Science.gov

Sample records for primary structure analysis

  1. Modeling and analysis of LAMOST primary mirror support structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Xuefei; Cui, Xiangqun

    2002-07-01

    The Large Sky Area Multi-object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST) is a national large scientific project in China at the beginning of this century. It is an unconventional designed modern optical telescope and has the both large field of view and large aperture. The spherical primary mirror MB in LAMOST is a segmented mirror with 37 sub-mirrors. The MB will be supported by a very stable truss structure and the mirror surface will be kept in a high optical accuracy. This paper presents the work on the finite element model of the truss structure of MB and gives the results of static and dynamic analysis with this model especially for the optimization of the higher stiffness and the lighter weight.

  2. Advanced composites structural concepts and materials technologies for primary aircraft structures: Structural response and failure analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorris, William J.; Hairr, John W.; Huang, Jui-Tien; Ingram, J. Edward; Shah, Bharat M.

    1992-01-01

    Non-linear analysis methods were adapted and incorporated in a finite element based DIAL code. These methods are necessary to evaluate the global response of a stiffened structure under combined in-plane and out-of-plane loading. These methods include the Arc Length method and target point analysis procedure. A new interface material model was implemented that can model elastic-plastic behavior of the bond adhesive. Direct application of this method is in skin/stiffener interface failure assessment. Addition of the AML (angle minus longitudinal or load) failure procedure and Hasin's failure criteria provides added capability in the failure predictions. Interactive Stiffened Panel Analysis modules were developed as interactive pre-and post-processors. Each module provides the means of performing self-initiated finite elements based analysis of primary structures such as a flat or curved stiffened panel; a corrugated flat sandwich panel; and a curved geodesic fuselage panel. This module brings finite element analysis into the design of composite structures without the requirement for the user to know much about the techniques and procedures needed to actually perform a finite element analysis from scratch. An interactive finite element code was developed to predict bolted joint strength considering material and geometrical non-linearity. The developed method conducts an ultimate strength failure analysis using a set of material degradation models.

  3. Primary structural analysis of sulfhydryl protease inhibitors from pineapple stem.

    PubMed

    Reddy, M N; Keim, P S; Heinrikson, R L; Kezdy, F J

    1975-03-10

    Pineapple stem acetone powder provides a rich source of the sulfhydryl protease bromelain and of a family of compositionally similar but chromatographically distinct polypeptide inihibtors of this enzyme. The isoinhibitors have molecular weights of 5600, and they contain five disulfide bonds and about 50 amino acids each (Perlstein, S. H., AND Kezdy, F.J. (1973) J. Supramol. Struct. 1, 249-254). Primary structural analysis of one of the seven inhibitor fractions (VII) revealed extensive microheterogeneity. Each of the inhibitor molecules in Fraction VII was shown to be composed of two peptide chains joined by disulfide bonds. These chains, designated A and B on the basis of size, comprise 41 and 10-11 residues, respectively, and the amino acid sequence of one of each are given below: (see article for formular). On the basis of ionization properties and yields of the A and B chains, it would appear that one of the major inhibitor species in Fraction VII is the covalently linked complex of the two chains shown, namely [A-1, B-2]. The second major inhibitor component of Fraction VII is identical in structure with [A-1, B-2i1 except that residues 1 and 8 in the A chain are pyroglutamate and threonine, respectively, and in the B chain glutamine 11 is replaced by arginine. The third inhibitor in Fraction VII is a minor constituent identical with the second, except that residue 1 in the A chain is glutamate rather than pyroglutamate. This microheterogeneity in the inhibitors of Fraction VII is further increased by the fact that B chains may lack threonine 1, in which case they are decapeptides beginning with alanine. On the basis of the striking homology of the cysteine residues with those of other protease inhibitors, it is proposed that the bromelain inhibitors are generated enzymatically from single chain precursors by excision of a "bridge" paptide which links the NH-2 termal A chain to the COOH-terminal B chain.

  4. Experiment and modal analysis on the primary mirror structure of Space Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Rui; Chen, Zhiping; Yang, Shimo; Hu, Qiqian

    2006-06-01

    Primary mirror with Φ 1m and f 3.5m is the most important optical part in Space Solar Telescope (SST), which is designed to make observations of transient and steady state solar hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic processes and is being researched and manufactured by National Astronomical Observatories. The primary mirror structure(PMS), a crucial linker for the optical and other subsystems, includes primary mirror and its supporting frame. Therefore, this part must satisfy the optical sufficient strength, stiffness, and thermal stability requirements under the space environment and in the launching process. In this paper the primary mirror structure and its connection are described. The scheme of modal analysis and experiment is built, according to the specific dynamic requirements of the primary mirror structure in Space Solar Telescope. The dynamic response on the primary mirror structure is analyzed with MSC.NASTRAN software. Comparing these results with mode parameters obtained from modal experiment analysis. Modal experiment uses freely hanging primary mirror structure, simple input multi-output, and modal parameter identification through CADA-X software. Both results provide evidences to develop this satellite design.

  5. Advanced composites structural concepts and materials technologies for primary aircraft structures. Structural response and failure analysis: ISPAN modules users manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hairr, John W.; Huang, Jui-Ten; Ingram, J. Edward; Shah, Bharat M.

    1992-01-01

    The ISPAN Program (Interactive Stiffened Panel Analysis) is an interactive design tool that is intended to provide a means of performing simple and self contained preliminary analysis of aircraft primary structures made of composite materials. The program combines a series of modules with the finite element code DIAL as its backbone. Four ISPAN Modules were developed and are documented. These include: (1) flat stiffened panel; (2) curved stiffened panel; (3) flat tubular panel; and (4) curved geodesic panel. Users are instructed to input geometric and material properties, load information and types of analysis (linear, bifurcation buckling, or post-buckling) interactively. The program utilizing this information will generate finite element mesh and perform analysis. The output in the form of summary tables of stress or margins of safety, contour plots of loads or stress, and deflected shape plots may be generalized and used to evaluate specific design.

  6. Cortical Structural Connectivity Alterations in Primary Insomnia: Insights from MRI-Based Morphometric Correlation Analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lu; Wang, Enfeng; Zhang, Xiaoqi; Karama, Sherif; Khundrakpam, Budhachandra; Zhang, Hongju; Guan, Min; Wang, Meiyun; Cheng, Jingliang; Shi, Dapeng; Evans, Alan C; Li, Yongli

    2015-01-01

    The etiology and maintenance of insomnia are proposed to be associated with increased cognitive and physiological arousal caused by acute stressors and associated cognitive rumination. A core feature of such hyperarousal theory of insomnia involves increased sensory processing that interferes with the onset and maintenance of sleep. In this work, we collected structural magnetic resonance imaging data from 35 patients with primary insomnia and 35 normal sleepers and applied structural covariance analysis to investigate whether insomnia is associated with disruptions in structural brain networks centered at the sensory regions (primary visual, primary auditory, and olfactory cortex). As expected, insomnia patients showed increased structural covariance in cortical thickness between sensory and motor regions. We also observed trends of increased covariance between sensory regions and the default-mode network, and the salience network regions, and trends of decreased covariance between sensory regions and the frontoparietal working memory network regions, in insomnia patients. The observed changes in structural covariance tended to correlated with poor sleep quality. Our findings support previous functional neuroimaging studies and provide novel insights into variations in brain network configuration that may be involved in the pathophysiology of insomnia.

  7. Cortical Structural Connectivity Alterations in Primary Insomnia: Insights from MRI-Based Morphometric Correlation Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Lu; Wang, Enfeng; Zhang, Xiaoqi; Karama, Sherif; Khundrakpam, Budhachandra; Zhang, Hongju; Guan, Min; Wang, Meiyun; Cheng, Jingliang; Shi, Dapeng; Evans, Alan C.; Li, Yongli

    2015-01-01

    The etiology and maintenance of insomnia are proposed to be associated with increased cognitive and physiological arousal caused by acute stressors and associated cognitive rumination. A core feature of such hyperarousal theory of insomnia involves increased sensory processing that interferes with the onset and maintenance of sleep. In this work, we collected structural magnetic resonance imaging data from 35 patients with primary insomnia and 35 normal sleepers and applied structural covariance analysis to investigate whether insomnia is associated with disruptions in structural brain networks centered at the sensory regions (primary visual, primary auditory, and olfactory cortex). As expected, insomnia patients showed increased structural covariance in cortical thickness between sensory and motor regions. We also observed trends of increased covariance between sensory regions and the default-mode network, and the salience network regions, and trends of decreased covariance between sensory regions and the frontoparietal working memory network regions, in insomnia patients. The observed changes in structural covariance tended to correlated with poor sleep quality. Our findings support previous functional neuroimaging studies and provide novel insights into variations in brain network configuration that may be involved in the pathophysiology of insomnia. PMID:26539528

  8. Cortical Structural Connectivity Alterations in Primary Insomnia: Insights from MRI-Based Morphometric Correlation Analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lu; Wang, Enfeng; Zhang, Xiaoqi; Karama, Sherif; Khundrakpam, Budhachandra; Zhang, Hongju; Guan, Min; Wang, Meiyun; Cheng, Jingliang; Shi, Dapeng; Evans, Alan C; Li, Yongli

    2015-01-01

    The etiology and maintenance of insomnia are proposed to be associated with increased cognitive and physiological arousal caused by acute stressors and associated cognitive rumination. A core feature of such hyperarousal theory of insomnia involves increased sensory processing that interferes with the onset and maintenance of sleep. In this work, we collected structural magnetic resonance imaging data from 35 patients with primary insomnia and 35 normal sleepers and applied structural covariance analysis to investigate whether insomnia is associated with disruptions in structural brain networks centered at the sensory regions (primary visual, primary auditory, and olfactory cortex). As expected, insomnia patients showed increased structural covariance in cortical thickness between sensory and motor regions. We also observed trends of increased covariance between sensory regions and the default-mode network, and the salience network regions, and trends of decreased covariance between sensory regions and the frontoparietal working memory network regions, in insomnia patients. The observed changes in structural covariance tended to correlated with poor sleep quality. Our findings support previous functional neuroimaging studies and provide novel insights into variations in brain network configuration that may be involved in the pathophysiology of insomnia. PMID:26539528

  9. Scorpion toxins from Centruroides noxius and Tityus serrulatus. Primary structures and sequence comparison by metric analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Possani, L D; Martin, B M; Svendsen, I; Rode, G S; Erickson, B W

    1985-01-01

    The complete primary structures of toxin II-14 from the Mexican scorpion Centruroides noxius Hoffmann and toxin gamma from the Brazilian scorpion Tityus serrulatus Lutz and Mello have been determined. Cleavage of toxin gamma after Met-6 with CNBr produced the 55-residue peptide 7-61, which maintained the four disulphide bonds but was not toxic to mice at a dose 3 times the lethal dose of native toxin gamma. Pairwise comparison by metric analysis of segment 1-50 of toxin gamma and the corresponding segments from two other South American scorpion toxins, five North American scorpion toxins, nine North African scorpion toxins and one Central Asian scorpion toxin showed that the three Brazilian toxins are intermediate between the North American and North African toxins. This result is consistent with the hypothesis that the South American and African continents were joined by a land connection in the distant past. Images Fig. 1. PMID:4052021

  10. Identification of new members of hydrophobin family using primary structure analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Kuan; Deng, Youping; Zhang, Chaoyang; Elasri, Mohamed

    2006-01-01

    Background Hydrophobins are fungal proteins that can turn into amphipathic membranes at hydrophilic/hydrophobic interfaces by self-assembly. The assemblages by Class I hydrophobins are extremely stable and possess the remarkable ability to change the polarity of the surface. One of its most important industrial applications is its usage as paint. Without detailed knowledge of the 3D structure and self-assembly principles of hydrophobins, it is difficult to make significant progress in furthering its research. Results In order to provide useful information to hydrophobin researchers, we analyzed primary structure of hydrophobins to gain more insight about these proteins. In this paper, we presented an in-depth primary sequence analysis using batch BLAST search of the database, sequence filtering by programming and motif finding by MEME. We used batch BLAST to find similar sequences in the NCBI nr database. Then we used MEME to find out motifs. Based on the newly found motifs and the well-known C-CC-C-C-CC-C pattern we used MAST to search the entire nr database. At the end, domain search and phylogenetic analysis were conducted to confirm the result. After searching the nr database with the new PSSM-format motifs identified by MEME, many sequences from various species were found by MAST. Filtering process by pattern, domain and length left 9 qualified candidates. Conclusion All of 9 newly identified potential hydrophobins possess the common pattern and hydrophobin domain. From the multiple sequence alignment result, we can see that some of them are grouped very close to other known hydrophobins, which means their phylogenetic relationship is very close and it is highly plausible that they are indeed hydrophobin proteins. PMID:17217508

  11. Primary structure analysis of an integral membrane glycoprotein of the nuclear pore

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    The complete primary structure of an integral membrane glycoprotein of the nuclear pore was deduced from the cDNA sequence. The cDNA encodes a polypeptide of 204,205 D containing a 25-residue-long signal sequence, two hydrophobic segments that could function as transmembrane segments, and 13 potential N-linked oligosaccharide addition sites. Endoglycosidase H reduces the molecular mass by approximately 9 kD suggesting that not all of these 13 sites are used. We discuss possible models for the topology of this protein in the pore membrane as well as a possible role in the formation of pores and pore complexes. PMID:2738089

  12. Primary structure -- An important concept to distinguish primary stresses

    SciTech Connect

    Lu Mingwan |; Li Jianguo

    1996-12-01

    A new Chinese design code JB 4732-95, Steel Pressure Vessels -- Design by Analysis, was issued in March 1995. In this paper the authors discuss some concepts and ideas which formed in the introduction and application of the design by analysis approach in China. They are: multi-possibility of stress decomposition, self-limiting stress, classification of constraints, and finally an important concept to distinguish primary stress -- primary structures.

  13. Design and analysis of supporting structure between the primary mirror and the secondary mirror on a space telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chenjie; Chai, Wenyi; Feng, Liangjie; Yang, Wengang; Wang, Wei; Fan, Xuewu

    2015-10-01

    Mechanical stability is a significant segment for an on-axis space telescope to assure its assembly accuracy as well as the image quality in the rigorous space environment, supporting structure between the primary mirror and the secondary mirror as a main structure of the on-axis space telescope must be designed reasonably to meet the mission requirements of the space telescope. Meanwhile, in view of the limitation of the satellite launching cost, it is necessary to reduce the weight and power compensation during the supporting structure design based on the satisfaction of telescope performance. Two types of supporting structure for a space telescope are designed, one is three-tripod structure which has three tripods located on the optical bench to support the secondary mirror assemblies and keep the distance between the primary mirror and the secondary mirror, the other is barrel supporting structure which includes a tube and a secondary mirror support with four spider struts. To compare the mechanical performance and launching cost of the two kinds of supporting structure, both structural and thermal analysis model are established. The analysis results indicates that the three-tripod support is lighter, has better mechanical performance and needs less power compensation than the barrel support.

  14. Structural analysis of xyloglucans in the primary cell walls of plants in the subclass Asteridae.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Matt; Jia, Zhonghua; Peña, Maria J; Cash, Michael; Harper, April; Blackburn, Alan R; Darvill, Alan; York, William S

    2005-08-15

    The structures of xyloglucans from several plants in the subclass Asteridae were examined to determine how their structures vary in different taxonomic orders. Xyloglucans, solubilized from plant cell walls by a sequential (enzymatic and chemical) extraction procedure, were isolated, and their structures were characterized by NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. All campanulids examined, including Lactuca sativa (lettuce, order Asterales), Tenacetum ptarmiciflorum (dusty miller, order Asterales), and Daucus carota (carrot, order Apiales), produce typical xyloglucans that have an XXXG-type branching pattern and contain alpha-d-Xylp-, beta-D-Galp-(1-->2)-alpha-D-Xylp-, and alpha-L-Fucp-(1-->2)-beta-D-Galp-(1-->2)-alpha-D-Xylp- side chains. However, the lamiids produce atypical xyloglucans. For example, previous analyses showed that Capsicum annum (pepper) and Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato), two species in the order Solanales, and Olea europaea (olive, order Lamiales) produce xyloglucans that contain arabinosyl and galactosyl residues, but lack fucosyl residues. The XXGG-type xyloglucans produced by Solanaceous species are less branched than the XXXG-type xyloglucan produced by Olea europaea. This study shows that Ipomoea pupurea (morning glory, order Solanales), Ocimum basilicum (basil, order Lamiales), and Plantago major (plantain, order Lamiales) all produce xyloglucans that lack fucosyl residues and have an unusual XXGGG-type branching pattern in which the basic repeating core contains five glucose subunits in the backbone. Furthermore, Neruim oleander (order Gentianales) produces an XXXG-type xyloglucan that contains arabinosyl, galactosyl, and fucosyl residues. The appearance of this intermediate xyloglucan structure in oleander has implications regarding the evolutionary development of xyloglucan structure and its role in primary plant cell walls.

  15. Structures in the primary spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempa, J.; Knurenko, S. P.; Malecki, R.

    2009-12-01

    Structures in the energy spectrum of primary cosmic rays at the 'knee' region and for energies higher than 1 EeV are obtained through studying extensive air showers (EAS). The main problem of the research is the fact that we work in the ranges of highly fluctuating parameters used to obtain the primary energy spectrum. In this paper the log-normal distribution for the error function has been used in convolution with the power spectrum to explain the Yakutsk experimental data. Similar results have been obtained for the gamma distribution as the error function. Using the power law primary spectrum in the energy region around 10 19 eV we will argue that the primary Yakutsk spectrum is overestimated. In the best case this overestimation is not less than 42%.

  16. Design and analysis of grid stiffened concepts for aircraft composite primary structural applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambur, Damodar R.

    1991-01-01

    An approach to buckling resistant design of general grid stiffened flat plates based on smeared stiffener theory for combined inplane loading is discussed. Some results from parametric studies performed to assess the validity of smeared stiffener for practical stiffener configurations and to illustrate the benefits of different stiffening concepts are given. Details of a design study are discussed where the present analysis method is used to design a grid stiffened panel for a fuselage application and verified using a finite element analysis results.

  17. Study on TCM Syndrome Differentiation of Primary Liver Cancer Based on the Analysis of Latent Structural Model.

    PubMed

    Gu, Zhan; Qi, Xiuzhong; Zhai, Xiaofeng; Lang, Qingbo; Lu, Jianying; Ma, Changping; Liu, Long; Yue, Xiaoqiang

    2015-01-01

    Primary liver cancer (PLC) is one of the most common malignant tumors because of its high incidence and high mortality. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) plays an active role in the treatment of PLC. As the most important part in the TCM system, syndrome differentiation based on the clinical manifestations from traditional four diagnostic methods has met great challenges and questions with the lack of statistical validation support. In this study, we provided evidences for TCM syndrome differentiation of PLC using the method of analysis of latent structural model from clinic data, thus providing basis for establishing TCM syndrome criteria. And also we obtain the common syndromes of PLC as well as their typical clinical manifestations, respectively.

  18. Structure analysis of the primary mirror support for the TIM using computer-aided finite element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farah Simon, Alejandro; Pedrayes, Maria H.; Ruiz Schneider, Elfego; Sierra, Gerardo; Quiros-Pacheco, Fernando; Godoy, Javier; Sohn, Erika

    2000-08-01

    The Mexican Infrared Telescope is one of the most important projects in the Institute for Astronomy of the National University of Mexico. As part of the design we pretend to simulate different components of the telescope by the Finite Element Method (FEM). One of the most important parts of the structure is the primary mirror support. This structure is under stress, causing deformations in the primary mirror; these deformations shouldn't be over 40 nanometers, which is the maximum permissible tolerance. One of the most interesting subjects to develop in this project is to make the segmented primary mirror to work like if it were a monolithic one. Each segment has six degrees of freedom, whose control needs actuators and sensors with stiff mechanical structures. Our purpose is to achieve these levels of design using FEM aided by computer and we pretend to study several models of the structure array using the Conceptual Design Method, in an effort to optimize the design.

  19. Primary structure and functional analysis of the lysis genes of Lactobacillus gasseri bacteriophage phi adh.

    PubMed Central

    Henrich, B; Binishofer, B; Bläsi, U

    1995-01-01

    The lysis genes of the Lactobacillus gasseri bacteriophage phi adh were isolated by complementation of a lambda Sam mutation in Escherichia coli. Nucleotide sequencing of a 1,735-bp DNA fragment revealed two adjacent coding regions of 342 bp (hol) and 951 bp (lys) in the same reading frame which appear to belong to a common transcriptional unit. Proteins corresponding to the predicted gene products, holin (12.9 kDa) and lysin (34.7 kDa), were identified by in vitro and in vivo expression of the cloned genes. The phi adh holin is a membrane-bound protein with structural similarity to lysis proteins of other phage, known to be required for the transit of murein hydrolases through the cytoplasmic membrane. The phi adh lysin shows homology with mureinolytic enzymes encoded by the Lactobacillus bulgaricus phage mv4, the Streptococcus pneumoniae phage Cp-1, Cp-7, and Cp-9, and the Lactococcus lactis phage phi LC3. Significant homology with the N termini of known muramidases suggests that phi adh lysin acts by a similar catalytic mechanism. In E. coli, the phi adh lysin seems to be associated with the total membrane fraction, from which it can be extracted with lauryl sarcosinate. Either one of the phi adh lysis proteins provoked lysis of E. coli when expressed along with holins or lysins of phage lambda or Bacillus subtilis phage phi 29. Concomitant expression of the combined holin and lysin functions of phi adh in E. coli, however, did not result in efficient cell lysis. PMID:7836307

  20. Study of Factors Preventing Children from Enrolment in Primary School in the Republic of Honduras: Analysis Using Structural Equation Modelling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashida, Akemi

    2015-01-01

    Studies have investigated factors that impede enrolment in Honduras. However, they have not analysed individual factors as a whole or identified the relationships among them. This study used longitudinal data for 1971 children who entered primary schools from 1986 to 2000, and employed structural equation modelling to examine the factors…

  1. Composite Crew Module: Primary Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirsch, Michael T.

    2011-01-01

    In January 2007, the NASA Administrator and Associate Administrator for the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate chartered the NASA Engineering and Safety Center to design, build, and test a full-scale crew module primary structure, using carbon fiber reinforced epoxy based composite materials. The overall goal of the Composite Crew Module project was to develop a team from the NASA family with hands-on experience in composite design, manufacturing, and testing in anticipation of future space exploration systems being made of composite materials. The CCM project was planned to run concurrently with the Orion project's baseline metallic design within the Constellation Program so that features could be compared and discussed without inducing risk to the overall Program. This report discusses the project management aspects of the project including team organization, decision making, independent technical reviews, and cost and schedule management approach.

  2. Advanced textile applications for primary aircraft structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Anthony C.; Barrie, Ronald E.; Shah, Bharat M.; Shukla, Jay G.

    1992-01-01

    Advanced composite primary structural concepts were evaluated for low cost, damage tolerant structures. Development of advanced textile preforms for fuselage structural applications with resin transfer molding and powder epoxy materials are now under development.

  3. Advanced textile applications for primary aircraft structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Anthony C.; Barrie, Ronald E.; Shah, Bharat M.; Shukla, Jay G.

    1992-01-01

    Advanced composite primary structural concepts have been evaluated for low cost, damage tolerant structures. Development of advanced textile preforms for fuselage structural applications with resin transfer molding and powder epoxy material is now under development.

  4. A descriptive analysis of populations of three-dimensional structures calculated from primary sequences of proteins by OSIRIS.

    PubMed

    Benhabilès, N; Gallet, X; Thomas-Soumarmon, A; Brasseur, R

    1998-01-01

    Among different ab initio approaches to calculate 3D-structures of proteins out of primary sequences, a few are using restricted dihedral spaces and empirical equations of energy as is OSIRIS. All those approaches were calibrated on a few proteins or fragments of proteins. To optimize the calculation over a larger diversity of structures, we need first to define for each sequence what are good conditions of calculations in order to choose a consensus procedure fitting most 3D-structures best. This requires objective classification of calculated 3D-structures. In this work, populations of avian and bovine pancreatic polypeptides (APP, BPP) and of calcium-binding protein (CaBP) are obtained by varying the rate of the angular dynamics of the second step of OSIRIS. Then, 3D-structures are clustered using a nonhierarchical method, SICLA, using rmsd as a distance parameter. A good clustering was obtained for four subpopulations of APP, BPP and CaBP. Each subpopulation was characterized by its barycenter, relative frequency and dispersion. For the three alpha-helix proteins, after the step 1 of OSIRIS, most secondary structures were correct but molecules have a few atomic contacts. Step 2, i.e., the angular dynamics, resolves those atomic contacts and clustering demonstrates that it generates subpopulations of topological conformers as the barycenter topologies show.

  5. Effect of the small-world structure on encoding performance in the primary visual cortex: an electrophysiological and modeling analysis.

    PubMed

    Shi, Li; Niu, Xiaoke; Wan, Hong

    2015-05-01

    The biological networks have been widely reported to present small-world properties. However, the effects of small-world network structure on population's encoding performance remain poorly understood. To address this issue, we applied a small world-based framework to quantify and analyze the response dynamics of cell assemblies recorded from rat primary visual cortex, and further established a population encoding model based on small world-based generalized linear model (SW-GLM). The electrophysiological experimental results show that the small world-based population responses to different topological shapes present significant variation (t test, p < 0.01; effect size: Hedge's g > 0.8), while no significant variation was found for control networks without considering their spatial connectivity (t test, p > 0.05; effect size: Hedge's g < 0.5). Furthermore, the numerical experimental results show that the predicted response under SW-GLM is more accurate and reliable compared to the control model without small-world structure, and the decoding performance is also improved about 10 % by taking the small-world structure into account. The above results suggest the important role of the small-world neural structure in encoding visual information for the neural population by providing electrophysiological and theoretical evidence, respectively. The study helps greatly to well understand the population encoding mechanisms of visual cortex.

  6. Effect of the small-world structure on encoding performance in the primary visual cortex: an electrophysiological and modeling analysis.

    PubMed

    Shi, Li; Niu, Xiaoke; Wan, Hong

    2015-05-01

    The biological networks have been widely reported to present small-world properties. However, the effects of small-world network structure on population's encoding performance remain poorly understood. To address this issue, we applied a small world-based framework to quantify and analyze the response dynamics of cell assemblies recorded from rat primary visual cortex, and further established a population encoding model based on small world-based generalized linear model (SW-GLM). The electrophysiological experimental results show that the small world-based population responses to different topological shapes present significant variation (t test, p < 0.01; effect size: Hedge's g > 0.8), while no significant variation was found for control networks without considering their spatial connectivity (t test, p > 0.05; effect size: Hedge's g < 0.5). Furthermore, the numerical experimental results show that the predicted response under SW-GLM is more accurate and reliable compared to the control model without small-world structure, and the decoding performance is also improved about 10 % by taking the small-world structure into account. The above results suggest the important role of the small-world neural structure in encoding visual information for the neural population by providing electrophysiological and theoretical evidence, respectively. The study helps greatly to well understand the population encoding mechanisms of visual cortex. PMID:25764307

  7. Structural Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    After an 800-foot-tall offshore oil recovery platform collapsed, the engineers at Engineering Dynamics, Inc., Kenner, LA, needed to learn the cause of the collapse, and analyze the proposed repairs. They used STAGSC-1, a NASA structural analysis program with geometric and nonlinear buckling analysis. The program allowed engineers to determine the deflected and buckling shapes of the structural elements. They could then view the proposed repairs under the pressure that caused the original collapse.

  8. HANFORD DST THERMAL & SEISMIC PROJECT ANSYS BENCHMARK ANALYSIS OF SEISMIC INDUCED FLUID STRUCTURE INTERACTION IN A HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL PRIMARY TANK

    SciTech Connect

    MACKEY, T.C.

    2006-03-14

    M&D Professional Services, Inc. (M&D) is under subcontract to Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL) to perform seismic analysis of the Hanford Site Double-Shell Tanks (DSTs) in support of a project entitled ''Double-Shell Tank (DSV Integrity Project-DST Thermal and Seismic Analyses)''. The overall scope of the project is to complete an up-to-date comprehensive analysis of record of the DST System at Hanford in support of Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-48-14. The work described herein was performed in support of the seismic analysis of the DSTs. The thermal and operating loads analysis of the DSTs is documented in Rinker et al. (2004). The overall seismic analysis of the DSTs is being performed with the general-purpose finite element code ANSYS. The overall model used for the seismic analysis of the DSTs includes the DST structure, the contained waste, and the surrounding soil. The seismic analysis of the DSTs must address the fluid-structure interaction behavior and sloshing response of the primary tank and contained liquid. ANSYS has demonstrated capabilities for structural analysis, but the capabilities and limitations of ANSYS to perform fluid-structure interaction are less well understood. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the capabilities and investigate the limitations of ANSYS for performing a fluid-structure interaction analysis of the primary tank and contained waste. To this end, the ANSYS solutions are benchmarked against theoretical solutions appearing in BNL 1995, when such theoretical solutions exist. When theoretical solutions were not available, comparisons were made to theoretical solutions of similar problems and to the results from Dytran simulations. The capabilities and limitations of the finite element code Dytran for performing a fluid-structure interaction analysis of the primary tank and contained waste were explored in a parallel investigation (Abatt 2006). In conjunction with the results of the global ANSYS analysis

  9. Primary structure of keratinocyte transglutaminase

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, M.A.; Stewart, B.E.; Qin, Q.; Rice, R.H. ); Chakravarty, R. ); Floyd, E.E.; Jetten, A.M. )

    1990-12-01

    The nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of the coding regions of human and rat keratinocyte transglutaminases (protein-glutamine: amine {gamma}-glutamyltransferase; EC 2.3.2.13) have been determined. These yield proteins of {approximately}90 kDa that are 92% identical, indicative of the conservation of important structural features. Alignments of amino acid sequences show substantial similarity among the keratinocyte transglutaminase, human clotting factor XIII catalytic subunit, guinea pig liver tissue transglutaminase, and the human erythrocyte band-4.2 protein. The keratinocyte enzyme is most similar to factor XIII, whereas the band-4.2 protein is most similar to the tissue transglutaminase. A salient feature of the keratinocyte transglutaminase is its 105-residue extension beyond the N terminus of the tissue transglutaminase. This extension and the unreltaed activation peptide of factor XIII (a 37-residue extension) appear to be added for specialized functions after divergence of the tissue transglutaminase from their common lineage.

  10. Structured career pathways in academic primary care.

    PubMed

    Foy, Robbie; Eccles, Martin

    2008-02-01

    Research in primary care has much to offer researchers and ultimately efforts to improve population health and health care. There is a need for capacity building and efforts to improve the science of research in this field. This article outlines a relatively structured career pathway for primary care researchers and offers advice on opportunities and commonly encountered pitfalls. It is largely based upon the authors' experiences and personal reflections as medically trained researchers but many of the implications and lessons are relevant to other clinical and research disciplines.

  11. SIRTF primary mirror design, analysis, and testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarver, George L., III; Maa, Scott; Chang, LI

    1990-01-01

    The primary mirror assembly (PMA) requirements and concepts for the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) program are discussed. The PMA studies at NASA/ARC resulted in the design of two engineering test articles, the development of a mirror mount cryogenic static load testing system, and the procurement and partial testing of a full scale spherical mirror mounting system. Preliminary analysis and testing of the single arch mirror with conical mount design and the structured mirror with the spherical mount design indicate that the designs will meet all figure and environmental requirements of the SIRTF program.

  12. Finite element analysis of lightweight active primary mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Wei Xin; Guan, Chun Lin; Rao, Chang Hui

    2012-09-01

    With the increasing requirement on spatial resolution to achieve ideal performance in space-based optical imaging system, there is a need to enlarge primary apertures. However, primary mirrors of such systems cannot maintain its optical tolerances across the mirror surface after sending to space, because of gravity change and varying ambient temperature. It necessitates active optics technology of primary mirror surface correction. Since mass-to-orbit is expensive and limited, lightweight primary mirror is needed. The paper investigates a lightweight, active primary mirror. This primary mirror structure includes lightweight face sheet and substrate with surface-parallel actuators embedded in the recess of web support ribs. Finite element models of lightweight, active primary mirror structures with different structural parameters are established and simulated. Using the response function matrixes acquired from finite element analysis, the fitting errors for Zernike polynomials are computed by MATLAB. Correctability comparisons of lightweight, active primary mirror structures with different parameters are carried out. To get best correctability, the mirrors should have small recess depth, high and thin ribs, thick face sheets and long actuators. The structural analysis result will be valuable for the design of lightweight, active primary mirror.

  13. LACBWR primary shield activation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, L.L.; Lahti, G.P.; Johnson, W.J.

    1996-11-01

    Nuclear power plants in the US are required to estimate the costs of decommissioning to ensure that adequate funds are accumulated during the useful life of the plant. A major component of the decommissioning cost is the disposal of radioactive material, including material near the reactor created by neutron activation. An accurate assessment of the residual radioactivity in the reactor`s primary shield is necessary to determine this portion of the decommissioning demolition and disposal cost. This paper describes the efforts used to determine the activation levels remaining in the primary shield of the LaCrosse boiling water reactor (LACBWR), owned and operated by Dairyland Power Cooperative.

  14. Inhibition of pro-inflammatory markers in primary bone marrow-derived mouse macrophages by naturally occurring flavonoids: analysis of the structure-activity relationship.

    PubMed

    Comalada, Mònica; Ballester, Isabel; Bailón, Elvira; Sierra, Saleta; Xaus, Jordi; Gálvez, Julio; de Medina, Fermín Sánchez; Zarzuelo, Antonio

    2006-10-16

    Flavonoids possess several biological/pharmacological activities including anticancer, antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and antioxidant. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of flavonoids on macrophage physiology. For this purpose we selected some flavonoids belonging to the most common and abundant groups (flavonols--quercetin and kaempferol; flavones--diosmetin, apigenin, chrysin and luteolin; isoflavones--genistein and daidzein and flavanones--hesperetin). We decided to use primary bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) as cellular model, since they represent a homogenous, non-transformed population of macrophages that can be stimulated in vitro to proliferate by macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) or activated by LPS. In this regard, we demonstrated that most of the flavonoids assayed reduce macrophage M-CSF-induced proliferation without affecting cellular viability. Moreover, some flavonoids also inhibit TNFalpha production as well as iNOS expression and NO production in LPS-activated macrophages, an effect that has been associated with the inhibition of the NF-kappaB pathway. We also found that luteolin and quercetin are able to stimulate the expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 at low concentrations (<50microM). Analysis of the structure-activity relationship showed that four hydroxylations at positions 5, 7, 3' and 4', together with the double bond at C(2)-C(3) and the position of the B ring at 2, seem to be necessary for the highest anti-inflammatory effect.

  15. Spectroscopic survey telescope design. I - Primary mirror structure and support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, F. B.; Krishnamachari, S. V.

    1988-09-01

    The present design for a spectroscopic survey telescope uses a spherical primary mirror whose figure requires that a secondary focus assembly be driven at the tracking rate in an attitude normal to the spherical focal surface, while the telescope, being tilted at a predetermined angular zenith distance, need only be 'set' (and clamped) occasionally in azimuth. The spherical primary mirror segments are configured to an identical radius-of-curvature and supported on a fully triangulated stainless steel space frame; a structural analysis using finite elements indicates that the expected static performance of both the individual segments and the overall space frame present reasonable goals for current engineering practice.

  16. Nonlinear Structural Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Nonlinear structural analysis techniques for engine structures and components are addressed. The finite element method and boundary element method are discussed in terms of stress and structural analyses of shells, plates, and laminates.

  17. Carbon-carbon primary structure for SSTO vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Croop, H.C.; Lowndes, H.B. III

    1997-01-01

    A hot structures development program is nearing completion to validate use of carbon-carbon composite structure for primary load carrying members in a single-stage-to-orbit, or SSTO, vehicle. A four phase program was pursued which involved design development and fabrication of a full-scale wing torque box demonstration component. The design development included vehicle and component selection, design criteria and approach, design data development, demonstration component design and analysis, test fixture design and analysis, demonstration component test planning, and high temperature test instrumentation development. The fabrication effort encompassed fabrication of structural elements for mechanical property verification as well as fabrication of the demonstration component itself and associated test fixturing. The demonstration component features 3D woven graphite preforms, integral spars, oxidation inhibited matrix, chemical vapor deposited (CVD) SiC oxidation protection coating, and ceramic matrix composite fasteners. The demonstration component has been delivered to the United States Air Force (USAF) for testing in the Wright Laboratory Structural Test Facility, WPAFB, OH. Multiple thermal-mechanical load cycles will be applied simulating two atmospheric cruise missions and one orbital mission. This paper discusses the overall approach to validation testing of the wing box component and presents some preliminary analytical test predictions. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  18. Primary structure of rat cardiac beta-adrenergic and muscarinic cholinergic receptors obtained by automated DNA sequence analysis: further evidence for a multigene family.

    PubMed Central

    Gocayne, J; Robinson, D A; FitzGerald, M G; Chung, F Z; Kerlavage, A R; Lentes, K U; Lai, J; Wang, C D; Fraser, C M; Venter, J C

    1987-01-01

    Two cDNA clones, lambda RHM-MF and lambda RHB-DAR, encoding the muscarinic cholinergic receptor and the beta-adrenergic receptor, respectively, have been isolated from a rat heart cDNA library. The cDNA clones were characterized by restriction mapping and automated DNA sequence analysis utilizing fluorescent dye primers. The rat heart muscarinic receptor consists of 466 amino acids and has a calculated molecular weight of 51,543. The rat heart beta-adrenergic receptor consists of 418 amino acids and has a calculated molecular weight of 46,890. The two cardiac receptors have substantial amino acid homology (27.2% identity, 50.6% with favored substitutions). The rat cardiac beta receptor has 88.0% homology (92.5% with favored substitutions) with the human brain beta receptor and the rat cardiac muscarinic receptor has 94.6% homology (97.6% with favored substitutions) with the porcine cardiac muscarinic receptor. The muscarinic cholinergic and beta-adrenergic receptors appear to be as conserved as hemoglobin and cytochrome c but less conserved than histones and are clearly members of a multigene family. These data support our hypothesis, based upon biochemical and immunological evidence, that suggests considerable structural homology and evolutionary conservation between adrenergic and muscarinic cholinergic receptors. To our knowledge, this is the first report utilizing automated DNA sequence analysis to determine the structure of a gene. Images PMID:2825184

  19. Compression Strength of Composite Primary Structural Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Eric R.

    1998-01-01

    Research conducted under NASA Grant NAG-1-537 focussed on the response and failure of advanced composite material structures for application to aircraft. Both experimental and analytical methods were utilized to study the fundamental mechanics of the response and failure of selected structural components subjected to quasi-static loads. Most of the structural components studied were thin-walled elements subject to compression, such that they exhibited buckling and postbuckling responses prior to catastrophic failure. Consequently, the analyses were geometrically nonlinear. Structural components studied were dropped-ply laminated plates, stiffener crippling, pressure pillowing of orthogonally stiffened cylindrical shells, axisymmetric response of pressure domes, and the static crush of semi-circular frames. Failure of these components motivated analytical studies on an interlaminar stress postprocessor for plate and shell finite element computer codes, and global/local modeling strategies in finite element modeling. These activities are summarized in the following section. References to literature published under the grant are listed on pages 5 to 10 by a letter followed by a number under the categories of journal publications, conference publications, presentations, and reports. These references are indicated in the text by their letter and number as a superscript.

  20. Analysis of the primary sequence and secondary structure of the unusually long SSU rRNA of the soil bug, Armadillidium vulgare.

    PubMed

    Choe, C P; Hancock, J M; Hwang, U W; Kim, W

    1999-12-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of the SSU rRNA gene from the soil bug, Armadillidium vulgare (Crustacea, Isopoda), was determined. It is 3214 bp long, with a GC content of 56.3%. It is not only the longest SSU rRNA gene among Crustacea but also longer than any other SSU rRNA gene except that of the strepsipteran insect, Xenos vesparum (3316 bp). The unusually long sequence of this species is explained by the long sequences of variable regions V4 and V7, which make up more than half of the total length. RT-PCR analysis of these two regions showed that the long sequences also exist in the mature rRNA and sequence simplicity analysis revealed the presence of slippage motifs in these two regions. The putative secondary structure of the rRNA is typical for eukaryotes except for the length and shape variations of the V2, V4, V7, and V9 regions. Each of the V2, V4, and V7 regions was elongated, while the V9 region was shortened. In V2, two bulges, located between helix 8 and helix 9 and between helix 9 and helix 10, were elongated. In V4, stem E23-3 was dramatically expanded, with several small branched stems. In V7, stem 43 was branched and expanded. Comparisons with the unusually long SSU rRNAs of other organisms imply that the increase in total length of SSU rRNA is due mainly to expansion in the V4 and V7 regions. PMID:10594181

  1. Research on primary mirror lateral support structure of large-aperture telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yang

    2010-05-01

    The primary mirror of large-aperture telescope is an important component of telescope system. The surface figure error of the primary mirror is a critical factor affecting the imaging quality of telescope system. With the augment of primary mirror aperture, the surface figure error of the primary mirror is affected by many factors, such as gravity, thermal deformation and so on. The factors that influence the surface figure error of the primary mirror are considered and analyzed roundly according to technical requirements of optical system. So the feasible project is researched on the lateral support structure of large-aperture telescope primary mirror. The primary mirror support system of large-aperture telescope is composed of axial support and lateral support. In traditional telescope, the contribution of lateral support to surface distortion is less than axial support. With increase of diameter to thickness ratio, lateral support is becoming more complicated and important than before. Lateral support is a key technology the same as axial support for the large-aperture telescope primary mirror. With the foundation of analysis, comparison and conclusion of related literature and monograph, according to primary mirror supporting principle of the large-aperture telescope. Lateral support methods, the influence of the primary mirror surface figure error due to primary mirror lateral support and lateral support structure of primary mirror are analyzed.

  2. Primary structure of maize chloroplast adenylate kinase.

    PubMed

    Schiltz, E; Burger, S; Grafmüller, R; Deppert, W R; Haehnel, W; Wagner, E

    1994-06-15

    This paper describes the sequence of adenylate kinase (Mg-ATP+AMP<-->Mg-ADP+ADP) from maize chloroplasts. This light-inducible enzyme is important for efficient CO2 fixation in the C4 cycle, by removing and recycling AMP produced in the reversible pyruvate phosphate dikinase reaction. The complete sequence was determined by analyzing peptides from cleavages with trypsin, AspN protease and CNBr and subcleavage of a major CNBr peptide with chymotrypsin. N-terminal Edman degradation and carboxypeptidase digestion established the terminal residues. Electrospray mass spectrometry confirmed the final sequence of 222 residues (M(r) = 24867) including one cysteine and one tryptophan. The sequence shows this enzyme to be a long-variant-type adenylate kinase, the nearest relatives being adenylate kinases from Enterobacteriaceae. Alignment of the sequence with the adenylate kinase from Escherichia coli reveals 44% identical residues. Since the E. coli structure has been published recently at 0.19-nm resolution with the inhibitor adenosine(5')pentaphospho(5')adenosine (Ap5A) [Müller, C. W. & Schulz, G. E. (1992) J. Mol. Biol. 224, 159-177], catalytically essential residues could be compared and were found to be mostly conserved. Surprisingly, in the nucleotide-binding Gly-rich loop Gly-Xaa-Pro-Gly-Xaa-Gly-Lys the middle Gly is replaced by Ala. This is, however, compensated by an Ile-->Val exchange in the nearest spatial neighborhood. A Thr-->Ala exchange explains the unusual tolerance of the enzyme for pyrimidine nucleotides in the acceptor site. PMID:8026505

  3. Compression strength of composite primary structural components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Eric R.

    1994-01-01

    The linear elastic response is determined for an internally pressurized, long circular cylindrical shell stiffened on the inside by a regular arrangement of identical stringers and identical rings. Periodicity of this configuration permits the analysis of a portion of the shell wall centered over a generic stringer-ring joint; i.e., a unit cell model. The stiffeners are modeled as discrete beams, and the stringer is assumed to have a symmetrical cross section and the ring an asymmetrical section. Asymmetery causes out-of-plane bending and torsion of the ring. Displacements are assumed as truncated double Fourier series plus simple terms in the axial coordinate to account for the closed and pressure vessel effect (a non-periodic effect). The interacting line loads between the stiffeners and the inside shell wall are Lagrange multipliers in the formulation, and they are also assumed as truncated Fourier series. Displacement continuity constraints between the stiffeners and shell along the contact lines are satisfied point-wise. Equilibrium is imposed by the principle of virtual work. A composite material crown panel from the fuselage of a large transport aircraft is the numerical example. The distributions of the interacting line loads, and the out-of-plane bending moment and torque in the ring, are strongly dependent on modeling the deformations due to transverse shear and cross-sectional warping of the ring in torsion. This paper contains the results from the semiannual report on research on 'Pressure Pillowing of an Orthogonally Stiffened Cylindrical Shell'. The results of the new work are illustrated in the included appendix.

  4. Primary Students' Success on the Structured Number Line

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diezmann, Carmel M.; Lowrie, Tom; Sugars, Lindy A.

    2010-01-01

    Number lines are part of people's everyday life and are frequently used in primary mathematics as instructional aids, in texts, and for assessment purposes on mathematics tests. There are two types of number lines; (1) structured number lines, which are the focus of this paper; and (2) empty number lines. Structured number lines represent…

  5. [Primary gastric lymphoma. Analysis of 86 cases].

    PubMed

    Pisano, R; Llorens, P; Levy, I; Backhause, C; Palma, M

    1994-09-01

    We report the retrospective analysis of 86 patients with primary gastric lymphoma diagnosed in a period of 12 years, that constitute 5.6% of malignant gastric lesions diagnosed in that lapse. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy diagnosed a malignant lesion in 93% and lymphoma in 36% of cases. Endoscopic biopsies disclosed malignant lesions in 79 cases (93%) and were diagnostic of lymphoma in 70 (82%). All patients were operated, including the seven subjects in which the biopsy did not show malignant lesions; the surgical indication of the latter was based in clinical grounds. The macroscopic examination of the surgical piece showed ulcerated lesions in 45 (52%) and mixed lesions (ulcerated and protruded with and without multiple erosions) in 15 (18%) patients. Seventeen patients (33%) had an early lesion of the MALT type (mucosa associated lymphoid tissue) and 87% of lesions were of low or intermediate histological type.

  6. Primary structure of a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase specified by R plasmids.

    PubMed

    Shaw, W V; Packman, L C; Burleigh, B D; Dell, A; Morris, H R; Hartley, B S

    Naturally occurring isolates of chloramphenicol-resistant bacteria commonly synthesise chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (EC 2.3.28; CAT) in amounts which are sufficient to account for the resistance phenotype and often harbour plasmids which carry the structural gene for CAT. The findings of CAT in such diverse prokaryotes as Proteus mirabilis, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Streptomyces sp., and a soil Flavobacterium has led to speculation concerning the origin and evolution of the more commonly observed CAT variants specified by plasmids in clinically important bacteria. To provide a more solid basis for studying the evolution and spread of CAT within prokaryotes we chose to determine the complete amino acid sequence of a type I variant of CAT, the variant known to be associated with most F-like plasmids conferring chloramphenicol resistance. The sequence has been determined by combining the results obtained from manual and automated sequential degradation with those obtained by mass spectrometry of peptides generated by enzymatic digestion. The directly determined primary structure is identical with that predicted by the DNA sequence analysis of the chloramphenicol resistance transponson Tn9 known to specify a type I variant of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase.

  7. Dermatoglyphics and Karyotype Analysis in Primary Amenorrhoea

    PubMed Central

    Sontakke, Bharat R; Waghmare, Jwalant E; Tarnekar, Aditya M; Shende, Moreshwar R; Pal, Asoke K

    2014-01-01

    Background: Dermatoglyphics is the scientific study of the skin ridge patterns on the fingers, toes, palms of the hands and soles of feet. Dermatoglyphics is in use as a supportive diagnostic tool in genetic or chromosomal disorders as well as in clinical conditions with genetic etiologies. Primary amenorrhoea and Dermatoglyphics, both have the suspected multifactorial (genetic and environmental) aetiologies. Objective: In the present study the finger dermatoglyphic patterns were studied in primary amenorrhoea cases and age matched fertile control females and also attention was given to find out whether a specific dermatoglyphic trait exists in primary amenorrhoea cases and whether it was statistically significant. Materials and Methods: To study the role of dermatoglyphics in primary amenorrhoea, a study was conducted on 30 subjects with primary amenorrhoea (as cases) and compared it with equal number of age matched fertile females (as controls). We studied fingertip patterns in all the subjects enrolled. Simultaneously we have assessed the Karyotype of primary amenorrhoea cases. Result and Conclusion: Two subjects in experimental group have shown abnormal Karyotypes. The most significant finding in present study was increased total finger ridge count (TFRC) in primary amenorrhoea cases which was statistically significant. We also found higher frequency of loops and arches in primary amenorrhoea with abnormal karyotypes. This type of study may be quite useful as a supportive investigation, in stating the predisposition of an individual to primary amenorrhoea and referral of an individual for karyotyping. PMID:25653930

  8. Construction of the SPS primary structure by another method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, T. C.

    1980-01-01

    The construction of the solar power satellite (SPS) primary structure using aluminum foam is discussed. The aluminum is salvaged from expended external tanks. The advantages of this construction system are: (1) saving in launch costs; (2) faster construction rates; (3) possible lower cost structures; (4) promotes containerless processing in orbit; (5) uses almost any space debris; and (6) frees the shuttle cargo bay for other uses.

  9. JWST ISIM Primary Structure and Kinematic Mount Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartoszyk, Andrew; Carnahan, Tim; Hendricks, Steve; Kaprielian, Charles; Kuhn, Jonathan; Kunt, Cengiz

    2004-01-01

    In this presentation we will review the evolution of the ISIM primary structure tube topology and kinematic mount configuration to the current baseline concept. We will also show optimization procedures used and challenges resulting from complex joints under launch loads. Two additional key ISIM structure challenges of meeting thermal distortion and stability requirements and metal-composite bonded joint survivability at cryogenic temperatures are covered in other presentations.

  10. Structure of Primary Mathematics Teacher Education Programs in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cañadas, María C.; Gómez, Pedro; Rico, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Spain was 1 of the 17 countries that participated in the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement's Teacher Education and Development Study in Mathematics (TEDS-M 2008). In this paper, we explore and describe the structure of Spanish primary mathematics teacher education programs. We analyzed the documents…

  11. Resin transfer molding for advanced composite primary aircraft structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markus, Alan; Palmer, Ray

    1991-01-01

    Resin Transfer Molding (RTM) has been identified by Douglas Aircraft Company (DAC) and industry to be one of the promising processes being developed today which can break the cost barrier of implementing composite primary structures into a commercial aircraft production environment. The RTM process developments and scale-up plans Douglas Aircrart will be conducting under the NASA ACT contract are discussed.

  12. Development of stitched/RTM composite primary structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kullerd, Susan M.; Dow, Marvin B.

    1992-01-01

    The goal of the NASA Advanced Composites Technology (ACT) Program is to provide the technology required to gain the full benefit of weight savings and performance offered by composite primary structures. Achieving the goal is dependent on developing composite materials and structures which are damage tolerant and economical to manufacture. Researchers at NASA LaRC and Douglas Aircraft Company are investigating stitching reinforcement combined with resin transfer molding (RTM) to create structures meeting the ACT program goals. The Douglas work is being performed under a NASA contract entitled Innovative Composites Aircraft Primary Structures (ICAPS). The research is aimed at materials, processes and structural concepts for application in both transport wings and fuselages. Empirical guidelines are being established for stitching reinforcement in primary structures. New data are presented in this paper for evaluation tests of thick (90-ply) and thin (16-ply) stitched laminates, and from selection tests of RTM composite resins. Tension strength, compression strength and post-impact compression strength data are reported. Elements of a NASA LaRC program to expand the science base for stitched/RTM composites are discussed.

  13. Design development of graphite primary structures enables SSTO success

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biagiotti, V. A.; Yahiro, J. S.; Suh, Daniel E.; Hodges, Eric R.; Prior, Donald J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a graphite composite wing and a graphite composite intertank primary structure for application toward Single-Stage to Orbit space vehicles such as those under development in NASA's X-33/Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) Program. The trade study and designs are based on a Rockwell vertical take-off and horizontal landing (VTHL) wing-body RLV vehicle. Northrop Grumman's approach using a building block development technique is described. Composite Graphite/Bismaleimide (Gr/BMI) material characterization test results are presented. Unique intertank and wing composite subcomponent test article designs are described and test results to date are presented. Wing and intertank Full Scale Section Test Article (FSTA) objectives and designs are outlined. Trade studies, supporting building block testing, and FSTA demonstrations combine to develop graphite primary structure composite technology that enables developing X-33/RLV design programs to meet critical SSTO structural weight and operations performance criteria.

  14. Design and analysis of support system of LAMOST primary mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Xuefei; Cui, Xiangqun; Chen, Haiyuan; Ye, Xizhang; Zhang, Ru

    2003-02-01

    LAMOST (The Large Sky Area Multi-object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope) is a reflecting Schmidt telescope. There are two large segmented mirrors in LAMOST: One is the Schmidt plate MA, and the other is the spherical primary mirror MB. The dimension of MB is about 6.7m×6m and it is face down in 25°. MB is composed of 37 hexagonal sub-mirrors. During the observation, one should maintain the correct mirror figure for each sub-mirror and co-focus for all 37 sub-mirrors to obtain the good image, even it is an unconventional designed telescope without tracking movement on the primary mirror. This paper presents the design and the finite element analysis for the whole primary mirror support system, which includes the optimization of the mirror support points distribution, the design and the testing of the prototype of MB sub-cell, the structure analysis and the design of the mirror support truss.

  15. Analysis of Geological Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Neville J.; Cosgrove, John W.

    1990-08-01

    A knowledge of structural geology is fundamental to understanding the processes by which the earth's crust has evolved. It is a subject of fundamental importance to students of geology, experienced field geologists and academic researchers as well as to petroleum and mining engineers. In contrast to many structural textbooks which dwell upon geometrical descriptions of geological structures, this book emphasises mechanical principles and the way in which they can be used to understand how and why a wide range of geological structures develop. Structures on all scales are considered but the emphasis of the book is on those that can be seen on the scale of hand specimen or outcrop. Drawing on their considerable teaching experience the authors present a coherent and lucid analysis of geological structures which will be welcomed by a wide variety of earth scientists.

  16. Probabilistic Structural Analysis Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pai, Shantaram S.; Chamis, Christos C.; Murthy, Pappu L. N.; Stefko, George L.; Riha, David S.; Thacker, Ben H.; Nagpal, Vinod K.; Mital, Subodh K.

    2010-01-01

    NASA/NESSUS 6.2c is a general-purpose, probabilistic analysis program that computes probability of failure and probabilistic sensitivity measures of engineered systems. Because NASA/NESSUS uses highly computationally efficient and accurate analysis techniques, probabilistic solutions can be obtained even for extremely large and complex models. Once the probabilistic response is quantified, the results can be used to support risk-informed decisions regarding reliability for safety-critical and one-of-a-kind systems, as well as for maintaining a level of quality while reducing manufacturing costs for larger-quantity products. NASA/NESSUS has been successfully applied to a diverse range of problems in aerospace, gas turbine engines, biomechanics, pipelines, defense, weaponry, and infrastructure. This program combines state-of-the-art probabilistic algorithms with general-purpose structural analysis and lifting methods to compute the probabilistic response and reliability of engineered structures. Uncertainties in load, material properties, geometry, boundary conditions, and initial conditions can be simulated. The structural analysis methods include non-linear finite-element methods, heat-transfer analysis, polymer/ceramic matrix composite analysis, monolithic (conventional metallic) materials life-prediction methodologies, boundary element methods, and user-written subroutines. Several probabilistic algorithms are available such as the advanced mean value method and the adaptive importance sampling method. NASA/NESSUS 6.2c is structured in a modular format with 15 elements.

  17. Structural analysis of ultra-high speed aircraft structural components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lenzen, K. H.; Siegel, W. H.

    1977-01-01

    The buckling characteristics of a hypersonic beaded skin panel were investigated under pure compression with boundary conditions similar to those found in a wing mounted condition. The primary phases of analysis reported include: (1) experimental testing of the panel to failure; (2) finite element structural analysis of the beaded panel with the computer program NASTRAN; and (3) summary of the semiclassical buckling equations for the beaded panel under purely compressive loads. A comparison of each of the analysis methods is also included.

  18. Design of primary mirror supporting structure and lightweight of space camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Chuanmin; Xu, Tiqing; Liu, Shufeng; Yang, Bo; Liu, Yinnian

    2012-10-01

    In order to satisfy the strict requirements of the surface-shapes and lightweight ratios for space mirrors, the following factors for primary mirror and its support are summarized, shape decision, material selection, lightweight methods, support pattern, weight-loss function and thermal stability, according to the special requirement about primary mirror in modern space camera. The design method of lightweight structure and the flexible supporting structure of the primary mirror is proposed. In order to ensure its optical performance, flexible support structure was introduced to improve stress distribution in a variety of conditions. The finite element models for some kinds of lightweight mirror are built for analyzing the influence of the mirror weight on its surface. It satisfy that [PV]≤λ/10, [RMS] ≤λ/40, (λ=632.8nm) with different gravity orientation. The primary mirror structure of the dynamic stiffness was checked by modal analysis of the primary mirror. Finally, according to the experiments, It is proved that the weight, stiffness and surface accuracy of the primary mirror can meet the engineering requirement, and the mirror supporting structure and lightweight is reasonable.

  19. Novel cost controlled materials and processing for primary structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dastin, S. J.

    1993-01-01

    Textile laminates, developed a number of years ago, have recently been shown to be applicable to primary aircraft structures for both small and large components. Such structures have the potential to reduce acquisition costs but require advanced automated processing to keep costs controlled while verifying product reliability and assuring structural integrity, durability and affordable life-cycle costs. Recently, resin systems and graphite-reinforced woven shapes have been developed that have the potential for improved RTM processes for aircraft structures. Ciba-Geigy, Brochier Division has registered an RTM prepreg reinforcement called 'Injectex' that has shown effectivity for aircraft components. Other novel approaches discussed are thermotropic resins producing components by injection molding and ceramic polymers for long-duration hot structures. The potential of such materials and processing will be reviewed along with initial information/data available to date.

  20. Support for Contextual Control in Primary Care: A Qualitative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Weir, Charlene; Drews, Frank A; Butler, Jorie; Barrus, Robyn J; Jones, Mokoto L.; Nebeker, Jonathan R

    2013-01-01

    Providing support for high-level cognitive performance is largely missing in many decision support designs. Most development in this area is structured to minimize attention, decrease the need for deeper processing and limit intense goal-directed cognitive processing. However, from a dual process perspective, both automatic and deliberative processes need to be supported. The purpose of this qualitative analysis is to explore complex cognitive processing. We used the Contextual Control Model to guide the analysis. Transcripts from 33 taped primary care visits across 4 locations in the VA were analyzed using iterative process of construct and thematic development. Five themes related to high-level cognitive processes were identified: 1) Joint Exchange and Patient Activation; 2) Planning and Proactive Problem Solving; 3) Script and heuristic processing; 4) Time perspectives and 5) Uncertainty management. Results are discussed in terms of the need to support integrated views for complex situation mental models. PMID:24551420

  1. [Structural sensitivity analysis].

    PubMed

    Carrera-Hueso, F J; Ramón-Barrios, A

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to perform a structural sensitivity analysis of a decision model and to identify its advantages and limitations. A previously published model of dinoprostone was modified, taking two scenarios into account: eliminating postpartum hemorrhages and including both hemorrhages and uterine hyperstimulation among the adverse effects. The result of the structural sensitivity analysis shows the robustness of the underlying model and confirmed the initial results: the intrauterine device is more cost-effective than intracervical dinoprostone gel. Structural sensitivity analyses should be congruent with the situation studied and clinically validated. Although uncertainty may be only slightly reduced, these analyses provide information and add greater validity and reliability to the model.

  2. Structural analysis of glucans

    PubMed Central

    Novak, Miroslav

    2014-01-01

    Glucans are most widespread polysaccharides in the nature. There is a large diversity in their molecular weight and configuration depending on the original source. According to the anomeric structure of glucose units it is possible to distinguish linear and branched α-, β- as well as mixed α,β-glucans with various glycoside bond positions and molecular masses. Isolation of glucans from raw sources needs removal of ballast compounds including proteins, lipids, polyphenols and other polysaccharides. Purity control of glucan fractions is necessary to evaluate the isolation and purification steps; more rigorous structural analyses of purified polysaccharides are required to clarify their structure. A set of spectroscopic, chemical and separation methods are used for this purpose. Among them, NMR spectroscopy is known as a powerful tool in structural analysis of glucans both in solution and in solid state. Along with chemolytic methods [methylation analysis (MA), periodate oxidation, partial chemical or enzymatic hydrolysis, etc.], correlation NMR experiments are able to determine the exact structure of tested polysaccharides. Vibration spectroscopic methods (FTIR, Raman) are sensitive to anomeric structure of glucans and can be used for purity control as well. Molecular weight distribution, homogeneity and branching of glucans can be estimated by size-exclusion chromatography (SEC), laser light scattering (LLS) and viscometry. PMID:25332993

  3. COI Structural Analysis Presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cline, Todd; Stahl, H. Philip (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This report discusses the structural analysis of the Next Generation Space Telescope Mirror System Demonstrator (NMSD) developed by Composite Optics Incorporated (COI) in support of the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) project. The mirror was submitted to Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) for cryogenic testing and evaluation. Once at MSFC, the mirror was lowered to approximately 40 K and the optical surface distortions were measured. Alongside this experiment, an analytical model was developed and used to compare to the test results. A NASTRAN finite element model was provided by COI and a thermal model was developed from it. Using the thermal model, steady state nodal temperatures were calculated based on the predicted environment of the large cryogenic test chamber at MSFC. This temperature distribution was applied in the structural analysis to solve for the deflections of the optical surface. Finally, these deflections were submitted for optical analysis and comparison to the interferometer test data.

  4. Primary structure of the human M2 mitochondrial autoantigen of primary biliary cirrhosis: Dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase

    SciTech Connect

    Coppel, R.L.; McNeilage, L.J.; Surh, C.D.; Van De Water, J.; Spithill, T.W.; Whittingham, S.; Gershwin, M.E. )

    1988-10-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis is a chronic, destructive autoimmune liver disease of humans. Patient sera are characterized by a high frequency of autoantibodies to a M{sub r} 70,000 mitochondrial antigen a component of the M2 antigen complex. The authors have identified a human cDNA clone encoding the complete amino acid sequence of this autoantigen. The predicted structure has significant similarity with the dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase of the Escherichia coli pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex. The human sequence preserves the Glu-Thr-Asp-Lys-Ala motif of the lipoyl-binding site and has two potential binding sites. Expressed fragments of the cDNA react strongly with sera from patients with primary biliary cirrhosis but not with sera from patients with autoimmune chronic active hepatitis or sera from healthy subjects.

  5. Design oriented structural analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giles, Gary L.

    1994-01-01

    Desirable characteristics and benefits of design oriented analysis methods are described and illustrated by presenting a synoptic description of the development and uses of the Equivalent Laminated Plate Solution (ELAPS) computer code. ELAPS is a design oriented structural analysis method which is intended for use in the early design of aircraft wing structures. Model preparation is minimized by using a few large plate segments to model the wing box structure. Computational efficiency is achieved by using a limited number of global displacement functions that encompass all segments over the wing planform. Coupling with other codes is facilitated since the output quantities such as deflections and stresses are calculated as continuous functions over the plate segments. Various aspects of the ELAPS development are discussed including the analytical formulation, verification of results by comparison with finite element analysis results, coupling with other codes, and calculation of sensitivity derivatives. The effectiveness of ELAPS for multidisciplinary design application is illustrated by describing its use in design studies of high speed civil transport wing structures.

  6. Structural dynamics analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Housner, J. M.; Anderson, M.; Belvin, W.; Horner, G.

    1985-01-01

    Dynamic analysis of large space antenna systems must treat the deployment as well as vibration and control of the deployed antenna. Candidate computer programs for deployment dynamics, and issues and needs for future program developments are reviewed. Some results for mast and hoop deployment are also presented. Modeling of complex antenna geometry with conventional finite element methods and with repetitive exact elements is considered. Analytical comparisons with experimental results for a 15 meter hoop/column antenna revealed the importance of accurate structural properties including nonlinear joints. Slackening of cables in this antenna is also a consideration. The technology of designing actively damped structures through analytical optimization is discussed and results are presented.

  7. Computational engine structural analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Johns, R. H.

    1986-01-01

    A significant research activity at the NASA Lewis Research Center is the computational simulation of complex multidisciplinary engine structural problems. This simulation is performed using computational engine structural analysis (CESA) which consists of integrated multidisciplinary computer codes in conjunction with computer post-processing for problem-specific application. A variety of the computational simulations of specific cases are described in some detail in this paper. These case studies include: (1) aeroelastic behavior of bladed rotors, (2) high velocity impact of fan blades, (3) blade-loss transient response, (4) rotor/stator/squeeze-film/bearing interaction, (5) blade-fragment/rotor-burst containment, and (6) structural behavior of advanced swept turboprops. These representative case studies are selected to demonstrate the breath of the problems analyzed and the role of the computer including post-processing and graphical display of voluminous output data.

  8. Design development of graphite primary structures enables SSTO success

    SciTech Connect

    Biagiotti, V.A.; Yahiro, J.S.; Suh, D.E.; Hodges, E.R.; Prior, D.J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a graphite composite wing and a graphite composite intertank primary structure for application toward Single-Stage to Orbit space vehicles such as those under development in NASA{close_quote}s X-33/Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) Program. The trade study and designs are based on a Rockwell vertical take-off and horizontal landing (VTHL) wing-body RLV vehicle. Northrop Grumman{close_quote}s approach using a building block development technique is described. Composite Graphite/Bismaleimide (Gr/BMI) material characterization test results are presented. Unique intertank and wing composite subcomponent test article designs are described and test results to date are presented. Wing and intertank Full Scale Section Test Article (FSTA) objectives and designs are outlined. Trade studies, supporting building block testing, and FSTA demonstrations combine to develop graphite primary structure composite technology that enables developing X-33/RLV design programs to meet critical SSTO structural weight and operations performance criteria. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  9. Structured Data in Structural Analysis Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kunz, Donald L.; Hopkins, Stewart

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of computer data structures in finite-element structural analysis programs. A number of data structure types that have been shown to be useful in such programs are introduced and described. A simple finite-element model is used to demonstrate how the given set of data structure types naturally lend themselves to developing software for the model. Different methods of implementing data structures in the context of a program are discussed.

  10. Structural Analysis Made 'NESSUSary'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Everywhere you look, chances are something that was designed and tested by a computer will be in plain view. Computers are now utilized to design and test just about everything imaginable, from automobiles and airplanes to bridges and boats, and elevators and escalators to streets and skyscrapers. Computer-design engineering first emerged in the 1970s, in the automobile and aerospace industries. Since computers were in their infancy, however, architects and engineers during the time were limited to producing only designs similar to hand-drafted drawings. (At the end of 1970s, a typical computer-aided design system was a 16-bit minicomputer with a price tag of $125,000.) Eventually, computers became more affordable and related software became more sophisticated, offering designers the "bells and whistles" to go beyond the limits of basic drafting and rendering, and venture into more skillful applications. One of the major advancements was the ability to test the objects being designed for the probability of failure. This advancement was especially important for the aerospace industry, where complicated and expensive structures are designed. The ability to perform reliability and risk assessment without using extensive hardware testing is critical to design and certification. In 1984, NASA initiated the Probabilistic Structural Analysis Methods (PSAM) project at Glenn Research Center to develop analysis methods and computer programs for the probabilistic structural analysis of select engine components for current Space Shuttle and future space propulsion systems. NASA envisioned that these methods and computational tools would play a critical role in establishing increased system performance and durability, and assist in structural system qualification and certification. Not only was the PSAM project beneficial to aerospace, it paved the way for a commercial risk- probability tool that is evaluating risks in diverse, down- to-Earth application

  11. Development of stitched/RTM primary structures for transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawley, Arthur V.

    1993-01-01

    This report covers work accomplished in the Innovative Composite Aircraft Primary Structure (ICAPS) program. An account is given of the design criteria and philosophy that guides the development. Wing and fuselage components used as a baseline for development are described. The major thrust of the program is to achieve a major cost breakthrough through development of stitched dry preforms and resin transfer molding (RTM), and progress on these processes is reported. A full description is provided on the fabrication of the stitched RTM wing panels. Test data are presented.

  12. Purification and primary structure determination of human lysosomal dipeptidase.

    PubMed

    Dolenc, Iztok; Mihelic, Marko

    2003-02-01

    The lysosomal metallopeptidase is an enzyme that acts preferentially on dipeptides with unsubstituted N- and C-termini. Its activity is highest in slightly acidic pH. Here we describe the isolation and characterization of lysosomal dipeptidase from human kidney. The isolated enzyme has the amino-terminal sequence DVAKAIINLAVY and is a homodimer with a molecular mass of 100 kDa. So far no amino acid sequence has been determined for this metallopeptidase. The complete primary structure as deduced from the nucleotide sequence revealed that the isolated dipeptidase is similar to blood plasma glutamate carboxypeptidase.

  13. Design and analysis of large spaceborne light-weighted primary mirror and its support system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yong; Jin, Guang; Yang, Hong-bo

    2007-12-01

    With the development of the resolution of spaceborne remote sensor, the diameter of the primary mirror of spaceborne telescope becomes larger and larger. The distortion of primary mirror which is influenced by the mirror material, structure, self-weight, support system and temperature environment affects optical image quality finally. In this paper, an on-axis TMA high-resolution Cassegrain optical payload with a primary mirror whose diameter is φ 650mm was designed and the effects of the influence factors of the distortion acts on the on-axis TMA optical system primary mirror had been analyzed by means of Finite Element Analysis. During work, the technology of the primary mirror design had been summarized and general consideration of the primary mirror design technology also had been described at the same time. Considering the telescope manufacture and work station, a reasonable and optimal structure of the primary mirror sub-assembly is taken finally. In the end, the distortion of the primary mirror during its fabrication station and work station had been analyzed by integrated Finite Element Analysis Method. The results implicated the synthesis profile error (P-V value) for the primary mirror is less than λ/10 and all the indexes of the primary mirror satisfy the requirements of the optical system.

  14. Structural Arrangement Trade Study. Volume 1: Reusable Hydrogen Composite Tank System (RHCTS) and Graphite Composite Primary Structures (GCPS). Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This volume is the first of a three volume set that discusses the structural arrangement trade study plan that will identify the most suitable configuration for an SSTO winged vehicle capable of delivering 25,000 lbs to a 220 nm circular orbit at 51.6 deg inclination. The Reusable Hydrogen Composite Tank System (RHCTS), and Graphite Composite Primary Structures most suitable for intertank, wing and thrust structures are identified. This executive summary presents the trade study process, the selection process, requirements used, analysis performed and data generated. Conclusions and recommendations are also presented.

  15. Structural analysis consultation using artificial intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melosh, R. J.; Marcal, P. V.; Berke, L.

    1978-01-01

    The primary goal of consultation is definition of the best strategy to deal with a structural engineering analysis objective. The knowledge base to meet the need is designed to identify the type of numerical analysis, the needed modeling detail, and specific analysis data required. Decisions are constructed on the basis of the data in the knowledge base - material behavior, relations between geometry and structural behavior, measures of the importance of time and temperature changes - and user supplied specifics characteristics of the spectrum of analysis types, the relation between accuracy and model detail on the structure, its mechanical loadings, and its temperature states. Existing software demonstrated the feasibility of the approach, encompassing the 36 analysis classes spanning nonlinear, temperature affected, incremental analyses which track the behavior of structural systems.

  16. Genomics and proteomics analysis of cultured primary rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Beigel, Juergen; Fella, Kerstin; Kramer, Peter-Juergen; Kroeger, Michaela; Hewitt, Philip

    2008-02-01

    The use of animal models in pharmaceutical research is a costly and sometimes misleading method of generating toxicity data and hence predicting human safety. Therefore, in vitro test systems, such as primary rat hepatocytes, and the developing genomics and proteomics technologies, are playing an increasingly important role in toxicological research. Gene and protein expression analysis were investigated in a time series (up to 5 days) of primary rat hepatocytes cultured on collagen coated dishes. Especially after 24h, a significant down-regulation of many important Phase I and Phase II enzymes (e.g., cytochrome P450's, glutathione-S-transferases, sulfotransferases) involved in xenobiotic metabolism, and antioxidative enzymes (e.g., catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase) was observed. Acute-phase-response enzymes were frequently up-regulated (e.g., LPS binding protein, alpha-2-macro-globulin, ferritin, serine proteinase inhibitor B, haptoglobin), which is likely to be a result of cellular stress caused by the cell isolation procedure (perfusion) itself. A parallel observation was the increased expression of several structural genes (e.g., beta-actin, alpha-tubulin, vimentin), possibly caused by other proliferating cell types in the culture, such as fibroblasts or alternatively by hepatocyte dedifferentiation. In conclusion, the careful interpretation of data derived from this in vitro system indicates that primary hepatocytes can be successfully used for short-term toxicity studies up to 24h. However, culturing conditions need to be further optimized to reduce the massive changes of gene and protein expression of long-term cultured hepatocytes to allow practical applications as a long-term toxicity test system.

  17. A morphometric analysis of cellular differentiation in caps of primary and lateral roots of Helianthus annuus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R.

    1985-01-01

    In order to determine if patterns of cell differentiation are similar in primary and lateral roots, I performed a morphometric analysis of the ultrastructure of calyptrogen, columella, and peripheral cells in primary and lateral roots of Helianthus annuus. Each cell type is characterized by a unique ultrastructure, and the ultrastructural changes characteristic of cellular differentiation in root caps are organelle specific. No major structural differences exist in the structures of the composite cell types, or in patterns of cell differentiation in caps of primary vs. lateral roots.

  18. Structural Analysis of Biodiversity

    PubMed Central

    Sirovich, Lawrence; Stoeckle, Mark Y.; Zhang, Yu

    2010-01-01

    Large, recently-available genomic databases cover a wide range of life forms, suggesting opportunity for insights into genetic structure of biodiversity. In this study we refine our recently-described technique using indicator vectors to analyze and visualize nucleotide sequences. The indicator vector approach generates correlation matrices, dubbed Klee diagrams, which represent a novel way of assembling and viewing large genomic datasets. To explore its potential utility, here we apply the improved algorithm to a collection of almost 17000 DNA barcode sequences covering 12 widely-separated animal taxa, demonstrating that indicator vectors for classification gave correct assignment in all 11000 test cases. Indicator vector analysis revealed discontinuities corresponding to species- and higher-level taxonomic divisions, suggesting an efficient approach to classification of organisms from poorly-studied groups. As compared to standard distance metrics, indicator vectors preserve diagnostic character probabilities, enable automated classification of test sequences, and generate high-information density single-page displays. These results support application of indicator vectors for comparative analysis of large nucleotide data sets and raise prospect of gaining insight into broad-scale patterns in the genetic structure of biodiversity. PMID:20195371

  19. Structural and Contextual Dimensions of Iranian Primary Health Care System at Local Level

    PubMed Central

    Zanganeh Baygi, Mehdi; Seyedin, Hesam; Salehi, Masoud; Jafari Sirizi, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Background: In recent years, family physician plan was established as the main strategy of health system in Iran, while organizational structure of the primary health care system has remained the same as thirty years ago. Objectives: This study was performed to illustrate structural and contextual dimensions of organizational structure and relationship between them in Iranian primary health care system at local level. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional quantitative study was conducted from January to June 2013, during which 121 questionnaires were distributed among senior and junior managers of city health centers at Medical Sciences universities in Iran. Validity of the questionnaire was confirmed by experts (CVI = 0.089 and CVR more than 0.85) and Cronbach α was utilized for reliability (α = 0.904). We used multistage sampling method in this study and analysis of the data was performed by SPSS software using different tests. Results: Local level of primary health care system in Iran had mechanical structure, but in contextual dimensions the results showed different types. There was a significant relationship between structural and contextual dimensions (r = 0.642, P value < 0.001). Goals and culture dimensions had strongest effects on structural dimensions. Conclusions: Because of the changes in goals and strategies of Iranian health system in recent years, it is urgently recommended to reform the current structure to increase efficiency and effectiveness of the system. PMID:25763257

  20. Selection process for trade study: Graphite Composite Primary Structure (GCPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, H. S.

    1994-01-01

    This TA 2 document describes the selection process that will be used to identify the most suitable structural configuration for an SSTO winged vehicle capable of delivering 25,000 lbs to a 220 nm circular orbit at 51.6 degree inclination. The most suitable unpressurized graphite composite structures and material selections is within this configuration and will be the prototype design for subsequent design and analysis and the basis for the design and fabrication of payload bay, wing, and thrust structure full scale test articles representing segments of the prototype structures. The selection process for this TA 2 trade study is the same as that for the TA 1 trade study. As the trade study progresses additional insight may result in modifications to the selection criteria within this process. Such modifications will result in an update of this document as appropriate.

  1. Consolidation of graphite thermoplastic textile preforms for primary aircraft structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suarez, J.; Mahon, J.

    1991-01-01

    The use of innovative cost effective material forms and processes is being considered for fabrication of future primary aircraft structures. Processes that have been identified as meeting these goals are textile preforms that use resin transfer molding (RTM) and consolidation forming. The Novel Composites for Wing and Fuselage Applications (NCWFA) program has as its objective the integration of innovative design concepts with cost effective fabrication processes to develop damage-tolerant structures that can perform at a design ultimate strain level of 6000 micro-inch/inch. In this on-going effort, design trade studies were conducted to arrive at advanced wing designs that integrate new material forms with innovative structural concepts and cost effective fabrication methods. The focus has been on minimizing part count (mechanical fasteners, clips, number of stiffeners, etc.), by using cost effective textile reinforcement concepts that provide improved damage tolerance and out-of-plane load capability, low-cost resin transfer molding processing, and thermoplastic forming concepts. The fabrication of representative Y spars by consolidation methods will be described. The Y spars were fabricated using AS4 (6K)/PEEK 150g commingled angle interlock 0/90-degree woven preforms with +45-degree commingled plies stitched using high strength Toray carbon thread and processed by autoclave consolidation.

  2. Structural Modeling of the Next Generation Space Telescope's Primary Mirror

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boulet, J. A. M.

    1998-01-01

    In recent years, astronomical observations made with space telescopes have dramatically increased our understanding of the history of the universe. In particular, the cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) and the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) have yielded observations that cannot be achieved at ground-based observatories. We now have views of the universe before galaxies existed (from COBE) and views of young galaxies (from HST). But none of the existing observatories can provide views of the period in which the galaxies were born, about 100 million to one billion years after the "big bang". NASA expects the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) to fill this gap. An investigation into the structural modeling of the primary mirror of the NGST, its methodology and results are presented.

  3. Trade study plan for Graphite Composite Primary Structure (GCPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, H. S.

    1994-01-01

    This TA 2 document (with support from TA 1) describes the trade study plan that will identify the most suitable structural configuration for an SSTO winged vehicle capable of delivering 25,000 lbs to a 220 nm circular orbit at 51.6 degree inclination For this most suitable configuration the structural attachment of the wing, and the most suitable GCPS composite materials for intertank, wing, tail and thrust structure are identified. This trade study analysis uses extensive information derived in the TA 1 trade study plan and is identified within the study plan. In view of this, for convenience, the TA 1 study plan is included as an appendix to this document.

  4. Seismic analysis of nuclear power plant structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Go, J. C.

    1973-01-01

    Primary structures for nuclear power plants are designed to resist expected earthquakes of the site. Two intensities are referred to as Operating Basis Earthquake and Design Basis Earthquake. These structures are required to accommodate these seismic loadings without loss of their functional integrity. Thus, no plastic yield is allowed. The application of NASTRAN in analyzing some of these seismic induced structural dynamic problems is described. NASTRAN, with some modifications, can be used to analyze most structures that are subjected to seismic loads. A brief review of the formulation of seismic-induced structural dynamics is also presented. Two typical structural problems were selected to illustrate the application of the various methods of seismic structural analysis by the NASTRAN system.

  5. Probabilistic structural analysis computer code (NESSUS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiao, Michael C.

    1988-01-01

    Probabilistic structural analysis has been developed to analyze the effects of fluctuating loads, variable material properties, and uncertain analytical models especially for high performance structures such as SSME turbopump blades. The computer code NESSUS (Numerical Evaluation of Stochastic Structure Under Stress) was developed to serve as a primary computation tool for the characterization of the probabilistic structural response due to the stochastic environments by statistical description. The code consists of three major modules NESSUS/PRE, NESSUS/FEM, and NESSUS/FPI. NESSUS/PRE is a preprocessor which decomposes the spatially correlated random variables into a set of uncorrelated random variables using a modal analysis method. NESSUS/FEM is a finite element module which provides structural sensitivities to all the random variables considered. NESSUS/FPI is Fast Probability Integration method by which a cumulative distribution function or a probability density function is calculated.

  6. Predictability of gene ontology slim-terms from primary structure information in Embryophyta plant proteins

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Proteins are the key elements on the path from genetic information to the development of life. The roles played by the different proteins are difficult to uncover experimentally as this process involves complex procedures such as genetic modifications, injection of fluorescent proteins, gene knock-out methods and others. The knowledge learned from each protein is usually annotated in databases through different methods such as the proposed by The Gene Ontology (GO) consortium. Different methods have been proposed in order to predict GO terms from primary structure information, but very few are available for large-scale functional annotation of plants, and reported success rates are much less than the reported by other non-plant predictors. This paper explores the predictability of GO annotations on proteins belonging to the Embryophyta group from a set of features extracted solely from their primary amino acid sequence. Results High predictability of several GO terms was found for Molecular Function and Cellular Component. As expected, a lower degree of predictability was found on Biological Process ontology annotations, although a few biological processes were easily predicted. Proteins related to transport and transcription were particularly well predicted from primary structure information. The most discriminant features for prediction were those related to electric charges of the amino-acid sequence and hydropathicity derived features. Conclusions An analysis of GO-slim terms predictability in plants was carried out, in order to determine single categories or groups of functions that are most related with primary structure information. For each highly predictable GO term, the responsible features of such successfulness were identified and discussed. In addition to most published studies, focused on few categories or single ontologies, results in this paper comprise a complete landscape of GO predictability from primary structure encompassing 75 GO

  7. Primary structure of chicken muscle pyruvate kinase mRNA.

    PubMed Central

    Lonberg, N; Gilbert, W

    1983-01-01

    We have determined the cDNA sequence corresponding to chicken muscle pyruvate kinase mRNA; the predicted coding region spans 529 amino acids and establishes the complete amino acid sequence for the vertebrate enzyme. We demonstrate that the level of mRNA for this enzyme is under developmental control and suggest a structural model for the protein kinase-mediated regulation of the mammalian liver isozyme. We report a method for the direct analysis of, and the preparation of cDNA probes from, mRNA which has been fractionated on methylmercury/agarose gels. Images PMID:6574503

  8. Carnivora: primary structure of the hemoglobins from ratel (Mellivora capensis).

    PubMed

    Rodewald, K; Braunitzer, G; Göltenboth, R

    1988-10-01

    The erythrocytes of adult ratel contain two hemoglobin components, with two alpha- and one beta-chains. In this paper, their complete amino acid sequences are presented. The two alpha-chains differ in one residue at position 34 (Ala----Val) only. The primary structure of the chains was determined by sequencing the N-terminal regions (45 steps) and the tryptic peptides after their isolation from the digests by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The alignment of these peptides was deduced from homology with other carnivora globins. The alpha-chains show 21 and the beta-chains 11 exchanges compared with human globin chains. In the alpha-chains, one heme- and two alpha 1/beta 1 contacts are exchanged. In the beta-chains there are three exchanges which involve one alpha 1/beta 1-, one alpha 1/beta 2- and one heme-contact. Between the ratel hemoglobin and those of carnivora a high degree of homology was found. PMID:3242544

  9. Assessment of Student Skills for Critiquing Published Primary Scientific Literature Using a Primary Trait Analysis Scale

    PubMed Central

    VARELA, MANUEL F.; LUTNESKY, MARVIN M. F.; OSGOOD, MARCY P.

    2005-01-01

    Instructor evaluation of progressive student skills in the analysis of primary literature is critical for the development of these skills in young scientists. Students in a senior or graduate-level one-semester course in Immunology at a Masters-level comprehensive university were assessed for abilities (primary traits) to recognize and evaluate the following elements of a scientific paper: Hypothesis and Rationale, Significance, Methods, Results, Critical Thinking and Analysis, and Conclusions. We tested the hypotheses that average recognition scores vary among elements and that scores change with time differently by trait. Recognition scores (scaled 1 to 5), and differences in scores were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA), regression, and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) (n = 10 papers over 103 days). By multiple comparisons testing, we found that recognition scores statistically fell into two groups: high scores (for Hypothesis and Rationale, Significance, Methods, and Conclusions) and low scores (for Results and Critical Thinking and Analysis). Recognition scores only significantly changed with time (increased) for Hypothesis and Rationale and Results. ANCOVA showed that changes in recognition scores for these elements were not significantly different in slope (F1,16 = 0.254, P = 0.621) but the Results trait was significantly lower in elevation (F1,17 = 12.456, P = 0.003). Thus, students improved with similar trajectories, but starting and ending with lower Results scores. We conclude that students have greatest difficulty evaluating Results and critically evaluating scientific validity. Our findings show extant student skills, and the significant increase in some traits shows learning. This study demonstrates that students start with variable recognition skills and that student skills may be learned at differential rates. Faculty can use these findings or the primary trait analysis scoring scale to focus on specific paper elements for which they desire

  10. Primary Trait Analysis: A Tool for Classroom-Based Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baughin, Judith A.; Brod, Evelyn F.; Page, Deborah L.

    2002-01-01

    Describes Primary Trait Analysis (PTA) as a technique for instructors interested in classroom-based assessment. Provides a history of PTA at Raymond Walters College (RWC) and explains how RWC faculty developed PTA scales to communicate learning objectives and evaluative criteria to students. Provides several specific scales as examples. (EV)

  11. ROOTing Out Meaning: More Morphemic Analysis for Primary Pupils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mountain, Lee

    2005-01-01

    In an elementary-school professional development program, a group of primary teachers and a university consultant reviewed the research on morphemic analysis and then explored ways to give pupils in grades 1, 2, and 3 an early start on using prefixes, suffixes, and roots to construct word meaning. The teachers examined some middle-grade strategies…

  12. Is It Necessary to Dry Primary Standards before Analysis?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spraggins, Jeffrey M., II; Williams, Theodore R.

    2005-01-01

    The thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) data suggests that the quantity of volatile components in primary standards is less than 1% of the initial weight and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) data shows that water present in the same chemicals is below the limit of detection of the instrumentation. This suggests that the 1-2 hour drying…

  13. Advanced composite structural concepts and material technologies for primary aircraft structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Anthony

    1991-01-01

    Structural weight savings using advanced composites have been demonstrated for many years. Most military aircraft today use these materials extensively and Europe has taken the lead in their use in commercial aircraft primary structures. A major inhibiter to the use of advanced composites in the United States is cost. Material costs are high and will remain high relative to aluminum. The key therefore lies in the significant reduction in fabrication and assembly costs. The largest cost in most structures today is assembly. As part of the NASA Advanced Composite Technology Program, Lockheed Aeronautical Systems Company has a contract to explore and develop advanced structural and manufacturing concepts using advanced composites for transport aircraft. Wing and fuselage concepts and related trade studies are discussed. These concepts are intended to lower cost and weight through the use of innovative material forms, processes, structural configurations and minimization of parts. The approach to the trade studies and the downselect to the primary wing and fuselage concepts is detailed. The expectations for the development of these concepts is reviewed.

  14. Primary structure of glucagon from an elasmobranchian fish. Torpedo marmorata.

    PubMed

    Conlon, J M; Thim, L

    1985-12-01

    Glucagon has been isolated from the pancreas of Torpedo marmorata, an elasmobranchian cartilaginous fish, and purified to homogeneity using only reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Amino acid sequence analysis indicates that the molecule differs from mammalian glucagon at position 3 (glutamic acid for glutamine), position 16 (asparagine for serine), and position 20 (lysine for glutamine). Extracts of T. marmorata intestine and brain were associated with glucagon-like immunoreactivity determined by radioimmunoassay using antisera directed against the C-terminal and N-terminal to central regions of porcine glucagon. Although elasmobranchian and teleostean fish are believed to have diverged from the main line of vertebrate evolution at about the same time, the structure of two glucagons from the teleost, Lophius americanus (anglerfish) differ from mammalian glucagon by seven and nine residues. This study supports the assertion that the structure of glucagon has been highly conserved during evolution and suggests that the considerable morphological development of the pancreas is teleosts was associated with an accelerated rate of molecular evolution. PMID:4076759

  15. African Primary Care Research: Qualitative data analysis and writing results

    PubMed Central

    Govender, Indiran; Ogunbanjo, Gboyega A.; Mash, Bob

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This article is part of a series on African primary care research and gives practical guidance on qualitative data analysis and the presentation of qualitative findings. After an overview of qualitative methods and analytical approaches, the article focuses particularly on content analysis, using the framework method as an example. The steps of familiarisation, creating a thematic index, indexing, charting, interpretation and confirmation are described. Key concepts with regard to establishing the quality and trustworthiness of data analysis are described. Finally, an approach to the presentation of qualitative findings is given. PMID:26245437

  16. Optimization analysis of primary mirror in large aperture telescope based on workbench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Zhengsen; Wang, Guomin

    2015-10-01

    With the diameter increasing for large aperture telescope primary mirror, the gravity caused by the increased of surface size will directly affect the quality of optical imaging, the adjustment of large aperture primary mirror will be frequent according to the requirement of observation. As the angle and the azimuth's transformation of primary mirror influences the surface shape accuracy immediately, the rational design of the primary mirror supporting structure is of crucial importance. Now the general method is to use ANSYS APDL programming, which is inconvenient and complex to fit for the different components, the calculation require much time and the analysis is lack of efficient. Taking the diameter of 1.12 m telescope primary mirror as the research objection, the paper combine the actual design parameters of SONG telescope, respectively using ANSYS WORKBENCH to employ the primary mirror axial and lateral support model in finite element method, the optimal solution is obtained by optimization design and the change rule of mirror surface deformation under inclined condition is studied. The optimization results according with the requirements of the primary mirror comprehensive error proves that the optimization analysis method is available and applicable.

  17. A digital microfluidic platform for primary cell culture and analysis.

    PubMed

    Srigunapalan, Suthan; Eydelnant, Irwin A; Simmons, Craig A; Wheeler, Aaron R

    2012-01-21

    Digital microfluidics (DMF) is a technology that facilitates electrostatic manipulation of discrete nano- and micro-litre droplets across an array of electrodes, which provides the advantages of single sample addressability, automation, and parallelization. There has been considerable interest in recent years in using DMF for cell culture and analysis, but previous studies have used immortalized cell lines. We report here the first digital microfluidic method for primary cell culture and analysis. A new mode of "upside-down" cell culture was implemented by patterning the top plate of a device using a fluorocarbon liftoff technique. This method was useful for culturing three different primary cell types for up to one week, as well as implementing a fixation, permeabilization, and staining procedure for F-actin and nuclei. A multistep assay for monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells (ECs) was performed to evaluate functionality in DMF-cultured primary cells and to demonstrate co-culture using a DMF platform. Monocytes were observed to adhere in significantly greater numbers to ECs exposed to tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α than those that were not, confirming that ECs cultured in this format maintain in vivo-like properties. The ability to manipulate, maintain, and assay primary cells demonstrates a useful application for DMF in studies involving precious samples of cells from small animals or human patients.

  18. Primary prevention in public health: an analysis of basic assumptions.

    PubMed

    Ratcliffe, J; Wallack, L

    1985-01-01

    The common definition of primary prevention is straightforward; but how it is transformed into a framework to guide action is based on personal and societal feelings and beliefs about the basis for social organization. This article focuses on the two contending primary prevention strategies of health promotion and health protection. The contention between the two strategies stems from a basic disagreement about disease causality in modern society. Health promotion is based on the "lifestyle" theory of disease causality, which sees individual health status linked ultimately to personal decisions about diet, stress, and drug habits. Primary prevention, from this perspective, entails persuading individuals to forgo their risk-taking, self-destructive behavior. Health protection, on the other hand, is based on the "social-structural" theory of disease causality. This theory sees the health status of populations linked ultimately to the unequal distribution of social resources, industrial pollution, occupational stress, and "anti-health promotion" marketing practices. Primary prevention, from this perspective, requires changing existing social and, particularly, economic policies and structures. In order to provide a basis for choosing between these contending strategies, the demonstrated (i.e., past) impact of each strategy on the health of the public is examined. Two conclusions are drawn. First, the health promotion strategy shows little potential for improving the public health, because it systematically ignores the risk-imposing, other-destructive behavior of influential actors (policy-makers and institutions) in society. And second, effective primary prevention efforts entail an "upstream" approach that results in far-reaching sociopolitical and economic change.

  19. Milestone 4: Thrust structure concepts and IHM screening Graphite Composite Primary Structure (GCPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, H. S.

    1994-01-01

    The first part of the task was to select up to three promising thrust structure constructions and to select materials for screening tests. Part of the nondestructive evaluation and inspection (NDE/I) and integrated health management (IHM) task is to acquire and develop NDE/I sensor technologies and to integrate those sensors into the full scale test articles which will be produced under the TA2 program. Review of the anticipated fault modes and the available sensor technology data indicates that three sensor technologies should be assessed for the in-situ monitoring of the composite primary structure elements. These are: ultrasonics (dry contact), acoustic emissions, and fiber optics (embedded or attached). In fact, a combination of sensor technologies will be needed to detect and evaluate the fault modes; not only do sensor technology have specific capabilities and applicability, but the three Gr/Ep primary structures being demonstrated under the TA2 effort have differing requirements based on their respective failure modes and designs.

  20. Coupled Aerodynamic-Thermal-Structural (CATS) Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Coupled Aerodynamic-Thermal-Structural (CATS) Analysis is a focused effort within the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) program to streamline multidisciplinary analysis of aeropropulsion components and assemblies. Multidisciplinary analysis of axial-flow compressor performance has been selected for the initial focus of this project. CATS will permit more accurate compressor system analysis by enabling users to include thermal and mechanical effects as an integral part of the aerodynamic analysis of the compressor primary flowpath. Thus, critical details, such as the variation of blade tip clearances and the deformation of the flowpath geometry, can be more accurately modeled and included in the aerodynamic analyses. The benefits of this coupled analysis capability are (1) performance and stall line predictions are improved by the inclusion of tip clearances and hot geometries, (2) design alternatives can be readily analyzed, and (3) higher fidelity analysis by researchers in various disciplines is possible. The goals for this project are a 10-percent improvement in stall margin predictions and a 2:1 speed-up in multidisciplinary analysis times. Working cooperatively with Pratt & Whitney, the Lewis CATS team defined the engineering processes and identified the software products necessary for streamlining these processes. The basic approach is to integrate the aerodynamic, thermal, and structural computational analyses by using data management and Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines (NURBS) based data mapping. Five software products have been defined for this task: (1) a primary flowpath data mapper, (2) a two-dimensional data mapper, (3) a database interface, (4) a blade structural pre- and post-processor, and (5) a computational fluid dynamics code for aerothermal analysis of the drum rotor. Thus far (1) a cooperative agreement has been established with Pratt & Whitney, (2) a Primary Flowpath Data Mapper has been prototyped and delivered to General Electric

  1. Primary Nocturnal Enuresis: A Structural and Strategic Family Systems Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Teresa B.

    2000-01-01

    Exploration of the literature regarding primary nocturnal enuresis suggests there are various causes including genetic, biological, physiological, and psychological explanations. Treatments typically consist of medication and behavioral intervention. However, it was believed that this enuretic case was caused by psychological trauma. A series of…

  2. Crack stability analysis of low alloy steel primary coolant pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, T.; Kameyama, M.; Urabe, Y.

    1997-04-01

    At present, cast duplex stainless steel has been used for the primary coolant piping of PWRs in Japan and joints of dissimilar material have been applied for welding to reactor vessels and steam generators. For the primary coolant piping of the next APWR plants, application of low alloy steel that results in designing main loops with the same material is being studied. It means that there is no need to weld low alloy steel with stainless steel and that makes it possible to reduce the welding length. Attenuation of Ultra Sonic Wave Intensity is lower for low alloy steel than for stainless steel and they have advantageous inspection characteristics. In addition to that, the thermal expansion rate is smaller for low alloy steel than for stainless steel. In consideration of the above features of low alloy steel, the overall reliability of primary coolant piping is expected to be improved. Therefore, for the evaluation of crack stability of low alloy steel piping to be applied for primary loops, elastic-plastic future mechanics analysis was performed by means of a three-dimensioned FEM. The evaluation results for the low alloy steel pipings show that cracks will not grow into unstable fractures under maximum design load conditions, even when such a circumferential crack is assumed to be 6 times the size of the wall thickness.

  3. Structural Dynamics of Education Reforms and Quality of Primary Education in Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyenje, Aida

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines Uganda's recent undertaking to reform her Primary School education System with a focus on the effect of structural dynamics of education reforms and the quality of primary education. Structural dynamics in the context of this study is in reference to the organizational composition of the education system at the government,…

  4. Regularized Generalized Structured Component Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Heungsun

    2009-01-01

    Generalized structured component analysis (GSCA) has been proposed as a component-based approach to structural equation modeling. In practice, GSCA may suffer from multi-collinearity, i.e., high correlations among exogenous variables. GSCA has yet no remedy for this problem. Thus, a regularized extension of GSCA is proposed that integrates a ridge…

  5. Students' understanding of primary and secondary protein structure: drawing secondary protein structure reveals student understanding better than simple recognition of structures.

    PubMed

    Harle, Marissa; Towns, Marcy H

    2013-01-01

    The interdisciplinary nature of biochemistry courses requires students to use both chemistry and biology knowledge to understand biochemical concepts. Research that has focused on external representations in biochemistry has uncovered student difficulties in comprehending and interpreting external representations in addition to a fragmented understanding of fundamental biochemistry concepts. This project focuses on students' understanding of primary and secondary protein structure and drawings (representations) of hydrogen-bonding in alpha helices and beta sheets. Analysis demonstrated that students can recognize and identify primary protein structure concepts when given a polypeptide. However, when asked to draw alpha helices and beta sheets and explain the role of hydrogen bonding their drawings students exhibited a fragmented understanding that lacked coherence. Faculty are encouraged to have students draw molecular level representations to make their mental models more explicit, complete, and coherent. This is in contrast to recognition and identification tasks, which do not adequately probe mental models and molecular level understanding.

  6. Advances in Computational Stability Analysis of Composite Aerospace Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Degenhardt, R.; Araujo, F. C. de

    2010-09-30

    European aircraft industry demands for reduced development and operating costs. Structural weight reduction by exploitation of structural reserves in composite aerospace structures contributes to this aim, however, it requires accurate and experimentally validated stability analysis of real structures under realistic loading conditions. This paper presents different advances from the area of computational stability analysis of composite aerospace structures which contribute to that field. For stringer stiffened panels main results of the finished EU project COCOMAT are given. It investigated the exploitation of reserves in primary fibre composite fuselage structures through an accurate and reliable simulation of postbuckling and collapse. For unstiffened cylindrical composite shells a proposal for a new design method is presented.

  7. Magnetic field structure influence on primary electron cusp losses for micro-scale discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Dankongkakul, Ben; Araki, Samuel J.; Wirz, Richard E.

    2014-04-15

    An experimental effort was used to examine the primary electron loss behavior for micro-scale (≲3 cm diameter) discharges. The experiment uses an electron flood gun source and an axially aligned arrangement of ring-cusps to guide the electrons to a downstream point cusp. Measurements of the electron current collected at the point cusp show an unexpectedly complex loss pattern with azimuthally periodic structures. Additionally, in contrast to conventional theory for cusp losses, the overall radii of the measured collection areas are over an order of magnitude larger than the electron gyroradius. Comparing these results to Monte Carlo particle tracking simulations and a simplified analytical analysis shows that azimuthal asymmetries of the magnetic field far upstream of the collection surface can substantially affect the electron loss structure and overall loss area.

  8. Factor structure of the SOCRATES in a sample of primary care patients.

    PubMed

    Maisto, S A; Conigliaro, J; McNeil, M; Kraemer, K; O'Connor, M; Kelley, M E

    1999-01-01

    Motivation or readiness to change has been studied intensively in recent years in research on the use of brief interventions to change alcohol problems in the primary care setting. The purpose of this study was to investigate the factor structure and concurrent and predictive evidence for validity of the short Stages of Change Readiness and Treatment Eagerness Scale (SOCRATES), a 19-item self-report instrument developed to measure readiness to change alcohol problems in individuals presenting for specialized alcohol treatment. The participants were 210 men and 91 women who were identified as "at-risk" drinkers in 13 community primary care clinics. These individuals completed the SOCRATES and a number of other assessments as part of a preintervention evaluation. A principal components analysis of the SOCRATES data revealed a two-factor structure: a confirmatory factor analysis showed that this structure was a better fit to the data than the three-factor structure that Miller and Tonigan (1996) identified for the SOCRATES. The two factors (9 and 6 items, respectively), seemed to measure perceived degree of severity of an existing alcohol problem (called "Amrec" because it consisted of Miller and Tonigan's ambivalence and recognition items) and taking action to change or to maintain changes in one that exists (called "Taking Steps"). Predictions of significant and nonsignificant correlations between the two derived factors and other baseline variables (alcohol consumption, related problems and symptoms, and demographic factors) generally were confirmed. In addition, baseline Amrec scores were related in predicted directions to 6-month alcohol consumption and related problems data, but the magnitude of these relationships were reduced when other variables that correlated with Amrec or when the 6-month data were taken into account. In general, Taking Steps showed little or no relationship to the 6-month data. The results are compared to previous work with the SOCRATES

  9. Comprehensive mutational analysis of primary and relapse acute promyelocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Madan, V; Shyamsunder, P; Han, L; Mayakonda, A; Nagata, Y; Sundaresan, J; Kanojia, D; Yoshida, K; Ganesan, S; Hattori, N; Fulton, N; Tan, K-T; Alpermann, T; Kuo, M-C; Rostami, S; Matthews, J; Sanada, M; Liu, L-Z; Shiraishi, Y; Miyano, S; Chendamarai, E; Hou, H-A; Malnassy, G; Ma, T; Garg, M; Ding, L-W; Sun, Q-Y; Chien, W; Ikezoe, T; Lill, M; Biondi, A; Larson, R A; Powell, B L; Lübbert, M; Chng, W J; Tien, H-F; Heuser, M; Ganser, A; Koren-Michowitz, M; Kornblau, S M; Kantarjian, H M; Nowak, D; Hofmann, W-K; Yang, H; Stock, W; Ghavamzadeh, A; Alimoghaddam, K; Haferlach, T; Ogawa, S; Shih, L-Y; Mathews, V; Koeffler, H P

    2016-08-01

    Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is a subtype of myeloid leukemia characterized by differentiation block at the promyelocyte stage. Besides the presence of chromosomal rearrangement t(15;17), leading to the formation of PML-RARA (promyelocytic leukemia-retinoic acid receptor alpha) fusion, other genetic alterations have also been implicated in APL. Here, we performed comprehensive mutational analysis of primary and relapse APL to identify somatic alterations, which cooperate with PML-RARA in the pathogenesis of APL. We explored the mutational landscape using whole-exome (n=12) and subsequent targeted sequencing of 398 genes in 153 primary and 69 relapse APL. Both primary and relapse APL harbored an average of eight non-silent somatic mutations per exome. We observed recurrent alterations of FLT3, WT1, NRAS and KRAS in the newly diagnosed APL, whereas mutations in other genes commonly mutated in myeloid leukemia were rarely detected. The molecular signature of APL relapse was characterized by emergence of frequent mutations in PML and RARA genes. Our sequencing data also demonstrates incidence of loss-of-function mutations in previously unidentified genes, ARID1B and ARID1A, both of which encode for key components of the SWI/SNF complex. We show that knockdown of ARID1B in APL cell line, NB4, results in large-scale activation of gene expression and reduced in vitro differentiation potential. PMID:27063598

  10. Comprehensive mutational analysis of primary and relapse acute promyelocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Madan, V; Shyamsunder, P; Han, L; Mayakonda, A; Nagata, Y; Sundaresan, J; Kanojia, D; Yoshida, K; Ganesan, S; Hattori, N; Fulton, N; Tan, K-T; Alpermann, T; Kuo, M-C; Rostami, S; Matthews, J; Sanada, M; Liu, L-Z; Shiraishi, Y; Miyano, S; Chendamarai, E; Hou, H-A; Malnassy, G; Ma, T; Garg, M; Ding, L-W; Sun, Q-Y; Chien, W; Ikezoe, T; Lill, M; Biondi, A; Larson, R A; Powell, B L; Lübbert, M; Chng, W J; Tien, H-F; Heuser, M; Ganser, A; Koren-Michowitz, M; Kornblau, S M; Kantarjian, H M; Nowak, D; Hofmann, W-K; Yang, H; Stock, W; Ghavamzadeh, A; Alimoghaddam, K; Haferlach, T; Ogawa, S; Shih, L-Y; Mathews, V; Koeffler, H P

    2016-01-01

    Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is a subtype of myeloid leukemia characterized by differentiation block at the promyelocyte stage. Besides the presence of chromosomal rearrangement t(15;17), leading to the formation of PML-RARA (promyelocytic leukemia-retinoic acid receptor alpha) fusion, other genetic alterations have also been implicated in APL. Here, we performed comprehensive mutational analysis of primary and relapse APL to identify somatic alterations, which cooperate with PML-RARA in the pathogenesis of APL. We explored the mutational landscape using whole-exome (n=12) and subsequent targeted sequencing of 398 genes in 153 primary and 69 relapse APL. Both primary and relapse APL harbored an average of eight non-silent somatic mutations per exome. We observed recurrent alterations of FLT3, WT1, NRAS and KRAS in the newly diagnosed APL, whereas mutations in other genes commonly mutated in myeloid leukemia were rarely detected. The molecular signature of APL relapse was characterized by emergence of frequent mutations in PML and RARA genes. Our sequencing data also demonstrates incidence of loss-of-function mutations in previously unidentified genes, ARID1B and ARID1A, both of which encode for key components of the SWI/SNF complex. We show that knockdown of ARID1B in APL cell line, NB4, results in large-scale activation of gene expression and reduced in vitro differentiation potential. PMID:27063598

  11. Functional and Structural Changes in a Canine Model of Hereditary Primary Angle-Closure Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Kecova, Helga; Harper, Matthew M.; Nilaweera, Wijitha; Kuehn, Markus H.; Kardon, Randy H.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. To characterize functional and structural changes in a canine model of hereditary primary angle-closure glaucoma. Methods. Intraocular pressure (IOP) was evaluated with tonometry in a colony of glaucomatous dogs at 8, 15, 18, 20, and 30 months of age. Retinal function was evaluated using electroretinography (scotopic, photopic, and pattern). Examination of anterior segment structures was performed using gonioscopy and high-frequency ultrasonography (HFU). Results. A gradual rise in IOP was observed with an increase in age: 8 months, 14 mm Hg (median value); 15 months, 15.5 mm Hg; 18 months, 17.5 mm Hg; 20 months, 24 mm Hg; 30 months, 36 mm Hg. Provocative testing with mydriatic agents (tropicamide and atropine 1%) caused significant increases in IOP (35% and 50%, respectively). HFU analysis showed complete collapse of iridocorneal angles by 20 months of age. Scotopic and photopic ERG analysis did not reveal significant deficits, but pattern ERG analysis showed significantly reduced amplitudes in glaucomatous dogs (glaucoma, 3.5 ± 0.4 μV; control, 6.2 ± 0.3 μV; P = 0.004; Student's t-test). Histologic analysis revealed collapse of the iridocorneal angle, posterior bowing of the lamina cribrosa, swelling and loss of large retinal ganglion cells, increased glial reactivity, and increased thickening of the lamina cribrosa. Conclusions. Canine hereditary angle-closure glaucoma is characterized by a progressive increase in intraocular pressure, loss of optic nerve function, and retinal ganglion cell loss. PMID:19661222

  12. CODSTRAN: Composite durability structural analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Smith, G. T.

    1978-01-01

    CODSTRAN (COmposite Durability STRuctural ANalysis) is an integrated computer program being developed for the prediction of defect growth and fracture of composite structures subjected to service loads and environments. CODSTRAN is briefly described with respect to organization, capabilities and present status. Application of CODSTRAN current capability to a flat composite laminate with a center slit which was subjected to axial tension loading predicted defect growth which is in good agreement with C-scan ultrasonic test records.

  13. Anaerobic digestion of chemically enhanced primary treatment (CEPT) sludge and the microbial community structure.

    PubMed

    Ju, Feng; Wang, Yubo; Lau, Frankie T K; Fung, W C; Huang, Danping; Xia, Yu; Zhang, Tong

    2016-10-01

    The effectiveness and treatment conditions of FeCl3- and AlCl3-coagulated municipal sewage sludge from chemically enhanced primary treatment (CEPT) using anaerobic digestion (AD) and the structure of microbial community were investigated. The results based on 297 measurements under different operational conditions demonstrate good average AD performance of CEPT sludge, that is, percent volatile solid reduction of 58 %, specific biogas production (or biogas yield) of 0.92 m(3)/kg volatile solids (VS) destroyed, and methane content of 65.4 %. FeCl3 dosing, organic loading rate, temperature, and hydraulic retention time all significantly affected AD performance. FeCl3 dosing greatly improved specific methane production (methane yield) by 38-54 % and significantly reduced hydrogen sulfide (H2S) content in biogas (from up to 13,250 to <200 ppm), contributing to higher methane recovery and simplified biogas cleaning for power generation. Metagenomic analysis suggested that anaerobic digesters of both CEPT sludge and combined primary and secondary sludge were dominated by Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Thermotogae, and Chloroflexi. However, Methanomicrobia methanogens were better enriched in the anaerobic digesters of CEPT sludge than in the combined sludge. Further, different sources of CEPT sludge with various chemical properties nurtured shared and unique microbial community composition. Combined, this study supports AD as an efficient technology for CEPT sludge treatment and poses first insights into the microbial community structure. PMID:27464827

  14. Atrophy and structural covariance of the cholinergic basal forebrain in primary progressive aphasia.

    PubMed

    Teipel, Stefan; Raiser, Theresa; Riedl, Lina; Riederer, Isabelle; Schroeter, Matthias L; Bisenius, Sandrine; Schneider, Anja; Kornhuber, Johannes; Fliessbach, Klaus; Spottke, Annika; Grothe, Michel J; Prudlo, Johannes; Kassubek, Jan; Ludolph, Albert; Landwehrmeyer, Bernhard; Straub, Sarah; Otto, Markus; Danek, Adrian

    2016-10-01

    Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is characterized by profound destruction of cortical language areas. Anatomical studies suggest an involvement of cholinergic basal forebrain (BF) in PPA syndromes, particularly in the area of the nucleus subputaminalis (NSP). Here we aimed to determine the pattern of atrophy and structural covariance as a proxy of structural connectivity of BF nuclei in PPA variants. We studied 62 prospectively recruited cases with the clinical diagnosis of PPA and 31 healthy older control participants from the cohort study of the German consortium for frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). We determined cortical and BF atrophy based on high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. Patterns of structural covariance of BF with cortical regions were determined using voxel-based partial least square analysis. We found significant atrophy of total BF and BF subregions in PPA patients compared with controls [F(1, 82) = 20.2, p < .001]. Atrophy was most pronounced in the NSP and the posterior BF, and most severe in the semantic variant and the nonfluent variant of PPA. Structural covariance analysis in healthy controls revealed associations of the BF nuclei, particularly the NSP, with left hemispheric predominant prefrontal, lateral temporal, and parietal cortical areas, including Broca's speech area (p < .001, permutation test). In contrast, the PPA patients showed preserved structural covariance of the BF nuclei mostly with right but not with left hemispheric cortical areas (p < .001, permutation test). Our findings agree with the neuroanatomically proposed involvement of the cholinergic BF, particularly the NSP, in PPA syndromes. We found a shift from a structural covariance of the BF with left hemispheric cortical areas in healthy aging towards right hemispheric cortical areas in PPA, possibly reflecting a consequence of the profound and early destruction of cortical language areas in PPA.

  15. Atrophy and structural covariance of the cholinergic basal forebrain in primary progressive aphasia.

    PubMed

    Teipel, Stefan; Raiser, Theresa; Riedl, Lina; Riederer, Isabelle; Schroeter, Matthias L; Bisenius, Sandrine; Schneider, Anja; Kornhuber, Johannes; Fliessbach, Klaus; Spottke, Annika; Grothe, Michel J; Prudlo, Johannes; Kassubek, Jan; Ludolph, Albert; Landwehrmeyer, Bernhard; Straub, Sarah; Otto, Markus; Danek, Adrian

    2016-10-01

    Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is characterized by profound destruction of cortical language areas. Anatomical studies suggest an involvement of cholinergic basal forebrain (BF) in PPA syndromes, particularly in the area of the nucleus subputaminalis (NSP). Here we aimed to determine the pattern of atrophy and structural covariance as a proxy of structural connectivity of BF nuclei in PPA variants. We studied 62 prospectively recruited cases with the clinical diagnosis of PPA and 31 healthy older control participants from the cohort study of the German consortium for frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). We determined cortical and BF atrophy based on high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. Patterns of structural covariance of BF with cortical regions were determined using voxel-based partial least square analysis. We found significant atrophy of total BF and BF subregions in PPA patients compared with controls [F(1, 82) = 20.2, p < .001]. Atrophy was most pronounced in the NSP and the posterior BF, and most severe in the semantic variant and the nonfluent variant of PPA. Structural covariance analysis in healthy controls revealed associations of the BF nuclei, particularly the NSP, with left hemispheric predominant prefrontal, lateral temporal, and parietal cortical areas, including Broca's speech area (p < .001, permutation test). In contrast, the PPA patients showed preserved structural covariance of the BF nuclei mostly with right but not with left hemispheric cortical areas (p < .001, permutation test). Our findings agree with the neuroanatomically proposed involvement of the cholinergic BF, particularly the NSP, in PPA syndromes. We found a shift from a structural covariance of the BF with left hemispheric cortical areas in healthy aging towards right hemispheric cortical areas in PPA, possibly reflecting a consequence of the profound and early destruction of cortical language areas in PPA. PMID:27509365

  16. Structural analysis of aligned RNAs.

    PubMed

    Voss, Björn

    2006-01-01

    The knowledge about classes of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) is growing very fast and it is mainly the structure which is the common characteristic property shared by members of the same class. For correct characterization of such classes it is therefore of great importance to analyse the structural features in great detail. In this manuscript I present RNAlishapes which combines various secondary structure analysis methods, such as suboptimal folding and shape abstraction, with a comparative approach known as RNA alignment folding. RNAlishapes makes use of an extended thermodynamic model and covariance scoring, which allows to reward covariation of paired bases. Applying the algorithm to a set of bacterial trp-operon leaders using shape abstraction it was able to identify the two alternating conformations of this attenuator. Besides providing in-depth analysis methods for aligned RNAs, the tool also shows a fairly well prediction accuracy. Therefore, RNAlishapes provides the community with a powerful tool for structural analysis of classes of RNAs and is also a reasonable method for consensus structure prediction based on sequence alignments. RNAlishapes is available for online use and download at http://rna.cyanolab.de. PMID:17020924

  17. Structural Analysis of Communication Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conville, Richard L.

    This paper discusses the question of the legitimacy of applying structural analysis to actual human behavior and illustrates its legitimacy by using the reasoning in an essay by Paul Ricoeur. It then asks if the principles of communication development (obliqueness, exchange, and dying) derived from Helen Keller's experience of communication…

  18. Structural Analysis and Design Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Collier Research and Development Corporation received a one-of-a-kind computer code for designing exotic hypersonic aircraft called ST-SIZE in the first ever Langley Research Center software copyright license agreement. Collier transformed the NASA computer code into a commercial software package called HyperSizer, which integrates with other Finite Element Modeling and Finite Analysis private-sector structural analysis program. ST-SIZE was chiefly conceived as a means to improve and speed the structural design of a future aerospace plane for Langley Hypersonic Vehicles Office. Including the NASA computer code into HyperSizer has enabled the company to also apply the software to applications other than aerospace, including improved design and construction for offices, marine structures, cargo containers, commercial and military aircraft, rail cars, and a host of everyday consumer products.

  19. Foundational dendritic processing that is independent of the cell type-specific structure in model primary neurons.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hojeong; Heckman, C J

    2015-11-16

    It has long been known that primary neurons in the brain and spinal cord exhibit very distinctive dendritic structures. However, it remains unclear whether dendritic processing for signal propagation and channel activation over dendrites is a function of the cell type-specific dendritic structure. By applying an extended analysis of signal attenuation for the physiological distributions of synaptic inputs and active channels on dendritic branches, we first demonstrate that regardless of their specific structure, all anatomically reconstructed models of primary neurons display a similar pattern of directional signal attenuation and locational channel activation over their dendrites. Then, using a novel modeling approach that allows direct comparison of the anatomically reconstructed primary neurons with their reduced models that exclusively retain anatomical dendritic signaling without being associated with structural specificity, we show that the reduced model can accurately predict dendritic excitability of the anatomical model in both passive and active mode. These results indicate that the directional signaling, locational excitability and their relationship are foundational features of dendritic processing that are independent of the cell type-specific structure across primary neurons. PMID:26463670

  20. Foundational dendritic processing that is independent of the cell type-specific structure in model primary neurons.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hojeong; Heckman, C J

    2015-11-16

    It has long been known that primary neurons in the brain and spinal cord exhibit very distinctive dendritic structures. However, it remains unclear whether dendritic processing for signal propagation and channel activation over dendrites is a function of the cell type-specific dendritic structure. By applying an extended analysis of signal attenuation for the physiological distributions of synaptic inputs and active channels on dendritic branches, we first demonstrate that regardless of their specific structure, all anatomically reconstructed models of primary neurons display a similar pattern of directional signal attenuation and locational channel activation over their dendrites. Then, using a novel modeling approach that allows direct comparison of the anatomically reconstructed primary neurons with their reduced models that exclusively retain anatomical dendritic signaling without being associated with structural specificity, we show that the reduced model can accurately predict dendritic excitability of the anatomical model in both passive and active mode. These results indicate that the directional signaling, locational excitability and their relationship are foundational features of dendritic processing that are independent of the cell type-specific structure across primary neurons.

  1. Carnivora: the primary structure of the Pacific Walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens, Pinnipedia) hemoglobin.

    PubMed

    Lin, H X; Kleinschmidt, T; Johnson, M L; Braunitzer, G

    1989-02-01

    The primary structure of the alpha- and beta-chains of the hemoglobin from the Pacific Walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens, Pinnipedia) is presented. Sequence analysis revealed only one hemoglobin component whereas two bands were found in polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The globin chains were separated by high-performance liquid chromatography and the sequences determined by automatic liquid- and gas-phase sequencing of the chains and their tryptic peptides. The alpha-chains show 20 and the beta-chains 12 exchanges compared to the corresponding human chains. In the alpha-chains one heme- and two alpha 1/beta 1-contacts were exchanged whereas in the beta-chains one alpha 1/beta 1-, one alpha 1/beta 2-and one heme-contact are substituted. Compared to Harbour Seal (Phoca vitulina) the Walrus hemoglobin shows 9 amino-acid replacements in the alpha-chains and 5 in the beta-chains. The relation between Pinnipedia and Arctoidea is discussed.

  2. Modelling the structural controls of primary kaolinite formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tierney, R. L.; Glass, H. J.

    2016-09-01

    An abundance of kaolinite was formed within the St. Austell outcrop of the Cornubian batholith in Cornwall, southwest England, by the hydrous dissolution of feldspar crystals. The permeability of Cornish granites is low and alteration acts pervasively from discontinuity features, with montmorillonite recognised as an intermediate assemblage in partially kaolinised material. Structural features allowed fluids to channel through the impermeable granite and pervade deep into the rock. Areas of high structural control are hypothesised to link well with areas of advanced alteration. As kaolinisation results in a loss of competence, we present a method of utilising discontinuity orientations from nearby unaltered granites alongside the local tectonic history to calculate strain rates and delineate a discrete fracture network. Simulation of the discrete fracture network is demonstrated through a case study at Higher Moor, where kaolinite is actively extracted from a pit. Reconciliation of fracture connectivity and permeability against measured subsurface data show that higher values of modelled properties match with advanced kaolinisation observed in the field. This suggests that the technique may be applicable across various industries and disciplines.

  3. Organizational structure and the delivery of primary care to older Americans.

    PubMed Central

    Zinn, J S; Mor, V

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore how internal factors, such as organizational size, mission, ownership, and managerial communication and control structures, affect the delivery of primary care to older Americans across a wide variety of practice settings: ambulatory practices, hospitals, nursing homes, and home healthcare agencies. DESIGN: Use of the structure/process/outcome paradigm and contingency theory to examine the empirical research linking structural factors to outcomes. CONCLUSION: Using these studies as a background, we consider the implications for the provision of primary care to older Americans including the impact of evolving intraorganizational structure in healthcare organization. PMID:9618675

  4. Efficient Analysis of Complex Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kapania, Rakesh K.

    2000-01-01

    Last various accomplishments achieved during this project are : (1) A Survey of Neural Network (NN) applications using MATLAB NN Toolbox on structural engineering especially on equivalent continuum models (Appendix A). (2) Application of NN and GAs to simulate and synthesize substructures: 1-D and 2-D beam problems (Appendix B). (3) Development of an equivalent plate-model analysis method (EPA) for static and vibration analysis of general trapezoidal built-up wing structures composed of skins, spars and ribs. Calculation of all sorts of test cases and comparison with measurements or FEA results. (Appendix C). (4) Basic work on using second order sensitivities on simulating wing modal response, discussion of sensitivity evaluation approaches, and some results (Appendix D). (5) Establishing a general methodology of simulating the modal responses by direct application of NN and by sensitivity techniques, in a design space composed of a number of design points. Comparison is made through examples using these two methods (Appendix E). (6) Establishing a general methodology of efficient analysis of complex wing structures by indirect application of NN: the NN-aided Equivalent Plate Analysis. Training of the Neural Networks for this purpose in several cases of design spaces, which can be applicable for actual design of complex wings (Appendix F).

  5. Multiparameter analysis of primary epithelial cultures grown on cyclopore membranes.

    PubMed

    De Boer, W I; Rebel, J M; Vermey, M; Thijssen, C D; Van der Kwast, T H

    1994-02-01

    The use of porous membranes as culture support for epithelial cells has previously been shown to cause functional differentiation of these cells mimicking an in vivo condition, in contrast to culture on plastic. The different materials of which the membranes are made also have different properties, such as transparency, rigidity, and retention of molecules. Cyclopore membranes (polyethylene terephtalate) are permeable, transparent, rigid, and have low protein retention. In this study we examined the applicability of assessing multiple parameters on a single culture of primary epithelial cells on a Cyclopore membrane. Cultures of transitional epithelial cells on these membranes differentiate into an organoid-like epithelium. We were able to perform morphometric analysis during and after cell culture and to quantitate proliferation and differentiation by double immunoenzymatic staining. On these cultures, quantitative radiochemical analysis could also be achieved, retaining the morphology and the immunohistochemical staining. Cross-sections of paraffin-embedded and plastic-embedded cultures were analyzed qualitatively by light and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. Finally, cytokeratins in these cultures could also be visualized by immunofluorescence analysis. This suitability for simultaneous assessment of both qualitative and quantitative parameters on a single cell culture grown on a Cyclopore membrane reduces the need of biological materials and may lead to better insight into physiological processes. PMID:7507144

  6. Beyond Electronic Brochures: An Analysis of Singapore Primary School Web Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Chun; Soong, Andrew Kheng Fah

    2007-01-01

    This study aims to investigate how Singapore primary schools use their web sites, what kind of information is contained in the web sites, and how the information is presented. Based on an analysis of 176 primary school web sites, which represent all but one of the country's primary schools, findings indicate that most of Singapore's primary school…

  7. Structural analysis of vibroacoustical processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gromov, A. P.; Myasnikov, L. L.; Myasnikova, Y. N.; Finagin, B. A.

    1973-01-01

    The method of automatic identification of acoustical signals, by means of the segmentation was used to investigate noises and vibrations in machines and mechanisms, for cybernetic diagnostics. The structural analysis consists of presentation of a noise or vibroacoustical signal as a sequence of segments, determined by the time quantization, in which each segment is characterized by specific spectral characteristics. The structural spectrum is plotted as a histogram of the segments, also as a relation of the probability density of appearance of a segment to the segment type. It is assumed that the conditions of ergodic processes are maintained.

  8. Structured Functional Principal Component Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Shou, Haochang; Zipunnikov, Vadim; Crainiceanu, Ciprian M.; Greven, Sonja

    2015-01-01

    Summary Motivated by modern observational studies, we introduce a class of functional models that expand nested and crossed designs. These models account for the natural inheritance of the correlation structures from sampling designs in studies where the fundamental unit is a function or image. Inference is based on functional quadratics and their relationship with the underlying covariance structure of the latent processes. A computationally fast and scalable estimation procedure is developed for high-dimensional data. Methods are used in applications including high-frequency accelerometer data for daily activity, pitch linguistic data for phonetic analysis, and EEG data for studying electrical brain activity during sleep. PMID:25327216

  9. The primary structure of a plant storage protein: zein.

    PubMed Central

    Geraghty, D; Peifer, M A; Rubenstein, I; Messing, J

    1981-01-01

    The protein sequence of a representative of the zeins, the major storage proteins of maize, has been derived from the nucleotide sequence of a zein cDNA clone. This cDNA was sequence both by the Maxam and Gilbert and the M13-dideoxy techniques. The nucleotide sequence encompasses the non-translated 3' terminus of the mRNA, the entire coding sequence specifying both the mature zein protein and a small signal peptide, and a portion of the non-translated 5' region. The deduced amino acid composition and the amino-terminal amino acid sequence closely resemble those derived from chemical analysis of the zein protein fraction. The data presented represent the first complete amino acid sequence of a plant storage protein. PMID:6895552

  10. Hessian facilitated analysis of optimally controlled quantum dynamics of systems with coupled primary and secondary states.

    PubMed

    Shu, Chuan-Cun; Edwalds, Melanie; Shabani, Alireza; Ho, Tak-San; Rabitz, Herschel

    2015-07-28

    The efficacy of optimal control of quantum dynamics depends on the topology and associated local structure of the underlying control landscape defined as the objective as a function of the control field. A commonly studied control objective involves maximization of the transition probability for steering the quantum system from one state to another state. This paper invokes landscape Hessian analysis performed at an optimal solution to gain insight into the controlled dynamics, where the Hessian is the second-order functional derivative of the control objective with respect to the control field. Specifically, we consider a quantum system composed of coupled primary and secondary subspaces of energy levels with the initial and target states lying in the primary subspace. The primary and secondary subspaces may arise in various scenarios, for example, respectively, as sub-manifolds of ground and excited electronic states of a poly-atomic molecule, with each possessing a set of rotational-vibrational levels. The control field may engage the system through electric dipole transitions that occur either (I) only in the primary subspace, (II) between the two subspaces, or (III) only in the secondary subspace. Important insights about the resultant dynamics in each case are revealed in the structural patterns of the corresponding Hessian. The Fourier spectrum of the Hessian is shown to often be complementary to mechanistic insights provided by the optimal control field and population dynamics.

  11. Uncertainty Analysis of Composite Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K.; Starnes, James H., Jr.; Peters, Jeanne M.

    2000-01-01

    A two-phase approach and a computational procedure are presented for predicting the variability in the nonlinear response of composite structures associated with variations in the geometric and material parameters of the structure. In the first phase, hierarchical sensitivity analysis is used to identify the major parameters, which have the most effect on the response quantities of interest. In the second phase, the major parameters are taken to be fuzzy parameters, and a fuzzy set analysis is used to determine the range of variation of the response, associated with preselected variations in the major parameters. The effectiveness of the procedure is demonstrated by means of a numerical example of a cylindrical panel with four T-shaped stiffeners and a circular cutout.

  12. Molecular cloning and primary structure of human glial fibrillary acidic protein

    SciTech Connect

    Reeves, S.A.; Helman, L.J.; Allison, A.; Israel, M.A. )

    1989-07-01

    Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is an intermediate-filament (IF) protein that is highly specific for cells of astroglial lineage, although its tissue-specific role is speculative. Determination of the primary structure of this protein should be of importance for understanding the functional role it plays in astroglia. Therefore, the authors isolated a cDNA clone encoding this protein and determined its nucleotide sequence. The predicted amino acid sequence indicates that GFAP shares structural similarities-particularly in the central rod domain and to a lesser degree in the carboxyl-terminal domain-with other IF proteins found in nonepithelial cell types. Considerable sequence divergence in the amino-terminal region of GFAP suggests that the tissue-specific functions of this IF protein might be mediated through this region of the molecule. In contrast, conservation of structural characteristics and a moderate degree of sequence conservation in the carboxyl-terminal region suggest functional similarities. Blot hybridization analysis using the GFAP cDNA as a probe failed to detect GFAP mRNA in both normal and neoplastic human tissues in which IF proteins other than GFAP are known to be expressed.

  13. Molecular cloning and primary structure of the Escherichia coli methionyl-tRNA synthetase gene.

    PubMed Central

    Dardel, F; Fayat, G; Blanquet, S

    1984-01-01

    The intact metG gene was cloned in plasmid pBR322 from an F32 episomal gene library by complementation of a structural mutant, metG83. The Escherichia coli strain transformed with this plasmid (pX1) overproduced methionyl-tRNA synthetase 40-fold. Maxicell analysis showed that three major polypeptides with MrS of 76,000, 37,000, and 29,000 were expressed from pX1. The polypeptide with an Mr of 76,000 was identified as the product of metG on the basis of immunological studies and was indistinguishable from purified methionyl-tRNA synthetase. In addition, DNA-DNA hybridization studies demonstrated that the metG regions were homologous on the E. coli chromosome and on the F32 episome. DNA sequencing of 642 nucleotides was performed. It completes the partial metG sequence already published (D. G. Barker, J. P. Ebel, R. Jakes, and C. J. Bruton, Eur. J. Biochem. 127:449-451, 1982). Examination of the deduced primary structure of methionyl-tRNA synthetase excludes the occurrence of any significant repeated sequences. Finally, mapping of mutation metG83 by complementation experiments strongly suggests that the central part of methionyl-tRNA synthetase is involved in methionine recognition. This observation is discussed in the light of the known three-dimensional crystallographic structure. Images PMID:6094501

  14. Altered structural and functional connectivity between the bilateral primary motor cortex in unilateral subcortical stroke

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yong; Li, Kuang-Shi; Ning, Yan-Zhe; Fu, Cai-Hong; Liu, Hong-Wei; Han, Xiao; Cui, Fang-Yuan; Ren, Yi; Zou, Yi-Huai

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A large number of functional imaging studies have focused on the understanding of motor-related neural activities after ischemic stroke. However, the knowledge is still limited in the structural and functional changes of the interhemispheric connections of the bilateral primary motor cortices (M1s) and their potential influence on motor function recovery following stroke. Twenty-four stroke patients with right hemispheric subcortical infarcts and 25 control subjects were recruited to undergo multimodal magnetic resonance imaging examinations. Structural impairments between the bilateral M1s were measured by fractional anisotropy. Functional changes of the bilateral M1s were assessed via M1-M1 resting-state functional connectivity. Task-evoked activation analysis was applied to identify the roles of the bilateral hemispheres in motor function recovery. Compared with control subjects, unilateral subcortical stroke patients revealed significantly decreased fractional anisotropy and functional connectivity between the bilateral M1s. Stroke patients also revealed higher activations in multiple brain regions in both hemispheres and that more regions were located in the contralesional hemisphere. This study increased our understanding of the structural and functional alterations between the bilateral M1s that occur in unilateral subcortical stroke and provided further evidence for the compensatory role played by the contralesional hemisphere for these alterations during motor function recovery. PMID:27495109

  15. Grid Stiffened Structure Analysis Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The Grid Stiffened Analysis Tool contract is contract performed by Boeing under NASA purchase order H30249D. The contract calls for a "best effort" study comprised of two tasks: (1) Create documentation for a composite grid-stiffened structure analysis tool, in the form of a Microsoft EXCEL spread sheet, that was developed by originally at Stanford University and later further developed by the Air Force, and (2) Write a program that functions as a NASTRAN pre-processor to generate an FEM code for grid-stiffened structure. In performing this contract, Task 1 was given higher priority because it enables NASA to make efficient use of a unique tool they already have; Task 2 was proposed by Boeing because it also would be beneficial to the analysis of composite grid-stiffened structures, specifically in generating models for preliminary design studies. The contract is now complete, this package includes copies of the user's documentation for Task 1 and a CD ROM & diskette with an electronic copy of the user's documentation and an updated version of the "GRID 99" spreadsheet.

  16. Erroneous gambling-related beliefs as illusions of primary and secondary control: a confirmatory factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Ejova, Anastasia; Delfabbro, Paul H; Navarro, Daniel J

    2015-03-01

    Different classification systems for erroneous beliefs about gambling have been proposed, consistently alluding to 'illusion of control' and 'gambler's fallacy' categories. None of these classification systems have, however, considered the how the illusion of control and the gambler's fallacy might be interrelated. In this paper, we report the findings of a confirmatory factor analysis that examines the proposal that most erroneous gambling-related beliefs can be defined in terms of Rothbaum et al.'s (J Pers Soc Psychol, doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.42.1.5 , 1982) distinction between 'primary' and 'secondary' illusory control, with the former being driven to a large extent by the well-known gambler's fallacy and the latter being driven by a complex of beliefs about supernatural forces such as God and luck. A survey consisting of 100 items derived from existing instruments was administered to 329 participants. The analysis confirmed the existence of two latent structures (beliefs in primary and secondary control), while also offering support to the idea that gambler's fallacy-style reasoning may underlie both perceived primary control and beliefs about the cyclical nature of luck, a form of perceived secondary control. The results suggest the need for a greater focus on the role of underlying processes or belief structures as factors that foster susceptibility to specific beliefs in gambling situations. Addressing and recognising the importance of these underlying factors may also have implications for cognitive therapy treatments for problem gambling. PMID:23861012

  17. Identification of novel DNA repair proteins via primary sequence, secondary structure, and homology

    PubMed Central

    Brown, JB; Akutsu, Tatsuya

    2009-01-01

    Background DNA repair is the general term for the collection of critical mechanisms which repair many forms of DNA damage such as methylation or ionizing radiation. DNA repair has mainly been studied in experimental and clinical situations, and relatively few information-based approaches to new extracting DNA repair knowledge exist. As a first step, automatic detection of DNA repair proteins in genomes via informatics techniques is desirable; however, there are many forms of DNA repair and it is not a straightforward process to identify and classify repair proteins with a single optimal method. We perform a study of the ability of homology and machine learning-based methods to identify and classify DNA repair proteins, as well as scan vertebrate genomes for the presence of novel repair proteins. Combinations of primary sequence polypeptide frequency, secondary structure, and homology information are used as feature information for input to a Support Vector Machine (SVM). Results We identify that SVM techniques are capable of identifying portions of DNA repair protein datasets without admitting false positives; at low levels of false positive tolerance, homology can also identify and classify proteins with good performance. Secondary structure information provides improved performance compared to using primary structure alone. Furthermore, we observe that machine learning methods incorporating homology information perform best when data is filtered by some clustering technique. Analysis by applying these methodologies to the scanning of multiple vertebrate genomes confirms a positive correlation between the size of a genome and the number of DNA repair protein transcripts it is likely to contain, and simultaneously suggests that all organisms have a non-zero minimum number of repair genes. In addition, the scan result clusters several organisms' repair abilities in an evolutionarily consistent fashion. Analysis also identifies several functionally unconfirmed

  18. Statistical energy analysis of complex structures, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trudell, R. W.; Yano, L. I.

    1980-01-01

    A method for estimating the structural vibration properties of complex systems in high frequency environments was investigated. The structure analyzed was the Materials Experiment Assembly, (MEA), which is a portion of the OST-2A payload for the space transportation system. Statistical energy analysis (SEA) techniques were used to model the structure and predict the structural element response to acoustic excitation. A comparison of the intial response predictions and measured acoustic test data is presented. The conclusions indicate that: the SEA predicted the response of primary structure to acoustic excitation over a wide range of frequencies; and the contribution of mechanically induced random vibration to the total MEA is not significant.

  19. Surface topography regulates wnt signaling through control of primary cilia structure in mesenchymal stem cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMurray, R. J.; Wann, A. K. T.; Thompson, C. L.; Connelly, J. T.; Knight, M. M.

    2013-12-01

    The primary cilium regulates cellular signalling including influencing wnt sensitivity by sequestering β-catenin within the ciliary compartment. Topographic regulation of intracellular actin-myosin tension can control stem cell fate of which wnt is an important mediator. We hypothesized that topography influences mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) wnt signaling through the regulation of primary cilia structure and function. MSCs cultured on grooves expressed elongated primary cilia, through reduced actin organization. siRNA inhibition of anterograde intraflagellar transport (IFT88) reduced cilia length and increased active nuclear β-catenin. Conversely, increased primary cilia assembly in MSCs cultured on the grooves was associated with decreased levels of nuclear active β-catenin, axin-2 induction and proliferation, in response to wnt3a. This negative regulation, on grooved topography, was reversed by siRNA to IFT88. This indicates that subtle regulation of IFT and associated cilia structure, tunes the wnt response controlling stem cell differentiation.

  20. Structural Analysis of Fungal Cerebrosides

    PubMed Central

    Barreto-Bergter, Eliana; Sassaki, Guilherme L.; de Souza, Lauro M.

    2011-01-01

    Of the ceramide monohexosides (CMHs), gluco- and galactosyl-ceramides are the main neutral glycosphingolipids expressed in fungal cells. Their structural determination is greatly dependent on the use of mass spectrometric techniques, including fast atom bombardment-mass spectrometry, electrospray ionization, and energy collision-induced dissociation mass spectrometry. Nuclear magnetic resonance has also been used successfully. Such a combination of techniques, combined with classical analytical separation, such as high-performance thin layer chromatography and column chromatography, has led to the structural elucidation of a great number of fungal CMHs. The structure of fungal CMH is conserved among fungal species and consists of a glucose or galactose residue attached to a ceramide moiety containing 9-methyl-4,8-sphingadienine with an amidic linkage to hydroxylated fatty acids, most commonly having 16 or 18 carbon atoms and unsaturation between C-3 and C-4. Along with their unique structural characteristics, fungal CMHs have a peculiar subcellular distribution and striking biological properties. Fungal cerebrosides were also characterized as antigenic molecules directly or indirectly involved in cell growth or differentiation in Schizophyllum commune, Cryptococcus neoformans, Pseudallescheria boydii, Candida albicans, Aspergillus nidulans, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Besides classical techniques for cerebroside (CMH) analysis, we now describe new approaches, combining conventional thin layer chromatography and mass spectrometry, as well as emerging technologies for subcellular localization and distribution of glycosphingolipids by secondary ion mass spectrometry and imaging matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight. PMID:22164155

  1. Fabrication of experimental three-meter space telescope primary and secondary mirror support structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mishler, H. W.

    1974-01-01

    The fabrication of prototype titanium alloy primary and secondary mirror support structures for a proposed experimental three-meter space telescope is discussed. The structure was fabricated entirely of Ti-6Al-4V tubing and plate. Fabrication included the development of procedures including welding, forming, and machining. Most of the structures was fabricated by gas-shielding tungsten-arc (GTA) welding with several major components fabricated by high frequency resistance (HFR) welding.

  2. Self-assembly of hybrid dendrons with complex primary structure into functional helical pores.

    PubMed

    Percec, Virgil; Smidrkal, Jan; Peterca, Mihai; Mitchell, Catherine M; Nummelin, Sami; Dulcey, Andrés E; Sienkowska, Monika J; Heiney, Paul A

    2007-01-01

    The synthesis of three libraries of self-assembling hybrid dendrons containing a primary structure based on the sequence (4-3,4-3,5)12G2-CO(2)CH(3) generated from benzyl ether, biphenyl-4-methyl ether, and AB(2) repeat units constructed from (AB)(y)--AB(2) combinations of benzyl ethers, is reported. The structural and retrostructural analysis of their supramolecular dendrimers facilitated the discovery of new architectural principles that lead to the assembly of functional helical pores. The self-assembly of an example of hybrid dendron containing -H, -CO(2)CH(3), -CH(2)OH, -COOH, -COOK, -CONH(2), -CONHCH(3), -CO(2)(CH(2))(2)OCH(3), -(R) and -(S)-CONHCH(CH(3))C(2)H(5) as X-groups at the apex demonstrated that these self-assembling dendrons provide the simplest strategy for the design and synthesis of porous columns containing a diversity of hydrophilic and hydrophobic functional groups in the inner part of the pore. The results reported here expand the scope and limitations of dendrons available for the self-assembly of functional pores that previously were generated mostly from dendritic dipeptides, to simpler architectures based on hybrid dendrons. PMID:17304597

  3. 43-kilodalton protein of Torpedo nicotinic postsynaptic membranes: purification and determination of primary structure

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, C.; McCourt, D.; Cohen, J.B.

    1987-11-03

    The primary structure of the 43-kilodalton peripheral membrane protein (43-kDa protein) of Torpedo nicotinic postsynaptic membrane has been determined. The /sup 14/C-labelled 43-kDa protein, which was isolated by preparative sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, has an amino terminus resistant to Edman degradation, while the sequence at the carboxyl terminus is Tyr-Val. An amino acid sequence of 405 residues was obtained by NH/sub 2/-terminal sequence analysis of complementary peptides generated by digestion with trypsin, chymotrypsin, Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease, and endoproteinase Lys-C, as well as by chemical cleavage at methionine. This sequence of molecular mass 45,618 daltons lacks the amino terminus but extends to the carboxyl terminus of the 43-kDa protein. Unusual structural features of the 43-kDa protein include two regions of approx. 80 residues, each containing 10% cysteine, as well as stretches predicted to exist as amphipathic ..cap alpha..-helices. Other than the group blocking the amino terminus, no evidence was found for posttranslational modification of amino acids. The 43-kDa protein may represent a novel protein family because a computer search of this sequence with the National Biomedical Research Foundation data base (Release 12.0) did not reveal any significant homology to known protein sequences.

  4. Primary structure and chain conformation of fucoidan extracted from sea cucumber Holothuria tubulosa.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yaoguang; Hu, Yanfang; Yu, Long; McClements, David Julian; Xu, Xiaoqi; Liu, Guanchen; Xue, Changhu

    2016-01-20

    Knowledge of the structure of polysaccharides is essential for understanding and controlling their functional properties. In this study, fucoidan was extracted from Holothuria tubulosa, a species of sea cucumber that has recently become commercially important. The primary structure of the H. tubulosa fucoidan was clarified using a combination of enzymatic degradation, methylation analysis, and NMR, and its chain conformation was further elucidated by utilizing high performance size exclusion chromatography combined with multiple angle laser light scattering and viscometry. The fucoidan was composed of a tetrafucose repeating unit [ → 3-α-L-Fucp2(OSO3(-))-1 → 3-α-L-Fucp2,4(OSO3(-))-1 → 3-α-L-Fucp-1 → 3-α-L-Fucp2(OSO3(-))-1 → ]. Its sulfate content was determined to be 31.2 ± 1.6% and the weight-average molecular mass was 1567.6 ± 34.1 kDa. The molecule adapted a random coil conformation in 0.15M NaCl solution (pH 7.4) at 25 °C, with a root-mean-square radius of 63.9 ± 1.8 nm and a hydrodynamic radius of 44.5 ± 4.5 nm. This is the first report on the chain conformation of sea cucumber fucoidan.

  5. Primary structure and chain conformation of fucoidan extracted from sea cucumber Holothuria tubulosa.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yaoguang; Hu, Yanfang; Yu, Long; McClements, David Julian; Xu, Xiaoqi; Liu, Guanchen; Xue, Changhu

    2016-01-20

    Knowledge of the structure of polysaccharides is essential for understanding and controlling their functional properties. In this study, fucoidan was extracted from Holothuria tubulosa, a species of sea cucumber that has recently become commercially important. The primary structure of the H. tubulosa fucoidan was clarified using a combination of enzymatic degradation, methylation analysis, and NMR, and its chain conformation was further elucidated by utilizing high performance size exclusion chromatography combined with multiple angle laser light scattering and viscometry. The fucoidan was composed of a tetrafucose repeating unit [ → 3-α-L-Fucp2(OSO3(-))-1 → 3-α-L-Fucp2,4(OSO3(-))-1 → 3-α-L-Fucp-1 → 3-α-L-Fucp2(OSO3(-))-1 → ]. Its sulfate content was determined to be 31.2 ± 1.6% and the weight-average molecular mass was 1567.6 ± 34.1 kDa. The molecule adapted a random coil conformation in 0.15M NaCl solution (pH 7.4) at 25 °C, with a root-mean-square radius of 63.9 ± 1.8 nm and a hydrodynamic radius of 44.5 ± 4.5 nm. This is the first report on the chain conformation of sea cucumber fucoidan. PMID:26572451

  6. Professional Learning Communities and Teacher Well-Being? A Comparative Analysis of Primary Schools in England and Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Rosemary; Vulliamy, Graham; Sarja, Anneli; Hamalainen, Seppo; Poikonen, Pirjo-Liisa

    2009-01-01

    The article is a comparative analysis of the policy and practice of professional learning communities (PLCs) in primary schools in England and Finland. The concept of PLC has become a globally fashionable one and has been explicitly advocated in policy documents in both countries. Drawing from a database of qualitative semi-structured interviews…

  7. Design and evaluation of a foam-filled hat-stiffened panel concept for aircraft primary structural applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambur, Damodar R.

    1993-01-01

    Geodesically stiffened structures are very efficient in carrying combined bending, torsion, and pressure loading that is typical of primary aircraft structures. They are also very damage tolerant since there are multiple load paths available to redistribute loads compared to prismatically stiffened structures. Geodesically stiffened structures utilize continuous filament composite materials which make them amenable to automated manufacturing processes to reduce cost. The current practice for geodesically stiffened structures is to use a solid blade construction for the stiffener. This stiffener configuration is not an efficient concept and there is a need to identify other stiffener configurations that are more efficient but utilize the same manufacturing process as the solid blade. This paper describes a foam-filled stiffener cross section that is more efficient than a solid-blade stiffener in the load range corresponding to primary aircraft structures. A prismatic hat-stiffener panel design is then selected for structural evaluation in uni-axial compression with and without impact damage. Experimental results for both single stiffener specimens and multi-stiffener panel specimens are presented. Finite element analysis results are presented that predict the buckling and postbuckling response of the test specimens. Analytical results for both the element and panel specimens are compared with experimental results.

  8. An Analysis of Free Primary Education Reform Policy in Malawi.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacJessie-Mbewe, Samson

    2002-01-01

    Describes the socioeconomic and political context of the formation of the government's free primary-education policy in Malawi. Assesses the impact of the policy on educational access, equity, and quality. Reviews and critiques policies related to free primary education. (Contains 22 references.) (PKP)

  9. STRUCTURAL AND HIDDEN BARRIERS TO A LOCAL PRIMARY HEALTH CARE INFRASTRUCTURE: AUTONOMY, DECISIONS ABOUT PRIMARY HEALTH CARE, AND THE CENTRALITY AND SIGNIFICANCE OF POWER

    PubMed Central

    Freed, Christopher R.; Hansberry, Shantisha T.; Arrieta, Martha I.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To examine a local primary health care infrastructure and the reality of primary health care from the perspective of residents of a small, urban community in the southern United States. Methodology/approach: Data derive from 13 semi-structured focus groups, plus three semi-structured interviews, and were analyzed inductively consistent with a grounded theory approach. Findings: Structural barriers to the local primary health care infrastructure include transportation, clinic and appointment wait time, and co-payments and health insurance. Hidden barriers consist of knowledge about local health care services, non-physician gatekeepers, and fear of medical care. Community residents have used home remedies and the emergency department at the local academic medical center to manage these structural and hidden barriers. Research limitations/implications: Findings might not generalize to primary health care infrastructures in other communities, respondent perspectives can be biased, and the data are subject to various interpretations and conceptual and thematic frameworks. Nevertheless, the structural and hidden barriers to the local primary health care infrastructure have considerably diminished the autonomy community residents have been able to exercise over their decisions about primary health care, ultimately suggesting that efforts concerned with increasing the access of medically underserved groups to primary health care in local communities should recognize the centrality and significance of power. Originality/value: This study addresses a gap in the sociological literature regarding the impact of specific barriers to primary health care among medically underserved groups. PMID:24532864

  10. Screening for depression in primary care: a Rasch analysis of the PHQ-9†

    PubMed Central

    Horton, Mike; Perry, Amanda E.

    2016-01-01

    Aims and method To explore the modern psychometric properties of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), we used the Rasch analysis in a sample of 767 primary care patients with depression. Results The analysis highlighted dependency issues between items 1 and 2 (‘Little interest or pleasure in doing things' and ‘Feeling down, depressed, or hopeless’), and items 3 and 4 (‘Trouble falling or staying asleep, or sleeping too much’ and ‘Feeling tired or having little energy’). Items 1 and 2 displayed an over-discrimination, suggesting their potential redundancy within the complete item set. Clinical implications In its current format the PHQ-9 displays some problems with regard to its measurement structure among a sample of primary care patients. These problems can be addressed by removing potentially redundant items to deliver a stable screening tool. The results also lend support for the PHQ-2 to be used as a screening tool in a primary care setting. PMID:27752340

  11. Primary metabolism in Lactobacillus sakei food isolates by proteomic analysis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Lactobacillus sakei is an important food-associated lactic acid bacterium commonly used as starter culture for industrial meat fermentation, and with great potential as a biopreservative in meat and fish products. Understanding the metabolic mechanisms underlying the growth performance of a strain to be used for food fermentations is important for obtaining high-quality and safe products. Proteomic analysis was used to study the primary metabolism in ten food isolates after growth on glucose and ribose, the main sugars available for L. sakei in meat and fish. Results Proteins, the expression of which varied depending on the carbon source were identified, such as a ribokinase and a D-ribose pyranase directly involved in ribose catabolism, and enzymes involved in the phosphoketolase and glycolytic pathways. Expression of enzymes involved in pyruvate and glycerol/glycerolipid metabolism were also affected by the change of carbon source. Interestingly, a commercial starter culture and a protective culture strain down-regulated the glycolytic pathway more efficiently than the rest of the strains when grown on ribose. The overall two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) protein expression pattern was similar for the different strains, though distinct differences were seen between the two subspecies (sakei and carnosus), and a variation of about 20% in the number of spots in the 2-DE gels was observed between strains. A strain isolated from fermented fish showed a higher expression of stress related proteins growing on both carbon sources. Conclusions It is obvious from the data obtained in this study that the proteomic approach efficiently identifies differentially expressed proteins caused by the change of carbon source. Despite the basic similarity in the strains metabolic routes when they ferment glucose and ribose, there were also interesting differences. From the application point of view, an understanding of regulatory mechanisms, actions of catabolic

  12. Primary health care research in Bolivia: systematic review and analysis.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Francisco N; Leys, Mart; Mérida, Hugo E Rivera; Guzmán, Giovanni Escalante

    2016-02-01

    Bolivia is currently undergoing a series of healthcare reforms centred around the Unified Family, Community and Intercultural Health System (SAFCI), established in 2008 and Law 475 for Provision of Comprehensive Health Services enacted in 2014 as a first step towards universal health coverage. The SAFCI model aims to establish an intercultural, intersectoral and integrated primary health care (PHC) system, but there has not been a comprehensive analysis of effective strategies towards such an end. In this systematic review, we analyse research into developing PHC in Bolivia utilizing MEDLINE, the Virtual Health Library and grey literature from Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization's internal database. We find that although progress has been made towards implementation of a healthcare system incorporating principles of PHC, further refining the system and targeting improvements effectively will require increased research and evaluation. Particularly in the 7 years since establishment of SAFCI, there has been a dearth of PHC research that makes evaluation of such key national policies impossible. The quantity and quality of PHC research must be improved, especially quasi-experimental studies with adequate control groups. The infrastructure for such studies must be strengthened through improved financing mechanisms, expanded institutional capacity and setting national research priorities. Important for future progress are improved tracking of health indicators, which in Bolivia are often out-of-date or incomplete, and prioritization of focused national research priorities on relevant policy issues. This study aims to serve as an aid towards PHC development efforts at the national level, as well as provide lessons for countries globally attempting to build effective health systems accommodating of a multi-national population in the midst of development. PMID:25953966

  13. Primary health care research in Bolivia: systematic review and analysis.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Francisco N; Leys, Mart; Mérida, Hugo E Rivera; Guzmán, Giovanni Escalante

    2016-02-01

    Bolivia is currently undergoing a series of healthcare reforms centred around the Unified Family, Community and Intercultural Health System (SAFCI), established in 2008 and Law 475 for Provision of Comprehensive Health Services enacted in 2014 as a first step towards universal health coverage. The SAFCI model aims to establish an intercultural, intersectoral and integrated primary health care (PHC) system, but there has not been a comprehensive analysis of effective strategies towards such an end. In this systematic review, we analyse research into developing PHC in Bolivia utilizing MEDLINE, the Virtual Health Library and grey literature from Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization's internal database. We find that although progress has been made towards implementation of a healthcare system incorporating principles of PHC, further refining the system and targeting improvements effectively will require increased research and evaluation. Particularly in the 7 years since establishment of SAFCI, there has been a dearth of PHC research that makes evaluation of such key national policies impossible. The quantity and quality of PHC research must be improved, especially quasi-experimental studies with adequate control groups. The infrastructure for such studies must be strengthened through improved financing mechanisms, expanded institutional capacity and setting national research priorities. Important for future progress are improved tracking of health indicators, which in Bolivia are often out-of-date or incomplete, and prioritization of focused national research priorities on relevant policy issues. This study aims to serve as an aid towards PHC development efforts at the national level, as well as provide lessons for countries globally attempting to build effective health systems accommodating of a multi-national population in the midst of development.

  14. Macroalgal blooms alter community structure and primary productivity in marine ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Devin A; Arvanitidis, Christos; Blight, Andrew J; Chatzinikolaou, Eva; Guy-Haim, Tamar; Kotta, Jonne; Orav-Kotta, Helen; Queirós, Ana M; Rilov, Gil; Somerfield, Paul J; Crowe, Tasman P

    2014-09-01

    Eutrophication, coupled with loss of herbivory due to habitat degradation and overharvesting, has increased the frequency and severity of macroalgal blooms worldwide. Macroalgal blooms interfere with human activities in coastal areas, and sometimes necessitate costly algal removal programmes. They also have many detrimental effects on marine and estuarine ecosystems, including induction of hypoxia, release of toxic hydrogen sulphide into the sediments and atmosphere, and the loss of ecologically and economically important species. However, macroalgal blooms can also increase habitat complexity, provide organisms with food and shelter, and reduce other problems associated with eutrophication. These contrasting effects make their overall ecological impacts unclear. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the overall effects of macroalgal blooms on several key measures of ecosystem structure and functioning in marine ecosystems. We also evaluated some of the ecological and methodological factors that might explain the highly variable effects observed in different studies. Averaged across all studies, macroalgal blooms had negative effects on the abundance and species richness of marine organisms, but blooms by different algal taxa had different consequences, ranging from strong negative to strong positive effects. Blooms' effects on species richness also depended on the habitat where they occurred, with the strongest negative effects seen in sandy or muddy subtidal habitats and in the rocky intertidal. Invertebrate communities also appeared to be particularly sensitive to blooms, suffering reductions in their abundance, species richness, and diversity. The total net primary productivity, gross primary productivity, and respiration of benthic ecosystems were higher during macroalgal blooms, but blooms had negative effects on the productivity and respiration of other organisms. These results suggest that, in addition to their direct social and

  15. Analysis of the dynamics of thin primary mirrors for large astronomical telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostroff, A. J.; Mccann, M.

    1973-01-01

    The NASTRAN structural analysis program was used to investigate the dynamic properties of thin primary mirrors suitable for use in large orbiting astronomical telescopes. An analysis is included of the mode shapes and modal frequencies for several thin, homogeneous, isotropic mirrors. Typical cases include two different mirror diameters, two different diameter-to-thickness ratios, and both a mirror without and a mirror with a central hole that is 22 percent of the mirror diameter. The finite-element structural model is evaluated by comparing the NASTRAN generated results with theoretical values for a simply supported, flat, circular mirror. The same model is then used for evaluating the spherical mirrors. The mode shapes and frequencies of a 0.762-meter-diameter mirror with a 60-to-1 diameter-to-thickness ratio and a three-point rigid kinematic (not overconstrained) mount are calculated and plotted for comparison with results obtained previously from the SAMIS structural analysis program for this same mirror. A static analysis is also shown for comparison with experimentally obtained influence coefficients.

  16. Finding the Primary Care Providers in the Specialist-Dominant Primary Care Setting of Korea: A Cluster Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jin Yong; Eun, Sang Jun; Kim, Hyun Joo; Jo, Min-Woo

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to identify private clinics that have a potential to perform the role of primary care providers (PCPs) in a primary care setting in Korea where private specialists are dominant. Methods The 2013 National Patient Sample claim data of Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service in Korea was used. Two-step cluster analysis was performed using characteristics of private clinics, and patient and utilization characteristics of 27,797 private clinics. External validation of clusters was performed by assessing the association among clusters and outcomes of care provided by private clinics. Stability of clusters was cross-validated using discriminant analysis. Results The result classified more than a half of private clinics into a potential PCP cluster. These were private clinics with specialties considered to be those of primary care physicians and were more likely to be located in non-metropolitan areas than specialized PCPs were. Compared to specialized PCPs, they had a higher percentage of pediatric and geriatric patients, patients with greater disease severity, a higher percentage of patients with complex comorbidities or with simple or minor disease groups, a higher number of patients and visits, and the same or higher quality of primary care. The most important factor in explaining variations between PCP clusters was the number of simple or minor disease groups per patient. Conclusion This study identified potential PCPs and suggested the identifying criteria for PCPs. It will provide useful information for formulation of a primary care strengthening policy to policy makers in Korea as well as other countries with similar specialist-dominant primary care settings. PMID:27560181

  17. Using the Text Structures of Information Books to Teach Writing in the Primary Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Sarah K.; Jones, Cindy D.; Reutzel, D. Ray

    2013-01-01

    Teaching children in the primary grades the text structures and features used by authors of information text has been shown to improve comprehension of information texts and provide the scaffolding and support these children need in order to write their own information texts. As teachers implement the "English Language Arts Common Core State…

  18. Bifactor Structure of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Fourth Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Marley W.; Beaujean, A. Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Fourth Edition (WPPSI-IV; Wechsler, 2012) represents a substantial departure from its predecessor, including omission of 4 subtests, addition of 5 new subtests, and modification of the contents of the 5 retained subtests. Wechsler (2012) explicitly assumed a higher-order structure with…

  19. Analysis investigation of supporting and restraint conditions on the surface deformation of a collimator primary mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Chia-Yen; You, Zhen-Ting; Huang, Bo-Kai; Chen, Yi-Cheng; Huang, Ting-Ming

    2015-09-01

    For meeting the requirements of the high-precision telescopes, the design of collimator is essential. The diameter of the collimator should be larger than that of the target for the using of alignment. Special supporting structures are demanded to reduce the deformation of gravity and to control the surface deformation induced by the mounting force when inspecting large-aperture primary mirrors. By using finite element analysis, a ZERODUR® mirror of a diameter of 620 mm will be analyzed to obtain the deformation induced by the supporting structures. Zernike polynomials will also be adopted to fit the optical surface and separate corresponding aberrations. Through the studies under different boundary conditions and supporting positions of the inner ring, it is concluded that the optical performance will be excellent under a strong enough supporter.

  20. Primary structure of the dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase gene from Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    Roos, D S

    1993-03-25

    We have determined the primary genomic and cDNA sequences encoding the bifunctional dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase (DHFR-TS) enzyme of the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii (dihydrofolate reductase, EC 1.5.1.3; thymidylate synthase EC 2.1.1.45). The DHFR-TS gene of T. gondii (strain RH) spans more than 6 kilobases of genomic DNA. Unlike the DHFR-TS genes of other protists, sequences encoding the Toxoplasma protein are interrupted by numerous intervening sequences. Analysis of processed T. gondii DHFR-TS cDNAs reveals a single open reading frame of 1830 nucleotides, predicting a 610-amino acid protein of molecular mass of 69 kilodaltons. Because its nucleotide composition and codon usage are roughly comparable to those observed in "higher" eukaryotes, the Toxoplasma DHFR-TS sequence is particularly useful for assessing evolutionary relationships between eukaryotic species. The predicted amino acid sequence for the DHFR-TS protein shows conservation of the major structural features identified in other DHFR and TS enzymes, while revealing certain differences which may be exploited for the design of novel antifolates for treatment of toxoplasmosis associated with AIDS.

  1. An Efficient Analysis Methodology for Fluted-Core Composite Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oremont, Leonard; Schultz, Marc R.

    2012-01-01

    The primary loading condition in launch-vehicle barrel sections is axial compression, and it is therefore important to understand the compression behavior of any structures, structural concepts, and materials considered in launch-vehicle designs. This understanding will necessarily come from a combination of test and analysis. However, certain potentially beneficial structures and structural concepts do not lend themselves to commonly used simplified analysis methods, and therefore innovative analysis methodologies must be developed if these structures and structural concepts are to be considered. This paper discusses such an analysis technique for the fluted-core sandwich composite structural concept. The presented technique is based on commercially available finite-element codes, and uses shell elements to capture behavior that would normally require solid elements to capture the detailed mechanical response of the structure. The shell thicknesses and offsets using this analysis technique are parameterized, and the parameters are adjusted through a heuristic procedure until this model matches the mechanical behavior of a more detailed shell-and-solid model. Additionally, the detailed shell-and-solid model can be strategically placed in a larger, global shell-only model to capture important local behavior. Comparisons between shell-only models, experiments, and more detailed shell-and-solid models show excellent agreement. The discussed analysis methodology, though only discussed in the context of fluted-core composites, is widely applicable to other concepts.

  2. Transient energy exchange between a primary structure and a set of oscillators: return time and apparent damping.

    PubMed

    Carcaterra, Antonio; Akay, Adnan

    2004-02-01

    In this paper we examine the conditions that influence the return time, the time it takes before energy returns from a set of satellite oscillators attached to a primary structure. Two methods are presented to estimate the return time. One estimate is based on an analysis of the reaction force on a rigid base by a finite number of oscillators as compared with an infinite number of continuously distributed oscillators. The result gives a lower-bound estimate for the return time. A more accurate estimation results from considering the dynamic behavior of a set of oscillators as waves in a waveguide. Such an analogy explains energy flow between a primary structure and the oscillators in terms of pseudowaves and shows that a nonlinear frequency distribution of the oscillators leads to pseudodispersive waves. The resulting approximate expressions show the influence of the natural frequency distribution within the set of oscillators, and of their number, on the return time as compared with the asymptotic case of a continuous set with infinite oscillators. In the paper we also introduce a new method based on a Hilbert envelope to estimate the apparent damping loss factor of the primary structure during the return time considering transient energy flow from the primary structure before any energy reflects back from the attached oscillators. The expressions developed for return time and damping factor show close agreement with direct numerical simulations. The paper concludes with a discussion of the return time and its relation to apparent damping and optimum frequency distribution within a set of oscillators that maximize these quantities.

  3. Metallic and Non-Metallic Materials for the Primary Support Structure

    SciTech Connect

    RA Wolf; RP Corson

    2006-02-21

    The primary support structure (PSS) is required for mechanical support of reactor module (RM) components and mounting of the RM to the spacecraft. The PSS would provide support and accept all loads associated with dynamic (e. g., launch and maneuvering) or thermally induced loading. Prior to termination of NRPCT involvement in Project Prometheus, the NRPCT Mechanical Systems team developed preliminary finite element models to gain a basic understanding of the behavior of the structure, but optimization of the models, specification of the final design, and materials selection were not completed. The Space Plant Materials team had evaluated several materials for potential use in the primary support structure, namely titanium alloys, beryllium, aluminum alloys and carbon-carbon composites. The feasibility of application of each material system was compared based on mass, stiffness, thermal expansion, and ease of fabrication. Due to insufficient data on environmental factors, such as temperatures and radiation, and limited modeling support, a final materials selection was not made.

  4. Structure, dynamics, and energetics of the primary photochemistry of photosystem II of oxygenic photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Diner, Bruce A; Rappaport, Fabrice

    2002-01-01

    Recent progress in two-dimensional and three-dimensional electron and X-ray crystallography of Photosystem II (PSII) core complexes has led to major advances in the structural definition of this integral membrane protein complex. Despite the overall structural and kinetic similarity of the PSII reaction centers to their purple non-sulfur photosynthetic bacterial homologues, the different cofactors and subtle differences in their spatial arrangement result in significant differences in the energetics and mechanism of primary charge separation. In this review we discuss some of the recent spectroscopic, structural, and mutagenic work on the primary and secondary electron transfer reactions in PSII, stressing what is experimentally novel, what new insights have appeared, and where questions of interpretation remain.

  5. Comparative structure and biomechanics of plant primary and secondary cell walls.

    PubMed

    Cosgrove, Daniel J; Jarvis, Michael C

    2012-01-01

    Recent insights into the physical biology of plant cell walls are reviewed, summarizing the essential differences between primary and secondary cell walls and identifying crucial gaps in our knowledge of their structure and biomechanics. Unexpected parallels are identified between the mechanism of expansion of primary cell walls during growth and the mechanisms by which hydrated wood deforms under external tension. There is a particular need to revise current "cartoons" of plant cell walls to be more consistent with data from diverse approaches and to go beyond summarizing limited aspects of cell walls, serving instead as guides for future experiments and for the application of new techniques.

  6. Comparative structure and biomechanics of plant primary and secondary cell walls

    PubMed Central

    Cosgrove, Daniel J.; Jarvis, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    Recent insights into the physical biology of plant cell walls are reviewed, summarizing the essential differences between primary and secondary cell walls and identifying crucial gaps in our knowledge of their structure and biomechanics. Unexpected parallels are identified between the mechanism of expansion of primary cell walls during growth and the mechanisms by which hydrated wood deforms under external tension. There is a particular need to revise current “cartoons” of plant cell walls to be more consistent with data from diverse approaches and to go beyond summarizing limited aspects of cell walls, serving instead as guides for future experiments and for the application of new techniques. PMID:22936943

  7. Job Satisfaction: Factor Analysis of Greek Primary School Principals' Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saiti, Anna; Fassoulis, Konstantinos

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the factors that affect the level of job satisfaction that school principals experience and, based on the findings, to suggest policies or techniques for improving it. Design/methodology/approach: Questionnaires were administered to 180 primary school heads in 13 prefectures--one from each of…

  8. Universal Primary Education among Tribals in Jharkhand: A Situational Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Anant

    2008-01-01

    The paper is an attempt to understand and analyse the status of universal primary education among tribals in Jharkhand and its challenges. Considering the low literacy among tribals and high drop out rates at elementary and higher levels, there is need of special focus on tribal's education, inclusive of context-specific traditional and innovative…

  9. Primary malignant chest wall tumors: analysis of 40 patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Primary chest wall tumors originate from different constructions of thoracic wall. We report our multidisciplinary experience on primary thoracic tumor resection and thoracic reconstruction, the need to additional therapy and evaluating prognostic factors affecting survival. Methods We performed a retrospective review of our prospectively maintained database of 40 patients treated for malignant primary chest wall tumor from 1989 to 2009. Patients were evaluated in terms of age, sex, clinical presentation, type of imaging, tissue diagnosis methods, pathology, surgical technique, early complications, hospital mortality, prevalence of recurrence and distant metastases, additional treatment, 3 years survival and factors affecting survival. Results Male/Female (F/M) = 1, with median age of 43.72 years. Mass was the most common symptoms and the soft tissue sarcoma was the most common pathology. Resection without reconstruction was performed in 5 patients and Thirty-five patients (87.5%) had extensive resection and reconstruction with rotatory muscular flap, prosthetic mesh and/or cement. Overall, 12.5% (5/40) of patients received neoadjuvant therapy and 75% (30/40) of patients were treated with adjuvant therapy. The 3-year survival rate was 65%. Recurrences occurred in 24 patients (60%), 14 developed local recurrences, and 10 developed distant metastases. The primary treatment modality for both local and distant recurrences was surgical resection; among them, 10 underwent repeated resection, 9 adjuvant therapy and 5 were treated with lung metastasectomy. The most common site of distant metastasis was lung (n = 7). Factors that affected survival were type of pathology and evidence of distant metastasis. Conclusion Surgery with wide margin is the safe and good technique for treatment of primary chest wall tumors with acceptable morbidity and mortality. PMID:24947314

  10. Primary structure and subcellular localization of the knob-associated histidine-rich protein of Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed Central

    Pologe, L G; Pavlovec, A; Shio, H; Ravetch, J V

    1987-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes bind to venular endothelial cells by means of electron-dense deformations (knobs) on the parasitized erythrocyte surface. The primary structure of a parasite-derived histidine-rich protein associated with the knob structure was deduced from cDNA sequence analysis. The 634 amino acid sequence is rich in lysine and histidine and contains three distinct, tandemly repeated domains. Indirect immunofluorescence, using affinity-purified monospecific antibodies directed against recombinant protein synthesized in Escherichia coli, localized the knob-associated histidine-rich protein to the membrane of knobby infected erythrocytes. Immunoelectron microscopy established that the protein is clustered on the cytoplasmic side of the erythrocyte membrane and is associated with the electron-dense knobs. A role for this histidine-rich protein in knob structure and cytoadherence is suggested based upon these data. Images PMID:3313387

  11. A perspective on the primary and three-dimensional structures of carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Widmalm, Göran

    2013-08-30

    Carbohydrates, in more biologically oriented areas referred to as glycans, constitute one of the four groups of biomolecules. The glycans, often present as glycoproteins or glycolipids, form highly complex structures. In mammals ten monosaccharides are utilized in building glycoconjugates in the form of oligo- (up to about a dozen monomers) and polysaccharides. Subsequent modifications and additions create a large number of different compounds. In bacteria, more than a hundred monosaccharides have been reported to be constituents of lipopolysaccharides, capsular polysaccharides, and exopolysaccharides. Thus, the number of polysaccharide structures possible to create is huge. NMR spectroscopy plays an essential part in elucidating the primary structure, that is, monosaccharide identity and ring size, anomeric configuration, linkage position, and sequence, of the sugar residues. The structural studies may also employ computational approaches for NMR chemical shift predictions (CASPER program). Once the components and sequence of sugar residues have been unraveled, the three-dimensional arrangement of the sugar residues relative to each other (conformation), their flexibility (transitions between and populations of conformational states), together with the dynamics (timescales) should be addressed. To shed light on these aspects we have utilized a combination of experimental liquid state NMR techniques together with molecular dynamics simulations. For the latter a molecular mechanics force field such as our CHARMM-based PARM22/SU01 has been used. The experimental NMR parameters acquired are typically (1)H,(1)H cross-relaxation rates (related to NOEs), (3)JCH and (3)JCCtrans-glycosidic coupling constants and (1)H,(13)C- and (1)H,(1)H-residual dipolar couplings. At a glycosidic linkage two torsion angles ϕ and ψ are defined and for 6-substituted residues also the ω torsion angle is required. Major conformers can be identified for which highly populated states are

  12. Automatic analysis of the micronucleus test in primary human lymphocytes using image analysis.

    PubMed

    Frieauff, W; Martus, H J; Suter, W; Elhajouji, A

    2013-01-01

    The in vitro micronucleus test (MNT) is a well-established test for early screening of new chemical entities in industrial toxicology. For assessing the clastogenic or aneugenic potential of a test compound, micronucleus induction in cells has been shown repeatedly to be a sensitive and a specific parameter. Various automated systems to replace the tedious and time-consuming visual slide analysis procedure as well as flow cytometric approaches have been discussed. The ROBIAS (Robotic Image Analysis System) for both automatic cytotoxicity assessment and micronucleus detection in human lymphocytes was developed at Novartis where the assay has been used to validate positive results obtained in the MNT in TK6 cells, which serves as the primary screening system for genotoxicity profiling in early drug development. In addition, the in vitro MNT has become an accepted alternative to support clinical studies and will be used for regulatory purposes as well. The comparison of visual with automatic analysis results showed a high degree of concordance for 25 independent experiments conducted for the profiling of 12 compounds. For concentration series of cyclophosphamide and carbendazim, a very good correlation between automatic and visual analysis by two examiners could be established, both for the relative division index used as cytotoxicity parameter, as well as for micronuclei scoring in mono- and binucleated cells. Generally, false-positive micronucleus decisions could be controlled by fast and simple relocation of the automatically detected patterns. The possibility to analyse 24 slides within 65h by automatic analysis over the weekend and the high reproducibility of the results make automatic image processing a powerful tool for the micronucleus analysis in primary human lymphocytes. The automated slide analysis for the MNT in human lymphocytes complements the portfolio of image analysis applications on ROBIAS which is supporting various assays at Novartis.

  13. Dynamic analysis and design of the SIRTF primary mirror mount

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richard, Ralph M.; Vukobratovich, Daniel; Pollard, L. Wayne

    1987-01-01

    The criteria and considerations for the design of the support system for the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) primary mirror are presented. A flexural-gimbal-baseplate design for the 0.5 m primary mirror was developed. Preliminary studies have indicated that this design may be further improved by replacing the flexures by a post-gimbal system wherein the gimbal design accomodates both the cryogenic cool down effects, the dynamic launch loads, and manufacturing tolerance effects. Additionally, a prestressed baseplate concept had evolved and was presented for the full scale 1.0 m mirror. However, preliminary design studies indicate that this concept will not be required, and the post-gimbal-baseplate design similar to the 0.5 m alternate support system will meet the cryogenic cool down, dynamic launch load criteria, and manufacturing tolerance effects.

  14. Modeling, Analysis, and Optimization Issues for Large Space Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinson, L. D. (Compiler); Amos, A. K. (Compiler); Venkayya, V. B. (Compiler)

    1983-01-01

    Topics concerning the modeling, analysis, and optimization of large space structures are discussed including structure-control interaction, structural and structural dynamics modeling, thermal analysis, testing, and design.

  15. Bacteriological analysis of necrotic pulp and fistulae in primary teeth

    PubMed Central

    FABRIS, Antônio Scalco; NAKANO, Viviane; AVILA-CAMPOS, Mario Júlio

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Primary teeth work as guides for the eruption of permanent dentition, contribute for the development of the jaws, chewing process, preparing food for digestion, and nutrient assimilation. Treatment of pulp necrosis in primary teeth is complex due to anatomical and physiological characteristics and high number of bacterial species present in endodontic infections. The bacterial presence alone or in association in necrotic pulp and fistula samples from primary teeth of boys and girls was evaluated. Material and Methods Necrotic pulp (103) and fistula (7) samples from deciduous teeth with deep caries of 110 children were evaluated. Bacterial morphotypes and species from all clinical samples were determined. Results A predominance of gram-positive cocci (81.8%) and gram-negative coccobacilli (49.1%) was observed. In 88 out of 103 pulp samples, a high prevalence of Enterococcus spp. (50%), Porphyromonas gingivalis (49%), Fusobacterium nucleatum (25%) and Prevotella nigrescens (11.4%) was observed. Porphyromonas gingivalis was detected in three out of seven fistula samples, Enterococcus spp. in two out of seven samples, and F. nucleatum, P. nigrescens and D. pneumosintes in one out of seven samples. Conclusions Our results show that Enterococcus spp. and P. gingivalis were prevalent in necrotic pulp from deciduous teeth in boys from 2 to 5 years old, and that care of the oral cavity of children up to five years of age is important. PMID:24676582

  16. National program for family planning and primary health care Pakistan: a SWOT analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The National Program for Family Planning and Primary Healthcare was launched in 1994. It is one of the largest community based programs in the world, providing primary healthcare services to about 80 million people, most of which is rural poor. The program has been instrumental in improving health related indicators of maternal and child health in the last two decades. Methods SWOT analysis was used by making recourse to the structure and dynamics of the program as well as searching the literature. SWOT analysis Strengths of the program include: comprehensive design of planning, implementation and supervision mechanisms aided by an MIS, selection and recruitments processes and evidence created through improving health impact indicators. Weaknesses identified are slow progress, poor integration of the program with health services at local levels including MIS, and de-motivational factors such as job insecurity and non-payment of salaries in time. Opportunities include further widening the coverage of services, its potential contribution to health system research, and its use in areas other than health like women empowerment and poverty alleviation. Threats the program may face are: political interference, lack of funds, social threats and implications for professional malpractices. Conclusion Strengthening of the program will necessitate a strong political commitment, sustained funding and a just remuneration to this bare foot doctor of Pakistan, the Lady Health Worker. PMID:24268037

  17. A Primary Sequence Analysis of the ARGONAUTE Protein Family in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Leal, Daniel; Castillo-Cobián, Amanda; Rodríguez-Arévalo, Isaac; Vielle-Calzada, Jean-Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Small RNA (sRNA)-mediated gene silencing represents a conserved regulatory mechanism controlling a wide diversity of developmental processes through interactions of sRNAs with proteins of the ARGONAUTE (AGO) family. On the basis of a large phylogenetic analysis that includes 206 AGO genes belonging to 23 plant species, AGO genes group into four clades corresponding to the phylogenetic distribution proposed for the ten family members of Arabidopsis thaliana. A primary analysis of the corresponding protein sequences resulted in 50 sequences of amino acids (blocks) conserved across their linear length. Protein members of the AGO4/6/8/9 and AGO1/10 clades are more conserved than members of the AGO5 and AGO2/3/7 clades. In addition to blocks containing components of the PIWI, PAZ, and DUF1785 domains, members of the AGO2/3/7 and AGO4/6/8/9 clades possess other consensus block sequences that are exclusive of members within these clades, suggesting unforeseen functional specialization revealed by their primary sequence. We also show that AGO proteins of animal and plant kingdoms share linear sequences of blocks that include motifs involved in posttranslational modifications such as those regulating AGO2 in humans and the PIWI protein AUBERGINE in Drosophila. Our results open possibilities for exploring new structural and functional aspects related to the evolution of AGO proteins within the plant kingdom, and their convergence with analogous proteins in mammals and invertebrates.

  18. A Primary Sequence Analysis of the ARGONAUTE Protein Family in Plants.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Leal, Daniel; Castillo-Cobián, Amanda; Rodríguez-Arévalo, Isaac; Vielle-Calzada, Jean-Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Small RNA (sRNA)-mediated gene silencing represents a conserved regulatory mechanism controlling a wide diversity of developmental processes through interactions of sRNAs with proteins of the ARGONAUTE (AGO) family. On the basis of a large phylogenetic analysis that includes 206 AGO genes belonging to 23 plant species, AGO genes group into four clades corresponding to the phylogenetic distribution proposed for the ten family members of Arabidopsis thaliana. A primary analysis of the corresponding protein sequences resulted in 50 sequences of amino acids (blocks) conserved across their linear length. Protein members of the AGO4/6/8/9 and AGO1/10 clades are more conserved than members of the AGO5 and AGO2/3/7 clades. In addition to blocks containing components of the PIWI, PAZ, and DUF1785 domains, members of the AGO2/3/7 and AGO4/6/8/9 clades possess other consensus block sequences that are exclusive of members within these clades, suggesting unforeseen functional specialization revealed by their primary sequence. We also show that AGO proteins of animal and plant kingdoms share linear sequences of blocks that include motifs involved in posttranslational modifications such as those regulating AGO2 in humans and the PIWI protein AUBERGINE in Drosophila. Our results open possibilities for exploring new structural and functional aspects related to the evolution of AGO proteins within the plant kingdom, and their convergence with analogous proteins in mammals and invertebrates. PMID:27635128

  19. A Primary Sequence Analysis of the ARGONAUTE Protein Family in Plants.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Leal, Daniel; Castillo-Cobián, Amanda; Rodríguez-Arévalo, Isaac; Vielle-Calzada, Jean-Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Small RNA (sRNA)-mediated gene silencing represents a conserved regulatory mechanism controlling a wide diversity of developmental processes through interactions of sRNAs with proteins of the ARGONAUTE (AGO) family. On the basis of a large phylogenetic analysis that includes 206 AGO genes belonging to 23 plant species, AGO genes group into four clades corresponding to the phylogenetic distribution proposed for the ten family members of Arabidopsis thaliana. A primary analysis of the corresponding protein sequences resulted in 50 sequences of amino acids (blocks) conserved across their linear length. Protein members of the AGO4/6/8/9 and AGO1/10 clades are more conserved than members of the AGO5 and AGO2/3/7 clades. In addition to blocks containing components of the PIWI, PAZ, and DUF1785 domains, members of the AGO2/3/7 and AGO4/6/8/9 clades possess other consensus block sequences that are exclusive of members within these clades, suggesting unforeseen functional specialization revealed by their primary sequence. We also show that AGO proteins of animal and plant kingdoms share linear sequences of blocks that include motifs involved in posttranslational modifications such as those regulating AGO2 in humans and the PIWI protein AUBERGINE in Drosophila. Our results open possibilities for exploring new structural and functional aspects related to the evolution of AGO proteins within the plant kingdom, and their convergence with analogous proteins in mammals and invertebrates.

  20. A Primary Sequence Analysis of the ARGONAUTE Protein Family in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Leal, Daniel; Castillo-Cobián, Amanda; Rodríguez-Arévalo, Isaac; Vielle-Calzada, Jean-Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Small RNA (sRNA)-mediated gene silencing represents a conserved regulatory mechanism controlling a wide diversity of developmental processes through interactions of sRNAs with proteins of the ARGONAUTE (AGO) family. On the basis of a large phylogenetic analysis that includes 206 AGO genes belonging to 23 plant species, AGO genes group into four clades corresponding to the phylogenetic distribution proposed for the ten family members of Arabidopsis thaliana. A primary analysis of the corresponding protein sequences resulted in 50 sequences of amino acids (blocks) conserved across their linear length. Protein members of the AGO4/6/8/9 and AGO1/10 clades are more conserved than members of the AGO5 and AGO2/3/7 clades. In addition to blocks containing components of the PIWI, PAZ, and DUF1785 domains, members of the AGO2/3/7 and AGO4/6/8/9 clades possess other consensus block sequences that are exclusive of members within these clades, suggesting unforeseen functional specialization revealed by their primary sequence. We also show that AGO proteins of animal and plant kingdoms share linear sequences of blocks that include motifs involved in posttranslational modifications such as those regulating AGO2 in humans and the PIWI protein AUBERGINE in Drosophila. Our results open possibilities for exploring new structural and functional aspects related to the evolution of AGO proteins within the plant kingdom, and their convergence with analogous proteins in mammals and invertebrates. PMID:27635128

  1. Uncertainty analysis of primary water pollutant control in China's pulp and paper industry.

    PubMed

    Wen, Zong-guo; Di, Jing-han; Zhang, Xue-ying

    2016-03-15

    The total emission control target of water pollutants (e.g., COD and NH4-N) for a certain industrial sector can be predicted and analysed using the popular technology-based bottom-up modelling. However, this methodology has obvious uncertainty regarding the attainment of mitigation targets. The primary uncertainty comes from macro-production, pollutant reduction roadmap, and technical parameters. This research takes the paper and pulp industry in China as an example, and builds 5 mitigation scenarios via different combinations of raw material structure, scale structure, procedure mitigation technology, and end-of-pipe treatment technology. Using the methodology of uncertainty analysis via Monte Carlo, random sampling was conducted over a hundred thousand times. According to key parameters, sensitive parameters that impact total emission control targets such as industrial output, technique structure, cleaner production technology, and end-of-pipe treatment technology are discussed in this article. It appears that scenario uncertainty has a larger influence on COD emission than NH4-N, hence it is recommended that a looser total emission control target for COD is necessary to increase its feasibility and availability while maintaining the status quo of NH4-N. Consequently, from uncertainty analysis, this research recognizes the sensitive products, techniques, and technologies affecting industrial water pollution.

  2. Analysis and Design of Fuselage Structures Including Residual Strength Prediction Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, Norman F.

    1998-01-01

    The goal of this research project is to develop and assess methodologies for the design and analysis of fuselage structures accounting for residual strength. Two primary objectives are included in this research activity: development of structural analysis methodology for predicting residual strength of fuselage shell-type structures; and the development of accurate, efficient analysis, design and optimization tool for fuselage shell structures. Assessment of these tools for robustness, efficient, and usage in a fuselage shell design environment will be integrated with these two primary research objectives.

  3. Analysis of some elements in primary enamel during postnatal mineralization.

    PubMed

    Sabel, Nina; Klinberg, Gunilla; Nietzsche, Sandor; Robertson, Agneta; Odelius, Hans; Norén, Jörgen G

    2009-01-01

    The primary teeth start to mineralize in utero and continue development and maturation during the first year of life.The aim of this study was to investigate the concentrations of some elements, C, F, Na, Mg, Cl, K and Sr, by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) in human primary incisors at different stages of mineralization.The teeth derived from an autopsy material from children who had died in sudden infant death.The buccal enamel of specimens from the ages 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 19 months, respectively, was analyzed. It was evident that posteruptive effects play an important role in composition of the outermost parts of the enamel. Before the tooth erupts, the concentrations of the elements vary with the maturation grade of the mineralization in the enamel. Sodium was the element with the highest concentration of the measured elements and chlorine was the element of lowest concentration.The 19 month old specimen, considered as the only mature and erupted tooth, showed to differ from the other specimens.The concentration of fluorine, in the 19 month old specimen's outermost surface, is readily seen higher compared with the other specimens at this depth zone. In the 19 month old specimen the concentration of carbon is lower. Potassium, sodium and chlorine have higher concentrations, in general, in the 19 month old specimen compared with the immature specimens. The thickness of the enamel during mineralization was calculated from data from SIMS.The thickness of the buccal enamel of primary incisors seemed to be fully developed between 3-4 months after birth, reaching a thickness of 350-400 microm.

  4. Self-Efficacy, School Resources, Job Stressors and Burnout among Spanish Primary and Secondary School Teachers: A Structural Equation Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betoret, Fernando Domenech

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between school resources, teacher self-efficacy, potential multi-level stressors and teacher burnout using structural equation modelling. The causal structure for primary and secondary school teachers was also examined. The sample was composed of 724 primary and secondary Spanish school teachers. The changes…

  5. Fast computational methods for predicting protein structure from primary amino acid sequence

    DOEpatents

    Agarwal, Pratul Kumar

    2011-07-19

    The present invention provides a method utilizing primary amino acid sequence of a protein, energy minimization, molecular dynamics and protein vibrational modes to predict three-dimensional structure of a protein. The present invention also determines possible intermediates in the protein folding pathway. The present invention has important applications to the design of novel drugs as well as protein engineering. The present invention predicts the three-dimensional structure of a protein independent of size of the protein, overcoming a significant limitation in the prior art.

  6. Molecular cloning, primary structure, and expression of the human platelet/erythroleukemia cell 12-lipoxygenase

    SciTech Connect

    Funk, C.D.; Furci, L.; FitzGerald, G.A. )

    1990-08-01

    The major pathway of arachidonic acid metabolism in human platelets proceeds via a 12-lipoxygenase enzyme; however, the biological role of the product of this reaction, 12-hydro(pero)xyeicosatetraenoic acid (12-H(P)ETE), is unknown. Using a combination of the polymerase chain reaction and conventional screening procedures, the authors have isolated cDNA clones encoding the human platelet/human erythroleukemia (HEL) cell 12-lipoxygenase. From the deduced primary structure, human platelet/HEL 12-lipoxygenase would encode a M{sub r} 75,000 protein consisting of 663 amino acids. The cDNA encoding the full-length protein (pCDNA-12lx) under the control of the cytomegalovirus promoter was expressed in simian COS-M6 cells. Intact cells and lysed-cell supernatants were able to synthesize 12-H(P)ETE from arachidonic acid, whereas no 12-H(P)ETE synthesis was detected in mock-transfected cells. A single 2.4-kilobase mRNA was detected in erythroleukemia cells but not in several other tissues and cell lines evaluated by Northern blot analysis. Comparison of the human platelet/HEL 12-lipoxygenase sequence with that of porcine leukocyte 12-lipoxygenase and human reticulocyte 15-lipoxygenase revealed 65% amino acid identity to both enzymes. By contrast, the leukocyte 12-lipoxygenase is 86% identical to human reticulocyte 15-lipoxygenase. Sequence data and previously demonstrated immunochemical and biochemical evidence support the existence of distinct 12-lipoxygenase isoforms. The availability of cDNA probes for human platelet/HEL cell 12-lipoxygenase should facilitate elucidation of the biological role of this pathway.

  7. Predicting protein-protein interactions in unbalanced data using the primary structure of proteins

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Elucidating protein-protein interactions (PPIs) is essential to constructing protein interaction networks and facilitating our understanding of the general principles of biological systems. Previous studies have revealed that interacting protein pairs can be predicted by their primary structure. Most of these approaches have achieved satisfactory performance on datasets comprising equal number of interacting and non-interacting protein pairs. However, this ratio is highly unbalanced in nature, and these techniques have not been comprehensively evaluated with respect to the effect of the large number of non-interacting pairs in realistic datasets. Moreover, since highly unbalanced distributions usually lead to large datasets, more efficient predictors are desired when handling such challenging tasks. Results This study presents a method for PPI prediction based only on sequence information, which contributes in three aspects. First, we propose a probability-based mechanism for transforming protein sequences into feature vectors. Second, the proposed predictor is designed with an efficient classification algorithm, where the efficiency is essential for handling highly unbalanced datasets. Third, the proposed PPI predictor is assessed with several unbalanced datasets with different positive-to-negative ratios (from 1:1 to 1:15). This analysis provides solid evidence that the degree of dataset imbalance is important to PPI predictors. Conclusions Dealing with data imbalance is a key issue in PPI prediction since there are far fewer interacting protein pairs than non-interacting ones. This article provides a comprehensive study on this issue and develops a practical tool that achieves both good prediction performance and efficiency using only protein sequence information. PMID:20361868

  8. Quantitative Correlation between the protein primary sequences and secondary structures in spider dragline silks.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Janelle E; Creager, Melinda S; Lewis, Randolph V; Holland, Gregory P; Yarger, Jeffery L

    2010-01-11

    Synthetic spider silk holds great potential for use in various applications spanning medical uses to ultra lightweight armor; however, producing synthetic fibers with mechanical properties comparable to natural spider silk has eluded the scientific community. Natural dragline spider silks are commonly made from proteins that contain highly repetitive amino acid motifs, adopting an array of secondary structures. Before further advances can be made in the production of synthetic fibers based on spider silk proteins, it is imperative to know the percentage of each amino acid in the protein that forms a specific secondary structure. Linking these percentages to the primary amino acid sequence of the protein will establish a structural foundation for synthetic silk. In this study, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques are used to quantify the percentage of Ala, Gly, and Ser that form both beta-sheet and helical secondary structures. The fraction of these three amino acids and their secondary structure are quantitatively correlated to the primary amino acid sequence for the proteins that comprise major and minor ampullate silk from the Nephila clavipes spider providing a blueprint for synthetic spider silks. PMID:20000730

  9. Aero-Structural Interaction, Analysis, and Shape Sensitivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, James C., III

    1999-01-01

    A multidisciplinary sensitivity analysis technique that has been shown to be independent of step-size selection is examined further. The accuracy of this step-size independent technique, which uses complex variables for determining sensitivity derivatives, has been previously established. The primary focus of this work is to validate the aero-structural analysis procedure currently being used. This validation consists of comparing computed and experimental data obtained for an Aeroelastic Research Wing (ARW-2). Since the aero-structural analysis procedure has the complex variable modifications already included into the software, sensitivity derivatives can automatically be computed. Other than for design purposes, sensitivity derivatives can be used for predicting the solution at nearby conditions. The use of sensitivity derivatives for predicting the aero-structural characteristics of this configuration is demonstrated.

  10. Primary Trait Analysis to Assess a Learner-Centered, Upper-Level Mathematics Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsardary, Salar; Pontiggia, Laura; Hamid, Mohammed; Blumberg, Phyllis

    2011-01-01

    This study presents a primary trait analysis of a learner-centered, discrete mathematics course based on student-to-student instruction. The authors developed a scoring rubric for the primary traits: conceptual knowledge, procedural knowledge, application of understanding, and mathematical communication skills. Eleven students took an exam…

  11. Use Root Cause Analysis Teaching Strategy to Train Primary Pre-Service Science Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Chow-chin; Tsai, Chun-wei; Hong, Jon-chao

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the Root Cause Analysis (RCA) teaching strategy on pre-service primary science teachers and instinct pre-service teachers to apply RCA teaching strategy to science curriculums. RCA Teaching Strategy is to coordinates 5 Why Method and Fishbone Diagram. The participants included 18 pre-service primary science teachers and the…

  12. Formation mechanism of primary phases and eutectic structures within undercooled Pb-Sb-Sn ternary alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Weili; Dai, Fuping; Wei, Bingbo

    2007-08-01

    The solidification characteristics of three types of Pb-Sb-Sn ternary alloys with different primary phases were studied under substantial undercooling conditions. The experimental results show that primary (Pb) and SbSn phases grow in the dendritic mode, whereas primary (Sb) phase exhibits faceted growth in the form of polygonal blocks and long strips. (Pb) solid solution phase displays strong affinity with SbSn intermetallic compound so that they produce various morphologies of pseudobinary eutectics, but it can only grow in the divorced eutectic mode together with (Sb) phase. Although (Sb) solid solution phase and SbSn intermetallic compound may grow cooperatively within ternary eutectic microstructures, they seldom form pseudobinary eutectics independently. The (Pb)+(Sb)+SbSn ternary eutectic structure usually shows lamellar morphology, but appears as anomalous eutectic when its volume fraction becomes small. EDS analyses reveal that all of the three primary (Pb), (Sb) and SbSn phases exhibit conspicuous solute trapping effect during rapid solidification, which results in the remarkable extension of solute solubility.

  13. Fourier Analysis and Structure Determination--Part III: X-ray Crystal Structure Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chesick, John P.

    1989-01-01

    Discussed is single crystal X-ray crystal structure analysis. A common link between the NMR imaging and the traditional X-ray crystal structure analysis is reported. Claims that comparisons aid in the understanding of both techniques. (MVL)

  14. [The factor structure of coping strategies and their effects on burnout among primary caregivers of impaired elderly persons].

    PubMed

    Okabayashi, H; Sugisawa, H; Takanashi, K; Nakatani, Y; Shibata, H

    1999-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to extract the factor structure of coping strategies and to examine their direct and indirect effects on burnout. Eight hundred thirty four valid responses obtained from primary caregivers of impaired persons aged 65 years old and over living in the community were analyzed. The results of covariance structural analysis were as follows: Three second order factors, including "Approach", and "Avoidance," and "Support seeking," were extracted. Five factors, "Keeping their own pace," "Positive acceptance of caregiving role," "Diversion," "Informal support seeking," and "Formal support seeking," were extracted as first order factors. "Keeping their own pace," directly decreased burnout and "Diversion" indirectly decreased burnout through caregiving in involvement. "Informal support seeking" directly increased burnout and "Positive acceptance of caregiving role" indirectly increased burnout through caregiving involvement.

  15. Structure of Cellulose Microfibrils in Primary Cell Walls from Collenchyma1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Lynne H.; Forsyth, V. Trevor; Šturcová, Adriana; Kennedy, Craig J.; May, Roland P.; Altaner, Clemens M.; Apperley, David C.; Wess, Timothy J.; Jarvis, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    In the primary walls of growing plant cells, the glucose polymer cellulose is assembled into long microfibrils a few nanometers in diameter. The rigidity and orientation of these microfibrils control cell expansion; therefore, cellulose synthesis is a key factor in the growth and morphogenesis of plants. Celery (Apium graveolens) collenchyma is a useful model system for the study of primary wall microfibril structure because its microfibrils are oriented with unusual uniformity, facilitating spectroscopic and diffraction experiments. Using a combination of x-ray and neutron scattering methods with vibrational and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, we show that celery collenchyma microfibrils were 2.9 to 3.0 nm in mean diameter, with a most probable structure containing 24 chains in cross section, arranged in eight hydrogen-bonded sheets of three chains, with extensive disorder in lateral packing, conformation, and hydrogen bonding. A similar 18-chain structure, and 24-chain structures of different shape, fitted the data less well. Conformational disorder was largely restricted to the surface chains, but disorder in chain packing was not. That is, in position and orientation, the surface chains conformed to the disordered lattice constituting the core of each microfibril. There was evidence that adjacent microfibrils were noncovalently aggregated together over part of their length, suggesting that the need to disrupt these aggregates might be a constraining factor in growth and in the hydrolysis of cellulose for biofuel production. PMID:23175754

  16. Structural analysis techniqes for remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, L. G.

    1982-01-01

    The structural analysis of remotely sensed imagery is defined and basic techniques for implementing the process are described. Structural analysis uses knowledge of the properties of an entity, its parts and their relationships, and the relationships in which it participates at a higher level to locate and recognize objects in a visual scene. The representation of structural knowledge, the development of algorithms for using the knowledge to help analyze an image, and techniques for storage and retrieval of relational models are addressed.

  17. Advanced composites structural concepts and materials technologies for primary aircraft structures: Design/manufacturing concept assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Robert L.; Bayha, Tom D.; Davis, HU; Ingram, J. ED; Shukla, Jay G.

    1992-01-01

    Composite Wing and Fuselage Structural Design/Manufacturing Concepts have been developed and evaluated. Trade studies were performed to determine how well the concepts satisfy the program goals of 25 percent cost savings, 40 percent weight savings with aircraft resizing, and 50 percent part count reduction as compared to the aluminum Lockheed L-1011 baseline. The concepts developed using emerging technologies such as large scale resin transfer molding (RTM), automatic tow placed (ATP), braiding, out-of-autoclave and automated manufacturing processes for both thermoset and thermoplastic materials were evaluated for possible application in the design concepts. Trade studies were used to determine which concepts carry into the detailed design development subtask.

  18. Periodicity in DNA primary structure is defined by secondary structure of the coded protein.

    PubMed Central

    Zhurkin, V B

    1981-01-01

    A 10.5-base periodicity found earlier is inherent in both eu- and prokaryotic coding nucleotide sequences. In the case of noncoding eukaryotic sequences no periodicity is found, so the 10.5-base oscillation seemingly does not correlate with the nucleosomal organization of DNA. It is shown that the DNA fragments, coding the alpha-helical protein segments, manifest the pronounced 10.5-base periodicity, while those regions of DNA which code the beta-structure have a 6-base oscillation. The repeating pattern of nucleotide sequences can be used for comparison of the DNA segments with low degree of homology. PMID:7243595

  19. Characterizing primary refractory neuroblastoma: prediction of outcome by microscopic image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niazi, M. Khalid Khan; Weiser, Daniel A.; Pawel, Bruce R.; Gurcan, Metin N.

    2015-03-01

    Neuroblastoma is a childhood cancer that starts in very early forms of nerve cells found in an embryo or fetus. It is a highly lethal cancer of sympathetic nervous system that commonly affects children of age five or younger. It accounts for a disproportionate number of childhood cancer deaths and remains a difficult cancer to eradicate despite intensive treatment that includes chemotherapy, surgery, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, radiation therapy and immunotherapy. A poorly characterized group of patients are the 15% with primary refractory neuroblastoma (PRN) which is uniformly lethal due to de novo chemotherapy resistance. The lack of response to therapy is currently assessed after multiple months of cytotoxic therapy, driving the critical need to develop pretreatment clinic-biological biomarkers that can guide precise and effective therapeutic strategies. Therefore, our guiding hypothesis is that PRN has distinct biological features present at diagnosis that can be identified for prediction modeling. During a visual analysis of PRN slides, stained with hematoxylin and eosin, we observed that patients who survived for less than three years contained large eosin-stained structures as compared to those who survived for greater than three years. So, our hypothesis is that the size of eosin stained structures can be used as a differentiating feature to characterize recurrence in neuroblastoma. To test this hypothesis, we developed an image analysis method that performs stain separation, followed by the detection of large structures stained with Eosin. On a set of 21 PRN slides, stained with hematoxylin and eosin, our image analysis method predicted the outcome with 85.7% accuracy.

  20. Practical numerical analysis of a crack near a weld subjected to primary loading and hydrogen embrittlement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Askari, Ayman

    Structural failures by fracture in oil and petroleum industries can have severe consequences both in term of loss of life and of economics. This severity will increase in the future as the size and complexity of installations increase. Industry must be constantly vigilant in learning from past failures and in studying the possible effects of changes in technology on fracture risks. The combination of the effects of fabrication and operation, and of corrosive surroundings has not been clearly understood or analyzed. For structures in oil and petroleum industries, this complex interaction contributes to brittle fracture. In this research, the most common type of this combination is discussed and analyzed. The structure consists of a welded thick wall pressure vessel subject to primary loading and exposed to hydrogen at elevated temperature. To be more practical, a real case of a crack in a thick wall, welded pressure vessel under high hydrogen partial pressure and moderate temperature is selected from a petroleum refinery. This research establishes a procedure to deal with the complex interaction of issues associated with material processing and corrosive atmosphere that are active in this process. It also establishes a formal procedure to predict the active life of a structure that has a crack and is exposed to a hydrogen-enriched atmosphere. To achieve that there are five major steps to be carried out in this work: (1) Welding process simulation. (2) Post Weld Heat Treatment (PWHT) simulation. (3) Material property degradation due to hydrogen embrittlement. (4) Stress analysis of the cracked specimen. (5) Fitness for purpose analysis.

  1. Probabilistic structural analysis by extremum methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nafday, Avinash M.

    1990-01-01

    The objective is to demonstrate discrete extremum methods of structural analysis as a tool for structural system reliability evaluation. Specifically, linear and multiobjective linear programming models for analysis of rigid plastic frames under proportional and multiparametric loadings, respectively, are considered. Kinematic and static approaches for analysis form a primal-dual pair in each of these models and have a polyhedral format. Duality relations link extreme points and hyperplanes of these polyhedra and lead naturally to dual methods for system reliability evaluation.

  2. Evaluation of Pactruss design characteristics critical to space station primary structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hedgepeth, John M.

    1987-01-01

    Several aspects of the possible application of the Pactruss concept to the primary truss structure of the space station are investigated. Estimates are made of the loads and hinge moments in deploying diagonal members as full deployment is approached. Included are the effects of beam columning and compliance of the surrounding structure. Requirements for joint design are suggested and a two-stage mid-diagonal latching hinge concept is described or analyzed. The problems with providing the experimental and theoretical tools needed for assuring reliable synchronous deployment are discussed and a first attempt at high-fidelity analytical simulation with NASTRAN is described. An alternative construction scenario in which the entire dual-keel truss structure is deployed as a single Shuttle payload is suggested.

  3. Automating Structural Analysis of Spacecraft Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hrinda, Glenn A.

    2004-01-01

    A major effort within NASA's vehicle analysis discipline has been to automate structural analysis and sizing optimization during conceptual design studies of advanced spacecraft. Traditional spacecraft structural sizing has involved detailed finite element analysis (FEA) requiring large degree-of-freedom (DOF) finite element models (FEM). Creation and analysis of these models can be time consuming and limit model size during conceptual designs. The goal is to find an optimal design that meets the mission requirements but produces the lightest structure. A structural sizing tool called HyperSizer has been successfully used in the conceptual design phase of a reusable launch vehicle and planetary exploration spacecraft. The program couples with FEA to enable system level performance assessments and weight predictions including design optimization of material selections and sizing of spacecraft members. The software's analysis capabilities are based on established aerospace structural methods for strength, stability and stiffness that produce adequately sized members and reliable structural weight estimates. The software also helps to identify potential structural deficiencies early in the conceptual design so changes can be made without wasted time. HyperSizer's automated analysis and sizing optimization increases productivity and brings standardization to a systems study. These benefits will be illustrated in examining two different types of conceptual spacecraft designed using the software. A hypersonic air breathing, single stage to orbit (SSTO), reusable launch vehicle (RLV) will be highlighted as well as an aeroshell for a planetary exploration vehicle used for aerocapture at Mars. By showing the two different types of vehicles, the software's flexibility will be demonstrated with an emphasis on reducing aeroshell structural weight. Member sizes, concepts and material selections will be discussed as well as analysis methods used in optimizing the structure

  4. Thermal/structural analysis of a transpiration cooled nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, Peyton B.; Thompson, Jon E.; Babcock, Dale A.; Gray, Carl E., Jr.; Mouring, Chris A.

    1992-01-01

    The 8-foot High Temperature Tunnel (HTT) at LaRC is a combustion driven, high enthalpy blow down wind tunnel. In Mar. 1991, during check out of the transpiration cooled nozzle, pieces of platelets were found in the tunnel test section. It was determined that incorrect tolerancing between the platelets and the housing was the primary cause of the platelet failure. An analysis was performed to determine the tolerance layout between the platelets and the housing to meet the structural and performance criteria under a range of thermal, pressure, and bolt preload conditions. Three recommendations resulted as a product of this analysis.

  5. Solid-state NMR investigations of cellulose structure and interactions with matrix polysaccharides in plant primary cell walls.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tuo; Hong, Mei

    2016-01-01

    Until recently, the 3D architecture of plant cell walls was poorly understood due to the lack of high-resolution techniques for characterizing the molecular structure, dynamics, and intermolecular interactions of the wall polysaccharides in these insoluble biomolecular mixtures. We introduced multidimensional solid-state NMR (SSNMR) spectroscopy, coupled with (13)C labelling of whole plants, to determine the spatial arrangements of macromolecules in near-native plant cell walls. Here we review key evidence from 2D and 3D correlation NMR spectra that show relatively few cellulose-hemicellulose cross peaks but many cellulose-pectin cross peaks, indicating that cellulose microfibrils are not extensively coated by hemicellulose and all three major polysaccharides exist in a single network rather than two separate networks as previously proposed. The number of glucan chains in the primary-wall cellulose microfibrils has been under active debate recently. We show detailed analysis of quantitative (13)C SSNMR spectra of cellulose in various wild-type (WT) and mutant Arabidopsis and Brachypodium primary cell walls, which consistently indicate that primary-wall cellulose microfibrils contain at least 24 glucan chains.

  6. Structuring student learning in the primary care setting: where is the evidence?

    PubMed

    Kurth, R J; Irigoyen, M M; Schmidt, H J

    2001-08-01

    Over the past two decades, the majority of medical schools in the USA have embarked upon curricular initiatives to enhance the teaching of ambulatory or office-based primary care. Identifying characteristics of these primary care experiences that make for the most effective learning is a top priority in medical education research. In this paper we examine what is known about the influence of variability in the structure of primary care experiences on student learning outcomes. We examine the questions of how rotations are scheduled, who does the teaching and where the teaching takes place. Given the variability in curricula across the 125 accredited medical schools in the USA and the absence of agreed-upon objectives, outcomes or assessment measures for primary care education, it is not surprising that the current literature has fallen short in providing definitive answers. There is much debate about the benefits of community vs. campus sites, longitudinal vs. block experiences, and the influence of specialty training of the preceptor, but little in the current literature to guide and substantiate a programme's choice. What can be concluded with relative confidence is that clinics currently offer more active student experiences than do private offices, that students may be more satisfied with rural experiences than with urban or suburban experiences, and that longitudinal and block experiences have different learning advantages. Research in primary care medical education will benefit from the current movement towards a cross-institutional consensus on educational objectives and outcome measures and on the general application of a more rigorous research methodology.

  7. Primary posterior stabilized total knee arthroplasty: analysis of different instrumentation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Intercondylar femoral bone removal during posterior stabilized (PS) total knee arthroplasty (TKA) makes many cruciate substituting implant designs less appealing than cruciate retaining implants. Bone stock conservation is considered fundamental in the prevision of future revision surgeries. The purpose of this study was to compare the quantity of intercondylar bone removable during PS housing preparation using three contemporary PS TKA instrumentations. Method We compared different box cutting jigs which were utilized for the PS housing of three popular PS knee prostheses. The bone removal area from every PS box cutting jig was three-dimensionally measured. Results Independently from the implant size, the cutting jig for a specific PS TKA always resected significantly less bone than the others: this difference was statistically significant, especially for small- to medium-sized total knee femoral components. Conclusion This study does not establish a clinical relevance of removing more or less bone at primary TKA, but suggests that if a PS design is indicated, it is preferable to select a model which possibly resects less distal femoral bone. PMID:25037275

  8. Genotype analysis in Hungarian patients with multiple primary melanoma.

    PubMed

    Hatvani, Zsófia; Brodszky, Valentin; Mazán, Mercédesz; Pintér, Dóra; Hársing, Judit; Tóth, Veronika; Somlai, Beáta; Kárpáti, Sarolta

    2014-05-01

    Multiple primary melanoma patients (MPMps) have better prognosis and are more prone to genetic predisposition than single melanoma patients. We aimed to compare genetic background (CDKN2A, CDK4, MITF, MC1R) of 43 Hungarian MPMps with their clinicopathological data. We observed a higher rate of synchronous first and second melanoma (MM) (49%) and a higher frequency of non-melanoma tumor co-occurrence (42%) than reported previously. CDKN2A mutation frequency was 4.7% (E69G, R99P). We identified a new human MC1R variant (D117G) and reported MC1R variant distributions in Hungarian MMs for the first time. The rare R163Q was exceptionally common among Hungarian MPMps, a variant otherwise frequent in Asia, but not in Europe. MC1R 'R' carriers showed histopathological signs of a more progressive disease than 'r' carriers did; however, tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in their second melanomas occurred significantly more frequently. Calculating 5-year overall survival, 'R' carriers showed more unfavourable prognosis (87%) than 'r' carriers did (95%).

  9. Plastic foils as primary hydrogen standards for nuclear reaction analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudolph, W.; Bauer, C.; Brankoff, K.; Grambole, D.; Grötzschel, R.; Heiser, C.; Herrmann, F.

    1986-04-01

    Plastic materials like polypropylene, polyester (Mylar) and polycarbonate (Lexan or Makrofol E) contain large amounts of hydrogen and their compositions are well known. However, these materials are not stable during ion bombardment. Using the 1H( 15N,αγ) 12C and 1H( 19F, αγ) 16O nuclear resonance reaction at energies EN = 6.50 MeV and EF = 6.83 MeV, respectively, we have investigated the behaviour of plastic foils during 15N and 19F ion bombardment. By means of a rotating sample holder low current densities of 1-2 {nA}/{cm 2} and large irradiated foil areas of up to 10 cm 2 were realized. Under these measuring conditions the γ-ray yields change only slightly and the initial yields, which correspond to the known compositions of the foils, can be determined with good accuracy. In this way the plastic foils can be used as primary standards for hydrogen content calibration. The method was employed to calibrate an a-Si(H) reference target.

  10. Genotype analysis in Hungarian patients with multiple primary melanoma.

    PubMed

    Hatvani, Zsófia; Brodszky, Valentin; Mazán, Mercédesz; Pintér, Dóra; Hársing, Judit; Tóth, Veronika; Somlai, Beáta; Kárpáti, Sarolta

    2014-05-01

    Multiple primary melanoma patients (MPMps) have better prognosis and are more prone to genetic predisposition than single melanoma patients. We aimed to compare genetic background (CDKN2A, CDK4, MITF, MC1R) of 43 Hungarian MPMps with their clinicopathological data. We observed a higher rate of synchronous first and second melanoma (MM) (49%) and a higher frequency of non-melanoma tumor co-occurrence (42%) than reported previously. CDKN2A mutation frequency was 4.7% (E69G, R99P). We identified a new human MC1R variant (D117G) and reported MC1R variant distributions in Hungarian MMs for the first time. The rare R163Q was exceptionally common among Hungarian MPMps, a variant otherwise frequent in Asia, but not in Europe. MC1R 'R' carriers showed histopathological signs of a more progressive disease than 'r' carriers did; however, tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in their second melanomas occurred significantly more frequently. Calculating 5-year overall survival, 'R' carriers showed more unfavourable prognosis (87%) than 'r' carriers did (95%). PMID:24660985

  11. Mutational analysis of primary central nervous system lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, Aurélie; Boisselier, Blandine; Labreche, Karim; Marie, Yannick; Polivka, Marc; Jouvet, Anne; Adam, Clovis; Figarella-Branger, Dominique; Miquel, Catherine; Eimer, Sandrine; Houillier, Caroline; Soussain, Carole; Mokhtari, Karima; Daveau, Romain; Hoang-Xuan, Khê

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the genomic basis of primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) tumorigenesis. To investigate the mutational profile of PCNSL, we analyzed nine paired tumor and germline DNA samples from PCNSL patients by high throughput exome sequencing. Eight genes of interest have been further investigated by focused resequencing in 28 additional PCNSL tumors to better estimate their incidence. Our study identified recurrent somatic mutations in 37 genes, some involved in key signaling pathways such as NFKB, B cell differentiation and cell cycle control. Focused resequencing in the larger cohort revealed high mutation rates for genes already described as mutated in PCNSL such as MYD88 (38%), CD79B (30%), PIM1 (22%) and TBL1XR1 (19%) and for genes not previously reported to be involved in PCNSL tumorigenesis such as ETV6 (16%), IRF4 (14%), IRF2BP2 (11%) and EBF1 (11%). Of note, only 3 somatically acquired SNVs were annotated in the COSMIC database. Our results demonstrate a high genetic heterogeneity of PCNSL and mutational pattern similarities with extracerebral diffuse large B cell lymphomas, particularly of the activated B-cell (ABC) subtype, suggesting shared underlying biological mechanisms. The present study provides new insights into the mutational profile of PCNSL and potential targets for therapeutic strategies. PMID:24970810

  12. Analysis of suspended solids transport processes in primary settling tanks.

    PubMed

    Patziger, Miklós; Kiss, Katalin

    2015-01-01

    The paper shows the results of a long-term research comprising FLUENT-based numerical modeling, in situ measurements and laboratory tests to analyze suspended solids (SS) transport processes in primary settling tanks (PSTs). The investigated PST was one of the rectangular horizontal flow PSTs at a large municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) of a capacity of 500,000 population equivalent. Many middle-sized and large WWTPs are equipped with such PSTs. The numerical PST model was calibrated and validated based on the results of comprehensive in situ flow and SS concentration measurements from low (5 m/h) up to quite high surface overflow rates of 9.5 and 13.0 m/h and on settling and other laboratory tests. The calibrated and validated PST model was also successfully used for evaluation of some slight modifications of the inlet geometry (removing lamellas, installing a flocculation 'box', shifting the inlet into a 'bottom-near' or into a 'high' position), which largely affect PST behavior and performance. The investigations provided detailed insight into the flow and SS transport processes within the investigated PST, which strongly contributes to hydrodynamically driven design and upgrading of PSTs.

  13. Regional structural differences across functionally parcellated Brodmann areas of human primary somatosensory cortex.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Panchuelo, Rosa-María; Besle, Julien; Mougin, Olivier; Gowland, Penny; Bowtell, Richard; Schluppeck, Denis; Francis, Susan

    2014-06-01

    Ultra-high-field (UHF) MRI is ideally suited for structural and functional imaging of the brain. High-resolution structural MRI can be used to map the anatomical boundaries between functional domains of the brain by identifying changes related to the pattern of myelination within cortical gray matter, opening up the possibility to study the relationship between functional domains and underlying structure in vivo. In a recent study, we demonstrated the correspondence between functional (based on retinotopic mapping) and structural (based on changes in T2(⁎)-weighted images linked to myelination) parcellations of the primary visual cortex (V1) in vivo at 7T (Sanchez-Panchuelo et al., 2012b). Here, we take advantage of the improved BOLD CNR and high spatial resolution achievable at 7T to study regional structural variations across the functionally defined areas within the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) in individual subjects. Using a traveling wave fMRI paradigm to map the internal somatotopic representation of the index, middle, and ring fingers in S1, we were able to identify multiple map reversals at the tip and base, corresponding to the boundaries between Brodmann areas 3a, 3b, 1 and 2. Based on high resolution structural MRI data acquired in the same subjects, we inspected these functionally-parcellated Brodmann areas for differences in cortical thickness and MR contrast measures (magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) and signal intensity in phase sensitive inversion recovery (PSIR) images) that are sensitive to myelination. Consistent area-related differences in cortical thickness and MTR/PSIR measurements were found across subjects. However these measures did not have sufficient sensitivity to allow definition of areal boundaries.

  14. Mass spectrometry for pectin structure analysis.

    PubMed

    Ralet, Marie-Christine; Lerouge, Patrice; Quéméner, Bernard

    2009-09-28

    Pectin are extremely complex biopolymers made up of different structural domains. Enzymatic degradation followed by purification and structural analysis of the degradation products proved to be efficient tools for the understanding of pectin fine structure, including covalent interactions between pectic structural domains or with other cell wall polysaccharides. Due to its high sensitivity, high throughput and capacity to analyze mixtures, mass spectrometry has gained more and more importance as a tool for oligosaccharides structural characterization in the past 10 years. This review will focus on the combined use of mass spectrometry and enzymatic digestion for pectins structural characterization. PMID:19058795

  15. Intermittency Coding in the Primary Olfactory System: A Neural Substrate for Olfactory Scene Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Il Memming; Bobkov, Yuriy V.; Ache, Barry W.

    2014-01-01

    The spatial and temporal characteristics of the visual and acoustic sensory input are indispensable attributes for animals to perform scene analysis. In contrast, research in olfaction has focused almost exclusively on how the nervous system analyzes the quality and quantity of the sensory signal and largely ignored the spatiotemporal dimension especially in longer time scales. Yet, detailed analyses of the turbulent, intermittent structure of water- and air-borne odor plumes strongly suggest that spatio-temporal information in longer time scales can provide major cues for olfactory scene analysis for animals. We show that a bursting subset of primary olfactory receptor neurons (bORNs) in lobster has the unexpected capacity to encode the temporal properties of intermittent odor signals. Each bORN is tuned to a specific range of stimulus intervals, and collectively bORNs can instantaneously encode a wide spectrum of intermittencies. Our theory argues for the existence of a novel peripheral mechanism for encoding the temporal pattern of odor that potentially serves as a neural substrate for olfactory scene analysis. PMID:24431452

  16. Intermittency coding in the primary olfactory system: a neural substrate for olfactory scene analysis.

    PubMed

    Park, Il Memming; Bobkov, Yuriy V; Ache, Barry W; Príncipe, José C

    2014-01-15

    The spatial and temporal characteristics of the visual and acoustic sensory input are indispensable attributes for animals to perform scene analysis. In contrast, research in olfaction has focused almost exclusively on how the nervous system analyzes the quality and quantity of the sensory signal and largely ignored the spatiotemporal dimension especially in longer time scales. Yet, detailed analyses of the turbulent, intermittent structure of water- and air-borne odor plumes strongly suggest that spatio-temporal information in longer time scales can provide major cues for olfactory scene analysis for animals. We show that a bursting subset of primary olfactory receptor neurons (bORNs) in lobster has the unexpected capacity to encode the temporal properties of intermittent odor signals. Each bORN is tuned to a specific range of stimulus intervals, and collectively bORNs can instantaneously encode a wide spectrum of intermittencies. Our theory argues for the existence of a novel peripheral mechanism for encoding the temporal pattern of odor that potentially serves as a neural substrate for olfactory scene analysis.

  17. A space imaging concept based on a 4m structured spun-cast borosilicate monolithic primary mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, S. C.; Bailey, S. H.; Bauman, S.; Cuerden, B.; Granger, Z.; Olbert, B. H.

    2010-07-01

    Lockheed Martin Corporation (LMC) tasked The University of Arizona Steward Observatory (UASO) to conduct an engineering study to examine the feasibility of creating a 4m space telescope based on mature borosilicate technology developed at the UASO for ground-based telescopes. UASO has completed this study and concluded that existing launch vehicles can deliver a 4m monolithic telescope system to a 500 km circular orbit and provide reliable imagery at NIIRS 7-8. An analysis of such an imager based on a lightweight, high-performance, structured 4m primary mirror cast from borosilicate glass is described. The relatively high CTE of this glass is used to advantage by maintaining mirror shape quality with a thermal figuring method. Placed in a 290 K thermal shroud (similar to the Hubble Space Telescope), the orbit averaged figure surface error is 6nm rms when earth-looking. Space-looking optical performance shows that a similar thermal conditioning scheme combined with a 270 K shroud achieves primary mirror distortion of 10 nm rms surface. Analysis shows that a 3-point bipod mount will provide launch survivability with ample margin. The primary mirror naturally maintains its shape at 1g allowing excellent end-to-end pre-launch testing with e.g. the LOTIS 6.5m Collimator. The telescope includes simple systems to measure and correct mirror shape and alignment errors incorporating technologies already proven on the LOTIS Collimator. We have sketched a notional earth-looking 4m telescope concept combined with a wide field TMA concept into a DELTA IV or ATLAS 552 EELV fairing. We have combined an initial analysis of launch and space performance of a special light-weighted honeycomb borosilicate mirror (areal density 95 kg/m2) with public domain information on the existing launch vehicles.

  18. Genotypic analysis of primary and metastatic cutaneous melanoma.

    PubMed

    Rao, U N M; Jones, M W; Finkelstein, S D

    2003-01-01

    Microdissection genotyping was performed on 16 cases of melanoma, including two cutaneous and one lymph node metastases. Three benign nevi were used as controls. Where possible, tumor was microdissected at several sites. Genotyping involved assessment of loss of heterozygosity [LOH]), which was accomplished using a panel of nine polymorphic tetranucleotide microsatellites. Polymerase chain reaction was performed on the normal tissue sample to establish microsatellite heterozygous status. Informative markers were then tested on microdissected lesional tissue and scored for the presence and extent of allelic imbalance (AI). Microsatellite informativeness varied from 33% to 66%. Benign nevi were without AI. All invasive melanomas manifested acquired allelic loss, which involved 75% or 100% of the markers shown to be informative for each subject. Eleven of 13 (84%) primary melanomas demonstrated intratumoral heterogeneity of AI consistent with development of tumor subclones with differing genotypic profiles within thin as well as thick melanomas. Although a consistent pattern did not emerge among the markers, LOH of 9p21 (D9S254) occurred in 60% (9/15) of the cases followed by 40% of cases displaying LOH of 1p34, p53, 10q (MXI1), and 10q23 (D10S520) and 25% with 5q21 (D5S 592) abnormalities. A third of the cases including the metastatic foci demonstrated two different patterns of AI affecting alternative alleles of the same genomic marker within different parts of the melanoma. Two melanomas in situ did not display LOH of any markers in the informative cases although the in situ component in the invasive tumors had allelic losses that were in part similar to the invasive areas. The results of this study support the expanded use of microdissection genotyping and explore other markers to define the unique mutational profile for malignant melanoma that may complement other histologic characteristics of melanoma. PMID:12550756

  19. Ambient modal identification of a primary-secondary structure by Fast Bayesian FFT method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Au, Siu-Kui; Zhang, Feng-Liang

    2012-04-01

    The Mong Man Wai Building is a seven-storied reinforced concrete structure situated on the campus of the City University of Hong Kong. On its roof a two-storied steel frame has been recently constructed to host a new wind tunnel laboratory. The roof frame and the main building form a primary-secondary structure. The dynamic characteristics of the resulting system are of interest from a structural dynamics point of view. This paper presents work on modal identification of the structure using ambient vibration measurement. An array of tri-axial acceleration data has been obtained using a number of setups to cover all locations of interest with a limited number of sensors. Modal identification is performed using a recently developed Fast Bayesian FFT method. In addition to the most probable modal properties, their posterior uncertainties can also be assessed using the method. The posterior uncertainty of mode shape is assessed by the expected value of the Modal Assurance Criteria (MAC) of the most probable mode shape with a random mode shape consistent with the posterior distribution. The mode shapes of the overall structural system are obtained by assembling those from individual setups using a recently developed least-square method. The identification results reveal a number of interesting features about the structural system and provide important information defining the baseline modal properties of the building. Practical interpretation of the statistics of modal parameters calculated from frequentist and Bayesian context is also discussed.

  20. Cytogenetic analysis of a primary salivary gland myoepithelioma.

    PubMed

    el-Naggar, A K; Lovell, M; Callender, D L; Ordonez, N G; Killary, A M

    1999-08-01

    Myoepithelioma, a rare benign salivary gland neoplasm, is a tumor composed entirely of myoepithelial cells. Unlike pleomorphic adenoma, these tumors lack any ductal epithelial differentiation, and manifest a minor stromal element. Previous cytogenetic and molecular genetic studies have mainly investigated pleomorphic adenomas and reported recurring specific chromosomal alterations at 8q12 and 12q13-q15 regions. The cell origin of these alterations, however, remains speculative. We report the cytogenetic analysis of a parotid myoepithelioma and discuss the putative origin for the cells with cytogenetic alterations. Our analysis shows 12q12 involved in a translocation with a previously unreported partner (1q), and nonrandom del(9)(q22.1q22.3) and del(13)(q12q22). Our results indicate that the myoepithelial cell is the source of those cells with chromosomal alterations, and that myoepithelioma shares 12q alterations reported in a subset of pleomorphic adenomas.

  1. Development of RTM and powder prepreg resins for subsonic aircraft primary structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woo, Edmund P.; Groleau, Michael R.; Bertram, James L.; Puckett, Paul M.; Maynard, Shawn J.

    1993-01-01

    Dow developed a thermoset resin which could be used to produce composites via the RTM process. The composites formed are useful at 200 F service temperatures after moisture saturation, and are tough systems that are suitable for subsonic aircraft primary structure. At NASA's request, Dow also developed a modified version of the RTM resin system which was suitable for use in producing powder prepreg. In the course of developing the RTM and powder versions of these resins, over 50 different new materials were produced and evaluated.

  2. Primary Structural Variation in Anaplasma marginale Msp2 Efficiently Generates Immune Escape Variants

    PubMed Central

    Paradiso, Lydia; Broschat, Shira L.; Noh, Susan M.; Palmer, Guy H.

    2015-01-01

    Antigenic variation allows microbial pathogens to evade immune clearance and establish persistent infection. Anaplasma marginale utilizes gene conversion of a repertoire of silent msp2 alleles into a single active expression site to encode unique Msp2 variants. As the genomic complement of msp2 alleles alone is insufficient to generate the number of variants required for persistence, A. marginale uses segmental gene conversion, in which oligonucleotide segments from multiple alleles are recombined into the expression site to generate a novel msp2 mosaic not represented elsewhere in the genome. Whether these segmental changes are sufficient to evade a broad antibody response is unknown. We addressed this question by identifying Msp2 variants that differed in primary structure within the immunogenic hypervariable region microdomains and tested whether they represented true antigenic variants. The minimal primary structural difference between variants was a single amino acid resulting from a codon insertion, and overall, the amino acid identity among paired microdomains ranged from 18 to 92%. Collectively, 89% of the expressed structural variants were also antigenic variants across all biological replicates, independent of a specific host major histocompatibility complex haplotype. Biological relevance is supported by the following: (i) all structural variants were expressed during infection of a natural host, (ii) the structural variation observed in the microdomains corresponded to the mean length of variants generated by segmental gene conversion, and (iii) antigenic variants were identified using a broad antibody response that developed during infection of a natural host. The findings demonstrate that segmental gene conversion efficiently generates Msp2 antigenic variants. PMID:26259814

  3. Design and analysis of composite structures with stress concentrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garbo, S. P.

    1983-01-01

    An overview of an analytic procedure which can be used to provide comprehensive stress and strength analysis of composite structures with stress concentrations is given. The methodology provides designer/analysts with a user-oriented procedure which, within acceptable engineering accuracy, accounts for the effects of a wide range of application design variables. The procedure permits the strength of arbitrary laminate constructions under general bearing/bypass load conditions to be predicted with only unnotched unidirectional strength and stiffness input data required. Included is a brief discussion of the relevancy of this analysis to the design of primary aircraft structure; an overview of the analytic procedure with theory/test correlations; and an example of the use and interaction of this strength analysis relative to the design of high-load transfer bolted composite joints.

  4. Static Nonlinear Analysis In Concrete Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Hemmati, Ali

    2008-07-08

    Push-over analysis is a simple and applied approach which can be used for estimation of demand responses influenced by earthquake stimulations. The analysis is non-linear static analysis of the structure affected under increasing lateral loads and specifying the displacement--load diagram or structure capacity curve, draw the curve the base shear values and lateral deflection on the roof level of the building will be used. However, for estimation of the real behavior of the structure against earthquake, the non-linear dynamic analysis approaches and various accelerographs should be applied. Of course it should be noted that this approach especially in relation with tall buildings is complex and time consuming. In the article, the different patterns of lateral loading in push-over analysis have been compared with non-linear dynamic analysis approach so that the results represented accordingly. The researches indicated the uniformly--distributed loading is closer to real status.

  5. NAPS: Network Analysis of Protein Structures

    PubMed Central

    Chakrabarty, Broto; Parekh, Nita

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, protein structures have been analysed by the secondary structure architecture and fold arrangement. An alternative approach that has shown promise is modelling proteins as a network of non-covalent interactions between amino acid residues. The network representation of proteins provide a systems approach to topological analysis of complex three-dimensional structures irrespective of secondary structure and fold type and provide insights into structure-function relationship. We have developed a web server for network based analysis of protein structures, NAPS, that facilitates quantitative and qualitative (visual) analysis of residue–residue interactions in: single chains, protein complex, modelled protein structures and trajectories (e.g. from molecular dynamics simulations). The user can specify atom type for network construction, distance range (in Å) and minimal amino acid separation along the sequence. NAPS provides users selection of node(s) and its neighbourhood based on centrality measures, physicochemical properties of amino acids or cluster of well-connected residues (k-cliques) for further analysis. Visual analysis of interacting domains and protein chains, and shortest path lengths between pair of residues are additional features that aid in functional analysis. NAPS support various analyses and visualization views for identifying functional residues, provide insight into mechanisms of protein folding, domain-domain and protein–protein interactions for understanding communication within and between proteins. URL:http://bioinf.iiit.ac.in/NAPS/. PMID:27151201

  6. NAPS: Network Analysis of Protein Structures.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarty, Broto; Parekh, Nita

    2016-07-01

    Traditionally, protein structures have been analysed by the secondary structure architecture and fold arrangement. An alternative approach that has shown promise is modelling proteins as a network of non-covalent interactions between amino acid residues. The network representation of proteins provide a systems approach to topological analysis of complex three-dimensional structures irrespective of secondary structure and fold type and provide insights into structure-function relationship. We have developed a web server for network based analysis of protein structures, NAPS, that facilitates quantitative and qualitative (visual) analysis of residue-residue interactions in: single chains, protein complex, modelled protein structures and trajectories (e.g. from molecular dynamics simulations). The user can specify atom type for network construction, distance range (in Å) and minimal amino acid separation along the sequence. NAPS provides users selection of node(s) and its neighbourhood based on centrality measures, physicochemical properties of amino acids or cluster of well-connected residues (k-cliques) for further analysis. Visual analysis of interacting domains and protein chains, and shortest path lengths between pair of residues are additional features that aid in functional analysis. NAPS support various analyses and visualization views for identifying functional residues, provide insight into mechanisms of protein folding, domain-domain and protein-protein interactions for understanding communication within and between proteins. URL:http://bioinf.iiit.ac.in/NAPS/. PMID:27151201

  7. Structural arrangement trade study. Volume 3: Reusable Hydrogen Composite Tank System (RHCTS) and Graphite Composite Primary Structures (GCPS). Addendum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This volume is the third of a 3 volume set that addresses the structural trade study plan that will identify the most suitable structural configuration for an SSTO winged vehicle capable of delivering 25,000 lbs to a 220 nm circular orbit at 51.6 deg inclination. The most suitable Reusable Hydrogen Composite Tank System (RHCTS), and Graphite Composite Tank System (GCPS) composite materials for intertank, wing and thrust structures are identified. Vehicle resizing charts, selection criteria and back-up charts, parametric costing approach and the finite element method analysis are discussed.

  8. Structural analysis of stratocumulus convection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siems, S. T.; Baker, M. B.; Bretherton, C. S.

    1990-01-01

    The 1 and 20 Hz data are examined from the Electra flights made on July 5, 1987. The flight legs consisted of seven horizontal turbulent legs at the inversion, midcloud, and below clouds, plus 4 soundings made within the same period. The Rosemont temperature sensor and the top and bottom dewpoint sensors were used to measure temperature and humidity at 1 Hz. Inversion structure and entrainment; local dynamics and large scale forcing; convective elements; and decoupling of cloud and subcloud are discussed in relationship to the results of the Electra flight.

  9. Research on the support structure of the primary mirror of large-aperture telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yang; Zhang, Jingxu

    2007-12-01

    Large-aperture telescope can be used in surveying battlefield, researching landform, searching object, real-time monitoring, imaging, detecting and identifying spatial targets and so on. A large-aperture telescope for achieving high resolution power is designed to monitor spatial target and image in real time. Real-time monitoring plays an important role in military conflicts. The orbit parameter of object, quantity, geometrical shape parameter and so on can be obtained by detect spatial target. With the development of optical technology, people require larger aperture in optics-electronic (O-E) system. By increasing optical aperture, the ability of collecting light and resolution power in the system can be enhanced. But the support structure of the primary mirror of large-aperture telescope will be a very difficult problem. With the increase of primary mirror aperture, the weight of the primary mirror will become larger than before. The root mean square (rms) of the primary mirror is affected by many factors, such as deadweight, deformation of heat, environment and so on. Due to the primary mirror of telescope is an important component of telescope system. By reducing the weight of primary mirror, precision of the system is ensured. During the designing phase, one can consider the supporting project of the primary mirror synthetically and analyze it roundly according to technical requirement of optical system and the effect factors. The final structural design can be reasonable. In an astronomical telescope, the surface of reflector is an important part for collecting dark radiation of celestial bodies. Its surface shape will have an effect on collecting efficiency of telescope radiant energy directly. So the rms must be very high. Optical system of large aperture, small wavelength and small focus can receive maximal light intensity. For ground-based optical astronomical telescope, the design proposed in the paper can satisfy the requirement of the possible

  10. SPF/DB primary structure for supersonic aircraft (T-38 horizontal stabilizer)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delmundo, A. R.; Mcquilkin, F. T.; Rivas, R. R.

    1981-01-01

    The structural integrity and potential cost savings of superplastic forming/diffusion bonding (SPF/DB) titanium structure for future Supersonic Cruise Research (SCR) and military aircraft primary structure applications was demonstrated. Using the horizontal stabilizer of the T-38 aircraft as a baseline, the structure was redesigned to the existing criteria and loads, using SPF/DB titanium technology. The general concept of using a full-depth sandwich structure which is attached to a steel spindle, was retained. Trade studies demonstrated that the optimum design should employ double-truss, sinewave core in the deepest section of the surface, making a transition to single-truss core in the thinner areas at the leading and trailing edges and at the tip. At the extreme thin edges of the surface, the single-truss core was changed to dot core to provide for gas passages during the SPF/DB process. The selected SPF/DB horizontal stabilizer design consisted of a one-piece SPF/DB sinewave truss core panel, a trunnion fitting, and reinforcing straps. The fitting and the straps were mechanically fastened to the SPF/DB panel.

  11. Thermal and structural analysis of Hermes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petiau, C.

    1989-08-01

    After a brief recap of Hermes TPS and structure principles, we present the organization of thermal and structural analysis of the Hermes project, and we describe the way to resolve the problems of connections between calculations performed by the different Hermes partners. We describe in detail the interactions between the general model of TPS, used for global dimensioning of insulation, and refined thermal models giving an accurate temperature map inside details of "hot" and "cold" structures. The organization for structural analysis is based on a finite element general model which supports preliminary design, loads and vibration analyses. Boundary conditions for refined subpart analyses are cut to size, into the general model by a super element technique. This process involves the use by all partners of efficient computer codes, in the field of structural analysis and optimization integrated with CAD; for this Dassault proposes as a reference: the CATIA-ELFINI system.

  12. Isolation and primary structure of glucagon from the endocrine pancreas of Thunnus obesus.

    PubMed

    Navarro, I; Gutiérrez, J; Caixach, J; Rivera, J; Planas, J

    1991-08-01

    Glucagon has been isolated from the endocrine pancreas of a tunid, Thunnus obesus. The primary structure of the glucagon molecule was established as H S E G T F S N D Y S K Y L E T R R A Q D F V Q W L K N S. The sequence is identical to those of sculpin and flounder glucagon and glucagon II from anglerfish. It also shows high homology to the mammalian hormone (76%). The mass determined by fast-atom bombardment (3508) was consistent with the proposed structure. Immunological properties of the tuna glucagon were analyzed by radioimmunoassay, showing a high degree of cross-reactivity with the 30K antibody. PMID:1916209

  13. Semantic Antinomies and Deep Structure Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuber, Ryszard

    1975-01-01

    This article discusses constructions known as semantic antinomies, that is, the paradoxical results of false presuppositions, and how they can be dealt with by means of deep structure analysis. See FL 508 186 for availability. (CLK)

  14. Impacts of Temperature on Primary Productivity and Respiration in Naturally Structured Macroalgal Assemblages

    PubMed Central

    Tait, Leigh W.; Schiel, David R.

    2013-01-01

    Rising global temperatures caused by human-mediated change has already triggered significant responses in organismal physiology, distribution and ecosystem functioning. Although the effects of rising temperature on the physiology of individual organisms are well understood, the effect on community-wide processes has remained elusive. The fixation of carbon via primary productivity is an essential ecosystem function and any shifts in the balance of primary productivity and respiration could alter the carbon balance of ecosystems. Here we show through a series of tests that respiration of naturally structured algal assemblages in southern New Zealand greatly increases with rising temperature, with implications for net primary productivity (NPP). The NPP of in situ macroalgal assemblages was minimally affected by natural temperature variation, possibly through photo-acclimation or temperature acclimation responses, but respiration rates and compensating irradiance were negatively affected. However, laboratory experiments testing the impacts of rising temperature on several photosynthetic parameters showed a decline in NPP, increasing respiration rates and increasing compensating irradiance. The respiration Q10 of laboratory assemblages (the difference in metabolic rates over 10°C) averaged 2.9 compared to a Q10 of 2 often seen in other autotrophs. However, gross primary productivity (GPP) Q10 averaged 2, indicating that respiration was more severely affected by rising temperature. Furthermore, combined high irradiance and high temperature caused photoinhibition in the laboratory, and resulted in 50% lower NPP at high irradiance. Our study shows that communities may be more severely affected by rising global temperatures than would be expected by responses of individual species. In particular, enhanced respiration rates and rising compensation points have the potential to greatly affect the carbon balance of macroalgal assemblages through declines in sub-canopy NPP

  15. The complete primary structure of the T-cell receptor genes from an alloreactive cytotoxic human T-lymphocyte clone.

    PubMed

    Leiden, J M; Fraser, J D; Strominger, J L

    1986-01-01

    The complete primary structure of the cDNAs encoding the alpha and beta chains of the T-lymphocyte receptor for antigen from a human alloreactive, cytotoxic T-cell clone, L17, is presented. Sequence analysis of these genes reveals that both are related to immunoglobulins and are composed of variable, diversity (at least in the case of the Ti beta clone), joining, and constant region sequences. Comparison of the sequence of the alpha-chain cDNA to that of previously sequenced mouse and human alpha cDNAs suggests the presence of human T-cell receptor alpha D-region sequences. Southern blot analysis confirms the finding that these cDNAs represent the functional receptor genes expressed by the L17 cytotoxic T-cell clone. The availability of these full-length T-cell receptor cDNA clones from a human T-lymphocyte clone of known antigen specificity should allow an analysis of the relationship between T-cell receptor structure and function. PMID:2426193

  16. Clinical prognostic analysis of 116 patients with primary intestinal non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Gou, Hong-Feng; Zang, Jian; Jiang, Ming; Yang, Yu; Cao, Dan; Chen, Xin-Chuan

    2012-03-01

    The gastrointestinal tract is the most common extranodal invasion site of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Primary gastrointestinal NHL is often discussed together in most survival analyses. Primary intestinal NHL is significantly different from primary gastric NHL with regard to clinical features, pathological subtype, treatment, and prognosis. In this article, we analyzed clinical and pathological characteristics of primary intestinal NHL, and we also explored prognostic factors for primary intestinal NHL. A retrospective analysis was carried out on clinical data from 116 cases of confirmed primary intestinal NHL. The Kaplan-Meier method was used for the survival analysis. A Cox model was used for a multivariate analysis. In 116 patients with primary intestinal NHL, 79 patients were men (68.1%) and 37 patients were women (31.9%). In the cases used in this study, 68 were B-cell NHL and 48 were T-cell NHL. The age, incidence of intestinal obstruction, B symptom and performance status (PS) were closely related with pathological subtype. One-year and two-year survival rates were 76.7 and 58.3%, respectively. The log-rank univariate analysis showed male patients, PS score greater than or equal to two, hypoproteinemia, intestinal perforation, T-cell type, late stage (III/IV), no radical surgery, and no chemotherapy had relatively poor prognoses. Cox multivariate analysis shown that gender (95.0% CI 0.218-0.721), pathological subtype (95.0% CI 1.484-4.179), and radical surgery (95.0% CI 0.110-0.394) were independent prognostic risk factor for primary intestinal NHL. Male patients, T-cell intestinal lymphoma, and no radical surgery had rapid clinical processes and poor prognoses. PMID:21193968

  17. Structural Dynamics and Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luthman, Briana L.

    2013-01-01

    This project consists of two parts, the first will be the post-flight analysis of data from a Delta IV launch vehicle, and the second will be a Finite Element Analysis of a CubeSat. Shock and vibration data was collected on WGS-5 (Wideband Global SATCOM- 5) which was launched on a Delta IV launch vehicle. Using CAM (CAlculation with Matrices) software, the data is to be plotted into Time History, Shock Response Spectrum, and SPL (Sound Pressure Level) curves. In this format the data is to be reviewed and compared to flight instrumentation data from previous flights of the same launch vehicle. This is done to ensure the current mission environments, such as shock, random vibration, and acoustics, are not out of family with existing flight experience. In family means the peaks on the SRS curve for WGS-5 are similar to the peaks from the previous flights and there are no major outliers. The curves from the data will then be compiled into a useful format so that is can be peer reviewed then presented before an engineering review board if required. Also, the reviewed data will be uploaded to the Engineering Review Board Information System (ERBIS) to archive. The second part of this project is conducting Finite Element Analysis of a CubeSat. In 2010, Merritt Island High School partnered with NASA to design, build and launch a CubeSat. The team is now called StangSat in honor of their mascot, the mustang. Over the past few years, the StangSat team has built a satellite and has now been manifested for flight on a SpaceX Falcon 9 launch in 2014. To prepare for the final launch, a test flight was conducted in Mojave, California. StangSat was launched on a Prospector 18D, a high altitude rocket made by Garvey Spacecraft Corporation, along with their sister satellite CP9 built by California Polytechnic University. However, StangSat was damaged during an off nominal landing and this project will give beneficial insights into what loads the CubeSat experienced during the crash

  18. Different Structural Changes Occur in the Blue- and Green-Absorbing Proteorhodopsin During the Primary Photoreaction†

    PubMed Central

    Amsden, Jason J.; Kralj, Joel M.; Bergo, Vladislav B.; Spudich, Elena N.; Spudich, John L.; Rothschild, Kenneth J.

    2013-01-01

    We examine the structural changes during the primary photoreaction in blue-absorbing proteorhodopsin (BPR), a light-driven retinylidene proton pump, using low-temperature FTIR difference spectroscopy. Comparison of the light induced BPR difference spectrum recorded at 80 K to that of green-absorbing proteorhodopsin (GPR) reveals that there are several differences in the BPR and GPR primary photoreactions despite the similar structure of the retinal chromophore and all-trans → 13-cis isomerization. Strong bands near 1700 cm−1 assigned previously to a change in hydrogen bonding of Asn230 in GPR are still present in BPR but in addition bands in the same region are assigned on the basis of site-directed mutagenesis to changes occurring in Gln105. In the amide II region bands are assigned on the basis of total-N15 labeling to structural changes of the protein backbone, although no such bands were previously observed for GPR. A band at 3642 cm−1 in BPR, assigned to the OH stretching mode of a water molecule on the basis of H218O substitution, appears at a different frequency than a band at 3626 cm−1 previously assigned to a water molecule in GPR. However, the substitution of Gln105 for Leu105 in BPR leads to the appearance of both bands at 3642 and 3626 cm−1 indicating the waters assigned in BPR and GPR exist in separate distinct locations and can coexist in the GPR-like Q105L mutant of BPR. These results indicate that there exist significant differences in the conformational changes occurring in these two types proteorhodopsin during the initial photoreaction despite their similar chromophores structures, which might reflect a different arrangement of water in the active site as well as substitution of a hydrophilic for hydrophobic residue at residue 105. PMID:18842006

  19. Different structural changes occur in blue- and green-proteorhodopsins during the primary photoreaction.

    PubMed

    Amsden, Jason J; Kralj, Joel M; Bergo, Vladislav B; Spudich, Elena N; Spudich, John L; Rothschild, Kenneth J

    2008-11-01

    We examine the structural changes during the primary photoreaction in blue-absorbing proteorhodopsin (BPR), a light-driven retinylidene proton pump, using low-temperature FTIR difference spectroscopy. Comparison of the light-induced BPR difference spectrum recorded at 80 K to that of green-absorbing proteorhodopsin (GPR) reveals that there are several differences in the BPR and GPR primary photoreactions despite the similar structure of the retinal chromophore and all-trans --> 13-cis isomerization. Strong bands near 1700 cm(-1) assigned previously to a change in hydrogen bonding of Asn230 in GPR are still present in BPR. However, additional bands in the same region are assigned on the basis of site-directed mutagenesis to changes occurring in Gln105. In the amide II region, bands are assigned on the basis of total (15)N labeling to structural changes of the protein backbone, although no such bands were previously observed for GPR. A band at 3642 cm(-1) in BPR, assigned to the OH stretching mode of a water molecule on the basis of H2(18)O substitution, appears at a different frequency than a band at 3626 cm(-1) previously assigned to a water molecule in GPR. However, the substitution of Gln105 for Leu105 in BPR leads to the appearance of both bands at 3642 and 3626 cm(-1), indicating the waters assigned in BPR and GPR exist in separate distinct locations and can coexist in the GPR-like Q105L mutant of BPR. These results indicate that there exist significant differences in the conformational changes occurring in these two types proteorhodopsin during the initial photoreaction despite their similar chromophore structures, which might reflect a different arrangement of water in the active site as well as substitution of a hydrophilic for hydrophobic residue at residue 105. PMID:18842006

  20. Probabilistic structural analysis for nuclear thermal propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shah, Ashwin

    1993-01-01

    Viewgraphs of probabilistic structural analysis for nuclear thermal propulsion are presented. The objective of the study was to develop a methodology to certify Space Nuclear Propulsion System (SNPS) Nozzle with assured reliability. Topics covered include: advantage of probabilistic structural analysis; space nuclear propulsion system nozzle uncertainties in the random variables; SNPS nozzle natural frequency; and sensitivity of primitive variable uncertainties SNPS nozzle natural frequency and shell stress.

  1. Structural changes in the photoactive site of proteorhodopsin during the primary photoreaction.

    PubMed

    Bergo, Vladislav; Amsden, Jason J; Spudich, Elena N; Spudich, John L; Rothschild, Kenneth J

    2004-07-20

    Proteorhodopsin (PR), found in marine gamma-proteobacteria, is a newly discovered light-driven proton pump similar to bacteriorhodopsin (BR). Because of the widespread distribution of proteobacteria in the worldwide oceanic waters, this pigment may contribute significantly to the global solar energy input in the biosphere. We examined structural changes that occur during the primary photoreaction (PR --> K) of wild-type pigment and two mutants using low-temperature FTIR difference spectroscopy. Several vibrations detected in the 3500-3700 cm(-1) region are assigned on the basis of H(2)O --> H(2)(18)O exchange to the perturbation of one or more internal water molecules. Substitution of the negatively charged Schiff base counterion, Asp97, with the neutral asparagine caused a downshift of the ethylenic (C=C) and Schiff base (C=N) stretching modes, in agreement with the 27 nm red shift of the visible lambda(max). However, this replacement did not alter the normal all-trans to 13-cis isomerization of the chromophore or the environment of the detected water molecule(s). In contrast, substitution of Asn230, which is in a position to interact with the Schiff base, with Ala induces a 5 nm red shift of the visible lambda(max) and alters the PR chromophore structure, its isomerization to K, and the environment of the detected internal water molecules. The combination of FTIR and site-directed mutagenesis establishes that both Asp97 and Asn230 are perturbed during the primary phototransition. The environment of Asn230 is further altered during the thermal decay of K. These results suggest that significant differences exist in the conformational changes which occur in the photoactive sites of proteorhodopsin and bacteriorhodopsin during the primary photoreaction. PMID:15248764

  2. Seed Storage Globulins: Origin and Evolution of Primary and Higher Order Structures.

    PubMed

    Rudakova, A S; Cherdivară, A M; Wilson, K A; Shutov, A D

    2015-10-01

    Legumin and vicilin are two-domain seed storage globulins similar in primary and higher order structures of their domains to single-domain plant germins as well as to the domains of two-domain and single-domain bacterial oxalate decarboxylases. Independent evolutionary pathways have been shown for the descent of the storage globulins and germins from two-domain and single-domain bacterial oxalate decarboxylases, respectively. As compared to vicilins, the primary and tertiary structures of legumins were found to most closely reflect the ancient features characteristic of a common precursor of storage globulins. During the evolution of the storage globulins, a mechanism specifically controlling their degradation has been formed. We found that limited proteolysis of soybean legumin and kidney bean vicilin in germinating seeds and in vitro leads to their regular changes, which initiate an extensive cleavage of storage globulin molecules by the one-by-one mechanism. As also shown, limited proteolysis of soybean legumin loosens the intersubunit interactions in its oligomeric molecule. Based on these data, we hypothesize that the deep one-by-one degradation of soybean legumin is triggered by its dissociation, which bares peptide bonds potentially susceptible to proteolytic attack but are masked in the oligomer.

  3. Septin crystallization for structural analysis.

    PubMed

    Valadares, N F; Garratt, R C

    2016-01-01

    Septins are filament-forming proteins found in many eukaryotes. Despite being important components of the cytoskeleton, only recently details of their macromolecular assemblies and crystal structures have started to appear in the literature. These are of fundamental importance to the understanding of cytoskeleton dynamics, membrane barrier formation, and bacterial caging, as well as essential cellular processes such as cell division, exocytosis, and vesicle trafficking. However, obtaining this data is frequently hindered by several experimental difficulties common to the majority of septin samples. Here we provide an overview of the current approaches to circumvent or minimize the experimental complications observed in septin crystallography focusing mainly, but not exclusively, on the choice of the septin construct and how to best prepare the sample itself. PMID:27473918

  4. Critical joints in large composite primary aircraft structures. Volume 1: Technical summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bunin, Bruce L.

    1985-01-01

    A program was conducted at Douglas Aircraft Company to develop the technology for critical joints in composite wing structure that meets all the design requirements of a 1990 commercial transport aircraft. In fulfilling this objective, analytical procedures for joint design and analysis were developed during Phase 1 of the program. Tests were conducted at the element level to supply the empirical data required for methods development. Large composite multirow joints were tested to verify the selected design concepts and for correlation with analysis predictions. The Phase 2 program included additional tests to provide joint design and analysis data, and culminated with several technology demonstration tests of a major joint area representative of a commercial transport wing. The technology demonstration program of Phase 2 is discussed. The analysis methodology development, structural test program, and correlation between test results and analytical strength predictions are reviewed.

  5. Primary pathogenicity analysis of a Chinese Entamoeba histolytica isolate.

    PubMed

    Luo, Muxia; Feng, Meng; Min, Xiangyang; Li, Xueping; Cai, Junlong; Tachibana, Hiroshi; Cheng, Xunjia

    2013-04-01

    This study is the first to isolate an Entamoeba histolytica strain from Chinese amoebic patients and to conduct a detailed examination of its virulence. A fecal sample that contains cysts of E. histolytica was obtained from Guangxi province. The sample was cultured axenically and then cloned by limiting dilution, and named as XLAC. In vitro and in vivo tests were conducted to evaluate the virulence of the Entamoeba isolate. The E. histolytica strain XLAC was successfully cloned and cultured axenically. DNA regions that contain hexokinase, glucose-6-phosphate isomerase, phosphoglucomutase, and heavy subunit of lectin genes were amplified by PCR. The PCR products were then sequenced. Virulence analysis suggested that the XLAC strain was similar to the HM1:IMSS strain at the genetic level. In vitro and in vivo tests also implicated these strains to be similar. These findings may be attributed to the low expression levels of pathogenic genes obtained through realtime PCR. The XLAC strain restored its virulence after it was injected into hamster liver. This study may be a good model for studying virulence changes in E. histolytica.

  6. Generalized Structured Component Analysis with Latent Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Heungsun; Ho, Moon-Ho Ringo; Lee, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Generalized structured component analysis (GSCA) is a component-based approach to structural equation modeling. In practice, researchers may often be interested in examining the interaction effects of latent variables. However, GSCA has been geared only for the specification and testing of the main effects of variables. Thus, an extension of GSCA…

  7. Structural analysis of second-generation heliostats

    SciTech Connect

    Dunder, V.D.

    1981-12-01

    As part of the overall evaluation of the four second-generation heliostats, a finite element analysis was performed to evaluate structure performance of the mirror modules subjected to gravity, operational wind loads and survival wind loads. All designs evaluated were found to be structurally adequate.

  8. Ground-Based Lidar Measurements of Forest Canopy Structure as Predictors of Net Primary Production Across Successional Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheuermann, C. M.; Gough, C. M.; Nave, L. E.

    2015-12-01

    Forest canopy structure is a key predictor of gas exchange processes that control carbon (C) uptake, including the allocation of photosynthetically fixed C to new plant biomass growth, or net primary production (NPP). Prior work suggests forest canopy structural complexity (CSC), the arrangement of leaves within a volume of canopy, changes as forests develop and is a strong predictor of NPP. However, the expressions of CSC that best predict NPP over decadal to century timescales is unknown. Our objectives were to use multiple remote sensing observations to characterize forest canopy structure in increasing dimensional complexity over a forest age gradient, and to identify which expressions of physical structure best served as proxies of NPP. The study at the University of Michigan Biological Station in Pellston, MI, USA uses two parallel forest chronosequences with different harvesting and fire disturbance histories and includes three old-growth ecosystems varying in canopy composition. We have derived several expressions of 2-D and 3-D forest canopy structure from hemispherical images, a ground-based portable canopy lidar (PCL), and a 3-D terrestrial lidar scanner (TLS), and are relating these structural metrics with NPP and light and nitrogen allocation within the canopy. Preliminary analysis shows that old-growth stands converged on a common mean CSC, but with substantially higher within-stand variation in complexity as deciduous tree species increased in forest canopy dominance. Forest stands that were more intensely disturbed were slower to recover leaf area index (LAI) as they regrew, but 2-D measures of CSC increased similarly as forests aged, regardless of disturbance history. Ongoing work will relate long-term trends in forest CSC with NPP and resource allocation to determine which forest structure remote sensing products are most useful for modeling and scaling C cycling processes through different stages of forest development.

  9. Sustained Attention in Children with Primary Language Impairment: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebert, Kerry Danahy; Kohnert, Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study provides a meta-analysis of the difference between children with primary or specific language impairment (LI) and their typically developing peers on tasks of sustained attention. The meta-analysis seeks to determine whether children with LI demonstrate subclinical deficits in sustained attention and, if so, under what…

  10. Topological framework for local structure analysis in condensed matter

    PubMed Central

    Lazar, Emanuel A.; Han, Jian; Srolovitz, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Physical systems are frequently modeled as sets of points in space, each representing the position of an atom, molecule, or mesoscale particle. As many properties of such systems depend on the underlying ordering of their constituent particles, understanding that structure is a primary objective of condensed matter research. Although perfect crystals are fully described by a set of translation and basis vectors, real-world materials are never perfect, as thermal vibrations and defects introduce significant deviation from ideal order. Meanwhile, liquids and glasses present yet more complexity. A complete understanding of structure thus remains a central, open problem. Here we propose a unified mathematical framework, based on the topology of the Voronoi cell of a particle, for classifying local structure in ordered and disordered systems that is powerful and practical. We explain the underlying reason why this topological description of local structure is better suited for structural analysis than continuous descriptions. We demonstrate the connection of this approach to the behavior of physical systems and explore how crystalline structure is compromised at elevated temperatures. We also illustrate potential applications to identifying defects in plastically deformed polycrystals at high temperatures, automating analysis of complex structures, and characterizing general disordered systems. PMID:26460045

  11. Impact analysis of composite aircraft structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pifko, Allan B.; Kushner, Alan S.

    1993-01-01

    The impact analysis of composite aircraft structures is discussed. Topics discussed include: background remarks on aircraft crashworthiness; comments on modeling strategies for crashworthiness simulation; initial study of simulation of progressive failure of an aircraft component constructed of composite material; and research direction in composite characterization for impact analysis.

  12. Fuzzy Clusterwise Generalized Structured Component Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Heungsun; Desarbo, Wayne S.; Takane, Yoshio

    2007-01-01

    Generalized Structured Component Analysis (GSCA) was recently introduced by Hwang and Takane (2004) as a component-based approach to path analysis with latent variables. The parameters of GSCA are estimated by pooling data across respondents under the implicit assumption that they all come from a single, homogenous group. However, as has been…

  13. Thermal analysis considerations for large space structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adelman, H. M.; Shore, C. P.

    1983-01-01

    A number of issues and needs relative to thermal analysis of large space structures and space stations are discussed. Some indications of trends in the Langley thermal-structural analysis research program consistent with the issues and needs are also presented. The main heat transfer mechanism in space is radiation; consequently, there is a need for a strong thrust on improved radiation analysis capability. Also the important interactions among temperatures, deformations, and controls need to be accounted for. Finite element analysis capability seems to be lagging behind lumped-parameter capability or heat pipe analysis. The Langley plan will include improving radiation analysis capability, evaluating the errors involved in certain approximate analysis and modeling techniques for large space trusses, and continuing the development of integrated thermal-structural finite elements with an emphasis on radiation heat transfer. Work will be initiated to develop finite element analysis techniques for heat pipes. Finally, optimization research activities will be oriented toward methods to design flexible orbiting structures to account for thermal and thermal deformation requirements.

  14. Structural Analysis in a Conceptual Design Framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padula, Sharon L.; Robinson, Jay H.; Eldred, Lloyd B.

    2012-01-01

    Supersonic aircraft designers must shape the outer mold line of the aircraft to improve multiple objectives, such as mission performance, cruise efficiency, and sonic-boom signatures. Conceptual designers have demonstrated an ability to assess these objectives for a large number of candidate designs. Other critical objectives and constraints, such as weight, fuel volume, aeroelastic effects, and structural soundness, are more difficult to address during the conceptual design process. The present research adds both static structural analysis and sizing to an existing conceptual design framework. The ultimate goal is to include structural analysis in the multidisciplinary optimization of a supersonic aircraft. Progress towards that goal is discussed and demonstrated.

  15. Structural response analysis of tension leg platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, K.; Oka, N.; Ozaki, M.

    1984-03-01

    A linear response analysis method of the Tension Leg Platform (TLP) subjected to regular waves is proposed. In this analysis method, flexibility of the superstructure can be taken into account in the equations of motion; response motions, tension variations of tendons and structural member forces are solved simultaneously. The applicability of this method is confirmed by comparison with the test results on two kinds of small-scale TLP models. The structural responses obtained from these calculations and their effects on tension variation of tendons are studied. Finally, several kinds of structural response characteristics are conclusively discussed.

  16. Primary structure and solution conditions determine conformational ensemble properties of intrinsically disordered proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Hsuan-Han Alberto

    Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) are a class of proteins that do not exhibit well-defined three-dimensional structures. The absence of structure is intrinsic to their amino acid sequences, which are characterized by low hydrophobicity and high net charge per residue compared to folded proteins. Contradicting the classic structure-function paradigm, IDPs are capable of interacting with high specificity and affinity, often acquiring order in complex with protein and nucleic acid binding partners. This phenomenon is evident during cellular activities involving IDPs, which include transcriptional and translational regulation, cell cycle control, signal transduction, molecular assembly, and molecular recognition. Although approximately 30% of eukaryotic proteomes are intrinsically disordered, the nature of IDP conformational ensembles remains unclear. In this dissertation, we describe relationships connecting characteristics of IDP conformational ensembles to their primary structures and solution conditions. Using molecular simulations and fluorescence experiments on a set of base-rich IDPs, we find that net charge per residue segregates conformational ensembles along a globule-to-coil transition. Speculatively generalizing this result, we propose a phase diagram that predicts an IDP's average size and shape based on sequence composition and use it to generate hypotheses for a broad set of intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs). Simulations reveal that acid-rich IDRs, unlike their oppositely charged base-rich counterparts, exhibit disordered globular ensembles despite intra-chain repulsive electrostatic interactions. This apparent asymmetry is sensitive to simulation parameters for representing alkali and halide salt ions, suggesting that solution conditions modulate IDP conformational ensembles. We refine the ion parameters using a calibration procedure that relies exclusively on crystal lattice properties. Simulations with these parameters recover swollen

  17. Structural-Thermal-Optical-Performance (STOP) Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolognese, Jeffrey; Irish, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    The presentation will be given at the 26th Annual Thermal Fluids Analysis Workshop (TFAWS 2015) hosted by the Goddard Spaceflight Center (GSFC) Thermal Engineering Branch (Code 545). A STOP analysis is a multidiscipline analysis, consisting of Structural, Thermal and Optical Performance Analyses, that is performed for all space flight instruments and satellites. This course will explain the different parts of performing this analysis. The student will learn how to effectively interact with each discipline in order to accurately obtain the system analysis results.

  18. Quality of care in public and private primary health care facilities: structural comparisons in Jamaica.

    PubMed

    Peabody, J W; Rahman, O; Fox, K; Gertler, P

    1994-06-01

    This article examines the quality of care provided by Jamaican primary health care clinics by comparing various structural quality indexes derived from a nationwide 1990 survey of 366 public clinics and 189 private clinics. This comparison points up important differences in the quality of care being provided by public versus private and urban versus rural facilities that might not have been anticipated. Among other things, the study found that the public clinics provided better prenatal diagnosis and counseling and more family planning services than the private clinics. However, the private clinics tended to be better condition, better equipped and supplied, and better able to provide certain laboratory test results in a timely manner. Comparison of urban and rural public clinics indicated that the urban clinics were somewhat better provisioned with equipment, supplies, and pharmaceuticals. However, the rural clinics appeared to be in better repair. Comparison of basic and higher-level public clinics showed the basic clinics to be in better condition and more fully staffed than the higher-level clinics while having similar perinatal diagnostic capabilities. However, the higher-level public clinics tended to have an overall profile more resembling that of the private clinics, being better equipped and supplied than the basic clinics. While structural measures of quality such as those employed here tend to poorly estimate health outcomes, they do serve as good indicators of access to services where resources are severely constrained. For policy-makers, the results presented here could prove useful in guiding concrete interventions, summarizing the structural elements of health care quality at different types of facilities, and providing a method for less costly evaluation of programs designed to improve services at primary health care clinics. PMID:8069333

  19. Structural design and analysis of a Mach zero to five turbo-ramjet system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spoth, Kevin A.; Moses, Paul L.

    1993-01-01

    The paper discusses the structural design and analysis of a Mach zero to five turbo-ramjet propulsion system for a Mach five waverider-derived cruise vehicle. The level of analysis detail necessary for a credible conceptual design is shown. The results of a finite-element failure mode sizing analysis for the engine primary structure is presented. The importance of engine/airframe integration is also discussed.

  20. Reactivity of molybdovanadophosphoric acids: Influence of the presence of vanadium in the primary and secondary structure

    SciTech Connect

    Casarini, D.; Centi, G.; Lena, V.; Tvaruzkova, Z. ); Jiru, P. )

    1993-10-01

    The catalytic behavior in butadiene and n-butane oxidation of molybdovanadophosphoric acids with vanadium localized inside the primary (oxoanion) and/or the secondary structure is reported. The samples are characterized by infrared, [sup 31]P-NMR, [sup 51]V-NMR, and UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopies in order to obtain information on the nature and localization of vanadium in the samples before reaction and the possible changes occurring during the course of the catalytic reaction. In particular, it is shown that vanadium localized initially in the secondary structure can exchange with the molybdenum atoms of the oxoanion during the catalytic reaction. Introduction of vanadium in the molybdophosphoric acid structure enhances the selective formation of maleic anhydride from the butadiene when vanadium is present both inside the oxoanion or localized in the secondary structure (before the catalytic tests), but the maximum in catalytic performance is found for different amounts of vanadium, depending on where the vanadium is localized initially. However, when present in the secondary structure, vanadium also has a negative influence on the activity of the heteropoly acid. On the contrary, in n-butane oxidation, the presence of vanadium enhances the rate of alkane activation due to the different rate-determining step. The presence of V ions also affects the maximum selectivity and yield to maleic anhydride from butane. V ions in the secondary structure are more selective at low conversion, while V ions inside the oxoanion are more selective at higher conversions and thus allow better maximum yields to maleic anhydride. 40 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Structural Integrity of ESBWR Primary Containment for 60-Years of Thermal Duty Cycle Operations

    SciTech Connect

    James, R.J.; Rashid, Y.R.; Liu, A.S.; Gou, B.

    2006-07-01

    GE's latest evolution of the boiling water reactor, the ESBWR, has innovative passive design features that reduce the number and complexity of active systems, which in turn provide economic advantages while also increasing safety. To incorporate these passive cooling features, the Isolation Condenser Passive Cooling Containment System Pools (IC/PCCS) are integrated onto the top slab of the primary containment structure. The top slab spans the 36-meter diameter containment drywell with a central 10.5-meter diameter opening for the drywell head while supporting the water and equipment in these upper pools. The walls of the upper pools along with the refueling floor slab over the pools are designed as a deep beam girder as part of the structural system of the top slab. During normal operations, the Isolation Condenser (IC) pool will undergo duty cycles where the water gets rapidly heated to boiling for some period of time and then cools back down. This top slab structural system is subjected to the elevated temperatures that occur in the IC pools and to thermal cycling due to temperature changes in the pools and in the drywell portion of the containment during shutdowns. These cyclic thermal demands interact with a changing structural condition because of concrete cracking, creep, and property degradation at elevated temperatures. Thus, there is a potential for structural ratcheting of the slab that would be manifested by continually increasing deformations over time under the thermal cycling while supporting the pool loads. The long-term structural integrity of the top slab as a containment boundary must be verified for this duty cycle operation over the 60-year design life. (authors)

  2. Thermal and structural analysis of Hermes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petiau, C.

    1989-01-01

    The organization of the thermal and structural analysis of the Hermes project is described. A way to resolve the problem of connections between calculations performed by the different Hermes partners is outlined. The interactions between the general model of TPS (thermal protection system) used for global dimensioning of insulation, and refined thermal models giving accurate temperature map details of hot and cold structures, are described. The organization of the structural analysis is based on a finite element general model which supports preliminary design, loads and vibration analyses. Boundary conditions for refined subpart analyses, are cut to size, into the general model by super element techniques. This process involves the use by all partners of efficient computer codes. The Catia-Elfini software system is proposed as a possible code system for structural analysis and optimization purposes.

  3. Simultaneous analysis and design. [in structural engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haftka, R. T.

    1985-01-01

    Optimization techniques are increasingly being used for performing nonlinear structural analysis. The development of element by element (EBE) preconditioned conjugate gradient (CG) techniques is expected to extend this trend to linear analysis. Under these circumstances the structural design problem can be viewed as a nested optimization problem. There are computational benefits to treating this nested problem as a large single optimization problem. The response variables (such as displacements) and the structural parameters are all treated as design variables in a unified formulation which performs simultaneously the design and analysis. Two examples are used for demonstration. A seventy-two bar truss is optimized subject to linear stress constraints and a wing box structure is optimized subject to nonlinear collapse constraints. Both examples show substantial computational savings with the unified approach as compared to the traditional nested approach.

  4. Thermodynamics of greenhouse systems for the northern latitudes: analysis, evaluation and prospects for primary energy saving.

    PubMed

    Bronchart, Filip; De Paepe, Michel; Dewulf, Jo; Schrevens, Eddie; Demeyer, Peter

    2013-04-15

    In Flanders and the Netherlands greenhouse production systems produce economically important quantities of vegetables, fruit and ornamentals. Indoor environmental control has resulted in high primary energy use. Until now, the research on saving primary energy in greenhouse systems has been mainly based on analysis of energy balances. However, according to the thermodynamic theory, an analysis based on the concept of exergy (free energy) and energy can result in new insights and primary energy savings. Therefore in this paper, we analyse the exergy and energy of various processes, inputs and outputs of a general greenhouse system. Also a total system analysis is then performed by linking the exergy analysis with a dynamic greenhouse climate growth simulation model. The exergy analysis indicates that some processes ("Sources") lie at the origin of several other processes, both destroying the exergy of primary energy inputs. The exergy destruction of these Sources is caused primarily by heat and vapour loss. Their impact can be compensated by exergy input from heating, solar radiation, or both. If the exergy destruction of these Sources is reduced, the necessary compensation can also be reduced. This can be accomplished through insulating the greenhouse and making the building more airtight. Other necessary Sources, namely transpiration and loss of CO2, have a low exergy destruction compared to the other Sources. They are therefore the best candidate for "pump" technologies ("vapour heat pump" and "CO2 pump") designed to have a low primary energy use. The combination of these proposed technologies results in an exergy efficient greenhouse with the highest primary energy savings. It can be concluded that exergy analyses add additional information compared to only energy analyses and it supports the development of primary energy efficient greenhouse systems.

  5. Thermodynamics of greenhouse systems for the northern latitudes: analysis, evaluation and prospects for primary energy saving.

    PubMed

    Bronchart, Filip; De Paepe, Michel; Dewulf, Jo; Schrevens, Eddie; Demeyer, Peter

    2013-04-15

    In Flanders and the Netherlands greenhouse production systems produce economically important quantities of vegetables, fruit and ornamentals. Indoor environmental control has resulted in high primary energy use. Until now, the research on saving primary energy in greenhouse systems has been mainly based on analysis of energy balances. However, according to the thermodynamic theory, an analysis based on the concept of exergy (free energy) and energy can result in new insights and primary energy savings. Therefore in this paper, we analyse the exergy and energy of various processes, inputs and outputs of a general greenhouse system. Also a total system analysis is then performed by linking the exergy analysis with a dynamic greenhouse climate growth simulation model. The exergy analysis indicates that some processes ("Sources") lie at the origin of several other processes, both destroying the exergy of primary energy inputs. The exergy destruction of these Sources is caused primarily by heat and vapour loss. Their impact can be compensated by exergy input from heating, solar radiation, or both. If the exergy destruction of these Sources is reduced, the necessary compensation can also be reduced. This can be accomplished through insulating the greenhouse and making the building more airtight. Other necessary Sources, namely transpiration and loss of CO2, have a low exergy destruction compared to the other Sources. They are therefore the best candidate for "pump" technologies ("vapour heat pump" and "CO2 pump") designed to have a low primary energy use. The combination of these proposed technologies results in an exergy efficient greenhouse with the highest primary energy savings. It can be concluded that exergy analyses add additional information compared to only energy analyses and it supports the development of primary energy efficient greenhouse systems. PMID:23474336

  6. Thermal analysis of the TMT telescope structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Myung; Corredor, Andrew; Vogiatzis, Konstantinos; Angeli, George

    2010-07-01

    Thermal performances of the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) structure were evaluated by finite element thermal models. The thermal models consist of the telescope optical assembly systems, instruments, laser facility, control and electronic equipments, and structural members. Temporal and spatial temperature distributions of the optical assembly systems and the telescope structure were calculated under various thermal conditions including air convections, conductions, heat flux loadings, and radiations. In order to capture thermal responses faithfully, a three-consecutive-day thermal environment data was implemented. This thermal boundary condition was created by CFD based on the environment conditions of the corresponding TMT site. The thermo-elastic analysis was made to predict thermal deformations of the telescope structure at every hour for three days. The line of sight calculation was made using the thermally induced structural deformations. Merit function was utilized to calculate the OPD maps after repositioning the optics based on a best fit of M1 segment deformations. The goal of this thermal analysis is to establish creditable thermal models by finite element analysis to simulate the thermal effects with the TMT site environment data. These thermal models can be utilized for estimating the thermal responses of the TMT structure. Thermal performance prediction of the TMT structure will guide us to assess the thermal impacts, and enables us to establish a thermal control strategy and requirements in order to minimize the thermal effects on the telescope structure due to heat dissipation from the telescope mounted equipment and systems.

  7. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Primary Roots of Brassica napus Seedlings with Extremely Different Primary Root Lengths Using RNA Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Dun, Xiaoling; Tao, Zhangsheng; Wang, Jie; Wang, Xinfa; Liu, Guihua; Wang, Hanzhong

    2016-01-01

    Primary root (PR) development is a crucial developmental process that is essential for plant survival. The elucidation of the PR transcriptome provides insight into the genetic mechanism controlling PR development in crops. In this study, we performed a comparative transcriptome analysis to investigate the genome-wide gene expression profiles of the seedling PRs of four Brassica napus genotypes that were divided into two groups, short group (D43 and D61), and long group (D69 and D72), according to their extremely different primary root lengths (PRLs). The results generated 55,341,366-64,631,336 clean reads aligned to 62,562 genes (61.9% of the current annotated genes) in the B. napus genome. We provide evidence that at least 44,986 genes are actively expressed in the B. napus PR. The majority of the genes that were expressed during seedling PR development were associated with metabolism, cellular processes, response to stimulus, biological regulation, and signaling. Using a pairwise comparison approach, 509 differentially expressed genes (DEGs; absolute value of log2 fold-change ≥1 and p ≤ 0.05) between the long and short groups were revealed, including phytohormone-related genes, protein kinases and phosphatases, oxygenase, cytochrome P450 proteins, etc. Combining GO functional category, KEGG, and MapMan pathway analyses indicated that the DEGs involved in cell wall metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, lipid metabolism, secondary metabolism, protein modification and degradation, hormone pathways and signaling pathways were the main causes of the observed PRL differences. We also identified 16 differentially expressed transcription factors (TFs) involved in PR development. Taken together, these transcriptomic datasets may serve as a foundation for the identification of candidate genes and may provide valuable information for understanding the molecular and cellular events related to PR development. PMID:27594860

  8. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Primary Roots of Brassica napus Seedlings with Extremely Different Primary Root Lengths Using RNA Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Dun, Xiaoling; Tao, Zhangsheng; Wang, Jie; Wang, Xinfa; Liu, Guihua; Wang, Hanzhong

    2016-01-01

    Primary root (PR) development is a crucial developmental process that is essential for plant survival. The elucidation of the PR transcriptome provides insight into the genetic mechanism controlling PR development in crops. In this study, we performed a comparative transcriptome analysis to investigate the genome-wide gene expression profiles of the seedling PRs of four Brassica napus genotypes that were divided into two groups, short group (D43 and D61), and long group (D69 and D72), according to their extremely different primary root lengths (PRLs). The results generated 55,341,366–64,631,336 clean reads aligned to 62,562 genes (61.9% of the current annotated genes) in the B. napus genome. We provide evidence that at least 44,986 genes are actively expressed in the B. napus PR. The majority of the genes that were expressed during seedling PR development were associated with metabolism, cellular processes, response to stimulus, biological regulation, and signaling. Using a pairwise comparison approach, 509 differentially expressed genes (DEGs; absolute value of log2 fold-change ≥1 and p ≤ 0.05) between the long and short groups were revealed, including phytohormone-related genes, protein kinases and phosphatases, oxygenase, cytochrome P450 proteins, etc. Combining GO functional category, KEGG, and MapMan pathway analyses indicated that the DEGs involved in cell wall metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, lipid metabolism, secondary metabolism, protein modification and degradation, hormone pathways and signaling pathways were the main causes of the observed PRL differences. We also identified 16 differentially expressed transcription factors (TFs) involved in PR development. Taken together, these transcriptomic datasets may serve as a foundation for the identification of candidate genes and may provide valuable information for understanding the molecular and cellular events related to PR development.

  9. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Primary Roots of Brassica napus Seedlings with Extremely Different Primary Root Lengths Using RNA Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Dun, Xiaoling; Tao, Zhangsheng; Wang, Jie; Wang, Xinfa; Liu, Guihua; Wang, Hanzhong

    2016-01-01

    Primary root (PR) development is a crucial developmental process that is essential for plant survival. The elucidation of the PR transcriptome provides insight into the genetic mechanism controlling PR development in crops. In this study, we performed a comparative transcriptome analysis to investigate the genome-wide gene expression profiles of the seedling PRs of four Brassica napus genotypes that were divided into two groups, short group (D43 and D61), and long group (D69 and D72), according to their extremely different primary root lengths (PRLs). The results generated 55,341,366-64,631,336 clean reads aligned to 62,562 genes (61.9% of the current annotated genes) in the B. napus genome. We provide evidence that at least 44,986 genes are actively expressed in the B. napus PR. The majority of the genes that were expressed during seedling PR development were associated with metabolism, cellular processes, response to stimulus, biological regulation, and signaling. Using a pairwise comparison approach, 509 differentially expressed genes (DEGs; absolute value of log2 fold-change ≥1 and p ≤ 0.05) between the long and short groups were revealed, including phytohormone-related genes, protein kinases and phosphatases, oxygenase, cytochrome P450 proteins, etc. Combining GO functional category, KEGG, and MapMan pathway analyses indicated that the DEGs involved in cell wall metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, lipid metabolism, secondary metabolism, protein modification and degradation, hormone pathways and signaling pathways were the main causes of the observed PRL differences. We also identified 16 differentially expressed transcription factors (TFs) involved in PR development. Taken together, these transcriptomic datasets may serve as a foundation for the identification of candidate genes and may provide valuable information for understanding the molecular and cellular events related to PR development.

  10. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Primary Roots of Brassica napus Seedlings with Extremely Different Primary Root Lengths Using RNA Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Dun, Xiaoling; Tao, Zhangsheng; Wang, Jie; Wang, Xinfa; Liu, Guihua; Wang, Hanzhong

    2016-01-01

    Primary root (PR) development is a crucial developmental process that is essential for plant survival. The elucidation of the PR transcriptome provides insight into the genetic mechanism controlling PR development in crops. In this study, we performed a comparative transcriptome analysis to investigate the genome-wide gene expression profiles of the seedling PRs of four Brassica napus genotypes that were divided into two groups, short group (D43 and D61), and long group (D69 and D72), according to their extremely different primary root lengths (PRLs). The results generated 55,341,366–64,631,336 clean reads aligned to 62,562 genes (61.9% of the current annotated genes) in the B. napus genome. We provide evidence that at least 44,986 genes are actively expressed in the B. napus PR. The majority of the genes that were expressed during seedling PR development were associated with metabolism, cellular processes, response to stimulus, biological regulation, and signaling. Using a pairwise comparison approach, 509 differentially expressed genes (DEGs; absolute value of log2 fold-change ≥1 and p ≤ 0.05) between the long and short groups were revealed, including phytohormone-related genes, protein kinases and phosphatases, oxygenase, cytochrome P450 proteins, etc. Combining GO functional category, KEGG, and MapMan pathway analyses indicated that the DEGs involved in cell wall metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, lipid metabolism, secondary metabolism, protein modification and degradation, hormone pathways and signaling pathways were the main causes of the observed PRL differences. We also identified 16 differentially expressed transcription factors (TFs) involved in PR development. Taken together, these transcriptomic datasets may serve as a foundation for the identification of candidate genes and may provide valuable information for understanding the molecular and cellular events related to PR development. PMID:27594860

  11. Salvage chemoradiotherapy after primary chemotherapy for locally advanced pancreatic cancer: a single-institution retrospective analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There is no consensus on the indication for salvage chemoradiotherapy (CRT) after failure of primary chemotherapy for locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC). Here we report on the retrospective analysis of patients who received salvage CRT after primary chemotherapy for LAPC. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of salvage CRT after primary chemotherapy for LAPC. Methods Thirty patients who underwent salvage CRT, after the failure of primary chemotherapy for LAPC, were retrospectively enrolled from 2004 to 2011 at the authors’ institution. All the patients had histologically confirmed pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Results Primary chemotherapy was continued until progression or emergence of unacceptable toxicity. Eventually, 26 patients (87%) discontinued primary chemotherapy because of local tumor progression, whereas four patients (13%) discontinued chemotherapy because of interstitial pneumonitis caused by gemcitabine. After a median period of 7.9 months from starting chemotherapy, 30 patients underwent salvage CRT combined with either S-1 or 5-FU. Toxicities were generally mild and self-limiting. Median survival time (MST) from the start of salvage CRT was 8.8 months. The 6 month, 1-year and 2-year survival rates from the start of CRT were 77%, 33% and 26%, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that a lower pre-CRT serum CA 19–9 level (≤ 1000 U/ml; p = 0.009) and a single regimen of primary chemotherapy (p = 0.004) were independent prognostic factors for survival after salvage CRT. The MST for the entire patient population from the start of primary chemotherapy was 17.8 months, with 2- and 3-year overall survival rates of 39% and 22%, respectively. Conclusions CRT had moderate anti-tumor activity and an acceptable toxicity profile in patients with LAPC, even after failure of gemcitabine-based primary chemotherapy. If there are any signs of failure of primary chemotherapy without distant metastasis

  12. Analysis of neutron spectrum effects on primary damage in tritium breeding blankets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Yong Hee; Joo, Han Gyu

    2012-07-01

    The effect of neutron spectrum on primary damages in a structural material of a tritium breeding blanket is investigated with a newly established recoil spectrum estimation system. First, a recoil spectrum generation code is developed to obtain the energy spectrum of primary knock-on atoms (PKAs) for a given neutron spectrum utilizing the latest ENDF/B data. Secondly, a method for approximating the high energy tail of the recoil spectrum is introduced to avoid expensive molecular dynamics calculations for high energy PKAs using the concept of recoil energy of the secondary knock-on atoms originated by the INtegration of CAScades (INCAS) model. Thirdly, the modified spectrum is combined with a set of molecular dynamics calculation results to estimate the primary damage parameters such as the number of surviving point defects. Finally, the neutron spectrum is varied by changing the material of the spectral shifter and the result in primary damage parameters is examined.

  13. Erbium-doped fiber amplifier elements for structural analysis sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanna-Hawver, P.; Kamdar, K. D.; Mehta, S.; Nagarajan, S.; Nasta, M. H.; Claus, R. O.

    1992-01-01

    The use of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFA's) in optical fiber sensor systems for structural analysis is described. EDFA's were developed for primary applications as periodic regenerator amplifiers in long-distance fiber-based communication systems. Their in-line amplification performance also makes them attractive for optical fiber sensor systems which require long effective lengths or the synthesis of special length-dependent signal processing functions. Sensor geometries incorporating EDFA's in recirculating and multiple loop sensors are discussed. Noise and polarization birefringence are also considered, and the experimental development of system components is discussed.

  14. Structural, electronic and optical properties of well-known primary explosive: Mercury fulminate

    SciTech Connect

    Yedukondalu, N.; Vaitheeswaran, G.

    2015-11-28

    Mercury Fulminate (MF) is one of the well-known primary explosives since 17th century and it has rendered invaluable service over many years. However, the correct molecular and crystal structures are determined recently after 300 years of its discovery. In the present study, we report pressure dependent structural, elastic, electronic and optical properties of MF. Non-local correction methods have been employed to capture the weak van der Waals interactions in layered and molecular energetic MF. Among the non-local correction methods tested, optB88-vdW method works well for the investigated compound. The obtained equilibrium bulk modulus reveals that MF is softer than the well known primary explosives Silver Fulminate (SF), silver azide and lead azide. MF exhibits anisotropic compressibility (b > a > c) under pressure, consequently the corresponding elastic moduli decrease in the following order: C{sub 22} > C{sub 11} > C{sub 33}. The structural and mechanical properties suggest that MF is more sensitive to detonate along c-axis (similar to RDX) due to high compressibility of Hg⋯O non-bonded interactions along that axis. Electronic structure and optical properties were calculated including spin-orbit (SO) interactions using full potential linearized augmented plane wave method within recently developed Tran-Blaha modified Becke-Johnson (TB-mBJ) potential. The calculated TB-mBJ electronic structures of SF and MF show that these compounds are indirect bandgap insulators. Also, SO coupling is found to be more pronounced for 4d and 5d-states of Ag and Hg atoms of SF and MF, respectively. Partial density of states and electron charge density maps were used to describe the nature of chemical bonding. Ag—C bond is more directional than Hg—C bond which makes SF to be more unstable than MF. The effect of SO coupling on optical properties has also been studied and found to be significant for both (SF and MF) of the compounds.

  15. Disturbed Structural Connectivity in Schizophrenia—Primary Factor in Pathology or Epiphenomenon?

    PubMed Central

    Konrad, Andreas; Winterer, Georg

    2008-01-01

    Indirect evidence for disturbed structural connectivity of subcortical fiber tracts in schizophrenia has been obtained from functional neuroimaging and electrophysiologic studies. During the past few years, new structural imaging methods have become available. Diffusion tensor imaging and magnetization transfer imaging (MTI) have been used to investigate directly whether fiber tract abnormalities are indeed present in schizophrenia. To date, findings are inconsistent that may express problems related to methodological issues and sample size. Also, pathological processes detectable with these new techniques are not yet well understood. Nevertheless, with growing evidence of disturbed structural connectivity, myelination has been in the focus of postmortem investigations. Several studies have shown a significant reduction of oligodendroglial cells and ultrastructural alterations of myelin sheats in schizophrenia. There is also growing evidence for abnormal expression of myelin-related genes in schizophrenia: Neuregulin (NRG1) is important for oligodendrocyte development and function, and altered expression of erbB3, one of the NRG1 receptors, has been shown in schizophrenia patients. This is consistent with recent genetic studies suggesting that NRG1 may contribute to the genetic risk for schizophrenia. In conclusion, there is increasing evidence from multiple sides that structural connectivity might be pathologically changed in schizophrenia illness. Up to the present, however, it has not been possible to decide whether alterations of structural connectivity are intrinsically linked to the primary risk factors for schizophrenia or to secondary downstream effects (ie, degeneration of fibers secondarily caused by cortical neuronal dysfunction)—an issue that needs to be clarified by future research. PMID:17485733

  16. Community structure and primary productivity of forested wetlands in western Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    Community structure and net primary productivity were measured in five forested wetlands in western Kentucky and compared with hydrologic information. A bottomland hardwood forest (H1), cypress-ash swamp (H2), and deep cypress swamp (H3) were located on the floodplain of the Ohio River and were subject to annual spring flooding. The other two sites were adjacent to a smaller, channelized stream that floods frequently, but for short periods. Only a young riparian forest (C3) is directly affected by the stream unless an unusually severe flood exceeds the levee that hydrologically isolates the stagnant cypress swamp (C4). Community structure indices were lowest in the two permanently-flooded cypress swamps. Tree biomass was 9.4 kg/m/sup 2/ at C4 and 10.2 kg/m/sup 2/ at H3. High biomass was found at H1 and H2 (30.3 and 31.2 kg/m/sup 2/) while C3 was intermediate at 18.4 kg/m/sup 2/. Other structural measures, notably stem density and mean height were closely related to biomass estimates. Low leaf to wood biomass ratios were found at H2 and C4 which suggests low nutrient availability. Nutrients are abundant at H2 due to agricultural runoff but physiological stress and aquatic macrophyte competition may limit tree uptake.

  17. Structures of xyloglucans in primary cell walls of gymnosperms, monilophytes (ferns sensu lato) and lycophytes.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Yves S Y; Harris, Philip J

    2012-07-01

    Little is known about the structures of the xyloglucans in the primary cell walls of vascular plants (tracheophytes) other than angiosperms. Xyloglucan structures were examined in 13 species of gymnosperms, 13 species of monilophytes (ferns sensu lato), and two species of lycophytes. Wall preparations were obtained, extracted with 6 M sodium hydroxide, and the extracts treated with a xyloglucan-specific endo-(1→4)-β-glucanase preparation. The oligosaccharides released were analysed by matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry and by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography. The xyloglucan oligosaccharide profiles from the gymnosperm walls were similar to those from the walls of most eudicotyledons and non-commelinid monocotyledons, indicating that the xyloglucans were fucogalactoxyloglucans, containing the fucosylated units XXFG and XLFG. The xyloglucan oligosaccharide profiles for six of the monilophyte species were similar to those of the gymnosperms, indicating they were also fucogalactoxyloglucans. Phylogenetically, these monilophyte species were from both basal and more derived orders. However, the profiles for the other monilophyte species showed various significant differences, including additional oligosaccharides. In three of the species, these additional oligosaccharides contained arabinosyl residues which were most abundant in the profile of Equisetum hyemale. The two species of lycophytes examined, Selaginella kraussiana and Lycopodium cernuum, had quite different xyloglucan oligosaccharide profiles, but neither were fucogalactoxyloglucans. The S. kraussiana profile had abundant oligosaccharides containing arabinosyl residues. The L. cernuum profile indicated the xyloglucan had a very complex structure.

  18. Rabbit muscle creatine phosphokinase. CDNA cloning, primary structure and detection of human homologues.

    PubMed

    Putney, S; Herlihy, W; Royal, N; Pang, H; Aposhian, H V; Pickering, L; Belagaje, R; Biemann, K; Page, D; Kuby, S

    1984-12-10

    A cDNA library was constructed from rabbit muscle poly(A) RNA. Limited amino acid sequence information was obtained on rabbit muscle creatine phosphokinase and this was the basis for design and synthesis of two oligonucleotide probes complementary to a creatine kinase cDNA sequence which encodes a pentapeptide. Colony hybridizations with the probes and subsequent steps led to isolation of two clones, whose cDNA segments partially overlap and which together encode the entire protein. The primary structure was established from the sequence of two cDNA clones and from independently determined sequences of scattered portions of the polypeptide. The reactive cysteine has been located to position 282 within the 380 amino acid polypeptide. The rabbit cDNA hybridizes to digests of human chromosomal DNA. This reveals a restriction fragment length polymorphism associated with the human homologue(s) which hybridizes to the rabbit cDNA.

  19. Determination of the primary structure of two lipid transfer proteins from apricot (Prunus armeniaca).

    PubMed

    Conti, A; Fortunato, D; Ortolani, C; Giuffrida, M G; Pravettoni, V; Napolitano, L; Farioli, L; Perono Garoffo, L; Trambaioli, C; Pastorello, E A

    2001-05-25

    It has been recently demonstrated that the major allergen of apricot is a protein of molecular mass (Mr) 9000 belonging to the family of Lipid Transfer Protein. The aim of this study was the determination of the primary structure of apricot LTP by micro-sequencing and mass spectrometric analyses. Apricot LTP is a 91 amino acids protein like peach and almond LTPs with a sequence identity of 91% and 94%, respectively. Like for the peach LTP, out of the 25 amino acids forming the inner surface of the tunnel-like hydrophobic cavity in maize ns-LTP, 16 are identical and 7 similar in the apricot LTP, supporting the hypothesis of a similar function.

  20. Space ten-meter telescope (STMT) - Structural and thermal feasibility study of the primary mirror

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bely, Pierre Y.; Bolton, John F.; Neeck, Steven P.; Tulkoff, Philip J.

    1987-01-01

    The structural and thermal behavior of a ten-meter primary mirror for a space optical/near-IR telescope in geosynchronous orbit is studied. The glass-type lightweighted mirror is monolithic, of the double arch type, and is supported at only three points. The computer programs SSPTA (thermal), NASTRAN (finite element), and ACCOS V (optical) are used in sequence to determine the temperature, deformation, and optical performance of the mirror. A mirror temperature of 130 K or less appears to be obtainable by purely passive means. With a fused silica or standard Zerodur blank, thermally-induced deformation is unacceptable and cannot be fully corrected by an active secondary mirror over the desired field. Either active thermal control or a blank of lower thermal expansion coefficient would be required.

  1. Primary structure of insulin and glucagon from the flounder (Platichthys flesus).

    PubMed

    Conlon, J M; Davis, M S; Thim, L

    1987-05-01

    Insulin and glucagon have been isolated from the Brockmann bodies of the flounder, a teleostean fish, and their primary structures established by automated Edman degradation. The A-chain of flounder insulin shows strong homology to the A-chains from the coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch; 100%) and the anglerfish (Lophius americanus; 95%) but homologies in the B-chain region are weaker (salmon 79%, anglerfish 83%). Flounder insulin B-chain contains the novel sequence Val-Val-Pro-Pro at the NH2 terminus and the highly conserved seryl residue at position 10 (B 9 in mammals) is replaced by an alanyl residue. Flounder glucagon is identical to anglerfish glucagon II but shows four amino acid substitutions compared with salmon glucagon. PMID:3556313

  2. Isolation and primary structure determination of a metallothionein from Paracentrotus lividus (Echinodermata, Echinoidea).

    PubMed

    Scudiero, R; Capasso, C; Del Vecchio-Blanco, F; Savino, G; Capasso, A; Parente, A; Parisi, E

    1995-06-01

    A low-molecular-mass zinc-binding protein was purified from the eggs of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus using procedures that included gel-permeation and anion-exchange chromatography followed by HPLC. The primary structure of this protein was derived from the sequences of peptide fragments obtained by digestion with trypsin and thermolysin. The reconstructed sequence showed the presence of 20 cysteinyl residues, thus resembling that of a metallothionein. The Paracentrotus protein was most similar to the metallothionein of Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, another member of the order of Echinoida, living along the coast of the Pacific Ocean. However, the presence of non-conservative amino acid substitution, together with a deletion of two residues in the Strongylocentrotus metallothionein, make the similarity scores of the two sea urchin proteins lower than that of metallothioneins from vertebrates of the same order. In addition, the present data show that sea urchin metallothioneins display no homology with metallothioneins of any other species. PMID:7599993

  3. Primary structure and cellular localization of callinectin, an antimicrobial peptide from the blue crab.

    PubMed

    Noga, Edward J; Stone, Kathryn L; Wood, Abbey; Gordon, William L; Robinette, David

    2011-04-01

    We report the complete amino acid sequence of callinectin, a 32 amino acid, proline-, arginine-rich antimicrobial peptide (AMP) with four cysteines and having the sequence WNSNRRFRVGRPPVVGRPGCVCFRAPCPCSNY-amide. The primary structure of callinectin is highly similar to arasins, AMPs recently identified in the small spider crab (Hyas araneus). Callinectin exists in three isomers that vary in the functional group on the tryptophan (W) residue. The most prevalent isomer had a hydroxy-N-formylkynurenine group, while the other two isomers had either N-formylkynurenine or hydroxy-tryptophan. Using a sequence highly similar to native callinectin, we chemically synthesized a peptide which we called callinectin-like peptide (CLP). Via immuno-electron microscopy, affinity-purified rabbit antibodies raised to CLP successfully localized the site of callinectin in blue crab hemocytes to the large electron-dense granules that are found primarily in large granule hemocytes.

  4. The primary structure of pale-throated three-toed sloth (Bradypus tridactylus, Xenarthra) hemoglobin.

    PubMed

    Kleinschmidt, T; März, J; Braunitzer, G

    1989-04-01

    The hemoglobin of the Pale-Throated Three-Toed Sloth (Bradypus tridactylus, Xenarthra) was separated into two components (ratio 4:1) with identical amino-acid analyses for the alpha- and beta-chains. The primary structures of both chains from the major component are given. They could be isolated by chromatography on carboxymethyl cellulose CM-52. The sequences have been determined by automatic Edman degradation of the native chains and their tryptic peptides. The comparison with human hemoglobin showed 27 substitutions in the alpha-chains and 33 in the beta-chains. In the alpha-chains one amino-acid exchange involves an alpha 1/beta 1-contact. In the beta-chains two heme- and four alpha 1/beta 1-contacts are substituted. The hemoglobin of the Sloth is compared to that of the Nine-Banded Armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus), another representative of the order Xenerthra.

  5. Primary structure and cellular localization of callinectin, an antimicrobial peptide from the blue crab

    PubMed Central

    Noga, Edward J.; Stone, Kathryn L.; Wood, Abbey; Gordon, William L.; Robinette, David

    2011-01-01

    We report the complete amino acid sequence of callinectin, a 32 amino acid, proline-, arginine-rich AMP with four cysteines and having the sequence WNSNRRFRVGRPPVVGRPGCVCFRAPCPCSNY-amide. The primary structure of callinectin is highly similar to arasins, AMPs recently identified in the small spider crab (Hyas araneus). Callinectin exists in three isomers that vary in the functional group on the tryptophan (W) residue. The most prevalent isomer had a hydroxy-N-formylkynurenine group, while the other two isomers had either N-formylkynurenine or hydroxy-tryptophan. Using a sequence highly similar to native callinectin, we chemically synthesized a peptide which we called callinectin-like peptide (CLP). Via immunoelectron microscopy, affinity-purified rabbit antibodies raised to CLP successfully localized the site of callinectin in blue crab hemocytes to the large electron-dense granules that are found primarily in large granule hemocytes. PMID:21115038

  6. The primary structure of the aridicin aglycon as revealed by long-range J values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Luciano; Jeffs, Peter W.

    The aglycon of aridicin, which is a member of the vancomycin class of antibiotics, was analyzed by utilizing J spin-spin interactions in two-dimensional NMR experiments.This unusual heptapeptide with the molecular formula C 59H 45N 7O 19Cl 4 (MW 1296.160) has a large number of quateernary carbons in aromatic side chains. For that reason most information was obtained from delayed COSY and COLOC spectra which reveal homo- and heteronuclear connectivities via long-range J couplings. The carbon-13 spectrum was assigned completely. In addition, the primary structure of the aridicin aglycon could be deduced, with the exception of the ether linkages between the side chains A, B, and C, by solely relying on J-connectivity maps.

  7. Primary structure of Lep d I, the main Lepidoglyphus destructor allergen.

    PubMed

    Varela, J; Ventas, P; Carreira, J; Barbas, J A; Gimenez-Gallego, G; Polo, F

    1994-10-01

    The most relevant allergen of the storage mite Lepidoglyphus destructor (Lep d I) has been characterized. Lep d I is a monomer protein of 13273 Da. The primary structure of Lep d I was determined by N-terminal Edman degradation and partially confirmed by cDNA sequencing. Sequence polymorphism was observed at six positions, with non-conservative substitutions in three of them. No potential N-glycosylation site was revealed by peptide sequencing. The 125-residue sequence of Lep d I shows approximately 40% identity (including the six cysteines) with the overlapping regions of group II allergens from the genus Dermatophagoides, which, however, do not share common allergenic epitopes with Lep d I. PMID:7925475

  8. Primary structures of pancreatic ribonucleases from Bovidae. Impala, Thomson's gazelle, nilgai and water buffalo.

    PubMed

    Beintema, J J

    1980-01-24

    The amino acid sequences of the pancreatic ribonucleases from impala Thomson's gazelle, nilgai and two types of water buffalo were studied from several enzymic digests. Peptides were positioned by homology with other ribonucleases of known sequence. Only peptides that differ in amino acid composition from the corresponding peptides of ox and goat ribonuclease were sequenced. The primary structures of pancreatic ribonucleases from 11 species of the Bovidae family are known to date. The evolutionary rate of bovid ribonucleases is 2--3 times lower than the average rate observed in all mammals. A possible explanation is that the presence of a stable symbiotic system in the rumen of grass-eating ruminants has caused a slowing down of the evolutionary rate of pancreatic ribonuclease in this taxon. The subfamily of the Bovinae (five species) exhibits a slightly higher evolutionary rate; most replacements in the Bovinae occur near residues 34--36, the most commonly observed carbohydrate attachment site in ribonucleases.

  9. Structure-function relationships in rat medullary and cervical dorsal horns. I. Trigeminal primary afferents.

    PubMed

    Jacquin, M F; Renehan, W E; Mooney, R D; Rhoades, R W

    1986-06-01

    Intracellular recording and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) labeling were used to examine structure-function relationships in the medullary dorsal horn (MDH) and rostral cervical dorsal horn. In Nembutal-anesthetized rats, 78 trigeminal (V) primary afferent fibers were physiologically characterized and injected with HRP. Axons were sufficiently well stained to reconstruct all of their collaterals in the MDH. Many also extended into the cervical dorsal horn. Except for four axons, which responded best to noxious stimuli, all responded at short (mean = 0.50 ms) latencies to V ganglion shocks and to innocuous stimulation. Forty-five of our recovered fibers were associated with facial vibrissae and responded in either a rapidly adapting, slowly adapting type I, slowly adapting type IIa, or slowly adapting type IIb fashion. The adequate stimuli consisted of either slow deflection, high-velocity deflection, or a noxious pinch of the vibrissa follicle. The collaterals of all of the above-described mystacial vibrissa primary afferents proceeded directly to their region of arborization in a plane perpendicular to the lateral border of the medulla to collectively form a largely continuous, circumscribed terminal column. This longitudinally oriented column of terminal and en passant boutons angled from lamina V rostrally to lamina III caudally. In the magnocellular laminae of the MDH, all mystacial vibrissa primary afferents gave rise to similarly shaped arbors, regardless of their functional classification. While morphological variability was observed both within and between individual axons, variance between functional classes was no greater than that within a class. Moreover, number of collaterals, number of boutons, or bouton size did not distinguish functional classes. Nonmystacial vibrissa afferent arbors, with more caudal peripheral fields, had their primary arbor focus in C1 and C2 dorsal horn. These arbors had relatively little rostrocaudal overlap with mystacial

  10. Analysis and sizing of Mars aerobrake structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raju, I. S.; Craft, W. J.

    1993-01-01

    A cone-sphere aeroshell structure for aerobraking into Martian atmosphere is studied. Using this structural configuration, a space frame load-bearing structure is proposed. To generate this structure efficiently and to perform a variety of studies of several configurations, a mesh generator that utilizes only a few configurational parameters is developed. A finite element analysis program that analyzes space frame structures was developed. A sizing algorithm that arrives at a minimum mass configuration was developed and integrated into the finite element analysis program. A typical 135-ft-diam aerobrake configuration was analyzed and sized. The minimum mass obtained in this study using high modulus graphite/epoxy composite material members is compared with the masses obtained from two other aerobrake structures using lightweight erectable tetrahedral truss and part-spherical truss configurations. Excellent agreement for the minimum mass was obtained with the three different aerobrake structures. Also, the minimum mass using the present structure was obtained when the supports were not at the base but at about 75 percent of the base diameter.

  11. Analysis of flexible structures under lateral impact

    SciTech Connect

    Ramirez, D. F.; Razavi, H.

    2012-07-01

    Three methods for analysis of flexible structures under lateral impact are presented. The first proposed method (Method A) consists of: (1) modifying an available deceleration on a rigid target with conservation principles to account for structural flexibility; and (2) transient nonlinear analysis of the structure with the corrected forcing function. The second proposed method (Method B) is similar to Method A in obtaining the forcing function but it solves the equations of motion of an idealized two-degree-of-freedom system instead of directly using conservation principles. The last method simply provides the maximum force in the structure using the conservation of energy and linear momentum. A coupled simulation is also performed in LS-DYNA and compared against the proposed methods. A case study is presented to illustrate the applicability of all three methods and the LS-DYNA simulation. (authors)

  12. Impact analysis studies of clinical prediction rules relevant to primary care: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Emma; Uijen, Maike J M; Clyne, Barbara; Zarabzadeh, Atieh; Keogh, Claire; Galvin, Rose; Smith, Susan M; Fahey, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Following appropriate validation, clinical prediction rules (CPRs) should undergo impact analysis to evaluate their effect on patient care. The aim of this systematic review is to narratively review and critically appraise CPR impact analysis studies relevant to primary care. Setting Primary care. Participants Adults and children. Intervention Studies that implemented the CPR compared to usual care were included. Study design Randomised controlled trial (RCT), controlled before–after, and interrupted time series. Primary outcome Physician behaviour and/or patient outcomes. Results A total of 18 studies, incorporating 14 unique CPRs, were included. The main study design was RCT (n=13). Overall, 10 studies reported an improvement in primary outcome with CPR implementation. Of 6 musculoskeletal studies, 5 were effective in altering targeted physician behaviour in ordering imaging for patients presenting with ankle, knee and neck musculoskeletal injuries. Of 6 cardiovascular studies, 4 implemented cardiovascular risk scores, and 3 reported no impact on physician behaviour outcomes, such as prescribing and referral, or patient outcomes, such as reduction in serum lipid levels. 2 studies examined CPRs in decision-making for patients presenting with chest pain and reduced inappropriate admissions. Of 5 respiratory studies, 2 were effective in reducing antibiotic prescribing for sore throat following CPR implementation. Overall, study methodological quality was often unclear due to incomplete reporting. Conclusions Despite increasing interest in developing and validating CPRs relevant to primary care, relatively few have gone through impact analysis. To date, research has focused on a small number of CPRs across few clinical domains only. PMID:27008685

  13. Host defense peptides from Lithobates forreri, Hylarana luctuosa, and Hylarana signata (Ranidae): phylogenetic relationships inferred from primary structures of ranatuerin-2 and brevinin-2 peptides.

    PubMed

    Conlon, J Michael; Kolodziejek, Jolanta; Mechkarska, Milena; Coquet, Laurent; Leprince, Jérôme; Jouenne, Thierry; Vaudry, Hubert; Nielsen, Per F; Nowotny, Norbert; King, Jay D

    2014-03-01

    The primary structures of host-defense peptides present in frog skin secretions constitute useful molecular markers for establishing taxonomic classifications and investigating phylogenetic relationships between species within a particular genus. Peptidomic analysis has led to the characterization of multiple host-defense peptides in norepinephrine-stimulated skin secretions of three species of frogs from the family Ranidae: Lithobates forreri (Boulenger, 1883), Hylarana luctuosa (Peters, 1871), and Hylarana signata (Günther, 1872). The L. forreri secretions contain ranatuerin-2 (2 peptides), brevinin-1 (4 peptides), and temporin (1 peptide). The H. luctuosa secretions contain brevinin-2 (4 peptides), esculentin-1 (1 peptide), esculentin-2 (1 peptide), palustrin-2 (2 peptides), and temporin (2 peptides). The H. signata secretions contain brevinin-2 (4 peptides), brevinin-1 (5 peptides), palustrin-2 (1 peptide), and temporin (2 peptides). Cladistic analysis based upon the primary structures of 44 ranatuerin-2 peptides from 20 Lithobates species indicates a close phylogenetic relationship between L. forreri, Lithobates onca, and Lithobates yavapaiensis. A similar cladistic analysis based upon the primary structures of 27 brevinin-2 peptides from 8 Hylarana species provides support for a close phylogenetic relationship between H. signata and Hylarana picturata, while showing that the species are not conspecific, with H. luctuosa more distantly related. PMID:24463457

  14. Host defense peptides from Lithobates forreri, Hylarana luctuosa, and Hylarana signata (Ranidae): phylogenetic relationships inferred from primary structures of ranatuerin-2 and brevinin-2 peptides.

    PubMed

    Conlon, J Michael; Kolodziejek, Jolanta; Mechkarska, Milena; Coquet, Laurent; Leprince, Jérôme; Jouenne, Thierry; Vaudry, Hubert; Nielsen, Per F; Nowotny, Norbert; King, Jay D

    2014-03-01

    The primary structures of host-defense peptides present in frog skin secretions constitute useful molecular markers for establishing taxonomic classifications and investigating phylogenetic relationships between species within a particular genus. Peptidomic analysis has led to the characterization of multiple host-defense peptides in norepinephrine-stimulated skin secretions of three species of frogs from the family Ranidae: Lithobates forreri (Boulenger, 1883), Hylarana luctuosa (Peters, 1871), and Hylarana signata (Günther, 1872). The L. forreri secretions contain ranatuerin-2 (2 peptides), brevinin-1 (4 peptides), and temporin (1 peptide). The H. luctuosa secretions contain brevinin-2 (4 peptides), esculentin-1 (1 peptide), esculentin-2 (1 peptide), palustrin-2 (2 peptides), and temporin (2 peptides). The H. signata secretions contain brevinin-2 (4 peptides), brevinin-1 (5 peptides), palustrin-2 (1 peptide), and temporin (2 peptides). Cladistic analysis based upon the primary structures of 44 ranatuerin-2 peptides from 20 Lithobates species indicates a close phylogenetic relationship between L. forreri, Lithobates onca, and Lithobates yavapaiensis. A similar cladistic analysis based upon the primary structures of 27 brevinin-2 peptides from 8 Hylarana species provides support for a close phylogenetic relationship between H. signata and Hylarana picturata, while showing that the species are not conspecific, with H. luctuosa more distantly related.

  15. Primary Care Physicians’ Use of an Electronic Medical Record System: A Cognitive Task Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hadas-Dayagi, Michal; Ziv, Amitai; Reis, Shmuel

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe physicians’ patterns of using an Electronic Medical Record (EMR) system; to reveal the underlying cognitive elements involved in EMR use, possible resulting errors, and influences on patient–doctor communication; to gain insight into the role of expertise in incorporating EMRs into clinical practice in general and communicative behavior in particular. DESIGN Cognitive task analysis using semi-structured interviews and field observations. PARTICIPANTS Twenty-five primary care physicians from the northern district of the largest health maintenance organization (HMO) in Israel. RESULTS The comprehensiveness, organization, and readability of data in the EMR system reduced physicians’ need to recall information from memory and the difficulty of reading handwriting. Physicians perceived EMR use as reducing the cognitive load associated with clinical tasks. Automaticity of EMR use contributed to efficiency, but sometimes resulted in errors, such as the selection of incorrect medication or the input of data into the wrong patient’s chart. EMR use interfered with patient–doctor communication. The main strategy for overcoming this problem involved separating EMR use from time spent communicating with patients. Computer mastery and enhanced physicians’ communication skills also helped. CONCLUSIONS There is a fine balance between the benefits and risks of EMR use. Automaticity, especially in combination with interruptions, emerged as the main cognitive factor contributing to errors. EMR use had a negative influence on communication, a problem that can be partially addressed by improving the spatial organization of physicians’ offices and by enhancing physicians’ computer and communication skills. PMID:19130148

  16. Employing a Structured Interface to Advance Primary Students' Communicative Competence in a Text-Based Computer Mediated Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Chiung-Hui; Wu, Chiu-Yi; Hsieh, Sheng-Jieh; Cheng, Hsiao-Wei; Huang, Chung-Kai

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether a structured communication interface fosters primary students' communicative competence in a synchronous typewritten computer-mediated collaborative learning environment. The structured interface provided a set of predetermined utterance patterns for elementary students to use or imitate to develop communicative…

  17. Structural analysis for a 40-story building

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hua, L.

    1972-01-01

    NASTRAN was chosen as the principal analytical tool for structural analysis of the Illinois Center Plaza Hotel Building in Chicago, Illinois. The building is a 40-story, reinforced concrete structure utilizing a monolithic slab-column system. The displacements, member stresses, and foundation loads due to wind load, live load, and dead load were obtained through a series of NASTRAN runs. These analyses and the input technique are described.

  18. Design and Analysis of Muon Beam Stop Support Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Okafor, Udenna

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of this thesis is to design and analyze support structures to be used in the installation, test and final positioning of the MBS throughout the life of the Mu2e experiment. There several requirements for the MBS imposed by both the scope of the experiment and, other components within the DS bore. The functions of the MBS are: 1. To limit the induced rates in the Tracker, the Calorimeter and the Cosmic Ray Veto due to backsplash-and-secondary interactions, and 2. To reduce radiation levels external to the Detector solenoid. The structures used in supporting the MBS will also adhere to requirements imposed by its functions. These requirements are critical to the support structures and affect design decisions. Other requirements critical to the design are imposed by the weight, positional tolerance and assembly procedure of the MBS, and also, the magnetic field and vacuum dose rate of the DS bore. A detailed breakdown of how each requirement affects the structural design can be found in chapter 2. Chapter 3 describes the design of each support structure and its attachment to the MBS while chapter 4 describes the results from structural analysis of the support structures. Chapter 5 describes evaluation for the design through testing and calculations while the conclusion in chapter 6 reports the current status at the time of this thesis submission with a plan for future work to be completed until final design and installation.

  19. Primary Structure of a Trypsin Inhibitor (Copaifera langsdorffii Trypsin Inhibitor-1) Obtained from C. langsdorffii Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Silva, José A.; Pompeu, Dávia G.; Smolka, Marcus B.; Gozzo, Fabio C.; Comar, Moacyr; Eberlin, Marcos N.; Marangoni, Sérgio

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the aim was to determine the complete sequence of the Copaifera langsdorffii trypsin inhibitor (CTI)-1 using 2-dimensional (2D)-PAGE, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF), and quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF) spectrometry. Spots A (CTI-1) and F (CTI-2) were submitted to enzymatic digestions with trypsin, SV8, and clostripain. The accurate mass of the peptide obtained from each digest was determined by mass spectrometry (MS) using MALDI-TOF. The most abundant peptides were purified and sequenced in a liquid chromatograph connected to an electrospray ionization-QTOF MS. When the purified trypsin inhibitor was submitted to 2D electrophoresis, different spots were observed, suggesting that the protein is composed of 2 subunits with microheterogeneity. Isoelectric points of 8.0, 8.5, and 9.0 were determined for the 11 kDa subunit and of 4.7, 4.6, and 4.3 for the 9 kDa subunit. The primary structure of CTI-1, determined from the mass of the peptide of the enzymatic digestions and the sequence obtained by MS, indicated 180 shared amino acid residues and a high degree of similarity with other Kunitz (KTI)-type inhibitors. The peptide also contained an Arg residue at the reactive site position. Its 3-dimensional structure revealed that this is because the structural discrepancies do not affect the canonical conformation of the reactive loop of the peptide. Results demonstrate that a detailed investigation of the structural particularities of CTI-1 could provide a better understanding of the mechanism of action of these proteins, as well as clarify its biologic function in the seeds. CTI-1 belongs to the KTI family and is composed of 2 polypeptide chains and only 1 disulfide bridge. PMID:26207098

  20. Primary Structure of a Trypsin Inhibitor (Copaifera langsdorffii Trypsin Inhibitor-1) Obtained from C. langsdorffii Seeds.

    PubMed

    Silva, José A; Pompeu, Dávia G; Smolka, Marcus B; Gozzo, Fabio C; Comar, Moacyr; Eberlin, Marcos N; Granjeiro, Paulo A; Marangoni, Sérgio

    2015-09-01

    In this study, the aim was to determine the complete sequence of the Copaifera langsdorffii trypsin inhibitor (CTI)-1 using 2-dimensional (2D)-PAGE, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF), and quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF) spectrometry. Spots A (CTI-1) and F (CTI-2) were submitted to enzymatic digestions with trypsin, SV8, and clostripain. The accurate mass of the peptide obtained from each digest was determined by mass spectrometry (MS) using MALDI-TOF. The most abundant peptides were purified and sequenced in a liquid chromatograph connected to an electrospray ionization-QTOF MS. When the purified trypsin inhibitor was submitted to 2D electrophoresis, different spots were observed, suggesting that the protein is composed of 2 subunits with microheterogeneity. Isoelectric points of 8.0, 8.5, and 9.0 were determined for the 11 kDa subunit and of 4.7, 4.6, and 4.3 for the 9 kDa subunit. The primary structure of CTI-1, determined from the mass of the peptide of the enzymatic digestions and the sequence obtained by MS, indicated 180 shared amino acid residues and a high degree of similarity with other Kunitz (KTI)-type inhibitors. The peptide also contained an Arg residue at the reactive site position. Its 3-dimensional structure revealed that this is because the structural discrepancies do not affect the canonical conformation of the reactive loop of the peptide. Results demonstrate that a detailed investigation of the structural particularities of CTI-1 could provide a better understanding of the mechanism of action of these proteins, as well as clarify its biologic function in the seeds. CTI-1 belongs to the KTI family and is composed of 2 polypeptide chains and only 1 disulfide bridge.

  1. Structural specificity of steroids in stimulating DNA synthesis and protooncogene expression in primary rat hepatocyte cultures.

    PubMed

    Lee, C H; Edwards, A M

    2002-05-01

    Among the chemical compounds of varied structure which possess liver tumour-promoting are steroids, such as estrogens, pregnenolone derivatives and anabolic steroids. Although the mechanism(s) of tumour promotion in liver by these xenobiotics is not well understood, it is clear that growth stimulation is one important element in their action. As a basis for better defining whether steroids stimulate growth by a common mechanism or fall into sub-groups with differing actions, the effects of 46 steroids on DNA synthesis and the expression of protooncogenes c-fos and c-myc were examined in primary cultures of normal rat hepatocytes. Tentative groupings of steroids have been identified based on apparent structural requirements for stimulation of DNA synthesis, and effects of auxiliary factors in modulating this growth stimulus. For a "progestin" group, insulin appeared to be permissive for stimulation of DNA synthesis, and presence of an ester or hydroxyl group at 17alpha-position in combination with a non-polar group at C(6) appeared to be required for stimulation. For the pregnenes, dexamethasone was stimulatory. Structural requirements include a non-polar substitution at 16alpha-position and presence of a 6alpha-methyl group. Androgens were weak or ineffective stimulators of DNA synthesis. Anabolic steroids were weak to strong stimulators and alteration to A ring structure in combination with non-polar substitution at 17alpha-position appeared to be required for the activity. With the exception of the anabolic steroid, dianabol, there do not appear to be strong correlation between ability to stimulate DNA synthesis and ability to induce protooncogene expression among the steroids. This study provides a starting point for future more detailed examination of growth-stimulatory mechanism(s) of action of steroids in the liver. PMID:12127039

  2. Controls of vegetation structure and net primary production in restored grasslands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Munson, Seth M.; Lauenroth, William K.

    2014-01-01

    1. Vegetation structure and net primary production (NPP) are fundamental properties of ecosystems. Understanding how restoration practices following disturbance interact with environmental factors to control these properties can provide insight on how ecosystems recover and guide management efforts. 2. We assessed the relative contribution of environmental and restoration factors in controlling vegetation structure, above- and below-ground investment in production across a chronosequence of semiarid Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) fields recovering from dryland wheat cropping relative to undisturbed grassland. Importantly, we determined the role of plant diversity and how seeding either native or introduced perennial grasses influenced the recovery of vegetation properties. 3. Plant basal cover increased with field age and was highest in CRP fields seeded with native perennial grasses. In contrast, fields seeded with introduced perennial grasses had tall-growing plants with relatively low basal cover. These vegetation structural characteristics interacted with precipitation, but not soil characteristics, to influence above-ground NPP (ANPP). Fields enrolled in the CRP program for >7 years supported twice as much ANPP as undisturbed shortgrass steppe in the first wet year of the study, but all CRP fields converged on a common low amount of ANPP in the following dry year and invested less than half as much as the shortgrass steppe in below-ground biomass. 4. ANPP in CRP fields seeded with native perennial grasses for more than 7 years was positively related to species richness, whereas ANPP in CRP fields seeded with introduced perennial grasses were controlled more by dominant species. 5. Synthesis and applications. Seeding with introduced, instead of native, perennial grasses had a strong direct influence on vegetation structure, including species richness, which indirectly affected NPP through time. However, the effects of restoring either native or introduced

  3. Structural sensitivity analysis: Methods, applications and needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adelman, H. M.; Haftka, R. T.; Camarda, C. J.; Walsh, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    Innovative techniques applicable to sensitivity analysis of discretized structural systems are reviewed. The techniques include a finite difference step size selection algorithm, a method for derivatives of iterative solutions, a Green's function technique for derivatives of transient response, simultaneous calculation of temperatures and their derivatives, derivatives with respect to shape, and derivatives of optimum designs with respect to problem parameters. Computerized implementations of sensitivity analysis and applications of sensitivity derivatives are also discussed. Some of the critical needs in the structural sensitivity area are indicated along with plans for dealing with some of those needs.

  4. Structural sensitivity analysis: Methods, applications, and needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adelman, H. M.; Haftka, R. T.; Camarda, C. J.; Walsh, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    Some innovative techniques applicable to sensitivity analysis of discretized structural systems are reviewed. These techniques include a finite-difference step-size selection algorithm, a method for derivatives of iterative solutions, a Green's function technique for derivatives of transient response, a simultaneous calculation of temperatures and their derivatives, derivatives with respect to shape, and derivatives of optimum designs with respect to problem parameters. Computerized implementations of sensitivity analysis and applications of sensitivity derivatives are also discussed. Finally, some of the critical needs in the structural sensitivity area are indicated along with Langley plans for dealing with some of these needs.

  5. [Individuals, structures, and risks: an overview of primary HIV prevention in Portugal].

    PubMed

    Sacramento, Octávio

    2016-06-20

    This article debates the principal guidelines and procedures that shape HIV/AIDS prevention in Portugal, focusing on risk reduction in the two major scenarios for spread of the epidemic: sexuality and injection drug use. The analysis views the risks of infection as expressions of practices that are densely interwoven into social structures and cultural frameworks. Based on this conception, the article seeks to evaluate and understand the extent to which preventive strategies take a broad and integrative underlying approach by including individuals and their circumstances. Meanwhile, the study identifies some of the main structural constraints impeding the achievement of more favorable conditions for minimizing risks and adopting safe behaviors. These analytical exercises include not only policy and program guidelines, but also processes in daily reality, showing how the non-implementation of measures already guaranteed by law poses powerful structural barriers to HIV prevention.

  6. RNA Secondary Structure Analysis Using RNAstructure.

    PubMed

    Mathews, David H

    2014-06-17

    RNAstructure is a user-friendly program for the prediction and analysis of RNA secondary structure. It is available as a Web server, as a program with a graphical user interface, or as a set of command-line tools. The programs are available for Microsoft Windows, Macintosh OS X, or Linux. This unit provides protocols for RNA secondary structure prediction (using the Web server or the graphical user interface) and prediction of high-affinity oligonucleotide biding sites to a structured RNA target (using the graphical user interface).

  7. Improving transient analysis technology for aircraft structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melosh, R. J.; Chargin, Mladen

    1989-01-01

    Aircraft dynamic analyses are demanding of computer simulation capabilities. The modeling complexities of semi-monocoque construction, irregular geometry, high-performance materials, and high-accuracy analysis are present. At issue are the safety of the passengers and the integrity of the structure for a wide variety of flight-operating and emergency conditions. The technology which supports engineering of aircraft structures using computer simulation is examined. Available computer support is briefly described and improvement of accuracy and efficiency are recommended. Improved accuracy of simulation will lead to a more economical structure. Improved efficiency will result in lowering development time and expense.

  8. Investigation of carbon dioxide emission in China by primary component analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Wang, Cheng-Ming; Liu, Lian; Guo, Hang; Liu, Guo-Dong; Li, Yuan-Wei; Deng, Shi-Huai

    2014-02-15

    Principal component analysis (PCA) is employed to investigate the relationship between CO2 emissions (COEs) stemming from fossil fuel burning and cement manufacturing and their affecting factors. Eight affecting factors, namely, Population (P), Urban Population (UP); the Output Values of Primary Industry (PIOV), Secondary Industry (SIOV), and Tertiary Industry (TIOV); and the Proportions of Primary Industry's Output Value (PPIOV), Secondary Industry's Output Value (PSIOV), and Tertiary Industry's Output Value (PTIOV), are chosen. PCA is employed to eliminate the multicollinearity of the affecting factors. Two principal components, which can explain 92.86% of the variance of the eight affecting factors, are chosen as variables in the regression analysis. Ordinary least square regression is used to estimate multiple linear regression models, in which COEs and the principal components serve as dependent and independent variables, respectively. The results are given in the following. (1) Theoretically, the carbon intensities of PIOV, SIOV, and TIOV are 2573.4693, 552.7036, and 606.0791 kt per one billion $, respectively. The incomplete statistical data, the different statistical standards, and the ideology of self sufficiency and peasantry appear to show that the carbon intensity of PIOV is higher than those of SIOV and TIOV in China. (2) PPIOV, PSIOV, and PTIOV influence the fluctuations of COE. The parameters of PPIOV, PSIOV, and PTIOV are -2706946.7564, 2557300.5450, and 3924767.9807 kt, respectively. As the economic structure of China is strongly tied to technology level, the period when PIOV plays the leading position is characterized by lagging technology and economic developing. Thus, the influence of PPIOV has a negative value. As the increase of PSIOV and PTIOV is always followed by technological innovation and economic development, PSIOV and PTIOV have the opposite influence. (3) The carbon intensities of P and UP are 1.1029 and 1.7862 kt per thousand people

  9. Investigation of carbon dioxide emission in China by primary component analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Wang, Cheng-Ming; Liu, Lian; Guo, Hang; Liu, Guo-Dong; Li, Yuan-Wei; Deng, Shi-Huai

    2014-02-15

    Principal component analysis (PCA) is employed to investigate the relationship between CO2 emissions (COEs) stemming from fossil fuel burning and cement manufacturing and their affecting factors. Eight affecting factors, namely, Population (P), Urban Population (UP); the Output Values of Primary Industry (PIOV), Secondary Industry (SIOV), and Tertiary Industry (TIOV); and the Proportions of Primary Industry's Output Value (PPIOV), Secondary Industry's Output Value (PSIOV), and Tertiary Industry's Output Value (PTIOV), are chosen. PCA is employed to eliminate the multicollinearity of the affecting factors. Two principal components, which can explain 92.86% of the variance of the eight affecting factors, are chosen as variables in the regression analysis. Ordinary least square regression is used to estimate multiple linear regression models, in which COEs and the principal components serve as dependent and independent variables, respectively. The results are given in the following. (1) Theoretically, the carbon intensities of PIOV, SIOV, and TIOV are 2573.4693, 552.7036, and 606.0791 kt per one billion $, respectively. The incomplete statistical data, the different statistical standards, and the ideology of self sufficiency and peasantry appear to show that the carbon intensity of PIOV is higher than those of SIOV and TIOV in China. (2) PPIOV, PSIOV, and PTIOV influence the fluctuations of COE. The parameters of PPIOV, PSIOV, and PTIOV are -2706946.7564, 2557300.5450, and 3924767.9807 kt, respectively. As the economic structure of China is strongly tied to technology level, the period when PIOV plays the leading position is characterized by lagging technology and economic developing. Thus, the influence of PPIOV has a negative value. As the increase of PSIOV and PTIOV is always followed by technological innovation and economic development, PSIOV and PTIOV have the opposite influence. (3) The carbon intensities of P and UP are 1.1029 and 1.7862 kt per thousand people

  10. Scalable structural color printing using pixelated nanostructures in RGB primary colors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Hao; Kaminska, Bozena

    2016-03-01

    Commercially available conventional color printing techniques mainly rely on patterning pigment-based pixels on a substrate. In recent years, structural colors have become increasingly important for their intrinsic advantages such as chemical stability, high resolution and color properties. However, to apply structural color pixels in printing color images for consumer-based demands remains a daunting challenge because such pixels usually require very high resolution patterning at a high speed and low cost. In this paper, we present novel color printing techniques based on micro-patterning of prefabricated nanostructure pixels in RGB primary colors. According to the micro-patterning techniques, the presented techniques are: a) solvent-free optical and thermal patterning of nanostructure pixels, b) photographic exposure through nanostructure color filters and c) inkjet printing of silver on nanostructures. These three presented techniques share some similar characteristics with popular conventional techniques, and can be considered as new-generation printing techniques evolved from their conventional counterparts. The preliminary results suggest that implementing the presented techniques, full-color images can be printed with much improved throughput than other nano-patterning techniques and imply these techniques can potentially be applied towards color production for general consumer use.

  11. Diet is the primary determinant of bacterial community structure in the guts of higher termites.

    PubMed

    Mikaelyan, Aram; Dietrich, Carsten; Köhler, Tim; Poulsen, Michael; Sillam-Dussès, David; Brune, Andreas

    2015-10-01

    The gut microbiota of termites plays critical roles in the symbiotic digestion of lignocellulose. While phylogenetically 'lower termites' are characterized by a unique association with cellulolytic flagellates, higher termites (family Termitidae) harbour exclusively prokaryotic communities in their dilated hindguts. Unlike the more primitive termite families, which primarily feed on wood, they have adapted to a variety of lignocellulosic food sources in different stages of humification, ranging from sound wood to soil organic matter. In this study, we comparatively analysed representatives of different taxonomic lineages and feeding groups of higher termites to identify the major drivers of bacterial community structure in the termite gut, using amplicon libraries of 16S rRNA genes from 18 species of higher termites. In all analyses, the wood-feeding species were clearly separated from humus and soil feeders, irrespective of their taxonomic affiliation, offering compelling evidence that diet is the primary determinant of bacterial community structure. Within each diet group, however, gut communities of termites from the same subfamily were more similar than those of distantly related species. A highly resolved classification using a curated reference database revealed only few genus-level taxa whose distribution patterns indicated specificity for certain host lineages, limiting any possible cospeciation between the gut microbiota and host to short evolutionary timescales. Rather, the observed patterns in the host-specific distribution of the bacterial lineages in termite guts are best explained by diet-related differences in the availability of microhabitats and functional niches.

  12. Structural support, not insulation, is the primary driver for avian cup-shaped nest design

    PubMed Central

    Heenan, Caragh B.; Seymour, Roger S.

    2011-01-01

    The nest micro-environment is a widely studied area of avian biology, however, the contribution of nest conductance (the inverse of insulation) to the energetics of the incubating adult and offspring has largely been overlooked. Surface-specific thermal conductance (W °C−1 cm−2) has been related to nest dimensions, wall porosity, height above-ground and altitude, but the most relevant measure is total conductance (G, W °C−1). This study is the first to analyse conductance allometrically with adult body mass (M, g), according to the form G = aMb. We propose three alternative hypotheses to explain the scaling of conductance. The exponent may emerge from: heat loss scaling (M0.48) in which G scales with the same exponent as thermal conductance of the adult bird, isometric scaling (M0.33) in which nest shape is held constant as parent mass increases, and structural scaling (M0.25) in which nests are designed to support a given adult mass. Data from 213 cup-shaped nests, from 36 Australian species weighing 8–360 g, show conductance is proportional to M0.25. This allometric exponent is significantly different from those expected for heat loss and isometric scaling and confirms the hypothesis that structural support for the eggs and incubating parent is the primary factor driving nest design. PMID:21325330

  13. Structural support, not insulation, is the primary driver for avian cup-shaped nest design.

    PubMed

    Heenan, Caragh B; Seymour, Roger S

    2011-10-01

    The nest micro-environment is a widely studied area of avian biology, however, the contribution of nest conductance (the inverse of insulation) to the energetics of the incubating adult and offspring has largely been overlooked. Surface-specific thermal conductance (W °C(-1) cm(-2)) has been related to nest dimensions, wall porosity, height above-ground and altitude, but the most relevant measure is total conductance (G, W °C(-1)). This study is the first to analyse conductance allometrically with adult body mass (M, g), according to the form G = aM(b). We propose three alternative hypotheses to explain the scaling of conductance. The exponent may emerge from: heat loss scaling (M(0.48)) in which G scales with the same exponent as thermal conductance of the adult bird, isometric scaling (M(0.33)) in which nest shape is held constant as parent mass increases, and structural scaling (M(0.25)) in which nests are designed to support a given adult mass. Data from 213 cup-shaped nests, from 36 Australian species weighing 8-360 g, show conductance is proportional to M(0.25). This allometric exponent is significantly different from those expected for heat loss and isometric scaling and confirms the hypothesis that structural support for the eggs and incubating parent is the primary factor driving nest design.

  14. Structural Analysis of the Redesigned Ice/Frost Ramp Bracket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, D. R.; Dawicke, D. S.; Gentz, S. J.; Roberts, P. W.; Raju, I. S.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the interim structural analysis of a redesigned Ice/Frost Ramp bracket for the Space Shuttle External Tank (ET). The proposed redesigned bracket consists of mounts for attachment to the ET wall, supports for the electronic/instrument cables and propellant repressurization lines that run along the ET, an upper plate, a lower plate, and complex bolted connections. The eight nominal bolted connections are considered critical in the summarized structural analysis. Each bolted connection contains a bolt, a nut, four washers, and a non-metallic spacer and block that are designed for thermal insulation. A three-dimensional (3D) finite element model of the bracket is developed using solid 10-node tetrahedral elements. The loading provided by the ET Project is used in the analysis. Because of the complexities associated with accurately modeling the bolted connections in the bracket, the analysis is performed using a global/local analysis procedure. The finite element analysis of the bracket identifies one of the eight bolted connections as having high stress concentrations. A local area of the bracket surrounding this bolted connection is extracted from the global model and used as a local model. Within the local model, the various components of the bolted connection are refined, and contact is introduced along the appropriate interfaces determined by the analysts. The deformations from the global model are applied as boundary conditions to the local model. The results from the global/local analysis show that while the stresses in the bolts are well within yield, the spacers fail due to compression. The primary objective of the interim structural analysis is to show concept viability for static thermal testing. The proposed design concept would undergo continued design optimization to address the identified analytical assumptions and concept shortcomings, assuming successful thermal testing.

  15. Singing and Vocal Instruction in Primary Schools: An Analysis from Six Case Studies in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuadrado, Albina; Rusinek, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    This is an analysis of how specialist music teachers sing and teach how to sing, based on data collected from six case studies carried out in Spanish primary schools. The study aimed at understanding classroom singing practices, and in particular the provision or absence of vocal instruction in relation with teachers' singing models. The findings…

  16. Patterns of Discursive Interactions in Primary Classrooms: An Application of Social Network Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mameli, Consuelo; Mazzoni, Elvis; Molinari, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether social network analysis (SNA) is a useful method for identifying different discursive patterns in everyday classroom activities. The material analysed came from 20 teacher-led lessons that were video-recorded in small-size classes in Italian public primary schools. SNA was used to measure classroom relations…

  17. Word Learning in Children with Primary Language Impairment: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kan, Pui Fong; Windsor, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The present study is a meta-analysis that examines the difference in novel word learning performance between children with primary language impairment (LI) and typically developing children. Participant and task characteristics were examined as variables that potentially moderated children's word learning. Method: Eight hundred and…

  18. Student Vote 1974. An Analysis of Student Voting Patterns in the June, 1974 Primary Election.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodruff, Kevin; Fuller, Bruce

    This analysis of the impact of the student vote in the June 1974 primary election is one in a series of reports, and represents the University of California Student Lobby's continuing effort to provide information on the voting behavior of students. Student voting patterns in contested statewide and local races were examined, along with voter…

  19. A Policy Analysis of the Delivery of Primary and Secondary School Mathematics and Science in English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohandhas, Pratheepa

    2015-01-01

    This paper offers an analysis of the development and implementation of the policy to teach Science and Mathematics in English (PPSMI) in Malaysian primary schools, commencing in 2003, in the context of the 2009 reversal of the policy. The original study focused particularly on the impact of the policy on the children of the Federal Land…

  20. A Meta-Analysis of Adult-Rated Child Personality and Academic Performance in Primary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poropat, Arthur E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Personality is reliably associated with academic performance, but personality measurement in primary education can be problematic. Young children find it difficult to accurately self-rate personality, and dominant models of adult personality may be inappropriate for children. Aims: This meta-analysis was conducted to determine the…

  1. Rational ligand design for the arylation of hindered primary amines guided by reaction progress kinetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Castillo, Paula; Blackmond, Donna G; Buchwald, Stephen L

    2015-03-01

    We report the Pd-catalyzed arylation of very hindered α,α,α-trisubstituted primary amines. Kinetics-based mechanistic analysis and rational design have led to the development of two biarylphosphine ligands that allow the transformation to proceed with excellent efficiency. The process was effective in coupling a wide range of functionalized aryl and heteroaryl halides under mild conditions.

  2. How Green Are European Curricula? A Comparative Analysis of Primary School Syllabi in Five European Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanish, Anna; Rank, Astrid; Seeber, Gunther

    2014-01-01

    The authors conducted a cross-national curriculum analysis as part of a European Union Comenius project regarding the implementation of an online tool to foster environmental education (EE) in primary schools. The overall goal was to determine the extent and intensity that EE is embedded in the syllabi of five European countries. To this end, the…

  3. The Informational Text Structure Survey (ITS[superscript 2]): An Exploration of Primary Grade Teachers' Sensitivity to Text Structure in Young Children's Informational Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reutzel, D. Ray; Jones, Cindy D.; Clark, Sarah K.; Kumar, Tamara

    2016-01-01

    There has been no research reported about if or how well primary grade teachers can identify information text structures in children's authentic informational texts. The ability to do so accurately and reliably is a prerequisite for teachers to be able to teach students how to recognize and use text structures to assist them in comprehending…

  4. Factor Structure of the Primary Scales of the Inventory of Personality Organization in a Nonclinical Sample Using Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellison, William D.; Levy, Kenneth N.

    2012-01-01

    Using exploratory structural equation modeling and multiple regression, we examined the factor structure and criterion relations of the primary scales of the Inventory of Personality Organization (IPO; Kernberg & Clarkin, 1995) in a nonclinical sample. Participants (N = 1,260) completed the IPO and measures of self-concept clarity, defenses,…

  5. Functional analysis of ultra high information rates conveyed by rat vibrissal primary afferents

    PubMed Central

    Chagas, André M.; Theis, Lucas; Sengupta, Biswa; Stüttgen, Maik C.; Bethge, Matthias; Schwarz, Cornelius

    2013-01-01

    Sensory receptors determine the type and the quantity of information available for perception. Here, we quantified and characterized the information transferred by primary afferents in the rat whisker system using neural system identification. Quantification of “how much” information is conveyed by primary afferents, using the direct method (DM), a classical information theoretic tool, revealed that primary afferents transfer huge amounts of information (up to 529 bits/s). Information theoretic analysis of instantaneous spike-triggered kinematic stimulus features was used to gain functional insight on “what” is coded by primary afferents. Amongst the kinematic variables tested—position, velocity, and acceleration—primary afferent spikes encoded velocity best. The other two variables contributed to information transfer, but only if combined with velocity. We further revealed three additional characteristics that play a role in information transfer by primary afferents. Firstly, primary afferent spikes show preference for well separated multiple stimuli (i.e., well separated sets of combinations of the three instantaneous kinematic variables). Secondly, neurons are sensitive to short strips of the stimulus trajectory (up to 10 ms pre-spike time), and thirdly, they show spike patterns (precise doublet and triplet spiking). In order to deal with these complexities, we used a flexible probabilistic neuron model fitting mixtures of Gaussians to the spike triggered stimulus distributions, which quantitatively captured the contribution of the mentioned features and allowed us to achieve a full functional analysis of the total information rate indicated by the DM. We found that instantaneous position, velocity, and acceleration explained about 50% of the total information rate. Adding a 10 ms pre-spike interval of stimulus trajectory achieved 80–90%. The final 10–20% were found to be due to non-linear coding by spike bursts. PMID:24367295

  6. Comparative Membranome expression analysis in primary tumors and derived cell lines.

    PubMed

    Uva, Paolo; Lahm, Armin; Sbardellati, Andrea; Grigoriadis, Anita; Tutt, Andrew; de Rinaldis, Emanuele

    2010-01-01

    Despite the wide use of cell lines in cancer research, the extent to which their surface properties correspond to those of primary tumors is poorly characterized. The present study addresses this problem from a transcriptional standpoint, analyzing the expression of membrane protein genes--the Membranome--in primary tumors and immortalized in-vitro cultured tumor cells. 409 human samples, deriving from ten independent studies, were analyzed. These comprise normal tissues, primary tumors and tumor derived cell lines deriving from eight different tissues: brain, breast, colon, kidney, leukemia, lung, melanoma, and ovary. We demonstrated that the Membranome has greater power than the remainder of the transcriptome when used as input for the automatic classification of tumor samples. This feature is maintained in tumor derived cell lines. In most cases primary tumors show maximal similarity in Membranome expression with cell lines of same tissue origin. Differences in Membranome expression between tumors and cell lines were analyzed also at the pathway level and biological themes were identified that were differentially regulated in the two settings. Moreover, by including normal samples in the analysis, we quantified the degree to which cell lines retain the Membranome up- and down-regulations observed in primary tumors with respect to their normal counterparts. We showed that most of the Membranome up-regulations observed in primary tumors are lost in the in-vitro cultured cells. Conversely, the majority of Membranome genes down-regulated upon tumor transformation maintain lower expression levels also in the cell lines. This study points towards a central role of Membranome genes in the definition of the tumor phenotype. The comparative analysis of primary tumors and cell lines identifies the limits of cell lines as a model for the study of cancer-related processes mediated by the cell surface. Results presented allow for a more rational use of the cell lines as a

  7. The Assessment of Structural Analysis Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Dale D.; And Others

    Two studies were undertaken to continue a line of research designed to identify the subskills of word identification that correlate most highly with reading comprehension and to develop empirically based instruments to assess those subskills. The issues studied related to the broad area of structural analysis and concerned assessment of skills in…

  8. Causes and Rates of Unplanned Readmissions After Elective Primary Total Joint Arthroplasty: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Ramkumar, Prem N; Chu, Christopher T; Harris, Joshua D; Athiviraham, Aravind; Harrington, Melvyn A; White, Donna L; Berger, David H; Naik, Aanand D; Li, Linda T

    2015-09-01

    To address the lack of consensus on the leading reasons for readmissions after primary elective unilateral total joint arthroplasties (TJAs), we performed a systematic review and a meta-analysis to identify overall and cause-specific readmission rates. We performed structured searches of the Medline and Cochrane databases for original reports-published between January 1982 and January 2013-on both 30- and 90-day follow-ups of unique patient populations that underwent elective primary TJA. Random-effects meta-analyses were performed to obtain pooled estimates. For total hip arthroplasty (THA), the overall pooled readmission rate was 5.6% at 30 days and 7.7% at 90 days. For total knee arthroplasty (TKA), the overall rate was 3.3% at 30 days and 9.7% at 90 days. The leading reason for THA readmission was joint-specific at both 30 and 90 days, and the leading reason for TKA readmission was surgical site infection. Our systematic review and meta-analysis established baseline readmission rates in the literature on primary TJA and identified the most common reasons driving readmission for TJA.

  9. Purification and primary structure of metallothioneins induced by cadmium in the protists Tetrahymena pigmentosa and Tetrahymena pyriformis.

    PubMed

    Piccinni, E; Staudenmann, W; Albergoni, V; De Gabrieli, R; James, P

    1994-12-15

    Tetrahymena pyriformis and Tetrahymena pigmentosa grown in the presence of a non-toxic dose of cadmium, accumulate the metal in the cytosol. Purification by gel-permeation, ion-exchange and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography showed that the metal is bound principally to newly formed proteins with ultraviolet spectra and cysteine contents similar to those of Cd(2+)-metallothioneins from multicellular organisms. The isolated proteins revealed that the two species of ciliates each express two Cd(2+)-isothioneins. The primary structures determined by both Edman degradation and mass spectrometry revealed that the equivalent proteins from T. pyriformis and T. pigmentosa have identical sequences and that the two isoforms in each species differ only by the presence or absence of a lysine residue at the N-terminus. The development of automated mass spectrometric sequence analysis algorithms combined with an accurate determination of the molecular mass allowed the rapid confirmation of the sequences. The Tetrahymena metallothionein sequences are unusually long (105 and 104 amino acids) and show a unique internal homology which suggests that the proteins arose by gene duplication. The chains contain 31 cysteine residues, 15 of which are arranged in motifs characteristic of the mammalian metallothioneins; the remaining residues show several unique repeating motifs, which could have interesting consequences for the tertiary structure of the metal-binding sites. Amino acid sequences of Tetrahymena metallothioneins have some similarity with other eukaryotic metallothioneins. A comparison on the basis of optimised FASTA scores, shows a closer relationship with horse metallothionein-1B.

  10. Turbine blade nonlinear structural and life analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcknight, R. L.; Laflen, J. H.; Halford, G. R.; Kaufman, A.

    1982-01-01

    The utility of advanced structural analysis and life prediction techniques was evaluated for the life assessment of a commercial air-cooled turbine blade with a history of tip cracking. Three dimensional, nonlinear finite element structural analyses were performed for the blade tip region. The computed strain-temperature history of the critical location was imposed on a uniaxial strain controlled test specimen to evaluate the validity of the structural analysis method. Experimental results indicated higher peak stresses and greater stress relaxation than the analytical predictions. Life predictions using the Strainrange Partitioning and Frequency Modified approaches predicted 1200 to 4420 cycles and 2700 cycles to crack initiation, respectively, compared to an observed life of 3000 cycles.

  11. Primary structure of segment 7 of the RNA of the influenza virus A/USSR/90/77 (HlNl)

    SciTech Connect

    Samokhvalov, E.I.; Karginov, V.A.; Chizhikov, V.E.; Blinov, V.M.; Yuferov, V.P.; Vasilenko, S.K.; Uryvaev, L.V.; Zhdanov, V.M.

    1986-06-01

    The nucleotide sequence of segment 7 of the RNA of the influenza virus A/USSR/90/77 (HlNl) has been determined, and an analysis has been given of the nucleotide substitutions in comparison with known primary structures of segment 7 of other strains of the influenza virus. A hypothetical model of the secondary structure of segment 7 of the RNA of the influenza virus and a direct repeat both at the nucleotide level and at the amino acid level found in the center of the M/sub 1/ protein are discussed.

  12. Statins and Cardiovascular Primary Prevention in CKD: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Chee Kay; Gray, Laura J.; Brunskill, Nigel J.

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives Multiple meta-analyses of lipid-lowering therapies for cardiovascular primary prevention in the general population have been performed. Other meta-analyses of lipid-lowering therapies in CKD have also been performed, but not for primary prevention. This meta-analysis assesses lipid-lowering therapies for cardiovascular primary prevention in CKD. Design, setting, participants, & measurements A systematic review and meta-analysis using a random-effects model was performed. MEDLINE was searched between January 2012 and September 2013 for new studies using predefined search criteria without language restrictions. A number of other sources including previously published meta-analyses were also reviewed. Inclusion criteria were randomized control trials of primary prevention with lipid-lowering therapy in non–end stage CKD. Results Six trials were identified, five including patients with stage 3 CKD only. These studies included 8834 participants and 32,846 person-years of follow-up. All trials were post hoc subgroup analyses of statins in the general population. Statins reduced the risk of cardiovascular disease (the prespecified primary outcome) by 41% in stages 1–3 CKD compared with placebo (pooled risk ratio, 0.59; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.48 to 0.72). For the secondary outcomes, the risk ratios were 0.66 (95% CI, 0.49 to 0.88) for total mortality, 0.55 (95% CI, 0.42 to 0.72) for coronary heart disease events, and 0.56 (95% CI, 0.28 to 1.13) for stroke. In study participants with stage 3 CKD specifically, the results were similar. Conclusions This meta-analysis suggests that the use of statins in CKD for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease is effective. These findings are consistent with recent guidance for the use of statins in all patients with CKD. PMID:25833405

  13. Shape analysis of simulated breast anatomical structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contijoch, Francisco; Lynch, Jennifer M.; Pokrajac, David D.; Maidment, Andrew D. A.; Bakic, Predrag R.

    2012-03-01

    Recent advances in high-resolution 3D breast imaging, namely, digital breast tomosynthesis and dedicated breast CT, have enabled detailed analysis of the shape and distribution of anatomical structures in the breast. Such analysis is critically important, since the projections of breast anatomical structures make up the parenchymal pattern in clinical images which can mask the existing abnormalities or introduce false alarms; the parenchymal pattern is also correlated with the risk of cancer. As a first step towards the shape analysis of anatomical structures in the breast, we have analyzed an anthropomorphic software breast phantom. The phantom generation is based upon the recursive splitting of the phantom volume using octrees, which produces irregularly shaped tissue compartments, qualitatively mimicking the breast anatomy. The shape analysis was performed by fitting ellipsoids to the simulated tissue compartments. The ellipsoidal semi-axes were calculated by matching the moments of inertia of each individual compartment and of an ellipsoid. The distribution of Dice coefficients, measuring volumetric overlap between the compartment and the corresponding ellipsoid, as well as the distribution of aspect ratios, measuring relative orientations of the ellipsoids, were used to characterize various classes of phantoms with qualitatively distinctive appearance. A comparison between input parameters for phantom generation and the properties of fitted ellipsoids indicated the high level of user control in the design of software breast phantoms. The proposed shape analysis could be extended to clinical breast images, and used to inform the selection of simulation parameters for improved realism.

  14. Analysis of interstellar fragmentation structure based on IRAS images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scalo, John M.

    1989-01-01

    The goal of this project was to develop new tools for the analysis of the structure of densely sampled maps of interstellar star-forming regions. A particular emphasis was on the recognition and characterization of nested hierarchical structure and fractal irregularity, and their relation to the level of star formation activity. The panoramic IRAS images provided data with the required range in spatial scale, greater than a factor of 100, and in column density, greater than a factor of 50. In order to construct a densely sampled column density map of a cloud complex which is both self-gravitating and not (yet?) stirred up much by star formation, a column density image of the Taurus region has been constructed from IRAS data. The primary drawback to using the IRAS data for this purpose is that it contains no velocity information, and the possible importance of projection effects must be kept in mind.

  15. Economic Evaluation of Computerized Structural Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fortin, P. E.

    1985-01-01

    This completed effort involved a technical and economic study of the capabilities of computer programs in the area of structural analysis. The applicability of the programs to NASA projects and to other users was studied. The applications in other industries was explored including both research and development and applied areas. The costs of several alternative analysis programs were compared. A literature search covered applicable technical literature including journals, trade publications and books. In addition to the literature search, several commercial companies that have developed computerized structural analysis programs were contacted and their technical brochures reviewed. These programs include SDRC I-DEAS, MSC/NASTRAN, SCADA, SUPERSAP, NISA/DISPLAY, STAAD-III, MICAS, GTSTRUDL, and STARS. These programs were briefly reviewed as applicable to NASA projects.

  16. Out of plane analysis for composite structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, P. C.; Saff, C. R.; Sanger, Kenneth B.; Mahler, M. A.; Kan, Han Pin; Kautz, Edward F.

    1990-01-01

    Simple two dimensional analysis techniques were developed to aid in the design of strong joints for integrally stiffened/bonded composite structures subjected to out of plane loads. It was found that most out of plane failures were due to induced stresses arising from rapid changes in load path direction or geometry, induced stresses due to changes in geometry caused by buckling, or direct stresses produced by fuel pressure or bearing loads. While the analysis techniques were developed to address a great variety of out of plane loading conditions, they were primarily derived to address the conditions described above. The methods were developed and verified using existing element test data. The methods were demonstrated using the data from a test failure of a high strain wingbox that was designed, built, and tested under a previous program. Subsequently, a set of design guidelines were assembled to assist in the design of safe, strong integral composite structures using the analysis techniques developed.

  17. Uncertain structural dynamics of aircraft panels and fuzzy structures analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparrow, Victor W.; Buehrle, Ralph D.

    2002-11-01

    Aircraft fuselage panels, seemingly simple structures, are actually complex because of the uncertainty of the attachments of the frame stiffeners and longitudinal stringers. It is clearly important to understand the dynamics of these panels because of the subsequent radiation into the passenger cabin, even when complete information is not available for all portions of the finite-element model. Over the last few years a fuzzy structures analysis (FSA) approach has been undertaken at Penn State and NASA Langley to quantify the uncertainty in modeling aircraft panels. A new MSC.Nastran [MSC.Software Corp. (Santa Ana, CA)] Direct Matrix Abstraction Program (DMAP) code was written and tested [AIAA paper 2001-1320, 42nd AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC Structures, Structural Dynamics, and Materials Conf., Seattle, WA, 16 April 2001] and was applied to simple fuselage panel models [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 109, 2410(A) (2001)]. Recently the work has focused on understanding the dynamics of a realistic aluminum fuselage panel, typical of today's aircraft construction. This presentation will provide an overview of the research and recent results will be given for the fuselage panel. Comparison between experiments and the FSA results will be shown for different fuzzy input parameters. [Work supported by NASA Research Cooperative Agreement NCC-1-382.

  18. Critical Joints in Large Composite Primary Aircraft Structures. Volume 3: Ancillary Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bunin, Bruce L.; Sagui, R. L.

    1985-01-01

    A program was conducted to develop the technology for critical structural joints for composite wing structure that meets all the design requirements of a 1990 commercial transport aircraft. The results of a comprehensive ancillary test program are summarized, consisting of single-bolt composite joint specimens tested in a variety of configurations. These tests were conducted to characterize the strength and load deflection properties that are required for multirow joint analysis. The composite material was Toray 300 fiber and Ciba-Geigy 914 resin, in the form of 0.005 and 0.01 inch thick unidirectional tape. Tests were conducted in single and double shear for loaded and unloaded hole configurations under both tensile and compressive loading. Two different layup patterns were examined. All tests were conducted at room temperature. In addition, the results of NASA Standard Toughness Test (NASA RP 1092) are reported, which were conducted for several material systems.

  19. Human liver alcohol dehydrogenase. 2. The primary structure of the gamma 1 protein chain.

    PubMed

    Bühler, R; Hempel, J; Kaiser, R; de Zalenski, C; von Wartburg, J P; Jörnvall, H

    1984-12-17

    The primary structure of the gamma 1 subunit of human liver alcohol dehydrogenase isoenzyme gamma 1 gamma 1 was deduced by characterization of 36 tryptic and 2 CNBr peptides. The polypeptide chain is composed of 373 amino acid residues. gamma 1 differs from the beta 1 subunit of human liver alcohol dehydrogenase at 21 positions, and from the E subunit of horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase at 43 positions including a gap at position 128 as in the beta 1 subunit. All zinc-liganding residues from the E subunit of the horse protein and the beta 1 subunit of the human enzyme are conserved, but like beta 1, gamma 1 also has an additional cysteine residue at position 286 (in the positional numbering system of the horse enzyme) due to a Tyr----Cys exchange. Most amino acid exchanges preserve the properties of the residues affected and are largely located on the surface of the molecules, away from the active site and the coenzyme binding region. However, eight positions with charge differences in relation to the E subunit of the horse enzyme are noticed. These result in a net positive charge increase of one in gamma 1 versus E, explaining the electrophoretic mobilities on starch gels. Of functional significance is the conservation of Ser-48 in gamma 1 relative to E. The residue is close to the active site but different (Thr-48) in the beta 1 subunit of the human enzyme. Thus, the closer structural relationship between human gamma 1 and horse E enzyme subunit than between beta 1 and E is also reflected in functionally important residues, explaining a greater similarity between gamma 1 gamma 1 and EE than between beta 1 beta 1 and EE. PMID:6391921

  20. Crystal structure of Halobacterium salinarum halorhodopsin with a partially depopulated primary chloride-binding site.

    PubMed

    Schreiner, Madeleine; Schlesinger, Ramona; Heberle, Joachim; Niemann, Hartmut H

    2016-09-01

    The transmembrane pump halorhodopsin in halophilic archaea translocates chloride ions from the extracellular to the cytoplasmic side upon illumination. In the ground state a tightly bound chloride ion occupies the primary chloride-binding site (CBS I) close to the protonated Schiff base that links the retinal chromophore to the protein. The light-triggered trans-cis isomerization of retinal causes structural changes in the protein associated with movement of the chloride ion. In reverse, chemical depletion of CBS I in Natronomonas pharaonis halorhodopsin (NpHR) through deprotonation of the Schiff base results in conformational changes of the protein: a state thought to mimic late stages of the photocycle. Here, crystals of Halobacterium salinarum halorhodopsin (HsHR) were soaked at high pH to provoke deprotonation of the Schiff base and loss of chloride. The crystals changed colour from purple to yellow and the occupancy of CBS I was reduced from 1 to about 0.5. In contrast to NpHR, this chloride depletion did not cause substantial conformational changes in the protein. Nevertheless, two observations indicate that chloride depletion could eventually result in structural changes similar to those found in NpHR. Firstly, the partially chloride-depleted form of HsHR has increased normalized B factors in the region of helix C that is close to CBS I and changes its conformation in NpHR. Secondly, prolonged soaking of HsHR crystals at high pH resulted in loss of diffraction. In conclusion, the conformation of the chloride-free protein may not be compatible with this crystal form of HsHR despite a packing arrangement that hardly restrains helices E and F that presumably move during ion transport. PMID:27599860

  1. Stochastic Simulation Tool for Aerospace Structural Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, Norman F.; Moore, David F.

    2006-01-01

    Stochastic simulation refers to incorporating the effects of design tolerances and uncertainties into the design analysis model and then determining their influence on the design. A high-level evaluation of one such stochastic simulation tool, the MSC.Robust Design tool by MSC.Software Corporation, has been conducted. This stochastic simulation tool provides structural analysts with a tool to interrogate their structural design based on their mathematical description of the design problem using finite element analysis methods. This tool leverages the analyst's prior investment in finite element model development of a particular design. The original finite element model is treated as the baseline structural analysis model for the stochastic simulations that are to be performed. A Monte Carlo approach is used by MSC.Robust Design to determine the effects of scatter in design input variables on response output parameters. The tool was not designed to provide a probabilistic assessment, but to assist engineers in understanding cause and effect. It is driven by a graphical-user interface and retains the engineer-in-the-loop strategy for design evaluation and improvement. The application problem for the evaluation is chosen to be a two-dimensional shell finite element model of a Space Shuttle wing leading-edge panel under re-entry aerodynamic loading. MSC.Robust Design adds value to the analysis effort by rapidly being able to identify design input variables whose variability causes the most influence in response output parameters.

  2. Propagule supply controls grazer community structure and primary production in a benthic marine ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sarah C.; Bruno, John F.

    2009-01-01

    Early theories of species diversity proposed that communities at equilibrium are saturated with species. However, experiments in plant communities suggest that many communities are unsaturated and species richness can be increased by adding propagules of new species. We experimentally tested for community saturation and measured the effects of propagule supply on community structure in a benthic marine system. We manipulated propagule supply (arrival of individuals of numerous species) of mobile grazers in experimental mesocosms over multiple generations and, unlike previous tests, we examined the cascading effects of propagule supply on prey (macroalgae) biomass. We found little evidence for saturation, despite the absence of processes such as disturbance and predation that are thought to alleviate saturation in nature. Increasing propagule supply increased the total number of species and made rare species more abundant. Perhaps surprisingly, given the strong effect of propagule supply on species richness, supply-related changes in body size and composition suggest that competitive interactions remained important. Grazer supply also had strong cascading effects on primary production, possibly because of dietary complementarity modified by territorial behavior. Our results indicate that propagule supply can directly influence the diversity and composition of communities of mobile animals. Furthermore, the supply of consumer propagules can have strong indirect effects on prey and fundamental ecosystem properties. PMID:19359487

  3. Pitch accent alignment in romance: primary and secondary associations with metrical structure.

    PubMed

    Prieto, Pilar; D'Imperio, Mariapaola; Fivela, Barbara Gili

    2005-01-01

    The article describes the contrastive possibilities of alignment of high accents in three Romance varieties, namely, Central Catalan, Neapolitan Italian, and Pisa Italian. The Romance languages analyzed in this article provide crucial evidence that small differences in alignment in rising accents should be encoded phonologically. To account for such facts within the AM model, the article develops the notion of "phonological anchoring" as an extension of the concept of secondary association originally proposed by Pierrehumbert and Beckman (1988), and later adopted by Grice (1995), Grice, Ladd, and Arvaniti (2000), and others to explain the behavior of edge tones. The Romance data represent evidence that not only peripheral edge tones seek secondary associations. We claim that the phonological representation of pitch accents should include two independent mechanisms to encode alignment properties with metrical structure: (1) encoding of the primary phonological association (or affiliation) between the tone and its tone-bearing unit; and (2), for some specific cases, encoding of the secondary phonological anchoring of tones to prosodic edges (moras, syllables, and prosodic words). The Romance data described in the article provide crucial evidence of mora-edge, syllable-edge, and word-edge H tonal associations.

  4. Primary structure of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Final report, 9 April 1989-6 April 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick, J.W.

    1992-05-06

    Signals are transmitted between cells in the brain using neurotransmitters and neurotransmitter receptors. Poisons that interfere with this process stop normal brain function and often kill nerve cells. One of the neurotransmitters used in the mammalian brain is acetylcholine. We discovered that there is a large number of different nicotinic receptors for the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, each with its different properties. We used recombinant DNA technology to clone and sequence the gene transcripts that encode the subunits of these receptors. From these sequences we deduced the primary structures of the nicotinic receptor subunits. We also used the cDNA clones to determine which brain loci express the respective genes. We have expressed the clones in the Xenopus oocyte and have demonstrated that each functional combination of subunits has a unique pharmacology Unlike their homologs at the neuromuscular junction, the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the brain are exceptionally permeable to calcium. This property suggests that these receptors may play an important role in regulating calcium-dependent cytoplasmic processes and that they may be important contributors to use-dependent cell death.

  5. Does Congenital Deafness Affect the Structural and Functional Architecture of Primary Visual Cortex?

    PubMed Central

    Smittenaar, C.R.; MacSweeney, M.; Sereno, M.I.; Schwarzkopf, D.S.

    2016-01-01

    Deafness results in greater reliance on the remaining senses. It is unknown whether the cortical architecture of the intact senses is optimized to compensate for lost input. Here we performed widefield population receptive field (pRF) mapping of primary visual cortex (V1) with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in hearing and congenitally deaf participants, all of whom had learnt sign language after the age of 10 years. We found larger pRFs encoding the peripheral visual field of deaf compared to hearing participants. This was likely driven by larger facilitatory center zones of the pRF profile concentrated in the near and far periphery in the deaf group. pRF density was comparable between groups, indicating pRFs overlapped more in the deaf group. This could suggest that a coarse coding strategy underlies enhanced peripheral visual skills in deaf people. Cortical thickness was also decreased in V1 in the deaf group. These findings suggest deafness causes structural and functional plasticity at the earliest stages of visual cortex. PMID:27014392

  6. Primary structures of two proteins from the venom of the Mexican red knee tarantula (Brachypelma smithii).

    PubMed

    Kaiser, I I; Griffin, P R; Aird, S D; Hudiburg, S; Shabanowitz, J; Francis, B; John, T R; Hunt, D F; Odell, G V

    1994-09-01

    Venom of the Mexican red knee tarantula (Brachypelma smithii) was fractionated by gel filtration over Sephadex G-50 Fine. Small polypeptides present in the second and third peaks were subfractionated by cation exchange and reversed-phase FPLC. One major, basic protein was isolated and sequenced from each G-50 fraction using a gas-phase protein sequencer. Primary structures were completed and confirmed using tandem mass spectrometry and carboxypeptidase digestions. Protein 1 contains 39 residues, including six cysteine residues in three disulfide bonds. It is identical to one of the isoforms of ESTX from the venom of the tarantula Eurypelma californicum. Brachypelma smithii Protein 5 contains 34 residues, including six cysteine residues in three disulfide bonds. Disulfide bond assignments for both proteins are provided. Protein 5 shows most similarity with toxin Tx2-9 from the Brazilian 'armed' spider, but only displays 41% sequence identity. Similarities with other proteins are lower. Proteins 1 and 5 appear unrelated to each other. PMID:7801344

  7. Molecular analysis of myocilin and optineurin genes in Korean primary glaucoma patients

    PubMed Central

    Park, Joonhong; Kim, Myungshin; Park, Chan Kee; Chae, Hyojin; Lee, Seungok; Kim, Yonggoo; Jang, Woori; Chi, Hyun Young; Park, Hae-Young Lopilly; Park, Shin Hae

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the underlying genetic influences of primary glaucoma in Korea, molecular analysis was performed in 112 sporadic cases, and results compared with healthy controls. The myocilin (MYOC) and optineurin (OPTN) genes were directly sequenced in 112 unrelated patients, including 17 with primary open-angle glaucoma, 19 with juvenile open-angle glaucoma, and 76 with normal tension glaucoma. Healthy unrelated Korean individuals (n=100) were used as the non-selected population control. A total of three MYOC and four OPTN variants potentially associated with primary glaucoma were identified in 4 and 18 patients, respectively. A novel variant of MYOC, p.Leu255Pro, was predicted to be potentially pathogenic by in silico analysis. Another, p.Thr353Ile, has been previously reported. These two missense variants were detected in patients with a family history of glaucoma. Combined heterozygous variants p.[Thr123=;Ile288=] were identified in 2 of 112 (2%) patients but not in healthy controls. Among OPTN variants, a novel variant p.Arg271Cys was identified. Homozygous p.[Thr34=;Thr34=] (4/112, 4%), homozygous p.[Met98Lys;Met98Lys] (4/112, 4%), or combined heterozygous p.[Thr34=;Arg545Gln] (9/112, 8%) was significantly associated with the development of primary glaucoma [odds ratio (OR)=8.768, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.972–38.988; relative risk=1.818, 95% CI=1.473–2.244; P=0.001]. The present study provides insight into the genetic or haplotype variants of MYOC and OPTN genes contributing to primary glaucoma. Haplotype variants identified in the present study may be regarded as potential contributing factors of primary glaucoma in Korea. Further studies, including those on additional genes, are required to elucidate the underlying pathogenic mechanism using a larger cohort to provide additional statistical power. PMID:27485216

  8. Thermal Analysis of the Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) 8 Meter Primary Mirror

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hornsby, Linda; Stahl, H. Philip; Hopkins, Randall C.

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) preliminary design concept consists of an 8 meter diameter monolithic primary mirror enclosed in an insulated, optical tube with stray light baffles and a sunshade. ATLAST will be placed in orbit about the Sun-Earth L2 and will experience constant exposure to the sun. The insulation on the optical tube and sunshade serve to cold bias the telescope which helps to minimize thermal gradients. The primary mirror will be maintained at 280K with an active thermal control system. The geometric model of the primary mirror, optical tube, sun baffles, and sunshade was developed using Thermal Desktop(R) SINDA/FLUINT(R) was used for the thermal analysis and the radiation environment was analyzed using RADCAD(R). A XX node model was executed in order to characterize the static performance and thermal stability of the mirror during maneuvers. This is important because long exposure observations, such as extra-solar terrestrial planet finding and characterization, require a very stable observatory wave front. Steady state thermal analyses served to predict mirror temperatures for several different sun angles. Transient analyses were performed in order to predict thermal time constant of the primary mirror for a 20 degree slew or 30 degree roll maneuver. This paper describes the thermal model and provides details of the geometry, thermo-optical properties, and the environment which influences the thermal performance. All assumptions that were used in the analysis are also documented. Parametric analyses are summarized for design parameters including primary mirror coatings and sunshade configuration. Estimates of mirror heater power requirements are reported. The thermal model demonstrates results for the primary mirror heated from the back side and edges using a heater system with multiple independently controlled zones.

  9. Psychological treatment of depression in primary care: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cuijpers, Pim; van Straten, Annemieke; van Schaik, Anneke; Andersson, Gerhard

    2009-01-01

    Background Although most depressive disorders are treated in primary care and several studies have examined the effects of psychological treatment in primary care, hardly any meta-analytic research has been conducted in which the results of these studies are integrated. Aim To integrate the results of randomised controlled trials of psychological treatment of depression in adults in primary care, and to compare these results to psychological treatments in other settings. Design of study A meta-analysis of studies examining the effects of psychological treatments of adult depression in primary care. Setting Primary care. Method An existing database of studies on psychological treatments of adult depression that was built on systematic searches in PubMed, PsychINFO, EMBASE, and Dissertation Abstracts International was used. Randomised trials were included in which the effects of psychological treatments on adult primary care patients with depression were compared to a control condition. Results In the 15 included studies, the standardised mean effect size of psychological treatment versus control groups was 0.31 (95% CI = 0.17 to 0.45), which corresponds with a numbers-needed-to-treat (NNT) of 5.75. Studies in which patients were referred by their GP for treatment had significantly higher effect sizes (d = 0.43; NNT = 4.20) than studies in which patients were recruited through systematic screening (d = 0.13, not significantly different from zero; NNT = 13.51). Conclusions Although the number of studies was relatively low and the quality varied, psychological treatment of depression was found to be effective in primary care, especially when GPs refer patients with depression for treatment. PMID:19192368

  10. Structural analysis of light aircraft using NASTRAN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkinson, M. T.; Bruce, A. C.

    1973-01-01

    An application of NASTRAN to the structural analysis of light aircraft was conducted to determine the cost effectiveness. A model of the Baby Ace D model homebuilt aircraft was used. The NASTRAN model of the aircraft consists of 193 grid points connected by 352 structural members. All members are either rod or beam elements, including bending of unsymmetrical cross sections and torsion of noncircular cross sections. The aerodynamic loads applied to the aircraft were in accordance with FAA regulations governing the utility category aircraft.

  11. Analysis of zinc binding sites in protein crystal structures.

    PubMed Central

    Alberts, I. L.; Nadassy, K.; Wodak, S. J.

    1998-01-01

    The geometrical properties of zinc binding sites in a dataset of high quality protein crystal structures deposited in the Protein Data Bank have been examined to identify important differences between zinc sites that are directly involved in catalysis and those that play a structural role. Coordination angles in the zinc primary coordination sphere are compared with ideal values for each coordination geometry, and zinc coordination distances are compared with those in small zinc complexes from the Cambridge Structural Database as a guide of expected trends. We find that distances and angles in the primary coordination sphere are in general close to the expected (or ideal) values. Deviations occur primarily for oxygen coordinating atoms and are found to be mainly due to H-bonding of the oxygen coordinating ligand to protein residues, bidentate binding arrangements, and multi-zinc sites. We find that H-bonding of oxygen containing residues (or water) to zinc bound histidines is almost universal in our dataset and defines the elec-His-Zn motif. Analysis of the stereochemistry shows that carboxyl elec-His-Zn motifs are geometrically rigid, while water elec-His-Zn motifs show the most geometrical variation. As catalytic motifs have a higher proportion of carboxyl elec atoms than structural motifs, they provide a more rigid framework for zinc binding. This is understood biologically, as a small distortion in the zinc position in an enzyme can have serious consequences on the enzymatic reaction. We also analyze the sequence pattern of the zinc ligands and residues that provide elecs, and identify conserved hydrophobic residues in the endopeptidases that also appear to contribute to stabilizing the catalytic zinc site. A zinc binding template in protein crystal structures is derived from these observations. PMID:10082367

  12. Coupled structural/thermal/electromagnetic analysis/tailoring of graded composite structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcknight, R. L.; Huang, H.; Hartle, M.

    1992-01-01

    Accomplishments are described for the third years effort of a 5-year program to develop a methodology for coupled structural/thermal/electromagnetic analysis/tailoring of graded composite structures. These accomplishments include: (1) structural analysis capability specialized for graded composite structures including large deformation and deformation position eigenanalysis technologies; (2) a thermal analyzer specialized for graded composite structures; (3) absorption of electromagnetic waves by graded composite structures; and (4) coupled structural thermal/electromagnetic analysis of graded composite structures.

  13. Network analysis of primary hepatocyte dedifferentiation using a shotgun proteomics approach.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Cliff; Goldring, Christopher E P; Kitteringham, Neil R; Jenkins, Rosalind E; Lane, Brian S; Sanderson, Christopher; Elliott, Victoria; Platt, Vivien; Metcalfe, Peter; Park, B Kevin

    2010-05-01

    The liver is the major site of xenobiotic metabolism and detoxification. Primary cultures of hepatocytes are a vital tool in the development of new therapeutic agents but their utility is hindered by the rapid loss of phenotype. Hepatocytes cultured in a sandwich of extracellular matrix protein maintain better hepatic function compared with cells cultured as a monolayer but a wide-ranging proteomics study of the differences in cultures has never been performed. We characterize the changing phenotype of rat hepatocytes in primary culture using iTRAQ proteomics and systems biology network analysis of the identified, significantly regulated, proteins. A total of 754 unique proteins were identified from 4 independent experiments. Of these, 413 proteins were common to at least 3 experiments and 328 proteins were identified in all experiments. Both culture systems displayed altered expression of many common proteins. Network analysis showed that the primary functions of these proteins were in metabolic pathways, immune responses and cytoskeleton remodelling. Monolayer cultures uniquely regulate proteins mapping to pathways of oxidative stress and cell migration, whereas sandwich culture affected translation regulation and apoptosis pathways. These experiments provide a detailed proteomics data set to direct further work into maintaining hepatic phenotype using cultured primary hepatocytes and stem cell derived hepatocyte-like cells.

  14. The Presence of a Reticulated Trabecula-Like Structure Increases the Risk for the Recurrence of Primary Spontaneous Pneumothorax after Thoracoscopic Bullectomy

    PubMed Central

    Kawai, Hideki; Kuriyama, Syouji

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Deteriorated alveolar structure at the base of blebs and bullae is known as the reticulated trabecula-like structure. Its clinical significance in primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP) remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the impact of the structure on recurrence of PSP after video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) bullectomy. Methods: Between April 2010 and March 2014, 80 cases of PSP in 76 patients who underwent VATS bullectomy using endoscopic staplers were included. The staple line was covered with polyglycolic acid sheets and fibrin glue. Cases were assigned to a normal alveolar structure (NAS) group (n = 54) and a reticulated trabecula-like structure (RT) group (n = 26) based on the histological analysis. Factors associated with recurrence were analysed using logistic regression. Results: The reticulated trabecula-like structure was significantly related to apical lung blebs. The recurrence rate of PSP was significantly higher in the RT group than in the NAS group (38.5% vs. 3.7%; P <0.001). On multivariate analysis, the reticulated trabecula-like structure was an independent factor for recurrence of PSP after VATS bullectomy. Conclusion: The change of alveolar structure at the base of apical lung blebs would increase the risk for recurrence of PSP after VATS bullectomy. PMID:26875751

  15. Biosynthesis, primary structure and molecular cloning of snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis L.) lectin.

    PubMed

    Van Damme, E J; Kaku, H; Perini, F; Goldstein, I J; Peeters, B; Yagi, F; Decock, B; Peumans, W J

    1991-11-15

    Poly(A)-rich RNA isolated from ripening ovaries of snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis L.) yielded a single 17-kDa lectin polypeptide upon translation in a wheat-germ cell-free system. This lectin was purified by affinity chromatography. Translation of the same RNA in Xenopus leavis oocytes revealed a lectin polypeptide which was about 2 kDa smaller than the in vitro synthesized precursor, suggesting that the oocyte system had removed a 2-kDa signal peptide. A second post-translational processing step was likely to be involved since both the in vivo precursor and the Xenopus translation products were about 2 kDa larger than the mature lectin polypeptide. This hypothesis was confirmed by the structural analysis of the amino acid sequence of the mature protein and the cloned mRNA. Edman degradation and carboxypeptidase Y digestion of the mature protein, and structural analysis of the peptides obtained after chemical cleavage and modification, allowed determination of the complete 105 amino acid sequence of the snowdrop lectin polypeptide. Comparison of this sequence with the deduced amino acid sequence of a lectin cDNA clone revealed that besides the mature lectin polypeptide, the lectin mRNA also encoded a 23 amino acid signal-sequence and a C-terminal extension of 29 amino acids, which confirms the results from in vitro translation experiments.

  16. Structural analysis of ITER magnet feeders

    SciTech Connect

    Ilyin, Yuri; Gung, Chen-Yu; Bauer, Pierre; Chen, Yonghua; Jong, Cornelis; Devred, Arnaud; Mitchell, Neil; Lorriere, Philippe; Farek, Jaromir; Nannini, Matthieu

    2012-06-15

    This paper summarizes the results of the static structural analyses, which were conducted in support of the ITER magnet feeder design with the aim of validating certain components against the structural design criteria. While almost every feeder has unique features, they all share many common constructional elements and the same functional specifications. The analysis approach to assess the load conditions and stresses that have driven the design is equivalent for all feeders, except for particularities that needed to be modeled in each case. The mechanical analysis of the feeders follows the sub-modeling approach: the results of the global mechanical model of a feeder assembly are used as input for the detailed models of the feeder' sub-assemblies or single components. Examples of such approach, including the load conditions, stress assessment criteria and solutions for the most critical components, are discussed. It has been concluded that the feeder system is safe in the referential operation scenarios. (authors)

  17. Analysis of Open TEM-Waveguide Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rambousky, R.; Garbe, H.

    This work belongs to a research project on the analysis and characterization of higher order modes occurring in open TEM-waveguide structures. An open TEM waveguide, derived from a conventional GTEM cell by removing the sidewalls, is investigated. The intrinsic resonances of the electromagnetic field occurring in the test volume of the waveguide are analyzed in frequency domain by computer simulation and measurement. This resonance behavior is compared to that of more simplified wire models, describing just the planar septum of the original TEM waveguide. The influence of the number of wires used in the wire model is investigated with respect to the resonant behavior. The use of wire structures is a prerequisite for application of transmission-line super theory (TLST) for further analysis.

  18. Novel Genes Implicated in Embryonal, Alveolar, and Pleomorphic Rhabdomyosarcoma: A Cytogenetic and Molecular Analysis of Primary Tumors1

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Myriam; Meller, Isaac; Issakov, Josephine; Orr-Urtreger, Avi

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Rhabdomyosarcoma, the most common pediatric soft tissue sarcoma, likely results from deregulation of the skeletal myogenesis program. Although associations between PAX3, PAX7, FOXO1A, and RMS tumorigenesis are well recognized, the entire spectrum of genetic factors underlying RMS development and progression is unclear. Using a combined approach of spectral karyotyping, array-based comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), and expression analysis, we examined 10 primary RMS tumors, including embryonal, alveolar, and the rare adult pleomorphic variant, to explore the involvement of different genes and genetic pathways in RMS tumorigenesis. A complete karyotype established for each tumor revealed a high aneuploidy level, mostly tetraploidy, with double minutes and additional structural aberrations. Quantitative expression analysis detected the overexpression of the AURKA gene in all tumors tested, suggesting a role for this mitotic regulator in the aneuploidy and chromosomal instability observed in RMS. Array-based CGH analysis in primary RMS tumors detected copy number changes of genes involved in multiple genetic pathways, including transcription factors such as MYC-related gene from lung cancer and the cytoskeleton and cell adhesion-encoding genes laminin γ-2 and p21-activated kinase-1. Our data suggest the involvement of genes encoding cell adhesion, cytoskeletal signaling, and transcriptional and cell cycle components in RMS tumorigenesis. PMID:16790082

  19. Structural analysis at aircraft conceptual design stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansouri, Reza

    In the past 50 years, computers have helped by augmenting human efforts with tremendous pace. The aircraft industry is not an exception. Aircraft industry is more than ever dependent on computing because of a high level of complexity and the increasing need for excellence to survive a highly competitive marketplace. Designers choose computers to perform almost every analysis task. But while doing so, existing effective, accurate and easy to use classical analytical methods are often forgotten, which can be very useful especially in the early phases of the aircraft design where concept generation and evaluation demands physical visibility of design parameters to make decisions [39, 2004]. Structural analysis methods have been used by human beings since the very early civilization. Centuries before computers were invented; the pyramids were designed and constructed by Egyptians around 2000 B.C, the Parthenon was built by the Greeks, around 240 B.C, Dujiangyan was built by the Chinese. Persepolis, Hagia Sophia, Taj Mahal, Eiffel tower are only few more examples of historical buildings, bridges and monuments that were constructed before we had any advancement made in computer aided engineering. Aircraft industry is no exception either. In the first half of the 20th century, engineers used classical method and designed civil transport aircraft such as Ford Tri Motor (1926), Lockheed Vega (1927), Lockheed 9 Orion (1931), Douglas DC-3 (1935), Douglas DC-4/C-54 Skymaster (1938), Boeing 307 (1938) and Boeing 314 Clipper (1939) and managed to become airborne without difficulty. Evidencing, while advanced numerical methods such as the finite element analysis is one of the most effective structural analysis methods; classical structural analysis methods can also be as useful especially during the early phase of a fixed wing aircraft design where major decisions are made and concept generation and evaluation demands physical visibility of design parameters to make decisions

  20. Probabilistic seismic demand analysis of nonlinear structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shome, Nilesh

    Recent earthquakes in California have initiated improvement in current design philosophy and at present the civil engineering community is working towards development of performance-based earthquake engineering of structures. The objective of this study is to develop efficient, but accurate procedures for probabilistic analysis of nonlinear seismic behavior of structures. The proposed procedures help the near-term development of seismic-building assessments which require an estimation of seismic demand at a given intensity level. We also develop procedures to estimate the probability of exceedance of any specified nonlinear response level due to future ground motions at a specific site. This is referred as Probabilistic Seismic Demand Analysis (PSDA). The latter procedure prepares the way for the next stage development of seismic assessment that consider the uncertainties in nonlinear response and capacity. The proposed procedures require structure-specific nonlinear analyses for a relatively small set of recorded accelerograms and (site-specific or USGS-map-like) seismic hazard analyses. We have addressed some of the important issues of nonlinear seismic demand analysis, which are selection of records for structural analysis, the number of records to be used, scaling of records, etc. Initially these issues are studied through nonlinear analysis of structures for a number of magnitude-distance bins of records. Subsequently we introduce regression analysis of response results against spectral acceleration, magnitude, duration, etc., which helps to resolve these issues more systematically. We illustrate the demand-hazard calculations through two major example problems: a 5story and a 20-story SMRF building. Several simple, but quite accurate closed-form solutions have also been proposed to expedite the demand-hazard calculations. We find that vector-valued (e.g., 2-D) PSDA estimates demand hazard more accurately. This procedure, however, requires information about 2

  1. Wideband sensitivity analysis of plasmonic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Osman S.; Bakr, Mohamed H.; Li, Xun; Nomura, Tsuyoshi

    2013-03-01

    We propose an adjoint variable method (AVM) for efficient wideband sensitivity analysis of the dispersive plasmonic structures. Transmission Line Modeling (TLM) is exploited for calculation of the structure sensitivities. The theory is developed for general dispersive materials modeled by Drude or Lorentz model. Utilizing the dispersive AVM, sensitivities are calculated with respect to all the designable parameters regardless of their number using at most one extra simulation. This is significantly more efficient than the regular finite difference approaches whose computational overhead scales linearly with the number of design parameters. A Z-domain formulation is utilized to allow for the extension of the theory to a general material model. The theory has been successfully applied to a structure with teethshaped plasmonic resonator. The design variables are the shape parameters (widths and thicknesses) of these teeth. The results are compared to the accurate yet expensive finite difference approach and good agreement is achieved.

  2. Interval prediction in structural dynamic analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasselman, Timothy K.; Chrostowski, Jon D.; Ross, Timothy J.

    1992-01-01

    Methods for assessing the predictive accuracy of structural dynamic models are examined with attention given to the effects of modal mass, stiffness, and damping uncertainties. The methods are based on a nondeterministic analysis called 'interval prediction' in which interval variables are used to describe parameters and responses that are unknown. Statistical databases for generic modeling uncertainties are derived from experimental data and incorporated analytically to evaluate responses. Covariance matrices of modal mass, stiffness, and damping parameters are propagated numerically in models of large space structures by means of three methods. The test data tend to fall within the predicted intervals of uncertainty determined by the statistical databases. The present findings demonstrate the suitability of using data from previously analyzed and tested space structures for assessing the predictive accuracy of an analytical model.

  3. Phase analysis of amplitude binary mask structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puthankovilakam, Krishnaparvathy; Scharf, Toralf; Herzig, Hans Peter; Vogler, Uwe; Bramati, Arianna; Voelkel, Reinhard

    2016-03-01

    Shaping of light behind masks using different techniques is the milestone of the printing industry. The aerial image distribution or the intensity distribution at the printing distances defines the resolution of the structure after printing. Contrast and phase are the two parameters that play a major role in shaping of light to get the desired intensity pattern. Here, in contrast to many other contributions that focus on intensity, we discuss the phase evolution for different structures. The amplitude or intensity characteristics of the structures in a binary mask at different proximity gaps have been analyzed extensively for many industrial applications. But the phase evolution from the binary mask having OPC structures is not considered so far. The mask we consider here is the normal amplitude binary mask but having high resolution Optical Proximity Correction (OPC) structures for corners. The corner structures represent a two dimensional problem which is difficult to handle with simple rules of phase masks design and therefore of particular interest. The evolution of light from small amplitude structures might lead to high contrast by creating sharp phase changes or phase singularities which are points of zero intensity. We show the phase modulation at different proximity gaps and can visualize the shaping of light according to the phase changes. The analysis is done with an instrument called High Resolution Interference Microscopy (HRIM), a Mach-Zehnder interferometer that gives access to three-dimensional phase and amplitude images. The current paper emphasizes on the phase measurement of different optical proximity correction structures, and especially on corners of a binary mask.

  4. Structure soil structure interaction effects: Seismic analysis of safety related collocated concrete structures

    SciTech Connect

    Joshi, J.R.

    2000-06-20

    The Process, Purification and Stack Buildings are collocated safety related concrete shear wall structures with plan dimensions in excess of 100 feet. An important aspect of their seismic analysis was the determination of structure soil structure interaction (SSSI) effects, if any. The SSSI analysis of the Process Building, with one other building at a time, was performed with the SASSI computer code for up to 50 frequencies. Each combined model had about 1500 interaction nodes. Results of the SSSI analysis were compared with those from soil structure interaction (SSI) analysis of the individual buildings, done with ABAQUS and SASSI codes, for three parameters: peak accelerations, seismic forces and the in-structure floor response spectra (FRS). The results may be of wider interest due to the model size and the potential applicability to other deep soil layered sites. Results obtained from the ABAQUS analysis were consistently higher, as expected, than those from the SSI and SSSI analyses using the SASSI. The SSSI effect between the Process and Purification Buildings was not significant. The Process and Stack Building results demonstrated that under certain conditions a massive structure can have an observable effect on the seismic response of a smaller and less stiff structure.

  5. Remote geologic structural analysis of Yucca Flat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foley, M. G.; Heasler, P. G.; Hoover, K. A.; Rynes, N. J.; Thiessen, R. L.; Alfaro, J. L.

    1991-12-01

    The Remote Geologic Analysis (RGA) system was developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to identify crustal structures that may affect seismic wave propagation from nuclear tests. Using automated methods, the RGA system identifies all valleys in a digital elevation model (DEM), fits three-dimensional vectors to valley bottoms, and catalogs all potential fracture or fault planes defined by coplanar pairs of valley vectors. The system generates a cluster hierarchy of planar features having greater-than-random density that may represent areas of anomalous topography manifesting structural control of erosional drainage development. Because RGA uses computer methods to identify zones of hypothesized control of topography, ground truth using a well-characterized test site was critical in our evaluation of RGA's characterization of inaccessible test sites for seismic verification studies. Therefore, we applied RGA to a study area centered on Yucca Flat at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and compared our results with both mapped geology and geologic structures and with seismic yield-magnitude models. This is the final report of PNL's RGA development project for peer review within the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Arms Control (OAC) seismic-verification community. In this report, we discuss the Yucca Flat study area, the analytical basis of the RGA system and its application to Yucca Flat, the results of the analysis, and the relation of the analytical results to known topography, geology, and geologic structures.

  6. Remote geologic structural analysis of Yucca Flat

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, M.G.; Heasler, P.G.; Hoover, K.A. ); Rynes, N.J. ); Thiessen, R.L.; Alfaro, J.L. )

    1991-12-01

    The Remote Geologic Analysis (RGA) system was developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to identify crustal structures that may affect seismic wave propagation from nuclear tests. Using automated methods, the RGA system identifies all valleys in a digital elevation model (DEM), fits three-dimensional vectors to valley bottoms, and catalogs all potential fracture or fault planes defined by coplanar pairs of valley vectors. The system generates a cluster hierarchy of planar features having greater-than-random density that may represent areas of anomalous topography manifesting structural control of erosional drainage development. Because RGA uses computer methods to identify zones of hypothesized control of topography, ground truth using a well-characterized test site was critical in our evaluation of RGA's characterization of inaccessible test sites for seismic verification studies. Therefore, we applied RGA to a study area centered on Yucca Flat at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and compared our results with both mapped geology and geologic structures and with seismic yield-magnitude models. This is the final report of PNL's RGA development project for peer review within the US Department of Energy Office of Arms Control (OAC) seismic-verification community. In this report, we discuss the Yucca Flat study area, the analytical basis of the RGA system and its application to Yucca Flat, the results of the analysis, and the relation of the analytical results to known topography, geology, and geologic structures. 41 refs., 39 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Remote geologic structural analysis of Yucca Flat

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, M.G.; Heasler, P.G.; Hoover, K.A.; Rynes, N.J.; Thiessen, R.L.; Alfaro, J.L.

    1991-12-01

    The Remote Geologic Analysis (RGA) system was developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to identify crustal structures that may affect seismic wave propagation from nuclear tests. Using automated methods, the RGA system identifies all valleys in a digital elevation model (DEM), fits three-dimensional vectors to valley bottoms, and catalogs all potential fracture or fault planes defined by coplanar pairs of valley vectors. The system generates a cluster hierarchy of planar features having greater-than-random density that may represent areas of anomalous topography manifesting structural control of erosional drainage development. Because RGA uses computer methods to identify zones of hypothesized control of topography, ground truth using a well-characterized test site was critical in our evaluation of RGA`s characterization of inaccessible test sites for seismic verification studies. Therefore, we applied RGA to a study area centered on Yucca Flat at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and compared our results with both mapped geology and geologic structures and with seismic yield-magnitude models. This is the final report of PNL`s RGA development project for peer review within the US Department of Energy Office of Arms Control (OAC) seismic-verification community. In this report, we discuss the Yucca Flat study area, the analytical basis of the RGA system and its application to Yucca Flat, the results of the analysis, and the relation of the analytical results to known topography, geology, and geologic structures. 41 refs., 39 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. An Analysis of the Presentation of Art in the British Primary School Curriculum and Its Implications for Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallam, Jenny; Lee, Helen; Das Gupta, Mani

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of the way art is conceptualised in the British primary school curriculum and provides an historical framework that maps an evolution of ideas that have shaped the way art is presented in the modern day primary curriculum. In order to achieve this a Foucauldian style genealogical analysis is utilised to trace the…

  9. [Legislation on primary care in Brazilian Unified National Health System: document analysis].

    PubMed

    Domingos, Carolina Milena; Nunes, Elisabete de Fátima Polo de Almeida; Carvalho, Brígida Gimenez; Mendonça, Fernanda de Freitas

    2016-03-01

    A reflection on Brazil's legislation for primary care helps understand the way health policy is implemented in the country. This study focuses on the legal provisions aimed at strengthening primary care, drawing on an analysis of documents from the Ministry of Health's priority actions, programs, and strategies. A total of 224 provisions were identified, in two groups of documents, so-called instituting provisions and complementary provisions. The former include the principles and guidelines of the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS) and also involve the expansion of actions. Financing was a quantitatively central theme, especially in the complementary provisions. The analysis led to reflection on the extent to which these strategies can induce linkage between health system managers and civil society in building a political project resulting in improvements and meeting the population's health needs.

  10. [Legislation on primary care in Brazilian Unified National Health System: document analysis].

    PubMed

    Domingos, Carolina Milena; Nunes, Elisabete de Fátima Polo de Almeida; Carvalho, Brígida Gimenez; Mendonça, Fernanda de Freitas

    2016-03-01

    A reflection on Brazil's legislation for primary care helps understand the way health policy is implemented in the country. This study focuses on the legal provisions aimed at strengthening primary care, drawing on an analysis of documents from the Ministry of Health's priority actions, programs, and strategies. A total of 224 provisions were identified, in two groups of documents, so-called instituting provisions and complementary provisions. The former include the principles and guidelines of the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS) and also involve the expansion of actions. Financing was a quantitatively central theme, especially in the complementary provisions. The analysis led to reflection on the extent to which these strategies can induce linkage between health system managers and civil society in building a political project resulting in improvements and meeting the population's health needs. PMID:27027459

  11. Primary cilium - antenna-like structure on the surface of most mammalian cell types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvorak, J.; Sitorova, V.; Hadzi Nikolov, D.; Mokry, J.; Richter, I.; Kasaova, L.; Filip, S.; Ryska, A.; Petera, J.

    2011-12-01

    The primary cilium is a sensory solitary non-motile microtubule-based organelle protruding in the quiescent phase of the cell cycle from the surface of the majority of human cells, including embryonic cells, stem cells and stromal cells of malignant tumors. The presence of a primary cilium on the surface of a cell is transient, limited to the quiescent G1(G0) phase and the beginning of the S phase of the cell cycle. The primary cilium is formed from the mother centriole. Primary cilia are key coordinators of signaling pathways during development and tissue homeostasis and, when deffective, they are a major cause of human diseases and developmental disorders, now commonly referred to as ciliopathies. Most cancer cells do not possess a primary cilium. The loss of the primary cilium is a regular feature of neoplastic transformation in the majority of solid tumors. The primary cilium could serve as a tumor suppressor organelle. The aim of this paper was to provide a review of the current knowledge of the primary cilium.

  12. Derivatization to stabilize some aliphatic primary hydroxylamines for g.l.c. analysis.

    PubMed

    Beckett, A H; Achari, R

    1977-04-01

    By appropriate choice of trimethylsilylating and trifluoroacetylating reagents and organic solvents for extraction, stable derivative of aliphatic primary hydroxylamines metabolites, N-hydroxyphentermine, N-hydroxychlorphentermine, N-hydroxymexiletene, N-hydroxyphenethylamine, N-hydroxyamphetamine, and N-hydroxy-3,4-dimethoxyamphetamine, were obtained and examined by g.l.c. analysis without decomposition and without interference from the parent drug or other metabolic products. PMID:17670

  13. Simple sequence repeat analysis of genetic diversity in primary core collection of peach (Prunus persica).

    PubMed

    Li, Tian-Hong; Li, Yin-Xia; Li, Zi-Chao; Zhang, Hong-Liang; Qi, Yong-Wen; Wang, Tao

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the genetic diversity of 51 cultivars in the primary core collection of peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) was evaluated by using simple sequence repeats (SSRs). The phylogenetic relationships and the evolutionary history among different cultivars were determined on the basis of SSR data. Twenty-two polymorphic SSR primer pairs were selected, and a total of 111 alleles were identified in the 51 cultivars, with an average of 5 alleles per locus. According to traditional Chinese classification of peach cultivars, the 51 cultivars in the peach primary core collection belong to six variety groups. The SSR analysis revealed that the levels of the genetic diversity within each variety group were ranked as Sweet peach > Crisp peach > Flat peach > Nectarine > Honey Peach > Yellow fleshed peach. The genetic diversity among the Chinese cultivars was higher than that among the introduced cultivars. Cluster analysis by the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic averaging (UPGMA) placed the 51 cultivars into five linkage clusters. Cultivar members from the same variety group were distributed in different UPGMA clusters and some members from different variety groups were placed under the same cluster. Different variety groups could not be differentiated in accordance with SSR markers. The SSR analysis revealed rich genetic diversity in the peach primary core collection, representative of genetic resources of peach.

  14. Thermal analysis of the Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) 8-meter primary mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornsby, Linda; Hopkins, Randall C.; Stahl, H. Philip

    2010-07-01

    The Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) preliminary design concept consists of an 8 meter diameter monolithic primary mirror enclosed in an insulated, optical tube with stray light baffles and a sunshade. ATLAST will be placed in orbit about the Sun-Earth L2 point and will experience constant exposure to the sun. The insulation on the optical tube and sunshade serve to cold bias the telescope which helps to minimize thermal gradients. The objective is to maintain the primary mirror at 280K with an active thermal control system. The geometric model of the primary mirror, optical tube, sun baffles, and sunshade was developed using Thermal Desktop®1. A detailed model of the primary mirror was required in order to characterize the static performance and thermal stability of the mirror during maneuvers. This is important because long exposure observations, such as extra-solar terrestrial planet finding and characterization, require a very stable observatory wave front. Steady state thermal analyses served to predict mirror temperatures for several different sun angles. Transient analyses were performed in order to predict thermal time constant of the primary mirror for a 20 degree slew and a 30 degree roll maneuver. This paper describes the thermal model and provides details of the geometry, thermo-optical properties, and the solar environment that influences the thermal performance. All assumptions that were used in the analysis are also documented. Estimates of mirror heater power requirements are reported. The thermal model is used to predict gradients across and through the primary mirror using an idealized boundary temperature on the back and sides of the mirror of 280 K.

  15. Efficacy of using Carisolv in the removal of decayed tooth structure in primary teeth.

    PubMed

    Keenan, Analia Veitz; Congiusta, Marie A

    2016-06-01

    Data sourcesMedline, Web of Science and Scopus were searched using a unique search strategy.Study selectionTwo authors independently reviewed and selected Clinical Trials, Randomised Clinical trials and Controlled Trials assessing the efficacy on primary dentition of Carisolv compared to traditional caries removal with drilling instruments. Only studies where total caries removal in each group was completed using Carisolv systems or rotary instruments used without any time limit were considered suitable. Studies assessing the complete caries removal by different methods from the clinical criteria selected (ie using a sharp probe) were excluded.Data extraction and synthesisThe outcomes considered for the review were: the caries removal rate (binary yes/no), the time required to complete the tissue removal (continuous) and the pain threshold during the procedure, assessed through the need for local anaesthesia by the patients (binary yes/no).For dichotomous data Odds Ratio (OR) was calculated along with 95% Confidence intervals (CIs) and for continuous data, the Mean Difference (MD) with 99% Confidence Intervals (CIs) was calculated. Meta-analysis was performed with studies analysing the same outcomes.ResultsFrom 195 studies identified, 28 were analysed. Ten met eligibility criteria. The trials included involved a total of 348 patients for 532 treated teeth. Three studies evaluated clinical efficacy in caries removal. When the data were collected in a meta-analysis no statistically significant difference was observed in regard of the clinical efficacy between Carisolv and the rotary instruments (p= 0.50, OR= 0.33 95% CI 0.01-8.22).In seven studies the length of time to perform the procedures was evaluated and data analysis demonstrated a statistically significant difference (p < 0.01, MD 310.92, 99 % CI 234.57- 387.27) with the Carisolv system, which required a greater amount of time than the conventional drill technique. With regard to pain threshold, a near

  16. Structural Analysis Using Computer Based Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietz, Matthew R.

    2013-01-01

    The stiffness of a flex hose that will be used in the umbilical arms of the Space Launch Systems mobile launcher needed to be determined in order to properly qualify ground umbilical plate behavior during vehicle separation post T-0. This data is also necessary to properly size and design the motors used to retract the umbilical arms. Therefore an experiment was created to determine the stiffness of the hose. Before the test apparatus for the experiment could be built, the structure had to be analyzed to ensure it would not fail under given loading conditions. The design model was imported into the analysis software and optimized to decrease runtime while still providing accurate restlts and allow for seamless meshing. Areas exceeding the allowable stresses in the structure were located and modified before submitting the design for fabrication. In addition, a mock up of a deep space habitat and the support frame was designed and needed to be analyzed for structural integrity under different loading conditions. The load cases were provided by the customer and were applied to the structure after optimizing the geometry. Once again, weak points in the structure were located and recommended design changes were made to the customer and the process was repeated until the load conditions were met without exceeding the allowable stresses. After the stresses met the required factors of safety the designs were released for fabrication.

  17. WCI, a novel wheat chymotrypsin inhibitor: purification, primary structure, inhibitory properties and heterologous expression.

    PubMed

    Di Maro, Antimo; Farisei, Francesca; Panichi, Daniela; Severino, Valeria; Bruni, Natalia; Ficca, Anna Grazia; Ferranti, Pasquale; Capuzzi, Valeria; Tedeschi, Francesca; Poerio, Elia

    2011-10-01

    A novel chymotrypsin inhibitor, detected in the endosperm of Triticum aestivum, was purified and characterized with respect to the main physical-chemical properties. On the basis of its specificity, this inhibitor was named WCI (wheat chymotrypsin inhibitor). WCI is a monomeric neutral protein made up of 119 residues and molecular mass value of 12,933.40 Da. Automated sequence and mass spectrometry analyses, carried out on several samples of purified inhibitor, evidenced an intrinsic molecular heterogeneity due to the presence of the isoform [des-(Thr)WCI], accounting for about 40% of the total sample. In vitro, WCI acted as a strong inhibitor of bovine pancreatic chymotrypsin as well as of chymotryptic-like activities isolated from the midgut of two phytophagous insects, Helicoverpa armigera (Hüb.) and Tenebrio molitor L., respectively. No inhibitory activities were detected against bacterial subtilisins, bovine pancreatic trypsin, porcine pancreatic elastase or human leukocyte elastase. The primary structure of WCI was significantly similar (45.7-89.1%) to those of several proteins belonging to the cereal trypsin/α-amylase inhibitor super-family and showed the typical sequence motif of this crowed protein group. The cDNA of the inhibitor (wci-cDNA) was isolated from wheat immature caryopses and employed to obtain a recombinant product in E. coli. Experimental evidences indicated that the recombinant inhibitor was localized in the inclusion bodies from which it was recovered as soluble and partially active protein by applying an appropriate refolding procedure. WCI reactive site localization, as well as its inhibitory specificity, was investigated by molecular modeling approach. PMID:21617989

  18. Dissecting the Calcium-Induced Differentiation of Human Primary Keratinocytes Stem Cells by Integrative and Structural Network Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Toufighi, Kiana; Yang, Jae-Seong; Luis, Nuno Miguel; Aznar Benitah, Salvador; Lehner, Ben; Serrano, Luis; Kiel, Christina

    2015-01-01

    The molecular details underlying the time-dependent assembly of protein complexes in cellular networks, such as those that occur during differentiation, are largely unexplored. Focusing on the calcium-induced differentiation of primary human keratinocytes as a model system for a major cellular reorganization process, we look at the expression of genes whose products are involved in manually-annotated protein complexes. Clustering analyses revealed only moderate co-expression of functionally related proteins during differentiation. However, when we looked at protein complexes, we found that the majority (55%) are composed of non-dynamic and dynamic gene products (‘di-chromatic’), 19% are non-dynamic, and 26% only dynamic. Considering three-dimensional protein structures to predict steric interactions, we found that proteins encoded by dynamic genes frequently interact with a common non-dynamic protein in a mutually exclusive fashion. This suggests that during differentiation, complex assemblies may also change through variation in the abundance of proteins that compete for binding to common proteins as found in some cases for paralogous proteins. Considering the example of the TNF-α/NFκB signaling complex, we suggest that the same core complex can guide signals into diverse context-specific outputs by addition of time specific expressed subunits, while keeping other cellular functions constant. Thus, our analysis provides evidence that complex assembly with stable core components and competition could contribute to cell differentiation. PMID:25946651

  19. Thermal Analysis of the Divertor Primary Heat Transfer System Piping During the Gas Baking Process

    SciTech Connect

    Yoder Jr, Graydon L; Harvey, Karen; Ferrada, Juan J

    2011-02-01

    A preliminary analysis has been performed examining the temperature distribution in the Divertor Primary Heat Transfer System (PHTS) piping and the divertor itself during the gas baking process. During gas baking, it is required that the divertor reach a temperature of 350 C. Thermal losses in the piping and from the divertor itself require that the gas supply temperature be maintained above that temperature in order to ensure that all of the divertor components reach the required temperature. The analysis described in this report was conducted in order to estimate the required supply temperature from the gas heater.

  20. Structural Analysis of Sandwich Foam Panels

    SciTech Connect

    Kosny, Jan; Huo, X. Sharon

    2010-04-01

    The Sandwich Panel Technologies including Structural Insulated Panels (SIPs) can be used to replace the conventional wooden-frame construction method. The main purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between UT-Battelle, LLC and SGI Venture, Inc. was to design a novel high R-value type of metal sandwich panelized technology. This CRADA project report presents design concept discussion and numerical analysis results from thermal performance study of this new building envelope system. The main objective of this work was to develop a basic concept of a new generation of wall panel technologies which will have R-value over R-20 will use thermal mass to improve energy performance in cooling dominated climates and will be 100% termite resistant. The main advantages of using sandwich panels are as follows: (1) better energy saving structural panels with high and uniform overall wall R-value across the elevation that could not be achieved in traditional walls; and (2) reducing the use of raw materials or need for virgin lumber. For better utilization of these Sandwich panels, engineers need to have a thorough understanding of the actual performance of the panels and system. Detailed analysis and study on the capacities and deformation of individual panels and its assembly have to be performed to achieve that goal. The major project activity was to conduct structural analysis of the stresses, strains, load capacities, and deformations of individual sandwich components under various load cases. The analysis simulated the actual loading conditions of the regular residential building and used actual material properties of the steel facings and foam.

  1. Structure function analysis of mirror fabrication and support errors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hvisc, Anastacia M.; Burge, James H.

    2007-09-01

    Telescopes are ultimately limited by atmospheric turbulence, which is commonly characterized by a structure function. The telescope optics will not further degrade the performance if their errors are small compared to the atmospheric effects. Any further improvement to the mirrors is not economical since there is no increased benefit to performance. Typically the telescope specification is written in terms of an image size or encircled energy and is derived from the best seeing that is expected at the site. Ideally, the fabrication and support errors should never exceed atmospheric turbulence at any spatial scale, so it is instructive to look at how these errors affect the structure function of the telescope. The fabrication and support errors are most naturally described by Zernike polynomials or by bending modes for the active mirrors. This paper illustrates an efficient technique for relating this modal analysis to wavefront structure functions. Data is provided for efficient calculation of structure function given coefficients for Zernike annular polynomials. An example of this procedure for the Giant Magellan Telescope primary mirror is described.

  2. Primary flavonoids in marigold dye: extraction, structure and involvement in the dyeing process.

    PubMed

    Guinot, Pauline; Gargadennec, Annick; Valette, Gilles; Fruchier, Alain; Andary, Claude

    2008-01-01

    Flavonoids extracted from marigold flowers were investigated for their dyeing potential. Patulitrin (1) and patuletin (2) were isolated and their structures established using NMR and HPLC-MS. These compounds were identified as the main flavonoids present in the dyeing bath. Following the dyeing process, it was demonstrated that aglycone 2 bound more strongly to wool fibres than its glucoside 1. Moreover, analysis focused on 1 and 2 dynamics during plant growth revealed that these components were only found in flowers during and after flowering. The influence of growing location was also investigated and it appeared that cultivation under Mediterranean conditions enhanced biosynthesis of 1 and 2 . Finally, several solvents were tested for their potential to extract the flavonoids: the use of a water-ethanol mixture gave a high extraction efficiency and allowed selective extraction of 1 and 2. The implications of these results are discussed in relation to the development of marigold as a potential dyeing plant. PMID:17654539

  3. Thermal analysis of hydrated volcanic glasses: can primary and secondary water be distinguished?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuffen, H.

    2012-12-01

    The overwhelming majority of glassy volcanic rocks have undergone extensive post-quenching hydration by meteoric water. In order to unlock the record of magma degassing in hydrated glasses we require techniques to characterise and separate primary (magmatic) and secondary (meteoric) water. Possible approaches include mapping of spatial heterogeneities with micro-analytical tools, determination of bulk degassing behaviour using thermal analysis, measurement of water speciation using infra-red spectroscopy, and measurement of isotopic compositions to separate endmembers. Here I provide an overview of thermal analysis (TGA-MS) carried out on variably hydrated volcanic glasses from Taupo, Torfajökull, Vesuvius and Chaitén. Glasses span a range of compositions (phonolitic, rhyodacitic and rhyolitic), grainsizes (metre-scale lava bodies to fine-grained ashes) and ages (~95 ka to 2008). Powdered samples were heated to 1250 °C at 5 °C/min and the patterns of weight loss determined, whilst exsolved gases were analysed by mass spectrometry. Degassing from samples is characterised by the dTGA and TGA curves (rate and total amount of weight loss during heating). The nature of the dTGA curve is determined by the spatial distribution of water within samples (distance to surfaces), its speciation, and the concentration-and temperature-dependent water diffusivity. Hydration experiments on fresh, non-hydrated ash collected directly after the 2008 Chaitén eruption illustrate how rapidly fresh glasses can become hydrated post-eruption. In TGA-MS measurements this secondary water is degassed at lower temperatures than magmatic water, allowing primary and secondary degassing peaks to be separated. This indicates that thermal analysis can allow determination of bulk magmatic water concentrations in young, incipiently hydrated glasses. Hydration in older glasses becomes far more pervasive, as demonstrated by SIMS mapping of water concentration heterogeneities in Taupo AD181 pumices

  4. Introducing Pre-university Students to Primary Scientific Literature Through Argumentation Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koeneman, Marcel; Goedhart, Martin; Ossevoort, Miriam

    2013-01-01

    Primary scientific literature is one of the most important means of communication in science, written for peers in the scientific community. Primary literature provides an authentic context for showing students how scientists support their claims. Several teaching strategies have been proposed using (adapted) scientific publications, some for secondary education, but none of these strategies focused specifically on scientific argumentation. The purpose of this study is to evaluate a strategy for teaching pre-university students to read unadapted primary scientific literature, translated into students' native language, based on a new argumentation analysis framework. This framework encompasses seven types of argumentative elements: motive, objective, main conclusion, implication, support, counterargument and refutation. During the intervention, students studied two research articles. We monitored students' reading comprehension and their opinion on the articles and activities. After the intervention, we measured students' ability to identify the argumentative elements in a third unadapted and translated research article. The presented framework enabled students to analyse the article by identifying the motive, objective, main conclusion and implication and part of the supports. Students stated that they found these activities useful. Most students understood the text on paragraph level and were able to read the article with some help for its vocabulary. We suggest that primary scientific literature has the potential to show students important aspects of the scientific process and to learn scientific vocabulary in an authentic context.

  5. Molecular Eigensolution Symmetry Analysis and Fine Structure

    PubMed Central

    Harter, William G.; Mitchell, Justin C.

    2013-01-01

    Spectra of high-symmetry molecules contain fine and superfine level cluster structure related to J-tunneling between hills and valleys on rovibronic energy surfaces (RES). Such graphic visualizations help disentangle multi-level dynamics, selection rules, and state mixing effects including widespread violation of nuclear spin symmetry species. A review of RES analysis compares it to that of potential energy surfaces (PES) used in Born–Oppenheimer approximations. Both take advantage of adiabatic coupling in order to visualize Hamiltonian eigensolutions. RES of symmetric and D2 asymmetric top rank-2-tensor Hamiltonians are compared with Oh spherical top rank-4-tensor fine-structure clusters of 6-fold and 8-fold tunneling multiplets. Then extreme 12-fold and 24-fold multiplets are analyzed by RES plots of higher rank tensor Hamiltonians. Such extreme clustering is rare in fundamental bands but prevalent in hot bands, and analysis of its superfine structure requires more efficient labeling and a more powerful group theory. This is introduced using elementary examples involving two groups of order-6 (C6 and D3~C3v), then applied to families of Oh clusters in SF6 spectra and to extreme clusters. PMID:23344041

  6. A Lectin from the Mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis Has a Highly Novel Primary Structure and Induces Glycan-mediated Cytotoxicity of Globotriaosylceramide-expressing Lymphoma Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Yuki; Dohmae, Naoshi; Takio, Koji; Kawsar, Sarkar M. A.; Matsumoto, Ryo; Hasan, Imtiaj; Koide, Yasuhiro; Kanaly, Robert A.; Yasumitsu, Hidetaro; Ogawa, Yukiko; Sugawara, Shigeki; Hosono, Masahiro; Nitta, Kazuo; Hamako, Jiharu; Matsui, Taei; Ozeki, Yasuhiro

    2012-01-01

    A novel lectin structure was found for a 17-kDa α-d-galactose-binding lectin (termed “MytiLec”) isolated from the Mediterranean mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis. The complete primary structure of the lectin was determined by Edman degradation and mass spectrometric analysis. MytiLec was found to consist of 149 amino acids with a total molecular mass of 16,812.59 Da by Fourier transform-ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry, in good agreement with the calculated value of 16,823.22 Da. MytiLec had an N terminus of acetylthreonine and a primary structure that was highly novel in comparison with those of all known lectins in the structure database. The polypeptide structure consisted of three tandem-repeat domains of ∼50 amino acids each having 45–52% homology with each other. Frontal affinity chromatography technology indicated that MytiLec bound specifically to globotriose (Gb3; Galα1–4Galβ1–4Glc), the epitope of globotriaosylceramide. MytiLec showed a dose-dependent cytotoxic effect on human Burkitt lymphoma Raji cells (which have high surface expression of Gb3) but had no such effect on erythroleukemia K562 cells (which do not express Gb3). The cytotoxic effect of MytiLec was specifically blocked by the co-presence of an α-galactoside. MytiLec treatment of Raji cells caused increased binding of anti-annexin V antibody and incorporation of propidium iodide, which are indicators of cell membrane inversion and perforation. MytiLec is the first reported lectin having a primary structure with the highly novel triple tandem-repeat domain and showing transduction of apoptotic signaling against Burkitt lymphoma cells by interaction with a glycosphingolipid-enriched microdomain containing Gb3. PMID:23093409

  7. Durability and damage tolerance of Large Composite Primary Aircraft Structure (LCPAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarty, John E.; Roeseler, William G.

    1984-01-01

    Analysis and testing addressing the key technology areas of durability and damage tolerance were completed for wing surface panels. The wing of a fuel-efficient, 200-passenger commercial transport airplane for 1990 delivery was sized using graphite-epoxy materials. Coupons of various layups used in the wing sizing were tested in tension, compression, and spectrum fatigue with typical fastener penetrations. The compression strength after barely visible impact damage was determined from coupon and structural element tests. One current material system and one toughened system were evaluated by coupon testing. The results of the coupon and element tests were used to design three distinctly different compression panels meeting the strength, stiffness, and damage-tolerance requirements of the upper wing panels. These three concepts were tested with various amounts of damage ranging from barely visible impact to through-penetration. The results of this program provide the key technology data required to assess the durability and damage-tolerance capability or advanced composites for use in commercial aircraft wing panel structure.

  8. Probabilistic Estimation of Critical Flaw Sizes in the Primary Structure Welds of the Ares I-X Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pai, Shantaram S.; Hoge, Peter A.; Patel, B. M.; Nagpal, Vinod K.

    2009-01-01

    The primary structure of the Ares I-X Upper Stage Simulator (USS) launch vehicle is constructed of welded mild steel plates. There is some concern over the possibility of structural failure due to welding flaws. It was considered critical to quantify the impact of uncertainties in residual stress, material porosity, applied loads, and material and crack growth properties on the reliability of the welds during its pre-flight and flight. A criterion--an existing maximum size crack at the weld toe must be smaller than the maximum allowable flaw size--was established to estimate the reliability of the welds. A spectrum of maximum allowable flaw sizes was developed for different possible combinations of all of the above listed variables by performing probabilistic crack growth analyses using the ANSYS finite element analysis code in conjunction with the NASGRO crack growth code. Two alternative methods were used to account for residual stresses: (1) The mean residual stress was assumed to be 41 ksi and a limit was set on the net section flow stress during crack propagation. The critical flaw size was determined by parametrically increasing the initial flaw size and detecting if this limit was exceeded during four complete flight cycles, and (2) The mean residual stress was assumed to be 49.6 ksi (the parent material s yield strength) and the net section flow stress limit was ignored. The critical flaw size was determined by parametrically increasing the initial flaw size and detecting if catastrophic crack growth occurred during four complete flight cycles. Both surface-crack models and through-crack models were utilized to characterize cracks in the weld toe.

  9. Primary structure and carbohydrate binding specificity of a potent anti-HIV lectin isolated from the filamentous cyanobacterium Oscillatoria agardhii.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yuichiro; Okuyama, Satomi; Hori, Kanji

    2007-04-13

    The primary structure of a lectin, designated Oscillatoria agardhii agglutinin (OAA), isolated from the freshwater cyanobacterium O. agardhii NIES-204 was determined by the combination of Edman degradation and electron spray ionization-mass spectrometry. OAA is a polypeptide (Mr 13,925) consisting of two tandem repeats. Interestingly, each repeat sequence of OAA showed a high degree of similarity to those of a myxobacterium, Myxococcus xanthus hemagglutinin, and a marine red alga Eucheuma serra lectin. A systematic binding assay with pyridylaminated oligosaccharides revealed that OAA exclusively binds to high mannose (HM)-type N-glycans but not to other N-glycans, including complex types, hybrid types, and the pentasaccharide core or oligosaccharides from glycolipids. OAA did not interact with any of free mono- and oligomannoses that are constituents of the branched oligomannosides. These results suggest that the core disaccharide, GlcNAc-GlcNAc, is also essential for binding to OAA. The binding activity of OAA to HM type N-glycans was dramatically decreased when alpha1-2 Man was attached to alpha1-3 Man branched from the alpha1-6 Man of the pentasaccharide core. This specificity of OAA for HM-type oligosaccharides is distinct from other HM-binding lectins. Kinetic analysis with an HM heptasaccharide revealed that OAA possesses two carbohydrate binding sites per molecule, with an association constant of 2.41x10(8) m-1. Furthermore, OAA potently inhibits human immunodeficiency virus replication in MT-4 cells (EC50=44.5 nm). Thus, we have found a novel lectin family sharing similar structure and carbohydrate binding specificity among bacteria, cyanobacteria, and marine algae. PMID:17314091

  10. Nonlinear frequency response analysis of structural vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weeger, Oliver; Wever, Utz; Simeon, Bernd

    2014-12-01

    In this paper we present a method for nonlinear frequency response analysis of mechanical vibrations of 3-dimensional solid structures. For computing nonlinear frequency response to periodic excitations, we employ the well-established harmonic balance method. A fundamental aspect for allowing a large-scale application of the method is model order reduction of the discretized equation of motion. Therefore we propose the utilization of a modal projection method enhanced with modal derivatives, providing second-order information. For an efficient spatial discretization of continuum mechanics nonlinear partial differential equations, including large deformations and hyperelastic material laws, we employ the concept of isogeometric analysis. Isogeometric finite element methods have already been shown to possess advantages over classical finite element discretizations in terms of higher accuracy of numerical approximations in the fields of linear vibration and static large deformation analysis. With several computational examples, we demonstrate the applicability and accuracy of the modal derivative reduction method for nonlinear static computations and vibration analysis. Thus, the presented method opens a promising perspective on application of nonlinear frequency analysis to large-scale industrial problems.

  11. Design and evaluation of a foam-filled hat-stiffened panel concept for aircraft primary structural applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambur, Damodar R.

    1995-01-01

    A structurally efficient hat-stiffened panel concept that utilizes a structural foam as stiffener core has been designed for aircraft primary structural applications. This stiffener concept utilizes a manufacturing process that can be adapted readily to grid-stiffened structural configurations which possess inherent damage tolerance characteristics due to their multiplicity of load paths. The foam-filled hat-stiffener concept in a prismatically stiffened panel configuration is more efficient than most other stiffened panel configurations in a load range that is typical for both fuselage and wing structures. The prismatically stiffened panel concept investigated here has been designed using AS4/3502 preimpregnated tape and Rohacell foam core and evaluated for its buckling and postbuckling behavior with and without low-speed impact damage. The results from single-stiffener and multi-stiffener specimens suggest that this structural concept responds to loading as anticipated and has good damage tolerance characteristics.

  12. The mental health/primary care interface in the United States: history, structure, and context.

    PubMed

    Druss, Benjamin G

    2002-01-01

    This paper, the first in a series commissioned by NIMH for the "Challenges for the 21st Century: Mental Health Services Research Conference," seeks to provide a broad perspective on the primary care/mental health interface in the United States. The manuscript examines both the care of mental disorders in medical settings, and also the medical care of the seriously medically ill. The first section provides a historical overview of the cycling patterns of growth and retrenchment of primary care medicine during the 20th century, and the how those changes have paralleled the care of mental disorders and the mentally ill. The second section examines the four core features of primary care -first contact, longitudinality, comprehensiveness and coordination -and their implications for these issues. An historical and system-level perspective can provide a crucial step towards improving care on the mental health/primary care interface.

  13. Primary structure and cellular localization of chicken brain myosin-V (p190), an unconventional myosin with calmodulin light chains

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    Recent biochemical studies of p190, a calmodulin (CM)-binding protein purified from vertebrate brain, have demonstrated that this protein, purified as a complex with bound CM, shares a number of properties with myosins (Espindola, F. S., E. M. Espreafico, M. V. Coelho, A. R. Martins, F. R. C. Costa, M. S. Mooseker, and R. E. Larson. 1992. J. Cell Biol. 118:359-368). To determine whether or not p190 was a member of the myosin family of proteins, a set of overlapping cDNAs encoding the full-length protein sequence of chicken brain p190 was isolated and sequenced. Verification that the deduced primary structure was that of p190 was demonstrated through microsequence analysis of a cyanogen bromide peptide generated from chick brain p190. The deduced primary structure of chicken brain p190 revealed that this 1,830-amino acid (aa) 212,509-D) protein is a member of a novel structural class of unconventional myosins that includes the gene products encoded by the dilute locus of mouse and the MYO2 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We have named the p190-CM complex "myosin-V" based on the results of a detailed sequence comparison of the head domains of 29 myosin heavy chains (hc), which has revealed that this myosin, based on head structure, is the fifth of six distinct structural classes of myosin to be described thus far. Like the presumed products of the mouse dilute and yeast MYO2 genes, the head domain of chicken myosin-V hc (aa 1-764) is linked to a "neck" domain (aa 765-909) consisting of six tandem repeats of an approximately 23-aa "IQ-motif." All known myosins contain at least one such motif at their head-tail junctions; these IQ-motifs may function as calmodulin or light chain binding sites. The tail domain of chicken myosin-V consists of an initial 511 aa predicted to form several segments of coiled-coil alpha helix followed by a terminal 410-aa globular domain (aa, 1,421-1,830). Interestingly, a portion of the tail domain (aa, 1,094-1,830) shares 58% amino acid

  14. Dynamic analysis of flexible multibody structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hernried, Alan G.

    1989-01-01

    A system composed of several interconnected elastic components that may experience large angular motion relative to each other during operation is referred to as a flexible multibody structure. Several formulations were proposed for the determination of the dynamic response of controlled flexible multibody structures. In general, these formulations consist of superposing elastic deformations of the component body onto the large rigid body motion of the component. It was shown that this particular methodology for combining linear structural deformations with nonlinear kinematics can lead to erroneous response predictions when either the beam member is very flexible or the rotational speed is high. In addition, previous formulations introduce constraint equations to define the interrelations among system components. This approach increases the number of equations that must be solved, and may result in contraint violation when numerical error accumulates during the integration process. In order to overcome the difficulties, a new approach was suggested. The approach is essentially a finite element formulation which takes advantage of the fact that many multibody structures are joint dominated. The Large Angle Transient Dynamic Analysis (LATDYN) program for clarity of documentation, ease of use, user friendliness, modeling generality, and accuracy of results was evaluated. This required gaining a working familiarity with the code and performing several case studies.

  15. Probabilistic Computational Methods in Structural Failure Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krejsa, Martin; Kralik, Juraj

    2015-12-01

    Probabilistic methods are used in engineering where a computational model contains random variables. Each random variable in the probabilistic calculations contains uncertainties. Typical sources of uncertainties are properties of the material and production and/or assembly inaccuracies in the geometry or the environment where the structure should be located. The paper is focused on methods for the calculations of failure probabilities in structural failure and reliability analysis with special attention on newly developed probabilistic method: Direct Optimized Probabilistic Calculation (DOProC), which is highly efficient in terms of calculation time and the accuracy of the solution. The novelty of the proposed method lies in an optimized numerical integration that does not require any simulation technique. The algorithm has been implemented in mentioned software applications, and has been used several times in probabilistic tasks and probabilistic reliability assessments.

  16. Analysis of N-16 concentration in primary cooling system of AP1000 power reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Rohanda, Anis; Waris, Abdul

    2015-04-16

    Nitrogen-16 (N-16) is one of the radiation safety parameter on the primary reactor system. The activation product, N-16, is the predominant contributor to the activity in the reactor coolant system during reactor operation. N-16 is activation product derived from activation of O-16 with fast neutron based on {sup 16}O(n,p){sup 16}N reaction. Thus study is needed and it performs to determine N-16 concentration in reactor coolant (primary coolant) in supporting radiation safety. One of the way is using analytical methode based on activation and redecay princip to obtain N-16 concentration. The analysis was performed on the configuration basis and operational of Westinghouse AP1000 power reactor in several monitoring points at coolant reactor system. The results of the calculation of N-16 concentration at the core outlet, reactor vessel outlet, pressurizer line, inlet and outlet of steam generators, primary pumps, reactor vessels inlet and core inlet are: 281, 257, 255, 250, 145, 142, 129 and 112 µCi/gram respectively. The results of analysis compared with AP1000 design control document as standard values. The verification showed very high accuracy comparation between analytical results and standard values.

  17. Analysis of N-16 concentration in primary cooling system of AP1000 power reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohanda, Anis; Waris, Abdul

    2015-04-01

    Nitrogen-16 (N-16) is one of the radiation safety parameter on the primary reactor system. The activation product, N-16, is the predominant contributor to the activity in the reactor coolant system during reactor operation. N-16 is activation product derived from activation of O-16 with fast neutron based on 16O(n,p)16N reaction. Thus study is needed and it performs to determine N-16 concentration in reactor coolant (primary coolant) in supporting radiation safety. One of the way is using analytical methode based on activation and redecay princip to obtain N-16 concentration. The analysis was performed on the configuration basis and operational of Westinghouse AP1000 power reactor in several monitoring points at coolant reactor system. The results of the calculation of N-16 concentration at the core outlet, reactor vessel outlet, pressurizer line, inlet and outlet of steam generators, primary pumps, reactor vessels inlet and core inlet are: 281, 257, 255, 250, 145, 142, 129 and 112 µCi/gram respectively. The results of analysis compared with AP1000 design control document as standard values. The verification showed very high accuracy comparation between analytical results and standard values.

  18. SU-E-I-100: Heterogeneity Studying for Primary and Lymphoma Tumors by Using Multi-Scale Image Texture Analysis with PET-CT Images

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Dengwang; Wang, Qinfen; Li, H; Chen, J

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is studying tumor heterogeneity of the primary and lymphoma by using multi-scale texture analysis with PET-CT images, where the tumor heterogeneity is expressed by texture features. Methods: Datasets were collected from 12 lung cancer patients, and both of primary and lymphoma tumors were detected with all these patients. All patients underwent whole-body 18F-FDG PET/CT scan before treatment.The regions of interest (ROI) of primary and lymphoma tumor were contoured by experienced clinical doctors. Then the ROI of primary and lymphoma tumor is extracted automatically by using Matlab software. According to the geometry size of contour structure, the images of tumor are decomposed by multi-scale method.Wavelet transform was performed on ROI structures within images by L layers sampling, and then wavelet sub-bands which have the same size of the original image are obtained. The number of sub-bands is 3L+1.The gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) is calculated within different sub-bands, thenenergy, inertia, correlation and gray in-homogeneity were extracted from GLCM.Finally, heterogeneity statistical analysis was studied for primary and lymphoma tumor using the texture features. Results: Energy, inertia, correlation and gray in-homogeneity are calculated with our experiments for heterogeneity statistical analysis.Energy for primary and lymphomatumor is equal with the same patient, while gray in-homogeneity and inertia of primaryare 2.59595±0.00855, 0.6439±0.0007 respectively. Gray in-homogeneity and inertia of lymphoma are 2.60115±0.00635, 0.64435±0.00055 respectively. The experiments showed that the volume of lymphoma is smaller than primary tumor, but thegray in-homogeneity and inertia were higher than primary tumor with the same patient, and the correlation with lymphoma tumors is zero, while the correlation with primary tumor isslightly strong. Conclusion: This studying showed that there were effective heterogeneity

  19. Geometrically nonlinear analysis of laminated elastic structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, J. N.

    1984-01-01

    Laminated composite plates and shells that can be used to model automobile bodies, aircraft wings and fuselages, and pressure vessels among many other were analyzed. The finite element method, a numerical technique for engineering analysis of structures, is used to model the geometry and approximate the solution. Various alternative formulations for analyzing laminated plates and shells are developed and their finite element models are tested for accuracy and economy in computation. These include the shear deformation laminate theory and degenerated 3-D elasticity theory for laminates.

  20. Structural reliability analysis of laminated CMC components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duffy, Stephen F.; Palko, Joseph L.; Gyekenyesi, John P.

    1991-01-01

    For laminated ceramic matrix composite (CMC) materials to realize their full potential in aerospace applications, design methods and protocols are a necessity. The time independent failure response of these materials is focussed on and a reliability analysis is presented associated with the initiation of matrix cracking. A public domain computer algorithm is highlighted that was coupled with the laminate analysis of a finite element code and which serves as a design aid to analyze structural components made from laminated CMC materials. Issues relevant to the effect of the size of the component are discussed, and a parameter estimation procedure is presented. The estimation procedure allows three parameters to be calculated from a failure population that has an underlying Weibull distribution.

  1. Primary and secondary organics in the tropical Amazonian rainforest aerosols: chiral analysis of 2-methyltetraols.

    PubMed

    González, N J D; Borg-Karlson, A-K; Artaxo, P; Guenther, A; Krejci, R; Nozière, B; Noone, K

    2014-05-01

    This work presents the application of a new method to facilitate the distinction between biologically produced (primary) and atmospherically produced (secondary) organic compounds in ambient aerosols based on their chirality. The compounds chosen for this analysis were the stereomers of 2-methyltetraols, (2R,3S)- and (2S,3R)-methylerythritol, (l- and d-form, respectively), and (2S,3S)- and (2R,3R)-methylthreitol (l- and d-form), shown previously to display some enantiomeric excesses in atmospheric aerosols, thus to have at least a partial biological origin. In this work PM10 aerosol fractions were collected in a remote tropical rainforest environment near Manaus, Brazil, between June 2008 and June 2009 and analysed. Both 2-methylerythritol and 2-methylthreitol displayed a net excess of one enantiomer (either the l- or the d-form) in 60 to 72% of these samples. These net enantiomeric excesses corresponded to compounds entirely biological but accounted for only about 5% of the total 2-methyltetrol mass in all the samples. Further analysis showed that, in addition, a large mass of the racemic fractions (equal mixtures of d- and l-forms) was also biological. Estimating the contribution of secondary reactions from the isomeric ratios measured in the samples (=ratios 2-methylthreitol over 2-methylerythritol), the mass fraction of secondary methyltetrols in these samples was estimated to a maximum of 31% and their primary fraction to a minimum of 69%. Such large primary fractions could have been expected in PM10 aerosols, largely influenced by biological emissions, and would now need to be investigated in finer aerosols. This work demonstrates the effectiveness of chiral and isomeric analyses as the first direct tool to assess the primary and secondary fractions of organic aerosols.

  2. Primary structure and catalytic mechanism of the epoxide hydrolase from Agrobacterium radiobacter AD1.

    PubMed

    Rink, R; Fennema, M; Smids, M; Dehmel, U; Janssen, D B

    1997-06-01

    The epoxide hydrolase gene from Agrobacterium radiobacter AD1, a bacterium that is able to grow on epichlorohydrin as the sole carbon source, was cloned by means of the polymerase chain reaction with two degenerate primers based on the N-terminal and C-terminal sequences of the enzyme. The epoxide hydrolase gene coded for a protein of 294 amino acids with a molecular mass of 34 kDa. An identical epoxide hydrolase gene was cloned from chromosomal DNA of the closely related strain A. radiobacter CFZ11. The recombinant epoxide hydrolase was expressed up to 40% of the total cellular protein content in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) and the purified enzyme had a kcat of 21 s-1 with epichlorohydrin. Amino acid sequence similarity of the epoxide hydrolase with eukaryotic epoxide hydrolases, haloalkane dehalogenase from Xanthobacter autotrophicus GJ10, and bromoperoxidase A2 from Streptomyces aureofaciens indicated that it belonged to the alpha/beta-hydrolase fold family. This conclusion was supported by secondary structure predictions and analysis of the secondary structure with circular dichroism spectroscopy. The catalytic triad residues of epoxide hydrolase are proposed to be Asp107, His275, and Asp246. Replacement of these residues to Ala/Glu, Arg/Gln, and Ala, respectively, resulted in a dramatic loss of activity for epichlorohydrin. The reaction mechanism of epoxide hydrolase proceeds via a covalently bound ester intermediate, as was shown by single turnover experiments with the His275 --> Arg mutant of epoxide hydrolase in which the ester intermediate could be trapped.

  3. Structure-Function Analysis of Yeast Tubulin

    PubMed Central

    Luchniak, Anna; Fukuda, Yusuke; Gupta, Mohan L.

    2014-01-01

    Microtubules play essential roles in a wide variety of cellular processes including cell division, motility, and vesicular transport. Microtubule function depends on the polymerization dynamics of tubulin, and specific interactions between tubulin and diverse microtubule-associated proteins. To date, investigation of the structural and functional properties of tubulin and tubulin mutants has been limited by the inability to obtain functional protein from overexpression systems, and by the heterogeneous mixture of tubulin isotypes typically isolated from higher eukaryotes. The budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has emerged as a leading system for tubulin structure-function analysis. Yeast cells encode a single beta-tubulin gene and can be engineered to express just one, of two, alpha isotypes. Moreover, yeast allows site-directed modification of tubulin genes at the endogenous loci expressed under the native promoter and regulatory elements. These advantageous features provide a homogeneous and controlled environment for analysis of the functional consequences of specific mutations. Here we present techniques to generate site-specific tubulin mutations in diploid and haploid cells, assess the ability of the mutated protein to support cell viability, measure overall microtubule stability, and define changes in the specific parameters of microtubule dynamic instability. We also outline strategies to determine whether mutations disrupt interactions with microtubule-associated proteins. Microtubule-based functions in yeast are well defined, which allows the observed changes in microtubule properties to be related to the role of microtubules in specific cellular processes. PMID:23973083

  4. The cloning and sequence analysis of the aspC and tyrB genes from Escherichia coli K12. Comparison of the primary structures of the aspartate aminotransferase and aromatic aminotransferase of E. coli with those of the pig aspartate aminotransferase isoenzymes.

    PubMed Central

    Fotheringham, I G; Dacey, S A; Taylor, P P; Smith, T J; Hunter, M G; Finlay, M E; Primrose, S B; Parker, D M; Edwards, R M

    1986-01-01

    In this paper we describe the cloning and sequence analysis of the tyrB and aspC genes from Escherichia coli K12, which encode the aromatic aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase respectively. The tyrB gene was isolated from a cosmid carrying the nearby dnaB gene, identified by its ability to complement a dnaB lesion. Deletion and linker insertion analysis located the tyrB gene to a 1.7-kilobase NruI-HindIII-digest fragment. Sequence analysis revealed a gene encoding a 43 000 Da polypeptide. The gene starts with a GTG codon and is closely followed by a structure resembling a rho independent terminator. The aspC gene was cloned by screening gene banks, prepared from a prototrophic E. coli K12 strain, for plasmids able to complement the aspC tyrB lesions in the aminotransferase-deficient strain HW225. Sub-cloning and deletion analysis located the aspC gene on a 1.8-kilobase HincII-StuI-digest fragment. Sequence analysis revealed the presence of a gene encoding a 43 000 Da protein, the sequence of which is identical with that previously obtained for the aspartate aminotransferase from E. coli B. Considerable overproduction of the two enzymes was demonstrated. We compared the deduced protein sequences with those of the pig mitochondrial and cytoplasmic aspartate aminotransferases. From the extensive homology observed we are able to propose that the two E. coli enzymes possess subunit structures, subunit interactions and coenzyme-binding and substrate-binding sites that are very similar both to each other and to those of the mammalian enzymes and therefore must also have very similar catalytic mechanisms. Comparison of the aspC and tyrB gene sequences reveals that they appear to have diverged as much as is possible within the constraints of functionality and codon usage. PMID:3521591

  5. Consequences of buffelgrass pasture development for primary productivity, perennial plant richness, and vegetation structure in the drylands of Sonora, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Kimberly; Molina-Freaner, Francisco

    2010-12-01

    In large parts of northern Mexico native plant communities are being converted to non-native buffelgrass (Pennisetum ciliare) pastures, and this conversion could fundamentally alter primary productivity and species richness. In Sonora, Mexico land conversion is occurring at a regional scale along a rainfall-driven gradient of primary productivity, across which native plant communities transition from desert scrub to thorn scrub. We used a paired sampling design to compare a satellite-derived index of primary productivity, richness of perennial plant species, and canopy-height profiles of native plant communities with buffelgrass pastures. We sampled species richness across a gradient of primary productivity in desert scrub and thorn scrub vegetation to examine the influence of site productivity on the outcomes of land conversion. We also examined the influence of pasture age on species richness of perennial plants. Index values of primary productivity were lower in buffelgrass pastures than in native vegetation, which suggests a reduction in primary productivity. Land conversion reduced species richness by approximately 50% at local and regional scales, reduced tree and shrub cover by 78%, and reduced canopy height. Land conversion disproportionately reduced shrub species richness, which reflects the common practice among Sonoran ranchers of conserving certain tree and cactus species. Site productivity did not affect the outcomes of land conversion. The age of a buffelgrass pasture was unrelated to species richness within the pasture, which suggests that passive recovery of species richness to preconversion levels is unlikely. Our findings demonstrate that land conversion can result in large losses of plant species richness at local and regional scales and in substantial changes to primary productivity and vegetation structure, which casts doubt on the feasibility of restoring native plant communities without active intervention on the part of land managers.

  6. NURBS-Based Geometry for Integrated Structural Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliver, James H.

    1997-01-01

    This grant was initiated in April 1993 and completed in September 1996. The primary goal of the project was to exploit the emerging defacto CAD standard of Non- Uniform Rational B-spline (NURBS) based curve and surface geometry to integrate and streamline the process of turbomachinery structural analysis. We focused our efforts on critical geometric modeling challenges typically posed by the requirements of structural analysts. We developed a suite of software tools that facilitate pre- and post-processing of NURBS-based turbomachinery blade models for finite element structural analyses. We also developed tools to facilitate the modeling of blades in their manufactured (or cold) state based on nominal operating shape and conditions. All of the software developed in the course of this research is written in the C++ language using the Iris Inventor 3D graphical interface tool-kit from Silicon Graphics. In addition to enhanced modularity, improved maintainability, and efficient prototype development, this design facilitates the re-use of code developed for other NASA projects and provides a uniform and professional 'look and feel' for all applications developed by the Iowa State Team.

  7. Surveying primary teachers about compulsory numeracy testing: Combining factor analysis with rasch analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimbeek, Peter; Nisbet, Steven

    2006-10-01

    This paper reports the use of several quantitative analytic methods, including Rasch analysis, to re-examine teacher responses to questionnaire items probing opinions related to the compulsory numeracy tests conducted in Years 3, 5, and 7 in Queensland, Australia. Nisbet and Grimbeek (2004) previously reported an interpretable and statistically acceptable 6-factor exploratory factor solution. The present paper improved on this outcome by utilising Rasch analysis to identify items with orderly sequences of scores across response categories, and to subject these to fresh exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. The resulting 3-factor scale proved acceptable in terms of exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis as well as in terms of Rasch item analysis. The paper briefly discusses the implications of these outcomes in relation to the refined instrument's capacity to gather information about how teachers view the Queensland numeracy reporting system.

  8. Evolution, current structure, and role of a primary care clinical pharmacy service in an integrated managed care organization.

    PubMed

    Heilmann, Rachel M F; Campbell, Stephanie M; Kroner, Beverly A; Proksel, Jenel R; Billups, Sarah J; Witt, Daniel M; Helling, Dennis K

    2013-01-01

    The impact of the declining number of primary care physicians is exacerbated by a growing elderly population in need of chronic disease management. Primary care clinical pharmacy specialists, with their unique knowledge and skill set, are well suited to address this gap. At Kaiser Permanente of Colorado (KPCO), primary care clinical pharmacy specialists have a long history of integration with medical practices and are located in close proximity to physicians, nurses, and other members of the health care team. Since 1992, Primary Care Clinical Pharmacy Services (PCCPS) has expanded from 4 to 30 full-time equivalents (FTEs) to provide services in all KPCO medical office buildings. With this growth in size, PCCPS has evolved to play a vital role in working with primary care medical teams to ensure that drug therapy is effective, safe, and affordable. In addition, PCCPS specialists provide ambulatory teaching sites for pharmacy students and pharmacy residents. There is approximately 1 specialist FTE for every 13,000 adult KPCO members and every 9 clinical FTEs of internal medicine and family medicine physicians. All clinical pharmacy specialists in the pharmacy department are required to have a PharmD degree, to complete postgraduate year 2 residencies, and, as a condition of employment, to become board certified in an applicable specialty. The evolution, current structure, and role of PCCPS at KPCO, including factors facilitating successful integration within the medical team, are highlighted. Patient and nonpatient care responsibilities are described.

  9. Effect of Placebo Conditions on Polysomnographic Parameters in Primary Insomnia: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Winkler, Alexander; Rief, Winfried

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Little is known about the role of placebo response in the pharmacotherapy of primary insomnia, especially about the effect of placebo intake on objectively assessed outcome variables. Our aim was therefore to conduct an effect-size analysis of placebo conditions in randomized controlled drug trials addressing primary insomnia also including polysomnography. Design: We conducted a comprehensive literature search using PubMed, PsycINFO, PSYNDEX, PQDT OPEN, OpenGREY, ISI Web of Knowledge, Cochrane Clinical Trials, and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform. The meta-analysis used a random effects model and was based on 32 studies reporting 82 treatment conditions covering a total of 3,969 participants. Special emphasis was given to the comparison of objective and subjective outcomes and the proportion of the placebo response to the drug response. Measurements and Results: Effect sizes estimates (Hedges g) suggest that there is a small to moderate yet significant and robust placebo response reducing the symptoms of insomnia in terms of sleep onset latency (−0.35), total sleep time (0.42), wake after sleep onset (−0.29), sleep efficiency (0.31), subjective sleep onset latency (−0.29), subjective total sleep time (0.43), subjective wake after sleep onset (−0.32), subjective sleep efficiency (0.25) and sleep quality (0.31). Thus, the placebo response was also evident in objective, physiological (polysomnographic) variables. Our results indicate that 63.56% of the drug responses are achieved even in the placebo groups. Conclusions: In light of these strong placebo responses, future studies should investigate how to exploit placebo mechanisms in clinical practice. Citation: Winkler A, Rief W. Effect of placebo conditions on polysomnographic parameters in primary insomnia: a meta-analysis. SLEEP 2015;38(6):925–931. PMID:25515108

  10. Plasmodesmata during development: re-examination of the importance of primary, secondary, and branched plasmodesmata structure versus function

    PubMed Central

    Burch-Smith, Tessa M.; Stonebloom, Solomon; Xu, Min

    2010-01-01

    Plasmodesmata (PD) structure and function vary temporally and spatially during all stages of plant development. PD that originate during, or post, cell division are designated as primary or secondary according to classical terminology. PD structure may be simple, twinned, or branched. Studies of PD during leaf, root, and embryo development have lead to the generalization that cells in less mature tissues contain predominantly simple PD. New quantitative analyses reveal that twinned and branched PD also occur in immature tissues. New data also highlight the versatility of viral movement proteins as tags for labeling PD in immature tissues as well as PD in mature tissues. A summary of the formation and function of primary, secondary, and branched PD during leaf, trichome, embryo, apical meristem, vascular cambium, and root development underscores the remarkable and indispensible plant-specific intercellular communication system that is mediated by PD. PMID:21174132

  11. THE ANALYTICAL STRUCTURE OF THE PRIMARY INTERSTELLAR HELIUM DISTRIBUTION FUNCTION IN THE HELIOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Martin A.; Möbius, Eberhard; Leonard, Trevor W.

    2015-10-15

    A new analytical model based on the previous work of Lee et al. is presented for the distribution of interstellar helium in the heliosphere. The model is tailored for comparison with the IBEX-Lo observations in order to determine the bulk velocity and temperature of helium in the local interstellar cloud. The model includes solar gravity, spherically symmetric stationary ionization rates, transformation to the Earth/IBEX frame of reference, the IBEX viewing geometry with small spin-axis tilt, and integration of the atom differential intensity over energy and the instrument collimator solid angle. The analysis employs an expansion of the count rate about the peak of the velocity distribution to second order in the magnitudes of several small quantities: the ratio of the helium thermal speed to its bulk speed, the angle between the bulk velocity and the ecliptic, the two angles describing the tilt of the IBEX spin-axis away from Sun-pointing, the collimator angular width, and the angular difference between the observing longitude and the longitude where the projection of the bulk velocity onto the ecliptic is tangential to Earth's orbit. The model reveals the evolving ellipsoidal shape of the helium distribution as it moves along its average hyperbolic orbit. For specified interstellar parameters, the model predicts the latitudinal and longitudinal structure of the helium distribution. The model is in reasonable agreement with IBEX observations and the predictions of the other available models.

  12. "Joyful Learning" in Rural Indian Primary Schools: An Analysis of Social Control in the Context of Child-Centred Discourses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sriprakash, Arathi

    2009-01-01

    Efforts to improve the "quality" of education for all in government primary schools in India have seen a shift towards child-centred teaching. This paper examines the "Joyful Learning" programme, an example of a pedagogic reform implemented in rural primary schools in the southern Indian state of Karnataka. Through an empirical analysis of…

  13. Structural Analysis of the JET TAE Antenna

    SciTech Connect

    Titus, P.H.; Snipes, J.; Fasoli, A.F.; Testa, D.; Walton, B.

    2005-05-15

    In this paper the mechanical design of the new active MHD antennas for JET is described and the structural/mechanical analysis for the antennas is presented. These new antennas replace the existing n = 1 or 2 saddle coils with a set of eight smaller antennas designed to excite Toroidal Alfven Eigenmodes (TAE's) with high toroidal mode number (n {approx} 10) in the frequency range of 30 kHz-500 kHz. TAE's with these higher mode numbers are expected in ITER and could enhance the loss of fast alpha particles in a burning plasma regime. By studying the properties of stable TAE's excited actively by these antennas, high performance regimes of operation avoiding unstable fast particle driven modes can be found. A more complete overview of the experiment may be found in Reference 1. Two antenna assemblies will be installed at toroidally opposite positions. Antenna wires are protected from the plasma heat flux by CFC tiles mounted on mini-limiters, located between the individual windings. The main structural element is a box section. The support scheme utilizes cantilevered brackets that connect to the saddle coils, and 'wing' brackets which add support to the top of the frame. Conservative estimates of the disruption currents in the MHD antennas and frame were used to calculate loading and resulting stress in the antenna structure. Fields, field transients, and halo current specifications were provided by JET. The frame originally was designed as a continuous loop, and was converted to an open structure to break eddy current loops. Antenna eddy currents were computed assuming the antenna is shorted. In the final design, frame forces primarily result from halo currents entering around the mini limiters that now protect the antenna windings. Accelerations due to the vessel disruption dynamic response were included in the loading. The antenna mechanical design has been shown to perform adequately for all identified disruption loading.

  14. Calculation of selective filters of a device for primary analysis of speech signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chudnovskii, L. S.; Ageev, V. M.

    2014-07-01

    The amplitude-frequency responses of filters for primary analysis of speech signals, which have a low quality factor and a high rolloff factor in the high-frequency range, are calculated using the linear theory of speech production and psychoacoustic measurement data. The frequency resolution of the filter system for a sinusoidal signal is 40-200 Hz. The modulation-frequency resolution of amplitude- and frequency-modulated signals is 3-6 Hz. The aforementioned features of the calculated filters are close to the amplitudefrequency responses of biological auditory systems at the level of the eighth nerve.

  15. Genome-wide association analysis in primary sclerosing cholangitis identifies two non-HLA susceptibility loci

    PubMed Central

    Melum, Espen; Franke, Andre; Schramm, Christoph; Weismüller, Tobias J; Gotthardt, Daniel Nils; Offner, Felix A; Juran, Brian D; Laerdahl, Jon K; Labi, Verena; Björnsson, Einar; Weersma, Rinse K; Henckaerts, Liesbet; Teufel, Andreas; Rust, Christian; Ellinghaus, Eva; Balschun, Tobias; Boberg, Kirsten Muri; Ellinghaus, David; Bergquist, Annika; Sauer, Peter; Ryu, Euijung; Hov, Johannes Roksund; Wedemeyer, Jochen; Lindkvist, Björn; Wittig, Michael; Porte, Robert J; Holm, Kristian; Gieger, Christian; Wichmann, H-Erich; Stokkers, Pieter; Ponsioen, Cyriel Y; Runz, Heiko; Stiehl, Adolf; Wijmenga, Cisca; Sterneck, Martina; Vermeire, Severine; Beuers, Ulrich; Villunger, Andreas; Schrumpf, Erik; Lazaridis, Konstantinos N; Manns, Michael P; Schreiber, Stefan; Karlsen, Tom H

    2015-01-01

    Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic bile duct disease affecting 2.4–7.5% of individuals with inflammatory bowel disease. We performed a genome-wide association analysis of 2,466,182 SNPs in 715 individuals with PSC and 2,962 controls, followed by replication in 1,025 PSC cases and 2,174 controls. We detected non-HLA associations at rs3197999 in MST1 and rs6720394 near BCL2L11 (combined P = 1.1 × 10−16 and P = 4.1 × 10−8, respectively). PMID:21151127

  16. Analysis of Dynamic Stiffness Effect of Primary Suspension Helical Springs on Railway Vehicle Vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, W.; Thompson, D. J.; Zhou, J.; Gong, D.

    2016-09-01

    Helical springs within the primary suspension are critical components for isolating the whole vehicle system from vibration generated at the wheel/rail contact. As train speeds increase, the frequency region of excitation becomes larger, and a simplified static stiffness can no longer represent the real stiffness property in a vehicle dynamic model. Coil springs in particular exhibit strong internal resonances, which lead to high vibration amplitudes within the spring itself as well as degradation of the vibration isolation. In this paper, the dynamic stiffness matrix method is used to determine the dynamic stiffness of a helical spring from a vehicle primary suspension. Results are confirmed with a finite element analysis. Then the spring dynamic stiffness is included within a vehicle-track coupled dynamic model of a high speed train and the effect of the dynamic stiffening of the spring on the vehicle vibration is investigated. It is shown that, for frequencies above about 50 Hz, the dynamic stiffness of the helical spring changes sharply. Due to this effect, the vibration transmissibility increases considerably which results in poor vibration isolation of the primary suspension. Introducing a rubber layer in series with the coil spring can attenuate this effect.

  17. Primary Anastomosis versus Ostomy after Colon Resection during Debulking of Ovarian Carcinomatosis: A NSQIP Analysis.

    PubMed

    Fleetwood, Vidya A; Kubasiak, John C; Janssen, Imke; Myers, Jonathan A; Millikan, Keith W; Deziel, Daniel J; Luu, Minh B

    2016-04-01

    Ovarian carcinomatosis poses a dilemma for the surgeon. When resecting colon for tumor invasion, one must decide between diversion and primary anastomosis (PA). We examined the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program to determine whether PA associated with more complications than ostomy. The National Surgical Quality Improvement Program dataset was queried for patients with ovarian carcinomatosis between 2007 and 2012. Current Procedural Terminology codes were used to further identify patients undergoing colectomy with PA or ostomy. Logistic regression was used to evaluate 30-day morbidity and mortality. The 1013 ovarian carcinomatosis patients who underwent elective colon surgery were divided into primary repair (n = 453, 43.5%) or ostomy (n = 586, 56.5%) groups. Preoperative demographics were similar; however, ostomy patients had more severe preoperative laboratory derangements. The 30-day mortality and postoperative transfusion requirements were higher in the ostomy group. On multivariate analysis controlling for confounders, the differences were no longer significant. In conclusion, 30-day mortality and postoperative complications were increased in the ostomy group. Given the laboratory derangements in this group, this may reflect tendency to allocate ostomies to more ill patients. Primary repair in a selected population does not worsen outcomes. Prospective evaluation would help determine the impact of PA in the ovarian carcinomatosis population.

  18. Recurrence rate following treatment for primary multicystic ameloblastoma: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Almeida, R de A C; Andrade, E S de S; Barbalho, J C; Vajgel, A; Vasconcelos, B C do E

    2016-03-01

    Opinions regarding the treatment of multicystic ameloblastoma are divergent due to its benign nature and the high rate of recurrence if not adequately excised. The aim of the present study was to perform a systematic review of the literature for a qualitative and quantitative assessment of studies addressing primary multicystic ameloblastoma with regard to treatment and recurrence. Searches were conducted of the Ovid Medline and Embase databases for articles published up to January 2014. Based on predefined eligibility criteria, studies were selected in a two-stage screening process conducted by two independent reviewers. Quality assessment of the selected articles was performed using the modified criteria of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. The meta-analysis was performed using Review Manager (RevMan) software. Statistical heterogeneity was investigated by performing a χ(2) test at the 5% significance level (P<0.05) and determining I(2). The relative risk of recurrence was 3.15-fold greater (95% confidence interval 1.98-5.00) when conservative treatment was performed on primary multicystic ameloblastoma in comparison to radical treatment (P<0.00001 for treatment effect; I(2)=0% and P=0.48 for heterogeneity). The findings justify the treatment of primary multicystic ameloblastoma with bone resection. PMID:26792147

  19. Atomic-level analysis of membrane-protein structure.

    PubMed

    Hendrickson, Wayne A

    2016-06-01

    Membrane proteins are substantially more challenging than natively soluble proteins as subjects for structural analysis. Thus, membrane proteins are greatly underrepresented in structural databases. Recently, focused consortium efforts and advances in methodology for protein production, crystallographic analysis and cryo-EM analysis have accelerated the pace of atomic-level structure determination of membrane proteins.

  20. Uncertainty analysis of terrestrial net primary productivity and net biome productivity in China during 1901-2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Junjiong; Zhou, Xuhui; Luo, Yiqi; Zhang, Guodong; Yan, Wei; Li, Jiaxuan; Li, Bo; Dan, Li; Fisher, Joshua B.; Gao, Zhiqiang; He, Yong; Huntzinger, Deborah; Jain, Atul K.; Mao, Jiafu; Meng, Jihua; Michalak, Anna M.; Parazoo, Nicholas C.; Peng, Changhui; Poulter, Benjamin; Schwalm, Christopher R.; Shi, Xiaoying; Sun, Rui; Tao, Fulu; Tian, Hanqin; Wei, Yaxing; Zeng, Ning; Zhu, Qiuan; Zhu, Wenquan

    2016-05-01

    Despite the importance of net primary productivity (NPP) and net biome productivity (NBP), estimates of NPP and NBP for China are highly uncertain. To investigate the main sources of uncertainty, we synthesized model estimates of NPP and NBP for China from published literature and the Multi-scale Synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project (MsTMIP). The literature-based results showed that total NPP and NBP in China were 3.35 ± 1.25 and 0.14 ± 0.094 Pg C yr-1, respectively. Classification and regression tree analysis based on literature data showed that model type was the primary source of the uncertainty, explaining 36% and 64% of the variance in NPP and NBP, respectively. Spatiotemporal scales, land cover conditions, inclusion of the N cycle, and effects of N addition also contributed to the overall uncertainty. Results based on the MsTMIP data suggested that model structures were overwhelmingly important (>90%) for the overall uncertainty compared to simulations with different combinations of time-varying global change factors. The interannual pattern of NPP was similar among diverse studies and increased by 0.012 Pg C yr-1 during 1981-2000. In addition, high uncertainty in China's NPP occurred in areas with high productivity, whereas NBP showed the opposite pattern. Our results suggest that to significantly reduce uncertainty in estimated NPP and NBP, model structures should be substantially tested on the basis of empirical results. To this end, coordinated distributed experiments with multiple global change factors might be a practical approach that can validate specific structures of different models.

  1. Performance analysis of bonded composite doublers on aircraft structures

    SciTech Connect

    Roach, D.

    1995-08-01

    Researchers contend that composite repairs (or structural reinforcement doublers) offer numerous advantages over metallic patches including corrosion resistance, light weight, high strength, elimination of rivets, and time savings in installation. Their use in commercial aviation has been stifled by uncertainties surrounding their application, subsequent inspection and long-term endurance. The process of repairing or reinforcing airplane structures is time consuming and the design is dependent upon an accompanying stress and fatigue analysis. A repair that is too stiff may result in a loss of fatigue life, continued growth of the crack being repaired, and the initiation of a new flaw in the undesirable high stress field around the patch. Uncertainties in load spectrums used to design repairs exacerbates these problems as does the use of rivets to apply conventional doublers. Many of these repair or structural reinforcement difficulties can be addressed through the use of composite doublers. Primary among unknown entities are the effects of non-optimum installations and the certification of adequate inspection procedures. This paper presents on overview of a program intended to introduce composite doubler technology to the US commercial aircraft fleet. In this project, a specific composite application has been chosen on an L-1011 aircraft in order to focus the tasks on application and operation issues. Through the use of laboratory test structures and flight demonstrations on an in-service L-1011 airplane, this study is investigating composite doubler design, fabrication, installation, structural integrity, and non-destructive evaluation. In addition to providing an overview of the L-1011 project, this paper focuses on a series of fatigue and strength tests which have been conducted in order to study the damage tolerance of composite doublers. Test results to-date are presented.

  2. Figure control of flexible structures - Optical surfaces of thin deformable primary mirrors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creedon, J. F.; Ostroff, A. J.

    1980-01-01

    Application of a modal control design technique to achieve discrete control of distributed parameter systems is considered. Results are presented for application of the design technique to achieve diffraction limited performance from the primary mirror of a space telescope and to provide flutter suppression for an aircraft wing.

  3. Structures and Systems and Bodies and Things: Historical Research on Primary Schooling and Its Professional Relevance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Recalling its origins as a research journal addressing educationists this article seeks to understand historical research published in "History of Education" as aimed at a professional audience. Primary schooling provides a significant focus as the study of education history was fostered especially in the training of elementary teachers.1 In that…

  4. Purification and Structural Analysis of Desmoplakin.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hee-Jung; Weis, William I

    2016-01-01

    Desmoplakin (DP) is an obligate component of desmosomes, where it links the desmosomal cadherin/plakoglobin/plakophilin assembly to intermediate filaments. DP contains a large amino-terminal domain (DPNT) that binds to the cadherin/plakoglobin/plakophilin complex, a central coiled-coil domain that dimerizes the molecule, and a C-terminal domain (DPCT) that binds to intermediate filaments. DPNT contains a plakin domain, comprising a set of spectrin-like repeats. DPCT contains three plakin repeat domains, each formed by 4.5 repeats of a sequence motif known as a plakin repeat that bind to intermediate filaments. Here, we review purification, biochemical characterization, and structural analysis of the DPNT plakin domain and the DPCT plakin repeat domains.

  5. Recent developments in structural sensitivity analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haftka, Raphael T.; Adelman, Howard M.

    1988-01-01

    Recent developments are reviewed in two major areas of structural sensitivity analysis: sensitivity of static and transient response; and sensitivity of vibration and buckling eigenproblems. Recent developments from the standpoint of computational cost, accuracy, and ease of implementation are presented. In the area of static response, current interest is focused on sensitivity to shape variation and sensitivity of nonlinear response. Two general approaches are used for computing sensitivities: differentiation of the continuum equations followed by discretization, and the reverse approach of discretization followed by differentiation. It is shown that the choice of methods has important accuracy and implementation implications. In the area of eigenproblem sensitivity, there is a great deal of interest and significant progress in sensitivity of problems with repeated eigenvalues. In addition to reviewing recent contributions in this area, the paper raises the issue of differentiability and continuity associated with the occurrence of repeated eigenvalues.

  6. Random motion analysis of flexible satellite structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, T. C.; Das, A.

    1978-01-01

    A singular perturbation formulation is used to study the responses of a flexible satellite when random measurement errors can occur. The random variables, at different instants of time, are assumed to be uncorrelated. Procedures for obtaining maxima and minima are described, and a variation of the linear method is developed for the formal solution of the two-point boundary-value problems represented by the variational equations. Random and deterministic solutions for the structural position coordinates are studied, and an analytic algorithm for treating the force equation of motion is developed. Since the random system indicated by the variational equation will always be asymptotically unstable, any analysis of stability must be based on the deterministic system.

  7. A multi-sites analysis on the ozone effects on Gross Primary Production of European forests.

    PubMed

    Proietti, C; Anav, A; De Marco, A; Sicard, P; Vitale, M

    2016-06-15

    Ozone (O3) is both a greenhouse gas and a secondary air pollutant causing adverse impacts on forests ecosystems at different scales, from cellular to ecosystem level. Specifically, the phytotoxic nature of O3 can impair CO2 assimilation that, in turn affects forest productivity. This study aims to evaluate the effects of tropospheric O3 on Gross Primary Production (GPP) at 37 European forest sites during the time period 2000-2010. Due to the lack of carbon assimilation data at O3 monitoring stations (and vice-versa) this study makes a first attempt to combine high resolution MODIS Gross Primary Production (GPP) estimates and O3 measurement data. Partial Correlations, Anomalies Analysis and the Random Forests Analysis (RFA) were used to quantify the effects of tropospheric O3 concentration and its uptake on GPP and to evaluate the most important factors affecting inter-annual GPP changes. Our results showed, along a North-West/South-East European transect, a negative impact of O3 on GPP ranging from 0.4% to 30%, although a key role of meteorological parameters respect to pollutant variables in affecting GPP was found. In particular, meteorological parameters, namely air temperature (T), soil water content (SWC) and relative humidity (RH) are the most important predictors at 81% of test sites. Moreover, it is interesting to highlight a key role of SWC in the Mediterranean areas (Spanish, Italian and French test sites) confirming that, soil moisture and soil water availability affect vegetation growth and photosynthesis especially in arid or semi-arid ecosystems such as the Mediterranean climate regions. Considering the pivotal role of GPP in the global carbon balance and the O3 ability to reduce primary productivity of the forests, this study can help in assessing the O3 impacts on ecosystem services, including wood production and carbon sequestration. PMID:26971205

  8. Primary structure of a human arginine-rich nuclear protein that colocalizes with spliceosome components

    SciTech Connect

    Chaudhary, N.; McMahon, C.; Blobel, G. )

    1991-09-15

    The cDNA for a 54-kDa nuclear protein (p54) has been cloned from a human hepatoma expression library. Contained within p54 is an arginine/serine-rich region similar to segments of several proteins that participate in pre-mRNA splicing including the 70-kDa component of U1 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle (snRNP) and the Drosophila transformer and suppressor-of-white-apricot proteins. The arginine/serine-rich region is dominated by a series of 8-amino acid imperfect repetitive motifs (consensus sequence, Arg-Arg-Ser-Arg-Ser-Arg-Ser-Arg). Antibodies raised against synthetic peptides of p54 react with an {approximately}70-kDa protein on immunoblots of HeLa cell and rat liver nuclear proteins. This apparent discrepancy in mass is also observed when p54 mRNA is translated in vitro. Indirect immunofluorescence studies in HeLa cells show that p54 is distributed throughout the nucleus in a speckled pattern, with an additional diffuse labeling of the nucleus excluding the nucleoli. Double immunofluorescence experiments indicate that these punctate regions are coincident with the speckles seen in cells stained with antibodies against several constituents of the pre-mRNA splicing machinery. Sedimentation analysis of HeLa cell extracts on sucrose gradients showed that p54 migrates at 4-6 S, indicating that the protein is not a tightly associated component of snRNPs. Although the function of p54 is not yet known, the structure and immunolocalization data suggest that this protein may have a role in pre-mRNA processing.

  9. Multiple primary cancers of breast and cervix uteri: an epidemiological approach to analysis.

    PubMed

    Prior, P; Waterhouse, J A

    1981-05-01

    Index sites of breast and cervix uteri were selected from populationbased data held at the West Midlands and Birmingham Regional Cancer Registry, and the expected numbers of second primary cancers in cervix and breast were computed (sequence analyses). In the breast series (17,756 patients) a small deficit of cervical tumours was observed (O = 16, E = 2·119, O/E = 0·76, P > 0·05), while in the cervix series (4817 patients) a small excess of breast tumours was found (O = 29, E = 23·38, O/E = 1·24, P > 0·05) over a period of 15 years.A theoretical statement of the combined risk of the 2 tumours occurring in the same individual of a general population was developed and was compared with the practical approach of summing the sequence analyses (complementary analysis). Complementary analysis indicated that there was no excess of women with the 2 primary tumours (O = 45, E = 44·57, O/E = 1·01) and that cancers of the breast and cervix uteri are not aetiologically related.

  10. Structural analysis of nucleosomal barrier to transcription

    PubMed Central

    Gaykalova, Daria A.; Kulaeva, Olga I.; Volokh, Olesya; Shaytan, Alexey K.; Hsieh, Fu-Kai; Kirpichnikov, Mikhail P.; Sokolova, Olga S.; Studitsky, Vasily M.

    2015-01-01

    Thousands of human and Drosophila genes are regulated at the level of transcript elongation and nucleosomes are likely targets for this regulation. However, the molecular mechanisms of formation of the nucleosomal barrier to transcribing RNA polymerase II (Pol II) and nucleosome survival during/after transcription remain unknown. Here we show that both DNA–histone interactions and Pol II backtracking contribute to formation of the barrier and that nucleosome survival during transcription likely occurs through allosterically stabilized histone–histone interactions. Structural analysis indicates that after Pol II encounters the barrier, the enzyme backtracks and nucleosomal DNA recoils on the octamer, locking Pol II in the arrested state. DNA is displaced from one of the H2A/H2B dimers that remains associated with the octamer. The data reveal the importance of intranucleosomal DNA–protein and protein–protein interactions during conformational changes in the nucleosome structure on transcription. Mechanisms of nucleosomal barrier formation and nucleosome survival during transcription are proposed. PMID:26460019

  11. Analysis of structures with rotating, flexible substructures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, A. Stewart; Likins, Peter

    1987-01-01

    A new methodology has been developed for the dynamic analysis of flexible structures, parts of which may be experiencing discrete motion relative to other parts. This methodology provides the capability of representing the continuum deformations typically treated using finite element methods. In addition, it provides the capability of representing the discrete motion at joints traditionally available with multibody methods. After decomposing the structure into substructures and associating a frame of reference with each substructure, the equations of motion for each substructure can be written explicitly including contributions due to the frame of reference generalized coordinates. By expanding the set of constraints to include constraints that eliminate the redundancy introduced by the frame generalized coordinates, the equations of motion become amenable to solution. The first digital computer program using this methodology, the General Rotorcraft Aeromechanical Stability Program (GRASP), was introduced in 1986. Although GRASP is limited to applications involving steady-state rotation, extension to arbitrary motions (including spin-up) can be accomplished by the selective retention of nonlinear terms in this formulation.

  12. Structural stability, vibrational, and bonding properties of potassium 1, 1'-dinitroamino-5, 5'-bistetrazolate: An emerging green primary explosive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yedukondalu, N.; Vaitheeswaran, G.

    2015-08-01

    Potassium 1,1'-dinitroamino-5,5'-bistetrazolate (K2DNABT) is a nitrogen rich (50.3% by weight, K2C2N12O4) green primary explosive with high performance characteristics, namely, velocity of detonation (D = 8.33 km/s), detonation pressure (P = 31.7 GPa), and fast initiating power to replace existing toxic primaries. In the present work, we report density functional theory (DFT) calculations on structural, equation of state, vibrational spectra, electronic structure, and absorption spectra of K2DNABT. We have discussed the influence of weak dispersive interactions on structural and vibrational properties through the DFT-D2 method. We find anisotropic compressibility behavior (bstructural properties. The predicted equilibrium bulk modulus reveals that K2DNABT is softer than toxic lead azide and harder than the most sensitive cyanuric triazide. A complete assignment of all the vibrational modes has been made and compared with the available experimental results. The calculated zone center IR and Raman frequencies show a blue-shift which leads to a hardening of the lattice upon compression. In addition, we have also calculated the electronic structure and absorption spectra using recently developed Tran Blaha-modified Becke Johnson potential. It is found that K2DNABT is a direct band gap insulator with a band gap of 3.87 eV and the top of the valence band is mainly dominated by 2p-states of oxygen and nitrogen atoms. K2DNABT exhibits mixed ionic (between potassium and tetrazolate ions) and covalent character within tetrazolate molecule. The presence of ionic bonding suggests that the investigated compound is relatively stable and insensitive than covalent primaries. From the calculated absorption spectra, the material is found to decompose under ultra-violet light irradiation.

  13. A preliminary structural analysis of space-base living quarters modules to verify a weight-estimating technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grissom, D. S.; Schneider, W. C.

    1971-01-01

    The determination of a base line (minimum weight) design for the primary structure of the living quarters modules in an earth-orbiting space base was investigated. Although the design is preliminary in nature, the supporting analysis is sufficiently thorough to provide a reasonably accurate weight estimate of the major components that are considered to comprise the structural weight of the space base.

  14. Surveying Primary Teachers about Compulsory Numeracy Testing: Combining Factor Analysis with Rasch Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimbeek, Peter; Nisbet, Steven

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports the use of several quantitative analytic methods, including Rasch analysis, to re-examine teacher responses to questionnaire items probing opinions related to the compulsory numeracy tests conducted in Years 3, 5, and 7 in Queensland, Australia. Nisbet and Grimbeek (2004) previously reported an interpretable and statistically…

  15. Prevalence of X-aneuploidies, X-structural abnormalities and 46,XY sex reversal in Turkish women with primary amenorrhea or premature ovarian insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Geckinli, B B; Toksoy, G; Sayar, C; Soylemez, M A; Yesil, G; Aydın, H; Karaman, A; Devranoglu, B

    2014-11-01

    Our objective was to identify the distribution of cytogenetic abnormalities of 175 Turkish women with primary amenorrhea (PA) or premature ovarian insufficiency (POI). A retrospective study was performed using medical records of 94 patients with PA and 81 patients with POI at the Genetics Department, Zeynep Kamil Women's and Children's Research and Training Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey. G-banded metaphase karyotype analysis were prepared and analyzed. Chromosomal abnormalities were present in 44 of 175 cases (25%). 15 were full blown or mosaic numerical X chromosome abnormalities (8.5%), 10 were full blown or mosaic X-chromosome structural anomalies (5.7%), one was X-autosome translocation (0.5%), 3 were autosomal anomalies (1.7%), 12 were XY karyotype (6.8%), one was 45,X/46,XY mosaic and 2 were full blown or mosaic structural anomalies of Y chromosome (1.7%). The prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities was 25% in this large series of Turkish women with primary amenorrhea or premature ovarian insufficiency, most cases involving X-aneuploidy or X-structural abnormalities or 46,XY karyotype. High prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities is associated with POI starting at an early age (average age: 26 years).

  16. Structures and Analysis of Carotenoid Molecules.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Amaya, Delia B

    2016-01-01

    Modifications of the usual C40 linear and symmetrical carotenoid skeleton give rise to a wide array of structures of carotenes and xanthophylls in plant tissues. These include acyclic, monocyclic and dicyclic carotenoids, along with hydroxy and epoxy xanthophylls and apocarotenoids. Carotenols can be unesterified or esterified (monoester) in one or two (diester) hydroxyl groups with fatty acids. E-Z isomerization increases the array of possible plant carotenoids even further. Screening and especially quantitative analysis are being carried out worldwide. Visible absorption spectrometry and near infrared reflectance spectroscopy have been used for the initial estimation of the total carotenoid content or the principal carotenoid content when large numbers of samples needed to be analyzed within a short time, as would be the case in breeding programs. Although inherently difficult, quantitative analysis of the individual carotenoids is essential. Knowledge of the sources of errors and means to avoid them has led to a large body of reliable quantitative compositional data on carotenoids. Reverse-phase HPLC with a photodiode array detector has been the preferred analytical technique, but UHPLC is increasingly employed. HPLC-MS has been used mainly for identification and NMR has been useful in unequivocally identifying geometric isomers. PMID:27485219

  17. Summer primary productivity and phytoplankton community composition driven by different hydrographic structures in the East/Japan Sea and the Western Subarctic Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwak, Jung Hyun; Lee, Sang Heon; Hwang, Jeomshik; Suh, Young-Sang; Park, Hyun; Chang, Kyung-Il; Kim, Kyung-Ryul; Kang, Chang-Keun

    2014-07-01

    The East/Japan Sea (EJS) is a highly productive marginal sea in the northwest Pacific, consisting of three basins (Ulleung Basin: UB, Yamato Basin: YB, and Japan Basin: JB). To find causes of the reportedly high primary productivity in summer in the EJS, especially in the UB, we measured primary productivity, phytoplankton composition, and other environmental variables. The water column was strongly stratified in the EJS compared with the Western Subarctic Pacific (WSP). Integrated primary productivity was two times higher in the EJS (612 mg C m-2 d-1) than in the WSP (291 mg C m-2 d-1). The vertical distributions of physicochemical and biological factors confirmed that production in the subsurface chlorophyll maximum layer in the study regions was an important factor regulating primary productivity within the water column. While picoplankton (<2.7 µm) dominated in the WSP, JB, and YB, micro/nanoplankton (≥2.7 µm) dominated in the UB. Contribution by picoplankton to total biomass and primary productivity in the UB was significantly lower than in the other regions. CHEMTAX analysis using marker pigments showed that diverse phytoplankton groups inhabited the study regions. Cluster and canonical correspondence analyses showed high correlation between the spatial variation in phytoplankton assemblages with the water mass properties mainly represented by water temperature and nitrate concentration. Overall, our results suggest that the hydrographic structure of water column in the study region is an important controlling factor of the biomass and productivity of phytoplankton as well as their diversity in size and taxonomic groups.

  18. Primary and secondary organics in tropical Amazonian rainforest aerosols: Chiral analysis of 2-methyltetrols

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, Nelida; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin; Artaxo, Paulo; Guenther, Alex B.; Krejci, R.; Noziere, Barbara; Noone, Kevin

    2014-06-01

    This work presents the application of a newly developed method to facilitate the distinction between primary and secondary organic compounds in ambient aerosols based on their chiral analysis. The organic constituents chosen for chiral analysis are the four stereomers of the 2-methyltetrols, (2R,3S)- and (2S,3R)- methylerythritol and (2S,3S)- and (2R,3R)- methylthreitol. Ambient PM10 aerosol samples were collected between June 2008 and June 2009 near Manaus, Brazil, in a remote tropical rainforest environment of central Amazonia. The samples were analyzed for the presence of these four stereomers because qualitatively, in a previous study, they have been demonstrated to have partly primary origins. Thus the origin of these compounds may be primary and secondary from the biosynthesis and oxidation processes of isoprene within plants and also in the atmosphere. Using authentic standards, the quantified concentrations were in average 78.2 and 72.8 ng m-3 for (2R,3S)- and (2S,3R)- methylerythritol and 3.1 and 3.3 ng m-3 for (2S,3S)- and (2R,3R)- methylthreitol during the dry season and 7.1, 6.5, 2.0, and 2.2 ng m-3 during the wet season, respectively. Furthermore, these compounds were found to be outside the confidence interval for racemic mixtures (enantiomeric fraction, Ef = 0.5 -0.01) in nearly all the samples, with deviations of up to 32 % (Ef = 0.61) for (2R,3S)-methylerythritol and 47 % (Ef = 0.65) for (2S,3S)-methylthreitol indicating (99% confidence level) biologically-produced 2-methyltetrols. The minimum primary origin contribution ranged between 0.19 and 29.67 ng m-3 for the 2-methylerythritols and between 0.15 and 1.2 ng m-3 for the 2-methylthreitols. The strong correlation of the diatereomers (racemic 2-methylerythritol and 2-methylthreitol) in the wet season implied a secondary origin. Assuming the maximum secondary contribution in the dry season, the secondary fraction in the wet season was 81-99 % and in the dry season, 10 - 95 %. Nevertheless, from the

  19. Structure/load dependent vectors for linear structural dynamic analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qin, Jiangning; Nguyen, Duc T.

    1992-01-01

    The dynamic solution vectors yielded by the present structure/load dependent-vectors method for large-scale linear structural dynamic analyses involving complex loadings can be used as starting vectors, so that both structure and load characteristics are encompassed by the basis vectors. The method is shown to entail fewer vectors than current alternatives for a given level of accuracy, especially in the cases of structures that have external concentrated masses. Numerical results are presented which illustrate the advantages of this dependent-vectors method relative to other reduction methods.

  20. Influence of soot aggregate structure on particle sizing using laser-induced incandescence: importance of bridging between primary particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnsson, J.; Bladh, H.; Olofsson, N.-E.; Bengtsson, P.-E.

    2013-09-01

    Soot aggregates formed in combustion processes are often described as clusters of carbonaceous particles in random fractal structures. For theoretical studies of the physical properties of such aggregates, they have often been modelled as spherical primary particles in point contact. However, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images show that the primary particles are more connected than in a single point; there is a certain amount of bridging between the primary particles. Particle sizing using the diagnostic technique laser-induced incandescence (LII) is crucially dependent on the heat conduction rate from the aggregate to the ambient gas, which depends on the amount of bridging. In this work, aggregates with bridging are modelled using overlapping spheres, and it is shown how such aggregates can be built to fulfil specific fractal parameters. Aggregates with and without bridging are constructed numerically, and it is investigated how the bridging influences the heat conduction rate in the free-molecular regime. The calculated heat conduction rates are then used in an LII model to show how LII particle sizing is influenced by different amounts of bridging. For realistic amounts of bridging (), the primary particle diameters were overestimated by up to 9 % if bridging was not taken into account.

  1. Conceptual design and structural analysis for an 8.4-m telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, Manuel; Farah, Alejandro; Ruiz Schneider, Elfego

    2004-09-01

    This paper describes the conceptual design of the optics support structures of a telescope with a primary mirror of 8.4 m, the same size as a Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) primary mirror. The design goal is to achieve a structure for supporting the primary and secondary mirrors and keeping them joined as rigid as possible. With this purpose an optimization with several models was done. This iterative design process includes: specifications development, concepts generation and evaluation. Process included Finite Element Analysis (FEA) as well as other analytical calculations. Quality Function Deployment (QFD) matrix was used to obtain telescope tube and spider specifications. Eight spiders and eleven tubes geometric concepts were proposed. They were compared in decision matrixes using performance indicators and parameters. Tubes and spiders went under an iterative optimization process. The best tubes and spiders concepts were assembled together. All assemblies were compared and ranked according to their performance.

  2. Engaging stakeholders for adaptive management using structured decision analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Irwin, Elise R.; Kathryn, D.; Kennedy, Mickett

    2009-01-01

    Adaptive management is different from other types of management in that it includes all stakeholders (versus only policy makers) in the process, uses resource optimization techniques to evaluate competing objectives, and recognizes and attempts to reduce uncertainty inherent in natural resource systems. Management actions are negotiated by stakeholders, monitored results are compared to predictions of how the system should respond, and management strategies are adjusted in a “monitor-compare-adjust” iterative routine. Many adaptive management projects fail because of the lack of stakeholder identification, engagement, and continued involvement. Primary reasons for this vary but are usually related to either stakeholders not having ownership (or representation) in decision processes or disenfranchisement of stakeholders after adaptive management begins. We present an example in which stakeholders participated fully in adaptive management of a southeastern regulated river. Structured decision analysis was used to define management objectives and stakeholder values and to determine initial flow prescriptions. The process was transparent, and the visual nature of the modeling software allowed stakeholders to see how their interests and values were represented in the decision process. The development of a stakeholder governance structure and communication mechanism has been critical to the success of the project.

  3. The primary structure of Clostridium septicum alpha-toxin exhibits similarity with that of Aeromonas hydrophila aerolysin.

    PubMed Central

    Ballard, J; Crabtree, J; Roe, B A; Tweten, R K

    1995-01-01

    The gene for Clostridium septicum alpha-toxin was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli from C. septicum BX96. The toxin was determined to be 443 amino acids in length, with a 31-residue signal peptide that was removed from the toxin during secretion. No extended hydrophobic regions were observed in the mature toxin sequence. Expression of alpha-toxin in E. coli BL21 resulted in the production of ATpro, which was identical to native toxin from C. septicum with respect to activity and activation. The proteolytic activation site for alpha-toxin was determined to be on the carboxy-terminal side of arginine 398, which lies within the sequence KKRRGKR-398SVD. Previous work showing similarities in activation and mechanism between alpha-toxin and Aeromonas hydrophila aerolysin was extended to the primary structures of both toxins. The DNA-derived primary sequence of alpha-toxin exhibited 27% identity and 72% similarity over a 387-residue region with the primary structure of the A. hydrophila aerolysin toxin, a level of similarity heretofore unobserved between toxins produced by a gram-positive organism and a gram-negative organism. PMID:7806374

  4. The Role of Structured Cooperative Learning Groups for Enhancing Chinese Primary Students' Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Law, Yin-Kum

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to compare the effectiveness of two types of cooperative learning groups used in reciprocal teaching (RT) classes (i.e. high-structured vs. low-structured groups) for enhancing students' reading comprehension. The participants were 235 Hong Kong Chinese Grade 6 students in nine classes. Reading comprehension tests and…

  5. Playful Structure: A Novel Image of Early Years Pedagogy for Primary School Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Glenda; Sproule, Liz; McGuinness, Carol; Trew, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Playful structure is a new pedagogic image representing a more balanced and integrated perspective on early years pedagogy, aiming to blend apparent dichotomies and contradictions and to sustain and evolve play-based practice beyond Year 1. Playful structure invites teachers and children to initiate and maintain a degree of playfulness in the…

  6. Primary health care contribution to improve health outcomes in Bogota-Colombia: a longitudinal ecological analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Colombia has a highly segmented and fragmented national health system that contributes to inequitable health outcomes. In 2004 the district government of Bogota initiated a Primary Health Care (PHC) strategy to improve health care access and population health status. This study aims to analyse the contribution of the PHC strategy to the improvement of health outcomes controlling for socioeconomic variables. Methods A longitudinal ecological analysis using data from secondary sources was carried out. The analysis used data from 2003 and 2007 (one year before and 3 years after the PHC implementation). A Primary Health Care Index (PHCI) of coverage intensity was constructed. According to the PHCI, localities were classified into two groups: high and low coverage. A multivariate analysis using a Poisson regression model for each year separately and a Panel Poisson regression model to assess changes between the groups over the years was developed. Dependent variables were infant mortality rate, under-5 mortality rate, infant mortality rate due to acute diarrheal disease and pneumonia, prevalence of acute malnutrition, vaccination coverage for diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus (DPT) and prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding. The independent variable was the PHCI. Control variables were sewerage coverage, health system insurance coverage and quality of life index. Results The high PHCI localities as compared with the low PHCI localities showed significant risk reductions of under-5 mortality (13.8%) and infant mortality due to pneumonia (37.5%) between 2003 and 2007. The probability of being vaccinated for DPT also showed a significant increase of 4.9%. The risk of infant mortality and of acute malnutrition in children under-5 years was lesser in the high coverage group than in the low one; however relative changes were not statistically significant. Conclusions Despite the adverse contextual conditions and the limitations imposed by the Colombian health

  7. Model-based analysis of pattern motion processing in mouse primary visual cortex

    PubMed Central

    Muir, Dylan R.; Roth, Morgane M.; Helmchen, Fritjof; Kampa, Björn M.

    2015-01-01

    Neurons in sensory areas of neocortex exhibit responses tuned to specific features of the environment. In visual cortex, information about features such as edges or textures with particular orientations must be integrated to recognize a visual scene or object. Connectivity studies in rodent cortex have revealed that neurons make specific connections within sub-networks sharing common input tuning. In principle, this sub-network architecture enables local cortical circuits to integrate sensory information. However, whether feature integration indeed occurs locally in rodent primary sensory areas has not been examined directly. We studied local integration of sensory features in primary visual cortex (V1) of the mouse by presenting drifting grating and plaid stimuli, while recording the activity of neuronal populations with two-photon calcium imaging. Using a Bayesian model-based analysis framework, we classified single-cell responses as being selective for either individual grating components or for moving plaid patterns. Rather than relying on trial-averaged responses, our model-based framework takes into account single-trial responses and can easily be extended to consider any number of arbitrary predictive models. Our analysis method was able to successfully classify significantly more responses than traditional partial correlation (PC) analysis, and provides a rigorous statistical framework to rank any number of models and reject poorly performing models. We also found a large proportion of cells that respond strongly to only one stimulus class. In addition, a quarter of selectively responding neurons had more complex responses that could not be explained by any simple integration model. Our results show that a broad range of pattern integration processes already take place at the level of V1. This diversity of integration is consistent with processing of visual inputs by local sub-networks within V1 that are tuned to combinations of sensory features. PMID

  8. Sustained Attention in Children with Primary Language Impairment: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ebert, Kerry Danahy; Kohnert, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study provides a meta-analysis of the difference between children with primary or specific language impairment (LI) and their typically developing peers on tasks of sustained attention. The meta-analysis seeks to determine if children with LI demonstrate subclinical deficits in sustained attention and, if so, under what conditions. Methods Articles that reported empirical data from the performance of children with LI, in comparison to typically developing peers, on a task assessing sustained attention were considered for inclusion. Twenty-eight effect sizes were included in the meta-analysis. Two moderator analyses addressed the effects of stimulus modality and ADHD exclusion. In addition, reaction time outcomes and the effects of task variables were summarized qualitatively. Results The meta-analysis supports the existence of sustained attention deficits in children with LI in both auditory and visual modalities, as demonstrated by reduced accuracy compared to typically developing peers. Larger effect sizes are found in tasks that use auditory and linguistic stimuli than in studies that use visual stimuli. Conclusions Future research should consider the role that sustained attention weaknesses play in LI, as well as the implications for clinical and research assessment tasks. Methodological recommendations are summarized. PMID:21646419

  9. Latent Class Analysis of Substance Use among Adolescents Presenting to Urban Primary Care Clinics

    PubMed Central

    Bohnert, Kipling M.; Walton, Maureen A.; Resko, Stella; Barry, Kristen T.; Chermack, Stephen T.; Zucker, Robert A.; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Booth, Brenda M.; Blow, Frederic C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Polysubstance use during adolescence is a significant public health concern; however, few studies have investigated patterns of use during this developmental window within the primary care setting. Objectives This study uses an empirical method to classify adolescents into polysubstance use groups, and examines correlates of the empirically-defined groups. Methods Data come from patients, ages 12-18 years, presenting to urban, primary care community health clinics (Federally Qualified Health Centers) in two cities in the Midwestern United States (n=1664). Latent class analysis (LCA) was used to identify classes of substance users. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine variables associated with class membership. Results LCA identified three classes: Class 1 (64.5%) exhibited low probabilities of all types of substance use; Class 2 (24.6%) was characterized by high probabilities of cannabis use and consequences; Class 3 (10.9%) had the highest probabilities of polysubstance use, including heavy episodic drinking and misuse of prescription drugs. Those in Class 2 and Class 3 were more likely to be older, and have poorer grades, poorer health, higher levels of psychological distress, and more sexual partners than those in Class 1. Individuals in Class 3 were also less likely to be African-American than those in Class 1. Conclusion Findings provide novel insight into the patterns of polysubstance use among adolescents presenting to low-income urban primary care clinics. Future research should examine the efficacy of interventions that address the complex patterns of substance use and concomitant health concerns among adolescents. PMID:24219231

  10. Automatic quantitative analysis of experimental primary and secondary retinal neurodegeneration: implications for optic neuropathies

    PubMed Central

    Davis, B M; Guo, L; Brenton, J; Langley, L; Normando, E M; Cordeiro, M F

    2016-01-01

    Secondary neurodegeneration is thought to play an important role in the pathology of neurodegenerative disease, which potential therapies may target. However, the quantitative assessment of the degree of secondary neurodegeneration is difficult. The present study describes a novel algorithm from which estimates of primary and secondary degeneration are computed using well-established rodent models of partial optic nerve transection (pONT) and ocular hypertension (OHT). Brn3-labelled retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) were identified in whole-retinal mounts from which RGC density, nearest neighbour distances and regularity indices were determined. The spatial distribution and rate of RGC loss were assessed and the percentage of primary and secondary degeneration in each non-overlapping segment was calculated. Mean RGC number (82 592±681) and RGC density (1695±23.3 RGC/mm2) in naïve eyes were comparable with previous studies, with an average decline in RGC density of 71±17 and 23±5% over the time course of pONT and OHT models, respectively. Spatial analysis revealed greatest RGC loss in the superior and central retina in pONT, but significant RGC loss in the inferior retina from 3 days post model induction. In comparison, there was no significant difference between superior and inferior retina after OHT induction, and RGC loss occurred mainly along the superior/inferior axis (~30%) versus the nasal–temporal axis (~15%). Intriguingly, a significant loss of RGCs was also observed in contralateral eyes in experimental OHT. In conclusion, a novel algorithm to automatically segment Brn3a-labelled retinal whole-mounts into non-overlapping segments is described, which enables automated spatial and temporal segmentation of RGCs, revealing heterogeneity in the spatial distribution of primary and secondary degenerative processes. This method provides an attractive means to rapidly determine the efficacy of neuroprotective therapies with implications for any

  11. Intrusive growth of primary and secondary phloem fibres in hemp stem determines fibre-bundle formation and structure.

    PubMed

    Snegireva, Anastasia; Chernova, Tatyana; Ageeva, Marina; Lev-Yadun, Simcha; Gorshkova, Tatyana

    2015-01-01

    Plant fibres-cells with important mechanical functions and a widely used raw material-are usually identified in microscopic sections only after reaching a significant length or after developing a thickened cell wall. We characterized the early developmental stages of hemp (Cannabis sativa) stem phloem fibres, both primary (originating from the procambium) and secondary (originating in the cambium), when they still had only a primary cell wall. We gave a major emphasis to the role of intrusive elongation, the specific type of plant cell growth by which fibres commonly attain large cell length. We could identify primary phloem fibres at a distance of only 1.2-1.5 mm from the shoot apical meristem when they grew symplastically with the surrounding tissues. Half a millimeter further downwards along the stem, fibres began their intrusive elongation, which led to a sharp increase in fibre numbers visible within the stem cross-sections. The intrusive elongation of primary phloem fibres was completed within the several distal centimetres of the growing stem, before the onset of their secondary cell wall formation. The formation of secondary phloem fibres started long after the beginning of secondary xylem formation. Our data indicate that only a small portion of the fusiform cambial initials (<10 %) give rise directly or via their derivatives to secondary phloem fibres. The key determinant of final bundle structure, both for primary and secondary phloem fibres, is intrusive growth. Through bi-directional elongation, fibres join other fibres initiated individually in other stem levels, thus forming the bundles. Our results provide the specific developmental basis for further biochemical and molecular-genetic studies of phloem fibre development in hemp, but may be applied to many other species. PMID:26019229

  12. Intrusive growth of primary and secondary phloem fibres in hemp stem determines fibre-bundle formation and structure.

    PubMed

    Snegireva, Anastasia; Chernova, Tatyana; Ageeva, Marina; Lev-Yadun, Simcha; Gorshkova, Tatyana

    2015-05-27

    Plant fibres-cells with important mechanical functions and a widely used raw material-are usually identified in microscopic sections only after reaching a significant length or after developing a thickened cell wall. We characterized the early developmental stages of hemp (Cannabis sativa) stem phloem fibres, both primary (originating from the procambium) and secondary (originating in the cambium), when they still had only a primary cell wall. We gave a major emphasis to the role of intrusive elongation, the specific type of plant cell growth by which fibres commonly attain large cell length. We could identify primary phloem fibres at a distance of only 1.2-1.5 mm from the shoot apical meristem when they grew symplastically with the surrounding tissues. Half a millimeter further downwards along the stem, fibres began their intrusive elongation, which led to a sharp increase in fibre numbers visible within the stem cross-sections. The intrusive elongation of primary phloem fibres was completed within the several distal centimetres of the growing stem, before the onset of their secondary cell wall formation. The formation of secondary phloem fibres started long after the beginning of secondary xylem formation. Our data indicate that only a small portion of the fusiform cambial initials (<10 %) give rise directly or via their derivatives to secondary phloem fibres. The key determinant of final bundle structure, both for primary and secondary phloem fibres, is intrusive growth. Through bi-directional elongation, fibres join other fibres initiated individually in other stem levels, thus forming the bundles. Our results provide the specific developmental basis for further biochemical and molecular-genetic studies of phloem fibre development in hemp, but may be applied to many other species.

  13. Single-molecule analysis reveals widespread structural variation in multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Aditya; Place, Michael; Goldstein, Steven; Sarkar, Deepayan; Zhou, Shiguo; Potamousis, Konstantinos; Kim, Jaehyup; Flanagan, Claire; Li, Yang; Newton, Michael A.; Callander, Natalie S.; Hematti, Peiman; Bresnick, Emery H.; Ma, Jian; Asimakopoulos, Fotis; Schwartz, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM), a malignancy of plasma cells, is characterized by widespread genomic heterogeneity and, consequently, differences in disease progression and drug response. Although recent large-scale sequencing studies have greatly improved our understanding of MM genomes, our knowledge about genomic structural variation in MM is attenuated due to the limitations of commonly used sequencing approaches. In this study, we present the application of optical mapping, a single-molecule, whole-genome analysis system, to discover new structural variants in a primary MM genome. Through our analysis, we have identified and characterized widespread structural variation in this tumor genome. Additionally, we describe our efforts toward comprehensive characterization of genome structure and variation by integrating our findings from optical mapping with those from DNA sequencing-based genomic analysis. Finally, by studying this MM genome at two time points during tumor progression, we have demonstrated an increase in mutational burden with tumor progression at all length scales of variation. PMID:26056298

  14. The Role of Molecular Genetic Analysis in the Diagnosis of Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Raymond H.; A. Hall, David; Cutz, Ernest; Knowles, Michael R.; Nelligan, Kathleen A.; Nykamp, Keith; Zariwala, Maimoona A.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder of motile cilia. The diagnosis of PCD has previously relied on ciliary analysis with transmission electron microscopy or video microscopy. However, patients with PCD may have normal ultrastructural appearance, and ciliary analysis has limited accessibility. Alternatively, PCD can be diagnosed by demonstrating biallelic mutations in known PCD genes. Genetic testing is emerging as a diagnostic tool to complement ciliary analysis where interpretation and access may delay diagnosis. Objectives: To determine the diagnostic yield of genetic testing of patients with a confirmed or suspected diagnosis of PCD in a multiethnic urban center. Methods: Twenty-eight individuals with confirmed PCD on transmission electron microscopy of ciliary ultrastructure and 24 individuals with a probable diagnosis of PCD based on a classical PCD phenotype and low nasal nitric oxide had molecular analysis of 12 genes associated with PCD. Results: Of 49 subjects who underwent ciliary biopsy, 28 (57%) were diagnosed with PCD through an ultrastructural defect. Of the 52 individuals who underwent molecular genetic analysis, 22 (42%) individuals had two mutations in known PCD genes. Twenty-four previously unreported mutations in known PCD genes were observed. Combining both diagnostic modalities of biopsy and molecular genetics, the diagnostic yield increased to 69% compared with 57% based on biopsy alone. Conclusions: The diagnosis of PCD is challenging and has traditionally relied on ciliary biopsy, which is unreliable as the sole criterion for a definitive diagnosis. Molecular genetic analysis can be used as a complementary test to increase the diagnostic yield. PMID:24498942

  15. The role of canopy structural complexity in wood net primary production of a maturing northern deciduous forest.

    PubMed

    Hardiman, Brady S; Bohrer, Gil; Gough, Christopher M; Vogel, Christoph S; Curtisi, Peter S

    2011-09-01

    The even-aged northern hardwood forests of the Upper Great Lakes Region are undergoing an ecological transition during which structural and biotic complexity is increasing. Early-successional aspen (Populus spp.) and birch (Betula papyrifera) are senescing at an accelerating rate and are being replaced by middle-successional species including northern red oak (Quercus rubra), red maple (Acer rubrum), and white pine (Pinus strobus). Canopy structural complexity may increase due to forest age, canopy disturbances, and changing species diversity. More structurally complex canopies may enhance carbon (C) sequestration in old forests. We hypothesize that these biotic and structural alterations will result in increased structural complexity of the maturing canopy with implications for forest C uptake. At the University of Michigan Biological Station (UMBS), we combined a decade of observations of net primary productivity (NPP), leaf area index (LAI), site index, canopy tree-species diversity, and stand age with canopy structure measurements made with portable canopy lidar (PCL) in 30 forested plots. We then evaluated the relative impact of stand characteristics on productivity through succession using data collected over a nine-year period. We found that effects of canopy structural complexity on wood NPP (NPPw) were similar in magnitude to the effects of total leaf area and site quality. Furthermore, our results suggest that the effect of stand age on NPPw is mediated primarily through its effect on canopy structural complexity. Stand-level diversity of canopy-tree species was not significantly related to either canopy structure or NPPw. We conclude that increasing canopy structural complexity provides a mechanism for the potential maintenance of productivity in aging forests. PMID:21939078

  16. The role of canopy structural complexity in wood net primary production of a maturing northern deciduous forest.

    PubMed

    Hardiman, Brady S; Bohrer, Gil; Gough, Christopher M; Vogel, Christoph S; Curtisi, Peter S

    2011-09-01

    The even-aged northern hardwood forests of the Upper Great Lakes Region are undergoing an ecological transition during which structural and biotic complexity is increasing. Early-successional aspen (Populus spp.) and birch (Betula papyrifera) are senescing at an accelerating rate and are being replaced by middle-successional species including northern red oak (Quercus rubra), red maple (Acer rubrum), and white pine (Pinus strobus). Canopy structural complexity may increase due to forest age, canopy disturbances, and changing species diversity. More structurally complex canopies may enhance carbon (C) sequestration in old forests. We hypothesize that these biotic and structural alterations will result in increased structural complexity of the maturing canopy with implications for forest C uptake. At the University of Michigan Biological Station (UMBS), we combined a decade of observations of net primary productivity (NPP), leaf area index (LAI), site index, canopy tree-species diversity, and stand age with canopy structure measurements made with portable canopy lidar (PCL) in 30 forested plots. We then evaluated the relative impact of stand characteristics on productivity through succession using data collected over a nine-year period. We found that effects of canopy structural complexity on wood NPP (NPPw) were similar in magnitude to the effects of total leaf area and site quality. Furthermore, our results suggest that the effect of stand age on NPPw is mediated primarily through its effect on canopy structural complexity. Stand-level diversity of canopy-tree species was not significantly related to either canopy structure or NPPw. We conclude that increasing canopy structural complexity provides a mechanism for the potential maintenance of productivity in aging forests.

  17. Protein Structure Recognition: From Eigenvector Analysis to Structural Threading Method

    SciTech Connect

    Haibo Cao

    2003-12-12

    In this work, they try to understand the protein folding problem using pair-wise hydrophobic interaction as the dominant interaction for the protein folding process. They found a strong correlation between amino acid sequences and the corresponding native structure of the protein. Some applications of this correlation were discussed in this dissertation include the domain partition and a new structural threading method as well as the performance of this method in the CASP5 competition. In the first part, they give a brief introduction to the protein folding problem. Some essential knowledge and progress from other research groups was discussed. This part includes discussions of interactions among amino acids residues, lattice HP model, and the design ability principle. In the second part, they try to establish the correlation between amino acid sequence and the corresponding native structure of the protein. This correlation was observed in the eigenvector study of protein contact matrix. They believe the correlation is universal, thus it can be used in automatic partition of protein structures into folding domains. In the third part, they discuss a threading method based on the correlation between amino acid sequences and ominant eigenvector of the structure contact-matrix. A mathematically straightforward iteration scheme provides a self-consistent optimum global sequence-structure alignment. The computational efficiency of this method makes it possible to search whole protein structure databases for structural homology without relying on sequence similarity. The sensitivity and specificity of this method is discussed, along with a case of blind test prediction. In the appendix, they list the overall performance of this threading method in CASP5 blind test in comparison with other existing approaches.

  18. Spatiotemporal analysis of RhoA/B/C activation in primary human endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Reinhard, Nathalie R.; van Helden, Suzanne F.; Anthony, Eloise C.; Yin, Taofei; Wu, Yi I.; Goedhart, Joachim; Gadella, Theodorus W. J.; Hordijk, Peter L.

    2016-01-01

    Endothelial cells line the vasculature and are important for the regulation of blood pressure, vascular permeability, clotting and transendothelial migration of leukocytes and tumor cells. A group of proteins that that control the endothelial barrier function are the RhoGTPases. This study focuses on three homologous (>88%) RhoGTPases: RhoA, RhoB, RhoC of which RhoB and RhoC have been poorly characterized. Using a RhoGTPase mRNA expression analysis we identified RhoC as the highest expressed in primary human endothelial cells. Based on an existing RhoA FRET sensor we developed new RhoB/C FRET sensors to characterize their spatiotemporal activation properties. We found all these RhoGTPase sensors to respond to physiologically relevant agonists (e.g. Thrombin), reaching transient, localized FRET ratio changes up to 200%. These RhoA/B/C FRET sensors show localized GEF and GAP activity and reveal spatial activation differences between RhoA/C and RhoB. Finally, we used these sensors to monitor GEF-specific differential activation of RhoA/B/C. In summary, this study adds high-contrast RhoB/C FRET sensors to the currently available FRET sensor toolkit and uncover new insights in endothelial and RhoGTPase cell biology. This allows us to study activation and signaling by these closely related RhoGTPases with high spatiotemporal resolution in primary human cells. PMID:27147504

  19. Spatiotemporal analysis of RhoA/B/C activation in primary human endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Reinhard, Nathalie R; van Helden, Suzanne F; Anthony, Eloise C; Yin, Taofei; Wu, Yi I; Goedhart, Joachim; Gadella, Theodorus W J; Hordijk, Peter L

    2016-01-01

    Endothelial cells line the vasculature and are important for the regulation of blood pressure, vascular permeability, clotting and transendothelial migration of leukocytes and tumor cells. A group of proteins that that control the endothelial barrier function are the RhoGTPases. This study focuses on three homologous (>88%) RhoGTPases: RhoA, RhoB, RhoC of which RhoB and RhoC have been poorly characterized. Using a RhoGTPase mRNA expression analysis we identified RhoC as the highest expressed in primary human endothelial cells. Based on an existing RhoA FRET sensor we developed new RhoB/C FRET sensors to characterize their spatiotemporal activation properties. We found all these RhoGTPase sensors to respond to physiologically relevant agonists (e.g. Thrombin), reaching transient, localized FRET ratio changes up to 200%. These RhoA/B/C FRET sensors show localized GEF and GAP activity and reveal spatial activation differences between RhoA/C and RhoB. Finally, we used these sensors to monitor GEF-specific differential activation of RhoA/B/C. In summary, this study adds high-contrast RhoB/C FRET sensors to the currently available FRET sensor toolkit and uncover new insights in endothelial and RhoGTPase cell biology. This allows us to study activation and signaling by these closely related RhoGTPases with high spatiotemporal resolution in primary human cells. PMID:27147504

  20. ARMC5 mutation analysis in patients with primary aldosteronism and bilateral adrenal lesions.

    PubMed

    Mulatero, P; Schiavi, F; Williams, T A; Monticone, S; Barbon, G; Opocher, G; Fallo, F

    2016-06-01

    Idiopathic hyperaldosteronism (IHA) due to bilateral adrenal hyperplasia is the most common subtype of primary aldosteronism (PA). The pathogenesis of IHA is still unknown, but the bilateral disease suggests a potential predisposing genetic alteration. Heterozygous germline mutations of armadillo repeat containing 5 (ARMC5) have been shown to be associated with hypercortisolism due to sporadic primary bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia and are also observed in African-American PA patients. We investigated the presence of germline ARMC5 mutations in a group of PA patients who had bilateral computed tomography-detectable adrenal alterations. We sequenced the entire coding region of ARMC5 and all intron/exon boundaries in 39 patients (37 Caucasians and 2 black Africans) with confirmed PA (8 unilateral, 27 bilateral and 4 undetermined subtype) and bilateral adrenal lesions. We identified 11 common variants, 5 rare variants with a minor allele frequency <1% and 2 new variants not previously reported in public databases. We did not detect by in silico analysis any ARMC5 sequence variations that were predicted to alter protein function. In conclusion, ARMC5 mutations are not present in a fairly large series of Caucasian patients with PA associated to bilateral adrenal disease. Further studies are required to definitively clarify the role of ARMC5 in the pathogenesis of adrenal nodules and aldosterone excess in patients with PA. PMID:26446392

  1. Problems and consequences in the use of professional interpreters: qualitative analysis of incidents from primary healthcare.

    PubMed

    Hadziabdic, Emina; Heikkilä, Kristiina; Albin, Björn; Hjelm, Katarina

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to explore what problems are reported by healthcare professionals in primary healthcare concerning the use of interpreters and what the problems lead to. The study involved a single case in a real-life situation with qualitative content analysis of 60 incident reports written by different healthcare professionals. The main problems documented were related to language, such as lack of the interpreters with proficiency in a particular language, and to organisational routines, with difficulties in the availability of interpreters and access to the interpreter agency. The problems reported led to incorrect use of time and resources, which increased the workload and thus delayed treatment. Other consequences were limited possibilities to communicate and thus consultation was carried out without a professional interpreter, using family members instead. The results highlight the importance of developing good co-operation between the interpreter agency and the primary healthcare centre in order to fulfil the existing policy of using professional interpreters to provide the right interpreter at the right time and guarantee high-quality care.

  2. Problems and consequences in the use of professional interpreters: qualitative analysis of incidents from primary healthcare.

    PubMed

    Hadziabdic, Emina; Heikkilä, Kristiina; Albin, Björn; Hjelm, Katarina

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to explore what problems are reported by healthcare professionals in primary healthcare concerning the use of interpreters and what the problems lead to. The study involved a single case in a real-life situation with qualitative content analysis of 60 incident reports written by different healthcare professionals. The main problems documented were related to language, such as lack of the interpreters with proficiency in a particular language, and to organisational routines, with difficulties in the availability of interpreters and access to the interpreter agency. The problems reported led to incorrect use of time and resources, which increased the workload and thus delayed treatment. Other consequences were limited possibilities to communicate and thus consultation was carried out without a professional interpreter, using family members instead. The results highlight the importance of developing good co-operation between the interpreter agency and the primary healthcare centre in order to fulfil the existing policy of using professional interpreters to provide the right interpreter at the right time and guarantee high-quality care. PMID:21790876

  3. Strategies for mimicking the primary events of bacterial photosynthesis: Structure, function, and mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Norris, J.R. Chicago Univ., IL . Dept. of Chemistry); Raghavan, M. . Dept. of Chemistry)

    1990-01-01

    Some of the possible implications of the photochemistry of photosynthesis for artificial systems are presented. A major aspect of this paper involves the special conditions required to prevent the undesirable charge recombination via the excited triplet state of the primary donor. If a multi-jump model is operative in the primary events of photosynthesis, then artificial model systems are relatively easy to synthesize. Such systems prevent back reactions via a series of downhill chemical reactions. Each downhill step in energy results in an increase in charge separation distance. The annihilation reactions, even to the less energetic triplet state, involve intermediate states uphill in energy and consequently are greatly diminished. However, if superexchange is a correct explanation of photosynthesis, then model systems have not been developed that properly mimic the natural process. In particular, the triplet back reaction can occur due to the lack of any thermal activation barrier. In nature this downhill back reaction appears to be prevented by carefully balancing the energetics using four molecules in the electron transport system. If this is the case, artificial photosynthesis would also require fine tuning of the coupling and energetics with three or four molecules making duplication more difficult to achieve. 10 refs.

  4. Structural analysis of galactoarabinan from duckweed.

    PubMed

    Yu, Li; Yu, Changjiang; Zhu, Ming; Cao, Yingping; Yang, Haiyan; Zhang, Xu; Ma, Yubin; Zhou, Gongke

    2015-03-01

    A highly branched galactoarabinan named DAG1 (Mw∼4.0×10(4) Da) was purified from Lemna aequinoctialis 6000 via 70% (v/v) ethanol extraction, followed by size-exclusion chromatography on Bio-Gel P2 and Superdex 75. Methylation analysis showed that DAG1 consisted of t-Araf, (1→5)-Araf, (1→2,5)-Araf, (1→3)-Galp, and (1→3,6)-Galp in a relative proportion of approximately 6:4:3:3:3, suggesting an arabinogalactan/galactoarabinan polysacchairde. With the aid of arabinan degrading enzymes, the structure of DAG1 repeating unit was further characterized by ELISA with specific monoclonal antibodies and Yariv reagent assay. Analyses indicated that the proposed repeating unit of DAG1 had a backbone composed of seven α-(1→5)-L-arabinofuranose residues where branching occurred at O-2 with either terminal arabinoses or arabinogalactan side chain. The arabinogalactan side chain was composed of six β-(1→3)-D-galactopyranose residues, half of which were ramified at O-6 with terminal arabinoses and the last galactose was terminated with arabinose.

  5. Primary Energy Efficiency Analysis of Different Separate Sensible and Latent Cooling Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Abdelaziz, Omar

    2015-01-01

    Separate Sensible and Latent cooling (SSLC) has been discussed in open literature as means to improve air conditioning system efficiency. The main benefit of SSLC is that it enables heat source optimization for the different forms of loads, sensible vs. latent, and as such maximizes the cycle efficiency. In this paper I use a thermodynamic analysis tool in order to analyse the performance of various SSLC technologies including: multi-evaporators two stage compression system, vapour compression system with heat activated desiccant dehumidification, and integrated vapour compression with desiccant dehumidification. A primary coefficient of performance is defined and used to judge the performance of the different SSLC technologies at the design conditions. Results showed the trade-off in performance for different sensible heat factor and regeneration temperatures.

  6. Finite Element Analysis of Warpage in Laminated Aluminium Alloy Plates for Machining of Primary Aeronautic Parts

    SciTech Connect

    Reis, A. C.; Moreira Filho, L. A.; Menezes, M. A.

    2007-04-07

    The aim of this paper consists in presenting a method of simulating the warpage in 7xxx series aluminium alloy plates. To perform this simulation finite element software MSC.Patran and MSC.Marc were used. Another result of this analysis will be the influence on material residual stresses induced on the raw material during the rolling process upon the warpage of primary aeronautic parts, fabricated through machining (milling) at Embraer. The method used to determinate the aluminium plate residual stress was Layer Removal Test. The numerical algorithm Modified Flavenot Method was used to convert layer removal and beam deflection in stress level. With such information about the level and profile of residual stresses become possible, during the step that anticipate the manufacturing to incorporate these values in the finite-element approach for modelling warpage parts. Based on that warpage parameter surely the products are manufactured with low relative vulnerability propitiating competitiveness and price.

  7. Primary ciliary dyskinesia assessment by means of optical flow analysis of phase-contrast microscopy images.

    PubMed

    Parrilla, Eduardo; Armengot, Miguel; Mata, Manuel; Sánchez-Vílchez, José Manuel; Cortijo, Julio; Hueso, José L; Riera, Jaime; Moratal, David

    2014-04-01

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia implies cilia with defective or total absence of motility, which may result in sinusitis, chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis and male infertility. Diagnosis can be difficult and is based on an abnormal ciliary beat frequency (CBF) and beat pattern. In this paper, we present a method to determine CBF of isolated cells through the analysis of phase-contrast microscopy images, estimating cilia motion by means of an optical flow algorithm. After having analyzed 28 image sequences (14 with a normal beat pattern and 14 with a dyskinetic pattern), the normal group presented a CBF of 5.2 ± 1.6 Hz, while the dyskinetic patients presented a 1.9 ± 0.9 Hz CBF. The cutoff value to classify a dyskinetic specimen was set to 3.45 Hz (sensitivity 0.86, specificity 0.93). The presented methodology has provided excellent results to objectively diagnose PCD. PMID:24438822

  8. Structural Feasibility Analysis of a Robotically Assembled Very Large Aperture Optical Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkie, William Keats; Williams, R. Brett; Agnes, Gregory S.; Wilcox, Brian H.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a feasibility study of robotically constructing a very large aperture optical space telescope on-orbit. Since the largest engineering challenges are likely to reside in the design and assembly of the 150-m diameter primary reflector, this preliminary study focuses on this component. The same technology developed for construction of the primary would then be readily used for the smaller optical structures (secondary, tertiary, etc.). A reasonable set of ground and on-orbit loading scenarios are compiled from the literature and used to define the structural performance requirements and size the primary reflector. A surface precision analysis shows that active adjustment of the primary structure is required in order to meet stringent optical surface requirements. Two potential actuation strategies are discussed along with potential actuation devices at the current state of the art. The finding of this research effort indicate that successful technology development combined with further analysis will likely enable such a telescope to be built in the future.

  9. Coupled structural/thermal/electromagnetic analysis/tailoring of graded composite structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcknight, R. L.; Chen, P. C.; Dame, L. T.; Huang, H.

    1992-01-01

    Accomplishments are described for the first year effort of a 5-year program to develop a methodology for coupled structural/thermal/electromagnetic analysis/tailoring of graded composite structures. These accomplishments include: (1) the results of the selective literature survey; (2) 8-, 16-, and 20-noded isoparametric plate and shell elements; (3) large deformation structural analysis; (4) eigenanalysis; (5) anisotropic heat transfer analysis; and (6) anisotropic electromagnetic analysis.

  10. Pathway-based analysis of primary biliary cirrhosis genome-wide association studies

    PubMed Central

    Kar, SP; Seldin, MF; Chen, W; Lu, E; Hirschfield, GM; Invernizzi, P; Heathcote, J; Cusi, D; Gershwin, ME; Siminovitch, KA; Amos, CI

    2013-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have successfully identified several loci associated with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) risk. Pathway analysis complements conventional GWAS analysis. We applied the recently developed linear combination test for pathways to datasets drawn from independent PBC GWAS in Italian and Canadian subjects. Of the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes and BioCarta pathways tested, 25 pathways in the Italian dataset (449 cases, 940 controls) and 26 pathways in the Canadian dataset (530 cases, 398 controls) were associated with PBC susceptibility (P < 0.05). After correcting for multiple comparisons, only the eight most significant pathways in the Italian dataset had FDR < 0.25 with tumor necrosis factor/stress-related signaling emerging as the top pathway (P = 7.38 × 10−4, FDR = 0.18). Two pathways, phosphatidylinositol signaling and hedgehog signaling, were replicated in both datasets (P < 0.05), and subjected to two additional complementary pathway tests. Both pathway signals remained significant in the Italian dataset on modified gene set enrichment analysis (P < 0.05). In both GWAS, variants nominally associated with PBC were significantly overrepresented in the phosphatidylinositol pathway (Fisher exact P < 0.05). These results point to established and novel pathway-level associations with inherited predisposition to PBC that on further independent replication and functional validation, may provide fresh insights into PBC etiology. PMID:23392275

  11. ZMYND10 - Mutation Analysis in Slavic Patients with Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia

    PubMed Central

    Kurkowiak, Małgorzata; Ziętkiewicz, Ewa; Greber, Agnieszka; Voelkel, Katarzyna; Wojda, Alina; Pogorzelski, Andrzej; Witt, Michał

    2016-01-01

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a rare recessive disease with a prevalence of 1/10,000; its symptoms are caused by a kinetic dysfunction of motile cilia in the respiratory epithelium, flagella in spermatozoids, and primary cilia in the embryonic node. PCD is genetically heterogeneous: genotyping the already known PCD-related genes explains the genetic basis in 60–65% of the cases, depending on the population. While identification of new genes involved in PCD pathogenesis remains crucial, the search for new, population-specific mutations causative for PCD is equally important. The Slavs remain far less characterized in this respect compared to West European populations, which significantly limits diagnostic capability. The main goal of this study was to characterize the profile of causative genetic defects in one of the PCD-causing genes, ZMYND10, in the cohort of PCD patients of Slavic origin. The study was carried out using biological material from 172 unrelated PCD individuals of Polish origin, with no causative mutation found in nine major PCD genes. While none of the previously described mutations was found using the HRM-based screening, a novel frameshift mutation (c.367delC) in ZMYND10, unique for Slavic PCD population, was found in homozygous state in two unrelated PCD patients. Immunofluorescence analysis confirmed the absence of outer and inner dynein arms from the ciliary axoneme, consistent with the already published ZMYND10-mutated phenotype; cDNA analysis revealed the lack of ZMYND10 mRNA, indicating nonsense-mediated decay of the truncated transcript. PMID:26824761

  12. Deformation analysis of tilted primary mirror for an off-axis beam compressor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, James H., III; Penado, F. Ernesto; Dugdale, Joel

    2011-09-01

    The Navy Prototype Optical Interferometer (NPOI), located near Flagstaff, Arizona, is a ground-based interferometer that collects and transports stellar radiation from six primary flat collectors, known as siderostats, through a common vacuum relay system to a beam combiner where the beams are combined, fringes are obtained and modulated, and data are recorded for further analysis. The current number of observable stellar objects can increase from 6,000 to approximately 47,000 with the addition of down-tilting beam compressors in the optical train. The increase in photon collection area from the beam compressors opens the sky to many additional and fainter stars. The siderostats are capable of redirecting 35 cm stellar beams into the vacuum relay system. Sans beam compressors, any portion of the beam greater than the capacity of the vacuum transport system, 12.5 cm, is wasted. Engineering analysis of previously procured as-built beam compressor optics show the maximum allowable primary mirror surface sag, resulting in λ/10 peak-to-valley wavefront aberration, occurs at 2.8° down-tilt angle. At the NPOI operational down-tilt angle of 20° the wavefront aberration reduces to an unacceptable λ/4. A design modification concept that reduces tilt-induced sag was investigated. Four outwardly applied 4-lb forces on the rear surface of the mirror reduce the sag from 155 nm to 32 nm at 20° down-tilt and reduce peak-to-valley wavefront deviation to λ/8.6. This preliminary effort indicates that this solution path is a viable and economic way to repair an expensive set of optical components. However, it requires further work to optimize the locations, magnitudes, and quantity of the forces within this system and their influence on the mirror surface.

  13. ZMYND10--Mutation Analysis in Slavic Patients with Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia.

    PubMed

    Kurkowiak, Małgorzata; Ziętkiewicz, Ewa; Greber, Agnieszka; Voelkel, Katarzyna; Wojda, Alina; Pogorzelski, Andrzej; Witt, Michał

    2016-01-01

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a rare recessive disease with a prevalence of 1/10,000; its symptoms are caused by a kinetic dysfunction of motile cilia in the respiratory epithelium, flagella in spermatozoids, and primary cilia in the embryonic node. PCD is genetically heterogeneous: genotyping the already known PCD-related genes explains the genetic basis in 60-65% of the cases, depending on the population. While identification of new genes involved in PCD pathogenesis remains crucial, the search for new, population-specific mutations causative for PCD is equally important. The Slavs remain far less characterized in this respect compared to West European populations, which significantly limits diagnostic capability. The main goal of this study was to characterize the profile of causative genetic defects in one of the PCD-causing genes, ZMYND10, in the cohort of PCD patients of Slavic origin. The study was carried out using biological material from 172 unrelated PCD individuals of Polish origin, with no causative mutation found in nine major PCD genes. While none of the previously described mutations was found using the HRM-based screening, a novel frameshift mutation (c.367delC) in ZMYND10, unique for Slavic PCD population, was found in homozygous state in two unrelated PCD patients. Immunofluorescence analysis confirmed the absence of outer and inner dynein arms from the ciliary axoneme, consistent with the already published ZMYND10-mutated phenotype; cDNA analysis revealed the lack of ZMYND10 mRNA, indicating nonsense-mediated decay of the truncated transcript. PMID:26824761

  14. A Cost-Consequences Analysis of a Primary Care Librarian Question and Answering Service

    PubMed Central

    McGowan, Jessie; Hogg, William; Zhong, Jianwei; Zhao, Xue

    2012-01-01

    Background Cost consequences analysis was completed from randomized controlled trial (RCT) data for the Just-in-time (JIT) librarian consultation service in primary care that ran from October 2005 to April 2006. The service was aimed at providing answers to clinical questions arising during the clinical encounter while the patient waits. Cost saving and cost avoidance were also analyzed. The data comes from eighty-eight primary care providers in the Ottawa area working in Family Health Networks (FHNs) and Family Health Groups (FHGs). Methods We conducted a cost consequences analysis based on data from the JIT project [1]. We also estimated the potential economic benefit of JIT librarian consultation service to the health care system. Results The results show that the cost per question for the JIT service was $38.20. The cost could be as low as $5.70 per question for a regular service. Nationally, if this service was implemented and if family physicians saw additional patients when the JIT service saved them time, up to 61,100 extra patients could be seen annually. A conservative estimate of the cost savings and cost avoidance per question for JIT was $11.55. Conclusions The cost per question, if the librarian service was used at full capacity, is quite low. Financial savings to the health care system might exceed the cost of the service. Saving physician's time during their day could potentially lead to better access to family physicians by patients. Implementing a librarian consultation service can happen quickly as the time required to train professional librarians to do this service is short. PMID:22442727

  15. Effect of thermal power effluents on the community structure and primary production of phytoplankton

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, N.K.; Ambasht, R.S.; Kumar, R. )

    1993-01-01

    Effluents discharged by the coal-fired thermal power plant at Obra (22[degrees] 52[prime] N lat. and 83[degrees] 5[prime]E long.) reach into the nearby flowing Rihand river and alter the ecological features of the river ecosystem. The temperature and pH of the receiving river water increased while the transparency, dissolved oxygen, chloride, NO[sub 3]-N, and PO[sub 4]-P decreased. In the effluent zone of the river, no phytoplankton existed during a one-year study period (January to December 1987). Chlorophycean members like Spirogyra and Scenedesmus which were present in the unaffected upstream (control site) were replaced by Bacillariophycean members like Pinnularia and Nitzschia with reduced phytoplankton density in the downstream-affected water. At the control site (average of 12 months), Chlorophyta density contributed 335 unit L[sup [minus]1] to the total phytoplankton density (774 unit L[sup [minus]1]) followed by Cyanophyta (260 unit L[sup [minus]1]) and Bacillariophyta (188 unit L[sup [minus]1]). At the affected site maximum of 112, the unit L[sup [minus]1] contribution was by Bacillariophyta followed by 90 unit L[sup [minus]1] of Chlorophyta and 60 unit L[sup [minus]1] of Cyanophyta to the total phytoplankton density (221 unit L[sup [minus]1]). Phytoplankton diversity indices and primary production were reduced in the affected zone. Chloride and PO[sub 4]-P together accounted for 54% (p<0.01) of the variability of the Bacillariophyta density, while no clear influence on Chlorophyta and Cyanophyta density was observed. Total phytoplankton density was changed by 28% (p<0.05) by chloride itself. Gross and net primary productivities were significantly (p<0.01) influenced by alteration of the NO[sub 3]-N concentrations of the water. 26 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Malay Version Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire Tested among Mothers of Primary School Children in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Shohaimi, Shamarina; Yoke Wei, Wong; Mohd Shariff, Zalilah

    2014-01-01

    Comprehensive feeding practices questionnaire (CFPQ) is an instrument specifically developed to evaluate parental feeding practices. It has been confirmed among children in America and applied to populations in France, Norway, and New Zealand. In order to extend the application of CFPQ, we conducted a factor structure validation of the translated version of CFPQ (CFPQ-M) using confirmatory factor analysis among mothers of primary school children (N = 397) in Malaysia. Several items were modified for cultural adaptation. Of 49 items, 39 items with loading factors >0.40 were retained in the final model. The confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the final model (twelve-factor model with 39 items and 2 error covariances) displayed the best fit for our sample (Chi-square = 1147; df = 634; P < 0.05; CFI = 0.900; RMSEA = 0.045; SRMR = 0.0058). The instrument with some modifications was confirmed among mothers of school children in Malaysia. The present study extends the usability of the CFPQ and enables researchers and parents to better understand the relationships between parental feeding practices and related problems such as childhood obesity. PMID:25538958

  17. Confirmatory factor analysis of the Malay version comprehensive feeding practices questionnaire tested among mothers of primary school children in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Shohaimi, Shamarina; Wei, Wong Yoke; Shariff, Zalilah Mohd

    2014-01-01

    Comprehensive feeding practices questionnaire (CFPQ) is an instrument specifically developed to evaluate parental feeding practices. It has been confirmed among children in America and applied to populations in France, Norway, and New Zealand. In order to extend the application of CFPQ, we conducted a factor structure validation of the translated version of CFPQ (CFPQ-M) using confirmatory factor analysis among mothers of primary school children (N = 397) in Malaysia. Several items were modified for cultural adaptation. Of 49 items, 39 items with loading factors >0.40 were retained in the final model. The confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the final model (twelve-factor model with 39 items and 2 error covariances) displayed the best fit for our sample (Chi-square = 1147; df = 634; P < 0.05; CFI = 0.900; RMSEA = 0.045; SRMR = 0.0058). The instrument with some modifications was confirmed among mothers of school children in Malaysia. The present study extends the usability of the CFPQ and enables researchers and parents to better understand the relationships between parental feeding practices and related problems such as childhood obesity. PMID:25538958

  18. Free-Vibration Analysis of Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, K. K.

    1985-01-01

    Improved numerical procedure more than twice as fast as previous methods. Unified numerical algorithm efficiently solves free-vibration problems of stationary or spinning structures with or without viscous or structural damping. Algorithm used to solve static problems involving multiple loads and to solve quadratic matrix eigenvalue problems associated with finite-dynamic-element structural discretization.

  19. Innovative fabrication processing of advanced composite materials concepts for primary aircraft structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kassapoglou, Christos; Dinicola, Al J.; Chou, Jack C.

    1992-01-01

    The autoclave based THERM-X(sub R) process was evaluated by cocuring complex curved panels with frames and stiffeners. The process was shown to result in composite parts of high quality with good compaction at sharp radius regions and corners of intersecting parts. The structural properties of the postbuckled panels fabricated were found to be equivalent to those of conventionally tooled hand laid-up parts. Significant savings in bagging time over conventional tooling were documented. Structural details such as cocured shear ties and embedded stiffener flanges in the skin were found to suppress failure modes such as failure at corners of intersecting members and skin stiffeners separation.

  20. Analysis and design technology for high-speed aircraft structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starnes, James H., Jr.; Camarda, Charles J.

    1992-01-01

    Recent high-speed aircraft structures research activities at NASA Langley Research Center are described. The following topics are covered: the development of analytical and numerical solutions to global and local thermal and structural problems, experimental verification of analysis methods, identification of failure mechanisms, and the incorporation of analysis methods into design and optimization strategies. The paper describes recent NASA Langley advances in analysis and design methods, structural and thermal concepts, and test methods.

  1. Human liver alcohol dehydrogenase. 1. The primary structure of the beta 1 beta 1 isoenzyme.

    PubMed

    Hempel, J; Bühler, R; Kaiser, R; Holmquist, B; de Zalenski, C; von Wartburg, J P; Vallee, B; Jörnvall, H

    1984-12-17

    Determination of the amino acid sequence of the beta 1 subunit from the class I (pyrazole-sensitive) human liver alcohol dehydrogenase isoenzyme beta 1 beta 1 revealed a 373-residue structure differing at 48 positions (including a gap) from that of the subunit of the well studied horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase EE isoenzyme. The structure deduced is compatible with known differences in composition, ultraviolet absorbance, electrophoretic mobility and catalytic properties between the horse and human enzymes. All zinc-liganding residues of the horse E subunit are strictly conserved in the human beta 1 subunit, despite an earlier report of a mutation involving Cys-46. This residue therefore remains conserved in all known alcohol dehydrogenase structures. However, the total cysteine content of the beta 1 structure is raised from 14 in the subunit of the horse enzyme to 15 by a Tyr----Cys exchange. Most exchanges are on the surface of the molecule and of a well conserved nature. Substitutions close to the catalytic centre are of interest to explain the altered substrate specificity and different catalytic activity of the beta 1 homodimer. Functionally, a Ser----Thr exchange at position 48 appears to be of special importance, since Thr-48 in beta 1 instead of Ser-48 in the horse enzyme can restrict available space. Four other substitutions also line the active-site pocket, and appear to constitute partly compensated exchanges. PMID:6391920

  2. STRUCTURE OF PRIMARY PM2.5 DERIVED FROM DIESEL TRUCK EXHAUST

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is currently considering regulations on airborne particulate matter < 2.5 microns in mean diameter (PM2.5). It is important that the molecular structure and microstructure of PM2.5 from various sources be thoroughly characterized in order ...

  3. PRIMARY STRUCTURE OF THE P450 LANOSTEROL DEMETHYLASE GENE FROM SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have sequenced the structural gene and flanking regions for lanosterol 14 alpha-demethylase (14DM) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. An open reading frame of 530 codons encodes a 60.7-kDa protein. When this gene is disrupted by integrative transformation, the resulting strain req...

  4. [Conserved motifs in the primary and secondary ITS1 structures in bryophytes].

    PubMed

    Milyutina, I A; Ignatov, M S

    2015-01-01

    A study of the ITS1 nucleotide sequences of 1000 moss species of 62 families, 11 liverwort species from five orders, and one hornwort Anthoceros agrestis identified five highly conserved motifs (CM1-CM5), which are presumably involved in pre-rRNA processing. Although the ITS1 sequences substantially differ in length and the extent of divergence, the conserved motifs are found in all of them. ITS1 secondary structures were constructed for 76 mosses, and main regularities at conserved motif positioning were observed. The positions of processing sites in the ITS1 secondary structure of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae were found to be similar to the positions of the conserved motifs in the ITS1 secondary structures of mosses and liverworts. In addition, a potential hairpin formation in the putative secondary structure of a pre-rRNA fragment was considered for the region between ITS1 CM4-CM5 and a highly conserved region between hairpins 49 and 50 (H49 and H50) of the 18S rRNA.

  5. [Conserved motifs in the primary and secondary ITS1 structures in bryophytes].

    PubMed

    Milyutina, I A; Ignatov, M S

    2015-01-01

    A study of the ITS1 nucleotide sequences of 1000 moss species of 62 families, 11 liverwort species from five orders, and one hornwort Anthoceros agrestis identified five highly conserved motifs (CM1-CM5), which are presumably involved in pre-rRNA processing. Although the ITS1 sequences substantially differ in length and the extent of divergence, the conserved motifs are found in all of them. ITS1 secondary structures were constructed for 76 mosses, and main regularities at conserved motif positioning were observed. The positions of processing sites in the ITS1 secondary structure of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae were found to be similar to the positions of the conserved motifs in the ITS1 secondary structures of mosses and liverworts. In addition, a potential hairpin formation in the putative secondary structure of a pre-rRNA fragment was considered for the region between ITS1 CM4-CM5 and a highly conserved region between hairpins 49 and 50 (H49 and H50) of the 18S rRNA. PMID:26107892

  6. [Use of primary health care services in municipalities in the southern half of the Rio Grande do Sul State: analysis based on information systems].

    PubMed

    Gerhardt, Tatiana Engel; Pinto, Juliana Maciel; Riquinho, Deise Lisboa; Roese, Adriana; dos Santos, Daniel Labernarde; de Lima, Maristela Correa Rodrigues

    2011-01-01

    This study is proposed to describe the supply and demand of Primary Health Care Service in thirteen municipalities of the southern half of Rio Grande do Sul State. For analysis, secondary data were obtained from the Data Processing Department of the Unified Health System (DATASUS). Data from appointments, procedures and structure of Primary Health Care Service were associated with concepts present in public policies and specific legal authorization. A quantitative study was carried out through the analyses of absolute frequencies of appointments and procedures from 2000 to 2005. Results showed diversified situations requiring primary health care service, which allowed different interpretations for the situations found. Among them, it can be cited the existence of a database with sub-notifications of appointments and procedures or even the absence of demand and/or supply for those within the municipalities researched. It is suggested the improvement of the mechanisms available for the analysis of primary health care services, which will enable the outlining of possible workflows, trajectories and therapeutic itineraries of users as well as the unveiling of likely local disparities regarding health.

  7. Analysis of the Concept of Primary Care for Children and Adolescents: A Policy Research Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johansen, Anne S.; And Others

    This document examines the 10 essential attributes of primary health care contained in the U.S. Maternal and Child Health Bureau's definition of primary care. Primary care for children and adolescents is personal health care delivered in the context of family, culture, and community; the range of services meets all but the most uncommon health…

  8. Quantitative analysis of ciliary beating in primary ciliary dyskinesia: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a rare congenital respiratory disorder characterized by abnormal ciliary motility leading to chronic airway infections. Qualitative evaluation of ciliary beat pattern based on digital high-speed videomicroscopy analysis has been proposed in the diagnosis process of PCD. Although this evaluation is easy in typical cases, it becomes difficult when ciliary beating is partially maintained. We postulated that a quantitative analysis of beat pattern would improve PCD diagnosis. We compared quantitative parameters with the qualitative evaluation of ciliary beat pattern in patients in whom the diagnosis of PCD was confirmed or excluded. Methods Nasal nitric oxide measurement, nasal brushings and biopsies were performed prospectively in 34 patients with suspected PCD. In combination with qualitative analysis, 12 quantitative parameters of ciliary beat pattern were determined on high-speed videomicroscopy recordings of beating ciliated edges. The combination of ciliary ultrastructural abnormalities on transmission electron microscopy analysis with low nasal nitric oxide levels was the “gold standard” used to establish the diagnosis of PCD. Results This “gold standard” excluded PCD in 15 patients (non-PCD patients), confirmed PCD in 10 patients (PCD patients) and was inconclusive in 9 patients. Among the 12 parameters, the distance traveled by the cilium tip weighted by the percentage of beating ciliated edges presented 96% sensitivity and 95% specificity. Qualitative evaluation and quantitative analysis were concordant in non-PCD patients. In 9/10 PCD patients, quantitative analysis was concordant with the “gold standard”, while the qualitative evaluation was discordant with the “gold standard” in 3/10 cases. Among the patients with an inconclusive “gold standard”, the use of quantitative parameters supported PCD diagnosis in 4/9 patients (confirmed by the identification of disease-causing mutations in one

  9. Spatial and temporal dynamics of size-structured photosynthetic parameters (PAM) and primary production (13C) of pico- and nano-phytoplankton in an atoll lagoon.

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, Sébastien; Claquin, Pascal; Orvain, Francis; Véron, Benoît; Charpy, Loïc

    2012-01-01

    Atoll lagoons display a high diversity of trophic states due mainly to their specific geomorphology, and probably to their level and mode of human exploitation. We investigated the functioning of the Ahe atoll lagoon, utilized for pearl oyster farming, through estimations of photosynthetic parameters (pulse amplitude modulation fluorometry) and primary production ((13)C incorporation) measurements of the size structured phytoplankton biomass (<2 μm and >2 μm). Spatial and temporal scales of variability were surveyed during four seasons, over 16 months, at four sites within the lagoon. While primary production (P) was dominated by the picophytoplankton, its biomass specific primary productivity (P(B)) was lower than in other atoll lagoons. The variables size fraction of the phytoplankton, water temperature, season, the interaction term station*fraction and site, explained significantly the variance of the data set using redundancy analysis. No significant trends over depth were observed in the range of 0-20 m. A clear spatial pattern was found which was persistent over the seasons: south and north sites were different from the two central stations for most of the measured variables. This pattern could possibly be explained by the existence of water cells showing different water residence time within the lagoon. Photoacclimation strategies of the two size fractions differed through their light saturation coefficient (higher for picophytoplankton), but not through their maximum photosynthetic capacity (ETR(max)). Positive linear relationships between photosynthetic parameters indicated that their dynamic was independent of light availability in this ecosystem, but most probably dependent on nutrient availability and/or rapid changes in the community structure. Spatial and temporal patterns of the measured processes are then further discussed in the context of nutrient availability and the possible role of cultured oysters in nutrient recycling. PMID:22640918

  10. Structural design and analysis of the multi-function waste tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Farnworth, S.K.; Stine, M.D.; Miller, L.K.

    1993-10-01

    This paper describes structural design and analysis procedures to be used for the Multi-function Waste Tank Facility underground waste storage tanks proposed for the Hanford Site. The Multi-function Waste Tank Facility will consist of four one-million-gallon nominal capacity, double-shell, underground waste storage tanks and will include the associated process and control systems and aboveground structures. The tanks will consist of an inner primary steel tank and an outer secondary reinforced-concrete steel-lined tank. The primary tank head will be structurally attached to the concrete dome. A supporting layer of material will be placed between the bottom of the primary steel tank and the bottom of the steel liner on the secondary tank. The tank analysis is undertaken jointly by a team of engineers and analysts representing Kaiser Engineers Hanford, the site architect/engineer, and Westinghouse Hanford Company, the site management and operating contractor. This analysis is planned in several phases. Heat transfer solutions will address the anticipated mixing pump and cyclic fill/drain environment to provide steel and concrete temperature distributions. With this information, an in situ static analysis of the reinforced-concrete secondary tank will be carried out over the structure design life and will give material states and deformations along with strength and stability checks. Seismic analysis, accounting for soil-structure interaction and liquid loads, will be conducted with the most conservative material state, and the in situ deformations will be incorporated. Finally, penetrations and other components will be analyzed.

  11. Probabilistic structural analysis of adaptive/smart/intelligent space structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pai, Shantaram S.; Chamis, Christos C.

    1991-01-01

    A three-bay, space, cantilever truss is probabilistically evaluated for adaptive/smart/intelligent behavior. For each behavior, the scatter (ranges) in buckling loads, vibration frequencies, and member axial forces are probabilistically determined. Sensitivities associated with uncertainties in the structure, material and load variables that describe the truss are determined for different probabilities. The relative magnitude for these sensitivities are used to identify significant truss variables that control/classify its behavior to respond as an adaptive/smart/intelligent structure. Results show that the probabilistic buckling loads and vibration frequencies increase for each truss classification, with a substantial increase for intelligent trusses. Similarly, the probabilistic member axial forces reduce for adaptive and intelligent trusses and increase for smart trusses.

  12. Probabilistic structural analysis of adaptive/smart/intelligent space structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pai, Shantaram S.; Chamis, Christos C.

    1992-01-01

    A three-bay, space, cantilever truss is probabilistically evaluated for adaptive/smart/intelligent behavior. For each behavior, the scatter (ranges) in buckling loads, vibration frequencies, and member axial forces are probabilistically determined. Sensitivities associated with uncertainties in the structure, material and load variables that describe the truss are determined for different probabilities. The relative magnitude for these sensitivities are used to identify significant truss variables that control/classify its behavior to respond as an adaptive/smart/intelligent structure. Results show that the probabilistic buckling loads and vibration frequencies increase for each truss classification, with a substantial increase for intelligent trusses. Similarly, the probabilistic member axial forces reduce for adaptive and intelligent trusses and increase for smart trusses.

  13. Numerical models for the determination of primary structural barriers for diagnostic x-ray facilities.

    PubMed

    Okunade, Akintunde Akangbe

    2004-03-01

    In this work, numerical models are presented for the determination of additional shielding requirements apart from that afforded by patient and hardware devices (grid, cassette, cassette holder, and x-ray table) for diagnostic x-ray primary beams. The models provide an opportunity for the incorporation of appropriate transmission factors obtained by integration of incident radiation energy distribution and workload spectra for clinically realistic condition of varying thicknesses of patient. It was found that as a result of significant differences in the attenuation and hardening properties of water (which was used to represent patient) and lead, lead exposure attenuation equivalent thicknesses do not transmit beam of equivalent penetrating power (though of equivalent exposure) as corresponding patient thicknesses. Sample results are presented which show that ignoring these significant differences will result in underestimation of shielding afforded by patient and hardware devices in practice; thus installing in addition more thickness of lead than necessary. For different incident beam qualities (kVp), obtaining exposure attenuation equivalence of varying thicknesses of patients and hardware in terms of lead is a nontrivial phenomenon. PMID:15070248

  14. Structural evaluation of candidate designs for the large space telescope primary mirror

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soosaar, K.; Grin, R.; Furey, M.; Hamilton, J.

    1975-01-01

    Structural performance analyses were conducted on two candidate designs (Itek and Perkin-Elmer designs) for the large space telescope three-meter mirror. The mirror designs and the finite-element models used in the analyses evaluation are described. The results of the structural analyses for several different types of loading are presented in tabular and graphic forms. Several additional analyses are also reported: the evaluation of a mirror design concept proposed by the Boeing Co., a study of the global effects of local cell plate deflections, and an investigation of the fracture mechanics problems likely to occur with Cervit and ULE. Flexibility matrices were obtained for the Itek and Perkin-Elmer mirrors to be used in active figure control studies. Summary, conclusions, and recommendations are included.

  15. Fuel containment, lightning protection and damage tolerance in large composite primary aircraft structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, Charles F.; James, Arthur M.

    1985-01-01

    The damage-tolerance characteristics of high strain-to-failure graphite fibers and toughened resins were evaluated. Test results show that conventional fuel tank sealing techniques are applicable to composite structures. Techniques were developed to prevent fuel leaks due to low-energy impact damage. For wing panels subjected to swept stroke lightning strikes, a surface protection of graphite/aluminum wire fabric and a fastener treatment proved effective in eliminating internal sparking and reducing structural damage. The technology features developed were incorporated and demonstrated in a test panel designed to meet the strength, stiffness, and damage tolerance requirements of a large commercial transport aircraft. The panel test results exceeded design requirements for all test conditions. Wing surfaces constructed with composites offer large weight savings if design allowable strains for compression can be increased from current levels.

  16. Analysis of large space structures assembly: Man/machine assembly analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Procedures for analyzing large space structures assembly via three primary modes: manual, remote and automated are outlined. Data bases on each of the assembly modes and a general data base on the shuttle capabilities to support structures assembly are presented. Task element times and structure assembly component costs are given to provide a basis for determining the comparative economics of assembly alternatives. The lessons learned from simulations of space structures assembly are detailed.

  17. Oxidative damage induced by copper in mouse primary hepatocytes by single-cell analysis.

    PubMed

    Jing, Mingyang; Liu, Yang; Song, Wei; Yan, Yunxing; Yan, Wenbao; Liu, Rutao

    2016-01-01

    Copper can disturb the intracellular redox balance, induce oxidative stress, and subsequently cause irreversible damage, leading to a variety of diseases. In the present study, mouse primary hepatocytes were chosen to elucidate the in vitro oxidative damage of short-term copper exposure (10-200 μM) by single-cell analysis. We evaluated the toxicity of copper by reactive oxygen species (ROS), glutathione (GSH), and oxidative DNA damage at the single-cell level. Oxidative damage induced by copper was verified by the morphological changes, persistent elevations of excessive ROS and malondialdehyde (MDA), a decrease in GSH level, and the oxidative DNA damage. Furthermore, the average ROS generation, GSH consumption, and the indicators in DNA damage did not significantly change at relatively low concentrations (10 or 50 μM), but we can find the alterations of parameters in some single cells clearly. Emphasis on the analysis of single cells is conducive to gain a better understanding on the toxicity of copper. This study will also complement studies on the environmental risk assessment of copper pollution.

  18. Retrobulbar haemodynamics and morphometric optic disc analysis in primary open‐angle glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Plange, N; Kaup, M; Weber, A; Arend, K O; Remky, A

    2006-01-01

    Background Previous studies confirmed reduced retrobulbar haemodynamics in primary open‐angle glaucoma (POAG). Aim To investigate a correlation between retrobulbar haemodynamics and morphometric neuroretinal rim analysis in patients with POAG. Methods 51 patients with POAG (mean (standard deviation (SD)) age 65 (11) years) were included in this clinical study. Blood flow velocities (peak systolic velocity (PSV) and end‐diastolic velocity (EDV)) of the ophthalmic artery, central retinal artery (CRA), posterior ciliary arteries (PCA) and central retinal vein were measured using colour Doppler imaging (Siemens Sonoline Sienna, Erlangen, Germany). Optic disc morphometry was carried out using scanning laser tomography (Heidelberg Retinal Tomograph II Heidelberg Egineering Heidelberg, Germany). The stereometric parameters of the neuroretinal rim (rim area, rim volume, cup shape measure and retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) cross‐sectional area) were used for analysis. Results The PSV of the CRA was significantly (p<0.001) correlated with rim area (r = 0.50) and rim volume (r = 0.51). The minimum velocities of the central retinal vein were significantly (p<0.001) correlated with rim volume (r = 0.56) and RNFL cross‐sectional area (r = 0.49). No correlations were found for the flow velocities of the ophthalmic artery and PCAs. Conclusion Retrobulbar haemodynamics of the central retinal artery and vein are correlated with the neuroretinal rim damage in POAG. PMID:16914471

  19. Correlation of analysis with high level vibration test results for primary coolant piping

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Y.J.; Hofmayer, C.H. ); Costello, J.F. )

    1992-01-01

    Dynamic tests on a modified 1/2.5-scale model of pressurized water reactor (PWR) primary coolant piping were performed using a large shaking table at Tadotsu, Japan. The High Level Vibration Test (HLVT) program was part of a cooperative study between the United States (Nuclear Regulatory Commission/Brookhaven National Laboratory, NRC/BNL) and Japan (Ministry of International Trade and Industry/Nuclear Power Engineering Center). During the test program, the excitation level of each test run was gradually increased up to the limit of the shaking table and significant plastic strains, as well as cracking, were induced in the piping. To fully utilize the test results, NRC/BNL sponsored a project to develop corresponding analytical predictions for the nonlinear dynamic response of the piping for selected test runs. The analyses were performed using both simplified and detailed approaches. The simplified approaches utilize a linear solution and an approximate formulation for nonlinear dynamic effects such as the use of a deamplification factor. The detailed analyses were performed using available nonlinear finite element computer codes, including the MARC, ABAQUS, ADINA and WECAN codes. A comparison of various analysis techniques with the test results shows a higher prediction error in the detailed strain values in the overall response values. A summary of the correlation analyses was presented before the BNL. This paper presents a detailed description of the various analysis results and additional comparisons with test results.

  20. Correlation of analysis with high level vibration test results for primary coolant piping

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Y.J.; Hofmayer, C.H.; Costello, J.F.

    1992-05-01

    Dynamic tests on a modified 1/2.5-scale model of pressurized water reactor (PWR) primary coolant piping were performed using a large shaking table at Tadotsu, Japan. The High Level Vibration Test (HLVT) program was part of a cooperative study between the United States (Nuclear Regulatory Commission/Brookhaven National Laboratory, NRC/BNL) and Japan (Ministry of International Trade and Industry/Nuclear Power Engineering Center). During the test program, the excitation level of each test run was gradually increased up to the limit of the shaking table and significant plastic strains, as well as cracking, were induced in the piping. To fully utilize the test results, NRC/BNL sponsored a project to develop corresponding analytical predictions for the nonlinear dynamic response of the piping for selected test runs. The analyses were performed using both simplified and detailed approaches. The simplified approaches utilize a linear solution and an approximate formulation for nonlinear dynamic effects such as the use of a deamplification factor. The detailed analyses were performed using available nonlinear finite element computer codes, including the MARC, ABAQUS, ADINA and WECAN codes. A comparison of various analysis techniques with the test results shows a higher prediction error in the detailed strain values in the overall response values. A summary of the correlation analyses was presented before the BNL. This paper presents a detailed description of the various analysis results and additional comparisons with test results.