Science.gov

Sample records for primary structure analysis

  1. Advanced composites structural concepts and materials technologies for primary aircraft structures: Structural response and failure analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorris, William J.; Hairr, John W.; Huang, Jui-Tien; Ingram, J. Edward; Shah, Bharat M.

    1992-01-01

    Non-linear analysis methods were adapted and incorporated in a finite element based DIAL code. These methods are necessary to evaluate the global response of a stiffened structure under combined in-plane and out-of-plane loading. These methods include the Arc Length method and target point analysis procedure. A new interface material model was implemented that can model elastic-plastic behavior of the bond adhesive. Direct application of this method is in skin/stiffener interface failure assessment. Addition of the AML (angle minus longitudinal or load) failure procedure and Hasin's failure criteria provides added capability in the failure predictions. Interactive Stiffened Panel Analysis modules were developed as interactive pre-and post-processors. Each module provides the means of performing self-initiated finite elements based analysis of primary structures such as a flat or curved stiffened panel; a corrugated flat sandwich panel; and a curved geodesic fuselage panel. This module brings finite element analysis into the design of composite structures without the requirement for the user to know much about the techniques and procedures needed to actually perform a finite element analysis from scratch. An interactive finite element code was developed to predict bolted joint strength considering material and geometrical non-linearity. The developed method conducts an ultimate strength failure analysis using a set of material degradation models.

  2. Advanced composites structural concepts and materials technologies for primary aircraft structures. Structural response and failure analysis: ISPAN modules users manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hairr, John W.; Huang, Jui-Ten; Ingram, J. Edward; Shah, Bharat M.

    1992-01-01

    The ISPAN Program (Interactive Stiffened Panel Analysis) is an interactive design tool that is intended to provide a means of performing simple and self contained preliminary analysis of aircraft primary structures made of composite materials. The program combines a series of modules with the finite element code DIAL as its backbone. Four ISPAN Modules were developed and are documented. These include: (1) flat stiffened panel; (2) curved stiffened panel; (3) flat tubular panel; and (4) curved geodesic panel. Users are instructed to input geometric and material properties, load information and types of analysis (linear, bifurcation buckling, or post-buckling) interactively. The program utilizing this information will generate finite element mesh and perform analysis. The output in the form of summary tables of stress or margins of safety, contour plots of loads or stress, and deflected shape plots may be generalized and used to evaluate specific design.

  3. Thermal analysis and cooling structure design of the primary collimator in CSNS/RCS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Yi-Qing; Wang, Na; Kang, Ling; Qu, Hua-Min; He, Zhe-Xi; Yu, Jie-Bing

    2013-05-01

    The rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS) of the China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) is a high intensity proton ring with beam power of 100 kW. In order to control the residual activation to meet the requirements of hands-on maintenance, a two-stage collimation system has been designed for the RCS. The collimation system consists of one primary collimator made of thin metal to scatter the beam and four secondary collimators as absorbers. Thermal analysis is an important aspect in evaluating the reliability of the collimation system. The calculation of the temperature distribution and thermal stress of the primary collimator with different materials is carried out by using ANSYS code. In order to control the temperature rise and thermal stress of the primary collimator to a reasonable level, an air cooling structure is intended to be used. The mechanical design of the cooling structure is presented, and the cooling efficiency with different chin numbers and wind velocity is also analyzed. Finally, the fatigue lifetime of the collimator under thermal shocks is estimated.

  4. Scorpion toxins from Centruroides noxius and Tityus serrulatus. Primary structures and sequence comparison by metric analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Possani, L D; Martin, B M; Svendsen, I; Rode, G S; Erickson, B W

    1985-01-01

    The complete primary structures of toxin II-14 from the Mexican scorpion Centruroides noxius Hoffmann and toxin gamma from the Brazilian scorpion Tityus serrulatus Lutz and Mello have been determined. Cleavage of toxin gamma after Met-6 with CNBr produced the 55-residue peptide 7-61, which maintained the four disulphide bonds but was not toxic to mice at a dose 3 times the lethal dose of native toxin gamma. Pairwise comparison by metric analysis of segment 1-50 of toxin gamma and the corresponding segments from two other South American scorpion toxins, five North American scorpion toxins, nine North African scorpion toxins and one Central Asian scorpion toxin showed that the three Brazilian toxins are intermediate between the North American and North African toxins. This result is consistent with the hypothesis that the South American and African continents were joined by a land connection in the distant past. Images Fig. 1. PMID:4052021

  5. Minimum strain rate and primary transient creep analysis of a fine structure orthorhombic titanium aluminide

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, R.W.

    1996-03-15

    The purpose of the present paper is to present a preliminary analysis of the primary transient creep behavior of an orthorhombic titanium aluminide having a very fine microstructure. In order to analyze and understand the creep behavior within the primary transient regime it is necessary to understand the mechanisms controlling deformation within the minimum strain rate region. Therefore an analysis of the minimum strain rate behavior is also presented. It will be shown that the primary transient creep behavior is dependent upon whether creep in the minimum strain rate region is controlled by a viscous flow mechanism or a dislocation mechanism.

  6. Space Shuttle Main Engine structural analysis and data reduction/evaluation. Volume 6: Primary nozzle diffuser analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foley, Michael J.

    1989-01-01

    The primary nozzle diffuser routes fuel from the main fuel valve on the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) to the nozzle coolant inlet mainfold, main combustion chamber coolant inlet mainfold, chamber coolant valve, and the augmented spark igniters. The diffuser also includes the fuel system purge check valve connection. A static stress analysis was performed on the diffuser because no detailed analysis was done on this part in the past. Structural concerns were in the area of the welds because approximately 10 percent are in areas inaccessible by X-ray testing devices. Flow dynamics and thermodynamics were not included in the analysis load case. Constant internal pressure at maximum SSME power was used instead. A three-dimensional, finite element method was generated using ANSYS version 4.3A on the Lockheed VAX 11/785 computer to perform the stress computations. IDEAS Supertab on a Sun 3/60 computer was used to create the finite element model. Rocketdyne drawing number RS009156 was used for the model interpretation. The flight diffuser is denoted as -101. A description of the model, boundary conditions/load case, material properties, structural analysis/results, and a summary are included for documentation.

  7. Design and analysis of supporting structure between the primary mirror and the secondary mirror on a space telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chenjie; Chai, Wenyi; Feng, Liangjie; Yang, Wengang; Wang, Wei; Fan, Xuewu

    2015-10-01

    Mechanical stability is a significant segment for an on-axis space telescope to assure its assembly accuracy as well as the image quality in the rigorous space environment, supporting structure between the primary mirror and the secondary mirror as a main structure of the on-axis space telescope must be designed reasonably to meet the mission requirements of the space telescope. Meanwhile, in view of the limitation of the satellite launching cost, it is necessary to reduce the weight and power compensation during the supporting structure design based on the satisfaction of telescope performance. Two types of supporting structure for a space telescope are designed, one is three-tripod structure which has three tripods located on the optical bench to support the secondary mirror assemblies and keep the distance between the primary mirror and the secondary mirror, the other is barrel supporting structure which includes a tube and a secondary mirror support with four spider struts. To compare the mechanical performance and launching cost of the two kinds of supporting structure, both structural and thermal analysis model are established. The analysis results indicates that the three-tripod support is lighter, has better mechanical performance and needs less power compensation than the barrel support.

  8. Analysis of the conceptual structure and reasoning demands of elementary science texts at the primary (K-3) level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staver, John R.; Bay, Mary

    Eleven elementary science texts commonly used in the nation's schools were examined in terms of conceptual structure and reasoning demands of the texts. Specifically, one primary level (K-3) unit was randomly selected for analysis. Concept maps were drawn and evaluated, and the propositions between concepts were examined in terms of the Piagetian mental schema needed for comprehension. Results show that (1) concept maps and therefore the conceptual structures for a unit on air and/or weather vary widely across texts; (2) all but two conceptual structures are well defined, in that a single concept or group of concepts is not isolated from the total framework; (3) the reasoning needed to comprehend the between-individual concepts is concrete, in that classificational, interactional, and direct observational reasoning are necessary; and (4) these reasoning demands are above the developmental capabilities of a large segment of primary-level children, who function in the preoperational stage. Discussion of the results focuses on the kind of science that is appropriate for primary-level youngsters.

  9. Structural features of the pore formed by Staphylococcus aureus alpha-toxin inferred from chemical modification and primary structure analysis.

    PubMed

    Menestrina, G; Belmonte, G; Parisi, V; Morante, S

    1992-09-01

    Staphylococcus aureus alpha-toxin makes cells and model membranes permeable to ions and uncharged molecules by opening oligomeric pores of uniform size. Its primary sequence reveals peculiar features which give some hints on the structure of the pore. A flexible region separating the toxin into two halves, several amphiphilic beta-strands and two amphiphilic alpha-helices long enough to span the hydrophobic core of the lipid bilayer are predicted. In analogy to bacterial porins, we propose that the inner walls of the pore are, at least in part, built by an amphiphilic beta-barrel. The model is consistent with circular dichroism data and with the electrophysiological properties of the pore. Functional information on this toxin were obtained by chemical modification of its four histidine residues. Specific carbethoxylation suggested they have different roles: one is required for specific receptor binding, one for oligomerisation and two for unspecific lipid binding. A tentative assignment of each histidine to its specific role is done on the basis of the structural predictions. A functionally related hemolysin, Aeromonas hydrophyla aerolysin, reveals remarkably similar features including the presence and location of histidines involved in receptor binding and oligomerisation.

  10. Analysis of the effects of firing Orbiter primary reaction control system jets with an attached truss structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaszubowski, M.; Raney, J. P.

    1986-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the dynamic effects of firing the orbiter primary reaction control jets during assembly of protoflight space station structure. Maximum longeron compressive load was calculated as a function of jet pulse time length, number of jet pulses, and total torque imposed by the reaction control jets. The study shows that it is possible to fire selected jets to achieve a pitch maneuver without causing failure of the attached structure.

  11. Study of Factors Preventing Children from Enrolment in Primary School in the Republic of Honduras: Analysis Using Structural Equation Modelling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashida, Akemi

    2015-01-01

    Studies have investigated factors that impede enrolment in Honduras. However, they have not analysed individual factors as a whole or identified the relationships among them. This study used longitudinal data for 1971 children who entered primary schools from 1986 to 2000, and employed structural equation modelling to examine the factors…

  12. HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK (DST) THERMAL & SEISMIC PROJECT DYTRAN ANALYSIS OF SEISMICALLY INDUCED FLUID STRUCTURE INTERACTION IN A HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL PRIMARY TANK

    SciTech Connect

    MACKEY, T.C.

    2006-03-14

    M&D Professional Services, Inc. (M&D) is under subcontract to Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL) to perform seismic analysis of the Hanford Site Double-Shell Tanks (DSTs) in support of a project entitled ''Double-Shell Tank (DSV Integrity Project-DST Thermal and Seismic Analyses)''. The overall scope of the project is to complete an up-to-date comprehensive analysis of record of the DST System at Hanford in support of Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-48-14. The work described herein was performed in support of the seismic analysis of the DSTs. The thermal and operating loads analysis of the DSTs is documented in Rinker et al. (2004). The overall seismic analysis of the DSTs is being performed with the general-purpose finite element code ANSYS'. The global model used for the seismic analysis of the DSTs includes the DST structure, the contained waste, and the surrounding soil. The seismic analysis of the DSTs must address the fluid-structure interaction behavior and sloshing response of the primary tank and contained liquid. ANSYS has demonstrated capabilities for structural analysis, but has more limited capabilities for fluid-structure interaction analysis. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the capabilities and investigate the limitations of the finite element code MSC.Dytranz for performing a dynamic fluid-structure interaction analysis of the primary tank and contained waste. To this end, the Dytran solutions are benchmarked against theoretical solutions appearing in BNL 1995, when such theoretical solutions exist. When theoretical solutions were not available, comparisons were made to theoretical solutions to similar problems, and to the results from ANSYS simulations. Both rigid tank and flexible tank configurations were analyzed with Dytran. The response parameters of interest that are evaluated in this study are the total hydrodynamic reaction forces, the impulsive and convective mode frequencies, the waste pressures, and slosh heights

  13. Composite Crew Module: Primary Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirsch, Michael T.

    2011-01-01

    In January 2007, the NASA Administrator and Associate Administrator for the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate chartered the NASA Engineering and Safety Center to design, build, and test a full-scale crew module primary structure, using carbon fiber reinforced epoxy based composite materials. The overall goal of the Composite Crew Module project was to develop a team from the NASA family with hands-on experience in composite design, manufacturing, and testing in anticipation of future space exploration systems being made of composite materials. The CCM project was planned to run concurrently with the Orion project's baseline metallic design within the Constellation Program so that features could be compared and discussed without inducing risk to the overall Program. This report discusses the project management aspects of the project including team organization, decision making, independent technical reviews, and cost and schedule management approach.

  14. Advanced textile applications for primary aircraft structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Anthony C.; Barrie, Ronald E.; Shah, Bharat M.; Shukla, Jay G.

    1992-01-01

    Advanced composite primary structural concepts were evaluated for low cost, damage tolerant structures. Development of advanced textile preforms for fuselage structural applications with resin transfer molding and powder epoxy materials are now under development.

  15. Advanced textile applications for primary aircraft structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Anthony C.; Barrie, Ronald E.; Shah, Bharat M.; Shukla, Jay G.

    1992-01-01

    Advanced composite primary structural concepts have been evaluated for low cost, damage tolerant structures. Development of advanced textile preforms for fuselage structural applications with resin transfer molding and powder epoxy material is now under development.

  16. Effect of the small-world structure on encoding performance in the primary visual cortex: an electrophysiological and modeling analysis.

    PubMed

    Shi, Li; Niu, Xiaoke; Wan, Hong

    2015-05-01

    The biological networks have been widely reported to present small-world properties. However, the effects of small-world network structure on population's encoding performance remain poorly understood. To address this issue, we applied a small world-based framework to quantify and analyze the response dynamics of cell assemblies recorded from rat primary visual cortex, and further established a population encoding model based on small world-based generalized linear model (SW-GLM). The electrophysiological experimental results show that the small world-based population responses to different topological shapes present significant variation (t test, p < 0.01; effect size: Hedge's g > 0.8), while no significant variation was found for control networks without considering their spatial connectivity (t test, p > 0.05; effect size: Hedge's g < 0.5). Furthermore, the numerical experimental results show that the predicted response under SW-GLM is more accurate and reliable compared to the control model without small-world structure, and the decoding performance is also improved about 10 % by taking the small-world structure into account. The above results suggest the important role of the small-world neural structure in encoding visual information for the neural population by providing electrophysiological and theoretical evidence, respectively. The study helps greatly to well understand the population encoding mechanisms of visual cortex.

  17. Mathematical model of the primary CD8 T cell immune response: stability analysis of a nonlinear age-structured system.

    PubMed

    Terry, Emmanuelle; Marvel, Jacqueline; Arpin, Christophe; Gandrillon, Olivier; Crauste, Fabien

    2012-08-01

    The primary CD8 T cell immune response, due to a first encounter with a pathogen, happens in two phases: an expansion phase, with a fast increase of T cell count, followed by a contraction phase. This contraction phase is followed by the generation of memory cells. These latter are specific of the antigen and will allow a faster and stronger response when encountering the antigen for the second time. We propose a nonlinear mathematical model describing the T CD8 immune response to a primary infection, based on three nonlinear ordinary differential equations and one nonlinear age-structured partial differential equation, describing the evolution of CD8 T cell count and pathogen amount. We discuss in particular the roles and relevance of feedback controls that regulate the response. First we reduce our system to a system with a nonlinear differential equation with a distributed delay. We study the existence of two steady states, and we analyze the asymptotic stability of these steady states. Second we study the system with a discrete delay, and analyze global asymptotic stability of steady states. Finally, we show some simulations that we can obtain from the model and confront them to experimental data.

  18. HANFORD DST THERMAL & SEISMIC PROJECT ANSYS BENCHMARK ANALYSIS OF SEISMIC INDUCED FLUID STRUCTURE INTERACTION IN A HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL PRIMARY TANK

    SciTech Connect

    MACKEY, T.C.

    2006-03-14

    M&D Professional Services, Inc. (M&D) is under subcontract to Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL) to perform seismic analysis of the Hanford Site Double-Shell Tanks (DSTs) in support of a project entitled ''Double-Shell Tank (DSV Integrity Project-DST Thermal and Seismic Analyses)''. The overall scope of the project is to complete an up-to-date comprehensive analysis of record of the DST System at Hanford in support of Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-48-14. The work described herein was performed in support of the seismic analysis of the DSTs. The thermal and operating loads analysis of the DSTs is documented in Rinker et al. (2004). The overall seismic analysis of the DSTs is being performed with the general-purpose finite element code ANSYS. The overall model used for the seismic analysis of the DSTs includes the DST structure, the contained waste, and the surrounding soil. The seismic analysis of the DSTs must address the fluid-structure interaction behavior and sloshing response of the primary tank and contained liquid. ANSYS has demonstrated capabilities for structural analysis, but the capabilities and limitations of ANSYS to perform fluid-structure interaction are less well understood. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the capabilities and investigate the limitations of ANSYS for performing a fluid-structure interaction analysis of the primary tank and contained waste. To this end, the ANSYS solutions are benchmarked against theoretical solutions appearing in BNL 1995, when such theoretical solutions exist. When theoretical solutions were not available, comparisons were made to theoretical solutions of similar problems and to the results from Dytran simulations. The capabilities and limitations of the finite element code Dytran for performing a fluid-structure interaction analysis of the primary tank and contained waste were explored in a parallel investigation (Abatt 2006). In conjunction with the results of the global ANSYS analysis

  19. Structural Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    After an 800-foot-tall offshore oil recovery platform collapsed, the engineers at Engineering Dynamics, Inc., Kenner, LA, needed to learn the cause of the collapse, and analyze the proposed repairs. They used STAGSC-1, a NASA structural analysis program with geometric and nonlinear buckling analysis. The program allowed engineers to determine the deflected and buckling shapes of the structural elements. They could then view the proposed repairs under the pressure that caused the original collapse.

  20. Composites technology for transport primary structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Victor; Hawley, Arthur; Klotzsche, Max; Markus, Alan; Palmer, Ray

    1991-01-01

    The ACT contract activity being performed by the McDonnell Douglas Corporation is divided into two separate activities: one effort by Douglas Aircraft in Long Beach, California with a focus on Transport Primary Wing and Fuselage Structure, and the other effort by McDonnell Aircraft in St. Louis, Missouri with a focus on Advanced Combat Aircraft Center Wing-Fuselage Structure. This presentation is on the Douglas Aircraft Transport Structure portion of the ACT program called ICAPS - Innovative Composite Aircraft Primary Structure.

  1. Primary structure of keratinocyte transglutaminase

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, M.A.; Stewart, B.E.; Qin, Q.; Rice, R.H. ); Chakravarty, R. ); Floyd, E.E.; Jetten, A.M. )

    1990-12-01

    The nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of the coding regions of human and rat keratinocyte transglutaminases (protein-glutamine: amine {gamma}-glutamyltransferase; EC 2.3.2.13) have been determined. These yield proteins of {approximately}90 kDa that are 92% identical, indicative of the conservation of important structural features. Alignments of amino acid sequences show substantial similarity among the keratinocyte transglutaminase, human clotting factor XIII catalytic subunit, guinea pig liver tissue transglutaminase, and the human erythrocyte band-4.2 protein. The keratinocyte enzyme is most similar to factor XIII, whereas the band-4.2 protein is most similar to the tissue transglutaminase. A salient feature of the keratinocyte transglutaminase is its 105-residue extension beyond the N terminus of the tissue transglutaminase. This extension and the unreltaed activation peptide of factor XIII (a 37-residue extension) appear to be added for specialized functions after divergence of the tissue transglutaminase from their common lineage.

  2. Primary structure of keratinocyte transglutaminase.

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, M A; Stewart, B E; Qin, Q; Chakravarty, R; Floyd, E E; Jetten, A M; Rice, R H

    1990-01-01

    The nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of the coding regions of human and rat keratinocyte transglutaminases (protein-glutamine: amine gamma-glutamyltransferase; EC 2.3.2.13) have been determined. These yield proteins of approximately 90 kDa that are 92% identical, indicative of the conservation of important structural features. Alignments of amino acid sequences show substantial similarity among the keratinocyte transglutaminase, human clotting factor XIII catalytic subunit, guinea pig liver tissue transglutaminase, and the human erythrocyte band-4.2 protein. The keratinocyte enzyme is most similar to factor XIII, whereas the band-4.2 protein is most similar to the tissue transglutaminase. A salient feature of the keratinocyte transglutaminase is its 105-residue extension beyond the N terminus of the tissue transglutaminase. This extension and the unrelated activation peptide of factor XIII (a 37-residue extension) appear to be added for specialized functions after divergence of the tissue transglutaminase from their common lineage. Images PMID:1979171

  3. Compression Strength of Composite Primary Structural Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Eric R.; Starnes, James H., Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The focus of research activities under NASA Grant NAG-1-2035 was the response and failure of thin-walled structural components. The research is applicable to the primary load carrying structure of flight vehicles, with particular emphasis on fuselage and wing'structure. Analyses and tests were performed that are applicable to the following structural components an aft pressure bulkhead, or a composite pressure dome, pressure cabin damage containment, and fuselage frames subject to crash-type loads.

  4. HANFORD DST THERMAL & SEISMIC PROJECT DYTRAN ANALYSIS OF SEISMICALLY INDUCED FLUID STRUCTURE INTERACTION IN A HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL PRIMARY TANK

    SciTech Connect

    MACKEY TC; RINKER MW; ABATT FG

    2007-02-14

    Revision 0A of this document contains new Appendices C and D. Appendix C contains a re-analysis of the rigid and flexible tanks at the 460 in. liquid level and was motivated by recommendations from a Project Review held on March 20-21, 2006 (Rinker et al Appendix E of RPP-RPT-28968 Rev 1). Appendix D contains the benchmark solutions in support of the analyses in Appendix C.

  5. The alpha-amylase from the yellow meal worm: complete primary structure, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis.

    PubMed

    Strobl, S; Gomis-Rüth, F X; Maskos, K; Frank, G; Huber, R; Glockshuber, R

    1997-06-02

    The alpha-amylase from Tenebrio molitor larvae (TMA) was purified from a crude larval extract. After removal of the N-terminal pyroglutamate residue and identification of the following 17 residues by Edman sequencing, the cDNA of mature TMA was cloned from larval mRNA. The encoded enzyme consists of 471 amino acid residues and has 57-79% sequence identity to other insect alpha-amylases and also shows high homology to the mammalian enzymes. TMA was crystallized in form of well-ordered orthorhombic crystals of space group P2(1)2(1)2(1) diffracting beyond 1.6 A resolution with unit cell dimensions of a = 51.24 A, b = 93.46 A, c = 96.95 A. TMA may serve as model system for the future analysis of interactions between insect alpha-amylase and proteinaceous plant inhibitors on the molecular level.

  6. Elicitation of Specific Syntactic Structures in Primary Progressive Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLeon, Jessica; Gesierich, Benno; Besbris, Max; Ogar, Jennifer; Henry, Maya L.; Miller, Bruce L.; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa; Wilson, Stephen M.

    2012-01-01

    Many patients with primary progressive aphasia (PPA) are impaired in syntactic production. Because most previous studies of expressive syntax in PPA have relied on quantitative analysis of connected speech samples, which is a relatively unconstrained task, it is not well understood which specific syntactic structures are most challenging for these…

  7. Primary structure of human pancreatic elastase 2 determined by sequence analysis of the cloned mRNA

    SciTech Connect

    Fletcher, T.S.; Shen, W.F.; Largman, C.

    1987-11-17

    A cDNA encoding elastase 2 has been cloned from a human pancreatic cDNA library. The cDNA contains a translation initiation site and a poly(A) recognition site and encodes a protein of 269 amino acids, including a proposed 16-residue signal peptide. The amino acid sequence of the deduced mature protein contains a 12-residue activation peptide containing a cysteine at residue 1 similar to that of chymotryspin. The proposed active enzyme contains all of the characteristic active-site amino acids, including His-57, Asp-102, and Ser-195. The S1 binding pocket is bounded by Gly-216 and Ser-226, making this pocket intermediate in size between chymotrypsins and elastase 1 or protease E, consistent with the substrate specificity of elastase 2 for long-chain aliphatic or aromatic amino acids. Computer modeling studies using the amino acid sequence of elastase 2 superimposed on the X-ray structure of porcine elastase 1 suggest that a change of Gln-192 in elastase 1 to Asn-192 in elastase 2 may account for the lower catalytic efficiency of the latter enzyme. Several basic residues appear to be near the ends of the extended binding pocket of elastases which might serve to anchor the enzyme to the elastin substrate. These studies indicate that elastases 2 and elastase 1 both contain an Arg-65A as well as a basic dipeptide at 223/224 which is not present in chymotrypsins. In addition, Arg-217A is present in humaan elastase 2 but absent in rat pancreatic protein which has been proposed to be an elastase 2 on the basis of sequence homology, but which was not isolated during screening of rat pancreatic tissue extracts for elastolytic activity.

  8. [CYTOGENETIC ANALYSIS OF PATIENTS WITH PRIMARY AMENORRHEA].

    PubMed

    Stoyanova, V; Linev, A; Ivanov, H; Vachev, T

    2015-01-01

    Primary amenorrhea is one of the common reproductive disorder affecting females. It leads to the absence of menarche in the reproductive age group in females and/or complete absence of reproductive organs. The physiology of menstruation and reproduction has a strong correlation with the expression of the X chromosome. Thus, the role of the clinical geneticists in terms of diagnosis, risk assessment, genetic counseling and management of patients with primary amenorrhea and their families is essential. The genetic contribution to amenorrhea is studied both at the cellular and molecular level aiming at chromosomal abnormalities and gene mutations. In the present study we aim to perform chromosomal analysis in 140 patients present with primary amenorrhea employing GTG banding technique. The resulting karyotype revealed 67.4% (n = 95) with normal chromosome composition and 32.6% (n = 46) showed chromosomal abnormalities. In patients with abnormal chromosome constituents, 20% (n = 9) exhibit numerical aberration, 22% (n = 10) showed structural abnormalities, 43% (n = 20) mosaic genotype and 15% (n = 7) of cases--male karyotype. Furthermore, the involvement of Y chromosome and the origin of marker chromosome was confirmed by applying fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) in four patients.

  9. Primary structure of rat plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase isoform 4 and analysis of alternative splicing patterns at splice site A.

    PubMed Central

    Keeton, T P; Shull, G E

    1995-01-01

    We have determined the primary structure of the rat plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase isoform 4 (PMCA4), and have analysed its mRNA tissue distribution and alternative splicing patterns at splice site A. Rat PMCA4 (rPMCA4) genomic clones were isolated and used to determine the coding sequences and intron/exon organization of the 5'-end of the gene, and the remaining coding sequence was determined from PCR-amplified cDNA fragments. Pairwise comparisons reveal that the amino acid sequence of rPMCA4 has diverged substantially from those of rPMCA isoforms 1, 2 and 3 (73-76% identity) and from that of human PMCA4 (87%). Despite the high degree of sequence divergence between the two species, comparisons of intron and untranslated mRNA sequences with the corresponding human sequences confirm the identity of this rat isoform as PMCA4. Northern blot studies demonstrate that the PMCA4 mRNA is expressed in all rat tissues examined except liver, with the highest levels in uterus and stomach. A combination of PCR analysis of alternative splicing patterns and sequence analysis of the gene demonstrate that a 36 nt exon at site A is included in PMCA4 mRNAs of most tissues but is largely excluded in heart and testis. Alternative splicing of both the 36 nt exon and a previously characterized 175 nt exon at splice site C, each of which can be either included or excluded in a highly tissue-specific manner, leads to the production of four different PMCA4 variants ranging in size from 1157 to 1203 amino acids. Images Figure 1 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:7702574

  10. Gender, Family Structure, and Adolescents' Primary Confidants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nomaguchi, Kei M.

    2008-01-01

    Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (N = 4,190), this study examined adolescents' reports of primary confidants. Results showed that nearly 30% of adolescents aged 16-18 nominated mothers as primary confidants, 25% nominated romantic partners, and 20% nominated friends. Nominating romantic partners or friends was related…

  11. Elicitation of specific syntactic structures in primary progressive aphasia.

    PubMed

    Deleon, Jessica; Gesierich, Benno; Besbris, Max; Ogar, Jennifer; Henry, Maya L; Miller, Bruce L; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa; Wilson, Stephen M

    2012-12-01

    Many patients with primary progressive aphasia (PPA) are impaired in syntactic production. Because most previous studies of expressive syntax in PPA have relied on quantitative analysis of connected speech samples, which is a relatively unconstrained task, it is not well understood which specific syntactic structures are most challenging for these patients. We used an elicited syntactic production task to identify which syntactic structures pose difficulties for 31 patients with three variants of PPA: non-fluent/agrammatic, semantic and logopenic. Neurodegenerative and healthy age-matched participants were included as controls. As expected, non-fluent/agrammatic patients made the most syntactic errors. The structures that resulted in the most errors were constructions involving third person singular present agreement, and constructions involving embedded clauses. Deficits on this elicited production task were associated with atrophy of the left posterior inferior frontal gyrus.

  12. Patterns in protein primary sequences: classification, display and analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Saurugger, P. N.; Metfessel, B. A.

    1991-01-01

    The protein folding code, which is contained in the amino acid chain of a protein, has so far eluded elucidation. However, patterns of hydrophobic residues have previously been identified which show a specificity towards certain secondary structural elements. We are developing an analysis toolkit to find, visualize, and analyze patterns in primary sequences. Preliminary results show that there exist patterns in primary sequences which are useful for predicting the structural class of amino acid chains, performing especially well for the all-alpha helix and all-beta sheet classes. PMID:1807631

  13. Structure Property Correlations in Primary Explosives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-02-04

    is to the elements; therefore, the heat of detonation (an indicator of sensitivity) is simply the heat of formation for the metal azides, AgN - Ag...family of compounds. Furthermore, the heat of detonation is not the sole criterion for usefulness as a primary. TNT has a higher heat of detonation than

  14. Nonlinear Structural Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Nonlinear structural analysis techniques for engine structures and components are addressed. The finite element method and boundary element method are discussed in terms of stress and structural analyses of shells, plates, and laminates.

  15. Primary Dentition Analysis: Exploring a Hidden Approach

    PubMed Central

    Vanjari, Kalasandhya; Kamatham, Rekhalakshmi; Gaddam, Kumar Raja

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Accurate prediction of the mesiodistal widths (MDWs) of canines and premolars in children with primary dentition facilitates interception of malocclusion at an early age. Boston University (BU) approach is one, i.e., based on primary teeth for predicting canine and premolar dimensions. Aim: To predict the canine and premolar dimensions, in the contemporary population, using BU approach and compare with the values obtained using Tanaka-Johnston (T/J) approach. Design: Children in the age range of 7-11 years with presence of all permanent mandibular incisors and primary maxillary and mandibular canines and first molars were included in the study. Those with interproximal caries or restorations, abnormalities in shape or size and history of orthodontic treatment were excluded. Impressions of both arches were made using irreversible hydrocolloid and poured with dental stone. The MDWs of the required teeth were measured on the models using electronic digital vernier caliper from which widths of permanent canines and premolars were predicted using both T/J and BU approaches. Results: Statistically significant (p = 0.00) positive correlation (r = 0.52-0.55) was observed between T/J and BU approaches. A statistically significant (p = 0.00) strong positive correlation (r = 0.72-0.77) was observed among girls, whereas boys showed a statistically nonsignificant weak positive correlation (r=0.17-0.42) based on gender. Conclusion: Boston University approach can be further studied prospectively to make it possible as a prediction method of permanent tooth dimensions for children in primary dentition stage. How to cite this article: Nuvvula S, Vanjari K, Kamatham R, Gaddam KR. Primary Dentition Analysis: Exploring a Hidden Approach. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(1):1-4. PMID:27274146

  16. Compression Strength of Composite Primary Structural Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Eric R.

    1998-01-01

    Research conducted under NASA Grant NAG-1-537 focussed on the response and failure of advanced composite material structures for application to aircraft. Both experimental and analytical methods were utilized to study the fundamental mechanics of the response and failure of selected structural components subjected to quasi-static loads. Most of the structural components studied were thin-walled elements subject to compression, such that they exhibited buckling and postbuckling responses prior to catastrophic failure. Consequently, the analyses were geometrically nonlinear. Structural components studied were dropped-ply laminated plates, stiffener crippling, pressure pillowing of orthogonally stiffened cylindrical shells, axisymmetric response of pressure domes, and the static crush of semi-circular frames. Failure of these components motivated analytical studies on an interlaminar stress postprocessor for plate and shell finite element computer codes, and global/local modeling strategies in finite element modeling. These activities are summarized in the following section. References to literature published under the grant are listed on pages 5 to 10 by a letter followed by a number under the categories of journal publications, conference publications, presentations, and reports. These references are indicated in the text by their letter and number as a superscript.

  17. Dendritic cell analysis in primary immunodeficiency

    PubMed Central

    Bigley, Venetia; Barge, Dawn; Collin, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review Dendritic cells are specialized antigen-presenting cells which link innate and adaptive immunity, through recognition and presentation of antigen to T cells. Although the importance of dendritic cells has been demonstrated in many animal models, their contribution to human immunity remains relatively unexplored in vivo. Given their central role in infection, autoimmunity, and malignancy, dendritic cell deficiency or dysfunction would be expected to have clinical consequences. Recent findings Human dendritic cell deficiency disorders, related to GATA binding protein 2 (GATA2) and interferon regulatory factor 8 (IRF8) mutations, have highlighted the importance of dendritic cells and monocytes in primary immunodeficiency diseases and begun to shed light on their nonredundant roles in host defense and immune regulation in vivo. The contribution of dendritic cell and monocyte dysfunction to the pathogenesis of primary immunodeficiency disease phenotypes is becoming increasingly apparent. However, dendritic cell analysis is not yet a routine part of primary immunodeficiency disease workup. Summary Widespread uptake of dendritic cell/monocyte screening in clinical practice will facilitate the discovery of novel dendritic cell and monocyte disorders as well as advancing our understanding of human dendritic cell biology in health and disease. PMID:27755182

  18. Compression strength of composite primary structural components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Eric R.

    1994-01-01

    The linear elastic response is determined for an internally pressurized, long circular cylindrical shell stiffened on the inside by a regular arrangement of identical stringers and identical rings. Periodicity of this configuration permits the analysis of a portion of the shell wall centered over a generic stringer-ring joint; i.e., a unit cell model. The stiffeners are modeled as discrete beams, and the stringer is assumed to have a symmetrical cross section and the ring an asymmetrical section. Asymmetery causes out-of-plane bending and torsion of the ring. Displacements are assumed as truncated double Fourier series plus simple terms in the axial coordinate to account for the closed and pressure vessel effect (a non-periodic effect). The interacting line loads between the stiffeners and the inside shell wall are Lagrange multipliers in the formulation, and they are also assumed as truncated Fourier series. Displacement continuity constraints between the stiffeners and shell along the contact lines are satisfied point-wise. Equilibrium is imposed by the principle of virtual work. A composite material crown panel from the fuselage of a large transport aircraft is the numerical example. The distributions of the interacting line loads, and the out-of-plane bending moment and torque in the ring, are strongly dependent on modeling the deformations due to transverse shear and cross-sectional warping of the ring in torsion. This paper contains the results from the semiannual report on research on 'Pressure Pillowing of an Orthogonally Stiffened Cylindrical Shell'. The results of the new work are illustrated in the included appendix.

  19. A new hybrid coding for protein secondary structure prediction based on primary structure similarity.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhong; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Shunpu; Zhang, Qifeng; Wu, Wuming

    2017-03-16

    The coding pattern of protein can greatly affect the prediction accuracy of protein secondary structure. In this paper, a novel hybrid coding method based on the physicochemical properties of amino acids and tendency factors is proposed for the prediction of protein secondary structure. The principal component analysis (PCA) is first applied to the physicochemical properties of amino acids to construct a 3-bit-code, and then the 3 tendency factors of amino acids are calculated to generate another 3-bit-code. Two 3-bit-codes are fused to form a novel hybrid 6-bit-code. Furthermore, we make a geometry-based similarity comparison of the protein primary structure between the reference set and the test set before the secondary structure prediction. We finally use the support vector machine (SVM) to predict those amino acids which are not detected by the primary structure similarity comparison. Experimental results show that our method achieves a satisfactory improvement in accuracy in the prediction of protein secondary structure.

  20. The structural quality of Tanzanian primary health facilities.

    PubMed Central

    Gilson, L.; Magomi, M.; Mkangaa, E.

    1995-01-01

    Structural quality is a key element in the quality of care provided at the primary level, which aims to offer health care interventions of proven efficacy. This assessment of the structural quality of Tanzanian primary health services indicated serious weaknesses in the available physical infrastructure, as well as supervision and other support, both for government and nongovernmental services and for dispensary and first referral-level services. Addressing these weaknesses is likely to require some additional funding and review of the functions of different groups of health care facilities within the primary care system. Although district health management teams have an important role to play in tackling the weaknesses, the existing division of management responsibilities indicates that they can only do so with the support of the regional and national levels of the health management structure. Study methods might be adapted to facilitate improved supervision and management. PMID:7704920

  1. JWST ISIM Primary Structure and Kinematic Mount Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartoszyk, Andrew; Carnahan, Tim; Hendricks, Steve; Kaprielian, Charles; Kuhn, Jonathan; Kunt, Cengiz

    2004-01-01

    In this presentation we will review the evolution of the ISIM primary structure tube topology and kinematic mount configuration to the current baseline concept. We will also show optimization procedures used and challenges resulting from complex joints under launch loads. Two additional key ISIM structure challenges of meeting thermal distortion and stability requirements and metal-composite bonded joint survivability at cryogenic temperatures are covered in other presentations.

  2. Resin transfer molding for advanced composite primary aircraft structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markus, Alan; Palmer, Ray

    1991-01-01

    Resin Transfer Molding (RTM) has been identified by Douglas Aircraft Company (DAC) and industry to be one of the promising processes being developed today which can break the cost barrier of implementing composite primary structures into a commercial aircraft production environment. The RTM process developments and scale-up plans Douglas Aircrart will be conducting under the NASA ACT contract are discussed.

  3. Dermatoglyphics and Karyotype Analysis in Primary Amenorrhoea

    PubMed Central

    Sontakke, Bharat R; Waghmare, Jwalant E; Tarnekar, Aditya M; Shende, Moreshwar R; Pal, Asoke K

    2014-01-01

    Background: Dermatoglyphics is the scientific study of the skin ridge patterns on the fingers, toes, palms of the hands and soles of feet. Dermatoglyphics is in use as a supportive diagnostic tool in genetic or chromosomal disorders as well as in clinical conditions with genetic etiologies. Primary amenorrhoea and Dermatoglyphics, both have the suspected multifactorial (genetic and environmental) aetiologies. Objective: In the present study the finger dermatoglyphic patterns were studied in primary amenorrhoea cases and age matched fertile control females and also attention was given to find out whether a specific dermatoglyphic trait exists in primary amenorrhoea cases and whether it was statistically significant. Materials and Methods: To study the role of dermatoglyphics in primary amenorrhoea, a study was conducted on 30 subjects with primary amenorrhoea (as cases) and compared it with equal number of age matched fertile females (as controls). We studied fingertip patterns in all the subjects enrolled. Simultaneously we have assessed the Karyotype of primary amenorrhoea cases. Result and Conclusion: Two subjects in experimental group have shown abnormal Karyotypes. The most significant finding in present study was increased total finger ridge count (TFRC) in primary amenorrhoea cases which was statistically significant. We also found higher frequency of loops and arches in primary amenorrhoea with abnormal karyotypes. This type of study may be quite useful as a supportive investigation, in stating the predisposition of an individual to primary amenorrhoea and referral of an individual for karyotyping. PMID:25653930

  4. Development of stitched/RTM composite primary structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kullerd, Susan M.; Dow, Marvin B.

    1992-01-01

    The goal of the NASA Advanced Composites Technology (ACT) Program is to provide the technology required to gain the full benefit of weight savings and performance offered by composite primary structures. Achieving the goal is dependent on developing composite materials and structures which are damage tolerant and economical to manufacture. Researchers at NASA LaRC and Douglas Aircraft Company are investigating stitching reinforcement combined with resin transfer molding (RTM) to create structures meeting the ACT program goals. The Douglas work is being performed under a NASA contract entitled Innovative Composites Aircraft Primary Structures (ICAPS). The research is aimed at materials, processes and structural concepts for application in both transport wings and fuselages. Empirical guidelines are being established for stitching reinforcement in primary structures. New data are presented in this paper for evaluation tests of thick (90-ply) and thin (16-ply) stitched laminates, and from selection tests of RTM composite resins. Tension strength, compression strength and post-impact compression strength data are reported. Elements of a NASA LaRC program to expand the science base for stitched/RTM composites are discussed.

  5. Generalized Structured Component Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Heungsun; Takane, Yoshio

    2004-01-01

    We propose an alternative method to partial least squares for path analysis with components, called generalized structured component analysis. The proposed method replaces factors by exact linear combinations of observed variables. It employs a well-defined least squares criterion to estimate model parameters. As a result, the proposed method…

  6. Probabilistic Structural Analysis Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pai, Shantaram S.; Chamis, Christos C.; Murthy, Pappu L. N.; Stefko, George L.; Riha, David S.; Thacker, Ben H.; Nagpal, Vinod K.; Mital, Subodh K.

    2010-01-01

    NASA/NESSUS 6.2c is a general-purpose, probabilistic analysis program that computes probability of failure and probabilistic sensitivity measures of engineered systems. Because NASA/NESSUS uses highly computationally efficient and accurate analysis techniques, probabilistic solutions can be obtained even for extremely large and complex models. Once the probabilistic response is quantified, the results can be used to support risk-informed decisions regarding reliability for safety-critical and one-of-a-kind systems, as well as for maintaining a level of quality while reducing manufacturing costs for larger-quantity products. NASA/NESSUS has been successfully applied to a diverse range of problems in aerospace, gas turbine engines, biomechanics, pipelines, defense, weaponry, and infrastructure. This program combines state-of-the-art probabilistic algorithms with general-purpose structural analysis and lifting methods to compute the probabilistic response and reliability of engineered structures. Uncertainties in load, material properties, geometry, boundary conditions, and initial conditions can be simulated. The structural analysis methods include non-linear finite-element methods, heat-transfer analysis, polymer/ceramic matrix composite analysis, monolithic (conventional metallic) materials life-prediction methodologies, boundary element methods, and user-written subroutines. Several probabilistic algorithms are available such as the advanced mean value method and the adaptive importance sampling method. NASA/NESSUS 6.2c is structured in a modular format with 15 elements.

  7. Structural analysis of ultra-high speed aircraft structural components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lenzen, K. H.; Siegel, W. H.

    1977-01-01

    The buckling characteristics of a hypersonic beaded skin panel were investigated under pure compression with boundary conditions similar to those found in a wing mounted condition. The primary phases of analysis reported include: (1) experimental testing of the panel to failure; (2) finite element structural analysis of the beaded panel with the computer program NASTRAN; and (3) summary of the semiclassical buckling equations for the beaded panel under purely compressive loads. A comparison of each of the analysis methods is also included.

  8. Novel cost controlled materials and processing for primary structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dastin, S. J.

    1993-01-01

    Textile laminates, developed a number of years ago, have recently been shown to be applicable to primary aircraft structures for both small and large components. Such structures have the potential to reduce acquisition costs but require advanced automated processing to keep costs controlled while verifying product reliability and assuring structural integrity, durability and affordable life-cycle costs. Recently, resin systems and graphite-reinforced woven shapes have been developed that have the potential for improved RTM processes for aircraft structures. Ciba-Geigy, Brochier Division has registered an RTM prepreg reinforcement called 'Injectex' that has shown effectivity for aircraft components. Other novel approaches discussed are thermotropic resins producing components by injection molding and ceramic polymers for long-duration hot structures. The potential of such materials and processing will be reviewed along with initial information/data available to date.

  9. Maple syrup urine disease. Complete primary structure of the E1 beta subunit of human branched chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex deduced from the nucleotide sequence and a gene analysis of patients with this disease.

    PubMed Central

    Nobukuni, Y; Mitsubuchi, H; Endo, F; Akaboshi, I; Asaka, J; Matsuda, I

    1990-01-01

    A defect in the E1 beta subunit of the branched chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKDH) complex is one cause of maple syrup urine disease (MSUD). In an attempt to elucidate the molecular basis of MSUD, we isolated and characterized a 1.35 kbp cDNA clone encoding the entire precursor of the E1 beta subunit of BCKDH complex from a human placental cDNA library. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed that the isolated cDNA clone (lambda hBE1 beta-1) contained a 5'-untranslated sequence of four nucleotides, the translated sequence of 1,176 nucleotides and the 3'-untranslated sequence of 169 nucleotides. Comparison of the amino acid sequence predicted from the nucleotide sequence of the cDNA insert of the clone with the NH2-terminal amino acid sequence of the purified mature bovine BCKDH-E1 beta subunit showed that the cDNA insert encodes for a 342-amino acid subunit with a Mr = 37,585. The subunit is synthesized as the precursor with a leader sequence of 50 amino acids and is processed at the NH2 terminus. A search for protein homology revealed that the primary structure of human BCKDH-E1 beta was similar to the bovine BCKDH-E1 beta and to the E1 beta subunit of human pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, in all regions. The structures and functions of mammalian alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase complexes are apparently highly conserved. Genomic DNA from lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from normal and five MSUD patients, in whom E1 beta was not detected by immunoblot analysis, gave the same restriction maps on Southern blot analysis. The gene has at least 80 kbp. Images PMID:2365818

  10. Structural analysis of glucans

    PubMed Central

    Novak, Miroslav

    2014-01-01

    Glucans are most widespread polysaccharides in the nature. There is a large diversity in their molecular weight and configuration depending on the original source. According to the anomeric structure of glucose units it is possible to distinguish linear and branched α-, β- as well as mixed α,β-glucans with various glycoside bond positions and molecular masses. Isolation of glucans from raw sources needs removal of ballast compounds including proteins, lipids, polyphenols and other polysaccharides. Purity control of glucan fractions is necessary to evaluate the isolation and purification steps; more rigorous structural analyses of purified polysaccharides are required to clarify their structure. A set of spectroscopic, chemical and separation methods are used for this purpose. Among them, NMR spectroscopy is known as a powerful tool in structural analysis of glucans both in solution and in solid state. Along with chemolytic methods [methylation analysis (MA), periodate oxidation, partial chemical or enzymatic hydrolysis, etc.], correlation NMR experiments are able to determine the exact structure of tested polysaccharides. Vibration spectroscopic methods (FTIR, Raman) are sensitive to anomeric structure of glucans and can be used for purity control as well. Molecular weight distribution, homogeneity and branching of glucans can be estimated by size-exclusion chromatography (SEC), laser light scattering (LLS) and viscometry. PMID:25332993

  11. Primary structure of the human M2 mitochondrial autoantigen of primary biliary cirrhosis: Dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase

    SciTech Connect

    Coppel, R.L.; McNeilage, L.J.; Surh, C.D.; Van De Water, J.; Spithill, T.W.; Whittingham, S.; Gershwin, M.E. )

    1988-10-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis is a chronic, destructive autoimmune liver disease of humans. Patient sera are characterized by a high frequency of autoantibodies to a M{sub r} 70,000 mitochondrial antigen a component of the M2 antigen complex. The authors have identified a human cDNA clone encoding the complete amino acid sequence of this autoantigen. The predicted structure has significant similarity with the dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase of the Escherichia coli pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex. The human sequence preserves the Glu-Thr-Asp-Lys-Ala motif of the lipoyl-binding site and has two potential binding sites. Expressed fragments of the cDNA react strongly with sera from patients with primary biliary cirrhosis but not with sera from patients with autoimmune chronic active hepatitis or sera from healthy subjects.

  12. Changing English Primary Schools? A Cautionary Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollard, Andrew; And Others

    Great Britain's 1988 Education Reform Act demonstrates the prevailing political climate's commitment to market forces and competition as a means of increasing educational productivity. This paper presents findings of the Primary Assessment Curriculum and Experience (PACE) project, which investigated the effects of the policy change on English…

  13. Design oriented structural analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giles, Gary L.

    1994-01-01

    Desirable characteristics and benefits of design oriented analysis methods are described and illustrated by presenting a synoptic description of the development and uses of the Equivalent Laminated Plate Solution (ELAPS) computer code. ELAPS is a design oriented structural analysis method which is intended for use in the early design of aircraft wing structures. Model preparation is minimized by using a few large plate segments to model the wing box structure. Computational efficiency is achieved by using a limited number of global displacement functions that encompass all segments over the wing planform. Coupling with other codes is facilitated since the output quantities such as deflections and stresses are calculated as continuous functions over the plate segments. Various aspects of the ELAPS development are discussed including the analytical formulation, verification of results by comparison with finite element analysis results, coupling with other codes, and calculation of sensitivity derivatives. The effectiveness of ELAPS for multidisciplinary design application is illustrated by describing its use in design studies of high speed civil transport wing structures.

  14. Structural dynamics analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Housner, J. M.; Anderson, M.; Belvin, W.; Horner, G.

    1985-01-01

    Dynamic analysis of large space antenna systems must treat the deployment as well as vibration and control of the deployed antenna. Candidate computer programs for deployment dynamics, and issues and needs for future program developments are reviewed. Some results for mast and hoop deployment are also presented. Modeling of complex antenna geometry with conventional finite element methods and with repetitive exact elements is considered. Analytical comparisons with experimental results for a 15 meter hoop/column antenna revealed the importance of accurate structural properties including nonlinear joints. Slackening of cables in this antenna is also a consideration. The technology of designing actively damped structures through analytical optimization is discussed and results are presented.

  15. Primary orthostatic tremor: analysis of three cases.

    PubMed

    Gozke, Eren; Ore, Ozgul; Ozyurt, Zafer; Cetinkaya, Mehmet

    2004-01-01

    Primary orthostatic tremor (POT) is a rare form of tremor characterized by unsteadiness and quivering of lower extremities while standing. These symptoms relieve when sitting or reclining It is much less apparent when leaning against an object or during walking. The rhythmic tremor activity with a frequency of 13-18 Hz can be obtained electromyography recordings. Here we report three cases that have typical clinical and electrophysiological findings of POT.

  16. Development of stitched/RTM primary structures for transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawley, Arthur V.

    1993-01-01

    This report covers work accomplished in the Innovative Composite Aircraft Primary Structure (ICAPS) program. An account is given of the design criteria and philosophy that guides the development. Wing and fuselage components used as a baseline for development are described. The major thrust of the program is to achieve a major cost breakthrough through development of stitched dry preforms and resin transfer molding (RTM), and progress on these processes is reported. A full description is provided on the fabrication of the stitched RTM wing panels. Test data are presented.

  17. Structural Analysis Made 'NESSUSary'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Everywhere you look, chances are something that was designed and tested by a computer will be in plain view. Computers are now utilized to design and test just about everything imaginable, from automobiles and airplanes to bridges and boats, and elevators and escalators to streets and skyscrapers. Computer-design engineering first emerged in the 1970s, in the automobile and aerospace industries. Since computers were in their infancy, however, architects and engineers during the time were limited to producing only designs similar to hand-drafted drawings. (At the end of 1970s, a typical computer-aided design system was a 16-bit minicomputer with a price tag of $125,000.) Eventually, computers became more affordable and related software became more sophisticated, offering designers the "bells and whistles" to go beyond the limits of basic drafting and rendering, and venture into more skillful applications. One of the major advancements was the ability to test the objects being designed for the probability of failure. This advancement was especially important for the aerospace industry, where complicated and expensive structures are designed. The ability to perform reliability and risk assessment without using extensive hardware testing is critical to design and certification. In 1984, NASA initiated the Probabilistic Structural Analysis Methods (PSAM) project at Glenn Research Center to develop analysis methods and computer programs for the probabilistic structural analysis of select engine components for current Space Shuttle and future space propulsion systems. NASA envisioned that these methods and computational tools would play a critical role in establishing increased system performance and durability, and assist in structural system qualification and certification. Not only was the PSAM project beneficial to aerospace, it paved the way for a commercial risk- probability tool that is evaluating risks in diverse, down- to-Earth application

  18. Structural Arrangement Trade Study. Volume 1: Reusable Hydrogen Composite Tank System (RHCTS) and Graphite Composite Primary Structures (GCPS). Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This volume is the first of a three volume set that discusses the structural arrangement trade study plan that will identify the most suitable configuration for an SSTO winged vehicle capable of delivering 25,000 lbs to a 220 nm circular orbit at 51.6 deg inclination. The Reusable Hydrogen Composite Tank System (RHCTS), and Graphite Composite Primary Structures most suitable for intertank, wing and thrust structures are identified. This executive summary presents the trade study process, the selection process, requirements used, analysis performed and data generated. Conclusions and recommendations are also presented.

  19. Structural analysis consultation using artificial intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melosh, R. J.; Marcal, P. V.; Berke, L.

    1978-01-01

    The primary goal of consultation is definition of the best strategy to deal with a structural engineering analysis objective. The knowledge base to meet the need is designed to identify the type of numerical analysis, the needed modeling detail, and specific analysis data required. Decisions are constructed on the basis of the data in the knowledge base - material behavior, relations between geometry and structural behavior, measures of the importance of time and temperature changes - and user supplied specifics characteristics of the spectrum of analysis types, the relation between accuracy and model detail on the structure, its mechanical loadings, and its temperature states. Existing software demonstrated the feasibility of the approach, encompassing the 36 analysis classes spanning nonlinear, temperature affected, incremental analyses which track the behavior of structural systems.

  20. The primary structure of genetic variants of mouse hemoglobin

    SciTech Connect

    Popp, R.A.; Bailiff, E.G.; Skow, L.C.; Whitney, J.B. III

    1982-01-01

    The primary structures of the ..cap alpha.. globins from CE/J, DBA/2J, and a stock of Potter's mice were determined to identify the amino acid substitutions associated with the unique isoelectric focusing patterns of these hemoglobins. In addition, the primary structures of the ..cap alpha.. globins from MOL III and PERU mice were studied in search of amino acid substitutions that may not be detected by isoelectric focusing. CE/J hemoglobin contains a unique kind of ..cap alpha.. globin called chain 5. It differs from the single kind of ..cap alpha.. globin (chain 1) in C57BL/6 by having alanine rather than glycine at position 78. DBA/2J hemoglobin has two kinds of ..cap alpha.. globins: one half is like chain 5 and the other half is like chain 1. The hemoglobin from Potter's stock of Mus musculus molossinus also contains chains 1 and 5, but they are expressed at different levels (i.e., 80% chain 1 and 20% chain 5). MOL III hemoglobin has a single kind of ..cap alpha.. globin identical to that in C57BL/6, and PERU hemoglobin contains approximately 40% chain 1 and 60% chain 4. Chains 1 and 4 have different amino acids at positions 25, 62, and 68. These studies confirm that mouse hemoglobins separable by isoelectric focusing, but not by other means of electrophoresis, have substitutions of neutrally charged amino acids in their ..cap alpha.. chains.

  1. Three-dimensional (3D) printing of mouse primary hepatocytes to generate 3D hepatic structure

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yohan; Kang, Kyojin; Jeong, Jaemin; Paik, Seung Sam; Kim, Ji Sook; Park, Su A; Kim, Wan Doo; Park, Jisun

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The major problem in producing artificial livers is that primary hepatocytes cannot be cultured for many days. Recently, 3-dimensional (3D) printing technology draws attention and this technology regarded as a useful tool for current cell biology. By using the 3D bio-printing, these problems can be resolved. Methods To generate 3D bio-printed structures (25 mm × 25 mm), cells-alginate constructs were fabricated by 3D bio-printing system. Mouse primary hepatocytes were isolated from the livers of 6–8 weeks old mice by a 2-step collagenase method. Samples of 4 × 107 hepatocytes with 80%–90% viability were printed with 3% alginate solution, and cultured with well-defined culture medium for primary hepatocytes. To confirm functional ability of hepatocytes cultured on 3D alginate scaffold, we conducted quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescence with hepatic marker genes. Results Isolated primary hepatocytes were printed with alginate. The 3D printed hepatocytes remained alive for 14 days. Gene expression levels of Albumin, HNF-4α and Foxa3 were gradually increased in the 3D structures. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that the primary hepatocytes produced hepatic-specific proteins over the same period of time. Conclusion Our research indicates that 3D bio-printing technique can be used for long-term culture of primary hepatocytes. It can therefore be used for drug screening and as a potential method of producing artificial livers. PMID:28203553

  2. A morphometric analysis of cellular differentiation in caps of primary and lateral roots of Helianthus annuus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R.

    1985-01-01

    In order to determine if patterns of cell differentiation are similar in primary and lateral roots, I performed a morphometric analysis of the ultrastructure of calyptrogen, columella, and peripheral cells in primary and lateral roots of Helianthus annuus. Each cell type is characterized by a unique ultrastructure, and the ultrastructural changes characteristic of cellular differentiation in root caps are organelle specific. No major structural differences exist in the structures of the composite cell types, or in patterns of cell differentiation in caps of primary vs. lateral roots.

  3. Structural Analysis of Biodiversity

    PubMed Central

    Sirovich, Lawrence; Stoeckle, Mark Y.; Zhang, Yu

    2010-01-01

    Large, recently-available genomic databases cover a wide range of life forms, suggesting opportunity for insights into genetic structure of biodiversity. In this study we refine our recently-described technique using indicator vectors to analyze and visualize nucleotide sequences. The indicator vector approach generates correlation matrices, dubbed Klee diagrams, which represent a novel way of assembling and viewing large genomic datasets. To explore its potential utility, here we apply the improved algorithm to a collection of almost 17000 DNA barcode sequences covering 12 widely-separated animal taxa, demonstrating that indicator vectors for classification gave correct assignment in all 11000 test cases. Indicator vector analysis revealed discontinuities corresponding to species- and higher-level taxonomic divisions, suggesting an efficient approach to classification of organisms from poorly-studied groups. As compared to standard distance metrics, indicator vectors preserve diagnostic character probabilities, enable automated classification of test sequences, and generate high-information density single-page displays. These results support application of indicator vectors for comparative analysis of large nucleotide data sets and raise prospect of gaining insight into broad-scale patterns in the genetic structure of biodiversity. PMID:20195371

  4. Selection process for trade study: Graphite Composite Primary Structure (GCPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, H. S.

    1994-01-01

    This TA 2 document describes the selection process that will be used to identify the most suitable structural configuration for an SSTO winged vehicle capable of delivering 25,000 lbs to a 220 nm circular orbit at 51.6 degree inclination. The most suitable unpressurized graphite composite structures and material selections is within this configuration and will be the prototype design for subsequent design and analysis and the basis for the design and fabrication of payload bay, wing, and thrust structure full scale test articles representing segments of the prototype structures. The selection process for this TA 2 trade study is the same as that for the TA 1 trade study. As the trade study progresses additional insight may result in modifications to the selection criteria within this process. Such modifications will result in an update of this document as appropriate.

  5. Consolidation of graphite thermoplastic textile preforms for primary aircraft structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suarez, J.; Mahon, J.

    1991-01-01

    The use of innovative cost effective material forms and processes is being considered for fabrication of future primary aircraft structures. Processes that have been identified as meeting these goals are textile preforms that use resin transfer molding (RTM) and consolidation forming. The Novel Composites for Wing and Fuselage Applications (NCWFA) program has as its objective the integration of innovative design concepts with cost effective fabrication processes to develop damage-tolerant structures that can perform at a design ultimate strain level of 6000 micro-inch/inch. In this on-going effort, design trade studies were conducted to arrive at advanced wing designs that integrate new material forms with innovative structural concepts and cost effective fabrication methods. The focus has been on minimizing part count (mechanical fasteners, clips, number of stiffeners, etc.), by using cost effective textile reinforcement concepts that provide improved damage tolerance and out-of-plane load capability, low-cost resin transfer molding processing, and thermoplastic forming concepts. The fabrication of representative Y spars by consolidation methods will be described. The Y spars were fabricated using AS4 (6K)/PEEK 150g commingled angle interlock 0/90-degree woven preforms with +45-degree commingled plies stitched using high strength Toray carbon thread and processed by autoclave consolidation.

  6. Structural Modeling of the Next Generation Space Telescope's Primary Mirror

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boulet, J. A. M.

    1998-01-01

    In recent years, astronomical observations made with space telescopes have dramatically increased our understanding of the history of the universe. In particular, the cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) and the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) have yielded observations that cannot be achieved at ground-based observatories. We now have views of the universe before galaxies existed (from COBE) and views of young galaxies (from HST). But none of the existing observatories can provide views of the period in which the galaxies were born, about 100 million to one billion years after the "big bang". NASA expects the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) to fill this gap. An investigation into the structural modeling of the primary mirror of the NGST, its methodology and results are presented.

  7. Trade study plan for Graphite Composite Primary Structure (GCPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, H. S.

    1994-01-01

    This TA 2 document (with support from TA 1) describes the trade study plan that will identify the most suitable structural configuration for an SSTO winged vehicle capable of delivering 25,000 lbs to a 220 nm circular orbit at 51.6 degree inclination For this most suitable configuration the structural attachment of the wing, and the most suitable GCPS composite materials for intertank, wing, tail and thrust structure are identified. This trade study analysis uses extensive information derived in the TA 1 trade study plan and is identified within the study plan. In view of this, for convenience, the TA 1 study plan is included as an appendix to this document.

  8. Seismic analysis of nuclear power plant structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Go, J. C.

    1973-01-01

    Primary structures for nuclear power plants are designed to resist expected earthquakes of the site. Two intensities are referred to as Operating Basis Earthquake and Design Basis Earthquake. These structures are required to accommodate these seismic loadings without loss of their functional integrity. Thus, no plastic yield is allowed. The application of NASTRAN in analyzing some of these seismic induced structural dynamic problems is described. NASTRAN, with some modifications, can be used to analyze most structures that are subjected to seismic loads. A brief review of the formulation of seismic-induced structural dynamics is also presented. Two typical structural problems were selected to illustrate the application of the various methods of seismic structural analysis by the NASTRAN system.

  9. Predictability of gene ontology slim-terms from primary structure information in Embryophyta plant proteins

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Proteins are the key elements on the path from genetic information to the development of life. The roles played by the different proteins are difficult to uncover experimentally as this process involves complex procedures such as genetic modifications, injection of fluorescent proteins, gene knock-out methods and others. The knowledge learned from each protein is usually annotated in databases through different methods such as the proposed by The Gene Ontology (GO) consortium. Different methods have been proposed in order to predict GO terms from primary structure information, but very few are available for large-scale functional annotation of plants, and reported success rates are much less than the reported by other non-plant predictors. This paper explores the predictability of GO annotations on proteins belonging to the Embryophyta group from a set of features extracted solely from their primary amino acid sequence. Results High predictability of several GO terms was found for Molecular Function and Cellular Component. As expected, a lower degree of predictability was found on Biological Process ontology annotations, although a few biological processes were easily predicted. Proteins related to transport and transcription were particularly well predicted from primary structure information. The most discriminant features for prediction were those related to electric charges of the amino-acid sequence and hydropathicity derived features. Conclusions An analysis of GO-slim terms predictability in plants was carried out, in order to determine single categories or groups of functions that are most related with primary structure information. For each highly predictable GO term, the responsible features of such successfulness were identified and discussed. In addition to most published studies, focused on few categories or single ontologies, results in this paper comprise a complete landscape of GO predictability from primary structure encompassing 75 GO

  10. USNO Analysis Center for Source Structure Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    IVS determination of the "definition and maintenance of the celestial reference frame." These include, primarily, radio frequency images of...International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF) sources, intrinsic structure models derived from the radio images, and an assessment of the astrometric...pointing your browser to http://rorf.usno.navy.mil/ivs_saac/ The primary service of the Analysis Center is the Radio Reference Frame Image Database

  11. Carnivora: primary structure of the hemoglobins from ratel (Mellivora capensis).

    PubMed

    Rodewald, K; Braunitzer, G; Göltenboth, R

    1988-10-01

    The erythrocytes of adult ratel contain two hemoglobin components, with two alpha- and one beta-chains. In this paper, their complete amino acid sequences are presented. The two alpha-chains differ in one residue at position 34 (Ala----Val) only. The primary structure of the chains was determined by sequencing the N-terminal regions (45 steps) and the tryptic peptides after their isolation from the digests by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The alignment of these peptides was deduced from homology with other carnivora globins. The alpha-chains show 21 and the beta-chains 11 exchanges compared with human globin chains. In the alpha-chains, one heme- and two alpha 1/beta 1 contacts are exchanged. In the beta-chains there are three exchanges which involve one alpha 1/beta 1-, one alpha 1/beta 2- and one heme-contact. Between the ratel hemoglobin and those of carnivora a high degree of homology was found.

  12. Analysis of Primary School Teachers' Opinions on Family Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosch, Alvaro Capano; Massonnier, Natalie; González Tornaría, Maria del L.

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to do an analysis based on the opinion of primary school teachers on family models that are different from the traditional nuclear family. We worked with 60 teachers from Montevideo and the metropolitan area. They answered the Questionnaire: Teachers' Opinion on Family Diversity (CIDF for its Spanish acronym) (Morgado,…

  13. Is It Necessary to Dry Primary Standards before Analysis?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spraggins, Jeffrey M., II; Williams, Theodore R.

    2005-01-01

    The thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) data suggests that the quantity of volatile components in primary standards is less than 1% of the initial weight and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) data shows that water present in the same chemicals is below the limit of detection of the instrumentation. This suggests that the 1-2 hour drying…

  14. Primary succession in Mount Pinatubo: Habitat availability and ordination analysis.

    PubMed

    Marler, Thomas E; Del Moral, Roger

    2013-11-01

    Vegetation structure on the east flank of Mount Pinatubo was investigated to determine the inventory of species at 15 y post-eruption, then to ascertain environmental variables that have influenced the early patterns of primary succession. Unconstrained and constrained ordination methods were used to determine the influence of spatial, elevation, and substrate patterns on vegetation. Vegetation was assigned to one of 3 habitat types. Scours were eroded flat surfaces, terraces were perched flat surfaces, and talus piles were created along the canyon edges as mass waste events. The influence of habitat type on vegetation was multifaceted because they represent different conditions and different histories. The talus piles have preferential access to colonists from the vegetation on the canyon walls above and a more benign microclimate than the exposed terrace and scour sites. Scoured sites on the valley floor exhibited the least vegetation cover, as these substrates had the least mature surfaces and the most restricted capacity for root exploration. Perched terraces exhibited greater plant dominance than did the other habitats in the early stages of succession because of the ubiquitous appearance of Parasponia rugosa as initial colonists on these relatively flat surfaces. Polynomial canonical correspondence analysis was more closely aligned with the pattern of vegetation than linear canonical correspondence analysis, and therefore more closely approximated accurate descriptions of correlations among site ordination positions and measured variables. These results confirm that a variety of statistical approaches can clarify applications for restoration ecology following landslide and volcanic disturbances or agriculture and forestry anthropogenic disturbances in the lowland tropics.

  15. Predicted primary and antigenic structure of canine corticotropin releasing hormone.

    PubMed

    Mol, J A; van Wolferen, M; Kwant, M; Meloen, R

    1994-07-01

    Although the dog has been recognized as a useful model for the study of the cerebrospinal and peripheral actions of corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) the exact amino acid composition of canine CRH is still unknown. In the present study the structure of canine CRH was predicted from the partial sequence of the gene encoding canine CRH. The CRH gene was amplified from genomic DNA obtained from white blood cells by a polymerase chain reaction and subsequently sequenced using the dideoxy method. The likely structure of canine CRH is: SEEPPISLDLTFHLLREVLEMARAEQLAQQAHSNRKLMEII-NH2, which is identical to the structure of human, rat and equine CRH. PEPSCAN analysis of 3 different CRH antisera predicted an antiserum raised against a conjugate of human CRH and CNBr -activated thyroglobulin to be the antiserum of choice for the measurement of CRH in the dog. Preliminary data confirmed the existence of the highest cross-reactivity of a canine hypothalamus extract, known to have a high content of CRH, with antisera directed against human, rat CRH. As a result of the present study immunological tools for CRH estimations are characterized. Also, a homologous DNA probe for in situ hybridizations has become available for further investigations.

  16. Program for Nonlinear Structural Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    November 1970. 2. R. E. Jones and W. L. Salus , "Survey and Development of Finite Elements for Nonlineer Structural Analysis", Volume II, "Nonlinear Shell...1970. 2. R. E. Jones and W. L. Salus , "Survey and Development of Finite Elements for Nonlinear Structural Analysis," Volume II, "Nonlinear Shell

  17. Advanced composite structural concepts and material technologies for primary aircraft structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Anthony

    1991-01-01

    Structural weight savings using advanced composites have been demonstrated for many years. Most military aircraft today use these materials extensively and Europe has taken the lead in their use in commercial aircraft primary structures. A major inhibiter to the use of advanced composites in the United States is cost. Material costs are high and will remain high relative to aluminum. The key therefore lies in the significant reduction in fabrication and assembly costs. The largest cost in most structures today is assembly. As part of the NASA Advanced Composite Technology Program, Lockheed Aeronautical Systems Company has a contract to explore and develop advanced structural and manufacturing concepts using advanced composites for transport aircraft. Wing and fuselage concepts and related trade studies are discussed. These concepts are intended to lower cost and weight through the use of innovative material forms, processes, structural configurations and minimization of parts. The approach to the trade studies and the downselect to the primary wing and fuselage concepts is detailed. The expectations for the development of these concepts is reviewed.

  18. African Primary Care Research: qualitative data analysis and writing results.

    PubMed

    Mabuza, Langalibalele H; Govender, Indiran; Ogunbanjo, Gboyega A; Mash, Bob

    2014-06-05

    This article is part of a series on African primary care research and gives practical guidance on qualitative data analysis and the presentation of qualitative findings. After an overview of qualitative methods and analytical approaches, the article focuses particularly on content analysis, using the framework method as an example. The steps of familiarisation, creating a thematic index, indexing, charting, interpretation and confirmation are described. Key concepts with regard to establishing the quality and trustworthiness of data analysis are described. Finally, an approach to the presentation of qualitative findings is given.

  19. The study of 700mm-diameter primary mirror based on topology optimization and sensitivity analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin; He, Xiaoying; Jing, Juanjuan; Feng, Lei; Zhou, Jinsong; Wang, Wei; Li, Yacan; Wei, Lidong

    2016-10-01

    The primary mirror is an important optical component of space camera. Its performance related to the optical image quality, and the weight directly affects the whole camera weight. The traditional design of primary mirror relies on much experience, lacking of precise theory, and many design parameters obtained by empirical formulas, thus the performance of the result is unstable. For this study, a primary mirror made of SiC with the diameter of 700mm was conceptual designed to get the optimized structure. Then sensitivity analysis was carried out to determine the optimum thickness of the back muscles. Finally, the optimum primary mirror fully satisfied the required was completed, with outstanding mechanical performance and light weight. A comparison between the optimum primary and traditional primary was performed and the results showed that the optimum primary has higher lightweight ratio increased by 5%, higher modal frequency increased by 81Hz.The maximum deformation under gravity reduced by 48nm, PV of the mirror surface reduced by 8.1nm and RMS reduced by 3.1nm. All the results indicated that the optimization method in the paper is reasonable and effective, which gives a reference to the primary mirror design in the future.

  20. Primary structure and genetic organization of phage T4 DNA ligase.

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, J; Brown, R S; Tsugita, A

    1983-01-01

    The primary structure of phage T4 DNA ligase has been determined by DNA sequencing of a cloned restriction fragment containing its gene, and partial amino acid sequence analysis of the protein. The molecule has a Mr of 55,230, and contains 487 amino acids. The DNA sequence may also encode all of one and parts of two other, hitherto unidentified, T4 proteins. The four genes are closely packed, with overlaps between terminator and initiator codons of adjacent genes. Potential terminator and promoter sites for transcription are located within the coding sequence of one of the genes. PMID:6314278

  1. Primary prevention in public health: an analysis of basic assumptions.

    PubMed

    Ratcliffe, J; Wallack, L

    1985-01-01

    The common definition of primary prevention is straightforward; but how it is transformed into a framework to guide action is based on personal and societal feelings and beliefs about the basis for social organization. This article focuses on the two contending primary prevention strategies of health promotion and health protection. The contention between the two strategies stems from a basic disagreement about disease causality in modern society. Health promotion is based on the "lifestyle" theory of disease causality, which sees individual health status linked ultimately to personal decisions about diet, stress, and drug habits. Primary prevention, from this perspective, entails persuading individuals to forgo their risk-taking, self-destructive behavior. Health protection, on the other hand, is based on the "social-structural" theory of disease causality. This theory sees the health status of populations linked ultimately to the unequal distribution of social resources, industrial pollution, occupational stress, and "anti-health promotion" marketing practices. Primary prevention, from this perspective, requires changing existing social and, particularly, economic policies and structures. In order to provide a basis for choosing between these contending strategies, the demonstrated (i.e., past) impact of each strategy on the health of the public is examined. Two conclusions are drawn. First, the health promotion strategy shows little potential for improving the public health, because it systematically ignores the risk-imposing, other-destructive behavior of influential actors (policy-makers and institutions) in society. And second, effective primary prevention efforts entail an "upstream" approach that results in far-reaching sociopolitical and economic change.

  2. African Primary Care Research: quantitative analysis and presentation of results.

    PubMed

    Mash, Bob; Ogunbanjo, Gboyega A

    2014-06-06

    This article is part of a series on Primary Care Research Methods. The article describes types of continuous and categorical data, how to capture data in a spreadsheet, how to use descriptive and inferential statistics and, finally, gives advice on how to present the results in text, figures and tables. The article intends to help Master's level students with writing the data analysis section of their research proposal and presenting their results in their final research report.

  3. Milestone 4: Thrust structure concepts and IHM screening Graphite Composite Primary Structure (GCPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, H. S.

    1994-01-01

    The first part of the task was to select up to three promising thrust structure constructions and to select materials for screening tests. Part of the nondestructive evaluation and inspection (NDE/I) and integrated health management (IHM) task is to acquire and develop NDE/I sensor technologies and to integrate those sensors into the full scale test articles which will be produced under the TA2 program. Review of the anticipated fault modes and the available sensor technology data indicates that three sensor technologies should be assessed for the in-situ monitoring of the composite primary structure elements. These are: ultrasonics (dry contact), acoustic emissions, and fiber optics (embedded or attached). In fact, a combination of sensor technologies will be needed to detect and evaluate the fault modes; not only do sensor technology have specific capabilities and applicability, but the three Gr/Ep primary structures being demonstrated under the TA2 effort have differing requirements based on their respective failure modes and designs.

  4. Coupled Aerodynamic-Thermal-Structural (CATS) Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Coupled Aerodynamic-Thermal-Structural (CATS) Analysis is a focused effort within the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) program to streamline multidisciplinary analysis of aeropropulsion components and assemblies. Multidisciplinary analysis of axial-flow compressor performance has been selected for the initial focus of this project. CATS will permit more accurate compressor system analysis by enabling users to include thermal and mechanical effects as an integral part of the aerodynamic analysis of the compressor primary flowpath. Thus, critical details, such as the variation of blade tip clearances and the deformation of the flowpath geometry, can be more accurately modeled and included in the aerodynamic analyses. The benefits of this coupled analysis capability are (1) performance and stall line predictions are improved by the inclusion of tip clearances and hot geometries, (2) design alternatives can be readily analyzed, and (3) higher fidelity analysis by researchers in various disciplines is possible. The goals for this project are a 10-percent improvement in stall margin predictions and a 2:1 speed-up in multidisciplinary analysis times. Working cooperatively with Pratt & Whitney, the Lewis CATS team defined the engineering processes and identified the software products necessary for streamlining these processes. The basic approach is to integrate the aerodynamic, thermal, and structural computational analyses by using data management and Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines (NURBS) based data mapping. Five software products have been defined for this task: (1) a primary flowpath data mapper, (2) a two-dimensional data mapper, (3) a database interface, (4) a blade structural pre- and post-processor, and (5) a computational fluid dynamics code for aerothermal analysis of the drum rotor. Thus far (1) a cooperative agreement has been established with Pratt & Whitney, (2) a Primary Flowpath Data Mapper has been prototyped and delivered to General Electric

  5. Structural Dynamics of Education Reforms and Quality of Primary Education in Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyenje, Aida

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines Uganda's recent undertaking to reform her Primary School education System with a focus on the effect of structural dynamics of education reforms and the quality of primary education. Structural dynamics in the context of this study is in reference to the organizational composition of the education system at the government,…

  6. The Structure of Primary School Teachers' Professional Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zakirova, Ranija A.

    2016-01-01

    At the present stage of higher education development related to the transition of a competent model of learning, the problem of professional training of future teachers is actualized. To determine the problems in the preparation of future experts in the field of primary education, it is not enough to list the competencies that a graduate must…

  7. Primary Nocturnal Enuresis: A Structural and Strategic Family Systems Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Teresa B.

    2000-01-01

    Exploration of the literature regarding primary nocturnal enuresis suggests there are various causes including genetic, biological, physiological, and psychological explanations. Treatments typically consist of medication and behavioral intervention. However, it was believed that this enuretic case was caused by psychological trauma. A series of…

  8. Crack stability analysis of low alloy steel primary coolant pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, T.; Kameyama, M.; Urabe, Y.

    1997-04-01

    At present, cast duplex stainless steel has been used for the primary coolant piping of PWRs in Japan and joints of dissimilar material have been applied for welding to reactor vessels and steam generators. For the primary coolant piping of the next APWR plants, application of low alloy steel that results in designing main loops with the same material is being studied. It means that there is no need to weld low alloy steel with stainless steel and that makes it possible to reduce the welding length. Attenuation of Ultra Sonic Wave Intensity is lower for low alloy steel than for stainless steel and they have advantageous inspection characteristics. In addition to that, the thermal expansion rate is smaller for low alloy steel than for stainless steel. In consideration of the above features of low alloy steel, the overall reliability of primary coolant piping is expected to be improved. Therefore, for the evaluation of crack stability of low alloy steel piping to be applied for primary loops, elastic-plastic future mechanics analysis was performed by means of a three-dimensioned FEM. The evaluation results for the low alloy steel pipings show that cracks will not grow into unstable fractures under maximum design load conditions, even when such a circumferential crack is assumed to be 6 times the size of the wall thickness.

  9. Students' understanding of primary and secondary protein structure: drawing secondary protein structure reveals student understanding better than simple recognition of structures.

    PubMed

    Harle, Marissa; Towns, Marcy H

    2013-01-01

    The interdisciplinary nature of biochemistry courses requires students to use both chemistry and biology knowledge to understand biochemical concepts. Research that has focused on external representations in biochemistry has uncovered student difficulties in comprehending and interpreting external representations in addition to a fragmented understanding of fundamental biochemistry concepts. This project focuses on students' understanding of primary and secondary protein structure and drawings (representations) of hydrogen-bonding in alpha helices and beta sheets. Analysis demonstrated that students can recognize and identify primary protein structure concepts when given a polypeptide. However, when asked to draw alpha helices and beta sheets and explain the role of hydrogen bonding their drawings students exhibited a fragmented understanding that lacked coherence. Faculty are encouraged to have students draw molecular level representations to make their mental models more explicit, complete, and coherent. This is in contrast to recognition and identification tasks, which do not adequately probe mental models and molecular level understanding.

  10. Regularized Generalized Structured Component Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Heungsun

    2009-01-01

    Generalized structured component analysis (GSCA) has been proposed as a component-based approach to structural equation modeling. In practice, GSCA may suffer from multi-collinearity, i.e., high correlations among exogenous variables. GSCA has yet no remedy for this problem. Thus, a regularized extension of GSCA is proposed that integrates a ridge…

  11. Advances in Computational Stability Analysis of Composite Aerospace Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Degenhardt, R.; Araujo, F. C. de

    2010-09-30

    European aircraft industry demands for reduced development and operating costs. Structural weight reduction by exploitation of structural reserves in composite aerospace structures contributes to this aim, however, it requires accurate and experimentally validated stability analysis of real structures under realistic loading conditions. This paper presents different advances from the area of computational stability analysis of composite aerospace structures which contribute to that field. For stringer stiffened panels main results of the finished EU project COCOMAT are given. It investigated the exploitation of reserves in primary fibre composite fuselage structures through an accurate and reliable simulation of postbuckling and collapse. For unstiffened cylindrical composite shells a proposal for a new design method is presented.

  12. Insights into Primary Immune Deficiency from quantitative microscopy analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mace, Emily M.; Orange, Jordan S.

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in genomics based technology have resulted in an increase in our understanding of the molecular basis of many primary immune deficiencies. Along with this increased knowledge comes an increased responsibility to understand the underlying mechanism of disease, and thus increasingly sophisticated technologies are being used to investigate the cell biology of human immune deficiencies. One such technology, which has, itself, undergone a recent explosion in innovation, is that of high-resolution microscopy and image analysis. These advances complement innovative studies that have previously shed light on critical cell biological processes that are perturbed by single gene mutations in primary immune deficiency. Here, we highlight advances made specifically in the following cell biological processes: 1) cytoskeletal-related processes; 2) cell signaling; 3) intercellular trafficking; and 4) cellular host defense. PMID:26078103

  13. Magnetic field structure influence on primary electron cusp losses for micro-scale discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Dankongkakul, Ben; Araki, Samuel J.; Wirz, Richard E.

    2014-04-15

    An experimental effort was used to examine the primary electron loss behavior for micro-scale (≲3 cm diameter) discharges. The experiment uses an electron flood gun source and an axially aligned arrangement of ring-cusps to guide the electrons to a downstream point cusp. Measurements of the electron current collected at the point cusp show an unexpectedly complex loss pattern with azimuthally periodic structures. Additionally, in contrast to conventional theory for cusp losses, the overall radii of the measured collection areas are over an order of magnitude larger than the electron gyroradius. Comparing these results to Monte Carlo particle tracking simulations and a simplified analytical analysis shows that azimuthal asymmetries of the magnetic field far upstream of the collection surface can substantially affect the electron loss structure and overall loss area.

  14. Probabilistic Structural Analysis Theory Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnside, O. H.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of the Probabilistic Structural Analysis Methods (PSAM) project is to develop analysis techniques and computer programs for predicting the probabilistic response of critical structural components for current and future space propulsion systems. This technology will play a central role in establishing system performance and durability. The first year's technical activity is concentrating on probabilistic finite element formulation strategy and code development. Work is also in progress to survey critical materials and space shuttle mian engine components. The probabilistic finite element computer program NESSUS (Numerical Evaluation of Stochastic Structures Under Stress) is being developed. The final probabilistic code will have, in the general case, the capability of performing nonlinear dynamic of stochastic structures. It is the goal of the approximate methods effort to increase problem solving efficiency relative to finite element methods by using energy methods to generate trial solutions which satisfy the structural boundary conditions. These approximate methods will be less computer intensive relative to the finite element approach.

  15. Factor structure of the SOCRATES in a sample of primary care patients.

    PubMed

    Maisto, S A; Conigliaro, J; McNeil, M; Kraemer, K; O'Connor, M; Kelley, M E

    1999-01-01

    Motivation or readiness to change has been studied intensively in recent years in research on the use of brief interventions to change alcohol problems in the primary care setting. The purpose of this study was to investigate the factor structure and concurrent and predictive evidence for validity of the short Stages of Change Readiness and Treatment Eagerness Scale (SOCRATES), a 19-item self-report instrument developed to measure readiness to change alcohol problems in individuals presenting for specialized alcohol treatment. The participants were 210 men and 91 women who were identified as "at-risk" drinkers in 13 community primary care clinics. These individuals completed the SOCRATES and a number of other assessments as part of a preintervention evaluation. A principal components analysis of the SOCRATES data revealed a two-factor structure: a confirmatory factor analysis showed that this structure was a better fit to the data than the three-factor structure that Miller and Tonigan (1996) identified for the SOCRATES. The two factors (9 and 6 items, respectively), seemed to measure perceived degree of severity of an existing alcohol problem (called "Amrec" because it consisted of Miller and Tonigan's ambivalence and recognition items) and taking action to change or to maintain changes in one that exists (called "Taking Steps"). Predictions of significant and nonsignificant correlations between the two derived factors and other baseline variables (alcohol consumption, related problems and symptoms, and demographic factors) generally were confirmed. In addition, baseline Amrec scores were related in predicted directions to 6-month alcohol consumption and related problems data, but the magnitude of these relationships were reduced when other variables that correlated with Amrec or when the 6-month data were taken into account. In general, Taking Steps showed little or no relationship to the 6-month data. The results are compared to previous work with the SOCRATES

  16. Preliminary results for the primary structure of bacterioferritin of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Tsugita, A; Yariv, J

    1985-01-01

    Bacterioferritins are type-b cytochromes which resemble ferritin. Amino acid analysis combined with chemical modification and partial sequence analysis characterize bacterioferritin of Escherichia coli in terms of its primary structure. It is a protein composed of one kind of polypeptide chain that commences with methionine and terminates with glutamic acid. The length of the polypeptide chain is, tentatively, 146 residues. Besides the N-terminal methionine residue there are three more methionine residues, which yield four CNBr peptides, which have been aligned. The identity of the following positions in the sequence has been ascertained: residues 1-25, 30-37, 83-88, 127-132 and 143-146. No homology with ferritin was found. PMID:3904732

  17. Imaging dendritic spines of rat primary hippocampal neurons using structured illumination microscopy.

    PubMed

    Schouten, Marijn; De Luca, Giulia M R; Alatriste González, Diana K; de Jong, Babette E; Timmermans, Wendy; Xiong, Hui; Krugers, Harm; Manders, Erik M M; Fitzsimons, Carlos P

    2014-05-04

    Dendritic spines are protrusions emerging from the dendrite of a neuron and represent the primary postsynaptic targets of excitatory inputs in the brain. Technological advances have identified these structures as key elements in neuron connectivity and synaptic plasticity. The quantitative analysis of spine morphology using light microscopy remains an essential problem due to technical limitations associated with light's intrinsic refraction limit. Dendritic spines can be readily identified by confocal laser-scanning fluorescence microscopy. However, measuring subtle changes in the shape and size of spines is difficult because spine dimensions other than length are usually smaller than conventional optical resolution fixed by light microscopy's theoretical resolution limit of 200 nm. Several recently developed super resolution techniques have been used to image cellular structures smaller than the 200 nm, including dendritic spines. These techniques are based on classical far-field operations and therefore allow the use of existing sample preparation methods and to image beyond the surface of a specimen. Described here is a working protocol to apply super resolution structured illumination microscopy (SIM) to the imaging of dendritic spines in primary hippocampal neuron cultures. Possible applications of SIM overlap with those of confocal microscopy. However, the two techniques present different applicability. SIM offers higher effective lateral resolution, while confocal microscopy, due to the usage of a physical pinhole, achieves resolution improvement at the expense of removal of out of focus light. In this protocol, primary neurons are cultured on glass coverslips using a standard protocol, transfected with DNA plasmids encoding fluorescent proteins and imaged using SIM. The whole protocol described herein takes approximately 2 weeks, because dendritic spines are imaged after 16-17 days in vitro, when dendritic development is optimal. After completion of the

  18. Anaerobic digestion of chemically enhanced primary treatment (CEPT) sludge and the microbial community structure.

    PubMed

    Ju, Feng; Wang, Yubo; Lau, Frankie T K; Fung, W C; Huang, Danping; Xia, Yu; Zhang, Tong

    2016-10-01

    The effectiveness and treatment conditions of FeCl3- and AlCl3-coagulated municipal sewage sludge from chemically enhanced primary treatment (CEPT) using anaerobic digestion (AD) and the structure of microbial community were investigated. The results based on 297 measurements under different operational conditions demonstrate good average AD performance of CEPT sludge, that is, percent volatile solid reduction of 58 %, specific biogas production (or biogas yield) of 0.92 m(3)/kg volatile solids (VS) destroyed, and methane content of 65.4 %. FeCl3 dosing, organic loading rate, temperature, and hydraulic retention time all significantly affected AD performance. FeCl3 dosing greatly improved specific methane production (methane yield) by 38-54 % and significantly reduced hydrogen sulfide (H2S) content in biogas (from up to 13,250 to <200 ppm), contributing to higher methane recovery and simplified biogas cleaning for power generation. Metagenomic analysis suggested that anaerobic digesters of both CEPT sludge and combined primary and secondary sludge were dominated by Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Thermotogae, and Chloroflexi. However, Methanomicrobia methanogens were better enriched in the anaerobic digesters of CEPT sludge than in the combined sludge. Further, different sources of CEPT sludge with various chemical properties nurtured shared and unique microbial community composition. Combined, this study supports AD as an efficient technology for CEPT sludge treatment and poses first insights into the microbial community structure.

  19. Analysis of structures causing instabilities.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, Thomas

    2007-07-01

    We present a simple new method to systematically identify all topological structures (e.g., positive feedback loops) potentially leading to locally unstable steady states: ICSA-The instability causing structure analysis. Systems without any instability causing structure (i.e., not fulfilling the necessary topological condition for instabilities) cannot have unstable steady states. It follows that common bistability or multistability and Hopf bifurcations are excluded and sustained oscillations and deterministic chaos are most unlikely. The ICSA leads to new insights into the topological organization of chemical and biochemical systems, such as metabolic, gene regulatory, and signal transduction networks.

  20. Survival analysis of endodontically treated traumatized primary teeth.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Maria José de Carvalho; Cardoso, Mariane

    2007-12-01

    The present study aimed to verify the factors that interfere with the success of endodontic treatment of traumatized primary teeth as well as to determine the success level of the proposed treatment, through survival analysis. The research was conducted through the analysis of dental traumatism records and attached radiological exams of patients assisted by the Assistance Program for the Traumatized Patient at UFSC (Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina). Fifty-one dental records of patients aged between 10 and 60 months were analyzed. These patients had their traumatized teeth endodontically treated (n = 51), according to the indications of the UFSC protocol. In order to evaluate possible interference factors affecting the success of the endodontic treatment, the following items were analyzed: age of the child at the beginning of the endodontic treatment (over or below 36 months), trauma type (mild or severe) pathological root resorption type (replacement or inflammatory), localization of the pathological root resorption (in the apical third or in the middle third), bone resorption (absent or present), alteration of the soft tissue (absent or present), condition of the pulp tissue (vitality or necrosis) and trauma recurrence (absent or present). Through the chi-squared test (chi(2) = 9.594, P < 0.05) and survival analysis, it was verified that trauma recurrence in the same tooth is a factor that interferes in the success of endodontic treatment. It was also observed, through survival analysis, that levels of success of endodontic treatments are stabilized in the 19th month. A period of 48 months of follow up was observed. It was also verified that most failures occurred between the 7th and 12th months counting from the beginning of the endodontic treatment. It was concluded that endodontic treatment of traumatized primary teeth, performed according to the UFSC protocol, enables the maintenance of the traumatized tooth in acceptable conditions in the buccal cavity

  1. Analyzing Pre-Service Primary Teachers' Fraction Knowledge Structures through Problem Posing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilic, Cigdem

    2015-01-01

    In this study it was aimed to determine pre-service primary teachers' knowledge structures of fraction through problem posing activities. A total of 90 pre-service primary teachers participated in this study. A problem posing test consisting of two questions was used and the participants were asked to generate as many as problems based on the…

  2. Relationship between Professional Learning Community, Bureaucratic Structure and Organisational Trust in Primary Education Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalkan, Fatma

    2016-01-01

    This research uses relational survey method to determine the relationship between professional learning community, bureaucratic structure and organisational trust according to the perceptions of teachers who work in primary education schools. Data were collected from 805 teachers who work in primary education schools in the districts (Altindag,…

  3. Structural Analysis of Communication Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conville, Richard L.

    This paper discusses the question of the legitimacy of applying structural analysis to actual human behavior and illustrates its legitimacy by using the reasoning in an essay by Paul Ricoeur. It then asks if the principles of communication development (obliqueness, exchange, and dying) derived from Helen Keller's experience of communication…

  4. Gonococcal pili. Primary structure and receptor binding domain.

    PubMed

    Schoolnik, G K; Fernandez, R; Tai, J Y; Rothbard, J; Gotschlich, E C

    1984-05-01

    The complete amino acid sequence of pilin from gonococcal strain MS11 and the sequence of constant and variable regions from strain R10 pilin have been determined in order to elucidate the structural basis for adherence function, antigenic diversity, and polymeric structure. The MS11 pilin sequence consists of 159 amino acids in a single polypeptide chain with two cysteines in disulfide linkage and serine-bonded phosphate residues. TC-2 (31-111), a soluble monomeric pilus peptide prepared by arginine-specific digestion, bound human endocervical, but not buccal or HeLa cells and therefore is postulated to encompass the receptor binding domain. Variable regions of CNBr-3 appear to confer antigenic diversity and comprise segments in which changes in the position of charged residues occur in hydrophilic, beta-turns. Residues 2-21 and 202-221 of gonococcal pilins and lower eucaryotic actins, respectively, exhibit 50% homology. When these residues are arranged at intervals of 100 degrees of arc on "helical wheels," the identical amino acids comprise a hydrophobic face on one side of the helix. This observation, the hydrophobic character of this region and the tendency for TC-1 (residues 1-30) to aggregate in water, suggest that this stretch interacts with other subunits to stabilize polymeric structure.

  5. Structural Analysis and Design Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Collier Research and Development Corporation received a one-of-a-kind computer code for designing exotic hypersonic aircraft called ST-SIZE in the first ever Langley Research Center software copyright license agreement. Collier transformed the NASA computer code into a commercial software package called HyperSizer, which integrates with other Finite Element Modeling and Finite Analysis private-sector structural analysis program. ST-SIZE was chiefly conceived as a means to improve and speed the structural design of a future aerospace plane for Langley Hypersonic Vehicles Office. Including the NASA computer code into HyperSizer has enabled the company to also apply the software to applications other than aerospace, including improved design and construction for offices, marine structures, cargo containers, commercial and military aircraft, rail cars, and a host of everyday consumer products.

  6. Mechanical Attachment of Reusable Surface Insulation to Space Shuttle Primary Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleck, R. W.; Lehman, J. K.

    1973-01-01

    Three methods of attaching surface insulation tiles to shuttle primary structure have been proposed: direct bond, mechanical attachment, and subpanels with standoffs. The direct bond approach is lightweight but is difficult to refurbish and inspect. The subpanel approach is heavier but allows for easy refurbishment since subpanels are easily removed and replaced. The mechanical attachment approach allows easy refurbishment and inspection and is lightweight when an efficient insulator is used between surface insulation tiles and primary structure.

  7. QA system for structural analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raiko, Heikki

    The activities to be addressed by an organization involved in structural analysis by numerical methods and/or development and maintenance of such computer codes or systems are described. The requirements are based on International Standard 9001. The interpretation of the requirements is done according to an application presented by a Quality Analysis (QA) working group. The purpose of a quality analysis system is to help anyone to do a better job. Emphasis on technical documentation to speed up operations is recommended. The first steps in implementing a finite element quality assurance system in an organization are as follows: constitute a technical body with responsibility and authority for the analysis quality system; agree on management responsibilities for each quality analysis activity; and review current practices against the quality system standard requirements. Experience shows that it is mainly a process of rationalizing, formalizing, and reinforcing existing practices.

  8. Analysis of treatment outcomes for primary tonsillar lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yun Hee; Cho, Seok Goo; Jung, Seung Eun; Kim, Sung Hoon; O, Joo Hyun; Park, Gyeong Sin; Yang, Suk Woo; Lee, In Seok; Rhee, Chin Kook; Choi, Byung Ock

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Although each Waldeyer’s ring sub-site is considered an independent prognostic factor, few studies have assessed the prognosis and treatment of tonsillar lymphoma. Treatment outcomes were analyzed in patients with primary tonsillar lymphoma who were treated with chemotherapy and radiotherapy (RT). Materials and Methods Nineteen patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma were evaluated, with a median follow-up of 53 months. Age, sex, and histology, amongst other factors, were reviewed. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) rates were analyzed. Results Most patients had Ann Arbor stage I-II (94.7%), IPI score of 0 (89.5%), and complete remission after chemotherapy (89.5%). The 5-year PFS and OS rates were 74.6% and 80%, respectively. In univariate analysis, the rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) regimen resulted in a better PFS than the cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP) regimen (88.9% vs. 50.0%; p = 0.053). RT dose was related to the survival outcome (p = 0.010 for PFS, p = 0.044 for OS). Patients were classified into the CHOP + RT (>40 Gy) group and R-CHOP + RT (≤40 Gy) group. The 5-year PFS rates were 50% in the CHOP + RT group, and 100 % in the R-CHOP + RT group (p = 0.018). The 5-year OS rates were 66.7% and 100%, respectively (p = 0.087). Conclusion Primary tonsillar lymphoma patients typically have favorable outcomes. Chemotherapy (R-CHOP) combined with relatively lower dose consolidative RT may be safe and effective for primary tonsillar lymphoma. PMID:28030899

  9. Carnivora: the primary structure of the Pacific Walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens, Pinnipedia) hemoglobin.

    PubMed

    Lin, H X; Kleinschmidt, T; Johnson, M L; Braunitzer, G

    1989-02-01

    The primary structure of the alpha- and beta-chains of the hemoglobin from the Pacific Walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens, Pinnipedia) is presented. Sequence analysis revealed only one hemoglobin component whereas two bands were found in polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The globin chains were separated by high-performance liquid chromatography and the sequences determined by automatic liquid- and gas-phase sequencing of the chains and their tryptic peptides. The alpha-chains show 20 and the beta-chains 12 exchanges compared to the corresponding human chains. In the alpha-chains one heme- and two alpha 1/beta 1-contacts were exchanged whereas in the beta-chains one alpha 1/beta 1-, one alpha 1/beta 2-and one heme-contact are substituted. Compared to Harbour Seal (Phoca vitulina) the Walrus hemoglobin shows 9 amino-acid replacements in the alpha-chains and 5 in the beta-chains. The relation between Pinnipedia and Arctoidea is discussed.

  10. The matrix exponential in transient structural analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minnetyan, Levon

    1987-01-01

    The primary usefulness of the presented theory is in the ability to represent the effects of high frequency linear response with accuracy, without requiring very small time steps in the analysis of dynamic response. The matrix exponential contains a series approximation to the dynamic model. However, unlike the usual analysis procedure which truncates the high frequency response, the approximation in the exponential matrix solution is in the time domain. By truncating the series solution to the matrix exponential short, the solution is made inaccurate after a certain time. Yet, up to that time the solution is extremely accurate, including all high frequency effects. By taking finite time increments, the exponential matrix solution can compute the response very accurately. Use of the exponential matrix in structural dynamics is demonstrated by simulating the free vibration response of multi degree of freedom models of cantilever beams.

  11. Neutron activation analysis: A primary method of measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenberg, Robert R.; Bode, Peter; De Nadai Fernandes, Elisabete A.

    2011-03-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA), based on the comparator method, has the potential to fulfill the requirements of a primary ratio method as defined in 1998 by the Comité Consultatif pour la Quantité de Matière — Métrologie en Chimie (CCQM, Consultative Committee on Amount of Substance — Metrology in Chemistry). This thesis is evidenced in this paper in three chapters by: demonstration that the method is fully physically and chemically understood; that a measurement equation can be written down in which the values of all parameters have dimensions in SI units and thus having the potential for metrological traceability to these units; that all contributions to uncertainty of measurement can be quantitatively evaluated, underpinning the metrological traceability; and that the performance of NAA in CCQM key-comparisons of trace elements in complex matrices between 2000 and 2007 is similar to the performance of Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry (IDMS), which had been formerly designated by the CCQM as a primary ratio method.

  12. Modelling the structural controls of primary kaolinite formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tierney, R. L.; Glass, H. J.

    2016-09-01

    An abundance of kaolinite was formed within the St. Austell outcrop of the Cornubian batholith in Cornwall, southwest England, by the hydrous dissolution of feldspar crystals. The permeability of Cornish granites is low and alteration acts pervasively from discontinuity features, with montmorillonite recognised as an intermediate assemblage in partially kaolinised material. Structural features allowed fluids to channel through the impermeable granite and pervade deep into the rock. Areas of high structural control are hypothesised to link well with areas of advanced alteration. As kaolinisation results in a loss of competence, we present a method of utilising discontinuity orientations from nearby unaltered granites alongside the local tectonic history to calculate strain rates and delineate a discrete fracture network. Simulation of the discrete fracture network is demonstrated through a case study at Higher Moor, where kaolinite is actively extracted from a pit. Reconciliation of fracture connectivity and permeability against measured subsurface data show that higher values of modelled properties match with advanced kaolinisation observed in the field. This suggests that the technique may be applicable across various industries and disciplines.

  13. Beyond Electronic Brochures: An Analysis of Singapore Primary School Web Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Chun; Soong, Andrew Kheng Fah

    2007-01-01

    This study aims to investigate how Singapore primary schools use their web sites, what kind of information is contained in the web sites, and how the information is presented. Based on an analysis of 176 primary school web sites, which represent all but one of the country's primary schools, findings indicate that most of Singapore's primary school…

  14. Efficient Analysis of Complex Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kapania, Rakesh K.

    2000-01-01

    Last various accomplishments achieved during this project are : (1) A Survey of Neural Network (NN) applications using MATLAB NN Toolbox on structural engineering especially on equivalent continuum models (Appendix A). (2) Application of NN and GAs to simulate and synthesize substructures: 1-D and 2-D beam problems (Appendix B). (3) Development of an equivalent plate-model analysis method (EPA) for static and vibration analysis of general trapezoidal built-up wing structures composed of skins, spars and ribs. Calculation of all sorts of test cases and comparison with measurements or FEA results. (Appendix C). (4) Basic work on using second order sensitivities on simulating wing modal response, discussion of sensitivity evaluation approaches, and some results (Appendix D). (5) Establishing a general methodology of simulating the modal responses by direct application of NN and by sensitivity techniques, in a design space composed of a number of design points. Comparison is made through examples using these two methods (Appendix E). (6) Establishing a general methodology of efficient analysis of complex wing structures by indirect application of NN: the NN-aided Equivalent Plate Analysis. Training of the Neural Networks for this purpose in several cases of design spaces, which can be applicable for actual design of complex wings (Appendix F).

  15. Structural analysis of vibroacoustical processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gromov, A. P.; Myasnikov, L. L.; Myasnikova, Y. N.; Finagin, B. A.

    1973-01-01

    The method of automatic identification of acoustical signals, by means of the segmentation was used to investigate noises and vibrations in machines and mechanisms, for cybernetic diagnostics. The structural analysis consists of presentation of a noise or vibroacoustical signal as a sequence of segments, determined by the time quantization, in which each segment is characterized by specific spectral characteristics. The structural spectrum is plotted as a histogram of the segments, also as a relation of the probability density of appearance of a segment to the segment type. It is assumed that the conditions of ergodic processes are maintained.

  16. The primary structure of a plant storage protein: zein.

    PubMed Central

    Geraghty, D; Peifer, M A; Rubenstein, I; Messing, J

    1981-01-01

    The protein sequence of a representative of the zeins, the major storage proteins of maize, has been derived from the nucleotide sequence of a zein cDNA clone. This cDNA was sequence both by the Maxam and Gilbert and the M13-dideoxy techniques. The nucleotide sequence encompasses the non-translated 3' terminus of the mRNA, the entire coding sequence specifying both the mature zein protein and a small signal peptide, and a portion of the non-translated 5' region. The deduced amino acid composition and the amino-terminal amino acid sequence closely resemble those derived from chemical analysis of the zein protein fraction. The data presented represent the first complete amino acid sequence of a plant storage protein. PMID:6895552

  17. Primary structure and functional organization of Drosophila 1731 retrotransposon.

    PubMed Central

    Fourcade-Peronnet, F; d'Auriol, L; Becker, J; Galibert, F; Best-Belpomme, M

    1988-01-01

    We have determined the nucleotide sequence of the Drosophila retrotransposon 1731. 1731 is 4648 bp long and is flanked by 336 bp terminal repeats (LTRs) previously described as being reminiscent of provirus LTRs. The 1731 genome consists of two long open reading frames (ORFs 1 and 2) which slightly overlap each other. The ORF 1 and 2 present similarities with retroviral gag and pol genes respectively as shown by computer analysis. The pol gene exhibits several enzymatic activities in the following order: protease, endonuclease and reverse transcriptase. It is possible that 1731 also encompasses a ribonuclease H activity located between the endonuclease and reverse transcriptase domains. Moreover, comparison of the 1731 pol gene with the pol region of copia shows similarities extending over the protease, endonuclease and reverse transcriptase domains. We show that codon usage in the two retrotransposons is different. Finally, no ORF able to encode an env gene is detected in 1731. Images PMID:2456522

  18. Primary structure of the Aequorea victoria green-fluorescent protein.

    PubMed

    Prasher, D C; Eckenrode, V K; Ward, W W; Prendergast, F G; Cormier, M J

    1992-02-15

    Many cnidarians utilize green-fluorescent proteins (GFPs) as energy-transfer acceptors in bioluminescence. GFPs fluoresce in vivo upon receiving energy from either a luciferase-oxyluciferin excited-state complex or a Ca(2+)-activated phosphoprotein. These highly fluorescent proteins are unique due to the chemical nature of their chromophore, which is comprised of modified amino acid (aa) residues within the polypeptide. This report describes the cloning and sequencing of both cDNA and genomic clones of GFP from the cnidarian, Aequorea victoria. The gfp10 cDNA encodes a 238-aa-residue polypeptide with a calculated Mr of 26,888. Comparison of A. victoria GFP genomic clones shows three different restriction enzyme patterns which suggests that at least three different genes are present in the A. victoria population at Friday Harbor, Washington. The gfp gene encoded by the lambda GFP2 genomic clone is comprised of at least three exons spread over 2.6 kb. The nucleotide sequences of the cDNA and the gene will aid in the elucidation of structure-function relationships in this unique class of proteins.

  19. Protein Primary Structure of the Vaccinia Virion at Increased Resolution

    PubMed

    Ngo, Tuan; Mirzakhanyan, Yeva; Moussatche, Nissin; Gershon, Paul David

    2016-11-01

    Here we examine the protein covalent structure of the vaccinia virus virion. Within two virion preparations, >88% of the theoretical vaccinia virus-encoded proteome was detected with high confidence, including the first detection of products from 27 open reading frames (ORFs) previously designated "predicted," "uncharacterized," "inferred," or "hypothetical" polypeptides containing as few as 39 amino acids (aa) and six proteins whose detection required nontryptic proteolysis. We also detected the expression of four short ORFs, each of which was located within an ORF ("ORF-within-ORF"), including one not previously recognized or known to be expressed. Using quantitative mass spectrometry (MS), between 58 and 74 proteins were determined to be packaged. A total of 63 host proteins were also identified as candidates for packaging. Evidence is provided that some portion of virion proteins are "nicked" via a combination of endoproteolysis and concerted exoproteolysis in a manner, and at sites, independent of virus origin or laboratory procedures. The size of the characterized virion phosphoproteome was doubled from 189 (J. Matson, W. Chou, T. Ngo, and P. D. Gershon, Virology 452-453:310-323, 2014, doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.virol.2014.01.012) to 396 confident, unique phosphorylation sites, 268 of which were within the packaged proteome. This included the unambiguous identification of phosphorylation "hot spots" within virion proteins. Using isotopically enriched ATP, 23 sites of intravirion kinase phosphorylation were detected within nine virion proteins, all at sites already partially occupied within the virion preparations. The clear phosphorylation of proteins RAP94 and RP19 was consistent with the roles of these proteins in intravirion early gene transcription. In a blind search for protein modifications, cysteine glutathionylation and O-linked glycosylation featured prominently. We provide evidence for the phosphoglycosylation of vaccinia virus proteins.

  20. HOST structural analysis program overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Robert L.

    1986-01-01

    Hot-section components of aircraft gas turbine engines are subjected to severe thermal structural loading conditions, especially during the startup and takeoff portions of the engine cycle. The most severe and damaging stresses and strains are those induced by the steep thermal gradients induced during the startup transient. These transient stresses and strains are also the most difficult to predict, in part because the temperature gradients and distributions are not well known or readily predictable and, in part, because the cyclic elastic-viscoplastic behavior of the materials at these extremes of temperature and strain are not well known or readily predictable. A broad spectrum of structures related technology programs is underway to address these deficiencies at the basic as well as the applied level. The three key program elements in the HOST structural analysis program are computations, constitutive modeling, and experiments for each research activity. Also shown are tables summarizing each of the activities.

  1. Erroneous gambling-related beliefs as illusions of primary and secondary control: a confirmatory factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Ejova, Anastasia; Delfabbro, Paul H; Navarro, Daniel J

    2015-03-01

    Different classification systems for erroneous beliefs about gambling have been proposed, consistently alluding to 'illusion of control' and 'gambler's fallacy' categories. None of these classification systems have, however, considered the how the illusion of control and the gambler's fallacy might be interrelated. In this paper, we report the findings of a confirmatory factor analysis that examines the proposal that most erroneous gambling-related beliefs can be defined in terms of Rothbaum et al.'s (J Pers Soc Psychol, doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.42.1.5 , 1982) distinction between 'primary' and 'secondary' illusory control, with the former being driven to a large extent by the well-known gambler's fallacy and the latter being driven by a complex of beliefs about supernatural forces such as God and luck. A survey consisting of 100 items derived from existing instruments was administered to 329 participants. The analysis confirmed the existence of two latent structures (beliefs in primary and secondary control), while also offering support to the idea that gambler's fallacy-style reasoning may underlie both perceived primary control and beliefs about the cyclical nature of luck, a form of perceived secondary control. The results suggest the need for a greater focus on the role of underlying processes or belief structures as factors that foster susceptibility to specific beliefs in gambling situations. Addressing and recognising the importance of these underlying factors may also have implications for cognitive therapy treatments for problem gambling.

  2. Identification of novel DNA repair proteins via primary sequence, secondary structure, and homology

    PubMed Central

    Brown, JB; Akutsu, Tatsuya

    2009-01-01

    Background DNA repair is the general term for the collection of critical mechanisms which repair many forms of DNA damage such as methylation or ionizing radiation. DNA repair has mainly been studied in experimental and clinical situations, and relatively few information-based approaches to new extracting DNA repair knowledge exist. As a first step, automatic detection of DNA repair proteins in genomes via informatics techniques is desirable; however, there are many forms of DNA repair and it is not a straightforward process to identify and classify repair proteins with a single optimal method. We perform a study of the ability of homology and machine learning-based methods to identify and classify DNA repair proteins, as well as scan vertebrate genomes for the presence of novel repair proteins. Combinations of primary sequence polypeptide frequency, secondary structure, and homology information are used as feature information for input to a Support Vector Machine (SVM). Results We identify that SVM techniques are capable of identifying portions of DNA repair protein datasets without admitting false positives; at low levels of false positive tolerance, homology can also identify and classify proteins with good performance. Secondary structure information provides improved performance compared to using primary structure alone. Furthermore, we observe that machine learning methods incorporating homology information perform best when data is filtered by some clustering technique. Analysis by applying these methodologies to the scanning of multiple vertebrate genomes confirms a positive correlation between the size of a genome and the number of DNA repair protein transcripts it is likely to contain, and simultaneously suggests that all organisms have a non-zero minimum number of repair genes. In addition, the scan result clusters several organisms' repair abilities in an evolutionarily consistent fashion. Analysis also identifies several functionally unconfirmed

  3. Pathway analysis of primary central nervous system lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Tun, Han W; Personett, David; Baskerville, Karen A; Menke, David M; Jaeckle, Kurt A; Kreinest, Pamela; Edenfield, Brandy; Zubair, Abba C; O'Neill, Brian P; Lai, Weil R; Park, Peter J; McKinney, Michael

    2008-03-15

    Primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma (PCNSL) is a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) confined to the CNS. A genome-wide gene expression comparison between PCNSL and non-CNS DLBCL was performed, the latter consisting of both nodal and extranodal DLBCL (nDLBCL and enDLBCL), to identify a "CNS signature." Pathway analysis with the program SigPathway revealed that PCNSL is characterized notably by significant differential expression of multiple extracellular matrix (ECM) and adhesion-related pathways. The most significantly up-regulated gene is the ECM-related osteopontin (SPP1). Expression at the protein level of ECM-related SPP1 and CHI3L1 in PCNSL cells was demonstrated by immunohistochemistry. The alterations in gene expression can be interpreted within several biologic contexts with implications for PCNSL, including CNS tropism (ECM and adhesion-related pathways, SPP1, DDR1), B-cell migration (CXCL13, SPP1), activated B-cell subtype (MUM1), lymphoproliferation (SPP1, TCL1A, CHI3L1), aggressive clinical behavior (SPP1, CHI3L1, MUM1), and aggressive metastatic cancer phenotype (SPP1, CHI3L1). The gene expression signature discovered in our study may represent a true "CNS signature" because we contrasted PCNSL with wide-spectrum non-CNS DLBCL on a genomic scale and performed an in-depth bioinformatic analysis.

  4. Statistical energy analysis of complex structures, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trudell, R. W.; Yano, L. I.

    1980-01-01

    A method for estimating the structural vibration properties of complex systems in high frequency environments was investigated. The structure analyzed was the Materials Experiment Assembly, (MEA), which is a portion of the OST-2A payload for the space transportation system. Statistical energy analysis (SEA) techniques were used to model the structure and predict the structural element response to acoustic excitation. A comparison of the intial response predictions and measured acoustic test data is presented. The conclusions indicate that: the SEA predicted the response of primary structure to acoustic excitation over a wide range of frequencies; and the contribution of mechanically induced random vibration to the total MEA is not significant.

  5. Fabrication of experimental three-meter space telescope primary and secondary mirror support structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mishler, H. W.

    1974-01-01

    The fabrication of prototype titanium alloy primary and secondary mirror support structures for a proposed experimental three-meter space telescope is discussed. The structure was fabricated entirely of Ti-6Al-4V tubing and plate. Fabrication included the development of procedures including welding, forming, and machining. Most of the structures was fabricated by gas-shielding tungsten-arc (GTA) welding with several major components fabricated by high frequency resistance (HFR) welding.

  6. Structural Analysis of Fungal Cerebrosides

    PubMed Central

    Barreto-Bergter, Eliana; Sassaki, Guilherme L.; de Souza, Lauro M.

    2011-01-01

    Of the ceramide monohexosides (CMHs), gluco- and galactosyl-ceramides are the main neutral glycosphingolipids expressed in fungal cells. Their structural determination is greatly dependent on the use of mass spectrometric techniques, including fast atom bombardment-mass spectrometry, electrospray ionization, and energy collision-induced dissociation mass spectrometry. Nuclear magnetic resonance has also been used successfully. Such a combination of techniques, combined with classical analytical separation, such as high-performance thin layer chromatography and column chromatography, has led to the structural elucidation of a great number of fungal CMHs. The structure of fungal CMH is conserved among fungal species and consists of a glucose or galactose residue attached to a ceramide moiety containing 9-methyl-4,8-sphingadienine with an amidic linkage to hydroxylated fatty acids, most commonly having 16 or 18 carbon atoms and unsaturation between C-3 and C-4. Along with their unique structural characteristics, fungal CMHs have a peculiar subcellular distribution and striking biological properties. Fungal cerebrosides were also characterized as antigenic molecules directly or indirectly involved in cell growth or differentiation in Schizophyllum commune, Cryptococcus neoformans, Pseudallescheria boydii, Candida albicans, Aspergillus nidulans, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Besides classical techniques for cerebroside (CMH) analysis, we now describe new approaches, combining conventional thin layer chromatography and mass spectrometry, as well as emerging technologies for subcellular localization and distribution of glycosphingolipids by secondary ion mass spectrometry and imaging matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight. PMID:22164155

  7. Primary structure and chain conformation of fucoidan extracted from sea cucumber Holothuria tubulosa.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yaoguang; Hu, Yanfang; Yu, Long; McClements, David Julian; Xu, Xiaoqi; Liu, Guanchen; Xue, Changhu

    2016-01-20

    Knowledge of the structure of polysaccharides is essential for understanding and controlling their functional properties. In this study, fucoidan was extracted from Holothuria tubulosa, a species of sea cucumber that has recently become commercially important. The primary structure of the H. tubulosa fucoidan was clarified using a combination of enzymatic degradation, methylation analysis, and NMR, and its chain conformation was further elucidated by utilizing high performance size exclusion chromatography combined with multiple angle laser light scattering and viscometry. The fucoidan was composed of a tetrafucose repeating unit [ → 3-α-L-Fucp2(OSO3(-))-1 → 3-α-L-Fucp2,4(OSO3(-))-1 → 3-α-L-Fucp-1 → 3-α-L-Fucp2(OSO3(-))-1 → ]. Its sulfate content was determined to be 31.2 ± 1.6% and the weight-average molecular mass was 1567.6 ± 34.1 kDa. The molecule adapted a random coil conformation in 0.15M NaCl solution (pH 7.4) at 25 °C, with a root-mean-square radius of 63.9 ± 1.8 nm and a hydrodynamic radius of 44.5 ± 4.5 nm. This is the first report on the chain conformation of sea cucumber fucoidan.

  8. Bacterial diversity of symptomatic primary endodontic infection by clonal analysis.

    PubMed

    Nóbrega, Letícia Maria Menezes; Montagner, Francisco; Ribeiro, Adriana Costa; Mayer, Márcia Alves Pinto; Gomes, Brenda Paula Figueiredo de Almeida

    2016-10-10

    The aim of this study was to explore the bacterial diversity of 10 root canals with acute apical abscess using clonal analysis. Samples were collected from 10 patients and submitted to bacterial DNA isolation, 16S rRNA gene amplification, cloning, and sequencing. A bacterial genomic library was constructed and bacterial diversity was estimated. The mean number of taxa per canal was 15, ranging from 11 to 21. A total of 689 clones were analyzed and 76 phylotypes identified, of which 47 (61.84%) were different species and 29 (38.15%) were taxa reported as yet-uncultivable or as yet-uncharacterized species. Prevotella spp., Fusobacterium nucleatum, Filifactor alocis, and Peptostreptococcus stomatis were the most frequently detected species, followed by Dialister invisus, Phocaeicola abscessus, the uncharacterized Lachnospiraceae oral clone, Porphyromonas spp., and Parvimonas micra. Eight phyla were detected and the most frequently identified taxa belonged to the phylum Firmicutes (43.5%), followed by Bacteroidetes (22.5%) and Proteobacteria (13.2%). No species was detected in all studied samples and some species were identified in only one case. It was concluded that acute primary endodontic infection is characterized by wide bacterial diversity and a high intersubject variability was observed. Anaerobic Gram-negative bacteria belonging to the phylum Firmicutes, followed by Bacteroidetes, were the most frequently detected microorganisms.

  9. Professional Learning Communities and Teacher Well-Being? A Comparative Analysis of Primary Schools in England and Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Rosemary; Vulliamy, Graham; Sarja, Anneli; Hamalainen, Seppo; Poikonen, Pirjo-Liisa

    2009-01-01

    The article is a comparative analysis of the policy and practice of professional learning communities (PLCs) in primary schools in England and Finland. The concept of PLC has become a globally fashionable one and has been explicitly advocated in policy documents in both countries. Drawing from a database of qualitative semi-structured interviews…

  10. Design and evaluation of a foam-filled hat-stiffened panel concept for aircraft primary structural applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambur, Damodar R.

    1993-01-01

    Geodesically stiffened structures are very efficient in carrying combined bending, torsion, and pressure loading that is typical of primary aircraft structures. They are also very damage tolerant since there are multiple load paths available to redistribute loads compared to prismatically stiffened structures. Geodesically stiffened structures utilize continuous filament composite materials which make them amenable to automated manufacturing processes to reduce cost. The current practice for geodesically stiffened structures is to use a solid blade construction for the stiffener. This stiffener configuration is not an efficient concept and there is a need to identify other stiffener configurations that are more efficient but utilize the same manufacturing process as the solid blade. This paper describes a foam-filled stiffener cross section that is more efficient than a solid-blade stiffener in the load range corresponding to primary aircraft structures. A prismatic hat-stiffener panel design is then selected for structural evaluation in uni-axial compression with and without impact damage. Experimental results for both single stiffener specimens and multi-stiffener panel specimens are presented. Finite element analysis results are presented that predict the buckling and postbuckling response of the test specimens. Analytical results for both the element and panel specimens are compared with experimental results.

  11. Functional Generalized Structured Component Analysis.

    PubMed

    Suk, Hye Won; Hwang, Heungsun

    2016-12-01

    An extension of Generalized Structured Component Analysis (GSCA), called Functional GSCA, is proposed to analyze functional data that are considered to arise from an underlying smooth curve varying over time or other continua. GSCA has been geared for the analysis of multivariate data. Accordingly, it cannot deal with functional data that often involve different measurement occasions across participants and a large number of measurement occasions that exceed the number of participants. Functional GSCA addresses these issues by integrating GSCA with spline basis function expansions that represent infinite-dimensional curves onto a finite-dimensional space. For parameter estimation, functional GSCA minimizes a penalized least squares criterion by using an alternating penalized least squares estimation algorithm. The usefulness of functional GSCA is illustrated with gait data.

  12. Screening for depression in primary care: a Rasch analysis of the PHQ-9†

    PubMed Central

    Horton, Mike; Perry, Amanda E.

    2016-01-01

    Aims and method To explore the modern psychometric properties of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), we used the Rasch analysis in a sample of 767 primary care patients with depression. Results The analysis highlighted dependency issues between items 1 and 2 (‘Little interest or pleasure in doing things' and ‘Feeling down, depressed, or hopeless’), and items 3 and 4 (‘Trouble falling or staying asleep, or sleeping too much’ and ‘Feeling tired or having little energy’). Items 1 and 2 displayed an over-discrimination, suggesting their potential redundancy within the complete item set. Clinical implications In its current format the PHQ-9 displays some problems with regard to its measurement structure among a sample of primary care patients. These problems can be addressed by removing potentially redundant items to deliver a stable screening tool. The results also lend support for the PHQ-2 to be used as a screening tool in a primary care setting. PMID:27752340

  13. Progress in thermostructural analysis of space structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, E. A.; Dechaumphai, P.; Mahaney, J.; Pandey, A. K.

    1982-01-01

    A finite element space structures research focused on the interdisciplinary problems of heating, thermal, and structural analysis is discussed. Slender member shadowing effects, and cable stiffened structures are described.

  14. Predicting primary progressive aphasias with support vector machine approaches in structural MRI data.

    PubMed

    Bisenius, Sandrine; Mueller, Karsten; Diehl-Schmid, Janine; Fassbender, Klaus; Grimmer, Timo; Jessen, Frank; Kassubek, Jan; Kornhuber, Johannes; Landwehrmeyer, Bernhard; Ludolph, Albert; Schneider, Anja; Anderl-Straub, Sarah; Stuke, Katharina; Danek, Adrian; Otto, Markus; Schroeter, Matthias L

    2017-01-01

    Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) encompasses the three subtypes nonfluent/agrammatic variant PPA, semantic variant PPA, and the logopenic variant PPA, which are characterized by distinct patterns of language difficulties and regional brain atrophy. To validate the potential of structural magnetic resonance imaging data for early individual diagnosis, we used support vector machine classification on grey matter density maps obtained by voxel-based morphometry analysis to discriminate PPA subtypes (44 patients: 16 nonfluent/agrammatic variant PPA, 17 semantic variant PPA, 11 logopenic variant PPA) from 20 healthy controls (matched for sample size, age, and gender) in the cohort of the multi-center study of the German consortium for frontotemporal lobar degeneration. Here, we compared a whole-brain with a meta-analysis-based disease-specific regions-of-interest approach for support vector machine classification. We also used support vector machine classification to discriminate the three PPA subtypes from each other. Whole brain support vector machine classification enabled a very high accuracy between 91 and 97% for identifying specific PPA subtypes vs. healthy controls, and 78/95% for the discrimination between semantic variant vs. nonfluent/agrammatic or logopenic PPA variants. Only for the discrimination between nonfluent/agrammatic and logopenic PPA variants accuracy was low with 55%. Interestingly, the regions that contributed the most to the support vector machine classification of patients corresponded largely to the regions that were atrophic in these patients as revealed by group comparisons. Although the whole brain approach took also into account regions that were not covered in the regions-of-interest approach, both approaches showed similar accuracies due to the disease-specificity of the selected networks. Conclusion, support vector machine classification of multi-center structural magnetic resonance imaging data enables prediction of PPA subtypes with

  15. Primary, secondary, and tertiary structure of the core of a histone H1-like protein from the sperm of Mytilus.

    PubMed

    Jutglar, L; Borrell, J I; Ausió, J

    1991-05-05

    We have analyzed the structure of the trypsin-resistant core of the protein PL-II* of the sperm from Mytilus californianus. The peptide has a molecular mass of 8436 Da and its primary sequence is ATGGAKKP STLSMIVAAIQAMKNRKGSSVQAIRKYILANNKG INTSRLGSAMKLAFAKGLKSGVLVRPKTSAGA SGATGSFRVG. This sequence bears an enormous homology and fulfills the constraints of the consensus sequence of the trypsin-resistant peptides of the proteins of the histone H1 family. Secondary structure analysis using Fourier-transform infared spectroscopy as well as predictive methods indicate the presence of 20-30% beta-structure and approximately 25% alpha-helix for this peptide. As in the case of histone H1 proteins, the protein PL-II* core exhibits a compact globular structure as deduced from hydrodynamic measurements. The presence of a histone H1 protein with protamine-like features, seems to be thus, a common general feature of the chromatin composition in the sperm of the bivalve molluscs.

  16. Paediatric Prescription Analysis in a Primary Health Care Institution

    PubMed Central

    Devassykutty, Denny

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Paediatric prescription analysis was done by vari-ous studies in tertiary care centers but not much published data, at primary care level. The Medical Council of India introduced new prescription format and also antibiotic stewardship program was launched by Government of Kerala in the year 2015. So in these contexts this study was conducted. Aim To analyse the patterns of prescriptions and drug dis-pensing in pediatric patients using WHO core drug use indicators and parameters in the prescription format prescribed by Medical Council of India. Materials and Methods Prospective study was done at a community health center, for a period of four months where parents of children attending the outpatient department were interviewed and the prescriptions and medicines that is with them was examined and analysed for any prescription errors or dispensing errors. For statistical analysis, quantitative variables were expressed in mean and standard deviation and qualitative variables in percentages. Results The mean age of the patients was 6.1 (SD±3.4) years. The average number of drugs prescribed was 2.29 (SD±35.91), 98.4% drugs were prescribed by generic name. Majority of drugs prescribed were in the form of syrups (62.73%), use of antibiotics was frequent (73.18%), but injection use was very minimal (0.006%). Weight of the patient was recorded in 58.33% of the prescriptions. Only 30 prescriptions (5.43%) were written in capital letters. A 100% of the prescriptions contain the details of the child along with provisional diagnosis and signature of the doctor. A 98.44% of the drugs prescribed were from the essential drug list. Copy of the essential drug list is available at the institution. The availability of key drugs was 100%. 98.73% knew the correct dosages and 100% of the drugs were adequately labeled. Conclusion The prescription pattern is in accordance with the standard guidelines of WHO. Interventions are needed to rectify over prescription of

  17. Analysis of primary cilia in directional cell migration in fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Søren T; Veland, Iben R; Schwab, Albrecht; Cammer, Michael; Satir, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Early studies of migrating fibroblasts showed that primary cilia orient in front of the nucleus and point toward the leading edge. Recent work has shown that primary cilia coordinate a series of signaling pathways critical to fibroblast cell migration during development and in wound healing. In particular, platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRα) is compartmentalized to the primary cilium to activate signaling pathways that regulate reorganization of the cytoskeleton required for lamellipodium formation and directional migration in the presence of a specific ligand gradient. We summarize selected methods in analyzing ciliary function in directional cell migration, including immunofluorescence microscopy, scratch assay, and chemotaxis assay by micropipette addition of PDGFRα ligands to cultures of fibroblasts. These methods should be useful not only in studying cell migration but also more generally in delineating response pathways in cells with primary cilia.

  18. The primary process of vision and the structure of bathorhodopsin: a mechanism for photoisomerization of polyenes.

    PubMed Central

    Liu, R S; Asato, A E

    1985-01-01

    A model for the primary process of vision is proposed, which involves a novel concerted-twist motion. Application of such motions to rhodopsin and bathorhodopsin successfully accounts for the properties of bathorhodopsin and related intermediates, including specific assignment of molecular structures to bathorhodopsin, to lumirhodopsin, and, less specifically, to hypsorhodopsin. PMID:3855551

  19. Bifactor Structure of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Fourth Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Marley W.; Beaujean, A. Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Fourth Edition (WPPSI-IV; Wechsler, 2012) represents a substantial departure from its predecessor, including omission of 4 subtests, addition of 5 new subtests, and modification of the contents of the 5 retained subtests. Wechsler (2012) explicitly assumed a higher-order structure with…

  20. An Exercise on the Determination of the Primary Structure of Proteins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leader, David P.

    1976-01-01

    Describes an exercise that extends the actual determination of the amino acid sequence of a simple dipeptide to the theoretical determination of the complete primary structure of a larger polypeptide. Includes diagrams of display cards and duplicated sheets used in the theoretical portion of the exercise. (CS)

  1. The Effectiveness of Structured Co-Operative Teaching and Learning in Greek Primary School Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaldi, Stavroula; Filippatou, Diamanto; Anthopoulou, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses upon the effectiveness of structured co-operative group work on primary school students, aged between 8.5 and 9.5 years old, regarding their content knowledge, attitudes towards co-operative group work, experiential learning and open-ended curriculum as well as students' social and learning behaviour during co-operative group…

  2. Finite element analysis of helicopter structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rich, M. J.

    1978-01-01

    Application of the finite element analysis is now being expanded to three dimensional analysis of mechanical components. Examples are presented for airframe, mechanical components, and composite structure calculations. Data are detailed on the increase of model size, computer usage, and the effect on reducing stress analysis costs. Future applications for use of finite element analysis for helicopter structures are projected.

  3. Finding the Primary Care Providers in the Specialist-Dominant Primary Care Setting of Korea: A Cluster Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jin Yong; Eun, Sang Jun; Kim, Hyun Joo; Jo, Min-Woo

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to identify private clinics that have a potential to perform the role of primary care providers (PCPs) in a primary care setting in Korea where private specialists are dominant. Methods The 2013 National Patient Sample claim data of Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service in Korea was used. Two-step cluster analysis was performed using characteristics of private clinics, and patient and utilization characteristics of 27,797 private clinics. External validation of clusters was performed by assessing the association among clusters and outcomes of care provided by private clinics. Stability of clusters was cross-validated using discriminant analysis. Results The result classified more than a half of private clinics into a potential PCP cluster. These were private clinics with specialties considered to be those of primary care physicians and were more likely to be located in non-metropolitan areas than specialized PCPs were. Compared to specialized PCPs, they had a higher percentage of pediatric and geriatric patients, patients with greater disease severity, a higher percentage of patients with complex comorbidities or with simple or minor disease groups, a higher number of patients and visits, and the same or higher quality of primary care. The most important factor in explaining variations between PCP clusters was the number of simple or minor disease groups per patient. Conclusion This study identified potential PCPs and suggested the identifying criteria for PCPs. It will provide useful information for formulation of a primary care strengthening policy to policy makers in Korea as well as other countries with similar specialist-dominant primary care settings. PMID:27560181

  4. Stanniocalcin in the euryhaline flounder (Platichthys flesus): primary structure, tissue distribution, and response to altered salinity.

    PubMed

    Hang, Xiaoming; Balment, Richard John

    2005-11-01

    Stanniocalcin (STC) is a homodimeric glycoprotein hormone that was first discovered in fish, where it is largely produced by a unique endocrine gland, the corpuscles of Stannius (CS). In bony fish, it is thought to be an important regulator of calcium and phosphate uptake from the aquatic environment. This report describes the molecular cloning of STC from euryhaline flounder (Platichthys flesus) CS cDNA and genomic DNA. The flounder STC encodes a prehormone of 251 amino acids (aa) with a signal peptide of 17 aa, followed by another 15 aa sequence before the mature protein of 219 aa. The deduced aa sequence of flounder STC shows 62.9-89.0% similarity and 50.4-83.1% identity with other known fish STC sequences, but only 42.3% identity with mouse STC1, 24.4% identity with fugu and zebrafish STC2, and 22.3% identity with mouse STC2. Primary structural analysis demonstrated that flounder STC gene contains five exons in contrast to the four exons present in mammalian STC gene. RT-PCR revealed the expression of flounder STC mRNA to be widely spread in many tissues and organs, similar to the situation in mammals and other fish. Quantitative PCR (Q-PCR) was conducted to measure relative STC expression levels in the CS, which showed STC mRNA expression levels in seawater-adapted fish CS were about 3-fold higher than in freshwater-adapted fish CS.

  5. Primary structure and reactive site of a novel wheat proteinase inhibitor of subtilisin and chymotrypsin.

    PubMed

    Poerio, Elia; Di Gennaro, Simone; Di Maro, Antimo; Farisei, Francesca; Ferranti, Pasquale; Parente, Augusto

    2003-02-01

    The proteinase inhibitor WSCI, active in inhibiting bacterial subtilisin and a number of animal chymotrypsins, was purified from endosperm of exaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum, c.v. San Pastore) by ion exchange chromatography and its complete amino acid sequence was established by automated Edman degradation. WSCI consists of a single polypeptide chain of 72 amino acid residues, has a molecular mass of 8126.3 Da and a pl of 5.8. The inhibition constants (Ki) for Bacillus licheniformis subtilisin and bovine pancreatic alpha-chymotrypsin are 3.92 x 10(-9) M and 7.24 x 10(-9) M, respectively. The inhibitor contains one methionine and of tryptophan residue and has a high content of essential amino acids (41 over a total of 72 residues), but no cysteines. The primary structure of WSCI shows high similarity with barley subtilisin-chymotrypsin isoinhibitors of the Cl-2 type and with maize subtilisinchymotrypsin inhibitor MPI. Significant degrees of similarity were also found between sequences of WSCI and of other members of the potato inhibitor I family of the serine proteinase inhibitors. The wheat inhibitor WSCI has a single reactive site (the peptide bond between methionyl-48 and glutamyl-49 residues) as identified by affinity chromatography and sequence analysis.

  6. Heterotaxy and complex structural heart defects in a mutant mouse model of primary ciliary dyskinesia

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Serena Y.; Rosenthal, Julie; Zhao, Xiao-Qing; Francis, Richard J.; Chatterjee, Bishwanath; Sabol, Steven L.; Linask, Kaari L.; Bracero, Luciann; Connelly, Patricia S.; Daniels, Mathew P.; Yu, Qing; Omran, Heymut; Leatherbury, Linda; Lo, Cecilia W.

    2007-01-01

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a genetically heterogeneous disorder associated with ciliary defects and situs inversus totalis, the complete mirror image reversal of internal organ situs (positioning). A variable incidence of heterotaxy, or irregular organ situs, also has been reported in PCD patients, but it is not known whether this is elicited by the PCD-causing genetic lesion. We studied a mouse model of PCD with a recessive mutation in Dnahc5, a dynein gene commonly mutated in PCD. Analysis of homozygous mutant embryos from 18 litters yielded 25% with normal organ situs, 35% with situs inversus totalis, and 40% with heterotaxy. Embryos with heterotaxy had complex structural heart defects that included discordant atrioventricular and ventricular outflow situs and atrial/pulmonary isomerisms. Variable combinations of a distinct set of cardiovascular anomalies were observed, including superior-inferior ventricles, great artery alignment defects, and interrupted inferior vena cava with azygos continuation. The surprisingly high incidence of heterotaxy led us to evaluate the diagnosis of PCD. PCD was confirmed by EM, which revealed missing outer dynein arms in the respiratory cilia. Ciliary dyskinesia was observed by videomicroscopy. These findings show that Dnahc5 is required for the specification of left-right asymmetry and suggest that the PCD-causing Dnahc5 mutation may also be associated with heterotaxy. PMID:18037990

  7. An Efficient Analysis Methodology for Fluted-Core Composite Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oremont, Leonard; Schultz, Marc R.

    2012-01-01

    The primary loading condition in launch-vehicle barrel sections is axial compression, and it is therefore important to understand the compression behavior of any structures, structural concepts, and materials considered in launch-vehicle designs. This understanding will necessarily come from a combination of test and analysis. However, certain potentially beneficial structures and structural concepts do not lend themselves to commonly used simplified analysis methods, and therefore innovative analysis methodologies must be developed if these structures and structural concepts are to be considered. This paper discusses such an analysis technique for the fluted-core sandwich composite structural concept. The presented technique is based on commercially available finite-element codes, and uses shell elements to capture behavior that would normally require solid elements to capture the detailed mechanical response of the structure. The shell thicknesses and offsets using this analysis technique are parameterized, and the parameters are adjusted through a heuristic procedure until this model matches the mechanical behavior of a more detailed shell-and-solid model. Additionally, the detailed shell-and-solid model can be strategically placed in a larger, global shell-only model to capture important local behavior. Comparisons between shell-only models, experiments, and more detailed shell-and-solid models show excellent agreement. The discussed analysis methodology, though only discussed in the context of fluted-core composites, is widely applicable to other concepts.

  8. Finite element and wavefront error analysis of the primary mirror of an experimental telescope with reverse engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Bo-Kai; Huang, Po-Hsuan

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents the finite element and wavefront error analysis with reverse engineering of the primary mirror of a small space telescope experimental model. The experimental space telescope with 280mm diameter primary mirror has been assembled and aligned in 2011, but the measured system optical performance and wavefront error did not achieve the goal. In order to find out the root causes, static structure finite element analysis (FEA) has been applied to analyze the structure model of the primary mirror assembly. Several assuming effects which may cause deformation of the primary mirror have been proposed, such as gravity effect, flexures bonding effect, thermal expansion effect, etc. According to each assuming effect, we establish a corresponding model and boundary condition setup, and the numerical model will be analyzed by finite element method (FEM) software and opto-mechanical analysis software to obtain numerical wavefront error and Zernike polynomials. Now new assumption of the flexures bonding effect is proposed, and we adopt reverse engineering to verify this effect. Finally, the numerically synthetic system wavefront error will be compared with measured system wavefront error of the telescope. By analyzing and realizing these deformation effects of the primary mirror, the opto-mechanical design and telescope assembly workmanship will be refined, and improve the telescope optical performance.

  9. X-ray fluorescence analysis of iron and manganese distribution in primary dopaminergic neurons

    PubMed Central

    Dučić, Tanja; Barski, Elisabeth; Salome, Murielle; Koch, Jan C; Bähr, Mathias; Lingor, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Transition metals have been suggested to play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. X-ray microscopy combined with a cryogenic setup is a powerful method for elemental imaging in low concentrations and high resolution in intact cells, eliminating the need for fixation and sectioning of the specimen. Here, we performed an elemental distribution analysis in cultured primary midbrain neurons with a step size in the order of 300 nm and ∼ 0.1 ppm sensitivity under cryo conditions by using X-ray fluorescence microscopy. We report the elemental mappings on the subcellular level in primary mouse dopaminergic (DAergic) and non-DAergic neurons after treatment with transition metals. Application of Fe2+ resulted in largely extracellular accumulation of iron without preference for the neuronal transmitter subtype. A quantification of different Fe oxidation states was performed using X-ray absorption near edge structure analysis. After treatment with Mn2+, a cytoplasmic/paranuclear localization of Mn was observed preferentially in DAergic neurons, while no prominent signal was detectable after Mn3+ treatment. Immunocytochemical analysis correlated the preferential Mn uptake to increased expression of voltage-gated calcium channels in DAergic neurons. We discuss the implications of this differential elemental distribution for the selective vulnerability of DAergic neurons and Parkinson's disease pathogenesis. PMID:23106162

  10. Metallic and Non-Metallic Materials for the Primary Support Structure

    SciTech Connect

    RA Wolf; RP Corson

    2006-02-21

    The primary support structure (PSS) is required for mechanical support of reactor module (RM) components and mounting of the RM to the spacecraft. The PSS would provide support and accept all loads associated with dynamic (e. g., launch and maneuvering) or thermally induced loading. Prior to termination of NRPCT involvement in Project Prometheus, the NRPCT Mechanical Systems team developed preliminary finite element models to gain a basic understanding of the behavior of the structure, but optimization of the models, specification of the final design, and materials selection were not completed. The Space Plant Materials team had evaluated several materials for potential use in the primary support structure, namely titanium alloys, beryllium, aluminum alloys and carbon-carbon composites. The feasibility of application of each material system was compared based on mass, stiffness, thermal expansion, and ease of fabrication. Due to insufficient data on environmental factors, such as temperatures and radiation, and limited modeling support, a final materials selection was not made.

  11. Comparative structure and biomechanics of plant primary and secondary cell walls.

    PubMed

    Cosgrove, Daniel J; Jarvis, Michael C

    2012-01-01

    Recent insights into the physical biology of plant cell walls are reviewed, summarizing the essential differences between primary and secondary cell walls and identifying crucial gaps in our knowledge of their structure and biomechanics. Unexpected parallels are identified between the mechanism of expansion of primary cell walls during growth and the mechanisms by which hydrated wood deforms under external tension. There is a particular need to revise current "cartoons" of plant cell walls to be more consistent with data from diverse approaches and to go beyond summarizing limited aspects of cell walls, serving instead as guides for future experiments and for the application of new techniques.

  12. Job Satisfaction: Factor Analysis of Greek Primary School Principals' Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saiti, Anna; Fassoulis, Konstantinos

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the factors that affect the level of job satisfaction that school principals experience and, based on the findings, to suggest policies or techniques for improving it. Design/methodology/approach: Questionnaires were administered to 180 primary school heads in 13 prefectures--one from each of…

  13. An Empirical Analysis of Primary Teacher Standards in Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Patrick; Cuc, Nguyen Thi Kim; Gillis, Shelley; Thanh, Mai Thi

    2006-01-01

    This article presents an account of the development of competency standards and profiles for primary teachers in Vietnam. The development project has taken more than four years and used a combination of consultative, actuarial, and item response modeling procedures to develop and validate a scale of teacher competence. In the overall project, more…

  14. An Analysis of Primary School Dropout Patterns in Honduras

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sekiya, Takeshi; Ashida, Akemi

    2017-01-01

    This study hypothesized that repeating a grade is one reason why Honduran primary students drop out of school but not the main reason. Using longitudinal data, we analyzed student enrollment patterns up until students left school. The results revealed that many students dropped out suddenly without having previously repeated a grade, although many…

  15. A Qualitative Analysis of School Concept on Primary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yildiz, S. Armagan

    2012-01-01

    Child drawing, known as language of thinking, is as an effective tool of expression as written language. The use of paper, composition, and colors are meaningful for professionals. In this research, it is intended to determine the primary school students' perception of the school and schemas with their drawings of school. Case study which is one…

  16. A perspective on the primary and three-dimensional structures of carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Widmalm, Göran

    2013-08-30

    Carbohydrates, in more biologically oriented areas referred to as glycans, constitute one of the four groups of biomolecules. The glycans, often present as glycoproteins or glycolipids, form highly complex structures. In mammals ten monosaccharides are utilized in building glycoconjugates in the form of oligo- (up to about a dozen monomers) and polysaccharides. Subsequent modifications and additions create a large number of different compounds. In bacteria, more than a hundred monosaccharides have been reported to be constituents of lipopolysaccharides, capsular polysaccharides, and exopolysaccharides. Thus, the number of polysaccharide structures possible to create is huge. NMR spectroscopy plays an essential part in elucidating the primary structure, that is, monosaccharide identity and ring size, anomeric configuration, linkage position, and sequence, of the sugar residues. The structural studies may also employ computational approaches for NMR chemical shift predictions (CASPER program). Once the components and sequence of sugar residues have been unraveled, the three-dimensional arrangement of the sugar residues relative to each other (conformation), their flexibility (transitions between and populations of conformational states), together with the dynamics (timescales) should be addressed. To shed light on these aspects we have utilized a combination of experimental liquid state NMR techniques together with molecular dynamics simulations. For the latter a molecular mechanics force field such as our CHARMM-based PARM22/SU01 has been used. The experimental NMR parameters acquired are typically (1)H,(1)H cross-relaxation rates (related to NOEs), (3)JCH and (3)JCCtrans-glycosidic coupling constants and (1)H,(13)C- and (1)H,(1)H-residual dipolar couplings. At a glycosidic linkage two torsion angles ϕ and ψ are defined and for 6-substituted residues also the ω torsion angle is required. Major conformers can be identified for which highly populated states are

  17. Modeling, Analysis, and Optimization Issues for Large Space Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinson, L. D. (Compiler); Amos, A. K. (Compiler); Venkayya, V. B. (Compiler)

    1983-01-01

    Topics concerning the modeling, analysis, and optimization of large space structures are discussed including structure-control interaction, structural and structural dynamics modeling, thermal analysis, testing, and design.

  18. Automatic analysis of the micronucleus test in primary human lymphocytes using image analysis.

    PubMed

    Frieauff, W; Martus, H J; Suter, W; Elhajouji, A

    2013-01-01

    The in vitro micronucleus test (MNT) is a well-established test for early screening of new chemical entities in industrial toxicology. For assessing the clastogenic or aneugenic potential of a test compound, micronucleus induction in cells has been shown repeatedly to be a sensitive and a specific parameter. Various automated systems to replace the tedious and time-consuming visual slide analysis procedure as well as flow cytometric approaches have been discussed. The ROBIAS (Robotic Image Analysis System) for both automatic cytotoxicity assessment and micronucleus detection in human lymphocytes was developed at Novartis where the assay has been used to validate positive results obtained in the MNT in TK6 cells, which serves as the primary screening system for genotoxicity profiling in early drug development. In addition, the in vitro MNT has become an accepted alternative to support clinical studies and will be used for regulatory purposes as well. The comparison of visual with automatic analysis results showed a high degree of concordance for 25 independent experiments conducted for the profiling of 12 compounds. For concentration series of cyclophosphamide and carbendazim, a very good correlation between automatic and visual analysis by two examiners could be established, both for the relative division index used as cytotoxicity parameter, as well as for micronuclei scoring in mono- and binucleated cells. Generally, false-positive micronucleus decisions could be controlled by fast and simple relocation of the automatically detected patterns. The possibility to analyse 24 slides within 65h by automatic analysis over the weekend and the high reproducibility of the results make automatic image processing a powerful tool for the micronucleus analysis in primary human lymphocytes. The automated slide analysis for the MNT in human lymphocytes complements the portfolio of image analysis applications on ROBIAS which is supporting various assays at Novartis.

  19. Analysis and Design of Fuselage Structures Including Residual Strength Prediction Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, Norman F.

    1998-01-01

    The goal of this research project is to develop and assess methodologies for the design and analysis of fuselage structures accounting for residual strength. Two primary objectives are included in this research activity: development of structural analysis methodology for predicting residual strength of fuselage shell-type structures; and the development of accurate, efficient analysis, design and optimization tool for fuselage shell structures. Assessment of these tools for robustness, efficient, and usage in a fuselage shell design environment will be integrated with these two primary research objectives.

  20. Dynamic analysis and design of the SIRTF primary mirror mount

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richard, Ralph M.; Vukobratovich, Daniel; Pollard, L. Wayne

    1987-01-01

    The criteria and considerations for the design of the support system for the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) primary mirror are presented. A flexural-gimbal-baseplate design for the 0.5 m primary mirror was developed. Preliminary studies have indicated that this design may be further improved by replacing the flexures by a post-gimbal system wherein the gimbal design accomodates both the cryogenic cool down effects, the dynamic launch loads, and manufacturing tolerance effects. Additionally, a prestressed baseplate concept had evolved and was presented for the full scale 1.0 m mirror. However, preliminary design studies indicate that this concept will not be required, and the post-gimbal-baseplate design similar to the 0.5 m alternate support system will meet the cryogenic cool down, dynamic launch load criteria, and manufacturing tolerance effects.

  1. A Primary Sequence Analysis of the ARGONAUTE Protein Family in Plants.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Leal, Daniel; Castillo-Cobián, Amanda; Rodríguez-Arévalo, Isaac; Vielle-Calzada, Jean-Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Small RNA (sRNA)-mediated gene silencing represents a conserved regulatory mechanism controlling a wide diversity of developmental processes through interactions of sRNAs with proteins of the ARGONAUTE (AGO) family. On the basis of a large phylogenetic analysis that includes 206 AGO genes belonging to 23 plant species, AGO genes group into four clades corresponding to the phylogenetic distribution proposed for the ten family members of Arabidopsis thaliana. A primary analysis of the corresponding protein sequences resulted in 50 sequences of amino acids (blocks) conserved across their linear length. Protein members of the AGO4/6/8/9 and AGO1/10 clades are more conserved than members of the AGO5 and AGO2/3/7 clades. In addition to blocks containing components of the PIWI, PAZ, and DUF1785 domains, members of the AGO2/3/7 and AGO4/6/8/9 clades possess other consensus block sequences that are exclusive of members within these clades, suggesting unforeseen functional specialization revealed by their primary sequence. We also show that AGO proteins of animal and plant kingdoms share linear sequences of blocks that include motifs involved in posttranslational modifications such as those regulating AGO2 in humans and the PIWI protein AUBERGINE in Drosophila. Our results open possibilities for exploring new structural and functional aspects related to the evolution of AGO proteins within the plant kingdom, and their convergence with analogous proteins in mammals and invertebrates.

  2. A Primary Sequence Analysis of the ARGONAUTE Protein Family in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Leal, Daniel; Castillo-Cobián, Amanda; Rodríguez-Arévalo, Isaac; Vielle-Calzada, Jean-Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Small RNA (sRNA)-mediated gene silencing represents a conserved regulatory mechanism controlling a wide diversity of developmental processes through interactions of sRNAs with proteins of the ARGONAUTE (AGO) family. On the basis of a large phylogenetic analysis that includes 206 AGO genes belonging to 23 plant species, AGO genes group into four clades corresponding to the phylogenetic distribution proposed for the ten family members of Arabidopsis thaliana. A primary analysis of the corresponding protein sequences resulted in 50 sequences of amino acids (blocks) conserved across their linear length. Protein members of the AGO4/6/8/9 and AGO1/10 clades are more conserved than members of the AGO5 and AGO2/3/7 clades. In addition to blocks containing components of the PIWI, PAZ, and DUF1785 domains, members of the AGO2/3/7 and AGO4/6/8/9 clades possess other consensus block sequences that are exclusive of members within these clades, suggesting unforeseen functional specialization revealed by their primary sequence. We also show that AGO proteins of animal and plant kingdoms share linear sequences of blocks that include motifs involved in posttranslational modifications such as those regulating AGO2 in humans and the PIWI protein AUBERGINE in Drosophila. Our results open possibilities for exploring new structural and functional aspects related to the evolution of AGO proteins within the plant kingdom, and their convergence with analogous proteins in mammals and invertebrates. PMID:27635128

  3. Uncertainty analysis of primary water pollutant control in China's pulp and paper industry.

    PubMed

    Wen, Zong-guo; Di, Jing-han; Zhang, Xue-ying

    2016-03-15

    The total emission control target of water pollutants (e.g., COD and NH4-N) for a certain industrial sector can be predicted and analysed using the popular technology-based bottom-up modelling. However, this methodology has obvious uncertainty regarding the attainment of mitigation targets. The primary uncertainty comes from macro-production, pollutant reduction roadmap, and technical parameters. This research takes the paper and pulp industry in China as an example, and builds 5 mitigation scenarios via different combinations of raw material structure, scale structure, procedure mitigation technology, and end-of-pipe treatment technology. Using the methodology of uncertainty analysis via Monte Carlo, random sampling was conducted over a hundred thousand times. According to key parameters, sensitive parameters that impact total emission control targets such as industrial output, technique structure, cleaner production technology, and end-of-pipe treatment technology are discussed in this article. It appears that scenario uncertainty has a larger influence on COD emission than NH4-N, hence it is recommended that a looser total emission control target for COD is necessary to increase its feasibility and availability while maintaining the status quo of NH4-N. Consequently, from uncertainty analysis, this research recognizes the sensitive products, techniques, and technologies affecting industrial water pollution.

  4. Primary structure of tRNA-Lys of E. coli B.

    PubMed Central

    Chakraburtty, K; Steinschneider, A; Case, R V; Mehler, A H

    1975-01-01

    The primary structure of tRNALys of E. coli was determined by use of [32P]-tRNA. The sequence is pGGGUCGUUAGCUCAGDDGGDAGAGCAGUUGACUmam5-s2-UUU-t6AApsiCAAUUGm7GXCGCAGGTpsiCGAAUCCUGCACGACCCACCA. No s4-U was detected in position 8. No other lysine tRNA was detected but the existence of another species has not been ruled out. Images PMID:802509

  5. Self-Efficacy, School Resources, Job Stressors and Burnout among Spanish Primary and Secondary School Teachers: A Structural Equation Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betoret, Fernando Domenech

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between school resources, teacher self-efficacy, potential multi-level stressors and teacher burnout using structural equation modelling. The causal structure for primary and secondary school teachers was also examined. The sample was composed of 724 primary and secondary Spanish school teachers. The changes…

  6. Structural analysis considerations for wind turbine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spera, D. A.

    1979-01-01

    Approaches to the structural analysis of wind turbine blade designs are reviewed. Specifications and materials data are discussed along with the analysis of vibrations, loads, stresses, and failure modes.

  7. Team structure, team climate and the quality of care in primary care: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    Bower, P; Campbell, S; Bojke, C; Sibbald, B

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To determine whether practice structure (for example, list size, number of staff) predicts team processes and whether practice structure and team process in turn predict team outcomes Design: Observational study using postal questionnaires and medical note audit. Team process was assessed through a measure of "climate" which examines shared perceptions of organisational policies, practices, and procedures. Setting: Primary care. Subjects: Members of the primary health care team from 42 practices. Main outcome measures: Objective measures of quality of chronic disease management, patients' evaluations of practices, teams' self-reported ratings of effectiveness, and innovation. Results: Team climate was better in singlehanded practices than in partnerships. Practices with longer booking intervals provided superior chronic disease management. Higher team climate scores were associated with superior clinical care in diabetes, more positive patient evaluations of practice and self-reported innovation and effectiveness. Conclusions: Although the conclusions are preliminary because of the limited sample size, the study suggests that there are important relationships between team structure, process, and outcome that may be of relevance to quality improvement initiatives in primary care. Possible causal mechanisms that might underlie these associations remain to be determined. PMID:12897360

  8. NMR strategies to support medicinal chemistry workflows for primary structure determination.

    PubMed

    Oguadinma, Paul; Bilodeau, Francois; LaPlante, Steven R

    2017-01-15

    Central to drug discovery is the correct characterization of the primary structures of compounds. In general, medicinal chemists make great synthetic and characterization efforts to deliver the intended compounds. However, there are occasions which incorrect compounds are presented, such as those reported for Bosutinib and TIC10. This may be due to a variety of reasons such as uncontrolled reaction schemes, reliance on limited characterization techniques (LC-MS and/or 1D 1H NMR spectra), or even the lack of availability or knowledge of characterization strategies. Here, we present practical NMR approaches that support medicinal chemist workflows for addressing compound characterization issues and allow for reliable primary structure determinations. These strategies serve to differentiate between regioisomers and geometric isomers, distinguish between N- versus O-alkyl analogues, and identify rotamers and atropisomers. Overall, awareness and application of these available NMR methods (e.g. HMBC/HSQC, ROESY and VT experiments, to name only a few) should help practicing chemists to reveal chemical phenomena and avoid mis-assignment of the primary structures of compounds.

  9. Fast computational methods for predicting protein structure from primary amino acid sequence

    DOEpatents

    Agarwal, Pratul Kumar

    2011-07-19

    The present invention provides a method utilizing primary amino acid sequence of a protein, energy minimization, molecular dynamics and protein vibrational modes to predict three-dimensional structure of a protein. The present invention also determines possible intermediates in the protein folding pathway. The present invention has important applications to the design of novel drugs as well as protein engineering. The present invention predicts the three-dimensional structure of a protein independent of size of the protein, overcoming a significant limitation in the prior art.

  10. Bifactor structure of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence--Fourth Edition.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Marley W; Beaujean, A Alexander

    2014-03-01

    The Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence--Fourth Edition (WPPSI-IV; Wechsler, 2012) represents a substantial departure from its predecessor, including omission of 4 subtests, addition of 5 new subtests, and modification of the contents of the 5 retained subtests. Wechsler (2012) explicitly assumed a higher-order structure with general intelligence (g) as the second-order factor that explained all the covariation of several first-order factors but failed to consider a bifactor model. The WPPSI-IV normative sample contains 1,700 children aged 2 years and 6 months through 7 years and 7 months, bifurcated into 2 age groups: 2:6-3:11 year olds (n = 600) and 4:0-7:7 year olds (n = 1,100). This study applied confirmatory factor analysis to the WPPSI-IV normative sample data to test the fit of a bifactor model and to determine the reliability of the resulting factors. The bifactor model fit the WPPSI-IV normative sample data as well as or better than the higher-order models favored by Wechsler (2012). In the bifactor model, the general factor accounted for more variance in every subtest than did its corresponding domain-specific factor and the general factor accounted for more total and common variance than all domain-specific factors combined. Further, the domain-specific factors exhibited poor reliability independent of g (i.e., ωh coefficients of .05 to .33). These results suggest that only the general intelligence dimension was sufficiently robust and precise for clinical use.

  11. Aero-Structural Interaction, Analysis, and Shape Sensitivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, James C., III

    1999-01-01

    A multidisciplinary sensitivity analysis technique that has been shown to be independent of step-size selection is examined further. The accuracy of this step-size independent technique, which uses complex variables for determining sensitivity derivatives, has been previously established. The primary focus of this work is to validate the aero-structural analysis procedure currently being used. This validation consists of comparing computed and experimental data obtained for an Aeroelastic Research Wing (ARW-2). Since the aero-structural analysis procedure has the complex variable modifications already included into the software, sensitivity derivatives can automatically be computed. Other than for design purposes, sensitivity derivatives can be used for predicting the solution at nearby conditions. The use of sensitivity derivatives for predicting the aero-structural characteristics of this configuration is demonstrated.

  12. Analysis of some elements in primary enamel during postnatal mineralization.

    PubMed

    Sabel, Nina; Klinberg, Gunilla; Nietzsche, Sandor; Robertson, Agneta; Odelius, Hans; Norén, Jörgen G

    2009-01-01

    The primary teeth start to mineralize in utero and continue development and maturation during the first year of life.The aim of this study was to investigate the concentrations of some elements, C, F, Na, Mg, Cl, K and Sr, by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) in human primary incisors at different stages of mineralization.The teeth derived from an autopsy material from children who had died in sudden infant death.The buccal enamel of specimens from the ages 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 19 months, respectively, was analyzed. It was evident that posteruptive effects play an important role in composition of the outermost parts of the enamel. Before the tooth erupts, the concentrations of the elements vary with the maturation grade of the mineralization in the enamel. Sodium was the element with the highest concentration of the measured elements and chlorine was the element of lowest concentration.The 19 month old specimen, considered as the only mature and erupted tooth, showed to differ from the other specimens.The concentration of fluorine, in the 19 month old specimen's outermost surface, is readily seen higher compared with the other specimens at this depth zone. In the 19 month old specimen the concentration of carbon is lower. Potassium, sodium and chlorine have higher concentrations, in general, in the 19 month old specimen compared with the immature specimens. The thickness of the enamel during mineralization was calculated from data from SIMS.The thickness of the buccal enamel of primary incisors seemed to be fully developed between 3-4 months after birth, reaching a thickness of 350-400 microm.

  13. Incentive-Based Primary Care: Cost and Utilization Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hollander, Marcus J; Kadlec, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Context: In its fee-for-service funding model for primary care, British Columbia, Canada, introduced incentive payments to general practitioners as pay for performance for providing enhanced, guidelines-based care to patients with chronic conditions. Evaluation of the program was conducted at the health care system level. Objective: To examine the impact of the incentive payments on annual health care costs and hospital utilization patterns in British Columbia. Design: The study used Ministry of Health administrative data for Fiscal Year 2010–2011 for patients with diabetes, congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and/or hypertension. In each disease group, cost and utilization were compared across patients who did, and did not, receive incentive-based care. Main Outcome Measures: Health care costs (eg, primary care, hospital) and utilization measures (eg, hospital days, readmissions). Results: After controlling for patients’ age, sex, service needs level, and continuity of care (defined as attachment to a general practice), the incentives reduced the net annual health care costs, in Canadian dollars, for patients with hypertension (by approximately Can$308 per patient), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (by Can$496), and congestive heart failure (by Can$96), but not diabetes (incentives cost about Can$148 more per patient). The incentives were also associated with fewer hospital days, fewer admissions and readmissions, and shorter lengths of hospital stays for all 4 groups. Conclusion: Although the available literature on pay for performance shows mixed results, we showed that the funding model used in British Columbia using incentive payments for primary care might reduce health care costs and hospital utilization. PMID:26263389

  14. Primary Trait Analysis to Assess a Learner-Centered, Upper-Level Mathematics Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsardary, Salar; Pontiggia, Laura; Hamid, Mohammed; Blumberg, Phyllis

    2011-01-01

    This study presents a primary trait analysis of a learner-centered, discrete mathematics course based on student-to-student instruction. The authors developed a scoring rubric for the primary traits: conceptual knowledge, procedural knowledge, application of understanding, and mathematical communication skills. Eleven students took an exam…

  15. Use Root Cause Analysis Teaching Strategy to Train Primary Pre-Service Science Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Chow-chin; Tsai, Chun-wei; Hong, Jon-chao

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the Root Cause Analysis (RCA) teaching strategy on pre-service primary science teachers and instinct pre-service teachers to apply RCA teaching strategy to science curriculums. RCA Teaching Strategy is to coordinates 5 Why Method and Fishbone Diagram. The participants included 18 pre-service primary science teachers and the…

  16. [Hemoglobins, XXXVII. The primary structure of a monomeric insect hemoglobin (Erythrocruorin), component CTT IIIa of Chironomus thummi thummi. An anomalous Heme complex: E7 Gln, E11 Ile].

    PubMed

    Steer, W; Braunitzer, G

    1981-01-01

    The primary structure of the monomeric hemoglobin CTT IIIa of the midge larva of Chironomus thummi thummi is presented. Cyanogenbromide peptides and tryptic peptides were used for sequence analysis. The primary structure was established with a small number of large peptides. The complete sequencing of the cyanogen bromide peptides was enabled by the C-terminal fixation of arginine. The primary structure of CTT IIIa is compared to the beta-chains of human and to the monomeric component CTT III: CTT IIIa possesses a "tail" of 9 amino acids on the N-terminus, and shows only a small number of identical residues compared to the number that other CTT hemoglobins share with each other. Also the heme complex is unusual: E7 Gln and E11 Ile.

  17. Formation mechanism of primary phases and eutectic structures within undercooled Pb-Sb-Sn ternary alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Weili; Dai, Fuping; Wei, Bingbo

    2007-08-01

    The solidification characteristics of three types of Pb-Sb-Sn ternary alloys with different primary phases were studied under substantial undercooling conditions. The experimental results show that primary (Pb) and SbSn phases grow in the dendritic mode, whereas primary (Sb) phase exhibits faceted growth in the form of polygonal blocks and long strips. (Pb) solid solution phase displays strong affinity with SbSn intermetallic compound so that they produce various morphologies of pseudobinary eutectics, but it can only grow in the divorced eutectic mode together with (Sb) phase. Although (Sb) solid solution phase and SbSn intermetallic compound may grow cooperatively within ternary eutectic microstructures, they seldom form pseudobinary eutectics independently. The (Pb)+(Sb)+SbSn ternary eutectic structure usually shows lamellar morphology, but appears as anomalous eutectic when its volume fraction becomes small. EDS analyses reveal that all of the three primary (Pb), (Sb) and SbSn phases exhibit conspicuous solute trapping effect during rapid solidification, which results in the remarkable extension of solute solubility.

  18. Spatial analysis of elderly access to primary care services

    PubMed Central

    Mobley, Lee R; Root, Elisabeth; Anselin, Luc; Lozano-Gracia, Nancy; Koschinsky, Julia

    2006-01-01

    Background Admissions for Ambulatory Care Sensitive Conditions (ACSCs) are considered preventable admissions, because they are unlikely to occur when good preventive health care is received. Thus, high rates of admissions for ACSCs among the elderly (persons aged 65 or above who qualify for Medicare health insurance) are signals of poor preventive care utilization. The relevant geographic market to use in studying these admission rates is the primary care physician market. Our conceptual model assumes that local market conditions serving as interventions along the pathways to preventive care services utilization can impact ACSC admission rates. Results We examine the relationships between market-level supply and demand factors on market-level rates of ACSC admissions among the elderly residing in the U.S. in the late 1990s. Using 6,475 natural markets in the mainland U.S. defined by The Health Resources and Services Administration's Primary Care Service Area Project, spatial regression is used to estimate the model, controlling for disease severity using detailed information from Medicare claims files. Our evidence suggests that elderly living in impoverished rural areas or in sprawling suburban places are about equally more likely to be admitted for ACSCs. Greater availability of physicians does not seem to matter, but greater prevalence of non-physician clinicians and international medical graduates, relative to U.S. medical graduates, does seem to reduce ACSC admissions, especially in poor rural areas. Conclusion The relative importance of non-physician clinicians and international medical graduates in providing primary care to the elderly in geographic areas of greatest need can inform the ongoing debate regarding whether there is an impending shortage of physicians in the United States. These findings support other authors who claim that the existing supply of physicians is perhaps adequate, however the distribution of them across the landscape may not be

  19. Fourier Analysis and Structure Determination--Part III: X-ray Crystal Structure Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chesick, John P.

    1989-01-01

    Discussed is single crystal X-ray crystal structure analysis. A common link between the NMR imaging and the traditional X-ray crystal structure analysis is reported. Claims that comparisons aid in the understanding of both techniques. (MVL)

  20. Computer applications for engineering/structural analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Zaslawsky, M.; Samaddar, S.K.

    1991-01-01

    Analysts and organizations have a tendency to lock themselves into specific codes with the obvious consequences of not addressing the real problem and thus reaching the wrong conclusion. This paper discusses the role of the analyst in selecting computer codes. The participation and support of a computation division in modifying the source program, configuration management, and pre- and post-processing of codes are among the subjects discussed. Specific examples illustrating the computer code selection process are described in the following problem areas: soil structure interaction, structural analysis of nuclear reactors, analysis of waste tanks where fluid structure interaction is important, analysis of equipment, structure-structure interaction, analysis of the operation of the superconductor supercollider which includes friction and transient temperature, and 3D analysis of the 10-meter telescope being built in Hawaii. Validation and verification of computer codes and their impact on the selection process are also discussed.

  1. NASA Structural Analysis System (NASTRAN)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purves, L.

    1991-01-01

    Program aids in structural design of wide range of objects, from high-impact printer parts to turbine engine blades, and fully validated. Since source code included, NASTRAN modified or enhanced for new applications.

  2. Advanced composites structural concepts and materials technologies for primary aircraft structures: Design/manufacturing concept assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Robert L.; Bayha, Tom D.; Davis, HU; Ingram, J. ED; Shukla, Jay G.

    1992-01-01

    Composite Wing and Fuselage Structural Design/Manufacturing Concepts have been developed and evaluated. Trade studies were performed to determine how well the concepts satisfy the program goals of 25 percent cost savings, 40 percent weight savings with aircraft resizing, and 50 percent part count reduction as compared to the aluminum Lockheed L-1011 baseline. The concepts developed using emerging technologies such as large scale resin transfer molding (RTM), automatic tow placed (ATP), braiding, out-of-autoclave and automated manufacturing processes for both thermoset and thermoplastic materials were evaluated for possible application in the design concepts. Trade studies were used to determine which concepts carry into the detailed design development subtask.

  3. Characterizing primary refractory neuroblastoma: prediction of outcome by microscopic image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niazi, M. Khalid Khan; Weiser, Daniel A.; Pawel, Bruce R.; Gurcan, Metin N.

    2015-03-01

    Neuroblastoma is a childhood cancer that starts in very early forms of nerve cells found in an embryo or fetus. It is a highly lethal cancer of sympathetic nervous system that commonly affects children of age five or younger. It accounts for a disproportionate number of childhood cancer deaths and remains a difficult cancer to eradicate despite intensive treatment that includes chemotherapy, surgery, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, radiation therapy and immunotherapy. A poorly characterized group of patients are the 15% with primary refractory neuroblastoma (PRN) which is uniformly lethal due to de novo chemotherapy resistance. The lack of response to therapy is currently assessed after multiple months of cytotoxic therapy, driving the critical need to develop pretreatment clinic-biological biomarkers that can guide precise and effective therapeutic strategies. Therefore, our guiding hypothesis is that PRN has distinct biological features present at diagnosis that can be identified for prediction modeling. During a visual analysis of PRN slides, stained with hematoxylin and eosin, we observed that patients who survived for less than three years contained large eosin-stained structures as compared to those who survived for greater than three years. So, our hypothesis is that the size of eosin stained structures can be used as a differentiating feature to characterize recurrence in neuroblastoma. To test this hypothesis, we developed an image analysis method that performs stain separation, followed by the detection of large structures stained with Eosin. On a set of 21 PRN slides, stained with hematoxylin and eosin, our image analysis method predicted the outcome with 85.7% accuracy.

  4. High resolution genome-wide mapping of the primary structure of chromatin

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhenhai; Pugh, B. Franklin

    2011-01-01

    The genomic organization of chromatin is increasingly recognized as a key regulator of cell behavior, but deciphering its regulation mechanisms requires detailed knowledge of chromatin’s primary structure - the assembly of nucleosomes throughout the genome. This Primer explains the principles for mapping and analyzing the primary organization of chromatin on a genomic scale. After introducing chromatin organization and its impact on gene regulation and human health, we then describe methods that detect nucleosome positioning and occupancy levels using chromatin-immunoprecipitation in combination with deep sequencing (ChIP-Seq), a strategy that is now straightforward and cost-efficient. We then explore current strategies for converting the sequence information into knowledge about chromatin, an exciting challenge for biologists and bioinformaticians. PMID:21241889

  5. 'SIMPLES': a structured primary care approach to adults with difficult asthma.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Dermot; Murphy, Anna; Ställberg, Björn; Baxter, Noel; Heaney, Liam G

    2013-09-01

    The substantial majority of patients with asthma can expect minimal breakthrough symptoms on standard doses of inhaled corticosteroids with or without additional add-on therapies. SIMPLES is a structured primary care approach to the review of a person with uncontrolled asthma which encompasses patient education monitoring, lifestyle and pharmacological management and addressing support needs which will achieve control in most patients. The small group of patients presenting with persistent asthma symptoms despite being prescribed high levels of treatment are often referred to as having 'difficult asthma'. Some will have difficult, 'therapy resistant' asthma, some will have psychosocial problems which make it difficult for them to achieve asthma control and some may prove to have an alternative diagnosis driving their symptoms. A few patients will benefit from referral to a 'difficult asthma' clinic. The SIMPLES approach, aligned with close co-operation between primary and specialist care, can identify this patient group, avoid inappropriate escalation of treatment, and streamline clinical assessment and management.

  6. Graviresponsiveness and columella cell structure in primary and secondary roots of Ricinus communis.

    PubMed

    Moore, R; Pasieniuk, J

    1984-01-01

    In order to determine what structural changes are associated with the onset of graviresponsiveness by plant roots, we have monitored the quantitative ultrastructures of columella (i.e., graviperceptive) cells in primary and secondary roots of Ricinus communis. The relative volumes of cellular components in lateral (i.e., minimally graviresponsive) roots were not significantly different from those of primary roots. The relative volumes of cellular components in secondary roots growing laterally were not significantly different from those of graviresponsive secondary roots. Therefore, the onset of graviresponsiveness by secondary roots of R. communis is not correlated with changes in organellar concentrations in columella cells. These results are discussed relative to a model for the differential graviresponsiveness of plant roots.

  7. Evaluation of Pactruss design characteristics critical to space station primary structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hedgepeth, John M.

    1987-01-01

    Several aspects of the possible application of the Pactruss concept to the primary truss structure of the space station are investigated. Estimates are made of the loads and hinge moments in deploying diagonal members as full deployment is approached. Included are the effects of beam columning and compliance of the surrounding structure. Requirements for joint design are suggested and a two-stage mid-diagonal latching hinge concept is described or analyzed. The problems with providing the experimental and theoretical tools needed for assuring reliable synchronous deployment are discussed and a first attempt at high-fidelity analytical simulation with NASTRAN is described. An alternative construction scenario in which the entire dual-keel truss structure is deployed as a single Shuttle payload is suggested.

  8. Solid-state NMR investigations of cellulose structure and interactions with matrix polysaccharides in plant primary cell walls.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tuo; Hong, Mei

    2016-01-01

    Until recently, the 3D architecture of plant cell walls was poorly understood due to the lack of high-resolution techniques for characterizing the molecular structure, dynamics, and intermolecular interactions of the wall polysaccharides in these insoluble biomolecular mixtures. We introduced multidimensional solid-state NMR (SSNMR) spectroscopy, coupled with (13)C labelling of whole plants, to determine the spatial arrangements of macromolecules in near-native plant cell walls. Here we review key evidence from 2D and 3D correlation NMR spectra that show relatively few cellulose-hemicellulose cross peaks but many cellulose-pectin cross peaks, indicating that cellulose microfibrils are not extensively coated by hemicellulose and all three major polysaccharides exist in a single network rather than two separate networks as previously proposed. The number of glucan chains in the primary-wall cellulose microfibrils has been under active debate recently. We show detailed analysis of quantitative (13)C SSNMR spectra of cellulose in various wild-type (WT) and mutant Arabidopsis and Brachypodium primary cell walls, which consistently indicate that primary-wall cellulose microfibrils contain at least 24 glucan chains.

  9. Thermal/structural analysis of a transpiration cooled nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, Peyton B.; Thompson, Jon E.; Babcock, Dale A.; Gray, Carl E., Jr.; Mouring, Chris A.

    1992-01-01

    The 8-foot High Temperature Tunnel (HTT) at LaRC is a combustion driven, high enthalpy blow down wind tunnel. In Mar. 1991, during check out of the transpiration cooled nozzle, pieces of platelets were found in the tunnel test section. It was determined that incorrect tolerancing between the platelets and the housing was the primary cause of the platelet failure. An analysis was performed to determine the tolerance layout between the platelets and the housing to meet the structural and performance criteria under a range of thermal, pressure, and bolt preload conditions. Three recommendations resulted as a product of this analysis.

  10. Regional structural differences across functionally parcellated Brodmann areas of human primary somatosensory cortex.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Panchuelo, Rosa-María; Besle, Julien; Mougin, Olivier; Gowland, Penny; Bowtell, Richard; Schluppeck, Denis; Francis, Susan

    2014-06-01

    Ultra-high-field (UHF) MRI is ideally suited for structural and functional imaging of the brain. High-resolution structural MRI can be used to map the anatomical boundaries between functional domains of the brain by identifying changes related to the pattern of myelination within cortical gray matter, opening up the possibility to study the relationship between functional domains and underlying structure in vivo. In a recent study, we demonstrated the correspondence between functional (based on retinotopic mapping) and structural (based on changes in T2(⁎)-weighted images linked to myelination) parcellations of the primary visual cortex (V1) in vivo at 7T (Sanchez-Panchuelo et al., 2012b). Here, we take advantage of the improved BOLD CNR and high spatial resolution achievable at 7T to study regional structural variations across the functionally defined areas within the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) in individual subjects. Using a traveling wave fMRI paradigm to map the internal somatotopic representation of the index, middle, and ring fingers in S1, we were able to identify multiple map reversals at the tip and base, corresponding to the boundaries between Brodmann areas 3a, 3b, 1 and 2. Based on high resolution structural MRI data acquired in the same subjects, we inspected these functionally-parcellated Brodmann areas for differences in cortical thickness and MR contrast measures (magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) and signal intensity in phase sensitive inversion recovery (PSIR) images) that are sensitive to myelination. Consistent area-related differences in cortical thickness and MTR/PSIR measurements were found across subjects. However these measures did not have sufficient sensitivity to allow definition of areal boundaries.

  11. [A clinical analysis of 123 cases of primary empty sella].

    PubMed

    Li, J; Jia, H W; Wang, C L; Zhang, R; Qu, M Y; Li, W; Yuan, M H; Cui, J; He, Q; Wei, H Y; Zhu, T H; Ma, Z S; Liu, W; Dong, Z L; Gao, Z G

    2017-04-01

    Objective: This study was conducted to analyze the clinical characteristics and pituitary function of patients with primary empty sella (PES). Methods: The clinical data from 123 hospitalized adult patients with PES from January 2010 to May 2016 were retrospectively studied. Results: (1) The average age of the 123 (male 43, female 80) PES patients was (59.2±13.6) years (ranging 24-92 years), among whom 61% patients were in the age group between 50-69 years. (2) The symptoms of the patients included fatigue (56.1%), headache (34.1%), nausea and vomiting (17.9%), gonadal dysfunction (17.1%), visual disturbance (5.7%) and hypopituitarism crisis (3.3%). (3) Hypopituitarism was found in 66 of the 123 patients. Among them, 36.6%, 31.7% and 17.1% were central hypoadrenalism, hypogonadism, and hypothyroidism, respectively.The percentage of hypopituitarism in complete PES was significantly higher than that in partial PES (P<0.05). (4) Sixteen patients were concomitant with other autoimmune diseases including 11 patients with Graves' disease and 2 with Cushing's syndrome due to adrenal adenoma. Conclusions: The incidence of hypopituitarism in PES was 53.7%, in which the pituitary-adrenal axis hypofunction was more common. An overall evaluation of the pituitary function was essential for the patients who had headache and fatigue, or with suspected PES. The patients with hypopituitarism should be given hormone replacement therapy in time and followed up afterword.

  12. Analysis of suspended solids transport processes in primary settling tanks.

    PubMed

    Patziger, Miklós; Kiss, Katalin

    2015-01-01

    The paper shows the results of a long-term research comprising FLUENT-based numerical modeling, in situ measurements and laboratory tests to analyze suspended solids (SS) transport processes in primary settling tanks (PSTs). The investigated PST was one of the rectangular horizontal flow PSTs at a large municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) of a capacity of 500,000 population equivalent. Many middle-sized and large WWTPs are equipped with such PSTs. The numerical PST model was calibrated and validated based on the results of comprehensive in situ flow and SS concentration measurements from low (5 m/h) up to quite high surface overflow rates of 9.5 and 13.0 m/h and on settling and other laboratory tests. The calibrated and validated PST model was also successfully used for evaluation of some slight modifications of the inlet geometry (removing lamellas, installing a flocculation 'box', shifting the inlet into a 'bottom-near' or into a 'high' position), which largely affect PST behavior and performance. The investigations provided detailed insight into the flow and SS transport processes within the investigated PST, which strongly contributes to hydrodynamically driven design and upgrading of PSTs.

  13. Intermittency Coding in the Primary Olfactory System: A Neural Substrate for Olfactory Scene Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Il Memming; Bobkov, Yuriy V.; Ache, Barry W.

    2014-01-01

    The spatial and temporal characteristics of the visual and acoustic sensory input are indispensable attributes for animals to perform scene analysis. In contrast, research in olfaction has focused almost exclusively on how the nervous system analyzes the quality and quantity of the sensory signal and largely ignored the spatiotemporal dimension especially in longer time scales. Yet, detailed analyses of the turbulent, intermittent structure of water- and air-borne odor plumes strongly suggest that spatio-temporal information in longer time scales can provide major cues for olfactory scene analysis for animals. We show that a bursting subset of primary olfactory receptor neurons (bORNs) in lobster has the unexpected capacity to encode the temporal properties of intermittent odor signals. Each bORN is tuned to a specific range of stimulus intervals, and collectively bORNs can instantaneously encode a wide spectrum of intermittencies. Our theory argues for the existence of a novel peripheral mechanism for encoding the temporal pattern of odor that potentially serves as a neural substrate for olfactory scene analysis. PMID:24431452

  14. Purification and primary structure of a novel mannose-specific lectin from Centrolobium microchaete Mart seeds.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Mayron Alves de; Alves, Ana Cecília; Carneiro, Rômulo Farias; Dias, Artur Hermano Sampaio; Martins, Francisco William Viana; Cajazeiras, João Batista; Nagano, Celso Shiniti; Teixeira, Edson Holanda; Nascimento, Kyria Santiago do; Cavada, Benildo Sousa

    2015-11-01

    This study aimed to purify and characterize a novel mannose-binding lectin from the seeds of Centrolobium microchaete. Centrolobium microchaete lectin (CML) was purified by affinity chromatography in mannose-Sepharose-4B column. CML agglutinated rabbit erythrocytes and was inhibited by D-mannose, α-methyl-D-mannoside, D-glucose, N-Acetyl-D-glucosamine and sucrose. The lectin was stable at pH 7.0 and 8.0 and temperatures up to 60°C. The monomeric form of CML showed approximately 28kDa, and its native form is probably a homodimer, as determined by gel filtration chromatography. The primary structure of CML was determined by tandem mass spectrometry that showed CML as a protein with two distinct forms (isolectins CML-1 and CML-2) with 246 and 247 residues, respectively. CML-2 possesses one residue of Asn more than CML-1 in C-terminal. The primary structure of CML agrees with the molecular weights found by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry: 27,224 and 27,338Da for CML-1 and CML-2, respectively. CML is a metal-dependent glycoprotein. Moreover, the glycan composition of CML and its structure were predicted.

  15. Effect of primary particle morphology on the structure of gels formed in intense turbulent shear.

    PubMed

    Arosio, Paolo; Xie, Delong; Wu, Hua; Braun, Leonie; Morbidelli, Massimo

    2010-05-04

    We study the effect of primary particle morphology on intense shear-induced gelation without adding electrolytes. The primary particles are composed of a rubbery core grafted with a polystyrene shell. Depending on the shell-to-core mass ratio, the core can be partially covered by the shell, leading to strawberry-like morphology. It is found that at a fixed core mass the fractal dimension of the clusters constructing the gel decreases (i.e., more open cluster structure) as the shell mass increases, until reaching a plateau. The SEM pictures of the gels reveal that the structure variations are due to the occurrence of partial coalescence among particles, which decreases as the shell mass increases. In the region where the fractal dimension reaches a plateau, the coalescence is negligible. The conversion of the primary particles to gels is incomplete and increases as the extent of coalescence decreases. This is related to the fact that the smaller the extent of coalescence, the larger the cluster size. Thus, because of its cubic dependence on the cluster size, the aggregation rate increases as the extent of coalescence decreases, leading to increased conversion. It is therefore evident that the key parameter controlling the gel structure and the particle conversion is the core surface coverage by the shell. To further verify this conclusion, we have carried out the shear-induced gelation of another set of particles with varying core mass. It is found that the only parameter that can well correlate the values of the fractal dimension and particle conversion from the two sets of particles is the core surface coverage.

  16. Primary seminal vesicle carcinoma: an immunohistochemical analysis of four cases.

    PubMed

    Ormsby, A H; Haskell, R; Jones, D; Goldblum, J R

    2000-01-01

    Primary adenocarcinoma of the seminal vesicles is an extremely rare neoplasm. Because prompt diagnosis and treatment are associated with improved long-term survival, accurate recognition of this neoplasm is important, particularly when evaluating limited biopsy material. Immunohistochemistry can be used to rule out neoplasms that commonly invade the seminal vesicles, such as prostatic adenocarcinoma. Previous reports have shown that seminal vesicle adenocarcinoma (SVCA) is negative for prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and prostate-specific acid phosphatase (PAP); however, little else is known of its immunophenotype. Consequently, we evaluated the utility of cancer antigen 125 (CA-125) and cytokeratin (CK) subsets 7 and 20 for distinguishing SVCA from other neoplasms that enter the differential diagnosis. Four cases of SVCA-three cases of bladder adenocarcinoma and a rare case of adenocarcinoma arising in a mullerian duct cyst-were immunostained for CA-125, CK7, and CK20. Three of four cases of SVCA were CA-125 positive and CK7 positive. All four cases were CK20 negative. All bladder adenocarcinomas and the mullerian duct cyst adenocarcinoma were CK7 positive and negative for CA-125 and CK20. In addition, CA-125 immunostaining was performed in neoplasms that commonly invade the seminal vesicles, including prostatic adenocarcinoma (n = 40), bladder transitional cell carcinoma (n = 32), and rectal adenocarcinoma (n = 10), and all were negative for this antigen. In conclusion, the present study has shown that the CK7-positive, CK20-negative, CA-125-positive, PSA/PAP-negative immunophenotype of papillary SVCA is unique and can be used in conjunction with histomorphology to distinguish it from other tumors that enter the differential diagnosis, including prostatic adenocarcinoma (CA-125 negative, PSA/PAP positive), bladder transitional cell carcinoma (CK20 positive, CA-125 negative), rectal adenocarcinoma (CA-125 negative, CK7 negative, CK20 positive), bladder

  17. Location of an extrinsic label in the primary and tertiary structure of bacteriorhodopsin.

    PubMed Central

    Katre, N V; Finer-Moore, J; Stroud, R M; Hayward, S B

    1984-01-01

    We located a heavy metal label, mercurilated phenylglyoxal, in both the primary sequence and in the tertiary structure of bacteriorhodopsin. This label modified arginines 225 and 227, which are on the COOH-terminal helix (G). In the projected electron potential difference map, the major site is close to the central inner helix. From this result we conclude that helix 1 could not be the COOH-terminal helix G. We tested the multiple isomorphous replacement method for obtaining phases for purple membrane by electron diffraction. PMID:6478034

  18. Highly Critical Exchange of Primary Structure Parts at the Fully Integrated NIRSpec-Instrument for JWST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funke, Matthias; Ehrenwinkler, Ralf; Jentsch, Michael; Jollet, Delphine

    2014-06-01

    As the successor of the Hubble Space Telescope a new spacecraft, the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), is currently under development at NASA and affiliated partners. One of the ESA contributions to the JWST is the Near Infrared Spectrograph, NIRSpec - capable of high resolution spectroscopy which was developed by Airbus Defence and Space (former Astrium Satellites) under contract of ESA.This paper deals with the challenge of replacing elements in the primary structural load path without violating the achieved high precision alignment of the fully integrated instrument.

  19. Development of RTM and powder prepreg resins for subsonic aircraft primary structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woo, Edmund P.; Groleau, Michael R.; Bertram, James L.; Puckett, Paul M.; Maynard, Shawn J.

    1993-01-01

    Dow developed a thermoset resin which could be used to produce composites via the RTM process. The composites formed are useful at 200 F service temperatures after moisture saturation, and are tough systems that are suitable for subsonic aircraft primary structure. At NASA's request, Dow also developed a modified version of the RTM resin system which was suitable for use in producing powder prepreg. In the course of developing the RTM and powder versions of these resins, over 50 different new materials were produced and evaluated.

  20. Structural, electronic and optical properties of well-known primary explosive: Mercury fulminate.

    PubMed

    Yedukondalu, N; Vaitheeswaran, G

    2015-11-28

    Mercury Fulminate (MF) is one of the well-known primary explosives since 17th century and it has rendered invaluable service over many years. However, the correct molecular and crystal structures are determined recently after 300 years of its discovery. In the present study, we report pressure dependent structural, elastic, electronic and optical properties of MF. Non-local correction methods have been employed to capture the weak van der Waals interactions in layered and molecular energetic MF. Among the non-local correction methods tested, optB88-vdW method works well for the investigated compound. The obtained equilibrium bulk modulus reveals that MF is softer than the well known primary explosives Silver Fulminate (SF), silver azide and lead azide. MF exhibits anisotropic compressibility (b > a > c) under pressure, consequently the corresponding elastic moduli decrease in the following order: C22 > C11 > C33. The structural and mechanical properties suggest that MF is more sensitive to detonate along c-axis (similar to RDX) due to high compressibility of Hg⋯O non-bonded interactions along that axis. Electronic structure and optical properties were calculated including spin-orbit (SO) interactions using full potential linearized augmented plane wave method within recently developed Tran-Blaha modified Becke-Johnson (TB-mBJ) potential. The calculated TB-mBJ electronic structures of SF and MF show that these compounds are indirect bandgap insulators. Also, SO coupling is found to be more pronounced for 4d and 5d-states of Ag and Hg atoms of SF and MF, respectively. Partial density of states and electron charge density maps were used to describe the nature of chemical bonding. Ag-C bond is more directional than Hg-C bond which makes SF to be more unstable than MF. The effect of SO coupling on optical properties has also been studied and found to be significant for both (SF and MF) of the compounds.

  1. Structural, electronic and optical properties of well-known primary explosive: Mercury fulminate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yedukondalu, N.; Vaitheeswaran, G.

    2015-11-01

    Mercury Fulminate (MF) is one of the well-known primary explosives since 17th century and it has rendered invaluable service over many years. However, the correct molecular and crystal structures are determined recently after 300 years of its discovery. In the present study, we report pressure dependent structural, elastic, electronic and optical properties of MF. Non-local correction methods have been employed to capture the weak van der Waals interactions in layered and molecular energetic MF. Among the non-local correction methods tested, optB88-vdW method works well for the investigated compound. The obtained equilibrium bulk modulus reveals that MF is softer than the well known primary explosives Silver Fulminate (SF), silver azide and lead azide. MF exhibits anisotropic compressibility (b > a > c) under pressure, consequently the corresponding elastic moduli decrease in the following order: C22 > C11 > C33. The structural and mechanical properties suggest that MF is more sensitive to detonate along c-axis (similar to RDX) due to high compressibility of Hg⋯O non-bonded interactions along that axis. Electronic structure and optical properties were calculated including spin-orbit (SO) interactions using full potential linearized augmented plane wave method within recently developed Tran-Blaha modified Becke-Johnson (TB-mBJ) potential. The calculated TB-mBJ electronic structures of SF and MF show that these compounds are indirect bandgap insulators. Also, SO coupling is found to be more pronounced for 4d and 5d-states of Ag and Hg atoms of SF and MF, respectively. Partial density of states and electron charge density maps were used to describe the nature of chemical bonding. Ag—C bond is more directional than Hg—C bond which makes SF to be more unstable than MF. The effect of SO coupling on optical properties has also been studied and found to be significant for both (SF and MF) of the compounds.

  2. Design and analysis of composite structures with stress concentrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garbo, S. P.

    1983-01-01

    An overview of an analytic procedure which can be used to provide comprehensive stress and strength analysis of composite structures with stress concentrations is given. The methodology provides designer/analysts with a user-oriented procedure which, within acceptable engineering accuracy, accounts for the effects of a wide range of application design variables. The procedure permits the strength of arbitrary laminate constructions under general bearing/bypass load conditions to be predicted with only unnotched unidirectional strength and stiffness input data required. Included is a brief discussion of the relevancy of this analysis to the design of primary aircraft structure; an overview of the analytic procedure with theory/test correlations; and an example of the use and interaction of this strength analysis relative to the design of high-load transfer bolted composite joints.

  3. Static Nonlinear Analysis In Concrete Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Hemmati, Ali

    2008-07-08

    Push-over analysis is a simple and applied approach which can be used for estimation of demand responses influenced by earthquake stimulations. The analysis is non-linear static analysis of the structure affected under increasing lateral loads and specifying the displacement--load diagram or structure capacity curve, draw the curve the base shear values and lateral deflection on the roof level of the building will be used. However, for estimation of the real behavior of the structure against earthquake, the non-linear dynamic analysis approaches and various accelerographs should be applied. Of course it should be noted that this approach especially in relation with tall buildings is complex and time consuming. In the article, the different patterns of lateral loading in push-over analysis have been compared with non-linear dynamic analysis approach so that the results represented accordingly. The researches indicated the uniformly--distributed loading is closer to real status.

  4. Structural arrangement trade study. Volume 3: Reusable Hydrogen Composite Tank System (RHCTS) and Graphite Composite Primary Structures (GCPS). Addendum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This volume is the third of a 3 volume set that addresses the structural trade study plan that will identify the most suitable structural configuration for an SSTO winged vehicle capable of delivering 25,000 lbs to a 220 nm circular orbit at 51.6 deg inclination. The most suitable Reusable Hydrogen Composite Tank System (RHCTS), and Graphite Composite Tank System (GCPS) composite materials for intertank, wing and thrust structures are identified. Vehicle resizing charts, selection criteria and back-up charts, parametric costing approach and the finite element method analysis are discussed.

  5. NAPS: Network Analysis of Protein Structures

    PubMed Central

    Chakrabarty, Broto; Parekh, Nita

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, protein structures have been analysed by the secondary structure architecture and fold arrangement. An alternative approach that has shown promise is modelling proteins as a network of non-covalent interactions between amino acid residues. The network representation of proteins provide a systems approach to topological analysis of complex three-dimensional structures irrespective of secondary structure and fold type and provide insights into structure-function relationship. We have developed a web server for network based analysis of protein structures, NAPS, that facilitates quantitative and qualitative (visual) analysis of residue–residue interactions in: single chains, protein complex, modelled protein structures and trajectories (e.g. from molecular dynamics simulations). The user can specify atom type for network construction, distance range (in Å) and minimal amino acid separation along the sequence. NAPS provides users selection of node(s) and its neighbourhood based on centrality measures, physicochemical properties of amino acids or cluster of well-connected residues (k-cliques) for further analysis. Visual analysis of interacting domains and protein chains, and shortest path lengths between pair of residues are additional features that aid in functional analysis. NAPS support various analyses and visualization views for identifying functional residues, provide insight into mechanisms of protein folding, domain-domain and protein–protein interactions for understanding communication within and between proteins. URL:http://bioinf.iiit.ac.in/NAPS/. PMID:27151201

  6. Research on the support structure of the primary mirror of large-aperture telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yang; Zhang, Jingxu

    2007-12-01

    Large-aperture telescope can be used in surveying battlefield, researching landform, searching object, real-time monitoring, imaging, detecting and identifying spatial targets and so on. A large-aperture telescope for achieving high resolution power is designed to monitor spatial target and image in real time. Real-time monitoring plays an important role in military conflicts. The orbit parameter of object, quantity, geometrical shape parameter and so on can be obtained by detect spatial target. With the development of optical technology, people require larger aperture in optics-electronic (O-E) system. By increasing optical aperture, the ability of collecting light and resolution power in the system can be enhanced. But the support structure of the primary mirror of large-aperture telescope will be a very difficult problem. With the increase of primary mirror aperture, the weight of the primary mirror will become larger than before. The root mean square (rms) of the primary mirror is affected by many factors, such as deadweight, deformation of heat, environment and so on. Due to the primary mirror of telescope is an important component of telescope system. By reducing the weight of primary mirror, precision of the system is ensured. During the designing phase, one can consider the supporting project of the primary mirror synthetically and analyze it roundly according to technical requirement of optical system and the effect factors. The final structural design can be reasonable. In an astronomical telescope, the surface of reflector is an important part for collecting dark radiation of celestial bodies. Its surface shape will have an effect on collecting efficiency of telescope radiant energy directly. So the rms must be very high. Optical system of large aperture, small wavelength and small focus can receive maximal light intensity. For ground-based optical astronomical telescope, the design proposed in the paper can satisfy the requirement of the possible

  7. Primary function analysis of human mental retardation related gene CRBN.

    PubMed

    Xin, Wang; Xiaohua, Ni; Peilin, Chen; Xin, Chen; Yaqiong, Sun; Qihan, Wu

    2008-06-01

    The mutation of human cereblon gene (CRBN) is revealed to be related with mild mental retardation. Since the molecular characteristics of CRBN have not been well presented, we investigated the general properties of CRBN. We analyzed its gene structure and protein homologues. The CRBN protein might belong to a family of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-dependent Lon protease. We also found that CRBN was widely expressed in different tissues, and the expression level in testis is significantly higher than other tissues. This may suggested it could play some important roles in several other tissues besides brain. Transient transfection experiment in AD 293 cell lines suggested that both CRBN and CRBN mutant (nucleotide position 1,274(C > T)) are located in the whole cells. This may suggest new functions of CRBN in cell nucleolus besides its mitochondria protease activity in cytoplasm.

  8. SPF/DB primary structure for supersonic aircraft (T-38 horizontal stabilizer)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delmundo, A. R.; Mcquilkin, F. T.; Rivas, R. R.

    1981-01-01

    The structural integrity and potential cost savings of superplastic forming/diffusion bonding (SPF/DB) titanium structure for future Supersonic Cruise Research (SCR) and military aircraft primary structure applications was demonstrated. Using the horizontal stabilizer of the T-38 aircraft as a baseline, the structure was redesigned to the existing criteria and loads, using SPF/DB titanium technology. The general concept of using a full-depth sandwich structure which is attached to a steel spindle, was retained. Trade studies demonstrated that the optimum design should employ double-truss, sinewave core in the deepest section of the surface, making a transition to single-truss core in the thinner areas at the leading and trailing edges and at the tip. At the extreme thin edges of the surface, the single-truss core was changed to dot core to provide for gas passages during the SPF/DB process. The selected SPF/DB horizontal stabilizer design consisted of a one-piece SPF/DB sinewave truss core panel, a trunnion fitting, and reinforcing straps. The fitting and the straps were mechanically fastened to the SPF/DB panel.

  9. Impacts of Temperature on Primary Productivity and Respiration in Naturally Structured Macroalgal Assemblages

    PubMed Central

    Tait, Leigh W.; Schiel, David R.

    2013-01-01

    Rising global temperatures caused by human-mediated change has already triggered significant responses in organismal physiology, distribution and ecosystem functioning. Although the effects of rising temperature on the physiology of individual organisms are well understood, the effect on community-wide processes has remained elusive. The fixation of carbon via primary productivity is an essential ecosystem function and any shifts in the balance of primary productivity and respiration could alter the carbon balance of ecosystems. Here we show through a series of tests that respiration of naturally structured algal assemblages in southern New Zealand greatly increases with rising temperature, with implications for net primary productivity (NPP). The NPP of in situ macroalgal assemblages was minimally affected by natural temperature variation, possibly through photo-acclimation or temperature acclimation responses, but respiration rates and compensating irradiance were negatively affected. However, laboratory experiments testing the impacts of rising temperature on several photosynthetic parameters showed a decline in NPP, increasing respiration rates and increasing compensating irradiance. The respiration Q10 of laboratory assemblages (the difference in metabolic rates over 10°C) averaged 2.9 compared to a Q10 of 2 often seen in other autotrophs. However, gross primary productivity (GPP) Q10 averaged 2, indicating that respiration was more severely affected by rising temperature. Furthermore, combined high irradiance and high temperature caused photoinhibition in the laboratory, and resulted in 50% lower NPP at high irradiance. Our study shows that communities may be more severely affected by rising global temperatures than would be expected by responses of individual species. In particular, enhanced respiration rates and rising compensation points have the potential to greatly affect the carbon balance of macroalgal assemblages through declines in sub-canopy NPP

  10. Thermal and structural analysis of Hermes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petiau, C.

    1989-08-01

    After a brief recap of Hermes TPS and structure principles, we present the organization of thermal and structural analysis of the Hermes project, and we describe the way to resolve the problems of connections between calculations performed by the different Hermes partners. We describe in detail the interactions between the general model of TPS, used for global dimensioning of insulation, and refined thermal models giving an accurate temperature map inside details of "hot" and "cold" structures. The organization for structural analysis is based on a finite element general model which supports preliminary design, loads and vibration analyses. Boundary conditions for refined subpart analyses are cut to size, into the general model by a super element technique. This process involves the use by all partners of efficient computer codes, in the field of structural analysis and optimization integrated with CAD; for this Dassault proposes as a reference: the CATIA-ELFINI system.

  11. Different structural changes occur in blue- and green-proteorhodopsins during the primary photoreaction.

    PubMed

    Amsden, Jason J; Kralj, Joel M; Bergo, Vladislav B; Spudich, Elena N; Spudich, John L; Rothschild, Kenneth J

    2008-11-04

    We examine the structural changes during the primary photoreaction in blue-absorbing proteorhodopsin (BPR), a light-driven retinylidene proton pump, using low-temperature FTIR difference spectroscopy. Comparison of the light-induced BPR difference spectrum recorded at 80 K to that of green-absorbing proteorhodopsin (GPR) reveals that there are several differences in the BPR and GPR primary photoreactions despite the similar structure of the retinal chromophore and all-trans --> 13-cis isomerization. Strong bands near 1700 cm(-1) assigned previously to a change in hydrogen bonding of Asn230 in GPR are still present in BPR. However, additional bands in the same region are assigned on the basis of site-directed mutagenesis to changes occurring in Gln105. In the amide II region, bands are assigned on the basis of total (15)N labeling to structural changes of the protein backbone, although no such bands were previously observed for GPR. A band at 3642 cm(-1) in BPR, assigned to the OH stretching mode of a water molecule on the basis of H2(18)O substitution, appears at a different frequency than a band at 3626 cm(-1) previously assigned to a water molecule in GPR. However, the substitution of Gln105 for Leu105 in BPR leads to the appearance of both bands at 3642 and 3626 cm(-1), indicating the waters assigned in BPR and GPR exist in separate distinct locations and can coexist in the GPR-like Q105L mutant of BPR. These results indicate that there exist significant differences in the conformational changes occurring in these two types proteorhodopsin during the initial photoreaction despite their similar chromophore structures, which might reflect a different arrangement of water in the active site as well as substitution of a hydrophilic for hydrophobic residue at residue 105.

  12. Semantic Antinomies and Deep Structure Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuber, Ryszard

    1975-01-01

    This article discusses constructions known as semantic antinomies, that is, the paradoxical results of false presuppositions, and how they can be dealt with by means of deep structure analysis. See FL 508 186 for availability. (CLK)

  13. Structural changes in the photoactive site of proteorhodopsin during the primary photoreaction.

    PubMed

    Bergo, Vladislav; Amsden, Jason J; Spudich, Elena N; Spudich, John L; Rothschild, Kenneth J

    2004-07-20

    Proteorhodopsin (PR), found in marine gamma-proteobacteria, is a newly discovered light-driven proton pump similar to bacteriorhodopsin (BR). Because of the widespread distribution of proteobacteria in the worldwide oceanic waters, this pigment may contribute significantly to the global solar energy input in the biosphere. We examined structural changes that occur during the primary photoreaction (PR --> K) of wild-type pigment and two mutants using low-temperature FTIR difference spectroscopy. Several vibrations detected in the 3500-3700 cm(-1) region are assigned on the basis of H(2)O --> H(2)(18)O exchange to the perturbation of one or more internal water molecules. Substitution of the negatively charged Schiff base counterion, Asp97, with the neutral asparagine caused a downshift of the ethylenic (C=C) and Schiff base (C=N) stretching modes, in agreement with the 27 nm red shift of the visible lambda(max). However, this replacement did not alter the normal all-trans to 13-cis isomerization of the chromophore or the environment of the detected water molecule(s). In contrast, substitution of Asn230, which is in a position to interact with the Schiff base, with Ala induces a 5 nm red shift of the visible lambda(max) and alters the PR chromophore structure, its isomerization to K, and the environment of the detected internal water molecules. The combination of FTIR and site-directed mutagenesis establishes that both Asp97 and Asn230 are perturbed during the primary phototransition. The environment of Asn230 is further altered during the thermal decay of K. These results suggest that significant differences exist in the conformational changes which occur in the photoactive sites of proteorhodopsin and bacteriorhodopsin during the primary photoreaction.

  14. Ground-Based Lidar Measurements of Forest Canopy Structure as Predictors of Net Primary Production Across Successional Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheuermann, C. M.; Gough, C. M.; Nave, L. E.

    2015-12-01

    Forest canopy structure is a key predictor of gas exchange processes that control carbon (C) uptake, including the allocation of photosynthetically fixed C to new plant biomass growth, or net primary production (NPP). Prior work suggests forest canopy structural complexity (CSC), the arrangement of leaves within a volume of canopy, changes as forests develop and is a strong predictor of NPP. However, the expressions of CSC that best predict NPP over decadal to century timescales is unknown. Our objectives were to use multiple remote sensing observations to characterize forest canopy structure in increasing dimensional complexity over a forest age gradient, and to identify which expressions of physical structure best served as proxies of NPP. The study at the University of Michigan Biological Station in Pellston, MI, USA uses two parallel forest chronosequences with different harvesting and fire disturbance histories and includes three old-growth ecosystems varying in canopy composition. We have derived several expressions of 2-D and 3-D forest canopy structure from hemispherical images, a ground-based portable canopy lidar (PCL), and a 3-D terrestrial lidar scanner (TLS), and are relating these structural metrics with NPP and light and nitrogen allocation within the canopy. Preliminary analysis shows that old-growth stands converged on a common mean CSC, but with substantially higher within-stand variation in complexity as deciduous tree species increased in forest canopy dominance. Forest stands that were more intensely disturbed were slower to recover leaf area index (LAI) as they regrew, but 2-D measures of CSC increased similarly as forests aged, regardless of disturbance history. Ongoing work will relate long-term trends in forest CSC with NPP and resource allocation to determine which forest structure remote sensing products are most useful for modeling and scaling C cycling processes through different stages of forest development.

  15. Histochemical Analysis of Plant Secretory Structures.

    PubMed

    Demarco, Diego

    2017-01-01

    Histochemical analysis is essential for the study of plant secretory structures whose classification is based, at least partially, on the composition of their secretion. As each gland may produce one or more types of substances, a correct analysis of its secretion should be done using various histochemical tests to detect metabolites of different chemical classes. Here I describe some of the most used methods to detect carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, phenolic compounds, and alkaloids in the secretory structures.

  16. Critical joints in large composite primary aircraft structures. Volume 1: Technical summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bunin, Bruce L.

    1985-01-01

    A program was conducted at Douglas Aircraft Company to develop the technology for critical joints in composite wing structure that meets all the design requirements of a 1990 commercial transport aircraft. In fulfilling this objective, analytical procedures for joint design and analysis were developed during Phase 1 of the program. Tests were conducted at the element level to supply the empirical data required for methods development. Large composite multirow joints were tested to verify the selected design concepts and for correlation with analysis predictions. The Phase 2 program included additional tests to provide joint design and analysis data, and culminated with several technology demonstration tests of a major joint area representative of a commercial transport wing. The technology demonstration program of Phase 2 is discussed. The analysis methodology development, structural test program, and correlation between test results and analytical strength predictions are reviewed.

  17. Structural Dynamics and Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luthman, Briana L.

    2013-01-01

    This project consists of two parts, the first will be the post-flight analysis of data from a Delta IV launch vehicle, and the second will be a Finite Element Analysis of a CubeSat. Shock and vibration data was collected on WGS-5 (Wideband Global SATCOM- 5) which was launched on a Delta IV launch vehicle. Using CAM (CAlculation with Matrices) software, the data is to be plotted into Time History, Shock Response Spectrum, and SPL (Sound Pressure Level) curves. In this format the data is to be reviewed and compared to flight instrumentation data from previous flights of the same launch vehicle. This is done to ensure the current mission environments, such as shock, random vibration, and acoustics, are not out of family with existing flight experience. In family means the peaks on the SRS curve for WGS-5 are similar to the peaks from the previous flights and there are no major outliers. The curves from the data will then be compiled into a useful format so that is can be peer reviewed then presented before an engineering review board if required. Also, the reviewed data will be uploaded to the Engineering Review Board Information System (ERBIS) to archive. The second part of this project is conducting Finite Element Analysis of a CubeSat. In 2010, Merritt Island High School partnered with NASA to design, build and launch a CubeSat. The team is now called StangSat in honor of their mascot, the mustang. Over the past few years, the StangSat team has built a satellite and has now been manifested for flight on a SpaceX Falcon 9 launch in 2014. To prepare for the final launch, a test flight was conducted in Mojave, California. StangSat was launched on a Prospector 18D, a high altitude rocket made by Garvey Spacecraft Corporation, along with their sister satellite CP9 built by California Polytechnic University. However, StangSat was damaged during an off nominal landing and this project will give beneficial insights into what loads the CubeSat experienced during the crash

  18. Sustained Attention in Children with Primary Language Impairment: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebert, Kerry Danahy; Kohnert, Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study provides a meta-analysis of the difference between children with primary or specific language impairment (LI) and their typically developing peers on tasks of sustained attention. The meta-analysis seeks to determine whether children with LI demonstrate subclinical deficits in sustained attention and, if so, under what…

  19. Topological framework for local structure analysis in condensed matter

    PubMed Central

    Lazar, Emanuel A.; Han, Jian; Srolovitz, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Physical systems are frequently modeled as sets of points in space, each representing the position of an atom, molecule, or mesoscale particle. As many properties of such systems depend on the underlying ordering of their constituent particles, understanding that structure is a primary objective of condensed matter research. Although perfect crystals are fully described by a set of translation and basis vectors, real-world materials are never perfect, as thermal vibrations and defects introduce significant deviation from ideal order. Meanwhile, liquids and glasses present yet more complexity. A complete understanding of structure thus remains a central, open problem. Here we propose a unified mathematical framework, based on the topology of the Voronoi cell of a particle, for classifying local structure in ordered and disordered systems that is powerful and practical. We explain the underlying reason why this topological description of local structure is better suited for structural analysis than continuous descriptions. We demonstrate the connection of this approach to the behavior of physical systems and explore how crystalline structure is compromised at elevated temperatures. We also illustrate potential applications to identifying defects in plastically deformed polycrystals at high temperatures, automating analysis of complex structures, and characterizing general disordered systems. PMID:26460045

  20. Fourier Analysis Of Vibrations Of Round Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Gary A.

    1990-01-01

    Fourier-series representation developed for analysis of vibrations in complicated, round structures like turbopump impellers. Method eliminates guesswork involved in characterization of shapes of vibrational modes. Easy way to characterize complicated modes, leading to determination of responsiveness of given mode to various forcing functions. Used in conjunction with finite-element numerical simulation of vibrational modes of structure.

  1. Structural analysis of second-generation heliostats

    SciTech Connect

    Dunder, V.D.

    1981-12-01

    As part of the overall evaluation of the four second-generation heliostats, a finite element analysis was performed to evaluate structure performance of the mirror modules subjected to gravity, operational wind loads and survival wind loads. All designs evaluated were found to be structurally adequate.

  2. Covariance Structure Analysis of Ordinal Ipsative Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Wai; Bentler, Peter M.

    1998-01-01

    Proposes a two-stage estimation method for the analysis of covariance structure models with ordinal ipsative data (OID). A goodness-of-fit statistic is given for testing the hypothesized covariance structure matrix, and simulation results show that the method works well with a large sample. (SLD)

  3. Generalized Structured Component Analysis with Latent Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Heungsun; Ho, Moon-Ho Ringo; Lee, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Generalized structured component analysis (GSCA) is a component-based approach to structural equation modeling. In practice, researchers may often be interested in examining the interaction effects of latent variables. However, GSCA has been geared only for the specification and testing of the main effects of variables. Thus, an extension of GSCA…

  4. Using data envelopment analysis to analyse the efficiency of primary care units.

    PubMed

    Deidda, Manuela; Lupiáñez-Villanueva, Francisco; Codagnone, Cristiano; Maghiros, Ioannis

    2014-10-01

    In this paper we analyse the efficiency of primary care centres (PCCs) adopting Information and Communication Technology (ICT) devices, using a new database on primary care centres in the Basque Region in Spain. Using a four-stage Data Envelopment Analysis methodology, we are able to explicitly take into account the role of ICT in affecting the efficiency of primary care centres. We understand that this is the first time that ICT enters into the determination of efficiency of the health sector. The role of exogenous factors is explicitly considered in this analysis and shows that including these variables is not neutral to the efficiency evaluation, but leads to an efficiency indicator that only encompasses the effect of managerial skills. The paper provides some useful policy implications regarding the role of ICT in improving the efficiency of primary care units.

  5. Primary infundibular stenosis and pedigree analysis in three Golden Retriever littermates.

    PubMed

    Arndt, Jason; Werner, Petra; Sleeper, Meg

    2012-01-01

    Three eight-week-old Golden Retriever puppy littermates were evaluated because of left basilar systolic murmurs and were diagnosed with primary infundibular stenosis. Pedigree analysis in this line was also performed to identify a mode of inheritance. All dogs were asymptomatic at the time of diagnosis; two of the three had congenital lesions in addition to primary infundibular stenosis. Two additional affected dogs were identified in the line, and pedigree analysis suggested an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. Another, unrelated golden retriever was also identified with isolated infundibular stenosis in the record database. Primary infundibular stenosis should be considered in the differential diagnoses for golden retriever dogs with a left basilar systolic murmur, and is often associated with complex congenital cardiac disease. Primary infundibular stenosis may worsen in severity with time, and in this line of dogs an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance is likely.

  6. Structural design and analysis of a Mach zero to five turbo-ramjet system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spoth, Kevin A.; Moses, Paul L.

    1993-01-01

    The paper discusses the structural design and analysis of a Mach zero to five turbo-ramjet propulsion system for a Mach five waverider-derived cruise vehicle. The level of analysis detail necessary for a credible conceptual design is shown. The results of a finite-element failure mode sizing analysis for the engine primary structure is presented. The importance of engine/airframe integration is also discussed.

  7. Primary structure and solution conditions determine conformational ensemble properties of intrinsically disordered proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Hsuan-Han Alberto

    Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) are a class of proteins that do not exhibit well-defined three-dimensional structures. The absence of structure is intrinsic to their amino acid sequences, which are characterized by low hydrophobicity and high net charge per residue compared to folded proteins. Contradicting the classic structure-function paradigm, IDPs are capable of interacting with high specificity and affinity, often acquiring order in complex with protein and nucleic acid binding partners. This phenomenon is evident during cellular activities involving IDPs, which include transcriptional and translational regulation, cell cycle control, signal transduction, molecular assembly, and molecular recognition. Although approximately 30% of eukaryotic proteomes are intrinsically disordered, the nature of IDP conformational ensembles remains unclear. In this dissertation, we describe relationships connecting characteristics of IDP conformational ensembles to their primary structures and solution conditions. Using molecular simulations and fluorescence experiments on a set of base-rich IDPs, we find that net charge per residue segregates conformational ensembles along a globule-to-coil transition. Speculatively generalizing this result, we propose a phase diagram that predicts an IDP's average size and shape based on sequence composition and use it to generate hypotheses for a broad set of intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs). Simulations reveal that acid-rich IDRs, unlike their oppositely charged base-rich counterparts, exhibit disordered globular ensembles despite intra-chain repulsive electrostatic interactions. This apparent asymmetry is sensitive to simulation parameters for representing alkali and halide salt ions, suggesting that solution conditions modulate IDP conformational ensembles. We refine the ion parameters using a calibration procedure that relies exclusively on crystal lattice properties. Simulations with these parameters recover swollen

  8. Impact analysis of composite aircraft structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pifko, Allan B.; Kushner, Alan S.

    1993-01-01

    The impact analysis of composite aircraft structures is discussed. Topics discussed include: background remarks on aircraft crashworthiness; comments on modeling strategies for crashworthiness simulation; initial study of simulation of progressive failure of an aircraft component constructed of composite material; and research direction in composite characterization for impact analysis.

  9. Towards a comprehensive view of the primary structure of venom proteins from the parasitoid wasp Pimpla hypochondriaca.

    PubMed

    Parkinson, Neil M; Conyers, Christine; Keen, Jeff; MacNicoll, Alan; Smith, Ian; Audsley, Neil; Weaver, Robert

    2004-06-01

    Venom from the parasitoid wasp Pimpla hypochondriaca has potent in vivo activity against insect haemocytes and disrupts host immune responses. Using hybridisation techniques, and more recently random sequence analysis, we had previously identified cDNAs encoding 10 venom proteins from this wasp and deduced their primary structures. We have now extended the random sequence analysis and discovered a further nine cDNAs encoding proteins with predicted signal sequences. The mature proteins were calculated to have masses of between 4 and 22 kDa. Post-signal sequence residues predicted from the cDNAs matched those derived by Edman degradation from venom proteins separated using gel filtration and reverse phase chromatography, confirming that the cloned cDNAs encode proteins which are secreted into the venom sac. Proteins containing at least six cysteine residues were abundant and seven of these cysteine-rich venom proteins, cvp1-7, were identified. The sequences of some of these proteins were similar, or contained similar cysteine arrangements, to Kunitz type protease inhibitors, pacifastin, the trypsin inhibitor domain protein family, atracotoxin and omega-conotoxin, respectively, which occur in a diverse range of animals including spiders, molluscs, humans and grasshoppers. Two small venom proteins, svp1 and svp2, as well as cvp7 did not have similar sequences to proteins in the GenBank protein database suggesting they may be highly specialised venom components. The random sequencing approach has provided a rapid means of determining the primary structure of the majority of Pimpla hypochondriaca venom proteins.

  10. Structural Analysis in a Conceptual Design Framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padula, Sharon L.; Robinson, Jay H.; Eldred, Lloyd B.

    2012-01-01

    Supersonic aircraft designers must shape the outer mold line of the aircraft to improve multiple objectives, such as mission performance, cruise efficiency, and sonic-boom signatures. Conceptual designers have demonstrated an ability to assess these objectives for a large number of candidate designs. Other critical objectives and constraints, such as weight, fuel volume, aeroelastic effects, and structural soundness, are more difficult to address during the conceptual design process. The present research adds both static structural analysis and sizing to an existing conceptual design framework. The ultimate goal is to include structural analysis in the multidisciplinary optimization of a supersonic aircraft. Progress towards that goal is discussed and demonstrated.

  11. The Mechanics of the Primary Cilium: An Intricate Structure with Complex Function

    PubMed Central

    Hoey, David A.; Downs, Matthew; Jacobs, Christopher R.

    2011-01-01

    The primary cilium is a non-motile singular cellular structure that extends from the surface of nearly every cell in the body. The cilium has been shown to play numerous roles in maintaining tissue homeostasis, through regulating signaling pathways and sensing both biophysical and biochemical changes in the extracellular environment. The structural performance of the cilium is paramount to its function as defective cilia have been linked to numerous pathologies. In particular, the cilium has demonstrated a mechanosensory role in tissues such as the kidney, liver, endothelium and bone, where cilium deflection under mechanical loading triggers a cellular response. Understanding how cilium structure and subsequent mechanical behavior contributes to the roles the cilium plays in regulating cellular behavior is a compelling question, yet is a relatively untouched research area. Recent advances in biophysical measurements have demonstrated the cilium to be a structurally intricate organelle containing an array of load bearing proteins. Furthermore advances in modeling of this organelle have revealed the importance of these proteins at regulating the cilium’s mechanosensitivity. Remarkably, the cilium is capable of adapting its mechanical state, altering its length and possibly it’s bending resistance, to regulate its mechanosensitivity demonstrating the importance of cilium mechanics in cellular responses. In this review, we introduce the cilium as a mechanosensor; discuss the advances in the mechanical modeling of cilia; explore the structural features of the cilium which contribute to its mechanics and finish with possible mechanisms in which alteration in structure may affect ciliary mechanics, consequently affecting ciliary based mechanosensing. PMID:21899847

  12. A protein structure data and analysis system.

    PubMed

    Tian, Hao; Sunderraman, Rajshekhar; Weber, Irene; Wang, Haibin; Yang, Hong

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we present the design and implementation of a protein structure data and analysis system that is only used in the lab for analyzing the proprietary data. It is capable of storing public protein data, such as the data in Protein Data Bank (PDB) [1], and life scientists' proprietary data. This toolkit is targeted at life scientists who want to maintain proprietary protein structure data (may be incomplete), to search and query publicly known protein structures and to compare their structure data with others. The comparison functions can be used to find structure differences between two proteins at atom level, especially in mutant versions of proteins. The system can also be used as a tool of choosing better protein structure template in new protein's tertiary structure prediction. The system is developed in Java and the protein data is stored in a relational database (Oracle 9i).

  13. Thermodynamics of greenhouse systems for the northern latitudes: analysis, evaluation and prospects for primary energy saving.

    PubMed

    Bronchart, Filip; De Paepe, Michel; Dewulf, Jo; Schrevens, Eddie; Demeyer, Peter

    2013-04-15

    In Flanders and the Netherlands greenhouse production systems produce economically important quantities of vegetables, fruit and ornamentals. Indoor environmental control has resulted in high primary energy use. Until now, the research on saving primary energy in greenhouse systems has been mainly based on analysis of energy balances. However, according to the thermodynamic theory, an analysis based on the concept of exergy (free energy) and energy can result in new insights and primary energy savings. Therefore in this paper, we analyse the exergy and energy of various processes, inputs and outputs of a general greenhouse system. Also a total system analysis is then performed by linking the exergy analysis with a dynamic greenhouse climate growth simulation model. The exergy analysis indicates that some processes ("Sources") lie at the origin of several other processes, both destroying the exergy of primary energy inputs. The exergy destruction of these Sources is caused primarily by heat and vapour loss. Their impact can be compensated by exergy input from heating, solar radiation, or both. If the exergy destruction of these Sources is reduced, the necessary compensation can also be reduced. This can be accomplished through insulating the greenhouse and making the building more airtight. Other necessary Sources, namely transpiration and loss of CO2, have a low exergy destruction compared to the other Sources. They are therefore the best candidate for "pump" technologies ("vapour heat pump" and "CO2 pump") designed to have a low primary energy use. The combination of these proposed technologies results in an exergy efficient greenhouse with the highest primary energy savings. It can be concluded that exergy analyses add additional information compared to only energy analyses and it supports the development of primary energy efficient greenhouse systems.

  14. Structural-Thermal-Optical-Performance (STOP) Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolognese, Jeffrey; Irish, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    The presentation will be given at the 26th Annual Thermal Fluids Analysis Workshop (TFAWS 2015) hosted by the Goddard Spaceflight Center (GSFC) Thermal Engineering Branch (Code 545). A STOP analysis is a multidiscipline analysis, consisting of Structural, Thermal and Optical Performance Analyses, that is performed for all space flight instruments and satellites. This course will explain the different parts of performing this analysis. The student will learn how to effectively interact with each discipline in order to accurately obtain the system analysis results.

  15. Simultaneous analysis and design. [in structural engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haftka, R. T.

    1985-01-01

    Optimization techniques are increasingly being used for performing nonlinear structural analysis. The development of element by element (EBE) preconditioned conjugate gradient (CG) techniques is expected to extend this trend to linear analysis. Under these circumstances the structural design problem can be viewed as a nested optimization problem. There are computational benefits to treating this nested problem as a large single optimization problem. The response variables (such as displacements) and the structural parameters are all treated as design variables in a unified formulation which performs simultaneously the design and analysis. Two examples are used for demonstration. A seventy-two bar truss is optimized subject to linear stress constraints and a wing box structure is optimized subject to nonlinear collapse constraints. Both examples show substantial computational savings with the unified approach as compared to the traditional nested approach.

  16. Thermal and structural analysis of Hermes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petiau, C.

    1989-01-01

    The organization of the thermal and structural analysis of the Hermes project is described. A way to resolve the problem of connections between calculations performed by the different Hermes partners is outlined. The interactions between the general model of TPS (thermal protection system) used for global dimensioning of insulation, and refined thermal models giving accurate temperature map details of hot and cold structures, are described. The organization of the structural analysis is based on a finite element general model which supports preliminary design, loads and vibration analyses. Boundary conditions for refined subpart analyses, are cut to size, into the general model by super element techniques. This process involves the use by all partners of efficient computer codes. The Catia-Elfini software system is proposed as a possible code system for structural analysis and optimization purposes.

  17. The Specific Analysis of Structural Equation Models.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Roderick P

    2004-10-01

    Conventional structural equation modeling fits a covariance structure implied by the equations of the model. This treatment of the model often gives misleading results because overall goodness of fit tests do not focus on the specific constraints implied by the model. An alternative treatment arising from Pearl's directed acyclic graph theory checks identifiability and lists and tests the implied constraints. This approach is complete for Markov models, but has remained incomplete for models with correlated disturbances. Some new algebraic results overcome the limitations of DAG theory and give a specific form of structural equation analysis that checks identifiability, tests the implied constraints, equation by equation, and gives consistent estimators of the parameters in closed form from the equations. At present the method is limited to recursive models subject to exclusion conditions. With further work, specific structural equation modeling may yield a complete alternative to the present, rather unsatisfactory, global covariance structure analysis.

  18. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Primary Roots of Brassica napus Seedlings with Extremely Different Primary Root Lengths Using RNA Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Dun, Xiaoling; Tao, Zhangsheng; Wang, Jie; Wang, Xinfa; Liu, Guihua; Wang, Hanzhong

    2016-01-01

    Primary root (PR) development is a crucial developmental process that is essential for plant survival. The elucidation of the PR transcriptome provides insight into the genetic mechanism controlling PR development in crops. In this study, we performed a comparative transcriptome analysis to investigate the genome-wide gene expression profiles of the seedling PRs of four Brassica napus genotypes that were divided into two groups, short group (D43 and D61), and long group (D69 and D72), according to their extremely different primary root lengths (PRLs). The results generated 55,341,366–64,631,336 clean reads aligned to 62,562 genes (61.9% of the current annotated genes) in the B. napus genome. We provide evidence that at least 44,986 genes are actively expressed in the B. napus PR. The majority of the genes that were expressed during seedling PR development were associated with metabolism, cellular processes, response to stimulus, biological regulation, and signaling. Using a pairwise comparison approach, 509 differentially expressed genes (DEGs; absolute value of log2 fold-change ≥1 and p ≤ 0.05) between the long and short groups were revealed, including phytohormone-related genes, protein kinases and phosphatases, oxygenase, cytochrome P450 proteins, etc. Combining GO functional category, KEGG, and MapMan pathway analyses indicated that the DEGs involved in cell wall metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, lipid metabolism, secondary metabolism, protein modification and degradation, hormone pathways and signaling pathways were the main causes of the observed PRL differences. We also identified 16 differentially expressed transcription factors (TFs) involved in PR development. Taken together, these transcriptomic datasets may serve as a foundation for the identification of candidate genes and may provide valuable information for understanding the molecular and cellular events related to PR development. PMID:27594860

  19. Erbium-doped fiber amplifier elements for structural analysis sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanna-Hawver, P.; Kamdar, K. D.; Mehta, S.; Nagarajan, S.; Nasta, M. H.; Claus, R. O.

    1992-01-01

    The use of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFA's) in optical fiber sensor systems for structural analysis is described. EDFA's were developed for primary applications as periodic regenerator amplifiers in long-distance fiber-based communication systems. Their in-line amplification performance also makes them attractive for optical fiber sensor systems which require long effective lengths or the synthesis of special length-dependent signal processing functions. Sensor geometries incorporating EDFA's in recirculating and multiple loop sensors are discussed. Noise and polarization birefringence are also considered, and the experimental development of system components is discussed.

  20. Structural, electronic and optical properties of well-known primary explosive: Mercury fulminate

    SciTech Connect

    Yedukondalu, N.; Vaitheeswaran, G.

    2015-11-28

    Mercury Fulminate (MF) is one of the well-known primary explosives since 17th century and it has rendered invaluable service over many years. However, the correct molecular and crystal structures are determined recently after 300 years of its discovery. In the present study, we report pressure dependent structural, elastic, electronic and optical properties of MF. Non-local correction methods have been employed to capture the weak van der Waals interactions in layered and molecular energetic MF. Among the non-local correction methods tested, optB88-vdW method works well for the investigated compound. The obtained equilibrium bulk modulus reveals that MF is softer than the well known primary explosives Silver Fulminate (SF), silver azide and lead azide. MF exhibits anisotropic compressibility (b > a > c) under pressure, consequently the corresponding elastic moduli decrease in the following order: C{sub 22} > C{sub 11} > C{sub 33}. The structural and mechanical properties suggest that MF is more sensitive to detonate along c-axis (similar to RDX) due to high compressibility of Hg⋯O non-bonded interactions along that axis. Electronic structure and optical properties were calculated including spin-orbit (SO) interactions using full potential linearized augmented plane wave method within recently developed Tran-Blaha modified Becke-Johnson (TB-mBJ) potential. The calculated TB-mBJ electronic structures of SF and MF show that these compounds are indirect bandgap insulators. Also, SO coupling is found to be more pronounced for 4d and 5d-states of Ag and Hg atoms of SF and MF, respectively. Partial density of states and electron charge density maps were used to describe the nature of chemical bonding. Ag—C bond is more directional than Hg—C bond which makes SF to be more unstable than MF. The effect of SO coupling on optical properties has also been studied and found to be significant for both (SF and MF) of the compounds.

  1. Conformational analysis of apolipoprotein A-I and E-3 based on primary sequence and circular dichroism.

    PubMed Central

    Nolte, R T; Atkinson, D

    1992-01-01

    The primary and secondary structure of human plasma apolipoprotein A-I and apolipoprotein E-3 have been analyzed to further our understanding of the secondary and tertiary conformation of these proteins and the structure and function of plasma lipoprotein particles. The methods used to analyze the primary sequence of these proteins used computer programs: (a) to identify repeated patterns within these proteins on the basis of conservative substitutions and similarities within the physicochemical properties of each residue; (b) for local averaging, hydrophobic moment, and Fourier analysis of the physicochemical properties; and (c) for secondary structure prediction of each protein carried out using homology, statistical, and information theory based methods. Circular dichroism was used to study purified lipid-protein complexes of each protein and quantitate the secondary structure in a lipid environment. The data from these analyses were integrated into a single secondary structure prediction to derive a model of each protein. The sequence homology within apolipoproteins A-I, E-3, and A-IV is used to derive a consensus sequence for two 11 amino acid repeating sequences in this family of proteins. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 8 PMID:1477274

  2. Deduced primary structure of rat hepatocyte growth factor and expression of the mRNA in rat tissues.

    PubMed Central

    Tashiro, K; Hagiya, M; Nishizawa, T; Seki, T; Shimonishi, M; Shimizu, S; Nakamura, T

    1990-01-01

    The primary structure of rat hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) was elucidated by determining the base sequence of the complementary DNA (cDNA) of HGF. The cDNA for rat HGF was isolated by screening a liver cDNA library with oligonucleotides based on the partial N-terminal amino acid sequence of the beta subunit of purified rat HGF. HGF is encoded in an mRNA of about 6 kilobases. Both alpha and beta subunits of HGF are specified in a single open reading frame for a 728-amino acid protein with a calculated molecular weight of 82,904. The N-terminal part of HGF has a signal sequence and a prosequence with 30 and 25 amino acid residues, respectively. The mature heterodimer structure is derived proteolytically from this single pre-pro precursor polypeptide. The calculated molecular weights of the alpha and beta subunits are 50,664 and 25,883, respectively, and each subunit has two potential N-linked glycosylation sites. The amino acid sequence of HGF is 38% identical with that of plasminogen. The alpha subunit of HGF contains four "kringle" structures, and the beta subunit has 37% amino acid identity with the serine protease domain of plasmin. Northern blot analysis revealed that HGF mRNA was expressed in rat various tissues, including the liver, kidney, lung, and brain. Images PMID:2139229

  3. Disturbed Structural Connectivity in Schizophrenia—Primary Factor in Pathology or Epiphenomenon?

    PubMed Central

    Konrad, Andreas; Winterer, Georg

    2008-01-01

    Indirect evidence for disturbed structural connectivity of subcortical fiber tracts in schizophrenia has been obtained from functional neuroimaging and electrophysiologic studies. During the past few years, new structural imaging methods have become available. Diffusion tensor imaging and magnetization transfer imaging (MTI) have been used to investigate directly whether fiber tract abnormalities are indeed present in schizophrenia. To date, findings are inconsistent that may express problems related to methodological issues and sample size. Also, pathological processes detectable with these new techniques are not yet well understood. Nevertheless, with growing evidence of disturbed structural connectivity, myelination has been in the focus of postmortem investigations. Several studies have shown a significant reduction of oligodendroglial cells and ultrastructural alterations of myelin sheats in schizophrenia. There is also growing evidence for abnormal expression of myelin-related genes in schizophrenia: Neuregulin (NRG1) is important for oligodendrocyte development and function, and altered expression of erbB3, one of the NRG1 receptors, has been shown in schizophrenia patients. This is consistent with recent genetic studies suggesting that NRG1 may contribute to the genetic risk for schizophrenia. In conclusion, there is increasing evidence from multiple sides that structural connectivity might be pathologically changed in schizophrenia illness. Up to the present, however, it has not been possible to decide whether alterations of structural connectivity are intrinsically linked to the primary risk factors for schizophrenia or to secondary downstream effects (ie, degeneration of fibers secondarily caused by cortical neuronal dysfunction)—an issue that needs to be clarified by future research. PMID:17485733

  4. Whale (Balaenoptera physalus) haemoglobin: primary structure, functional characterisation and computer modelling studies.

    PubMed

    Corda, Marcella; Tamburrini, Maurizio; De Rosa, Maria C; Sanna, Maria T; Fais, Antonella; Olianas, Alessandra; Pellegrini, Mariagiuseppina; Giardina, Bruno; di Prisco, Guido

    2003-01-01

    The functional properties of haemoglobin from the Mediterranean whale Balaenoptera physalus have been studied as functions of heterotropic effector concentration and temperature. Particular attention has been given to the effect of carbon dioxide and lactate since the animal is specialised for prolonged dives often in cold water. The molecular basis of the functional behaviour and in particular of the weak interaction with 2,3-diphosphoglycerate is discussed in the light of the primary structure and of computer modelling. On these bases, it is suggested that the A2 (Pro-->Ala) substitution observed in the beta chains of whale haemoglobin may be responsible for the displacement of the A helix known to be a key structural feature in haemoglobins that display an altered interaction with 2,3-diphosphoglycerate as compared with human haemoglobin. The functional and structural results, discussed in the light of a previous study on the haemoglobin from the Arctic whale Balaenoptera acutorostrata, give further insights into the regulatory mechanisms of the interactive effects of temperature, carbon dioxide and lactate.

  5. Purification, primary structure, and antimicrobial activities of a guinea pig neutrophil defensin.

    PubMed Central

    Selsted, M E; Harwig, S S

    1987-01-01

    A broad-spectrum antimicrobial peptide present in guinea pig neutrophils was isolated, characterized biochemically, and assessed for microbicidal range and potency in vitro. The guinea pig neutrophil peptide (GPNP) was purified to homogeneity from a granule-rich subcellular fraction of peritoneal exudate neutrophils by gel filtration and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. GPNP was microbicidal for selected bacterial, fungal, and viral test organisms at concentrations in the microgram per milliliter range. Composition and primary structure analyses revealed that GPNP was homologous to a recently characterized family of antimicrobial peptides, termed defensins, isolated from rabbit and human neutrophils. The entire amino acid sequence of GPNP was determined, revealing that 8 of 31 residues were among those invariant in six rabbit and three human defensin peptides. The conserved sequence included six disulfide-linked cysteine residues, a common structural feature of defensins. The sequence of GPNP also included three nonconservative substitutions in positions otherwise invariant in the human and rabbit peptides. Characterization of GPNP provides new insight into structural features which may be essential for the broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities of defensins. Images PMID:3623703

  6. Community structure and primary productivity of forested wetlands in western Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    Community structure and net primary productivity were measured in five forested wetlands in western Kentucky and compared with hydrologic information. A bottomland hardwood forest (H1), cypress-ash swamp (H2), and deep cypress swamp (H3) were located on the floodplain of the Ohio River and were subject to annual spring flooding. The other two sites were adjacent to a smaller, channelized stream that floods frequently, but for short periods. Only a young riparian forest (C3) is directly affected by the stream unless an unusually severe flood exceeds the levee that hydrologically isolates the stagnant cypress swamp (C4). Community structure indices were lowest in the two permanently-flooded cypress swamps. Tree biomass was 9.4 kg/m/sup 2/ at C4 and 10.2 kg/m/sup 2/ at H3. High biomass was found at H1 and H2 (30.3 and 31.2 kg/m/sup 2/) while C3 was intermediate at 18.4 kg/m/sup 2/. Other structural measures, notably stem density and mean height were closely related to biomass estimates. Low leaf to wood biomass ratios were found at H2 and C4 which suggests low nutrient availability. Nutrients are abundant at H2 due to agricultural runoff but physiological stress and aquatic macrophyte competition may limit tree uptake.

  7. Structures of xyloglucans in primary cell walls of gymnosperms, monilophytes (ferns sensu lato) and lycophytes.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Yves S Y; Harris, Philip J

    2012-07-01

    Little is known about the structures of the xyloglucans in the primary cell walls of vascular plants (tracheophytes) other than angiosperms. Xyloglucan structures were examined in 13 species of gymnosperms, 13 species of monilophytes (ferns sensu lato), and two species of lycophytes. Wall preparations were obtained, extracted with 6 M sodium hydroxide, and the extracts treated with a xyloglucan-specific endo-(1→4)-β-glucanase preparation. The oligosaccharides released were analysed by matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry and by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography. The xyloglucan oligosaccharide profiles from the gymnosperm walls were similar to those from the walls of most eudicotyledons and non-commelinid monocotyledons, indicating that the xyloglucans were fucogalactoxyloglucans, containing the fucosylated units XXFG and XLFG. The xyloglucan oligosaccharide profiles for six of the monilophyte species were similar to those of the gymnosperms, indicating they were also fucogalactoxyloglucans. Phylogenetically, these monilophyte species were from both basal and more derived orders. However, the profiles for the other monilophyte species showed various significant differences, including additional oligosaccharides. In three of the species, these additional oligosaccharides contained arabinosyl residues which were most abundant in the profile of Equisetum hyemale. The two species of lycophytes examined, Selaginella kraussiana and Lycopodium cernuum, had quite different xyloglucan oligosaccharide profiles, but neither were fucogalactoxyloglucans. The S. kraussiana profile had abundant oligosaccharides containing arabinosyl residues. The L. cernuum profile indicated the xyloglucan had a very complex structure.

  8. Defining intact protein primary structures from saliva: A step toward the human proteome project

    PubMed Central

    Halgand, F.; Zabrouskov, V.; Bassilian, S.; Souda, P.; Loo, J.A.; Faull, K.F.; Wong, D.T.; Whitelegge, J.P.

    2012-01-01

    Top-down mass spectrometry has been used to investigate structural diversity within some abundant salivary protein families. In this study we report the identification of two isoforms of protein II-2 which differed in mass by less than 1 Da, the determination of a sequence for protein IB8a that was best satisfied by including a mutation and a covalent modification in the C-terminal part, and the assignment of a sequence of a previously unreported protein of mass 10433 Da. The final characterization of Peptide P-J was achieved and the discovery of a truncated form of this peptide was reported. The first sequence assignment was done at low resolution using a hybrid quadrupole time of flight instrument to quickly identify and characterize proteins and data acquisition was switched to FTICR for proteins that required additional sequence coverage and certainty of assignment. High-resolution and high mass accuracy mass spectrometry on a FTICR-MS instrument combined with ECD provided the most informative datasets, with the more frequent presence of ‘unique’ ions that unambiguously define the primary structure. A mixture of predictable and unusual post-translational modifications in the protein sequence precluded the use of shotgun-annotated databases at this stage, requiring manual iterations of sequence refinement in many cases. This led us to propose guidelines for an iterative processing workflow of MS and MSMS datasets that allow researchers to completely assign the identity and the structure of a protein. PMID:22509742

  9. Economic Analysis of Requests for Laboratory Tests in Primary Health Care Centers

    PubMed Central

    Zunic, Lejla

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Operation of the Primary health care center and Medical-biochemical laboratories depends on the number of performed laboratory tests. The number of unnecessary tests significantly affect the operation of health institutions. Material and methods: We analyzed the 1000 requests for laboratory tests at the Primary Health Care Centre in Gracanica from primary care units. Based on the requests for laboratory diagnostics advisable diagnoses from primary health care unit in the Primary Health Care Center (PHC) we made an economic analysis of the total required laboratory tests in the requests for laboratory diagnosis. Incorporating the economic analysis of laboratory tests in requests for laboratory diagnosis by doctors in primary health care (PHC) and the economic analysis of laboratory tests by the disease in primary health care. Results: The economic value of 5333 laboratory tests was 84 312 points (1 point is 0.80 KM). Of the total value of the index score requirements of GPs are 44, 1%, the requirement of family doctors account for 40% and requirements of other specialists make up 15, 9%.. Discussion: In the requests of the PHC units for laboratory tests are required all levels of services: urine, CBC, SE, glucose, bilirubine, ALT, AST, AF, CK, cholesterol, HDL chol., triglicerdes, creatinine, urea, uric acid, CRP, fibrinogen, calcium and phosphorus. The following requests are the most common laboratory tests: urine, CBC, blood glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, aminotransferases, creatinine, urea. The doctors in family practice most often requested: blood glucose, urine, CBC, SE, TGL. , Chol., ALT, AST, creatinine and urea. General practitioners were demanding more cholesterol and triglycerides, and family medicine doctors were demanding less cholesterol and triglycerides and more often CRP, fibrinogen, ALT, AST, what from the level of economic cost analysis rises the issue whether this was justified? PMID:23322950

  10. Rabbit muscle creatine phosphokinase. CDNA cloning, primary structure and detection of human homologues.

    PubMed

    Putney, S; Herlihy, W; Royal, N; Pang, H; Aposhian, H V; Pickering, L; Belagaje, R; Biemann, K; Page, D; Kuby, S

    1984-12-10

    A cDNA library was constructed from rabbit muscle poly(A) RNA. Limited amino acid sequence information was obtained on rabbit muscle creatine phosphokinase and this was the basis for design and synthesis of two oligonucleotide probes complementary to a creatine kinase cDNA sequence which encodes a pentapeptide. Colony hybridizations with the probes and subsequent steps led to isolation of two clones, whose cDNA segments partially overlap and which together encode the entire protein. The primary structure was established from the sequence of two cDNA clones and from independently determined sequences of scattered portions of the polypeptide. The reactive cysteine has been located to position 282 within the 380 amino acid polypeptide. The rabbit cDNA hybridizes to digests of human chromosomal DNA. This reveals a restriction fragment length polymorphism associated with the human homologue(s) which hybridizes to the rabbit cDNA.

  11. The primary structure of the aridicin aglycon as revealed by long-range J values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Luciano; Jeffs, Peter W.

    The aglycon of aridicin, which is a member of the vancomycin class of antibiotics, was analyzed by utilizing J spin-spin interactions in two-dimensional NMR experiments.This unusual heptapeptide with the molecular formula C 59H 45N 7O 19Cl 4 (MW 1296.160) has a large number of quateernary carbons in aromatic side chains. For that reason most information was obtained from delayed COSY and COLOC spectra which reveal homo- and heteronuclear connectivities via long-range J couplings. The carbon-13 spectrum was assigned completely. In addition, the primary structure of the aridicin aglycon could be deduced, with the exception of the ether linkages between the side chains A, B, and C, by solely relying on J-connectivity maps.

  12. Determination of the primary structure of two lipid transfer proteins from apricot (Prunus armeniaca).

    PubMed

    Conti, A; Fortunato, D; Ortolani, C; Giuffrida, M G; Pravettoni, V; Napolitano, L; Farioli, L; Perono Garoffo, L; Trambaioli, C; Pastorello, E A

    2001-05-25

    It has been recently demonstrated that the major allergen of apricot is a protein of molecular mass (Mr) 9000 belonging to the family of Lipid Transfer Protein. The aim of this study was the determination of the primary structure of apricot LTP by micro-sequencing and mass spectrometric analyses. Apricot LTP is a 91 amino acids protein like peach and almond LTPs with a sequence identity of 91% and 94%, respectively. Like for the peach LTP, out of the 25 amino acids forming the inner surface of the tunnel-like hydrophobic cavity in maize ns-LTP, 16 are identical and 7 similar in the apricot LTP, supporting the hypothesis of a similar function.

  13. Primary structure of Lep d I, the main Lepidoglyphus destructor allergen.

    PubMed

    Varela, J; Ventas, P; Carreira, J; Barbas, J A; Gimenez-Gallego, G; Polo, F

    1994-10-01

    The most relevant allergen of the storage mite Lepidoglyphus destructor (Lep d I) has been characterized. Lep d I is a monomer protein of 13273 Da. The primary structure of Lep d I was determined by N-terminal Edman degradation and partially confirmed by cDNA sequencing. Sequence polymorphism was observed at six positions, with non-conservative substitutions in three of them. No potential N-glycosylation site was revealed by peptide sequencing. The 125-residue sequence of Lep d I shows approximately 40% identity (including the six cysteines) with the overlapping regions of group II allergens from the genus Dermatophagoides, which, however, do not share common allergenic epitopes with Lep d I.

  14. Primary structure of a guanyl-specific ribonuclease from the fungus Penicillium brevicompactum

    SciTech Connect

    Kulikov, V.A.; Shlyapnikov, S.V.; Yakovlev, G.I.

    1986-01-01

    By the automatic Edman degradation of the intact S-carboxymethylated protein and a mixture of the products of its proteolytic cleavage at Arg, Lys, and Glu residues, together with results on the kinetics of the proteolysis of the protein under the action of carboxypeptidase Y, the primary structure of the extracellular guanyl-specific RNase of the fungus Penicillium brevicompactum has been determined. The RNase contains 102 amino acid residues: 7 Asp, 7 Asn, 9 Thr, 11 Ser, 4 Glu, 1 Gln, 4 Pro, 10 Gly, 11 Ala, 4 Cys, 7 Val, 4 Ile, 3 Leu, 9 Tyr, 5 Phe, 2 Lys, 3 His, 1 Arg (M/sub r/ 10,801). It has been established that four hemicystine residues of the P. compactum RNase form, in pairs, two disulfide bonds

  15. Primary structure and cellular localization of callinectin, an antimicrobial peptide from the blue crab.

    PubMed

    Noga, Edward J; Stone, Kathryn L; Wood, Abbey; Gordon, William L; Robinette, David

    2011-04-01

    We report the complete amino acid sequence of callinectin, a 32 amino acid, proline-, arginine-rich antimicrobial peptide (AMP) with four cysteines and having the sequence WNSNRRFRVGRPPVVGRPGCVCFRAPCPCSNY-amide. The primary structure of callinectin is highly similar to arasins, AMPs recently identified in the small spider crab (Hyas araneus). Callinectin exists in three isomers that vary in the functional group on the tryptophan (W) residue. The most prevalent isomer had a hydroxy-N-formylkynurenine group, while the other two isomers had either N-formylkynurenine or hydroxy-tryptophan. Using a sequence highly similar to native callinectin, we chemically synthesized a peptide which we called callinectin-like peptide (CLP). Via immuno-electron microscopy, affinity-purified rabbit antibodies raised to CLP successfully localized the site of callinectin in blue crab hemocytes to the large electron-dense granules that are found primarily in large granule hemocytes.

  16. Thermal-Structural Analysis of Sunshield Membranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, John; Parrish, Keith

    2003-01-01

    Future large infrared space telescopes, such as the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), will require deployable sunshields to provide passive cooling for optics and instruments. Deployable sunshield structures for such applications typically consist of multiple thin-film membrane layers supported by deployable booms. The mechanical design of the sunshield must accommodate thermal strains due to layer-to-layer temperature differences as well as potentially large in-plane temperature gradients within individual film layers. This paper describes a thermal-structural analysis for predicting the stress state in a thin-film membrane subject to both mechanical thermal loads that could aid in the mechanical design of future sunshield structures. First the temperature field predicted by a thermal analysis is mapped to a structural finite element model, and then the structural response is predicted using a nonlinear static analysis. The structural model uses membrane elements in conjunction with a tension field material model to predict the response of the thin-film membrane layer. The tension field material model accounts for no-compression behavior associated with wrinkling and slackness. This approach was used to study the problem of a single membrane layer from the NASA reference concept for the JWST sunshield. Results from the analysis show that the membrane can experience a loss of tensile preload due to the presence of an in-plane temperature gradient representative of the cold-side layer temperature distribution predicted for the reference concept JWST.

  17. Reporting Structural Equation Modeling and Confirmatory Factor Analysis Results: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schreiber, James B.; Nora, Amaury; Stage, Frances K.; Barlow, Elizabeth A.; King, Jamie

    2006-01-01

    The authors provide a basic set of guidelines and recommendations for information that should be included in any manuscript that has confirmatory factor analysis or structural equation modeling as the primary statistical analysis technique. The authors provide an introduction to both techniques, along with sample analyses, recommendations for…

  18. Host defense peptides from Lithobates forreri, Hylarana luctuosa, and Hylarana signata (Ranidae): phylogenetic relationships inferred from primary structures of ranatuerin-2 and brevinin-2 peptides.

    PubMed

    Conlon, J Michael; Kolodziejek, Jolanta; Mechkarska, Milena; Coquet, Laurent; Leprince, Jérôme; Jouenne, Thierry; Vaudry, Hubert; Nielsen, Per F; Nowotny, Norbert; King, Jay D

    2014-03-01

    The primary structures of host-defense peptides present in frog skin secretions constitute useful molecular markers for establishing taxonomic classifications and investigating phylogenetic relationships between species within a particular genus. Peptidomic analysis has led to the characterization of multiple host-defense peptides in norepinephrine-stimulated skin secretions of three species of frogs from the family Ranidae: Lithobates forreri (Boulenger, 1883), Hylarana luctuosa (Peters, 1871), and Hylarana signata (Günther, 1872). The L. forreri secretions contain ranatuerin-2 (2 peptides), brevinin-1 (4 peptides), and temporin (1 peptide). The H. luctuosa secretions contain brevinin-2 (4 peptides), esculentin-1 (1 peptide), esculentin-2 (1 peptide), palustrin-2 (2 peptides), and temporin (2 peptides). The H. signata secretions contain brevinin-2 (4 peptides), brevinin-1 (5 peptides), palustrin-2 (1 peptide), and temporin (2 peptides). Cladistic analysis based upon the primary structures of 44 ranatuerin-2 peptides from 20 Lithobates species indicates a close phylogenetic relationship between L. forreri, Lithobates onca, and Lithobates yavapaiensis. A similar cladistic analysis based upon the primary structures of 27 brevinin-2 peptides from 8 Hylarana species provides support for a close phylogenetic relationship between H. signata and Hylarana picturata, while showing that the species are not conspecific, with H. luctuosa more distantly related.

  19. Employing a Structured Interface to Advance Primary Students' Communicative Competence in a Text-Based Computer Mediated Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Chiung-Hui; Wu, Chiu-Yi; Hsieh, Sheng-Jieh; Cheng, Hsiao-Wei; Huang, Chung-Kai

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether a structured communication interface fosters primary students' communicative competence in a synchronous typewritten computer-mediated collaborative learning environment. The structured interface provided a set of predetermined utterance patterns for elementary students to use or imitate to develop communicative…

  20. ITER Central Solenoid support structure analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Freudenberg, Kevin D; Myatt, R.

    2011-01-01

    The ITER Central Solenoid (CS) is comprised of six independent coils held together by a pre-compression support structure. This structure must provide enough preload to maintain sufficient coil-to-coil contact and interface load throughout the current pulse. End of burn (EOB) represents one of the most extreme time-points doing the reference scenario when the currents in the CS3 coils oppose those of CS1 & CS2. The CS structure is performance limited by the room temperature static yield requirements needed to support the roughly 180 MN preload to resist coil separation during operation. This preload is applied by inner and external tie plates along the length of the coil stack by mechanical fastening methods utilizing Superbolt technology. The preloading structure satisfies the magnet structural design criteria of ITER and will be verified during mockup studies. The solenoid is supported from the bottom of the toroidal field (TF) coil casing in both the vertical radial directions. The upper support of the CS coil structure maintains radial registration with the TF coil in the event of vertical disruptions (VDE) loads and earthquakes. All of these structure systems are analyzed via a global finite element analysis (FEA). The model includes a complete sector of the TF coil and the CS coil/structure in one self-consistent analysis. The corresponding results and design descriptions are described in this report.

  1. Impact analysis studies of clinical prediction rules relevant to primary care: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Emma; Uijen, Maike J M; Clyne, Barbara; Zarabzadeh, Atieh; Keogh, Claire; Galvin, Rose; Smith, Susan M; Fahey, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Following appropriate validation, clinical prediction rules (CPRs) should undergo impact analysis to evaluate their effect on patient care. The aim of this systematic review is to narratively review and critically appraise CPR impact analysis studies relevant to primary care. Setting Primary care. Participants Adults and children. Intervention Studies that implemented the CPR compared to usual care were included. Study design Randomised controlled trial (RCT), controlled before–after, and interrupted time series. Primary outcome Physician behaviour and/or patient outcomes. Results A total of 18 studies, incorporating 14 unique CPRs, were included. The main study design was RCT (n=13). Overall, 10 studies reported an improvement in primary outcome with CPR implementation. Of 6 musculoskeletal studies, 5 were effective in altering targeted physician behaviour in ordering imaging for patients presenting with ankle, knee and neck musculoskeletal injuries. Of 6 cardiovascular studies, 4 implemented cardiovascular risk scores, and 3 reported no impact on physician behaviour outcomes, such as prescribing and referral, or patient outcomes, such as reduction in serum lipid levels. 2 studies examined CPRs in decision-making for patients presenting with chest pain and reduced inappropriate admissions. Of 5 respiratory studies, 2 were effective in reducing antibiotic prescribing for sore throat following CPR implementation. Overall, study methodological quality was often unclear due to incomplete reporting. Conclusions Despite increasing interest in developing and validating CPRs relevant to primary care, relatively few have gone through impact analysis. To date, research has focused on a small number of CPRs across few clinical domains only. PMID:27008685

  2. Design and Analysis of Muon Beam Stop Support Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Okafor, Udenna

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of this thesis is to design and analyze support structures to be used in the installation, test and final positioning of the MBS throughout the life of the Mu2e experiment. There several requirements for the MBS imposed by both the scope of the experiment and, other components within the DS bore. The functions of the MBS are: 1. To limit the induced rates in the Tracker, the Calorimeter and the Cosmic Ray Veto due to backsplash-and-secondary interactions, and 2. To reduce radiation levels external to the Detector solenoid. The structures used in supporting the MBS will also adhere to requirements imposed by its functions. These requirements are critical to the support structures and affect design decisions. Other requirements critical to the design are imposed by the weight, positional tolerance and assembly procedure of the MBS, and also, the magnetic field and vacuum dose rate of the DS bore. A detailed breakdown of how each requirement affects the structural design can be found in chapter 2. Chapter 3 describes the design of each support structure and its attachment to the MBS while chapter 4 describes the results from structural analysis of the support structures. Chapter 5 describes evaluation for the design through testing and calculations while the conclusion in chapter 6 reports the current status at the time of this thesis submission with a plan for future work to be completed until final design and installation.

  3. Controls of vegetation structure and net primary production in restored grasslands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Munson, Seth M.; Lauenroth, William K.

    2014-01-01

    1. Vegetation structure and net primary production (NPP) are fundamental properties of ecosystems. Understanding how restoration practices following disturbance interact with environmental factors to control these properties can provide insight on how ecosystems recover and guide management efforts. 2. We assessed the relative contribution of environmental and restoration factors in controlling vegetation structure, above- and below-ground investment in production across a chronosequence of semiarid Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) fields recovering from dryland wheat cropping relative to undisturbed grassland. Importantly, we determined the role of plant diversity and how seeding either native or introduced perennial grasses influenced the recovery of vegetation properties. 3. Plant basal cover increased with field age and was highest in CRP fields seeded with native perennial grasses. In contrast, fields seeded with introduced perennial grasses had tall-growing plants with relatively low basal cover. These vegetation structural characteristics interacted with precipitation, but not soil characteristics, to influence above-ground NPP (ANPP). Fields enrolled in the CRP program for >7 years supported twice as much ANPP as undisturbed shortgrass steppe in the first wet year of the study, but all CRP fields converged on a common low amount of ANPP in the following dry year and invested less than half as much as the shortgrass steppe in below-ground biomass. 4. ANPP in CRP fields seeded with native perennial grasses for more than 7 years was positively related to species richness, whereas ANPP in CRP fields seeded with introduced perennial grasses were controlled more by dominant species. 5. Synthesis and applications. Seeding with introduced, instead of native, perennial grasses had a strong direct influence on vegetation structure, including species richness, which indirectly affected NPP through time. However, the effects of restoring either native or introduced

  4. Primary Structure of a Trypsin Inhibitor (Copaifera langsdorffii Trypsin Inhibitor-1) Obtained from C. langsdorffii Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Silva, José A.; Pompeu, Dávia G.; Smolka, Marcus B.; Gozzo, Fabio C.; Comar, Moacyr; Eberlin, Marcos N.; Marangoni, Sérgio

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the aim was to determine the complete sequence of the Copaifera langsdorffii trypsin inhibitor (CTI)-1 using 2-dimensional (2D)-PAGE, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF), and quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF) spectrometry. Spots A (CTI-1) and F (CTI-2) were submitted to enzymatic digestions with trypsin, SV8, and clostripain. The accurate mass of the peptide obtained from each digest was determined by mass spectrometry (MS) using MALDI-TOF. The most abundant peptides were purified and sequenced in a liquid chromatograph connected to an electrospray ionization-QTOF MS. When the purified trypsin inhibitor was submitted to 2D electrophoresis, different spots were observed, suggesting that the protein is composed of 2 subunits with microheterogeneity. Isoelectric points of 8.0, 8.5, and 9.0 were determined for the 11 kDa subunit and of 4.7, 4.6, and 4.3 for the 9 kDa subunit. The primary structure of CTI-1, determined from the mass of the peptide of the enzymatic digestions and the sequence obtained by MS, indicated 180 shared amino acid residues and a high degree of similarity with other Kunitz (KTI)-type inhibitors. The peptide also contained an Arg residue at the reactive site position. Its 3-dimensional structure revealed that this is because the structural discrepancies do not affect the canonical conformation of the reactive loop of the peptide. Results demonstrate that a detailed investigation of the structural particularities of CTI-1 could provide a better understanding of the mechanism of action of these proteins, as well as clarify its biologic function in the seeds. CTI-1 belongs to the KTI family and is composed of 2 polypeptide chains and only 1 disulfide bridge. PMID:26207098

  5. Resection of Primary and Secondary Tumors of the Sternum: An Analysis of Prognostic Variables

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Usman; Yang, Haoxian; Sima, Camelia; Buitrago, Daniel H.; Ripley, R. Taylor; Suzuki, Kei; Bains, Manjit S.; Rizk, Nabil P.; Rusch, Valerie W.; Huang, James; Adusumilli, Prasad S.; Rocco, Gaetano; Jones, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Background We sought to determine the prognostic variables associated with overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free probability (RFP) in patients with primary and secondary sternal tumors treated with surgical resection. Methods A retrospective analysis of patients who underwent resection of primary or secondary sternal tumors at two cancer institutes between 1995 and 2013 was performed. OS and RFP were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and predictors of OS and RFP were analyzed using the Cox proportional hazards model. Results Seventy-eight patients underwent sternal resection with curative (n=67; 86%) or palliative (n=6; 8%) intent. Seventy-three patients (94%) had malignant tumors, of which 28 (36%) were primary and 45 (57%) were secondary malignant. Thirteen patients (17%) underwent complete and 65 (83%) underwent partial sternal resection. There were no perioperative deaths, and grade III/IV complications were noted in 17 patients (22%). The 5-year OS was 80% for patients with primary malignant tumors, 73% for patients with non-breast secondary malignant tumors, and 58% for patients with breast tumors (p=0.85). In the overall cohort, R0 resection was associated with prolonged 5-year OS (84% vs 20%) on both univariate (p=0.004) and multivariate (adjusted HR, 3.37; p=0.029) analysis. On subgroup analysis, R0 resection was associated with improved OS and RFP only for patients with primary malignant tumors. Conclusions Sternal resection can achieve favorable OS for patients with primary and secondary sternal tumors. R0 resection is associated with improved 5-year OS and RFP in patients with primary malignant tumors. We did not detect a similar effect in patients with breast or non-breast secondary tumors. PMID:26002443

  6. Structural analysis for a 40-story building

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hua, L.

    1972-01-01

    NASTRAN was chosen as the principal analytical tool for structural analysis of the Illinois Center Plaza Hotel Building in Chicago, Illinois. The building is a 40-story, reinforced concrete structure utilizing a monolithic slab-column system. The displacements, member stresses, and foundation loads due to wind load, live load, and dead load were obtained through a series of NASTRAN runs. These analyses and the input technique are described.

  7. International comparison of clinicians' ability to identify depression in primary care: meta-analysis and meta-regression of predictors

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Alex J; Rao, Sanjay; Vaze, Amol

    2011-01-01

    Background There are international differences in the epidemiology of depression and the performance of primary care physicians but the factors underlying these national differences are uncertain. Aim To examine the international variability in diagnostic performance of primary care physicians when diagnosing depression in primary care. Design of study A meta-analysis of unassisted clinical diagnoses against semi-structured interviews. Method A systematic literature search, critical appraisal, and pooled analysis were conducted and 25 international studies were identified involving 8917 individuals. A minimum of three independent studies per country were required to aid extrapolation. Results Clinicians in the Netherlands performed best at case finding (the ability to rule in cases of depression with minimal false positives) (AUC+ 0.735) and this was statistically significantly better than the ability of clinicians in Australia (AUC+ 0.622) and the US (AUC+ 0.653), who were the worst performers. Clinicians from Italy had intermediate case-finding abilities. Regarding screening (the ability to rule out cases of no depression with minimal false negatives) there were no strong differences. Looking at overall accuracy, primary care physicians in Italy and the Netherlands were most successful in their diagnoses and physicians from the US and Australia least successful (83.5%, 81.9%, 74.3%, and 67.0%, respectively). GPs in the UK appeared to have the lowest ability to detect depression, as a proportion of all cases of depression (45.6%; 95% CI = 27.7% to 64.2%). Several factors influenced detection accuracy including: collecting data on clinical outcomes; routinely comparing the clinical performance of staff; working in small practices; and having long waits to see a specialist. Conclusion Assuming these differences are representative, there appear to be international variations in the ability of primary care physicians to diagnose depression, but little differences in

  8. On the structural analysis of textile composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdanovich, Alexander E.; Pastore, Christopher M.

    The local structural inhomogeneities which distinguish textile composites from laminated materials are discussed. Techniques for quantifying these inhomogeneities through three dimensional geometric modelling are introduced and methods of translating them into elastic properties are presented. Some basic ideas on application of spline functions to the stress field analysis in textile composites are proposed. The significance of internal continuity conditions for these materials is emphasized. Several analytical techniques based on the concept of a meso-volume are discussed. An example is presented to demonstrate the application of the method to structural analysis of textile composites.

  9. Structural sensitivity analysis: Methods, applications and needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adelman, H. M.; Haftka, R. T.; Camarda, C. J.; Walsh, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    Innovative techniques applicable to sensitivity analysis of discretized structural systems are reviewed. The techniques include a finite difference step size selection algorithm, a method for derivatives of iterative solutions, a Green's function technique for derivatives of transient response, simultaneous calculation of temperatures and their derivatives, derivatives with respect to shape, and derivatives of optimum designs with respect to problem parameters. Computerized implementations of sensitivity analysis and applications of sensitivity derivatives are also discussed. Some of the critical needs in the structural sensitivity area are indicated along with plans for dealing with some of those needs.

  10. Structural sensitivity analysis: Methods, applications, and needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adelman, H. M.; Haftka, R. T.; Camarda, C. J.; Walsh, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    Some innovative techniques applicable to sensitivity analysis of discretized structural systems are reviewed. These techniques include a finite-difference step-size selection algorithm, a method for derivatives of iterative solutions, a Green's function technique for derivatives of transient response, a simultaneous calculation of temperatures and their derivatives, derivatives with respect to shape, and derivatives of optimum designs with respect to problem parameters. Computerized implementations of sensitivity analysis and applications of sensitivity derivatives are also discussed. Finally, some of the critical needs in the structural sensitivity area are indicated along with Langley plans for dealing with some of these needs.

  11. Investigation of carbon dioxide emission in China by primary component analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Wang, Cheng-Ming; Liu, Lian; Guo, Hang; Liu, Guo-Dong; Li, Yuan-Wei; Deng, Shi-Huai

    2014-02-15

    Principal component analysis (PCA) is employed to investigate the relationship between CO2 emissions (COEs) stemming from fossil fuel burning and cement manufacturing and their affecting factors. Eight affecting factors, namely, Population (P), Urban Population (UP); the Output Values of Primary Industry (PIOV), Secondary Industry (SIOV), and Tertiary Industry (TIOV); and the Proportions of Primary Industry's Output Value (PPIOV), Secondary Industry's Output Value (PSIOV), and Tertiary Industry's Output Value (PTIOV), are chosen. PCA is employed to eliminate the multicollinearity of the affecting factors. Two principal components, which can explain 92.86% of the variance of the eight affecting factors, are chosen as variables in the regression analysis. Ordinary least square regression is used to estimate multiple linear regression models, in which COEs and the principal components serve as dependent and independent variables, respectively. The results are given in the following. (1) Theoretically, the carbon intensities of PIOV, SIOV, and TIOV are 2573.4693, 552.7036, and 606.0791 kt per one billion $, respectively. The incomplete statistical data, the different statistical standards, and the ideology of self sufficiency and peasantry appear to show that the carbon intensity of PIOV is higher than those of SIOV and TIOV in China. (2) PPIOV, PSIOV, and PTIOV influence the fluctuations of COE. The parameters of PPIOV, PSIOV, and PTIOV are -2706946.7564, 2557300.5450, and 3924767.9807 kt, respectively. As the economic structure of China is strongly tied to technology level, the period when PIOV plays the leading position is characterized by lagging technology and economic developing. Thus, the influence of PPIOV has a negative value. As the increase of PSIOV and PTIOV is always followed by technological innovation and economic development, PSIOV and PTIOV have the opposite influence. (3) The carbon intensities of P and UP are 1.1029 and 1.7862 kt per thousand people

  12. Diet is the primary determinant of bacterial community structure in the guts of higher termites.

    PubMed

    Mikaelyan, Aram; Dietrich, Carsten; Köhler, Tim; Poulsen, Michael; Sillam-Dussès, David; Brune, Andreas

    2015-10-01

    The gut microbiota of termites plays critical roles in the symbiotic digestion of lignocellulose. While phylogenetically 'lower termites' are characterized by a unique association with cellulolytic flagellates, higher termites (family Termitidae) harbour exclusively prokaryotic communities in their dilated hindguts. Unlike the more primitive termite families, which primarily feed on wood, they have adapted to a variety of lignocellulosic food sources in different stages of humification, ranging from sound wood to soil organic matter. In this study, we comparatively analysed representatives of different taxonomic lineages and feeding groups of higher termites to identify the major drivers of bacterial community structure in the termite gut, using amplicon libraries of 16S rRNA genes from 18 species of higher termites. In all analyses, the wood-feeding species were clearly separated from humus and soil feeders, irrespective of their taxonomic affiliation, offering compelling evidence that diet is the primary determinant of bacterial community structure. Within each diet group, however, gut communities of termites from the same subfamily were more similar than those of distantly related species. A highly resolved classification using a curated reference database revealed only few genus-level taxa whose distribution patterns indicated specificity for certain host lineages, limiting any possible cospeciation between the gut microbiota and host to short evolutionary timescales. Rather, the observed patterns in the host-specific distribution of the bacterial lineages in termite guts are best explained by diet-related differences in the availability of microhabitats and functional niches.

  13. Structural support, not insulation, is the primary driver for avian cup-shaped nest design

    PubMed Central

    Heenan, Caragh B.; Seymour, Roger S.

    2011-01-01

    The nest micro-environment is a widely studied area of avian biology, however, the contribution of nest conductance (the inverse of insulation) to the energetics of the incubating adult and offspring has largely been overlooked. Surface-specific thermal conductance (W °C−1 cm−2) has been related to nest dimensions, wall porosity, height above-ground and altitude, but the most relevant measure is total conductance (G, W °C−1). This study is the first to analyse conductance allometrically with adult body mass (M, g), according to the form G = aMb. We propose three alternative hypotheses to explain the scaling of conductance. The exponent may emerge from: heat loss scaling (M0.48) in which G scales with the same exponent as thermal conductance of the adult bird, isometric scaling (M0.33) in which nest shape is held constant as parent mass increases, and structural scaling (M0.25) in which nests are designed to support a given adult mass. Data from 213 cup-shaped nests, from 36 Australian species weighing 8–360 g, show conductance is proportional to M0.25. This allometric exponent is significantly different from those expected for heat loss and isometric scaling and confirms the hypothesis that structural support for the eggs and incubating parent is the primary factor driving nest design. PMID:21325330

  14. Identification of the gate regions in the primary structure of the secretin pIV.

    PubMed

    Spagnuolo, Julian; Opalka, Natacha; Wen, Wesley X; Gagic, Dragana; Chabaud, Elodie; Bellini, Pierdomenico; Bennett, Matthew D; Norris, Gillian E; Darst, Seth A; Russel, Marjorie; Rakonjac, Jasna

    2010-04-01

    Secretins are a family of large bacterial outer membrane channels that serve as exit ports for folded proteins, filamentous phage and surface structures. Despite the large size of their substrates, secretins do not compromise the barrier function of the outer membrane, implying a gating mechanism. The region in the primary structure that forms the putative gate has not previously been determined for any secretin. To identify residues involved in gating the pIV secretin of filamentous bacteriophage f1, we used random mutagenesis of the gene followed by positive selection for mutants with compromised barrier function ('leaky' mutants). We identified mutations in 34 residues, 30 of which were clustered into two regions located in the centre of the conserved C-terminal secretin family domain: GATE1 (that spanned 39 residues) and GATE2 (that spanned 14 residues). An internal deletion constructed in the GATE2 region resulted in a severely leaky phenotype. Three of the four remaining mutations are located in the region that encodes the N-terminal, periplasmic portion of pIV and could be involved in triggering gate opening. Two missense mutations in the 24-residue region that separates GATE1 and GATE2 were also constructed. These mutant proteins were unstable, defective in multimerization and non-functional.

  15. Scalable structural color printing using pixelated nanostructures in RGB primary colors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Hao; Kaminska, Bozena

    2016-03-01

    Commercially available conventional color printing techniques mainly rely on patterning pigment-based pixels on a substrate. In recent years, structural colors have become increasingly important for their intrinsic advantages such as chemical stability, high resolution and color properties. However, to apply structural color pixels in printing color images for consumer-based demands remains a daunting challenge because such pixels usually require very high resolution patterning at a high speed and low cost. In this paper, we present novel color printing techniques based on micro-patterning of prefabricated nanostructure pixels in RGB primary colors. According to the micro-patterning techniques, the presented techniques are: a) solvent-free optical and thermal patterning of nanostructure pixels, b) photographic exposure through nanostructure color filters and c) inkjet printing of silver on nanostructures. These three presented techniques share some similar characteristics with popular conventional techniques, and can be considered as new-generation printing techniques evolved from their conventional counterparts. The preliminary results suggest that implementing the presented techniques, full-color images can be printed with much improved throughput than other nano-patterning techniques and imply these techniques can potentially be applied towards color production for general consumer use.

  16. [The study on chemical composition and crystalline structure of hypoplastic primary dental enamel].

    PubMed

    Zheng, S; Deng, H; Gao, X

    1997-11-01

    The present study, firstly, analyzed chemical composition of hypoplastic primary teeth by electron probe analyzer and compared the hypoplastic part with the normal part in the same tooth; secondly, by X-ray diffraction analyzer, studied the hypoplastic dental enamel and the normal dental enamel, and compared the crystalline structure between different dental enamel and with that of the hydroxyapatite. The aim was to find out any change of crystalline structure. Two exfoliated hypoplastic deciduous anterior teeth were used for the electron probe study. The normal part of each tooth served as control. Determinations of weight percentage (wt%) were made for P, Al, Mg, Ca, Mn, Fe, Zn, Sr, Na, K and F. Four exfoliated hypoplastic deciduous anterior teeth and eight exfoliated normal deciduous anterior teeth were used for the X-ray diffraction study. We found by X-ray diffraction that the length of the alpha-axis of enamel crystallite and the distance of lattice plane (corresponding 300) were increased in defective enamel and could be associated with the increased content of magnesium detected by electron probe. Thus, the present study demonstrated that there were both quantity and quality changes in the enamel hypoplasia lesion, which may increase the susceptibility of the defective teeth to caries.

  17. Improving transient analysis technology for aircraft structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melosh, R. J.; Chargin, Mladen

    1989-01-01

    Aircraft dynamic analyses are demanding of computer simulation capabilities. The modeling complexities of semi-monocoque construction, irregular geometry, high-performance materials, and high-accuracy analysis are present. At issue are the safety of the passengers and the integrity of the structure for a wide variety of flight-operating and emergency conditions. The technology which supports engineering of aircraft structures using computer simulation is examined. Available computer support is briefly described and improvement of accuracy and efficiency are recommended. Improved accuracy of simulation will lead to a more economical structure. Improved efficiency will result in lowering development time and expense.

  18. Structural Analysis of the Redesigned Ice/Frost Ramp Bracket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, D. R.; Dawicke, D. S.; Gentz, S. J.; Roberts, P. W.; Raju, I. S.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the interim structural analysis of a redesigned Ice/Frost Ramp bracket for the Space Shuttle External Tank (ET). The proposed redesigned bracket consists of mounts for attachment to the ET wall, supports for the electronic/instrument cables and propellant repressurization lines that run along the ET, an upper plate, a lower plate, and complex bolted connections. The eight nominal bolted connections are considered critical in the summarized structural analysis. Each bolted connection contains a bolt, a nut, four washers, and a non-metallic spacer and block that are designed for thermal insulation. A three-dimensional (3D) finite element model of the bracket is developed using solid 10-node tetrahedral elements. The loading provided by the ET Project is used in the analysis. Because of the complexities associated with accurately modeling the bolted connections in the bracket, the analysis is performed using a global/local analysis procedure. The finite element analysis of the bracket identifies one of the eight bolted connections as having high stress concentrations. A local area of the bracket surrounding this bolted connection is extracted from the global model and used as a local model. Within the local model, the various components of the bolted connection are refined, and contact is introduced along the appropriate interfaces determined by the analysts. The deformations from the global model are applied as boundary conditions to the local model. The results from the global/local analysis show that while the stresses in the bolts are well within yield, the spacers fail due to compression. The primary objective of the interim structural analysis is to show concept viability for static thermal testing. The proposed design concept would undergo continued design optimization to address the identified analytical assumptions and concept shortcomings, assuming successful thermal testing.

  19. Failure Analysis of Composite Structure Materials.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-05-01

    listed in order of preference, based on applicability, reliability, cost , and sample requirements. Figure 5-4. Failure Analysis Technique...development of a methodology in which optical analysis is used to increase the time and cost effectiveness of analyzing failed composite material struc...regarding the integrity of the bond. Accurate bondline defect information was achieved in such structures utilizing a transportable californium -252 (2 5 2

  20. How Green Are European Curricula? A Comparative Analysis of Primary School Syllabi in Five European Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanish, Anna; Rank, Astrid; Seeber, Gunther

    2014-01-01

    The authors conducted a cross-national curriculum analysis as part of a European Union Comenius project regarding the implementation of an online tool to foster environmental education (EE) in primary schools. The overall goal was to determine the extent and intensity that EE is embedded in the syllabi of five European countries. To this end, the…

  1. A Policy Analysis of the Delivery of Primary and Secondary School Mathematics and Science in English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohandhas, Pratheepa

    2015-01-01

    This paper offers an analysis of the development and implementation of the policy to teach Science and Mathematics in English (PPSMI) in Malaysian primary schools, commencing in 2003, in the context of the 2009 reversal of the policy. The original study focused particularly on the impact of the policy on the children of the Federal Land…

  2. Word Learning in Children with Primary Language Impairment: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kan, Pui Fong; Windsor, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The present study is a meta-analysis that examines the difference in novel word learning performance between children with primary language impairment (LI) and typically developing children. Participant and task characteristics were examined as variables that potentially moderated children's word learning. Method: Eight hundred and…

  3. A Meta-Analysis of Adult-Rated Child Personality and Academic Performance in Primary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poropat, Arthur E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Personality is reliably associated with academic performance, but personality measurement in primary education can be problematic. Young children find it difficult to accurately self-rate personality, and dominant models of adult personality may be inappropriate for children. Aims: This meta-analysis was conducted to determine the…

  4. Socialization Objectives of Chinese Primary Schools: Results of a Comparative Textbook Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straka, Gerald A.; Bos, Wilfried

    1989-01-01

    A content analysis of selected German translations of six Chinese primary school textbooks, used from 1963 to 1982, assessed the socializing functions of qualification, integration, and identification. Categories involved include professional, moral, cultural, family, school, associations, China as a unified nation, China's achievements, and…

  5. Factor Structure of the Primary Scales of the Inventory of Personality Organization in a Nonclinical Sample Using Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellison, William D.; Levy, Kenneth N.

    2012-01-01

    Using exploratory structural equation modeling and multiple regression, we examined the factor structure and criterion relations of the primary scales of the Inventory of Personality Organization (IPO; Kernberg & Clarkin, 1995) in a nonclinical sample. Participants (N = 1,260) completed the IPO and measures of self-concept clarity, defenses,…

  6. The Informational Text Structure Survey (ITS[superscript 2]): An Exploration of Primary Grade Teachers' Sensitivity to Text Structure in Young Children's Informational Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reutzel, D. Ray; Jones, Cindy D.; Clark, Sarah K.; Kumar, Tamara

    2016-01-01

    There has been no research reported about if or how well primary grade teachers can identify information text structures in children's authentic informational texts. The ability to do so accurately and reliably is a prerequisite for teachers to be able to teach students how to recognize and use text structures to assist them in comprehending…

  7. Factor Structure and Psychometric Properties of English and Spanish Versions of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale Among Hispanic Women in a Primary Care Setting

    PubMed Central

    Hartley, Chelsey M.; Barroso, Nicole; Rey, Yasmin; Pettit, Jeremy W.; Bagner, Daniel M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Although a number of studies have examined the factor structure of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) in predominately White or African American samples, no published research has reported on the factor structure among Hispanic women who reside in the United States. Objective The current study examined the factor structure of the EPDS among Hispanic mothers in the United States. Method Among 220 Hispanic women, drawn from a pediatric primary care setting, with an infant aged 0 to 10 months, 6 structural models guided by the empirical literature were evaluated using confirmatory factor analysis. Results Results supported a 2-factor model of depression and anxiety as the best fitting model. Multigroup models supported the factorial invariance across women who completed the EDPS in English and Spanish. Conclusion These findings provide initial support for the 2-factor structure of the EPDS among Hispanic women in the United States. PMID:24807217

  8. Defining intact protein primary structures from saliva: a step toward the human proteome project.

    PubMed

    Halgand, F; Zabrouskov, V; Bassilian, S; Souda, P; Loo, J A; Faull, K F; Wong, D T; Whitelegge, J P

    2012-05-15

    Top-down mass spectrometry has been used to investigate structural diversity within some abundant salivary protein families. In this study, we report the identification of two isoforms of protein II-2 which differed in mass by less than 1 Da, the determination of a sequence for protein IB8a that was best satisfied by including a mutation and a covalent modification in the C-terminal part, and the assignment of a sequence of a previously unreported protein of mass 10433 Da. The final characterization of Peptide P-J was achieved, and the discovery of a truncated form of this peptide was reported. The first sequence assignment was done at low resolution using a hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight instrument to quickly identify and characterize proteins, and data acquisition was switched to Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) for proteins that required additional sequence coverage and certainty of assignment. High-resolution and high mass accuracy mass spectrometry on a FTICR-mass spectrometry (MS) instrument combined with electron-capture dissociation (ECD) provided the most informative data sets, with the more frequent presence of "unique" ions that unambiguously define the primary structure. A mixture of predictable and unusual post-translational modifications in the protein sequence precluded the use of shotgun-annotated databases at this stage, requiring manual iterations of sequence refinement in many cases. This led us to propose guidelines for an iterative processing workflow of MS and MSMS data sets that allow researchers to completely assign the identity and the structure of a protein.

  9. A close relationship between primary nucleotides sequence structure and the composition of functional genes in the genome of prokaryotes.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Juan A L; Fernández-Guerra, Antoni; Casamayor, Emilio O

    2011-12-01

    Comparative genomics is an essential tool to unravel how genomes change over evolutionary time and to gain clues on the links between functional genomics and evolution. In prokaryotes, the large, good quality, genome sequences available in public databases and the recently developed large-scale computational methods, offer an unprecedent view on the ecology and evolution of microorganisms through comparative genomics. In this work, we examined the links among genome structure (i.e., the sequential distribution of nucleotides itself by detrended fluctuation analysis, DFA) and genomic diversity (i.e., gene functionality by Clusters of Orthologous Genes, COGs) in 828 full sequenced prokaryotic genomes from 548 different bacteria and archaea species. DFA scaling exponent α indicated persistent long-range correlations (fractality) in each genome analyzed. Higher resolution power was found when considering the sequential succession of purine (AG) vs. pyrimidine (CT) bases than either keto (GT) to amino (AC) forms or strongly (GC) vs. weakly (AT) bonded nucleotides. Interestingly, the phyla Aquificae, Fusobacteria, Dictyoglomi, Nitrospirae, and Thermotogae were closer to archaea than to their bacterial counterparts. A strong significant correlation was found between scaling exponent α and COGs distribution, and we consistently observed that the larger α the more heterogeneous was the gene distribution within each functional category, suggesting a close relationship between primary nucleotides sequence structure and functional genes composition.

  10. Simplified method for nonlinear structural analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, A.

    1983-01-01

    A simplified inelastic analysis computer program was developed for predicting the stress-strain history of a thermomechanically cycled structure from an elastic solution. The program uses an iterative and incremental procedure to estimate the plastic strains from the material stress-strain properties and a simulated plasticity hardening model. The simplified method was exercised on a number of problems involving uniaxial and multiaxial loading, isothermal and nonisothermal conditions, and different materials and plasticity models. Good agreement was found between these analytical results and nonlinear finite element solutions for these problems. The simplified analysis program used less than 1 percent of the CPU time required for a nonlinear finite element analysis.

  11. Structural Target Analysis And Recognition System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Harry C.

    1984-06-01

    The structural target analysis and recognition system (STARS) is a pyramid and syntactical based vision system that uniquely classifies targets, using their viewable internal structure. Being a totally structural approach, STARS uses a resolution sequence to develop a hierarchical pyramid organized segmentation and formal language to perform the recognition function. Global structure of the target is derived by the segment connectivity of the inter-resolution levels, while local structure is based on the local relationship of segments at a single level. The relationships of both the global and local structures form a resolution syntax tree (RST). Two targets are said to be structurally similar if they have similar RSTs. The matching process of the RSTs proceeds from the root to the leaves of the tree. The depth to which the match progresses before failure or completion determines the degree of patch in a resolution sense. RSTs from various views of a target are grouped together to form a formal language. The underlying grammar is transformed into a stochastic grammar so as to accommodate segmentation and environmental variations. Recognition metrics are a function of the resolution structure and posterior probability at each resolution level. Because of the inherent resolution sequence, STARS can accommodate both candidate and reference targets from various resolutions.

  12. Turbine blade nonlinear structural and life analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcknight, R. L.; Laflen, J. H.; Halford, G. R.; Kaufman, A.

    1982-01-01

    The utility of advanced structural analysis and life prediction techniques was evaluated for the life assessment of a commercial air-cooled turbine blade with a history of tip cracking. Three dimensional, nonlinear finite element structural analyses were performed for the blade tip region. The computed strain-temperature history of the critical location was imposed on a uniaxial strain controlled test specimen to evaluate the validity of the structural analysis method. Experimental results indicated higher peak stresses and greater stress relaxation than the analytical predictions. Life predictions using the Strainrange Partitioning and Frequency Modified approaches predicted 1200 to 4420 cycles and 2700 cycles to crack initiation, respectively, compared to an observed life of 3000 cycles.

  13. Numerical analysis of soil-structure interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanlangen, Harry

    1991-05-01

    A study to improve some existing procedures for the finite element analysis of soil deformation and collapse is presented. Special attention is paid to problems of soil structure interaction. Emphasis is put on the behavior of soil rather than on that of structures. This seems to be justifiable if static interaction of stiff structures and soft soil is considered. In such a case nonlinear response will exclusively stem from soil deformation. In addition, the quality of the results depends to a high extent on the proper modeling of soil flow along structures and not on the modeling of the structure itself. An exception is made when geotextile reinforcement is considered. In that case the structural element, i.e., the geotextile, is highly flexible. The equation of continuum equilibrium, which serves as a starting point for the finite element formulation of large deformation elastoplasticity, is discussed with special attention being paid to the interpretation of some objective stress rate tensors. The solution of nonlinear finite element equations is addressed. Soil deformation in the prefailure range is discussed. Large deformation effect in the analysis of soil deformation is touched on.

  14. Histological and Ultrastructure Analysis of Dentin Dysplasia Type I in Primary Teeth: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Pintor, Andrea; Alexandria, Adilis; Marques, Andrea; Abrahao, Aline; Guedes, Fabio; Primo, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Dentin dysplasia type I (DD-I) is a rare human dentin disorder that may affect both the primary and permanent dentitions. The teeth present crowns with normal morphology but short or absent roots. Pulp chamber obliteration and early exfoliation of primary teeth are also observed. We describe herein the typical and atypical features of DD-I presented by a 6-year-old patient, the diagnostic rationale and assessment emphasizing the histological and scanning electron microscopic analysis and the therapeutic approach. The DD-I diagnosis in patients in the mixed dentition period is challenging, especially when only some teeth are affected.

  15. Out of plane analysis for composite structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, P. C.; Saff, C. R.; Sanger, Kenneth B.; Mahler, M. A.; Kan, Han Pin; Kautz, Edward F.

    1990-01-01

    Simple two dimensional analysis techniques were developed to aid in the design of strong joints for integrally stiffened/bonded composite structures subjected to out of plane loads. It was found that most out of plane failures were due to induced stresses arising from rapid changes in load path direction or geometry, induced stresses due to changes in geometry caused by buckling, or direct stresses produced by fuel pressure or bearing loads. While the analysis techniques were developed to address a great variety of out of plane loading conditions, they were primarily derived to address the conditions described above. The methods were developed and verified using existing element test data. The methods were demonstrated using the data from a test failure of a high strain wingbox that was designed, built, and tested under a previous program. Subsequently, a set of design guidelines were assembled to assist in the design of safe, strong integral composite structures using the analysis techniques developed.

  16. Economic Evaluation of Computerized Structural Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fortin, P. E.

    1985-01-01

    This completed effort involved a technical and economic study of the capabilities of computer programs in the area of structural analysis. The applicability of the programs to NASA projects and to other users was studied. The applications in other industries was explored including both research and development and applied areas. The costs of several alternative analysis programs were compared. A literature search covered applicable technical literature including journals, trade publications and books. In addition to the literature search, several commercial companies that have developed computerized structural analysis programs were contacted and their technical brochures reviewed. These programs include SDRC I-DEAS, MSC/NASTRAN, SCADA, SUPERSAP, NISA/DISPLAY, STAAD-III, MICAS, GTSTRUDL, and STARS. These programs were briefly reviewed as applicable to NASA projects.

  17. Critical Joints in Large Composite Primary Aircraft Structures. Volume 3: Ancillary Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bunin, Bruce L.; Sagui, R. L.

    1985-01-01

    A program was conducted to develop the technology for critical structural joints for composite wing structure that meets all the design requirements of a 1990 commercial transport aircraft. The results of a comprehensive ancillary test program are summarized, consisting of single-bolt composite joint specimens tested in a variety of configurations. These tests were conducted to characterize the strength and load deflection properties that are required for multirow joint analysis. The composite material was Toray 300 fiber and Ciba-Geigy 914 resin, in the form of 0.005 and 0.01 inch thick unidirectional tape. Tests were conducted in single and double shear for loaded and unloaded hole configurations under both tensile and compressive loading. Two different layup patterns were examined. All tests were conducted at room temperature. In addition, the results of NASA Standard Toughness Test (NASA RP 1092) are reported, which were conducted for several material systems.

  18. Segmentation of histological structures for fractal analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, Vanessa; Kouznetsov, Alexei; Tambasco, Mauro

    2009-02-01

    Pathologists examine histology sections to make diagnostic and prognostic assessments regarding cancer based on deviations in cellular and/or glandular structures. However, these assessments are subjective and exhibit some degree of observer variability. Recent studies have shown that fractal dimension (a quantitative measure of structural complexity) has proven useful for characterizing structural deviations and exhibits great potential for automated cancer diagnosis and prognosis. Computing fractal dimension relies on accurate image segmentation to capture the architectural complexity of the histology specimen. For this purpose, previous studies have used techniques such as intensity histogram analysis and edge detection algorithms. However, care must be taken when segmenting pathologically relevant structures since improper edge detection can result in an inaccurate estimation of fractal dimension. In this study, we established a reliable method for segmenting edges from grayscale images. We used a Koch snowflake, an object of known fractal dimension, to investigate the accuracy of various edge detection algorithms and selected the most appropriate algorithm to extract the outline structures. Next, we created validation objects ranging in fractal dimension from 1.3 to 1.9 imitating the size, structural complexity, and spatial pixel intensity distribution of stained histology section images. We applied increasing intensity thresholds to the validation objects to extract the outline structures and observe the effects on the corresponding segmentation and fractal dimension. The intensity threshold yielding the maximum fractal dimension provided the most accurate fractal dimension and segmentation, indicating that this quantitative method could be used in an automated classification system for histology specimens.

  19. Crystal structure of Halobacterium salinarum halorhodopsin with a partially depopulated primary chloride-binding site.

    PubMed

    Schreiner, Madeleine; Schlesinger, Ramona; Heberle, Joachim; Niemann, Hartmut H

    2016-09-01

    The transmembrane pump halorhodopsin in halophilic archaea translocates chloride ions from the extracellular to the cytoplasmic side upon illumination. In the ground state a tightly bound chloride ion occupies the primary chloride-binding site (CBS I) close to the protonated Schiff base that links the retinal chromophore to the protein. The light-triggered trans-cis isomerization of retinal causes structural changes in the protein associated with movement of the chloride ion. In reverse, chemical depletion of CBS I in Natronomonas pharaonis halorhodopsin (NpHR) through deprotonation of the Schiff base results in conformational changes of the protein: a state thought to mimic late stages of the photocycle. Here, crystals of Halobacterium salinarum halorhodopsin (HsHR) were soaked at high pH to provoke deprotonation of the Schiff base and loss of chloride. The crystals changed colour from purple to yellow and the occupancy of CBS I was reduced from 1 to about 0.5. In contrast to NpHR, this chloride depletion did not cause substantial conformational changes in the protein. Nevertheless, two observations indicate that chloride depletion could eventually result in structural changes similar to those found in NpHR. Firstly, the partially chloride-depleted form of HsHR has increased normalized B factors in the region of helix C that is close to CBS I and changes its conformation in NpHR. Secondly, prolonged soaking of HsHR crystals at high pH resulted in loss of diffraction. In conclusion, the conformation of the chloride-free protein may not be compatible with this crystal form of HsHR despite a packing arrangement that hardly restrains helices E and F that presumably move during ion transport.

  20. Pitch accent alignment in romance: primary and secondary associations with metrical structure.

    PubMed

    Prieto, Pilar; D'Imperio, Mariapaola; Fivela, Barbara Gili

    2005-01-01

    The article describes the contrastive possibilities of alignment of high accents in three Romance varieties, namely, Central Catalan, Neapolitan Italian, and Pisa Italian. The Romance languages analyzed in this article provide crucial evidence that small differences in alignment in rising accents should be encoded phonologically. To account for such facts within the AM model, the article develops the notion of "phonological anchoring" as an extension of the concept of secondary association originally proposed by Pierrehumbert and Beckman (1988), and later adopted by Grice (1995), Grice, Ladd, and Arvaniti (2000), and others to explain the behavior of edge tones. The Romance data represent evidence that not only peripheral edge tones seek secondary associations. We claim that the phonological representation of pitch accents should include two independent mechanisms to encode alignment properties with metrical structure: (1) encoding of the primary phonological association (or affiliation) between the tone and its tone-bearing unit; and (2), for some specific cases, encoding of the secondary phonological anchoring of tones to prosodic edges (moras, syllables, and prosodic words). The Romance data described in the article provide crucial evidence of mora-edge, syllable-edge, and word-edge H tonal associations.

  1. Functional and structural plasticity in the primary somatosensory cortex associated with chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Kim, Woojin; Kim, Sun Kwang; Nabekura, Junichi

    2017-03-09

    Tissue or nerve injury induces widespread plastic changes from the periphery and spinal cord up to the cortex, resulting in chronic pain. Although many clinicians and researchers have extensively studied altered nociceptive signaling and neural circuit plasticity at the spinal cord level, effective treatments to ameliorate chronic pain are still insufficient. For about the last two decades, the rapid development in macroscopic brain imaging studies on humans and animal models have revealed maladaptive plastic changes in the 'pain matrix' brain regions, which may subsequently contribute to chronic pain. Among these brain regions, our group has concentrated for many years on the primary somatosensory (S1) cortex with a help of advanced imaging techniques and has found the functional and structural changes in neurons/glia as well as individual synapses in the S1 cortex during chronic pain. Taken together, it is now believed that such S1 plasticity is one of the causes for chronic pain, not a simple and passive epiphenomenon following tissue/nerve injury as previously thought. In this small review, we discuss the relation of plasticity in the S1 cortex with chronic pain, based on clinical trials and experimental studies conducted on this field. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. Rabbit corticosteroid-binding globulin: primary structure and biosynthesis during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Seralini, G E; Smith, C L; Hammond, G L

    1990-08-01

    The cDNA-deduced primary structure of rabbit corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) contains 383 amino acids (mol wt, 42,326), including three cysteine residues and four sites for N-glycosylation. It is primarily the product of a 1.68-kilobase hepatic mRNA, but small amounts of CBG mRNA were also found in maternal lung, spleen, and ovary and fetal kidney. In the fetus, hepatic CBG mRNA concentrations increase markedly after day 11 and were 2- to 5-fold higher than those in maternal liver during days 17-23. They then declined to very low levels at term (31 days). By contrast, maternal hepatic CBG mRNA levels did not increase until day 23; reached a peak at about day 27, and then declined to prepregnancy values by 3 days after delivery. In general, fetal and maternal hepatic CBG mRNA concentrations reflect the corresponding serum CBG levels. Our data, therefore, indicate that the marked changes in fetal and maternal plasma CBG levels during pregnancy reflect changes in the biosynthesis of the protein rather than alterations in compartmentalization or clearance.

  3. Concordant genetic structure in two species of woodpecker distributed across the primary West African biogeographic barriers.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Jérôme; Bowie, Rauri C K

    2015-07-01

    The lowland forests of western and central tropical Africa are separated by several potential biogeographic barriers to dispersal for forest adapted vertebrates. The two primary barriers are (1) the Dahomey Gap, a savanna corridor that reaches the coast of southern Ghana, Togo and Benin, and separates the West African rainforest into the Upper (Ghana west to Guinea) and Lower Guinea (Nigeria to Uganda and Angola) forest blocks, and (2) the Lower Niger River, a large delta that separates Western and Eastern Nigeria. Previous studies on terrestrial vertebrates (lizards, mammals and birds) have highlighted a genetic break in the Dahomey Gap/Lower Niger River area although the relative importance of each barrier has not been assessed due to limitations in geographic sampling. We compared the phylogeographic history of two co-distributed sister-species of woodpeckers (Campethera caroli and C. nivosa) using data from three loci representing all inheritance modes. Our analyses revealed that both the Dahomey Gap and possibly the Lower Niger River acted as strong biogeographic barriers for the two woodpecker species, with the Lower Niger River being the first barrier to have formed, leading to three distinct populations of C. nivosa. Our divergence time analyses revealed that both these biogeographic barriers formed during the Pleistocene, supporting the Pleistocene refuge hypothesis, with the Dahomey Gap likely appearing about 0.5 myr BP. No genetic structure was recovered among sampled populations in either the Upper or the Lower Guinea Forest Block for both species, despite the considerable geographic area covered.

  4. Does Congenital Deafness Affect the Structural and Functional Architecture of Primary Visual Cortex?

    PubMed Central

    Smittenaar, C.R.; MacSweeney, M.; Sereno, M.I.; Schwarzkopf, D.S.

    2016-01-01

    Deafness results in greater reliance on the remaining senses. It is unknown whether the cortical architecture of the intact senses is optimized to compensate for lost input. Here we performed widefield population receptive field (pRF) mapping of primary visual cortex (V1) with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in hearing and congenitally deaf participants, all of whom had learnt sign language after the age of 10 years. We found larger pRFs encoding the peripheral visual field of deaf compared to hearing participants. This was likely driven by larger facilitatory center zones of the pRF profile concentrated in the near and far periphery in the deaf group. pRF density was comparable between groups, indicating pRFs overlapped more in the deaf group. This could suggest that a coarse coding strategy underlies enhanced peripheral visual skills in deaf people. Cortical thickness was also decreased in V1 in the deaf group. These findings suggest deafness causes structural and functional plasticity at the earliest stages of visual cortex. PMID:27014392

  5. The immune toxicity of titanium dioxide on primary pulmonary alveolar macrophages relies on their surface area and crystal structure.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ran; Yin, Li-hong; Pu, Yue-pu; Li, Yun-hui; Zhang, Xiao-qiang; Liang, Ge-yu; Li, Xiao-bo; Zhang, Juan; Li, Yan-fen; Zhang, Xue-yan

    2010-12-01

    Surface properties are critical to assess effects of titanium dioxide (TiO2) primary nanoparticles on the immune function of pulmonary alveolar macrophage (PAMs). In this study the immune toxicity of TiO2 primary nanoparticles on PAMs relies on their surface area and crystal structure were determined. The primary PAMs of rats exposed to different sizes and crystal structure of TiO2 particles at different dosages for 24 hrs were evaluated for cytokines, phagocytosis, chemotaxis and surface molecules expression. Nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) level of PAMs significantly increased when exposed to TiO2 primary particles and there were significant association with the exposure total surface area and crystal structure of TiO2 particles in the former. TiO2 particles showed significant inhibiting effects on phagocytotic ability, chemotactic ability, Fc receptors and MHC-II molecular expression of macrophages compared with control. Exposure dosage and crystal structure of TiO2 particles play effects on phagocytotic ability and chemotactic ability of PAMs. These results suggested that TiO2 nanoparticles could induce the release of inflammatory mediators, initiate the inflammation development and inhibit the immune function of PAMs associated with non-specific immunity and specific immunity relies on surface area and crystal structure. NO activity might be a candidate marker indicating the TiO2 exposure burden and cell damage in PAMs.

  6. Static Structural and Modal Analysis Using Isogeometric Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gondegaon, Sangamesh; Voruganti, Hari K.

    2016-12-01

    Isogeometric Analysis (IGA) is a new analysis method for unification of Computer Aided Design (CAD) and Computer Aided Engineering (CAE). With the use of NURBS basis functions for both modelling and analysis, the bottleneck of meshing is avoided and a seamless integration is achieved. The CAD and computational geometry concepts in IGA are new to the analysis community. Though, there is a steady growth of literature, details of calculations, explanations and examples are not reported. The content of the paper is complimentary to the existing literature and addresses the gaps. It includes summary of the literature, overview of the methodology, step-by-step calculations and Matlab codes for example problems in static structural and modal analysis in 1-D and 2-D. At appropriate places, comparison with the Finite Element Analysis (FEM) is also included, so that those familiar with FEM can appreciate IGA better.

  7. Analysis of zinc binding sites in protein crystal structures.

    PubMed Central

    Alberts, I. L.; Nadassy, K.; Wodak, S. J.

    1998-01-01

    The geometrical properties of zinc binding sites in a dataset of high quality protein crystal structures deposited in the Protein Data Bank have been examined to identify important differences between zinc sites that are directly involved in catalysis and those that play a structural role. Coordination angles in the zinc primary coordination sphere are compared with ideal values for each coordination geometry, and zinc coordination distances are compared with those in small zinc complexes from the Cambridge Structural Database as a guide of expected trends. We find that distances and angles in the primary coordination sphere are in general close to the expected (or ideal) values. Deviations occur primarily for oxygen coordinating atoms and are found to be mainly due to H-bonding of the oxygen coordinating ligand to protein residues, bidentate binding arrangements, and multi-zinc sites. We find that H-bonding of oxygen containing residues (or water) to zinc bound histidines is almost universal in our dataset and defines the elec-His-Zn motif. Analysis of the stereochemistry shows that carboxyl elec-His-Zn motifs are geometrically rigid, while water elec-His-Zn motifs show the most geometrical variation. As catalytic motifs have a higher proportion of carboxyl elec atoms than structural motifs, they provide a more rigid framework for zinc binding. This is understood biologically, as a small distortion in the zinc position in an enzyme can have serious consequences on the enzymatic reaction. We also analyze the sequence pattern of the zinc ligands and residues that provide elecs, and identify conserved hydrophobic residues in the endopeptidases that also appear to contribute to stabilizing the catalytic zinc site. A zinc binding template in protein crystal structures is derived from these observations. PMID:10082367

  8. Thermal Analysis of the Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) 8 Meter Primary Mirror

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hornsby, Linda; Stahl, H. Philip; Hopkins, Randall C.

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) preliminary design concept consists of an 8 meter diameter monolithic primary mirror enclosed in an insulated, optical tube with stray light baffles and a sunshade. ATLAST will be placed in orbit about the Sun-Earth L2 and will experience constant exposure to the sun. The insulation on the optical tube and sunshade serve to cold bias the telescope which helps to minimize thermal gradients. The primary mirror will be maintained at 280K with an active thermal control system. The geometric model of the primary mirror, optical tube, sun baffles, and sunshade was developed using Thermal Desktop(R) SINDA/FLUINT(R) was used for the thermal analysis and the radiation environment was analyzed using RADCAD(R). A XX node model was executed in order to characterize the static performance and thermal stability of the mirror during maneuvers. This is important because long exposure observations, such as extra-solar terrestrial planet finding and characterization, require a very stable observatory wave front. Steady state thermal analyses served to predict mirror temperatures for several different sun angles. Transient analyses were performed in order to predict thermal time constant of the primary mirror for a 20 degree slew or 30 degree roll maneuver. This paper describes the thermal model and provides details of the geometry, thermo-optical properties, and the environment which influences the thermal performance. All assumptions that were used in the analysis are also documented. Parametric analyses are summarized for design parameters including primary mirror coatings and sunshade configuration. Estimates of mirror heater power requirements are reported. The thermal model demonstrates results for the primary mirror heated from the back side and edges using a heater system with multiple independently controlled zones.

  9. Molecular analysis of myocilin and optineurin genes in Korean primary glaucoma patients

    PubMed Central

    Park, Joonhong; Kim, Myungshin; Park, Chan Kee; Chae, Hyojin; Lee, Seungok; Kim, Yonggoo; Jang, Woori; Chi, Hyun Young; Park, Hae-Young Lopilly; Park, Shin Hae

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the underlying genetic influences of primary glaucoma in Korea, molecular analysis was performed in 112 sporadic cases, and results compared with healthy controls. The myocilin (MYOC) and optineurin (OPTN) genes were directly sequenced in 112 unrelated patients, including 17 with primary open-angle glaucoma, 19 with juvenile open-angle glaucoma, and 76 with normal tension glaucoma. Healthy unrelated Korean individuals (n=100) were used as the non-selected population control. A total of three MYOC and four OPTN variants potentially associated with primary glaucoma were identified in 4 and 18 patients, respectively. A novel variant of MYOC, p.Leu255Pro, was predicted to be potentially pathogenic by in silico analysis. Another, p.Thr353Ile, has been previously reported. These two missense variants were detected in patients with a family history of glaucoma. Combined heterozygous variants p.[Thr123=;Ile288=] were identified in 2 of 112 (2%) patients but not in healthy controls. Among OPTN variants, a novel variant p.Arg271Cys was identified. Homozygous p.[Thr34=;Thr34=] (4/112, 4%), homozygous p.[Met98Lys;Met98Lys] (4/112, 4%), or combined heterozygous p.[Thr34=;Arg545Gln] (9/112, 8%) was significantly associated with the development of primary glaucoma [odds ratio (OR)=8.768, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.972–38.988; relative risk=1.818, 95% CI=1.473–2.244; P=0.001]. The present study provides insight into the genetic or haplotype variants of MYOC and OPTN genes contributing to primary glaucoma. Haplotype variants identified in the present study may be regarded as potential contributing factors of primary glaucoma in Korea. Further studies, including those on additional genes, are required to elucidate the underlying pathogenic mechanism using a larger cohort to provide additional statistical power. PMID:27485216

  10. Stochastic Simulation Tool for Aerospace Structural Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, Norman F.; Moore, David F.

    2006-01-01

    Stochastic simulation refers to incorporating the effects of design tolerances and uncertainties into the design analysis model and then determining their influence on the design. A high-level evaluation of one such stochastic simulation tool, the MSC.Robust Design tool by MSC.Software Corporation, has been conducted. This stochastic simulation tool provides structural analysts with a tool to interrogate their structural design based on their mathematical description of the design problem using finite element analysis methods. This tool leverages the analyst's prior investment in finite element model development of a particular design. The original finite element model is treated as the baseline structural analysis model for the stochastic simulations that are to be performed. A Monte Carlo approach is used by MSC.Robust Design to determine the effects of scatter in design input variables on response output parameters. The tool was not designed to provide a probabilistic assessment, but to assist engineers in understanding cause and effect. It is driven by a graphical-user interface and retains the engineer-in-the-loop strategy for design evaluation and improvement. The application problem for the evaluation is chosen to be a two-dimensional shell finite element model of a Space Shuttle wing leading-edge panel under re-entry aerodynamic loading. MSC.Robust Design adds value to the analysis effort by rapidly being able to identify design input variables whose variability causes the most influence in response output parameters.

  11. Structural analysis of light aircraft using NASTRAN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkinson, M. T.; Bruce, A. C.

    1973-01-01

    An application of NASTRAN to the structural analysis of light aircraft was conducted to determine the cost effectiveness. A model of the Baby Ace D model homebuilt aircraft was used. The NASTRAN model of the aircraft consists of 193 grid points connected by 352 structural members. All members are either rod or beam elements, including bending of unsymmetrical cross sections and torsion of noncircular cross sections. The aerodynamic loads applied to the aircraft were in accordance with FAA regulations governing the utility category aircraft.

  12. Coupled structural/thermal/electromagnetic analysis/tailoring of graded composite structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcknight, R. L.; Huang, H.; Hartle, M.

    1992-01-01

    Accomplishments are described for the third years effort of a 5-year program to develop a methodology for coupled structural/thermal/electromagnetic analysis/tailoring of graded composite structures. These accomplishments include: (1) structural analysis capability specialized for graded composite structures including large deformation and deformation position eigenanalysis technologies; (2) a thermal analyzer specialized for graded composite structures; (3) absorption of electromagnetic waves by graded composite structures; and (4) coupled structural thermal/electromagnetic analysis of graded composite structures.

  13. Energy flow analysis of coupled structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Phillip Eung-Ho

    1993-01-01

    Energy flow analysis (EFA) is an analytical tool for prediction of the frequency-averaged vibrational response of built-up structures at high audible frequencies. The procedure is based on two developments; firstly, the derivation of the partial differential equations that govern the propagation of energy-related quantities in simple structural elements such as rods, beams, plates, and acoustic cavities; secondly, the derivation of coupling relationships in terms of energy-related quantities that describe the transfer of energy for various joints (e.g., beam-to-beam, plate-to-plate, and structure-to acoustic field couplings). In this investigation, EFA is used to predict the vibrational response of various coupled structures. In the process of predicting the vibrational response of the coupled structures, the energy flow coupling relationships at the joints of these structures are derived. In addition, the finite element formulation of the governing energy equations are developed. Because the energy density is discontinuous at the joint, a special global assembly procedure is developed to assemble the finite element matrix equations into global matrix equations. The global matrix assembly procedure is predicated on the development of joint element matrix equations using energy flow coupling relationships for various structural joints. The results predicted by EFA for a frame structure with a three-dimensional joint, where four wave types propagate in the structure, are shown to be a reasonable approximation of the frequency-averaged 'exact' energetics, which are computed from classical displacement solutions. The accuracy of the results predicted by EFA increased with high mode count and modal overlap factor or high non-dimensional wavenumber band and non-dimensional damped wavenumber band in the frequency band of interest. An experimental investigation of vibrational response of a light truck frame structure was performed to verify the results of EFA when applied

  14. Primary structure of the human fgr proto-oncogene product p55/sup c-fgr/

    SciTech Connect

    Katamine, S.; Notario, V.; Rao, C.D.; Miki, T.; Cheah, M.S.C.; Tronick, S.R.; Robbins, K.C.

    1988-01-01

    Normal human c-fgr cDNA clones were constructed by using normal peripheral blood mononuclear cell mRNA as a template. Nucleotide sequence analysis of two such clones revealed a 1,587-base-pair-long open reading frame which predicted the primary amino acid sequence of the c-fgr translational product. Homology of this protein with the v-fgr translational product stretched from codons 128 to 516, where 32 differences among 388 codons were observed. Sequence similarity with human c-src, c-yes, and fyn translations products began at amino acid position 76 of the predicted c-fgr protein and extended nearly to its C-terminus. In contrast, the stretch of 75 amino acids at the N-terminus demonstrated a greatly reduced degree of relatedness to these same proteins. To verify the deduced amino acid sequence, antibodies were prepared against peptides representing amino- and carboxy-terminal regions of the predicted c-fgr translational product. Both antibodies specifically recognized a 55-kilodalton protein expressed in COS-1 cells transfected with a c-fgr cDNA expression plasmid. Moreover, the same protein was immunoprecipitated from an Epstein-Barr virus-infected Burkitt's lymphoma cell line which expressed c-fgr mRNA but not in its uninfected fgr mRNA-negative counterpart. These findings identified the 55-kilodalton protein as the product of the human fgr proto-oncogene.

  15. Structural analysis of ITER magnet feeders

    SciTech Connect

    Ilyin, Yuri; Gung, Chen-Yu; Bauer, Pierre; Chen, Yonghua; Jong, Cornelis; Devred, Arnaud; Mitchell, Neil; Lorriere, Philippe; Farek, Jaromir; Nannini, Matthieu

    2012-06-15

    This paper summarizes the results of the static structural analyses, which were conducted in support of the ITER magnet feeder design with the aim of validating certain components against the structural design criteria. While almost every feeder has unique features, they all share many common constructional elements and the same functional specifications. The analysis approach to assess the load conditions and stresses that have driven the design is equivalent for all feeders, except for particularities that needed to be modeled in each case. The mechanical analysis of the feeders follows the sub-modeling approach: the results of the global mechanical model of a feeder assembly are used as input for the detailed models of the feeder' sub-assemblies or single components. Examples of such approach, including the load conditions, stress assessment criteria and solutions for the most critical components, are discussed. It has been concluded that the feeder system is safe in the referential operation scenarios. (authors)

  16. Microfluidic Approaches for Protein Crystal Structure Analysis.

    PubMed

    Maeki, Masatoshi; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Tokeshi, Manabu; Miyazaki, Masaya

    2016-01-01

    This review summarizes two microfluidic-based protein crystallization methods, protein crystallization behavior in the microfluidic devices, and their applications for X-ray crystal structure analysis. Microfluidic devices provide many advantages for protein crystallography; they require small sample volumes, provide high-throughput screening, and allow control of the protein crystallization. A droplet-based protein crystallization method is a useful technique for high-throughput screening and the formation of a single crystal without any complicated device fabrication process. Well-based microfluidic platforms also enable effective protein crystallization. This review also summarizes the protein crystal growth behavior in microfluidic devices as, is known from viewpoints of theoretical and experimental approaches. Finally, we introduce applications of microfluidic devices for on-chip crystal structure analysis.

  17. Structure analysis for plane geometry figures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Tianxiao; Lu, Xiaoqing; Liu, Lu; Li, Keqiang; Tang, Zhi

    2013-12-01

    As there are increasing numbers of digital documents for education purpose, we realize that there is not a retrieval application for mathematic plane geometry images. In this paper, we propose a method for retrieving plane geometry figures (PGFs), which often appear in geometry books and digital documents. First, detecting algorithms are applied to detect common basic geometry shapes from a PGF image. Based on all basic shapes, we analyze the structural relationships between two basic shapes and combine some of them to a compound shape to build the PGF descriptor. Afterwards, we apply matching function to retrieve candidate PGF images with ranking. The great contribution of the paper is that we propose a structure analysis method to better describe the spatial relationships in such image composed of many overlapped shapes. Experimental results demonstrate that our analysis method and shape descriptor can obtain good retrieval results with relatively high effectiveness and efficiency.

  18. An Analysis of the Presentation of Art in the British Primary School Curriculum and Its Implications for Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallam, Jenny; Lee, Helen; Das Gupta, Mani

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of the way art is conceptualised in the British primary school curriculum and provides an historical framework that maps an evolution of ideas that have shaped the way art is presented in the modern day primary curriculum. In order to achieve this a Foucauldian style genealogical analysis is utilised to trace the…

  19. Structural analysis at aircraft conceptual design stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansouri, Reza

    In the past 50 years, computers have helped by augmenting human efforts with tremendous pace. The aircraft industry is not an exception. Aircraft industry is more than ever dependent on computing because of a high level of complexity and the increasing need for excellence to survive a highly competitive marketplace. Designers choose computers to perform almost every analysis task. But while doing so, existing effective, accurate and easy to use classical analytical methods are often forgotten, which can be very useful especially in the early phases of the aircraft design where concept generation and evaluation demands physical visibility of design parameters to make decisions [39, 2004]. Structural analysis methods have been used by human beings since the very early civilization. Centuries before computers were invented; the pyramids were designed and constructed by Egyptians around 2000 B.C, the Parthenon was built by the Greeks, around 240 B.C, Dujiangyan was built by the Chinese. Persepolis, Hagia Sophia, Taj Mahal, Eiffel tower are only few more examples of historical buildings, bridges and monuments that were constructed before we had any advancement made in computer aided engineering. Aircraft industry is no exception either. In the first half of the 20th century, engineers used classical method and designed civil transport aircraft such as Ford Tri Motor (1926), Lockheed Vega (1927), Lockheed 9 Orion (1931), Douglas DC-3 (1935), Douglas DC-4/C-54 Skymaster (1938), Boeing 307 (1938) and Boeing 314 Clipper (1939) and managed to become airborne without difficulty. Evidencing, while advanced numerical methods such as the finite element analysis is one of the most effective structural analysis methods; classical structural analysis methods can also be as useful especially during the early phase of a fixed wing aircraft design where major decisions are made and concept generation and evaluation demands physical visibility of design parameters to make decisions

  20. RNA Structure Analysis of Viruses Using SHAPE

    PubMed Central

    Burrill, Cecily P.; Andino, Raul

    2016-01-01

    Selective 2'hydroxyl acylation analyzed by primer extension (SHAPE) provides a means to investigate RNA structure with better resolution and higher throughput than has been possible with traditional methods. We present several protocols, which are based on a variety of previously published methods and were adapted and optimized for the analysis of poliovirus RNA in the Andino laboratory. These include methods for non-denaturing RNA extraction, RNA modification and primer extension, and data processing in ShapeFinder. PMID:24510890

  1. Probabilistic structural analysis methods and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruse, T. A.; Wu, Y.-T.; Dias, B.; Rajagopal, K. R.

    1988-01-01

    An advanced algorithm for simulating the probabilistic distribution of structural responses due to statistical uncertainties in loads, geometry, material properties, and boundary conditions is reported. The method effectively combines an advanced algorithm for calculating probability levels for multivariate problems (fast probability integration) together with a general-purpose finite-element code for stress, vibration, and buckling analysis. Application is made to a space propulsion system turbine blade for which the geometry and material properties are treated as random variables.

  2. Childhood Anxiety in a Diverse Primary Care Population: Parent-Child Reports, Ethnicity and SCARED Factor Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wren, Frances J.; Berg, Eric A.; Heiden, Lynda A.; Kinnamon, Carolyn J.; Ohlson, Lirio A.; Bridge, Jeffrey A.; Birmaher, Boris; Bernal, M. Pilar

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To explore in a multiethnic primary care population the impact of child gender and of race/ethnicity on parent and child reports of school-age anxiety and on the factor structure of the Screen for Childhood Anxiety and Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED). Method: A consecutive sample of 515 children (8 to less than 13 years) and their…

  3. Industrial entrepreneurial network: Structural and functional analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medvedeva, M. A.; Davletbaev, R. H.; Berg, D. B.; Nazarova, J. J.; Parusheva, S. S.

    2016-12-01

    Structure and functioning of two model industrial entrepreneurial networks are investigated in the present paper. One of these networks is forming when implementing an integrated project and consists of eight agents, which interact with each other and external environment. The other one is obtained from the municipal economy and is based on the set of the 12 real business entities. Analysis of the networks is carried out on the basis of the matrix of mutual payments aggregated over the certain time period. The matrix is created by the methods of experimental economics. Social Network Analysis (SNA) methods and instruments were used in the present research. The set of basic structural characteristics was investigated: set of quantitative parameters such as density, diameter, clustering coefficient, different kinds of centrality, and etc. They were compared with the random Bernoulli graphs of the corresponding size and density. Discovered variations of random and entrepreneurial networks structure are explained by the peculiarities of agents functioning in production network. Separately, were identified the closed exchange circuits (cyclically closed contours of graph) forming an autopoietic (self-replicating) network pattern. The purpose of the functional analysis was to identify the contribution of the autopoietic network pattern in its gross product. It was found that the magnitude of this contribution is more than 20%. Such value allows using of the complementary currency in order to stimulate economic activity of network agents.

  4. Evaluation, analysis and prediction of geologic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodward, Nicholas B.

    2012-08-01

    Balanced cross-sections claim to be better because they apply a rigorous set of rules to develop the conceptual model of the structures present in an area. Balanced cross-sections can be further improved and become more useful to understanding real physical problems by collection of additional data such as seismic reflection surveys, collection of additional stratigraphic data, or collection of rock fabric information. The additional information validates the initial model and provides details on deformation conditions and on local rock responses to the deformation. Although individual cross-sections are two dimensional, the objective of evaluation and analysis of deformed regions should be three dimensional whenever possible to recognize the challenges of the real world. Subsurface system analysis derived from the hydrologic community emphasizes conceptual model development through model verification, validation, uncertainty quantification, benchmarking and meta-analysis. Their approach includes many steps informally used by the structural geology community but in a much more explicit way. Newer geological applications of structural geology would benefit from this more rigorous approach for designing and doing performance predictions as technological needs become more socially sensitive such as for carbon storage sites, new areas of energy exploration in higher population density areas, or for nuclear waste storage facilities.

  5. Remote geologic structural analysis of Yucca Flat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foley, M. G.; Heasler, P. G.; Hoover, K. A.; Rynes, N. J.; Thiessen, R. L.; Alfaro, J. L.

    1991-12-01

    The Remote Geologic Analysis (RGA) system was developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to identify crustal structures that may affect seismic wave propagation from nuclear tests. Using automated methods, the RGA system identifies all valleys in a digital elevation model (DEM), fits three-dimensional vectors to valley bottoms, and catalogs all potential fracture or fault planes defined by coplanar pairs of valley vectors. The system generates a cluster hierarchy of planar features having greater-than-random density that may represent areas of anomalous topography manifesting structural control of erosional drainage development. Because RGA uses computer methods to identify zones of hypothesized control of topography, ground truth using a well-characterized test site was critical in our evaluation of RGA's characterization of inaccessible test sites for seismic verification studies. Therefore, we applied RGA to a study area centered on Yucca Flat at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and compared our results with both mapped geology and geologic structures and with seismic yield-magnitude models. This is the final report of PNL's RGA development project for peer review within the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Arms Control (OAC) seismic-verification community. In this report, we discuss the Yucca Flat study area, the analytical basis of the RGA system and its application to Yucca Flat, the results of the analysis, and the relation of the analytical results to known topography, geology, and geologic structures.

  6. Remote geologic structural analysis of Yucca Flat

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, M.G.; Heasler, P.G.; Hoover, K.A. ); Rynes, N.J. ); Thiessen, R.L.; Alfaro, J.L. )

    1991-12-01

    The Remote Geologic Analysis (RGA) system was developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to identify crustal structures that may affect seismic wave propagation from nuclear tests. Using automated methods, the RGA system identifies all valleys in a digital elevation model (DEM), fits three-dimensional vectors to valley bottoms, and catalogs all potential fracture or fault planes defined by coplanar pairs of valley vectors. The system generates a cluster hierarchy of planar features having greater-than-random density that may represent areas of anomalous topography manifesting structural control of erosional drainage development. Because RGA uses computer methods to identify zones of hypothesized control of topography, ground truth using a well-characterized test site was critical in our evaluation of RGA's characterization of inaccessible test sites for seismic verification studies. Therefore, we applied RGA to a study area centered on Yucca Flat at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and compared our results with both mapped geology and geologic structures and with seismic yield-magnitude models. This is the final report of PNL's RGA development project for peer review within the US Department of Energy Office of Arms Control (OAC) seismic-verification community. In this report, we discuss the Yucca Flat study area, the analytical basis of the RGA system and its application to Yucca Flat, the results of the analysis, and the relation of the analytical results to known topography, geology, and geologic structures. 41 refs., 39 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Remote geologic structural analysis of Yucca Flat

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, M.G.; Heasler, P.G.; Hoover, K.A.; Rynes, N.J.; Thiessen, R.L.; Alfaro, J.L.

    1991-12-01

    The Remote Geologic Analysis (RGA) system was developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to identify crustal structures that may affect seismic wave propagation from nuclear tests. Using automated methods, the RGA system identifies all valleys in a digital elevation model (DEM), fits three-dimensional vectors to valley bottoms, and catalogs all potential fracture or fault planes defined by coplanar pairs of valley vectors. The system generates a cluster hierarchy of planar features having greater-than-random density that may represent areas of anomalous topography manifesting structural control of erosional drainage development. Because RGA uses computer methods to identify zones of hypothesized control of topography, ground truth using a well-characterized test site was critical in our evaluation of RGA`s characterization of inaccessible test sites for seismic verification studies. Therefore, we applied RGA to a study area centered on Yucca Flat at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and compared our results with both mapped geology and geologic structures and with seismic yield-magnitude models. This is the final report of PNL`s RGA development project for peer review within the US Department of Energy Office of Arms Control (OAC) seismic-verification community. In this report, we discuss the Yucca Flat study area, the analytical basis of the RGA system and its application to Yucca Flat, the results of the analysis, and the relation of the analytical results to known topography, geology, and geologic structures. 41 refs., 39 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Nanoscale analysis of structural synaptic plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Bourne, Jennifer N.; Harris, Kristen M.

    2011-01-01

    In the 1950’s, transmission electron microscopy was first used to reveal the diversity in synaptic structure and composition in the central nervous system [1;2]. Since then, visualization and reconstruction of serial thin sections have provided three-dimensional contexts in which to understand how synapses are modified with plasticity, learning, and sensory input [3–17]. Three-dimensional reconstruction from serial section electron microscopy (ssEM) has proven invaluable for the comprehensive analysis of structural synaptic plasticity. It has provided the needed nanometer resolution to localize and measure key subcellular structures, such as the postsynaptic density (PSD) and presynaptic vesicles which define a synapse, polyribosomes as sites of local protein synthesis, smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) for local regulation of calcium and trafficking of membrane proteins, endosomes for recycling, and fine astroglial processes at the perimeter of some synapses. Thus, ssEM is an essential tool for nanoscale analysis of the cell biological and anatomical modifications that underlie changes in synaptic strength. Here we discuss several important issues associated with interpreting the functional significance of structural synaptic plasticity, especially during long-term potentiation, a widely studied cellular model of learning and memory. PMID:22088391

  9. Primary cilium - antenna-like structure on the surface of most mammalian cell types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvorak, J.; Sitorova, V.; Hadzi Nikolov, D.; Mokry, J.; Richter, I.; Kasaova, L.; Filip, S.; Ryska, A.; Petera, J.

    2011-12-01

    The primary cilium is a sensory solitary non-motile microtubule-based organelle protruding in the quiescent phase of the cell cycle from the surface of the majority of human cells, including embryonic cells, stem cells and stromal cells of malignant tumors. The presence of a primary cilium on the surface of a cell is transient, limited to the quiescent G1(G0) phase and the beginning of the S phase of the cell cycle. The primary cilium is formed from the mother centriole. Primary cilia are key coordinators of signaling pathways during development and tissue homeostasis and, when deffective, they are a major cause of human diseases and developmental disorders, now commonly referred to as ciliopathies. Most cancer cells do not possess a primary cilium. The loss of the primary cilium is a regular feature of neoplastic transformation in the majority of solid tumors. The primary cilium could serve as a tumor suppressor organelle. The aim of this paper was to provide a review of the current knowledge of the primary cilium.

  10. The Structure of Educational Costs: Multiproduct Cost Functions for Primary and Secondary Schools in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimenez, Emmanuel

    1986-01-01

    Relying heavily on equations and tabular data, this paper analyzes the educational cost functions of primary and secondary schooling levels in Latin America. Economies of scale are found for both levels in Bolivian and Paraguayan urban schools; schools combining primary and secondary school services are shown to be less cost effective. (23…

  11. Simple sequence repeat analysis of genetic diversity in primary core collection of peach (Prunus persica).

    PubMed

    Li, Tian-Hong; Li, Yin-Xia; Li, Zi-Chao; Zhang, Hong-Liang; Qi, Yong-Wen; Wang, Tao

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the genetic diversity of 51 cultivars in the primary core collection of peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) was evaluated by using simple sequence repeats (SSRs). The phylogenetic relationships and the evolutionary history among different cultivars were determined on the basis of SSR data. Twenty-two polymorphic SSR primer pairs were selected, and a total of 111 alleles were identified in the 51 cultivars, with an average of 5 alleles per locus. According to traditional Chinese classification of peach cultivars, the 51 cultivars in the peach primary core collection belong to six variety groups. The SSR analysis revealed that the levels of the genetic diversity within each variety group were ranked as Sweet peach > Crisp peach > Flat peach > Nectarine > Honey Peach > Yellow fleshed peach. The genetic diversity among the Chinese cultivars was higher than that among the introduced cultivars. Cluster analysis by the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic averaging (UPGMA) placed the 51 cultivars into five linkage clusters. Cultivar members from the same variety group were distributed in different UPGMA clusters and some members from different variety groups were placed under the same cluster. Different variety groups could not be differentiated in accordance with SSR markers. The SSR analysis revealed rich genetic diversity in the peach primary core collection, representative of genetic resources of peach.

  12. Understanding the relationship between the primary structure of proteins and its propensity to be soluble on overexpression in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Idicula-Thomas, Susan; Balaji, Petety V.

    2005-01-01

    Solubility of proteins on overexpression in Escherichia coli is a manifestation of the net effect of several sequence-dependent and sequence-independent factors. This study aims to delineate the relationship between the primary structure and solubility on overexpression. The amino acid sequences of proteins reported to be soluble or to form inclusion bodies on overexpression in E. coli under normal growth conditions were analyzed. The results show a positive correlation between thermostability and solubility of proteins, and an inverse correlation between the in vivo half-life of proteins and solubility. The amino acid (Asn, Thr, Tyr) composition and the tripeptide frequency of the protein were also found to influence its solubility on overexpression. The amino acids that were seen to be present in a comparatively higher frequency in inclusion body-forming proteins have a higher sheet propensity, whereas those that are seen more in soluble proteins have a higher helix propensity; this is indicative of a possible correlation between sheet propensity and inclusion body formation. Thus, the present analysis shows that thermostability, in vivo half-life, Asn, Thr, and Tyr content, and tripeptide composition of a protein are correlated to the propensity of a protein to be soluble on overexpression in E. coli. The precise mechanism by which these properties affect the solubility status of the overexpressed protein remains to be understood. PMID:15689506

  13. Probabilistic analysis of a materially nonlinear structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millwater, H. R.; Wu, Y.-T.; Fossum, A. F.

    1990-01-01

    A probabilistic finite element program is used to perform probabilistic analysis of a materially nonlinear structure. The program used in this study is NESSUS (Numerical Evaluation of Stochastic Structure Under Stress), under development at Southwest Research Institute. The cumulative distribution function (CDF) of the radial stress of a thick-walled cylinder under internal pressure is computed and compared with the analytical solution. In addition, sensitivity factors showing the relative importance of the input random variables are calculated. Significant plasticity is present in this problem and has a pronounced effect on the probabilistic results. The random input variables are the material yield stress and internal pressure with Weibull and normal distributions, respectively. The results verify the ability of NESSUS to compute the CDF and sensitivity factors of a materially nonlinear structure. In addition, the ability of the Advanced Mean Value (AMV) procedure to assess the probabilistic behavior of structures which exhibit a highly nonlinear response is shown. Thus, the AMV procedure can be applied with confidence to other structures which exhibit nonlinear behavior.

  14. Structural Analysis Using Computer Based Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietz, Matthew R.

    2013-01-01

    The stiffness of a flex hose that will be used in the umbilical arms of the Space Launch Systems mobile launcher needed to be determined in order to properly qualify ground umbilical plate behavior during vehicle separation post T-0. This data is also necessary to properly size and design the motors used to retract the umbilical arms. Therefore an experiment was created to determine the stiffness of the hose. Before the test apparatus for the experiment could be built, the structure had to be analyzed to ensure it would not fail under given loading conditions. The design model was imported into the analysis software and optimized to decrease runtime while still providing accurate restlts and allow for seamless meshing. Areas exceeding the allowable stresses in the structure were located and modified before submitting the design for fabrication. In addition, a mock up of a deep space habitat and the support frame was designed and needed to be analyzed for structural integrity under different loading conditions. The load cases were provided by the customer and were applied to the structure after optimizing the geometry. Once again, weak points in the structure were located and recommended design changes were made to the customer and the process was repeated until the load conditions were met without exceeding the allowable stresses. After the stresses met the required factors of safety the designs were released for fabrication.

  15. Thermal Analysis of the Divertor Primary Heat Transfer System Piping During the Gas Baking Process

    SciTech Connect

    Yoder Jr, Graydon L; Harvey, Karen; Ferrada, Juan J

    2011-02-01

    A preliminary analysis has been performed examining the temperature distribution in the Divertor Primary Heat Transfer System (PHTS) piping and the divertor itself during the gas baking process. During gas baking, it is required that the divertor reach a temperature of 350 C. Thermal losses in the piping and from the divertor itself require that the gas supply temperature be maintained above that temperature in order to ensure that all of the divertor components reach the required temperature. The analysis described in this report was conducted in order to estimate the required supply temperature from the gas heater.

  16. A Lectin from the Mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis Has a Highly Novel Primary Structure and Induces Glycan-mediated Cytotoxicity of Globotriaosylceramide-expressing Lymphoma Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Yuki; Dohmae, Naoshi; Takio, Koji; Kawsar, Sarkar M. A.; Matsumoto, Ryo; Hasan, Imtiaj; Koide, Yasuhiro; Kanaly, Robert A.; Yasumitsu, Hidetaro; Ogawa, Yukiko; Sugawara, Shigeki; Hosono, Masahiro; Nitta, Kazuo; Hamako, Jiharu; Matsui, Taei; Ozeki, Yasuhiro

    2012-01-01

    A novel lectin structure was found for a 17-kDa α-d-galactose-binding lectin (termed “MytiLec”) isolated from the Mediterranean mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis. The complete primary structure of the lectin was determined by Edman degradation and mass spectrometric analysis. MytiLec was found to consist of 149 amino acids with a total molecular mass of 16,812.59 Da by Fourier transform-ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry, in good agreement with the calculated value of 16,823.22 Da. MytiLec had an N terminus of acetylthreonine and a primary structure that was highly novel in comparison with those of all known lectins in the structure database. The polypeptide structure consisted of three tandem-repeat domains of ∼50 amino acids each having 45–52% homology with each other. Frontal affinity chromatography technology indicated that MytiLec bound specifically to globotriose (Gb3; Galα1–4Galβ1–4Glc), the epitope of globotriaosylceramide. MytiLec showed a dose-dependent cytotoxic effect on human Burkitt lymphoma Raji cells (which have high surface expression of Gb3) but had no such effect on erythroleukemia K562 cells (which do not express Gb3). The cytotoxic effect of MytiLec was specifically blocked by the co-presence of an α-galactoside. MytiLec treatment of Raji cells caused increased binding of anti-annexin V antibody and incorporation of propidium iodide, which are indicators of cell membrane inversion and perforation. MytiLec is the first reported lectin having a primary structure with the highly novel triple tandem-repeat domain and showing transduction of apoptotic signaling against Burkitt lymphoma cells by interaction with a glycosphingolipid-enriched microdomain containing Gb3. PMID:23093409

  17. Structural Analysis of Sandwich Foam Panels

    SciTech Connect

    Kosny, Jan; Huo, X. Sharon

    2010-04-01

    The Sandwich Panel Technologies including Structural Insulated Panels (SIPs) can be used to replace the conventional wooden-frame construction method. The main purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between UT-Battelle, LLC and SGI Venture, Inc. was to design a novel high R-value type of metal sandwich panelized technology. This CRADA project report presents design concept discussion and numerical analysis results from thermal performance study of this new building envelope system. The main objective of this work was to develop a basic concept of a new generation of wall panel technologies which will have R-value over R-20 will use thermal mass to improve energy performance in cooling dominated climates and will be 100% termite resistant. The main advantages of using sandwich panels are as follows: (1) better energy saving structural panels with high and uniform overall wall R-value across the elevation that could not be achieved in traditional walls; and (2) reducing the use of raw materials or need for virgin lumber. For better utilization of these Sandwich panels, engineers need to have a thorough understanding of the actual performance of the panels and system. Detailed analysis and study on the capacities and deformation of individual panels and its assembly have to be performed to achieve that goal. The major project activity was to conduct structural analysis of the stresses, strains, load capacities, and deformations of individual sandwich components under various load cases. The analysis simulated the actual loading conditions of the regular residential building and used actual material properties of the steel facings and foam.

  18. Structure of the excitatory receptive fields of infragranular forelimb neurons in the rat primary somatosensory cortex responding to touch.

    PubMed

    Tutunculer, Banu; Foffani, Guglielmo; Himes, B Timothy; Moxon, Karen A

    2006-06-01

    We quantitatively studied the excitatory receptive fields of 297 neurons recorded from the forelimb infragranular somatosensory cortex of the rat while touch stimuli were applied to discrete locations on the forelimbs. Receptive fields were highly heterogeneous, but they were regulated, on average, by an underlying spatio-temporal structure. We found the following. (i) Neurons responded with decreasing magnitude and increasing latency when the stimulus was moved from the primary location to secondary locations and to far ispilateral locations of their excitatory receptive fields, displaying smooth transitions from the primary location to secondary locations. (ii) Receptive field patterns revealed functional connectivity between the digits and ventral palm, which did not depend on whether the digits were stimulated dorsally or ventrally. (iii) The structure of the receptive fields (i.e. the neural responses to stimulation of secondary locations compared to the neural responses to stimulation of the primary location), reflected cortical (rather than body) distances. (iv) There was a functional separation between the forepaw and the rest of the forelimb. Namely: if the primary location was in the digits or palm, secondary locations were biased toward the digits and palm; if the primary location was in rest of the forelimb, secondary locations appeared equally distributed over forelimb, digits and palm. (v) More than 40% of neurons extended their receptive field to the ipsilateral forelimb, without any evident spatial organization. Overall, the stimuli evoked approximately 3 times more spikes from secondary responses than from primary responses. These results suggest that a rich repertoire of spatio-temporal responses is available for encoding tactile information. This highly distributed receptive field structure provides the electrophysiological architecture for studying organization and plasticity of cortical somatosensory processing.

  19. Integrating Behavioral Health in Primary Care Using Lean Workflow Analysis: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    van Eeghen, Constance; Littenberg, Benjamin; Holman, Melissa D.; Kessler, Rodger

    2016-01-01

    Background Primary care offices are integrating behavioral health (BH) clinicians into their practices. Implementing such a change is complex, difficult, and time consuming. Lean workflow analysis may be an efficient, effective, and acceptable method for integration. Objective Observe BH integration into primary care and measure its impact. Design Prospective, mixed methods case study in a primary care practice. Measurements Change in treatment initiation (referrals generating BH visits within the system). Secondary measures: primary care visits resulting in BH referrals, referrals resulting in scheduled appointments, time from referral to scheduled appointment, and time from referral to first visit. Providers and staff were surveyed on the Lean method. Results Referrals increased from 23 to 37/1000 visits (P<.001). Referrals resulted in more scheduled (60% to 74%, P<.001) and arrived visits (44% to 53%, P=.025). Time from referral to first scheduled visit decreased (Hazard Ratio (HR) 1.60; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.37, 1.88; P<0.001) as did time to first arrived visit (HR 1.36; 95% CI 1.14, 1.62; P=0.001). Surveys and comments were positive. Conclusions This pilot integration of BH showed significant improvements in treatment initiation and other measures. Strengths of Lean included workflow improvement, system perspective, and project success. Further evaluation is indicated. PMID:27170796

  20. Introducing Pre-university Students to Primary Scientific Literature Through Argumentation Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koeneman, Marcel; Goedhart, Martin; Ossevoort, Miriam

    2013-01-01

    Primary scientific literature is one of the most important means of communication in science, written for peers in the scientific community. Primary literature provides an authentic context for showing students how scientists support their claims. Several teaching strategies have been proposed using (adapted) scientific publications, some for secondary education, but none of these strategies focused specifically on scientific argumentation. The purpose of this study is to evaluate a strategy for teaching pre-university students to read unadapted primary scientific literature, translated into students' native language, based on a new argumentation analysis framework. This framework encompasses seven types of argumentative elements: motive, objective, main conclusion, implication, support, counterargument and refutation. During the intervention, students studied two research articles. We monitored students' reading comprehension and their opinion on the articles and activities. After the intervention, we measured students' ability to identify the argumentative elements in a third unadapted and translated research article. The presented framework enabled students to analyse the article by identifying the motive, objective, main conclusion and implication and part of the supports. Students stated that they found these activities useful. Most students understood the text on paragraph level and were able to read the article with some help for its vocabulary. We suggest that primary scientific literature has the potential to show students important aspects of the scientific process and to learn scientific vocabulary in an authentic context.

  1. Primary neuroendocrine breast carcinomas: a retrospective analysis and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xin; Cao, Youde; Chen, Chen; Liu, Lin; Wang, Cheng; Liu, Shengchun

    2017-01-01

    Background Primary neuroendocrine breast carcinomas (NEBCs) are a rare type of breast carcinomas that lack comprehensive recognition, including the clinicopathological features, therapeutic strategies, and prognostic significance. The aim of this retrospective analysis is to present and analyze our own data of primary NEBCs. Materials and methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records from 2005 to 2015 in The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, People’s Republic of China to obtain a cohort of breast carcinoma patients who were confirmed to have primary NEBC by histopathology. The detailed clinical data along with histopathology, treatment, and follow-up aspects were gathered for analysis. Results This retrospective analysis included 19 patients with a histopathological diagnosis of primary NEBC from 2005 to 2015. Their mean age was 59.2 years (ranging from 17 to 82 years). The majority of patients (15/19) focused on stages I and II. Of the 15 patients, 14 were positive for estrogen receptor, and 11 were positive for progesterone receptor. For neuroendocrine markers, the expression rates were 8/19, 14/18, 12/14, and 2/6 for chromogranin A, synaptophysin, neuron-specific enolase, and CD56, respectively. All operable patients except the one stage M1 underwent a surgery and 4/18 had axillary lymph node metastasis. Chemotherapy was performed in 12/19, and endocrine therapy in 8/10. With a median follow-up of 59.2 months, only 2 cases progressed after postoperative systemic therapy. Conclusion The understanding of NEBC is limited due to its rarity. More evidence should be provided to enhance the understanding of NEBC, especially for diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. PMID:28176908

  2. Probabilistic Estimation of Critical Flaw Sizes in the Primary Structure Welds of the Ares I-X Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pai, Shantaram S.; Hoge, Peter A.; Patel, B. M.; Nagpal, Vinod K.

    2009-01-01

    The primary structure of the Ares I-X Upper Stage Simulator (USS) launch vehicle is constructed of welded mild steel plates. There is some concern over the possibility of structural failure due to welding flaws. It was considered critical to quantify the impact of uncertainties in residual stress, material porosity, applied loads, and material and crack growth properties on the reliability of the welds during its pre-flight and flight. A criterion--an existing maximum size crack at the weld toe must be smaller than the maximum allowable flaw size--was established to estimate the reliability of the welds. A spectrum of maximum allowable flaw sizes was developed for different possible combinations of all of the above listed variables by performing probabilistic crack growth analyses using the ANSYS finite element analysis code in conjunction with the NASGRO crack growth code. Two alternative methods were used to account for residual stresses: (1) The mean residual stress was assumed to be 41 ksi and a limit was set on the net section flow stress during crack propagation. The critical flaw size was determined by parametrically increasing the initial flaw size and detecting if this limit was exceeded during four complete flight cycles, and (2) The mean residual stress was assumed to be 49.6 ksi (the parent material s yield strength) and the net section flow stress limit was ignored. The critical flaw size was determined by parametrically increasing the initial flaw size and detecting if catastrophic crack growth occurred during four complete flight cycles. Both surface-crack models and through-crack models were utilized to characterize cracks in the weld toe.

  3. Design and evaluation of a foam-filled hat-stiffened panel concept for aircraft primary structural applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambur, Damodar R.

    1995-01-01

    A structurally efficient hat-stiffened panel concept that utilizes a structural foam as stiffener core has been designed for aircraft primary structural applications. This stiffener concept utilizes a manufacturing process that can be adapted readily to grid-stiffened structural configurations which possess inherent damage tolerance characteristics due to their multiplicity of load paths. The foam-filled hat-stiffener concept in a prismatically stiffened panel configuration is more efficient than most other stiffened panel configurations in a load range that is typical for both fuselage and wing structures. The prismatically stiffened panel concept investigated here has been designed using AS4/3502 preimpregnated tape and Rohacell foam core and evaluated for its buckling and postbuckling behavior with and without low-speed impact damage. The results from single-stiffener and multi-stiffener specimens suggest that this structural concept responds to loading as anticipated and has good damage tolerance characteristics.

  4. Primary structure of streptococcal Pep M5 protein: Absence of extensive sequence repeats

    PubMed Central

    Manjula, Belur N.; Mische, Sheenah M.; Fischetti, Vincent A.

    1983-01-01

    Extensive sequence repeats have been observed in a biologically active fragment of type 24 streptococcal M protein, namely Pep M24 [Beachey, E. H., Sayer, J. M. & Kang, A. H. (1978) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 75, 3163-3167]. To determine whether such extensive repetition in sequence is a common characteristic of the antiphagocytic streptococcal M proteins, we have determined the sequences of the clostripain peptides of Pep M5, a biologically active fragment of the type 5 M protein that is analogous to Pep M24. These sequences, together with the amino-terminal sequence of the whole molecule, accounted for nearly two thirds of the Pep M5 molecule. However, extensive identical repeats of the kind observed in Pep M24 were not present in Pep M5. Preliminary study of the amino acid sequence analysis of the M protein from type 6 Streptococcus has also indicated the absence of sequence repeats within the regions of this molecule examined so far. These results suggest that extensive sequence repeats may not be a common characteristic of M-protein molecules. On the other hand, the seven-residue periodicity of the nonpolar residues, a characteristic of α-helical coiled-coil structures, appeared to extend over most of the Pep M5 molecule. This feature has been observed previously for the partial sequences of three M protein serotypes. Thus, the important element of the M-protein structure appears to be the seven-residue periodicity necessary for the maintenance of the coiled-coil structure rather than extensive identical amino acid sequence repeats. PMID:16593365

  5. Structural dynamic analysis of composite beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suresh, J. K.; Venkatesan, C.; Ramamurti, V.

    1990-12-01

    In the treatment of the structural dynamic problem of composite materials, two alternate types of formulations, based on the elastic modulus and compliance quantities, exist in the literature. The definitions of the various rigidities are observed to differ in these two approaches. Following these two types of formulation, the structural dynamic characteristics of a composite beam are analyzed. The results of the analysis are compared with those available in the literature. Based on the comparison, the influence of the warping function in defining the coupling terms in the modulus approach and also on the natural frequencies of the beam has been identified. It is found from the analysis that, in certain cases, the difference between the results of the two approaches is appreciable. These differences may be attributed to the constraints imposed on the deformation and flexibility of the beam by the choice of the description of the warping behaviour. Finally, the influence of material properties on the structural dynamic characteristics of the beam is studied for different composites for various angles of orthotropy.

  6. Molecular Eigensolution Symmetry Analysis and Fine Structure

    PubMed Central

    Harter, William G.; Mitchell, Justin C.

    2013-01-01

    Spectra of high-symmetry molecules contain fine and superfine level cluster structure related to J-tunneling between hills and valleys on rovibronic energy surfaces (RES). Such graphic visualizations help disentangle multi-level dynamics, selection rules, and state mixing effects including widespread violation of nuclear spin symmetry species. A review of RES analysis compares it to that of potential energy surfaces (PES) used in Born–Oppenheimer approximations. Both take advantage of adiabatic coupling in order to visualize Hamiltonian eigensolutions. RES of symmetric and D2 asymmetric top rank-2-tensor Hamiltonians are compared with Oh spherical top rank-4-tensor fine-structure clusters of 6-fold and 8-fold tunneling multiplets. Then extreme 12-fold and 24-fold multiplets are analyzed by RES plots of higher rank tensor Hamiltonians. Such extreme clustering is rare in fundamental bands but prevalent in hot bands, and analysis of its superfine structure requires more efficient labeling and a more powerful group theory. This is introduced using elementary examples involving two groups of order-6 (C6 and D3~C3v), then applied to families of Oh clusters in SF6 spectra and to extreme clusters. PMID:23344041

  7. Primary structure and cellular localization of chicken brain myosin-V (p190), an unconventional myosin with calmodulin light chains

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    Recent biochemical studies of p190, a calmodulin (CM)-binding protein purified from vertebrate brain, have demonstrated that this protein, purified as a complex with bound CM, shares a number of properties with myosins (Espindola, F. S., E. M. Espreafico, M. V. Coelho, A. R. Martins, F. R. C. Costa, M. S. Mooseker, and R. E. Larson. 1992. J. Cell Biol. 118:359-368). To determine whether or not p190 was a member of the myosin family of proteins, a set of overlapping cDNAs encoding the full-length protein sequence of chicken brain p190 was isolated and sequenced. Verification that the deduced primary structure was that of p190 was demonstrated through microsequence analysis of a cyanogen bromide peptide generated from chick brain p190. The deduced primary structure of chicken brain p190 revealed that this 1,830-amino acid (aa) 212,509-D) protein is a member of a novel structural class of unconventional myosins that includes the gene products encoded by the dilute locus of mouse and the MYO2 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We have named the p190-CM complex "myosin-V" based on the results of a detailed sequence comparison of the head domains of 29 myosin heavy chains (hc), which has revealed that this myosin, based on head structure, is the fifth of six distinct structural classes of myosin to be described thus far. Like the presumed products of the mouse dilute and yeast MYO2 genes, the head domain of chicken myosin-V hc (aa 1-764) is linked to a "neck" domain (aa 765-909) consisting of six tandem repeats of an approximately 23-aa "IQ-motif." All known myosins contain at least one such motif at their head-tail junctions; these IQ-motifs may function as calmodulin or light chain binding sites. The tail domain of chicken myosin-V consists of an initial 511 aa predicted to form several segments of coiled-coil alpha helix followed by a terminal 410-aa globular domain (aa, 1,421-1,830). Interestingly, a portion of the tail domain (aa, 1,094-1,830) shares 58% amino acid

  8. Spirometry in primary care: An analysis of spirometry test quality in a regional primary care asthma program

    PubMed Central

    Licskai, Christopher J; Sands, Todd W; Paolatto, Lisa; Nicoletti, Ivan; Ferrone, Madonna

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Primary care office spirometry can improve access to testing and concordance between clinical practice and asthma guidelines. Compliance with test quality standards is essential to implementation. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the quality of spirometry performed onsite in a regional primary care asthma program (RAP) by health care professionals with limited training. METHODS: Asthma educators were trained to perform spirometry during two 2 h workshops and supervised during up to six patient encounters. Quality was analyzed using American Thoracic Society (ATS) 1994 and ATS/European Respiratory Society (ERS) 2003 (ATS/ERS) standards. These results were compared with two regional reference sites: a primary care group practice (Family Medical Centre [FMC], Windsor, Ontario) and a teaching hospital pulmonary function laboratory (London Health Sciences Centre [LHSC], London, Ontario). RESULTS: A total of 12,815 flow-volume loops (FVL) were evaluated: RAP – 1606 FVL in 472 patient sessions; reference sites – FMC 4013 FVL in 573 sessions; and LHSC – 7196 in 1151 sessions. RAP: There were three acceptable FVL in 392 of 472 (83%) sessions, two reproducible FVL according to ATS criteria in 428 of 469 (91%) sessions, and 395 of 469 (84%) according to ATS/ERS criteria. All quality criteria – minimum of three acceptable and two reproducible FVL according to ATS criteria in 361 of 472 (77%) sessions and according to ATS/ERS criteria in 337 of 472 (71%) sessions. RAP met ATS criteria more often than the FMC (388 of 573 [68%]); however, less often than LHSC (1050 of 1151 [91%]; P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Health care providers with limited training and experience operating within a simple quality program achieved ATS/ERS quality spirometry in the majority of sessions in a primary care setting. The quality performance approached pulmonary function laboratory standards. PMID:22891184

  9. Nonlinear frequency response analysis of structural vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weeger, Oliver; Wever, Utz; Simeon, Bernd

    2014-12-01

    In this paper we present a method for nonlinear frequency response analysis of mechanical vibrations of 3-dimensional solid structures. For computing nonlinear frequency response to periodic excitations, we employ the well-established harmonic balance method. A fundamental aspect for allowing a large-scale application of the method is model order reduction of the discretized equation of motion. Therefore we propose the utilization of a modal projection method enhanced with modal derivatives, providing second-order information. For an efficient spatial discretization of continuum mechanics nonlinear partial differential equations, including large deformations and hyperelastic material laws, we employ the concept of isogeometric analysis. Isogeometric finite element methods have already been shown to possess advantages over classical finite element discretizations in terms of higher accuracy of numerical approximations in the fields of linear vibration and static large deformation analysis. With several computational examples, we demonstrate the applicability and accuracy of the modal derivative reduction method for nonlinear static computations and vibration analysis. Thus, the presented method opens a promising perspective on application of nonlinear frequency analysis to large-scale industrial problems.

  10. SU-E-I-100: Heterogeneity Studying for Primary and Lymphoma Tumors by Using Multi-Scale Image Texture Analysis with PET-CT Images

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Dengwang; Wang, Qinfen; Li, H; Chen, J

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is studying tumor heterogeneity of the primary and lymphoma by using multi-scale texture analysis with PET-CT images, where the tumor heterogeneity is expressed by texture features. Methods: Datasets were collected from 12 lung cancer patients, and both of primary and lymphoma tumors were detected with all these patients. All patients underwent whole-body 18F-FDG PET/CT scan before treatment.The regions of interest (ROI) of primary and lymphoma tumor were contoured by experienced clinical doctors. Then the ROI of primary and lymphoma tumor is extracted automatically by using Matlab software. According to the geometry size of contour structure, the images of tumor are decomposed by multi-scale method.Wavelet transform was performed on ROI structures within images by L layers sampling, and then wavelet sub-bands which have the same size of the original image are obtained. The number of sub-bands is 3L+1.The gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) is calculated within different sub-bands, thenenergy, inertia, correlation and gray in-homogeneity were extracted from GLCM.Finally, heterogeneity statistical analysis was studied for primary and lymphoma tumor using the texture features. Results: Energy, inertia, correlation and gray in-homogeneity are calculated with our experiments for heterogeneity statistical analysis.Energy for primary and lymphomatumor is equal with the same patient, while gray in-homogeneity and inertia of primaryare 2.59595±0.00855, 0.6439±0.0007 respectively. Gray in-homogeneity and inertia of lymphoma are 2.60115±0.00635, 0.64435±0.00055 respectively. The experiments showed that the volume of lymphoma is smaller than primary tumor, but thegray in-homogeneity and inertia were higher than primary tumor with the same patient, and the correlation with lymphoma tumors is zero, while the correlation with primary tumor isslightly strong. Conclusion: This studying showed that there were effective heterogeneity

  11. Primary structure and regulation of vegetative specific genes of Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed Central

    Singleton, C K; Manning, S S; Ken, R

    1989-01-01

    We have examined the expression and structure of several genes belonging to two classes of vegetative specific genes of the simple eukaryote, Dictyostelium discoideum. In amebae grown on bacteria, deactivation of all vegetative specific genes occurred at the onset of development and very little mRNA exists by 8 to 10 hours. In contrast, when cells were grown in axenic broth, the mRNA levels remained constant until a dramatic drop occurred around 10 to 12 hours. Thus, regulation of both classes of genes during the first several hours of development is dependent upon the prior growth conditions. Analysis of genomic clones has resulted in the identification of two V genes, V1 and V18, as ribosomal protein genes. Several other V genes were not found to be ribosomal protein genes, suggesting that in Dictyostelium non-ribosomal protein genes may be coordinately regulated with the ribosomal protein genes. Finally, using deletion analysis we show that the promoters of two of the V genes are composed of a constitutive positive element(s) located upstream of sequences involved in the regulated expression of these genes and within the first 545 upstream bp for V18 and 850 bp for V14. The regions involved in regulated expression were localized between -7 and -222 for V18 and -70 and -368 for V14. The sequences conferring protein synthesis sensitivity were shown to reside between -502 and -61 of the H4 promoter. Images PMID:2602140

  12. Navigated TKA After Osteotomy Versus Primary Navigated TKA: A Matched-Pair Analysis.

    PubMed

    Fröhlich, Vanessa; Johandl, Sabrina; De Zwart, Peter; Stöckle, Ulrich; Ochs, Björn Gunnar

    2016-05-01

    This article presents clinical and radiological outcome analysis of navigated total knee arthroplasty (TKA) following osteotomy compared with primary navigated TKA implantation. The study group (29 legs) received navigated TKA (Columbus with deep-dish, cruciate-retaining inlay, Aesculap AG, Tuttlingen, Germany) following distal femoral (6 legs) or high tibial (23 legs) osteotomy, and the control group (29 legs) received a primary navigated TKA. All patients were examined clinically and radiologically in a retrospective matched-pair analysis. Both groups showed comparable clinical scores (Oxford Knee Score, Tegner and Lysholm scores, and Knee Society Score). Radiological evaluations offered no relevant differences. The study group showed a significant mediolateral ligamentous instability (3 legs ≤5°, 1 leg 6°-9°, 25 legs ≥10° mediolateral deviation) compared with the control group (14 legs ≤5°, 9 legs 6°-9°, 6 legs >10°; P<.001). Significantly higher mediolateral ligamentous instability was seen in otherwise comparable clinical and radiological results in patients with navigated TKA implantation following osteotomy, compared with primary TKA. [Orthopedics; 2016. 39(3):S77-S82.].

  13. Analysis of N-16 concentration in primary cooling system of AP1000 power reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Rohanda, Anis; Waris, Abdul

    2015-04-16

    Nitrogen-16 (N-16) is one of the radiation safety parameter on the primary reactor system. The activation product, N-16, is the predominant contributor to the activity in the reactor coolant system during reactor operation. N-16 is activation product derived from activation of O-16 with fast neutron based on {sup 16}O(n,p){sup 16}N reaction. Thus study is needed and it performs to determine N-16 concentration in reactor coolant (primary coolant) in supporting radiation safety. One of the way is using analytical methode based on activation and redecay princip to obtain N-16 concentration. The analysis was performed on the configuration basis and operational of Westinghouse AP1000 power reactor in several monitoring points at coolant reactor system. The results of the calculation of N-16 concentration at the core outlet, reactor vessel outlet, pressurizer line, inlet and outlet of steam generators, primary pumps, reactor vessels inlet and core inlet are: 281, 257, 255, 250, 145, 142, 129 and 112 µCi/gram respectively. The results of analysis compared with AP1000 design control document as standard values. The verification showed very high accuracy comparation between analytical results and standard values.

  14. Analysis of N-16 concentration in primary cooling system of AP1000 power reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohanda, Anis; Waris, Abdul

    2015-04-01

    Nitrogen-16 (N-16) is one of the radiation safety parameter on the primary reactor system. The activation product, N-16, is the predominant contributor to the activity in the reactor coolant system during reactor operation. N-16 is activation product derived from activation of O-16 with fast neutron based on 16O(n,p)16N reaction. Thus study is needed and it performs to determine N-16 concentration in reactor coolant (primary coolant) in supporting radiation safety. One of the way is using analytical methode based on activation and redecay princip to obtain N-16 concentration. The analysis was performed on the configuration basis and operational of Westinghouse AP1000 power reactor in several monitoring points at coolant reactor system. The results of the calculation of N-16 concentration at the core outlet, reactor vessel outlet, pressurizer line, inlet and outlet of steam generators, primary pumps, reactor vessels inlet and core inlet are: 281, 257, 255, 250, 145, 142, 129 and 112 µCi/gram respectively. The results of analysis compared with AP1000 design control document as standard values. The verification showed very high accuracy comparation between analytical results and standard values.

  15. Geometrically nonlinear analysis of laminated elastic structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, J. N.

    1984-01-01

    Laminated composite plates and shells that can be used to model automobile bodies, aircraft wings and fuselages, and pressure vessels among many other were analyzed. The finite element method, a numerical technique for engineering analysis of structures, is used to model the geometry and approximate the solution. Various alternative formulations for analyzing laminated plates and shells are developed and their finite element models are tested for accuracy and economy in computation. These include the shear deformation laminate theory and degenerated 3-D elasticity theory for laminates.

  16. Structural Analysis of the South Mooring Dolphin U.S. Navy Communications Station, H. E. Holt, Exmouth (Australia),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-05-01

    for government use by Control Data Corporation was the primary analytical tool used. The structure’s original design, although not consistent with the...MILCON removal and replacement of the dolphin. .1 I I STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF THE SOUTH MOORING DOLPHIN U. S. NAVY COMMNICATIONS STATION . ,." H. E...main-frame computer program SACS III owned by EDI Inc. and made available by contract for government use by Control Data Corporation -was the primary

  17. Structural reliability analysis of laminated CMC components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duffy, Stephen F.; Palko, Joseph L.; Gyekenyesi, John P.

    1991-01-01

    For laminated ceramic matrix composite (CMC) materials to realize their full potential in aerospace applications, design methods and protocols are a necessity. The time independent failure response of these materials is focussed on and a reliability analysis is presented associated with the initiation of matrix cracking. A public domain computer algorithm is highlighted that was coupled with the laminate analysis of a finite element code and which serves as a design aid to analyze structural components made from laminated CMC materials. Issues relevant to the effect of the size of the component are discussed, and a parameter estimation procedure is presented. The estimation procedure allows three parameters to be calculated from a failure population that has an underlying Weibull distribution.

  18. Analysis of Diffraction Anomalous Fine Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, Julie Olmsted

    This thesis presents a systematic study of the application of DAFS to determine site-specific local structural and chemical information in complex materials, and the first application of state-of-the-art theoretical XAFS calculations using the computer program scFEFF to model DAFS data. In addition, the iterative dispersion analysis method, first suggested by Pickering, et al., has been generalized to accommodate the off-resonance anomalous scattering from heavy atoms in the unit cell. The generalized algorithm scKKFIT was applied to DAFS data from eight (00 l) reflections of the high-T _{c} superconductor YBa _2Cu_3O_ {6.8} to obtain the weighted complex resonant scattering amplitudes Delta f_{ rm w}(Q, E). The fine-structure functions chi_{rm w}(Q, E) isolated from the Delta f_{ rm w}(Q, E) are linear combinations of the individual site fine structure functions chi _{rm w}(Q, E) = Sigma_{i}W_{i,{ bf Q}}chi_{i}(E) from the two inequivalent Cu sites, added together according to the structure factor for the Cu sublattice. The chi_{rm w}(Q, E) were fit en masse using the XAFS analysis program scFEFFIT under a set of constraints on the coefficients W _{i,{bf Q}} based on the structure factor for kinematic scattering. The W_{i,{bf Q}} determined by scFEFFIT were used to obtain the fully separated complex resonant scattering amplitudes Delta f(E) for the two Cu sites. The theoretical connection between DAFS and XAFS is used to justify the application of state-of-the-art theoretical XAFS calculations to DAFS analysis. The polarization dependence of DAFS is described in terms of individual virtual photoelectron scattering paths in the Rehr-Albers separable curved-wave formalism. Polarization is shown to be an important factor in all DAFS experiments. Three experimental constraints are found necessary for obtaining site-separated Delta f(E) from DAFS data by linear inversion of the W_{i, {bf Q}} matrix and scKKFIT isolated Delta f_{rm w }(Q, E): (1) The diffraction must be

  19. Consequences of buffelgrass pasture development for primary productivity, perennial plant richness, and vegetation structure in the drylands of Sonora, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Kimberly; Molina-Freaner, Francisco

    2010-12-01

    In large parts of northern Mexico native plant communities are being converted to non-native buffelgrass (Pennisetum ciliare) pastures, and this conversion could fundamentally alter primary productivity and species richness. In Sonora, Mexico land conversion is occurring at a regional scale along a rainfall-driven gradient of primary productivity, across which native plant communities transition from desert scrub to thorn scrub. We used a paired sampling design to compare a satellite-derived index of primary productivity, richness of perennial plant species, and canopy-height profiles of native plant communities with buffelgrass pastures. We sampled species richness across a gradient of primary productivity in desert scrub and thorn scrub vegetation to examine the influence of site productivity on the outcomes of land conversion. We also examined the influence of pasture age on species richness of perennial plants. Index values of primary productivity were lower in buffelgrass pastures than in native vegetation, which suggests a reduction in primary productivity. Land conversion reduced species richness by approximately 50% at local and regional scales, reduced tree and shrub cover by 78%, and reduced canopy height. Land conversion disproportionately reduced shrub species richness, which reflects the common practice among Sonoran ranchers of conserving certain tree and cactus species. Site productivity did not affect the outcomes of land conversion. The age of a buffelgrass pasture was unrelated to species richness within the pasture, which suggests that passive recovery of species richness to preconversion levels is unlikely. Our findings demonstrate that land conversion can result in large losses of plant species richness at local and regional scales and in substantial changes to primary productivity and vegetation structure, which casts doubt on the feasibility of restoring native plant communities without active intervention on the part of land managers.

  20. Evolution, current structure, and role of a primary care clinical pharmacy service in an integrated managed care organization.

    PubMed

    Heilmann, Rachel M F; Campbell, Stephanie M; Kroner, Beverly A; Proksel, Jenel R; Billups, Sarah J; Witt, Daniel M; Helling, Dennis K

    2013-01-01

    The impact of the declining number of primary care physicians is exacerbated by a growing elderly population in need of chronic disease management. Primary care clinical pharmacy specialists, with their unique knowledge and skill set, are well suited to address this gap. At Kaiser Permanente of Colorado (KPCO), primary care clinical pharmacy specialists have a long history of integration with medical practices and are located in close proximity to physicians, nurses, and other members of the health care team. Since 1992, Primary Care Clinical Pharmacy Services (PCCPS) has expanded from 4 to 30 full-time equivalents (FTEs) to provide services in all KPCO medical office buildings. With this growth in size, PCCPS has evolved to play a vital role in working with primary care medical teams to ensure that drug therapy is effective, safe, and affordable. In addition, PCCPS specialists provide ambulatory teaching sites for pharmacy students and pharmacy residents. There is approximately 1 specialist FTE for every 13,000 adult KPCO members and every 9 clinical FTEs of internal medicine and family medicine physicians. All clinical pharmacy specialists in the pharmacy department are required to have a PharmD degree, to complete postgraduate year 2 residencies, and, as a condition of employment, to become board certified in an applicable specialty. The evolution, current structure, and role of PCCPS at KPCO, including factors facilitating successful integration within the medical team, are highlighted. Patient and nonpatient care responsibilities are described.

  1. NURBS-Based Geometry for Integrated Structural Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliver, James H.

    1997-01-01

    This grant was initiated in April 1993 and completed in September 1996. The primary goal of the project was to exploit the emerging defacto CAD standard of Non- Uniform Rational B-spline (NURBS) based curve and surface geometry to integrate and streamline the process of turbomachinery structural analysis. We focused our efforts on critical geometric modeling challenges typically posed by the requirements of structural analysts. We developed a suite of software tools that facilitate pre- and post-processing of NURBS-based turbomachinery blade models for finite element structural analyses. We also developed tools to facilitate the modeling of blades in their manufactured (or cold) state based on nominal operating shape and conditions. All of the software developed in the course of this research is written in the C++ language using the Iris Inventor 3D graphical interface tool-kit from Silicon Graphics. In addition to enhanced modularity, improved maintainability, and efficient prototype development, this design facilitates the re-use of code developed for other NASA projects and provides a uniform and professional 'look and feel' for all applications developed by the Iowa State Team.

  2. Structural analysis of 5-fluorouracil and thymine solid solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, Frederick G.; Vena, Joseph A.; Chavda, Manisha; Clawson, Jacalyn S.; Strohmeier, Mark; Barnett, Maria E.

    2009-08-01

    Solid-state analysis with powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), solid-state NMR (SSNMR), and other spectroscopic and physical methods can provide detailed structural information about organic and pharmaceutical cocrystals. In this study, a range of solid-state analysis methods are used to characterize co-crystallized solid solutions of 5-fluorouracil and thymine. 1H, 13C and 19F SSNMR and PXRD methods are used to study the structure and disorder present in a solid solution previously prepared by solution evaporation methods; here the solid solution is prepared over a wider stoichiometric range by solvent-drop grinding techniques. Long-range perturbations of key chemical shifts are detectable by SSNMR, indicating that the solid solution is not random. Cross-polarization and heteronuclear correlation SSNMR experiments between 1H, 13C, and 19F nuclei offer insight into the structure of this solid solution, and density functional theory (DFT) methods are applied to calculate lattice energies and NMR properties in order to understand the population of the two primary disordered sites in the crystal structure. In addition, a second solid solution of 5-fluorouracil and thymine is reported and analyzed. This solid solution, which was produced by solvent-drop grinding experiments and characterized by SSNMR and powder X-ray diffraction methods, is determined to be an isostructural phase to that of anhydrous thymine with the inclusion of 5-fluorouracil defects. A similar effect does not occur under excess 5-fluorouracil conditions; instead, phase-separated Form 1 of 5-fluorouracil and anhydrous thymine are obtained. DFT calculations are applied to offer a possible explanation for this disparity.

  3. Rhetorical structure theory and text analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, William C.; Matthiessen, Christian M. I. M.; Thompson, Sandra A.

    1989-11-01

    Recent research on text generation has shown that there is a need for stronger linguistic theories that tell in detail how texts communicate. The prevailing theories are very difficult to compare, and it is also very difficult to see how they might be combined into stronger theories. To make comparison and combination a bit more approachable, we have created a book which is designed to encourage comparison. A dozen different authors or teams, all experienced in discourse research, are given exactly the same text to analyze. The text is an appeal for money by a lobbying organization in Washington, DC. It informs, stimulates and manipulates the reader in a fascinating way. The joint analysis is far more insightful than any one team's analysis alone. This paper is our contribution to the book. Rhetorical Structure Theory (RST), the focus of this paper, is a way to account for the functional potential of text, its capacity to achieve the purposes of speakers and produce effects in hearers. It also shows a way to distinguish coherent texts from incoherent ones, and identifies consequences of text structure.

  4. THE ANALYTICAL STRUCTURE OF THE PRIMARY INTERSTELLAR HELIUM DISTRIBUTION FUNCTION IN THE HELIOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Martin A.; Möbius, Eberhard; Leonard, Trevor W.

    2015-10-15

    A new analytical model based on the previous work of Lee et al. is presented for the distribution of interstellar helium in the heliosphere. The model is tailored for comparison with the IBEX-Lo observations in order to determine the bulk velocity and temperature of helium in the local interstellar cloud. The model includes solar gravity, spherically symmetric stationary ionization rates, transformation to the Earth/IBEX frame of reference, the IBEX viewing geometry with small spin-axis tilt, and integration of the atom differential intensity over energy and the instrument collimator solid angle. The analysis employs an expansion of the count rate about the peak of the velocity distribution to second order in the magnitudes of several small quantities: the ratio of the helium thermal speed to its bulk speed, the angle between the bulk velocity and the ecliptic, the two angles describing the tilt of the IBEX spin-axis away from Sun-pointing, the collimator angular width, and the angular difference between the observing longitude and the longitude where the projection of the bulk velocity onto the ecliptic is tangential to Earth's orbit. The model reveals the evolving ellipsoidal shape of the helium distribution as it moves along its average hyperbolic orbit. For specified interstellar parameters, the model predicts the latitudinal and longitudinal structure of the helium distribution. The model is in reasonable agreement with IBEX observations and the predictions of the other available models.

  5. Primary structure of the Escherichia coli thyA gene and its thymidylate synthase product.

    PubMed Central

    Belfort, M; Maley, G; Pedersen-Lane, J; Maley, F

    1983-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of a 1,163-base-pair fragment that encodes the entire thyA gene of Escherichia coli K-12 was determined. The strategy involved sequence determination of both DNA strands by using overlapping deletions that had been generated in vitro from the two ends of the fragment with BAL-31 nuclease. The amino-terminal sequence of thymidylate synthase (5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate:dUMP C-methyltransferase, EC 2.1.1.45), the product of the thyA gene, located the 792-base-pair open reading frame, which codes for the 264 amino acid residues of this enzyme. The amino acid sequence deduced from the nucleotide data was confirmed to the extent of 40% by partial sequence analysis of the enzyme purified from extracts of the amplified cloned gene. Transcriptional and translational control areas were apparent in the regions flanking the structural gene. The 5-fluorodeoxyuridylate-binding residue of the active site was identified as cysteine-146. Comparison of the E. coli and Lactobacillus casei synthase sequences reveals consistent homology (62%) over extensive regions. This homology is particularly striking in a very hydrophobic region bordering cysteine-146. In the two enzymes, this region, which probably defines the active site, is 82% homologous. However, a dramatic difference between the two sequences is reflected by the surprising finding that a 51-amino-acid stretch, present midway through the L. casei sequence, is completely absent from the E. coli enzyme. PMID:6308660

  6. Uncertainty analysis of terrestrial net primary productivity and net biome productivity in China during 1901-2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Junjiong; Zhou, Xuhui; Luo, Yiqi; Zhang, Guodong; Yan, Wei; Li, Jiaxuan; Li, Bo; Dan, Li; Fisher, Joshua B.; Gao, Zhiqiang; He, Yong; Huntzinger, Deborah; Jain, Atul K.; Mao, Jiafu; Meng, Jihua; Michalak, Anna M.; Parazoo, Nicholas C.; Peng, Changhui; Poulter, Benjamin; Schwalm, Christopher R.; Shi, Xiaoying; Sun, Rui; Tao, Fulu; Tian, Hanqin; Wei, Yaxing; Zeng, Ning; Zhu, Qiuan; Zhu, Wenquan

    2016-05-01

    Despite the importance of net primary productivity (NPP) and net biome productivity (NBP), estimates of NPP and NBP for China are highly uncertain. To investigate the main sources of uncertainty, we synthesized model estimates of NPP and NBP for China from published literature and the Multi-scale Synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project (MsTMIP). The literature-based results showed that total NPP and NBP in China were 3.35 ± 1.25 and 0.14 ± 0.094 Pg C yr-1, respectively. Classification and regression tree analysis based on literature data showed that model type was the primary source of the uncertainty, explaining 36% and 64% of the variance in NPP and NBP, respectively. Spatiotemporal scales, land cover conditions, inclusion of the N cycle, and effects of N addition also contributed to the overall uncertainty. Results based on the MsTMIP data suggested that model structures were overwhelmingly important (>90%) for the overall uncertainty compared to simulations with different combinations of time-varying global change factors. The interannual pattern of NPP was similar among diverse studies and increased by 0.012 Pg C yr-1 during 1981-2000. In addition, high uncertainty in China's NPP occurred in areas with high productivity, whereas NBP showed the opposite pattern. Our results suggest that to significantly reduce uncertainty in estimated NPP and NBP, model structures should be substantially tested on the basis of empirical results. To this end, coordinated distributed experiments with multiple global change factors might be a practical approach that can validate specific structures of different models.

  7. Analysis of Dynamic Stiffness Effect of Primary Suspension Helical Springs on Railway Vehicle Vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, W.; Thompson, D. J.; Zhou, J.; Gong, D.

    2016-09-01

    Helical springs within the primary suspension are critical components for isolating the whole vehicle system from vibration generated at the wheel/rail contact. As train speeds increase, the frequency region of excitation becomes larger, and a simplified static stiffness can no longer represent the real stiffness property in a vehicle dynamic model. Coil springs in particular exhibit strong internal resonances, which lead to high vibration amplitudes within the spring itself as well as degradation of the vibration isolation. In this paper, the dynamic stiffness matrix method is used to determine the dynamic stiffness of a helical spring from a vehicle primary suspension. Results are confirmed with a finite element analysis. Then the spring dynamic stiffness is included within a vehicle-track coupled dynamic model of a high speed train and the effect of the dynamic stiffening of the spring on the vehicle vibration is investigated. It is shown that, for frequencies above about 50 Hz, the dynamic stiffness of the helical spring changes sharply. Due to this effect, the vibration transmissibility increases considerably which results in poor vibration isolation of the primary suspension. Introducing a rubber layer in series with the coil spring can attenuate this effect.

  8. Recurrence rate following treatment for primary multicystic ameloblastoma: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Almeida, R de A C; Andrade, E S de S; Barbalho, J C; Vajgel, A; Vasconcelos, B C do E

    2016-03-01

    Opinions regarding the treatment of multicystic ameloblastoma are divergent due to its benign nature and the high rate of recurrence if not adequately excised. The aim of the present study was to perform a systematic review of the literature for a qualitative and quantitative assessment of studies addressing primary multicystic ameloblastoma with regard to treatment and recurrence. Searches were conducted of the Ovid Medline and Embase databases for articles published up to January 2014. Based on predefined eligibility criteria, studies were selected in a two-stage screening process conducted by two independent reviewers. Quality assessment of the selected articles was performed using the modified criteria of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. The meta-analysis was performed using Review Manager (RevMan) software. Statistical heterogeneity was investigated by performing a χ(2) test at the 5% significance level (P<0.05) and determining I(2). The relative risk of recurrence was 3.15-fold greater (95% confidence interval 1.98-5.00) when conservative treatment was performed on primary multicystic ameloblastoma in comparison to radical treatment (P<0.00001 for treatment effect; I(2)=0% and P=0.48 for heterogeneity). The findings justify the treatment of primary multicystic ameloblastoma with bone resection.

  9. Primary Anastomosis versus Ostomy after Colon Resection during Debulking of Ovarian Carcinomatosis: A NSQIP Analysis.

    PubMed

    Fleetwood, Vidya A; Kubasiak, John C; Janssen, Imke; Myers, Jonathan A; Millikan, Keith W; Deziel, Daniel J; Luu, Minh B

    2016-04-01

    Ovarian carcinomatosis poses a dilemma for the surgeon. When resecting colon for tumor invasion, one must decide between diversion and primary anastomosis (PA). We examined the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program to determine whether PA associated with more complications than ostomy. The National Surgical Quality Improvement Program dataset was queried for patients with ovarian carcinomatosis between 2007 and 2012. Current Procedural Terminology codes were used to further identify patients undergoing colectomy with PA or ostomy. Logistic regression was used to evaluate 30-day morbidity and mortality. The 1013 ovarian carcinomatosis patients who underwent elective colon surgery were divided into primary repair (n = 453, 43.5%) or ostomy (n = 586, 56.5%) groups. Preoperative demographics were similar; however, ostomy patients had more severe preoperative laboratory derangements. The 30-day mortality and postoperative transfusion requirements were higher in the ostomy group. On multivariate analysis controlling for confounders, the differences were no longer significant. In conclusion, 30-day mortality and postoperative complications were increased in the ostomy group. Given the laboratory derangements in this group, this may reflect tendency to allocate ostomies to more ill patients. Primary repair in a selected population does not worsen outcomes. Prospective evaluation would help determine the impact of PA in the ovarian carcinomatosis population.

  10. Analysis of Soluble Protein Entry into Primary Cilia Using Semi-Permeabilized Cells

    PubMed Central

    Breslow, David K.; Nachury, Maxence V.

    2016-01-01

    The primary cilium is a protrusion from the cell surface that serves as a specialized compartment for signal transduction. Many signaling factors are known to be dynamically concentrated within cilia and to require cilia for their function. Yet protein entry into primary cilia remains poorly understood. To enable a mechanistic analysis of soluble protein entry into cilia, we developed a method for semi-permeabilization of mammalian cells in which the plasma membrane is permeabilized while the ciliary membrane remains intact. Using semi-permeabilized cells as the basis for an in vitro diffusion-to-capture assay, we uncovered a size-dependent diffusion barrier that restricts soluble protein exchange between the cytosol and the cilium. The manipulability of this in vitro system enabled an extensive characterization of the ciliary diffusion barrier and led us to show that the barrier is mechanistically distinct from those at the axon initial segment and the nuclear pore complex. Because semi-permeabilized cells enable a range of experimental perturbations that would not be easily feasible in intact cells, we believe this methodology will provide a unique resource for investigating primary cilium function in development and disease. PMID:25837393

  11. Reading the primary structure of a protein with 0.07 nm3 resolution using a subnanometre-diameter pore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Eamonn; Dong, Zhuxin; Tennant, Clare; Timp, Gregory

    2016-11-01

    The primary structure of a protein consists of a sequence of amino acids and is a key factor in determining how a protein folds and functions. However, conventional methods for sequencing proteins, such as mass spectrometry and Edman degradation, suffer from short reads and lack sensitivity, so alternative approaches are sought. Here, we show that a subnanometre-diameter pore, sputtered through a thin silicon nitride membrane, can be used to detect the primary structure of a denatured protein molecule. When a denatured protein immersed in electrolyte is driven through the pore by an electric field, measurements of a blockade in the current reveal nearly regular fluctuations, the number of which coincides with the number of residues in the protein. Furthermore, the amplitudes of the fluctuations are highly correlated with the volumes that are occluded by quadromers (four residues) in the primary structure. Each fluctuation, therefore, represents a read of a quadromer. Scrutiny of the fluctuations reveals that the subnanometre pore is sensitive enough to read the occluded volume that is related to post-translational modifications of a single residue, measuring volume differences of ∼0.07 nm3, but it is not sensitive enough to discriminate between the volumes of all twenty amino acids.

  12. Performance analysis of bonded composite doublers on aircraft structures

    SciTech Connect

    Roach, D.

    1995-08-01

    Researchers contend that composite repairs (or structural reinforcement doublers) offer numerous advantages over metallic patches including corrosion resistance, light weight, high strength, elimination of rivets, and time savings in installation. Their use in commercial aviation has been stifled by uncertainties surrounding their application, subsequent inspection and long-term endurance. The process of repairing or reinforcing airplane structures is time consuming and the design is dependent upon an accompanying stress and fatigue analysis. A repair that is too stiff may result in a loss of fatigue life, continued growth of the crack being repaired, and the initiation of a new flaw in the undesirable high stress field around the patch. Uncertainties in load spectrums used to design repairs exacerbates these problems as does the use of rivets to apply conventional doublers. Many of these repair or structural reinforcement difficulties can be addressed through the use of composite doublers. Primary among unknown entities are the effects of non-optimum installations and the certification of adequate inspection procedures. This paper presents on overview of a program intended to introduce composite doubler technology to the US commercial aircraft fleet. In this project, a specific composite application has been chosen on an L-1011 aircraft in order to focus the tasks on application and operation issues. Through the use of laboratory test structures and flight demonstrations on an in-service L-1011 airplane, this study is investigating composite doubler design, fabrication, installation, structural integrity, and non-destructive evaluation. In addition to providing an overview of the L-1011 project, this paper focuses on a series of fatigue and strength tests which have been conducted in order to study the damage tolerance of composite doublers. Test results to-date are presented.

  13. A structural equation modeling of executive functions, IQ and mathematical skills in primary students: Differential effects on number production, mental calculus and arithmetical problems.

    PubMed

    Arán Filippetti, Vanessa; Richaud, María Cristina

    2016-07-08

    Though the relationship between executive functions (EFs) and mathematical skills has been well documented, little is known about how both EFs and IQ differentially support diverse math domains in primary students. Inconsistency of results may be due to the statistical techniques employed, specifically, if the analysis is conducted with observed variables, i.e., regression analysis, or at the latent level, i.e., structural equation modeling (SEM). The current study explores the contribution of both EFs and IQ in mathematics through an SEM approach. A total of 118 8- to 12-year-olds were administered measures of EFs, crystallized (Gc) and fluid (Gf) intelligence, and math abilities (i.e., number production, mental calculus and arithmetical problem-solving). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) offered support for the three-factor solution of EFs: (1) working memory (WM), (2) shifting, and (3) inhibition. Regarding the relationship among EFs, IQ and math abilities, the results of the SEM analysis showed that (i) WM and age predict number production and mental calculus, and (ii) shifting and sex predict arithmetical problem-solving. In all of the SEM models, EFs partially or totally mediated the relationship between IQ, age and math achievement. These results suggest that EFs differentially supports math abilities in primary-school children and is a more significant predictor of math achievement than IQ level.

  14. Structural and functional brain changes in early- and mid-stage primary open-angle glaucoma using voxel-based morphometry and functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ming-Ming; Zhou, Qing; Liu, Xiao-Yong; Shi, Chang-Zheng; Chen, Jian; Huang, Xiang-He

    2017-03-01

    To investigate structural and functional brain changes in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) by using voxel-based morphometry based on diffeomorphic anatomical registration through exponentiated Lie algebra (VBM-DARTEL) and blood oxygenation level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-fMRI), respectively.Thirteen patients diagnosed with POAG and 13 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were enrolled in the study. For each participant, high-resolution structural brain imaging and blood flow imaging were acquired on a 3.0-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner. Structural and functional changes between the POAG and control groups were analyzed. An analysis was carried out to identify correlations between structural and functional changes acquired in the previous analysis and the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL).Patients in the POAG group showed a significant (P < 0.001) volume increase in the midbrain, left brainstem, frontal gyrus, cerebellar vermis, left inferior parietal lobule, caudate nucleus, thalamus, precuneus, and Brodmann areas 7, 18, and 46. Moreover, significant (P < 0.001) BOLD signal changes were observed in the right supramarginal gyrus, frontal gyrus, superior frontal gyrus, left inferior parietal lobule, left cuneus, and left midcingulate area; many of these regions had high correlations with the RNFL.Patients with POAG undergo widespread and complex changes in cortical brain structure and blood flow. (ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT02570867).

  15. Structural and functional brain changes in early- and mid-stage primary open-angle glaucoma using voxel-based morphometry and functional magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Ming-Ming; Zhou, Qing; Liu, Xiao-Yong; Shi, Chang-Zheng; Chen, Jian; Huang, Xiang-He

    2017-01-01

    Abstract To investigate structural and functional brain changes in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) by using voxel-based morphometry based on diffeomorphic anatomical registration through exponentiated Lie algebra (VBM-DARTEL) and blood oxygenation level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-fMRI), respectively. Thirteen patients diagnosed with POAG and 13 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were enrolled in the study. For each participant, high-resolution structural brain imaging and blood flow imaging were acquired on a 3.0-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner. Structural and functional changes between the POAG and control groups were analyzed. An analysis was carried out to identify correlations between structural and functional changes acquired in the previous analysis and the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL). Patients in the POAG group showed a significant (P < 0.001) volume increase in the midbrain, left brainstem, frontal gyrus, cerebellar vermis, left inferior parietal lobule, caudate nucleus, thalamus, precuneus, and Brodmann areas 7, 18, and 46. Moreover, significant (P < 0.001) BOLD signal changes were observed in the right supramarginal gyrus, frontal gyrus, superior frontal gyrus, left inferior parietal lobule, left cuneus, and left midcingulate area; many of these regions had high correlations with the RNFL. Patients with POAG undergo widespread and complex changes in cortical brain structure and blood flow. (ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT02570867). PMID:28248867

  16. Structures and Systems and Bodies and Things: Historical Research on Primary Schooling and Its Professional Relevance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Recalling its origins as a research journal addressing educationists this article seeks to understand historical research published in "History of Education" as aimed at a professional audience. Primary schooling provides a significant focus as the study of education history was fostered especially in the training of elementary…

  17. Understanding the delayed prescribing of antibiotics for respiratory tract infection in primary care: a qualitative analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ryves, R; Eyles, C; Moore, M; McDermott, L; Little, P; Leydon, G M

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify general practitioner (GP) views and understanding on the use of delayed prescribing in primary care. Design Qualitative semistructured telephone interview study. Setting Primary care general practices in England. Participants 32 GPs from identified high-prescribing and low-prescribing general practices in England. Method Semistructured telephone interviews were conducted with GPs identified from practices within clinical commissioning groups with the highest and lowest prescribing rates in England. A thematic analysis of the data was conducted to generate themes. Results All GPs had a good understanding of respiratory tract infection (RTI) management and how the delayed prescribing approach could be used in primary care. However, GPs highlighted factors that were influential as to whether delayed prescribing was successfully carried out during the consultation. These included the increase in evidence of antimicrobial resistance, and GPs' prior experiences of using delayed prescribing during the consultation. The patient–practitioner relationship could also influence treatment outcomes for RTI, and a lack of an agreed prescribing strategy within and between practices was considered to be of significance to GPs. Participants expressed that a lack of feedback on prescribing data at an individual and practice level made it difficult to know if delayed prescribing strategies were successful in reducing unnecessary consumption. GPs agreed that coherent and uniform training and guidelines would be of some benefit to ensure consistent prescribing throughout the UK. Conclusions Delayed prescribing is encouraged in primary care, but is not always implemented successfully. Greater uniformity within and between practices in the UK is needed to operationalise delayed prescribing, as well as providing feedback on the uptake of antibiotics. Finally, GPs may need further guidance on how to answer the concerns of patients without interpreting these questions

  18. A competing risk survival analysis model to assess the efficacy of filling carious primary teeth.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, J; Chadwick, B L; Playle, R A; Treasure, E T

    2010-01-01

    In recent years a strategy of selective, symptom-based intervention of carious primary teeth has been developed amongst some British general dental practitioners. Practice-based studies appear to provide evidence that policies of restoration of symptomless carious primary teeth do not confer any significant benefits above those associated with non-restorative care. However, results from these studies contrast with those of many clinical trials and prospective studies of primary molar restorations. In the current investigation, cohort study data from 5,168 carious primary molar teeth from 2,654 British children aged 4-5 years at baseline, augmented with Dental Practice Board treatment data, was utilised to assess the effect of restorative treatment on the likelihood of carious teeth subsequently progressing to either exfoliation or extraction. The effect of demographic and tooth level covariates on the fate of these teeth was also assessed. Multivariate multilevel parametric survival models were applied to the analysis of the carious-exfoliation and carious-extraction transitions to which the teeth were subject, assuming an underlying data hierarchy with teeth nested within individuals. Time of occurrence of caries affected survival experience, with teeth in which caries occurred later in life being associated with higher survival rates to extraction. Amongst filled teeth, later fillings were also associated with higher survival rates to extraction. Demographic and tooth level variables had a limited effect on survival experience. Treatment was found to be significantly associated with survival with respect to extraction, with survival rates of over 80% at 14 years, double those of untreated teeth.

  19. A preliminary structural analysis of space-base living quarters modules to verify a weight-estimating technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grissom, D. S.; Schneider, W. C.

    1971-01-01

    The determination of a base line (minimum weight) design for the primary structure of the living quarters modules in an earth-orbiting space base was investigated. Although the design is preliminary in nature, the supporting analysis is sufficiently thorough to provide a reasonably accurate weight estimate of the major components that are considered to comprise the structural weight of the space base.

  20. Multimorbidity Patterns in Primary Care: Interactions among Chronic Diseases Using Factor Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Prados-Torres, Alexandra; Poblador-Plou, Beatriz; Calderón-Larrañaga, Amaia; Gimeno-Feliu, Luis Andrés; González-Rubio, Francisca; Poncel-Falcó, Antonio; Sicras-Mainar, Antoni; Alcalá-Nalvaiz, José Tomás

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The primary objective of this study was to identify the existence of chronic disease multimorbidity patterns in the primary care population, describing their clinical components and analysing how these patterns change and evolve over time both in women and men. The secondary objective of this study was to generate evidence regarding the pathophysiological processes underlying multimorbidity and to understand the interactions and synergies among the various diseases. Methods This observational, retrospective, multicentre study utilised information from the electronic medical records of 19 primary care centres from 2008. To identify multimorbidity patterns, an exploratory factor analysis was carried out based on the tetra-choric correlations between the diagnostic information of 275,682 patients who were over 14 years of age. The analysis was stratified by age group and sex. Results Multimorbidity was found in all age groups, and its prevalence ranged from 13% in the 15 to 44 year age group to 67% in those 65 years of age or older. Goodness-of-fit indicators revealed sample values between 0.50 and 0.71. We identified five patterns of multimorbidity: cardio-metabolic, psychiatric-substance abuse, mechanical-obesity-thyroidal, psychogeriatric and depressive. Some of these patterns were found to evolve with age, and there were differences between men and women. Conclusions Non-random associations between chronic diseases result in clinically consistent multimorbidity patterns affecting a significant proportion of the population. Underlying pathophysiological phenomena were observed upon which action can be taken both from a clinical, individual-level perspective and from a public health or population-level perspective. PMID:22393389

  1. Cluster Analysis of Indonesian Province Based on Household Primary Cooking Fuel Using K-Means

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huda, S. N.

    2017-03-01

    Each household definitely provides installations for cooking. Kerosene, which is refined from petroleum products once dominated types of primary fuel for cooking in Indonesia, whereas kerosene has an expensive cost and small efficiency. Other household use LPG as their primary cooking fuel. However, LPG supply is also limited. In addition, with a very diverse environments and cultures in Indonesia led to diversity of the installation type of cooking, such as wood-burning stove brazier. The government is also promoting alternative fuels, such as charcoal briquettes, and fuel from biomass. The use of other fuels is part of the diversification of energy that is expected to reduce community dependence on petroleum-based fuels. The use of various fuels in cooking that vary from one region to another reflects the distribution of fuel basic use by household. By knowing the characteristics of each province, the government can take appropriate policies to each province according each character. Therefore, it would be very good if there exist a cluster analysis of all provinces in Indonesia based on the type of primary cooking fuel in household. Cluster analysis is done using K-Means method with K ranging from 2-5. Cluster results are validated using Silhouette Coefficient (SC). The results show that the highest SC achieved from K = 2 with SC value 0.39135818388151. Two clusters reflect provinces in Indonesia, one is a cluster of more traditional provinces and the other is a cluster of more modern provinces. The cluster results are then shown in a map using Google Map API.

  2. A multi-sites analysis on the ozone effects on Gross Primary Production of European forests.

    PubMed

    Proietti, C; Anav, A; De Marco, A; Sicard, P; Vitale, M

    2016-06-15

    Ozone (O3) is both a greenhouse gas and a secondary air pollutant causing adverse impacts on forests ecosystems at different scales, from cellular to ecosystem level. Specifically, the phytotoxic nature of O3 can impair CO2 assimilation that, in turn affects forest productivity. This study aims to evaluate the effects of tropospheric O3 on Gross Primary Production (GPP) at 37 European forest sites during the time period 2000-2010. Due to the lack of carbon assimilation data at O3 monitoring stations (and vice-versa) this study makes a first attempt to combine high resolution MODIS Gross Primary Production (GPP) estimates and O3 measurement data. Partial Correlations, Anomalies Analysis and the Random Forests Analysis (RFA) were used to quantify the effects of tropospheric O3 concentration and its uptake on GPP and to evaluate the most important factors affecting inter-annual GPP changes. Our results showed, along a North-West/South-East European transect, a negative impact of O3 on GPP ranging from 0.4% to 30%, although a key role of meteorological parameters respect to pollutant variables in affecting GPP was found. In particular, meteorological parameters, namely air temperature (T), soil water content (SWC) and relative humidity (RH) are the most important predictors at 81% of test sites. Moreover, it is interesting to highlight a key role of SWC in the Mediterranean areas (Spanish, Italian and French test sites) confirming that, soil moisture and soil water availability affect vegetation growth and photosynthesis especially in arid or semi-arid ecosystems such as the Mediterranean climate regions. Considering the pivotal role of GPP in the global carbon balance and the O3 ability to reduce primary productivity of the forests, this study can help in assessing the O3 impacts on ecosystem services, including wood production and carbon sequestration.

  3. Primary orbital fracture repair: development and validation of tools for morphologic and functional analysis.

    PubMed

    Hontscharuk, Rayisa; Fialkov, Jeffrey A; Binhammer, Paul A; McMillan, Catherine R; Antonyshyn, Oleh

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a technique for objective quantitative evaluation of outcomes of orbital reconstruction. Facial three-dimensional images were captured using a Vectra three-dimensional camera. Morphometric analysis was based on interactive anthropometric identification. The analysis was applied to a population of healthy adults (n = 13) and a population of patients following primary repair of unilateral orbital fractures (n = 13). Morphologic results following reconstruction were evaluated by identifying residual asymmetries. All subjects further completed the Derriford Appearance Questionnaire and the Orbital Appearance and Function Questionnaire.Normative reference values for periorbital asymmetry were determined in a reference population. The mean asymmetry was less than 1.6 mm for each measured morphologic feature. In the trauma population, primary orbital reconstruction effectively restored normal periorbital symmetry in 16 of 20 measured parameters. The fracture population showed no significant differences in the degree of asymmetry in globe projection, lower eyelid position, or ciliary margin length.The overall DAS59 scores were significantly higher in the fracture population (P = 0.04). This was due to significantly higher physical distress and dysfunction scores (P = 0.02), as well as a trend toward higher general and social self-consciousness scores (P = 0.06). No significant difference in facial self-consciousness was noted (P = 0.21). Thus, although primary orbital reconstruction was effective in restoring periorbital morphology, patients still experienced a higher level of physical distress and dysfunction than their nontraumatized counterparts. This was in accordance with patient self-report, which indicated that a greater percentage of patients were significantly bothered by functional outcomes postoperatively as opposed to appearance.

  4. Structural stability, vibrational, and bonding properties of potassium 1, 1'-dinitroamino-5, 5'-bistetrazolate: An emerging green primary explosive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yedukondalu, N.; Vaitheeswaran, G.

    2015-08-01

    Potassium 1,1'-dinitroamino-5,5'-bistetrazolate (K2DNABT) is a nitrogen rich (50.3% by weight, K2C2N12O4) green primary explosive with high performance characteristics, namely, velocity of detonation (D = 8.33 km/s), detonation pressure (P = 31.7 GPa), and fast initiating power to replace existing toxic primaries. In the present work, we report density functional theory (DFT) calculations on structural, equation of state, vibrational spectra, electronic structure, and absorption spectra of K2DNABT. We have discussed the influence of weak dispersive interactions on structural and vibrational properties through the DFT-D2 method. We find anisotropic compressibility behavior (bstructural properties. The predicted equilibrium bulk modulus reveals that K2DNABT is softer than toxic lead azide and harder than the most sensitive cyanuric triazide. A complete assignment of all the vibrational modes has been made and compared with the available experimental results. The calculated zone center IR and Raman frequencies show a blue-shift which leads to a hardening of the lattice upon compression. In addition, we have also calculated the electronic structure and absorption spectra using recently developed Tran Blaha-modified Becke Johnson potential. It is found that K2DNABT is a direct band gap insulator with a band gap of 3.87 eV and the top of the valence band is mainly dominated by 2p-states of oxygen and nitrogen atoms. K2DNABT exhibits mixed ionic (between potassium and tetrazolate ions) and covalent character within tetrazolate molecule. The presence of ionic bonding suggests that the investigated compound is relatively stable and insensitive than covalent primaries. From the calculated absorption spectra, the material is found to decompose under ultra-violet light irradiation.

  5. Recent developments in structural sensitivity analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haftka, Raphael T.; Adelman, Howard M.

    1988-01-01

    Recent developments are reviewed in two major areas of structural sensitivity analysis: sensitivity of static and transient response; and sensitivity of vibration and buckling eigenproblems. Recent developments from the standpoint of computational cost, accuracy, and ease of implementation are presented. In the area of static response, current interest is focused on sensitivity to shape variation and sensitivity of nonlinear response. Two general approaches are used for computing sensitivities: differentiation of the continuum equations followed by discretization, and the reverse approach of discretization followed by differentiation. It is shown that the choice of methods has important accuracy and implementation implications. In the area of eigenproblem sensitivity, there is a great deal of interest and significant progress in sensitivity of problems with repeated eigenvalues. In addition to reviewing recent contributions in this area, the paper raises the issue of differentiability and continuity associated with the occurrence of repeated eigenvalues.

  6. Structured analysis and modeling of complex systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strome, David R.; Dalrymple, Mathieu A.

    1992-01-01

    The Aircrew Evaluation Sustained Operations Performance (AESOP) facility at Brooks AFB, Texas, combines the realism of an operational environment with the control of a research laboratory. In recent studies we collected extensive data from the Airborne Warning and Control Systems (AWACS) Weapons Directors subjected to high and low workload Defensive Counter Air Scenarios. A critical and complex task in this environment involves committing a friendly fighter against a hostile fighter. Structured Analysis and Design techniques and computer modeling systems were applied to this task as tools for analyzing subject performance and workload. This technology is being transferred to the Man-Systems Division of NASA Johnson Space Center for application to complex mission related tasks, such as manipulating the Shuttle grappler arm.

  7. Primary structure of a human arginine-rich nuclear protein that colocalizes with spliceosome components

    SciTech Connect

    Chaudhary, N.; McMahon, C.; Blobel, G. )

    1991-09-15

    The cDNA for a 54-kDa nuclear protein (p54) has been cloned from a human hepatoma expression library. Contained within p54 is an arginine/serine-rich region similar to segments of several proteins that participate in pre-mRNA splicing including the 70-kDa component of U1 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle (snRNP) and the Drosophila transformer and suppressor-of-white-apricot proteins. The arginine/serine-rich region is dominated by a series of 8-amino acid imperfect repetitive motifs (consensus sequence, Arg-Arg-Ser-Arg-Ser-Arg-Ser-Arg). Antibodies raised against synthetic peptides of p54 react with an {approximately}70-kDa protein on immunoblots of HeLa cell and rat liver nuclear proteins. This apparent discrepancy in mass is also observed when p54 mRNA is translated in vitro. Indirect immunofluorescence studies in HeLa cells show that p54 is distributed throughout the nucleus in a speckled pattern, with an additional diffuse labeling of the nucleus excluding the nucleoli. Double immunofluorescence experiments indicate that these punctate regions are coincident with the speckles seen in cells stained with antibodies against several constituents of the pre-mRNA splicing machinery. Sedimentation analysis of HeLa cell extracts on sucrose gradients showed that p54 migrates at 4-6 S, indicating that the protein is not a tightly associated component of snRNPs. Although the function of p54 is not yet known, the structure and immunolocalization data suggest that this protein may have a role in pre-mRNA processing.

  8. Primary structure of rat secretory acid phosphatase and comparison to other acid phosphatases.

    PubMed

    Roiko, K; Jänne, O A; Vihko, P

    1990-05-14

    Overlapping cDNA clones encoding rat prostatic acid phosphatase (rPAP) were isolated by using two human prostatic acid phosphatase (hPAP)-encoding cDNAs to screen rat prostatic cDNA libraries. The isolated cDNAs encompassed a total of 1626 nucleotides (nt), of which 1143 nt corresponded to the protein coding sequence encoding a mature polypeptide of 350 amino acids (aa) and a 31-aa long signal peptide-like sequence. The deduced Mr of the mature rPAP was 40,599. RNA blot analysis indicated the presence of three mRNA species (4.9, 2.3 and 1.5 kb in size) in the rat prostate. The deduced aa sequences of rPAP and hPAP show 75% identity, whereas the similarity between rPAP and human lysosomal acid phosphatase (hLAP) is only 45%. Furthermore, the sequence similarity between rPAP and rat lysosomal acid phosphatase (rLAP) is 46% at the aa level. Similar to hPAP, but unlike hLAP and rLAP, the rPAP sequence lacks a membrane-anchoring domain indicating the secretory character of this phosphatase. All six cysteines present in the overlapping areas of the mature rPAP, hPAP, rLAP and hLAP proteins are positionally conserved, suggesting that these residues are important for the tertiary structure of acid phosphatases (APs). The previously reported active site residues, two arginines and one histidine, are also conserved in these APs.

  9. Prevalence of X-aneuploidies, X-structural abnormalities and 46,XY sex reversal in Turkish women with primary amenorrhea or premature ovarian insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Geckinli, B B; Toksoy, G; Sayar, C; Soylemez, M A; Yesil, G; Aydın, H; Karaman, A; Devranoglu, B

    2014-11-01

    Our objective was to identify the distribution of cytogenetic abnormalities of 175 Turkish women with primary amenorrhea (PA) or premature ovarian insufficiency (POI). A retrospective study was performed using medical records of 94 patients with PA and 81 patients with POI at the Genetics Department, Zeynep Kamil Women's and Children's Research and Training Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey. G-banded metaphase karyotype analysis were prepared and analyzed. Chromosomal abnormalities were present in 44 of 175 cases (25%). 15 were full blown or mosaic numerical X chromosome abnormalities (8.5%), 10 were full blown or mosaic X-chromosome structural anomalies (5.7%), one was X-autosome translocation (0.5%), 3 were autosomal anomalies (1.7%), 12 were XY karyotype (6.8%), one was 45,X/46,XY mosaic and 2 were full blown or mosaic structural anomalies of Y chromosome (1.7%). The prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities was 25% in this large series of Turkish women with primary amenorrhea or premature ovarian insufficiency, most cases involving X-aneuploidy or X-structural abnormalities or 46,XY karyotype. High prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities is associated with POI starting at an early age (average age: 26 years).

  10. Functional analysis of the nasopharyngeal carcinoma primary tumor‑associated gene interaction network.

    PubMed

    An, Fengwei; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Xia, Ming

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the molecular mechanism of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) primary tumor development through the identification of key genes using bioinformatics approaches. Using the GSE53819 microarray dataset, acquired from the Gene Expression Omnibus database, differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were screened out between NPC primary tumor and control samples, followed by hierarchical clustering analysis. The Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes database was utilized to build a protein‑protein interaction network to identify key node proteins. In total, 1,067 DEGs, including 326 upregulated genes and 741 downregulated genes, were identified between the NPC and control samples. The results of the hierarchical clustering analysis demonstrated that 95% of the DEGs were sample‑specific. Furthermore, PDZ binding kinase (PBK), centromere protein F (CENPF), actin‑binding protein anillin (ANLN), exonuclease 1 (EXO1) and chromosome 15 open reading frame 42 (C15ORF42) were included in the obtained network module, which was closely associated with the cell cycle and nucleic acid metabolic process GO functions. The results of the present study revealed that EXO1, CENPF, ANLN, PBK and C15ORF42 may be involved in the mechanism of NPC via modulating the cell cycle and nucleic acid metabolic processes, and may serve as molecular biomarkers for the diagnosis of this disease.

  11. THE STRUCTURE OF THE PRIMARY EPIDERMAL CELL WALL OF AVENA COLEOPTILES

    PubMed Central

    Bayley, S. T.; Colvin, J. R.; Cooper, F. P.; Martin-Smith, Cecily A.

    1957-01-01

    The primary walls of epidermal cells in Avena coleoptiles ranging in length from 2 to 40 mm. have been studied in the electron and polarizing microscopes and by the low-angle scattering of x-rays. The outer walls of these cells are composed of multiple layers of cellulose microfibrils oriented longitudinally; initially the number of layers is between 10 and 15 but this increases to about 25 in older tissue. Where epidermal cells touch, these multiple layers fuse gradually into a primary wall of the normal type between cells. In these radial walls, the microfibrils are oriented transversely. Possible mechanisms for the growth of the multilayered outer wall during cell elongation are discussed. PMID:13438900

  12. Advances in the quantification of mitochondrial function in primary human immune cells through extracellular flux analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ip, Blanche C.; Habib, Chloe; Ritou, Eleni; Grammatopoulos, Tom N.; Steenkamp, Devin; Dooms, Hans; Apovian, Caroline M.; Lauffenburger, Douglas A.

    2017-01-01

    Numerous studies show that mitochondrial energy generation determines the effectiveness of immune responses. Furthermore, changes in mitochondrial function may regulate lymphocyte function in inflammatory diseases like type 2 diabetes. Analysis of lymphocyte mitochondrial function has been facilitated by introduction of 96-well format extracellular flux (XF96) analyzers, but the technology remains imperfect for analysis of human lymphocytes. Limitations in XF technology include the lack of practical protocols for analysis of archived human cells, and inadequate data analysis tools that require manual quality checks. Current analysis tools for XF outcomes are also unable to automatically assess data quality and delete untenable data from the relatively high number of biological replicates needed to power complex human cell studies. The objectives of work presented herein are to test the impact of common cellular manipulations on XF outcomes, and to develop and validate a new automated tool that objectively analyzes a virtually unlimited number of samples to quantitate mitochondrial function in immune cells. We present significant improvements on previous XF analyses of primary human cells that will be absolutely essential to test the prediction that changes in immune cell mitochondrial function and fuel sources support immune dysfunction in chronic inflammatory diseases like type 2 diabetes. PMID:28178278

  13. Advances in the quantification of mitochondrial function in primary human immune cells through extracellular flux analysis.

    PubMed

    Nicholas, Dequina; Proctor, Elizabeth A; Raval, Forum M; Ip, Blanche C; Habib, Chloe; Ritou, Eleni; Grammatopoulos, Tom N; Steenkamp, Devin; Dooms, Hans; Apovian, Caroline M; Lauffenburger, Douglas A; Nikolajczyk, Barbara S

    2017-01-01

    Numerous studies show that mitochondrial energy generation determines the effectiveness of immune responses. Furthermore, changes in mitochondrial function may regulate lymphocyte function in inflammatory diseases like type 2 diabetes. Analysis of lymphocyte mitochondrial function has been facilitated by introduction of 96-well format extracellular flux (XF96) analyzers, but the technology remains imperfect for analysis of human lymphocytes. Limitations in XF technology include the lack of practical protocols for analysis of archived human cells, and inadequate data analysis tools that require manual quality checks. Current analysis tools for XF outcomes are also unable to automatically assess data quality and delete untenable data from the relatively high number of biological replicates needed to power complex human cell studies. The objectives of work presented herein are to test the impact of common cellular manipulations on XF outcomes, and to develop and validate a new automated tool that objectively analyzes a virtually unlimited number of samples to quantitate mitochondrial function in immune cells. We present significant improvements on previous XF analyses of primary human cells that will be absolutely essential to test the prediction that changes in immune cell mitochondrial function and fuel sources support immune dysfunction in chronic inflammatory diseases like type 2 diabetes.

  14. Primary edge localized mode filament structure in the National Spherical Torus Experimenta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maqueda, R. J.; Maingi, R.; NSTX Team

    2009-05-01

    Edge localized modes (ELMs) are routinely seen in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) [M. Ono, Nucl. Fusion 40, 557 (2000)]. These unstable modes give rise to plasma filaments that burst radially outward during the nonlinear phase of the instability, moving across flux surfaces into the scrape-off layer. Fast-frame visible imaging is used in NSTX to study the evolution and characteristics of the post-ELM filaments. These edge filaments, which are well aligned with the local magnetic field, are seen to evolve from a perturbation of the edge that within 40-50 μs develops into the relatively high density/temperature primary filaments. The distribution of primary filaments in toroidal angle is seen to agree with a random model with moderate average toroidal mode numbers. At the same time, gas puff imaging shows that the perturbation of the edge leading to the burst of the ELM into the scrape-off layer is characterized by a broadband increase in fluctuations at much smaller poloidal wavelengths (λpol˜2-12 cm). These two measurements suggest that early development of turbulence may play a role in the development of primary ELM filamentation.

  15. Primary and secondary organics in tropical Amazonian rainforest aerosols: Chiral analysis of 2-methyltetrols

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, Nelida; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin; Artaxo, Paulo; Guenther, Alex B.; Krejci, R.; Noziere, Barbara; Noone, Kevin

    2014-06-01

    This work presents the application of a newly developed method to facilitate the distinction between primary and secondary organic compounds in ambient aerosols based on their chiral analysis. The organic constituents chosen for chiral analysis are the four stereomers of the 2-methyltetrols, (2R,3S)- and (2S,3R)- methylerythritol and (2S,3S)- and (2R,3R)- methylthreitol. Ambient PM10 aerosol samples were collected between June 2008 and June 2009 near Manaus, Brazil, in a remote tropical rainforest environment of central Amazonia. The samples were analyzed for the presence of these four stereomers because qualitatively, in a previous study, they have been demonstrated to have partly primary origins. Thus the origin of these compounds may be primary and secondary from the biosynthesis and oxidation processes of isoprene within plants and also in the atmosphere. Using authentic standards, the quantified concentrations were in average 78.2 and 72.8 ng m-3 for (2R,3S)- and (2S,3R)- methylerythritol and 3.1 and 3.3 ng m-3 for (2S,3S)- and (2R,3R)- methylthreitol during the dry season and 7.1, 6.5, 2.0, and 2.2 ng m-3 during the wet season, respectively. Furthermore, these compounds were found to be outside the confidence interval for racemic mixtures (enantiomeric fraction, Ef = 0.5 -0.01) in nearly all the samples, with deviations of up to 32 % (Ef = 0.61) for (2R,3S)-methylerythritol and 47 % (Ef = 0.65) for (2S,3S)-methylthreitol indicating (99% confidence level) biologically-produced 2-methyltetrols. The minimum primary origin contribution ranged between 0.19 and 29.67 ng m-3 for the 2-methylerythritols and between 0.15 and 1.2 ng m-3 for the 2-methylthreitols. The strong correlation of the diatereomers (racemic 2-methylerythritol and 2-methylthreitol) in the wet season implied a secondary origin. Assuming the maximum secondary contribution in the dry season, the secondary fraction in the wet season was 81-99 % and in the dry season, 10 - 95 %. Nevertheless, from the

  16. Multi-grid for structures analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kascak, Albert F.

    1989-01-01

    In structural analysis the amount of computational time necessary for a solution is proportional to the number of degrees of freedom times the bandwidth squared. In implicit time analysis, this must be done at each discrete point in time. If, in addition, the problem is nonlinear, then this solution must be iterated at each point in time. If the bandwidth is large, the size of the problem that can be analyzed is severely limited. The multi-grid method is a possible algorithm which can make this solution much more computationally efficient. This method has been used for years in computational fluid mechanics. It works on the fact that relaxation is very efficient on the high frequency components of the solution (nearest neighbor interactions) and not very good on low frequency components of the solution (far interactions). The multi-grid method is then to relax the solution on a particular model until the residual stops changing. This indicates that the solution contains the higher frequency components. A coarse model is then generated for the lower frequency components to the solution. The model is then relaxed for the lower frequency components of the solution. These lower frequency components are then interpolated to the fine model. In computational fluid mechanics the equations are usually expressed as finite differences.

  17. Engaging stakeholders for adaptive management using structured decision analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Irwin, Elise R.; Kathryn, D.; Kennedy, Mickett

    2009-01-01

    Adaptive management is different from other types of management in that it includes all stakeholders (versus only policy makers) in the process, uses resource optimization techniques to evaluate competing objectives, and recognizes and attempts to reduce uncertainty inherent in natural resource systems. Management actions are negotiated by stakeholders, monitored results are compared to predictions of how the system should respond, and management strategies are adjusted in a “monitor-compare-adjust” iterative routine. Many adaptive management projects fail because of the lack of stakeholder identification, engagement, and continued involvement. Primary reasons for this vary but are usually related to either stakeholders not having ownership (or representation) in decision processes or disenfranchisement of stakeholders after adaptive management begins. We present an example in which stakeholders participated fully in adaptive management of a southeastern regulated river. Structured decision analysis was used to define management objectives and stakeholder values and to determine initial flow prescriptions. The process was transparent, and the visual nature of the modeling software allowed stakeholders to see how their interests and values were represented in the decision process. The development of a stakeholder governance structure and communication mechanism has been critical to the success of the project.

  18. Playful Structure: A Novel Image of Early Years Pedagogy for Primary School Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Glenda; Sproule, Liz; McGuinness, Carol; Trew, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Playful structure is a new pedagogic image representing a more balanced and integrated perspective on early years pedagogy, aiming to blend apparent dichotomies and contradictions and to sustain and evolve play-based practice beyond Year 1. Playful structure invites teachers and children to initiate and maintain a degree of playfulness in the…

  19. The Role of Structured Cooperative Learning Groups for Enhancing Chinese Primary Students' Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Law, Yin-Kum

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to compare the effectiveness of two types of cooperative learning groups used in reciprocal teaching (RT) classes (i.e. high-structured vs. low-structured groups) for enhancing students' reading comprehension. The participants were 235 Hong Kong Chinese Grade 6 students in nine classes. Reading comprehension tests and…

  20. Inverse Analysis of Cavitation Impact Phenomena on Structures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-02

    Naval Research Laboratory Washington, DC 20375-5320 NRL/MR/6390--07-9051 Inverse Analysis of Cavitation Impact Phenomena on Structures July 2, 2007...ABSTRACT c. THIS PAGE 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT Inverse Analysis of Cavitation Impact Phenomena on Structures S.G. Lambrakos and N.E...signature analysis A general methodology is presented for in situ detection of cavitation impact phenomena on structures based on inverse analysis of

  1. Primary health care contribution to improve health outcomes in Bogota-Colombia: a longitudinal ecological analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Colombia has a highly segmented and fragmented national health system that contributes to inequitable health outcomes. In 2004 the district government of Bogota initiated a Primary Health Care (PHC) strategy to improve health care access and population health status. This study aims to analyse the contribution of the PHC strategy to the improvement of health outcomes controlling for socioeconomic variables. Methods A longitudinal ecological analysis using data from secondary sources was carried out. The analysis used data from 2003 and 2007 (one year before and 3 years after the PHC implementation). A Primary Health Care Index (PHCI) of coverage intensity was constructed. According to the PHCI, localities were classified into two groups: high and low coverage. A multivariate analysis using a Poisson regression model for each year separately and a Panel Poisson regression model to assess changes between the groups over the years was developed. Dependent variables were infant mortality rate, under-5 mortality rate, infant mortality rate due to acute diarrheal disease and pneumonia, prevalence of acute malnutrition, vaccination coverage for diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus (DPT) and prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding. The independent variable was the PHCI. Control variables were sewerage coverage, health system insurance coverage and quality of life index. Results The high PHCI localities as compared with the low PHCI localities showed significant risk reductions of under-5 mortality (13.8%) and infant mortality due to pneumonia (37.5%) between 2003 and 2007. The probability of being vaccinated for DPT also showed a significant increase of 4.9%. The risk of infant mortality and of acute malnutrition in children under-5 years was lesser in the high coverage group than in the low one; however relative changes were not statistically significant. Conclusions Despite the adverse contextual conditions and the limitations imposed by the Colombian health

  2. Sustained Attention in Children with Primary Language Impairment: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ebert, Kerry Danahy; Kohnert, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study provides a meta-analysis of the difference between children with primary or specific language impairment (LI) and their typically developing peers on tasks of sustained attention. The meta-analysis seeks to determine if children with LI demonstrate subclinical deficits in sustained attention and, if so, under what conditions. Methods Articles that reported empirical data from the performance of children with LI, in comparison to typically developing peers, on a task assessing sustained attention were considered for inclusion. Twenty-eight effect sizes were included in the meta-analysis. Two moderator analyses addressed the effects of stimulus modality and ADHD exclusion. In addition, reaction time outcomes and the effects of task variables were summarized qualitatively. Results The meta-analysis supports the existence of sustained attention deficits in children with LI in both auditory and visual modalities, as demonstrated by reduced accuracy compared to typically developing peers. Larger effect sizes are found in tasks that use auditory and linguistic stimuli than in studies that use visual stimuli. Conclusions Future research should consider the role that sustained attention weaknesses play in LI, as well as the implications for clinical and research assessment tasks. Methodological recommendations are summarized. PMID:21646419

  3. (68)Ga-PSMA PET/MR with multimodality image analysis for primary prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Eiber, Matthias; Nekolla, Stephan G; Maurer, Tobias; Weirich, Gregor; Wester, Hans-Jürgen; Schwaiger, Markus

    2015-08-01

    Current imaging procedures for prostate cancer including positron emission tomography (PET) exhibit considerable limitations and are not always able to meet the diagnostic needs. Recently, a (68)Gallium-labeled ligand of the prostate-specific membrane antigen ((68)Ga-PSMA) has been introduced in PET-imaging of prostate cancer with first promising results. Due to relatively exclusive expression of PSMA in prostatic tissue as well as increased expression in prostate cancer, 68 Ga-PSMA was reported to exhibit a favorable lesion to background ratio. Together with the novel development of combined PET/MRI, the combination of excellent morphological detail, multiparametric functional information, and molecular PET data might lead to a significant improvement in detection of prostate cancer. We present an exemplarily case of primary staging using multiparametric (68)Ga-PSMA PET/MR by combining molecular and structural information.

  4. Single-molecule analysis reveals widespread structural variation in multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Aditya; Place, Michael; Goldstein, Steven; Sarkar, Deepayan; Zhou, Shiguo; Potamousis, Konstantinos; Kim, Jaehyup; Flanagan, Claire; Li, Yang; Newton, Michael A.; Callander, Natalie S.; Hematti, Peiman; Bresnick, Emery H.; Ma, Jian; Asimakopoulos, Fotis; Schwartz, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM), a malignancy of plasma cells, is characterized by widespread genomic heterogeneity and, consequently, differences in disease progression and drug response. Although recent large-scale sequencing studies have greatly improved our understanding of MM genomes, our knowledge about genomic structural variation in MM is attenuated due to the limitations of commonly used sequencing approaches. In this study, we present the application of optical mapping, a single-molecule, whole-genome analysis system, to discover new structural variants in a primary MM genome. Through our analysis, we have identified and characterized widespread structural variation in this tumor genome. Additionally, we describe our efforts toward comprehensive characterization of genome structure and variation by integrating our findings from optical mapping with those from DNA sequencing-based genomic analysis. Finally, by studying this MM genome at two time points during tumor progression, we have demonstrated an increase in mutational burden with tumor progression at all length scales of variation. PMID:26056298

  5. Optimization of radiotherapy for neck carcinoma metastasis from unknown primary sites: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Na; Zhu, Xiaoxia

    2016-01-01

    This meta-analysis was designed to evaluate radiotherapy (RT) options preferable for neck cancer metastases from unknown primary sites (NCUP). Relevant articles published up through September 2015 were selected from EMBASE, Cochrane, PubMed and Web of Science. Thirty-three articles were identified, and relative risks (RRs) and 95% CIs for all pre-specified endpoints were calculated. Surgery plus RT showed an advantage for 5-year overall survival (OS) (RR 0.66, 95% CI 0.52–0.83, p = 0.0004) and neck recurrence (NR) (RR = 0.74, 95% CI 0.59–0.92, p = 0.008) compared to RT alone. The RRs for NR, primary tumor emergence (PTE), and 5-year disease free survival (DFS) for bilateral neck compared to ipsilateral neck irradiation were 0.61 (95% CI 0.41–0.91, p = 0.01), 0.44(95% CI 0.26–0.77, p = 0.004), and 0.81 (95% CI 0.64–1.03, p = 0.09), respectively. Irradiation of the neck plus potential primary tumor sites (PPTS) showed a benefit for 5-year DFS (RR 0.75, 95% CI 0.61–0.92, p = 0.005), NR (RR = 0.72, 95% CI 0.56–0.92, p = 0.009), and PTE (RR = 0.23, 95% CI 0.12–0.45, p < 0.0001) compared to neck-only irradiation. Adverse events occurred more frequently with bilateral neck plus PPTS irradiation. For NCUP, surgery plus RT of the bilateral neck and PPTS was associated with greater improvement of clinical outcomes. PMID:27791201

  6. Characterization of coherent structures in a turbulent mixing layer by digital image analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernal, L. P.; Hernan, M. A.; Sarohia, V.

    1985-01-01

    Digital image analysis has been applied to a shadowgraph motion picture of a helium nitrogen mixing layer in order to characterize the coherent vortex structures in the flow. Both the primary spanwise coherent vortices and secondary streamwise vortices are considered. Pattern recognition algorithms were designed to take advantage of the more pronounced features of the vortices and of their temporal coherence to isolate them and to measure their characteristics. The resulting data base permits a deterministic description of the evolution of primary and seconary vortices.

  7. The role of canopy structural complexity in wood net primary production of a maturing northern deciduous forest.

    PubMed

    Hardiman, Brady S; Bohrer, Gil; Gough, Christopher M; Vogel, Christoph S; Curtisi, Peter S

    2011-09-01

    The even-aged northern hardwood forests of the Upper Great Lakes Region are undergoing an ecological transition during which structural and biotic complexity is increasing. Early-successional aspen (Populus spp.) and birch (Betula papyrifera) are senescing at an accelerating rate and are being replaced by middle-successional species including northern red oak (Quercus rubra), red maple (Acer rubrum), and white pine (Pinus strobus). Canopy structural complexity may increase due to forest age, canopy disturbances, and changing species diversity. More structurally complex canopies may enhance carbon (C) sequestration in old forests. We hypothesize that these biotic and structural alterations will result in increased structural complexity of the maturing canopy with implications for forest C uptake. At the University of Michigan Biological Station (UMBS), we combined a decade of observations of net primary productivity (NPP), leaf area index (LAI), site index, canopy tree-species diversity, and stand age with canopy structure measurements made with portable canopy lidar (PCL) in 30 forested plots. We then evaluated the relative impact of stand characteristics on productivity through succession using data collected over a nine-year period. We found that effects of canopy structural complexity on wood NPP (NPPw) were similar in magnitude to the effects of total leaf area and site quality. Furthermore, our results suggest that the effect of stand age on NPPw is mediated primarily through its effect on canopy structural complexity. Stand-level diversity of canopy-tree species was not significantly related to either canopy structure or NPPw. We conclude that increasing canopy structural complexity provides a mechanism for the potential maintenance of productivity in aging forests.

  8. Strategies for Nonlinear Analysis of Marine Structures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-08-01

    Many such structures may be seen in the Gulf of Mexico. On the other hana, large- volumed production structures made of concrete and steel that...height, d = water depth and y = elevation from bottom. Assuming that the linear t...ca.i " appli up to t.e frcc .rf-, , th-, tztal f;,rce is obtained...the structure is expected to encounter during its design lifetime. For fixed structures, for example, steel piled and concrete gravity structures, a

  9. Spatiotemporal analysis of RhoA/B/C activation in primary human endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Reinhard, Nathalie R.; van Helden, Suzanne F.; Anthony, Eloise C.; Yin, Taofei; Wu, Yi I.; Goedhart, Joachim; Gadella, Theodorus W. J.; Hordijk, Peter L.

    2016-01-01

    Endothelial cells line the vasculature and are important for the regulation of blood pressure, vascular permeability, clotting and transendothelial migration of leukocytes and tumor cells. A group of proteins that that control the endothelial barrier function are the RhoGTPases. This study focuses on three homologous (>88%) RhoGTPases: RhoA, RhoB, RhoC of which RhoB and RhoC have been poorly characterized. Using a RhoGTPase mRNA expression analysis we identified RhoC as the highest expressed in primary human endothelial cells. Based on an existing RhoA FRET sensor we developed new RhoB/C FRET sensors to characterize their spatiotemporal activation properties. We found all these RhoGTPase sensors to respond to physiologically relevant agonists (e.g. Thrombin), reaching transient, localized FRET ratio changes up to 200%. These RhoA/B/C FRET sensors show localized GEF and GAP activity and reveal spatial activation differences between RhoA/C and RhoB. Finally, we used these sensors to monitor GEF-specific differential activation of RhoA/B/C. In summary, this study adds high-contrast RhoB/C FRET sensors to the currently available FRET sensor toolkit and uncover new insights in endothelial and RhoGTPase cell biology. This allows us to study activation and signaling by these closely related RhoGTPases with high spatiotemporal resolution in primary human cells. PMID:27147504

  10. The development of English primary care group governance. A scenario analysis.

    PubMed

    Sheaff, R

    1999-01-01

    At present there is a policy vacuum about what English Primary Care Groups' (PCGs) governance will be when they develop into Primary Care Trusts (PCTs). Draft legislation leaves many options open, so PCT governance is likely to 'emerge' as PCTs are created. It also remains uncertain how general practitioners (GPs) will react to the formation of PCTs and how the UK government will then respond in turn. A scenario analysis suggests three possible lines of development. The base (likeliest) scenario predicts a mainly networked form of PCT governance. An alternative scenario is of PCT governance resembling the former National Health Service internal market. A third scenario predicts 'franchise model' PCTs employing some GPs and subcontracting others. To different degrees all three scenarios predict that PCTs will retain elements of networked governance. If it fails to make GPs as accountable to NHS management as the UK government wishes, networked governance may prove only a transitional stage before English PCTs adopt either quasi-market or hierarchical governance.

  11. Genetic analysis of primary microcephaly in Indian families: novel ASPM mutations.

    PubMed

    Kumar, A; Blanton, S H; Babu, M; Markandaya, M; Girimaji, S C

    2004-10-01

    Patients with primary microcephaly, an autosomal recessive trait, have mild to severe mental retardation without any other neurological deficits. It is a genetically heterogeneous disorder with six known loci: MCPH1 to MCPH6. Only the genes for MCPH1 and MCPH5 have been identified so far. We have ascertained nine consanguineous families with primary microcephaly from India. To establish linkage of these nine families to known MCPH loci, microsatellite markers were selected from the candidate regions of each of the six known MCPH loci and used to genotype the families. The results were suggestive of linkage of three families to the MCPH5 locus and one family to the MCPH2 locus. The remaining five families were not linked to any of the known loci. DNA-sequence analysis identified one known (Arg117X) and two novel (Trp1326X and Gln3060X) mutations in the three MCPH5-linked families in a homozygous state. Three novel normal population variants (i.e., c.7605G > A, c.4449G > A, and c.5961 A > G) were also detected in the ASPM gene.

  12. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Diagnosis and Treatment of Primary Aldosteronism in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sato, M; Morimoto, R; Seiji, K; Iwakura, Y; Ono, Y; Kudo, M; Satoh, F; Ito, S; Ishibashi, T; Takase, K

    2015-10-01

    Approximately 10% of cases of hypertension in Japan are caused by primary aldosteronism (PA), amounting to about 4 million patients in total. Primary aldosteronism due to unilateral aldosterone hypersecretion is potentially curable by adrenalectomy. The clinical benefits of identifying and treating PA have been reported internationally, but its cost-effectiveness is unclear. We examined whether diagnosing and treating hidden PA in hypertensive population was cost-effective compared with suboptimal treatment. Our hypothetical patient was a 50-year-old man diagnosed with stage I-III hypertension. We established a Markov decision model based on plausible clinical pathways and prognoses of PA. We applied cost-effectiveness analysis comparing a comprehensive diagnostic strategy for PA (measurement of plasma aldosterone/renin ratio, 2 loading tests, imaging, and selective adrenal venous sampling) with a suboptimal strategy to manage hypertension by medication unless the typical signs of PA or other complication were manifest. Outcome measures were expected costs, expected effectiveness, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio. The robustness of the findings was established by one-way and scenario sensitivity analyses. The comprehensive PA diagnostic strategy increased the expected costs by 64 004 JPY and expected life-years by 0.013 compared with standard treatment. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for the diagnosis of PA was 4 923 385 JPY per year. Our findings were sensitive to the outcomes of screening and treatment, and the costs of continuous or periodic medication for hypertension and the treatment of stroke and its complications.

  13. Presynaptic inhibition and antidromic spikes in primary afferents of the crayfish: a computational and experimental analysis.

    PubMed

    Cattaert, D; Libersat, F; El Manira A, A

    2001-02-01

    Primary afferent depolarizations (PADs) are associated with presynaptic inhibition and antidromic discharges in both vertebrates and invertebrates. In the present study, we have elaborated a realistic compartment model of a primary afferent from the coxobasipodite chordotonal organ of the crayfish based on anatomical and electrophysiological data. The model was used to test the validity of shunting and sodium channel inactivation hypotheses to account for presynaptic inhibition. Previous studies had demonstrated that GABA activates chloride channels located on the main branch close to the first branching point. We therefore focused the analysis on the effect of GABA synapses on the propagation of action potentials in the first axonal branch. Given the large diameters of the sensory axons in the region in which PADs were likely to be produced and recorded, the model indicates that a relatively large increase in chloride conductance (up to 300 nS) is needed to significantly reduce the amplitude of sensory spikes. The role of the spatial organization of GABA synapses in the sensory arborization was analyzed, demonstrating that the most effective location for GABA synapses is in the area of transition from active to passive conduction. This transition is likely to occur on the main branch a few hundred micrometers distal to the first branching point. As a result of this spatial organization, antidromic spikes generated by large-amplitude PADs are prevented from propagating distally.

  14. [Primary structure of delta-latroinsectotoxin from venom of the Latrodectus mactans tredecimguttatus spider].

    PubMed

    Dulubova, I E; Khvoshchev, M V; Krasnoperov, V G; Galkina, T G; Pluzhnikov, K A; Volkova, T M; Grishin, E V

    1996-01-01

    The structural gene of delta-latroinsectotoxin was cloned and its nucleotide sequence was determined. The gene contains an open reading frame of 3642 bp. The deduced amino acid sequence is homologous to the sequences of latrotoxins studied earlier.

  15. Protein Structure Recognition: From Eigenvector Analysis to Structural Threading Method

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Haibo

    2003-01-01

    In this work, they try to understand the protein folding problem using pair-wise hydrophobic interaction as the dominant interaction for the protein folding process. They found a strong correlation between amino acid sequences and the corresponding native structure of the protein. Some applications of this correlation were discussed in this dissertation include the domain partition and a new structural threading method as well as the performance of this method in the CASP5 competition. In the first part, they give a brief introduction to the protein folding problem. Some essential knowledge and progress from other research groups was discussed. This part includes discussions of interactions among amino acids residues, lattice HP model, and the design ability principle. In the second part, they try to establish the correlation between amino acid sequence and the corresponding native structure of the protein. This correlation was observed in the eigenvector study of protein contact matrix. They believe the correlation is universal, thus it can be used in automatic partition of protein structures into folding domains. In the third part, they discuss a threading method based on the correlation between amino acid sequences and ominant eigenvector of the structure contact-matrix. A mathematically straightforward iteration scheme provides a self-consistent optimum global sequence-structure alignment. The computational efficiency of this method makes it possible to search whole protein structure databases for structural homology without relying on sequence similarity. The sensitivity and specificity of this method is discussed, along with a case of blind test prediction. In the appendix, they list the overall performance of this threading method in CASP5 blind test in comparison with other existing approaches.

  16. Study on the primary structural members and thermal protection system for HOPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Tomoyuki; Matsushita, T.; Yamamoto, M.; Ohnishi, T.; Atsumi, M.

    The research objective is to develop high performance main structural materials and Thermal Protection System (TPS) for the H-II Orbiting Plane (HOPE). Preliminary evaluation tests and fundamental tests of heat-resistant fiber-reinforced plastics for the HOPE body structure have been evaluated. For TPS, heat shield concept tests and preliminary evaluation tests have been conducted of high performance TPS based on Ti-alloy, Ni-alloy and advanced carbon/carbon.

  17. Structural Feasibility Analysis of a Robotically Assembled Very Large Aperture Optical Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkie, William Keats; Williams, R. Brett; Agnes, Gregory S.; Wilcox, Brian H.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a feasibility study of robotically constructing a very large aperture optical space telescope on-orbit. Since the largest engineering challenges are likely to reside in the design and assembly of the 150-m diameter primary reflector, this preliminary study focuses on this component. The same technology developed for construction of the primary would then be readily used for the smaller optical structures (secondary, tertiary, etc.). A reasonable set of ground and on-orbit loading scenarios are compiled from the literature and used to define the structural performance requirements and size the primary reflector. A surface precision analysis shows that active adjustment of the primary structure is required in order to meet stringent optical surface requirements. Two potential actuation strategies are discussed along with potential actuation devices at the current state of the art. The finding of this research effort indicate that successful technology development combined with further analysis will likely enable such a telescope to be built in the future.

  18. Plant peroxidases. Their primary, secondary and tertiary structures, and relation to cytochrome c peroxidase.

    PubMed

    Welinder, K G

    1985-09-16

    The amino acid sequences of the 51% different horseradish peroxidase HRP C and turnip peroxidase TP 7 have previously been completed by us, but the three-dimensional structures are unknown. Recently the amino acid sequence and the crystal structure of yeast cytochrome c peroxidase have appeared. The three known apoperoxidases consist of 300 +/- 8 amino acid residues. The sequences have now been aligned and show 18% and 16% identity only, between the yeast peroxidase and plant peroxidase HRP C and TP 7, respectively. We show that different structural tests all support similar protein folds in plant peroxidases and yeast peroxidase and, therefore, a common evolutionary origin. The following tests support this thesis: (a) predicted helices in the plant peroxidases follow the complex pattern observed in the crystal structure of cytochrome c peroxidase; (b) their hydropathic profiles are similar and agree with observed buried and exposed peptide chain in cytochrome c peroxidase; (c) half-cystines which are distant in the amino acid sequence of plant peroxidases become spatial neighbours when fitted into the cytochrome c peroxidase model; (d) the two-domain structure proposed from limited proteolysis of apoperoxidase HRP C is observed in the crystal structure of cytochrome c peroxidase. The similarities and differences of the plant and yeast peroxidases and the reactive side chains of a plant peroxidase active site are described. The characteristics of Ca2+-binding sequences, derived from several superfamilies, are applied to predict the Ca2+-binding sequences in plant peroxidases.

  19. Coupled structural/thermal/electromagnetic analysis/tailoring of graded composite structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcknight, R. L.; Chen, P. C.; Dame, L. T.; Huang, H.

    1992-01-01

    Accomplishments are described for the first year effort of a 5-year program to develop a methodology for coupled structural/thermal/electromagnetic analysis/tailoring of graded composite structures. These accomplishments include: (1) the results of the selective literature survey; (2) 8-, 16-, and 20-noded isoparametric plate and shell elements; (3) large deformation structural analysis; (4) eigenanalysis; (5) anisotropic heat transfer analysis; and (6) anisotropic electromagnetic analysis.

  20. Finite Element Analysis of Warpage in Laminated Aluminium Alloy Plates for Machining of Primary Aeronautic Parts

    SciTech Connect

    Reis, A. C.; Moreira Filho, L. A.; Menezes, M. A.

    2007-04-07

    The aim of this paper consists in presenting a method of simulating the warpage in 7xxx series aluminium alloy plates. To perform this simulation finite element software MSC.Patran and MSC.Marc were used. Another result of this analysis will be the influence on material residual stresses induced on the raw material during the rolling process upon the warpage of primary aeronautic parts, fabricated through machining (milling) at Embraer. The method used to determinate the aluminium plate residual stress was Layer Removal Test. The numerical algorithm Modified Flavenot Method was used to convert layer removal and beam deflection in stress level. With such information about the level and profile of residual stresses become possible, during the step that anticipate the manufacturing to incorporate these values in the finite-element approach for modelling warpage parts. Based on that warpage parameter surely the products are manufactured with low relative vulnerability propitiating competitiveness and price.

  1. Analysis of Pressurized Water Reactor Primary Coolant Leak Events Caused by Thermal Fatigue

    SciTech Connect

    Atwood, Corwin Lee; Shah, Vikram Naginbhai; Galyean, William Jospeh

    1999-09-01

    We present statistical analyses of pressurized water reactor (PWR) primary coolant leak events caused by thermal fatigue, and discuss their safety significance. Our worldwide data contain 13 leak events (through-wall cracking) in 3509 reactor-years, all in stainless steel piping with diameter less than 25 cm. Several types of data analysis show that the frequency of leak events (events per reactor-year) is increasing with plant age, and the increase is statistically significant. When an exponential trend model is assumed, the leak frequency is estimated to double every 8 years of reactor age, although this result should not be extrapolated to plants much older than 25 years. Difficulties in arresting this increase include lack of quantitative understanding of the phenomena causing thermal fatigue, lack of understanding of crack growth, and difficulty in detecting existing cracks.

  2. Primary Energy Efficiency Analysis of Different Separate Sensible and Latent Cooling Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Abdelaziz, Omar

    2015-01-01

    Separate Sensible and Latent cooling (SSLC) has been discussed in open literature as means to improve air conditioning system efficiency. The main benefit of SSLC is that it enables heat source optimization for the different forms of loads, sensible vs. latent, and as such maximizes the cycle efficiency. In this paper I use a thermodynamic analysis tool in order to analyse the performance of various SSLC technologies including: multi-evaporators two stage compression system, vapour compression system with heat activated desiccant dehumidification, and integrated vapour compression with desiccant dehumidification. A primary coefficient of performance is defined and used to judge the performance of the different SSLC technologies at the design conditions. Results showed the trade-off in performance for different sensible heat factor and regeneration temperatures.

  3. Barriers and Enablers to Integrating Mental Health into Primary Care: A Policy Analysis.

    PubMed

    Durbin, Anna; Durbin, Janet; Hensel, Jennifer M; Deber, Raisa

    2016-01-01

    Integrating care for physical health and behavioural health (mental health and addictions) has been a longstanding challenge, although research supports the clinical and cost effectiveness of integrated care for many clients. In one such model, primary care (PC) physicians work with specialist physicians and non-physician providers (NPPs) to provide mental health and addictions care in PC settings. This Ontario, Canada-focused policy analysis draws on research evidence to examine potential barriers and enablers to this model of integrated care, focusing on mental health. Funding challenges pertain to incentivizing PC physicians to select patients with mental illness, include NPPs on the treatment team, and collaborate with specialist providers. Legal/regulatory challenges pertain to NPP scopes of practice for prescribing and counselling. Integrated care also requires revising the role of the physician and distribution of functions among the team. Policy support to integrate addictions treatment in PC may face similar challenges but requires further exploration.

  4. Structural and vibrational analysis of thymoquinone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raschi, A. B.; Romano, E.; Benavente, A. M.; Altabef, A. Ben; Tuttolomondo, M. E.

    2010-10-01

    The molecular structure of 2-isopropyl-5-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone, C 6O 2H 2 (CH 3) 3CH, has been optimized using methods based on density functional theory (DFT) and Moller-Plesset second-order perturbation theory (MP2). As regards C 6O 2H 2 (CH 3) 3CH, two populated conformations with C 1 ( trans) and C s ( cis) symmetries are obtained, the former being more stable than the latter. The theoretical data indicate that although both anti and cis conformers are possible by rotation about the C-C bond, the preferred conformation is trans. The effects governing the torsion barriers and preferred conformations were analyzed at B3LYP/6-311++G** level. The atoms in molecules (AIM) theory and natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis was applied to the cis and trans conformers in order to detect intramolecular contacts. Furthermore, the infrared spectra for the gas and solid phases and the Raman spectrum for the solid one, were recorded and the observed bands assigned to the vibrational modes.

  5. A structural analysis model for clay caps

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Tsu-te; Yau, Wen Foo

    1993-12-31

    This paper presents a structural analysis model for clay caps used in the landfill of low-level nuclear waste to minimize the migration of fluid through the soil. The clay cap resting on the soil foundation is treated as an axially symmetric elastic plate supported by an elastic foundation. A circular hole (concentric with the plate) in the elastic foundation represents an underlying cavity formed in the landfill due to waste decomposition and volume reduction. Unlike the models that commonly represent the soil foundation with equivalent springs, this model treats the foundation as a semi-infinite space and accounts for the work done by both compression and shear stresses in the foundation. The governing equation of the plate is based upon the classical theory of plate bending, whereas the governing equation derived by using Vlasov`s general variational method describes the soil foundation. The solutions are expressed in terms of Basset functions. A FORTRAN program was written to carry out the numerical calculations.

  6. ZMYND10 - Mutation Analysis in Slavic Patients with Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia

    PubMed Central

    Kurkowiak, Małgorzata; Ziętkiewicz, Ewa; Greber, Agnieszka; Voelkel, Katarzyna; Wojda, Alina; Pogorzelski, Andrzej; Witt, Michał

    2016-01-01

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a rare recessive disease with a prevalence of 1/10,000; its symptoms are caused by a kinetic dysfunction of motile cilia in the respiratory epithelium, flagella in spermatozoids, and primary cilia in the embryonic node. PCD is genetically heterogeneous: genotyping the already known PCD-related genes explains the genetic basis in 60–65% of the cases, depending on the population. While identification of new genes involved in PCD pathogenesis remains crucial, the search for new, population-specific mutations causative for PCD is equally important. The Slavs remain far less characterized in this respect compared to West European populations, which significantly limits diagnostic capability. The main goal of this study was to characterize the profile of causative genetic defects in one of the PCD-causing genes, ZMYND10, in the cohort of PCD patients of Slavic origin. The study was carried out using biological material from 172 unrelated PCD individuals of Polish origin, with no causative mutation found in nine major PCD genes. While none of the previously described mutations was found using the HRM-based screening, a novel frameshift mutation (c.367delC) in ZMYND10, unique for Slavic PCD population, was found in homozygous state in two unrelated PCD patients. Immunofluorescence analysis confirmed the absence of outer and inner dynein arms from the ciliary axoneme, consistent with the already published ZMYND10-mutated phenotype; cDNA analysis revealed the lack of ZMYND10 mRNA, indicating nonsense-mediated decay of the truncated transcript. PMID:26824761

  7. Pathway-based analysis of primary biliary cirrhosis genome-wide association studies.

    PubMed

    Kar, S P; Seldin, M F; Chen, W; Lu, E; Hirschfield, G M; Invernizzi, P; Heathcote, J; Cusi, D; Gershwin, M E; Siminovitch, K A; Amos, C I

    2013-04-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have successfully identified several loci associated with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) risk. Pathway analysis complements conventional GWAS analysis. We applied the recently developed linear combination test for pathways to datasets drawn from independent PBC GWAS in Italian and Canadian subjects. Of the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes and BioCarta pathways tested, 25 pathways in the Italian dataset (449 cases, 940 controls) and 26 pathways in the Canadian dataset (530 cases, 398 controls) were associated with PBC susceptibility (P<0.05). After correcting for multiple comparisons, only the eight most significant pathways in the Italian dataset had FDR <0.25 with tumor necrosis factor/stress-related signaling emerging as the top pathway (P=7.38 × 10⁻⁴, FDR=0.18). Two pathways, phosphatidylinositol signaling and hedgehog signaling, were replicated in both datasets (P<0.05), and subjected to two additional complementary pathway tests. Both pathway signals remained significant in the Italian dataset on modified gene set enrichment analysis (P<0.05). In both GWAS, variants nominally associated with PBC were significantly overrepresented in the phosphatidylinositol pathway (Fisher exact P<0.05). These results point to established and novel pathway-level associations with inherited predisposition to PBC that, on further independent replication and functional validation, may provide fresh insights into PBC etiology.

  8. Primary care efficiency measurement using data envelopment analysis: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Pelone, Ferruccio; Kringos, Dionne Sofia; Romaniello, Alessandro; Archibugi, Monica; Salsiri, Chiara; Ricciardi, Walter

    2015-01-01

    There is a gap between the demand and supply of efficiency analyses within primary care (PC), despite the threatening financial sustainability of health care systems. This paper provides a systematic literature review on PC efficiency analysis using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). We reviewed 39 DEA applications in PC, to understand how methodological frameworks impact results and influence the information provided to decision makers. Studies were combined using qualitative narrative synthesis. This paper reports data for each efficiency analysis on the: 1) evaluation context; 2) model specifications; 3) application of methods to test the robustness of findings; 4) presentation of results. Even though a consistent number of analyses aim to support policymakers and practice managers in improving the efficiency of their PC organizations, the results indicate that DEA--at least when applied to PC--is a methodology still in progress; it needs to be further advanced to meet the complexity that characterizes the production of PC outcomes. Future studies are needed to fill some gaps in this particular domain of research, such as on the standardization of methodologies and the improvement of outcome research in PC. Most importantly, further studies should include extensive uncertainty analyses and be based on good evidence-based rationales. We suggest a number of considerations to academics and researchers to foster the utility of efficiency measurement for the decision making purposes in PC.

  9. Pathway-based analysis of primary biliary cirrhosis genome-wide association studies

    PubMed Central

    Kar, SP; Seldin, MF; Chen, W; Lu, E; Hirschfield, GM; Invernizzi, P; Heathcote, J; Cusi, D; Gershwin, ME; Siminovitch, KA; Amos, CI

    2013-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have successfully identified several loci associated with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) risk. Pathway analysis complements conventional GWAS analysis. We applied the recently developed linear combination test for pathways to datasets drawn from independent PBC GWAS in Italian and Canadian subjects. Of the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes and BioCarta pathways tested, 25 pathways in the Italian dataset (449 cases, 940 controls) and 26 pathways in the Canadian dataset (530 cases, 398 controls) were associated with PBC susceptibility (P < 0.05). After correcting for multiple comparisons, only the eight most significant pathways in the Italian dataset had FDR < 0.25 with tumor necrosis factor/stress-related signaling emerging as the top pathway (P = 7.38 × 10−4, FDR = 0.18). Two pathways, phosphatidylinositol signaling and hedgehog signaling, were replicated in both datasets (P < 0.05), and subjected to two additional complementary pathway tests. Both pathway signals remained significant in the Italian dataset on modified gene set enrichment analysis (P < 0.05). In both GWAS, variants nominally associated with PBC were significantly overrepresented in the phosphatidylinositol pathway (Fisher exact P < 0.05). These results point to established and novel pathway-level associations with inherited predisposition to PBC that on further independent replication and functional validation, may provide fresh insights into PBC etiology. PMID:23392275

  10. Effect of thermal power effluents on the community structure and primary production of phytoplankton

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, N.K.; Ambasht, R.S.; Kumar, R. )

    1993-01-01

    Effluents discharged by the coal-fired thermal power plant at Obra (22[degrees] 52[prime] N lat. and 83[degrees] 5[prime]E long.) reach into the nearby flowing Rihand river and alter the ecological features of the river ecosystem. The temperature and pH of the receiving river water increased while the transparency, dissolved oxygen, chloride, NO[sub 3]-N, and PO[sub 4]-P decreased. In the effluent zone of the river, no phytoplankton existed during a one-year study period (January to December 1987). Chlorophycean members like Spirogyra and Scenedesmus which were present in the unaffected upstream (control site) were replaced by Bacillariophycean members like Pinnularia and Nitzschia with reduced phytoplankton density in the downstream-affected water. At the control site (average of 12 months), Chlorophyta density contributed 335 unit L[sup [minus]1] to the total phytoplankton density (774 unit L[sup [minus]1]) followed by Cyanophyta (260 unit L[sup [minus]1]) and Bacillariophyta (188 unit L[sup [minus]1]). At the affected site maximum of 112, the unit L[sup [minus]1] contribution was by Bacillariophyta followed by 90 unit L[sup [minus]1] of Chlorophyta and 60 unit L[sup [minus]1] of Cyanophyta to the total phytoplankton density (221 unit L[sup [minus]1]). Phytoplankton diversity indices and primary production were reduced in the affected zone. Chloride and PO[sub 4]-P together accounted for 54% (p<0.01) of the variability of the Bacillariophyta density, while no clear influence on Chlorophyta and Cyanophyta density was observed. Total phytoplankton density was changed by 28% (p<0.05) by chloride itself. Gross and net primary productivities were significantly (p<0.01) influenced by alteration of the NO[sub 3]-N concentrations of the water. 26 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Critical joints in large composite primary aircraft structures. Volume 2: Technology demonstration test report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bunin, Bruce L.

    1985-01-01

    A program was conducted to develop the technology for critical structural joints in composite wing structure that meets all the design requirements of a 1990 commercial transport aircraft. The results of four large composite multirow bolted joint tests are presented. The tests were conducted to demonstrate the technology for critical joints in highly loaded composite structure and to verify the analytical methods that were developed throughout the program. The test consisted of a wing skin-stringer transition specimen representing a stringer runout and skin splice on the wing lower surface at the side of the fuselage attachment. All tests were static tension tests. The composite material was Toray T-300 fiber with Ciba-Geigy 914 resin in 10 mil tape form. The splice members were metallic, using combinations of aluminum and titanium. Discussions are given of the test article, instrumentation, test setup, test procedures, and test results for each of the four specimens. Some of the analytical predictions are also included.

  12. Integrated Analysis Capability pilot computer program. [large space structures and data management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vos, R. G.

    1981-01-01

    An integrated analysis capability (IAC) computer software package was developed for the design analysis and performance evaluation of large space systems. The IAC aids the user in coupling the required technical disciplines (initially structures, thermal and controls), providing analysis solution paths which reveal critical interactive effects in order to study loads, stability and mission performance. Existing technical software modules, having a wide existing user community, are combined with the interface software to bridge between the different technologies and mathematical modeling techniques. The package is supported by executive, data management and interactive graphics software, with primary development within the superminicomputer environment.

  13. Innovative fabrication processing of advanced composite materials concepts for primary aircraft structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kassapoglou, Christos; Dinicola, Al J.; Chou, Jack C.

    1992-01-01

    The autoclave based THERM-X(sub R) process was evaluated by cocuring complex curved panels with frames and stiffeners. The process was shown to result in composite parts of high quality with good compaction at sharp radius regions and corners of intersecting parts. The structural properties of the postbuckled panels fabricated were found to be equivalent to those of conventionally tooled hand laid-up parts. Significant savings in bagging time over conventional tooling were documented. Structural details such as cocured shear ties and embedded stiffener flanges in the skin were found to suppress failure modes such as failure at corners of intersecting members and skin stiffeners separation.

  14. The Importance of Structure Coefficients in Structural Equation Modeling Confirmatory Factor Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Bruce

    A general linear model (GLM) framework is used to suggest that structure coefficients ought to be interpreted in structural equation modeling confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) studies in which factors are correlated. The computation of structure coefficients in explanatory factor analysis and CFA is explained. Two heuristic data sets are used to…

  15. Primary and predicted secondary structures of the Actinomadura R39 extracellular DD-peptidase, a penicillin-binding protein (PBP) related to the Escherichia coli PBP4.

    PubMed Central

    Granier, B; Duez, C; Lepage, S; Englebert, S; Dusart, J; Dideberg, O; Van Beeumen, J; Frère, J M; Ghuysen, J M

    1992-01-01

    As derived from gene cloning and sequencing, the 489-amino-acid DD-peptidase/penicillin-binding protein (PBP) produced by Actinomadura R39 has a primary structure very similar to that of the Escherichia coli PBP4 [Mottl, Terpstra & Keck (1991) FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 78, 213-220]. Hydrophobic-cluster analysis of the two proteins shows that, providing that a large 174-amino-acid stretch is excluded from the analysis, the bulk of the two polypeptide chains possesses homologues of the active-site motifs and secondary structures found in the class A beta-lactamase of Streptomyces albus G of known three-dimensional structure. The 174-amino-acid insert occurs at equivalent places in the two PBPs, between helices alpha 2 and alpha 3, away from the active site. Such an insert is unique among the penicilloyl serine transferases. It is proposed that the Actinomadura R39 PBP and E. coli PBP4 form a special class, class C, of low-Mr PBPs/DD-peptidases. A vector has been constructed and introduced by electrotransformation in the original Actinomadura R39 strain, allowing high-level expression and secretion of the DD-peptidase/PBP (250 mg.l-1). The gene encoding the desired protein is processed differently in Actinomadura R39 and Streptomyces lividans. Incorrect processing in Streptomyces lividans leads to a secreted protein which is inert in terms of DD-peptidase activity and penicillin-binding capacity. Images Fig. 5. PMID:1554361

  16. Development of a probabilistic analysis methodology for structural reliability estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torng, T. Y.; Wu, Y.-T.

    1991-01-01

    The novel probabilistic analysis method for assessment of structural reliability presented, which combines fast-convolution with an efficient structural reliability analysis, can after identifying the most important point of a limit state proceed to establish a quadratic-performance function. It then transforms the quadratic function into a linear one, and applies fast convolution. The method is applicable to problems requiring computer-intensive structural analysis. Five illustrative examples of the method's application are given.

  17. STRUCTURE OF PRIMARY PM2.5 DERIVED FROM DIESEL TRUCK EXHAUST

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is currently considering regulations on airborne particulate matter < 2.5 microns in mean diameter (PM2.5). It is important that the molecular structure and microstructure of PM2.5 from various sources be thoroughly characterized in order ...

  18. [Conserved motifs in the primary and secondary ITS1 structures in bryophytes].

    PubMed

    Milyutina, I A; Ignatov, M S

    2015-01-01

    A study of the ITS1 nucleotide sequences of 1000 moss species of 62 families, 11 liverwort species from five orders, and one hornwort Anthoceros agrestis identified five highly conserved motifs (CM1-CM5), which are presumably involved in pre-rRNA processing. Although the ITS1 sequences substantially differ in length and the extent of divergence, the conserved motifs are found in all of them. ITS1 secondary structures were constructed for 76 mosses, and main regularities at conserved motif positioning were observed. The positions of processing sites in the ITS1 secondary structure of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae were found to be similar to the positions of the conserved motifs in the ITS1 secondary structures of mosses and liverworts. In addition, a potential hairpin formation in the putative secondary structure of a pre-rRNA fragment was considered for the region between ITS1 CM4-CM5 and a highly conserved region between hairpins 49 and 50 (H49 and H50) of the 18S rRNA.

  19. PRIMARY STRUCTURE OF THE P450 LANOSTEROL DEMETHYLASE GENE FROM SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have sequenced the structural gene and flanking regions for lanosterol 14 alpha-demethylase (14DM) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. An open reading frame of 530 codons encodes a 60.7-kDa protein. When this gene is disrupted by integrative transformation, the resulting strain req...

  20. Assessing Social Validity of School-Wide Positive Behavior Support Plans: Evidence for the Reliability and Structure of the Primary Intervention Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Kalberg, Jemma Robertson; Bruhn, Allison Leigh; Driscoll, Steven A.; Wehby, Joseph H.; Elliott, Stephen N.

    2009-01-01

    This study provides initial evidence for the reliability and structural validity of scores from the Primary Intervention Rating Scale (Lane, Robertson, & Wehby, 2002), an adapted version of the Intervention Rating Profile-15 (Witt & Elliott, 1985) designed to assess faculty's perceptions of social validity of primary prevention plans prior…

  1. Spatial and temporal dynamics of size-structured photosynthetic parameters (PAM) and primary production (13C) of pico- and nano-phytoplankton in an atoll lagoon.

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, Sébastien; Claquin, Pascal; Orvain, Francis; Véron, Benoît; Charpy, Loïc

    2012-01-01

    Atoll lagoons display a high diversity of trophic states due mainly to their specific geomorphology, and probably to their level and mode of human exploitation. We investigated the functioning of the Ahe atoll lagoon, utilized for pearl oyster farming, through estimations of photosynthetic parameters (pulse amplitude modulation fluorometry) and primary production ((13)C incorporation) measurements of the size structured phytoplankton biomass (<2 μm and >2 μm). Spatial and temporal scales of variability were surveyed during four seasons, over 16 months, at four sites within the lagoon. While primary production (P) was dominated by the picophytoplankton, its biomass specific primary productivity (P(B)) was lower than in other atoll lagoons. The variables size fraction of the phytoplankton, water temperature, season, the interaction term station*fraction and site, explained significantly the variance of the data set using redundancy analysis. No significant trends over depth were observed in the range of 0-20 m. A clear spatial pattern was found which was persistent over the seasons: south and north sites were different from the two central stations for most of the measured variables. This pattern could possibly be explained by the existence of water cells showing different water residence time within the lagoon. Photoacclimation strategies of the two size fractions differed through their light saturation coefficient (higher for picophytoplankton), but not through their maximum photosynthetic capacity (ETR(max)). Positive linear relationships between photosynthetic parameters indicated that their dynamic was independent of light availability in this ecosystem, but most probably dependent on nutrient availability and/or rapid changes in the community structure. Spatial and temporal patterns of the measured processes are then further discussed in the context of nutrient availability and the possible role of cultured oysters in nutrient recycling.

  2. The primary structure of a procaryotic glycoprotein. Cloning and sequencing of the cell surface glycoprotein gene of halobacteria.

    PubMed

    Lechner, J; Sumper, M

    1987-07-15

    The hexagonally patterned surface layer of halobacteria consists of a true glycoprotein. This procaryotic glycoprotein has recently been shown to exhibit novel features with respect to saccharide structure and saccharide biosynthesis. The primary structure and the location of glycosylation sites were determined by cloning and sequencing of the glycoprotein gene of Halobacterium halobium. According to the predicted amino acid sequence, the glycoprotein is synthesized with a N-terminal leader sequence of 34 amino acid residues reminiscent of eucaryotic and procaryotic signal peptides. A hydrophobic stretch of 21 amino acid residues at the C terminus probably serves as a transmembrane domain. 14 threonine residues are clustered adjacent to this membrane anchor and linked to these threonines are all the disaccharides of the cell surface glycoprotein. 12 N-glycosylation sites are distributed over the polypeptide chain.

  3. Structural weight analysis of hypersonic aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ardema, M. D.

    1972-01-01

    The weights of major structural components of hypersonic, liquid hydrogen fueled aircraft are estimated and discussed. The major components are the body structure, body thermal protection system tankage and wing structure. The method of estimating body structure weight is presented in detail while the weights of the other components are estimated by methods given in referenced papers. Two nominal vehicle concepts are considered. The advanced concept employs a wing-body configuration and hot structure with a nonintegral tank, while the potential concept employs an all body configuration and cold, integral pillow tankage structure. Characteristics of these two concepts are discussed and parametric data relating their weight fractions to variations in vehicle shape and size design criteria and mission requirements, and structural arrangement are presented. Although the potential concept is shown to have a weight advantage over the advanced, it involves more design uncertainties since it is farther removed in design from existing aircraft.

  4. Primary structural response in tryptophan residues of Anabaena sensory rhodopsin to photochromic reactions of the retinal chromophore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inada, Seisuke; Mizuno, Misao; Kato, Yoshitaka; Kawanabe, Akira; Kandori, Hideki; Wei, Zhengrong; Takeuchi, Satoshi; Tahara, Tahei; Mizutani, Yasuhisa

    2013-06-01

    Anabaena sensory rhodopsin (ASR) is a microbial rhodopsin found in eubacteria and functions as a photosensor. The photoreaction of ASR is photochromic between all-trans, 15-anti (ASRAT), and 13-cis, 15-syn (ASR13C) isomers. To understand primary protein dynamics in the photoreaction starting in ASRAT and ASR13C, picosecond time-resolved ultraviolet resonance Raman spectra were obtained. In the intermediate state appearing in the picosecond temporal region, spectral changes of Trp bands were observed. For both ASRAT and ASR13C, the intensities of the Trp bands were bleached within the instrumental response time and recovered with a time constant of 30 ps. This suggests that the rates of structural changes in the Trp residue in the vicinity of the chromophore do not depend on the direction of the isomerization of retinal. A comparison between spectra of the wild-type and Trp mutants indicates that the structures of Trp76 and Trp46 change upon the primary photoreaction of retinal.

  5. Morphology and primary crystal structure of a silk-like protein polymer synthesized by genetically engineered Escherichia coli bacteria.

    PubMed

    Anderson, J P; Cappello, J; Martin, D C

    1994-08-01

    The morphology and primary crystal structure of SLPF, a protein polymer produced by genetically engineered Escherichia coli bacteria, were characterized. SLPF is a segmented copolymer consisting of amino acid sequence blocks modeled on the crystalline segments of silk fibroin and the cell attachment domain of human fibronectin. Wide angle x-ray scattering (WAXS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), and molecular simulations were used to analyze the primary crystal structure of SLPF. TEM experiments conducted on SLPF droplets cast from formic acid on amorphous carbon film demonstrated that these protein films have a microstructure formed of woven sheaves. The sheaves are composed of well-defined whisker crystallites. The width of the whiskers, 11.8 +/- 2.2 nm, may be correlated to the length of the silk-like segment in SLPF as predicted by molecular simulations. WAXS data, TEM images, SAED, patterns, molecular simulations, and theoretical diffraction patterns all were consistent with the crankshaft model proposed for Silk I by Lotz and Keith.

  6. Analysis of large space structures assembly: Man/machine assembly analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Procedures for analyzing large space structures assembly via three primary modes: manual, remote and automated are outlined. Data bases on each of the assembly modes and a general data base on the shuttle capabilities to support structures assembly are presented. Task element times and structure assembly component costs are given to provide a basis for determining the comparative economics of assembly alternatives. The lessons learned from simulations of space structures assembly are detailed.

  7. Structural evaluation of candidate designs for the large space telescope primary mirror

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soosaar, K.; Grin, R.; Furey, M.; Hamilton, J.

    1975-01-01

    Structural performance analyses were conducted on two candidate designs (Itek and Perkin-Elmer designs) for the large space telescope three-meter mirror. The mirror designs and the finite-element models used in the analyses evaluation are described. The results of the structural analyses for several different types of loading are presented in tabular and graphic forms. Several additional analyses are also reported: the evaluation of a mirror design concept proposed by the Boeing Co., a study of the global effects of local cell plate deflections, and an investigation of the fracture mechanics problems likely to occur with Cervit and ULE. Flexibility matrices were obtained for the Itek and Perkin-Elmer mirrors to be used in active figure control studies. Summary, conclusions, and recommendations are included.

  8. Fuel containment, lightning protection and damage tolerance in large composite primary aircraft structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, Charles F.; James, Arthur M.

    1985-01-01

    The damage-tolerance characteristics of high strain-to-failure graphite fibers and toughened resins were evaluated. Test results show that conventional fuel tank sealing techniques are applicable to composite structures. Techniques were developed to prevent fuel leaks due to low-energy impact damage. For wing panels subjected to swept stroke lightning strikes, a surface protection of graphite/aluminum wire fabric and a fastener treatment proved effective in eliminating internal sparking and reducing structural damage. The technology features developed were incorporated and demonstrated in a test panel designed to meet the strength, stiffness, and damage tolerance requirements of a large commercial transport aircraft. The panel test results exceeded design requirements for all test conditions. Wing surfaces constructed with composites offer large weight savings if design allowable strains for compression can be increased from current levels.

  9. Active member vibration control for a 4 meter primary reflector support structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Umland, J. W.; Chen, G.-S.

    1992-01-01

    The design and testing of a new low voltage piezoelectric active member with integrated load cell and displacement sensor is described. This active member is intended for micron level vibration and structural shape control of the Precision Segmented Reflector test-bed. The test-bed is an erectable 4 meter diameter backup support truss for a 2.4 meter focal length parabolic reflector. Active damping of the test-bed is then demonstrated using the newly developed active members. The control technique used is referred to as bridge feedback. With this technique the internal sensors are used in a local feedback loop to match the active member's input impedance to the structure's load impedance, which then maximizes vibrational energy dissipation. The active damping effectiveness is then evaluated from closed loop frequency responses.

  10. Does primary productivity modulate the indirect effects of large herbivores? A global meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Daskin, Joshua H; Pringle, Robert M

    2016-07-01

    Indirect effects of large mammalian herbivores (LMH), while much less studied than those of apex predators, are increasingly recognized to exert powerful influences on communities and ecosystems. The strength of these effects is spatiotemporally variable, and several sets of authors have suggested that they are governed in part by primary productivity. However, prior theoretical and field studies have generated conflicting results and predictions, underscoring the need for a synthetic global analysis. We conducted a meta-analysis of the direction and magnitude of large mammalian herbivore-initiated indirect interactions using 67 published studies comprising 456 individual responses. We georeferenced 41 of these studies (comprising 253 responses from 33 locations on five continents) to a satellite-derived map of primary productivity. Because predator assemblages might also influence the impact of large herbivores, we conducted a similar analysis using a global map of large carnivore species richness. In general, LMH reduced the abundance of other consumer species and also tended to reduce consumer richness, although the latter effect was only marginally significant. There was a pronounced reduction in the strength of negative (i.e. suppressive, due e.g., to competition) indirect effects of LMH on consumer abundance in more productive ecosystems. In contrast, positive (facilitative) indirect effects were not significantly correlated with productivity, likely because these comprised a more heterogeneous array of mechanisms. We found no effect of carnivore species richness on herbivore-initiated indirect effect strength. Our findings help to resolve the fundamental problem of ecological contingency as it pertains to the strength of an understudied class of multitrophic interactions. Moreover, these results will aid in predicting the indirect effects of anthropogenic wildlife declines and irruptions, and how these effects might be mediated by climatically driven shifts

  11. [Structured medication management in primary care - a tool to promote medication safety].

    PubMed

    Mahler, Cornelia; Freund, Tobias; Baldauf, Annika; Jank, Susanne; Ludt, Sabine; Peters-Klimm, Frank; Haefeli, Walter Emil; Szecsenyi, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Patients with chronic disease usually need to take multiple medications. Drug-related interactions, adverse events, suboptimal adherence, and self-medication are components that can affect medication safety and lead to serious consequences for the patient. At present, regular medication reviews to check what medicines have been prescribed and what medicines are actually taken by the patient or the structured evaluation of drug-related problems rarely take place in Germany. The process of "medication reconciliation" or "medication review" as developed in the USA and the UK aim at increasing medication safety and therefore represent an instrument of quality assurance. Within the HeiCare(®) project a structured medication management was developed for general practice, with medical assistants playing a major role in the implementation of the process. Both the structured medication management and the tools developed for the medication check and medication counselling will be outlined in this article; also, findings on feasibility and acceptance in various projects and experiences from a total of 200 general practices (56 HeiCare(®), 29 HiCMan,115 PraCMan) will be described. The results were obtained from questionnaires and focus group discussions. The implementation of a structured medication management intervention into daily routine was seen as a challenge. Due to the high relevance of medication reconciliation for daily clinical practice, however, the checklists - once implemented successfully - have been applied even after the end of the project. They have led to the regular review and reconciliation of the physicians' documentation of the medicines prescribed (medication chart) with the medicines actually taken by the patient.

  12. Primary Adhesively Bonded Structure Technology (PABST). Phase 1b. Preliminary Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-12-01

    method if costs could be further reduced and an in-plant neutron source was available. It should be noted that the Californium 252 technique was not...acquisition cost , maintenance cost , and weight reduction from the baseline structure. From these three concepts, the design selected for continuation...Determination 345 Effect of Bond Flaws 349 Design Review for Production and In-Service Inspectability 353 MANUFACTURING 363 QUALITY ASSURANCE 385 COST

  13. Transcriptional analysis of diverse strains Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in primary bovine monocyte derived macrophages.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaochun; Tu, Zheng J; Coussens, Paul M; Kapur, Vivek; Janagama, Harish; Naser, Saleh; Sreevatsan, Srinand

    2008-10-01

    In this study we analyzed the macrophage-induced gene expression of three diverse genotypes of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). Using selective capture of transcribed sequences (SCOTS) on three genotypically diverse MAP isolates from cattle, human, and sheep exposed to primary bovine monocyte derived macrophages for 48 h and 120 h we created and sequenced six cDNA libraries. Sequence annotations revealed that the cattle isolate up-regulated 27 and 241 genes; the human isolate up-regulated 22 and 53 genes, and the sheep isolate up-regulated 35 and 358 genes, at the two time points respectively. Thirteen to thirty-three percent of the genes identified did not have any annotated function. Despite variations in the genes identified, the patterns of expression fell into overlapping cellular functions as inferred by pathway analysis. For example, 10-12% of the genes expressed by all three strains at each time point were associated with cell-wall biosynthesis. All three strains of MAP studied up-regulated genes in pathways that combat oxidative stress, metabolic and nutritional starvation, and cell survival. Taken together, this comparative transcriptional analysis suggests that diverse MAP genotypes respond with similar modus operandi for survival in the host.

  14. [Professor Ling Changquan's experience in treating primary liver cancer: an analysis of herbal medication].

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhen; Su, Yong-hua; Yue, Xiao-qiang

    2008-12-01

    On the basis of outpatients' medical records concerning primary liver cancer (PLC), data of 552 patients (with 2020 effective prescriptions) from the Outpatient Department of Changhai Hospital treated by Professor Ling Changquan were collected. The nature, flavor and meridian distribution of the herbs used in the prescriptions were summarized by frequency method, and the features of the herbs used according to syndrome differentiation were analyzed by logistic regression. The couple herbs used were analyzed by cluster analysis. All the data were analyzed in combination with the experience of the specialist. It showed that most of the frequently used herbs were herbs for invigorating the spleen to promote appetite, removing toxic materials to inhibit tumor growth, and activating blood circulation to dissipate blood stasis. These herbs are mostly of plain or cool nature, and mainly of sweet, bitter, or acrid taste. It also showed that the most frequently used herbs for qi deficiency were Astragalus membranaceus, Atractylodes macrocephala, and Pseudostellariae; Caulis Spatholobi and Chinese jujube for blood asthenia; Fructus Corni and Ophiopogon japonicus for yin deficiency; Agastache rugosa, Semen Plantaginis and Poria for water-dampness; cape jasmine fruit and baikal skullcap root for heat excess; peach seed and Radix Paeoniae Rubra for blood stasis; Curcuma wenyujin, Akebia trifoliata and Bupleurum chinese for qi stagnation. A total of 19 pairs of couple herbs were summarized by the cluster analysis.

  15. Genome-wide analysis uncovers novel recurrent alterations in primary central nervous system lymphomas

    PubMed Central

    Braggio, Esteban; Van Wier, Scott; Ojha, Juhi; McPhail, Ellen; Asmann, Yan W.; Egan, Jan; da Silva, Jackline Ayres; Schiff, David; Lopes, M Beatriz; Decker, Paul A; Valdez, Riccardo; Tibes, Raoul; Eckloff, Bruce; Witzig, Thomas E.; Stewart, A Keith; Fonseca, Rafael; O’Neill, Brian Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is an aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma confined to the CNS. Whether there is a PCNSL-specific genomic signature and, if so, how it differs from systemic diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is uncertain. Experimental design We performed a comprehensive genomic study of tumor samples from 19 immunocompetent PCNSL patients. Testing comprised array-comparative genomic hybridization and whole exome sequencing. Results Biallelic inactivation of TOX and PRKCD were recurrently found in PCNSL but not in systemic DLBCL, suggesting a specific role in PCNSL pathogenesis. Additionally, we found a high prevalence of MYD88 mutations (79%) and CDKN2A biallelic loss (60%). Several genes recurrently affected in PCNSL were common with systemic DLBCL, including loss of TNFAIP3, PRDM1, GNA13, TMEM30A, TBL1XR1, B2M, CD58, activating mutations of CD79B, CARD11 and translocations IgH-BCL6. Overall, BCR/TLR/NF-κB pathways were altered in >90% of PNCSL, highlighting its value for targeted therapeutic approaches. Furthermore, integrated analysis showed enrichment of pathways associated with immune response, proliferation, apoptosis, and lymphocyte differentiation. Conclusions In summary, genome-wide analysis uncovered novel recurrent alterations, including TOX and PRKCD, helping to differentiate PCNSL from systemic DLBCL and related lymphomas. PMID:25991819

  16. Oxidative damage induced by copper in mouse primary hepatocytes by single-cell analysis.

    PubMed

    Jing, Mingyang; Liu, Yang; Song, Wei; Yan, Yunxing; Yan, Wenbao; Liu, Rutao

    2016-01-01

    Copper can disturb the intracellular redox balance, induce oxidative stress, and subsequently cause irreversible damage, leading to a variety of diseases. In the present study, mouse primary hepatocytes were chosen to elucidate the in vitro oxidative damage of short-term copper exposure (10-200 μM) by single-cell analysis. We evaluated the toxicity of copper by reactive oxygen species (ROS), glutathione (GSH), and oxidative DNA damage at the single-cell level. Oxidative damage induced by copper was verified by the morphological changes, persistent elevations of excessive ROS and malondialdehyde (MDA), a decrease in GSH level, and the oxidative DNA damage. Furthermore, the average ROS generation, GSH consumption, and the indicators in DNA damage did not significantly change at relatively low concentrations (10 or 50 μM), but we can find the alterations of parameters in some single cells clearly. Emphasis on the analysis of single cells is conducive to gain a better understanding on the toxicity of copper. This study will also complement studies on the environmental risk assessment of copper pollution.

  17. Sirolimus Versus Tacrolimus as Primary Immunosuppressant After Renal Transplantation: A Meta-Analysis and Economics Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jin-Yu; Song, Ming; Guo, Min; Huang, Feng; Ma, Bing-Jun; Zhu, Lan; Xu, Gang; Li, Juan; You, Ru-Xu

    Sirolimus and tacrolimus are the major immunosuppressants for renal transplantation. Several studies have compared these 2 drugs, but the outcomes were not consistent. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and pharmacoeconomics of sirolimus and tacrolimus in the treatment of renal transplantation and provide evidence for the selection of essential drugs. Trials were identified through a computerized literature search of PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane controlled trials register, Cochrane Renal Group Specialized Register of randomized controlled trials, and Chinese Biomedical database. Two independent reviewers assessed trials for eligibility and quality and then extracted data. Data were extracted for patient and graft mortality, acute rejection (AR), and adverse events. Dichotomous outcomes were reported as relative risk with 95% confidence intervals. A decision tree model was populated with data from a literature review and used to estimate costs and QALYs gained and incremental cost-effectiveness. Altogether, 1189 patients from 8 randomized controlled trials were included. The results of our analysis were that tacrolimus reduced the risks after renal transplantation of AR and patient withdrawn. Nevertheless, tacrolimus increased the risk of infection. Pharmacoeconomic analysis showed that tacrolimus represented a more cost-effective treatment than does cyclosporine for the prevention of adverse events after renal transplant. Tacrolimus is an effective and safe immunosuppressive agent, and it may be more cost-effective than cyclosporine for the primary prevention of AR in renal transplant recipients. However, it should be noted that such superiority was reversal when the cost of sirolimus and tacrolimus changed.

  18. Gene expression analysis of primary normal human hepatocytes infected with human hepatitis B virus

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Hyun Mi; Park, Sung Gyoo; Yea, Sung Su; Jang, Won Hee; Yang, Young-Il; Jung, Guhung

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To find the relationship between hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatocytes during the initial state of infection by cDNA microarray. METHODS: Primary normal human hepatocytes (PNHHs) were isolated and infected with HBV. From the PNHHs, RNA was isolated and inverted into complement DNA (cDNA) with Cy3- or Cy5- labeled dUTP for microarray analysis. The labeled cDNA was hybridized with microarray chip, including 4224 cDNAs. From the image of the microarray, expression profiles were produced and some of them were confirmed by RT-PCR, immunoblot analysis, and NF-κB luciferase reporter assay. RESULTS: From the cDNA microarray, we obtained 98 differentially regulated genes. Of the 98 genes, 53 were up regulated and 45 down regulated. Interestingly, in the up regulated genes, we found the TNF signaling pathway-related genes: LT-α, TRAF2, and NIK. By using RT-PCR, we confirmed the up-regulation of these genes in HepG2, Huh7, and Chang liver cells, which were transfected with pHBV1.2×, a plasmid encoding all HBV messages. Moreover, these three genes participated in HBV-mediated NF-κB activation. CONCLUSION: During the initial state of HBV infection, hepatocytes facilitate the activation of NF-κB through up regulation of LT-α, TRAF2, and NIK. PMID:16937494

  19. The primary structure of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene for 3-phosphoglycerate kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Hitzeman, R A; Hagie, F E; Hayflick, J S; Chen, C Y; Seeburg, P H; Derynck, R

    1982-01-01

    The DNA sequence of the gene for the yeast glycolytic enzyme, 3-phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK), has been obtained by sequencing part of a 3.1 kbp HindIII fragment obtained from the yeast genome. The structural gene sequence corresponds to a reading frame of 1251 bp coding for 416 amino acids with no intervening DNA sequences. The amino acid sequence is approximately 65 percent homologous with human and horse PGK protein sequences and is in general agreement with the published protein sequence for yeast PGK. As for other highly expressed structural genes in yeast, the coding sequence is highly codon biased with 95 percent of the amino acids coded for by a select 25 codons (out of 61 possible). Besides structural DNA sequence, 291 bp of 5'-flanking sequence and 286 bp of 3'-flanking sequence were determined. Transcription starts 36 nucleotides upstream from the translational start and stops 86-93 nucleotides downstream from the translational stop. These results suggest a non-polyadenylated mRNA length of 1373 to 1380 nucleotides, which is consistent with the observed length of 1500 nucleotides for polyadenylated PGK mRNA. A sequence TATATATAAA is found at 145 nucleotides upstream from the translational start. This sequence resembles the TATAAA box that is possibly associated with RNA polymerase II binding. Images PMID:6296791

  20. Crystal structure of HIV-1 primary receptor CD4 in complex with a potent antiviral antibody.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Michael M; Seaman, Michael S; Rits-Volloch, Sophia; Hong, Xinguo; Kao, Chia-Ying; Ho, David D; Chen, Bing

    2010-12-08

    Ibalizumab is a humanized, anti-CD4 monoclonal antibody. It potently blocks HIV-1 infection and targets an epitope in the second domain of CD4 without interfering with immune functions mediated by interaction of CD4 with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules. We report here the crystal structure of ibalizumab Fab fragment in complex with the first two domains (D1-D2) of CD4 at 2.2 Å resolution. Ibalizumab grips CD4 primarily by the BC-loop (residues 121-125) of D2, sitting on the opposite side of gp120 and MHC-II binding sites. No major conformational change in CD4 accompanies binding to ibalizumab. Both monovalent and bivalent forms of ibalizumab effectively block viral infection, suggesting that it does not need to crosslink CD4 to exert antiviral activity. While gp120-induced structural rearrangements in CD4 are probably minimal, CD4 structural rigidity is dispensable for ibalizumab inhibition. These results could guide CD4-based immunogen design and lead to a better understanding of HIV-1 entry.

  1. Crystal structure of HIV-1 primary receptor CD4 in complex with a potent antiviral antibody

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Michael M.; Seaman, Michael S.; Rits-Volloch, Sophia; Hong, Xinguo; Kao, Chia-Ying; Ho, David D.; Chen, Bing

    2010-01-01

    Summary Ibalizumab is a humanized, anti-CD4 monoclonal antibody. It potently blocks HIV-1 infection and targets an epitope in the second domain of CD4 without interfering with immune functions mediated by interaction of CD4 with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules. We report here the crystal structure of ibalizumab Fab fragment in complex with the first two domains (D1-D2) of CD4 at 2.2 Å resolution. Ibalizumab grips CD4 primarily by the BC-loop (residues 121-125) of D2, sitting on the opposite side of gp120 and MHC-II binding sites. No major conformational change in CD4 accompanies binding to ibalizumab. Both monovalent and bivalent forms of ibalizumab effectively block viral infection, suggesting that it does not need to crosslink CD4 to exert antiviral activity. While gp120-induced structural rearrangements in CD4 are probably minimal, CD4 structural rigidity is dispensable for ibalizumab inhibition. These results could guide CD4-based immunogen design and lead to a better understanding of HIV-1 entry. PMID:21134642

  2. Fuel containment and damage tolerance in large composite primary aircraft structures. Phase 2: Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandifer, J. P.; Denny, A.; Wood, M. A.

    1985-01-01

    Technical issues associated with fuel containment and damage tolerance of composite wing structures for transport aircraft were investigated. Material evaluation tests were conducted on two toughened resin composites: Celion/HX1504 and Celion/5245. These consisted of impact, tension, compression, edge delamination, and double cantilever beam tests. Another test series was conducted on graphite/epoxy box beams simulating a wing cover to spar cap joint configuration of a pressurized fuel tank. These tests evaluated the effectiveness of sealing methods with various fastener types and spacings under fatigue loading and with pressurized fuel. Another test series evaluated the ability of the selected coatings, film, and materials to prevent fuel leakage through 32-ply AS4/2220-1 laminates at various impact energy levels. To verify the structural integrity of the technology demonstration article structural details, tests were conducted on blade stiffened panels and sections. Compression tests were performed on undamaged and impacted stiffened AS4/2220-1 panels and smaller element tests to evaluate stiffener pull-off, side load and failsafe properties. Compression tests were also performed on panels subjected to Zone 2 lightning strikes. All of these data were integrated into a demonstration article representing a moderately loaded area of a transport wing. This test combined lightning strike, pressurized fuel, impact, impact repair, fatigue and residual strength.

  3. Recent developments of the NESSUS probabilistic structural analysis computer program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millwater, H.; Wu, Y.-T.; Torng, T.; Thacker, B.; Riha, D.; Leung, C. P.

    1992-01-01

    The NESSUS probabilistic structural analysis computer program combines state-of-the-art probabilistic algorithms with general purpose structural analysis methods to compute the probabilistic response and the reliability of engineering structures. Uncertainty in loading, material properties, geometry, boundary conditions and initial conditions can be simulated. The structural analysis methods include nonlinear finite element and boundary element methods. Several probabilistic algorithms are available such as the advanced mean value method and the adaptive importance sampling method. The scope of the code has recently been expanded to include probabilistic life and fatigue prediction of structures in terms of component and system reliability and risk analysis of structures considering cost of failure. The code is currently being extended to structural reliability considering progressive crack propagation. Several examples are presented to demonstrate the new capabilities.

  4. Cost analysis of store-and-forward telepsychiatry as a consultation model for primary care.

    PubMed

    Butler, Thomas N; Yellowlees, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Store-and-forward telepsychiatry, or asynchronous telepsychiatry (ATP), which allows clinical data, including video to be collected to be reviewed at a later time by a specialist, has been described as a feasible alternative to real-time telepsychiatry, or synchronous telepsychiatry (STP), as a consultation model for primary care. In theory, ATP should be economically more cost-effective than STP due to the increased flexibility of patient data collection and the substitution of the time of specialists with that of lower-cost providers. The aim of this study was to conduct a retrospective cost-analysis comparing ATP with STP and traditional in-person psychiatric consultations in the primary care setting. One hundred and twenty five ATP consultations were performed and fixed and marginal costs were calculated for each model using inputs such as equipment costs, time spent by providers and support staff, and hourly salaries. The fixed costs were $7,000 and $20,000 for ATP and STP and marginal costs were $68.18, $107.50, and $96.36, respectively, for the three groups. STP was the most expensive of the three types of consultations. ATP became the most cost-effective of the three models beyond 249 consultations. The marginal cost savings of ATP were due to substitution of low-cost providers for specialists. ATP represents a potential disruptive healthcare process that could allow more affordable care to be delivered to a larger population of patients. A full accounting of ATP's efficiency will require further studies, including prospective cost-benefit analyses from the perspectives of the patient, provider, and society.

  5. ESF GROUND SUPPORT - STRUCTURAL STEEL ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    T. Misiak

    1996-06-26

    The purpose and objective of this analysis are to expand the level of detail and confirm member sizes for steel sets included in the Ground Support Design Analysis, Reference 5.20. This analysis also provides bounding values and details and defines critical design attributes for alternative configurations of the steel set. One possible configuration for the steel set is presented. This analysis covers the steel set design for the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) entire Main Loop 25-foot diameter tunnel.

  6. Structural uncertainty in model-simulated trends of global gross primary production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, H.; Wang, W.; Milesi, C.; Xiong, J.; Ganguly, S.; Zhu, Z.; Nemani, R. R.

    2012-12-01

    Accurate representation of the effect of drought on terrestrial vegetation functioning is important for understanding the interannual variability in global Gross Primary Production(GPP) and for projecting carbon sequestration potential by vegetation. Drought effect is usually modeled as a function of Vapor Pressure Deficit (VPD) and/or soil moisture. Global warming is likely to accelerate increasing trend in VPD, while a relatively stable precipitation is predicted. This difference in projections between VPD and precipitation can cause serious discrepancies in vegetation behavior depending on how the ecosystem models represent the drought effect. In this study, we scrutinized the model responses to drought using the 30-year record of GIMMS 3G dataset (1982-2010). A diagnostic ecosystem model, Terrestrial Observation and Prediction System (TOPS), was used to estimate global GPP from 1982 to 2009 with 9 different experimental simulations. The control run of global GPP increased until around 2000, but stayed flat after 2000. Among the simulations with single climate constraint, only the VPD-driven simulation showed a decrease in 2000s, while the other scenarios simulated an increase in GPP. These different responses in 2000s can be attributed to the difference in the representation of water stress in models, i.e. using VPD and/or precipitation. When we compared the trend of simulated GPP with CO2 growth rate, VPD-driven model had the highest correlation with CO2 growth rate. However, spatial map of trend in simulated GPP using GIMMS 3G data showed more consistent with the GPP driven by soil moisture than the GPP driven by VPD. Thus, the GPP driven by soil moisture is close to satellite observations in TOPS model, and high correlation of VPD-driven simulation with CO2 growth rate can be attributed to spurious correlation that is likely induced by the previously reported high correlations between CO2 growth rate and temperature variability.

  7. Use of combination therapy in the treatment of primary osteoporosis: protocol for a network meta-analysis of randomised trials

    PubMed Central

    Lou, Shenghan; Lv, Houchen; Chen, Yuxiang; Zhang, Licheng

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The existing medications approved for treatment of primary osteoporosis can be divided into antiresorptive drugs and anabolic drugs. According to the mechanisms of action, the combined therapy may produce a synergistic effect on bone mineral density (BMD) compared with monotherapy, and thus improves the efficacy of fracture resistance. This network meta-analysis aims to compare the efficacies of different combined methods for the treatment of primary osteoporosis. Methods and analysis MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane databases will be searched to identify all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs that evaluate the effectiveness of combined therapy versus monotherapy for primary osteoporosis. The primary outcome will be the BMD changes at the lumbar spine and total hip, and the secondary outcome will be the risks of vertebral fracture and non-vertebral fracture. The efficacies of different combined methods will be compared via traditional pairwise meta-analysis, trial sequential analysis and Bayesian network meta-analysis. Risk of bias will be assessed using the Cochrane tool and the quality of evidence will be assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation for network meta-analysis. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval is not required because this is a protocol for a systematic review without including confidential personal data or data on interventions on patients. Our results will be published in a peer-review journal. Trial registration number PROSPERO CRD42016038569. PMID:28186942

  8. Early olfactory experience induces structural changes in the primary olfactory center of an insect brain.

    PubMed

    Arenas, A; Giurfa, M; Sandoz, J C; Hourcade, B; Devaud, J M; Farina, W M

    2012-03-01

    The antennal lobe (AL) is the first olfactory center of the insect brain and is constituted of different functional units, the glomeruli. In the AL, odors are coded as spatiotemporal patterns of glomerular activity. In honeybees, olfactory learning during early adulthood modifies neural activity in the AL on a long-term scale and also enhances later memory retention. By means of behavioral experiments, we first verified that olfactory learning between the fifth and eighth day of adulthood induces better retention performances at a late adult stage than the same experience acquired before or after this period. We checked that the specificity of memory for the odorants used was improved. We then studied whether such early olfactory learning also induces long-term structural changes in the AL consistent with the formation of long-term olfactory memories. We also measured the volume of 15 identified glomeruli in the ALs of 17-day-old honeybees that either experienced an odor associated with sucrose solution between the fifth and eighth day of adulthood or were left untreated. We found that early olfactory experience induces glomerulus-selective increases in volume that were specific to the learned odor. By comparing our volumetric measures with calcium-imaging recordings from a previous study, performed in 17-day-old bees subjected to the same treatment and experimental conditions, we found that glomeruli that showed structural changes after early learning were those that exhibited a significant increase in neural activity. Our results make evident a correlation between structural and functional changes in the AL following early olfactory learning.

  9. Sweet potato beta-amylase. Primary structure and identification of the active-site glutamyl residue.

    PubMed

    Toda, H; Nitta, Y; Asanami, S; Kim, J P; Sakiyama, F

    1993-08-15

    The complete amino acid sequence of a subunit of sweet potato beta-amylase, a homotetramer, was established by sequence analysis of peptides obtained by digestions with Achromobacter protease I and Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease and by cyanogen bromide cleavage of the S-carboxymethylated subunit. The subunit of the enzyme is a single polypeptide consisting of 498 amino acid residues. It showed 50-60% identity in the amino acid sequence with those of beta-amylases from soybean and barley, while it about 25% with those of three bacterial beta-amylases deduced from the cDNA sequences. Sweet potato beta-amylase was completely inactivated with 2,3-epoxypropyl alpha-D-[U-14C]glucopyranoside. Sequence analysis of the inactivated enzyme revealed that Glu187 was specifically esterified by the affinity labeling with the above reagent, proposing that Glu187 is a potent candidate involved directly in the catalysis with this plant beta-amylase.

  10. Side-necked turtle (Pleurodira, Chelonia, reptilia) hemoglobin: cDNA-derived primary structures and X-ray crystal structures of Hb A.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Tomokazu; Shishikura, Fumio; Kuwada, Takao

    2011-03-01

    Red blood cells of yellow-spotted river turtles (Podocnemis unifilis, Pleurodira, Chelonia, REPTILIA) have two hemoglobin (Hb) components, Hb A and Hb D. We purified the hemoglobin component homologous to amniote (reptiles, birds, and mammals) adult Hb A which comprises two identical α(A) -globin polypeptides and two identical β-globin polypeptides. To establish the crystal structure of Podocnemis Hb A, we first determined the globin primary structures using cDNA nucleotide sequencing with the assistance of protein sequencing. The purified Podocnemis Hb A produced a different form of crystal for each of the two different buffer systems used: form A, tetragonal crystals (space group, P4₁2₁2), produced under neutral pH (pH 7-8) conditions; and form B, hexagonal crystals (space group, P6₁22), produced under high alkaline pH (pH 11-13) conditions. Single crystals of the two forms were examined by Raman microscopy with an excitation of 532 nm, indicating their structural differences. The crystal structures of the two forms were constructed by X-ray crystallographic diffraction at a resolution of 2.20 Å for form A and 2.35 Å for form B. The differences of the tertiary and quaternary structures of the two forms were marginal; however, one clear difference was found in helix structure. When comparing Podocnemis Hb A with Hb A from specimens in other taxa, such as Anser indicus (birds) and Homo sapiens (mammals) by SHELXPRO, the root mean square deviation (RMSD) between the corresponding Cα atoms of the two globins does not exceed 2.0 Å. These low values indicate the crystal structures resemble each other. Our data on X-ray crystal structures and Raman spectra not only reveal the first findings on the two crystal forms of Podocnemis unifilis Hb A but also provide the first refined models for reptilian adult Hb A.

  11. A structural and primary sequence comparison of the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerases

    PubMed Central

    Bruenn, Jeremy A.

    2003-01-01

    A systematic bioinformatic approach to identifying the evolutionarily conserved regions of proteins has verified the universality of a newly described conserved motif in RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (motif F). In combination with structural comparisons, this approach has defined two regions that may be involved in unwinding double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) for transcription. One of these is the N-terminal portion of motif F and the second is a large insertion in motif F present in the RNA-dependent RNA polymerases of some dsRNA viruses. PMID:12654997

  12. Harms from discharge to primary care: mixed methods analysis of incident reports

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Huw; Edwards, Adrian; Hibbert, Peter; Rees, Philippa; Prosser Evans, Huw; Panesar, Sukhmeet; Carter, Ben; Parry, Gareth; Makeham, Meredith; Jones, Aled; Avery, Anthony; Sheikh, Aziz; Donaldson, Liam; Carson-Stevens, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Background Discharge from hospital presents significant risks to patient safety, with up to one in five patients experiencing adverse events within 3 weeks of leaving hospital. Aim To describe the frequency and types of patient safety incidents associated with discharge from secondary to primary care, and commonly described contributory factors to identify recommendations for practice. Design and setting A mixed methods analysis of 598 patient safety incident reports in England and Wales related to ‘Discharge’ from the National Reporting and Learning System. Method Detailed data coding (with 20% double-coding), data summaries generated using descriptive statistical analysis, and thematic analysis of special-case sample of reports. Incident type, contributory factors, type, and level of harm were described, informing recommendations for future practice. Results A total of 598 eligible reports were analysed. The four main themes were: errors in discharge communication (n = 151; 54% causing harm); errors in referrals to community care (n = 136; 73% causing harm); errors in medication (n = 97; 87% causing harm); and lack of provision of care adjuncts such as dressings (n = 62; 94% causing harm). Common contributory factors were staff factors (not following referral protocols); and organisational factors (lack of clear guidelines or inefficient processes). Improvement opportunities include developing and testing electronic discharge methods with agreed minimum information requirements and unified referrals systems to community care providers; and promoting a safety culture with ‘safe discharge’ checklists, discharge coordinators, and family involvement. Conclusion Significant harm was evident due to deficits in the discharge process. Interventions in this area need to be evaluated and learning shared widely. PMID:26622036

  13. Advertising Agencies: An Analysis of Industry Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Sandra J.

    Noting that advertising agencies have not been examined as a collective industry, this paper looks at the development and structure of the advertising agency industry. The first portion of the paper discusses the development of the agency. The remaining two sections deal with trends in and the structure of the industry including: (1) the growth of…

  14. Optimum structural design based on reliability analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heer, E.; Shinozuka, M.; Yang, J. N.

    1970-01-01

    Proof-load test improves statistical confidence in the estimate of reliability, numerical examples indicate a definite advantage of the proof-load approach in terms of savings in structural weight. The cost of establishing the statistical distribution of strength of the structural material is also introduced into the cost formulation

  15. The Specific Analysis of Structural Equation Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Roderick P.

    2004-01-01

    Conventional structural equation modeling fits a covariance structure implied by the equations of the model. This treatment of the model often gives misleading results because overall goodness of fit tests do not focus on the specific constraints implied by the model. An alternative treatment arising from Pearl's directed acyclic graph theory…

  16. Crystal structure analysis of intermetallic compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conner, R. A., Jr.; Downey, J. W.; Dwight, A. E.

    1968-01-01

    Study concerns crystal structures and lattice parameters for a number of new intermetallic compounds. Crystal structure data have been collected on equiatomic compounds, formed between an element of the Sc, Ti, V, or Cr group and an element of the Co or Ni group. The data, obtained by conventional methods, are presented in an easily usable tabular form.

  17. Partial primary structure of human pregnancy zone protein: extensive sequence homology with human alpha 2-macroglobulin.

    PubMed Central

    Sottrup-Jensen, L; Folkersen, J; Kristensen, T; Tack, B F

    1984-01-01

    Human pregnancy zone protein (PZP) is a major pregnancy-associated protein. Its quaternary structure (two covalently bound 180-kDa subunits, which are further non-covalently assembled into a tetramer of 720 kDa) is similar to that of human alpha 2-macroglobulin (alpha 2M). Here we show, from the results of complete or partial sequence determination of a random selection of 38 tryptic peptides covering 685 residues of the subunit of PZP, that PZP and alpha 2M indeed are extensively homologous. In the stretches of PZP sequenced so far, the degree of identically placed residues in the two proteins is 68%, indicating a close evolutionary relationship between PZP and alpha 2M. Although the function of PZP in pregnancy is largely unknown, its close structural relationship to alpha 2M suggests analogous proteinase binding properties and a potential for being taken up in cells by receptor-mediated endocytosis. In this regard our studies indicate a bait region in PZP significantly different from that present in alpha 2M. PZP could be the human equivalent of the acute-phase alpha-macroglobulins (e.g., rat alpha 2M and rabbit alpha 1M) described earlier. PMID:6209714

  18. A coded structured light system based on primary color stripe projection and monochrome imaging.

    PubMed

    Barone, Sandro; Paoli, Alessandro; Razionale, Armando Viviano

    2013-10-14

    Coded Structured Light techniques represent one of the most attractive research areas within the field of optical metrology. The coding procedures are typically based on projecting either a single pattern or a temporal sequence of patterns to provide 3D surface data. In this context, multi-slit or stripe colored patterns may be used with the aim of reducing the number of projected images. However, color imaging sensors require the use of calibration procedures to address crosstalk effects between different channels and to reduce the chromatic aberrations. In this paper, a Coded Structured Light system has been developed by integrating a color stripe projector and a monochrome camera. A discrete coding method, which combines spatial and temporal information, is generated by sequentially projecting and acquiring a small set of fringe patterns. The method allows the concurrent measurement of geometrical and chromatic data by exploiting the benefits of using a monochrome camera. The proposed methodology has been validated by measuring nominal primitive geometries and free-form shapes. The experimental results have been compared with those obtained by using a time-multiplexing gray code strategy.

  19. Primary structure of pancreatic polypeptide from four species of Perissodactyla (Przewalski's horse, zebra, rhino, tapir).

    PubMed

    Henry, J S; Lance, V A; Conlon, J M

    1991-12-01

    Pancreatic polypeptide (PP) has been purified from extracts of the pancreas of four species of odd-toed ungulates (Perissodactyla): Przewalski's horse, mountain zebra, white rhinoceros, and mountain tapir. The amino acid sequence of Przewalski's horse pancreatic polypeptide was established as Ala-Pro-Met-Glu-Pro-Val-Tyr-Pro-Gly-Asp10-Asn- Ala-Thr-Pro-Glu-Gln-Met-Ala-Gln-Tyr20-Ala-Ala-Glu-Leu-Arg-Arg-Tyr- Ile-Asn-Met30 - Leu-Thr-Arg-Pro-Arg-Tyr.NH2. Zebra PP was identical to Przewalski's horse PP, rhinoceros PP contained three substitutions relative to the horse (Ser for Ala1, Leu for Met3, and Glu for Gln16), and tapir PP contained one substitution relative to the horse (Leu for Met3). On the basis of morphological characteristics and the fossil record, the rhinocerotids are classified with the tapirids in the suborder Ceratomorpha, whereas the horse and zebra belong to a separate suborder, Hippomorpha. On the basis of structural similarity of the PP molecules, however, it would appear that the tapir is more closely related to the horse than to the rhinoceros. These observations provide a further example of the need for extreme caution when inferring taxonomic or phylogenetic relationships between species from the structures of homologous peptides.

  20. Inappropriate prescribing among older persons in primary care: protocol for systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Cia Sin; Liew, Tau Ming

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Inappropriate prescribing has a significant impact on older persons in primary care. Previous reviews on inappropriate prescribing included a heterogeneous range of populations and may not be generalisable to primary care. In this study we aim to conduct a comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis of the prevalence, risk factors and adverse outcome associated with inappropriate prescribing, specifically among older persons in primary care. Methods and analysis We will search PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, Web of Science, Scopus, PsycINFO and references of other review articles for observational studies related to the keywords ‘older persons’, ‘primary care’ and ‘inappropriate prescribing’. Two reviewers will independently select the eligible articles. For each included article, the two reviewers will independently extract the data and assess the risk of bias using the Newcastle–Ottawa Scale. If appropriate, meta-analyses will be performed to pool the data across all the studies. In the presence of heterogeneity, meta-regression and subgroup analyses will also be performed. The quality of the evidence will be assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. Ethics and dissemination The results will be disseminated through conference presentations and peer-reviewed publications. They will provide consolidated evidence to support informed actions by policymakers to address inappropriate prescribing in primary care, thus reducing preventable and iatrogenic risk to older persons in primary care. Trial registration number CRD42016048874. PMID:28237963

  1. Statistical analysis of modeling error in structural dynamic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasselman, T. K.; Chrostowski, J. D.

    1990-01-01

    The paper presents a generic statistical model of the (total) modeling error for conventional space structures in their launch configuration. Modeling error is defined as the difference between analytical prediction and experimental measurement. It is represented by the differences between predicted and measured real eigenvalues and eigenvectors. Comparisons are made between pre-test and post-test models. Total modeling error is then subdivided into measurement error, experimental error and 'pure' modeling error, and comparisons made between measurement error and total modeling error. The generic statistical model presented in this paper is based on the first four global (primary structure) modes of four different structures belonging to the generic category of Conventional Space Structures (specifically excluding large truss-type space structures). As such, it may be used to evaluate the uncertainty of predicted mode shapes and frequencies, sinusoidal response, or the transient response of other structures belonging to the same generic category.

  2. Aspirin for Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer. A Benefit and Harm Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Stegeman, Inge; Bossuyt, Patrick M.; Yu, Tsung; Boyd, Cynthia; Puhan, Milo A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Aspirin is widely used for prevention of cardiovascular disease. In recent years randomized trials also suggested a preventive effect for various types of cancer. We aimed to assess, in a quantitative way, benefits and harms of aspirin for primary prevention of both cardiovascular disease and cancer for a general US population between 40 and 85 years of age. Methods We used the Gail/National Cancer Institute approach for assessing benefits and harms. This approach provides a probability that a treatment is more beneficial than harmful and incorporates multiple outcomes, the importance of these outcomes, considers different outcome risks and treats mortality as a competing risk. Our main outcomes were the risks of seven types of cancer, myocardial infarction, ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke and gastrointestinal bleeding. We obtained effect estimates from recent meta-analyses of randomized trials and used baseline risks from the Centers for Disease Control. We conducted four sensitivity analyses to assess the influence of different assumptions about outcome risks and preferences and considered the sampling variation of the effect estimates for aspirin. Results The main analysis as well as the sensitivity analyses showed that aspirin has more benefits than harms. In the main analysis, the index (positive if number of prevented events > excess number of harm events over 10 years per 1,000 persons) ranged from 2 (95% CI 0.0 to 11.8; in women age 45 to 54 years) to 8 (95% CI -0.1 to 83.7; in men age 65 to 74 years). In the sensitivity analyses, the index was also positive for all age categories suggesting more benefits than harms. Conclusion This study suggests an overall benefit of aspirin for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer based on population-based data. For individual preventive counseling, additional benefit harm analyses should explore which individuals should or should not take aspirin based on their risk profile for

  3. Reliability analysis applied to structural tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diamond, P.; Payne, A. O.

    1972-01-01

    The application of reliability theory to predict, from structural fatigue test data, the risk of failure of a structure under service conditions because its load-carrying capability is progressively reduced by the extension of a fatigue crack, is considered. The procedure is applicable to both safe-life and fail-safe structures and, for a prescribed safety level, it will enable an inspection procedure to be planned or, if inspection is not feasible, it will evaluate the life to replacement. The theory has been further developed to cope with the case of structures with initial cracks, such as can occur in modern high-strength materials which are susceptible to the formation of small flaws during the production process. The method has been applied to a structure of high-strength steel and the results are compared with those obtained by the current life estimation procedures. This has shown that the conventional methods can be unconservative in certain cases, depending on the characteristics of the structure and the design operating conditions. The suitability of the probabilistic approach to the interpretation of the results from full-scale fatigue testing of aircraft structures is discussed and the assumptions involved are examined.

  4. Novel matrix resins for composites for aircraft primary structures, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woo, Edmund P.; Puckett, P. M.; Maynard, S.; Bishop, M. T.; Bruza, K. J.; Godschalx, J. P.; Mullins, M. J.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of the contract is the development of matrix resins with improved processability and properties for composites for primarily aircraft structures. To this end, several resins/systems were identified for subsonic and supersonic applications. For subsonic aircraft, a series of epoxy resins suitable for RTM and powder prepreg was shown to give composites with about 40 ksi compressive strength after impact (CAI) and 200 F/wet mechanical performance. For supersonic applications, a thermoplastic toughened cyanate prepreg system has demonstrated excellent resistance to heat aging at 360 F for 4000 hours, 40 ksi CAI and useful mechanical properties at greater than or equal to 310 F. An AB-BCB-maleimide resin was identified as a leading candidate for the HSCT. Composite panels fabricated by RTM show CAI of approximately 50 ksi, 350 F/wet performance and excellent retention of mechanical properties after aging at 400 F for 4000 hours.

  5. Structural Configuration Systems Analysis for Advanced Aircraft Fuselage Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Vivek; Welstead, Jason R.; Quinlan, Jesse R.; Guynn, Mark D.

    2016-01-01

    Structural configuration analysis of an advanced aircraft fuselage concept is investigated. This concept is characterized by a double-bubble section fuselage with rear mounted engines. Based on lessons learned from structural systems analysis of unconventional aircraft, high-fidelity finite-element models (FEM) are developed for evaluating structural performance of three double-bubble section configurations. Structural sizing and stress analysis are applied for design improvement and weight reduction. Among the three double-bubble configurations, the double-D cross-section fuselage design was found to have a relatively lower structural weight. The structural FEM weights of these three double-bubble fuselage section concepts are also compared with several cylindrical fuselage models. Since these fuselage concepts are different in size, shape and material, the fuselage structural FEM weights are normalized by the corresponding passenger floor area for a relative comparison. This structural systems analysis indicates that an advanced composite double-D section fuselage may have a relative structural weight ratio advantage over a conventional aluminum fuselage. Ten commercial and conceptual aircraft fuselage structural weight estimates, which are empirically derived from the corresponding maximum takeoff gross weight, are also presented and compared with the FEM- based estimates for possible correlation. A conceptual full vehicle FEM model with a double-D fuselage is also developed for preliminary structural analysis and weight estimation.

  6. An analysis of doping modulated superlattice structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buoncristiani, A. M.

    1985-01-01

    A new method of growing doping modulated superlattice structures is discussed. This method uses organo-metallic chemical vapor deposition (MO-CVD) with the added feature of controlled plasma in the growth regions. The main objective was to study how the growth environment affected the electronic and optical properties of the superlattice structures. Because a serious safety hazard was discovered in the growth process, no superlattice structures were fabricated and the research on this material had to be terminated. The hazard had to do with the lack of adequate means for the disposal of toxic elemental beryllium.

  7. Enabling Rapid and Robust Structural Analysis During Conceptual Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eldred, Lloyd B.; Padula, Sharon L.; Li, Wu

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a multi-year effort to add a structural analysis subprocess to a supersonic aircraft conceptual design process. The desired capabilities include parametric geometry, automatic finite element mesh generation, static and aeroelastic analysis, and structural sizing. The paper discusses implementation details of the new subprocess, captures lessons learned, and suggests future improvements. The subprocess quickly compares concepts and robustly handles large changes in wing or fuselage geometry. The subprocess can rank concepts with regard to their structural feasibility and can identify promising regions of the design space. The automated structural analysis subprocess is deemed robust and rapid enough to be included in multidisciplinary conceptual design and optimization studies.

  8. A novel CFD/structural analysis of a cross parachute

    SciTech Connect

    LaFarge, R.A.; Nelsen, J.M.; Gwinn, K.W.

    1993-12-31

    A novel CFD/structural analysis was performed to predict functionality of a cross parachute under loadings near the structural limits of the parachute. The determination of parachute functionality was based on the computed structural integrity of the canopy and suspension lines. In addition to the standard aerodynamic pressure loading on the canopy, the structural analysis considered the reduction in fabric strength due to the computed aerodynamic heating. The intent was to illustrate the feasibility of such an analysis with the commercially available software PATRAN.

  9. Primary Structure and Antibacterial Activity of Chicken Bone Marrow-Derived β-Defensins▿

    PubMed Central

    Derache, Chrystelle; Labas, Valérie; Aucagne, Vincent; Meudal, Hervé; Landon, Céline; Delmas, Agnès F.; Magallon, Thierry; Lalmanach, Anne-Christine

    2009-01-01

    Three biologically active β-defensins were purified by chromatography from chicken bone marrow extract: avian β-defensin 1 (AvBD1), AvBD2, and the newly isolated β-defensin AvBD7. Mass spectrometry analyses showed that bone marrow-derived AvBD1, -2, and -7 peptides were present as mature peptides and revealed posttranslational modifications for AvBD1 and AvBD7 in comparison to their in silico-predicted amino acid sequences. Tandem mass spectrometry analysis using the nanoelectrospray-quadrupole time of flight method showed N-terminal glutaminyl cyclization of mature AvBD7 and C-terminal amidation of mature AvBD1 peptide, while posttranslational modifications were absent in bone marrow-derived mature AvBD2 peptide. Furthermore, mass spectrometry analysis performed on intact cells confirmed the presence of these three peptides in mature heterophils. In addition, the antibacterial activities of the three β-defensins against a large panel of gram-positive and -negative bacteria were assessed. While the three defensins displayed similar antibacterial spectra of activity against gram-positive strains, AvBD1 and AvBD7 exhibited the strongest activity against gram-negative strains in comparison to AvBD2. PMID:19738012

  10. Primary retroperitoneal myxoid/round cell liposarcoma is a nonexisting disease: an immunohistochemical and molecular biological analysis.

    PubMed

    de Vreeze, Ronald S A; de Jong, Daphne; Tielen, Ivon H G; Ruijter, Henrique J; Nederlof, Petra M; Haas, Rick L; van Coevorden, Frits

    2009-02-01

    Almost all primary retroperitoneal liposarcomas can be classified as well-/dedifferentiated liposarcoma. Rarely, however, primary retroperitoneal liposarcoma is classified as myxoid/round cell liposarcoma, based on the presence of myxoid areas and vascular crow's feet pattern, which has resulted in a debate on the classification of liposarcoma in the retroperitoneum. Genetically, myxoid/round cell liposarcoma and well-/dedifferentiated liposarcoma are different diseases. Myxoid/round cell liposarcoma is characterized by a translocation causing FUS-CHOP or EWSR1-CHOP fusion, whereas well-/dedifferentiated liposarcoma is characterized by an amplification of the 12q13-15 region, including MDM2 and CDK4 genes. As myxoid/round cell liposarcoma is highly radio- and chemosensitive, differentiation between subtypes is important to optimize treatment. We studied whether primary retroperitoneal liposarcomas diagnosed as myxoid/round cell liposarcoma represent molecularly true myxoid/round cell liposarcoma or are histopathological mimics and represent well-/dedifferentiated liposarcoma. Primary retroperitoneal myxoid/round cell liposarcoma (n=16) were compared to primary extremity myxoid/round cell liposarcoma (n=20). Histopathological and immunohistochemical features were studied. Amplification status of the 12q13-15 region was studied using a multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification analysis, and FUS-CHOP or EWS-CHOP translocations were studied using RT-PCR. In primary retroperitoneal myxoid/round cell liposarcoma, MDM2 and CDK4 staining was both positive in 12 of 15 cases. In primary extremity myxoid/round cell liposarcoma, MDM2 was negative in 18/20 and CDK4 was negative in all cases. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification showed the amplification of 12q13-15 region in 16/16 primary retroperitoneal myxoid/round cell liposarcomas and in 1/20 primary extremity myxoid/round cell liposarcomas. Translocation was present in all (18/18) primary extremity myxoid

  11. Computer applications for engineering/structural analysis. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Zaslawsky, M.; Samaddar, S.K.

    1991-12-31

    Analysts and organizations have a tendency to lock themselves into specific codes with the obvious consequences of not addressing the real problem and thus reaching the wrong conclusion. This paper discusses the role of the analyst in selecting computer codes. The participation and support of a computation division in modifying the source program, configuration management, and pre- and post-processing of codes are among the subjects discussed. Specific examples illustrating the computer code selection process are described in the following problem areas: soil structure interaction, structural analysis of nuclear reactors, analysis of waste tanks where fluid structure interaction is important, analysis of equipment, structure-structure interaction, analysis of the operation of the superconductor supercollider which includes friction and transient temperature, and 3D analysis of the 10-meter telescope being built in Hawaii. Validation and verification of computer codes and their impact on the selection process are also discussed.

  12. Static Structural Analysis for a Neutron Shielding Block in ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Junchuan; Song, Yuntao; Wang, Xiaoyu; Ioki, K.; Du, Shuangsong; Ji, Xiang; Feng, Changle; Xu, Yang

    2013-02-01

    The ITER neutron shielding blocks are located between the outer shell and the inner shell of the vacuum vessel to provide neutron shielding. Considering the combined loads acting on the shielding blocks during ITER plasma operation, the structure of the shielding blocks must be evaluated. Using the finite element method with ANSYS analysis software, static structural analysis is performed, including elastic analysis and limit analysis for one typical shielding block. The evaluated results based on RCC-MR code show that the structure of this shielding block can meet the design requirement.

  13. Shape design sensitivity analysis and optimal design of structural systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Kyung K.

    1987-01-01

    The material derivative concept of continuum mechanics and an adjoint variable method of design sensitivity analysis are used to relate variations in structural shape to measures of structural performance. A domain method of shape design sensitivity analysis is used to best utilize the basic character of the finite element method that gives accurate information not on the boundary but in the domain. Implementation of shape design sensitivty analysis using finite element computer codes is discussed. Recent numerical results are used to demonstrate the accuracy obtainable using the method. Result of design sensitivity analysis is used to carry out design optimization of a built-up structure.

  14. Rhetorical Structure Theory and Text Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-11-01

    O’Malley 73] Larkin, Don and Michael H. O’Malley, "Declarative Sentences and the Rule-Of-Conversation Hypothesis," in Papers from. the Ninth Regional...34Rhetorical Structure Theory: A Theory of Text Organization," in Livia Polanyi (ed.), The Structure of Discourse, Ablex, Norwood, N.J., 1989. Also...Characterization of the News of the BBC World News Service. Antwerp, Belgium, 1986. Antwerp Papers in Linguistics, Number 49. [Reddy 79] Reddy, Michael , "The

  15. Analysis of infectious virus clones from two HIV-1 superinfection cases suggests that the primary strains have lower fitness

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Two HIV-1 positive patients, L and P, participating in the Amsterdam Cohort studies acquired an HIV-1 superinfection within half a year from their primary HIV-1 infection (Jurriaans et al., JAIDS 2008, 47:69-73). The aim of this study was to compare the replicative fitness of the primary and superinfecting HIV-1 strains of both patients. The use of isolate-specific primer sets indicated that the primary and secondary strains co-exist in plasma at all time points after the moment of superinfection. Results Biological HIV-1 clones were derived from peripheral blood CD4 + T cells at different time point, and identified as the primary or secondary virus through sequence analysis. Replication competition assays were performed with selected virus pairs in PHA/IL-2 activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC's) and analyzed with the Heteroduplex Tracking Assay (HTA) and isolate-specific PCR amplification. In both cases, we found a replicative advantage of the secondary HIV-1 strain over the primary virus. Full-length HIV-1 genomes were sequenced to find possible explanations for the difference in replication capacity. Mutations that could negatively affect viral replication were identified in the primary infecting strains. In patient L, the primary strain has two insertions in the LTR promoter, combined with a mutation in the tat gene that has been associated with decreased replication capacity. The primary HIV-1 strain isolated from patient P has two mutations in the LTR that have been associated with a reduced replication rate. In a luciferase assay, only the LTR from the primary virus of patient P had lower transcriptional activity compared with the superinfecting virus. Conclusions These preliminary findings suggest the interesting scenario that superinfection occurs preferentially in patients infected with a relatively attenuated HIV-1 isolate. PMID:20646276

  16. Isolation and primary structure of a methionine- and cystine-rich seed protein of Cannabis sativa.

    PubMed

    Odani, S; Odani, S

    1998-04-01

    A 10-kDa protein was isolated from resting seeds of hemp (Cannabis sativa) by buffer extraction, gel filtration, ion-exchange chromatography, and reversed-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography. The protein did not inhibit bovine trypsin. It consisted of subunits composed of 27 and 61 residues and was held together by two disulfide bonds. The complete amino acid sequence was identified by protein analysis, and had 20 mole% of amino acids containing sulfur. The protein was most similar to a methionine-rich protein of Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa) and to Mabinlin IV, a sweetness-inducing protein of Capparis masaikai. The high methionine content and the absence of trypsin inhibitory activity suggested that the seed protein can be used to improve the nutritional quality of plant food-stuffs.

  17. A comparative analysis of the sugar phosphate cyclase superfamily involved in primary and secondary metabolism.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiumei; Flatt, Patricia M; Schlörke, Oliver; Zeeck, Axel; Dairi, Tohru; Mahmud, Taifo

    2007-01-22

    Sugar phosphate cyclases (SPCs) catalyze the cyclization of sugar phosphates to produce a variety of cyclitol intermediates that serve as the building blocks of many primary metabolites, for example, aromatic amino acids, and clinically relevant secondary metabolites, for example, aminocyclitol/aminoglycoside and ansamycin antibiotics. Feeding experiments with isotopically labeled cyclitols revealed that cetoniacytone A, a unique C(7)N-aminocyclitol antibiotic isolated from an insect endophytic Actinomyces sp., is derived from 2-epi-5-epi-valiolone, a product of SPC. By using heterologous probes from the 2-epi-5-epi-valiolone synthase class of SPCs, an SPC homologue gene, cetA, was isolated from the cetoniacytone producer. cetA is closely related to BE-orf9 found in the BE-40644 biosynthetic gene cluster from Actinoplanes sp. strain A40644. Recombinant expression of cetA and BE-orf9 and biochemical characterization of the gene products confirmed their function as 2-epi-5-epi-valiolone synthases. Further phylogenetic analysis of SPC sequences revealed a new clade of SPCs that might regulate the biosynthesis of a novel set of secondary metabolites.

  18. Morphometric analysis of feedforward pathways from the primary somatosensory area (S1) of rats

    PubMed Central

    de Sá, A.L.; Bahia, C.P.; Correa, V.C.; Dias, I.A.; Batista, C.; Gomes-Leal, W.; Pinho, A.L.S.; Houzel, J.C.; Picanço-Diniz, C.W.; Pereira, A.

    2016-01-01

    We used biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) to anterogradely label individual axons projecting from primary somatosensory cortex (S1) to four different cortical areas in rats. A major goal was to determine whether axon terminals in these target areas shared morphometric similarities based on the shape of individual terminal arbors and the density of two bouton types: en passant (Bp) and terminaux (Bt). Evidence from tridimensional reconstructions of isolated axon terminal fragments (n=111) did support a degree of morphological heterogeneity establishing two broad groups of axon terminals. Morphological parameters associated with the complexity of terminal arbors and the proportion of beaded Bp vs stalked Bt were found to differ significantly in these two groups following a discriminant function statistical analysis across axon fragments. Interestingly, both groups occurred in all four target areas, possibly consistent with a commonality of presynaptic processing of tactile information. These findings lay the ground for additional work aiming to investigate synaptic function at the single bouton level and see how this might be associated with emerging properties in postsynaptic targets. PMID:27191604

  19. Development and Analysis of Cold Trap for Use in Fission Surface Power-Primary Test Circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, T. M.; Dervan, C. A.; Pearson, J. B.; Godfroy, T. J.

    2012-01-01

    The design and analysis of a cold trap proposed for use in the purification of circulated eutectic sodium potassium (NaK-78) loops is presented. The cold trap is designed to be incorporated into the Fission Surface Power-Primary Test Circuit (FSP-PTC), which incorporates a pumped NaK loop to simulate in-space nuclear reactor-based technology using non-nuclear test methodology as developed by the Early Flight Fission-Test Facility. The FSP-PTC provides a test circuit for the development of fission surface power technology. This system operates at temperatures that would be similar to those found in a reactor (500-800 K). By dropping the operating temperature of a specified percentage of NaK flow through a bypass containing a forced circulation cold trap, the NaK purity level can be increased by precipitating oxides from the NaK and capturing them within the cold trap. This would prevent recirculation of these oxides back through the system, which may help prevent corrosion.

  20. Multivoxel fMRI analysis of color tuning in human primary visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Parkes, Laura M; Marsman, Jan-Bernard C; Oxley, David C; Goulermas, John Y; Wuerger, Sophie M

    2009-01-08

    We use multivoxel pattern analysis (MVPA) to study the spatial clustering of color-selective neurons in the human brain. Our main objective was to investigate whether MVPA reveals the spatial arrangements of color-selective neurons in human primary visual cortex (V1). We measured the distributed fMRI activation patterns for different color stimuli (Experiment 1: cardinal colors (to which the LGN is known to be tuned), Experiment 2: perceptual hues) in V1. Our two main findings were that (i) cone-opponent cardinal color modulations produce highly reproducible patterns of activity in V1, but these were not unique to each color. This suggests that V1 neurons with tuning characteristics similar to those found in LGN are not spatially clustered. (ii) Unique activation patterns for perceptual hues in V1 support current evidence for a spatially clustered hue map. We believe that our work is the first to show evidence of spatial clustering of neurons with similar color preferences in human V1.