were obtained for homogeneous and extreme inhomogeneous mixing based on the adiabatic consideration. It was demonstrated that during homogeneous mixing the functional relationships between the moments of the droplets size distribution hold only during the primary stage of mixing. Subsequent random mixing between already mixed parcels and undiluted cloud parcels breaks these relationships. However, during extreme inhomogeneous mixing the functional relationships between the microphysical parameters hold both for primary and subsequent mixing. The obtained relationships can be used to identify the type of mixing from in situ observations. The effectiveness of the developed method was demonstrated using in situ data collected in convective clouds. It was found that for the specific set of in situ measurements the interaction between cloudy and entrained environments was dominated by extreme inhomogeneous mixing.

  9. Mixed methods research.

    PubMed

    Halcomb, Elizabeth; Hickman, Louise

    2015-04-08

    Mixed methods research involves the use of qualitative and quantitative data in a single research project. It represents an alternative methodological approach, combining qualitative and quantitative research approaches, which enables nurse researchers to explore complex phenomena in detail. This article provides a practical overview of mixed methods research and its application in nursing, to guide the novice researcher considering a mixed methods research project.

  10. Entrainment and mixing in thrust augmenting ejectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernal, L.; Sarohia, V.

    1983-01-01

    An experimental investigation of two-dimensional thrust augmenting ejector flows has been conducted. Measurements of the shroud surface pressure distribution, mean velocity, turbulent intensities and Reynolds stresses were made in two shroud geometries at various primary nozzle pressure ratios. The effects of shroud geometry and primary nozzle pressure ratio on the shroud surface pressure distribution, mean flow field and turbulent field were determined. From these measurements the evolution of mixing within the shroud of the primary flow and entrained fluid was obtained. The relationship between the mean flow field, the turbulent field and the shroud surface pressure distribution is discussed.

  11. Mixed surfactant systems for enhanced oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Llave, F.M.; Gall, B.L.; Noll, L.A.

    1990-12-01

    The results of an evaluation of mixed surfactant systems for enhanced oil recovery are described. Several surfactant combinations have been studied. These include alkyl aryl sulfonates as primary surfactants and carboxymethylated ethoxylated (CME) surfactants and ethoxylated sulfonates (ES) as secondary surfactants. The ethoxylated surfactants increase the salinity tolerance of the primary surfactants and, in theory, allow tailoring of the surfactant system to match selected reservoir conditions. The experiments conducted included interfacial tension (IFT) measurements, phase behavior measurements, adsorption and/or chromatographic separation of mixed surfactant systems, measurements of solution properties such as the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of surfactant mixtures, and crude oil displacement experiments. The effects of temperature, surfactant concentration, salinity, presence of divalent ions, hydrocarbon type, and component proportions in the mixed surfactant combinations, and injection strategies on the performance potential of the targeted surfactant/hydrocarbon systems were studied. 40 refs., 37 figs., 8 tabs.

  12. [Primary aldosteronism].

    PubMed

    Amar, Laurence

    2015-06-01

    Primary aldosteronism affects 6% of hypertensive patients. The diagnosis should be suspected in any patient with severe or resistant hypertension or hypertension associated with hypokalemia. The screening test consists on the assessment of the aldosterone to renin ratio. In case of an elevated ratio, the diagnosis of primary aldosteronism is confirmed by either elevated concentrations of basal plasma and/or urinary aldosterone or absence of suppression of aldosterone during dynamic test (including the saline infusion test). CT aims to ensure the absence of adrenal carcinoma and to study the morphology of the adrenals. The unilateral or bilateral type of aldosterone secretion is based on the realization of an adrenal venous sampling. When the hypersecretion is unilateral, the treatment consists of adrenalectomy leading to cure of hypertension in 42% of cases, improvement in 40% of cases. For patient with bilateral disease or who don't want to undergo surgery, treatment is based on spironolactone usually at doses of 25 or 50 mg in combination with other antihypertensives drugs such as diuretics or calcium channel blockers.

  13. Turbulent Mixing Parameterizations for Oceanic Flows and Student Support

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    projects is to formulate robust turbulence parameterizations that are applicable for a wide range of oceanic flow conditions. OBJECTIVES The...primary objectives of these projects are to bridge the gap between parameterizations/models for small-scale turbulent mixing developed from fundamental...1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Turbulent Mixing Parameterizations for Oceanic Flows

  14. High-density lipoprotein 3 physicochemical modifications induced by interaction with human polymorphonuclear leucocytes affect their ability to remove cholesterol from cells.

    PubMed Central

    Cogny, A; Atger, V; Paul, J L; Soni, T; Moatti, N

    1996-01-01

    1. We have recently reported that a short incubation (60 min) in vitro of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) 3 with human polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNs) leads to a proteolytic cleavage of apolipoprotein (apo) AII and to a change in the distribution of apo AI isoforms [Cogny, Paul, Atger, Soni and Moatti (1994) Eur. J. Biochem. 222, 965-973]. Since PMNs have been observed to be present in the earliest atherosclerotic lesions for a number of days, we investigated the HDL3 physiochemical modifications induced by in vitro interaction for a long period of time (24 h) with PMNs and the consequences of the changes on the ability of HDL3 to remove cholesterol from cells. 2. The stimulated PMN modification of HDL3 over 24 h resulted in a partial loss of protein with no variation in lipid molar ratio and a loss of 50% of HDL alpha-tocopherol content. The decrease in total protein was due first to a complete degradation of apo AII, and secondly to a partial loss of apo AI. The apo AI remaining on the particles was in part hydrolysed and the apo AI-1 isoform was completely shifted to the apo AI-2 isoform. These apo changes were accompanied by a displacement of the native HDL3 apparent size toward predominantly larger particles. 3. The ability of PMN-modified HDL3 to remove 3H-labelled free cholesterol from cells was measured in two cell lines: Fu5AH rat hepatoma cells and J774 mouse macrophages. HDL3 which had only a limited contact with PMNs (60 min) showed only a small non-significant reduction in the efficiency of cholesterol efflux. On the other hand, compared with native HDL3, HDL3 modified by PMNs for 24 h had a markedly reduced ability to remove cholesterol from cells, regardless of the type of cell. 4. The results suggest that PMN-modified HDL3, if occurring in vivo, could contribute to acceleration of the atherogenic process by decreasing the cholesterol efflux from cells. PMID:8660296

  15. THE RHYTHMIC RANGE OF THE WHITE BLOOD CELLS IN HUMAN, PATHOLOGICAL LEUCOPENIC AND LEUCOCYTIC STATES, WITH A STUDY OF THIRTY-TWO HUMAN BONE MARROWS

    PubMed Central

    Doan, Charles A.; Zerfas, Leon G.

    1927-01-01

    human biopsy and autopsy material shows the striking reciprocity found to exist between the myelocytes and the mature polymorphonuclear leucocytes. This, together with the observed focal uniformity of maturation found in bone marrow, and the periodicity of the fluctuations of the neutrophils in the peripheral blood, leads to the formulation of the hypothesis of a constant functional withdrawal of granulocytes from the peripheral blood with a periodic delivery of new cells from the marrow, which in leucopenia and in leucocytosis represents a depression or a stimulation, respectively, of the normal mechanism. The nature and degree of the response are an approximate index of the cellular factor in the complex of the "resistance" of the particular individual. PMID:19869352

  16. Evaluation of haemoglobin, haematocrit, haemolysis, residual protein content and leucocytes in 345 red blood cell concentrates used for the treatment of patients with β-thalassaemia

    PubMed Central

    Mancini, Roberta; Marinelli, Leonardo; Mirante, Nadia; Gallo, Assunta; Matteocci, Antonella; Terlizzi, Filomena; Palange, Maria; Fioravanti, Daniela; Donnini, Lorella; Pierelli, Luca

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of red blood cell concentrates obtained from donated whole blood, selected for transfusion therapy of thalassaemic patients, by measuring the following parameters: haemoglobin, haematocrit, percentage haemolysis, residual leucocyte count and residual protein content. Materials and methods Overall 345 red cell concentrates were evaluated, of which 205 had been filtered in-line pre-storage and washed and 140 were buffy coat-depleted and used within 2 days of collection. Of the buffy coat-depleted concentrates, 62 were leucodepleted and 78 washed and leucodepleted post-storage all within 2 days of collection. The off-line filters used for the leucodepletion were gamma-irradiated polyester with a pore size of 200 μm. The washing procedure was automated (Haemonetics ACP 215, Braintree, MA, USA). The haematological parameters were evaluated by a blood cell counter (Coulter, Ramsey, IL, USA) and the white blood cell count by cytofluorimetry (FACScan). Results Ninety-five percent (194/205) of the red cell concentrates that had been filtered pre-storage and washed, 92% (57/62) of the red cell concentrates that had been leucodepleted post-storage and 94% (73/78) of the those subjected to both treatments had normal values of haemoglobin (>40 g/unit), haematocrit (between 50–70%), percentage haemolysis (<0.8/unit), white cell count (<1×106) and residual protein content (<0.5 g/L). Five percent (11/205) of the red cell concentrates that had been filtered pre-storage and washed, 8% (5/62) of those leucodepleted post-storage after 2 days and 6% (5/78) of those that underwent both procedures had a haemoglobin content <40 g/unit and a haematocrit <50%. Conclusions The preparation procedures had been carried out satisfactorily; nevertheless, transfusion therapy with some “low dose” normal units could be less effective and might, therefore, result in greater transfusion requirements in patients receiving such units

  17. Leucocyte Telomere Length and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: New Prospective Cohort Study and Literature-Based Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Heydon, Emma E.; Tsimikas, Sotirios; Haun, Margot; Mayr, Agnes; Weger, Siegfried; Witztum, Joseph L.; Butterworth, Adam S.; Willeit, Johann; Kronenberg, Florian; Kiechl, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Background Short telomeres have been linked to various age-related diseases. We aimed to assess the association of telomere length with incident type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in prospective cohort studies. Methods Leucocyte relative telomere length (RTL) was measured using quantitative polymerase chain reaction in 684 participants of the prospective population-based Bruneck Study (1995 baseline), with repeat RTL measurements performed in 2005 (n = 558) and 2010 (n = 479). Hazard ratios for T2DM were calculated across quartiles of baseline RTL using Cox regression models adjusted for age, sex, body-mass index, smoking, socio-economic status, physical activity, alcohol consumption, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, log high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and waist-hip ratio. Separate analyses corrected hazard ratios for within-person variability using multivariate regression calibration of repeated measurements. To contextualise findings, we systematically sought PubMed, Web of Science and EMBASE for relevant articles and pooled results using random-effects meta-analysis. Results Over 15 years of follow-up, 44 out of 606 participants free of diabetes at baseline developed incident T2DM. The adjusted hazard ratio for T2DM comparing the bottom vs. the top quartile of baseline RTL (i.e. shortest vs. longest) was 2.00 (95% confidence interval: 0.90 to 4.49; P = 0.091), and 2.31 comparing the bottom quartile vs. the remainder (1.21 to 4.41; P = 0.011). The corresponding hazard ratios corrected for within-person RTL variability were 3.22 (1.27 to 8.14; P = 0.014) and 2.86 (1.45 to 5.65; P = 0.003). In a random-effects meta-analysis of three prospective cohort studies involving 6,991 participants and 2,011 incident T2DM events, the pooled relative risk was 1.31 (1.07 to 1.60; P = 0.010; I2 = 69%). Conclusions/Interpretation Low RTL is independently associated with the risk of incident T2DM. To avoid regression dilution biases in

  18. Mixed exhaust flow supersonic jet engine and method

    SciTech Connect

    Klees, G.W.

    1993-06-08

    A method of operating a supersonic jet engine installation is described comprising (a) providing an engine having a variable area air inlet means and an outlet to discharge engine exhaust; (b) providing a secondary air passageway means; (c) receiving ambient air in the air inlet means and providing the ambient air as primary air to the engine inlet and secondary air to the secondary air passageway means; (d) providing a mixing section having an inlet portion and an exit portion, utilizing the mixing section in directing the exhaust from the engine to primary convergent/divergent exit passageway segments, where the exhaust is discharged at supersonic velocity as primary flow components, and directing secondary air flow from the secondary air passageway means to secondary exit passageway segments which are interspersed with the primary segments and from which the secondary air is discharged at subsonic velocity as secondary flow components; and (e) providing an exhaust section to receive the primary and secondary flow components in a mixing region and causing the primary and secondary flow components to mix to create a supersonic mixed flow, the exhaust section having a variable area final nozzle through which the mixed flow is discharged.

  19. Scoping Study of Airlift Circulation Technologies for Supplemental Mixing in Pulse Jet Mixed Vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Schonewill, Philip P.; Berglin, Eric J.; Boeringa, Gregory K.; Buchmiller, William C.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Minette, Michael J.

    2015-04-07

    At the request of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of River Protection, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted a scoping study to investigate supplemental technologies for supplying vertical fluid motion and enhanced mixing in Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) vessels designed for high solids processing. The study assumed that the pulse jet mixers adequately mix and shear the bottom portion of a vessel. Given that, the primary function of a supplemental technology should be to provide mixing and shearing in the upper region of a vessel. The objective of the study was to recommend a mixing technology and configuration that could be implemented in the 8-ft test vessel located at Mid-Columbia Engineering (MCE). Several mixing technologies, primarily airlift circulator (ALC) systems, were evaluated in the study. This technical report contains a review of ALC technologies, a description of the PNNL testing and accompanying results, and recommended features of an ALC system for further study.

  20. Mixed oxide solid solutions

    DOEpatents

    Magno, Scott; Wang, Ruiping; Derouane, Eric

    2003-01-01

    The present invention is a mixed oxide solid solution containing a tetravalent and a pentavalent cation that can be used as a support for a metal combustion catalyst. The invention is furthermore a combustion catalyst containing the mixed oxide solid solution and a method of making the mixed oxide solid solution. The tetravalent cation is zirconium(+4), hafnium(+4) or thorium(+4). In one embodiment, the pentavalent cation is tantalum(+5), niobium(+5) or bismuth(+5). Mixed oxide solid solutions of the present invention exhibit enhanced thermal stability, maintaining relatively high surface areas at high temperatures in the presence of water vapor.

  1. Cement mixing with vibrator

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, T.E.

    1991-07-09

    This patent describes a method of cementing a casing string in a bore hole of a well. It comprises introducing water and dry cement material into a mixing vessel; mixing the water and dry cement material in the mixing vessel to form a cement slurry, the slurry including lumps of the dry cement material, the mixing including steps of: agitating the slurry; and while agitating the slurry, transmitting vibrational energy into the slurry and thereby aiding disintegration and subsequent wetting of the lumps of the dry cement material in the slurry; and pumping the slurry into an annulus between the casing string and the bore hole.

  2. Hematological parameters in Polish mixed breed rabbits with addition of meat breed blood in the annual cycle.

    PubMed

    Tokarz-Deptuła, B; Niedźwiedzka-Rystwej, P; Adamiak, M; Hukowska-Szematowicz, B; Trzeciak-Ryczek, A; Deptuła, W

    2015-01-01

    In the paper we studied haematologic values, such as haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit value, thrombocytes, leucocytes: lymphocytes, neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils and monocytes in the pheral blood in Polish mixed-breeds with addition of meat breed blood in order to obtain the reference values which are until now not available for this animals. In studying this indices we took into consideration the impact of the season (spring, summer, autumn, winter), and sex of the animals. The studies have shown a high impact of the season of the year on those rabbits, but only in spring and summer. Moreover we observed that the sex has mean impact on the studied values of haematological parameters in those rabbits. According to our knowledge, this is the first paper on haematologic values in this widely used group of rabbits, so they may serve as reference values.

  3. Mixed waste minimization/mixed waste avoidance

    SciTech Connect

    Todisco, L.R.

    1994-12-31

    This presentation describes methods for the minimization and volume reduction of low-level radioactive and mixed wastes. Many methods are presented including: source reduction, better waste monitoring activities, waste segregation, recycling, administrative controls, and optimization of waste-generating processes.

  4. Effect of daily mixed nutritional supplementation on immune indices in soldiers undertaking an 8-week arduous training programme.

    PubMed

    Diment, Bethany C; Fortes, Matthew B; Greeves, Julie P; Casey, Anna; Costa, Ricardo J S; Walters, Robert; Walsh, Neil P

    2012-04-01

    The aim was to investigate the influence of a daily mixed nutritional supplement during an 8-week arduous training programme on immune indices and mediators including circulating leucocyte counts; bacterially stimulated neutrophil degranulation; interleukin-6 (IL-6), cortisol and saliva secretory immunoglobulin-A (SIgA). Thirty men (mean (SD): age 25 (3) years; body mass, 80.9 (7.7) kg) received a habitual diet (CON, n = 15) or received a habitual diet plus an additional food supplement (SUP, n = 15). From weeks 0-6, CON received 14.0 MJ day(-1) and SUP received 19.7 MJ day(-1), and during a final 2-week field exercise in weeks 7 and 8, CON received 17.7 MJ day(-1) and SUP received 21.3 MJ day(-1). Blood and saliva were taken at rest after an overnight fast at weeks 0, 6 and 8. Body mass loss over the 8 weeks was greater in CON (CON, 5.0 (2.3); SUP, 1.6 (1.5) kg: P < 0.001). Training-induced decreases in circulating total leucocytes (CON: weeks 0, 8.0 (2.1); weeks 8, 6.5 (1.6) 10(9) l(-1), P < 0.01), lymphocytes (21%, P < 0.01) and monocytes (20%, P < 0.01) were prevented by the nutritional supplement. Saliva SIgA secretion rate increased approximately twofold by week 8 in SUP (P < 0.01) and was greater at week 8 compared with CON (P < 0.01). Circulating neutrophils, bacterially stimulated neutrophil degranulation, IL-6 and cortisol were similar in CON and SUP at week 8. In conclusion, a daily mixed nutritional supplement prevented the decrease in circulating total leucocytes, lymphocytes and monocytes and increased saliva SIgA output during an 8-week arduous training programme. The increase in saliva SIgA with nutritional supplementation during training may reduce susceptibility to upper respiratory infection.

  5. Precipitated immune complexes of IgM as well as of IgG can bind to rabbit polymorphonuclear leucocytes but only the immune complexes of IgG are readily phagocytosed.

    PubMed Central

    Furriel, R P; Lucisano, Y M; Mantovani, B

    1992-01-01

    We have shown by in vitro experiments, using immunofluorescence techniques, that precipitated immune complexes of IgM antibodies and ovalbumin (ICIgM) are able to bind to rabbit blood polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMN), as well as immune complexes of IgG antibodies (ICIgG). This binding capacity for both classes of immune complexes is exhibited by more than 80% of the PMN cell population and is independent of Ca2+ in the medium. For ICIgG the binding to PMN can be completely inhibited by preincubation of the cells with soluble IgG used at physiological concentrations (competition for the Fc gamma receptors) while for ICIgM there is no such inhibition by fluid-phase IgM. After binding to the leucocytes there was a striking difference in the fate of ICIgM and ICIgG: whereas the ICIgG was readily phagocytosed (endocytosed), the ICIgM remained mostly on the cell surface, being only poorly endocytosed after 1 hr incubation at 37 degrees. This was demonstrated by a quantitative fluorimetric method developed to assay phagocytosis of immune complexes, and was confirmed by a qualitative fluorescence quenching technique. These results may have implications for understanding the fate of these classes of immune complexes formed in circulation or deposited in tissues, and the participation of PMN in inflammatory reactions and tissue injury in immune complex diseases. Images Figure 3 PMID:1572698

  6. Changes with age in leucocyte counts, protein and IgG content of lumbar cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with inflammatory, ischemic, and hemorrhagic diseases or tumors of the central nervous system (CNS).

    PubMed

    Kleine, T O; Weber, L; Zöfel, P

    1988-01-01

    Parameters of blood-brain barrier (BBB) function and of humoral and cellular immune response were determined in lumbar CSF and blood serum samples from 717 patients and statistically compared to "healthy" controls (n = 190). Leucocyte counts (mainly mononuclear cells), total protein and IgG levels in CSF were significantly higher, and prealbumin fraction mostly lower in patients, besides other alterations of protein electrophoresis. Serum fractions (median) of protein electrophoresis were within the reference range. When parameters were correlated with age, a significant increase of total protein of 1.62 mg/dl and of IgG of 0.13 mg/dl per 10 years of age was found in lumbar CSF of controls. Elevated leucocyte counts did not correlate with age of patients, but they increased significantly with age, with respect to controls, to a higher extent in patients with polyneuritis, ischemia and injury; they decreased in patients with brain tumors and polyneuropathy. When compared to controls, elevated total protein levels significantly increased with age only with tumors and injury patients. In multiple sclerosis, IgG increased and beta-globulin fraction decreased significantly in CSF with age. The findings point to age-dependent alterations of BBB and immune response only in some patients groups which were different from those of controls.

  7. Primary hyperparathyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Bilezikian, John P; Cusano, Natalie E.; Khan, Aliya A.; Liu, Jian-Min; Marcocci, Claudio; Bandeira, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is a common disorder in which parathyroid hormone (PTH) is excessively secreted from one or more of the four parathyroid glands. A single benign parathyroid adenoma is the cause in most people. However, multiglandular disease is not rare and is typically seen in familial PHPT syndromes. The genetics of PHPT is usually monoclonal when a single gland is involved and polyclonal when multiglandular disease is present. The genes that have been implicated in PHPT include proto-oncogenes and tumour-suppressor genes. Hypercalcaemia is the biochemical hallmark of PHPT. Usually, the concentration of PTH is frankly increased but can remain within the normal range, which is abnormal in the setting of hypercalcaemia. Normocalcaemic PHPT, a variant in which the serum calcium level is persistently normal but PTH levels are increased in the absence of an obvious inciting stimulus, is now recognized. The clinical presentation of PHPT varies from asymptomatic disease (seen in countries where biochemical screening is routine) to classic symptomatic disease in which renal and/or skeletal complications are observed. Management guidelines have recently been revised to help the clinician to decide on the merits of a parathyroidectomy or a non-surgical course. This Primer covers these areas with particular attention to the epidemiology, clinical presentations, genetics, evaluation and guidelines for the management of PHPT. PMID:27194212

  8. Primary Hyperparathyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Bandeira, Leonardo; Bilezikian, John

    2016-01-01

    Over the past several generations, primary hyperparathyroidism (PHTP) has undergone a change in its clinical presentation in many countries from a symptomatic disease to an asymptomatic one. The reasons for this change in clinical presentation are related to the widespread use of biochemical screening tests, to the measurement of PTH more routinely in the evaluation of metabolic bone disease and to the status of vitamin D sufficiency in the population. Along with recognition of a broader clinical spectrum of disease, including a more recently recognized normocalcemic variant, has come an appreciation that the evaluation of classic target organs that can be affected in PHPT, such as the skeleton and the kidneys, require more advanced imaging technology for complete evaluation. It is clear that even in asymptomatic patients, evidence for microstructural disease in the skeleton and calcifications in the kidneys can be demonstrated often. Potential non-classical manifestations of PHPT related to neurocognition and the cardiovascular system continue to be of interest. As a result of these advances, revised guidelines for the management of asymptomatic PHPT have been recently published to help the clinician determine whether surgery is appropriate or whether a more conservative approach is acceptable. PMID:27508075

  9. A Mixed Approach Of Automated ECG Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De, A. K.; Das, J.; Majumder, D. Dutta

    1982-11-01

    ECG is one of the non-invasive and risk-free technique for collecting data about the functional state of the heart. However, all these data-processing techniques can be classified into two basically different approaches -- the first and second generation ECG computer program. Not the opposition, but simbiosis of these two approaches will lead to systems with the highest accuracy. In our paper we are going to describe a mixed approach which will show higher accuracy with lesser amount of computational work. Key Words : Primary features, Patients' parameter matrix, Screening, Logical comparison technique, Multivariate statistical analysis, Mixed approach.

  10. Dilution Zone Mixing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holdeman, J. D.

    1983-01-01

    Studies to characterize dilution zone mixing; experiments on the effects of free-stream turbulence on a jet in crossflow; and the development of an interactive computer code for the analysis of the mixing of jets with a confined crossflow are reviewed.

  11. Primary hyperoxaluria.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, Víctor; Torres, Armando; Salido, Eduardo

    2014-05-21

    Primary hyperoxaluria (PH) occurs due to an autosomal recessive hereditary disorder of the metabolism of glyoxylate, which causes excessive oxalate production. The most frequent and serious disorder is due to enzyme deficit of alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase (PH type I) specific to hepatic peroxisome. As oxalate is not metabolised in humans and is excreted through the kidneys, the kidney is the first organ affected, causing recurrent lithiasis, nephrocalcinosis and early renal failure. With advance of renal failure, particularly in patients on haemodialysis (HD), calcium oxalate is massively deposited in tissues, which is known as oxalosis. Diagnosis is based on family history, the presence of urolithiasis and/or nephrocalcinosis, hyperoxaluria, oxalate deposits in tissue forming granulomas, molecular analysis of DNA and enzyme analysis if applicable. High diagnostic suspicion is required; therefore, unfortunately, in many cases it is diagnosed after its recurrence following kidney transplantation. Conservative management of this disease (high liquid intake, pyridoxine and crystallisation inhibitors) needs to be adopted early in order to delay kidney damage. Treatment by dialysis is ineffective in treating excess oxalate. After the kidney transplant, we normally observe a rapid appearance of oxalate deposits in the graft and the results of this technique are discouraging, with very few exceptions. Pre-emptive liver transplantation, or simultaneous liver and kidney transplants when there is already irreversible damage to the kidney, is the treatment of choice to treat the underlying disease and suppress oxalate overproduction. Given its condition as a rare disease and its genetic and clinical heterogeneity, it is not possible to gain evidence through randomised clinical trials. As a result, the recommendations are established by groups of experts based on publications of renowned scientific rigour. In this regard, a group of European experts (OxalEurope) has

  12. MHD turbulent mixing layers

    SciTech Connect

    Esquivel, A.; Lazarian, A.; Benjamin, R.A.; Cho, J.; Leitner, S.N.

    2005-09-28

    Turbulent mixing layers have been proposed to explain observations of line ratios of highly ionized elements in the interstellar medium. We present preliminary results of numerical simulations of turbulent mixing layers in a magnetized medium. We developed a MHD code with radiative cooling. The magnetic field is expected to be a controlling factor by suppressing instabilities that lead to the turbulent mixing. Our results suggest that the difference in turbulent mixing in the unmagnetized case as compared to the case of a weak magnetic field, {beta} = Pgas/Pmag {approx} 10, is insignificant. With a more thorough exploration of parameter space, this work will provide more reliable diagnostics of turbulent mixing layers than those available today.

  13. Microfluidic Mixing: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chia-Yen; Chang, Chin-Lung; Wang, Yao-Nan; Fu, Lung-Ming

    2011-01-01

    The aim of microfluidic mixing is to achieve a thorough and rapid mixing of multiple samples in microscale devices. In such devices, sample mixing is essentially achieved by enhancing the diffusion effect between the different species flows. Broadly speaking, microfluidic mixing schemes can be categorized as either “active”, where an external energy force is applied to perturb the sample species, or “passive”, where the contact area and contact time of the species samples are increased through specially-designed microchannel configurations. Many mixers have been proposed to facilitate this task over the past 10 years. Accordingly, this paper commences by providing a high level overview of the field of microfluidic mixing devices before describing some of the more significant proposals for active and passive mixers. PMID:21686184

  14. ADVANCED MIXING MODELS

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S; Richard Dimenna, R; David Tamburello, D

    2008-11-13

    The process of recovering the waste in storage tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS) typically requires mixing the contents of the tank with one to four dual-nozzle jet mixers located within the tank. The typical criteria to establish a mixed condition in a tank are based on the number of pumps in operation and the time duration of operation. To ensure that a mixed condition is achieved, operating times are set conservatively long. This approach results in high operational costs because of the long mixing times and high maintenance and repair costs for the same reason. A significant reduction in both of these costs might be realized by reducing the required mixing time based on calculating a reliable indicator of mixing with a suitably validated computer code. The work described in this report establishes the basis for further development of the theory leading to the identified mixing indicators, the benchmark analyses demonstrating their consistency with widely accepted correlations, and the application of those indicators to SRS waste tanks to provide a better, physically based estimate of the required mixing time. Waste storage tanks at SRS contain settled sludge which varies in height from zero to 10 ft. The sludge has been characterized and modeled as micron-sized solids, typically 1 to 5 microns, at weight fractions as high as 20 to 30 wt%, specific gravities to 1.4, and viscosities up to 64 cp during motion. The sludge is suspended and mixed through the use of submersible slurry jet pumps. To suspend settled sludge, water is added to the tank as a slurry medium and stirred with the jet pump. Although there is considerable technical literature on mixing and solid suspension in agitated tanks, very little literature has been published on jet mixing in a large-scale tank. If shorter mixing times can be shown to support Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) or other feed requirements, longer pump lifetimes can be achieved with associated operational cost and

  15. [Primary lipodystrophies].

    PubMed

    Capeau, J; Magré, J; Lascols, O; Caron, M; Béréziat, V; Vigouroux, C

    2007-02-01

    Primary lipodystrophies represent a heterogeneous group of very rare diseases with a prevalence of less than 1 case for 100.000, inherited or acquired, caracterized by a loss of body fat either generalized or localized (lipoatrophy). In some forms, lipoatrophy is associated with a selective hypertrophy of other fat depots. Clinical signs of insulin resistance are often present: acanthosis nigricans, signs of hyperandrogenism. All lipodystrophies are associated with dysmetabolic alterations with insulin resistance, altered glucose tolerance or diabetes and hypertriglyceridemia leading to a risk of acute pancreatitis. Chronic complications are those resulting from diabetes involving the retina, kidney and nerves, cardiovascular complications and steatotic liver lesions that could result in cirrhosis. Genetic forms of generalized lipodystrophy (or Berardinelli-Seip syndrome) result, in most cases, from recessive mutations in one of two genes: either BSCL2 coding seipin or BSCL1 coding AGPAT2, an acyl-transferase involved in triglyceride synthesis. Acquired generalized lipodystrophy (Lawrence syndrome) is of unknown origin but is sometimes associated with signs of autoimmunity. Partial lipodystrophies can be familial with dominant transmission. Heterozygous mutations have been identified in the LMNA gene encoding nuclear lamin A/C belonging to the nuclear lamina, or in PPARG encoding the adipogenic transcription factor PPARgamma. Some less typical lipodystrophies, associated with signs of premature aging, have been linked to mutations in LMNA or in the ZMPSTE24 gene encoding the protease responsible for the maturation of prelamin A into lamin A. Acquired partial lipodystrophy (Barraquer-Simons syndrome) is characterized by cephalothoracic fat loss. Its aetiology is unknown but mutations in LMNB2, encoding the lamina protein lamin B2, could represent susceptibility factors. Highly active antiretroviral treatments for HIV infection are currently the most frequent cause

  16. Mechanism of inhibition of human leucocyte elastase by beta-lactams. 2. Stability, reactivation kinetics, and products of beta-lactam-derived E-I complexes.

    PubMed

    Green, B G; Chabin, R; Mills, S; Underwood, D J; Shah, S K; Kuo, D; Gale, P; Maycock, A L; Liesch, J; Burgey, C S

    1995-11-07

    The monocyclic beta-lactams reported by Knight et al. [Knight, W. B., et al. (1992) Biochemistry 31, 8160; Chabin, R., et al. (1993) Biochemistry 32, 8970] as inhibitors of human leucocyte elastase (HLE) produce stable HLE-inhibitor complexes that slowly reactivate with half-lives ranging from less than 1 to 15 h at 37 degrees C. The complexes produced between PPE and two C-3 dimethyl-substituted beta-lactams are less stable than those produced between HLE and analogous C-3 diethyl-substituted lactams. The stability of the HLE-I complexes is governed primarily by the structure of the substituted urea portion of the inhibitors and not by the identity or presence of a leaving group at C-4 of the lactam ring. In some cases substitutions on the urea portion of the inhibitors yielded complexes that displayed biphasic reactivation kinetics. This suggests the presence of at least two different complexes. The stereochemistry of the leaving group at C-4 has a small effect on the stability of the final complex (1.3-2-fold); therefore, the identity of the final complex is dependent upon the initial stereochemistry at that position. The stability of the complexes was relatively insensitive to hydroxylamine, which suggests that the acyl-enzymes are protected from nucleophilic "rescue". The rate of reactivation of the complex derived from L-680,833,[S-R*,S*)]-4-[(1-(((1-(4- methylphenyl)butyl)amino)carbonyl)-3,3-diethyl-2-oxo-4-azetidinyl)ben zeneacetic acid, was pH independent, while the L-684,481, (R)-(1-(((1-(4-methylphenyl)butyl)amino)carbonyl)-3,3-diethyl-2-azeti din one generated complex displayed a pH-dependent reactivation rate. In the latter case, the increase in reactivation rate with pH displayed a pKa of 7.2. This is consistent with the requirement for base catalysis by the active site histidine to regenerate enzymatic activity. Reactivation of the L-680,833-derived complex produced different products as a function of pH, suggesting two different pH-dependent routes

  17. ADVANCED MIXING MODELS

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S; Dimenna, R; Tamburello, D

    2011-02-14

    The process of recovering and processing High Level Waste (HLW) the waste in storage tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS) typically requires mixing the contents of the tank with one to four mixers (pumps) located within the tank. The typical criteria to establish a mixed condition in a tank are based on the number of pumps in operation and the time duration of operation. To ensure that a mixed condition is achieved, operating times are typically set conservatively long. This approach results in high operational costs because of the long mixing times and high maintenance and repair costs for the same reason. A significant reduction in both of these costs might be realized by reducing the required mixing time based on calculating a reliable indicator of mixing with a suitably validated computer code. The focus of the present work is to establish mixing criteria applicable to miscible fluids, with an ultimate goal of addressing waste processing in HLW tanks at SRS and quantifying the mixing time required to suspend sludge particles with the submersible jet pump. A single-phase computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach was taken for the analysis of jet flow patterns with an emphasis on the velocity decay and the turbulent flow evolution for the farfield region from the pump. Literature results for a turbulent jet flow are reviewed, since the decay of the axial jet velocity and the evolution of the jet flow patterns are important phenomena affecting sludge suspension and mixing operations. The work described in this report suggests a basis for further development of the theory leading to the identified mixing indicators, with benchmark analyses demonstrating their consistency with widely accepted correlations. Although the indicators are somewhat generic in nature, they are applied to Savannah River Site (SRS) waste tanks to provide a better, physically based estimate of the required mixing time. Waste storage tanks at SRS contain settled sludge which varies in

  18. The mixing of fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Ottino, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    What do the eruption of Krakatau, the manufacture of puff pastry and the brightness of stars have in common Each involves some aspect of mixing. Mixing also plays a critical role in modern technology. Chemical engineers rely on mixing to ensure that substances react properly, to produce polymer blends that exhibit unique properties and to disperse drag-reducing agents in pipelines. Yet in spite of its of its ubiquity in nature and industry, mixing is only imperfectly under-stood. Indeed, investigators cannot even settle on a common terminology: mixing is often referred to as stirring by oceanographers and geophysicists, as blending by polymer engineers and as agitation by process engineers. Regardless of what the process is called, there is little doubt that it is exceedingly complex and is found in a great variety of systems. In constructing a theory of fluid mixing, for example, one has to take into account fluids that can be miscible or partially miscible and reactive or inert, and flows that are slow and orderly or very fast and turbulent. It is therefore not surprising that no single theory can explain all aspect of mixing in fluids and that straightforward computations usually fail to capture all the important details. Still, both physical experiments and computer simulations can provide insight into the mixing process. Over the past several years the authors and his colleague have taken both approaches in an effort to increase understanding of various aspect of the process-particularly of mixing involving slow flows and viscous fluids such as oils.

  19. Nearly discontinuous chaotic mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, David Howland; Lim, Hyun K; Yu, Yan; Glimm, James G

    2009-01-01

    A new scientific approach is presented for a broad class of chaotic problems involving a high degree of mixing over rapid time scales. Rayleigh-Taylor and Richtmyer-Meshkov unstable flows are typical of such problems. Microscopic mixing properties such as chemical reaction rates for turbulent mixtures can be obtained with feasible grid resolution. The essential dependence of (some) fluid mixing observables on transport phenomena is observed. This dependence includes numerical as well as physical transport and it includes laminar as well as turbulent transport. A new approach to the mathematical theory for the underlying equations is suggested.

  20. Guidelines for mixed waste minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Owens, C.

    1992-02-01

    Currently, there is no commercial mixed waste disposal available in the United States. Storage and treatment for commercial mixed waste is limited. Host States and compacts region officials are encouraging their mixed waste generators to minimize their mixed wastes because of management limitations. This document provides a guide to mixed waste minimization.

  1. Artificial upwelling and mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    The authors present results related to artificial upwelling and coastal mariculture using deep ocean water and mixing in coastal waters. They discuss the application of research results for marine waste disposal.

  2. Mixed-Media Owls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Kathy

    2010-01-01

    The fun of creating collages is there are unlimited possibilities for the different kinds of materials one can use. In this article, the author describes how her eighth-grade students created an owl using mixed media.

  3. Asymmetric antiproton debuncher: No bad mixing, more good mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Visnjic, V.

    1994-07-01

    An asymmetric lattice for the Fermilab Antiproton Debuncher is designed. The lattice has zero mixing between the pickups and the kickers (bad mixing) while the mixing in the rest of the machine (good mixing) can be varied (even during the operation of the machine) in order to optimize the stochastic cooling. As an example, a lattice with zero bad mixing and twice the good mixing is presented. The betatron cooling rate in this lattice is twice its present value.

  4. Sideroblastic anaemia and primary adrenal insufficiency due to a mitochondrial respiratory chain disorder in the absence of mtDNA deletion

    PubMed Central

    O'Grady, Michael J; Monavari, Ahmad A; Cotter, Melanie; Murphy, Nuala P

    2015-01-01

    A fatigued 8-year-old boy was found to have sideroblastic anaemia (haemoglobin 7.8 g/dL) which over time became transfusion dependent. Subtle neurological dysfunction, initially manifesting as mild spastic diplegia, was slowly progressive and ultimately led to wheelchair dependence. Elevated plasma lactate and urinary 3-methylglutaconate led to a muscle biopsy which confirmed partial complex IV deficiency. PCR in leucocytes and muscle was negative for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletions. Faltering growth prompted an insulin tolerance test which confirmed growth hormone sufficiency and adrenal insufficiency. Plasma renin was elevated and adrenal androgens were low, suggesting primary adrenal insufficiency. Glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid replacement therapy was initiated. A renal tubular Fanconi syndrome and diabetes mellitus developed subsequently. Sideroblastic anaemia and primary adrenal insufficiency, both individually and collectively, are associated with mtDNA deletion; however, absence of the same does not exclude the possibility that sideroblastic anaemia and primary adrenal insufficiency are of mitochondrial origin. PMID:25721834

  5. Influence of stimulated Raman scattering on the conversion efficiency in four wave mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Wunderlich, R.; Moore, M.A.; Garrett, W.R.; Payne, M.G.

    1988-01-01

    Secondary nonlinear optical effects following parametric four wave mixing in sodium vapor are investigated. The generated ultraviolet radiation induces stimulated Raman scattering and other four wave mixing process. Population transfer due to Raman transitions strongly influences the phase matching conditions for the primary mixing process. Pulse shortening and a reduction in conversion efficiency are observed. 8 refs., 3 figs.

  6. Mixed Waste Focus Area -- Waste form initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Nakaoka, R.; Waters, R.; Pohl, P.; Roach, J.

    1998-07-01

    The mission of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) is to provide acceptable technologies that enable implementation of mixed waste treatment systems which are developed in partnership with end-users, stakeholders, tribal governments, and regulators. To accomplish this mission, a technical baseline was established in 1996 and revised in 1997. The technical baseline forms the basis for determining which technology development activities will be supported by the MWFA. The primary attribute of the technical baseline is a set of prioritized technical deficiencies or roadblocks related to implementation of mixed waste treatment systems. The Waste Form Initiative (WFI) was established to address an identified technical deficiency related to waste form performance. The primary goal of the WFI was to ensure that the mixed low-level waste (MLLW) treatment technologies being developed, currently used, or planned for use by DOE would produce final waste forms that meet the waste acceptance criteria (WAC) of the existing and/or planned MLLW disposal facilities. The WFI was limited to an evaluation of the disposal requirements for the radioactive component of MLLW. Disposal requirements for the hazardous component are dictated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and were not addressed. This paper summarizes the technical basis, strategy, and results of the activities performed as part of the WFI.

  7. Hypercalcemia due to Primary Hepatic Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Gagnier, Michael; Ryer, Elizabeth; Salhab, Mohammed; Rosmarin, Alan G.

    2016-01-01

    A 65-year-old female with a history of mixed connective tissue disease and pulmonary fibrosis on azathioprine, hydroxychloroquine, and prednisone (osteoporosis on teriparatide) presented with a 1-month history of hypercalcemia. After discontinuation of teriparatide, the patient's hypercalcemia persisted. Further evaluation revealed primary hepatic lymphoma as the source of her hypercalcemia. PMID:28116183

  8. Physicochemical changes of aluminium in mixing zones: Mortality and physiological disturbances in brown trout (Salmo trutta L.)

    SciTech Connect

    Witters, H.E.; Van Puymbroeck, S.; Stouthart, A.J.H.X.; Bonga, S.E.W.

    1996-06-01

    A standardized laboratory setup, simulating field mixing zones that originate at the confluence of limed rivers with acidic, aluminium-rich, tributaries, has been developed. Detailed analyses of the chemical speciation of aluminium (Al) in relation to the biological response of brown trout were performed to identify the mechanism of unexpected high fish mortality in the above-mentioned mixing zones with pH levels above 6.0. Brown trout experienced an acute cumulative mortality (98% in 48 h) immediately after neutral and acidic, Al-rich, water had mixed. Mortality was only 60% within 48 h of exposure to the acid water with Al (pH 4.6 + 6.8 {micro}mol Al/L), although the Al concentration in the mixing zone was less (2.8 {micro}mol Al/L) at a nonharmful pH level (pH 6.4). Chemical speciation and ultrafiltration studies demonstrated that the transformation of low-molecular weight Al (<10 kD) into high-molecular weight Al (>10 kD), defined as Al polymerization, could better be related to the toxic response of fish, than the total Al concentration. The aging of polymerized Al forms (for 480 s) resulted in reduced fish mortality and less pronounced physiological stress. Brown trout in the initial mixing zone showed significantly increased plasma glucose and cortisol levels. Light and electron microscopy studies demonstrated serious damage to the skin: increased mucous secretion, a high ratio of acid to neutral glycoprotein-containing mucous cells, increased apoptosis, and infiltration of leucocytes and macrophages between the epithelial cells. Ionoregulatory parameters, which showed minor changes in fish in the initial mixing zone, did not allow explanation of acute fish mortality. Data on the ventilation frequency and the blood hematocrit, which both increased, gave support for the hypothesis that acute fish mortality in mixing zones could be caused by respiratory dysfunction.

  9. Increased 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine in plasma and decreased mRNA expression of human 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1, anti-oxidant enzymes, mitochondrial biogenesis-related proteins and glycolytic enzymes in leucocytes in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Lee, H-T; Lin, C-S; Lee, C-S; Tsai, C-Y; Wei, Y-H

    2014-04-01

    We measured plasma levels of the oxidative DNA damage marker 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and leucocyte mRNA expression levels of the genes encoding the 8-OHdG repair enzyme human 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1 (hOGG1), the anti-oxidant enzymes copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/ZnSOD), manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), catalase, glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPx-1), GPx-4, glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione synthetase (GS), the mitochondrial biogenesis-related proteins mtDNA-encoded ND 1 polypeptide (ND1), ND6, ATPase 6, mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam), nuclear respiratory factor 1(NRF-1), pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 component alpha subunit (PDHA1), pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase isoenzyme 1 (PDK-1) and hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and the glycolytic enzymes hexokinase-II (HK-II), glucose 6-phosphate isomerase (GPI), phosphofructokinase (PFK), glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHa). We analysed their relevance to oxidative damage in 85 systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients, four complicated SLE patients undergoing rituximab treatment and 45 healthy individuals. SLE patients had higher plasma 8-OHdG levels (P < 0·01) but lower leucocyte expression of the genes encoding hOGG1(P < 0·01), anti-oxidant enzymes (P < 0·05), mitochondrial biogenesis-related proteins (P < 0·05) and glycolytic enzymes (P < 0·05) than healthy individuals. The increase in plasma 8-OHdG was correlated positively with the elevation of leucocyte expression of the genes encoding hOGG1 (P < 0·05), anti-oxidant enzymes (P < 0·05), several mitochondrial biogenesis-related proteins (P < 0·05) and glycolytic enzymes (P < 0·05) in lupus patients. The patients, whose leucocyte mtDNA harboured D310 heteroplasmy, exhibited a positive correlation between the mtDNA copy number and expression of ND1, ND6 and ATPase 6 (P < 0·05) and a negative correlation between mt

  10. [Induction of DNA damage in blood leucocytes and of cytogenetic injuries in bone marrow polychromatic erythrocytes in mice exposed to low-LET and high-LET radiation and in their progeny].

    PubMed

    Kuznetsova, E A; Zaichkina, S I; Sirota, N P; Abdullaev, S A; Rozanova, O M; Aptikaeva, G F; Sorokina, S S; Romanchenko, S P; Smirnova, E N

    2014-01-01

    The present work was aimed at studying the molecular and cellular levels of the response of the hematopoietic system in mice and their progeny to the action of low-LET and high-LET radiation at different times after exposure. The damage to the genome at the molecular level was assessed by the comet assay in peripheral blood leucocytes, whereas at the cellular level it was estimated by means of the micronuclear test in the marrow cells, after exposure of mice to X-radiation of 1, 3 and 5 Gy and to a high-LET low-intensity radiation at thedoses of 0.14 and 0.35 Gy, as well as to a combined effect of these types of radiation. When accessing the level of the DNA damage to individual cells by the comet assay, we also used, apart from a commonly accepted parameter %TDNA, additional characteristics: the proportions of leucocytes with an intact and highly fragmented DNA. Using these parameters, we detected the changes characterizing the dynamics of the leukocyte population in mouse blood at different times after the action of X-ray and high-LET radiation. It was found that: (1) the DNA damage increases with the dose of high-LET radiation; (2) the level of damage in the progeny of the animals exposed to high-LET radiation does not differ from that in unirradiated animals both at the molecular and cytogenetic levels; and (3) a decrease in the radiosensitivity of the progeny of the mice exposed to high-LET radiation at a dose of 0.35 Gy makes itself evident only at the molecular level, which may point to the possible transgeneration transmission of genomic lesions.

  11. Mixed waste management options

    SciTech Connect

    Owens, C.B.; Kirner, N.P.

    1991-12-31

    Disposal fees for mixed waste at proposed commercial disposal sites have been estimated to be $15,000 to $40,000 per cubit foot. If such high disposal fees are imposed, generators may be willing to apply extraordinary treatment or regulatory approaches to properly dispose of their mixed waste. This paper explores the feasibility of several waste management scenarios and attempts to answer the question: Can mixed waste be managed out of existence? Existing data on commercially generated mixed waste streams are used to identify the realm of mixed waste known to be generated. Each waste stream is evaluated from both a regulatory and technical perspective in order to convert the waste into a strictly low-level radioactive or a hazardous waste. Alternative regulatory approaches evaluated in this paper include a delisting petition, no migration petition, and a treatability variance. For each waste stream, potentially available treatment options are identified that could lead to these variances. Waste minimization methodology and storage for decay are also considered. Economic feasibility of each option is discussed broadly.

  12. Mixed waste: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Moghissi, A.A.; Blauvelt, R.K.; Benda, G.A.; Rothermich, N.E.

    1993-12-31

    This volume contains the peer-reviewed and edited versions of papers submitted for presentation a the Second International Mixed Waste Symposium. Following the tradition of the First International Mixed Waste Symposium, these proceedings were prepared in advance of the meeting for distribution to participants. The symposium was organized by the Mixed Waste Committee of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. The topics discussed at the symposium include: stabilization technologies, alternative treatment technologies, regulatory issues, vitrification technologies, characterization of wastes, thermal technologies, laboratory and analytical issues, waste storage and disposal, organic treatment technologies, waste minimization, packaging and transportation, treatment of mercury contaminated wastes and bioprocessing, and environmental restoration. Individual abstracts are catalogued separately for the data base.

  13. Natural convective mixing flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, Eduardo; de La Cruz, Luis; del Castillo, Luis

    1998-11-01

    Natural convective mixing flows. Eduardo Ramos and Luis M. de La Cruz, National University of Mexico and Luis Del Castillo San Luis Potosi University. The possibility of mixing a fluid with a natural convective flow is analysed by solving numerically the mass, momentum and energy equations in a cubic container. Two opposite vertical walls of the container are assumed to have temperatures that oscillate as functions of time. The phase of the oscillations is chosen in such a way that alternating corrotating vortices are formed in the cavity. The mixing efficiency of this kind of flow is examined with a Lagrangian tracking technique. This work was partially financed by CONACyT-Mexico project number GE0044

  14. Remotely controllable mixing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belew, Robert R. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A remotely controllable mixing system (210) in which a plurality of mixing assemblies (10a-10e) are arranged in an annular configuration, and wherein each assembly (10) employs a central chamber (16) and two outer, upper and lower, chambers (12, 14). Valves (18, 20) are positioned between chambers, and these valves (18, 20) for a given mixing assembly (10) are operated by upper and lower control rotors (29), which in turn are driven by upper and lower drive rotors (270, 270b). Additionally, a hoop (278) is compressed around upper control rotors (29) and a hoop (278b) is compressed around lower control rotors (29) to thus insure constant frictional engagement between all control rotors (29) and drive rotors (270, 270b). The drive rollers (270, 270b) are driven by a motor (213).

  15. Dilution jet mixing program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, R.; Coleman, E.; Johnson, K.

    1984-01-01

    Parametric tests were conducted to quantify the mixing of opposed rows of jets (two-sided injection) in a confined cross flow. Results show that jet penetrations for two sided injections are less than that for single-sided injections, but the jet spreading rates are faster for a given momentum ratio and orifice plate. Flow area convergence generally enhances mixing. Mixing characteristics with asymmetric and symmetric convergence are similar. For constant momentum ratio, the optimum S/H(0) with in-line injections is one half the optimum value for single sided injections. For staggered injections, the optimum S/H(0) is twice the optimum value for single-sided injection. The correlations developed predicted the temperature distributions within first order accuracy and provide a useful tool for predicting jet trajectory and temperature profiles in the dilution zone with two-sided injections.

  16. Primary Progressive Aphasia

    MedlinePlus

    Primary progressive aphasia Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Primary progressive aphasia (uh-FAY-zhuh) is a rare nervous system (neurological) syndrome ... your ability to communicate. People with primary progressive aphasia can have trouble expressing their thoughts and understanding ...

  17. Mixing navigation on networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Tao

    2008-05-01

    In this article, we propose a mixing navigation mechanism, which interpolates between random-walk and shortest-path protocol. The navigation efficiency can be remarkably enhanced via a few routers. Some advanced strategies are also designed: For non-geographical scale-free networks, the targeted strategy with a tiny fraction of routers can guarantee an efficient navigation with low and stable delivery time almost independent of network size. For geographical localized networks, the clustering strategy can simultaneously increase efficiency and reduce the communication cost. The present mixing navigation mechanism is of significance especially for information organization of wireless sensor networks and distributed autonomous robotic systems.

  18. Atomization and mixing study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrenberg, A.; Jaqua, V. W.

    1983-01-01

    The state of the art in atomization and mixing for triplet, pentad, and coaxial injectors is described. Injectors that are applicable for LOX/hydrocarbon propellants and main chamber and fuel rich preburner/gas generator mixture ratios are of special interest. Various applicable correlating equations and parameters as well as test data found in the literature are presented. The validity, utility, and important aspects of these data and correlations are discussed and the measurement techniques used are evaluated. Propellant mixing tests performed are described and summarized, results are reported, and tentative conclusions are included.

  19. Mixed crystal organic scintillators

    DOEpatents

    Zaitseva, Natalia P; Carman, M Leslie; Glenn, Andrew M; Hamel, Sebastien; Hatarik, Robert; Payne, Stephen A; Stoeffl, Wolfgang

    2014-09-16

    A mixed organic crystal according to one embodiment includes a single mixed crystal having two compounds with different bandgap energies, the organic crystal having a physical property of exhibiting a signal response signature for neutrons from a radioactive source, wherein the signal response signature does not include a significantly-delayed luminescence characteristic of neutrons interacting with the organic crystal relative to a luminescence characteristic of gamma rays interacting with the organic crystal. According to one embodiment, an organic crystal includes bibenzyl and stilbene or a stilbene derivative, the organic crystal having a physical property of exhibiting a signal response signature for neutrons from a radioactive source.

  20. Sylgard® Mixing Study

    SciTech Connect

    Bello, Mollie; Welch, Cynthia F.; Goodwin, Lynne Alese; Keller, Jennie

    2014-08-22

    Sylgard® 184 and Sylgard® 186 silicone elastomers form Dow Corning® are used as potting agents across the Nuclear Weapons Complex. A standardized mixing procedure is required for filled versions of these products. The present study is a follow-up to a mixing study performed by MST-7 which established the best mixing procedure to use when adding filler to either 184 or 186 base resins. The most effective and consistent method of mixing resin and curing agent for three modified silicone elastomer recipes is outlined in this report. For each recipe, sample size, mixing type, and mixing time was varied over 10 separate runs. The results show that the THINKY™ Mixer gives reliable mixing over varying batch sizes and mixing times. Hand Mixing can give improved mixing, as indicated by reduced initial viscosity; however, this method is not consistent.

  1. Mixing and Transport.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ditmars, John D.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of longitudinal dispersion, mixing and transport in streams, rivers, lakes, reservoirs, estuaries, and oceans. This review covers also: (1) fluid-solid mixtures and (2) oil spill behavior. A list of 189 references published in 1976 and 1977 is presented. (HM)

  2. Mixed-Initiative Clustering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Yifen

    2010-01-01

    Mixed-initiative clustering is a task where a user and a machine work collaboratively to analyze a large set of documents. We hypothesize that a user and a machine can both learn better clustering models through enriched communication and interactive learning from each other. The first contribution or this thesis is providing a framework of…

  3. Stabilizer for mixed fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamura, M.; Igarashi, T.; Ukigai, T.

    1984-03-13

    A stabilizer for mixed fuels containing a reaction product obtained by reacting (1) a polyol having at least 3 hydroxyl groups in the molecule and a molecular weight of 400-10,000 with (2) an epihalohydrin, as the principal component.

  4. True Anonymity Without Mixes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina-Jimenez, C.; Marshall, L.

    2002-04-01

    Anonymizers based on mix computers interposed between the sender and the receiver of an e-mail message have been used in the Internet for several years by senders of e-mail messages who do not wish to disclose their identity. Unfortunately, the degree of anonymity provided by this paradigm is limited and fragile. First, the messages sent are not truly anonymous but pseudo-anonymous since one of the mixes, at least, always knows the sender's identity. Secondly, the strength of the system to protect the sender's identity depends on the ability and the willingness of the mixes to keep the secret. If the mixes fail, the sender/'s anonymity is reduced to pieces. In this paper, we propose a novel approach for sending truly anonymous messages over the Internet where the anonymous message is sent from a PDA which uses dynamically assigned temporary, non-personal, random IP and MAC addresses. Anonymous E-cash is used to pay for the service.

  5. Radial Mixing in Turbomachines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-31

    Belgium March 31, 1991 Final Scientific Report June 1, 1989 - July 31, 1990 VUB -STR -17 Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. - Prepared ...secondary flows and turbulence as sources of mixing was investigated by conducting experiments using hot-wire anemometry and ehtylene tracer gas

  6. Diagnosis and management of primary cicatricial alopecia: part I.

    PubMed

    Otberg, Nina; Wu, Wen-Yu; McElwee, Kevin John; Shapiro, Jerry

    2008-01-01

    In this 2-part article, the authors review the primary cicatricial alopecias. Primary cicatricial alopecia can be defined as predominantly lymphocytic, neutrophilic, or mixed based on the nature of the follicular infiltrate that is present around affected hair follicles. Lymphocytic primary cicatricial alopecias include chronic cutaneous lupus erythematosus (discoid lupus erythematosus), lichen planopilaris, classic pseudopelade of Brocq, central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia, alopecia mucinosa, and keratosis follicularis spinulosa decalvans. In this first part, the authors summarize the classification, epidemiology, diagnostic approach, and patient management of lymphocytic cicatricial alopecias. In part II, the authors will focus on neutrophilic cicatricial alopecias and mixed cicatricial alopecias.

  7. Jet Mixing in a Reacting Cylindrical Crossflow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leong, M. Y.; Samuelsen, G. S.; Holdeman, J. D.

    1995-01-01

    This paper addresses the mixing of air jets into the hot, fuel-rich products of a gas turbine primary zone. The mixing, as a result, occurs in a reacting environment with chemical conversion and substantial heat release. The geometry is a crossflow confined in a cylindrical duct with side-wall injection of jets issuing from round orifices. A specially designed reactor, operating on propane, presents a uniform mixture without swirl to mixing modules consisting of 8, 9, 10, and 12 holes at a momentum-flux ratio of 57 and a jet-to-mainstream mass-flow ratio of 2.5. Concentrations of O2, CO2, CO, and HC are obtained upstream, downstream, and within the orifice plane. O2 profiles indicate jet penetration while CO2, CO, and HC profiles depict the extent of reaction. Jet penetration is observed to be a function of the number of orifices and is found to affect the mixing in the reacting system. The results demonstrate that one module (the 12-hole) produces near-optimal penetration defined here as a jet penetration closest to the module half-radius, and hence the best uniform mixture at a plane one duct radius from the orifice leading edge.

  8. Mixing by individual swimmers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pushkin, Dmitri; Shum, Henry; Yeomans, Julia

    2012-11-01

    Despite their evolutionary and technological importance, different biomixing mechanisms, their effectiveness and universality remain poorly understood. In this talk we focus on the Lagrangian transport of the surrounding fluid by swimmers. Low Re passive tracers advected by swimmers move in loops that are, in general, almost closed. We analyze the reasons for this behavior and, as non-closedness of the loops is a natural requirement for an efficient mixing, propose a classification of possible mechanisms for biogenic mixing. Next, we discuss the universal (common to all swimmers) and the swimmer-dependent features of the resulting tracer displacements and analyze the Darwin drift, the total fluid volume displaced by a swimmer passing from and to infinity. We show that the Darwin drift is finite for force-free swimmers and can be decomposed into a universal and a swimmer-dependent part. We illustrate our consideration with examples for model swimmers and biological data.

  9. Experiments in mixed reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krum, David M.; Sadek, Ramy; Kohli, Luv; Olson, Logan; Bolas, Mark

    2010-01-01

    As part of the Institute for Creative Technologies and the School of Cinematic Arts at the University of Southern California, the Mixed Reality lab develops technologies and techniques for presenting realistic immersive training experiences. Such experiences typically place users within a complex ecology of social actors, physical objects, and collections of intents, motivations, relationships, and other psychological constructs. Currently, it remains infeasible to completely synthesize the interactivity and sensory signatures of such ecologies. For this reason, the lab advocates mixed reality methods for training and conducts experiments exploring such methods. Currently, the lab focuses on understanding and exploiting the elasticity of human perception with respect to representational differences between real and virtual environments. This paper presents an overview of three projects: techniques for redirected walking, displays for the representation of virtual humans, and audio processing to increase stress.

  10. Magnetically driven surface mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belkin, M.; Snezhko, A.; Aranson, I. S.; Kwok, W.-K.

    2009-07-01

    Magnetic microparticles suspended on the surface of liquid and energized by vertical alternating magnetic field exhibit complex collective behavior. Various immobile and self-propelled self-assembled structures have been observed. Here, we report on experimental studies of mixing and surface diffusion processes in this system. We show that the pattern-induced surface flows have properties of quasi-two-dimensional turbulence. Correspondingly, the surface advection of tracer particle exhibits properties of Brownian diffusion.

  11. Flows, Turbulence, and Mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazarian, Alex

    2003-07-01

    HST and FUSE spectra of distant UV-bright sources reveal interstellar absorption lines of high stages of ionization {O VI, C IV, N V, Si IV} arising in many different astrophysical environments such as superbubbles, interstellar chimneys, high-velocity clouds, galaxy halos and cosmic filaments. Turbulence, always present in the magnetized ISM, must mix the hot { 10^6 K} gas with cooler gas within "turbulent mixing layers". Present theory, based on 1D steady-state flows, suggest the line ratios in these layers differ significantly from photoionized gas, radiative shocks, cooling zones, or conduction fronts. These models are use to infer mass and energy fluxes important to understanding the ISM. We propose to develop a suite of 3D time-dependent models that properly calculate turbulent mixing. We will produce synthetic UV absorption lines and optical emission lines directly relevant to HST observations that use GHRS, STIS, and eventually, COS. These models will allow us to explore the sensitivity of the spectral diagnostics to magnetic field strength, turbulence intensity, and relative velocity of the hot and cold gas. We will publish the resulting grid of spectral diagnostics and make them available through the Web.

  12. Stochastic neutrino mixing mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzzo, M. M.; de Holanda, P. C.; Peres, O. L. G.; Zavanin, E. M.

    2013-05-01

    We propose a mechanism which provides an explanation of the Gallium and antineutrino reactor anomalies. Differently from original Pontecorvo’s hypothesis, this mechanism is based on the phenomenological assumption in which the admixture of neutrino mass eigenstates in the moments of neutrino creation and detection can assume different configurations around the admixture parametrized by the usual values of the mixing angles θ12, θ23, and θ13. For simplicity, we assume a Gaussian distribution for the mixing angles in such a way that the average value of this distribution is given by the usual values of the mixing angles, and the width of the Gaussian is denoted by α. We show that the proposed mechanism provides a possible explanation for very short-baseline neutrino disappearance, necessary to accommodate Gallium and antineutrino reactor anomalies, which is not allowed in usual neutrino oscillations based on Pontecorvo’s original hypotheses. We also can describe high-energy oscillation experiments, like LSND, Fermi, and NuTeV, assuming a weakly energy dependent width parameter, α(E), that nicely fits all experimental results.

  13. Impact of turbulent mixing on isoprene chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S.-W.; Barth, M. C.; Trainer, M.

    2016-07-01

    Isoprene, a volatile organic compound that is mainly emitted from trees, rapidly reacts with hydroxyl radical (OH) during daytime and subsequently forms ozone and aerosols in the troposphere. The isoprene-OH reaction can be affected by the interplay between chemistry and mixing because the two processes occur at a similar time scale. We investigate the impact of turbulent mixing on isoprene-OH reactivity with large eddy simulations (LES) coupled with comprehensive chemistry. Our results show that the covariance of isoprene and OH causes ~20% decrease to ~10% increase of the horizontal average reaction rate, depending on nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) abundances, compared to the rate that neglects the covariance. This wide range of effects on reaction rates is caused by the primary production and loss reactions of OH in each NOx regime. Our research promotes the use of LES for better understanding the role of turbulence in isoprene-OH reaction and parameterizations in large-scale models.

  14. Mixing kaons with mixed action chiral perturbation theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubin, Christopher

    2006-12-01

    We calculate the neutral kaon mixing parameter, BK , to next-to-leading order in mixed action (domain-wall valence with staggered sea quarks) chiral perturbation theory. We find the expres- sion for BK in this mixed-action case only differs from the continuum partially quenched expres- sion by an additional analytic term. Additionally, in preparation for a lattice calculation of BK with a mixed action, we discuss quantitatively the effects of the taste violations as well as finite volume effects.

  15. Treatment of mixed waste coolant

    SciTech Connect

    Kidd, S.; Bowers, J.S.

    1995-02-01

    The primary processes used at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for treatment of radioactively contaminated machine coolants are industrial waste treatment and in situ carbon adsorption. These two processes simplify approaches to meeting the sanitary sewer discharge limits and subsequent Land Disposal Restriction criteria for hazardous and mixed wastes (40 CFR 268). Several relatively simple technologies are used in industrial water treatment. These technologies are considered Best Demonstrated Available Technologies, or BDAT, by the Environmental Protection Agency. The machine coolants are primarily aqueous and contain water soluble oil consisting of ethanol amine emulsifiers derived from fatty acids, both synthetic and natural. This emulsion carries away metal turnings from a part being machined on a lathe or other machining tool. When the coolant becomes spent, it contains chlorosolvents carried over from other cutting operations as well as a fair amount of tramp oil from machine bearings. This results in a multiphasic aqueous waste that requires treatment of metal and organic contaminants. During treatment, any dissolved metals are oxidized with hydrogen peroxide. Once oxidized, these metals are flocculated with ferric sulfate and precipitated with sodium hydroxide, and then the precipitate is filtered through diatomaceous earth. The emulsion is broken up by acidifying the coolant. Solvents and oils are adsorbed using powdered carbon. This carbon is easily separated from the remaining coolant by vacuum filtration.

  16. MixSIAR: advanced stable isotope mixing models in R

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background/Question/Methods The development of stable isotope mixing models has coincided with modeling products (e.g. IsoSource, MixSIR, SIAR), where methodological advances are published in parity with software packages. However, while mixing model theory has recently been ex...

  17. RBCC Mixing Studies: Ejector Ramjet Design Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The research project reported herein extended over a period from October 1997 through August 1999. The research resulted in three technical papers presented at the AIAA/SAE/ASME/ASEE 35th Joint Propulsion Conference in Los Angeles in July 1999. These three papers are attached to this Executive Summary to constitute the final report. Objective: The objective of this research was to determine the mixing characteristics between the primary rocket jets and the turbine exhaust stream in a simulated Rocket Based Combined Cycle propulsion concept operating in the air augmented rocket mode.

  18. Error Estimates for Mixed Methods.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-03-01

    This paper presents abstract error estimates for mixed methods for the approximate solution of elliptic boundary value problems. These estimates are...then applied to obtain quasi-optimal error estimates in the usual Sobolev norms for four examples: three mixed methods for the biharmonic problem and a mixed method for 2nd order elliptic problems. (Author)

  19. Magnetically coupled system for mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, III, Harlan; Meichel, George; Legere, Edward; Malkiel, Edwin; Woods, Robert Paul; Ashley, Oliver; Katz, Joseph; Ward, Jason; Petersen, Paul

    2014-04-01

    The invention provides a mixing system comprising a magnetically coupled drive system and a foil for cultivating algae, or cyanobacteria, in an open or enclosed vessel. The invention provides effective mixing, low energy usage, low capital expenditure, and ease of drive system component maintenance while maintaining the integrity of a sealed mixing vessel.

  20. Magnetically coupled system for mixing

    DOEpatents

    Miller, III, Harlan; Meichel, George; Legere, Edward; Malkiel, Edwin; Woods, Robert Paul; Ashley, Oliver; Katz, Joseph; Ward, Jason; Petersen, Paul

    2015-09-22

    The invention provides a mixing system comprising a magnetically coupled drive system and a foil for cultivating algae, or cyanobacteria, in an open or enclosed vessel. The invention provides effective mixing, low energy usage, low capital expenditure, and ease of drive system component maintenance while maintaining the integrity of a sealed mixing vessel.

  1. B Lifetimes and Mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Harold G.; /Indiana U.

    2009-05-01

    The Tevatron experiments, CDF and D0, have produced a wealth of new B-physics results since the start of Run II in 2001. We've observed new B-hadrons, seen new effects, and increased many-fold the precision with which we know the properties of b-quark systems. In these proceedings, we will discuss two of the most fruitful areas in the Tevatron B-physics program: lifetimes and mixing. We'll examine the experimental issues driving these analyses, present a summary of the latest results, and discuss prospects for the future.

  2. Mixed waste focus area alternative technologies workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Borduin, L.C.; Palmer, B.A.; Pendergrass, J.A.

    1995-05-24

    This report documents the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA)-sponsored Alternative Technology Workshop held in Salt Lake City, Utah, from January 24--27, 1995. The primary workshop goal was identifying potential applications for emerging technologies within the Options Analysis Team (OAT) ``wise`` configuration. Consistent with the scope of the OAT analysis, the review was limited to the Mixed Low-Level Waste (MLLW) fraction of DOE`s mixed waste inventory. The Los Alamos team prepared workshop materials (databases and compilations) to be used as bases for participant review and recommendations. These materials derived from the Mixed Waste Inventory Report (MWIR) data base (May 1994), the Draft Site Treatment Plan (DSTP) data base, and the OAT treatment facility configuration of December 7, 1994. In reviewing workshop results, the reader should note several caveats regarding data limitations. Link-up of the MWIR and DSTP data bases, while representing the most comprehensive array of mixed waste information available at the time of the workshop, requires additional data to completely characterize all waste streams. A number of changes in waste identification (new and redefined streams) occurred during the interval from compilation of the data base to compilation of the DSTP data base with the end result that precise identification of radiological and contaminant characteristics was not possible for these streams. To a degree, these shortcomings compromise the workshop results; however, the preponderance of waste data was linked adequately, and therefore, these analyses should provide useful insight into potential applications of alternative technologies to DOE MLLW treatment facilities.

  3. Toward a Unified Validation Framework in Mixed Methods Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dellinger, Amy B.; Leech, Nancy L.

    2007-01-01

    The primary purpose of this article is to further discussions of validity in mixed methods research by introducing a validation framework to guide thinking about validity in this area. To justify the use of this framework, the authors discuss traditional terminology and validity criteria for quantitative and qualitative research, as well as…

  4. Brain tumor - primary - adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vestibular schwannoma (acoustic neuroma) - adults; Meningioma - adults; Cancer - brain tumor (adults) ... Primary brain tumors include any tumor that starts in the brain. Primary brain tumors can start from brain cells, ...

  5. Primary renal carcinoid tumor.

    PubMed

    Kanodia, K V; Vanikar, A V; Patel, R D; Suthar, K S; Kute, V B; Modi, P R; Trivedi, H L

    2013-09-01

    Primary renal carcinoid tumor is extremely rare and, therefore, its pathogenesis and prognosis is not well known. We report a primary renal carcinoid in a 26-year-old man treated by radical nephrectomy.

  6. Primary enzyme quantitation

    DOEpatents

    Saunders, G.C.

    1982-03-04

    The disclosure relates to the quantitation of a primary enzyme concentration by utilizing a substrate for the primary enzyme labeled with a second enzyme which is an indicator enzyme. Enzyme catalysis of the substrate occurs and results in release of the indicator enzyme in an amount directly proportional to the amount of primary enzyme present. By quantifying the free indicator enzyme one determines the amount of primary enzyme present.

  7. Investigating Primary Source Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, Joanne; Hanlon, Ann M.; Levine, Jennie A.

    2009-01-01

    Primary source research requires students to acquire specialized research skills. This paper presents results from a user study testing the effectiveness of a Web guide designed to convey the concepts behind "primary source literacy". The study also evaluated students' strengths and weaknesses when conducting primary source research. (Contains 3…

  8. Primary Care's Dim Prognosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alper, Philip R.

    2010-01-01

    Given the chorus of approval for primary care emanating from every party to the health reform debate, one might suppose that the future for primary physicians is bright. Yet this is far from certain. And when one looks to history and recognizes that primary care medicine has failed virtually every conceivable market test in recent years, its…

  9. Analysis and testing of high entrainment single nozzle jet pumps with variable mixing tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickman, K. E.; Hill, P. G.; Gilbert, G. B.

    1972-01-01

    An analytical model was developed to predict the performance characteristics of axisymmetric single-nozzle jet pumps with variable area mixing tubes. The primary flow may be subsonic or supersonic. The computer program uses integral techniques to calculate the velocity profiles and the wall static pressures that result from the mixing of the supersonic primary jet and the subsonic secondary flow. An experimental program was conducted to measure mixing tube wall static pressure variations, velocity profiles, and temperature profiles in a variable area mixing tube with a supersonic primary jet. Static pressure variations were measured at four different secondary flow rates. These test results were used to evaluate the analytical model. The analytical results compared well to the experimental data. Therefore, the analysis is believed to be ready for use to relate jet pump performance characteristics to mixing tube design.

  10. Collisional atomic mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biersack, Jochen P.

    The collisional mixing of thin metal markers in silicon is investigated with the computer program TRIM-DYNAMIC (T-DYN). This code assumes that at high dose irradiation, the substrate Si or Ge, will get fully amorphized, and the recoil atom can stop in any position after slowing down below a certain final energy Ef (taken here as 3 eV). In order to avoid chemical effects, the system Au marker in a silicon matrix was chosen for the TRIM simulation. The results are in good agreement with the experimental findings, as compiled in the review article by Paine and Averback. Similar collisional mixing effects occur in the process of SIMS or Auger electron depth profiling, and cannot be avoided. An example is given here for a thin layer of arsenic vapor deposited on Si and covered by amorphous silicon. The analysing ion beam in this case was 14.5 keV Cs+ incident at 37° towards the surface normal. In comparison with the SIMS measurements by modern depth profiling equipment, again good agreement was found between the T-DYN results and the experiment.

  11. Transition mixing study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, R.; White, C.

    1986-01-01

    A computer model capable of analyzing the flow field in the transition liner of small gas turbine engines is developed. A FORTRAN code has been assembled from existing codes and physical submodels and used to predict the flow in several test geometries which contain characteristics similar to transition liners, and for which experimental data was available. Comparisons between the predictions and measurements indicate that the code produces qualitative results but that the turbulence models, both K-E and algebraic Reynolds Stress, underestimate the cross-stream diffusion. The code has also been used to perform a numerical experiment to examine the effect of a variety of parameters on the mixing process in transition liners. Comparisons illustrate that geometries with significant curvature show a drift of the jet trajectory toward the convex wall and weaker wake region vortices and decreased penetration for jets located on the convex wall of the liner, when compared to jets located on concave walls. Also shown were the approximate equivalency of angled slots and round holes and a technique by which jet mixing correlations developed for rectangular channels can be used for can geometries.

  12. Wave mixing spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.W.

    1980-08-01

    Several new aspects of nonlinear or wave mixing spectroscopy were investigated utilizing the polarization properties of the nonlinear output field and the dependence of this field upon the occurrence of multiple resonances in the nonlinear susceptibility. First, it is shown theoretically that polarization-sensitive detection may be used to either eliminate or controllably reduce the nonresonant background in coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy, allowing weaker Raman resonances to be studied. The features of multi-resonant four-wave mixing are examined in the case of an inhomogeneously broadened medium. It is found that the linewidth of the nonlinear output narrows considerably (approaching the homogeneous width) when the quantum mechanical expressions for the doubly- and triply-resonant susceptibilities are averaged over a Doppler or strain broadened profile. Experimental studies of nonlinear processes in Pr/sup +3/:LaF/sub 3/ verify this linewidth narrowing, but indicate that this strain broadened system cannot be treated with a single broadening parameter as in the case of Doppler broadening in a gas. Several susceptibilities are measured from which are deduced dipole matrix elements and Raman polarizabilities related to the /sup 3/H/sub 4/, /sup 3/H/sub 6/, and /sup 3/P/sub 0/ levels of the praseodymium ions.

  13. A new unsteady mixing model to predict NO(x) production during rapid mixing in a dual-stage combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menon, Suresh

    1992-01-01

    An advanced gas turbine engine to power supersonic transport aircraft is currently under study. In addition to high combustion efficiency requirements, environmental concerns have placed stringent restrictions on the pollutant emissions from these engines. A combustor design with the potential for minimizing pollutants such as NO(x) emissions is undergoing experimental evaluation. A major technical issue in the design of this combustor is how to rapidly mix the hot, fuel-rich primary zone product with the secondary diluent air to obtain a fuel-lean mixture for combustion in the second stage. Numerical predictions using steady-state methods cannot account for the unsteady phenomena in the mixing region. Therefore, to evaluate the effect of unsteady mixing and combustion processes, a novel unsteady mixing model is demonstrated here. This model has been used to study multispecies mixing as well as propane-air and hydrogen-air jet nonpremixed flames, and has been used to predict NO(x) production in the mixing region. Comparison with available experimental data show good agreement, thereby providing validation of the mixing model. With this demonstration, this mixing model is ready to be implemented in conjunction with steady-state prediction methods and provide an improved engineering design analysis tool.

  14. Multiple primary breast and thyroid cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Ron, E.; Curtis, R.; Hoffman, D. A.; Flannery, J. T.

    1984-01-01

    The occurrence of breast and thyroid multiple primary cancers was evaluated using data from the Connecticut Tumor Registry. The study population consisted of 1618 women with primary thyroid cancer and 39,194 women with primary breast cancer diagnosed between 1935 and 1978. Thirty-four thyroid cancer patients subsequently developed breast cancer and 24 breast cancer patients later had thyroid cancer. A significantly elevated risk of thyroid cancer following breast cancer (SIR = 1.68) and breast cancer following thyroid cancer (SIR = 1.89) was demonstrated. The finding was even more notable when compared with the risks obtained for other sites. The elevated risk was particularly evident in women under 40 years of age at time of diagnosis of the first cancer. Analysis by histologic type revealed that the highest risk of second primary breast cancer was found among patients with follicular or mixed papillary-follicular thyroid cancer. Women under age 40 with follicular carcinoma had a 10-fold risk of developing breast cancer (4 observed, 0.4 expected). An enhanced risk of second primary tumours was evident for the entire period after treatment of the first primary, although it was highest within one year after diagnosis of the first primary. This may be due to the close medical surveillance of cancer patients which would increase early diagnosis of second tumours. Our findings suggest that breast and thyroid cancer may share common aetiologic features. PMID:6691901

  15. Effects of partial substitution of dietary fish oil with blends of vegetable oils, on blood leucocyte fatty acid compositions, immune function and histology in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L).

    PubMed

    Mourente, Gabriel; Good, Joanne E; Thompson, Kim D; Bell, J Gordon

    2007-10-01

    Within a decade or so insufficient fish oil (FO) will be available to meet the requirements for aquaculture growth. Consequently, alternative sources are being investigated to reduce reliance on wild fish as a source of FO. Vegetable oils (VO) are a feasible alternative to FO. However, it is important to establish that alternative dietary lipids are not only supplied in the correct quantities and balance for optimal growth, but can maintain immune function and prevent infection, since it is known that the nutritional state of the fish can influence their immune function and disease resistance. A way of maintaining immune function, while replacing dietary FO, is by using a blend of VO rather than a single oil. In this study, juvenile European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) were fed diets with a 60 % substitution of FO with a blend of rapeseed, linseed and palm oils. Two oil blends were used to achieve a fatty acid composition similar to FO, in terms of energy content, and provide a similar balance of SFA, MUFA and PUFA. Fish were fed the diets for 64 weeks, after which time growth and fatty acid compositions of liver and blood leucocytes were monitored. The impact of the dietary blends on selected innate immune responses and histopathology were also assessed, together with levels of plasma prostaglandin E2. The results suggest that potential exists for replacing FO with a VO blend in farmed sea bass feeds without compromising growth, non-specific immune function or histology.

  16. Influence of human leucocyte antigen‐DRB1 on the susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis and on the production of anti‐cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies in a Portuguese population

    PubMed Central

    Ligeiro, D; Fonseca, J E; Abade, O; Abreu, I; Cruz, M; Nero, P; Cavaleiro, J; Teles, J; Trindade, H; Caetano, J M; Branco, J

    2007-01-01

    Objective To clarify the influence of the HLA‐DRB1 locus on the susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis and the production of anti‐cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies (anti‐CCP) in a Portuguese population. Methods: 141 patients with rheumatoid arthritis fulfilling the American College of Rheumatology 1987 revised criteria for rheumatoid arthritis were compared with 150 healthy controls. Human leucocyte antigen (HLA)‐DRB1 locus genotyping was assessed by polymerase chain reaction reverse probing assays and sequence‐specific primers. Anti‐CCP antibodies were quantified by ELISA in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Frequencies between groups were compared by the two‐sided Fisher's exact test and considered significant if p<0.05. Results The HLA‐DRB1*04 and HLA‐DRB1*10 groups were highly associated with rheumatoid arthritis (p<0.001 and p = 0.031, respectively). High titres of anti‐CCP antibodies were largely associated with the presence of HLA‐DRB1*04/10. Conclusion The well‐recognised susceptibility alleles to rheumatoid arthritis, HLA‐DRB1*04, were associated with rheumatoid arthritis in Portuguese patients. The relatively rare DRB1*10 was also associated with rheumatoid arthritis, as was described previously in other southern European countries. Both groups were associated with high anti‐CCP titres, reinforcing its relevance to disease onset. PMID:16793843

  17. Mixed Waste Management Facility Groundwater Monitoring Report, Fourth Quarter 1998 and 1998 Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Chase, J.

    1999-04-29

    During fourth quarter 1998, ten constituents exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) in groundwater samples from downgradient monitoring wells at the Mixed Waste Management Facility. No constituents exceeded final PDWS in samples from the upgradient monitoring wells.

  18. Gray component replacement using color mixing models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Henry R.

    1994-05-01

    A new approach to the gray component replacement (GCR) has been developed. It employs the color mixing theory for modeling the spectral fit between the 3-color and 4-color prints. To achieve this goal, we first examine the accuracy of the models with respect to the experimental results by applying them to the prints made by a Canon Color Laser Copier-500 (CLC-500). An empirical halftone correction factor is used for improving the data fitting. Among the models tested, the halftone corrected Kubelka-Munk theory gives the closest fit, followed by the halftone corrected Beer-Bouguer law and the Yule-Neilsen approach. We then apply the halftone corrected BB law to GCR. The main feature of this GCR approach is based on the spectral measurements of the primary color step wedges and a software package implementing the color mixing model. The software determines the amount of the gray component to be removed, then adjusts each primary color until a good match of the peak wavelengths between the 3-color and 4-color spectra is obtained. Results indicate that the average (Delta) Eab between cmy and cmyk renditions of 64 color patches is 3.11 (Delta) Eab. Eighty-seven percent of the patches has (Delta) Eab less than 5 units. The advantage of this approach is its simplicity; there is no need for the black printer and under color addition. Because this approach is based on the spectral reproduction, it minimizes the metamerism.

  19. Undulated Nozzle for Enhanced Exit Area Mixing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seiner, John M. (Inventor); Gilinsky, Mikhail M. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A nozzle having an undulating surface for enhancing the mixing of a primary flow with a secondary flow or ambient air, without requiring an ejector. The nozzle includes a nozzle structure and design for introducing counter-rotating vorticity into the primary flow either through (i) internal surface corrugations where an axisymmetric line through each corrugation is coincident with an axisymmetric line through the center of the flow passageway or (ii) through one or more sets of alternating convexities and cavities in the internal surface of the nozzle where an axisymmetric line through each convexity and cavity is coincident with an axisymmetric line through the center of the flow passageway, and where the convexities contract from the entrance end towards the exit end. Exit area mixing is also enhanced by one or more chevrons attached to the exit edge of the nozzle. The nozzle is ideally suited for application as a jet engine nozzle. When used as a jet engine nozzle, noise suppression with simultaneous thrust augmentation/minimal thrust loss is achieved.

  20. Mixed methods, mixed methodology health services research in practice.

    PubMed

    Johnstone, P Lynne

    2004-02-01

    Mixed methods, mixed methodology research is a little documented but increasingly accepted approach employed to investigate organizational phenomena. The author presents a synthesis of literature that informed the decision to adopt a mixed methods, mixed methodology, dominantly naturalistic study approach to health services research in which she explored the process and organizational consequences of new artifact adoption in surgery. She describes the way whereby a collective case study involving five Australian hospitals yielded quantitative and qualitative data that were analyzed using inductive and/or deductive reasoning. She goes beyond the theoretical rational for employing a mixed methods, mixed methodology approach to present a summative conceptual model of the research process and describe the structural aspects of the dissertation in which the research was reported that should benefit researchers contemplating the value of such an approach.

  1. Mixed Mode Matrix Multiplication

    SciTech Connect

    Meng-Shiou Wu; Srinivas Aluru; Ricky A. Kendall

    2004-09-30

    In modern clustering environments where the memory hierarchy has many layers (distributed memory, shared memory layer, cache,...), an important question is how to fully utilize all available resources and identify the most dominant layer in certain computations. When combining algorithms on all layers together, what would be the best method to get the best performance out of all the resources we have? Mixed mode programming model that uses thread programming on the shared memory layer and message passing programming on the distributed memory layer is a method that many researchers are using to utilize the memory resources. In this paper, they take an algorithmic approach that uses matrix multiplication as a tool to show how cache algorithms affect the performance of both shared memory and distributed memory algorithms. They show that with good underlying cache algorithm, overall performance is stable. When underlying cache algorithm is bad, superlinear speedup may occur, and an increasing number of threads may also improve performance.

  2. Radioactive mixed waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Jasen, W.G.; Erpenbeck, E.G.

    1993-02-01

    Various types of waste have been generated during the 50-year history of the Hanford Site. Regulatory changes in the last 20 years have provided the emphasis for better management of these wastes. Interpretations of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (AEA), the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA), and the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) have led to the definition of radioactive mixed wastes (RMW). The radioactive and hazardous properties of these wastes have resulted in the initiation of special projects for the management of these wastes. Other solid wastes at the Hanford Site include low-level wastes, transuranic (TRU), and nonradioactive hazardous wastes. This paper describes a system for the treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) of solid radioactive waste.

  3. MIxed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP): Technology summary

    SciTech Connect

    1994-02-01

    The mission of the Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) is to develop and demonstrate innovative and emerging technologies for the treatment and management of DOE`s mixed low-level wastes (MLLW) for use by its customers, the Office of Waste Operations (EM-30) and the Office of Environmental Restoration (EM-40). The primary goal of MWIP is to develop and demonstrate the treatment and disposal of actual mixed waste (MMLW and MTRU). The vitrification process and the plasma hearth process are scheduled for demonstration on actual radioactive waste in FY95 and FY96, respectively. This will be accomplished by sequential studies of lab-scale non-radioactive testing followed by bench-scale radioactive testing, followed by field-scale radioactive testing. Both processes create a highly durable final waste form that passes leachability requirements while destroying organics. Material handling technology, and off-gas requirements and capabilities for the plasma hearth process and the vitrification process will be established in parallel.

  4. Utilisation de traceurs radioactifs pour l'évaluation du recrutement des leucocytes et des échanges vasculaires au niveau d'organes in~vivo. Description d'une méthode et discussion des problèmes d'interprétation sur quelques exemples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bureau, M. F.

    1997-03-01

    An experimental method using simultaneously different γ emiter tracers was developed to evaluate inflammation in vivo. Experiments were performed on the anaesthetized guinea-pig to test pulmonary effects of inflammatory agents. Red blood cells, albumin and inflammatory cells (platelets or leucocytes) radiolabelled with 99m technetium, 131 iodine and 111 indium respectively were injected i.v. Their radioactivities were measured on a pulmonary region by external detection and on blood samples in a well type counter. From these measurements variations of the lung contents in red blood cells, extravascular albumin and non circulating leucocytes during inflammatory stimulation were evaluated. These parameters axe indexes of blood perfusion, vascular exchanges and leucocyte sequestration respectively. Fiability of the method and meaning of the parameters evaluated are discussed. Une méthode expérimentale utilisant simultanément différents traceurs γ a été développée pour évaluer l'inflammation in vivo. Des expériences ont été réalisées chez le cobaye anesthésié pour tester l'effet pulmonaire d'agents inflammatoires. Des globules rouges, de l'albumine et des cellules inflammatoires (plaquettes ou leucocytes) radiomarqués respectivement au technetium 99m, à l'iode 131 et à l'indium 111 sont injectés i.v. Leurs radioactivités sont mesurées sur une région pulmonaire par détection externe et sur des échantillons sanguins au compteur puit. À partir de ces mesures sont évaluées les variations des contenus pulmonaires en globules rouges, en albumine extravasculaire et en leucocytes non circulants lors d'une stimulation inflammatoire. Ces paramètres sont corrélés aux modifications de la perfusion, des échanges vasculaires et de la séquestration leucocytaire. La fiabilité de la méthode et la signification des paramètres évalués sont discutées.

  5. Biogenic inputs to ocean mixing.

    PubMed

    Katija, Kakani

    2012-03-15

    Recent studies have evoked heated debate about whether biologically generated (or biogenic) fluid disturbances affect mixing in the ocean. Estimates of biogenic inputs have shown that their contribution to ocean mixing is of the same order as winds and tides. Although these estimates are intriguing, further study using theoretical, numerical and experimental techniques is required to obtain conclusive evidence of biogenic mixing in the ocean. Biogenic ocean mixing is a complex problem that requires detailed understanding of: (1) marine organism behavior and characteristics (i.e. swimming dynamics, abundance and migratory behavior), (2) mechanisms utilized by swimming animals that have the ability to mix stratified fluids (i.e. turbulence and fluid drift) and (3) knowledge of the physical environment to isolate contributions of marine organisms from other sources of mixing. In addition to summarizing prior work addressing the points above, observations on the effect of animal swimming mode and body morphology on biogenic fluid transport will also be presented. It is argued that to inform the debate on whether biogenic mixing can contribute to ocean mixing, our studies should focus on diel vertical migrators that traverse stratified waters of the upper pycnocline. Based on our understanding of mixing mechanisms, body morphologies, swimming modes and body orientation, combined with our knowledge of vertically migrating populations of animals, it is likely that copepods, krill and some species of gelatinous zooplankton and fish have the potential to be strong sources of biogenic mixing.

  6. Fluid mixing in stratified gravity currents: the Prandtl mixing length.

    PubMed

    Odier, P; Chen, J; Rivera, M K; Ecke, R E

    2009-04-03

    Shear-induced vertical mixing in a stratified flow is a key ingredient of thermohaline circulation. We experimentally determine the vertical flux of momentum and density of a forced gravity current using high-resolution velocity and density measurements. A constant eddy-viscosity model provides a poor description of the physics of mixing, but a Prandtl mixing length model relating momentum and density fluxes to mean velocity and density gradients works well. For the average gradient Richardson number Ri(g) approximately 0.08 and a Taylor Reynolds number Re(lambda) approximately 100, the mixing lengths are fairly constant, about the same magnitude, comparable to the turbulent shear length.

  7. Estimating beta-mixing coefficients

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Daniel J.; Shalizi, Cosma Rohilla; Schervish, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The literature on statistical learning for time series assumes the asymptotic independence or “mixing” of the data-generating process. These mixing assumptions are never tested, and there are no methods for estimating mixing rates from data. We give an estimator for the beta-mixing rate based on a single stationary sample path and show it is L1-risk consistent. PMID:26279742

  8. Optimal broadcasting of mixed states

    SciTech Connect

    Dang Guifang; Fan Heng

    2007-08-15

    The N to M (M{>=}N) universal quantum broadcasting of mixed states {rho}{sup xN} is proposed for a qubit system. The broadcasting of mixed states is universal and optimal in the sense that the shrinking factor is independent of the input state and achieves the upper bound. The quantum broadcasting of mixed qubits is a generalization of the universal quantum cloning machine for identical pure input states. A pure state decomposition of the identical mixed qubits {rho}{sup xN} is obtained.

  9. Primary Intraosseous Meningioma.

    PubMed

    Chen, Thomas C

    2016-04-01

    Primary intraosseous meningiomas are a subtype of primary extradural meningiomas. They represent approximately two-thirds of extradural meningiomas and fewer than 2% of meningiomas overall. These tumors originate within the bones of the skull and can have a clinical presentation and radiographic differential diagnosis different from those for intradural meningiomas. Primary intraosseous meningiomas are classified based on location and histopathologic characteristics. Treatment is primarily surgical resection with wide margins if possible. Sparse literature exists regarding the use of adjuvant therapies. The literature regarding primary intraosseous meningiomas consists primarily of clinical case reports and case series. This literature is reviewed and summarized in this article.

  10. Overview of Neutrino Mixing Models and Their Mixing Angle Predictions

    SciTech Connect

    Albright, Carl H.

    2009-11-01

    An overview of neutrino-mixing models is presented with emphasis on the types of horizontal flavor and vertical family symmetries that have been invoked. Distributions for the mixing angles of many models are displayed. Ways to differentiate among the models and to narrow the list of viable models are discussed.

  11. Combustor with two stage primary fuel assembly

    DOEpatents

    Sharifi, Mehran; Zolyomi, Wendel; Whidden, Graydon Lane

    2000-01-01

    A combustor for a gas turbine having first and second passages for pre-mixing primary fuel and air supplied to a primary combustion zone. The flow of fuel to the first and second pre-mixing passages is separately regulated using a single annular fuel distribution ring having first and second row of fuel discharge ports. The interior portion of the fuel distribution ring is divided by a baffle into first and second fuel distribution manifolds and is located upstream of the inlets to the two pre-mixing passages. The annular fuel distribution ring is supplied with fuel by an annular fuel supply manifold, the interior portion of which is divided by a baffle into first and second fuel supply manifolds. A first flow of fuel is regulated by a first control valve and directed to the first fuel supply manifold, from which the fuel is distributed to first fuel supply tubes that direct it to the first fuel distribution manifold. From the first fuel distribution manifold, the first flow of fuel is distributed to the first row of fuel discharge ports, which direct it into the first pre-mixing passage. A second flow of fuel is regulated by a second control valve and directed to the second fuel supply manifold, from which the fuel is distributed to second fuel supply tubes that direct it to the second fuel distribution manifold. From the second fuel distribution manifold, the second flow of fuel is distributed to the second row of fuel discharge ports, which direct it into the second pre-mixing passage.

  12. Mixed voltage VLSI design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panwar, Ramesh; Rennels, David; Alkalaj, Leon

    1993-01-01

    A technique for minimizing the power dissipated in a Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) chip by lowering the operating voltage without any significant penalty in the chip throughput even though low voltage operation results in slower circuits. Since the overall throughput of a VLSI chip depends on the speed of the critical path(s) in the chip, it may be possible to sustain the throughput rates attained at higher voltages by operating the circuits in the critical path(s) with a high voltage while operating the other circuits with a lower voltage to minimize the power dissipation. The interface between the gates which operate at different voltages is crucial for low power dissipation since the interface may possibly have high static current dissipation thus negating the gains of the low voltage operation. The design of a voltage level translator which does the interface between the low voltage and high voltage circuits without any significant static dissipation is presented. Then, the results of the mixed voltage design using a greedy algorithm on three chips for various operating voltages are presented.

  13. Mixed oxide fuel development

    SciTech Connect

    Leggett, R.D.; Omberg, R.P.

    1987-05-08

    This paper describes the success of the ongoing mixed-oxide fuel development program in the United States aimed at qualifying an economical fuel system for liquid metal cooled reactors. This development has been the cornerstone of the US program for the past 20 years and has proceeded in a deliberate and highly disciplined fashion with high emphasis on fuel reliability and operational safety as major features of an economical fuel system. The program progresses from feature testing in EBR-II to qualifying full size components in FFTF under fully prototypic conditions to establish a basis for extending allowable lifetimes. The development program started with the one year (300 EFPD) core, which is the FFTF driver fuel, continued with the demonstration of a two year (600 EFPD) core and is presently evaluating a three year (900 EFPD) fuel system. All three of these systems, consistent with other LMR fuel programs around the world, use fuel pellets gas bonded to a cladding tube that is assembled into a bundle and fitted into a wrapper tube or duct for ease of insertion into a core. The materials of construction progressed from austenitic CW 316 SS to lower swelling austenitic D9 to non swelling ferritic/martensitic HT9. 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Mixing in polymeric microfluidic devices.

    SciTech Connect

    Schunk, Peter Randall; Sun, Amy Cha-Tien; Davis, Robert H.; Brotherton, Christopher M. (University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO)

    2006-04-01

    This SAND report describes progress made during a Sandia National Laboratories sponsored graduate fellowship. The fellowship was funded through an LDRD proposal. The goal of this project is development and characterization of mixing strategies for polymeric microfluidic devices. The mixing strategies under investigation include electroosmotic flow focusing, hydrodynamic focusing, physical constrictions and porous polymer monoliths. For electroosmotic flow focusing, simulations were performed to determine the effect of electroosmotic flow in a microchannel with heterogeneous surface potential. The heterogeneous surface potential caused recirculations to form within the microchannel. These recirculations could then be used to restrict two mixing streams and reduce the characteristic diffusion length. Maximum mixing occurred when the ratio of the mixing region surface potential to the average channel surface potential was made large in magnitude and negative in sign, and when the ratio of the characteristic convection time to the characteristic diffusion time was minimized. Based on these results, experiments were performed to evaluate the manipulation of surface potential using living-radical photopolymerization. The material chosen to manipulate typically exhibits a negative surface potential. Using living-radical surface grafting, a positive surface potential was produced using 2-(Dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate and a neutral surface was produced using a poly(ethylene glycol) surface graft. Simulations investigating hydrodynamic focusing were also performed. For this technique, mixing is enhanced by using a tertiary fluid stream to constrict the two mixing streams and reduce the characteristic diffusion length. Maximum mixing occurred when the ratio of the tertiary flow stream flow-rate to the mixing streams flow-rate was maximized. Also, like the electroosmotic focusing mixer, mixing was also maximized when the ratio of the characteristic convection time to the

  15. Anomalous Sediment Mixing by Bioturbation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roche, K. R.; Aubeneau, A. F.; Xie, M.; Packman, A. I.

    2013-12-01

    Bioturbation, the reworking of sediments by animals and plants, is the dominant mode of sediment mixing in low-energy environments, and plays an important role in sedimentary biogeochemical processes. Mixing resulting from bioturbation has historically been modeled as a diffusive process. However, diffusion models often do not provide a sufficient description of sediment mixing due to bioturbation. Stochastic models, such as the continuous time random walk (CTRW) model, provide more general descriptions of mixing behavior that are applicable even when regular diffusion assumptions are not met. Here we present results from an experimental investigation of anomalous sediment mixing by bioturbation in freshwater sediments. Clean and heavy-metal-contaminated sediments were collected from Lake DePue, a backwater lake of the Illinois River. The burrowing worm species Lumbriculus variegatus was introduced to homogenized Lake DePue sediments in aerated aquaria. We then introduced inert fine fluorescent particles to the sediment-water interface. Using time-lapse photography, we observed the mixing of the fluorescent particles into the sediment bed over a two-week period. We developed image analysis software to characterize the concentration distribution of the fluorescent particles as a function of sediment depth, and applied this to the time-series of images to evaluate sediment mixing. We fit a one-dimensional CTRW model to the depth profiles to evaluate the underlying statistical properties of the mixing behavior. This analysis suggests that the sediment mixing caused by L. variegatus burrowing is subdiffusive in time and superdiffusive in space. We also found that heavy metal contamination significantly reduces L. variegatus burrowing, causing increasingly anomalous sediment mixing. This result implies that there can be important feedbacks between sediment chemistry, organism behavior, and sediment mixing that are not considered in current environmental models.

  16. Immunoglobulin (Ig)G purified from human sera mirrors intravenous Ig human leucocyte antigen (HLA) reactivity and recognizes one's own HLA types, but may be masked by Fab complementarity-determining region peptide in the native sera.

    PubMed

    Ravindranath, M H; Terasaki, P I; Maehara, C Y; Jucaud, V; Kawakita, S; Pham, T; Yamashita, W

    2015-02-01

    Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) reacted with a wide array of human leucocyte antigen (HLA) alleles, in contrast to normal sera, due possibly to the purification of IgG from the pooled plasma. The reactivity of IgG purified from normal sera was compared with that of native sera to determine whether any serum factors mask the HLA reactivity of anti-HLA IgG and whether IgG purified from sera can recognize the HLA types of the corresponding donors. The purified IgG, unlike native sera, mirrored IVIg reactivity to a wide array of HLA-I/-II alleles, indicating that anti-HLA IgG may be masked in normal sera - either by peptides derived from soluble HLA or by those from antibodies. A < 3 kDa peptide from the complementarity-determining region (CDR) of the Fab region of IgG (but not the HLA peptides) masked HLA recognition by the purified IgG. Most importantly, some of the anti-HLA IgG purified from normal sera - and serum IgG from a few donors - indeed recognized the HLA types of the corresponding donors, confirming the presence of auto-HLA antibodies. Comparison of HLA types with the profile of HLA antibodies showed auto-HLA IgG to the donors' HLA antigens in this order of frequency: DPA (80%), DQA (71%), DRB345 (67%), DQB (57%), Cw (50%), DBP (43%), DRB1 (21%), A (14%) and B (7%). The auto-HLA antibodies, when unmasked in vivo, may perform immunoregulatory functions similar to those of therapeutic preparations of IVIg.

  17. Murine models of premature ageing for the study of diet-induced immune changes: improvement of leucocyte functions in two strains of old prematurely ageing mice by dietary supplementation with sulphur-containing antioxidants.

    PubMed

    De la Fuente, Mónica

    2010-11-01

    Several immune functions are markers of health, biological age and predictors of longevity. A chronic oxidative and inflammatory state is the main cause of ageing and the immune system is involved in the rate of ageing. Thus, several murine models of premature ageing have been proposed owing to their early immunosenescence and oxidative stress, such as ovariectomised rats and mice, obese rats and anxious mice. In the last model, the most extensively studied by us, mice showing anxiety have an aged immune function and redox status as well as a shorter longevity in comparison with animals without anxiety of the same chronological age, being denominated prematurely ageing mice. A confirmation of the above is that the administration of diets supplemented with antioxidants improves the redox status and immune functions and increases the longevity of prematurely ageing mice. Antioxidant precursors of glutathione such as thioproline or N-acetylcysteine, which have a relevant role in ageing, have been the most widely investigated in adult prematurely ageing mice in our laboratory. In the present work, we have studied the effects of the ingestion for 5 weeks of a diet supplemented with 0·1% (w/w) thioproline+N-acetylcysteine on several functions of leucocytes from chronological old (69-73 weeks of age) prematurely ageing mice of two strains (Swiss and BALB/c). The results show an improvement of the immune functions, with their values becoming closer to those in adult animals (24±2 weeks). Thus, an adequate nutrition with antioxidants, even in aged subjects, could be a good strategy to retard ageing.

  18. Purification and characterization by fast-atom-bombardment mass spectrometry of the polymorphonuclear-leucocyte-elastase-generated A alpha (1-21) fragment of fibrinogen from human blood after incubation with calcium ionophore A23187.

    PubMed Central

    Dewey, R S; Liesch, J M; Williams, H R; Sugg, E E; Dolan, C A; Davies, P; Mumford, R A; Albers-Schönberg, G

    1992-01-01

    The stimulation of human blood with a Ca2+ ionophore, A23187, leads to activation of polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMN) with release of small amounts of catalyticaly active elastase, as demonstrated by the formation of a characteristic product, the N-terminal A alpha (1-21) peptide of the Aa subunit of fibrinogen. The identity of the peptide was initially established by radioimmunoassay (r.i.a.) with an antibody raised to A alpha (1-21). We now provide independent confirmation of the formation of A alpha (1-21) by fast-atom-bombardment-m.s. analysis of the fractions separated chromatographically after spiking of plasma samples with peptide labelled with [2H8]Phe at position 8. Identity of the peptides was established on the basis of their chromatographic retention time and by the distinct peaks in the mass spectra of these fractions. The relative intensities of the molecular ions of natural and labelled peptides were measured. On the basis of a comparison of the peaks of similar intensities, the concentration of the natural peptide at the time of spiking was close (79%) to the amount obtained by r.i.a. An additional peptide, des-alanyl-A alpha (2-21), was also seen. The total amount of material measured by r.i.a. could be accounted for by the sum of these two provides. The addition of label and assay by m.s. has provided an independent physical-chemical method for identifying A alpha (1-21) as a characteristic product of PMN elastase release in whole blood, but which is absent in freshly drawn blood. PMID:1736899

  19. Differential regulation of toll-like receptor-2, toll-like receptor-4, CD16 and human leucocyte antigen-DR on peripheral blood monocytes during mild and severe dengue fever

    PubMed Central

    Azeredo, Elzinandes L; Neves-Souza, Patrícia C; Alvarenga, Allan R; Reis, Sônia R N I; Torrentes-Carvalho, Amanda; Zagne, Sonia-Maris O; Nogueira, Rita M R; Oliveira-Pinto, Luzia M; Kubelka, Claire F

    2010-01-01

    Dengue fever (DF), a public health problem in tropical countries, may present severe clinical manifestations as result of increased vascular permeability and coagulation disorders. Dengue virus (DENV), detected in peripheral monocytes during acute disease and in in vitro infection, leads to cytokine production, indicating that virus–target cell interactions are relevant to pathogenesis. Here we investigated the in vitro and in vivo activation of human peripheral monocytes after DENV infection. The numbers of CD14+ monocytes expressing the adhesion molecule intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) were significantly increased during acute DF. A reduced number of CD14+ human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-DR+ monocytes was observed in patients with severe dengue when compared to those with mild dengue and controls; CD14+ monocytes expressing toll-like receptor (TLR)2 and TLR4 were increased in peripheral blood from dengue patients with mild disease, but in vitro DENV-2 infection up-regulated only TLR2. Increased numbers of CD14+ CD16+ activated monocytes were found after in vitro and in vivo DENV-2 infection. The CD14high CD16+ monocyte subset was significantly expanded in mild dengue, but not in severe dengue. Increased plasma levels of tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin (IL)-18 in dengue patients were inversely associated with CD14high CD16+, indicating that these cells might be involved in controlling exacerbated inflammatory responses, probably by IL-10 production. We showed here, for the first time, phenotypic changes on peripheral monocytes that were characteristic of cell activation. A sequential monocyte-activation model is proposed in which DENV infection triggers TLR2/4 expression and inflammatory cytokine production, leading eventually to haemorrhagic manifestations, thrombocytopenia, coagulation disorders, plasmatic leakage and shock development, but may also produce factors that act in order to control both intense

  20. Microfluidic mixing using contactless dielectrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Salmanzadeh, Alireza; Shafiee, Hadi; Davalos, Rafael V; Stremler, Mark A

    2011-09-01

    The first experimental evidence of mixing enhancement in a microfluidic system using contactless dielectrophoresis (cDEP) is presented in this work. Pressure-driven flow of deionized water containing 0.5 μm beads was mixed in various chamber geometries by imposing a dielectrophoresis (DEP) force on the beads. In cDEP the electrodes are not in direct contact with the fluid sample but are instead capacitively coupled to the mixing chamber through thin dielectric barriers, which eliminates many of the problems encountered with standard DEP. Four system designs with rectangular and circular mixing chambers were fabricated in PDMS. Mixing tests were conducted for flow rates from 0.005 to 1 mL/h subject to an alternating current signal range of 0-300 V at 100-600 kHz. When the time scales of the bulk fluid motion and the DEP motion were commensurate, rapid mixing was observed. The rectangular mixing chambers were found to be more efficient than the circular chambers. This approach shows potential for mixing low diffusivity biological samples, which is a very challenging problem in laminar flows at small scales.

  1. Mixed-Methods Research Methodologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terrell, Steven R.

    2012-01-01

    Mixed-Method studies have emerged from the paradigm wars between qualitative and quantitative research approaches to become a widely used mode of inquiry. Depending on choices made across four dimensions, mixed-methods can provide an investigator with many design choices which involve a range of sequential and concurrent strategies. Defining…

  2. Mixed Waste Working Group report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-09

    The treatment of mixed waste remains one of this country`s most vexing environmental problems. Mixed waste is the combination of radioactive waste and hazardous waste, as defined by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The Department of Energy (DOE), as the country`s largest mixed waste generator, responsible for 95 percent of the Nation`s mixed waste volume, is now required to address a strict set of milestones under the Federal Facility Compliance Act of 1992. DOE`s earlier failure to adequately address the storage and treatment issues associated with mixed waste has led to a significant backlog of temporarily stored waste, significant quantities of buried waste, limited permanent disposal options, and inadequate treatment solutions. Between May and November of 1993, the Mixed Waste Working Group brought together stakeholders from around the Nation. Scientists, citizens, entrepreneurs, and bureaucrats convened in a series of forums to chart a course for accelerated testing of innovative mixed waste technologies. For the first time, a wide range of stakeholders were asked to examine new technologies that, if given the chance to be tested and evaluated, offer the prospect for better, safer, cheaper, and faster solutions to the mixed waste problem. In a matter of months, the Working Group has managed to bridge a gap between science and perception, engineer and citizen, and has developed a shared program for testing new technologies.

  3. EMR Curriculum Guide: Primary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruschmeier, Veronica M., Ed.; Rockwell, Linda, Ed.

    Presented is a curriculum guide for educable mentally retarded children in primary and intermediate grades which specifies behavioral and interim objectives in the areas of basic verbal and arithmetic skills, vocational competencies, social competencies, and physical skills. Objectives such as the following are identified at the primary level:…

  4. Using Primary Source Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mintz, Steven

    2003-01-01

    Explores the use of primary sources when teaching about U.S. slavery. Includes primary sources from the Gilder Lehrman Documents Collection (New York Historical Society) to teach about the role of slaves in the Revolutionary War, such as a proclamation from Lord Dunmore offering freedom to slaves who joined his army. (CMK)

  5. Medics in Primary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Press, Colin

    2003-01-01

    Some time ago a flyer on "Medics in Primary School" came the author's way. It described a programme for making placements in primary schools available to medical students. The benefits of the program to medical students and participating schools were highlighted, including opportunities to develop communication skills and demystify…

  6. Transforming Primary Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Askew, Mike

    2011-01-01

    What is good mathematics teaching? What is mathematics teaching good for? Who is mathematics teaching for? These are just some of the questions addressed in "Transforming Primary Mathematics", a highly timely new resource for teachers which accessibly sets out the key theories and latest research in primary maths today. Under-pinned by findings…

  7. Mixed connective tissue disease.

    PubMed

    Gunnarsson, Ragnar; Hetlevik, Siri Opsahl; Lilleby, Vibke; Molberg, Øyvind

    2016-02-01

    The concept of mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) as a separate connective tissue disease (CTD) has persisted for more than four decades. High titers of antibodies targeting the U1 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle (U1 snRNP) in peripheral blood are a sine qua non for the diagnosis of MCTD, in addition to distinct clinical features including Raynaud's phenomenon (RP), "puffy hands," arthritis, myositis, pleuritis, pericarditis, interstitial lung disease (ILD), and pulmonary hypertension (PH). Recently, population-based epidemiology data from Norway estimated the point prevalence of adult-onset MCTD to be 3.8 per 100,000 and the mean annual incidence to be 2.1 per million per year, supporting the notion that MCTD is the least common CTD. Little is known about the etiology of MCTD, but recent genetic studies have confirmed that MCTD is a strongly HLA (​human leukocyte antigen)-linked disease, as the HLA profiles of MCTD differ distinctly from the corresponding profiles of ethnically matched healthy controls and other CTDs. In the first section of this review, we provide an update on the clinical, immunological, and genetic features of MCTD and discuss the relationship between MCTD and the other CTDs. Then we proceed to discuss the recent advances in therapy and our current understanding of prognosis and prognostic factors, especially those that are associated with the more serious pulmonary and cardiovascular complications of the disease. In the final section, we discuss some of the key, unresolved questions related to anti-RNP-associated diseases and indicate how these questions may be approached in future studies.

  8. [The primary healthcare centres].

    PubMed

    Brambilla, Antonio; Maciocco, Gavino

    2014-04-01

    The central attributes of primary care are: first contact (accessibility), longitudinality (person- focused preventive and curative care overtime), patient-oriented comprehensiveness and coordination (including navigation towards secondary and tertiary care). Besides taking care of the needs of the individuals, primary health care teams are also looking at the community, especially when addressing social determinants of health. The rationale for the benefits for primary care for health has been found in: 1) greater access to needed services; 2) better quality of care; 3) a greater focus on prevention; 4) early management of health problems; 5) organizing and delivering high quality care for chronic non-communicable diseases. This paper describes the role of primary healthcare centres in strengthening community primary services and in reducing health inequalities. Furthemore, the experiences of Regional Health Services from Tuscany and Emilia-Romagna are discussed, with a brief overview of the literature.

  9. Primary Intraocular Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Faia, Lisa J.; Chan, Chi-Chao

    2009-01-01

    Primary intraocular lymphoma, recently suggested to be renamed primary retinal lymphoma, is a subset of primary central nervous system lymphoma and is usually an aggressive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Between 56% and 85% of patients who initially present with primary intraocular lymphoma alone will develop cerebral lesions. Patients typically complain of decreased vision and floaters, most likely secondary to the chronic vitritis and subretinal lesions. The diagnosis of primary intraocular lymphoma can be difficult to make and requires tissue for diagnosis. The atypical lymphoid cells are large and display a high nuclear to cytoplasmic ratio, prominent nucleoli, and basophilic cytoplasm. Flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry, cytokine analysis, and gene rearrangements also aid in the diagnosis. Local and systemic treatments, such as chemotherapy and radiation, are employed, although the relapse rate remains high. PMID:19653715

  10. Biomass conversion to mixed alcohols

    SciTech Connect

    Holtzapple, M.T.; Loescher, M.; Ross, M.

    1996-10-01

    This paper discusses the MixAlco Process which converts a wide variety of biomass materials (e.g. municipal solid waste, sewage sludge, agricultural residues) to mixed alcohols. First, the biomass is treated with lime to enhance its digestibility. Then, a mixed culture of acid-forming microorganisms converts the lime-treated biomass to volatile fatty acids (VFA) such as acetic, propionic, and butyric acids. To maintain fermentor pH, a neutralizing agent (e.g. calcium carbonate or lime) is added, so the fermentation actually produces VFA salts such as calcium acetate, propionate, and butyrate. The VFA salts are recovered and thermally converted to ketones (e.g. acetone, methylethyl ketone, diethyl ketone) which are subsequently hydrogenated to mixed alcohols (e.g. isopropanol, isobutanol, isopentanol). Processing costs are estimated at $0.72/gallon of mixed alcohols making it potentially attractive for transportation fuels.

  11. Mixing in confined stratified aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolster, Diogo; Valdés-Parada, Francisco J.; LeBorgne, Tanguy; Dentz, Marco; Carrera, Jesus

    2011-03-01

    Spatial variability in a flow field leads to spreading of a tracer plume. The effect of microdispersion is to smooth concentration gradients that exist in the system. The combined effect of these two phenomena leads to an 'effective' enhanced mixing that can be asymptotically quantified by an effective dispersion coefficient (i.e. Taylor dispersion). Mixing plays a fundamental role in driving chemical reactions. However, at pre-asymptotic times it is considerably more difficult to accurately quantify these effects by an effective dispersion coefficient as spreading and mixing are not the same (but intricately related). In this work we use a volume averaging approach to calculate the concentration distribution of an inert solute release at pre-asymptotic times in a stratified formation. Mixing here is characterized by the scalar dissipation rate, which measures the destruction of concentration variance. As such it is an indicator for the degree of mixing of a system. We study pre-asymptotic solute mixing in terms of explicit analytical expressions for the scalar dissipation rate and numerical random walk simulations. In particular, we divide the concentration field into a mean and deviation component and use dominant balance arguments to write approximate governing equations for each, which we then solve analytically. This allows us to explicitly evaluate the separate contributions to mixing from the mean and the deviation behavior. We find an approximate, but accurate expression (when compared to numerical simulations) to evaluate mixing. Our results shed some new light on the mechanisms that lead to large scale mixing and allow for a distinction between solute spreading, represented by the mean concentration, and mixing, which comes from both the mean and deviation concentrations, at pre-asymptotic times.

  12. Baroclinic mixing in HE fireballs

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhl, A.L.; Ferguson, R.E.; Priolo, F.; Chien, K.Y.; Collins, J.P.

    1993-08-01

    Numerical simulations of the turbulent mixing in the fireball of an HE blast wave were performed with a second-order Godunov code. Adaptive mesh refinement was used to capture the convective mixing processes on the computational grid. The calculations revealed that the interface between the shock-compressed air and the dense detonation products was unstable. Vorticity was generated in that region by baroclinic effects. This caused the interface to roll-up into a turbulent mixing layer. Four phases of mixing were identified: a strong blast wave phase, where the mixing region was swept outward by the shockinduced flow; an implosion phase, that stretched the inner boundary of the mixing region back toward the origin; a re-shocking phase, where the imploding shock expands back outward from the origin and re-energizes the mixing later by RichtmyerMeshkov effects; and an asymptotic mixing phase, where line-scale structures are continually recreated by folding effects but the overall vorticity decays through a cascade process. The flowfield was azimuthally averaged to evaluate the mean-flow profiles and r.m.s. fluctuation profiles across the mixing layer. The mean kinetic energy rapidly approached zero as the blast wave decayed, but the fluctuating kinetic energy asymptotically approached a small constant value. This represents the rotational kinetic energy driven by the vorticity field, that continued to mix the fluid at late times. It was shown that the vorticity field corresponds to a function that fluctuates between plus and minus values-with a volume-averaged mean of zero.

  13. Some features of the Structure Rearrangement in Mixed and Binary Zr-Ti Sol-xerogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaponov, Yury A.; Amemiya, Yoshiyuki; Ito, Kazuki; Kamikubo, Hironari; Karakchiev, Lembit G.; Lyakhov, Nikolay Z.

    Process of thermal decomposition at different temperatures of the Zr/Ti sol-xerogels, chemically identical but prepared by different methods (mixed and binary), was studied by SAXS/WAXD with the use of synchrotron radiation. Primary particles in mixed and binary Zr/Ti sols have different structure and size. Using the qualitative contrast-variation method it was suggested that primary particle in mixed system consists of Ti nuclear surrounded by Zr atoms in the outer layer and the size of primary particle is about 20 nm. Primary particle in binary system consists of Zr nuclear surrounded by Ti atoms in the outer layer and the size of primary particle is about 5 nm. Multistage thermal decomposition of the Zr/Ti xerogels proceeds through an intermediate phase formation. The intermediate phase of mixed Zr/Ti sol has an amorphous anatase (TiO2) structure, which is formed presumably inside the primary particle. The intermediate phase of binary Zr/Ti sol has an amorphous structure consisting probably of the disordered metal atoms surrounded by water molecules. The final product of mixed Zr/Ti system with the crystallite size about of 10÷15 nm is formed during the third stage. The final product of binary Zr/Ti system with the crystallite size about of 20÷25 nm is formed during the second and third stages.

  14. Visualizing renal primary cilia.

    PubMed

    Deane, James A; Verghese, Elizabeth; Martelotto, Luciano G; Cain, Jason E; Galtseva, Alya; Rosenblum, Norman D; Watkins, D Neil; Ricardo, Sharon D

    2013-03-01

    Renal primary cilia are microscopic sensory organelles found on the apical surface of epithelial cells of the nephron and collecting duct. They are based upon a microtubular cytoskeleton, bounded by a specialized membrane, and contain an array of proteins that facilitate their assembly, maintenance and function. Cilium-based signalling is important for the control of epithelial differentiation and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various cystic kidney diseases and in renal repair. As such, visualizing renal primary cilia and understanding their composition has become an essential component of many studies of inherited kidney disease and mechanisms of epithelial regeneration. Primary cilia were initially identified in the kidney using electron microscopy and this remains a useful technique for the high resolution examination of these organelles. New reagents and techniques now also allow the structure and composition of primary cilia to be analysed in detail using fluorescence microscopy. Primary cilia can be imaged in situ in sections of kidney, and many renal-derived cell lines produce primary cilia in culture providing a simplified and accessible system in which to investigate these organelles. Here we outline microscopy-based techniques commonly used for studying renal primary cilia.

  15. Compressibility effects on turbulent mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panickacheril John, John; Donzis, Diego

    2016-11-01

    We investigate the effect of compressibility on passive scalar mixing in isotropic turbulence with a focus on the fundamental mechanisms that are responsible for such effects using a large Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) database. The database includes simulations with Taylor Reynolds number (Rλ) up to 100, turbulent Mach number (Mt) between 0.1 and 0.6 and Schmidt number (Sc) from 0.5 to 1.0. We present several measures of mixing efficiency on different canonical flows to robustly identify compressibility effects. We found that, like shear layers, mixing is reduced as Mach number increases. However, data also reveal a non-monotonic trend with Mt. To assess directly the effect of dilatational motions we also present results with both dilatational and soleniodal forcing. Analysis suggests that a small fraction of dilatational forcing decreases mixing time at higher Mt. Scalar spectra collapse when normalized by Batchelor variables which suggests that a compressive mechanism similar to Batchelor mixing in incompressible flows might be responsible for better mixing at high Mt and with dilatational forcing compared to pure solenoidal mixing. We also present results on scalar budgets, in particular on production and dissipation. Support from NSF is gratefully acknowledged.

  16. Mixed features in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Solé, Eva; Garriga, Marina; Valentí, Marc; Vieta, Eduard

    2016-12-29

    Mixed affective states, defined as the coexistence of depressive and manic symptoms, are complex presentations of manic-depressive illness that represent a challenge for clinicians at the levels of diagnosis, classification, and pharmacological treatment. The evidence shows that patients with bipolar disorder who have manic/hypomanic or depressive episodes with mixed features tend to have a more severe form of bipolar disorder along with a worse course of illness and higher rates of comorbid conditions than those with non-mixed presentations. In the updated Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5), the definition of "mixed episode" has been removed, and subthreshold nonoverlapping symptoms of the opposite pole are captured using a "with mixed features" specifier applied to manic, hypomanic, and major depressive episodes. However, the list of symptoms proposed in the DSM-5 specifier has been widely criticized, because it includes typical manic symptoms (such as elevated mood and grandiosity) that are rare among patients with mixed depression, while excluding symptoms (such as irritability, psychomotor agitation, and distractibility) that are frequently reported in these patients. With the new classification, mixed depressive episodes are three times more common in bipolar II compared with unipolar depression, which partly contributes to the increased risk of suicide observed in bipolar depression compared to unipolar depression. Therefore, a specific diagnostic category would imply an increased diagnostic sensitivity, would help to foster early identification of symptoms and ensure specific treatment, as well as play a role in suicide prevention in this population.

  17. Lymphangiosarcoma in a 3.5-year-old Bullmastiff bitch with vaginal prolapse, primary lymph node fibrosis and other congenital defects.

    PubMed

    Williams, J H; Birrell, J; Van Wilpe, E

    2005-09-01

    Lymphangiosarcoma is an extremely rare tumour in dogs with only 16 cases reported in the literature. Lymphoedema, which may be primary due to defects in the lymphatic system, or secondary to various other pathologies, often precedes malignancy. Of the 16 canine reports, only 1 dog was confirmed as having had prior primary lymphoedema due to aplasia of the popliteal lymph nodes. A case of lymphangiosarcoma is described in a 3.5-year-old purebred, Bullmastiff bitch which presented with vaginal blood 'spotting' for 3 weeks after cessation of oestrus, during which intromission by the male had been unsuccessful. During ovariohysterectomy a large multicystic, proliferative, spongy, fluid-filled, brownish-red mass surrounding the cervix and projecting into the abdominal space was removed with the cervix, and a diagnosis of lymphangiosarcoma made on histological and electron microscopic examination of the tissue. Ultrastructurally, no basement membrane or pericytes were found, only some of the neoplastic endothelial cells were linked by tight junctions while there were gaps between others, and neither micropinocytotic vesicles nor Weibel-Palade bodies occurred in the cells examined. Very few of the endothelial cells lining the many interlinking, tortuous maze of channels, stained slightly positive immunohistochemically for factor VIII-related antigen. The channels were filled mostly with serous fluid, and occasionally mixed leucocytes and some erythrocytes. The endothelium was often associated with underlying blocks of collagenous material, as well as loosely-arranged aggregates of lymphocytes, other mononuclear cells and occasional neutrophils in the connective tissue septae and more prominently perivascularly. The bitch was discharged on antibiotic treatment but returned 2 weeks later with apparent prolapsed vagina which failed to reduce over the next week. Laparotomy revealed the tumour to have spread extensively in the caudal abdomen to involve the broad ligament and

  18. Mapping the Mixed Methods–Mixed Research Synthesis Terrain

    PubMed Central

    Sandelowski, Margarete; Voils, Corrine I.; Leeman, Jennifer; Crandell, Jamie L.

    2012-01-01

    Mixed methods–mixed research synthesis is a form of systematic review in which the findings of qualitative and quantitative studies are integrated via qualitative and/or quantitative methods. Although methodological advances have been made, efforts to differentiate research synthesis methods have been too focused on methods and not focused enough on the defining logics of research synthesis—each of which may be operationalized in different ways—or on the research findings themselves that are targeted for synthesis. The conduct of mixed methods–mixed research synthesis studies may more usefully be understood in terms of the logics of aggregation and configuration. Neither logic is preferable to the other nor tied exclusively to any one method or to any one side of the qualitative/quantitative binary. PMID:23066379

  19. Mixed Incontinence: How Best to Manage It?

    PubMed

    Porena, Massimo; Costantini, Elisabetta; Lazzeri, Massimo

    2013-03-01

    Although common in women, mixed urinary incontinence (MUI) is under-reported and under-treated. It is linked to concomitant disturbances, which may be due to childbirth, ageing, or other medical conditions, in the complex bladder-urethra coordinated system of urine storage and emptying. Primary care physicians can evaluate MUI through history and simple clinical assessment or they can avail of more complex device and tools, such as urodynamic assessment. There is a wide range of therapeutic options. The recent proliferation of new drug treatments and surgical devices for urinary incontinence offers innovative strategies for therapy but products risk being introduced without long-term safety and efficacy assessment. Direct-to-consumer advertising has increased public awareness of MUI.

  20. Mixed deterministic and probabilistic networks.

    PubMed

    Mateescu, Robert; Dechter, Rina

    2008-11-01

    The paper introduces mixed networks, a new graphical model framework for expressing and reasoning with probabilistic and deterministic information. The motivation to develop mixed networks stems from the desire to fully exploit the deterministic information (constraints) that is often present in graphical models. Several concepts and algorithms specific to belief networks and constraint networks are combined, achieving computational efficiency, semantic coherence and user-interface convenience. We define the semantics and graphical representation of mixed networks, and discuss the two main types of algorithms for processing them: inference-based and search-based. A preliminary experimental evaluation shows the benefits of the new model.

  1. Mixed deterministic and probabilistic networks

    PubMed Central

    Dechter, Rina

    2010-01-01

    The paper introduces mixed networks, a new graphical model framework for expressing and reasoning with probabilistic and deterministic information. The motivation to develop mixed networks stems from the desire to fully exploit the deterministic information (constraints) that is often present in graphical models. Several concepts and algorithms specific to belief networks and constraint networks are combined, achieving computational efficiency, semantic coherence and user-interface convenience. We define the semantics and graphical representation of mixed networks, and discuss the two main types of algorithms for processing them: inference-based and search-based. A preliminary experimental evaluation shows the benefits of the new model. PMID:20981243

  2. [Marketing mix in health service].

    PubMed

    Ameri, Cinzia; Fiorini, Fulvio

    2015-01-01

    The marketing mix is the combination of the marketing variables that a firm employs with the purpose to achieve the expected volume of business within its market. In the sale of goods, four variables compose the marketing mix (4 Ps): Product, Price, Point of sale and Promotion. In the case of providing services, three further elements play a role: Personnel, Physical Evidence and Processes (7 Ps). The marketing mix must be addressed to the consumers as well as to the employees of the providing firm. Furthermore, it must be interpreted as employees ability to satisfy customers (interactive marketing).

  3. Waveguide Four-Wave Mixing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-10-01

    PL-TR--91-1045 /’--"PL-TR-- AD-A243 555 91-1045 WAVEGUIDE FOUR -WAVE MIXING Thomas B. Simpson Jia-ming Liu JAYCOR San Diego, CA 92186-5154 October...Final Report; May 88 - Mar 91 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS WAVEGUIDE FOUR -WAVE MIXING C: F29601-88-C-0023 PE: 62601F PR: 3326 6. AUTHOR(S...for public release; distribution unlimited. 13. ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 words) This program has investigated four -wave mixing (4-win) in non- linear

  4. Biodegradation of mixed pesticides by mixed pesticide enriched cultures.

    PubMed

    Krishna, K Rama; Philip, Ligy

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the degradation kinetics of mixed (lindane, methyl parathion and carbofuran) pesticides by mixed pesticide enriched cultures (MEC) under various environmental conditions. The bacterial strains isolated from the mixed microbial consortium were identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MTCC 9236), Bacillus sp. (MTCC 9235) and Chryseobacterium joostei (MTCC 9237). Batch studies were conducted to estimate the biokinetic parameters like the maximum specific growth rate (mu(max)), Yield Coefficient (Y(T)), half saturation concentration (K(s)) and inhibition concentration (Ki) for individual and mixed pesticide enriched cultures. The cultures enriched in a particular pollutant always showed high growth rate and low inhibition in that particular pollutant compared to MEC. After seven weeks of incubation, mixed pesticide enriched cultures were able to degrade 72% lindane, 95% carbofuran and 100% of methyl parathion in facultative co-metabolic conditions. In aerobic systems, degradation efficiencies of lindane methyl parathion and carbofuran were increased by the addition of 2g L(- 1) of dextrose. Though many metabolic compounds of mixed pesticides were observed at different time intervals, none of the metabolites were persistent. Based on the observed metabolites, a degradation pathway was postulated for different pesticides under various environmental conditions.

  5. Impacts of Mixing on Acceptable Indoor Air Quality in Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, Max H.; Walker, Iain I.

    2010-01-01

    Ventilation reduces occupant exposure to indoor contaminants by diluting or removing them. In a multi-zone environment such as a house, every zone will have different dilution rates and contaminant source strengths. The total ventilation rate is the most important factor in determining occupant exposure to given contaminant sources, but the zone-specific distribution of exhaust and supply air and the mixing of ventilation air can play significant roles. Different types of ventilation systems will provide different amounts of mixing depending on several factors such as air leakage, air distribution system, and contaminant source and occupant locations. Most U.S. and Canadian homes have central heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems, which tend to mix the air; thus, the indoor air in different zones tends to be well mixed for significant fractions of the year. This article reports recent results of investigations to determine the impact of air mixing on exposures of residential occupants to prototypical contaminants of concern. We summarize existing literature and extend past analyses to determine the parameters than affect air mixing as well as the impacts of mixing on occupant exposure, and to draw conclusions that are relevant for standards development and for practitioners designing and installing home ventilation systems. The primary conclusion is that mixing will not substantially affect the mean indoor air quality across a broad population of occupants, homes, and ventilation systems, but it can reduce the number of occupants who are exposed to extreme pollutant levels. If the policy objective is to minimize the number of people exposed above a given pollutant threshold, some amount of mixing will be of net benefit even though it does not benefit average exposure. If the policy is to minimize exposure on average, then mixing air in homes is detrimental and should not be encouraged. We also conclude that most homes in the US have adequate mixing

  6. Primary vascular access.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, C P

    2006-05-01

    Primary vascular access is usually achievable by a distal autogenous arterio-venous fistula (AVF). This article describes the approach to vascular access planning, the usual surgical options and the factors affecting patency.

  7. Primary infertility (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Primary infertility is a term used to describe a couple that has never been able to conceive a pregnancy ... to do so through unprotected intercourse. Causes of infertility include a wide range of physical as well ...

  8. Parenthood after Primary Infertility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frances-Fischer, Jana E.; Lightsey, Owen Richard, Jr.

    2003-01-01

    Reviews the literature on the experience of parenting after primary infertility and describes construction and initial testing of an instrument for assessing characteristics of this understudied population. (Contains 52 references and 4 tables.) (GCP)

  9. Primary Nurse - Role Evolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mundinger, Mary O'Neil

    1973-01-01

    Primary nursing means that each patient has an individual nurse who is responsible for assessing his nursing needs and planning and evaluating his nursing care. The article describes the advantages and problems connected with this approach to patient care. (AG)

  10. Inside the Primary Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Brian

    1980-01-01

    Presents some of the findings of the ORACLE research program (Observational Research and Classroom Learning Evaluation), a detailed observational study of teacher-student interaction, teaching styles, and management methods within a sample of primary classrooms. (Editor/SJL)

  11. Primary aldosteronism and pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Morton, Adam

    2015-10-01

    Primary aldosteronism is the most common cause of secondary hypertension. Less than 50 cases of pregnancy in women with primary aldosteronism have been reported, suggesting the disorder is significantly underdiagnosed in confinement. Accurate diagnosis is complicated by physiological changes in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone axis in pregnancy, leading to a risk of false negative results on screening tests. The course of primary aldosteronism during pregnancy is highly variable, although overall it is associated with a very high risk of fetal and maternal morbidity and mortality. The optimal management of primary aldosteronism during pregnancy is unclear, with uncertainty regarding the safety of mineralocorticoid antagonists and amiloride, their relative efficacy compared with the antihypertensive medications commonly used during pregnancy, and as to whether prognosis is improved by laparoscopic adrenalectomy where an adrenal adenoma can be demonstrated.

  12. Primary biliary cirrhosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000282.htm Primary biliary cirrhosis To use the sharing features on this page, ... and leads to scarring of the liver called cirrhosis. This is called biliary cirrhosis. Causes The cause ...

  13. The Experiences of Pupils with SEN and Their Parents at the Stage of Pre-Transition from Primary to Post-Primary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scanlon, Geraldine; Barnes-Holmes, Yvonne; McEnteggart, Ciara; Desmond, Deirdre; Vahey, Nigel

    2016-01-01

    The experiences of pupils with Special Educational Needs (SEN) and their parents at pre-transition from primary to post-primary school have received little attention in the literature. The current study investigated these experiences using a mixed methods approach within the Irish educational system. Thirty-two pupils with SEN and 42 parents of…

  14. Primary actinomycosis of hand

    PubMed Central

    Padhi, Sanghamitra; Dash, Muktikesh; Turuk, Jyotirmayee; Sahu, Rani; Panda, Pritilata

    2014-01-01

    Actinomycosis is a chronic granulomatous suppurative disease having the propensity for extension to the contagious tissue with the formation of multiple discharging sinus tracts. Primary actinomycosis of extremity is a very uncommon clinical entity and is commonly considered as a soft-tissue infection. We report here, a case of primary actinomycosis of the upper extremity in a 24-year-old male who was treated successfully with surgical excision and extended period of antimicrobial treatment. PMID:25538911

  15. Primary headache disorders.

    PubMed

    Benoliel, Rafael; Eliav, Eli

    2013-07-01

    Primary headache disorders include migraine, tension-type headaches, and the trigeminal autonomic cephalgias (TACs). "Primary" refers to a lack of clear underlying causative pathology, trauma, or systemic disease. The TACs include cluster headache, paroxysmal hemicrania, and short-lasting neuralgiform headache attacks with conjunctival injection and tearing; hemicrania continua, although classified separately by the International Headache Society, shares many features of both migraine and the TACs. This article describes the features and treatment of these disorders.

  16. Primary vitreoretinal lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Mulay, Kaustubh; Narula, Ritesh; Honavar, Santosh G

    2015-01-01

    Primary vitreoretinal lymphoma (PVRL) is an uncommon, but potentially fatal intraocular malignancy, which may occur with or without primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL). Considered to be a subset of PCNSL, it is mostly of diffuse large B-cell type. The diagnosis of PVRL poses a challenge not only to the clinician, but also to the pathologist. Despite aggressive treatment with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy, relapses or CNS involvement are common. PMID:25971162

  17. Primary care research ethics.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, R; Murphy, E; Crosland, A

    1995-01-01

    Research activity in primary care is increasing rapidly, and raises a range of specific ethical issues. Many of these relate to the involvement of individuals in the community who are not seeking medical care and to the impact of research participation on relationships between general practitioners and their patients. The ethical issues pertinent to a range of quantitative and qualitative research methodologies in primary care are identified and considered. PMID:8554844

  18. EVALUATING CONCENTRATION PROFILES DURING UNSTEADY MIXING

    SciTech Connect

    Bamberger, Judith A.; Greenwood, Margaret S.; Lawler, Bruce D.; Sundaram, S. K.; Baer, Ellen BK; Hatchell, Brian K.; Hopkins, Derek F.; Kirihara, Leslie J.; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Sande, Susan; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Zuljevic, Nino

    2010-01-01

    Pulse jet mixing tests to suspend noncohesive solids in Newtonian liquid were conducted at three geometric scales. To understand the solids suspension process an ultrasonic concentration probe was used to measure the concentration of solids in the cloud during a pulse at various elevations and radial positions. The data are being analyzed to provide a model for predicting concentration as a function of elevation. This paper presents a simple single frequency ultrasonic measurement application that demonstrates the ability of ultrasonic sensors to measure slurry concentration based on signal attenuation. Sensor calibration data show that ultrasonic signal attenuation is proportional to the applied frequency and to the slurry volume fraction. Real-time measurements of ultrasonic signal attenuation were used to track the process of slurry mixing using single sensors and sensor arrays. Comparison of means of the ultrasonic measurements with means obtained from discrete extractive measurements show that the distributions overlap and cannot be statistically distinguished. The real-time ultrasonic sensor can be used as a primary measurement method or to reduce reliance upon extractive methods to measure slurry density.

  19. Group Methods? Primary Teachers' Differentiation Policies in Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Alasdair

    1984-01-01

    Sixty-six teachers in Aberdeen (Scotland) primary schools were interviewed regarding the use of group methods in mathematics instruction. Ten teachers emphasized whole class teaching; eight appeared to prefer individual monitoring, and 48 used a range of differentiation policies to meet the needs of children in mixed ability classes. (SK)

  20. Geochemical variability in MORB controlled by concurrent mixing and crystallisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shorttle, Oliver

    2015-08-01

    The isotopic and elemental diversity in mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB) traces the history of mantle differentiation, recycling and convective stirring. However, to interpret this record it is critical to account for the magma transport and storage processes modifying the primary geochemical variability of mantle derived melts. Magma mixing during low pressure differentiation is a key petrological process that controls the chemical variability of basalts throughout the global mid-ocean ridge system. Mixing occurs concurrent with crystallisation and must in general be dominant over any assimilatory processes in controlling the chemical evolution of basalts with MgO concentrations >5 wt% MgO. The effect of this mixing is to collapse the diversity of melt compositions leaving the mantle into the narrow range expressed in most mid-ocean ridge settings. In this context magma mixing can be viewed as contaminating the variance structure of primitive mantle melts, which leads to irreversible information loss on the sources and processes involved in melt generation unless primitive, unmixed, liquids and crystal phases are erupted. However, where we can track magma mixing, the homogenisation itself offers the potential to be an important petrological tool, which constrains the storage and transport processes magma experiences during its ascent through the mantle and crust. In the global dataset interrogated here systematic mixing trends are visible up to the length scales of first order ridge segmentation (∼300 km), indicating the possible links between surface tectonics and the record of mantle heterogeneity in basalts. The importance of magma mixing at mid-ocean ridges hints at the need to reevaluate the MORB-ocean island basalt chemical dichotomy, given the poorly understood mixing processes operating during intraplate magma transport from mantle to surface.

  1. Primary biliary cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Carey, Elizabeth J; Ali, Ahmad H; Lindor, Keith D

    2015-10-17

    Primary biliary cirrhosis is a chronic cholestatic liver disease characterised by destruction of small intrahepatic bile ducts, leading to fibrosis and potential cirrhosis through resulting complications. The serological hallmark of primary biliary cirrhosis is the antimitochondrial antibody, a highly disease-specific antibody identified in about 95% of patients with primary biliary cirrhosis. These patients usually have fatigue and pruritus, both of which occur independently of disease severity. The typical course of primary biliary cirrhosis has changed substantially with the introduöction of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA). Several randomised placebo-controlled studies have shown that UDCA improves transplant-free survival in primary biliary cirrhosis. However, about 40% of patients do not have a biochemical response to UDCA and would benefit from new therapies. Liver transplantation is a life-saving surgery with excellent outcomes for those with decompensated cirrhosis. Meanwhile, research on nuclear receptor hormones has led to the development of exciting new potential treatments. This Seminar will review the current understanding of the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and natural history of primary biliary cirrhosis, discuss management of the disease and its sequelae, and introduce research on new therapeutic options.

  2. Primary cerebral malignant melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Kai; Kong, Xiangyi; Mao, Gengsheng; Qiu, Ming; Zhu, Haibo; Zhou, Lei; Nie, Qingbin; Xu, Yi; Du, Shiwei

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Primary intracranial melanomas are uncommon and constitute approximately 1% of all melanoma cases and 0.07% of all brain tumors. In nature, these primary melanomas are very aggressive and can spread to other organs. We report an uncommon case of primary cerebral malignant melanoma—a challenging diagnosis guided by clinical presentations, radiological features, and surgical biopsy results, aiming to emphasize the importance of considering primary melanoma when making differential diagnoses of intracranial lesions. We present a rare case of a primary cerebral melanoma in the left temporal lobe. The mass appeared iso-hypodense on brain computed tomography (CT), short signal on T1-weighted magnetic resonance images (T1WI) and long signal on T2WI. It was not easy to make an accurate diagnosis before surgery. We showed the patient's disease course and reviewed related literatures, for readers’ reference. Written informed consent was obtained from the patient for publication of this case report and any accompanying images. Because of this, there is no need to conduct special ethic review and the ethical approval is not necessary. After surgery, the pathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of melanoma. The patient was discharged without any complications and went on to receive adjuvant radiochemotherapy. It is difficult to diagnose primary cerebral melanoma in the absence of any cutaneous melanosis. A high index of clinical suspicion along with good pathology reporting is the key in diagnosing these extremely rare tumors. PMID:28121927

  3. Boundary Current and Mixing Processes in The High Latitude Oceans

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-07

    regions of the global ocean. It focuses on high latitudes because: (1) they are primary sites for surface conditioning of deep waters that drive the...measure the associated mixing processes, and assess the impacts of these processes on water mass modification; ● Document and quantify the generation at...their dynamics and impact on adjacent basin waters ; ● Acquire quantitative, field-based information on seawater equation-of-state processes, such as

  4. Modeling Mix in ICF Implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, C. R.; Clark, D. S.; Chang, B.; Eder, D. C.; Haan, S. W.; Jones, O. S.; Marinak, M. M.; Peterson, J. L.; Robey, H. F.

    2014-10-01

    The observation of ablator material mixing into the hot spot of ICF implosions correlates with reduced yield in National Ignition Campaign (NIC) experiments. Higher Z ablator material radiatively cools the central hot spot, inhibiting thermonuclear burn. This talk focuses on modeling a ``high-mix'' implosion from the NIC, where greater than 1000 ng of ablator material was inferred to have mixed into the hot spot. Standard post-shot modeling of this implosion does not predict the large amounts of ablator mix necessary to explain the data. Other issues are explored in this talk and sensitivity to the method of radiation transport is found. Compared with radiation diffusion, Sn transport can increase ablation front growth and alter the blow-off dynamics of capsule dust. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  5. Is the tribimaximal mixing accidental?

    SciTech Connect

    Abbas, Mohammed; Smirnov, A. Yu.

    2010-07-01

    The tribimaximal (TBM) mixing is not accidental if structures of the corresponding leptonic mass matrices follow immediately from certain (residual or broken) flavor symmetry. We develop a simple formalism which allows one to analyze effects of deviations of the lepton mixing from TBM on the structure of the neutrino mass matrix and on the underlying flavor symmetry. We show that possible deviations from the TBM mixing can lead to strong modifications of the mass matrix and strong violation of the TBM-mass relations. As a result, the mass matrix may have an 'anarchical' structure with random values of elements or it may have some symmetry that differs from the TBM symmetry. Interesting examples include matrices with texture zeros, matrices with certain 'flavor alignment' as well as hierarchical matrices with a two-component structure, where the dominant and subdominant contributions have different symmetries. This opens up new approaches to understanding the lepton mixing.

  6. Cutaneous mixed infections in AIDS.

    PubMed

    Piérard, G E; Piérard-Franchimont, C; Estrada, J A; Rurangirwa, A; Dosal, F L

    1990-02-01

    We report a new case of mixed infection occurring at the same site of the skin in a human immune deficiency virus-positive patient. Hyperkeratotic and crusted erosions contained fusospirochetal organisms, Cryptococcus neoformans, and another unidentified fungus.

  7. Mixed-mu superconducting bearings

    DOEpatents

    Hull, John R.; Mulcahy, Thomas M.

    1998-01-01

    A mixed-mu superconducting bearing including a ferrite structure disposed for rotation adjacent a stationary superconductor material structure and a stationary permanent magnet structure. The ferrite structure is levitated by said stationary permanent magnet structure.

  8. Mixed-mu superconducting bearings

    DOEpatents

    Hull, J.R.; Mulcahy, T.M.

    1998-03-03

    A mixed-mu superconducting bearing is disclosed including a ferrite structure disposed for rotation adjacent a stationary superconductor material structure and a stationary permanent magnet structure. The ferrite structure is levitated by said stationary permanent magnet structure. 9 figs.

  9. Mixed jamming method for SAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hong-feng; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Yong-sheng

    2007-11-01

    The mixed jamming method of synthetic aperture radar is analyzed and discussed. The methods of active noise and deception jamming and the signal model of transmitting is described. The raw echo signal of SAR and the model of jammed echo signal are expatiated, the characteristic of SAR and the evaluating method of jamming effect are established. Finally, the mixed jamming imaging of SAR is simulated.

  10. Parameterization of large-scale turbulent diffusion in the presence of both well-mixed and weakly mixed patchy layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osman, M. K.; Hocking, W. K.; Tarasick, D. W.

    2016-06-01

    Vertical diffusion and mixing of tracers in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) are not uniform, but primarily occur due to patches of turbulence that are intermittent in time and space. The effective diffusivity of regions of patchy turbulence is related to statistical parameters describing the morphology of turbulent events, such as lifetime, number, width, depth and local diffusivity (i.e., diffusivity within the turbulent patch) of the patches. While this has been recognized in the literature, the primary focus has been on well-mixed layers, with few exceptions. In such cases the local diffusivity is irrelevant, but this is not true for weakly and partially mixed layers. Here, we use both theory and numerical simulations to consider the impact of intermediate and weakly mixed layers, in addition to well-mixed layers. Previous approaches have considered only one dimension (vertical), and only a small number of layers (often one at each time step), and have examined mixing of constituents. We consider a two-dimensional case, with multiple layers (10 and more, up to hundreds and even thousands), having well-defined, non-infinite, lengths and depths. We then provide new formulas to describe cases involving well-mixed layers which supersede earlier expressions. In addition, we look in detail at layers that are not well mixed, and, as an interesting variation on previous models, our procedure is based on tracking the dispersion of individual particles, which is quite different to the earlier approaches which looked at mixing of constituents. We develop an expression which allows determination of the degree of mixing, and show that layers used in some previous models were in fact not well mixed and so produced erroneous results. We then develop a generalized model based on two dimensional random-walk theory employing Rayleigh distributions which allows us to develop a universal formula for diffusion rates for multiple two-dimensional layers with

  11. Spectral mixing of rhythmic neuronal signals in sensory cortex

    PubMed Central

    Ahrens, Kurt F.; Levine, Herbert; Suhl, Harry; Kleinfeld, David

    2002-01-01

    The ability to compute the difference between two frequencies depends on a nonlinear operation that mixes two periodic signals. Behavioral and psychophysical evidence suggest that such mixing is likely to occur in the mammalian nervous system as a means to compare two rhythmic sensory signals, such as occurs in human audition, and as a means to lock an intrinsic rhythm to a sensory input. However, a neurological substrate for mixing has not been identified. Here we address the issue of nonlinear mixing of neuronal activity in the vibrissa primary sensory cortex of rat, a region that receives intrinsic as well as sensory-driven rhythmic input during natural whisking. In our preparation, the intrinsic signal originates from cortical oscillations that were induced by anesthetics, and the extrinsic input is introduced by periodic stimulation of vibrissae. We observed that the local extracellular current in vibrissa primary sensory cortex contained oscillatory components at the sum and difference of the intrinsic and extrinsic frequencies. In complementary experiments, we observed that the simultaneous stimulation of contralateral and ipsilateral vibrissae at different frequencies also led to current flow at the sum and difference frequencies. We show theoretically that the relative amplitudes of the observed mixture terms can be accounted for by a threshold nonlinearity in the input–output relation of the underlying neurons. In general, our results provide a neurological substrate for the modulation and demodulation of rhythmic neuronal signals for sensory coding and feedback stabilization of motor output. PMID:12403828

  12. Space shuttle/food system study. Volume 2, Appendix F: Flight food and primary packaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The analysis and selection of food items and primary packaging, the development of menus, the nutritional analysis of diet, and the analyses of alternate food mixes and contingency foods is reported in terms of the overall food system design for space shuttle flight. Stowage weights and cubic volumes associated with each alternate mix were also evaluated.

  13. Polymorphisms within the human leucocyte antigen-E gene and their associations with susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis as well as clinical outcome of anti-tumour necrosis factor therapy.

    PubMed

    Iwaszko, M; Świerkot, J; Kolossa, K; Jeka, S; Wiland, P; Bogunia-Kubik, K

    2015-12-01

    Involvement of the non-classical human leucocyte antigen-E (HLA-E) in both innate and acquired immune response suggests its possible role in development of autoimmune pathologies. This study was undertaken to investigate relationships between the HLA-E gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and a risk of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), as well as to evaluate a potential of these polymorphisms to modulate clinical outcome of anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF) treatment in female patients. A total of 223 female patients with RA receiving anti-TNF biological therapy and 134 female healthy subjects were enrolled into the study. Genotypings for two SNPs within the HLA-E gene (rs1264457 HLA-E*01:01/01:03; rs1059510 HLA-E*01:03:01/01:03:02) were performed using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification employing LightSNiP assays. Clinical response was evaluated according to the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) criteria at 12 and 24 weeks after initiation of the therapy. The frequency of the HLA-E*01:01/01:01 genotype was decreased significantly in RA patients in comparison to controls (P = 0.031). The presence of the HLA-E*01:01/01:01 genotype in patients correlated with better EULAR response after 12 weeks of anti-TNF treatment, while 01:03 allele carriers were generally unresponsive to the treatment (P = 0.014). The HLA-E*01:03/01:03 genotype was also over-represented among non-responding patients in comparison to HLA-E*01:01/01:01 homozygotes (P = 0.021). With respect to the HLA-E rs1059510 variation, a better response after 12 weeks was observed more frequently in patients carrying the HLA-E*01:03:01/01:03:01 genotype than other genotypes (P = 0.009). The results derived from this study imply that HLA-E polymorphisms may influence RA susceptibility and affect clinical outcome of anti-TNF therapy in female RA patients.

  14. Serum antibodies to human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-E, HLA-F and HLA-G in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) during disease flares: Clinical relevance of HLA-F autoantibodies.

    PubMed

    Jucaud, V; Ravindranath, M H; Terasaki, P I; Morales-Buenrostro, L E; Hiepe, F; Rose, T; Biesen, R

    2016-03-01

    T lymphocyte hyperactivity and progressive inflammation in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients results in over-expression of human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-Ib on the surface of lymphocytes. These are shed into the circulation upon inflammation, and may augment production of antibodies promoting pathogenicity of the disease. The objective was to evaluate the association of HLA-Ib (HLA-E, HLA-F and HLA-G) antibodies to the disease activity of SLE. The immunoglobulin (Ig)G/IgM reactivity to HLA-Ib and β2m in the sera of 69 German, 29 Mexican female SLE patients and 17 German female controls was measured by multiplex Luminex(®)-based flow cytometry. The values were expressed as mean flourescence intensity (MFI). Only the German SLE cohort was analysed in relation to the clinical disease activity. In the controls, anti-HLA-G IgG predominated over other HLA-Ib antibodies, whereas SLE patients had a preponderance of anti-HLA-F IgG over the other HLA-Ib antibodies. The disease activity index, Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI)-2000, was reflected only in the levels of anti-HLA-F IgG. Anti-HLA-F IgG with MFI level of 500-1999 was associated with active SLE, whereas inactive SLE revealed higher MFI (>2000). When anti-HLA-F IgG were cross-reactive with other HLA-Ib alleles, their reactivity was reflected in the levels of anti-HLA-E and -G IgG. The prevalence of HLA-F-monospecific antibodies in SLE patients was also associated with the clinical disease activity. Anti-HLA-F IgG is possibly involved in the clearance of HLA-F shed from lymphocytes and inflamed tissues to lessen the disease's severity, and thus emerges as a beneficial immune biomarker. Therefore, anti-HLA-Ib IgG should be considered as a biomarker in standard SLE diagnostics.

  15. Mixed Waste Encapsulation in Polyester Resins. Treatment for Mixed Wastes Containing Salts. Mixed Waste Focus Area. OST Reference #1685

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    1999-09-01

    Throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex there are large inventories of homogeneous solid mixed wastes, such as treatment residues, fly ashes, and sludges that contain relatively high concentrations (greater than 15% by weight) of salts. The inherent solubility of nitrate, sulfate, and chloride salts makes traditional cement stabilization of these waste streams difficult, expensive, and challenging. Salts can effect the setting rate of cements and can react with cement hydration products to form expansive and cement damaging compounds. Many of these salt wastes are in a dry granular form and are the by-product of treating spent acidic and metal solutions used to recover and reformulate nuclear weapons materials over the past 50 years. At the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) alone, there is approximately 8,000 cubic meters of nitrate salts (potassium and sodium nitrate) stored above ground with an earthen cover. Current estimates indicate that over 200 million kg of contaminated salt wastes exist at various DOE sites. Continued primary treatment of waste water coupled with the use of mixed waste incinerators may generate an additional 5 million kg of salt-containing, mixed waste residues each year. One of the obvious treatment solutions for these salt-containing wastes is to immobilize the hazardous components to meet Environmental Protection Agency/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (EPA/RCRA) Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR), thus rendering the mixed waste to a radioactive waste only classification. One proposed solution is to use thermal treatment via vitrification to immobilize the hazardous component and thereby substantially reduce the volume, as well as provide exceptional durability. However, these melter systems involve expensive capital apparatus with complicated off-gas systems. In addition, the vitrification of high salt waste may cause foaming and usually requires extensive development to specify glass

  16. Other primary headaches

    PubMed Central

    Bahra, Anish

    2012-01-01

    The ‘Other Primary Headaches’ include eight recognised benign headache disorders. Primary stabbing headache is a generally benign disorder which often co-exists with other primary headache disorders such as migraine and cluster headache. Primary cough headache is headache precipitated by valsalva; secondary cough has been reported particularly in association with posterior fossa pathology. Primary exertional headache can occur with sudden or gradual onset during, or immediately after, exercise. Similarly headache associated with sexual activity can occur with gradual evolution or sudden onset. Secondary headache is more likely with both exertional and sexual headache of sudden onset. Sudden onset headache, with maximum intensity reached within a minute, is termed thunderclap headache. A benign form of thunderclap headache exists. However, isolated primary and secondary thunderclap headache cannot be clinically differentiated. Therefore all headache of thunderclap onset should be investigated. The primary forms of the aforementioned paroxysmal headaches appear to be Indomethacin sensitive disorders. Hypnic headache is a rare disorder which is termed ‘alarm clock headache’, exclusively waking patients from sleep. The disorder can be Indomethacin responsive, but can also respond to Lithium and caffeine. New daily persistent headache is a rare and often intractable headache which starts one day and persists daily thereafter for at least 3 months. The clinical syndrome more often has migrainous features or is otherwise has a chronic tension-type headache phenotype. Management is that of the clinical syndrome. Hemicrania continua straddles the disorders of migraine and the trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias and is not dealt with in this review. PMID:23024566

  17. Vermistabilization of primary sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Hait, Subrata; Tare, Vinod

    2011-02-01

    An integrated composting-vermicomposting process has been developed for utilization of primary sewage sludge (PSS). Matured vermicompost was used as bulking material and a source of active microbial culture during aerobic activated composting (AAC). AAC resulted in sufficient enrichment of bulking material with organic matter after 20 cycles of recycling and mixing with PSS and produced materials acceptable for vermicomposting. Vermicomposting caused significant reduction in pH, volatile solids (VS), specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR), total organic carbon (TOC), C/N ratio and pathogens and substantial increase in electrical conductivity (EC), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorous (TP) as compared to compost. Environmental conditions and stocking density have profound effects on vermicomposting. Temperature of 20°C with high humidity is favorable environmental condition for vermicomposting employing Eisenia fetida. Favorable stocking density range for vermiculture is 0.5-2.0 kg m(-2) (optimum: 0.5 kg m(-2)) and for vermicomposting is 2.0-4.0 kg m(-2) (optimum: 3.0 kg m(-2)), respectively.

  18. Platelet, monocyte and neutrophil activation and glucose tolerance in South African Mixed Ancestry individuals

    PubMed Central

    Davison, Glenda M.; Nkambule, Bongani B.; Mkandla, Zibusiso; Hon, Gloudina M.; Kengne, Andre P.; Erasmus, Rajiv T.; Matsha, Tandi E.

    2017-01-01

    Platelet activation has been described in patients with chronic inflammation, however in type 2 diabetes mellitus it remains controversial. We compared levels of platelet leucocyte aggregates, monocyte and granulocyte activation across glucose tolerance statuses in mixed ancestry South Africans. Individuals (206) were recruited from Bellville-South, Cape Town, and included 66% with normal glucose tolerance, 18.7% pre-diabetes, 8.7% screen-detected diabetes and 6.3% known diabetes. Monocyte and neutrophil activation were measured by calculating the percentage of cells expressing CD142 and CD69 while platelet monocyte aggregates were defined as CD14++ CD42b+ events and platelet neutrophil aggregates as CD16++ CD42b+ events. The percentage of monocytes and neutrophils expressing CD69 and CD142 was significantly higher in known diabetes and prediabetes, but, lowest in screen-detected diabetes (both p ≤ 0.016). The pattern was similar for platelet monocyte and neutrophil aggregates (both p ≤ 0.003). In robust linear regressions adjusted for age and gender, known diabetes was significantly and positively associated with the percentage of monocytes expressing CD69 [beta 11.06 (p = 0.016)] and CD42b (PMAs) [19.51 (0.003)] as well as the percentage of neutrophils expressing CD69 [14.19 (<0.0001)] and CD42b [17.7 (0.001)]. We conclude that monitoring platelet activation in diagnosed diabetic patients may have a role in the management and risk stratification. PMID:28091589

  19. Primary care development zones.

    PubMed

    Beardshaw, V; Gordon, P; Plamping, D

    1993-01-30

    Most commentators on the Tomlinson report have agreed with its emphasis on improving primary and community care. The three elements of such a strategy are a remedial programme to bring primary care up to national standards, a programme to provide such services to people with non-standard needs such as mobile Londoners, ethnic minorities, and homeless people, and the development of an expanded model of primary care. No one model will be appropriate across all of London. The process should start with an audit of existing resources and services within each community, together with an analysis of needs. From this would develop a local programme with specific plans for investment in premises, staffing, training, and management. New contractual mechanisms may be needed to attract practitioners, improve their premises, secure out of hours services, and provide medical cover for community beds. There should also be incentives for closer working between primary and secondary services. No developments on the scale needed for London have been carried out in primary care within the lifetime of the NHS--but their success will be critical to the calibre of health services for Londoners into the next century.

  20. Dysphoric mania, mixed states, and mania with mixed features specifier: are we mixing things up?

    PubMed

    McElroy, Susan L; Keck, Paul E

    2016-11-21

    Various terms have been used to describe mania when it is accompanied by depressive symptoms. In this article, we attempt to define and discuss 3 of these terms: dysphoric mania, mixed state, and mania with mixed features specifier. We conclude that whatever term is used, it is important to be aware that mania is more often unpleasant than pleasant, and that the unpleasantness is not limited to depression.

  1. Effect of primary-zone equivalence ratio on pollutant formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Claus, R. W.

    1979-01-01

    Test were conducted to determine the effect of primary-zone equivalence ratio on the formation of smoke and other gaseous pollutants in an experimental can combustor. Several fuel injection techniques were examined at primary-zone equivalence ratios from 0.8 to 2.0. The main emphasis was on reducing fuel-rich-combustion smoke levels. Two of the four fuel injection configurations studied produced smoke levels below a smoke number of 20 at a primary-zone equivalence ratio of about 1.7. As the fuel mixing and atomization were recorded at primary-zone equivalence ratios as high as 2.0. The gaseous emissions of unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and oxides of nitrogen were quite sensitive to the fuel injection configuration as well as to the primary-zone equilvalence ratio.

  2. Effects of ozone, ultraviolet and peracetic acid disinfection of a primary-treated municipal effluent on the immune system of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Hébert, N; Gagné, F; Cejka, P; Bouchard, B; Hausler, R; Cyr, D G; Blaise, C; Fournier, M

    2008-08-01

    Municipal sewage effluents are complex mixtures that are known to compromise the health condition of aquatic organisms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impacts of various wastewater disinfection processes on the immune system of juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The trout were exposed to a primary-treated effluent for 28 days before and after one of each of the following treatments: ultraviolet (UV) radiation, ozonation and peracetic acid. Immune function was characterized in leucocytes from the anterior head kidney by the following three parameters: phagocytosis activity, natural cytotoxic cells (NCC) function and lymphocyte (B and T) proliferation assays. The results show that the fish mass to length ratio was significantly decreased for the primary-treated and all three disinfection processes. Exposure to the primary-treated effluent led to a significant increase in macrophage-related phagocytosis; the addition of a disinfection step was effective in removing this effect. Both unstimulated and mitogen-stimulated T lymphocyte proliferation in fish decreased dramatically in fish exposed to the ozonated effluent compared to fish exposed to either the primary-treated effluent or to aquarium water. Stimulation of T lymphocytes proliferation was observed with the peracetic acid treatment group. In conclusion, the disinfection strategy used can modify the immune system in fish at the level of T lymphocyte proliferation but was effective to remove the effects on phagocytosis activity.

  3. Primary lymphoma of the brain

    MedlinePlus

    Brain lymphoma; Cerebral lymphoma; Primary lymphoma of the central nervous system; Lymphoma - brain ... The cause of primary brain lymphoma is not known. People with a weakened immune system are at high risk for primary lymphoma of the brain. ...

  4. Primary hepatic carcinoid tumor.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jinbo; Hu, Zhijian; Wu, Junwei; Bai, Lishan; Chai, Xinqun

    2011-11-19

    Primary hepatic carcinoid tumor is rare and poses a challenge for diagnosis and management. We presented a case of primary hepatic carcinoid tumor in a 53-year-old female with a complaint of right upper abdominal pain. Computer tomography scans revealed a hypervascular mass in segment 4 of the liver. An ultrasonography-guided biopsy showed a carcinoid tumor. No other lesions were found by the radiological investigations. Surgery resection was performed and histopathological examination revealed a primary hepatic carcinoid tumor. Three years later, recurrence was found and transcatheter arterial chemoembolization was performed. After transcatheter arterial chemoembolization, the patient has been free of symptom and had no radiological disease progression for over 6 months. Surgical resection combination with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization is effective to offer excellent palliation.

  5. Plume primary smoke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chastenet, J. C.

    1993-06-01

    The exhaust from a solid propellant rocket motor usually contains condensed species. These particles, also called 'Primary Smoke', are often prejudicial to missile detectability and to the guidance system. To avoid operational problems it is necessary to know and quantify the effects of particles on all aspects of missile deployment. A brief description of the origin of the primary smoke is given. It continues with details of the interaction between particles and light as function of both particles and light properties (nature, size, wavelength, etc). The effects of particles on plume visibility, attenuation of an optical beam propagated through the plume and the contribution of particles on optical signatures of the plume are also described. Finally, various methods used in NATO countries to quantify the primary smoke effects are discussed.

  6. [Primary care in Ireland].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Sagrado, T

    2017-03-27

    Spanish doctors are still leaving the country to look for quality work. Ireland is not a country with many Spanish professionals but it is interesting to know its particular Health care system. Ireland is one of the countries with a national health care system, although it has a mixture of private health care insurance schemes. People have a right to health care if they have been living in Ireland at least for a year. Access to the primary care health system depends on age and income: free of charge for Category 1 and co-payments for the rest. This division generates great inequalities among the population. Primary Care doctors are self-employed, and they work independently. However, since 2001 they have tended to work in multidisciplinary teams in order to strengthen the Primary Care practice. Salary is gained from a combination of public and private incomes which are not differentiated. The role of the General Practitioner consists in the treatment of acute and chronic diseases, minor surgery, child care, etc. There is no coordination between Primary and Secondary care. Access to specialised medicine is regulated by the price of consultation. Primary Care doctors are not gatekeepers. To be able to work here, doctors must have three years of training after medical school. After that, Continuing Medical Education is compulsory, and the college of general practitioners monitors it annually. The Irish health care system does not fit into the European model. Lack of a clear separation between public and private health care generates great inequalities. The non-existence of coordination between primary and specialised care leads to inefficiencies, which Ireland cannot allow itself after a decade of economic crisis.

  7. Gastric flow and mixing studied using computer simulation.

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Anupam; Indireshkumar, Keshavamurthy; Schwizer, Werner; Abrahamsson, Bertil; Fried, Michael; Brasseur, James G.

    2004-01-01

    The fed human stomach displays regular peristaltic contraction waves that originate in the proximal antrum and propagate to the pylorus. High-resolution concurrent manometry and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of the stomach suggest a primary function of antral contraction wave (ACW) activity unrelated to gastric emptying. Detailed evaluation is difficult, however, in vivo. Here we analyse the role of ACW activity on intragastric fluid motions, pressure, and mixing with computer simulation. A two-dimensional computer model of the stomach was developed with the 'lattice-Boltzmann' numerical method from the laws of physics, and stomach geometry modelled from MRI. Time changes in gastric volume were specified to match global physiological rates of nutrient liquid emptying. The simulations predicted two basic fluid motions: retrograde 'jets' through ACWs, and circulatory flow between ACWs, both of which contribute to mixing. A well-defined 'zone of mixing', confined to the antrum, was created by the ACWs, with mixing motions enhanced by multiple and narrower ACWs. The simulations also predicted contraction-induced peristaltic pressure waves in the distal antrum consistent with manometric measurements, but with a much lower pressure amplitude than manometric data, indicating that manometric pressure amplitudes reflect direct contact of the catheter with the gastric wall. We conclude that the ACWs are central to gastric mixing, and may also play an indirect role in gastric emptying through local alterations in common cavity pressure. PMID:15615685

  8. Numerical simulation of the non-Newtonian mixing layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Azaiez, Jalel; Homsy, G. M.

    1993-01-01

    This work is a continuing effort to advance our understanding of the effects of polymer additives on the structures of the mixing layer. In anticipation of full nonlinear simulations of the non-Newtonian mixing layer, we examined in a first stage the linear stability of the non-Newtonian mixing layer. The results of this study show that, for a fluid described by the Oldroyd-B model, viscoelasticity reduces the instability of the inviscid mixing layer in a special limit where the ratio (We/Re) is of order 1 where We is the Weissenberg number, a measure of the elasticity of the flow, and Re is the Reynolds number. In the present study, we pursue this project with numerical simulations of the non-Newtonian mixing layer. Our primary objective is to determine the effects of viscoelasticity on the roll-up structure. We also examine the origin of the numerical instabilities usually encountered in the simulations of non-Newtonian fluids.

  9. [Particle dispersion by order motion in mixing layers

    SciTech Connect

    Troutt, T.R.

    1993-09-01

    Multiphase mixing in turbulent flows is a key element in many energy conversion and chemical processes. There is considerable need for improving the design and control of these processes. Free turbulent shear flows are the primary agents for particle mixing in these systems. Previous studies by this research group have shown that, if particle coupling effects are neglected, the organized vortex structures generated by these shear flows control the character of the particle mixing process. A coordinated experimental and numerical study is proposed to investigate the coupled effects of droplet mass and energy transfer on the turbulent multiphase mixing process in free shear flows. This study has important implications concerning the design of reacting flow systems. Experimental visualizations of the multiphase flow will be carried out using laser-sheet lighting and high speed photography. Local measurements of droplet size, velocity and concentration diagnostics, will be made with laser anemometry and phase Doppler diagnostics. Complementary analytical and numerical analyses will be carried out to assess the effect of coupling on vortex structure, stability and growth. The results of the proposed research will provide basic understanding concerning the coupled effects of particle concentration on the rate of multiphase mixing in turbulent flows. Information of this nature is essential to the improved designs of engineering systems with particulate or droplet flows.

  10. Primary appendiceal mucinous adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Behera, Prativa Kumari; Rath, Pramod Kumar; Panda, Rabiratna; Satpathi, Sanghamitra; Behera, Rajan

    2011-04-01

    Primary Adenocarcinomas of the appendix are extremely rare tumor. We report a case of primary mucinous adenocarcinoma in a 40 year old lady misdiagnosed as having acute appendicitis. All the routine investigations were within normal limit. USG of abdomen showed dilated appendix with little fluid collection adjacent to it and no other abnormality was seen which suggested acute appendicitis. Appendicectomy was done and excised appendix was sent for histopathological examination. Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the appendix was confirmed after histopathological examination. Right hemicolectomy was done as a second stage procedure. As some cases are incidentally discovered, this case emphasizes that histological examination of all appendicectomy specimens is mandatory.

  11. Does primary fibromyalgia exist?

    PubMed

    Forslind, K; Fredriksson, E; Nived, O

    1990-10-01

    Twenty-one of 25 consecutive primary fibromyalgia or fibrositis patients, identified during a 5-year period in a tertiary care day-ward for pain syndromes, were re-examined. Fifteen fulfilled criteria for fibromyalgia but unexpectedly, all cases had either psychiatric disturbance or thyroid dysfunction. Of the four patients not seen at follow-up, two had developed neurological diseases, another rheumatoid arthritis and one other hypothyroidism. Thus, after 5 years no patient fulfilled the criteria for primary fibromyalgia. Women occupied as manual workers were over-represented. Most patients reported beneficial effects of physiotherapy. None of the patients has been able to return to full time work.

  12. Fibrositis and primary hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Carette, S; Lefrançois, L

    1988-09-01

    The prevalence of fibrositis was determined in 100 patients with subclinical or biochemical primary hypothyroidism. Nineteen patients reported symptoms of joint and/or muscle pain with stiffness. Five of these patients presented 7 or more tender points on examination, thus allowing a diagnosis of fibrositis to be made in only 5% of the total group. Symptomatic improvement after thyroid hormone replacement occurred in 10 of the 19 patients, including 3 of those with fibrositis. There were no significant changes in tender points. Our data indicate that fibrositis is uncommon in patients with primary hypothyroidism despite the frequent occurrence of symptoms suggestive of this syndrome.

  13. Melatonin for primary insomnia?

    PubMed

    2009-07-01

    Melatonin, a hormone produced by the pineal gland, has a key role in regulating circadian rhythms, most importantly, the sleep-wake cycle. Melatonin's action has led to its being tried as a treatment for a wide range of sleep disorders, such as jet lag, primary insomnia, sleep-wake cycle disruption and sleep problems in children with neuro-developmental disorders. Until recently, it had not been licensed in the UK for any indication. Prolonged-release melatonin (Circadin - Lundbeck) has now been licensed as a treatment for primary insomnia. Here we consider whether this product has a place in the management of people with this condition.

  14. Mixing of Supersonic Jets in a RBCC Strutjet Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muller, S.; Hawk, Clark W.; Bakker, P. G.; Parkinson, D.; Turner, M.

    1998-01-01

    The Strutjet approach to Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) propulsion depends upon fuel-rich flows from the rocket nozzles and turbine exhaust products mixing with the ingested air for successful operation in the ramjet and scramjet modes. It is desirable to delay this mixing process in the air-augmented mode of operation present during take-off and low speed flight. A scale model of the Strutjet device was built and tested to investigate the mixing of the streams as a function of distance from the Strut exit plane in simulated sea level take-off conditions. The Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) diagnostic method has been employed to observe the mixing of the turbine exhaust gas with the gases from both the primary rockets and the ingested air. The ratio of the pressure in the turbine exhaust to that in the rocket nozzle wall at the point where the two jets meet, is the independent variable in these experiments. Tests were accomplished at values of 1.0 (the original design point), 1.5 and 2.0 for this parameter at 8 locations downstream of the rocket nozzle exit. The results illustrate the development of the mixing zone from the exit plane of the strut to a distance of about 18 equivalent rocket nozzle exit diameters downstream (18"). These images show the turbine exhaust to be confined until a short distance downstream. The expansion into the ingested air is more pronounced at a pressure ratio of 1.0 and 1.5 and shows that mixing with this air would likely begin at a distance of 2" downstream of the nozzle exit plane. Of the pressure ratios tested in this research, 2.0 is the best value for delaying the mixing at the operating conditions considered.

  15. Effects of incomplete mixing on chemical reactions under flow heterogeneities.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, Lazaro; Hidalgo, Juan J.; Dentz, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Evaluation of the mixing process in aquifers is of primary importance when assessing attenuation of pollutants. In aquifers different hydraulic and chemical properties can increase mixing and spreading of the transported species. Mixing processes control biogeochemical transformations such as precipitation/dissolution reactions or degradation reactions that are fast compared to mass transfer processes. Reactions are local phenomena that fluctuate at the pore scale, but predictions are often made at much larger scales. However, aquifer heterogeities are found at all scales and generates flow heterogeneities which creates complex concentration distributions that enhances mixing. In order to assess the impact of spatial flow heterogeneities at pore scale we study concentration profiles, gradients and reaction rates using a random walk particle tracking (RWPT) method and kernel density estimators to reconstruct concentrations and gradients in two setups. First, we focus on a irreversible bimolecular reaction A+B → C under homogeneous flow to distinguish phenomena of incomplete mixing of reactants from finite-size sampling effects. Second, we analise a fast reversible bimolecular chemical reaction A+B rightleftharpoons C in a laminar Poiseuille flow reactor to determine the difference between local and global reaction rates caused by the incomplete mixing under flow heterogeneities. Simulation results for the first setup differ from the analytical solution of the continuum scale advection-dispersion-reaction equation studied by Gramling et al. (2002), which results in an overstimation quantity of reaction product (C). In the second setup, results show that actual reaction rates are bigger than the obtained from artificially mixing the system by averaging the concentration vertically. - LITERATURE Gramling, C. M.,Harvey, C. F., Meigs, and L. C., (2002). Reactive transport in porous media: A comparison of model prediction with laboratory visualization, Environ. Sci

  16. A climatology of weather-driven mixing events in a dimictic Arctic lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooke, Melanie; MacIntyre, Sally; Kushner, Paul

    2014-05-01

    For dimictic and polymictic Arctic lakes, mixing during the ice-free season is primarily controlled by the passage of cold fronts and their associated strong winds. At Toolik Lake, a Long Term Ecological Research site in Alaska, year-to-year variability in lake stability and mixing frequency has been considerable over the past 14 summers. Mixing is important for lake productivity, distributing dissolved gases and nutrients through the water column. Summertime Arctic warming might be expected to stabilize Arctic lakes such as Toolik, but the control of individual weather events on a season's mixing characteristics complicates the ability to predict trends in stability and mixing. With this motivation, this work aims to characterize weather systems that are conducive to mixing at Toolik. High resolution lake and meteorological data from the site were used to characterize mixing while atmospheric reanalysis data were used to describe the weather systems. Mixing events were first identified using an automated algorithm based on Lake Number and lake thermal structure. The algorithm identified mixing events that are separated by at least the timescale of weather systems, so that any given weather event should cause at most one mixing event. Because low Lake Number conditions typically highlight strong wind events, temperature profile data over time were used to identify thermocline deepening as a complementary indicator for mixing. Mixing events were found to be most often characterized by simultaneous occurrence of a low Lake Number condition and thermocline deepening. Once mixing events were identified, they were classified according to their corresponding atmospheric structures. Two primary weather system types with distinct characteristics were determined to be associated with mixing. The analysis suggests that changing the occurrence of these weather system types might change the summertime thermal structure of Toolik Lake, and by extension other lakes in the region.

  17. Turbulent mix experiments and simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Dimonte, G.; Schneider, M.; Frerking, C.E.

    1995-08-01

    Hydrodynamic instabilities produce material mixing that can significantly degrade weapons performance. We investigate the Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) and Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instabilities in the turbulent regime in two experimental venues. RM experiments are conducted on the Nova laser with strong radiatively driven shocks (Mach > 20) in planar, two fluid targets. Interfacial perturbations are imposed with single sinusoidal modes to test linear theory and with three dimensional (3D) random modes to produce turbulent mix. RT experiments are conducted on a new facility, the Linear Electric Motor (LEM), in which macroscopic fluids are accelerated with arbitrary temporal profiles. This allows detailed diagnosis of the turbulence over a wide range of conditions. The Nova experiments study the high compression regime whereas the LEM experiments are incompressible. The results are compared to hydrodynamic simulations with the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian code (CALE). The goal is to develop and test engineering models of mix.

  18. Primary Creative Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooten, Vida Jo

    1968-01-01

    Children will enjoy creative writing in the primary grades if they are given inspiration, time to write, and the opportunity to share their work with classmates. A second-grade class began a creative writing project by listening to poetry and selecting poems to memorize and recite. This stimulated and encouraged them to evaluate and to write…

  19. Healthcare is primary.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Raman

    2015-01-01

    India is undergoing a rapid transformation in terms of governance, administrative reforms, newer policy develoment, and social movements. India is also considered one of the most vibrant economies in the world. The current discourse in public space is dominated by issues such as economic development, security, corruption free governance, gender equity, and women safety. Healthcare though remains a pressing need of population; seems to have taken a backseat. In the era of decreasing subsidies and cautious investment in social sectors, the 2(nd) National Conference on Family Medicine and Primary Care 2015 (FMPC) brought a focus on "healthcare" in India. The theme of this conference was "Healthcare is Primary." The conference participants discussed on the theme of why healthcare should be a national priority and why strong primary care should remain at the center of healthcare delivery system. The experts recommended that India needs to strengthen the "general health system" instead of focusing on disease based vertical programs. Public health system should have capacity and skill pool to be able to deliver person centered comprehensive health services to the community. Proactive implementation of policies towards human resource in health is the need of the hour. As the draft National Health Policy 2015 is being debated, "family medicine" (academic primary care), the unfinished agenda of National Health Policy 2002, remains a priority area of implementation.

  20. Beginning Primary Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacklin, Angela; Griffiths, Vivienne; Robinson, Carol

    2006-01-01

    This book supports primary teachers' early professional development and learning, tackling key questions and concerns that new teachers might face in their early careers, such as: How will I get through the first term? When will I feel like a "real" teacher? What can I expect from my first years in teaching? Drawing on the experiences of beginning…