Science.gov

Sample records for primary systemic al

  1. Primary Systemic Al Amyloidosis Presenting as Temporal Arteritis

    PubMed Central

    Emmungil, Hakan; Kalfa, Melike; Başarık, Burcu; Kahraman, Hasip; Tanhan, Ferhat; Yaman, Banu; Öztürk, Atiye; Erdemir, Zehra; Kandiloğlu, Gülşen; İnal, Vedat; Kabasakal, Yasemin

    2014-01-01

    Temporal arteritis is most common vasculitis in elderly and imitated by miscellaneous disorders. Temporal artery biopsy is the gold standard test in the diagnosis of giant cell arteritis (GCA). Hereby, we describe a case of a 67-year-old man who presented initially with temporal arteritis; however, a lip biopsy then revealed AL amyloidosis. In this respect, temporal artery biopsy should be performed for definitive diagnosis of GCA particularly patients with systemic symptoms and treatment resistant. PMID:24551471

  2. Physician user satisfaction with an electronic medical records system in primary healthcare centres in Al Ain: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Al Alawi, Shamma; Al Dhaheri, Aysha; Al Baloushi, Durra; Al Dhaheri, Mouza; Prinsloo, Engela A M

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To explore physician satisfaction with an electronic medical records (EMR) system, to identify and explore the main limitations of the system and finally to submit recommendations to address these limitations. Design A descriptive qualitative study that entailed three focus group interviews was performed among physicians using open-ended questions. The interviews were audiotaped, documented and transcribed verbatim. The themes were explored and analysed in different categories. Setting The study was conducted in primary healthcare centres (PHC) in Al Ain, United Arab Emirates (UAE). Participants A total of 23 physicians, all using the same EMR system, attended one of three focus groups held in PHC in Al Ain Medical District. Each focus group consisted of 7–9 physicians working in PHC as family medicine specialists, residents or general practitioners. Primary outcome measure Physician satisfaction with the EMR system. Results Key themes emerged and were categorised as physician-dependent, patient-related and system-related factors. In general, physicians were satisfied with the EMR system in spite of initial difficulties with implementation. Most participants identified that the long time required to do the documentation affected their practice and patient communication. Many physicians expressed satisfaction with the orders and results of laboratory and radiology functions and they emphasised that this was the strongest point in the EMR. They were also satisfied with the electronic prescription function, stating that it reduced errors and saved time. Conclusions Physicians are satisfied with the EMR and have a positive perception regarding the application of the system. Several themes emerged during this study that need to be considered to enhance the EMR system. Further studies need to be conducted among other healthcare practitioners and patients to explore their attitude and perception about the EMR. PMID:25377010

  3. ALS superbend magnet system

    SciTech Connect

    Zbasnik, J.; Wang, S.T.; Chen, J.Y.; DeVries, G.J.; DeMarco, R.; Fahmie, M.; Geyer, A.; Green, M.A.; Harkins, J.; Henderson, T.; Hinkson, J.; Hoyer, E.H.; Krupnick, J.; Marks, S.; Ottens, F.; Paterson, J.A.; Pipersky, P.; Portmann, G.; Robin, D.A.; Schlueter, R.D.; Steier, C.; Taylor, C.E.; Wahrer, R.

    2000-09-15

    The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is preparing to upgrade the Advanced Light Source (ALS) with three superconducting dipoles (Superbends). In this paper we present the final magnet system design which incorporates R&D test results and addresses the ALS operational concerns of alignment, availability, and economy. The design incorporates conduction-cooled Nb-Ti windings and HTS current leads, epoxy-glass suspension straps, and a Gifford-McMahon cryocooler to supply steady state refrigeration. We also present the current status of fabrication and testing.

  4. Dynamic Modeling of ALS Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of dynamic modeling and simulation of Advanced Life Support (ALS) systems is to help design them. Static steady state systems analysis provides basic information and is necessary to guide dynamic modeling, but static analysis is not sufficient to design and compare systems. ALS systems must respond to external input variations and internal off-nominal behavior. Buffer sizing, resupply scheduling, failure response, and control system design are aspects of dynamic system design. We develop two dynamic mass flow models and use them in simulations to evaluate systems issues, optimize designs, and make system design trades. One model is of nitrogen leakage in the space station, the other is of a waste processor failure in a regenerative life support system. Most systems analyses are concerned with optimizing the cost/benefit of a system at its nominal steady-state operating point. ALS analysis must go beyond the static steady state to include dynamic system design. All life support systems exhibit behavior that varies over time. ALS systems must respond to equipment operating cycles, repair schedules, and occasional off-nominal behavior or malfunctions. Biological components, such as bioreactors, composters, and food plant growth chambers, usually have operating cycles or other complex time behavior. Buffer sizes, material stocks, and resupply rates determine dynamic system behavior and directly affect system mass and cost. Dynamic simulation is needed to avoid the extremes of costly over-design of buffers and material reserves or system failure due to insufficient buffers and lack of stored material.

  5. The Advanced Launch System (ALS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eldred, Charles H.

    The Advanced Launch System (ALS) is an unmanned vehicle that will achieve low hardware cost by using a reusable booster stage which flies back to the launch site, and a core stage in which the rocket engines and redundant avionics are in a module that is returned to earth and recovered for reuse. The booster's utilization of liquid propellant instead of solid propellant will help lower the consumable costs. The ALS also includes launch processing and flight control facilities, necessary support equipment, and ground- and flight-operations infrastructure. The ALS program studies show that, through the ALS, the United States can launch a major Mars initiative economically and with confidence. It is estimated that the objective ALS can be operational in the late 1990s.

  6. Gemini primary mirror support system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepp, Larry M.; Huang, Eugene W.; Cho, Myung K.

    1994-06-01

    The primary mirror selected for the Gemini 8-m Telescopes is a thin meniscus made of Corning ULE(superscript TM) glass. The conceptual design of the Gemini support system has evolved in response to the properties of the meniscus mirror and the functional requirements of the Gemini Telescopes. This paper describes the design requirements, the design features, and predicted performance of this system.

  7. Revealing heterogeneous nucleation of primary Si and eutectic Si by AlP in hypereutectic Al-Si alloys.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiehua; Hage, Fredrik S; Liu, Xiangfa; Ramasse, Quentin; Schumacher, Peter

    2016-04-28

    The heterogeneous nucleation of primary Si and eutectic Si can be attributed to the presence of AlP. Although P, in the form of AlP particles, is usually observed in the centre of primary Si, there is still a lack of detailed investigations on the distribution of P within primary Si and eutectic Si in hypereutectic Al-Si alloys at the atomic scale. Here, we report an atomic-scale experimental investigation on the distribution of P in hypereutectic Al-Si alloys. P, in the form of AlP particles, was observed in the centre of primary Si. However, no significant amount of P was detected within primary Si, eutectic Si and the Al matrix. Instead, P was observed at the interface between the Al matrix and eutectic Si, strongly indicating that P, in the form of AlP particles (or AlP 'patch' dependent on the P concentration), may have nucleated on the surface of the Al matrix and thereby enhanced the heterogeneous nucleation of eutectic Si. The present investigation reveals some novel insights into heterogeneous nucleation of primary Si and eutectic Si by AlP in hypereutectic Al-Si alloys and can be used to further develop heterogeneous nucleation mechanisms based on adsorption.

  8. Revealing heterogeneous nucleation of primary Si and eutectic Si by AlP in hypereutectic Al-Si alloys.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiehua; Hage, Fredrik S; Liu, Xiangfa; Ramasse, Quentin; Schumacher, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The heterogeneous nucleation of primary Si and eutectic Si can be attributed to the presence of AlP. Although P, in the form of AlP particles, is usually observed in the centre of primary Si, there is still a lack of detailed investigations on the distribution of P within primary Si and eutectic Si in hypereutectic Al-Si alloys at the atomic scale. Here, we report an atomic-scale experimental investigation on the distribution of P in hypereutectic Al-Si alloys. P, in the form of AlP particles, was observed in the centre of primary Si. However, no significant amount of P was detected within primary Si, eutectic Si and the Al matrix. Instead, P was observed at the interface between the Al matrix and eutectic Si, strongly indicating that P, in the form of AlP particles (or AlP 'patch' dependent on the P concentration), may have nucleated on the surface of the Al matrix and thereby enhanced the heterogeneous nucleation of eutectic Si. The present investigation reveals some novel insights into heterogeneous nucleation of primary Si and eutectic Si by AlP in hypereutectic Al-Si alloys and can be used to further develop heterogeneous nucleation mechanisms based on adsorption. PMID:27120994

  9. Revealing heterogeneous nucleation of primary Si and eutectic Si by AlP in hypereutectic Al-Si alloys

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jiehua; Hage, Fredrik S.; Liu, Xiangfa; Ramasse, Quentin; Schumacher, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The heterogeneous nucleation of primary Si and eutectic Si can be attributed to the presence of AlP. Although P, in the form of AlP particles, is usually observed in the centre of primary Si, there is still a lack of detailed investigations on the distribution of P within primary Si and eutectic Si in hypereutectic Al-Si alloys at the atomic scale. Here, we report an atomic-scale experimental investigation on the distribution of P in hypereutectic Al-Si alloys. P, in the form of AlP particles, was observed in the centre of primary Si. However, no significant amount of P was detected within primary Si, eutectic Si and the Al matrix. Instead, P was observed at the interface between the Al matrix and eutectic Si, strongly indicating that P, in the form of AlP particles (or AlP ‘patch’ dependent on the P concentration), may have nucleated on the surface of the Al matrix and thereby enhanced the heterogeneous nucleation of eutectic Si. The present investigation reveals some novel insights into heterogeneous nucleation of primary Si and eutectic Si by AlP in hypereutectic Al-Si alloys and can be used to further develop heterogeneous nucleation mechanisms based on adsorption. PMID:27120994

  10. Viking orbiter system primary mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goudy, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    An overview of Viking Orbiter (VO) system and subsystem performances during the primary mission (the time period from VO-1 launch on August 20, 1975, through November 15, 1976) is presented. Brief descriptions, key design requirements, pertinent historical information, unique applications or situations, and predicted versus actual performances are included for all VO-1 and VO-2 subsystems, both individually and as an integrated system.

  11. Primary Atomic Clock Reference System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    An artist's concept of the Primary Atomic Clock Reference System (PARCS) plarned to fly on the International Space Station (ISS). PARCS will make even more accurate atomic time available to everyone, from physicists testing Einstein's Theory of Relativity, to hikers using the Global Positioning System to find their way. In ground-based atomic clocks, lasers are used to cool and nearly stop atoms of cesium whose vibrations are used as the time base. The microgravity of space will allow the atoms to be suspended in the clock rather than circulated in an atomic fountain, as required on Earth. PARCS is being developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory with principal investigators at the National Institutes of Standards and Technology and the University of Colorado, Boulder. See also No. 0103191

  12. Primary Atomic Clock Reference System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    An artist's concept of the Primary Atomic Clock Reference System (PARCS) plarned to fly on the International Space Station (ISS). PARCS will make even more accurate atomic time available to everyone, from physicists testing Einstein's Theory of Relativity, to hikers using the Global Positioning System to find their way. In ground-based atomic clocks, lasers are used to cool and nearly stop atoms of cesium whose vibrations are used as the time base. The microgravity of space will allow the atoms to be suspended in the clock rather than circulated in an atomic fountain, as required on Earth. PARCS is being developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory with principal investigators at the National Institutes of Standards and Technology and the University of Colorado, Boulder. See also No. 0100120.

  13. The Advanced Light Source (ALS) Radiation Safety System. Revised

    SciTech Connect

    Ritchie, A.L.; Oldfather, D.E.; Lindner, A.F.

    1993-08-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) is a 1.5 Gev synchrotron light source facility consisting of a 120 kev electron gun, 50 Mev linear accelerator, 1.5 Gev booster synchrotron, 200 meter circumference electron storage ring, and many photon beamline transport systems for research. Figure 1. ALS floor plan. Pairs of neutron and gamma radiation monitors are shown as dots numbered from 1 to 12. The Radiation Safety System for the ALS has been designed and built with a primary goal of providing protection against inadvertent personnel exposure to gamma and neutron radiation and, secondarily, to enhance the electrical safety of select magnet power supplies.

  14. Systems Engineering Techniques for ALS Decision Making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriquez, Luis F.; Drysdale, Alan E.; Jones, Harry; Levri, Julie A.

    2004-01-01

    The Advanced Life Support (ALS) Metric is the predominant tool for predicting the cost of ALS systems. Metric goals for the ALS Program are daunting, requiring a threefold increase in the ALS Metric by 2010. Confounding the problem, the rate new ALS technologies reach the maturity required for consideration in the ALS Metric and the rate at which new configurations are developed is slow, limiting the search space and potentially giving the perspective of a ALS technology, the ALS Metric may remain elusive. This paper is a sequel to a paper published in the proceedings of the 2003 ICES conference entitled, "Managing to the metric: an approach to optimizing life support costs." The conclusions of that paper state that the largest contributors to the ALS Metric should be targeted by ALS researchers and management for maximum metric reductions. Certainly, these areas potentially offer large potential benefits to future ALS missions; however, the ALS Metric is not the only decision-making tool available to the community. To facilitate decision-making within the ALS community a combination of metrics should be utilized, such as the Equivalent System Mass (ESM)-based ALS metric, but also those available through techniques such as life cycle costing and faithful consideration of the sensitivity of the assumed models and data. Often a lack of data is cited as the reason why these techniques are not considered for utilization. An existing database development effort within the ALS community, known as OPIS, may provide the opportunity to collect the necessary information to enable the proposed systems analyses. A review of these additional analysis techniques is provided, focusing on the data necessary to enable these. The discussion is concluded by proposing how the data may be utilized by analysts in the future.

  15. Preoperational test report, primary ventilation condensate system

    SciTech Connect

    Clifton, F.T.

    1997-01-29

    Preoperational test report for Primary Ventilation Condensate System, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The system provides a collection point for condensate generated by the W-030 primary vent offgas cooling system serving tanks AYIOI, AY102, AZIOI, AZI02. The system is located inside a shielded ventilation equipment cell and consists of a condensate seal pot, sampling features, a drain line to existing Catch Tank 241-AZ-151, and a cell sump jet pump. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System.

  16. Refinement of primary Si grains in Al-20%Si alloy slurry through serpentine channel pouring process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Zhi-kai; Mao, Wei-min; Liu, Zhi-yong; Wang, Dong; Yue, Rui

    2016-05-01

    In this study, a serpentine channel pouring process was used to prepare the semi-solid Al-20%Si alloy slurry and refine primary Si grains in the alloy. The effects of the pouring temperature, number of curves in the serpentine channel, and material of the serpentine channel on the size of primary Si grains in the semi-solid Al-20%Si alloy slurry were investigated. The results showed that the pouring temperature, number of the curves, and material of the channel strongly affected the size and distribution of the primary Si grains. The pouring temperature exerted the strongest effect, followed by the number of the curves and then the material of the channel. Under experimental conditions of a four-curve copper channel and a pouring temperature of 701°C, primary Si grains in the semi-solid Al-20%Si alloy slurry were refined to the greatest extent, and the lath-like grains were changed into granular grains. Moreover, the equivalent grain diameter and the average shape coefficient of primary Si grains in the satisfactory semi-solid Al-20%Si alloy slurry were 24.4 μm and 0.89, respectively. Finally, the refinement mechanism and distribution rule of primary Si grains in the slurry prepared through the serpentine channel pouring process were analyzed and discussed.

  17. The VST active primary mirror support system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schipani, Pietro; Capaccioli, Massimo; D'Orsi, Sergio; Ferragina, Luigi; Marty, Laurent; Molfese, Cesare; Perrotta, Francesco; De Paris, Giacinto; Fierro, Davide; Tomelleri, Raffaele; Rossettini, Pierfrancesco; Perina, Francesco; Recchia, Stefano; Magrin, Demetrio

    2010-07-01

    The 2.6-m primary mirror of the VST telescope is equipped with an active optics system in order to correct low-order aberrations, constantly monitoring the optical quality of the image and controlling the relative position and the shape of the optical elements. Periodically an image analyser calculates the deviation of the image from the best quality. VST is equipped with both a Shack-Hartmann in the probe system and a curvature sensor embedded in the OmegaCAM instrument. The telescope control software decomposes the deviation into single optical contributions and calculates the force correction that each active element has to perform to achieve the optimal quality. The set of correction forces, one for each axial actuator, is computed by the telescope central computer and transmitted to the local control unit of the primary mirror system for execution. The most important element of the VST active optics is the primary mirror, with its active support system located within the primary mirror cell structure. The primary mirror support system is composed by an axial and a lateral independent systems and includes an earthquake safety system. The system is described and the results of the qualification test campaign are discussed.

  18. 77 FR 6466 - Schedule for Rating Disabilities; AL Amyloidosis (Primary Amyloidosis)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-08

    ... hemic and lymphatic systems to include AL amyloidosis. This regulatory action is necessary to add AL... lymphatic systems, 38 CFR 4.117, by creating diagnostic code 7717. The schedule previously did not contain a... amyloidosis because it was the first available diagnostic code in the Hemic and Lymphatic Systems listed...

  19. Separation Mechanism of Primary Silicon from Hypereutectic Al-Si Melts Under Alternating Electromagnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Haiyang; Lv, Guoqiang; Ma, Wenhui; Chen, Daotong; Yu, Jie

    2015-07-01

    Solar grade silicon (SOG-Si) and hypereutectic Al-Si alloys with low silicon (silicon composition below 25 pct) can be successfully obtained by separation of hypereutectic Al-Si alloy with high silicon (silicon composition above 30 pct) under an alternating electromagnetic field after post-processing. To explore the separation mechanism in detail, experiments were conducted in this study using a high-frequency induction furnace with different pulling conditions of the crucible which is loaded with Al-45 wt pct Si melt. Results demonstrate that the separation of hypereutectic Al-Si alloy is feasible through either a pull-up or drop-down process. The height of each separation interface between the compact and sparse parts of the primary silicon decrease as the pull-up distance rose. When the pulling rate is very low, resultant morphologies of compact primary silicon are rounded and polygonal, allowing for more effective separation of the primary silicon. A novel physical model is presented here based on the experimental results and simulation. The model can be used to effectively describe the separation mechanism of primary silicon from hypereutectic Al-Si melts under alternating electromagnetic fields.

  20. Mechanistic Selection and Growth of Twinned Bicrystalline Primary Si in Near Eutectic Al-Si Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Choonho

    2006-01-01

    Morphological evolution and selection of angular primary silicon is investigated in near-eutectic Al-Si alloys. Angular silicon arrays are grown directionally in a Bridgman furnace at velocities in the regime of 10-3 m/sec and with a temperature gradient of 7.5 x 103 K/m. Under these conditions, the primary Si phase grows as an array of twinned bicrystalline dendrites, where the twinning gives rise to a characteristic 8-pointed star-shaped primary morphology. While this primary Si remains largely faceted at the growth front, a complex structure of coherent symmetric twin boundaries enables various adjustment mechanisms which operate to optimize the characteristic spacings within the primary array. In the work presented here, this primary silicon growth morphology is examined in detail. In particular, this thesis describes the investigation of: (1) morphological selection of the twinned bicrystalline primary starshape morphology; (2) primary array behavior, including the lateral propagation of the starshape grains and the associated evolution of a strong <100> texture; (3) the detailed structure of the 8-pointed star-shaped primary morphology, including the twin boundary configuration within the central core; (4) the mechanisms of lateral propagation and spacing adjustment during array evolution; and (5) the thermosolutal conditions (i.e. operating state) at the primary growth front, including composition and phase fraction in the vicinity of the primary tip.

  1. Correlative characterization of primary Al{sub 3}(Sc,Zr) phase in an Al–Zn–Mg based alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Li, J.H.; Wiessner, M.; Albu, M.; Wurster, S.; Sartory, B.; Hofer, F.; Schumacher, P.

    2015-04-15

    Three-dimensional electron backscatter diffraction, focused ion beam, transmission electron microscopy and energy filtered transmission electron microscopy were employed to investigate the structural information of primary Al{sub 3}(Sc,Zr) phase, i.e. size, shape, element distribution and orientation relationship with the α-Al matrix. It was found that (i) most primary Al{sub 3}(Sc,Zr) phases have a cubic three-dimensional morphology, with a size of about 6–10 μm, (ii) most primary Al{sub 3}(Sc,Zr) phases are located within the α-Al matrix, and exhibit a cube to cube orientation relationship with the α-Al matrix, and (iii) a layer by layer growth was observed within primary Al{sub 3}(Sc,Zr) phases. Al, Cu, Si and Fe are enriched in the α-Al matrix between the layers of cellular eutectic Al{sub 3}(Sc,Zr) phase, while Sc, Ti and Zr are enriched in small Al{sub 3}(Sc,Zr) phases. A peritectic reaction and subsequent eutectic reaction between Al{sub 3}Sc and Al was proposed to interpret the observed layer by layer growth. This paper demonstrates that the presence of impurities (Fe, Si, Cu, Ti) in the diffusion field surrounding the growing Al{sub 3}(Sc,Zr) particle enhances the heterogeneous nucleation of Al{sub 3}(Sc,Zr) phases. - Highlights: • Most fine cubic primary Al{sub 3}(Sc,Zr) phases were observed within the α-Al matrix. • A layer by layer growth within primary Al{sub 3}(Sc,Zr) phase was observed. • A peritectic and subsequent eutectic reaction between Al{sub 3}Sc and Al was proposed. • Impurities in diffusion fields enhance heterogeneous nucleation of Al{sub 3}(Sc,Zr)

  2. Advanced launch system (ALS) actuation and power systems impact operability and cost

    SciTech Connect

    Sundberg, G.R. . Lewis Research Center)

    1990-09-01

    To obtain the advanced launch system (ALS) primary goals of reduced costs ($300/lb earth to LEO) and improved operability, there must be significant reductions in the launch operability, there must be significant reductions in the launch operations and servicing requirements relative to current vehicle designs and practices. One of the primary methods for achieving these goals is by using electrical actuation integrated with a single vehicle electrical power system and controls for all actuation and avionics requirements. This paper reviews the ALS and its associated advanced development program to demonstrate maturation of those technologies that will help meet the overall operability and cost goals. The electric power and actuation systems are highlighted as a specific technology ready not only to meet the ALS goals (cryogenic fuel valves and thrust vector controls with peak power demands to 75 hp), but also those of other launch vehicles, military and civilian aircraft, lunar/Martian vehicles and a multitude of commercial applications.

  3. Advanced Launch System (ALS): Electrical actuation and power systems improve operability and cost picture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sundberg, Gale R.

    1990-01-01

    To obtain the Advanced Launch System (ALS) primary goals of reduced costs and improved operability, there must be significant reductions in the launch operations and servicing requirements relative to current vehicle designs and practices. One of the primary methods for achieving these goals is by using vehicle electrical power system and controls for all actuation and avionics requirements. A brief status review of the ALS and its associated Advanced Development Program is presented to demonstrate maturation of those technologies that will help meet the overall operability and cost goals. The electric power and actuation systems are highlighted as a specific technology ready not only to meet the stringent ALS goals (cryogenic field valves and thrust vector controls with peak power demands to 75 hp), but also those of other launch vehicles, military and civilian aircraft, lunar/Martian vehicles, and a multitude of commercial applications.

  4. Advanced launch system (ALS) - Electrical actuation and power systems improve operability and cost picture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sundberg, Gale R.

    1990-01-01

    To obtain the Advanced Launch System (ALS) primary goals of reduced costs and improved operability, there must be significant reductions in the launch operations and servicing requirements relative to current vehicle designs and practices. One of the primary methods for achieving these goals is by using vehicle electrrical power system and controls for all aviation and avionics requirements. A brief status review of the ALS and its associated Advanced Development Program is presented to demonstrate maturation of those technologies that will help meet the overall operability and cost goals. The electric power and actuation systems are highlighted as a sdpecific technology ready not only to meet the stringent ALS goals (cryogenic field valves and thrust vector controls with peak power demands to 75 hp), but also those of other launch vehicles, military ans civilian aircraft, lunar/Martian vehicles, and a multitude of comercial applications.

  5. Advanced Launch System (ALS) actuation and power systems impact operability and cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sundberg, Gale R.

    1990-01-01

    To obtain the Advanced Launch System (ALS) primary goals of reduced costs and improved operability, there must be significant reductions in the launch operations and servicing requirements relative to current vehicle designs and practices. One of the primary methods for achieving these goals is by using vehicle electrical power system and controls for all actuation and avionics requirements. A brief status review of the ALS and its associated Advanced Development Program is presented to demonstrate maturation of those technologies that will help meet the overall operability and cost goals. The electric power and actuation systems are highlighted as a specific technology ready not only to meet the stringent ALS goals (cryogenic field valves and thrust vector controls with peak power demands to 75 hp), but also those of other launch vehicles, military and civilian aircraft, lunar/Martian vehicles, and a multitude of commercial applications.

  6. Violence against Primary Health Care Workers in Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Gilany, Abdel-Hady; El-Wehady, Adel; Amr, Mostafa

    2010-01-01

    This self-report questionnaire study was carried out in Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia to highlight the magnitude, predictors, and circumstances of workplace violence against primary health care (PHC) workers. A total of 1,091 workers completed a self-administered questionnaire. About 28% were exposed to at least one violent event during the past year.…

  7. Evaluating Primary Dendrite Trunk Diameters in Directionally Solidified Al-Si Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, R. N.; Tewari, S. N.; Poirier, D. R.

    2014-01-01

    The primary dendrite trunk diameters of Al-Si alloys that were directionally solidified over a range of processing conditions have been measured. These data are analyzed with a model based primarily on an assessment of secondary dendrite arm dissolution in the mushy zone. Good fit with the experimental data is seen and it is suggested that the primary dendrite trunk diameter is a useful metric that correlates well with the actual solidification processing parameters. These results are placed in context with the limited results from the aluminium - 7 wt. % silicon samples directionally solidified aboard the International Space Station as part of the MICAST project.

  8. Electron microscopy of the primary microstructure of rapidly solidified Ti-46Al-8Nb alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartavykh, A. V.

    2011-01-01

    The contradictory data on the formation of the microstructure of a refractory intermetallic Ti-46 at % Al-8 at % Nb alloy and on the phase transformations proceeding within in the Ti-Al-Nb phase diagram are analyzed and improved experimentally. To determine the primary solidified phase, a set of experiments is performed on melting of the alloy, which is synthesized in a high-purity argon atmosphere using crucibles made of an oxygen-free ceramics (99.99% AlN), and subsequent rapid volumetric isothermal solidification. Cooling from 1943 K at rates of 5, 10, and 20 K/s and subsequent quenching from 1763 K are used. Polished sections of ingots are studied by scanning electron microscopy using backscattered electron mode. Scanning electron microscopy micrographs demonstrate contrast regions of nonuniform niobium segregation, which are fixed by quenching and decorate the primary polycrystalline microstructure formed in the temperature range from 1843 (liquidus) to 1773 K (solidus). The primary crystalline phase is shown to be represented by β(Ti) dendrites, which have clearly pronounced fourfold symmetry that form during the development of secondary arms.

  9. 75 FR 65279 - Schedule for Rating Disabilities; AL Amyloidosis (Primary Amyloidosis)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ... the schedule of ratings for the hemic and lymphatic systems to include AL amyloidosis. This regulatory... diagnostic code in the Hemic and Lymphatic Systems listed in Sec. 4.117. VA proposes to assign a 100 percent... diagnostic code 7716, to read as follows: Sec. 4.117 Schedule of ratings--hemic and lymphatic systems....

  10. Familial and primary (AL) cardiac amyloidosis: echocardiographically similar diseases with distinctly different clinical outcomes.

    PubMed Central

    Dubrey, S. W.; Cha, K.; Skinner, M.; LaValley, M.; Falk, R. H.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether patients with myocardial amyloidosis due either to AL (primary) amyloid or familial amyloid have distinguishing echocardiographic or electrocardiographic features; and to compare the prevalence of heart failure and survival in the two types of amyloidosis in relation to echocardiographic findings. DESIGN: Blinded group comparison of randomly selected cases of cardiac amyloidosis. SETTING: International referral centre for amyloid research and treatment. PATIENTS: 36 patients with cardiac amyloid heart disease, of whom 12 had familial and 24 had primary AL amyloidosis. RESULTS: Familial and AL echocardiograms were morphologically indistinguishable, with similar left ventricular wall thickness, mean (SD) 15.4 (2.3) nu 15.8 (2.5) mm, respectively; right ventricular wall thickness was also similar between amyloid types: 9.6 (2.8) nu 9.7 (6.5) mm, respectively. Doppler indices of left and right ventricular function, left ventricular volume, and ejection fraction were also similar. Low voltage electrocardiograms (< 0.5 mV) were more common in the AL (16/24, 67%) than in the familial group (4/12, 25%), P < 0.05. The one year survival for familial and AL forms was 92% (11/12) nu 38% (6/24), respectively, with virtually all deaths due to cardiac causes. CONCLUSIONS: Although cardiac involvement is echocardiographically indistinguishable, cardiac mortality is very different between the two forms of amyloidosis. Preservation of electrocardiographic voltage in familial amyloidosis suggests that the particular biochemical characteristics of distinct types of amyloid fibril have different pathological effects on the myocardium. This distinction becomes critical in the evaluation, treatment, and management of patients who have a diagnosis within the spectrum of the protein deposition diseases. Images PMID:9290406

  11. REPOSITORY SURFACE FACILITIES PRIMARY SYSTEM CRANE DATA

    SciTech Connect

    K. Schwartztrauber

    2005-03-14

    The purpose of this calculation is to compile crane design data for the mechanical primary structures, systems, and components (SSCs) required for the repository Waste Handling Building (WHB) and Carrier Preparation Building (CPB). The work presented in this document has been prepared in accordance with Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management approved program document AP-3.12Q, Calculations. This calculation has been developed to supplement information previously prepared using the development plan for ''WHB/WTB Space Program Analysis for Site Recommendation'' (Reference 5), which concentrates on the primary, primary support, facility support, and miscellaneous building support areas located in the WHB and Waste Treatment Building (WTB). The development plan was completed in accordance with AP-2.13Q, ''Technical Product Development Planning''. The work in this calculation is a continuance of the work described in the previous development plan; therefore, in accordance with AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities'', a new Technical Work Plan is not required.

  12. Systemic karyomegaly with primary pulmonary presentation.

    PubMed

    Tagliente, Damian J; Voss, Jesse S; Peters, Steve G; Aubry, Marie Christine; Cornell, Lynn D; Maleszewski, Joseph J

    2014-01-01

    Systemic karyomegaly is a distinct disorder characterized by progressive renal failure and enlarged, bizarre renal tubular epithelial cells. We report the first case of systemic karyomegaly with primary pulmonary presentation and present the first detailed characterization of the karyomegalic cells in lung tissue. A 33-year-old woman was evaluated for chronic and progressive restrictive lung disease, ultimately necessitating single-lung transplantation. Her post-transplant course was marked by graft dysfunction, respiratory decline and renal failure culminating in her death 97 days post-transplant. At autopsy, karyomegalic cells were identified in her kidneys, prompting a careful examination of her native lung and other tissue. Karyomegalic cells were identified in the alveolar epithelium and airway walls. Viral studies were negative. DNA ploidy studies revealed an abnormal ploidy status of the karyomegalic cells. The identification and characterization of systemic karyomegaly with symptomatic lung involvement expands the differential diagnosis for relatively young patients presenting with interstitial lung disease.

  13. Bilateral kidney infarction due to primary Al amyloidosis: a first case report.

    PubMed

    Mihout, Fabrice; Joseph, Laure; Brocheriou, Isabelle; Leblond, Véronique; Varnous, Shaïda; Ronco, Pierre; Plaisier, Emmanuelle

    2015-05-01

    Primary Amyloid Light-chain (AL) amyloidosis is a rare form of plasma cell dyscrasia characterized by tissue deposition of monoclonal immunoglobulin light chain. Kidney involvement is the most frequent manifestation, and patients usually present with glomerular disease.We report an exceptional case of bilateral kidney infarcts caused by AL amyloidosis. A 34-years-old man presented with progressive dyspnea, loin pain, recurrent macroscopic hematuria, and acute kidney injury. Computed tomography showed bilateral kidney infarcts.The diagnosis of AL amyloidosis was established on the kidney biopsy with the characterization of major vascular amyloid deposits that selectively stained with antilambda light chain antibody. An amyloid restrictive cardiomyopathy was also present, responsible for the life-threatening conduction disturbance, but without patent cardioembolic disease. The patient then underwent emergency heart transplantation, followed by a conventional chemotherapy with bortezomib, melphalan, and dexamethasone. More than 3 years later, the patient has subnormal renal function, a well-functioning heart transplant, and a sustained hematologic response.In addition to the very uncommon presentation, this case illustrates the tremendous progress that has occurred in the management of severe forms of AL amyloidosis.

  14. Bilateral kidney infarction due to primary Al amyloidosis: a first case report.

    PubMed

    Mihout, Fabrice; Joseph, Laure; Brocheriou, Isabelle; Leblond, Véronique; Varnous, Shaïda; Ronco, Pierre; Plaisier, Emmanuelle

    2015-05-01

    Primary Amyloid Light-chain (AL) amyloidosis is a rare form of plasma cell dyscrasia characterized by tissue deposition of monoclonal immunoglobulin light chain. Kidney involvement is the most frequent manifestation, and patients usually present with glomerular disease.We report an exceptional case of bilateral kidney infarcts caused by AL amyloidosis. A 34-years-old man presented with progressive dyspnea, loin pain, recurrent macroscopic hematuria, and acute kidney injury. Computed tomography showed bilateral kidney infarcts.The diagnosis of AL amyloidosis was established on the kidney biopsy with the characterization of major vascular amyloid deposits that selectively stained with antilambda light chain antibody. An amyloid restrictive cardiomyopathy was also present, responsible for the life-threatening conduction disturbance, but without patent cardioembolic disease. The patient then underwent emergency heart transplantation, followed by a conventional chemotherapy with bortezomib, melphalan, and dexamethasone. More than 3 years later, the patient has subnormal renal function, a well-functioning heart transplant, and a sustained hematologic response.In addition to the very uncommon presentation, this case illustrates the tremendous progress that has occurred in the management of severe forms of AL amyloidosis. PMID:25929920

  15. Sea Level Muon Spectrum Derived from the All Particle Primary Spectrum of GRIGOROV et al.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharyya, D. P.

    The all particle primary spectrum of GRIGOROV et al. surveyed by HILLAS has been fitted by a power law fit of the formIall particle(>E) = 1.3 E-1.65 (cm2 s sr)-1where E is the energy in GeV/nucleus. Using our recently determined conversion factor for protonnuclei flux ratio of equal energies the primary proton spectrum has been calculated and the result agrees with the Goddard Space Flight Centre primary proton spectrum data satisfactorily. The primary nucleon spectrum has also been calculated and follows the formNnucleons(E) dE = 2.664 E-2.75 dE (cm2 s sr GeV/nucleon)-1.Using this primary nucleon spectrum as the source of hadrons and accelerator data for various inclusive reactions viz. used for the estimation of hadronic energy moments in the frame work of FEYNMAN-Scaling, the differential meson spectra have been estimated. The meson atmospheric diffusion equation after Bugaev et al. has been considered for the derivation of sea level muon spectrum. The magnetic spectrograph data of Allkofer et al., Ayre et al., Green et al., and MUTRON group are in accord with the calculated muon spectrum.Translated AbstractMüonenspektrum auf Meeresniveau, abgeleitet aus dem Primärspektrum aller Teilchen von GRIGOROV u.a.Das von GRIGOROV angegebene (und von HILLAS neuerdings überprüfte) Primärspektrum aller Teilchen wurde mit einem Potenzgesetz der Form Ialle Teilchen(>E) = 1,3 E-1,65 (cm2 s sr)-1 dargestellt, worin E die Energie in GeV/Kern bedeutet.Unter Benutzung des von uns kürzlich bestimmten Konversionsfaktors für das Proton-Nukleon Fluß-Verhältnis bei gleichen Energien wurde das primäre Protonspektrum berechnet; das Resultat stimmt zufriedenstellend überein mit den Daten des primären Protonspektrums vom Goddard Space Flight Centre.Das primäre Nukleon Spektrum wurde ebenfalls berechnet und läßt sich darstellen in der Form NNukleonen(E) = 2,664 E-2,75 dE (cm2 s sr GeV/nukleon)-1.

  16. Advances in Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Lauren B; Mohile, Nimish A

    2015-12-01

    Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a rare form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma that is limited to the CNS. Although novel imaging techniques aid in discriminating lymphoma from other brain tumors, definitive diagnosis requires brain biopsy, vitreoretinal biopsy, or cerebrospinal fluid analysis. Survival rates in clinical studies have improved over the past 20 years due to the addition of high-dose methotrexate-based chemotherapy regimens to whole-brain radiotherapy. Long-term survival, however, is complicated by clinically devastating delayed neurotoxicity. Newer regimens are attempting to reduce or eliminate radiotherapy from first-line treatment with chemotherapy dose intensification. Significant advances have also been made in the fields of pathobiology and treatment, with more targeted treatments on the horizon. The rarity of the disease makes conducting of prospective clinical trials challenging, requiring collaborative efforts between institutions. This review highlights recent advances in the biology, detection, and treatment of PCNSL in immunocompetent patients.

  17. Advances in Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Lauren B; Mohile, Nimish A

    2015-12-01

    Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a rare form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma that is limited to the CNS. Although novel imaging techniques aid in discriminating lymphoma from other brain tumors, definitive diagnosis requires brain biopsy, vitreoretinal biopsy, or cerebrospinal fluid analysis. Survival rates in clinical studies have improved over the past 20 years due to the addition of high-dose methotrexate-based chemotherapy regimens to whole-brain radiotherapy. Long-term survival, however, is complicated by clinically devastating delayed neurotoxicity. Newer regimens are attempting to reduce or eliminate radiotherapy from first-line treatment with chemotherapy dose intensification. Significant advances have also been made in the fields of pathobiology and treatment, with more targeted treatments on the horizon. The rarity of the disease makes conducting of prospective clinical trials challenging, requiring collaborative efforts between institutions. This review highlights recent advances in the biology, detection, and treatment of PCNSL in immunocompetent patients. PMID:26475775

  18. Pediatric primary care as a component of systems of care.

    PubMed

    Brown, Jonathan D

    2010-02-01

    Systems of care should be defined in a manner that includes primary care. The current definition of systems of care shares several attributes with the definition of primary care: both are defined as community-based services that are accessible, accountable, comprehensive, coordinated, culturally competent, and family focused. However, systems of care is defined as serving only children and youth with serious emotional disturbance and their families and does not fully embrace the concept of primary prevention. Although similarities in the definitions of primary care and systems of care may provide a theoretical foundation for including primary care within the systems of care framework, a definition of systems of care that incorporates the idea of prevention and takes into account the broad population served in primary care would provide communities with a definition that can be used to further the work of integrating primary care into systems of care.

  19. Primary Dendrite Arm Spacings in Al-7Si Alloy Directionally Solidified on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angart, Samuel; Lauer, Mark; Poirier, David; Tewari, Surendra; Rajamure, Ravi; Grugel, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Samples from directionally solidified Al- 7 wt. % Si have been analyzed for primary dendrite arm spacing (lambda) and radial macrosegregation. The alloy was directionally solidified (DS) aboard the ISS to determine the effect of mitigating convection on lambda and macrosegregation. Samples from terrestrial DS-experiments thermal histories are discussed for comparison. In some experiments, lambda was measured in microstructures that developed during the transition from one speed to another. To represent DS in the presence of no convection, the Hunt-Lu model was used to represent diffusion controlled growth under steady-state conditions. By sectioning cross-sections throughout the entire length of a solidified sample, lambda was measured and calculated using the model. During steady-state, there was reasonable agreement between the measured and calculated lambda's in the space-grown samples. In terrestrial samples, the differences between measured and calculated lambda's indicated that the dendritic growth was influenced by convection.

  20. Neurologic complications of primary systemic amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Kelly, John J

    2006-01-01

    Amyloid is a botanical term that denotes a waxy, amorphous, eosinophilic material and is used to describe similar pathological findings in humans. The deposits in primary systemic amyloidosis are derived from monoclonal serum proteins in plasma cell dyscrasia, which are degraded locally in tissues and deposited in insoluble sheets that damage organs. The cause of organ damage in amyloidosis is unclear but most likely due to the direct toxic effects of amyloid. Symptoms of the disorder include neuropathy, myopathy, and cardiac or renal insufficiency; there is often multiple-organ involvement. Congestive heart failure and nephrotic syndrome are predominant causes of death. Differential difficulties exist in diagnosing the disorder, and familial amyloid polyneuropathy directly mimics the disease. Diagnostic tools include electromyography, laboratory testing for abnormalities in serum and urine, and histological investigation of appropriate tissue. The median survival of patients is 2 years. However, melphalan and prednisone treatment for at least 1 year has resulted in increased survival rates. There have also been reports of benefit from high-dose chemotherapy followed by peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. Without early therapy, however, the disease has a dismal prognosis, and peripheral neuropathy usually persists or worsens despite therapy and improvement in other organs.

  1. Modeling control systems for primary mirror supports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Martin; Haque, Jaque; Wilkes, John D.; Amos, Clive S.; Steel, Darrin J.

    1995-06-01

    The RGO is involved in a number of mirror support programs, ranging from new controllers for its existing Isaac Newton Group (ING) telescopes to new primary mirror supports for the UK Infra-red Telescope (UKIRT) and design proposals for the active support of the Gemini 8 m meniscus mirrors. This work has led to the identification or development of critical components such as load cells and control valves which have high precision and stability. Even so it is still necessary to develop servo controllers capable of minimizing the effects of non- linearity and maintaining stability, particularly in regard to the highly non-linear behavior of pneumatic supports. In order to predict the performance of mirror supports and compare differing control strategies, components and systems are modelled using Matlab(superscript R) and Simulink(superscript R). These models are presented, together with parameters derived experimentally, and results from recent laboratory tests are discussed. Specific applications are described and current status of the work at the time of submission is presented.

  2. Prenatal care in primary health care centers of Al Hassa, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    al Teheawy, M M

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the performance of Al Hassa primary health care (PHC) centers in the scope of prenatal care and to have a baseline data for future evaluation of achievement in that field. A retrospective study was done by collecting information on a pre-designed form from the available records in the PHC centers. The number of registered pregnant ladies for prenatal care in PHC centers was 10,594 which was equal to 58% of the estimated number of pregnant ladies in Al-Hassa, in 1409 H (the official calendar of Saudi Arabia corresponding to 1989). The immunization coverage by tetanus toxoid of the registered pregnant ladies was 66.7% for the first dose and 40.3% for the second dose. Forty six percent of the registered pregnancies was identified by PHC staff as high risk pregnancy. It was found that 64.4% of the high risk pregnancy was due to causes in the reproductive history, 25.4% due to associated medical conditions and 7.2% due to causes in the present pregnancy. A self criticism and future need to improve prenatal services are discussed.

  3. 47 CFR 11.14 - Primary Entry Point (PEP) System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Primary Entry Point (PEP) System. 11.14 Section 11.14 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EMERGENCY ALERT SYSTEM (EAS) General § 11.14 Primary Entry Point (PEP) System. The PEP system is a nationwide network of...

  4. 47 CFR 11.14 - Primary Entry Point (PEP) System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Primary Entry Point (PEP) System. 11.14 Section 11.14 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EMERGENCY ALERT SYSTEM (EAS) General § 11.14 Primary Entry Point (PEP) System. The PEP system is a nationwide network of...

  5. 'Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi's 3-Step Magnitude System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafez, Ihsan; Stephenson, F. Richard; Orchiston, Wayne

    'Abd al-Rahmān al-ūfī's Book of the Fixed Stars dates from around AD 964 and is one of the most important medieval Arabic treatises on astronomy. In this paper we begin with a very brief introduction to the Book of the Fixed Stars. This book contains an extensive star catalogue that lists star coordinates and magnitude estimates for all of the Ptolemaic stars. However, in his book al-hūfī utilized three distinct intermediate magnitude values whereas Ptolemy only mentioned two. We believe that al-hūfī used what we have termed a '3-step intermediate magnitude system,' which is more accurate than Ptolemy's 2-step intermediate system. In this paper we examine in detail the accuracy of this unique 3-step system in comparison with Ptolemy's and modern magnitude values.

  6. Pediatric Primary Care as a Component of Systems of Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Jonathan D.

    2010-01-01

    Systems of care should be defined in a manner that includes primary care. The current definition of systems of care shares several attributes with the definition of primary care: both are defined as community-based services that are accessible, accountable, comprehensive, coordinated, culturally competent, and family focused. However, systems of…

  7. Teachers' Performance Motivation System in Thai Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasathang, Sarojn; Tesaputa, Kowat; Sataphonwong, Pattananusron

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to: 1) study the present conditions and desirable condition of the motivation systems as well as how to find methods for motivating the performance of teachers in primary schools, 2) develop a motivation system for the performance of teachers in primary schools, 3) study the effects of using the motivation system for compliance…

  8. Phase competition in ternary Ti-Ni-Al system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wierzba, Bartek

    2016-07-01

    In this paper the reactive diffusion in Ti-Ni-Al system is discussed at 1173 K. The calculation method based on the binary approach is presented. The key kinetic parameter is Wagner integral diffusion coefficient. The experimental and simulation results of reactive diffusion between pure Ti and β-NiAl are compared at 1173 K after 100 h.

  9. Morphologies of Primary Silicon in Hypereutectic Al-Si Alloys: Phase-Field Simulation Supported by Key Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kai; Wei, Ming; Zhang, Lijun; Du, Yong

    2016-04-01

    We realized a three-dimensional visualization of the morphology evolution and the growth behavior of the octahedral primary silicon in hypereutectic Al-20wtpctSi alloy during solidification in a real length scale by utilizing the phase-field simulation coupled with CALPHAD databases, and supported by key experiments. Moreover, through two-dimensional cut of the octahedral primary silicon at random angles, different morphologies observed in experiments, including triangle, square, trapezoid, rhombic, pentagon, and hexagon, were well reproduced.

  10. Contribution of Primary Care to Health Systems and Health

    PubMed Central

    Starfield, Barbara; Shi, Leiyu; Macinko, James

    2005-01-01

    Evidence of the health-promoting influence of primary care has been accumulating ever since researchers have been able to distinguish primary care from other aspects of the health services delivery system. This evidence shows that primary care helps prevent illness and death, regardless of whether the care is characterized by supply of primary care physicians, a relationship with a source of primary care, or the receipt of important features of primary care. The evidence also shows that primary care (in contrast to specialty care) is associated with a more equitable distribution of health in populations, a finding that holds in both cross-national and within-national studies. The means by which primary care improves health have been identified, thus suggesting ways to improve overall health and reduce differences in health across major population subgroups. PMID:16202000

  11. Interdiffusion in the Mg-Al system and Intrinsic Diffusion in (Al3Mg2) Phase

    SciTech Connect

    Brennan, Sarah; Bermudez, Katrina; Kulkarni, Nagraj S; Sohn, Yong Ho

    2011-01-01

    Increasing use and development of lightweight Mg-alloys have led to the desire for more fundamental research in and understanding of Mg-based systems. As a strengthening component, Al is one of the most important and common alloying elements for Mg-alloys. In this study, solid-to-solid diffusion couple techniques were employed to examine the interdiffusion between pure Mg and Al. Diffusion anneals were carried out at 300 , 350 , and 400 C for 720, 360, and 240 hours, respectively. Optical and scanning electron microscopies (SEM) were employed to observe the formation of the intermetallics -Al12Mg17 and -Al3Mg2, but not -phase. Concentration profiles were determined using X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (XEDS). The growth constants and activation energies were determined for each intermetallic phase.

  12. Primary healthcare system and practice characteristics in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Khoo, Hwee Sing; Lim, Yee Wei; Vrijhoef, Hubertus Jm

    2014-01-01

    It is crucial to adapt and improve the (primary) health care systems of countries to prepare for future patient profiles and their related needs. The main aim of this study was to acquire a comprehensive overview of the perceptions of primary care experts in Singapore about the state of primary care in Singapore, and to compare this with the state of primary care in other countries. Notwithstanding ranked 2(nd) in terms of efficiency of health care, Singapore is facing significant health care challenges. Emails were sent to 85 experts, where they were asked to rate Singapore's primary care system based on nine internationally adopted health system characteristics and six practice characteristics (response rate = 29%). The primary care system in Singapore received an average of 10.9 out of 30 possible points. Lowest ratings were given to: earnings of primary care physicians compared to specialists, requirement for 24 hr accessibility of primary care services, standard of family medicine in academic departments, reflection of community served by practices in patient lists, and the access to specialists without needing to be referred by primary care physicians. Singapore was categorized as a 'low' primary care country according to the experts. PMID:25120380

  13. The role of fluid flow and intermetallic phases in the formation of the primary Al-phase in AlSi alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikołajczak, P.; Ratke, L.

    2012-01-01

    In secondary AlSi alloys, the presence of small amounts of Fe causes the formation of intermetallic phases, which have a negative effect on mechanical and physical properties of castings. To understand the effect of fluid flow on the microstructure and intermetallic phases, Al-5/7/9 wt pet Si 0.2/0.5/1.0 wt pet Fe alloys have been directionally solidified under defined thermal (gradient 3 K/mm, solidification velocity 0.04 mm/s) and fluid flow (rotating magnetic field 6 mT) conditions. The primary α-Al phase and intermetallic phases were studied using light microscopy and SEM with EDX. The influence of fluid flow and intermetallic phases (β-Al5FeSi) on microstructure was characterized by changes of primary and secondary dendrite arm spacing and specific surface area of the dendrites. We observe a pronounced effect of flow on the length of the intermetallic precipitates, a macro-segregation Fe and Si and even small amounts of iron and thus intermetallics reduce possible effects of flow on microstructural parameters.

  14. Heterogeneous nucleation of the primary phase in the rapid solidification of Al-4.5wt%Cu alloy droplet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maitre, A.; Bogno, A.-A.; Bedel, M.; Reinhart, G.; Henein, H.

    2015-06-01

    This paper reports on rapid solidification of Al-Cu alloys. A heterogeneous nucleation/growth model coupled with a thermal model of a falling droplet through a stagnant gas was developed. The primary undercooling as well as the number of nucleation points was compared with Al-Cu alloy droplets produced by Impulse Atomization (IA). Based on experimental results from Neutron Diffraction, secondary (eutectic) phases were obtained. Then, primary and secondary undercoolings were estimated using the metastable extensions of solidus and liquidus lines calculated by Thermo-Calc. Moreover, Synchrotron X-ray microtomography has been performed on Al-4.5wt%Cu droplets. The undercoolings are in good agreement. Results also evidence the presence of one nucleation point and are in agreement with the experimental observations.

  15. Microstructure of the Al-La-Ni-Fe system

    SciTech Connect

    Vasil’ev, A. L.; Ivanova, A. G.; Bakhteeva, N. D.; Kolobylina, N. N.; Orekhov, A. S.; Presnyakov, M. Yu.; Todorova, E. V.

    2015-01-15

    The microstructure of alloys based on the Al-La-Ni-Fe system, which are characterized by a unique ability to form metal glasses and nanoscale composites in a wide range of compositions, has been investigated. Al{sub 85}Ni{sub 7}Fe{sub 4}La{sub 4} and Al{sub 85}Ni{sub 9}Fe{sub 2}La{sub 4} alloys have been analyzed by electron microscopy (including high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy), energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis, electron diffraction (ED), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). It is found that, along with fcc Al and Al{sub 4}La (Al{sub 11}La{sub 3}) particles, these alloys contain a ternary phase Al{sub 3}Ni{sub 1−x}Fe{sub x} (sp. gr. Pnma) isostructural to the Al{sub 3}Ni phase and a quaternary phase Al{sub 8}Fe{sub 2−x}Ni{sub x}La isostructural to the Al{sub 8}Fe{sub 2}Eu phase (sp. gr. Pbam). The unit-cell parameters of the Al{sub 3}Ni{sub 1−x}Fe{sub x} and Al{sub 8}Fe{sub 2−x}Ni{sub x}La compounds, determined by ED and refined by XRD, are a = 0.664(1) nm, b = 0.734(1) nm, and c = 0.490(1) nm for Al{sub 3}Ni{sub 1−x}Fe{sub x} and a = 1.258(3) nm, b = 1.448(3) nm, and c = 0.405(8) nm for Al{sub 8}Fe{sub 2−x}Ni{sub x}La. In both cases Ni and Fe atoms are statistically arranged, and no ordering is found. Al{sub 8}Fe{sub 2−x}Ni{sub x}La particles contain inclusions in the form of Al{sub 3}Fe δ layers.

  16. Resin bonding to primary teeth using three adhesive systems.

    PubMed

    Mazzeo, N; Ott, N W; Hondrum, S O

    1995-01-01

    In vitro bond strengths of three resin adhesive systems were tested using 111 primary teeth. Ninety-six flat dentin surface specimens were divided into six groups consisting of 16 primed or 16 unprimed samples for each adhesive system. The remaining 15 tooth samples were divided into three groups of five to determine each adhesive system's bond strength to primary etched enamel. Resin buttons were polymerized to all specimens with visible light, thermocycled for 2000 cycles between 5 and 55 degrees C, and shear bond strength was measured with a Instron Testing Machine (Instron Engineering Corp, Canton, MA). ANOVA and multiple comparison tests showed that Optibond Multiuse Bonding Agent had a statistically greater mean shear bond strength to primary dentin (20.5 +/- 3.5 MPa) than Prisma Universal Bond 3 Multi-purpose Bonding System (9.1 +/- 4.4 MPa), Scotchbond Multi-purpose Dental Adhesive System (7.3 +/- 3.7 MPa), and primary etched enamel (9.8 +/- 4.4 MPa) at P < 0.05. This study demonstrated that resin adhesive systems may achieve bond strengths to primary dentin comparable to those of primary enamel, and that these bonds may be as strong as bonds to permanent enamel and dentin. These adhesive systems may allow more confident esthetic restoration of primary anterior teeth.

  17. School Management Information Systems in Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demir, Kamile

    2006-01-01

    Developments in information technologies have been impacting upon educational organizations. Principals have been using management information systems to improve the efficiency of administrative services. The aim of this research is to explore principals' perceptions about management information systems and how school management information…

  18. Phase correlations in the CuAlSe2-CuAlTe2 system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korzun, B. V.; Fadzeyeva, A. A.; Bente, K.; Schmitz, W.; Kommichau, G.

    2005-07-01

    Alloys in the CuAlSe2-CuAlTe2 system were synthesized in BN-crucibles in silica tubes under vacuum to obtain the corresponding phase equilibria. X-ray powder diffraction and thermal analytic data of the T-x phase diagram revealed a complete solid solutions series in the subsolidus region. Within the CuAlSe2xTe2(1-x) system the refined lattice parameters a and c approximately obey the Vegard rule and also the cell volume and the heat of fusion confirm linear correlations with the composition of the mixed crystals. The anion position parameter calculated after S. C. Abrahams & J. L. Bernstein (uAB) and J. E Jaffe & A. Zunger (uJZ) is greater than 0.25 and reveals a linear dependence on composition. The liquidus part of the CuAlSe2xTe2(1-x) system with x < 0.35 exhibits vertical section behaviour with a ternary peritectic followed up by a ternary monotectic whereas the region with x > 0.35 shows quasibinary equilibria.

  19. Reaction diffusion in the NiCrAl and CoCrAl systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, S. R.

    1978-01-01

    The paper assesses the effect of overlay coating and substrate composition on the kinetics of coating depletion by interdiffusion. This is accomplished by examining the constitution, kinetics and activation energies for a series of diffusion couples primarily of the NiCrAl/Ni-10Cr or CoCrAl/Ni-10Cr type annealed at temperatures in the range 1000-1205 C for times up to 500 hr. A general procedure is developed for analyzing diffusion in multicomponent multiphase systems. It is shown that by introducing the concept of beta-source strength, which can be determined from appropriate phase diagrams, the Wagner solution for consumption of a second phase in a semiinfinite couple is successfully applied to the analysis of MCrAl couples. Thus, correlation of beta-recession rate constants with couple composition, total and diffusional activation energies, and interdiffusion coefficients are determined.

  20. Application of Total Quality Management System in Thai Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prueangphitchayathon, Setthiya; Tesaputa, Kowat; Somprach, Kanokorn

    2015-01-01

    The present study seeks to develop a total quality management (TQM) system that can be applied to primary schools. The approach focuses on customer orientation, total involvement of all constituencies and continuous improvement. TQM principles were studied and synthesized according to case studies of the best practices in 3 primary schools (small,…

  1. Quantification of Primary Dendritic and Secondary Eutectic Nucleation Undercoolings in Rapidly Solidified Hypo-Eutectic Al-Cu Droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogno, A.-A.; Khatibi, P. Delshad; Henein, H.; Gandin, Ch.-A.

    2016-09-01

    This paper reports on the quantification of primary dendritic and secondary eutectic nucleation undercoolings during rapid solidification of impulse atomized hypo-eutectic Al-Cu droplets. The procedure consists in determining the eutectic fraction of each investigated droplet from the fraction of intermetallic Al2Cu obtained by Rietveld refinement analysis of neutrons scattering data. The corresponding eutectic nucleation undercooling is then deduced from the metastable phase diagram of the alloy. The primary dendritic nucleation undercooling is subsequently determined using semi-empirical coarsening models of secondary dendrite arms. The two nucleation undercoolings are finally used as input variables to run a microsegregation model for binary alloys. The fractions of eutectic computed by the microsegregation model compare very favorably with the experimental results.

  2. Phase relations in the U-Mo-Al ternary system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noël, H.; Tougait, O.; Dubois, S.

    2009-06-01

    The phase relations in the U-Mo-Al system of quenched samples annealed at 800 °C for 2 weeks and at 400 °C for 2 months have been established using X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopic analysis performed at room temperature. Two ternary Al-rich phases, UMo 2-xAl 20+x and U 6Mo 4+xAl 43-x are found stable at 800 °C and 400 °C. They show significant homogeneity ranges resulting from Mo/Al substitution mechanism on various mixed crystallographic sites, as evidenced by single-crystal structure refinements. Substitution of up to 25 at.% of Al by Mo atoms is also observed for UAl 2 (cubic MgCu 2-type) giving a quite large extension (UAl 2-xMo x, 0 < x < 0.5) into the ternary system. Larger substitution (0.6 < x < 0.7 at T = 800 °C) stabilizes another ternary Laves phase, UAl 2-xMo x with the hexagonal MgZn 2-type. There is no detectable solubility of Mo in UAl 4, and it is of the order of 1 at.% in UAl 3. The interaction layers between the γU-Mo alloys and the Al matrix in nuclear fuel plates can be successively estimated as composed of the two- and three-phase fields equilibrium indicated on the assessment of the phase relations drawn for samples heat-treated at 400 °C.

  3. Enthalpies of mixing of liquid systems for lead free soldering: Al-Cu-Sn system.

    PubMed

    Flandorfer, Hans; Rechchach, Meryem; Elmahfoudi, A; Bencze, László; Popovič, Arkadij; Ipser, Herbert

    2011-11-01

    The present work refers to high-temperature drop calorimetric measurements on liquid Al-Cu, Al-Sn, and Al-Cu-Sn alloys. The binary systems have been investigated at 973 K, up to 40 at.% Cu in case of Al-Cu, and over the entire concentrational range in case of Al-Sn. Measurements in the ternary Al-Cu-Sn system were performed along the following cross-sections: x(Al)/x(Cu) = 1:1, x(Al)/x(Sn) = 1:1, x(Cu)/x(Sn) = 7:3, x(Cu)/x(Sn) = 1:1, and x(Cu)/x(Sn) = 3:7 at 1273 K. Experimental data were used to find ternary interaction parameters by applying the Redlich-Kister-Muggianu model for substitutional solutions, and a full set of parameters describing the concentration dependence of the enthalpy of mixing was derived. From these, the isoenthalpy curves were constructed for 1273 K. The ternary system shows an exothermic enthalpy minimum of approx. -18,000 J/mol in the Al-Cu binary and a maximum of approx. 4000 J/mol in the Al-Sn binary system. The Al-Cu-Sn system is characterized by considerable repulsive ternary interactions as shown by the positive ternary interaction parameters.

  4. Examination of solidification pathways and the liquidus surface in the Nb-Ti-Al system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, Keith J.; Mishurda, Joseph C.; Vasudevan, Vijay K.

    2000-12-01

    The solidification pathways, subsequent solid-state transformations, and the liquidus surface in the Nb-Ti-Al system have been examined as part of a larger investigation of phase equilibria in Nb-Ti-Al intermetallic alloys. Fifteen alloys ranging in composition from 15 to 40 at. pct Al, with Nb to Ti ratios of 4:1, 2:1, 1.5:1, 1:1, and 1:1.5, were prepared by arc melting and the as-cast microstructures were characterized by optical microscopy (OM), microhardness, X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential thermal analysis (DTA), backscattered electron imaging (BSEI), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results indicate that the range of primary β solidification is much wider than that indicated in previously reported liquidus surfaces, both experimental and calculated. Differential thermal analysis has identified the existence of a β to σ+γ transformation in three alloys where it was previously thought not to exist; confirmation was provided by high-temperature vacuum heat treatments in the single-phase β region followed by rapid quenching. The location of the boundary between the β, σ, and δ primary solidification fields has been redefined. A massive β → δ transformation, which was observed in the cast microstructure of a Nb-25Ti-25Al alloy, was repeatable through cooling following homogenization. A β → δ+σ eutectoid-like transformation in the 25 at. pct Al alloys, was detected by DTA and evaluated through microstructural analysis of heat-treated samples. Trends in the β phase with variations in composition were established for both lattice parameters and microhardness. As a result of this wider extent of the primary β solidification field, a greater possibility exists for microstructural control through thermal processing for alloys consisting of either σ+γ, β+σ, or β+δ phases.

  5. Interdiffusion and intrinsic diffusion in the NiAl /delta/ phase of the Al-Ni system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shankar, S.; Seigle, L. L.

    1978-01-01

    Interdiffusion coefficients at 950 to 1150 C and the ratio of intrinsic diffusion coefficients at 1100 C were measured as functions of composition in the NiAl (delta) phase of the Al-Ni system, using a vapor-solid technique. Diffusivity values were also obtained for the Ni3Al (epsilon) and Ni (Al) solid solution (zeta) phases from 950 to 1150 C. The interdiffusion coefficient in NiAl (delta) varies several orders of magnitude over the delta phase field with a deep minimum in the diffusivity-composition curve at 48 to 49 at% Al. The ratio of intrinsic diffusion coefficients DNi/DAl, in the delta phase also varies with composition from a value of 3 to 3.5 below 50 at% Al to 0.1 or less above 50 at% Al.

  6. Faceted growth of primary Al{sub 2}Cu crystals during directional solidification in high magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Chuanjun; Ren, Zhongming; Shen, Yu; Wang, Qiuliang; Dai, Yinming; Wang, Hui

    2013-10-21

    The high magnetic field is widely used to modify the crystal morphology. In this work, the effect of the magnetic field on growing behavior of faceted crystals in the Al-40 wt. %Cu alloy was investigated using directional solidification technique. It was found that the faceted growth of primary Al{sub 2}Cu phase was degraded and the primary spacing was reduced upon applying the magnetic field. Additionally, the length of the mushy zone first decreased and then increased with increase of the magnetic field intensity. The quantitative analysis reveals that the shear stress induced by the fluid motion is insufficient to break the atom bonds at the solid-liquid interface. However, both of the thermoelectric magnetic convection (TEMC) and the thermoelectric magnetic force (TEMF) cause dendrites to fracture and reduce the primary spacing. The two effects also weaken the faceting growth. Moreover, the instability of the solid-liquid interface is generated by the TEMF, which further leads to degrade the faceted growth. The length of mushy zone was changed by the TEMC and reached the minimum in the magnetic field of 0.5 T, which is in good agreement with the predicted value (0.83 T)

  7. THE CONTRIBUTIONS OF PHYSICIAN ASSISTANTS IN PRIMARY CARE SYSTEMS

    PubMed Central

    Hooker, Roderick S.; Everett, Christine M.

    2013-01-01

    Shortages of primary care doctors are occurring globally; one means of meeting this demand has been the use of physician assistants (PAs). Introduced in the United States in the late 1960s to address doctor shortages, the PA movement has grown to over 75,000 providers in 2011 and spread to Australia, Canada, Great Britain, The Netherlands, Germany, Ghana, and South Africa. A purposeful literature review was undertaken to assess the contribution of PAs to primary care systems. Contemporary studies suggest that PAs can contribute to the successful attainment of primary care functions, particularly the provision of comprehensive care, accessibility, and accountability. Employing PAs seems a reasonable strategy for providing primary care for diverse populations. PMID:21851446

  8. The 747 primary flight control systems reliability and maintenance study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The major operational characteristics of the 747 Primary Flight Control Systems (PFCS) are described. Results of reliability analysis for separate control functions are presented. The analysis makes use of a NASA computer program which calculates reliability of redundant systems. Costs for maintaining the 747 PFCS in airline service are assessed. The reliabilities and cost will provide a baseline for use in trade studies of future flight control system design.

  9. Systemic AL amyloidosis in a Beech Marten (Martes foina).

    PubMed

    Scaglione, F E; Mignone, W; Ferrero, E; Poggi, M; Biolatti, B; Bollo, E

    2013-10-01

    A wild Beech Marten (Martes foina), was referred for necropsy to the Department of Animal Pathology of the University of Turin (Italy). At gross examination, whitish and firm masses, 10-mm in diameter, were found on the heart and in the kidney. Spleen showed lighter color and greater consistency, and the cut surface of the liver appeared scattered with whitish-yellow coalescing foci homogeneously distributed. Amyloid deposits were present in the perivascular and intercellular spaces of the visceral organs, such as the heart, liver, and kidneys. Amyloid stained positively with Congo red with and without 5% potassium permanganate pretreatment and showed green birefringence observable under polarized light. A diagnosis of systemic AL amyloidosis was made. This is the first description of systemic AL amyloidosis in a wild Stone Marten.

  10. Qualitative and quantitative description of microstructure of alloys from the Fe-Al system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jabłońska, M.; Mikuśkiewicz, M.; Tomaszewska, A.

    2012-05-01

    The paper presents the test results of qualitative and quantitative analysis of the structure of alloys from Fe-Al system after casting and heat treatment. The analysis were carried out for three alloys, with different content of Al at.%: 36, 38, 48 at %, which were produced by melting and gravity casting. A quantitative evaluation of the structure was made with use of "MET-ILO" application on the basis of images acquired from a light microscope. Moreover the influence of the chemical composition and results of quantitative description of microstructure on the hardness of alloys from the aluminium - iron system were analysed. The obtained research will be used for the development of mathematical models determining the influence of primary structure on the opportunities for plastic deformation of alloys. Structural examination was carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). X-ray diffraction measurements were performed on this alloys.

  11. Primary electric power generation systems for advanced-technology engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cronin, M. J.

    1983-01-01

    The advantages of the all electric airplane are discussed. In the all electric airplane the generator is the sole source of electric power; it powers the primary and secondary flight controls, the environmentals, and the landing gear. Five candidates for all electric power systems are discussed and compared. Cost benefits of the all electric airplane are discussed.

  12. An Exploratory Study on How Primary Pupils Approach Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koski, Marja-Ilona; de Vries, Marc

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a study of systems thinking among 27 primary pupils (8-10 years old) and their teacher. The study included a pre-test for the teacher and the pupils, lesson planning, the actual lesson and a post-test for the pupils. The research focused on finding an answer to three questions: (1) do pupils see a system as a structure…

  13. Non-self-sufficiency as a primary outcome measure in ALS trials.

    PubMed

    Marin, Benoît; Bianchi, Elisa; Pupillo, Elisabetta; Lunetta, Christian; Tremolizzo, Lucio; Logroscino, Giancarlo; Chiò, Adriano; Preux, Pierre Marie; Beghi, Ettore

    2015-01-01

    Our objective was to assess non-self-sufficiency (NSS) in ALS as an outcome measure in therapeutic trials. Using data from the control arm of two randomized trials and an observational study, associations between NSS (score ≤2 in the ALSFRS-R items for swallowing, cutting food and handling utensils, or walking) and the total ALSFRS-R score, forced vital capacity (FVC), and survival at selected time-points until death or 48 weeks, were assessed. These measures were used as surrogates of relevant functional impairment. Of 82 self-sufficient (SS) patients at baseline, 32 (39.0%) became NSS at four weeks and increased to 72 (87.8%) at the end of follow-up. A significant association was found between NSS, ALSFRS-R score and FVC at 24, 36 and 48 weeks. Thirty-four subjects died (41.5%). Compared to SS patients (median survival, 27.9 months), individuals becoming NSS at four weeks were at increased risk to die (median survival, 23.6 months, p = 0.02). NSS status at four weeks predicted survival even after adjustment for ALSFRS-R total score, age, gender, site of onset, disease duration, BMI, and FVC. 'Walking' was the only predictor of survival when adjusting for all covariates. In conclusion, NSS status is a possible endpoint to investigate short-term efficacy of treatments of ALS. PMID:26470831

  14. Active support system for 1-m SONG primary mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Dongsheng; Wang, Guomin; Gu, Bozhong

    2012-05-01

    Chinese-node telescope of Stellar Observations Network Group (SONG) has a primary mirror 1m in diameter with flat back, which will be supported actively. The performance evaluation of the telescope's active optics system is conducted. Finite element analysis (FEA) is employed to analyze the optical surface figures of the primary mirror, and two optimizations are carried out by using ANSYS: (1) the locations and forces of axial supports are optimized with the telescope pointing to zenith; (2) the lateral support forces are calculated with the telescope pointing to horizon. Axial support force sensitivities are calculated in a case that a single axial support has a force error of 0.5N. The correction ability of the active support system is analyzed when an arbitrary axial support is failure. Several low order Zernike modes are modeled with MATLAB procedure, and active optics corrections are applied to these modes. Thermal deformation of the mirror is also corrected using active support system.

  15. EST Telescope: primary mirror, support, and cooling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkmer, R.; Manni, F.; Giannuzzi, M.; Scotto, A.; Cavaller, L.; Scheiffelen, T.; Bettonvil, F.; Berrilli, F.

    2010-07-01

    The solar telescope EST is currently in the conceptual design phase. It is planned to be build on the Canary Islands until end of the decade. It is specialized on polarimetric observations and will provide high spatial and spectral observations of the different solar atmospheric layers. The diameter of the primary mirror blank is 4.2m. Different types of mirror shapes were investigated with respect to thermal and mechanical characteristics. To remove the absorbed heat an air cooling system from the back side will be applied. Additional an air flushing system will remove remaining warm air from the front side. A major problem of a large open telescope will be the wind load. Results of the investigations will be shown. To achieve optimal optical performance an active support system is planned. The primary mirror cell needs to be stiff enough to support the primary mirror without deformation at strong wind in case of the open telescope option, but sufficient room for the active support system and cooling system below the backside of the mirror is also required. Preliminary designs and analysis results will be presented.

  16. Optimization of the ATST primary mirror support system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Myung K.; Price, Ronald S.; Moon, Il K.

    2006-06-01

    The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) primary mirror is a 4.24-m diameter, 75-mm thick, off-axis parabola solid meniscus mirror made out of a glass or glass ceramic material. Its baseline support system consists of 120 axial supports mounted at the mirror back surface and 24 lateral supports along the outer edge with an active optics capability. This primary mirror support system was optimized for the telescope at a near horizon position to achieve the best gravity and thermal effects. To fulfill the optical and mechanical performance requirements, extensive finite element analyses using I-DEAS and optical analyses with PCFRINGE have been conducted for the support optimization. Analyses include static deformation (gravity and thermal), frequency calculations, and support system sensitivity evaluations. An influence matrix was established to compensate potential errors using an active optics system. Performances of the primary mirror support system were evaluated from mechanical deformation calculations and the optical analyses before and after active optics corrections. The performance of the mirror cell structure was also discussed.

  17. Targetable genetic features of primary testicular and primary central nervous system lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Chapuy, Bjoern; Roemer, Margaretha G M; Stewart, Chip; Tan, Yuxiang; Abo, Ryan P; Zhang, Liye; Dunford, Andrew J; Meredith, David M; Thorner, Aaron R; Jordanova, Ekaterina S; Liu, Gang; Feuerhake, Friedrich; Ducar, Matthew D; Illerhaus, Gerald; Gusenleitner, Daniel; Linden, Erica A; Sun, Heather H; Homer, Heather; Aono, Miyuki; Pinkus, Geraldine S; Ligon, Azra H; Ligon, Keith L; Ferry, Judith A; Freeman, Gordon J; van Hummelen, Paul; Golub, Todd R; Getz, Gad; Rodig, Scott J; de Jong, Daphne; Monti, Stefano; Shipp, Margaret A

    2016-02-18

    Primary central nervous system lymphomas (PCNSLs) and primary testicular lymphomas (PTLs) are extranodal large B-cell lymphomas (LBCLs) with inferior responses to current empiric treatment regimens. To identify targetable genetic features of PCNSL and PTL, we characterized their recurrent somatic mutations, chromosomal rearrangements, copy number alterations (CNAs), and associated driver genes, and compared these comprehensive genetic signatures to those of diffuse LBCL and primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma (PMBL). These studies identify unique combinations of genetic alterations in discrete LBCL subtypes and subtype-selective bases for targeted therapy. PCNSLs and PTLs frequently exhibit genomic instability, and near-uniform, often biallelic, CDKN2A loss with rare TP53 mutations. PCNSLs and PTLs also use multiple genetic mechanisms to target key genes and pathways and exhibit near-uniform oncogenic Toll-like receptor signaling as a result of MYD88 mutation and/or NFKBIZ amplification, frequent concurrent B-cell receptor pathway activation, and deregulation of BCL6. Of great interest, PCNSLs and PTLs also have frequent 9p24.1/PD-L1/PD-L2 CNAs and additional translocations of these loci, structural bases of immune evasion that are shared with PMBL. PMID:26702065

  18. Growth of primary embryo cells in a microculture system

    PubMed Central

    Villa, Max; Pope, Sara; Conover, Joanne; Fan, Tai-Hsi

    2011-01-01

    We present optimal perfusion conditions for the growth of primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts (mEFs) and mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) using a microfluidic perfusion culture system. In an effort to balance nutrient renewal while ensuring the presence of cell secreted factors, we found that the optimal perfusion rate for culturing primary embryonic fibroblasts (mEFs) in our experimental setting is 10 nL/min with an average flow velocity 0.55 μm/sec in the microchannel. Primary mEFs may have a greater dependence on cell secreted factors when compared to their immortalized counterpart 3T3 fibroblasts cultured under similar conditions. Both the seeding density and the perfusion rate are critical for the proliferation of primary cells. A week long cultivation of mEFs and mESCs using the microculture system exhibited similar morphology and viability to those grown in a petri dish. Both mEFs and mESCs were analyzed using fluorescence immunoassays to determine their proliferative status and protein expression. Our results demonstrate that a perfusion-based microculture environment is capable of supporting the highly proliferative status of pluripotent embryonic stem cells. PMID:20012208

  19. Primary mirror support system for the SUBARU Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iye, Masanori; Kodaira, Keiichi

    1994-06-01

    The Japan National Large Telescope `SUBARU' will be completed on the summit of Mauna Kea by the end of the century. One of the major characteristics new to the SUBARU telescope is the active support system for its large monolithic primary mirror, which has 261 points of computer-controlled actuators to maintain a precise mirror figure. This paper describes the control principle, design concepts, results of engineering experiments and numerical simulations of the active support system to ensure the high imaging performance of this system.

  20. Klystron 'efficiency loop' for the ALS storage ring RF system

    SciTech Connect

    Kwiatkowski, Slawomir; Julian, Jim; Baptiste, Kenneth

    2002-05-20

    The recent energy crisis in California has led us to investigate the high power RF systems at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) in order to decrease the energy consumption and power costs. We found the Storage Ring Klystron Power Amplifier system operating as designed but with significant power waste. A simple proportional-integrator (PI) analog loop, which controls the klystron collector beam current, as a function of the output RF power, has been designed and installed. The design considerations, besides efficiency improvement, were to interface to the existing system without major expense. They were to also avoid the klystron cathode power supply filter's resonance in the loop's dynamics, and prevent a conflict with the existing Cavity RF Amplitude Loop dynamics. This efficiency loop will allow us to save up to 700 MW-hours of electrical energy per year and increase the lifetime of the klystron.

  1. Metastability in the MgAl2O4-Al2O3 System

    DOE PAGES

    Wilkerson, Kelley R.; Smith, Jeffrey D.; Hemrick, James G.

    2014-07-22

    Aluminum oxide must take a spinel form ( γ-Al2O3) at elevated temperatures in order for extensive solid solution to form between MgAl2O4 and α-Al2O3. The solvus line between MgAl2O4 and Al2O3 has been defined at 79.6 wt% Al2O3 at 1500°C, 83.0 wt% Al2O3 at 1600°C, and 86.5 wt% Al2O3 at 1700°C. A metastable region has been defined at temperatures up to 1700°C which could have significant implications for material processing and properties. Additionally, initial processing could have major implications on final chemistry. The spinel solid solution region has been extended to form an infinite solid solution with Al2O3 at elevatedmore » temperatures. A minimum in melting at 1975°C and a chemistry of 96 wt% Al2O3 rather than a eutectic is present, resulting in no eutectic crystal formation during solidification.« less

  2. Bipod flexure for 1-m primary mirror system.

    PubMed

    Kihm, Hagyong; Yang, Ho-Soon; Lee, Yun-Woo

    2014-12-01

    We present an analytical formulation of the bipod flexure for mounting the 1-m primary mirror in a space telescope. Compliance and stiffness matrices of the bipod flexure are derived to estimate theoretical performance and to make initial design guidelines. We use finite element analysis to optimize the bipod design satisfying the application requirements. Experimental verification is achieved by vibration test with a dummy mirror system. PMID:25554320

  3. LSST primary, secondary, and tertiary mirror support systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuerden, Brian; Sebag, Jacques; Mathews, Scott; Cho, Myung; Lee, Joon; West, Steven

    2004-09-01

    The current LSST Baseline Configuration has a field of view of 3.5 degrees and an optical etendue of 302 meters square degrees square. The etendue calculation includes the effect of gradual vignetting by the camera as the field angle increases. A current optical point design includes an 8.4 m spun cast light-weighted borosilicate primary mirror, a 3.2 m secondary mirror and a 5.0 m tertiary mirror. The goal of this study is to determine if these mirrors can be actively supported and retain figure control over elevation angles without closed-loop control based on wave-front measurement. Support systems for the tertiary and primary mirrors are adapted from proven systems utilized on 6.5 and 8.4 m class primaries developed by the University of Arizona"s Mirror Laboratory. The number and locations of axial and lateral supports is determined for each mirror and the gravitational and support induced surface distortions are calculated and are shown to be within budgeted limits. The support components and their performance are described and it is demonstrated that predicted mirror distortion attributable to the support system is consistent with the known performance of the support components.

  4. LBT primary mirrors: the final design of the supporting system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parodi, Giancarlo; Cerra, G. C.; Hill, John M.; Davison, Warren B.; Salinari, Piero

    1997-03-01

    The main final results in terms of stresses and optical performances are reported for the large binocular telescope (LBT) primary mirrors. The two borosilicate LBT primary mirrors f/1.14 have 8.4 diameter and are produced at the Steward Observatory Mirror Lab (SOML). They are honeycomb shaped in order to achieve light weight, short thermal constant and high stiffness. The back plate is flat and the upper is paraboloid shaped. Each elementary cell has, in the lower plate, one circular hole permitting the ventilation of cell itself. The material used is the borosilicate Ohara E6. Different supporting systems have been analyzed from the mirror casting to the operative conditions, i.e.: supporting system during the cooling of the casting phase; supporting system for the handling after the casting phase and before the optical surface grinding and polishing; supporting system for the handling after the optical surface polishing and for maintenance; passive support system in non-operative condition; supporting system in operative condition. The stress checks carried out show that the values of the maximum principal tensile stresses are below 0.7 MPa for long times and/or stresses affecting large volumes, and are below 1.05 MPa for short times and small volumes. Optical performances in operative condition respect the specification.

  5. RELAP5 MODEL OF THE DIVERTOR PRIMARY HEAT TRANSFER SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Popov, Emilian L; Yoder Jr, Graydon L; Kim, Seokho H

    2010-08-01

    This report describes the RELAP5 model that has been developed for the divertor primary heat transfer system (PHTS). The model is intended to be used to examine the transient performance of the divertor PHTS and evaluate control schemes necessary to maintain parameters within acceptable limits during transients. Some preliminary results are presented to show the maturity of the model and examine general divertor PHTS transient behavior. The model can be used as a starting point for developing transient modeling capability, including control system modeling, safety evaluations, etc., and is not intended to represent the final divertor PHTS design. Preliminary calculations using the models indicate that during normal pulsed operation, present pressurizer controls may not be sufficient to keep system pressures within their desired range. Additional divertor PHTS and control system design efforts may be required to ensure system pressure fluctuation during normal operation remains within specified limits.

  6. Preoperational test report, primary ventilation condenser cooling system

    SciTech Connect

    Clifton, F.T.

    1997-10-29

    This represents the preoperational test report for the Primary Ventilation Condenser Cooling System, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The system uses a closed chilled water piping loop to provide offgas effluent cooling for tanks AY101, AY102, AZ1O1, AZ102; the offgas is cooled from a nominal 100 F to 40 F. Resulting condensation removes tritiated vapor from the exhaust stack stream. The piping system includes a package outdoor air-cooled water chiller with parallel redundant circulating pumps; the condenser coil is located inside a shielded ventilation equipment cell. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System.

  7. Links between systems in Accident & Emergency and primary care.

    PubMed

    Harrop, Nick

    2005-01-01

    The hospital emergency department and other elements of rapid access primary care constitute an emergency care network. Integration aims to maximise the network's strengths and overcome its weaknesses. Taking the patient as a starting point, it is possible to envisage an objective data model that can operate at multiple levels within the network to describe its process efficiency and clinical effectiveness. Other means of integration are also identified. These contain significant subjective elements. In particular, the decision support system of NHSDirect has operated successfully to legitimise national and local intervention based on skill-mix, whereas its technical operation has been susceptible to human deviation from prescribed routine. As we scrutinise a system, we discover that it contains people who are doing things. Logical elements in the system turn out to be givers or recipients of deliberate and thoughtful care. Information systems in Accident & Emergency (A&E) and primary care can help accountable planners to measure and control aspects of the network's operation. Clinicians also need their systems to enable, rather than constrain, effective interactions.

  8. Measured Activities of Al and Ni in gamma-(Ni) and gamma'-(Ni)3Al in the Ni-Al-Pt System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copland, Evan

    2007-01-01

    Adding Pt to Ni-Al coatings is critical to achieving the required oxidation protection of Ni-based superalloys, but the nature of the Pt effect remains unresolved. This research provides a fundamental part of the answer by measuring the influence of Pt on the activities of Al and Ni in gamma-(Ni), gamma prime-(Ni)3Al and liquid in the Ni-Al-Pt system. Measurements have been made at 25 compositions in the Ni-rich corner over the temperature range, T = 1400-1750 K, by the vapor pressure technique with a multiple effusion-cell mass spectrometer (multi-cell KEMS). These measurements clearly show adding Pt (for X(sub Pt) less than 0.25) decreases a(Al) while increasing a(Ni). This solution behavior supports the idea that Pt increases Al transport to an alloy / Al2O3 interface and also limits the interaction between the coating and substrate alloys in the gamma-(Ni) + gamma prime-(Ni)3Al region. This presentation will review the progress of this study.

  9. Cryptanalysis and improvement of Yan et al.'s biometric-based authentication scheme for telecare medicine information systems.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Dheerendra; Mukhopadhyay, Sourav; Chaturvedi, Ankita; Kumari, Saru; Khan, Muhammad Khurram

    2014-06-01

    Remote user authentication is desirable for a Telecare Medicine Information System (TMIS) for the safety, security and integrity of transmitted data over the public channel. In 2013, Tan presented a biometric based remote user authentication scheme and claimed that his scheme is secure. Recently, Yan et al. demonstrated some drawbacks in Tan's scheme and proposed an improved scheme to erase the drawbacks of Tan's scheme. We analyze Yan et al.'s scheme and identify that their scheme is vulnerable to off-line password guessing attack, and does not protect anonymity. Moreover, in their scheme, login and password change phases are inefficient to identify the correctness of input where inefficiency in password change phase can cause denial of service attack. Further, we design an improved scheme for TMIS with the aim to eliminate the drawbacks of Yan et al.'s scheme. PMID:24880932

  10. Apollo experience report guidance and control systems: Primary guidance, navigation, and control system development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holley, M. D.; Swingle, W. L.; Bachman, S. L.; Leblanc, C. J.; Howard, H. T.; Biggs, H. M.

    1976-01-01

    The primary guidance, navigation, and control systems for both the lunar module and the command module are described. Development of the Apollo primary guidance systems is traced from adaptation of the Polaris Mark II system through evolution from Block I to Block II configurations; the discussion includes design concepts used, test and qualification programs performed, and major problems encountered. The major subsystems (inertial, computer, and optical) are covered. Separate sections on the inertial components (gyroscopes and accelerometers) are presented because these components represent a major contribution to the success of the primary guidance, navigation, and control system.

  11. Use of Fuzzy Logic Systems for Assessment of Primary Faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrović, Ivica; Jozsa, Lajos; Baus, Zoran

    2015-09-01

    In electric power systems, grid elements are often subjected to very complex and demanding disturbances or dangerous operating conditions. Determining initial fault or cause of those states is a difficult task. When fault occurs, often it is an imperative to disconnect affected grid element from the grid. This paper contains an overview of possibilities for using fuzzy logic in an assessment of primary faults in the transmission grid. The tool for this task is SCADA system, which is based on information of currents, voltages, events of protection devices and status of circuit breakers in the grid. The function model described with the membership function and fuzzy logic systems will be presented in the paper. For input data, diagnostics system uses information of protection devices tripping, states of circuit breakers and measurements of currents and voltages before and after faults.

  12. Combustion synthesis of ceramic-metal composite materials - The TiC-Al2O3-Al system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feng, H. J.; Moore, John J.; Wirth, D. G.

    1992-01-01

    Combustion synthesis was applied for producing ceramic-metal composites with reduced levels of porosity, by allowing an excess amount of liquid metal, generated by the exothermic reaction during synthesis, to infiltrate the pores. It is shown that this method, when applied to TiC-Al2O3 system, led to a decreased level of porosity in the resulting TiC-Al2O3-Al product, as compared with that of TiC-Al2O3 system. This in situ procedure is more efficient than the two-stage conventional processes (i.e., sintering followed by liquid metal infiltration), although there are limitations with respect to total penetration of the liquid metal and maintaining a stable propagation of the combustion reaction.

  13. Design and analysis of support system of LAMOST primary mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Xuefei; Cui, Xiangqun; Chen, Haiyuan; Ye, Xizhang; Zhang, Ru

    2003-02-01

    LAMOST (The Large Sky Area Multi-object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope) is a reflecting Schmidt telescope. There are two large segmented mirrors in LAMOST: One is the Schmidt plate MA, and the other is the spherical primary mirror MB. The dimension of MB is about 6.7m×6m and it is face down in 25°. MB is composed of 37 hexagonal sub-mirrors. During the observation, one should maintain the correct mirror figure for each sub-mirror and co-focus for all 37 sub-mirrors to obtain the good image, even it is an unconventional designed telescope without tracking movement on the primary mirror. This paper presents the design and the finite element analysis for the whole primary mirror support system, which includes the optimization of the mirror support points distribution, the design and the testing of the prototype of MB sub-cell, the structure analysis and the design of the mirror support truss.

  14. Provider's Constraints and Difficulties in Primary Health Care System

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Pawan; Khan, Abdul Majeed; Inder, Deep; Anu

    2014-01-01

    Background: The contractualization of human resource in recent years has resulted into various human resource management issues. Objective: To explore the administrative and management issues of contractual model of human resource under primary health care system in Delhi. Materials and Methods: Comparative study was conducted on randomly selected sample of 333, comprised of Medical Officers, ANMs, Pharmacist and Laboratory Assistants and Technicians, both regular and contractual cadre. The data was collected using the semi-structured interview schedule and thematic content analysis was done. Results: The five major themes emerged in the analysis; these are (i) physical infrastructure, (ii) organization's working environment, (iii) privileges of staff, (iv) discontentment, (v) human resource development. Comparative analysis of themes between regular and contractual staff revealed significant differences in factors which are embedded into the organization's culture. Element of discontentment is high amongst contractual staff particularly for discrimination in job, undermining of authority, patient care relationship and privileges provided to regular staff. This reflects the area of dissatisfaction which varies between regular and contractual staff in the organization. Conclusion: If primary health care system fails to address genuine constraints of human resources of both regular and contractual cadre and perception of discrimination persists, it is bound to result into poor motivation for good performance in the system of health care. So, adopting good practices in human resource management keeping regular and contractual employees grievances at forefront are urgently needed to ensure the availability of adequately trained and motivated personnel's in health facilities. PMID:25161964

  15. The primary mirror support system of the ESO-VLT.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneermann, M.; Cui, X.-Q.

    1988-10-01

    The 8 meter unit telescopes of the ESO very large telescope (VLT) will have primary mirrors of the solid thin meniscus type. Presently various different options concerning material and thickness are still under consideration for the production of the mirror blanks. This paper describes the performance analysis of a glass ceramic mirror with a thickness of 200 mm. This mirror is supported by a functionally separated axial and radial support system. The results of the analytical assessment of the mirror performance under those loading conditions are discussed.

  16. EVALUATION OF THE TEMPORARY TENT COVER TRUSS SYSTEM AP PRIMARY VENT SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    HAQ MA

    2009-12-31

    The purpose of this calculation is to evaluate a temporary ten cover truss system. This system will be used to provide weather protection to the workers during replacement of the filter for the Primary Ventilation System in AP Tank Farm. The truss system has been fabricated utilizing tubes and couplers, which are normally used for scaffoldings.

  17. Strengthening weak primary care systems: steps towards stronger primary care in selected Western and Eastern European countries.

    PubMed

    Groenewegen, Peter P; Dourgnon, Paul; Greß, Stefan; Jurgutis, Arnoldas; Willems, Sara

    2013-11-01

    European health care systems are facing diverse challenges. In health policy, strong primary care is seen as key to deal with these challenges. European countries differ in how strong their primary care systems are. Two groups of traditionally weak primary care systems are distinguished. First a number of social health insurance systems in Western Europe. In these systems we identified policies to strengthen primary care by small steps, characterized by weak incentives and a voluntary basis for primary care providers and patients. Secondly, transitional countries in Central and Eastern Europe (CCEE) that transformed their state-run, polyclinic based systems to general practice based systems to a varying extent. In this policy review article we describe the policies to strengthen primary care. For Western Europe, Germany, Belgium and France are described. The CCEE transformed their systems in a completely different context and urgency of problems. For this group, we describe the situation in Estonia and Lithuania, as former states of the Soviet Union that are now members of the EU, and Belarus which is not. We discuss the usefulness of voluntary approaches in the context of acceptability of such policies and in the context of (absence of) European policies.

  18. Primary propulsion/large space system interaction study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coyner, J. V.; Dergance, R. H.; Robertson, R. I.; Wiggins, J. V.

    1981-01-01

    An interaction study was conducted between propulsion systems and large space structures to determine the effect of low thrust primary propulsion system characteristics on the mass, area, and orbit transfer characteristics of large space systems (LSS). The LSS which were considered would be deployed from the space shuttle orbiter bay in low Earth orbit, then transferred to geosynchronous equatorial orbit by their own propulsion systems. The types of structures studied were the expandable box truss, hoop and column, and wrap radial rib each with various surface mesh densities. The impact of the acceleration forces on system sizing was determined and the effects of single point, multipoint, and transient thrust applications were examined. Orbit transfer strategies were analyzed to determine the required velocity increment, burn time, trip time, and payload capability over a range of final acceleration levels. Variables considered were number of perigee burns, delivered specific impulse, and constant thrust and constant acceleration modes of propulsion. Propulsion stages were sized for four propellant combinations; oxygen/hydrogen, oxygen/methane, oxygen/kerosene, and nitrogen tetroxide/monomethylhydrazine, for pump fed and pressure fed engine systems. Two types of tankage configurations were evaluated, minimum length to maximize available payload volume and maximum performance to maximize available payload mass.

  19. Lattice crossover and phase transitions in NdAlO3-GdAlO3 system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasylechko, L.; Shmanko, H.; Ohon, N.; Prots, Yu.; Hoffmann, S.; Ubizskii, S.

    2013-02-01

    Phase and structural behaviour in the (1-x)NdAlO3-xGdAlO3 system in a whole concentration range has been studied by means of in situ high-resolution X-ray synchrotron powder diffraction technique and differential thermal analysis. Two kinds of solid solutions Nd1-xGdxAlO3 have been found at room temperature: one with rhombohedral (x<0.15) and one with orthorhombic (x≥0.20) symmetry. A morphotropic phase transition occurs at x≈0.15, where the co-existence of both phases was observed. Peculiarity of the orthorhombic solid solution is the lattice parameter crossover at the compositions with x=0.33, 0.49 and 0.62. First-order structural transition Pbnm↔R3¯с has been detected both from in situ powder diffraction and thermal analysis data. Continuous phase transformation R3¯с↔Pm3¯m above 2140 K has been predicted for Nd-rich sample Nd0.85Gd0.15AlO3 from the extrapolation of high-temperature behaviour of the lattice parameter ratio of the rhombohedral phase. Based on the experimental data, the phase diagram of the pseudo-binary system NdAlO3-GdAlO3 has been constructed.

  20. Fission Product Migration in Primary System and Containment

    SciTech Connect

    2015-04-01

    Version 00 ART MOD2 aims at a comprehensive analysis for the FP behaviour in primary system and in containment during severe accidents and therefore the code considers the removal of radio-nuclides of up to 60 materials including chemical compounds by natural deposition and by the engineered safety features (ESF) such as spray systems. As for the natural deposition of radio-nuclides, the code can consider the phenomena such as gravitational settling, thermophoresis, diffusiophoresis, Brownian diffusion, diffusion under laminar or turbulent flows, resuspension, condensation, chemisorption and revaporization. The code also models the aerosol growth by agglomeration of aerosols and condensation/evaporation of volatile material at the aerosol surface. Recently, the models for iodine chemistry in containment sump water was incorporated into ART MOD2 ART MOD2 was modified in January 2015 to correct coding errors and improve the vibration of the calculation result of water (H2O) vapor.

  1. Fission Product Migration in Primary System and Containment

    2015-04-01

    Version 00 ART MOD2 aims at a comprehensive analysis for the FP behaviour in primary system and in containment during severe accidents and therefore the code considers the removal of radio-nuclides of up to 60 materials including chemical compounds by natural deposition and by the engineered safety features (ESF) such as spray systems. As for the natural deposition of radio-nuclides, the code can consider the phenomena such as gravitational settling, thermophoresis, diffusiophoresis, Brownian diffusion, diffusionmore » under laminar or turbulent flows, resuspension, condensation, chemisorption and revaporization. The code also models the aerosol growth by agglomeration of aerosols and condensation/evaporation of volatile material at the aerosol surface. Recently, the models for iodine chemistry in containment sump water was incorporated into ART MOD2 ART MOD2 was modified in January 2015 to correct coding errors and improve the vibration of the calculation result of water (H2O) vapor.« less

  2. Interdiffusion and Intrinsic Diffusion in the Mg-Al System

    SciTech Connect

    Brennan, Sarah; Bermudez, Katrina; Sohn, Yong Ho; Kulkarni, Nagraj S

    2012-01-01

    Solid-to-solid diffusion couples were assembled and annealed to examine the diffusion between pure Mg (99.96%) and Al (99.999%). Diffusion anneals were carried out at 300 , 350 , and 400 C for 720, 360, and 240 hours, respectively. Optical and scanning electron microscopes were utilized to identify the formation of the intermetallic phases, -Al12Mg17 and -Al3Mg2 and absence of the -phase in the diffusion couples. Thicknesses of the -Al12Mg17 and -Al3Mg2 phases were measured and the parabolic growth constants were calculated to determine the activation energies for the growth, 165 and 86 KJ/mole, respectively. Concentration profiles were determined with electron microprobe analysis using pure elemental standards. Composition-dependent interdiffusion coefficients in Mg-solid solution, -Al12Mg17 and - Al3Mg2 and Al-solid solutions were calculated based on the Boltzmann-Matano analysis. Average effective interdiffusion coefficients for each phase were also calculated, and the magnitude was the highest for the -Al3Mg2 phase, followed by -Al12Mg17, Al-solid solution and Mg-solid solution. Intrinsic diffusion coefficients based on Huemann s analysis (e.g., marker plane) were determined for the ~38 at.% Mg in the -Al3Mg2 phase. Activation energies and the pre-exponential factors for the inter- and intrinsic diffusion coefficients were calculated for the temperature range examined. The -Al3Mg2 phase was found to have the lowest activation energies for growth and interdiffusion among all four phases studied. At the marker location in the -Al3Mg2 phase, the intrinsic diffusion of Al was found to be faster than that of Mg. Extrapolations of the impurity diffusion coefficients in the terminal solid solutions were made and compared to the available self- and impurity diffusion data from literature. Thermodynamic factor, tracer diffusion coefficients and atomic mobilities at the marker plane composition were approximated using available literature values of Mg activity in the -Al

  3. Primary Standards Laboratory report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-01

    Sandia National Laboratories operates the Primary Standards Laboratory (PSL) for the Department of Energy, Albuquerque Operations Office (DOE/AL). This report summarizes metrology activities that received emphasis in the first half of 1990 and provides information pertinent to the operation of the DOE/AL system-wide Standards and Calibration Program.

  4. Primary central nervous system lymphoma a report of nine cases.

    PubMed

    Lakshmaiah, K C; Lokanath, D; Ramesh, C; Babu, K G; Rao, C R; Swamy, K

    1996-06-01

    Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma (PCNSL) is a rare neoplasm of B cell origin and constitute less than 1% of Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Histology is mainly of high grade and intermediate type. Although NHL is known to be highly sensitive to both irradiation and cytotoxic drugs, being a curable malignancy, the therapeutic results remain disappointing. Clinical observations on nine cases of PCNSL seen in one of the major cancer centres in India is presented in this paper. Radiotherapy combined with Chemotherapy although yielded encouraging initial response in these patients, the long term response was unsatisfactory with median survival for these patients being only 19 months. This warrants an alternative therapeutic approach to improve the dismal prognosis of PCNSL. PMID:8979473

  5. 49 CFR 214.529 - In-service failure of primary braking system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false In-service failure of primary braking system. 214... Maintenance Machines and Hi-Rail Vehicles § 214.529 In-service failure of primary braking system. (a) In the event of a total in-service failure of its primary braking system, an on-track roadway...

  6. 49 CFR 214.529 - In-service failure of primary braking system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false In-service failure of primary braking system. 214... Maintenance Machines and Hi-Rail Vehicles § 214.529 In-service failure of primary braking system. (a) In the event of a total in-service failure of its primary braking system, an on-track roadway...

  7. Crystalline Al1 - x Ti x phases in the hydrogen cycled NaAlH4 + 0.02TiCl3 system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitt, M. P.; Vullum, P. E.; Sørby, M. H.; Emerich, H.; Paskevicius, M.; Buckley, C. E.; Gray, E. MacA.; Walmsley, J. C.; Holmestad, R.; Hauback, B. C.

    2013-03-01

    The hydrogen (H) cycled planetary milled (PM) NaAlH4 + 0.02TiCl3 system has been studied by high resolution synchrotron X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy during the first 10 H cycles. After the first H absorption, we observe the formation of four nanoscopic crystalline (c-) Ti-containing phases embedded on the NaAlH4 surface, i.e. Al2Ti, Al3Ti, Al82Ti18 and Al89Ti11, with 100% of the originally added Ti atoms accounted for. Al2Ti and Al3Ti are observed morphologically as a mechanical couple on the NaAlH4 surface, with a moderately strained interface. Electron diffraction shows that the Al82Ti18 phase retains some ordering from the L12 structure type, with the observation of forbidden (100) ordering reflections in the fcc Al82Ti18 lattice. After 2 H cycles the NaAlH4 + 0.02TiCl3 system displays only two crystalline Ti-containing phases, Al3Ti and Al89Ti11. After 10 H cycles, the Al89Ti11 is completely converted to Al85Ti15. Al89Ti11, Al85Ti15 and Al3Ti do not display any ordering reflections, and they are modeled in the A1 structure type. Quantitative phase analysis indicates that the Al3Ti proportion continues to increase with further H cycles. The formation of Ti-poor Al1 - x Ti x (x < 0.25) phases in later H cycles is detrimental to hydrogenation kinetics, compared to the starting Ti-richer near-surface Al2Ti/NaAlH4 interface present during the first absorption of hydrogen.

  8. Chemotherapy in newly diagnosed primary central nervous system lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Hashemi-Sadraei, Nooshin; Peereboom, David M.

    2010-01-01

    Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) accounts for only 3% of brain tumors. It can involve the brain parenchyma, leptomeninges, eyes and the spinal cord. Unlike systemic lymphoma, durable remissions remain uncommon. Although phase III trials in this rare disease are difficult to perform, many phase II trials have attempted to define standards of care. Treatment modalities for patients with newly diagnosed PCNSL include radiation and/or chemotherapy. While the role of radiation therapy for initial management of PCNSL is controversial, clinical trials will attempt to improve the therapeutic index of this modality. Routes of chemotherapy administration include intravenous, intraocular, intraventricular or intra-arterial. Multiple trials have outlined different methotrexate-based chemotherapy regimens and have used local techniques to improve drug delivery. A major challenge in the management of patients with PCNSL remains the delivery of aggressive treatment with preservation of neurocognitive function. Because PCNSL is rare, it is important to perform multicenter clinical trials and to incorporate detailed measurements of long-term toxicities. In this review we focus on different chemotherapeutic approaches for immunocompetent patients with newly diagnosed PCNSL and discuss the role of local drug delivery in addition to systemic therapy. We also address the neurocognitive toxicity of treatment. PMID:21789140

  9. The Australian experiment: how primary health care organizations supported the evolution of a primary health care system.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Caroline; Jackson, Claire L; Marley, John E; Wells, Robert

    2012-03-01

    Primary health care in Australia has undergone 2 decades of change. Starting with a vision for a national health strategy with general practice at its core, Australia established local meso-level primary health care organizations--Divisions of General Practice--moving from focus on individual practitioners to a professional collective local voice. The article identifies how these meso-level organizations have helped the Australian primary health care system evolve by supporting the roll-out of initiatives including national practice accreditation, a focus on quality improvement, expansion of multidisciplinary teams into general practice, regional integration, information technology adoption, and improved access to care. Nevertheless, there are still challenges to ensuring equitable access and the supply and distribution of a primary care workforce, addressing the increasing rates of chronic disease and obesity, and overcoming the fragmentation of funding and accountability in the Australian system.

  10. Primary Central Nervous System Anaplastic Large T-cell Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Splavski, Bruno; Muzevic, Dario; Ladenhauser-Palijan, Tatjana; Jr, Brano Splavski

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) of T-cell origin is an exceptionally rare, highly malignant intracranial neoplasm. Although such a tumor typically presents with a focal mass lesion. Case report: Past medical history of a 26-year-old male patient with a PCNS lymphoma of T-cell origin was not suggestive of intracranial pathology or any disorder of other organs and organic systems. To achieve a gross total tumor resection, surgery was performed via osteoplastic craniotomy using the left frontal transcortical transventricular approach. Histological and immunohistochemical analyses of the tissue removed described tumor as anaplastic large cell lymphoma of T-cells (T-ALCL). Postoperative and neurological recovery was complete, while control imaging of the brain showed no signs of residual tumor at a six-month follow-up. The patient, who did not appear immunocompromized, was referred to a hematologist and an oncologist where corticosteroids, the particular chemotherapeutic protocol and irradiation therapy were applied. Conclusion: Since PCNS lymphoma is a potentially curable brain tumor, we believe that proper selection of the management options, including early radical tumor resection for solitary PCNS lymphoma, may be proposed as a major treatment of such a tumor in selected patients, resulting in a satisfactory outcome. PMID:27703297

  11. Vapor Pressures in the Al(I)+Al2O3(s) System: Reconsidering Al2O3(s) Condensation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copland, Evan

    2005-01-01

    The vaporization behavior of the A1-O system has been studied on numerous occasions but significant uncertainties remain. The origin of this uncertainty must be understood before A1-O vaporization behavior can be accurately determined. The condensation of A12O3 and clogging of the effusion orifice is a difficult problem for the Knudsen effusion technique that influences the measured vaporization behavior but has only received limited attention. This study reconsiders this behavior in detail. A new theory for A12O3 condensation is proposed together with procedures that will improve the measured thermodynamic properties of A1-O vaporization.

  12. Comment on 'The remote sensing of ocean primary productivity - Use of a new data compilation to test satellite algorithms' by William Balch et al

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platt, Trevor; Sathyendranath, Shubha

    1993-01-01

    Various conclusions by Balch et al. (1992) about the current state of modeling primary production in the sea (lack of improvement in primary production models, since 1957, utility of analytical models, and merits or weaknesses of complex models) are commented on. It is argued that since they are based on a false premise, these conclusions are not robust, and that the approach used by Balch et al. (the model of Platt and Sathyendranath, 1988) was inadequate for the question they set out to address. The present criticism is based mainly on the issue of whether implementation was correct with respect to parameter selection. It is concluded that the findings of Balch et al. with respect to the model of Platt and Sathyendranath is unreliable. Balch replies that satellite-derived estimates of primary production should be compared directly to that measured in situ in as many regions as possible. This will provide a first-order estimate of the magnitude of the error involved in estimating primary production from space.

  13. Discharge properties of Mg-Al-Mn-Ca and Mg-Al-Mn alloys as anode materials for primary magnesium-air batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuasa, Motohiro; Huang, Xinsheng; Suzuki, Kazutaka; Mabuchi, Mamoru; Chino, Yasumasa

    2015-11-01

    The discharge behaviors of rolled Mg-6 mass%Al-0.3 mass%Mn-2 mass%Ca (AMX602) and Mg-6 mass%Al-0.3 mass%Mn (AM60) alloys used as anodes for Magnesium-air batteries were investigated. The AMX602 alloy exhibited superior discharge properties compared to the AM60 alloy, especially at low current density. The discharge products of the AMX602 alloy were dense and thin, and many cracks were observed at all current densities. In addition, the discharge products were detached at some sites. These sites often corresponded to the positions of Al2Ca particles. The comparison of the discharge and corrosion tests indicated that the dense and thin discharge products of AMX602 were easily cracked by dissolution of the Mg matrix around Al2Ca particles, and the cracks promoted the penetration of the electrolyte into the discharge products, retaining the discharge activity. In contrast, concerning the AM60 alloy, thick discharge products were formed on the surface during discharge, and cracking of the discharge products hardly occurred, degrading the discharge properties. Localized and deeply corroded pits that could result from the detachment of metal pieces from the anode during discharge were partly observed in the AM60 alloy. It is suggested that these detached metal pieces are another reason for the low discharge properties of the AM60 alloy.

  14. Clinical epidemiology for childhood primary central nervous system tumors.

    PubMed

    Bauchet, Luc; Rigau, Valérie; Mathieu-Daudé, Hélène; Fabbro-Peray, Pascale; Palenzuela, Gilles; Figarella-Branger, Dominique; Moritz, Jorge; Puget, Stéphanie; Bauchet, Fabienne; Pallusseau, Lorelei; Duffau, Hugues; Coubes, Philippe; Trétarre, Brigitte; Labrousse, François; Dhellemmes, Patrick

    2009-03-01

    This work was conducted by the French Brain Tumor Data Bank (FBTDB) and aims to prospectively record all primary central nervous system tumors (PCNST), in France, for which histological diagnosis is available. Results concerning children are presented. This study analyzes the childhood cases (0-19 years) of newly diagnosed and histologically confirmed PCNST (during the years 2004-2006) which have been recorded by the FBTDB. All French neuropathology and neurosurgery departments participated in this program. Neurosurgeons and neuropathologists completed a data file containing socio-demographic, clinical, radiologic and anatomopathologic information. The Tumor Registry from Herault was authorized to compile the data files with personal identifiers. About 1,017 cases (533 boys and 484 girls) of newly diagnosed childhood PCNST have been recorded (gliomas: 52%, all other neuroepithelial tumors: 31%, craniopharyngioma: 5%, germ cell tumors, meningioma and neurinoma: approximately 3% each, all histological subtypes have been detailed). Tumor resections were performed in 83.3%, and biopsies in 16.7%. The distributions by histology, cryopreservation of the samples, age, sex, tumor site and surgery have been detailed. To our knowledge, this work is the first databank in Europe dedicated to PCNST that includes the collection of clinical, radiological and histological data (including cryopreservation of the specimen). The long term goals of the FBTDB are to create a national registry and a network to perform epidemiological studies, to implement clinical and basic research protocols, and to evaluate and harmonize the healthcare of children and adult patients affected by PCNST. PMID:19020806

  15. Neuropsychological profile of patients with primary systemic hypertension.

    PubMed

    Ostrosky-Solis, F; Mendoza, V U; Ardila, A

    2001-01-01

    Arterial hypertension represents a risk factor for cerebrovascular disease. It has been hypothesized that chronic hypertension may eventually result in small subcortical infarcts associated with some cognitive impairments. One hundred fourteen patients with primary systemic hypertension (PSH) and 114 matched subjects were selected. PSH patients were further divided in four groups depending upon the hypertension severity. In addition to the medical and laboratory exams, a neuropsychological evaluation was administered. The NEUROPSI neuropsychological test battery was used. An association between level of hypertension and cognitive impairment was observed. Most significant differences were observed in the following domains: Reading, executive functioning, constructional, and memory-recall. No differences were observed in orientation, memory-recognition, and language. Some neuropsychological functions appeared impaired even in the PSH group with the least risk factors. Cognitive evaluation may be important in cases of PSH not only to determine early subtle cognitive changes, but also for follow-up purposes, and to assess the efficacy of different therapeutic procedures. PMID:11912866

  16. Radiation Therapy for Primary Carcinoma of the Extrahepatic Biliary System

    PubMed Central

    Flickinger, John C.; Epstein, Alan H.; Iwatsuki, Shunzaburo; Carr, Brian I.; Starzl, Thomas E.

    2010-01-01

    From 1976 to 1988, 63 patients received radiation therapy for primary cancers of the extrahepatic biliary system (eight gallbladder and 55 extrahepatic biliary duct). Twelve patients underwent orthotopic liver transplantation. Chemotherapy was administered to 13 patients. Three patients underwent intraluminal brachytherapy alone (range, 28 to 55 Gy). Sixty patients received megavoltage external-beam radiation therapy (range, 5.4 to 61.6 Gy; median, 45 Gy), of whom nine received additional intraluminal brachytherapy (range, 14 to 45 Gy; median, 30 Gy). The median survival of all patients was 7 months. Sixty patients died, all within 39 months of radiation therapy. One patient is alive 11 months after irradiation without surgical resection, and two are alive 50 months after liver transplantation and irradiation. Symptomatic duodenal ulcers developed after radiation therapy in seven patients but were not significantly related to any clinical variable tested. Extrahepatic biliary duct cancers, the absence of metastases, increasing calendar year of treatment, and liver transplantation with postoperative radiation therapy were factors significantly associated with improved survival. PMID:2070327

  17. Reversible Ammonia Sorption for the Primary Life Support System (PLSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wojtowicz, Marek A.; Cosgrove, Joseph E.; Serio, Michael A.; Jennings, Mallory A.

    2012-01-01

    Results are presented on the development of regenerable trace-contaminant (TC) sorbent for use in Extravehicular Activities (EVAs), and more specifically in the Primary Life Support System (PLSS). Since ammonia is the most important TC to be captured, data presented in this paper are limited to ammonia sorption, with results relevant to other TCs to be reported at a later time. The currently available TC-control technology involves the use of a packed bed of acid-impregnated granular charcoal. The sorbent is non-regenerable, and its use is associated with appreciable pressure drop, i.e. power consumption. The objective of this work is to demonstrate the feasibility of using vacuum-regenerable sorbents for PLSS application. In this study, several carbon sorbent monoliths were fabricated and tested. Multiple adsorption/vacuum-regeneration cycles were demonstrated at room temperature, as well as carbon surface conditioning that enhances ammonia sorption without impairing sorbent regeneration. Depending on sorbent monolith geometry, the reduction in pressure drop with respect to granular sorbent was found to be between 50% and two orders of magnitude. Resistive heating of the carbon sorbent monolith was demonstrated by applying voltage to the opposite ends of the monolith.

  18. Mutational analysis of primary central nervous system lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, Aurélie; Boisselier, Blandine; Labreche, Karim; Marie, Yannick; Polivka, Marc; Jouvet, Anne; Adam, Clovis; Figarella-Branger, Dominique; Miquel, Catherine; Eimer, Sandrine; Houillier, Caroline; Soussain, Carole; Mokhtari, Karima; Daveau, Romain; Hoang-Xuan, Khê

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the genomic basis of primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) tumorigenesis. To investigate the mutational profile of PCNSL, we analyzed nine paired tumor and germline DNA samples from PCNSL patients by high throughput exome sequencing. Eight genes of interest have been further investigated by focused resequencing in 28 additional PCNSL tumors to better estimate their incidence. Our study identified recurrent somatic mutations in 37 genes, some involved in key signaling pathways such as NFKB, B cell differentiation and cell cycle control. Focused resequencing in the larger cohort revealed high mutation rates for genes already described as mutated in PCNSL such as MYD88 (38%), CD79B (30%), PIM1 (22%) and TBL1XR1 (19%) and for genes not previously reported to be involved in PCNSL tumorigenesis such as ETV6 (16%), IRF4 (14%), IRF2BP2 (11%) and EBF1 (11%). Of note, only 3 somatically acquired SNVs were annotated in the COSMIC database. Our results demonstrate a high genetic heterogeneity of PCNSL and mutational pattern similarities with extracerebral diffuse large B cell lymphomas, particularly of the activated B-cell (ABC) subtype, suggesting shared underlying biological mechanisms. The present study provides new insights into the mutational profile of PCNSL and potential targets for therapeutic strategies. PMID:24970810

  19. Phase equilibria in the Ni-Al-Ti system at 1173 k

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nash, P.; Liang, W. W.

    1985-03-01

    The phase equilibria at 1173 K have been determined in the Ni-AI-Ti system for Al contents less than 50 at. pct. The extent of the H (Ni2AlTi) phase field has been established as well as the extent of solubility in the binary compounds γ (Ni3Al), ν(Ni3Ti), β2(NiTi), NiTi2, and ζ(AlTi3). Substantial differences were found between the phase equilibria determined in this study and previous studies, in part due to the large solubility of Al in NiTi2.

  20. A dichotomy in primary marine organic aerosol-cloud-climate system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceburnis, D.; Ovadnevaite, J.; Martucci, G.; Bialek, J.; Monahan, C.; Rinaldi, M.; Facchini, C.; Berresheim, H.; Worsnop, D. R.; O'Dowd, C.

    2011-12-01

    D. Ceburnis1, J. Ovadnevaite1, G. Martucci1, J. Bialek1, C. Monahan1, M. Rinaldi2, M. C. Facchini2, H. Berresheim1, D. R. Worsnop3,4 and C. D. O'Dowd1 1School of Physics & Centre for Climate and Air Pollution Studies, National University of Ireland Galway, University Road, Galway, Ireland 2Institute of Atmospheric Sciences and Climate, National Research Council, Bologna, 20129, Italy. 3 Aerodyne Research, Inc., 45 Manning Road, Billerica, MA 01821-3976, USA 4 Physics Department, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 64, 00014, Helsinki, Finland Organic matter has been observed to significantly contribute to particulate matter in every environment including pristine remote oceans. A significant if not dominant contribution of insoluble organic matter to marine aerosol has been proved to be of biogenic origin1,2. High time resolution measurements of marine organic matter have demonstrated a dynamic system with regular organic matter plume events occurring during summer3 as well as frequent open ocean particle formation events4. High-time resolution measurements of primary marine organic sea-spray physico-chemical properties reveal an apparent dichotomous behavior in terms of water uptake: specifically sea-spray aerosol enriched in organic matter possesses a low hygroscopic Growth Factor (GF~1.25) while simultaneously having a cloud condensation nucleus/condensation nuclei (CCN/CN) activation efficiency of between 83% at 0.25% supersaturation and 100% at 0.75%5. Simultaneous retrieval of Cloud Droplet Number Concentration (CDNC) during primary organic aerosol plumes reveal CDNC concentrations of 350 cm-3 in newly formed marine stratocumulus cloud for boundary layer organic mass concentrations of 3-4 ug m-36. It is suggested that marine hydrogels are responsible for this dichotomous behavior which has profound impacts to aerosol-cloud-climate system along with a better understood process analysis of aerosol formation by sea-spray7. A hydrophobic character of organic matter

  1. Phase relationships and stability of the {mu}- and {zeta}-phases in the Ag-Al-X (X=Zn, Ga, Ge) systems

    SciTech Connect

    Paruchuri, M.R.; Massalaski, T.B.

    1993-09-01

    Details of phase relationships in three ternary systems, Ag-Al-X (X=Zn, Ga, Ge) near the Ag-rich corner at 400C are presented. Metallography, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray spectroscopy have been used to establish the respective isothermal sections at 400C. In each case, the {mu}-phase and the {zeta}-phase of the Ag-Al binary system extend into the ternary system and terminate at a three-phase region involving the Ag-rich primary solid solution ({alpha}{sub 1}-phase) in the Ag-Al-Zn and Ag-Al-Ga systems, and the Ge-rich primary solid solution ({alpha}{sub 2}-phase) in the Ag-Al-Ge ternary system. The stability ranges of the {mu} and {zeta}-phases follow approximately constant electron concentration lines. The solid solubilities of Zn, Ga and Ge in the {mu}-phase are relatively small, compared with those in the {zeta}-phase (up to 18 at. %). No ternary phase appears to exist in the Ag-rich portions studied in the three ternary systems.

  2. Formation of spherical primary silicon crystals during semi-solid processing of hypereutectic Al-15.5wt%Si alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.I.; Lee, H.I.; Kim, M.I.

    1995-06-15

    Semi-solid state processing is considered as an attractive processing technique because of it offers several potential advantages such as energy saving for forming, reduction of microsegregation and porosity, especially for near net shape manufacturing of components. This technique is frequently applied to make sound casting products of hypoeutectic Al-Si alloys. On the other hand, hypereutectic Al-Si alloys have limited applications because of their inherent problems associated with poor machinability and mechanical properties, although the commercial potential for their outstanding resistance to wear and corrosion, higher hardness and low coefficient of thermal expansion is well recognized. To exploit the full potential of hypereutectic Al-Si alloys, semi-solid processing is utilized in an attempt to improve the mechanical properties through the spheroidization of primary Si crystals. The purpose of the present work is to provide the experimental evidence of the fragmentation of primary Si crystals in hypereutectic Al-15.5wt%Si alloy during semi-solid processing. Microstructural evolution during the isothermal shearing above the eutectic temperature of this alloy as a function of processing time is also reported.

  3. Development of Effective Academic Affairs Administration System in Thai Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thongnoi, Niratchakorn; Srisa-ard, Boonchom; Sri-ampai, Anan

    2013-01-01

    This research aimed to: 1) study current situations and problems of academic affairs administration system in Primary Schools. 2) develop an effective academic affairs administration system, and 3) evaluate the implementation of the developed system in the primary school, Thailand. Research and Development (R&D) was employed which consisted of…

  4. Modelacio de sedimentadors en plantes de tractament d'aigues residuals. Aplicacio al proces de fermentacio - elutracio de fangs primaris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribes Bertomeu, Josep

    the development and validation of a general settling model that allows simulating the main settling operations taking place in a WWTP, considering both primary and secondary settlers and thickeners. It consists in a one-dimensional model based on the flux theory of Kynch and the double-exponential settling function of Takacs that takes into account flocculation, hindered settling and compression processes. The model has been applied to simulation of settlers and thickeners by means of splitting the system into several horizontal layers, all of them considered as completely mixed reactors which are interconnected by mass flux obtained from the settling model. In order to simulate the conversion processes taking place during sedimentation, the general quality model BNRM1 has been added, and it has been proposed an iterative procedure for solving the equations for each layer in which the settler has been divided. The settling flux model validation, along with the quality model, has been carried out by applying them to a simulation of primary sludge fermentation - elutriation process. This process has been studied on a pilot plant located in the Carraixet WWTP in Alboraia (Valencia). In order to simulate the observed decrease in solids separation efficiency in the studied fermentation - elutriation process, the quality model has been modified with the addition of a new process called "disintegration of complex particulate material". This process influences the settleability of the sludge because it is considered that the disintegrated solids become non-settleable solids. This modification implies the addition of two new kinetic parameters (the specific disintegration velocity for volatile particulate material and the specific disintegration velocity for non volatile particulate material). However, the settling parameter that represents the non-settleable fraction of total suspended solids is eliminated from the model and it has been transformed into an experimental

  5. Formation enthalpies of Al-Fe-Zr-Nd system calculated by using geometric and Miedema's models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lei; Wang, Rongcheng; Tao, Xiaoma; Guo, Hui; Chen, Hongmei; Ouyang, Yifang

    2015-04-01

    Formation enthalpy is important for the phase stability and amorphous forming ability of alloys. The formation enthalpies of Fe17RE2 (RE=Ce, Pr, Nd, Gd and Er) obtained by Miedema's theory are in good agreement with those of the experiments. The dependence of formation enthalpy on concentration of Al for intermetallic (AlxFe1-x)17Nd2 have been calculated by Miedema's theory and the geometric model. The solid solubility of Al in (AlxFe1-x)17Nd2 is coincident with the concentration dependence of formation enthalpy. The mixing enthalpies of liquid alloys and formation enthalpies of alloys for Al-Fe-Zr-Nd system have been predicted. The calculated mixing enthalpy indicates that the adding of Fe or Nd decreases monotonously the magnitude of enthalpy. The formation enthalpies of Al-Fe-Zr-Nd system indicate that the shape of the enthalpy contour map changes when the content of Al is less than 50.0 at% and then it remains unchanged except the decrease of magnitude. The formation enthalpy of Al-Fe-Zr-Nd increases with the increase of Fe and/or Nd content. The negative formation enthalpy indicates that Al-Fe-Zr-Nd system has higher amorphous forming ability and wide amorphous forming range. The certain contents of Zr and/or Al are beneficial for the formation of Al-Fe-Zr-Nd intermetallics.

  6. Primary systemic amyloidosis as a real diagnostic challenge – case study

    PubMed Central

    Jerzykowska, Sonia; Gil, Lidia A.; Balcerzak, Andrzej; Pupek-Musialik, Danuta; Komarnicki, Mieczysław A.

    2014-01-01

    Primary amyloidosis (AL) is a rare variety of plasma cell dyscrasia, the diagnosis of which is often difficult to establish. Pathogenesis of amyloidosis involves extracellular deposition of insoluble protein fibrils in tissues, leading to insufficiency of affected organs. According to various sources, mean survival rate of patients with primary amyloidosis ranges from 12 to 24 months, making primary amyloidosis a disease with a very poor prognosis. Survival rate is significantly lowered in case of cardiac manifestation of amyloidosis (about 6 months survival in untreated patients). In recent years a considerable progress in AL treatment has been observed. Nowadays we are able not only to delay progression of amyloidosis, but also to improve the function of the affected organs. Unfortunately as first signs and symptoms of AL are usually nonspecific, the diagnosis of AL is often delayed, resulting in late introduction of optimal therapy. There are many diagnostic tests which can be used in diagnostic process of amyloidosis, i.e. electrophoresis, serum and urine immunofixation or affected organs and bone marrow biopsy. On establishing the diagnosis in a patient with suspected amyloidosis it should be remembered that particular diagnostic methods vary considerably in sensitivity. The aim of this paper is to present a case report of a 27-year-old patient with primary amyloidosis focusing on diagnostic aspect of this condition. On the basis of this case, the authors would like to emphasize the value of precise diagnostic process, with immunological techniques playing undoubtedly a crucial role. PMID:26155101

  7. Heterogeneous Distribution of 26Al at the Birth of the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makide, Kentaro; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Krot, Alexander N.; Huss, Gary R.; Ciesla, Fred J.; Hellebrand, Eric; Gaidos, Eric; Yang, Le

    2011-06-01

    It is believed that 26Al, a short-lived (t 1/2 = 0.73 Ma) and now extinct radionuclide, was uniformly distributed in the nascent solar system (SS) with the initial 26Al/27Al ratio of ~5.2 × 10-5, suggesting an external, stellar origin rather than local, solar source. However, the stellar source of 26Al and the manner in which it was injected into the SS remain controversial: the 26Al could have been produced by an asymptotic giant branch star, a supernova, or a Wolf-Rayet star and injected either into the protosolar molecular cloud, protosolar cloud core, or protoplanetary disk. Corundum (Al2O3) is predicted to be the first condensate from a cooling gas of solar composition. Here we show that micron-sized corundum condensates from 16O-rich (Δ17O ~ -25‰) gas of solar composition recorded heterogeneous distribution of 26Al at the birth of the SS: the inferred initial 26Al/27Al ratio ranges from ~6.5×10-5 to <2×10-6 52% of corundum grains measured are 26Al-poor. Abundant 26Al-poor, 16O-rich refractory objects include grossite- and hibonite-rich calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) in CH (high metal abundance and high iron concentration) chondrites, platy hibonite crystals in CM (Mighei-like) chondrites, and CAIs with fractionation and unidentified nuclear effects CAIs chondrites. Considering the apparently early and short duration (<0.3 Ma) of condensation of refractory 16O-rich solids in the SS, we infer that 26Al was injected into the collapsing protosolar molecular cloud and later homogenized in the protoplanetary disk. The apparent lack of correlation between 26Al abundance and O-isotope composition of corundum grains constrains the stellar source of 26Al in the SS.

  8. Primary Nocturnal Enuresis: A Structural and Strategic Family Systems Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Teresa B.

    2000-01-01

    Exploration of the literature regarding primary nocturnal enuresis suggests there are various causes including genetic, biological, physiological, and psychological explanations. Treatments typically consist of medication and behavioral intervention. However, it was believed that this enuretic case was caused by psychological trauma. A series of…

  9. Power Systems for Future Missions: Appendices A-L

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gill, S. P.; Frye, P. E.; Littman, Franklin D.; Meisl, C. J.

    1994-01-01

    Selection of power system technology for space applications is typically based on mass, readiness of a particular technology to meet specific mission requirements, and life cycle costs (LCC). The LCC is typically used as a discriminator between competing technologies for a single mission application. All other future applications for a given technology are usually ignored. As a result, development cost of a technology becomes a dominant factor in the LCC comparison. Therefore, it is common for technologies such as DIPS and LMR-CBC to be potentially applicable to a wide range of missions and still lose out in the initial LCC comparison due to high development costs. This collection of appendices (A through L) contains the following power systems technology plans: CBC DIPS Technology Roadmap; PEM PFC Technology Roadmap; NAS Battery Technology Roadmap; PV/RFC Power System Technology Roadmap; PV/NAS Battery Technology Roadmap; Thermionic Reactor Power System Technology Roadmap; SP-100 Power System Technology Roadmap; Dynamic SP-100 Power System Technology Roadmap; Near-Term Solar Dynamic Power System Technology Roadmap; Advanced Solar Dynamic Power System Technology Roadmap; Advanced Stirling Cycle Dynamic Isotope Power System Technology Roadmap; and the ESPPRS (Evolutionary Space Power and Propulsion Requirements System) User's Guide.

  10. Phase diagram of the Al-Er-Mo ternary system at 873 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Yanfang; Yang, Wenchao; Tang, Chenghuang; Lan, Yanni; Zhan, Yong Zhong

    2015-11-01

    The phase relationship in the Al-Er-Mo ternary system at 873 K has been investigated based on the equilibrated method mainly by means of X-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The existence of 10 binary compounds and two ternary compounds has been confirmed. The results present that the isothermal section at 873 K is governed by 15 single-phase regions, 29 two-phase regions and 15 three-phase regions. By using the phase-disappearing method, Al8Mo3 has a narrow homogeneity range (from 72 to 73 at% Al), while the homogeneity range of AlMo3 is from 21% to 28.5% at% Al. Also, the maximum solubility of Al in Mo is about 16 at%.

  11. Health system challenges to integration of mental health delivery in primary care in Kenya- perspectives of primary care health workers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Health system weaknesses in Africa are broadly well known, constraining progress on reducing the burden of both communicable and non-communicable disease (Afr Health Monitor, Special issue, 2011, 14-24), and the key challenges in leadership, governance, health workforce, medical products, vaccines and technologies, information, finance and service delivery have been well described (Int Arch Med, 2008, 1:27). This paper uses focus group methodology to explore health worker perspectives on the challenges posed to integration of mental health into primary care by generic health system weakness. Methods Two ninety minute focus groups were conducted in Nyanza province, a poor agricultural region of Kenya, with 20 health workers drawn from a randomised controlled trial to evaluate the impact of a mental health training programme for primary care, 10 from the intervention group clinics where staff had received the training programme, and 10 health workers from the control group where staff had not received the training). Results These focus group discussions suggested that there are a number of generic health system weaknesses in Kenya which impact on the ability of health workers to care for clients with mental health problems and to implement new skills acquired during a mental health continuing professional development training programmes. These weaknesses include the medicine supply, health management information system, district level supervision to primary care clinics, the lack of attention to mental health in the national health sector targets, and especially its absence in district level targets, which results in the exclusion of mental health from such district level supervision as exists, and the lack of awareness in the district management team about mental health. The lack of mental health coverage included in HIV training courses experienced by the health workers was also striking, as was the intensive focus during district supervision on HIV to

  12. Solid state phase equilibria and intermetallic compounds of the Al-Cr-Ho system

    SciTech Connect

    Pang, Mingjun; Zhan, Yongzhong; Du, Yong

    2013-02-15

    The solid state phase equilibria of the Al-Cr-Ho ternary system at 500 Degree-Sign C were experimentally investigated. The phase relations at 500 Degree-Sign C are governed by 14 three-phase regions, 29 two-phase regions and 15 single-phase regions. The existences of 10 binary compounds and 2 ternary phases have been confirmed. Al{sub 11}Cr{sub 2}, Al{sub 11}Cr{sub 4} and Al{sub 17}Ho{sub 2} were not found at 500 Degree-Sign C. Crystal structures of Al{sub 9}Cr{sub 4} and Al{sub 8}Cr{sub 4}Ho were determined by the Rietveld X-ray powder data refinement. Al{sub 9}Cr{sub 4} was found to exhibit cubic structure with space group I4-bar 3m (no. 217) and lattice parameters a=0.9107(5) nm. Al{sub 8}Cr{sub 4}Ho crystallizes in ThMn{sub 12} structure type with space group I4/mmm (no. 139) and lattice parameters a=0.8909(4) nm, c=0.5120(5) nm. It is concluded that the obtained Al{sub 4}Cr phase in this work should be {mu}-Al{sub 4}Cr by comparing with XRD pattern of the hexagonal {mu}-Al{sub 4}Mn compound. - Graphical abstract: The solid state phase equilibria of the Al-Cr-Ho ternary system at 500 Degree-Sign C. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Al-Cr-Ho system has been investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Al{sub 9}Cr{sub 4} has cubic structure with space group I4-bar 3m. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Al{sub 8}Cr{sub 4}Ho crystallizes in ThMn{sub 12} type with space group I4/mmm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Al{sub 4}Cr phase is {mu}-type at 500 Degree-Sign C.

  13. 78 FR 28896 - Design Limits and Loading Combinations for Metal Primary Reactor Containment System Components

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ... COMMISSION Design Limits and Loading Combinations for Metal Primary Reactor Containment System Components... Regulatory Commission (NRC) is issuing Revision 2 to Regulatory Guide (RG) 1.57, ``Design Limits and Loading Combinations for Metal Primary Reactor Containment System Components,'' in which there are no...

  14. Oxidation of primary amines to oximes with molecular oxygen using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and WO3/Al2O3 as catalysts.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Ken; Watanabe, Tomonari; Murahashi, Shun-Ichi

    2013-03-15

    The oxidative transformation of primary amines to their corresponding oximes proceeds with high efficiency under molecular oxygen diluted with molecular nitrogen (O2/N2 = 7/93 v/v, 5 MPa) in the presence of the catalysts 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and tungusten oxide/alumina (WO3/Al2O3). The method is environmentally benign, because the reaction requires only molecular oxygen as the terminal oxidant and gives water as a side product. Various alicyclic amines and aliphatic amines can be converted to their corresponding oximes in excellent yields. It is noteworthy that the oxidative transformation of primary amines proceeds chemoselectively in the presence of other functional groups. The key step of the present oxidation is a fast electron transfer from the primary amine to DPPH followed by proton transfer to give the α-aminoalkyl radical intermediate, which undergoes reaction with molecular oxygen and hydrogen abstraction to give α-aminoalkyl hydroperoxide. Subsequent reaction of the peroxide with WO3/Al2O3 gives oximes. The aerobic oxidation of secondary amines gives the corresponding nitrones. Aerobic oxidative transformation of cyclohexylamines to cyclohexanone oximes is important as a method for industrial production of ε-caprolactam, a raw material for Nylon 6.

  15. The influence of different vibration exciter systems on high frequency primary calibration of single-ended accelerometers: II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruns, Th; Link, A.; Täubner, A.

    2012-02-01

    During the monitoring of the long term stability of two accelerometers intended for use in the CIPM key comparison CCAUV.V-K2, significant deviations of the magnitude results of the single-ended transducer were discovered. These deviations depend on whether the calibration was performed on an armature made of beryllium or of ceramic. After first investigations which led to an interpretation as a relative motion effect published in Täubner et al (2010 Metrologia 47 58-64), now, more detailed measurements combined with modelling and system identification have led to a better understanding of what is happening. The measurements, model considerations and corresponding results are presented and discussed in order to further the understanding of this important issue of primary accelerometer calibration. This contribution can be considered a sequel to the former publication (Täubner et al 2010 Metrologia 47 58-64) on the topic.

  16. {sup 26}Al IN THE EARLY SOLAR SYSTEM: NOT SO UNUSUAL AFTER ALL

    SciTech Connect

    Jura, M.; Xu, S.; Young, E. D. E-mail: sxu@astro.ucla.edu

    2013-10-01

    Recently acquired evidence shows that extrasolar asteroids exhibit over a factor of 100 variation in the iron to aluminum abundance ratio. This large range likely is a consequence of igneous differentiation that resulted from heating produced by radioactive decay of {sup 26}Al with an abundance comparable to that in the solar system's protoplanetary disk at birth. If so, the conventional view that our solar system began with an unusually high amount of {sup 26}Al should be discarded.

  17. Component Activity Measurements in the Ti-Al-O System by Knudsen Cell Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copland, Evan; Jacobson, Nathan S.

    2003-01-01

    Titanium-aluminides (containing (alpha)2-Ti3Al and gamma-TiAl intermetallic phases) have received continued research focus due to their potential as low-density materials for structural applications at intermediate temperatures. However their application above about 850C is hindered by poor oxidation resistance, characterized by the formation of a non-protective TiO2+Al2O3 scale and an oxygen-enriched subsurface zone. Consistent with this are measured titanium and aluminum activities in "oxygen-free" titanium-aluminides, which indicate Al2O3 is only stable for aluminum concentrations greater then 54 atom percent at 1373 K. However, the inability to form a protective Al2O3 scale is in apparent conflict with phase diagram studies, as experimental isothermal sections of the Ti-Al-O system show gamma-TiAl + alpha2-Ti3Al structures are in equilibrium only with Al2O3. The apparent resolution to this conflict lies in the inclusion of oxygen effects in the thermodynamic measurements

  18. Design and analysis of large spaceborne light-weighted primary mirror and its support system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yong; Jin, Guang; Yang, Hong-bo

    2007-12-01

    With the development of the resolution of spaceborne remote sensor, the diameter of the primary mirror of spaceborne telescope becomes larger and larger. The distortion of primary mirror which is influenced by the mirror material, structure, self-weight, support system and temperature environment affects optical image quality finally. In this paper, an on-axis TMA high-resolution Cassegrain optical payload with a primary mirror whose diameter is φ 650mm was designed and the effects of the influence factors of the distortion acts on the on-axis TMA optical system primary mirror had been analyzed by means of Finite Element Analysis. During work, the technology of the primary mirror design had been summarized and general consideration of the primary mirror design technology also had been described at the same time. Considering the telescope manufacture and work station, a reasonable and optimal structure of the primary mirror sub-assembly is taken finally. In the end, the distortion of the primary mirror during its fabrication station and work station had been analyzed by integrated Finite Element Analysis Method. The results implicated the synthesis profile error (P-V value) for the primary mirror is less than λ/10 and all the indexes of the primary mirror satisfy the requirements of the optical system.

  19. Phase diagram of the Co-Al-W system. structure and phase transformations near the Co3(Al, W) intermetallic composition range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazantseva, N. V.; Demakov, S. L.; Yurovskikh, A. S.; Stepanova, N. N.; Vinogradova, N. I.; Davydov, D. I.; Lepikhin, S. V.

    2016-07-01

    Low-temperature portion of the polythermal section for the Co-Al-W system in the vicinity of the Co3(Al, W) intermetallic composition has been studied experimentally using electron microscopy and hightemperature X-ray diffraction analysis. Low-temperature structural phase transformations and temperature ranges of the existence of phases have been determined. The morphology of Co3(Al, W) intermetallic particles was studied as a function of the tungsten content in alloys.

  20. Description of the primary flight display and flight guidance system logic in the NASA B-737 transport systems research vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knox, Charles E.

    1990-01-01

    A primary flight display format was integrated with the flight guidance and control system logic in support of various flight tests conducted with the NASA Transport Systems Research Vehicle B-737-100 airplane. The functional operation of the flight guidance mode control panel and the corresponding primary flight display formats are presented.

  1. Ar + induced interfacial mixing and phase formation in the Al/Cr system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H. K.; Kim, S. O.; Song, J. H.; Kim, K. W.; Woo, J. J.; Whang, C. N.; Smith, R. J.

    1991-07-01

    Evaporated Al/Cr bilayer thin films were irradiated by 80 keV Ar + at doses in the range from 1 × 10 15 to 2 × 10 16 Ar +/cm 2 at room temperature in order to investigate the Ar + induced interfacial mixing behavior and the phase formation and transition by Ar + bombardment. Ion bombardment induces intermixing across the Al/Cr interface and mixing variance increases with increasing ion dose. Cascade and thermal spike models are found to be not adequate for the ion beam mixing mechanism at room temperature in this system. The Al 13Cr 2 phase is formed as an initial phase by ion beam mixing and then transforms into the Al 11Cr 2 or Al 4Cr phases at subsequent ion bombardment. This result is discussed in terms of the enhanced atomic mobility and the thermodynamical driving force by introducing the concept of an effective heat of formation.

  2. Contribution of polymers to classical primary insulation of distribution system

    SciTech Connect

    Shwehdi, M.H.; Al-Rawi, A.

    1996-12-31

    Insulation composites used on present distribution lines frequently consist of several types of materials such as wood, porcelain, polymers and fiberglass reinforced plastics (FRP) connected in series. A study included the laboratory determination of the critical flashover voltage (CFO) of 17 single component and 90 combinations of two components were conducted. The acquired data were used to develop methods of predicting CFO levels of various multiple series electrical insulations. This paper illustrates the results and analyses of the classical primary insulation (porcelain), and of the modern-day insulation of polymers. It also presents the result of whether polymers may add or supplement insulation strength to the two dielectric combination using statistical methods. The paper also presents advantages and guidelines for the use of polymers to either replace or complement porcelain. This may help optimize the choice of dielectrics on distribution lines.

  3. Control System Modeling for the Thirty Meter Telescope Primary Mirror

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacMynowski, Douglas G.; Thompson, Peter M.; Shelton, J. Chris; Roberts, Lewis C., Jr.; Colavita, M. Mark; Sirota, Mark J.

    2011-01-01

    The Thirty Meter Telescope primary mirror is composed of 492 segments that are controlled to high precision in the presence of wind and vibration disturbances, despite the interaction with structural dynamics. The higher bandwidth and larger number of segments compared with the Keck telescopes requires greater attention to modeling to ensure success. We focus here on the development and validation of a suite of quasi-static and dynamic modeling tools required to support the design process, including robustness verification, performance estimation, and requirements flowdown. Models are used to predict the dynamic response due to wind and vibration disturbances, estimate achievable bandwidth in the presence of control-structure-interaction (CSI) and uncertainty in the interaction matrix, and simulate and analyze control algorithms and strategies, e.g. for control of focus-mode, and sensor calibration. Representative results illustrate TMT performance scaling with parameters, but the emphasis is on the modeling framework itself.

  4. Open communication: Recommendations for enhancing communication among primary care and mental health providers, services, and systems.

    PubMed

    Wong, Shale L; Talmi, Ayelet

    2015-06-01

    Comments on the article "Please break the silence: Parents' views on communication between pediatric primary care and mental health providers" by Greene et al. (see record 2015-14521-001). The article highlights the need to improve communication between primary care and mental health care providers to better serve children and families. The report reaffirms that parents understand the value and necessity of collaborative care, as evidenced by the identification of gaps in consistency of bidirectional communication between providers in traditional and separate practice settings and the desire for improved care coordination.

  5. Early accretion of protoplanets inferred from a reduced inner solar system 26Al inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiller, Martin; Connelly, James N.; Glad, Aslaug C.; Mikouchi, Takashi; Bizzarro, Martin

    2015-06-01

    The mechanisms and timescales of accretion of 10-1000 km sized planetesimals, the building blocks of planets, are not yet well understood. With planetesimal melting predominantly driven by the decay of the short-lived radionuclide 26Al (26Al→26Mg; t1/2 = 0.73 Ma), its initial abundance determines the permissible timeframe of planetesimal-scale melting and its subsequent cooling history. Currently, precise knowledge about the initial 26Al abundance [(26Al/27Al)0] exists only for the oldest known solids, calcium aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) - the so-called canonical value. We have determined the 26Al/27Al of three angrite meteorites, D'Orbigny, Sahara 99555 and NWA 1670, at their time of crystallization, which corresponds to (3.98 ± 0.15) ×10-7, (3.64 ± 0.18) ×10-7, and (5.92 ± 0.59) ×10-7, respectively. Combined with a newly determined absolute U-corrected Pb-Pb age for NWA 1670 of 4564.39 ± 0.24 Ma and published U-corrected Pb-Pb ages for the other two angrites, this allows us to calculate an initial (26Al/27Al)0 of (1.33-0.18+0.21) ×10-5 for the angrite parent body (APB) precursor material at the time of CAI formation, a value four times lower than the accepted canonical value of 5.25 ×10-5. Based on their similar 54Cr/52Cr ratios, most inner solar system materials likely accreted from material containing a similar 26Al/27Al ratio as the APB precursor at the time of CAI formation. To satisfy the abundant evidence for widespread planetesimal differentiation, the subcanonical 26Al budget requires that differentiated planetesimals, and hence protoplanets, accreted rapidly within 0.25 ± 0.15 Ma of the formation of canonical CAIs.

  6. Systems integration and demonstration of advanced reusable structure for ALS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibbins, Martin N.

    1991-01-01

    The objective was to investigate the potential of advanced material to achieve life cycle cost (LCC) benefits for reusable structure on the advanced launch system. Three structural elements were investigated - all components of an Advanced Launch System reusable propulsion/avionics module. Leading aeroshell configurations included sandwich structure using titanium, graphite/polyimide (Gr/PI), or high-temperature aluminum (HTA) face sheets. Thrust structure truss concepts used titanium, graphite/epoxy, or silicon carbide/aluminum struts. Leading aft bulkhead concepts employed graphite epoxy and aluminum. The technical effort focused on the aeroshell because the greatest benefits were expected there. Thermal analyses show the structural temperature profiles during operation. Finite element analyses show stresses during splash-down. Weight statements and manufacturing cost estimates were prepared for calculation of LCC for each design. The Gr/PI aeroshell showed the lowest potential LCC, but the HTA aeroshell was judged to be lower risk. A technology development plan was prepared to validate the applicable structural technology.

  7. Postperovskite phase equilibria in the MgSiO3-Al2O3 system.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, Jun; Tsuchiya, Taku

    2008-12-01

    We investigate high-P,T phase equilibria of the MgSiO(3)-Al(2)O(3) system by means of the density functional ab initio computation methods with multiconfiguration sampling. Being different from earlier studies based on the static substitution properties with no consideration of Rh(2)O(3)(II) phase, present calculations demonstrate that (i) dissolving Al(2)O(3) tends to decrease the postperovskite transition pressure of MgSiO(3) but the effect is not significant ( approximately -0.2 GPa/mol% Al(2)O(3)); (ii) Al(2)O(3) produces the narrow perovskite+postperovskite coexisting P,T area (approximately 1 GPa) for the pyrolitic concentration (x(Al2O3) approximately 6 mol%), which is sufficiently responsible to the deep-mantle D'' seismic discontinuity; (iii) the transition would be smeared (approximately 4 GPa) for the basaltic Al-rich composition (x(Al2O3) approximately 20 mol%), which is still seismically visible unless iron has significant effects; and last (iv) the perovskite structure spontaneously changes to the Rh(2)O(3)(II) with increasing the Al concentration involving small displacements of the Mg-site cations.

  8. [Differences and similarities of primary care in the German and Spanish health care systems].

    PubMed

    Salvador Comino, María Rosa; Krane, Sibylla; Schelling, Jörg; Regife García, Víctor

    2016-02-01

    An efficient primary care is of particular importance for any countries' health care system. Many differences exist on how distinctive countries try to obtain the goal of an efficient, cost-effective primary care for its population. In this article we conducted a selective literature review, which includes both scientific and socio-political publications. The findings are complemented with the experience of a Spanish physician from Seville in her last year of training in family medicine, who completed a four months long rotation in the German health care system. We highlighted different features by comparing both countries, including their health care expenditure, the relation between primary and secondary care, the organization in the academic field and the training of future primary care physicians. It is clear that primary care in both countries plays a central role, have to deal with shortcomings, and in some points one system can learn from the other. PMID:26363955

  9. [Differences and similarities of primary care in the German and Spanish health care systems].

    PubMed

    Salvador Comino, María Rosa; Krane, Sibylla; Schelling, Jörg; Regife García, Víctor

    2016-02-01

    An efficient primary care is of particular importance for any countries' health care system. Many differences exist on how distinctive countries try to obtain the goal of an efficient, cost-effective primary care for its population. In this article we conducted a selective literature review, which includes both scientific and socio-political publications. The findings are complemented with the experience of a Spanish physician from Seville in her last year of training in family medicine, who completed a four months long rotation in the German health care system. We highlighted different features by comparing both countries, including their health care expenditure, the relation between primary and secondary care, the organization in the academic field and the training of future primary care physicians. It is clear that primary care in both countries plays a central role, have to deal with shortcomings, and in some points one system can learn from the other.

  10. Primary-secondary pumping conversion: Retrofit of an existing campus chilled water distribution system

    SciTech Connect

    Sczomak, D.P.; Nguyen, P.N.

    1996-08-01

    The chilled water distribution system within an existing 8,300 ton (29,200 kW) capacity regional chilled water plant at Michigan State University (MSU) is being converted from a primary pumping arrangement to a primary-secondary arrangement. The plant presently provides chilled water for air conditioning to twelve remote buildings. In the future, MSU plans to increase the plant`s capacity to 10,800 tons (38,000 kW) in order to serve seven more buildings. The addition of buildings to the distribution system has caused the existing primary pumps to be incapable of producing enough pressure to offset system losses at design flow rates. The existing system has become unable to concurrently provide adequate flow, design supply water temperature and efficient chiller operation due to the distribution system deficiencies. The primary-secondary pumping conversion will include modifications to the distribution piping, the addition of five variable speed secondary pumps, additions and modifications to the control systems, the trimming of impellers on six of the existing primary pumps and replacement of two primary pumps. The campus central control system will be utilized to provide automatic chiller staging, interface with the packaged secondary pump control systems, and control of the building interconnections. The total construction cost is approximately $1,400,000 and is scheduled for completion prior to the 1996 cooling season. Provisions have been made for two additional secondary pumps to accommodate the connection of additional buildings to the distribution system in the future.

  11. Solid Solution Effects on the MgAl2O4 System

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hara, Kelley; Smith, Jeffrey D; Hemrick, James Gordon

    2009-01-01

    Phase relations between the binaries MgAl2O4-ZnAl2O4 and MgAl2O4-MgGa2O4 were studied. Stoichiometric MgAl2O4 spinel can be formed in the laboratory through a coprecipitation method. Complete solid solution formation in the MgAl2O4-MgGa2O4 system was confirmed through X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. XRD analysis of the MgAl2O4-ZnAl2O4 system did not confirm solid solution due to the similar lattice parameters of the two end points, however, previous studies have shown that complete solid solution does form. Thermal conductivity data is pending and will be included in the presentation. Based on previous experimentation and open literature, it is suspected that thermal conductivity will be decreased with the addition of solid solution. With increased amounts of disruption to the lattice from solid solution it is also theorized that the temperature at which the mean free path still impacts thermal conductivity could be increased.

  12. Direct Metal Deposition by Laser in TiNi-Al System for Graded Structure Fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shishkovsky, I.; Kakovkina, N.; Missemer, F.

    2016-07-01

    Intermetallic phase formation was studied in powdered TiNi-Al system under layerwise laser cladding with the aim of forming a gradient of properties due to a change in the concentration relation of Al in the NiTi powder mixture from one layer to another. The relationship between the laser cladding parameters and the intermetallic phase structures in consecutively cladded layers were determined. The structure of intermetallic compounds formed by laser synthesis was studied by optical microscopy, measurement of microhardness, SEM with EDX analysis. Microhardness doubling from 500 HV to 1000 HV was achieved due to nitinol matrix enrichment by Al, which is promising for aerospace applications.

  13. Intention and Usage of Computer Based Information Systems in Primary Health Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosizah; Kuntoro; Basuki N., Hari

    2016-01-01

    The computer-based information system (CBIS) is adopted by almost all of in health care setting, including the primary health center in East Java Province Indonesia. Some of softwares available were SIMPUS, SIMPUSTRONIK, SIKDA Generik, e-puskesmas. Unfortunately they were most of the primary health center did not successfully implemented. This…

  14. Vacuum system for the LBL advanced light source (ALS)

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, K.

    1988-05-01

    A 1.5 to 1.9 GeV synchrotron light source is being built at LBL. The vacuum system is designed to permit all synchrotron photons on the median plane to escape the electron channel and go into an antechamber through a 10 mm high slot. This slot offers effective RF isolation between the electron duct and the antechamber. All unused synchrotron photons within a few mrad of the median plane will be stopped by 96 nearly horizontal absorbers located in the antechamber. The gas, generated by the photons hitting the absorbers, will be directed down to reactive titanium surfaces. Twelve 10 meter long vessels constitute the vacuum chambers for all the lattice magnets. Each chamber will be machined from two thick plates of 5083-H321 aluminum and welded at the perimeter. The nominal wall thickness of the vacuum chamber is 40 mm, which makes it possible to machine a flange into the chamber without the use of welding. 5 refs., 5 figs.

  15. ALS control system IP I/O module upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, Jonah M.; Chin, Michael

    2004-04-23

    The Control System for the Advanced Light Source uses in-house designed IndustryPack (IP) I/O Modules in compact PCI (cPCI) chassis to control instrumentation. Each module consists of digital I/O ports and 16-bit analog I/O interfaced to instrumentation via a cPCI rear I/O card. During the past few years of installed operation, several factors have prompted investigation into the design of a new IP I/O Module. The ADC channels have significant offset drift over periods of days of initial installed operation. An in-situ calibration procedure was developed to address this problem, but it lacks speed and is inconvenient to perform. Digital I/O port limitations have led to increasing amounts of wasted I/O. Fast orbit feedback requires faster ADC sampling and better filtering than the current IP module offers. This paper discusses the issues related to the current IP I/O Module and the design of a new Double-size IP I/O Module.

  16. Development of a biocompatible nanodelivery system for tuberculosis drugs based on isoniazid-Mg/Al layered double hydroxide

    PubMed Central

    Saifullah, Bullo; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; El Zowalaty, Mohamed Ezzat; Fakurazi, Sharida; Webster, Thomas J; Geilich, Benjamin M; Hussein, Mohd Zobir

    2014-01-01

    The primary challenge in finding a treatment for tuberculosis (TB) is patient non-compliance to treatment due to long treatment duration, high dosing frequency, and adverse effects of anti-TB drugs. This study reports on the development of a nanodelivery system that intercalates the anti-TB drug isoniazid into Mg/Al layered double hydroxides (LDHs). Isoniazid was found to be released in a sustained manner from the novel nanodelivery system in humans in simulated phosphate buffer solutions at pH 4.8 and pH 7.4. The nanodelivery formulation was highly biocompatible compared to free isoniazid against human normal lung and 3T3 mouse fibroblast cells. The formulation was active against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and gram-positive bacteria and gram-negative bacteria. Thus results show significant promise for the further study of these nanocomposites for the treatment of TB. PMID:25336952

  17. Current Management of Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, Christopher J.; Bovi, Joseph

    2010-03-01

    Primary central nervous cell lymphoma (PCNSL) is an uncommon neoplasm of the brain, leptomeninges, and rarely the spinal cord. Initially thought to be characteristically associated with congenital, iatrogenic, or acquired immunosuppression, PCNSL is now recognized with increasing frequency in immunocompetent individuals. The role of surgery is limited to establishing diagnosis, as PCNSL is often multifocal with a propensity to involve the subarachnoid space. A whole-brain radiation volume has empirically been used to adequately address the multifocal tumor frequently encountered at the time of PCNSL diagnosis. Despite high rates of response after whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT), rapid recurrence is common and long-term survival is the exception. Chemotherapy alone or in combination with WBRT has more recently become the treatment of choice. Most effective regimens contain high-dose methotrexate and or other agents that are capable of penetrating the blood-brain barrier. High response rates and improved survival with the use of chemotherapy has led to treatment strategies that defer or eliminate WBRT in hopes of lessening the risk of neurotoxicity attributed to WBRT. Unfortunately, elimination of WBRT is also associated with a higher rate of relapse. Combined chemotherapy and WBRT regimens are now being explored that use lower total doses of radiation and altered fractionation schedules with the aim of maintaining high rates of tumor control while minimizing neurotoxicity. Pretreatment, multifactor prognostic indices have recently been described that may allow selection of treatment regimens that strike an appropriate balance of risk and benefit for the individual PCNSL patient.

  18. Reproductive health in India's primary health care system.

    PubMed

    Rao, M

    1997-01-01

    India's family planning program having reached a dead end, the government of India appointed an expert group to develop a new population policy for the country. While the group's report, submitted in May 1994, proclaimed a new orientation described as pro-poor, pro-nature, and pro-women, the recommendations of the report were criticized as not being serious about gender equity. The government of India, describing a new reproductive health care approach, envisions a paradigm shift in the family planning program strategy. Reproductive health is defined as a state in which people can reproduce and regulate their fertility, women are able to go through pregnancy and childbirth safely, the outcome of pregnancy is successful with regard to maternal and infant survival and well-being, and couples are able to have sexual relations free of the fear of pregnancy and of contracting disease. To further the discussion on the newly initiated reproductive health care approach, the faculty of the Center of Social Medicine and Community Health, School of Social Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, organized a workshop for November 4-5, 1996, on the place of reproductive health in India's primary health care. The workshop brought together public health persons, clinicians, and health and women's rights activists. The author outlines the content of papers presented at the workshop.

  19. Reproductive health in India's primary health care system.

    PubMed

    Rao, M

    1997-01-01

    India's family planning program having reached a dead end, the government of India appointed an expert group to develop a new population policy for the country. While the group's report, submitted in May 1994, proclaimed a new orientation described as pro-poor, pro-nature, and pro-women, the recommendations of the report were criticized as not being serious about gender equity. The government of India, describing a new reproductive health care approach, envisions a paradigm shift in the family planning program strategy. Reproductive health is defined as a state in which people can reproduce and regulate their fertility, women are able to go through pregnancy and childbirth safely, the outcome of pregnancy is successful with regard to maternal and infant survival and well-being, and couples are able to have sexual relations free of the fear of pregnancy and of contracting disease. To further the discussion on the newly initiated reproductive health care approach, the faculty of the Center of Social Medicine and Community Health, School of Social Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, organized a workshop for November 4-5, 1996, on the place of reproductive health in India's primary health care. The workshop brought together public health persons, clinicians, and health and women's rights activists. The author outlines the content of papers presented at the workshop. PMID:9230606

  20. Molecular dynamics simulation of surface segregation, diffusion and reaction phenomena in equiatomic Ni-Al systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evteev, A. V.; Levchenko, E. V.; Belova, I. V.; Murch, G. E.

    2012-12-01

    The molecular dynamics method is used to provide fundamental insights into surface segregation, bulk diffusion and alloying reaction phenomena in equiatomic Ni-Al systems. This knowledge can serve as a guide for the search and development of economic routes for controlling microstructure and properties of the intermetallic compound NiAl. This paper gives an overview of recent molecular dynamics simulations in the area along with other theoretical calculations and experimental measurements.

  1. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: Primary Care Approach to Diagnosis and Management.

    PubMed

    Lam, Nguyet-Cam Vu; Ghetu, Maria V; Bieniek, Marzena L

    2016-08-15

    Systemic lupus erythematosus is an autoimmune disease that affects many systems, including the skin, musculoskeletal, renal, neuropsychiatric, hematologic, cardiovascular, pulmonary, and reproductive systems. Family physicians should be familiar with the manifestations of lupus to aid in early diagnosis, monitoring patients with mild disease, recognizing warning signs that require referral to a rheumatologist, and helping to monitor disease activity and treatment in patients with moderate to severe disease. The American College of Rheumatology has 11 classification criteria for lupus. If a patient meets at least four criteria, lupus can be diagnosed with 95% specificity and 85% sensitivity. All patients with lupus should receive education, counseling, and support. Hydroxychloroquine is the cornerstone of treatment because it reduces disease flares and other constitutional symptoms. Low-dose glucocorticoids can be used to treat most manifestations of lupus. The use of immunosuppressive and cytotoxic agents depends on the body systems affected. Patients with mild disease that does not involve major organ systems can be monitored by their family physician. Patients with increased disease activity, complications, or adverse effects from treatment should be referred to a rheumatologist. To optimize treatment, it is important that a rheumatologist coordinate closely with the patient's family physician to improve chronic care as well as preventive health services. PMID:27548593

  2. Speciation in the AlCl3/SO2Cl2 catholyte system.

    SciTech Connect

    Boyle, Timothy J.; Ingersoll, David T.; Tallant, David Robert; Andrews, Nicholas L.; Rodriguez, Mark Andrew; Alam, Todd Michael

    2005-02-01

    The fundamental chemical behavior of the AlCl{sub 3}/SO{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} catholyte system was investigated using {sup 27}Al NMR spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Three major Al-containing species were found to be present in this catholyte system, where the ratio of each was dependent upon aging time, concentration, and/or storage temperature. The first species was identified as [Cl{sub 2}Al({mu}-Cl)]{sub 2} in equilibrium with AlCl{sub 3}. The second species results from the decomposition of SO{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} which forms Cl{sub 2}(g) and SO{sub 2}(g). The SO{sub 2}(g) is readily consumed in the presence of AlCl{sub 3} to form the crystallographically characterized species [Cl{sub 2}Al({mu}-O{sub 2}SCl)]{sub 2} (1). For 1, each Al is tetrahedrally (T{sub d}) bound by two terminal Cl and two {mu}-O ligands whereas, the S is three-coordinated by two {mu}-O ligands and one terminal Cl. The third molecular species also has T{sub d}-coordinated Al metal centers but with increased oxygen coordination. Over time it was noted that a precipitate formed from the catholyte solutions. Raman spectroscopic studies show that this gel or precipitate has a component that was consistent with thionyl chloride. We have proposed a polymerization scheme that accounts for the precipitate formation. Further NMR studies indicate that the precipitate is in equilibrium with the solution.

  3. HETEROGENEOUS DISTRIBUTION OF {sup 26}Al AT THE BIRTH OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Makide, Kentaro; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Krot, Alexander N.; Huss, Gary R.; Ciesla, Fred J.; Yang, Le; Hellebrand, Eric; Gaidos, Eric

    2011-06-01

    It is believed that {sup 26}Al, a short-lived (t{sub 1/2} = 0.73 Ma) and now extinct radionuclide, was uniformly distributed in the nascent solar system (SS) with the initial {sup 26}Al/{sup 27}Al ratio of {approx}5.2 x 10{sup -5}, suggesting an external, stellar origin rather than local, solar source. However, the stellar source of {sup 26}Al and the manner in which it was injected into the SS remain controversial: the {sup 26}Al could have been produced by an asymptotic giant branch star, a supernova, or a Wolf-Rayet star and injected either into the protosolar molecular cloud, protosolar cloud core, or protoplanetary disk. Corundum (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) is predicted to be the first condensate from a cooling gas of solar composition. Here we show that micron-sized corundum condensates from {sup 16}O-rich ({Delta}{sup 17}O {approx} -25 per mille ) gas of solar composition recorded heterogeneous distribution of {sup 26}Al at the birth of the SS: the inferred initial {sup 26}Al/{sup 27}Al ratio ranges from {approx}6.5x10{sup -5} to <2x10{sup -6}; 52% of corundum grains measured are {sup 26}Al-poor. Abundant {sup 26}Al-poor, {sup 16}O-rich refractory objects include grossite- and hibonite-rich calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) in CH (high metal abundance and high iron concentration) chondrites, platy hibonite crystals in CM (Mighei-like) chondrites, and CAIs with fractionation and unidentified nuclear effects CAIs chondrites. Considering the apparently early and short duration (<0.3 Ma) of condensation of refractory {sup 16}O-rich solids in the SS, we infer that {sup 26}Al was injected into the collapsing protosolar molecular cloud and later homogenized in the protoplanetary disk. The apparent lack of correlation between {sup 26}Al abundance and O-isotope composition of corundum grains constrains the stellar source of {sup 26}Al in the SS.

  4. Timing and extent of Mg and Al isotopic homogenization in the early inner Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Ritesh Kumar; Chaussidon, Marc

    2014-03-01

    The first million years of the Solar System is a key period when the first solids were formed from the nebula gas. The chronology of the different processes at the origin of these solids is still largely unknown and relies strongly on the assumption made of homogeneous distribution for short-lived radioactive nuclides such as 26Al. This assumption is questioned. In this study, in situ 26Al-26Mg isotope systematics was studied with high precision in 12 calcium, aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) (1 type A, 2 type B, 5 type C, and 4 fine grained spinel-rich), 2 amoeboid olivine aggregates (AOAs), and 2 Al-rich chondrules from Efremovka and Vigarano. The (26Al/27Al)i in these early Solar System solids (the subscript ‘i’ stands for the initial isotope ratio obtained from the mineral 26Al isochron) range from ∼6.5×10-5 to 0.2×10-5 with δMgi*26 from -0.08 to +0.37‰. The (26Al/27Al)i and δMgi*26 of CAIs and chondrules can be explained by formation of their precursors from a homogeneous reservoir (Solar System Initial, noted hereafter SSI) with initial magnesium isotopic composition of δMgSSI*26=-0.052±0.013‰ and initial (26Al/27Al)SSI abundance of (5.62±0.42)×10-5. The high precision magnesium isotope data obtained in the present study and literature data allows identifying a few epochs of formation/reprocessing of CAIs. The time periods of these epochs correspond well with the median life times of the pre-main sequence evolution of stars of Solar mass if we anchor the (Al26/Al27)SSI=(5.62±0.42)×10-5 to the beginning of class I phase. This provides a natural explanation to the range of (26Al/27Al)i - (∼6 to 0.02) × 10-5 seen in corundum grains, FUN (Fractionation and Unidentified Nuclear Effects) CAIs, ultrarefractory CAIs, normal CAIs, and chondrules, and suggests a possible relationship between the astrophysical conditions and the formation of these early solids. Corundum grains, FUN CAIs, ultrarefractory CAIs would have formed during the class 0 of

  5. Al6Ti2O13, a new phase in the Al2O3-TiO2 system.

    PubMed

    Norberg, Stefan T; Hoffmann, Stefan; Yoshimura, Masahiro; Ishizawa, Nobuo

    2005-03-01

    The compound Al6Ti2O13 (hexaaluminium dititanium tridecaoxide) has been synthesized using an arc-imaging furnace, which allows fast cooling of melted oxides. The structure consists of infinite double chains of polyhedra running along the c axis. These chains are built up by four kinds of strongly distorted oxygen octahedra randomly occupied by either Ti or Al (point symmetry m or m2m), and by trigonal bipyramids exclusively occupied by Al (point symmetry m2m).

  6. The development process for the space shuttle primary avionics software system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, T. W.

    1987-01-01

    Primary avionics software system; software development approach; user support and problem diagnosis; software releases and configuration; quality/productivity programs; and software development/production facilities are addressed. Also examined are the external evaluations of the IBM process.

  7. Operation and performance of the PEP-II prototype longitudinal damping system at ALS

    SciTech Connect

    Teytelman, D.; Claus, R.; Fox, J.

    1995-05-01

    A modular programmable longitudinal feedback system has been developed as a component of the PEP-II R+D program. This system is based on a family of VME and VXI packaged signal processing functions which implement a general purpose digital feedback controller for accelerators with bunch spacings of 2 ns. A complete PEP-II prototype system has been configured and installed for use at the LBL Advanced Light Source. The system configuration used for tests at the ALS is described and results are presented showing the action of the feedback system. Open and closed loop results showing the detection and calculation of feedback signals from bunch motion are presented and the system is shown to damp coupled-bunch instabilities in the ALS. Use of the system for accelerator diagnostics is illustrated via measurement of grow-damp transients which quantify growth rates without feedback, damping rates with feedback, and identify unstable modes.

  8. Primary central nervous system lymphoma: is absence of intratumoral hemorrhage a characteristic finding on MRI?

    PubMed Central

    Sakata, Akihiko; Okada, Tomohisa; Yamamoto, Akira; Kanagaki, Mitsunori; Fushimi, Yasutaka; Dodo, Toshiki; Arakawa, Yoshiki; Takahashi, Jun C; Miyamoto, Susumu; Togashi, Kaori

    2015-01-01

    Background. Previous studies have shown that intratumoral hemorrhage is a common finding in glioblastoma multi-forme, but is rarely observed in primary central nervous system lymphoma. Our aim was to reevaluate whether intratumoral hemorrhage observed on T2-weighted imaging (T2WI) as gross intratumoral hemorrhage and on susceptibility-weighted imaging as intratumoral susceptibility signal can differentiate primary central nervous system lymphoma from glioblastoma multiforme. Patients and methods. A retrospective cohort of brain tumors from August 2008 to March 2013 was searched, and 58 patients (19 with primary central nervous system lymphoma, 39 with glioblastoma multiforme) satisfied the inclusion criteria. Absence of gross intratumoral hemorrhage was examined on T2WI, and an intratumoral susceptibility signal was graded using a 3-point scale on susceptibility-weighted imaging. Results were compared between primary central nervous system lymphoma and glioblastoma multiforme, and values of P < 0.05 were considered significant. Results. Gross intratumoral hemorrhage on T2WI was absent in 15 patients (79%) with primary central nervous system lymphoma and 23 patients (59%) with glioblastoma multiforme. Absence of gross intratumoral hemorrhage could not differentiate between the two disorders (P = 0.20). However, intratumoral susceptibility signal grade 1 or 2 was diagnostic of primary central nervous system lymphoma with 78.9% sensitivity and 66.7% specificity (P < 0.001), irrespective of gross intratumoral hemorrhage. Conclusions. Low intratumoral susceptibility signal grades can differentiate primary central nervous system lymphoma from glioblastoma multiforme. However, specificity in this study was relatively low, and primary central nervous system lymphoma cannot be excluded based solely on the presence of an intratumoral susceptibility signal. PMID:26029023

  9. High Density Hydrogen Storage System Demonstration Using NaAlH4 Based Complex Compound Hydrides

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel A. Mosher; Xia Tang; Ronald J. Brown; Sarah Arsenault; Salvatore Saitta; Bruce L. Laube; Robert H. Dold; Donald L. Anton

    2007-07-27

    This final report describes the motivations, activities and results of the hydrogen storage independent project "High Density Hydrogen Storage System Demonstration Using NaAlH4 Based Complex Compound Hydrides" performed by the United Technologies Research Center under the Department of Energy Hydrogen Program, contract # DE-FC36-02AL67610. The objectives of the project were to identify and address the key systems technologies associated with applying complex hydride materials, particularly ones which differ from those for conventional metal hydride based storage. This involved the design, fabrication and testing of two prototype systems based on the hydrogen storage material NaAlH4. Safety testing, catalysis studies, heat exchanger optimization, reaction kinetics modeling, thermochemical finite element analysis, powder densification development and material neutralization were elements included in the effort.

  10. Further insight into mechanisms of solid-state interactions in UMo/Al system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazaudier, F.; Proye, C.; Hodaj, F.

    2008-07-01

    In this paper, the solid-state interactions between metastable γ-UMo alloys (containing 5, 7 and 10 wt%Mo) and Al, at temperatures ranging from 440 to 600 °C and for ageing times up to 10 h, are studied using the diffusion couple technique and nuclear fuel plate annealing. The reaction product consists of three main zones, two of them presenting a periodic layered morphology. The growth kinetics is limited by solid-state diffusion and Al is the most mobile species. Both growth kinetics and its global energy of activation are similar to that found for the U/Al binary system. The diffusion path is determined and phase equilibrium relations are deduced for the Mo-poor part of the U-Mo-Al metastable ternary phase diagram.

  11. Process for preparing high-transition-temperature superconductors in the Nb-Al-Ge system

    DOEpatents

    Giorgi, A.L.; Szklarz, E.G.

    1973-01-30

    The patent describes a process for preparing superconducting materials in the Nb-Al-Ge system having transition temperatures in excess of 19K. The process comprises premixing powdered constituents, pressing them into a plug, heating the plug to 1,450-1,800C for 30 minutes to an hour under vacuum or an inert atmosphere, and annealing at moderate temperatures for reasonably long times (approximately 50 hours). High transition-temperature superconductors, including those in the Nb3(Al,Ge) system, prepared in accordance with this process exhibit little degradation in the superconducting transition temperature on being ground to -200 mesh powder. (GRA)

  12. Modulation of Tumor Tolerance in Primary Central Nervous System Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Theodore S.; Munn, David H.; Maria, Bernard L.

    2012-01-01

    Central nervous system tumors take advantage of the unique immunology of the CNS and develop exquisitely complex stromal networks that promote growth despite the presence of antigen-presenting cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. It is precisely this immunological paradox that is essential to the survival of the tumor. We review the evidence for functional CNS immune privilege and the impact it has on tumor tolerance. In this paper, we place an emphasis on the role of tumor-infiltrating myeloid cells in maintaining stromal and vascular quiescence, and we underscore the importance of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity as a myeloid-driven tumor tolerance mechanism. Much remains to be discovered regarding the tolerogenic mechanisms by which CNS tumors avoid immune clearance. Thus, it is an open question whether tumor tolerance in the brain is fundamentally different from that of peripheral sites of tumorigenesis or whether it simply stands as a particularly strong example of such tolerance. PMID:22312408

  13. Evaluation of primary stability of innovated orthodontic miniscrew system (STS): An ex-vivo study

    PubMed Central

    Seifi, Massoud

    2016-01-01

    Background Stability is determined as one of the requirements in use of Temporary Anchorage Devices (TAD) in orthodontics. Miniscrew has been a widely used Bone Anchor. Compared with mini-implant that necessitates osseointegration; mechanical retention is a determining factor for primary stability of miniscrew. Studies investigated various ways to increase primary stability. The aim of this study is to introduce a new configuration of miniscrew system which is believed to obtain more primary stability. Material and Methods Freshly ovine mandibles were cut in blocks. Twenty-seven miniscrews (diameter 1.6 × 8 mm; G2, Dual Top Anchor System, Jeil Medical, Seoul, Korea) were inserted in the blocks and divided in 2 experimental groups: single miniscrew and the innovated design “Seifi Twin Screw (STS)”. Primary stability was evaluated by Periotest “M”® device. Results Independent t-test showed a significant difference between 2 experimental groups in periotest evaluation (p< 0.05). STS demonstrated higher primary stability due to its mechanical configuration and design. Conclusions The STS provides higher primary stability and was found to be effective in increased success rate of miniscrew systems from the standpoint of primary stability. Key words:Anchorage procedures, anchorage techniques, orthodontic anchorage procedures, miniscrews, temporary anchorage device. PMID:27398174

  14. Space Shuttle Program Primary Avionics Software System (PASS) Success Legacy - Quality and Reliability Date

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orr, James K.; Peltier, Daryl

    2010-01-01

    Thsi slide presentation reviews the avionics software system on board the space shuttle, with particular emphasis on the quality and reliability. The Primary Avionics Software System (PASS) provides automatic and fly-by-wire control of critical shuttle systems which executes in redundant computers. Charts given show the number of space shuttle flights vs time, PASS's development history, and other charts that point to the reliability of the system's development. The reliability of the system is also compared to predicted reliability.

  15. Reliability model of fault-tolerant data processing system with primary and backup nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, P. A.; Bobkova, E. Yu

    2016-04-01

    This paper deals with the fault-tolerant data processing systems, which are widely used in modern world of information technologies and have acceptable overhead expenses in hardware implementation. A simplified reliability model for duplex systems and the offered by authors advanced model for data processing systems with primary and backup nodes based on a three-state model of recoverable elements, which takes into consideration different failure rates of passive and active nodes and finite time of node activation, are also given. A calculation formula for the availability factor of the dual-node data processing system with primary and backup nodes and calculation examples are also provided.

  16. 40 CFR 141.544 - What if my system uses chloramines, ozone, or chlorine dioxide for primary disinfection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., ozone, or chlorine dioxide for primary disinfection? 141.544 Section 141.544 Protection of Environment... Benchmark § 141.544 What if my system uses chloramines, ozone, or chlorine dioxide for primary disinfection? If your system uses chloramines, ozone or chlorine dioxide for primary disinfection your system...

  17. 40 CFR 141.544 - What if my system uses chloramines, ozone, or chlorine dioxide for primary disinfection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., ozone, or chlorine dioxide for primary disinfection? 141.544 Section 141.544 Protection of Environment... Benchmark § 141.544 What if my system uses chloramines, ozone, or chlorine dioxide for primary disinfection? If your system uses chloramines, ozone or chlorine dioxide for primary disinfection your system...

  18. 40 CFR 141.544 - What if my system uses chloramines, ozone, or chlorine dioxide for primary disinfection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., ozone, or chlorine dioxide for primary disinfection? 141.544 Section 141.544 Protection of Environment... Benchmark § 141.544 What if my system uses chloramines, ozone, or chlorine dioxide for primary disinfection? If your system uses chloramines, ozone or chlorine dioxide for primary disinfection your system...

  19. 40 CFR 141.544 - What if my system uses chloramines, ozone, or chlorine dioxide for primary disinfection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., ozone, or chlorine dioxide for primary disinfection? 141.544 Section 141.544 Protection of Environment... Benchmark § 141.544 What if my system uses chloramines, ozone, or chlorine dioxide for primary disinfection? If your system uses chloramines, ozone or chlorine dioxide for primary disinfection your system...

  20. 40 CFR 141.544 - What if my system uses chloramines, ozone, or chlorine dioxide for primary disinfection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., ozone, or chlorine dioxide for primary disinfection? 141.544 Section 141.544 Protection of Environment... Benchmark § 141.544 What if my system uses chloramines, ozone, or chlorine dioxide for primary disinfection? If your system uses chloramines, ozone or chlorine dioxide for primary disinfection your system...

  1. Evidence for integrating eye health into primary health care in Africa: a health systems strengthening approach

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The impact of unmet eye care needs in sub-Saharan Africa is compounded by barriers to accessing eye care, limited engagement with communities, a shortage of appropriately skilled health personnel, and inadequate support from health systems. The renewed focus on primary health care has led to support for greater integration of eye health into national health systems. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate available evidence of integration of eye health into primary health care in sub-Saharan Africa from a health systems strengthening perspective. Methods A scoping review method was used to gather and assess information from published literature, reviews, WHO policy documents and examples of eye and health care interventions in sub-Saharan Africa. Findings were compiled using a health systems strengthening framework. Results Limited information is available about eye health from a health systems strengthening approach. Particular components of the health systems framework lacking evidence are service delivery, equipment and supplies, financing, leadership and governance. There is some information to support interventions to strengthen human resources at all levels, partnerships and community participation; but little evidence showing their successful application to improve quality of care and access to comprehensive eye health services at the primary health level, and referral to other levels for specialist eye care. Conclusion Evidence of integration of eye health into primary health care is currently weak, particularly when applying a health systems framework. A realignment of eye health in the primary health care agenda will require context specific planning and a holistic approach, with careful attention to each of the health system components and to the public health system as a whole. Documentation and evaluation of existing projects are required, as are pilot projects of systematic approaches to interventions and application of best practices

  2. Composition Optimization of Al-DOPING Lithium Manganese Oxide from Al2O3-Li2CO3-MnO2 Ternary System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Gang; Sun, Xinyan; Hong, Jianhe; He, Mingzhong

    2013-07-01

    In order to synthesize eutectic compound of Al doping lithium manganese oxide which can be used as cathode material in lithium battery, using γ-Al2O3, Li2CO3 and MnO2 as starting raw materials, the composition optimization research work has been done by the solid state synthesis method. A limited composition range was found in Al2O3-Li2CO3-MnO2 ternary system, in which the synthesized Al doping lithium manganese oxides have single spinel structure and good electrochemical performance. The results showed that the LiAl0.04Mn1.96O4 material presented better charge-discharge cycling behavior than pure LiMn2O4, and showed the best electrochemistry property among the compounds in the Al2O3-Li2O-Mn2O3 ternary system. LiAl0.04Mn1.96O4 still kept perfect cubic structure, but LiMn2O4 kept the coexistence of the cubic and tetragonal phases after 50 charge-discharge cycles.

  3. Kr implantation into heavy ion irradiated monolithic U-Mo/Al systems: SIMS and SEM investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zweifel, T.; Valle, N.; Grygiel, C.; Monnet, I.; Beck, L.; Petry, W.

    2016-03-01

    Worldwide, high performance research and material test reactors are aiming to convert their fuel from high enriched uranium towards low enriched ones. High density U-Mo/Al based nuclear fuels are considered as a promising candidate for this conversion. However, during in-pile test irradiations, the formation of an interdiffusion layer (IDL) between the U-Mo and the Al matrix is observed, caused by irradiation enhanced U-Al interdiffusion processes. This IDL accumulates fission gases at the IDL/matrix interfaces. Together, these two effects strongly reduce the performance of this new fuel type. Recently, the out-of-pile technique of heavy ion irradiation (127I) on U-Mo/Al layer systems proved to be an alternative to time-consuming in-pile test irradiations for certain fuel behaviour aspects. Here we present SIMS and SEM investigations of non-conventional 82Kr implantation into previously heavy ion irradiated U-Mo/Al layer systems. It is shown that Kr accumulates inside μm large porosities at the IDL/matrix interfaces. This critical accumulation of μm-sized large gas bubbles is directly related to the presence of the irradiation induced IDL. Without IDL no critical accumulation of fission gas bubbles occurs.

  4. Hydrogen bonds in Al2O3 as dissipative two-level systems in superconducting qubits

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Luke; Abu-Farsakh, Hazem; Janotti, Anderson; Van de Walle, Chris G.

    2014-01-01

    Dissipative two-level systems (TLS) have been a long-standing problem in glassy solids over the last fifty years, and have recently gained new relevance as sources of decoherence in quantum computing. Resonant absorption by TLSs in the dielectric poses a serious limitation to the performance of superconducting qubits; however, the microscopic nature of these systems has yet to be established. Based on first-principles calculations, we propose that hydrogen impurities in Al2O3 are the main source of TLS resonant absorption. Hydrogen is an ubiquitous impurity and can easily incorporate in Al2O3. We find that interstitial H in Al2O3 forms a hydrogen bond (O-H…O). At specific O-O distances, consistent with bond lengths found in amorphous Al2O3 or near Al2O3 surfaces or interfaces, the H atom feels a double well. Tunneling between two symmetric positions gives rise to resonant absorption in the range of 10 GHz, explaining the experimental observations. We also calculate the expected qubit-TLS coupling and find it to lie between 16 and 20 MHz, consistent with experimental measurements. PMID:25534108

  5. Early accretion of protoplanets inferred from a reduced inner solar system 26Al inventory

    PubMed Central

    Schiller, Martin; Connelly, James N.; Glad, Aslaug C.; Mikouchi, Takashi; Bizzarro, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms and timescales of accretion of 10–1000 km sized planetesimals, the building blocks of planets, are not yet well understood. With planetesimal melting predominantly driven by the decay of the short-lived radionuclide 26Al (26Al→26Mg; t1/2 = 0.73 Ma), its initial abundance determines the permissible timeframe of planetesimal-scale melting and its subsequent cooling history. Currently, precise knowledge about the initial 26Al abundance [(26Al/27Al)0] exists only for the oldest known solids, calcium aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) – the so-called canonical value. We have determined the 26Al/27Al of three angrite meteorites, D’Orbigny, Sahara 99555 and NWA 1670, at their time of crystallization, which corresponds to (3.98 ± 0.15)×10−7, (3.64 ± 0.18)×10−7, and (5.92 ± 0.59)×10−7, respectively. Combined with a newly determined absolute U-corrected Pb–Pb age for NWA 1670 of 4564.39 ± 0.24 Ma and published U-corrected Pb–Pb ages for the other two angrites, this allows us to calculate an initial (26Al/27Al)0 of (1.33−0.18+0.21)×10−5 for the angrite parent body (APB) precursor material at the time of CAI formation, a value four times lower than the accepted canonical value of 5.25 × 10−5. Based on their similar 54Cr/52Cr ratios, most inner solar system materials likely accreted from material containing a similar 26Al/27Al ratio as the APB precursor at the time of CAI formation. To satisfy the abundant evidence for widespread planetesimal differentiation, the subcanonical 26Al budget requires that differentiated planetesimals, and hence protoplanets, accreted rapidly within 0.25 ± 0.15 Ma of the formation of canonical CAIs. PMID:27429474

  6. The Place of Creativity in Pakistani Primary Education System: An Investigation into the Factors Enhancing and Inhibiting Primary School Children's Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaheen, Robina

    2011-01-01

    The study presented in this book provides a baseline analysis of the extent to which the primary education system in Pakistan is capable of enhancing or inhibiting children's creativity. It involved 1008 primary schools who participated in a survey, 154 children who took the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking, and classroom observation in 16…

  7. Central nervous system involvement in primary Sjogren`s syndrome manifesting as multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing-Yao; Zhao, Teng; Zhou, Chun-Kui

    2014-04-01

    Central nervous system symptoms in patients with primary Sjogren`s syndrome are rare. They can present as extraglandular manifestations and require a differential diagnosis from multiple sclerosis. Due to a variety of presentations, Sjogren`s syndrome with neurologic involvement may be difficult to diagnose. Here, we report a case of a 75-year-old woman who was first diagnosed with multiple sclerosis in 2010, but who was subsequently diagnosed with primary Sjogren`s syndrome 2 years later after showing signs of atypical neurologic manifestations. Therefore, primary Sjogren`s syndrome should be suspected in patients who present with atypical clinical and radiologic neurologic manifestations.

  8. Explosive Fabrication of Intermetallics In Ti-Al System from Nano-Al and Coarse-Ti Powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chikhradze, Mikheil; Gigineishvili, Akaki; Cikhradze, Nikoloz

    2011-12-01

    Theoretical and experimental Investigations of shock wave consolidation processes of Ti-Al nano sized and ultra-disperse powder compositions are discussed. For theoretical calculations of the shock wave loaded materials were used the hydrodynamic theory and experimental adiabatics of Ti and Al. The normal and tangential stresses in the cylindrical steel tube (containers of Ti-Al reaction mixtures) were estimated using the partial solutions of elasticity theory. The mixtures of ultra-disperse Ti and nano sized (max≤50 nm) Al powder compositions were consolidated to full or near-full density by explosive-compaction technology. The ammonium nitride based industrial explosives were used for generation of shock waves. To form ultra-fine grained bulk TiAl intermetallides with different compositions, ultra-disperse Ti particles were mixed with nano-crystalline Al. Each reaction mixture was placed in a sealed container and explosively compacted using a normal and cylindrical detonation set-up. Explosive compaction experiments were performed in range of pressure impulse (5-20 GPA) at elevated temperatures. X-ray diffraction (XRD), structural investigations (SEM) and micro-hardness measurements were used to characterize the intermetallides phase composition and mechanical properties. The results of analysis revealing the effects of the compacting conditions and precursor particles sizes, affecting the consolidation and the properties of this new ultra high performance alloys are discussed.

  9. Primary Mirror Figure Maintenance of the Hobby-Eberly Telescope using the Segment Alignment Maintenance System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rakoczy, John; Hall, Drew; Howard, Ricky; Ly, William; Weir, John; Montgomery, Edward; Brantley, Lott W. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Segment Alignment Maintenance System (SAMs) was installed on McDonald Observatory's Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET) in August 2001. The SAMs became fully operational in October 2001. The SAMs uses a system of 480 inductive edge sensors to correct misalignments of the HET's 91 primary mirror segments when the segments are perturbed from their aligned reference positions. A special observer estimated and corrects for the global radius of curvature (GroC) mode, a mode unobservable by the edge sensors. The SAMs edge sensor system and (GroC) estimator are able to maintain HET's primary figure for much longer durations than previously had been observed. Telescope image quality has improved, and the amount of overhead time required from primary mirror alignment has been reduced. This paper gives a functional description of the SAMs control system and presents performance verification data. This paper also describes how the SAMs has improved the operational efficiency of the HET.

  10. Preparation of gaseous CRMs from the primary system for (222)Rn activity measurement.

    PubMed

    Kim, B J; Kim, B C; Lee, K B; Lee, J M; Park, T S

    2016-03-01

    For disseminating the gaseous radon standard traceable to the KRISS primary system based on the defined solid angle counting method, two kinds of radon CRM (a glass ampule type and a stainless steel cylinder type) were developed. The activity of the CRM was certified by subtracting a residual activity from the measured activity by the primary system. After certification, the ampule CRM was used to calibrate a radon-monitoring instrument and the cylinder CRM to calibrate an HPGe system. We also improved the measurement procedure of the radon primary system. In a typical radon energy spectrum, the radon peak overlaps with the polonium peak. For more reliable and accurate measurement of radon activity, a fitting method was adopted for the evaluation of radon area in the alpha energy spectrum. The result of radon activity evaluated by using the fitting method is in good agreement with that by the previous integration method. PMID:26778761

  11. Role for primary cilia as flow detectors in the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Van der Heiden, Kim; Egorova, Anastasia D; Poelmann, Robert E; Wentzel, Jolanda J; Hierck, Beerend P

    2011-01-01

    The cardiovascular system is exposed to biochemical and biomechanical signals. Various sensors for these signals have been described and they contribute to cardiovascular development, maintenance of vessel integrity during adult life, and to pathogenesis. In the past 10years, primary cilia, membrane-covered, rod-like cellular protrusions, were discovered on multiple cell types of the cardiovascular system. Primary cilia are sensory organelles involved in several key (developmental) signaling pathways and in chemo- and mechanosensing on a myriad of cell types. In the embryonic and adult cardiovascular system, they have been demonstrated to function as shear stress sensors on endothelial cells and could act as strain sensors on smooth muscle cells and cardiomyocytes and as chemosensors on fibroblasts. This review will cover their occurrence and elaborate on established and possible functions of primary cilia in the cardiovascular system.

  12. Research on numerical control system based on S3C2410 and MCX314AL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Qiang; Jiang, Tingbiao

    2008-10-01

    With the rapid development of micro-computer technology, embedded system, CNC technology and integrated circuits, numerical control system with powerful functions can be realized by several high-speed CPU chips and RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computing) chips which have small size and strong stability. In addition, the real-time operating system also makes the attainment of embedded system possible. Developing the NC system based on embedded technology can overcome some shortcomings of common PC-based CNC system, such as the waste of resources, low control precision, low frequency and low integration. This paper discusses a hardware platform of ENC (Embedded Numerical Control) system based on embedded processor chip ARM (Advanced RISC Machines)-S3C2410 and DSP (Digital Signal Processor)-MCX314AL and introduces the process of developing ENC system software. Finally write the MCX314AL's driver under the embedded Linux operating system. The embedded Linux operating system can deal with multitask well moreover satisfy the real-time and reliability of movement control. NC system has the advantages of best using resources and compact system with embedded technology. It provides a wealth of functions and superior performance with a lower cost. It can be sure that ENC is the direction of the future development.

  13. Case report of a patient with primary central nervous system lymphoma treated with radioimmunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Shah, Jatin J; Meredith, Ruby; Shen, Sui; Nabors, Burt; Lobuglio, Albert; Yester, Michael; Forero, Andres

    2006-11-01

    Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a rare form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma arising within and confined to the central nervous system and, unlike other primary brain tumors, is very responsive to treatment. Aggressive management can lead to prolonged remissions or cures. However, the prognosis at relapse is generally poor with limited therapeutic options; clearly, new strategies are needed for these patients. Radioimmunotherapy has a growing role in the management of systemic non-Hodgkin lymphoma but has not been evaluated in PCNSL. We report here the first patient with PCNSL treated with radioimmunotherapy.

  14. Characteristics of MCrAlY coatings sprayed by high velocity oxygen-fuel spraying system

    SciTech Connect

    Itoh, Y.; Saitoh, M.; Tamura, M.

    2000-01-01

    High velocity oxygen-fuel (HVOF) spraying system in open air has been established for producing the coatings that are extremely clean and dense. It is thought that the HVOF sprayed MCrAlY (M is Fe, Ni and/or Co) coatings can be applied to provide resistance against oxidation and corrosion to the hot parts of gas turbines. Also, it is well known that the thicker coating can be sprayed in comparison with any other thermal spraying systems due to improved residual stresses. However, thermal and mechanical properties of HVOF coatings have not been clarified. Especially, the characteristics of residual stress, that are the most important property from the view point of production technique, have not been made clear. In this paper, the mechanical properties of HVOF sprayed MCrAlY coatings were measured in both the case of as-sprayed and heat-treated coatings in comparison with a vacuum plasma sprayed MCrAlY coatings. It was confirmed that the mechanical properties of HVOF sprayed MCrAlY coatings could be improved by a diffusion heat treatment to equate the vacuum plasma sprayed MCrAlY coatings. Also, the residual stress characteristics were analyzed using a deflection measurement technique and a X-ray technique. The residual stress of HVOF coating was reduced by the shot-peening effect comparable to that of a plasma spray system in open air. This phenomena could be explained by the reason that the HVOF sprayed MCrAlY coating was built up by poorly melted particles.

  15. 49 CFR 214.529 - In-service failure of primary braking system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Maintenance Machines and Hi-Rail Vehicles § 214.529 In-service failure of primary braking system. (a) In the... machine may be operated for the remainder of its tour of duty with the use of a secondary braking system or by coupling to another machine, if such operations may be done safely. (b) If the total...

  16. Active optics primary mirror support system for the 26m VST telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schipani, Pietro; D'Orsi, Sergio; Ferragina, Luigi; Fierro, Davide; Marty, Laurent; Molfese, Cesare; Perrotta, Francesco

    2010-03-01

    The Very Large Telescope Survey Telescope (VST) is equipped with an active optics system in order to correct low-order aberrations. The 2.6 m primary mirror is supported both axially and laterally and is surrounded by several safety devices for earthquake protection. We describe the mirror support system and discuss the results of the qualification test campaign.

  17. Gender Differences in the Primary Representational System according to Neurolinguistic Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassiere, M. F.; And Others

    Neurolinguistic Programming (NLP) is a currently popular therapeutic modality in which individuals organize information through three basic sensory systems, one of which is the Primary Representational System (PRS). This study was designed to investigate gender differences in PRS according to the predicate preference method. It was expected that…

  18. Relationships between Digestive, Circulatory, and Urinary Systems in Portuguese Primary Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carvalho, Graça S.; Clèment, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    In this study, 63 Portuguese primary schoolbooks (1920-2005) were analyzed. The analysis focused on text information (reference to blood absorption and association of the digestive system to other human systems) and on information from images (presence or absence of image "confusion" (when the sequence of the digestive tract is not…

  19. High Temperature Aerogels in the Al2O3-SiO2 System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurwitz, Frances I.; Aranda, Denisse V.; Gallagher, Meghan E.

    2008-01-01

    Al2O3-SiO2 aerogels are of interest as constituents of thermal insulation systems for use at high temperatures. Al2O3 and mullite aerogels are expected to crystallize at higher temperatures than their SiO2 counterparts, hence avoiding the shrinkages that accompany the formation of lower temperature SiO2 phases and preserving pore structures into higher temperature regimes. The objective of this work is to determine the influence of processing parameters on shrinkage, gel structure (including surface area, pore size and distribution) and pyrolysis behavior.

  20. Modeling and simulation of AlN bulk sublimation growth systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Bei; Ma, Ronghui; Zhang, Hui; Prasad, Vish

    2004-05-01

    In this paper, we have developed a numerical model to simulate two AlN sublimation growth systems. Temperature distributions in the growth cell for resistance and induction heating systems are presented and compared. The growth rate has been predicted and compared with experimental data. An anisotropic thermomechanical stress model is also developed to predict the thermal stress distribution in the as-grown crystal, with or without contact with the crucible wall.

  1. Thermodynamics of greenhouse systems for the northern latitudes: analysis, evaluation and prospects for primary energy saving.

    PubMed

    Bronchart, Filip; De Paepe, Michel; Dewulf, Jo; Schrevens, Eddie; Demeyer, Peter

    2013-04-15

    In Flanders and the Netherlands greenhouse production systems produce economically important quantities of vegetables, fruit and ornamentals. Indoor environmental control has resulted in high primary energy use. Until now, the research on saving primary energy in greenhouse systems has been mainly based on analysis of energy balances. However, according to the thermodynamic theory, an analysis based on the concept of exergy (free energy) and energy can result in new insights and primary energy savings. Therefore in this paper, we analyse the exergy and energy of various processes, inputs and outputs of a general greenhouse system. Also a total system analysis is then performed by linking the exergy analysis with a dynamic greenhouse climate growth simulation model. The exergy analysis indicates that some processes ("Sources") lie at the origin of several other processes, both destroying the exergy of primary energy inputs. The exergy destruction of these Sources is caused primarily by heat and vapour loss. Their impact can be compensated by exergy input from heating, solar radiation, or both. If the exergy destruction of these Sources is reduced, the necessary compensation can also be reduced. This can be accomplished through insulating the greenhouse and making the building more airtight. Other necessary Sources, namely transpiration and loss of CO2, have a low exergy destruction compared to the other Sources. They are therefore the best candidate for "pump" technologies ("vapour heat pump" and "CO2 pump") designed to have a low primary energy use. The combination of these proposed technologies results in an exergy efficient greenhouse with the highest primary energy savings. It can be concluded that exergy analyses add additional information compared to only energy analyses and it supports the development of primary energy efficient greenhouse systems.

  2. Thermodynamics of greenhouse systems for the northern latitudes: analysis, evaluation and prospects for primary energy saving.

    PubMed

    Bronchart, Filip; De Paepe, Michel; Dewulf, Jo; Schrevens, Eddie; Demeyer, Peter

    2013-04-15

    In Flanders and the Netherlands greenhouse production systems produce economically important quantities of vegetables, fruit and ornamentals. Indoor environmental control has resulted in high primary energy use. Until now, the research on saving primary energy in greenhouse systems has been mainly based on analysis of energy balances. However, according to the thermodynamic theory, an analysis based on the concept of exergy (free energy) and energy can result in new insights and primary energy savings. Therefore in this paper, we analyse the exergy and energy of various processes, inputs and outputs of a general greenhouse system. Also a total system analysis is then performed by linking the exergy analysis with a dynamic greenhouse climate growth simulation model. The exergy analysis indicates that some processes ("Sources") lie at the origin of several other processes, both destroying the exergy of primary energy inputs. The exergy destruction of these Sources is caused primarily by heat and vapour loss. Their impact can be compensated by exergy input from heating, solar radiation, or both. If the exergy destruction of these Sources is reduced, the necessary compensation can also be reduced. This can be accomplished through insulating the greenhouse and making the building more airtight. Other necessary Sources, namely transpiration and loss of CO2, have a low exergy destruction compared to the other Sources. They are therefore the best candidate for "pump" technologies ("vapour heat pump" and "CO2 pump") designed to have a low primary energy use. The combination of these proposed technologies results in an exergy efficient greenhouse with the highest primary energy savings. It can be concluded that exergy analyses add additional information compared to only energy analyses and it supports the development of primary energy efficient greenhouse systems. PMID:23474336

  3. Top-level modeling of an als system utilizing object-oriented techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, L. F.; Kang, S.; Ting, K. C.

    The possible configuration of an Advanced Life Support (ALS) System capable of supporting human life for long-term space missions continues to evolve as researchers investigate potential technologies and configurations. To facilitate the decision process the development of acceptable, flexible, and dynamic mathematical computer modeling tools capable of system level analysis is desirable. Object-oriented techniques have been adopted to develop a dynamic top-level model of an ALS system.This approach has several advantages; among these, object-oriented abstractions of systems are inherently modular in architecture. Thus, models can initially be somewhat simplistic, while allowing for adjustments and improvements. In addition, by coding the model in Java, the model can be implemented via the World Wide Web, greatly encouraging the utilization of the model. Systems analysis is further enabled with the utilization of a readily available backend database containing information supporting the model. The subsystem models of the ALS system model include Crew, Biomass Production, Waste Processing and Resource Recovery, Food Processing and Nutrition, and the Interconnecting Space. Each subsystem model and an overall model have been developed. Presented here is the procedure utilized to develop the modeling tool, the vision of the modeling tool, and the current focus for each of the subsystem models.

  4. Top-level modeling of an ALS system utilizing object-oriented techniques.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, L F; Kang, S; Ting, K C

    2003-01-01

    The possible configuration of an Advanced Life Support (ALS) System capable of supporting human life for long-term space missions continues to evolve as researchers investigate potential technologies and configurations. To facilitate the decision process the development of acceptable, flexible, and dynamic mathematical computer modeling tools capable of system level analysis is desirable. Object-oriented techniques have been adopted to develop a dynamic top-level model of an ALS system. This approach has several advantages; among these, object-oriented abstractions of systems are inherently modular in architecture. Thus, models can initially be somewhat simplistic, while allowing for adjustments and improvements. In addition, by coding the model in Java, the model can be implemented via the World Wide Web, greatly encouraging the utilization of the model. Systems analysis is further enabled with the utilization of a readily available backend database containing information supporting the model. The subsystem models of the ALS system model include Crew, Biomass Production, Waste Processing and Resource Recovery, Food Processing and Nutrition, and the Interconnecting Space. Each subsystem model and an overall model have been developed. Presented here is the procedure utilized to develop the modeling tool, the vision of the modeling tool, and the current focus for each of the subsystem models. PMID:14503522

  5. RASC-AL (Revolutionary Aerospace Systems Concepts-Academic Linkage): 2002 Advanced Concept Design Presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Revolutionary Aerospace Systems Concepts-Academic Linkage (RASC-AL) is a program of the Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI) in collaboration with the Universities Space Research Association's (USRA) ICASE institute through the NASA Langley Research Center. The RASC-AL key objectives are to develop relationships between universities and NASA that lead to opportunities for future NASA research and programs, and to develop aerospace systems concepts and technology requirements to enable future NASA missions. The program seeks to look decades into the future to explore new mission capabilities and discover what's possible. NASA seeks concepts and technologies that can make it possible to go anywhere, at anytime, safely, reliably, and affordably to accomplish strategic goals for science, exploration, and commercialization. University teams were invited to submit research topics from the following themes: Human and Robotic Space Exploration, Orbital Aggregation & Space Infrastructure Systems (OASIS), Zero-Emissions Aircraft, and Remote Sensing. RASC-AL is an outgrowth of the HEDS-UP (University Partners) Program sponsored by the LPI. HEDS-UP was a program of the Lunar and Planetary Institute designed to link universities with NASA's Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) enterprise. The first RASC-AL Forum was held November 5-8, 2002, at the Hilton Cocoa Beach Oceanfront Hotel in Cocoa Beach, Florida. Representatives from 10 university teams presented student research design projects at this year's Forum. Each team contributed a written report and these reports are presented.

  6. The Microstructure-Processing-Property Relationships in an Al Matrix Composite System Reinforced by Al-Cu-Fe Alloy Particles

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Fei

    2004-01-01

    Metal matrix composites (MMC), especially Al matrix composites, received a lot of attention during many years of research because of their promise for the development of automotive and aerospace materials with improved properties and performance, such as lighter weight and better structural properties, improved thermal conductivity and wear resistance. In order to make the MMC materials more viable in various applications, current research efforts on the MMCs should continue to focus on two important aspects, including improving the properties of MMCs and finding more economical techniques to produce MMCs. Solid state vacuum sintering was studied in tap densified Al powder and in hot quasi-isostatically forged samples composed of commercial inert gas atomized or high purity Al powder, generated by a gas atomization reaction synthesis (GARS) technique. The GARS process results in spherical Al powder with a far thinner surface oxide. The overall results indicated the enhanced ability of GARS-processed Al and Al alloy powders for solid state sintering, which may lead to simplification of current Al powder consolidation processing methods. Elemental Al-based composites reinforced with spherical Al-Cu-Fe alloy powders were produced by quasi-isostatic forging and vacuum hot pressing (VHP) consolidation methods. Microstructures and tensile properties of AYAl-Cu-Fe composites were characterized. It was proved that spherical Al-Cu-Fe alloy powders can serve as an effective reinforcement particulate for elemental Al-based composites, because of their high hardness and a preferred type of matrix/reinforcement interfacial bonding, with reduced strain concentration around the particles. Ultimate tensile strength and yield strength of the composites were increased over the corresponding Al matrix values, far beyond typical observations. This remarkable strengthening was achieved without precipitation hardening and without severe strain hardening during consolidation because of

  7. Ultrasound assisted combustion synthesis of TiC in Al-Ti-C system.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhiwei; Rakita, Milan; Xu, Wilson; Wang, Xiaoming; Han, Qingyou

    2015-11-01

    This research investigated the effects of high-intensity ultrasound on the combustion synthesis of TiC particles in Al-Ti-C system. The process involved that high-intensity ultrasound was applied on the surface of a compacted Al-Ti-C pellet directly through a Nb probe during the thermal explosion reaction. By comparing with the sample without ultrasonic treatment, it was found that the thermal explosion reaction for synthesizing TiC phase could take place thoroughly in the ultrasonically treated sample. During the process of synthesizing TiC phase, the dissolution of solid graphite particles into the Al-Ti melt, as well as the nucleation and growth of TiC particles could be promoted effectively due to the effects of ultrasound, leading to an enhancement of the formation of TiC particles. Ultrasound assisted combustion synthesis as a simple and effective approach was proposed for synthesizing materials in this research.

  8. Experimental study and thermodynamic modeling of the Al-Co-Cr-Ni system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gheno, Thomas; Liu, Xuan L.; Lindwall, Greta; Liu, Zi-Kui; Gleeson, Brian

    2015-10-01

    A thermodynamic database for the Al-Co-Cr-Ni system is built via the Calphad method by extrapolating re-assessed ternary subsystems. A minimum number of quaternary parameters are included, which are optimized using experimental phase equilibrium data obtained by electron probe micro-analysis and x-ray diffraction analysis of NiCoCrAlY alloys spanning a wide compositional range, after annealing at 900 °C, 1100 °C and 1200 °C, and water quenching. These temperatures are relevant to oxidation and corrosion resistant MCrAlY coatings, where M corresponds to some combination of nickel and cobalt. Comparisons of calculated and measured phase compositions show excellent agreement for the β-γ equilibrium, and good agreement for three-phase β-γ-σ and β-γ-α equilibria. An extensive comparison with existing Ni-base databases (TCNI6, TTNI8, NIST) is presented in terms of phase compositions.

  9. 40 CFR 141.535 - What if my system uses chloramines, ozone, or chlorine dioxide for primary disinfection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., ozone, or chlorine dioxide for primary disinfection? 141.535 Section 141.535 Protection of Environment... § 141.535 What if my system uses chloramines, ozone, or chlorine dioxide for primary disinfection? If your system uses chloramines, ozone, or chlorine dioxide for primary disinfection, you must...

  10. 40 CFR 141.535 - What if my system uses chloramines, ozone, or chlorine dioxide for primary disinfection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., ozone, or chlorine dioxide for primary disinfection? 141.535 Section 141.535 Protection of Environment... § 141.535 What if my system uses chloramines, ozone, or chlorine dioxide for primary disinfection? If your system uses chloramines, ozone, or chlorine dioxide for primary disinfection, you must...

  11. 40 CFR 141.535 - What if my system uses chloramines, ozone, or chlorine dioxide for primary disinfection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., ozone, or chlorine dioxide for primary disinfection? 141.535 Section 141.535 Protection of Environment... § 141.535 What if my system uses chloramines, ozone, or chlorine dioxide for primary disinfection? If your system uses chloramines, ozone, or chlorine dioxide for primary disinfection, you must...

  12. 40 CFR 141.535 - What if my system uses chloramines, ozone, or chlorine dioxide for primary disinfection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., ozone, or chlorine dioxide for primary disinfection? 141.535 Section 141.535 Protection of Environment... § 141.535 What if my system uses chloramines, ozone, or chlorine dioxide for primary disinfection? If your system uses chloramines, ozone, or chlorine dioxide for primary disinfection, you must...

  13. 40 CFR 141.535 - What if my system uses chloramines, ozone, or chlorine dioxide for primary disinfection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., ozone, or chlorine dioxide for primary disinfection? 141.535 Section 141.535 Protection of Environment... § 141.535 What if my system uses chloramines, ozone, or chlorine dioxide for primary disinfection? If your system uses chloramines, ozone, or chlorine dioxide for primary disinfection, you must...

  14. A primary culture system of mouse thick ascending limb cells with preserved function and uromodulin processing.

    PubMed

    Glaudemans, Bob; Terryn, Sara; Gölz, Nadine; Brunati, Martina; Cattaneo, Angela; Bachi, Angela; Al-Qusairi, Lama; Ziegler, Urs; Staub, Olivier; Rampoldi, Luca; Devuyst, Olivier

    2014-02-01

    The epithelial cells lining the thick ascending limb (TAL) of the loop of Henle perform essential transport processes and secrete uromodulin, the most abundant protein in normal urine. The lack of differentiated cell culture systems has hampered studies of TAL functions. Here, we report a method to generate differentiated primary cultures of TAL cells, developed from microdissected tubules obtained in mouse kidneys. The TAL tubules cultured on permeable filters formed polarized confluent monolayers in ∼12 days. The TAL cells remain differentiated and express functional markers such as uromodulin, NKCC2, and ROMK at the apical membrane. Electrophysiological measurements on primary TAL monolayers showed a lumen-positive transepithelial potential (+9.4 ± 0.8 mV/cm(2)) and transepithelial resistance similar to that recorded in vivo. The transepithelial potential is abolished by apical bumetanide and in primary cultures obtained from ROMK knockout mice. The processing, maturation and apical secretion of uromodulin by primary TAL cells is identical to that observed in vivo. The primary TAL cells respond appropriately to hypoxia, hypertonicity, and stimulation by desmopressin, and they can be transfected. The establishment of this primary culture system will allow the investigation of TAL cells obtained from genetically modified mouse models, providing a critical tool for understanding the role of that segment in health and disease. PMID:23887378

  15. Central nervous system compromise in primary Sjögren's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Anaya, Juan-Manuel; Villa, Luis A; Restrepo, Lucas; Molina, Jose F; Mantilla, Rubén D; Vargas, Sergio

    2002-08-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) involvement in primary Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is poorly understood, and its frequency as well as its manifestations are subjects of controversy. The current study was undertaken to determine the prevalence and the clinical and immunogenetic characteristics of CNS compromise in a well defined group of patients with primary SS. In this retrospective study, patients fulfilled the European classification criteria. Among 120 patients with primary SS, 3 (2.5%) had CNS compromise (multiple sclerosis-like illness, complicated migraine, and optic neuritis with epilepsy). The CNS involvement coincided with the onset of sicca symptoms in 1 case. All 3 patients carried the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) DQB1*0303 allele and tested positive for anti-Ro antibodies, but not for anti-cardiolipin antibodies. Although rare, CNS compromise in primary SS can be the presenting manifestation of the disease in a few cases, and may be severe and varied. PMID:17041358

  16. Comparison of Carbon and Hi-Z Primary Collimators for the LHC Phase II Collimation System

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, Lewis; Markiewicz, Thomas; Smith, Jeffrey; Assmann, Ralph; Bracco, Chiara; Weiler, Thomas; /Karlsruhe, Inst. Technol.

    2011-10-31

    A current issue with the LHC collimation system is single-diffractive, off-energy protons from the primary collimators that pass completely through the secondary collimation system and are absorbed immediately downbeam in the cold magnets of the dispersion suppressor section. Simulations suggest that the high impact rate could result in quenching of these magnets. We have studied replacing the 60 cm primary graphite collimators, which remove halo mainly by inelastic strong interactions, with 5.25 mm tungsten, which remove halo mainly by multiple coulomb scattering and thereby reduce the rate of single-diffractive interactions that cause losses in the dispersion suppressor.

  17. Primary Systemic Amyloidosis with Unusual Dermatological Manifestations: A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Vyas, Kapil; Morgaonkar, Manjaree; Gupta, Savera; Jain, Suresh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Amyloidosis is a group of heterogeneous diseases characterized by pathological deposition of proteinaceous substance extracellularly in various tissues. The clinical presentation depends on the site of amyloid deposition, with predominant involvement of mesenchymal elements and cutaneous findings in 30–40% of patients in case of primary systemic amyloidosis. We present a case of idiopathic primary systemic amyloidosis presenting with an unusual finding of nodulo-ulcerative lesion over tongue along with multiple skin-colored nodules, mimicking squamous cell carcinoma of tongue with secondary cutaneous metastasis, as well as lacking the classical presentation of purpura, macroglossia, waxy papules, and plaques. PMID:27057028

  18. [Effect of implementation of essential medicine system in the primary health care institution in China].

    PubMed

    Huang, Donghong; Ren, Xiaohua; Hu, Jingxuan; Shi, Jingcheng; Xia, Da; Sun, Zhenqiu

    2015-02-01

    Our primary health care institution began to implement national essential medicine system in 2009. In past fi ve years, the goal of national essential medicine system has been initially achieved. For examples, medicine price is steadily reducing, the quality of medical services is improving and residents' satisfaction is substantial increasing every year. However, at the same time, we also found some urgent problems needed to be solved. For examples, the range of national essential medicine is limited, which is difficult to guarantee the quality of essential medication. In addition, how to compensate the primary health care institution is still a question. PMID:25769336

  19. Heterogeneous distribution of 26Al at the birth of the solar system: Evidence from refractory grains and inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krot, A. N.; Makide, K.; Nagashima, K.; Huss, G. R.; Ogliore, R. C.; Ciesla, F. J.; Yang, L.; Hellebrand, E.; Gaidos, E.

    2012-12-01

    Abstract-We review recent results on O- and Mg-isotope compositions of refractory grains (corundum, hibonite) and calcium, aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) from unequilibrated ordinary and carbonaceous chondrites. We show that these refractory objects originated in the presence of nebular gas enriched in 16O to varying degrees relative to the standard mean ocean water value: the Δ17OSMOW value ranges from approximately -16‰ to -35‰, and recorded heterogeneous distribution of 26<span class="hlt">Al</span> in their formation region: the inferred (26<span class="hlt">Al</span>/27<span class="hlt">Al</span>)0 ranges from approximately 6.5 × 10-5 to <2 × 10-6. There is no correlation between O- and Mg-isotope compositions of the refractory objects: 26<span class="hlt">Al</span>-rich and 26<span class="hlt">Al</span>-poor refractory objects have similar O-isotope compositions. We suggest that 26<span class="hlt">Al</span> was injected into the 26<span class="hlt">Al</span>-poor collapsing protosolar molecular cloud core, possibly by a wind from a neighboring massive star, and was later homogenized in the protoplanetary disk by radial mixing, possibly at the canonical value of 26<span class="hlt">Al</span>/27<span class="hlt">Al</span> ratio (approximately 5 × 10-5). The 26<span class="hlt">Al</span>-rich and 26<span class="hlt">Al</span>-poor refractory grains and inclusions represent different generations of refractory objects, which formed prior to and during the injection and homogenization of 26<span class="hlt">Al</span>. Thus, the duration of formation of refractory grains and CAIs cannot be inferred from their 26<span class="hlt">Al</span>-26Mg systematics, and the canonical (26<span class="hlt">Al</span>/27<span class="hlt">Al</span>)0 does not represent the initial abundance of 26<span class="hlt">Al</span> in the solar <span class="hlt">system</span>; instead, it may or may not represent the average abundance of 26<span class="hlt">Al</span> in the fully formed disk. The latter depends on the formation time of CAIs with the canonical 26<span class="hlt">Al</span>/27<span class="hlt">Al</span> ratio relative to the timing of complete delivery of stellar 26<span class="hlt">Al</span> to the solar <span class="hlt">system</span>, and the degree of its subsequent homogenization in the disk. The injection of material containing 26<span class="hlt">Al</span> resulted in no observable changes in O-isotope composition of the solar <span class="hlt">system</span>. Instead, the variations in O-isotope compositions between individual</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27503978','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27503978"><span id="translatedtitle">Gaps In <span class="hlt">Primary</span> Care And Health <span class="hlt">System</span> Performance In Six Latin American And Caribbean Countries.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Macinko, James; Guanais, Frederico C; Mullachery, Pricila; Jimenez, Geronimo</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>The rapid demographic and epidemiological transitions occurring in Latin America and the Caribbean have led to high levels of noncommunicable diseases in the region. In addition to reduced risk factors for chronic conditions, a strong health <span class="hlt">system</span> for managing chronic conditions is vital. This study assessed the extent to which populations in six Latin American and Caribbean countries receive high-quality <span class="hlt">primary</span> care, and it examined the relationship between experiences with care and perceptions of health <span class="hlt">system</span> performance. We applied a validated survey on access, use, and satisfaction with health care services to nationally representative samples of the populations of Brazil, Colombia, El Salvador, Jamaica, Mexico, and Panama. Respondents reported considerable gaps in the ways in which <span class="hlt">primary</span> care is organized, financed, and delivered. Nearly half reported using the emergency department for a condition they considered treatable in a <span class="hlt">primary</span> care setting. Reports of more <span class="hlt">primary</span> care problems were associated with worse perceptions of health <span class="hlt">system</span> performance and quality and less receipt of preventive care. Urgent attention to <span class="hlt">primary</span> care performance is required as the region's population continues to age at an unprecedented rate. PMID:27503978</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27503978','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27503978"><span id="translatedtitle">Gaps In <span class="hlt">Primary</span> Care And Health <span class="hlt">System</span> Performance In Six Latin American And Caribbean Countries.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Macinko, James; Guanais, Frederico C; Mullachery, Pricila; Jimenez, Geronimo</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>The rapid demographic and epidemiological transitions occurring in Latin America and the Caribbean have led to high levels of noncommunicable diseases in the region. In addition to reduced risk factors for chronic conditions, a strong health <span class="hlt">system</span> for managing chronic conditions is vital. This study assessed the extent to which populations in six Latin American and Caribbean countries receive high-quality <span class="hlt">primary</span> care, and it examined the relationship between experiences with care and perceptions of health <span class="hlt">system</span> performance. We applied a validated survey on access, use, and satisfaction with health care services to nationally representative samples of the populations of Brazil, Colombia, El Salvador, Jamaica, Mexico, and Panama. Respondents reported considerable gaps in the ways in which <span class="hlt">primary</span> care is organized, financed, and delivered. Nearly half reported using the emergency department for a condition they considered treatable in a <span class="hlt">primary</span> care setting. Reports of more <span class="hlt">primary</span> care problems were associated with worse perceptions of health <span class="hlt">system</span> performance and quality and less receipt of preventive care. Urgent attention to <span class="hlt">primary</span> care performance is required as the region's population continues to age at an unprecedented rate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3878728','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3878728"><span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">systems</span>-based partnership learning model for strengthening <span class="hlt">primary</span> healthcare</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Background Strengthening <span class="hlt">primary</span> healthcare <span class="hlt">systems</span> is vital to improving health outcomes and reducing inequity. However, there are few tools and models available in published literature showing how <span class="hlt">primary</span> care <span class="hlt">system</span> strengthening can be achieved on a large scale. Challenges to strengthening <span class="hlt">primary</span> healthcare (PHC) <span class="hlt">systems</span> include the dispersion, diversity and relative independence of <span class="hlt">primary</span> care providers; the scope and complexity of PHC; limited infrastructure available to support population health approaches; and the generally poor and fragmented state of PHC information <span class="hlt">systems</span>. Drawing on concepts of comprehensive PHC, integrated quality improvement (IQI) methods, <span class="hlt">system</span>-based research networks, and <span class="hlt">system</span>-based participatory action research, we describe a learning model for strengthening PHC that addresses these challenges. We describe the evolution of this model within the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander <span class="hlt">primary</span> healthcare context, successes and challenges in its application, and key issues for further research. Discussion IQI approaches combined with <span class="hlt">system</span>-based participatory action research and <span class="hlt">system</span>-based research networks offer potential to support program implementation and ongoing learning across a wide scope of <span class="hlt">primary</span> healthcare practice and on a large scale. The Partnership Learning Model (PLM) can be seen as an integrated model for large-scale knowledge translation across the scope of priority aspects of PHC. With appropriate engagement of relevant stakeholders, the model may be applicable to a wide range of settings. In IQI, and in the PLM specifically, there is a clear role for research in contributing to refining and evaluating existing tools and processes, and in developing and trialling innovations. Achieving an appropriate balance between funding IQI activity as part of routine service delivery and funding IQI related research will be vital to developing and sustaining this type of PLM. Summary This paper draws together</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015APS..MARA16004N&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015APS..MARA16004N&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Computational materials design of negative effective U <span class="hlt">system</span> in the hole-doped Delafossite of Cu<span class="hlt">Al</span>O2, Ag<span class="hlt">Al</span>O2 and Au<span class="hlt">Al</span>O2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nakanishi, Akitaka; Fukushima, Tetsuya; Uede, Hiroki; Katayama-Yoshida, Hiroshi</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>In order to realize the super-high-TC superconductors (TC>1,000K) based on the general design rules for the negative Ueff <span class="hlt">system</span>, we have performed computational materials design for theUeff<0 <span class="hlt">system</span> in the hole-doped two-dimensional (2D) Delafossite Cu<span class="hlt">Al</span>O2, Ag<span class="hlt">Al</span>O2 and Au<span class="hlt">Al</span>O2 from the first principles. We find the interesting chemical trend of TC in 2D and 3D <span class="hlt">systems</span>; where the TC increases exponentially in the weak coupling regime (|Ueff (-0.44eV)|< W(2eV), W is the band width) for hole-doped CuFeS2, then the TC goes through a maximum when |Ueff (-4.88eV, -4.14eV)| ~ W (2.8eV, 3.5eV) for hole-doped Ag<span class="hlt">Al</span>O2 and Au<span class="hlt">Al</span>O2, and the TC decreases with increasing |Ueff|in strong coupling regime, where |Ueff (-4.53eV)|> W(1.7eV) for hole-doped Cu<span class="hlt">Al</span>O2</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27484777','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27484777"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Primary</span> Care Behavioral Health Provider Training: Systematic Development and Implementation in a Large Medical <span class="hlt">System</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dobmeyer, Anne C; Hunter, Christopher L; Corso, Meghan L; Nielsen, Matthew K; Corso, Kent A; Polizzi, Nicholas C; Earles, Jay E</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>The expansion of integrated, collaborative, behavioral health services in <span class="hlt">primary</span> care requires a trained behavioral health workforce with specific competencies to deliver effective, evidence-informed, team-based care. Most behavioral health providers do not have training or experience working as <span class="hlt">primary</span> care behavioral health consultants (BHCs), and require structured training to function effectively in this role. This article discusses one such training program developed to meet the needs of a large healthcare <span class="hlt">system</span> initiating widespread implementation of the <span class="hlt">primary</span> care behavioral health model of service delivery. It details the Department of Defense's experience in developing its extensive BHC training program, including challenges of addressing personnel selection and hiring issues, selecting a model for training, developing and implementing a phased training curriculum, and improving the training over time to address identified gaps. Future directions for training improvements and lessons learned in a large healthcare <span class="hlt">system</span> are discussed. PMID:27484777</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27484777','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27484777"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Primary</span> Care Behavioral Health Provider Training: Systematic Development and Implementation in a Large Medical <span class="hlt">System</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dobmeyer, Anne C; Hunter, Christopher L; Corso, Meghan L; Nielsen, Matthew K; Corso, Kent A; Polizzi, Nicholas C; Earles, Jay E</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>The expansion of integrated, collaborative, behavioral health services in <span class="hlt">primary</span> care requires a trained behavioral health workforce with specific competencies to deliver effective, evidence-informed, team-based care. Most behavioral health providers do not have training or experience working as <span class="hlt">primary</span> care behavioral health consultants (BHCs), and require structured training to function effectively in this role. This article discusses one such training program developed to meet the needs of a large healthcare <span class="hlt">system</span> initiating widespread implementation of the <span class="hlt">primary</span> care behavioral health model of service delivery. It details the Department of Defense's experience in developing its extensive BHC training program, including challenges of addressing personnel selection and hiring issues, selecting a model for training, developing and implementing a phased training curriculum, and improving the training over time to address identified gaps. Future directions for training improvements and lessons learned in a large healthcare <span class="hlt">system</span> are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15664901','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15664901"><span id="translatedtitle">X-ray and neutron diffraction studies and MD simulation of atomic configurations in polyamorphic Y2O3-<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 <span class="hlt">systems</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wilding, M C; Wilson, M; McMillan, P F</p> <p>2005-02-15</p> <p>Supercooled liquids in the Y(2)O(3)-<span class="hlt">Al</span>(2)O(3) <span class="hlt">system</span> undergo a liquid-liquid phase transition between a high-temperature, high-density amorphous (HDA) polymorph form and one with lower density (LDA form) that is stable at lower temperature. The two amorphous polymorphs have the same chemical composition, but they differ in their density (ca. 4% difference) and in their heat content (enthalpy) and entropy determined by calorimetry. Here we present new results of structural studies using neutron and high-energy X-ray diffraction to study the structural differences between HDA and LDA polyamorphs. The combined datasets show no large differences in the average nearest-neighbour <span class="hlt">Al</span>-O or Y-O bond lengths or coordination numbers between the low- and high-density liquids. However, the data indicate that substantial changes occur among the packing geometries and clustering of the <span class="hlt">Al</span>-O and Y-O coordination polyhedra, i.e. within the second-nearest-neighbour shell defined by the metal-metal (i.e. Y-Y, Y-<span class="hlt">Al</span>, <span class="hlt">Al-Al</span>) interactions. Polarizable ion model molecular dynamics simulations of Y(2)O(3)-<span class="hlt">Al</span>(2)O(3) liquids are used to help interpret the pair-correlation functions obtained from X-ray and neutron scattering data. Unexpectedly large density fluctuations are observed to occur during the simulation of nominally equilibrated <span class="hlt">systems</span>. These are interpreted as being due to dynamic sampling of high- and low-density configurations within the single-phase liquid at temperatures above the critical point or phase transition line. Calculated partial radial distribution functions indicate that the <span class="hlt">primary</span> differences between HDA and LDA configurations occur among the Y-Y correlations. PMID:15664901</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050199431','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050199431"><span id="translatedtitle">Vapor/Mist Used to Lubricate Gears After Loss of <span class="hlt">Primary</span> Lubrication <span class="hlt">System</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Handschuh, Robert F.; Morales, Wilfredo</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Loss of lubrication in rotorcraft drive <span class="hlt">systems</span> is a demanding requirement placed on drive <span class="hlt">system</span> manufacturers. The drive <span class="hlt">system</span> must operate for at least 30 minutes once the <span class="hlt">primary</span> lubrication <span class="hlt">system</span> has failed. This test is a military requirement that must be passed prior to certification of the aircraft. As new aircraft engines, operating at higher speeds, are fielded, the requirements for the drive <span class="hlt">system</span> become increasingly more difficult. Also, the drive <span class="hlt">system</span> must be lightweight, which minimizes the opportunity to use the gear bodies to absorb the tremendous amount of heating that takes place. In many cases, the amount of heat generated because of the high speed and load requires an emergency lubrication <span class="hlt">system</span> that negatively impacts the aircraft's weight, complexity, and cost. A single mesh spur gear test rig is being used at the NASA Glenn Research Center to investigate possible emergency lubrication <span class="hlt">system</span> improvements that will minimize the impact of having these <span class="hlt">systems</span> onboard rotorcraft. A technique currently being investigated uses a vapor/mist <span class="hlt">system</span> to lubricate the contacting surfaces after the <span class="hlt">primary</span> lubrication <span class="hlt">system</span> has been shut down. A number of tests were conducted in which the vapor/mist used the same lubricant as the <span class="hlt">primary</span> <span class="hlt">system</span>, but at a greatly reduced flow rate. Each test was initiated with the <span class="hlt">primary</span> lubrication <span class="hlt">system</span> operational and at steady-state conditions for a given speed and load. Then the <span class="hlt">primary</span> lubrication <span class="hlt">system</span> was shut down, and the vapor/mist lubrication <span class="hlt">system</span> was initiated. An example of the tests conducted is shown in the figures. These preliminary tests have uncovered a mechanism that provides a lubricious, carbonaceous solid on the surface that actually reduces the surface temperature of the meshing gear teeth during operation. Surface analysis of the carbonaceous solid revealed it was graphitic. This mechanism is the synthetic lubricant "coking" on the active profile of the gears, which reduces the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23748456','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23748456"><span id="translatedtitle">Release and <span class="hlt">systemic</span> accumulation of heavy metals from preformed crowns used in restoration of <span class="hlt">primary</span> teeth.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kodaira, Hiroe; Ohno, Kohachiro; Fukase, Naoko; Kuroda, Midori; Adachi, Shiki; Kikuchi, Motohiro; Asada, Yoshinobu</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Preformed crowns for restoration of <span class="hlt">primary</span> teeth are used in various treatments and are essential for restoring the crowns of <span class="hlt">primary</span> molars. However, there are concerns that mechanical, chemical, and thermal stimulation may cause release of components of such crowns. We examined <span class="hlt">systemic</span> accumulation of heavy metals associated with preformed crowns (3M Stainless Steel <span class="hlt">Primary</span> Molar Crowns) used in <span class="hlt">primary</span> tooth restoration. The participants were 37 children who had visited the Pediatric Dental Clinic of Tsurumi University Dental Hospital. They were divided into two groups: 22 participants without a history of being fitted with a preformed crown for <span class="hlt">primary</span> tooth restoration (controls), and 15 participants with preformed crowns for <span class="hlt">primary</span> tooth restoration. Analysis of hair samples showed a significant difference in the level of the trace element Cr - an important component of the preformed crowns - between children with and without preformed crowns, but no significant differences in Fe or Ni levels. Levels of the trace elements Ni, Cr, and Fe were within allowable ranges, indicating that these minerals were not likely to be harmful.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5875738','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5875738"><span id="translatedtitle">Fission product plateout and liftoff in the MHTGR <span class="hlt">primary</span> <span class="hlt">system</span>: A review</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wichner, R.P. )</p> <p>1991-04-01</p> <p>A review is presented of the technical basis for predicting radioactivity release resulting from depressurization of an MHTGR <span class="hlt">primary</span> <span class="hlt">system</span>. Consideration is restricted to so called dry events with no involvement of the steam <span class="hlt">system</span>. The various types of deposition mechanisms effective for iodine, cesium, strontium, and silver are discussed in terms of their chemical characteristics and the nature of the materials in the <span class="hlt">primary</span> <span class="hlt">system</span>. Emphasis is given to iodine behavior, including means for estimating the quantity available for release, the types of plateout locations in the <span class="hlt">primary</span> <span class="hlt">system</span>, and the effect of dust on distribution and release. The behavior of fission products cesium, strontium, and silver in such accidents is presented qualitatively. A major part of the review deals with expected dust levels, types, and transport. Available information on the level and nature of dust in the HTGR <span class="hlt">primary</span> <span class="hlt">system</span> is reviewed. A summary is presented of dust deposition and liftoff mechanisms. It was concluded that recent approaches to dust liftoff modeling, based on turbulent burst concepts for removal from surfaces, probably offer advantages over the current shear ratio approach. This study concludes that iodine releases from dry depressurization events are likely to be extremely low, on the order of millicuries, due to a predictably low degree of chemical desorption, a low degree of dust liftoff, and a low involvement of iodine with dust. It was also concluded that deposition mechanisms controlling the distribution of fission product material in the <span class="hlt">primary</span> <span class="hlt">system</span>, and hence also controlling the degree of liftoff, depend strongly on the chemical nature of the individual elements. Therefore contrary to the current practice, both plateout and liftoff models should reflect those unique chemical and physical properties. 56 refs., 16 figs., 23 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4825311','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4825311"><span id="translatedtitle">Clinical profile and treatment outcome of older (>75 years) patients with <span class="hlt">systemic</span> <span class="hlt">AL</span> amyloidosis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Sachchithanantham, Sajitha; Offer, Mark; Venner, Christopher; Mahmood, Shameem A.; Foard, Darren; Rannigan, Lisa; Lane, Thirusha; Gillmore, Julian D.; Lachmann, Helen J.; Hawkins, Philip N.; Wechalekar, Ashutosh D.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Systemic</span> <span class="hlt">AL</span> amyloidosis, a disease with improving outcomes using novel therapies, is increasingly recognized in the elderly but treatment and outcomes have not been systematically studied in this group of patients in whom comorbidities and frailty may compound morbidity and mortality. We report the outcomes of 295 patients with <span class="hlt">systemic</span> <span class="hlt">AL</span> amyloidosis ≥75 years seen at the UK National Amyloidosis Centre from 2005–2012. The median age was 78.5 years. The median overall survival was 20 months. Two hundred and thirty-eight patients received chemotherapy and 57 elected for supportive care only (overall survival – 24 and 8.4 months, respectively). On intention-to-treat analysis, 44% achieved a hematologic response including a very good partial response or better in 23%. The median overall survival was 6.2 years in patients achieving very good partial response or better at the 6-month landmark analysis and 1.5 years in non-responders. Factors independently indicating a poor prognosis were: cardiac involvement, performance status ≥2; systolic blood pressure <100 mmHg and, on landmark analysis, achieving less than a very good partial response. Treatment of <span class="hlt">systemic</span> <span class="hlt">AL</span> amyloidosis in the elderly is challenging. Deep clonal responses are associated with excellent survival and organ responses. Achieving a response to the first-line regimen appears particularly important as outcomes of non-responders are similar to those of untreated patients. Prospective trials with lower toxicity, outpatient treatment regimens are needed. PMID:26294730</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19760050746&hterms=pepper&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dpepper','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19760050746&hterms=pepper&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dpepper"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of adsorbed films on friction of <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3-metal <span class="hlt">systems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Pepper, S. V.</p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>The kinetic friction of polycrystalline <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 sliding on Cu, Ni, and Fe in ultrahigh vacuum was studied as a function of the surface chemistry of the metal. Clean metal surfaces were exposed to O2, Cl2, C2H4, and C2H3Cl, and the change in friction due to the adsorbed species was observed. Auger electron spectroscopy assessed the elemental composition of the metal surface. It was found that the <span class="hlt">systems</span> exposed to Cl2 exhibited low friction, interpreted as the van der Waals force between the <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 and metal chloride. The generation of metal oxide by oxygen exposures resulted in an increase in friction, interpreted as due to strong interfacial bonds established by reaction of metal oxide with <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 to form the complex oxide (spinel). The only effect of C2H4 was to increase the friction of the Fe <span class="hlt">system</span>, but C2H3Cl exposures decreases friction in both Ni and Fe <span class="hlt">systems</span>, indicating the dominance of the chlorine over the ethylene complex on the surface</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1086212.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1086212.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Development of Quality Assurance <span class="hlt">System</span> in Culture and Nation Character Education in <span class="hlt">Primary</span> Education in Indonesia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Susilana, Rudi; Asra</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of national education is to develop skills and build dignified national character and civilization in educating nation life (Act No. 20, 2003). The paper describes a <span class="hlt">system</span> of quality assurance in culture and character education in <span class="hlt">primary</span> education. This study employs the six sigma model which consists of the formula DMAIC (Define,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=mammography&pg=2&id=EJ692530','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=mammography&pg=2&id=EJ692530"><span id="translatedtitle">Office <span class="hlt">Systems</span> and Their Influence on Mammography Use in Rural and Urban <span class="hlt">Primary</span> Care</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Engelman, Kimberly K.; Ellerbeck, Edward F.; Perpich, Denise; Nazir, Niaman; McCarter, Kevin; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Breast cancer screening rates are lower in rural communities. Although studies have addressed barriers to mammography for rural residents, physician practice barriers have received less attention. Purpose: Controlled clinical trials have shown that the use of office reminder <span class="hlt">systems</span> in <span class="hlt">primary</span> care practices is related to increased clinical care…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1079832.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1079832.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Using a Learning Management <span class="hlt">System</span> to Personalise Learning for <span class="hlt">Primary</span> School Students</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Edmunds, Bronwyn; Hartnett, Maggie</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This paper reports on one aspect of a descriptive multiple-case study which set out to explore the role of a learning management <span class="hlt">system</span> (LMS) in personalising learning for students from the perspective of three teachers in one <span class="hlt">primary</span> school in New Zealand. The intention was to provide insight into the role the LMS could play in classrooms when…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1068617.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1068617.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Investigating Nigerian <span class="hlt">Primary</span> School Teachers' Preparedness to Adopt Personal Response <span class="hlt">System</span> in ESL Classroom</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Agbatogun, Alaba Olaoluwakotansibe</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>This study investigated the extent to which computer literacy dimensions (computer general knowledge, documents and documentations, communication and surfing as well as data inquiry), computer use and academic qualification as independent variables predicted <span class="hlt">primary</span> school teachers' attitude towards the integration of Personal Response <span class="hlt">System</span> in…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=neurolinguistic+AND+programming&pg=4&id=EJ291139','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=neurolinguistic+AND+programming&pg=4&id=EJ291139"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessment of <span class="hlt">Primary</span> Representational <span class="hlt">Systems</span> with Neurolinguistic Programming: Examination of Preliminary Literature.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Dorn, Fred J.; And Others</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>Reviews the inconsistent findings of studies on neurolinguistic programing and recommends some areas that should be examined to verify various claims. Discusses methods of assessing client's <span class="hlt">primary</span> representational <span class="hlt">systems</span>, including predicate usage and eye movements, and suggests that more reliable methods of assessing PRS must be found. (JAC)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=neurolinguistic+AND+programming&pg=5&id=EJ297736','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=neurolinguistic+AND+programming&pg=5&id=EJ297736"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessing <span class="hlt">Primary</span> Representational <span class="hlt">System</span> (PRS) Preference for Neurolinguistic Programming (NLP) Using Three Methods.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Dorn, Fred J.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>Considered three methods of identifying <span class="hlt">Primary</span> Representational <span class="hlt">System</span> (PRS)--an interview, a word list, and a self-report--in a study of 120 college students. Results suggested the three methods offer little to counselors either collectively or individually. Results did not validate the PRS construct, suggesting the need for further research.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740022381','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740022381"><span id="translatedtitle">Space shuttle/food <span class="hlt">system</span> study. Volume 2, Appendix F: Flight food and <span class="hlt">primary</span> packaging</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p>The analysis and selection of food items and <span class="hlt">primary</span> packaging, the development of menus, the nutritional analysis of diet, and the analyses of alternate food mixes and contingency foods is reported in terms of the overall food <span class="hlt">system</span> design for space shuttle flight. Stowage weights and cubic volumes associated with each alternate mix were also evaluated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985JAP....57.3241S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985JAP....57.3241S"><span id="translatedtitle">Magnetic properties of the Fe<span class="hlt">Al</span>1 - xCux <span class="hlt">system</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Saleh, A. S.; Mankikar, R. M.; Yoon, S.; Okpalugo, D. E.; Booth, J. G.</p> <p>1985-04-01</p> <p>The substitution of a 3d transition metal (T) for <span class="hlt">Al</span> in the equiatomic intermetallic compound Fe<span class="hlt">Al</span> results in the onset of ferromagnetism beyond a certain critical concentration of (T). The <span class="hlt">system</span> appears magnetically and structurally similar to the equivalent Co(GaT) alloys for which the critical concentration appeared to be related to an average electron concentration parameter. The present paper discusses Cu substitution in Fe<span class="hlt">Al</span>, i.e., the series Fe<span class="hlt">Al</span>1-xCux. It was found using x-ray and neutron diffraction techniques that the alloys remain single phase up to x=0.35 and that the crystallographic order remains B2 throughout. The site occupancy has also been determined and compared with the predictions of theoretical models. Ferromagnetism is observed to occur in the alloys with x>0.2. For these ferromagnetic alloys the inverse susceptibility against temperature curves (for T>TC) all have the same slope independent of composition suggesting an interpretation in terms of an itinerant model. This interpretation is also supported by a Rhodes-Wohlfarth plot. A region of superparamagnetism presages the onset of ferromagnetism and from this the size of the magnetic clusters is estimated to be 20-25 Å in radius.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1227663','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1227663"><span id="translatedtitle">A new <span class="hlt">primary</span> care rostering and capitation <span class="hlt">system</span> in Norway: Lessons for Canada?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ostbye, T; Hunskaar, S</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Providing every patient with a personal <span class="hlt">primary</span> care physician or, from the physician's perspective, establishing a stable roster or list of patients is currently being actively debated in Canada. Norway's <span class="hlt">system</span> of <span class="hlt">primary</span> care medicine, similar to Canada's, faces many of the same problems. In 1992 a trial rostering <span class="hlt">system</span> with blended funding (capitation, fee-for-service and user fees) was established in 4 Norwegian municipalities. After 3 years of close monitoring, the results of <span class="hlt">system</span> evaluations have attracted strong interest. This article reports on the benefits and problems encountered with the new rostering <span class="hlt">system</span> in Norway. If Canada is moving in the same direction, some of the lessons learned may be helpful. PMID:9220943</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21557573','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21557573"><span id="translatedtitle">Monitoring network design for phytoremediation <span class="hlt">systems</span> using <span class="hlt">primary</span> and secondary data sources.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gopalakrishnan, Gayathri; Minsker, Barbara S; Valocchi, Albert J</p> <p>2011-06-01</p> <p>Phytoremediation, or contaminant removal using plants, has been deployed at many sites to remediate contaminated soil and groundwater. Research has shown that trees are low-cost, rapid, and relatively simple-to-use monitoring <span class="hlt">systems</span> as well as inexpensive alternatives to traditional pump-and-treat <span class="hlt">systems</span>. However, tree monitoring is also an indirect measure of subsurface contamination and inherently more uncertain than conventional techniques such as wells or soil borings that measure contaminant concentrations directly. This study explores the implications for monitoring network design at real-world sites where scarce <span class="hlt">primary</span> data such as monitoring wells or soil borings are supplemented by extensive secondary data such as trees. In this study, we combined secondary and <span class="hlt">primary</span> data into a composite data set using models to transform secondary data to <span class="hlt">primary</span>, as <span class="hlt">primary</span> data were too sparse to attempt cokriging. Optimal monitoring networks using both trees and conventional techniques were determined using genetic algorithms, and trade-off curves between cost and uncertainty are presented for a phytoremediation <span class="hlt">system</span> at Argonne National Laboratory. Optimal solutions found at this site indicate that increasing the number of secondary data sampled resulted in a significant decrease in global uncertainty with a minimal increase in cost. The choice of the data transformation model had an impact on the optimal designs and uncertainty estimated at the site. Using a data transformation model with a higher error resulted in monitoring network designs where <span class="hlt">primary</span> data were favored over colocated secondary data. The spatial configuration of the monitoring network design was similar with regard to the areas sampled, irrespective of the data transformation model used. Overall, this study shows that using a composite data set, with <span class="hlt">primary</span> and secondary data, results in effective monitoring designs, even at sites where the only data transformation model available is one</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22255054','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22255054"><span id="translatedtitle">Hydrogen migration dynamics in hydrated <span class="hlt">Al</span> clusters: The <span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 17}{sup (−)}·H{sub 2}O <span class="hlt">system</span> as an example</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Álvarez-Barcia, S.; Flores, J. R.</p> <p>2014-02-28</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub m}{sup (−)}·(H{sub 2}O){sub n} <span class="hlt">systems</span> are known to undergo water splitting processes in the gas phase giving H{sub k}<span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub m}(OH){sub k}{sup (−)}·(H{sub 2}O){sub n−k} <span class="hlt">systems</span>, which can generate H{sub 2}. The migration of H atoms from one <span class="hlt">Al</span> atom to another on the cluster's surface is of critical importance to the mechanism of the complete H{sub 2} production process. We have applied a combination of Molecular Dynamics and Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus theory including tunneling effects to study the gas-phase evolution of HAl{sub 17}(OH){sup (−)}, which can be considered a model <span class="hlt">system</span>. First, we have performed an extensive search for local minima and the connecting saddle points using a density functional theory method. It is found that in the water-splitting process <span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 17}{sup (−)}·(H{sub 2}O) → HAl{sub 17}(OH){sup (−)}, the H atom which bonds to the <span class="hlt">Al</span> cluster losses rather quickly its excess energy, which is easily “absorbed” by the cluster because of its flexibility. This fact ultimately determines that long-range hydrogen migration is not a very fast process and that, probably, tunneling only plays a secondary role in the migration dynamics, at least for moderate energies. Reduction of the total energy results in the process being very much slowed down. The consequences on the possible mechanisms of H{sub 2} generation from the interaction of <span class="hlt">Al</span> clusters and water molecules are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24629650','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24629650"><span id="translatedtitle">Getting on with your computer is associated with job satisfaction in <span class="hlt">primary</span> care: entrants to <span class="hlt">primary</span> care should be assessed for their competency with electronic patient record <span class="hlt">systems</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>de Lusignan, Simon; Pearce, Christopher; Munro, Neil</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Job satisfaction in <span class="hlt">primary</span> care is associated with getting on with your computer. Many <span class="hlt">primary</span> care professionals spend longer interacting with their computer than anything else in their day. However, the computer often makes demands rather than be an aid or supporter that has learned its user's preferences. The use of electronic patient record (EPR) <span class="hlt">systems</span> is underrepresented in the assessment of entrants to <span class="hlt">primary</span> care, and in definitions of the core competencies of a family physician/general practitioner. We call for this to be put right: for the use of the EPR to support direct patient care and clinical governance to be given greater prominence in training and assessment. In parallel, policy makers should ensure that the EPR <span class="hlt">system</span> use is orientated to ensuring patients receive evidence-based care, and EPR <span class="hlt">system</span> suppliers should explore how their <span class="hlt">systems</span> might better support their clinician users, in particular learning their preferences.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22085327','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22085327"><span id="translatedtitle">Health <span class="hlt">system</span> factors affecting communication with pediatricians: gendered work culture in <span class="hlt">primary</span> care.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lynch, Sean</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>This qualitative study examined the roles that practice setting, education level, and gender may play in social workers' communication satisfaction with pediatricians. Taking an ethnographic approach, the researcher interviewed social workers and pediatricians who worked together to provide mental health services in <span class="hlt">primary</span> care. The results suggested that gender at the health <span class="hlt">system</span> level may be an issue and that gendered work culture in <span class="hlt">primary</span> care was a factor in communication. In particular, reimbursement, an aspect of the gendered work culture, was a substantial communication barrier, and the implications for Medicaid billing are discussed. PMID:22085327</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9795E..1AL','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9795E..1AL"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Primary</span> mirror back surface shape research of GEO laser communication <span class="hlt">system</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Weida; Zhang, Li-zhong; Meng, Li-xin</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>The research of laser communication <span class="hlt">system</span> <span class="hlt">primary</span> mirror deformation caused by back surface shape variation was done in this paper. The usual mirror back surface shapes were sphere, double arch, flat and biconcave shape and so on. Based on the four shape mirror, with the center hole rim support pattern, the four shape mirror temperature distribution equation was inferred by thermal elastic theory, deformation are compared in 1-5℃ radius direction temperature difference, in the case of minor weight gap and equal maximum thickness. As a result, the deformation of sphere back surface shape mirror is minimal. So sphere back surface shape is fit for the <span class="hlt">primary</span> mirror.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25488034','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25488034"><span id="translatedtitle">Post-transplantation <span class="hlt">primary</span> central nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> lymphoma in a patient with <span class="hlt">systemic</span> lupus erythematosus and prolonged use of immunosuppressant.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tse, Teresa P K; Chan, Allan N L; Chan, Tony K T; Po, Y C</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Post-transplantation <span class="hlt">primary</span> central nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> lymphoma is an uncommon and fatal post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder. Such lymphomas have been described in only a few case series in the literature. The incidence of this condition is rising with improved survival after organ transplantation. A case of post-transplantation <span class="hlt">primary</span> central nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> lymphoma in a young Chinese woman with <span class="hlt">systemic</span> lupus erythematosus is described here. She presented with right-sided weakness and memory loss after tooth extraction 2 weeks before admission. Contrast computed tomography of the brain demonstrated a contrast rim-enhancing lesion over the left frontal lobe. With a history of recent dental procedure, long-term immunosuppressive therapy and computed tomography findings, cerebral abscess was highly suspected. Emergency operation was performed. Histopathology showed post-transplantation <span class="hlt">primary</span> central nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> lymphoma, with cells positive for B-cell marker CD20. Immunosuppressant was stopped and she was treated with radiotherapy and rituximab (anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody). She remained disease-free at 16 months. Post-transplantation <span class="hlt">primary</span> central nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> lymphoma is rare with variable presentation and radiological features. We believe rituximab may have a role in the treatment of such lymphomas. PMID:25488034</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4341539','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4341539"><span id="translatedtitle">Structural and Contextual Dimensions of Iranian <span class="hlt">Primary</span> Health Care <span class="hlt">System</span> at Local Level</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zanganeh Baygi, Mehdi; Seyedin, Hesam; Salehi, Masoud; Jafari Sirizi, Mehdi</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Background: In recent years, family physician plan was established as the main strategy of health <span class="hlt">system</span> in Iran, while organizational structure of the <span class="hlt">primary</span> health care <span class="hlt">system</span> has remained the same as thirty years ago. Objectives: This study was performed to illustrate structural and contextual dimensions of organizational structure and relationship between them in Iranian <span class="hlt">primary</span> health care <span class="hlt">system</span> at local level. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional quantitative study was conducted from January to June 2013, during which 121 questionnaires were distributed among senior and junior managers of city health centers at Medical Sciences universities in Iran. Validity of the questionnaire was confirmed by experts (CVI = 0.089 and CVR more than 0.85) and Cronbach α was utilized for reliability (α = 0.904). We used multistage sampling method in this study and analysis of the data was performed by SPSS software using different tests. Results: Local level of <span class="hlt">primary</span> health care <span class="hlt">system</span> in Iran had mechanical structure, but in contextual dimensions the results showed different types. There was a significant relationship between structural and contextual dimensions (r = 0.642, P value < 0.001). Goals and culture dimensions had strongest effects on structural dimensions. Conclusions: Because of the changes in goals and strategies of Iranian health <span class="hlt">system</span> in recent years, it is urgently recommended to reform the current structure to increase efficiency and effectiveness of the <span class="hlt">system</span>. PMID:25763257</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5390175','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5390175"><span id="translatedtitle">Obtaining shrink-free mullite lightweight ceramics in the <span class="hlt">Al</span>F/sub 3/-<span class="hlt">Al</span>/sub 2/O/sub 3/-SiO/sub 2/ <span class="hlt">system</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Goncharov, Yu.I.; Skomorokhin, V.Yu.</p> <p>1987-09-01</p> <p>Using the mullite-forming mechanism in the <span class="hlt">system</span> <span class="hlt">Al</span>F/sub 3/-<span class="hlt">Al</span>/sub 2/O/sub 3/-SiO/sub 2/ it is possible to synthesize mullite during firing of the goods without preheating the starting components. The solid phase synthesis of crystals of mullite leads to self-reinforcing of the ceramic material. The experimental batches of goods showed that it is possible to obtain mullite articles with an apparent density of 0.65-2.00 g/cm/sup 3/.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2000SPIE.4093..319B&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2000SPIE.4093..319B&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Simple <span class="hlt">system</span> of aberration correction for very large spherical <span class="hlt">primary</span> mirrors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Beach, David A.</p> <p>2000-10-01</p> <p>Several large telescopes are now being proposed that would benefit from the cost reduction due to the use of spherical <span class="hlt">primary</span> mirror. However, structural cost constraints require compact formats that tend to impose very high speeds, e.g. f/1.5, which renders difficult the correction of the resulting very large spherical aberration. A technique is described here in which a spherical concentric Cassegrain-like <span class="hlt">primary</span>-secondary combination is followed by a simple catadioptric focal modifier. The spherical <span class="hlt">primary</span> is 9m diameter, f/1.5, and the final focus is f/5 with a sub-arcsecond resolution over a 5 arcminute angular field for a passband of 480-850nm. <span class="hlt">Primary</span>- secondary separation is only 11m and central obscuration is only 11% of pupil area. The two relatively small corrector components provide the functions of concentric meniscus and zonal corrector plate and are made from the same single glass- BK7 is the example given, but silica or any other preferred glass is possible. The relatively small zonal corrector is the only aspheric surface in the entire <span class="hlt">system</span>. A related <span class="hlt">system</span> is described elsewhere in which a 30 arcminute angular field can be achieved with a similar resolution, but with more complex glass requirements. However, supply of such exotic glasses may be difficult in large diameters, and the <span class="hlt">system</span> presented here may find a place in some specialized applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26119871','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26119871"><span id="translatedtitle">Hessian facilitated analysis of optimally controlled quantum dynamics of <span class="hlt">systems</span> with coupled <span class="hlt">primary</span> and secondary states.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shu, Chuan-Cun; Edwalds, Melanie; Shabani, Alireza; Ho, Tak-San; Rabitz, Herschel</p> <p>2015-07-28</p> <p>The efficacy of optimal control of quantum dynamics depends on the topology and associated local structure of the underlying control landscape defined as the objective as a function of the control field. A commonly studied control objective involves maximization of the transition probability for steering the quantum <span class="hlt">system</span> from one state to another state. This paper invokes landscape Hessian analysis performed at an optimal solution to gain insight into the controlled dynamics, where the Hessian is the second-order functional derivative of the control objective with respect to the control field. Specifically, we consider a quantum <span class="hlt">system</span> composed of coupled <span class="hlt">primary</span> and secondary subspaces of energy levels with the initial and target states lying in the <span class="hlt">primary</span> subspace. The <span class="hlt">primary</span> and secondary subspaces may arise in various scenarios, for example, respectively, as sub-manifolds of ground and excited electronic states of a poly-atomic molecule, with each possessing a set of rotational-vibrational levels. The control field may engage the <span class="hlt">system</span> through electric dipole transitions that occur either (I) only in the <span class="hlt">primary</span> subspace, (II) between the two subspaces, or (III) only in the secondary subspace. Important insights about the resultant dynamics in each case are revealed in the structural patterns of the corresponding Hessian. The Fourier spectrum of the Hessian is shown to often be complementary to mechanistic insights provided by the optimal control field and population dynamics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993fttq.book.....K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993fttq.book.....K"><span id="translatedtitle">Formation of three types of quasi-crystals in <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Pd-Mg <span class="hlt">system</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Koshikawa, Naokiyo; Edagawa, Keiichi; Honda, Yuko; Takeuchi, Shin</p> <p>1993-04-01</p> <p>In the <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Pd-Mg <span class="hlt">system</span>, a Mackay-Icosahedron (MI) type Icosahedral (I) phase with the F-type superlattice order and a Decagonal (D) phase were found to form in a melt-quenched state, in addition to the Frank-Kasper (FK) type stable I-phase reported previously. This is the first example in which the three types of quasi-crystalline phases are formed in the same alloy <span class="hlt">system</span>. The formation range of the FK-type I-phase in melt-quenched state is rather wide: 5 - 20 at percent Pd and 20 - 45 at percent Mg. In contrast, the MI-type, I-phase and D-phase are formed in small composition ranges around <span class="hlt">Al</span>52Pd31Mg17 and <span class="hlt">Al</span>74Pd21Mg5, respectively. Electron diffraction studies showed that the period along the tenfold axis of the D-phase is about 1.6 nm. The formation and stability of the MI-type and FK-type I-phases were discussed in terms of a Hume-Rothery rule.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6000894','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6000894"><span id="translatedtitle">Computer analysis of phase diagrams and thermodynamic properties of cryolite based <span class="hlt">systems</span>: 1. The <span class="hlt">Al</span>F/sub 3/-LiF-NaF <span class="hlt">system</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Saboungi, M.L.; Lin, P.I.; Cerisier, P.; Pelton, A.D.</p> <p>1980-09-01</p> <p>Calculations of the phase diagram of the <span class="hlt">Al</span>F/sub 3/-LiF-NaF <span class="hlt">system</span> up to 35 mol pct <span class="hlt">Al</span>F/sub 3/ and of the binary subsystems are presented. For the binary LiF-NaF, <span class="hlt">Al</span>F/sub 3/-NaF, <span class="hlt">Al</span>F/sub 3/-LiF, and the quasibinary Li/sub 3/<span class="hlt">Al</span>F/sub 6/-Na/sub 3/<span class="hlt">Al</span>F/sub 6/ <span class="hlt">systems</span>, thermodynamic properties of the unary and binary phases are used to numerically generate the corresponding phase diagram. The calculated and measured values are in good agreement. The broad data base thus constructed is used with equations from the conformal ionic solution theory to derive a priori phase equilibria of the <span class="hlt">Al</span>F/sub 3/-LiF-NaF <span class="hlt">system</span>. Ternary liquidus temperatures are calculated covering compositions outside the range of measurements. 47 references, 7 figures, 2 tables.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JSSCh.243..168M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JSSCh.243..168M"><span id="translatedtitle">Investigation of the phase relations in the U-<span class="hlt">Al</span>-Ge ternary <span class="hlt">system</span>: Influence of the <span class="hlt">Al</span>/Ge substitution on the properties of the intermediate phases</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Moussa, C.; El Sayah, Z.; Chajewski, G.; Berche, A.; Dorcet, V.; Pikul, A. P.; Pasturel, M.; Joanny, L.; Stepnik, B.; Tougait, O.</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>The phase relations within the U-<span class="hlt">Al</span>-Ge ternary <span class="hlt">system</span> were studied for two isothermal sections, at 673 K for the whole Gibbs triangle and at 1173 K for the concentration range 25-100 at% U. The identification of the phases, their composition ranges and stability were determined by x-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy coupled to energy dispersive spectroscopy and differential thermal analysis. The tie-lines and the solubility domains were determined for the U-Ge and U-<span class="hlt">Al</span> binaries, the UAl3-UGe3 solid-solution and for the unique ternary intermediate phase U3<span class="hlt">Al</span>2-xGe3+x. The experimental isopleth section of the pseudo-binary UAl3-UGe3 reveals an isomorphous solid solution based on the Cu3Au-type below the solidus. The U3<span class="hlt">Al</span>2-xGe3+x solid solution extends for -0.1≤x≤1.35 and -0.2≤x≤1.5 at 673 K and 1173 K respectively. It crystallizes in the I-centered tetragonal symmetry. The reciprocal lattice of several compositions of the U3<span class="hlt">Al</span>2-xGe3+x solid solution was examined by electron diffraction at room temperature, revealing the presence of a c-glide plane. Their crystal structure was refined by single crystal x-ray diffraction suggesting an isomorphous solid solution best described with the non-centrosymmetric space group I4cm in the paramagnetic domain. The magnetic measurements confirm the ferromagnetic ordering of the solid solution U3<span class="hlt">Al</span>2-xGe3+x with an increase of Tc with the <span class="hlt">Al</span> content. The thermal variation of the specific heat bear out the magnetic transitions with some delocalized character of the uranium 5f electrons.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26344185','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26344185"><span id="translatedtitle">On the microscopic dynamics of the 'Einstein solids' <span class="hlt">Al</span>V2<span class="hlt">Al</span>20 and GaV2<span class="hlt">Al</span>20, and of YV2<span class="hlt">Al</span>20: a benchmark <span class="hlt">system</span> for 'rattling' excitations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Koza, Michael Marek; Mutka, Hannu; Okamoto, Yoshihiko; Yamaura, Jun-ichi; Hiroi, Zenji</p> <p>2015-10-14</p> <p>The inelastic response of AV2<span class="hlt">Al</span>20 (with A = <span class="hlt">Al</span>, Ga and Y) was probed by high-resolution inelastic neutron scattering experiments and density functional theory (DFT) based lattice dynamics calculations (LDC). Features characteristic of the dynamics of <span class="hlt">Al</span>, Ga and Y are established experimentally in the low-energy range of the compounds. In the stereotype 'Einstein-solid' compound <span class="hlt">Al</span>V2<span class="hlt">Al</span>20 we identify a unique spectral density extending up to 10 meV at 1.6 K. Its dominating feature is a peak centred at 2 meV at the base temperature. A very similar spectral distribution is established in GaV2<span class="hlt">Al</span>20 albeit the strong peak is located at 1 meV at 1.6 K. In YV2<span class="hlt">Al</span>20 signals characteristic of Y dynamics are located above 8 meV. The spectral distributions are reproduced by the DFT-based LDC and identified as a set of phonons. The response to temperature changes between 1.6 and ∼300 K is studied experimentally and the exceptionally vivid renormalization of the A characteristic modes in <span class="hlt">Al</span>V2<span class="hlt">Al</span>20 and GaV2<span class="hlt">Al</span>20 is quantified by following the energy of the strong peak. At about 300 K it is shifted to higher energies by 300% for A = <span class="hlt">Al</span> and 450% for A = Ga. The dynamics of A = Y in YV2<span class="hlt">Al</span>20 show a minor temperature effect. This holds in general for modes located above 10 meV in any of the compounds. They are associated with vibrations of the V2<span class="hlt">Al</span>20 matrix. Atomic potentials derived through DFT calculations indicate the propensity of A = <span class="hlt">Al</span> and Ga to a strong positive energy shift upon temperature increase by a high quartic component. The effect of the strong phonon renormalization on thermodynamic observables is computed on grounds of the LDC results. It is shown that through the hybridization of A = <span class="hlt">Al</span> and Ga with the V2<span class="hlt">Al</span>20 dynamics the matrix vibrations in the low-energy range follow this renormalization.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10643989','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10643989"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Systemic</span> kappa<span class="hlt">AL</span> amyloidosis associated with bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Taniyama, H; Yamamoto, S; Sako, T; Hirayama, K; Higuchi, H; Nagahata, H</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Histopathologic and immunohistochemical examinations were conducted on a 5-year-old Holstein-Friesian cow with <span class="hlt">systemic</span> kappa<span class="hlt">AL</span> amyloidosis associated with bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency. Amyloid deposits were present in the perivascular and intercellular spaces of the visceral organs, such as the liver, kidneys, pancreas, adrenal glands, and upper alimentary tract. Amyloid was stained positively with Congo red with or without 5% potassium permanganate pretreatment and had green birefringence observed under polarized light. Immunohistochemically, amyloid reacted strongly against anti-bovine IgG (H+L) and anti-bovine kappa-light chain and reacted weakly against bovine X-light chain antibodies but was negative for anti-human amyloid AA antibody. This is the first description of <span class="hlt">AL</span> amyloidosis immunohistochemically related to immunoglobulin kappa-light chains of precursor protein in cattle. PMID:10643989</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApPhL.108t1606L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApPhL.108t1606L"><span id="translatedtitle">Formation mechanism for the nanoscale amorphous interface in pulse-welded <span class="hlt">Al</span>/Fe bimetallic <span class="hlt">systems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Jingjing; Yu, Qian; Zhang, Zijiao; Xu, Wei; Sun, Xin</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Pulse or impact welding traditionally has been referred to as "solid-state" welding. By integrating advanced interface characterizations and diffusion calculations, we report that the nanoscale amorphous interface in the pulse-welded <span class="hlt">Al</span>/Fe bimetallic <span class="hlt">system</span> is formed by rapid heating and melting of a thin <span class="hlt">Al</span> layer at the interface, diffusion of iron atoms in the liquid aluminum, and subsequent rapid quenching with diffused iron atoms in solution. This finding challenges the commonly held belief regarding the solid-state nature of the impact-based welding process for dissimilar metals. Elongated ultra-fine grains with high dislocation density and ultra-fine equiaxed grains also are observed in the weld interface vicinity on the steel and aluminum sides, respectively, which further confirms that melting and the subsequent recrystallization occurred on the aluminum side of the interface.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22111950','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22111950"><span id="translatedtitle">Elastic scattering measurements for {sup 7}Be+{sup 27}<span class="hlt">Al</span> <span class="hlt">system</span> at RIBRAS facility</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Morcelle, V.; Lichtenthaeler, R.; Morais, M. C.; Lepine-Szily, A.; Guimaraes, V.; Faria, P. N. de; Gasques, L.; Pires, K. C. C.; Condori, R. P.; Gomes, P. R. S.; Lubian, J.; Mendes, D. R. Jr.; Barioni, A.; Shorto, J. M. B.; Zamora, J. C.</p> <p>2013-05-06</p> <p>Elastic scattering angular distribution measurements of {sup 7}Be+{sup 27}<span class="hlt">Al</span> <span class="hlt">system</span> were performed at the laboratory energy of 15.6 MeV. The {sup 7}Be secondary beam was produced by the proton transfer reaction {sup 3}He({sup 6}Li,{sup 7}Be) and impinged on {sup 27}<span class="hlt">Al</span> and {sup 197}Au targets, using the Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) facility, RIBRAS. The elastic angular distribution was obtained within the angular range of 15{sup 0} - 80{sup 0} at the center of mass frame. Optical model calculations have been performed using the Woods- Saxon form factors and the Sao Paulo potential to fit the experimental data. The total reaction cross section was derived.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24301716','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24301716"><span id="translatedtitle">Payment <span class="hlt">systems</span> and incentives in <span class="hlt">primary</span> care: implications of recent reforms in Estonia and Romania.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dan, Sorin; Savi, Riin</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Since the early 1990s, major reform in healthcare has been adopted in former communist countries in Central and Eastern Europe. More than 20 years after, reform in healthcare still draws much interest from policy makers and academics alike. One of the dynamic components of reform has been the reform of payment <span class="hlt">systems</span> in <span class="hlt">primary</span> care. This article looks at recent developments in payment <span class="hlt">systems</span> and financial incentives in Estonia and Romania. We conclude that finding the appropriate mix in paying and incentivizing <span class="hlt">primary</span> care providers in a transitional context is no easy solution for healthcare policy makers who need to carefully weigh in the advantages and inherent problems of various payment arrangements. In a transitional, rapidly changing healthcare <span class="hlt">system</span> and society, and a context of financial stringency, the theoretical effects of payment mechanisms may be more difficult to predict and manage than it is expected. PMID:24301716</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27342835','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27342835"><span id="translatedtitle">Health policy and the policymaking <span class="hlt">system</span>: A case study of <span class="hlt">primary</span> care in Ireland.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kelly, Niall; Garvey, John; Palcic, Dónal</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>In 2001 the Irish government published a reforming policy intended to modernise and expand the delivery of <span class="hlt">primary</span> care in Ireland. Fifteen years later, the Irish health <span class="hlt">system</span> remains beset by problems indicative of a fragmented and underdeveloped <span class="hlt">primary</span> care <span class="hlt">system</span>. This case study examines the formation and implementation of the 2001 <span class="hlt">primary</span> care policy and identifies key risk categories within the policymaking process itself that inhibited the timely achievement of policy objectives. Our methodology includes a directed content analysis of the policy formation and implementation documents and the influencing academic literature, as well as semi-structured interviews with key personnel involved in the process. We identify three broad risk categories - power, resources and capability - within the policymaking process that strongly influenced policy formation and implementation. We additionally show that the disjoint between policy formation and policy implementation was a contested issue among those involved in the policy process and provided space for these risks to critically undermine Ireland's <span class="hlt">primary</span> care policy. PMID:27342835</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000JCrGr.211..485M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000JCrGr.211..485M"><span id="translatedtitle">Directional solidification processing of eutectic alloys in the Ni <span class="hlt">Al</span> V <span class="hlt">system</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Milenkovic, S.; Coelho, A. A.; Caram, R.</p> <p>2000-04-01</p> <p>Intermetallic matrix composites (IMCs) offer attractive properties, such as high toughness of the metal coupled with low density, high modulus and high strength of the intermetallics. Among a large number of the intermetallics, a particular interest has been shown in the Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> intermetallic compound, since it exhibits several advantages over the currently used nickel-based superalloys. Recently, there has been a renewed interest in directional solidification of the eutectic alloys as a concept of reinforcing intermetallics with in situ refractory metals. The present study is related to the study of the eutectic alloys in the ternary Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span>-V <span class="hlt">system</span>. The eutectic composition and temperature were accurately determined. It was concluded that the solidification behaviour of the Ni-<span class="hlt">Al</span>-V eutectic is strongly dependent on the growth conditions, namely growth rate and orientation, and that it can be easily modified. Also, it was observed that the orientation of the grain, i.e., the direction of growth is the determining factor in the lamellar/rod transition as well as in the morphology of the degenerated structure.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhDT.......381S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhDT.......381S"><span id="translatedtitle">Combined heat and power <span class="hlt">systems</span> for commercial buildings: investigating cost, emissions, and <span class="hlt">primary</span> energy reduction based on <span class="hlt">system</span> components</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Smith, Amanda D.</p> <p></p> <p>Combined heat and power (CHP) <span class="hlt">systems</span> produce electricity and useful heat from fuel. When power is produced near a building which consumes power, transmission losses are averted, and heat which is a byproduct of power production may be useful to the building. That thermal energy can be used for hot water or space heating, among other applications. This dissertation focuses on CHP <span class="hlt">systems</span> using natural gas, a common fuel, and <span class="hlt">systems</span> serving commercial buildings in the United States. First, the necessary price difference between purchased electricity and purchased fuel is analyzed in terms of the efficiencies of <span class="hlt">system</span> components by comparing CHP with a conventional separate heat and power (SHP) configuration, where power is purchased from the electrical grid and heat is provided by a gas boiler. Similarly, the relationship between CDE due to electricity purchases and due to fuel purchases is analyzed as well as the relationship between <span class="hlt">primary</span> energy conversion factors for electricity and fuel. The <span class="hlt">primary</span> energy conversion factor indicates the quantity of source energy necessary to produce the energy purchased at the site. Next, greenhouse gas emissions are investigated for a variety of commercial buildings using CHP or SHP. The relationship between the magnitude of the reduction in emissions and the parameters of the CHP <span class="hlt">system</span> is explored. The cost savings and reduction in <span class="hlt">primary</span> energy consumption are evaluated for the same buildings. Finally, a CHP <span class="hlt">system</span> is analyzed with the addition of a thermal energy storage (TES) component, which can store excess thermal energy and deliver it later if necessary. The potential for CHP with TES to reduce cost, emissions, and <span class="hlt">primary</span> energy consumption is investigated for a variety of buildings. A case study is developed for one building for which TES does provide additional benefits over a CHP <span class="hlt">system</span> alone, and the requirements for a water tank TES device are examined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15239315','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15239315"><span id="translatedtitle">Collaborative practice in health <span class="hlt">systems</span> change: the Nova Scotia experience with the Strengthening <span class="hlt">Primary</span> Care Initiative.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Martin-Misener, Ruth; McNab, John; Sketris, Ingrid S; Edwards, Lynn</p> <p>2004-05-01</p> <p>Recently attention has been focussed on the significance of <span class="hlt">primary</span> care to the Canadian healthcare <span class="hlt">system</span>. Nova Scotia. Like other provinces, is seeking ways to improve the healthcare that it provides within a financially constrained publicly funded <span class="hlt">system</span>. The Strengthening <span class="hlt">Primary</span> Care Initiative in Nova Scotia (SPCI) was a <span class="hlt">primary</span> care demonstration project to evaluate specific goals related to <span class="hlt">primary</span> care. Although the provincial government conceived the SPCI, the approach to its planning and implementation was participatory and consultative. Funded through the federal Health Transition Fund (HTF) (Health Canada 2002) and the government of Nova Scotia, the SPCI involved changes in four communities over a three-year period (2000-2002). These changes included the introduction of a <span class="hlt">primary</span> healthcare nurse practitioner in collaborative practice with one or more family physicians; remuneration of the family physician(s) with methods other than a solely fee-for-service (FFS) arrangement; and the introduction and utilization of a computerized patient medical record. The SPCI was committed to a consultative process with stakeholders, and this gave rise to several challenges. Initially there was disagreement on the requirement for nurse practitioners at each of the demonstration sites. The Minister of Health confirmed that a nurse practitioner was a required component at each demonstration site. Differences in perspectives on the role of allied health professionals in the SPCI were encountered, and the significance of the role pharmacists have in <span class="hlt">primary</span> care was not fully appreciated until after the SPCI had started. At the time the SPCI began there was no legislation for nurse practitioners in Nova Scotia; therefore, an approval mechanism for nurse practitioner practice was authorized through the provincial regulatory bodies for nursing and medicine. Malpractice and liability issues, particularly on the part of providers who had never worked with nurse</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21448880','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21448880"><span id="translatedtitle">{sup 60}Fe AND {sup 26}<span class="hlt">Al</span> IN CHONDRULES FROM UNEQUILIBRATED CHONDRITES: IMPLICATIONS FOR EARLY SOLAR <span class="hlt">SYSTEM</span> PROCESSES</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mishra, R. K.; Goswami, J. N.; Rudraswami, N. G.; Tachibana, S.; Huss, G. R.</p> <p>2010-05-10</p> <p>The presence of about a dozen short-lived nuclides in the early solar <span class="hlt">system</span>, including {sup 60}Fe and {sup 26}<span class="hlt">Al</span>, has been established from isotopic studies of meteorite samples. An accurate estimation of solar <span class="hlt">system</span> initial abundance of {sup 60}Fe, a distinct product of stellar nucleosynthesis, is important to infer the stellar source of this nuclide. Previous studies in this regard suffered from the lack of exact knowledge of the time of formation of the analyzed meteorite samples. We present here results obtained from the first combined study of {sup 60}Fe and {sup 26}<span class="hlt">Al</span> records in early solar <span class="hlt">system</span> objects to remove this ambiguity. Chondrules from unequilibrated ordinary chondrites belonging to low petrologic grades were analyzed for their Fe-Ni and <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Mg isotope systematics. The <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Mg isotope data provide the time of formation of the analyzed chondrules relative to the first solar <span class="hlt">system</span> solids, the Ca-<span class="hlt">Al</span>-rich inclusions. The inferred initial {sup 60}Fe/{sup 56}Fe values of four chondrules, combined with their time of formation based on <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Mg isotope data, yielded a weighted mean value of (6.3 {+-} 2) x 10{sup -7} for solar <span class="hlt">system</span> initial {sup 60}Fe/{sup 56}Fe. This argues for a high-mass supernova as the source of {sup 60}Fe along with {sup 26}<span class="hlt">Al</span> and several other short-lived nuclides present in the early solar <span class="hlt">system</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AJ....148...79Q','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AJ....148...79Q"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">AL</span> Cassiopeiae: An F-type Contact Binary <span class="hlt">System</span> with a Cool Stellar Companion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Qian, S.-B.; Zhou, X.; Zola, S.; Zhu, L.-Y.; Zhao, E.-G.; Liao, W.-P.; Leung, K.-C.</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>According to the general catalog of variable stars, <span class="hlt">AL</span> Cas was classified as an EW-type eclipsing binary with a spectral type of B and an orbital period of P = 0.5005555 days. The first photometric light curves of the close binary in the B, V, R, and I bands are presented. New low-resolution spectra indicate that its spectral type is about F7 rather than B-type. A photometric analysis with the Wilson-Devinney method suggests that it is a contact binary (f = 39.3%) with a mass ratio of 0.61. Using 17 newly determined eclipse times together with those collected from the literature, we found that the observed-calculated (O - C) curve of <span class="hlt">AL</span> Cas shows a cyclic change with a period of 86.6 yr and an amplitude of 0.0181 days. The periodic variation was analyzed for the light-travel time effect via the presence of a third body. The mass of the third body was determined to be M 3sin i' = 0.29(± 0.05) M ⊙ when a total mass of 2.14 M ⊙ for <span class="hlt">AL</span> Cas is adopted. It is expected that the cool companion star may have played an important role in the origin and evolution of the <span class="hlt">system</span> by removing angular momentum from the central binary <span class="hlt">system</span> during early dynamical interaction and/or late dynamical evolution. This causes the original detached <span class="hlt">system</span> to have a low angular momentum and a short initial orbital period. Then it can evolve into the present contact configuration via a case A mass transfer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22342232','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22342232"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">AL</span> Cassiopeiae: An F-type contact binary <span class="hlt">system</span> with a cool stellar companion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Qian, S.-B.; Zhou, X.; Zhu, L.-Y.; Zhao, E.-G.; Liao, W.-P.; Zola, S.; Leung, K.-C.</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>According to the general catalog of variable stars, <span class="hlt">AL</span> Cas was classified as an EW-type eclipsing binary with a spectral type of B and an orbital period of P = 0.5005555 days. The first photometric light curves of the close binary in the B, V, R, and I bands are presented. New low-resolution spectra indicate that its spectral type is about F7 rather than B-type. A photometric analysis with the Wilson-Devinney method suggests that it is a contact binary (f = 39.3%) with a mass ratio of 0.61. Using 17 newly determined eclipse times together with those collected from the literature, we found that the observed–calculated (O – C) curve of <span class="hlt">AL</span> Cas shows a cyclic change with a period of 86.6 yr and an amplitude of 0.0181 days. The periodic variation was analyzed for the light-travel time effect via the presence of a third body. The mass of the third body was determined to be M {sub 3}sin i' = 0.29(± 0.05) M {sub ☉} when a total mass of 2.14 M {sub ☉} for <span class="hlt">AL</span> Cas is adopted. It is expected that the cool companion star may have played an important role in the origin and evolution of the <span class="hlt">system</span> by removing angular momentum from the central binary <span class="hlt">system</span> during early dynamical interaction and/or late dynamical evolution. This causes the original detached <span class="hlt">system</span> to have a low angular momentum and a short initial orbital period. Then it can evolve into the present contact configuration via a case A mass transfer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25591411','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25591411"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Primary</span> health care and public health: foundations of universal health <span class="hlt">systems</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>White, Franklin</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The aim of this review is to advocate for more integrated and universally accessible health <span class="hlt">systems</span>, built on a foundation of <span class="hlt">primary</span> health care and public health. The perspective outlined identified health <span class="hlt">systems</span> as the frame of reference, clarified terminology and examined complementary perspectives on health. It explored the prospects for universal and integrated health <span class="hlt">systems</span> from a global perspective, the role of healthy public policy in achieving population health and the value of the social-ecological model in guiding how best to align the components of an integrated health service. The importance of an ethical private sector in partnership with the public sector is recognized. Most health <span class="hlt">systems</span> around the world, still heavily focused on illness, are doing relatively little to optimize health and minimize illness burdens, especially for vulnerable groups. This failure to improve the underlying conditions for health is compounded by insufficient allocation of resources to address priority needs with equity (universality, accessibility and affordability). Finally, public health and <span class="hlt">primary</span> health care are the cornerstones of sustainable health <span class="hlt">systems</span>, and this should be reflected in the health policies and professional education <span class="hlt">systems</span> of all nations wishing to achieve a health <span class="hlt">system</span> that is effective, equitable, efficient and affordable.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/883120','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/883120"><span id="translatedtitle">INTEGRATED DRILLING <span class="hlt">SYSTEM</span> USING MUD ACTUATED DOWN HOLE HAMMER AS <span class="hlt">PRIMARY</span> ENGINE</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>John V. Fernandez; David S. Pixton</p> <p>2005-12-01</p> <p>A history and project summary of the development of an integrated drilling <span class="hlt">system</span> using a mud-actuated down-hole hammer as its <span class="hlt">primary</span> engine are given. The summary includes laboratory test results, including atmospheric tests of component parts and simulated borehole tests of the hammer <span class="hlt">system</span>. Several remaining technical hurdles are enumerated. A brief explanation of commercialization potential is included. The <span class="hlt">primary</span> conclusion for this work is that a mud actuated hammer can yield substantial improvements to drilling rate in overbalanced, hard rock formations. A secondary conclusion is that the down-hole mud actuated hammer can serve to provide other useful down-hole functions including generation of high pressure mud jets, generation of seismic and sonic signals, and generation of diagnostic information based on hammer velocity profiles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27027459','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27027459"><span id="translatedtitle">[Legislation on <span class="hlt">primary</span> care in Brazilian Unified National Health <span class="hlt">System</span>: document analysis].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Domingos, Carolina Milena; Nunes, Elisabete de Fátima Polo de Almeida; Carvalho, Brígida Gimenez; Mendonça, Fernanda de Freitas</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>A reflection on Brazil's legislation for <span class="hlt">primary</span> care helps understand the way health policy is implemented in the country. This study focuses on the legal provisions aimed at strengthening <span class="hlt">primary</span> care, drawing on an analysis of documents from the Ministry of Health's priority actions, programs, and strategies. A total of 224 provisions were identified, in two groups of documents, so-called instituting provisions and complementary provisions. The former include the principles and guidelines of the Brazilian Unified National Health <span class="hlt">System</span> (SUS) and also involve the expansion of actions. Financing was a quantitatively central theme, especially in the complementary provisions. The analysis led to reflection on the extent to which these strategies can induce linkage between health <span class="hlt">system</span> managers and civil society in building a political project resulting in improvements and meeting the population's health needs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26990358','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26990358"><span id="translatedtitle">Role of microRNAs in <span class="hlt">primary</span> central nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> lymphomas.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yu, Xin; Li, Zheng; Shen, Jianxiong; Chan, Matthew T V; Wu, William Ka Kei</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Primary</span> central nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> lymphomas (PCNSL) are extranodal non-Hodgkin lymphomas arising exclusively inside the CNS, and account for about 3% of <span class="hlt">primary</span> intracranial tumours. This tumour lacks <span class="hlt">systemic</span> manifestations and prognosis of patients with PCNSL remains poor despite recent advancement of chemoradiotherapy. MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that post-transcriptionally downregulate gene expression by binding to target mRNAs, inducing their degradation or translational repression. MicroRNAs play significant roles in almost all malignancy-related biological processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and metabolism. Many deregulated miRNAs has been identified in PCNSL but their biological significance remains to be fully elucidated. In this review, we summarize current evidence regarding the pathogenic role of PCNSL-associated microRNAs and their potential applications for diagnosis and prognostication of this deadly disease. PMID:26990358</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20594146','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20594146"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Primary</span> central nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> peripheral T-cell lymphoma in a child.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gualco, Gabriela; Wludarski, Sheila; Hayashi-Silva, Luciana; Medeiros Filho, Plinio; Veras, Geni; Bacchi, Carlos Eduardo</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>A 10-year-old Caucasian boy was admitted to the hospital with a 3-month history of headache, vomiting, ataxia, and right amaurosis. A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a solid, expansive, parasagittal mass in the right parietal hemisphere that extended sagitally to include the optical chiasm. The lesion was considered unresectable. Histology and immunophenotyping of biopsy tissue revealed characteristics of peripheral T-cell lymphoma. No other anatomical region, including bone marrow, was compromised. <span class="hlt">Primary</span> T-cell lymphomas of the central nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> are rare, especially in childhood. Here, we describe the rapidly deteriorating and fatal clinical course of a boy with a <span class="hlt">primary</span> T-cell lymphoma in the central nervous <span class="hlt">system</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27027459','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27027459"><span id="translatedtitle">[Legislation on <span class="hlt">primary</span> care in Brazilian Unified National Health <span class="hlt">System</span>: document analysis].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Domingos, Carolina Milena; Nunes, Elisabete de Fátima Polo de Almeida; Carvalho, Brígida Gimenez; Mendonça, Fernanda de Freitas</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>A reflection on Brazil's legislation for <span class="hlt">primary</span> care helps understand the way health policy is implemented in the country. This study focuses on the legal provisions aimed at strengthening <span class="hlt">primary</span> care, drawing on an analysis of documents from the Ministry of Health's priority actions, programs, and strategies. A total of 224 provisions were identified, in two groups of documents, so-called instituting provisions and complementary provisions. The former include the principles and guidelines of the Brazilian Unified National Health <span class="hlt">System</span> (SUS) and also involve the expansion of actions. Financing was a quantitatively central theme, especially in the complementary provisions. The analysis led to reflection on the extent to which these strategies can induce linkage between health <span class="hlt">system</span> managers and civil society in building a political project resulting in improvements and meeting the population's health needs. PMID:27027459</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhDT.......131D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhDT.......131D"><span id="translatedtitle">Determining Phase Stability in the Co-<span class="hlt">Al</span>-W <span class="hlt">System</span> using First Principles Methods</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dodge, Philip C.</p> <p></p> <p>Co-based superalloys are a promising new material for high strength, high temperature applications due to their gamma-gamma' microstructure. Within the Co-<span class="hlt">Al</span>-W ternary <span class="hlt">system</span>, the gamma' phase manifests as an L1 2 structure in a small temperature range. Determining the thermodynamic stability of the L12 phase relative to other phases in this <span class="hlt">system</span> is important for guiding the alloy development process. Density functional theory allows the direct calculation of free energy for these phases. The configurational energy component of the energy for the L12 structure was calculated via a cluster expansion, and the vibrational energy component for all structures was calculated in the quasiharmonic approximation. The results show that the L12 structures become stable at 600K and increase stability at higher temperatures, which has not been shown in previous work. The purpose of this thesis is both to show the encouraging research results in the Co-<span class="hlt">Al</span>-W <span class="hlt">system</span>, and also to be a useful guide for performing first principles calculations and connecting theory, VASP usage, and the utilization of the CASM code.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/143707','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/143707"><span id="translatedtitle">Nano-structured FGM of the <span class="hlt">system</span> <span class="hlt">Al</span>N-Ni</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Atarashiya, Koji; Uda, Masahiro</p> <p>1993-12-31</p> <p>A nano-structured FGM block of the <span class="hlt">system</span> <span class="hlt">Al</span>N-Ni was prepared by the method of powder metallurgy. The raw material i.e. an ultrafine particle, whose size was 200 nm in average diameter, was prepared by means of the arc-plasma processing that a vaporized substance was collected in a bag filter. A compositionally gradient mixture of a nickel ultrafine particle and an aluminum-aluminum nitride ultrafine particle was pressed (200 MPa) in a steel die, followed by two-step sintering (873K and 1273K) in flowing nitrogen under null pressure. In this process, the aluminum ultrafine particle reacted with nitrogen into aluminum nitride, but the nickel ultrafine particle did not react with any species. Thus, FGM block of the <span class="hlt">system</span> <span class="hlt">Al</span>N-Ni was completely accomplished. The techniques of an ultrafine-particle mixing and sintering without crystal-grain growth were invented. Generally speaking the preparation of FGM block especially in the metal nitride <span class="hlt">systems</span>, needs an extremely high temperature and high pressure. However, in this work using an ultrafine particle, the nano-structured FGM block was easily prepared. The nitriding reaction of aluminum is exothermic. Thus, it considerably progresses by self-propagating high temperature synthesis (SHS) when it has once begun. The structure and the compositional distributions of the FGM block were examined by SEM and EDX. The physical properties of the FGM block such as density, thermal expansion coefficient and micro harness were measured.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19780016329','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19780016329"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Primary</span> reaction control <span class="hlt">system</span>/remote manipulator <span class="hlt">system</span> interaction with loaded arm. Space shuttle engineering and operations support</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Taylor, E. C.; Davis, J. D.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>A study of the interaction between the orbiter <span class="hlt">primary</span> reaction control <span class="hlt">system</span> (PRCS) and the remote manipulator <span class="hlt">system</span> (RMS) with a loaded arm is documented. This analysis was performed with the Payload Deployment and Retrieval <span class="hlt">Systems</span> Simulation (PDRSS) program with the passive arm bending option. The passive-arm model simulates the arm as massless elastic links with locked joints. The study was divided into two parts. The first part was the evaluation of the response of the arm to step inputs (i.e. constant jet torques) about each of the orbiter body axes. The second part of the study was the evaluation of the response of the arm to minimum impulse <span class="hlt">primary</span> RCS jet firings with both single pulse and pulse train inputs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23752564','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23752564"><span id="translatedtitle">Deployment and validation of a smart <span class="hlt">system</span> for screening of language disorders in <span class="hlt">primary</span> care.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Martín-Ruiz, María Luisa; Duboy, Miguel Ángel Valero; de la Cruz, Iván Pau</p> <p>2013-06-10</p> <p>Neuro-evolutive development from birth until the age of six years is a decisive factor in a child's quality of life. Early detection of development disorders in early childhood can facilitate necessary diagnosis and/or treatment. <span class="hlt">Primary</span>-care pediatricians play a key role in its detection as they can undertake the preventive and therapeutic actions requested to promote a child's optimal development. However, the lack of time and little specific knowledge at <span class="hlt">primary</span>-care avoid to applying continuous early-detection anomalies procedures. This research paper focuses on the deployment and evaluation of a smart <span class="hlt">system</span> that enhances the screening of language disorders in <span class="hlt">primary</span> care. Pediatricians get support to proceed with early referral of language disorders. The proposed model provides them with a decision-support tool for referral actions to trigger essential diagnostic and/or therapeutic actions for a comprehensive individual development. The research was conducted by starting from a sample of 60 cases of children with language disorders. Validation was carried out through two complementary steps: first, by including a team of seven experts from the fields of neonatology, pediatrics, neurology and language therapy, and, second, through the evaluation of 21 more previously diagnosed cases. The results obtained show that therapist positively accepted the <span class="hlt">system</span> proposal in 18 cases (86%) and suggested <span class="hlt">system</span> redesign for single referral to a speech therapist in three remaining cases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22391497','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22391497"><span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of N-16 concentration in <span class="hlt">primary</span> cooling <span class="hlt">system</span> of AP1000 power reactor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Rohanda, Anis; Waris, Abdul</p> <p>2015-04-16</p> <p>Nitrogen-16 (N-16) is one of the radiation safety parameter on the <span class="hlt">primary</span> reactor <span class="hlt">system</span>. The activation product, N-16, is the predominant contributor to the activity in the reactor coolant <span class="hlt">system</span> during reactor operation. N-16 is activation product derived from activation of O-16 with fast neutron based on {sup 16}O(n,p){sup 16}N reaction. Thus study is needed and it performs to determine N-16 concentration in reactor coolant (<span class="hlt">primary</span> coolant) in supporting radiation safety. One of the way is using analytical methode based on activation and redecay princip to obtain N-16 concentration. The analysis was performed on the configuration basis and operational of Westinghouse AP1000 power reactor in several monitoring points at coolant reactor <span class="hlt">system</span>. The results of the calculation of N-16 concentration at the core outlet, reactor vessel outlet, pressurizer line, inlet and outlet of steam generators, <span class="hlt">primary</span> pumps, reactor vessels inlet and core inlet are: 281, 257, 255, 250, 145, 142, 129 and 112 µCi/gram respectively. The results of analysis compared with AP1000 design control document as standard values. The verification showed very high accuracy comparation between analytical results and standard values.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3715251','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3715251"><span id="translatedtitle">Deployment and Validation of a Smart <span class="hlt">System</span> for Screening of Language Disorders in <span class="hlt">Primary</span> Care</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Martín-Ruiz, María Luisa; Duboy, Miguel Ángel Valero; de la Cruz, Iván Pau</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Neuro-evolutive development from birth until the age of six years is a decisive factor in a child's quality of life. Early detection of development disorders in early childhood can facilitate necessary diagnosis and/or treatment. <span class="hlt">Primary</span>-care pediatricians play a key role in its detection as they can undertake the preventive and therapeutic actions requested to promote a child's optimal development. However, the lack of time and little specific knowledge at <span class="hlt">primary</span>-care avoid to applying continuous early-detection anomalies procedures. This research paper focuses on the deployment and evaluation of a smart <span class="hlt">system</span> that enhances the screening of language disorders in <span class="hlt">primary</span> care. Pediatricians get support to proceed with early referral of language disorders. The proposed model provides them with a decision-support tool for referral actions to trigger essential diagnostic and/or therapeutic actions for a comprehensive individual development. The research was conducted by starting from a sample of 60 cases of children with language disorders. Validation was carried out through two complementary steps: first, by including a team of seven experts from the fields of neonatology, pediatrics, neurology and language therapy, and, second, through the evaluation of 21 more previously diagnosed cases. The results obtained show that therapist positively accepted the <span class="hlt">system</span> proposal in 18 cases (86%) and suggested <span class="hlt">system</span> redesign for single referral to a speech therapist in three remaining cases. PMID:23752564</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AIPC.1656f0012R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AIPC.1656f0012R"><span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of N-16 concentration in <span class="hlt">primary</span> cooling <span class="hlt">system</span> of AP1000 power reactor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rohanda, Anis; Waris, Abdul</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Nitrogen-16 (N-16) is one of the radiation safety parameter on the <span class="hlt">primary</span> reactor <span class="hlt">system</span>. The activation product, N-16, is the predominant contributor to the activity in the reactor coolant <span class="hlt">system</span> during reactor operation. N-16 is activation product derived from activation of O-16 with fast neutron based on 16O(n,p)16N reaction. Thus study is needed and it performs to determine N-16 concentration in reactor coolant (<span class="hlt">primary</span> coolant) in supporting radiation safety. One of the way is using analytical methode based on activation and redecay princip to obtain N-16 concentration. The analysis was performed on the configuration basis and operational of Westinghouse AP1000 power reactor in several monitoring points at coolant reactor <span class="hlt">system</span>. The results of the calculation of N-16 concentration at the core outlet, reactor vessel outlet, pressurizer line, inlet and outlet of steam generators, <span class="hlt">primary</span> pumps, reactor vessels inlet and core inlet are: 281, 257, 255, 250, 145, 142, 129 and 112 µCi/gram respectively. The results of analysis compared with AP1000 design control document as standard values. The verification showed very high accuracy comparation between analytical results and standard values.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25714248','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25714248"><span id="translatedtitle">Breast cancer brain metastases responding to lapatinib plus capecitabine as second-line <span class="hlt">primary</span> <span class="hlt">systemic</span> therapy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bergen, Elisabeth S; Berghoff, Anna S; Rudas, Margaretha; Preusser, Matthias; Bartsch, Rupert</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Brain metastases (BM) are diagnosed in up to 40% of HER2-positive breast cancer patients. Standard treatment includes local approaches such as whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT), radiosurgery, and neurosurgery. The landscape trial established <span class="hlt">primary</span> <span class="hlt">systemic</span> therapy as an effective and safe alternative to WBRT in selected patients with Her2-positive BM. We aim to further focus on the role of <span class="hlt">systemic</span> therapy in oligosymptomatic patients by presenting this case report. We report on a 50-year-old patient diagnosed with multiple BM 5 years after early breast cancer diagnosis. As the patient was asymptomatic and had a favorable diagnosis-specific GPA score, she received <span class="hlt">primary</span> <span class="hlt">systemic</span> treatment with T-DM1. She achieved partial remission within the brain for eight treatment cycles and then progressed despite stable extracranial disease. As the patient remained asymptomatic and refused WBRT, we decided upon trastuzumab, lapatinib plus capecitabine as second-line therapy. Another partial remission of BM was observed; to date, she has received 11 treatment cycles without any sign of disease progression. In this case, WBRT was delayed by at least 14 months, again indicating the activity of <span class="hlt">systemic</span> treatment in BM. Apparently, in selected patients, BM can be controlled with multiple lines of <span class="hlt">systemic</span> therapy similar to extracranial disease. Further investigation of <span class="hlt">systemic</span> treatment approaches is therefore warranted.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1164045','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1164045"><span id="translatedtitle">Solution-based thermodynamic modeling of the Ni-<span class="hlt">Al</span>-Mo <span class="hlt">system</span> using first-principles calculations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Zhou, S H; Wang, Y; Chen, L -Q; Liu, Z -K; Napolitano, R E</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>A solution-based thermodynamic description of the ternary Ni–Al–Mo <span class="hlt">system</span> is developed here, incorporating first-principles calculations and reported modeling of the binary Ni–<span class="hlt">Al</span>, Ni–Mo and Al–Mo <span class="hlt">systems</span>. To search for the configurations with the lowest energies of the N phase, the Alloy Theoretic Automated Toolkit (ATAT) was employed and combined with VASP. The liquid, bcc and γ-fcc phases are modeled as random atomic solutions, and the γ'-Ni3<span class="hlt">Al</span> phase is modeled by describing the ordering within the fcc structure using two sublattices, summarized as (<span class="hlt">Al</span>,Mo,Ni)0.75(<span class="hlt">Al</span>,Mo,Ni)0.25. Thus, γ-fcc and γ'-Ni3<span class="hlt">Al</span> are modeled with a single Gibbs free energy function with appropriate treatment of the chemical ordering contribution. In addition, notable improvements are the following: first, the ternary effects of Mo and <span class="hlt">Al</span> in the B2-Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> and D0a-Ni3Mo phases, respectively, are considered; second, the N-Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span>8Mo3 phase is described as a solid solution using a three-sublattice model; third, the X-Ni14<span class="hlt">Al</span>75Mo11 phase is treated as a stoichiometric compound. Model parameters are evaluated using first-principles calculations of zero-Kelvin formation enthalpies and reported experimental data. In comparison with the enthalpies of formation for the compounds ψ-<span class="hlt">Al</span>Mo, θ-<span class="hlt">Al</span>8Mo3 and B2-Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span>, the first-principles results indicate that the N-Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span>8Mo3 phase, which is stable at high temperatures, decomposes into other phases at low temperature. Resulting phase equilibria are summarized in the form of isothermal sections and liquidus projections. To clearly identify the relationship between the γ-fcc and γ'-Ni3<span class="hlt">Al</span> phases in the ternary Ni–Al–Mo <span class="hlt">system</span>, the specific γ-fcc and γ'-Ni3<span class="hlt">Al</span> phase fields are plotted in x(<span class="hlt">Al</span>)–x(Mo)–T space for a temperature range 1200–1800 K.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApSS..355..930S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApSS..355..930S"><span id="translatedtitle">Influence of SiC surface polarity on the wettability and reactivity in an <span class="hlt">Al</span>/SiC <span class="hlt">system</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shen, Ping; Wang, Yi; Ren, Lihua; Li, Shixin; Liu, Yuhua; Jiang, Qichuan</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>The wetting of (0 0 0 1) 6H-SiC single crystals by molten <span class="hlt">Al</span> was investigated using a dispensed sessile drop method in a high vacuum at 973-1173 K. The wettability and reactivity in this <span class="hlt">system</span> are sensitive to the surface polarity of SiC. The interfacial reaction on the Si-terminated surface is rapid. The formation of a continuous <span class="hlt">Al</span>4C3 product layer at the interface leads to an equilibrium contact angle of 56 ± 1° at 1173 K. In comparison, the interfacial reaction on the C-terminated surface is sluggish. The interface is only partially covered by discrete <span class="hlt">Al</span>4C3 platelets even after dwelling at 1173 K for 2 h. The final wettability, however, is much better (θF = 41 ± 1°) than that of the Si-terminated surface which was covered by a dense <span class="hlt">Al</span>4C3 layer, suggesting that the formation of <span class="hlt">Al</span>4C3 should not always contribute to the wetting in the <span class="hlt">Al</span>/SiC <span class="hlt">system</span>. A plausible explanation is that the clean (i.e., deoxidized) C-terminated surface should be well wetted by molten <span class="hlt">Al</span> in nature, owing to the strong chemical interactions between liquid <span class="hlt">Al</span> and the surface atoms of the C-terminated SiC. It is likely that the presence of the oxide film at the surface of the molten <span class="hlt">Al</span> drop or the SiC substrate and the rapid formation of <span class="hlt">Al</span>4C3, which prevent the establishment of a real <span class="hlt">Al</span>/SiC interface, conceal the intrinsic wettability of this <span class="hlt">system</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26720646','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26720646"><span id="translatedtitle">Propagation Properties of the Precipitation Band in an <span class="hlt">Al</span>Cl₃/NaOH <span class="hlt">System</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ban, Takahiko; Nagatsu, Yuichiro; Tokuyama, Hideaki</p> <p>2016-01-19</p> <p>When inherently immobile solid particles collectively form precipitates in a reaction-diffusion <span class="hlt">system</span> involving a redissolution reaction, a propagation phenomenon may occur in which a dynamic pattern of precipitation bands forms. This propagating precipitation phenomenon has been studied by many researchers. However, two completely different processes-i.e., the reaction-diffusion of reactants and the crystal growth of products-progress simultaneously in the <span class="hlt">system</span>, thereby rendering the phenomenon complex. There are no well-established experimental laws for this propagating precipitation phenomenon, such as the spacing, time, and width laws associated with the well-known Liesegang phenomenon, which is static in the sense that precipitation bands form and remain at the same position. In fact, it has not been clarified which of the processes controls the propagation phenomenon. Accordingly, we have investigated the apparent diffusion coefficient associated with the dynamics of propagating precipitation band in an <span class="hlt">Al</span>Cl3/NaOH <span class="hlt">system</span> for the case in which a large excess of outer electrolytes (i.e., OH(-)) diffuses into gel in which inner electrolytes (i.e.,<span class="hlt">Al</span>(3+)) are homogeneously distributed. An isolated precipitation band of <span class="hlt">Al</span>(OH)3 was formed horizontally in a test tube and propagated vertically in proportion to the square root of time. In our experimental results, we found that the apparent diffusion coefficient, D(p), possesses an exponential dependence on the initial concentrations of the outer electrolyte, and the inner electrolyte; the measured relation was D(p) = D[<span class="hlt">Al</span>(3+)](-0.6)[OH(-)](0.6), where D = (0.63 ± 0.04) × 10(5) cm(2)/s. From our model equations based on the prenucleation theory, which take into account a redissolution reaction, we found that the dynamics of the reaction front of the outer and the inner electrolytes was an important factor in controlling the propagation of the precipitation band. In our simulation results, we obtained a similar</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/926171','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/926171"><span id="translatedtitle">Cooperative Research and Development of <span class="hlt">Primary</span> Surface Recuperator for Advanced Microturbine <span class="hlt">Systems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Escola, George</p> <p>2007-01-17</p> <p>Recuperators have been identified as key components of advanced gas turbines <span class="hlt">systems</span> that achieve a measure of improvement in operating efficiency and lead the field in achieving very low emissions. Every gas turbine manufacturer that is studying, developing, or commercializing advanced recuperated gas turbine cycles requests that recuperators operate at higher temperature without a reduction in design life and must cost less. The Solar Cooperative Research and Development of <span class="hlt">Primary</span> Surface Recuperator for Advanced Microturbine <span class="hlt">Systems</span> Program is directed towards meeting the future requirements of advanced gas turbine <span class="hlt">systems</span> by the following: (1) The development of advanced alloys that will allow recuperator inlet exhaust gas temperatures to increase without significant cost increase. (2) Further characterization of the creep and oxidation (dry and humid air) properties of nickel alloy foils (less than 0.13 mm thick) to allow the economical use of these materials. (3) Increasing the use of advanced robotic <span class="hlt">systems</span> and advanced in-process statistical measurement <span class="hlt">systems</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19850019660','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19850019660"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Primary</span> propulsion of electrothermal, ion and chemical <span class="hlt">systems</span> for space-based radar orbit transfer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wang, S. Y.; Staiger, P. J.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>An orbit transfer mission concept has been studied for a Space-Based Radar (SBR) where 40 kW required for radar operation is assumed available for orbit transfer propulsion. Arcjet, pulsed electrothermal (PET), ion, and storable chemical <span class="hlt">systems</span> are considered for the <span class="hlt">primary</span> propulsion. Transferring two SBR per shuttle flight to 1112 km/60 deg using electrical propulsion <span class="hlt">systems</span> offers an increased payload at the expense of increased trip time, up to 2000 kg each, which may be critical for survivability. Trade offs between payload mass, transfer time, launch site, inclination, and height of parking orbits are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860029693&hterms=pet&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dpet','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860029693&hterms=pet&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dpet"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Primary</span> propulsion of electrothermal, ion, and chemical <span class="hlt">systems</span> for space-based radar orbit transfer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wang, S.-Y.; Staiger, P. J.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>An orbit transfer mission concept has been studied for a Space-Based Radar (SBR) where 40 kW required for radar operation is assumed available for orbit transfer propulsion. Arcjet, pulsed electrothermal (PET), ion, and storable chemical <span class="hlt">systems</span> are considered for the <span class="hlt">primary</span> propulsion. Transferring two SBR per shuttle flight to 1112 km/60 deg using eiectrical propulsion <span class="hlt">systems</span> offers an increased payload at the expense of increased trip time, up to 2000 kg each, which may be critical for survivability. Trade offs between payload mass, transfer time, launch site, inclination, and height of parking orbits are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920041145&hterms=ALS&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DALS','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920041145&hterms=ALS&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DALS"><span id="translatedtitle">Aerodynamics of the advanced launch <span class="hlt">system</span> (<span class="hlt">ALS</span>) propulsion and avionics (P/A) module</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ferguson, Stan; Savage, Dick</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>This paper discusses the design and testing of candidate Advanced Launch <span class="hlt">System</span> (<span class="hlt">ALS</span>) Propulsion and Avionics (P/A) Module configurations. The P/A Module is a key element of future launch <span class="hlt">systems</span> because it is essential to the recovery and reuse of high-value propulsion and avionics hardware. The <span class="hlt">ALS</span> approach involves landing of first stage (booster) and/or second stage (core) P/A modules near the launch site to minimize logistics and refurbishment cost. The key issue addressed herein is the aerodynamic design of the P/A module, including the stability characteristics and the lift-to-drag (L/D) performance required to achieve the necessary landing guidance accuracy. The reference P/A module configuration was found to be statically stable for the desired flight regime, to provide adequate L/D for targeting, and to have effective modulation of the L/D performance using a body flap. The hypersonic aerodynamic trends for nose corner radius, boattail angle and body flap deflections were consistent with pretest predictions. However, the levels for the L/D and axial force for hypersonic Mach numbers were overpredicted by impact theories.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1986SPIE..619..176D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1986SPIE..619..176D"><span id="translatedtitle">Design Of A Support <span class="hlt">System</span> For The <span class="hlt">Primary</span> Mirror Of A Cryogenic Space Telescope</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>DiTolla, Robert; Richard, Ralph M.; Vukobratovich, Daniel</p> <p>1986-07-01</p> <p>The finite element method was used for the structural design of the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) <span class="hlt">primary</span> mirror and its support <span class="hlt">system</span> in a cryogenic environment similar to space-shuttle cargo-bay launch conditions. Shuttle loads were specified by power spectral density functions (PSDF) obtained from previous shuttle launches. The <span class="hlt">primary</span> goal in the development of a design to withstand this random loading was to ensure the structural integrity of the support <span class="hlt">system</span>, which comprised an aluminum baseplate and three titanium flexures. This design was an extension of a support <span class="hlt">system</span> previously developed for cryogenic static effects only. The displacements and stresses of the support <span class="hlt">system</span> are greatly affected by the damping characteristics of the flexures, which are very difficult to quantify. A parametric study illustrates the behavior of the <span class="hlt">system</span> over the range of the estimated damping values. Recommendations and techniques for modeling this type of structure are presented. The methods and approaches used in the analysis and the effect of model refinement upon solution accuracy are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008SPIE.7018E..4CA','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008SPIE.7018E..4CA"><span id="translatedtitle">The Large Binocular Telescope <span class="hlt">primary</span> mirror support control <span class="hlt">system</span> description and current performance results</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ashby, David S.; Kern, Jonathan; Hill, John M.; Davison, Warren B.; Cuerden, Brian; Brynnel, Joar G.; Biddick, Chris; Duffek, Kenneth</p> <p>2008-07-01</p> <p>The Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) is built around two lightweight borosilicate honeycomb mirrors which, at 8.4 meters in diameter, are the largest operational examples of this technology. Since the mirrors are relatively stiff, the LBT mirror support <span class="hlt">system</span> relies on passive position control and active force control. Passive position control is performed by six extendable hardpoints organized as a truncated hexapod, which may be positioned as required by the active optics control loop. The hardpoints rely on their axial stiffness to maintain the mirror position against residual external disturbances. The active force control <span class="hlt">system</span> minimizes the force exerted by the hardpoints on the glass. Additionally, the axial component of the nominally uniform active support forces can be perturbed to distort the mirror as required by the active optics control loop. Because of the relatively large CTE of borosilicate glass, the differential temperature of the mirror is critical. Thus, the force control <span class="hlt">system</span> must support a 16 metric ton mirror using less than 100 Watts of electrical power. The authors present a description of the <span class="hlt">primary</span> mirror support <span class="hlt">system</span> as implemented at the LBT. Initial stability problems made the mirrors nearly unusable in freezing temperatures. The authors explain the reason for this instability and describe the solutions implemented. Data demonstrating the current performance of the <span class="hlt">primary</span> mirror support <span class="hlt">system</span> are also presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ISPAnIII3..233W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ISPAnIII3..233W"><span id="translatedtitle">Uls LiDAR Supported Analyses of Laser Beam Penetration from Different <span class="hlt">ALS</span> <span class="hlt">Systems</span> Into Vegetation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wieser, M.; Hollaus, M.; Mandlburger, G.; Glira, P.; Pfeifer, N.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>This study analyses the underestimation of tree and shrub heights for different airborne laser scanner <span class="hlt">systems</span> and point cloud distribution within the vegetation column. Reference data was produced by a novel UAV-borne laser scanning (ULS) with a high point density in the complete vegetation column. With its physical parameters (e.g. footprint) and its relative accuracy within the block as stated in Section 2.2 the reference data is supposed to be highly suitable to detect the highest point of the vegetation. An airborne topographic (<span class="hlt">ALS</span>) and topo-bathymetric (ALB) <span class="hlt">system</span> were investigated. All data was collected in a period of one month in leaf-off condition, while the dominant tree species in the study area are deciduous trees. By robustly estimating the highest 3d vegetation point of each laser <span class="hlt">system</span> the underestimation of the vegetation height was examined in respect to the ULS reference data. This resulted in a higher under-estimation of the airborne topographic <span class="hlt">system</span> with 0.60 m (trees) and 0.55 m (shrubs) than for the topo-bathymetric <span class="hlt">system</span> 0.30 m (trees) and 0.40 m (shrubs). The degree of the underestimation depends on structural characteristics of the vegetation itself and physical specification of the laser <span class="hlt">system</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JApSp..78..445I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JApSp..78..445I"><span id="translatedtitle">Selective modulation of infrared radiation by an <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 particles — liquid crystal <span class="hlt">system</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ibragimov, T. D.; Allakhverdiev, E. A.; Bairamov, G. M.; Imamaliev, A. R.</p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>We have developed a dual-frequency liquid crystal consisting of 4-n-pentyl-4'-cyanobiphenyl (5CB), 4-hexyloxyphenyl-4'-hexyloxy-3-nitrobenzoate (C2), and 4-butyl-4'-(hexyloxyphenyloxycarbonyl)phenyl carbonate (H22). We have measured the frequency dependences of the longitudinal and transverse components of the dielectric constant of the mixture and we have determined the frequency regions of positive and negative dielectric anisotropy. We show that for certain changes in the frequency of the applied electric field while the magnitude of the field remains the same, the transmission region of the <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 particles — dual-frequency liquid crystal <span class="hlt">system</span> switches from one wavelength to the other. The experimental results are explained by the optical homogeneity of the <span class="hlt">system</span> in a narrow wavelength interval when the refractive indices of the particle material and the matrix are close, and also by reorientation of the liquid crystal molecules as the frequency of the applied voltage changes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008SPIE.7012E..1FC','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008SPIE.7012E..1FC"><span id="translatedtitle">Design of the <span class="hlt">primary</span> mirror segment support <span class="hlt">system</span> for the E-ELT</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cavaller, Lluis; Marrero, Juan; Castro, Javier; Morante, Esteban; Ronquillo, Mariano; Hernández, Elvio</p> <p>2008-07-01</p> <p>The European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) is a 42-m class optical telescope with a segmented <span class="hlt">primary</span> mirror composed of 984 segments which is currently being studied by ESO (European Southern Observatory). The segment support <span class="hlt">system</span> combines a series of mechanical whiffletrees for the axial support, a central diaphragm for lateral support and a torsional constrainer. These elements are fixed to a common moving frame which is actively moved by means of three actuators in piston and tip-tilt in order to keep the whole <span class="hlt">primary</span> mirror in phase. The moving frame is fixed to the segments subcells, which properly attach the segments to the cell structure, by means of special flexures, allowing large axial alignment capability combined with high lateral stiffness. This paper describes the development of the support <span class="hlt">system</span> for the <span class="hlt">primary</span> mirror segments of the E-ELT, which has been specified for a high stiffness and eigenfrequencies, 60Hz for axial modes and 40Hz for lateral ones.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27334878','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27334878"><span id="translatedtitle">Lab on a chip-based hepatic sinusoidal <span class="hlt">system</span> simulator for optimal <span class="hlt">primary</span> hepatocyte culture.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Choi, Yoon Young; Kim, Jaehyung; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Kim, Dong-Sik</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Primary</span> hepatocyte cultures have been used in studies on liver disease, physiology, and pharmacology. While they are an important tool for in vitro liver studies, maintaining liver-specific characteristics of hepatocytes in vitro is difficult, as these cells rapidly lose their unique characteristics and functions. Portal flow is an important condition to preserve <span class="hlt">primary</span> hepatocyte functions and liver regeneration in vivo. We have developed a microfluidic chip that does not require bulky peripheral devices or an external power source to investigate the relationship between hepatocyte functional maintenance and flow rates. In our culture <span class="hlt">system</span>, two types of microfluidic devices were used as scaffolds: a monolayer- and a concave chamber-based device. Under flow conditions, our chips improved albumin and urea secretion rates after 13 days compared to that of the static chips. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction demonstrated that hepatocyte-specific gene expression was significantly higher at 13 days under flow conditions than when using static chips. For both two-dimensional and three-dimensional culture on the chips, flow resulted in the best performance of the hepatocyte culture in vitro. We demonstrated that flow improves the viability and efficiency of long-term culture of <span class="hlt">primary</span> hepatocytes and plays a key role in hepatocyte function. These results suggest that this flow <span class="hlt">system</span> has the potential for long-term hepatocyte cultures as well as a technique for three-dimensional culture. PMID:27334878</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21743938','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21743938"><span id="translatedtitle">A microfluidic <span class="hlt">system</span> to study cytoadhesion of Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes to <span class="hlt">primary</span> brain microvascularendothelial cells.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Herricks, Thurston; Seydel, Karl B; Turner, George; Molyneux, Malcolm; Heyderman, Robert; Taylor, Terrie; Rathod, Pradipsinh K</p> <p>2011-09-01</p> <p>The cellular events leading to severe and complicated malaria in some Plasmodium falciparum infections are poorly understood. Additional tools are required to better understand the pathogenesis of this disease. In this technical report, we describe a microfluidic culture <span class="hlt">system</span> and image processing algorithms that were developed to observe cytoadhesion interactions of P. falciparum parasitized erythrocytes rolling on <span class="hlt">primary</span> brain microvascularendothelial cells. We isolated and cultured human <span class="hlt">primary</span> microvascular brain endothelial cells in a closed loop microfluidic culture <span class="hlt">system</span> where a peristaltic pump and media reservoirs were integrated onto a microscope stage insert. We developed image processing methods to enhance contrast of rolling parasitized erythrocytes on endothelial cells and to estimate the local wall shear stress. The velocity of parasitized erythrocytes rolling on <span class="hlt">primary</span> brain microvascularendothelial cells was then measured under physiologically relevant wall shear stresses. Finally, we deployed this method successfully at a field site in Blantyre, Malawi. The method is a promising new tool for the investigation of the pathogenesis of severe malaria.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21370547','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21370547"><span id="translatedtitle">Thermal transformation of quaternary compounds in NaF-CaF{sub 2}-<span class="hlt">Al</span>F{sub 3} <span class="hlt">system</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Zaitseva, Julia N.; Yakimov, Igor S.; Kirik, Sergei D.</p> <p>2009-08-15</p> <p>Details of quaternary compounds formation in the <span class="hlt">system</span> NaF-CaF{sub 2}-<span class="hlt">Al</span>F{sub 3} are specified. To achieve this aim, the samples of phases NaCa<span class="hlt">Al</span>F{sub 6} and Na{sub 2}Ca{sub 3}<span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 2}F{sub 14} have been obtained by high-temperature solid-phase synthesis. Their thermal behavior when heated up to 800 deg. C has been studied using the methods of high-temperature X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermal analysis (TA). The <span class="hlt">system</span> under consideration can be regarded as a quasibinary section CaF{sub 2}-Na<span class="hlt">Al</span>F{sub 4}, where at T=745-750 deg. C invariant equilibrium is implemented with the phases CaF{sub 2}-NaCa<span class="hlt">Al</span>F{sub 6}-Na{sub 2}Ca{sub 3}<span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 2}F{sub 14}-(liquid melt)-(Na<span class="hlt">Al</span>F{sub 4}). The peculiarity of the equilibrium is Na<span class="hlt">Al</span>F{sub 4} metastability at normal pressure. Below the equilibrium temperature the quaternary phase Na{sub 2}Ca{sub 3}<span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 2}F{sub 14} is stable and NaCa<span class="hlt">Al</span>F{sub 6} above this temperature. The phase NaCa<span class="hlt">Al</span>F{sub 6} fixed by rapid quenching from high temperatures and when heated up to 640 deg. C decomposes, yielding Na{sub 2}Ca{sub 3}<span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 2}F{sub 14}. Further heating in vacuum at temperature up to 740 deg. C results in decomposition of Na{sub 2}Ca{sub 3}<span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 2}F{sub 14} into CaF{sub 2} and Na{sub 3}<span class="hlt">Al</span>F{sub 6}. The expected reverse transformation of Na{sub 2}Ca{sub 3}<span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 2}F{sub 14} into NaCa<span class="hlt">Al</span>F{sub 6} has not been observed under experimental conditions. Transformations in bulk samples reveal direct and reverse transformation of quaternary phases. Synopsis: Thermal transformation of the quaternary compounds in <span class="hlt">system</span> (NaF-CaF{sub 2}-<span class="hlt">Al</span>F{sub 3}) was investigated using high-temperature X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermal analysis (TA). In the <span class="hlt">system</span> the invariant equilibrium is implemented with the phases CaF{sub 2}-NaCa<span class="hlt">Al</span>F{sub 6}-Na{sub 2}Ca{sub 3}<span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 2}F{sub 14}-(liquid melt)-(Na<span class="hlt">Al</span>F{sub 4}) at T=745-750 deg. C. - Graphical Abstract: The paper concerns of a small piece of the ternary <span class="hlt">system</span> (NaF-CaF{sub 2}-<span class="hlt">Al</span>F{sub 3}) which is very important for</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27681406','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27681406"><span id="translatedtitle">C-shaped mandibular <span class="hlt">primary</span> first molar diagnosed with cone beam computed tomography: A novel case report and literature review of <span class="hlt">primary</span> molars' root canal <span class="hlt">systems</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ozcan, Gozde; Sekerci, Ahmet Ercan; Kocoglu, Fatma</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Knowledge of the different anatomical variations in root canal <span class="hlt">system</span> of dedicious dentition will improve the practice of the pediatric dentists. The teeth with C-shaped root canal configurations are definitely a problem in endodontic treatment. Dentists who are specialists of endodontics must have adequate knowledge about various root canal morphologies of <span class="hlt">primary</span> tooth that have a tendency for rapid progression of dental caries to achieve a technically satisfactory outcome. This report presents an extraordinary case of unusual tooth morphology involving the mandibular first <span class="hlt">primary</span> molar with a C-shaped configuration which has not yet been reported. PMID:27681406</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890030008&hterms=Mn&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DMn','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890030008&hterms=Mn&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DMn"><span id="translatedtitle">Iron-base superalloys - A phase analysis of the multicomponent <span class="hlt">system</span> (Fe-Mn-Cr-Mo-Nb-<span class="hlt">Al</span>-Si-C)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Gupta, H.; Nowotny, H.; Lemkey, F. D.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>In the course of studies on the iron-rich multicomponent <span class="hlt">system</span> Fe-Mn-Cr-Mo-Nb-<span class="hlt">Al</span>-Si-C, work was concentrated on pertinent quinary and six-component combinations namely Fe-Mn-<span class="hlt">Al</span>-Si-C, Fe-Cr-<span class="hlt">Al</span>-Si-C and Fe-Mn-Cr-<span class="hlt">Al</span>-Si-C which had been elaborated at 65, 72, and 80 wt pct Fe. Manganese acts as a strong stabilizer for the cementite carbide. Chromium seems to stabilize the iron aluminide Fe2<span class="hlt">Al</span>5 which forms in a considerable amount within an alloy of nominal composition Fe(65)Mn(15)Cr(12)<span class="hlt">Al</span>(5)Si(2)C(1) (percent by weight). Although the Mn3<span class="hlt">Al</span>C carbide is, like Fe3<span class="hlt">Al</span>C, a perovskite carbide, manganese does not appear to favor the formation of the perovskite carbide. Because of the relatively low sintering temperature (700 C), for <span class="hlt">al</span> large portion of the samples equilibria conditions are not always reached.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3215502','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3215502"><span id="translatedtitle">Colon Targeted Drug Delivery <span class="hlt">Systems</span>: A Review on <span class="hlt">Primary</span> and Novel Approaches</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Philip, Anil K.; Philip, Betty</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The colon is a site where both local and <span class="hlt">systemic</span> delivery of drugs can take place. Local delivery allows topical treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. However, treatment can be made effective if the drugs can be targeted directly into the colon, thereby reducing the <span class="hlt">systemic</span> side effects. This review, mainly compares the <span class="hlt">primary</span> approaches for CDDS (Colon Specific Drug Delivery) namely prodrugs, pH and time dependent <span class="hlt">systems</span>, and microbially triggered <span class="hlt">systems</span>, which achieved limited success and had limitations as compared with newer CDDS namely pressure controlled colonic delivery capsules, CODESTM, and osmotic controlled drug delivery which are unique in terms of achieving in vivo site specificity, and feasibility of manufacturing process. PMID:22125706</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992jpnt.confTW...M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992jpnt.confTW...M"><span id="translatedtitle">Design and testing of the U.S. Space Station Freedom <span class="hlt">primary</span> propulsion <span class="hlt">system</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Morano, Joseph S.; Delventhal, Rex A.; Chilcot, Kimberly J.</p> <p>1992-07-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">primary</span> propulsion <span class="hlt">system</span> (PPS) for the Space Station Freedom is discussed in terms of salient design characteristics and key testing procedures. The rocket engine modules contain reboost and attitude control thrusters, and their designs are illustrated showing the mounting structures, thruster solenoid valves, and thrust chambers. The propellant tank assembly for storing gaseous N pressurant and hydrazine propellant is described as are the <span class="hlt">system</span> avionics, thruster solenoid valves, and latching isolation valves. PPS testing conducted on the development <span class="hlt">systems</span> includes the use of a propulsion-module development unit, a development test article, and <span class="hlt">system</span> qualification testing. Specific test articles include functional heaters, mass/thermal simulated components, flight-quality structures, and software control operations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25056402','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25056402"><span id="translatedtitle">Frequent involvement of central nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> in <span class="hlt">primary</span> Sjögren syndrome.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Moreira, Isabel; Teixeira, Filipa; Martins Silva, Ana; Vasconcelos, Carlos; Farinha, Fátima; Santos, Ernestina</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Primary</span> Sjögren syndrome (pSS) is a <span class="hlt">systemic</span> autoimmune disease characterized by lymphocytic infiltration of the salivary and tear glands, and autoantibody secretion, in the absence of other <span class="hlt">systemic</span> autoimmune disorder. Among autoimmune diseases, it is a relatively common disease, but the burden of central nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> (CNS) involvement is controversial. This retrospective study evaluates the prevalence, clinical patterns and outcomes of CNS involvement in a cohort of patients with <span class="hlt">primary</span> Sjögren syndrome. We evaluated 93 patients with pSS diagnosed according to American-European Consensus Group criteria. Fourteen patients (15.1 %) had CNS involvement. All were women with an average age of onset of the disease of 42.1 ± 14.7 years (average ± SD) and an average age of onset of neurological involvement of 47.29 ± 16 years. Three had parkinsonian syndrome, two epilepsy, two motor and sensory deficits, two headache with brain magnetic resonance abnormalities, two neuromyelitis optica, two chronic progressive myelitis and one aseptic meningitis. Neurological involvement preceded Sjögren syndrome diagnosis in nine of the patients (64 %), and neurological outcome was good in 11 patients (78.6 %). Central nervous involvement was not as rare as expected, and the frequency was similar to the frequency of peripheral nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> involvement. In half of the patients, this was the first symptom of the disease, emphasizing the importance of considering this diagnosis, especially in young female with neurological symptoms without other evident cause.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011MMTB...42..978Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011MMTB...42..978Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of Sulfur on Liquidus Temperatures in the ZnO-"FeO"-<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3-CaO-SiO2-S <span class="hlt">System</span> in Equilibrium with Metallic Iron</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhao, Baojun; Hayes, Peter C.; Jak, Evgueni</p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>The phase equilibria in the ZnO-"FeO"-<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3-CaO-SiO2-S <span class="hlt">system</span> have been determined experimentally in equilibrium with metallic iron. A pseudoternary section of the form ZnO-"FeO"-(<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3+CaO+SiO2) for CaO/SiO2 = 0.71 (weight), (CaO+SiO2)/<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 = 5.0 (weight), and fixed 2.0 wt pct S concentration has been constructed. It was found that the addition of 2.0 wt pct S to the liquid extends the spinel <span class="hlt">primary</span> phase field significantly and decreases the size of the wustite <span class="hlt">primary</span> phase field. The liquidus temperature in the wustite <span class="hlt">primary</span> phase field is decreased by approximately 80 K and the liquidus temperature in the spinel <span class="hlt">primary</span> phase field is decreased by approximately 10 K with addition of 2.0 wt pct S in the composition range investigated. It was also found that iron-zinc sulfides are present in some samples in the spinel <span class="hlt">primary</span> phase field, which are matte appearing at low zinc concentrations and sphalerite (Zn,Fe)S at higher zinc concentrations. The presence of sulfur in the slag has a minor effect on the partitioning of ZnO between the wustite and liquid phases but no effect on the partitioning of ZnO between the spinel and liquid phases.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-06-15/pdf/2011-14628.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-06-15/pdf/2011-14628.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">76 FR 35017 - United States et <span class="hlt">al</span>. v. United Regional Health Care <span class="hlt">System</span>; Public Comments and Response on...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-06-15</p> <p>... Antitrust Division United States et <span class="hlt">al</span>. v. United Regional Health Care <span class="hlt">System</span>; Public Comments and Response... States and State of Texas v. United Regional Health Care <span class="hlt">System</span>, Civil Action No. 7:11-cv- 00030-0, which.... United Regional Health Care <span class="hlt">System</span>, Defendant. Case No.: 7:11-cv-00030 Response Of Plaintiff...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1980GeCoA..44.1409N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1980GeCoA..44.1409N"><span id="translatedtitle">Thermochemistry of glasses and liquids in the <span class="hlt">systems</span> CaMgSi 2O 6-Ca<span class="hlt">Al</span> 2Si 2O 8-Na<span class="hlt">Al</span>Si 3O 8, SiO 2-Ca<span class="hlt">Al</span> 2Si 2O 8-Na<span class="hlt">Al</span>Si 3O 8 and SiO 2-<span class="hlt">Al</span> 2O 3-CaO-Na 2O</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Navrotsky, A.; Hon, R.; Weill, D. F.; Henry, D. J.</p> <p>1980-10-01</p> <p>Enthalpies of solution in 2PbO· B 2O 3 at 712°C have been measured for glasses in the <span class="hlt">systems</span> albite anorthite diopside, Na<span class="hlt">Al</span>O 2-SiO 2, Ca 0.5<span class="hlt">Al</span>O 2-SiO 2 and albite-anorthite-quartz. The <span class="hlt">systems</span> albite-anorthite and diopside-anorthite show substantial negative enthalpies of mixing, albite-diopside shows significant positive heats of mixing. For compositions up to Na<span class="hlt">Al</span>O2 = 0.42 (which includes the subsystem albite-silica) the <span class="hlt">system</span> Na<span class="hlt">Al</span>O 2-SiO 2 shows essentially zero heats of mixing. A negative ternary excess heat of mixing is found in the plagioclase-rich portion of the albite-anorthite-diopside <span class="hlt">system</span>. The join Si 4O 8-Ca<span class="hlt">Al</span> 2Si 2O 8 shows small but significant heats of mixing. In albite-anorthite-quartz. ternary glasses, the ternary excess enthalpy of mixing is positive. Based on available heat capacity data and appropriate consideration of the glass transition, the enthalpy of the crystal-glass transition (vitrification) is a serious underestimate of the enthalpy of the crystal-liquid transition (fusion) especially when the melting point, Tf, is many hundreds of degrees higher than the glass transition temperature, Tg. On the other hand, the same heat capacity data suggest that the enthalpies of mixing in albite-anorthite-diopside liquids are calculated to be quite similar to those in the glasses. The enthalpies of mixing observed in general support the structural models proposed by TAYLOR and BROWN (1979a, b) and others for the structure of aluminosilicate glasses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015MMTB...46.2005F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015MMTB...46.2005F"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of Fluorine on the Structure of High <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3-Bearing <span class="hlt">System</span> by Molecular Dynamics Simulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fan, Guozheng; He, Shengping; Wu, Ting; Wang, Qian</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>Calcium aluminosilicate is the most important slag <span class="hlt">system</span> in continuous casting, while CaF2 is commonly used as a fluxing agent in mold fluxes. In this study, the structural properties of the CaO-<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3-SiO2-CaF2 <span class="hlt">system</span> with varying fluorine content have been investigated by molecular dynamics simulation using the pairwise potential model. The results showed that with the substitution of oxygen ions by fluorine ions, the average bond length of Si-O remained unchanged, while the average bond length of <span class="hlt">Al</span>-O increased from 1.74 to 1.75 Å. The addition of fluorine contributed to the increase in the bridging oxygen proportion and the network connectivity ( Q n ) degree, suggesting that the polymerization of melts was enhanced. Meanwhile, the threefold-coordinated <span class="hlt">Al</span> was found when mass fraction of fluorine was increased, and it was due to that the fluorine ions substituted the oxygen ions and formed the [<span class="hlt">Al</span>O3F] tetrahedron. The <span class="hlt">Al</span> avoidance principle is not applicable in the CaO-<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3-SiO2-CaF2 <span class="hlt">system</span> with a high content of <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25370088','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25370088"><span id="translatedtitle">A framework to support team-based models of <span class="hlt">primary</span> care within the Australian health care <span class="hlt">system</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Naccarella, Lucio; Greenstock, Louise N; Brooks, Peter M</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>Health <span class="hlt">systems</span> with strong <span class="hlt">primary</span> care orientations are known to be associated with improved equity, better access for patients to appropriate services at lower costs, and improved population health. Team-based models of <span class="hlt">primary</span> care have emerged in response to health <span class="hlt">system</span> challenges due to complex patient profiles, patient expectations and health <span class="hlt">system</span> demands. Successful team-based models of <span class="hlt">primary</span> care require a combination of interprofessional education and learning; organisational and management policies and <span class="hlt">systems</span>; and practice support <span class="hlt">systems</span>. To ensure evidence is put into practice, we propose a framework comprising five domains (theory, implementation, infrastructure, sustainability and evaluation) to assist policymakers, educators, researchers, managers and health professionals in supporting team-based models of <span class="hlt">primary</span> care within the Australian health care <span class="hlt">system</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25370088','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25370088"><span id="translatedtitle">A framework to support team-based models of <span class="hlt">primary</span> care within the Australian health care <span class="hlt">system</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Naccarella, Lucio; Greenstock, Louise N; Brooks, Peter M</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>Health <span class="hlt">systems</span> with strong <span class="hlt">primary</span> care orientations are known to be associated with improved equity, better access for patients to appropriate services at lower costs, and improved population health. Team-based models of <span class="hlt">primary</span> care have emerged in response to health <span class="hlt">system</span> challenges due to complex patient profiles, patient expectations and health <span class="hlt">system</span> demands. Successful team-based models of <span class="hlt">primary</span> care require a combination of interprofessional education and learning; organisational and management policies and <span class="hlt">systems</span>; and practice support <span class="hlt">systems</span>. To ensure evidence is put into practice, we propose a framework comprising five domains (theory, implementation, infrastructure, sustainability and evaluation) to assist policymakers, educators, researchers, managers and health professionals in supporting team-based models of <span class="hlt">primary</span> care within the Australian health care <span class="hlt">system</span>. PMID:25370088</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010048750&hterms=SI+system&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DSI%2Bsystem','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010048750&hterms=SI+system&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DSI%2Bsystem"><span id="translatedtitle">Lamellar Spacing Selection in <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Si Eutectic <span class="hlt">System</span>: a Theoretical Investigation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Catalina, Adrian V.; Sen, Subhayu; Curreri, Peter A.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>It is well known that irregular eutectics such as <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Si and Fe-C exhibit larger lamellar spacings and undercoolings compared to the predictions made by the Jackson and Hunt (JH) theory. In this paper, we reexamine the JH theory and relax some of the assumptions used in that treatment. The modified theoretical model has enhanced capabilities to predict the lamellar spacing in both regular and irregular eutectics. For the <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Si <span class="hlt">system</span> in particular we identified two different spacing selection mechanisms:a) for a particular growth rate, a nearly isothermal interface can be achieved at a unique minimum spacing lambda(sub I); b) the average spacing in the microstructure (lambda(sub av) greater than lambda(sub I)) is essentially dictated by the undercooling of the faceted phase. Based on the modified theoretical model a semi-empirical expression has been developed to account for the influence of the temperature gradient. Application of a Mullin and Sekerka type stability analysis for eutectics will also be presented and the results compared to the modified JH model. It will be shown that the both theoretical approaches are in good agreement with each other and also with the published experimental measurements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFM.P32A..01C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFM.P32A..01C"><span id="translatedtitle">26<span class="hlt">Al</span> in the Saturnian <span class="hlt">System</span> - New Interior Models for the Saturnian satellites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Castillo, J. C.; Matson, D. L.; Johnson, T. V.; Lunine, J. I.; McCord, T. B.; Sotin, C.; Thomas, P. C.; Turtle, E. B.</p> <p>2005-12-01</p> <p>Recent study of Iapetus' spin rate evolution highlights the need to form this satellite between between 1.0+/- 0.2 to 1.6+/- 0.4 My after the production of Calcium-Aluminum Inclusions (CAIs). We study the implications of this time constraint on the thermal evolution of other "icy" Saturnian satellites, assuming that they formed at the same time as Iapetus and from the same rocky material in proportion to their densities. Heat provided by 26<span class="hlt">Al</span> decay contributes to partial to full melting and thus differentiation of all Saturn's medium-sized satellites, except Tethys. We also consider the effect of silicate hydration on the internal and geological evolution of these satellites. These results are compared with classical models (that do not include short-lived radiogenic species), in the light of the observational constraints available for these satellites. Including 26<span class="hlt">Al</span> decay in the heat budget of the satellites allows to explain the observation of geological activity in silicate-poor satellites such as Tethys. We note that in Enceladus and Titan conditions might have been such that the boiling point of water was reached and water might have been lost very early in the history of these satellites. This opens the door to some explanation for the variations in density within the Saturnian <span class="hlt">system</span>. Part of this work was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract to NASA.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/991873','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/991873"><span id="translatedtitle">EVALUATION OF BEST AVAILABLE CONTROL TECHNOLOGY FOR TOXICS -TBACT- DOUBLE SHELL TANK FARMS <span class="hlt">PRIMARY</span> VENTILATION <span class="hlt">SYSTEMS</span> SUPPORTING WASTE TRANSFER OPERATIONS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>HAAS CC; KOVACH JL; KELLY SE; TURNER DA</p> <p>2010-06-24</p> <p>This report is an evaluation of Best Available Control Technology for Toxics (tBACT) for installation and operation of the Hanford double shell (DST) tank <span class="hlt">primary</span> ventilation <span class="hlt">systems</span>. The DST <span class="hlt">primary</span> ventilation <span class="hlt">systems</span> are being modified to support Hanford's waste retrieval, mixing, and delivery of single shell tank (SST) and DST waste through the DST storage <span class="hlt">system</span> to the Waste Treatment and Immobilizaiton Plant (WTP).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/991923','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/991923"><span id="translatedtitle">EVALUATION OF BEST AVAILABLE CONTROL TECHNOLOGY FOR TOXICS (TBACT) DOUBLE SHELL TANK FARMS <span class="hlt">PRIMARY</span> VENTILATION <span class="hlt">SYSTEM</span> SUPPORTING WASTE TRANSFER OPERATIONS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>KELLY SE; HAASS CC; KOVACH JL; TURNER DA</p> <p>2010-06-03</p> <p>This report is an evaluation of Best Available Control Technology for Toxics (tBACT) for installation and operation of the Hanford double shell (DST) tank <span class="hlt">primary</span> ventilation <span class="hlt">systems</span>. The DST <span class="hlt">primary</span> ventilation <span class="hlt">systems</span> are being modified to support Hanford's waste retrieval, mixing, and delivery of single shell tank (SST) and DST waste throught the DST storage <span class="hlt">system</span> to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23321962','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23321962"><span id="translatedtitle">EHR <span class="hlt">systems</span> in the Spanish Public Health National <span class="hlt">System</span>: the lack of interoperability between <span class="hlt">primary</span> and specialty care.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>de la Torre-Díez, Isabel; González, Sandra; López-Coronado, Miguel</p> <p>2013-02-01</p> <p>One of the problems of the Spanish Public Health National <span class="hlt">System</span> is the lack of interoperability in the implemented Electronic Health Records (EHRs) <span class="hlt">systems</span> in <span class="hlt">primary</span> and specialty care. There is a deficiency in the electronic health <span class="hlt">systems</span> that store the data of <span class="hlt">primary</span> care patients, so one of the basic problems that prevent that every hospital and health center working on the same method is that deficiency. In this paper we research on this problem and to give expression to a series of solutions to it. Bibliographic material in this work has been obtained mainly from MEDLINE source. Additionally, due to the lack of information and privacy about the different EHRs <span class="hlt">systems</span>, we have resorted to making direct contact with the organizations that have implemented those <span class="hlt">systems</span> and technological providers. Two solutions have been propounded given several aspects for a feasibility study. The first solution is based upon in the execution of backups in different EHRs databases, which implies a huge economical and infrastructure development. The second of these solutions so that due to the creation of protocols by means of Cloud Computing Technologies. It is crucial the need to reach a homogeneity concerning to the storage of patients clinical data. On the results achieved we can emphasize that maybe the main problems are not the economical handicaps or the large technological development needed, but, as for Health each Region manages its own competences, each one governs with independent policies and decisions. PMID:23321962</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26425299','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26425299"><span id="translatedtitle">Factors influencing the role of <span class="hlt">primary</span> care providers as gatekeepers in the Malaysian public healthcare <span class="hlt">system</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ang, K T; Ho, B K; Mimi, O; Salmah, N; Salmiah, M S; Noridah, M S</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Primary</span> care providers play an important gatekeeping role in ensuring appropriate referrals to secondary care facilities. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the level, pattern and rate of referrals from health clinics to hospitals in the public sector, and whether the placement of resident family medicine specialist (FMS) had made a significant difference. The study was carried out between March and April in 2012, involving 28 public <span class="hlt">primary</span> care clinics. It showed that the average referral rate was 1.56% for clinics with resident FMS and 1.94% for those without resident FMS, but it was not statistically significant. Majority of referred cases were considered appropriate (96.1%). Results of the multivariate analysis showed that no prior consultation with senior healthcare provider and illnesses that were not severe and complex were independently associated with inappropriate referrals. Severity, complexity or uncertain diagnosis of patients' illness or injury significantly contributed to unavoidable referrals. Adequate facilities or having more experienced doctors could have avoided 14.5% of the referrals. The low referral rate and very high level of appropriate referrals could indicate that <span class="hlt">primary</span> care providers in the public sector played an effective role as gatekeepers in the Malaysian public healthcare <span class="hlt">system</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4512937','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4512937"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">System</span> facilitators and barriers to discussing older driver safety in <span class="hlt">primary</span> care settings</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Betz, Marian E.; Jones, Jacqueline; Carr, David B.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Background <span class="hlt">Primary</span> care physicians play a leading role in counseling older drivers, but discussions often do not occur until safety concerns arise. Prior work suggests that routine questioning about driving might facilitate these difficult conversations. Objective To explore <span class="hlt">system</span>-level factors affecting driving discussions in <span class="hlt">primary</span> care settings, in order to inform the design and implementation of a program supporting routine conversations. Methods This qualitative descriptive study used iterative interviews with providers (physicians, nurses, medical assistants, social workers, and administrative staff) working at two clinics (one geriatric, one general internal medicine) at a tertiary-care teaching hospital. General inductive techniques in transcript analysis were used to identify stakeholder-perceived <span class="hlt">system</span>-level barriers and facilitators to routine conversations with older drivers. Results From fifteen interviews, four themes emerged: (1) complexity of defined provider roles within <span class="hlt">primary</span> care setting (which can both support team work and hamper efficiency); (2) inadequate resources to support providers (including clinical prompts, local guides, and access to social workers and driving specialists); (3) gaps in education of providers and patients about discussing driving; and (4) suggested models to enhance provider conversations with older drivers (including following successful examples and using defined pathways integrated into the electronic medical record). A fifth theme was that participants characterized their experiences in terms of current and ideal states. Conclusions Physicians have been tasked with assessing older driver safety and guiding older patients through the process of “driving retirement.” Attention to <span class="hlt">system</span>-level factors such as provider roles, resources, and training can support them in this process. PMID:25617342</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4573190','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4573190"><span id="translatedtitle">Characterization of a <span class="hlt">primary</span> brown adipocyte culture <span class="hlt">system</span> derived from human fetal interscapular fat</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Seiler, Sarah E; Xu, Dan; Ho, Jia-Pei; Lo, Kinyui Alice; Buehrer, Benjamin M; Ludlow, Y John W; Kovalik, Jean-Paul; Sun, Lei</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Brown fat has gained widespread attention as a potential therapeutic target to treat obesity and associated metabolic disorders. Indeed, the anti-obesity potential of multiple targets to stimulate both brown adipocyte differentiation and recruitment have been verified in rodent models. However, their therapeutic potential in humans is unknown due to the lack of a human <span class="hlt">primary</span> brown adipocyte cell culture <span class="hlt">system</span>. Likewise, the lack of a well-characterized human model has limited the discovery of novel targets for the activation of human brown fat. To address this current need, we aimed to identify and describe the first <span class="hlt">primary</span> brown adipocyte cell culture <span class="hlt">system</span> from human fetal interscapular brown adipose tissue. Pre-adipocytes isolated from non-viable human fetal interscapular tissue were expanded and cryopreserved. Cells were then thawed and plated alongside adult human subcutaneous and omental pre-adipocytes for subsequent differentiation and phenotypic characterization. Interscapular pre-adipocytes in cell culture differentiated into mature adipocytes that were morphologically indistinguishable from the adult white depots. Throughout differentiation, cultured human fetal interscapular adipocytes demonstrated increased expression of classical brown fat markers compared to subcutaneous and omental cells. Further, functional analysis revealed an elevation in fatty acid oxidation as well as maximal and uncoupled oxygen consumption in interscapular brown adipocytes compared to white control cells. These data collectively identify the brown phenotype of these cells. Thus, our <span class="hlt">primary</span> cell culture <span class="hlt">system</span> derived from non-viable human fetal interscapular brown adipose tissue provides a valuable tool for the study of human brown adipocyte biology and for the development of anti-obesity therapeutics. PMID:26451287</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24047379','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24047379"><span id="translatedtitle">Not lost in translation: generalization of the <span class="hlt">primary</span> <span class="hlt">systems</span> hypothesis to Japanese-specific language processes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ueno, Taiji; Saito, Satoru; Saito, Akie; Tanida, Yuki; Patterson, Karalyn; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>The emergentist-connectionist approach assumes that language processing reflects interaction between <span class="hlt">primary</span> neural <span class="hlt">systems</span> (<span class="hlt">Primary</span> <span class="hlt">Systems</span> Hypothesis). This idea offers an overarching framework that generalizes to various kinds of (English) language and nonverbal cognitive activities. The current study advances this approach with respect to language in two new and important ways. The first is the provision of a neuroanatomically constrained implementation of the theory. The second is a test of its ability to generalize to a language other than English (in this case Japanese) and, in particular, to a feature of that language (pitch accent) for which there is no English equivalent. A corpus analysis revealed the presence and distribution of typical and atypical accent forms in Japanese vocabulary, forming a quasiregular domain. Consequently, according to the <span class="hlt">Primary</span> <span class="hlt">Systems</span> Hypothesis, there should be a greater semantic impact on the processing of words with an atypical pitch accent. In turn, when word meaning is intrinsically less rich (e.g., abstract words), speakers should be prone to regularization errors of pitch accent. We explored these semantic-phonological interactions, first, in a neuroanatomically constrained, parallel-distributed processing model of spoken language processing. This model captured the accent typicality effect observed in nonword repetition in Japanese adults and children and exhibited the predicted semantic impact on repetition of words with atypical accent patterns. Second, also as predicted, in word repetition and immediate serial recall of spoken words, human participants exhibited reduced pitch-accent accuracy and/or slower RT for low imageability words with atypical accent patterns, and they generated accent errors reflecting the more typical accent patterns found in Japanese.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22893524','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22893524"><span id="translatedtitle">Heat transfer characteristics of current <span class="hlt">primary</span> packaging <span class="hlt">systems</span> for pharmaceutical freeze-drying.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hibler, Susanne; Gieseler, Henning</p> <p>2012-11-01</p> <p>In the field of freeze-drying, the <span class="hlt">primary</span> packaging material plays an essential role. Here, the packaging <span class="hlt">system</span> not only contains and protects the drug product during storage and shipping, but it is also directly involved in the freeze-drying process itself. The heat transfer characteristics of the actual container <span class="hlt">system</span> influence product temperature and therefore product homogeneity and quality as well as process performance. Consequently, knowledge of the container heat transfer characteristics is of vital importance for process optimization. It is the objective of this review article to provide a summary of research focused on heat transfer characteristics of different container <span class="hlt">systems</span> for pharmaceutical freeze-drying. Besides the common tubing and molded glass vials and metal trays, more recent packaging solutions like polymer vials, LYOGUARD® trays, syringes, and blister packs are discussed. Recent developments in vial manufacturing are also taken into account.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3353591','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3353591"><span id="translatedtitle">A comparison of <span class="hlt">primary</span> care <span class="hlt">systems</span> in the USA, Denmark, Finland and Sweden: lessons for Scandinavia?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Weiner, J</p> <p>1988-02-01</p> <p>In the United States large corporately owned health care delivery institutions, some of which are known as health maintenance organizations (HMOs), are assuming an increased prominence in the provision of <span class="hlt">primary</span> care (PC). These private organizations are similar in many ways to the public-sector providers that have functioned for decades within the Scandinavian <span class="hlt">systems</span>. This article explores the similarities and differences between these two PC approaches. This is accomplished by contrasting the governance, organization, financing and staffing of the PC <span class="hlt">systems</span> of three Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, and Sweden) to that of the US. Also provided is a critical analysis of the extent to which each model attains the ideal attributes of PC including; 1) accessibility, 2) comprehensiveness, 3) coordination and continuity, and 4) sensitivity to the patient's social milieu. For each facet of PC assessed, the American models offer approaches that are worthy of consideration by Scandinavian clinicians and planners. These include innovations in the areas of coordination between <span class="hlt">primary</span> and secondary care, preventive care for adults and incentives for financial efficiency. Also, although successful in attaining many attributes of PC, this article discusses some perceived weaknesses of the Scandinavian <span class="hlt">systems</span>. PMID:3353591</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ApSS..271..311D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ApSS..271..311D"><span id="translatedtitle">The effect of silicon on the oxidation behavior of Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span>Hf coating <span class="hlt">system</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dai, Pengchao; Wu, Qiong; Ma, Yue; Li, Shusuo; Gong, Shengkai</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Two types of Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span>Hf coatings doped with different content of Si (1 at.% and 2 at.%) were deposited on a Ni3<span class="hlt">Al</span> based single crystal superalloy IC32 by electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) method, respectively. For comparison, Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span>Hf coating with 0 at.% Si was also prepared. The oxidation tests were carried out at 1423 K in air. At the initial stage of oxidation, large amount of flake-like θ-<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 was found on Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span>Hf coating surface. However, no θ-<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 was observed in 2 at.% Si doped Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span>Hf coating except α-<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3. It revealed that the Si additions could contribute to the transformation from θ-<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 to α-<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3. When oxidation time prolonged to 100 h, it was found that the degradation of Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span>Hf coating was very severe with no residual β-phase, which was due to the serious inter-diffusion between the coating and substrate. In contrast, the inter-diffusion in Si-doped coating was reduced with some residual β-phase and R-Ni(Mo, Re) precipitates. The presence of Si could retard the inter-diffusion of elements between coating and substrate, indicating a barrier diffusion effect. As a result, the oxidation resistance of Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span>Hf coating was improved significantly.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10671022','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10671022"><span id="translatedtitle">Measuring access to <span class="hlt">primary</span> medical care: some examples of the use of geographical information <span class="hlt">systems</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Parker, E B; Campbell, J L</p> <p>1998-06-01</p> <p>This paper explores the potential for geographical information <span class="hlt">system</span> technology in defining some variables influencing the use of <span class="hlt">primary</span> care medical services. Eighteen general practices in Scotland contributed to a study examining the accessibility of their services and their patients' use of the local Accident and Emergency Department. Geo-referencing of information was carried out through analysis of postcode data relating to practices and patients. This information was analyzed using ARC/INFO GIS software in conjunction with the ORACLE relational database and 1991 census information. The results demonstrate that GIS technology has an important role in defining and analyzing the use of health services by the population. PMID:10671022</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1560449','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1560449"><span id="translatedtitle">A Wireless, Handheld Decision Support <span class="hlt">System</span> To Promote Smoking Cessation in <span class="hlt">Primary</span> Care</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Michel, George; Marcy, Theodore; Shiffman, Richard N.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Tobacco use remains a relatively unaddressed cause of disease and death in the daily care of patients by physicians. To overcome the barriers that physicians face in addressing tobacco use and its treatment in the <span class="hlt">primary</span> care setting, we have developed a clinical decision support <span class="hlt">system</span> that is readily accessible through the use of familiar wireless handheld devices and supportive of treatment through the implementation of the Tobacco Use and Dependence Treatment Guideline recommendations. We adopted the Information Management Services model to ensure that the application would effectively implement the guideline. The techniques used here are readily adaptable to implementing a broad range of clinical guidelines. PMID:16779096</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24650893','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24650893"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Primary</span> central nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> T-cell lymphoma in a common dolphin (Delphinus delphis).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Arbelo, M; Espinosa de los Monteros, A; Herráez, P; Suárez-Bonnet, A; Andrada, M; Rivero, M; Grau-Bassas, E R; Fernández, A</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This report describes the pathological findings in an adult female short-beaked common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) stranded alive in the Canary Islands. Necropsy examination revealed the presence of a nodular neoplastic growth in the central nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> (CNS) at the level of the thalamus. Microscopical examination revealed the mass to be a lymphoma and immunohistochemical labelling demonstrated a T-cell origin. No significant lesions were observed in other organs, including lymphoid organs. This is the first report of a <span class="hlt">primary</span> T-cell lymphoma in the CNS in cetaceans. PMID:24650893</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17245621','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17245621"><span id="translatedtitle">Salvage therapy for <span class="hlt">primary</span> central nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> lymphoma with (90)Y-Ibritumomab and Temozolomide.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pitini, Vincenzo; Baldari, Sergio; Altavilla, Giuseppe; Arrigo, Carmela; Naro, Claudia; Perniciaro, Francesca</p> <p>2007-07-01</p> <p>Aggressive initial treatment of <span class="hlt">Primary</span> Central Nervous <span class="hlt">System</span> Lymphoma (PCNSL) has achieved prolonged survival and occasional cures. However, some patients do not respond to initial therapy and others relapse after an initial remission. The optimal salvage regimen is not known and many different strategies have been proposed. In this report we describe the efficacy of a combination of (90)Y-Ibritumomab Tiuxetan (Zevalin) and Temozolamide as a maintenance therapy for recurrent PCNS Lymphoma in two patients that are both alive and in complete remission after 9 and 10 months respectively. This combination merits further study and provides a reasonable therapeutic alternative for older patients with progressive PCNSL.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26321719','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26321719"><span id="translatedtitle">[<span class="hlt">Primary</span> Central Nervous <span class="hlt">System</span> Post-Transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder in a Patient with Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Azuma, Yoshiko; Nakaya, Aya; Fujita, Shinya; Hotta, Masaaki; Fujita, Yukie; Yoshimura, Hideaki; Nakanishi, Takahisa; Satake, Atsushi; Ito, Tomoki; Ishii, Kazuyoshi; Nomura, Shosaku</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>A 27-year-old woman with acute lymphocytic leukemia, who underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, complained of nausea and blurred vision 288 days after the transplantation. Intracranial tumors were identified on brain MRI. She received whole brain radiation after open biopsy, but she died. The tumors had characteristics of diffuse large B cell lymphoma, and she was finally diagnosed with <span class="hlt">primary</span> central nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder. This disease is rare and has a poor outcome. Therefore, accumulation of cases and establishment of treatments for this condition are urgently needed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1004961','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1004961"><span id="translatedtitle">Thermal Analysis of the Divertor <span class="hlt">Primary</span> Heat Transfer <span class="hlt">System</span> Piping During the Gas Baking Process</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Yoder Jr, Graydon L; Harvey, Karen; Ferrada, Juan J</p> <p>2011-02-01</p> <p>A preliminary analysis has been performed examining the temperature distribution in the Divertor <span class="hlt">Primary</span> Heat Transfer <span class="hlt">System</span> (PHTS) piping and the divertor itself during the gas baking process. During gas baking, it is required that the divertor reach a temperature of 350 C. Thermal losses in the piping and from the divertor itself require that the gas supply temperature be maintained above that temperature in order to ensure that all of the divertor components reach the required temperature. The analysis described in this report was conducted in order to estimate the required supply temperature from the gas heater.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016RuPhJ..59..134S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016RuPhJ..59..134S"><span id="translatedtitle">Semi-Empirical Study of the Indirect Exchange Interaction in the Rem - <span class="hlt">Al</span> <span class="hlt">System</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shakarov, Kh. O.</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>The Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida exchange interaction (RKKY) is semi-empirically studied for the first time in compounds of binary REM - <span class="hlt">Al</span> <span class="hlt">systems</span> (REM - rare-earth metals: Gd, Dy, Ho, Er) using experimental values of paramagnetic Curie point (θp) of these compounds. Prediction of the RKKY theory was confirmed, i.e. there is a direct proportional dependence of θp value on de Gennes factor for equiatomic compounds of heavy REM with aluminum, just as in the case of pure REM. Values of the indirect exchange interaction parameter were semi-empirically estimated for the studied compounds. In general, it was established that RKKY-type exchange interaction is typical for REM compounds with aluminum, just as for pure REM.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007APS..SHK.C6002A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007APS..SHK.C6002A"><span id="translatedtitle">A study of reactant interfaces in Ni+<span class="hlt">Al</span> particle <span class="hlt">systems</span> during shock wave propagation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Austin, Ryan A.; McDowell, David L.; Horie, Yasuyuki; Benson, David J.</p> <p>2007-06-01</p> <p>Macro-scale responses of energetic materials during shock compression are influenced strongly by thermo-mechano-chemical processes occurring at the level of the microstructure. For example, it is believed that the propagation of chemical reactions in reactive particle <span class="hlt">systems</span> is intimately linked to conditions at reactant interfaces such as surface temperature, phase changes, defect density, and mass mixing due to inelastic deformation. To provide explicit resolution of such interfacial conditions, numerical models are constructed. The finite element method is used to numerically solve the differential equations that govern the coupled thermomechanical response of micron-size particle mixtures of Ni and <span class="hlt">Al</span> during shock wave propagation (interface chemistry is not yet modeled). The size and temperature distributions of contiguous reactant contact surfaces are quantified for a range of shock strengths. A parametric study of mixture attributes is undertaken to assess the sensitivity of the aforementioned distributions to variations of the microstructure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPSJ...85k4602N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPSJ...85k4602N"><span id="translatedtitle">Crystallographic Features and State Stability of the Decagonal Quasicrystal in the <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Co-Cu Alloy <span class="hlt">System</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nakayama, Kei; Mizutani, Akito; Koyama, Yasumasa</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>In the <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Co-Cu alloy <span class="hlt">system</span>, both the decagonal quasicrystal with the space group of Poverline{10}m2 and its approximant <span class="hlt">Al</span>13Co4 phase with monoclinic Cm symmetry are present around 20 at. % Co-10 at. % Cu. In this study, we examined the crystallographic features of prepared <span class="hlt">Al</span>-(30 - x) at. % Co-x at. % Cu samples mainly by transmission electron microscopy in order to make clear the crystallographic relation between the decagonal quasicrystal and the monoclinic <span class="hlt">Al</span>13Co4 structure. The results revealed a coexistence state consisting of decagonal quasicrystal and approximant <span class="hlt">Al</span>13Co4 regions in <span class="hlt">Al</span>-20 at. % Co-10 at. % Cu alloy samples. With the help of the coexistence state, the orientation relationship was established between the monoclinic <span class="hlt">Al</span>13Co4 structure and the decagonal quasicrystal. In the determined relationship, the crystallographic axis in the quasicrystal was found to be parallel to the normal direction of the (010)m plane in the <span class="hlt">Al</span>13Co4 structure, where the subscript m denotes the monoclinic <span class="hlt">system</span>. Based on data obtained experimentally, the state stability of the decagonal quasicrystal was also examined in terms of the Hume-Rothery (HR) mechanism on the basis of the nearly-free-electron approximation. It was found that a model based on the HR mechanism could explain the crystallographic features such as electron diffraction patterns and atomic arrangements found in the decagonal quasicrystal. In other words, the HR mechanism is most likely appropriate for the stability of the decagonal quasicrystal in the <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Co-Cu alloy <span class="hlt">system</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910034712&hterms=lisp&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dlisp','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910034712&hterms=lisp&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dlisp"><span id="translatedtitle">Feasibility of using a knowledge-based <span class="hlt">system</span> concept for in-flight <span class="hlt">primary</span>-flight-display research</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ricks, Wendell R.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>Flight test results have been obtained which demonstrate the feasibility and desirability of using knowledge-based <span class="hlt">systems</span> architectures for flight test investigations of <span class="hlt">primary</span> flight display information management-related issues. LISP-based software was used for real-time operation of the <span class="hlt">primary</span> flight display. The two integrated knowledge-based <span class="hlt">systems</span> designed to control the <span class="hlt">primary</span> flight displays were implemented aboard a NASA-Langley B-737. The programmer is noted to be capable of more easily developing initial <span class="hlt">systems</span> via the present method than with more conventional techniques.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22196036','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22196036"><span id="translatedtitle">[<span class="hlt">Primary</span> care pediatrics in the public health <span class="hlt">system</span> of the twenty-first century. SESPAS report 2012].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Domínguez Aurrecoechea, Begoña; Valdivia Jiménez, Carlos</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>Today in our country, the <span class="hlt">primary</span> care pediatrician is the first contact between children and adolescents with the health <span class="hlt">system</span>, being also a highly resolving specialist that addresses over 90% of the health needs of this population, monitors growth and development and participates in all activities of prevention, health promotion and health education within <span class="hlt">primary</span> care teams with nurses and family doctors. Witnessing rapid and profound demographic, social, cultural, scientific and technological changes as well as the demands and expectations of health care for citizens, which should enhance the value and response capacity of <span class="hlt">primary</span> care. These changes also affect infant morbidity and health care priorities in child and adolescent, posing new challenges for <span class="hlt">primary</span> care practice and reinforce the role of the pediatrician in <span class="hlt">primary</span> care. <span class="hlt">Primary</span> care is not only the gateway to the health <span class="hlt">system</span>. <span class="hlt">Primary</span> care teams have to take responsibility for the care of people assigned to coordinate the necessary resources and advising citizens on their health problems and his itinerary care by the health <span class="hlt">system</span>. It identifies the need to foster teamwork within the health department involved nursing staff to take care activities in this age group. It aims to foster a model based on cooperation and complementarity. A recent systematic review recommended maintaining the figure of the pediatrician in <span class="hlt">primary</span> care teams and strengthen their specific role as first point of contact with the child's health care <span class="hlt">system</span>, found significant benefits for children. PMID:22196036</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SSSci..13.1813D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SSSci..13.1813D"><span id="translatedtitle">In-situ laser synthesis of rare earth aluminate coatings in the <span class="hlt">system</span> Ln-<span class="hlt">Al</span>-O ( Ln = Y, Gd)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>de Francisco, I.; Lennikov, V. V.; Bea, J. A.; Vegas, A.; Carda, J. B.; de la Fuente, G. F.</p> <p>2011-09-01</p> <p>Laser zone melting (LZM) was employed in this work to prepare Ln-<span class="hlt">Al</span>-O coatings on polycrystalline <span class="hlt">Al</span> 2O 3 substrates, using the corresponding mixtures of powdered rare-earth oxides and <span class="hlt">Al</span> 2O 3 as starting materials. In-situ synthesis of the compounds Ln = Y, Gd was performed using a CO 2 laser, emitting at 10.6 μm. Microstructure (SEM) and phase nature (XRD) demonstrated in-situ formation of <span class="hlt">Al</span> 2O 3/Y 3<span class="hlt">Al</span> 5O 12(YAG) and <span class="hlt">Al</span> 2O 3/Gd<span class="hlt">Al</span>O 3(GAP) eutectic <span class="hlt">systems</span>. The interaction with the substrate resulted in mechanically stable, well integrated 200-500 μm thick composite coatings, as observed in nanoindentation tests. The phase relations found in these materials are consistent with the crystallographic concepts advanced by Vegas (Ramos-Gallardo & Vegas, J. Solid State Chem. 128 (1997) 69), where cation sub-arrays are proposed to play an important role in governing metal oxide structures. These sub-arrays are suggested as the structural drive behind eutectic oxide formation. LZM proves to be a convenient method to investigate the behaviour of complex oxide <span class="hlt">systems</span> at high temperature, to apply a rational concept towards the understanding of phase relations and to develop design criteria for oxide coatings.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SuMi...82..158Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SuMi...82..158Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Wettability, interfacial phenomena and shear strength for <span class="hlt">Al</span>/ZrO2 joining <span class="hlt">system</span> driven by direct current</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yang, Nan-Nan; Gu, Yan; Cao, Kang-Zhan</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>We realized the wetting for molten <span class="hlt">Al</span> on the 3 mol.% Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia (ZrO2) with applying a direct current (DC). The interfacial microstructures and shear stress were evaluated after wetting to reveal their native relationship with DC application. The results showed that not only the wettability of <span class="hlt">Al</span>/ZrO2 <span class="hlt">system</span> but also the shear stress can be optimized by controlling the DC intensity and applying time, which strongly depends on the formation of Zr<span class="hlt">Al</span>3 at the interface of <span class="hlt">Al</span>/ZrO2 <span class="hlt">system</span>. When the current intensity is 20 mA and applying time is 10 min, the shear stress reaches the maximum in our case.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2996385','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2996385"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of computerized health management information <span class="hlt">system</span> for <span class="hlt">primary</span> health care in rural India</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Background The Comprehensive Rural Health Services Project Ballabgarh, run by All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), New Delhi has a computerized Health Management Information <span class="hlt">System</span> (HMIS) since 1988. The HMIS at Ballabgarh has undergone evolution and is currently in its third version which uses generic and open source software. This study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of a computerized Health Management Information <span class="hlt">System</span> in rural health <span class="hlt">system</span> in India. Methods The data for evaluation were collected by in-depth interviews of the stakeholders i.e. program managers (authors) and health workers. Health Workers from AIIMS and Non-AIIMS <span class="hlt">Primary</span> Health Centers were interviewed to compare the manual with computerized HMIS. A cost comparison between the two methods was carried out based on market costs. The resource utilization for both manual and computerized HMIS was identified based on workers' interviews. Results There have been no major hardware problems in use of computerized HMIS. More than 95% of data was found to be accurate. Health workers acknowledge the usefulness of HMIS in service delivery, data storage, generation of workplans and reports. For program managers, it provides a better tool for monitoring and supervision and data management. The initial cost incurred in computerization of two <span class="hlt">Primary</span> Health Centers was estimated to be Indian National Rupee (INR) 1674,217 (USD 35,622). Equivalent annual incremental cost of capital items was estimated as INR 198,017 (USD 4213). The annual savings is around INR 894,283 (USD 11,924). Conclusion The major advantage of computerization has been in saving of time of health workers in record keeping and report generation. The initial capital costs of computerization can be recovered within two years of implementation if the <span class="hlt">system</span> is fully operational. Computerization has enabled implementation of a good <span class="hlt">system</span> for service delivery, monitoring and supervision. PMID:21078203</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4251983','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4251983"><span id="translatedtitle">A Reconstruction Method Based on <span class="hlt">AL</span>0FGD for Compressed Sensing in Border Monitoring WSN <span class="hlt">System</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wang, Yan; Wu, Xi; Li, Wenzao; Zhang, Yi; Li, Zhi; Zhou, Jiliu</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>In this paper, to monitor the border in real-time with high efficiency and accuracy, we applied the compressed sensing (CS) technology on the border monitoring wireless sensor network (WSN) <span class="hlt">system</span> and proposed a reconstruction method based on approximately l0 norm and fast gradient descent (<span class="hlt">AL</span>0FGD) for CS. In the frontend of the <span class="hlt">system</span>, the measurement matrix was used to sense the border information in a compressed manner, and then the proposed reconstruction method was applied to recover the border information at the monitoring terminal. To evaluate the performance of the proposed method, the helicopter sound signal was used as an example in the experimental simulation, and three other typical reconstruction algorithms 1)split Bregman algorithm, 2)iterative shrinkage algorithm, and 3)smoothed approximate l0 norm (SL0), were employed for comparison. The experimental results showed that the proposed method has a better performance in recovering the helicopter sound signal in most cases, which could be used as a basis for further study of the border monitoring WSN <span class="hlt">system</span>. PMID:25461759</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2581336','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2581336"><span id="translatedtitle">PROMIS in <span class="hlt">Primary</span> Care: Demonstration of a Computerized Problem-Oriented Medical Information <span class="hlt">System</span> in <span class="hlt">Primary</span> Care</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Powell, H.; Davis, E.; Wolf, L.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>This paper describes the implementation of a computerized PROMIS (Problem Oriented Medical Information <span class="hlt">System</span>) at the Champlain Islands Health Center, a Rural Health Initiative Project, in Grand Isle County, Vermont. The goal of the contract with the National Center for Health Services Research was to develop a well defined, computerized and coordinated <span class="hlt">system</span> of care that would provide a mid-level provider staff with guidance, as they practice health care in a rural, isolated county. The conceptualization of this technology as a method to meet the needs of rural health care, a brief description of POMR (Problem Oriented Medical Records) and the technological aspects of the <span class="hlt">system</span> will all be addressed in this paper.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4499680','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4499680"><span id="translatedtitle">Development of a computerised decisions support <span class="hlt">system</span> for renal risk drugs targeting <span class="hlt">primary</span> healthcare</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Helldén, Anders; Al-Aieshy, Fadiea; Bastholm-Rahmner, Pia; Bergman, Ulf; Gustafsson, Lars L; Höök, Hans; Sjöviker, Susanne; Söderström, Anders; Odar-Cederlöf, Ingegerd</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Objectives To assess general practitioners (GPs) experience from the implementation and use of a renal computerised decision support <span class="hlt">system</span> (CDSS) for drug dosing, developed for <span class="hlt">primary</span> healthcare, integrated into the patient’s electronic health record (EHR), and building on estimation of the patient's creatinine clearance (ClCG). Design Qualitative research design by a questionnaire and a focus group discussion. Setting and participants Eight GPs at two <span class="hlt">primary</span> healthcare centres (PHCs). Interventions The GP at PHC 1, and the project group, developed and tested the technical solution of the CDSS. Proof-of-concept was tested by seven GPs at PHC 2. They also participated in a group discussion and answered a questionnaire. A web window in the EHR gave drug and dosage in relation to ClCG. Each advice was according to three principles: If? Why? Because. Outcome measures (1) The GPs’ experience of ‘easiness to use’ and ‘perceived usefulness’ at PHC 2, based on loggings of use, answers from a questionnaire using a 5-point Likert scale, and answers from a focus group discussion. (2) The number of patients aged 65 years and older with an estimation of ClCG before and after the implementation of the CDSS. Results The GPs found the CDSS fast, simple and easy to use. They appreciated the automatic presentation of the CICG status on opening the medication list, and the ability to actively look up specific drug recommendations in two steps. The CDSS scored high on the Likert scale. All GPs wanted to continue the use of the CDSS and to recommend it to others. The number of patients with an estimated ClCG increased 1.6-fold. Conclusions Acceptance of the simple graphical interface of this push and pull renal CDSS was high among the <span class="hlt">primary</span> care physicians evaluating this proof of concept. The graphical model should be useful for further development of renal decision support <span class="hlt">systems</span>. PMID:26150141</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4297792','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4297792"><span id="translatedtitle">Frequency response properties of <span class="hlt">primary</span> afferent neurons in the posterior lateral line <span class="hlt">system</span> of larval zebrafish</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Levi, Rafael; Akanyeti, Otar; Ballo, Aleksander</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The ability of fishes to detect water flow with the neuromasts of their lateral line <span class="hlt">system</span> depends on the physiology of afferent neurons as well as the hydrodynamic environment. Using larval zebrafish (Danio rerio), we measured the basic response properties of <span class="hlt">primary</span> afferent neurons to mechanical deflections of individual superficial neuromasts. We used two types of stimulation protocols. First, we used sine wave stimulation to characterize the response properties of the afferent neurons. The average frequency-response curve was flat across stimulation frequencies between 0 and 100 Hz, matching the filtering properties of a displacement detector. Spike rate increased asymptotically with frequency, and phase locking was maximal between 10 and 60 Hz. Second, we used pulse train stimulation to analyze the maximum spike rate capabilities. We found that afferent neurons could generate up to 80 spikes/s and could follow a pulse train stimulation rate of up to 40 pulses/s in a reliable and precise manner. Both sine wave and pulse stimulation protocols indicate that an afferent neuron can maintain their evoked activity for longer durations at low stimulation frequencies than at high frequencies. We found one type of afferent neuron based on spontaneous activity patterns and discovered a correlation between the level of spontaneous and evoked activity. Overall, our results establish the baseline response properties of lateral line <span class="hlt">primary</span> afferent neurons in larval zebrafish, which is a crucial step in understanding how vertebrate mechanoreceptive <span class="hlt">systems</span> sense and subsequently process information from the environment. PMID:25355959</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25245922','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25245922"><span id="translatedtitle">Isolated <span class="hlt">primary</span> central nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> lymphoma arising from the optic chiasm.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vassal, F; Pommier, B; Boutet, C; Forest, F; Campolmi, N; Nuti, C</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>A 58-year-old previously healthy woman rapidly developed progressive bilateral visual loss. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a bulging appearance of the optic chiasm, with homogeneous enhancement after gadolinium administration, which suggested an optic glioma or inflammatory disease. In the absence of (para)clinical clues for a specific diagnosis despite extensive investigation, a biopsy of one optic nerve was performed, resulting in a diagnosis of non-Hodgkin B-cell lymphoma. There was no evidence of any other ocular or <span class="hlt">systemic</span> involvement, therefore the conclusion was that this immunocompetent patient had a <span class="hlt">primary</span> central nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> lymphoma isolated in the anterior visual pathway. Treatment included two cycles of polychemotherapy (rituximab, methotrexate, carmustine, etoposide, methylprednisolone), followed by autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation and rituximab plus cytarabine consolidation therapy. Subsequently, the patient exhibited significant improvement in vision, and was still disease-free at the 1-year follow-up examination. The aim of the present paper was to provide well-documented clinical, radiological, and intraoperative features of isolated <span class="hlt">primary</span> malignant lymphoma arising from the anterior visual pathway. A better recognition of this rare pathological entity is necessary for clinicians who may encounter similar presentations, as prompt management is crucial for both a visual and vital prognosis. PMID:25245922</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1076718','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1076718"><span id="translatedtitle">Distributed Hierarchical Control of Multi-Area Power <span class="hlt">Systems</span> with Improved <span class="hlt">Primary</span> Frequency Regulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lian, Jianming; Marinovici, Laurentiu D.; Kalsi, Karanjit; Du, Pengwei; Elizondo, Marcelo A.</p> <p>2012-12-12</p> <p>The conventional distributed hierarchical control architecture for multi-area power <span class="hlt">systems</span> is revisited. In this paper, a new distributed hierarchical control architecture is proposed. In the proposed architecture, pilot generators are selected in each area to be equipped with decentralized robust control as a supplementary to the conventional droop speed control. With the improved <span class="hlt">primary</span> frequency control, the <span class="hlt">system</span> frequency can be restored to the nominal value without the help of secondary frequency control, which reduces the burden of the automatic generation control for frequency restoration. Moreover, the low frequency inter-area electromechanical oscillations can also be effectively damped. The effectiveness of the proposed distributed hierarchical control architecture is validated through detailed simulations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24356697','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24356697"><span id="translatedtitle">[Health situation assessment by <span class="hlt">primary</span> care workers based on geographic information <span class="hlt">systems</span>].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ritter, Fernando; Rosa, Roger dos Santos; Flores, Rui</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Primary</span> healthcare has made little use of information <span class="hlt">systems</span> to assess the population's health situation due to the difficulty in understanding the reports. Generic definitions of actions are common, based on empirical observations. The current study aimed to evaluate whether the introduction of georeferenced indicators can serve to better identify individuals' health situation, which would help planning actions by health teams. Healthcare workers from eight teams answered a questionnaire at three different moments: the first, before reading the information <span class="hlt">system</span>'s reports; the second after reading; and the third after using georeferencing. The results showed a significant difference in the classification of the health situation using georeferencing when compared to the previous moments (p < 0.05). Georeferencing facilitated analysis of the health situation, fostering better monitoring of work processes. Finally, use of the data points to rationalization of actions and possible upgrading of healthcare. The study suggests the use of georeferencing in the work agenda to become an effective tool for orienting actions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21861488','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21861488"><span id="translatedtitle">Highly practical copper(I)/TEMPO catalyst <span class="hlt">system</span> for chemoselective aerobic oxidation of <span class="hlt">primary</span> alcohols.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hoover, Jessica M; Stahl, Shannon S</p> <p>2011-10-26</p> <p>Aerobic oxidation reactions have been the focus of considerable attention, but their use in mainstream organic chemistry has been constrained by limitations in their synthetic scope and by practical factors, such as the use of pure O(2) as the oxidant or complex catalyst synthesis. Here, we report a new (bpy)Cu(I)/TEMPO catalyst <span class="hlt">system</span> that enables efficient and selective aerobic oxidation of a broad range of <span class="hlt">primary</span> alcohols, including allylic, benzylic, and aliphatic derivatives, to the corresponding aldehydes using readily available reagents, at room temperature with ambient air as the oxidant. The catalyst <span class="hlt">system</span> is compatible with a wide range of functional groups and the high selectivity for 1° alcohols enables selective oxidation of diols that lack protecting groups. PMID:21861488</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/983832','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/983832"><span id="translatedtitle">RELAP5 Model of the Vacuum Vessel <span class="hlt">Primary</span> Heat Transfer <span class="hlt">System</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Carbajo, Juan J; Yoder Jr, Graydon L; Kim, Seokho H</p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>This report describes the RELAP5 models that have been developed for the Vacuum Vessel (VV) <span class="hlt">Primary</span> Heat Transfer <span class="hlt">System</span> (PHTS). The models are intended to be used to examine the transient performance of the VV PHTS, and evaluate control schemes necessary to maintain parameters within acceptable limits during transients. Some preliminary results are presented to show the maturity of the models and to examine general VV PHTS transient behavior. The models can be used as a starting point to develop transient modeling capability in several directions including control <span class="hlt">system</span> modeling, safety evaluations, etc, and are not intended to represent the final VV PHTS design. Preliminary calculations using the models indicate that during normal pulsed operation, heat exchanger control may not be necessary, and that temperatures within the vacuum vessel during decay heat operation remain low.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2246047','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2246047"><span id="translatedtitle">Development of an inducible gene expression <span class="hlt">system</span> for <span class="hlt">primary</span> murine keratinocytes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Nagarajan, Priyadharsini</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Background The tetracycline (Tet) responsive <span class="hlt">system</span> is a valuable tool that is routinely used in a wide variety of mammalian cells for regulatable expression of gene products. However, technical difficulties such as harsh selection conditions and extensive screening processes to identify suitably responsive clones limit the generation of stable cell lines. Hence, application of this <span class="hlt">system</span> in mammalian cells with relatively slow growth rates and / or the capacity to undergo terminal differentiation such as <span class="hlt">primary</span> mouse keratinocytes is particularly challenging. Objective To our knowledge, no Tet-responsive stable cell lines have been generated from mouse keratinocytes, presumably due to their sensitivity to selection conditions. Our goal was to utilize a modified and robust Tet-expression <span class="hlt">system</span> to generate a stable <span class="hlt">primary</span> mouse keratinocyte cell line. These cells could be then utilized for conditional expression of potentially toxic proteins in an inducible fashion. Methods We utilized a eukaryotic promoter instead of a viral promoter to express a modified reverse tetracycline transactivator in mouse keratinocytes and optimized the selection process for generating stable cell lines. Results Here, we report the generation of a stable mouse keratinocyte cell line for Tet-regulated gene expression with minimal leakiness and high degree of Tet responsivity. This mouse keratinocyte cell line was further engineered for generation of a double stable cell line, which expresses the transcription factor AP-2α in an inducible manner. Importantly, the selected cells retain their inherent keratinocyte morphology, respond to differentiation signals and exhibit a persistent and highly tunable Tet inducibility upon continuous culturing. Conclusion We have generated a tetracycline inducible gene expression model <span class="hlt">system</span> in mouse epidermal keratinocytes. Such inducible cell lines will serve as valuable in vitro models for future gain-of-function and loss-of-function studies. PMID</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19644201','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19644201"><span id="translatedtitle">[Management problems of improving the quality and efficiency of <span class="hlt">primary</span> health care <span class="hlt">system</span> of Georgia].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dzhakeli, I V; Edzhibadze, O I; Gerzmava, O Kh</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Improving the quality and efficiency of <span class="hlt">primary</span> health care <span class="hlt">system</span> is a key challenge. In this regard, problems that have accumulated in the <span class="hlt">system</span> over the past decade - a weak material base of outpatient-polyclinic institutions, especially in rural areas; a surplus of medical personnel; lack of control by local, regional and central authorities--still remain as serious obstacle. The issue of financing the provided health services, is also particularly important, given the fact that a significant portion of the cost of medical services is covered by the patient directly. And as a consequence, the low level of applications for outpatient-polyclinic assistance due to declining affordability of medical services. In connection with the foregoing, the authors of the paper raise the question of implementing strict, multi-component <span class="hlt">system</span> of quality control of medical care for patients. In particular, they propose: to base modern organization works on improving the quality of <span class="hlt">primary</span> health care <span class="hlt">system</span> on the principles of general management theory; Modern management of service quality should be clearly oriented towards the needs of the population in health care, its structure and dynamics; accessibility, incentives, determined by economic and technological competition characteristic to the market; Modern quality management, regardless of ownership and scale of outpatient-polyclinic establishment should optimally combine the actions, methods and tools that provide, on the one hand--the organization of diagnostic and therapeutic-prophylactic processes meeting the needs of the people, and on the other--the introduction of new methods and means to ensure the modern level of medical care; Schematic diagram of quality control mechanism organically interacts with the market research and includes a block of policy development in terms of quality.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4558226','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4558226"><span id="translatedtitle">Genome-wide analysis uncovers novel recurrent alterations in <span class="hlt">primary</span> central nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> lymphomas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Braggio, Esteban; Van Wier, Scott; Ojha, Juhi; McPhail, Ellen; Asmann, Yan W.; Egan, Jan; da Silva, Jackline Ayres; Schiff, David; Lopes, M Beatriz; Decker, Paul A; Valdez, Riccardo; Tibes, Raoul; Eckloff, Bruce; Witzig, Thomas E.; Stewart, A Keith; Fonseca, Rafael; O’Neill, Brian Patrick</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Purpose <span class="hlt">Primary</span> central nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> lymphoma (PCNSL) is an aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma confined to the CNS. Whether there is a PCNSL-specific genomic signature and, if so, how it differs from <span class="hlt">systemic</span> diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is uncertain. Experimental design We performed a comprehensive genomic study of tumor samples from 19 immunocompetent PCNSL patients. Testing comprised array-comparative genomic hybridization and whole exome sequencing. Results Biallelic inactivation of TOX and PRKCD were recurrently found in PCNSL but not in <span class="hlt">systemic</span> DLBCL, suggesting a specific role in PCNSL pathogenesis. Additionally, we found a high prevalence of MYD88 mutations (79%) and CDKN2A biallelic loss (60%). Several genes recurrently affected in PCNSL were common with <span class="hlt">systemic</span> DLBCL, including loss of TNFAIP3, PRDM1, GNA13, TMEM30A, TBL1XR1, B2M, CD58, activating mutations of CD79B, CARD11 and translocations IgH-BCL6. Overall, BCR/TLR/NF-κB pathways were altered in >90% of PNCSL, highlighting its value for targeted therapeutic approaches. Furthermore, integrated analysis showed enrichment of pathways associated with immune response, proliferation, apoptosis, and lymphocyte differentiation. Conclusions In summary, genome-wide analysis uncovered novel recurrent alterations, including TOX and PRKCD, helping to differentiate PCNSL from <span class="hlt">systemic</span> DLBCL and related lymphomas. PMID:25991819</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22412999','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22412999"><span id="translatedtitle">Quasiperiodic <span class="hlt">Al</span>GaAs superlattices for neuromorphic networks and nonlinear control <span class="hlt">systems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Malyshev, K. V.</p> <p>2015-01-28</p> <p>The application of quasiperiodic <span class="hlt">Al</span>GaAs superlattices as a nonlinear element of the FitzHugh–Nagumo neuromorphic network is proposed and theoretically investigated on the example of Fibonacci and figurate superlattices. The sequences of symbols for the figurate superlattices were produced by decomposition of the Fibonacci superlattices' symbolic sequences. A length of each segment of the decomposition was equal to the corresponding figurate number. It is shown that a nonlinear network based upon Fibonacci and figurate superlattices provides better parallel filtration of a half-tone picture; then, a network based upon traditional diodes which have cubic voltage-current characteristics. It was found that the figurate superlattice F{sup 0}{sub 11}(1) as a nonlinear network's element provides the filtration error almost twice less than the conventional “cubic” diode. These advantages are explained by a wavelike shape of the decreasing part of the quasiperiodic superlattice's voltage-current characteristic, which leads to multistability of the network's cell. This multistability promises new interesting nonlinear dynamical phenomena. A variety of wavy forms of voltage-current characteristics opens up new interesting possibilities for quasiperiodic superlattices and especially for figurate superlattices in many areas—from nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> modeling to nonlinear control <span class="hlt">systems</span> development.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24354510','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24354510"><span id="translatedtitle">The activation pattern of macrophages in giant cell (temporal) arteritis and <span class="hlt">primary</span> angiitis of the central nervous <span class="hlt">system</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mihm, Bernhard; Bergmann, Markus; Brück, Wolfgang; Probst-Cousin, Stefan</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>To determine if the pattern of macrophage activation reflects differences in the pathogenesis and clinical presentation of giant cell arteritis and <span class="hlt">primary</span> angiitis of the central nervous <span class="hlt">system</span>, specimens of 10 patients with giant cell arteritis and five with <span class="hlt">primary</span> angiitis of the central nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> were immunohistochemically studied and the expression of the macrophage activation markers 27E10, MRP14, MRP8 and 25F9 was determined in the vasculitic infiltrates. Thus, a partly different expression pattern of macrophage activation markers in giant cell arteritis and <span class="hlt">primary</span> angiitis of the central nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> was observed. The group comparison revealed that giant cell arteritis cases had significantly higher numbers of acute activated MRP14-positive macrophages, whereas <span class="hlt">primary</span> angiitis of the central nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> is characterized by a tendency toward more MRP8-positive intermediate/late activated macrophages. Furthermore, in giant cell arteritis comparably fewer CD8-positive lymphocytes were observed. These observations suggest, that despite their histopathological similarities, giant cell arteritis and <span class="hlt">primary</span> angiitis of the central nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> appear to represent either distinct entities within the spectrum of granulomatous vasculitides or different stages of similar disease processes. Their discrete clinical presentation is reflected by different activation patterns of macrophages, which may characterize giant cell arteritis as a more acute process and <span class="hlt">primary</span> angiitis of the central nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> as a more advanced inflammatory process.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998SPIE.3351..172B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998SPIE.3351..172B"><span id="translatedtitle">Improvements to the Apache Point 3.5-m <span class="hlt">primary</span>-mirror support <span class="hlt">system</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Brown, Yorke J.; Davis, Jon E.</p> <p>1998-05-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">primary</span> mirror of the Apache Point 3.5 meter telescope rests on an array of small pneumatic actuators distributed over the back plate of the mirror and within its honey comb cells. A control <span class="hlt">system</span> constantly adjusts the pressure in the actuators so as to synthesize a perfectly rigid mounting, thus maintaining both the figure of the mirror and its orientation with respect to the mirror cell. In its original configuration, the APO 3.5 meter <span class="hlt">system</span> exhibited a number of anomalous behaviors that detracted from the optical performance of the telescope. Analysis of the design indicated three basic problems: first that the pneumatic servovalves suffered from mechanical nonlinearities and an adverse dependence of their transfer function on operating pressure; second, that the air supply <span class="hlt">system</span> could not exhaust air from the actuators rapidly enough near the horizon and zenith; and third, that the control <span class="hlt">system</span> did not adequately account for the inertia of the mirror under dynamic conditions. Consequently, we have designed and installed a new control <span class="hlt">system</span> which addresses these deficiencies. The new <span class="hlt">system</span> employs high-bandwidth, flapper-type proportional valves that eliminate the mechanical problems and permit implementation of a high- performance controller. The new controller utilizes the existing hard points for mirror position sensing, but implements a pressure-feedback inner loop and a more sophisticated dynamic model. The air supply <span class="hlt">system</span> now incorporates a sub-atmospheric return and operates closed- loop to minimize contamination problems. The new <span class="hlt">system</span> exhibits substantial improvements over its previous performance, with positioning errors in the sub-micron range. The design has been selected for use on the Sloan Digital Sky Survey telescope.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25400782','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25400782"><span id="translatedtitle">Clinicopathological and immunohistochemical features of <span class="hlt">primary</span> central nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> germ cell tumors: a 24-years experience.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gao, Yuping; Jiang, Jiyao; Liu, Qiang</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Primary</span> central nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> (CNS) germ cell tumors (GCTs) are a rare heterogeneous group of lesions, which the clinicopathological features have a marked degree of heterogeneity comparing with that of gonadal GCTs. Accurately diagnosing CNS GCTs might be extremely difficult and requires immunohistochemical verification. This study was to investigate the biological feature of CNS GCTs and diagnostic value of immunohistochemical markers OCT3/4, C-kit, PLAP, and CD30 in CNS GCTs. A retrospective study was performed on 34 patients with CNS germ cell tumors between 1990 and 2014. 34 CNS GCTs account for 9.2% of all <span class="hlt">primary</span> CNS neoplasms. The sellar region (35.3%) and pineal gland (17.6%) were the most common sites of intracranial GCTs. Hydrocephalus (82.4%) and diplopia (46.9%) were the two most common clinical presentations. The most common histological subtypes were germinoma (67.6%). PLAP, c-kit, OCT3/4 were highly expressed in gernimomas. CD30 and CK AE1/3 stainings were positive in embryonal carcinoma. Yolk sac tumor component showed positive staining for AFP and CK AE1/3. β-HCG staining was positive in choriocarcinoma and STGC. Patients with mature teratomas and germinomas had a better prognosis (a 5-year survival rate) than those with embryonal carcinoma and choriocarcinoma (a 5-year survival rates were 0). Our finding suggest that the incidences of <span class="hlt">primary</span> CNS GCTs are higher in South China than in the West, but mixed GCTs are uncommon in our study. The judicious use of a panel of selected markers is helpful in diagnosing and predicting the prognosis for CNS GCTs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/988753','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/988753"><span id="translatedtitle">Solid Solution Effects on the Mg<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O4-MgGa2O4 <span class="hlt">System</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>O'Hara, Kelley; Smith, Jeffrey D; Hemrick, James Gordon</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Phase relations between two spinel compounds (Mg<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O4 and MgGa2O4) were studied. Stoichiometric Mg<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O4 was formed in the laboratory through a coprecipitation method. Complete solid solution formation int eh Mg<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O4-MgGa2O4 <span class="hlt">systems</span> was confirmed through X-ray diffraction analysis. Solid solution between Mg<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O4-MgGa2O4 decreases thermal conductivity at all temperatures up to 900oC. At 200oC with 10 mol% additoin of MgGa2O4 thermal conductivity decreases approximately 25%, and at 900oC there was still an 8% decrease. Additionally, preliminary studies show that porosity between 5% and 10% does not have an appreciable effect on the thermal conductivity in this study.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8748646','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8748646"><span id="translatedtitle">27<span class="hlt">Al</span> magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance satellite transition spectroscopy of glasses in the <span class="hlt">system</span> K2O-<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3-SiO2.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mundus, C; Müller-Warmuth, W</p> <p>1995-10-01</p> <p>27<span class="hlt">Al</span> magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance satellite transition spectroscopy at 78 MHz has been applied to determine (true) chemical shift and quadrupole coupling parameters of glasses in the <span class="hlt">system</span> K2O-<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3-SiO2 with 60-80 mol% SiO2 and K2O concentrations between 0 and 24 mol%. The powdered crystalline aluminosilicates andalusite and sillimanite have also been examined. In the glasses, all <span class="hlt">Al</span> appears to be tetrahedrally bound in the aluminosilicate network unless x = mol% K2O:mol% <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 becomes extremely small. Upon decreasing x the distortion of the tetrahedral <span class="hlt">Al</span>(OSi)4 units increases in steps, and possible explanations are discussed. Six-coordinated aluminum observed for x < 0.2 is connected with the occurrence of interstitial <span class="hlt">Al</span>3+ ions which charge-compensate the <span class="hlt">Al</span>O4 units in addition to K+. PMID:8748646</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26355055','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26355055"><span id="translatedtitle">Living In A Country With A Strong <span class="hlt">Primary</span> Care <span class="hlt">System</span> Is Beneficial To People With Chronic Conditions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hansen, Johan; Groenewegen, Peter P; Boerma, Wienke G W; Kringos, Dionne S</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>In light of the growing pressure that multiple chronic diseases place on health care <span class="hlt">systems</span>, we investigated whether strong <span class="hlt">primary</span> care was associated with improved health outcomes for the chronically ill. We did this by combining country- and individual-level data for the twenty-seven countries of the European Union, focusing on people's self-rated health status and whether or not they had severe limitations or untreated conditions. We found that people with chronic conditions were more likely to be in good or very good health in countries that had a stronger <span class="hlt">primary</span> care structure and better coordination of care. People with more than two chronic conditions benefited most: Their self-rated health was higher if they lived in countries with a stronger <span class="hlt">primary</span> care structure, better continuity of care, and a more comprehensive package of <span class="hlt">primary</span> care services. In general, while having access to a strong <span class="hlt">primary</span> care <span class="hlt">system</span> mattered for people with chronic conditions, the degree to which it mattered differed across specific subgroups (for example, people with <span class="hlt">primary</span> care-sensitive conditions) and <span class="hlt">primary</span> care dimensions. <span class="hlt">Primary</span> care reforms, therefore, should be person centered, addressing the needs of subgroups of patients while also finding a balance between structure and service delivery.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/514668','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/514668"><span id="translatedtitle">Alignment of the Ti<span class="hlt">Al</span>/Ti{sub 3}<span class="hlt">Al</span> lamellar microstructure in Ti<span class="hlt">Al</span> alloys by growth from a seed material</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Johnson, D.R.; Masuda, Y.; Inui, H.; Yamaguchi, M.</p> <p>1997-06-01</p> <p>By using an appropriately oriented seed from the Ti<span class="hlt">Al</span>-Si <span class="hlt">system</span>, the Ti<span class="hlt">Al</span>/Ti{sub 3}<span class="hlt">Al</span> lamellar microstructure was aligned parallel to the growth direction in a number of directionally solidified Ti<span class="hlt">Al</span>-based alloys. The seed composition was kept constant at Ti-43<span class="hlt">Al</span>-3Si (at.%) and the composition of the master ingots was varied for alloys in the Ti<span class="hlt">Al</span>-Si, Ti<span class="hlt">Al</span>-Nb-Si, and Ti-<span class="hlt">Al</span> <span class="hlt">systems</span>. The lamellar microstructure could be aligned for alloys containing up to approximately 47 at.% (<span class="hlt">Al</span> + Si) in each of these <span class="hlt">systems</span>. For the composition of seed material, Ti-43<span class="hlt">Al</span>-3Si, where alpha is the <span class="hlt">primary</span> solidification phase, the original orientation of the lamellar microstructure was maintained after heating to and cooling from the single-phase alpha region making seeding of the alpha phase possible. When this silicon containing seed was used, the nucleation of the <span class="hlt">primary</span> beta phase in master alloys of Ti-(47 {minus} x)<span class="hlt">Al</span>-xSi(x = 0 to 1 at.%) could be suppressed resulting in the nucleation and growth of only the alpha phase with an orientation determined by the seed crystal. After steady state conditions were reached, single PST crystals with an aligned lamellar microstructure could be grown at growth rates as high as 40 mm/h.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20057352','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20057352"><span id="translatedtitle">Using the gene pulser MXcell electroporation <span class="hlt">system</span> to transfect <span class="hlt">primary</span> cells with high efficiency.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>McCoy, Adam M; Collins, Michelle L; Ugozzoli, Luis A</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>It is becoming increasingly apparent that electroporation is the most effective way to introduce plasmid DNA or siRNA into <span class="hlt">primary</span> cells. The Gene Pulser MXcell electroporation <span class="hlt">system</span> and Gene Pulser electroporation buffer (Bio-Rad) were specifically developed to easily transfect nucleic acids into mammalian cells and difficult-to-transfect cells, such as <span class="hlt">primary</span> and stem cells. We will demonstrate how to perform a simple experiment to quickly identify the best electroporation conditions. We will demonstrate how to run several samples through a range of electroporation conditions so that an experiment can be conducted at the same time as optimization is performed. We will also show how optimal conditions identified using 96-well electroporation plates can be used with standard electroporation cuvettes, facilitating the switch from electroporation plates to electroporation cuvettes while maintaining the same electroporation efficiency. In the video, we will also discuss some of the key factors that can lead to the success or failure of electroporation experiments. PMID:20057352</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014JSV...333.5494R&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014JSV...333.5494R&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">On the nonlinear <span class="hlt">primary</span> resonances of a piezoelectric laminated micro <span class="hlt">system</span> under electrostatic control voltage</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Raeisifard, Hamed; Zamanian, Mehdi; Nikkhah Bahrami, Mansour; Yousefi-Koma, Aghil; Raeisi Fard, Hafez</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>In this article, a comprehensive nonlinear analysis for a piezoelectric laminated micro <span class="hlt">system</span> around its static deflection is presented. This static deflection is created by an electrostatic DC control voltage through an electrode plate. The micro <span class="hlt">system</span> beam is assumed as an elastic Euler-Bernoulli beam with clamped-free end conditions. The dynamic equations of this model have been derived by using the Hamilton method and considering the nonlinear inertia, curvature, piezoelectric and electrostatic terms. The static and dynamic solutions have been achieved by using the Galerkin method and the multiple-scales perturbation approach, respectively. The results are compared with numerical and other existing experimental results. By studying the <span class="hlt">primary</span> resonance excitation, the effects of different parameters such as geometry, material and excitations voltage on the <span class="hlt">system</span>'s softening and hardening behaviors are evaluated. In a piezoelectrically actuated micro <span class="hlt">system</span> it was showed that because of existence of curvature and inertia nonlinear terms a small change in excitation amplitude can lead to the formation and expansion of nonlinear response. In this paper, it is demonstrated that by applying an electrostatic DC control voltage, these nonlinearities can be controlled and altered to a linear domain. This model can be used to design a nano or micro-scale smart device.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26734436','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26734436"><span id="translatedtitle">Applying Quality Improvement into <span class="hlt">Systems</span>-based Learning to Improve Diabetes Outcomes in <span class="hlt">Primary</span> Care.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Moreo, Kathleen; Sapir, Tamar; Greene, Laurence</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>In the U.S., where the prevalence of type 2 diabetes has reached epidemic proportions, many patients with this disease are treated by <span class="hlt">primary</span> care physicians in community-based <span class="hlt">systems</span>, including accountable care organisations (ACOs). To address gaps in the quality of diabetes care, national quality measures have been established, including patient-centered measures adopted by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services for its Shared Savings Program for ACOs. From a patient-centered perspective, high-quality diabetes care depends on effective communication between clinicians and patients, along with patient education and counseling about medications and lifestyle. We designed and implemented a quality improvement (QI) program for 30 <span class="hlt">primary</span> care physicians treating patients with type 2 diabetes in three structurally similar but geographically diverse ACOs. Retrospective chart audits were conducted before (n = 300) and after (n = 300) each physician participated in accredited continuing medical education (CME) courses that focused on QI strategies. Randomly selected charts were audited to measurably assess essential interventions for improved outcomes in type 2 diabetes including the physicians' documentation of patient counseling and assessment of side effects, and patients' medication adherence status and changes in hemoglobin A1C (A1C) and body mass index (BMI). Paced educational interventions included a private performance improvement Internet live course conducted for each physician, small-group Internet live courses involving peer discussion, and a set of enduring materials, which were also multi-accredited for all clinicians in the physician's practice. Continual improvement cycles were guided by analysis of the baseline chart audits, quantitative survey data, and qualitative feedback offered by participants. To extend the benefit of the education, the enduring materials were offered to the interprofessional team of clinicians throughout the U.S. who did</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27441147','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27441147"><span id="translatedtitle">Thermodynamic simulation on mineralogical composition of CaO-SiO2-<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3-MgO quaternary slag <span class="hlt">system</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liu, Chao; Zhang, Yu-Zhu; Li, Jie; Li, Jun-Guo; Kang, Yue</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>It is necessary to elucidate the crystallization thermodynamic of mineralogical phases during the cooling process of the molten BFS with different chemical composition, because the high-melting point mineral phase maybe crystallized during the fiber forming and thereafter cooling process. Thermodynamic calculation software FactSage6.4 and the hot remelting experiments were performed to explore the influence of basicity, <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 content and MgO content on the crystallization of mineralogical components and their transformation. The results showed that the main mineralography of the CaO-SiO2-<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3-MgO quaternary slag <span class="hlt">system</span> was melilite, and a certain amount of anorthite and calcium metasilicate. The crystallographic temperature of melilite is increased with the increasing of basicity, MgO and <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 content, which has a significant impact on the utilization performance of the mineral wool prepared with the hot blast furnace slag directly. With the increasing of basicity, there was a tendency that crystallographic amount of melilite increased to the summit and then declined, while the amount of anorthite and calcium metasilicate decreased consistently. Finally, these two mineralogical components could be replaced by magnesium rhodonite and spinel with the increasing of basicity. When the basicity and MgO content were 1.0 and 9 %, the crystallographic mass ratio of melilite and anorthite increased, while that of calcium silicate declined, and replaced by spinel finally with the increasing of <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 content. When the basicity and <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 content were 1.0 and 13 %, the crystallographic mass ratio of melilite increased, while that of anorthite and calcium silicate declined, and replaced by pyroxene and spinel with the increasing of MgO content. To decline fiberization temperature of the melt BFS, the basicity, MgO and <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 content should be decreased during the modification process of chemical composition, because the crystallization temperature of the <span class="hlt">primary</span> crystalline</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/647049','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/647049"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of the Keck telescope`s segmented <span class="hlt">primary</span> on the performance on the Keck adaptive optics <span class="hlt">system</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gavel, D.</p> <p>1997-06-01</p> <p>The 349 degree of freedom Keck adaptive optics <span class="hlt">system</span> will be mapped on to the 36 segment Keck <span class="hlt">primary</span> mirror. Each telescope segment is independently controlled in piston and tilt by an active control <span class="hlt">system</span> and each segment also has its own set of aberrations. This presents a unique set of problems for the Keck adaptive optics <span class="hlt">system</span>, not encountered with continuous <span class="hlt">primaries</span>. To a certain extent the low order segment aberrations, beginning with focus, can be corrected statically by the adaptive optic <span class="hlt">system</span>. However, the discontinuous surface at the segment edges present special problems in sensing and correcting wavefront with laser guide stars or natural guide stars.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4943038','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4943038"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Systemic</span> Changes to Improve Efficiency in Polish <span class="hlt">Primary</span> Health Care</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Holecki, Tomasz; Romaniuk, Piotr; Woźniak-Holecka, Joanna</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Primary</span> health care is an important part of any health care <span class="hlt">system</span>. In highly developed countries it secures the population's most elementary health needs, with particular emphasis on preventive care and early intervention. Polish PHC model is currently undergoing a thorough transformation, associated with the need to adapt to standards designated based on the WHO's criteria, and with reference to the experience of other European countries. The paper describes the process of changes being carried out, in the context of previous experiences of reform relating to the sphere of organization, processes and efficiency. A review and systematization has been made, with regard to the undertaken activities in the field of deregulation and change of legal provisions, which are aimed at achieving the improvement of the efficiency of treatment and resource allocation. A set of recommendations based on expert's discourse have also been provided, with respect to future directions of Polish PHC transformation. PMID:27468269</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27468269','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27468269"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Systemic</span> Changes to Improve Efficiency in Polish <span class="hlt">Primary</span> Health Care.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Holecki, Tomasz; Romaniuk, Piotr; Woźniak-Holecka, Joanna</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Primary</span> health care is an important part of any health care <span class="hlt">system</span>. In highly developed countries it secures the population's most elementary health needs, with particular emphasis on preventive care and early intervention. Polish PHC model is currently undergoing a thorough transformation, associated with the need to adapt to standards designated based on the WHO's criteria, and with reference to the experience of other European countries. The paper describes the process of changes being carried out, in the context of previous experiences of reform relating to the sphere of organization, processes and efficiency. A review and systematization has been made, with regard to the undertaken activities in the field of deregulation and change of legal provisions, which are aimed at achieving the improvement of the efficiency of treatment and resource allocation. A set of recommendations based on expert's discourse have also been provided, with respect to future directions of Polish PHC transformation. PMID:27468269</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4999605','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4999605"><span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">Systems</span> Model for Ursodeoxycholic Acid Metabolism in Healthy and Patients With <span class="hlt">Primary</span> Biliary Cirrhosis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Dobbins, RL; O'Connor‐Semmes, RL; Young, MA</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">systems</span> model was developed to describe the metabolism and disposition of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) and its conjugates in healthy subjects based on pharmacokinetic (PK) data from published studies in order to study the distribution of oral UDCA and potential interactions influencing therapeutic effects upon interruption of its enterohepatic recirculation. The base model was empirically adapted to patients with <span class="hlt">primary</span> biliary cirrhosis (PBC) based on current understanding of disease pathophysiology and clinical measurements. Simulations were performed for patients with PBC under two competing hypotheses: one for inhibition of ileal absorption of both UDCA and conjugates and the other only of conjugates. The simulations predicted distinctly different bile acid distribution patterns in plasma and bile. The UDCA model adapted to patients with PBC provides a platform to investigate a complex therapeutic drug interaction among UDCA, UDCA conjugates, and inhibition of ileal bile acid transport in this rare disease population. PMID:27537780</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26973519','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26973519"><span id="translatedtitle">Astrocytes As the Main Players in <span class="hlt">Primary</span> Degenerative Disorders of the Human Central Nervous <span class="hlt">System</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Capani, Francisco; Quarracino, Cecilia; Caccuri, Roberto; Sica, Roberto E P</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Along the last years it has been demonstrated that non-neural cells play a major role in the pathogenesis of the <span class="hlt">primary</span> degenerative disorders (PDDs) of the human central nervous <span class="hlt">system</span>. Among them, astrocytes coordinate and participate in many different and complex metabolic processes, in close interaction with neurons. Moreover, increasing experimental evidence hints an early astrocytic dysfunction in these diseases. In this mini review we summarize the astrocytic behavior in PDDs, with special consideration to the experimental observations where astrocytic pathology precedes the development of neuronal dysfunction. We also suggest a different approach that could be consider in human investigations in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. We believe that the study of PDDs with human brain samples may hold the key of a paradigmatic physiopathological process in which astrocytes might be the main players. PMID:26973519</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JSV...333.2386R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JSV...333.2386R"><span id="translatedtitle">Combined <span class="hlt">primary</span>-secondary <span class="hlt">system</span> approach to the design of an equipment isolation <span class="hlt">system</span> with High-Damping Rubber Bearings</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Reggio, Anna; De Angelis, Maurizio</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>Isolating acceleration-sensitive equipment from the motion of the supporting structure represents an effective protection from earthquake damage. In this paper, a passive equipment isolation <span class="hlt">system</span> composed of High-Damping Rubber Bearings (HDRB) is designed by adopting a coupled approach in which the supporting structure and the isolated equipment are considered as parts of a combined <span class="hlt">primary</span>-secondary <span class="hlt">system</span> and analyzed together. This allows for taking into account their dynamic interaction when significant and non-negligible according to the mass ratio and to the frequency ratio. The design methodology is developed by resorting to a reduced-order 2-DOF model of the combined <span class="hlt">system</span>, a linear visco-elastic constitutive model of the isolation <span class="hlt">system</span> and to a modal damping constraint depending upon the damping properties of the HDRB and their rubber compound. A 1:5 scale experimental model, consisting of a two-storey steel frame and a heavy block-type mass isolated from the second floor, is subsequently used to exemplify the design methodology and to perform shaking table tests. The dynamic properties of the experimental model are identified and the seismic performance of the equipment isolation <span class="hlt">system</span> is discussed under a wide selection of seismic inputs, both artificial and natural.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4395364','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4395364"><span id="translatedtitle">First-Principles Calculations, Experimental Study, and Thermodynamic Modeling of the <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Co-Cr <span class="hlt">System</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Liu, Xuan L.; Gheno, Thomas; Lindahl, Bonnie B.; Lindwall, Greta; Gleeson, Brian; Liu, Zi-Kui</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The phase relations and thermodynamic properties of the condensed <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Co-Cr ternary alloy <span class="hlt">system</span> are investigated using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) and phase-equilibria experiments that led to X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA) measurements. A thermodynamic description is developed by means of the calculations of phase diagrams (CALPHAD) method using experimental and computational data from the present work and the literature. Emphasis is placed on modeling the bcc-A2, B2, fcc-γ, and tetragonal-σ phases in the temperature range of 1173 to 1623 K. Liquid, bcc-A2 and fcc-γ phases are modeled using substitutional solution descriptions. First-principles special quasirandom structures (SQS) calculations predict a large bcc-A2 (disordered)/B2 (ordered) miscibility gap, in agreement with experiments. A partitioning model is then used for the A2/B2 phase to effectively describe the order-disorder transitions. The critically assessed thermodynamic description describes all phase equilibria data well. A2/B2 transitions are also shown to agree well with previous experimental findings. PMID:25875037</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25875037','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25875037"><span id="translatedtitle">First-principles calculations, experimental study, and thermodynamic modeling of the <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Co-Cr <span class="hlt">system</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liu, Xuan L; Gheno, Thomas; Lindahl, Bonnie B; Lindwall, Greta; Gleeson, Brian; Liu, Zi-Kui</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The phase relations and thermodynamic properties of the condensed <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Co-Cr ternary alloy <span class="hlt">system</span> are investigated using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) and phase-equilibria experiments that led to X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA) measurements. A thermodynamic description is developed by means of the calculations of phase diagrams (CALPHAD) method using experimental and computational data from the present work and the literature. Emphasis is placed on modeling the bcc-A2, B2, fcc-γ, and tetragonal-σ phases in the temperature range of 1173 to 1623 K. Liquid, bcc-A2 and fcc-γ phases are modeled using substitutional solution descriptions. First-principles special quasirandom structures (SQS) calculations predict a large bcc-A2 (disordered)/B2 (ordered) miscibility gap, in agreement with experiments. A partitioning model is then used for the A2/B2 phase to effectively describe the order-disorder transitions. The critically assessed thermodynamic description describes all phase equilibria data well. A2/B2 transitions are also shown to agree well with previous experimental findings.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015DPS....4740209B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015DPS....4740209B"><span id="translatedtitle">Geodynamic stability of the <span class="hlt">primary</span> in the binary asteroid <span class="hlt">system</span> 65803 Didymos</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Barnouin, Olivier S.; Maurel, Clara; Richardson, Derek C.; Ballouz, Ronald-Louis; Schwartz, Stephen; Michel, Patrick</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>The moon of the near-Earth binary asteroid 65803 Didymos is the target of the Asteroid Impact and Deflection Assessment (AIDA) mission. This mission is a joint concept between NASA and ESA to investigate the effectiveness of a kinetic impactor in deflecting an asteroid. The mission is composed of two components: the NASA-led Double Asteroid Redirect Test (DART) that will impact the Didymos moon, and the ESA-led Asteroid Impact Monitoring (AIM) mission that will characterize the Didymos <span class="hlt">system</span>. In order to provide AIDA constraints on the physical character of the both objects in this binary <span class="hlt">system</span>, we undertook preliminary numerical investigations to evaluate the stability of the shape of the <span class="hlt">primary</span> using its rapid 2.26 h rotation. We modeled the <span class="hlt">primary</span> as a rubble pile. Each model consisted of thousands of uniform rigid spheres collapsed together under their own gravity to form a spherical pile that was then carved to match the current radar-derived shape model of the <span class="hlt">primary</span>, as well as other comparable shapes (e.g. asteroid 1999 KW4, spheres) that were scaled to match best estimates of the size of Didymos. Each model was given a starting rotation period of 6 h with the spin axis aligned to the pole. At each timestep the spin rate was increased by a small amount so that after about 1 million timesteps the spin would match the observed rotation of 2.26 h. We tested a range of bulk densities spanning the current observational uncertainty (mean 2.4 g/cc) using "gravel"-like material parameters that provide significant resistance to sliding and rolling. We find that at the upper range of the density uncertainty it is possible for Didymos to hold its shape and not lose mass at its nominal rotation period, without the need for cohesive forces. At lower densities or with smoother particles, significant shape change occurs and mass loss is possible. We conclude that based on the radar shape available at the time of this writing, Didymos is marginally stable as a rubble</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MMTB...47.1093K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MMTB...47.1093K"><span id="translatedtitle">Phase Equilibrium Studies of CaO-SiO2-MgO-<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 <span class="hlt">System</span> with Binary Basicity of 1.5 Related to Blast Furnace Slag</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kou, Mingyin; Wu, Shengli; Ma, Xiaodong; Wang, Laixin; Chen, Mao; Cai, Qingwu; Zhao, Baojun</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Slags play an important role in blast furnace operation, and their compositions are based on the CaO-SiO2-MgO-<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 quaternary <span class="hlt">system</span> in many steel companies. The binary basicity (CaO/SiO2 weight ratio) of blast furnace slags, especially <span class="hlt">primary</span> slag and bosh slag, can be as high as 1.5 or higher. Phase equilibria and liquidus temperatures in the CaO-SiO2-MgO-<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 <span class="hlt">system</span> with binary basicity of 1.50 are experimentally determined for temperatures in the range 1723 K to 1823 K (1450 °C to 1550 °C). High temperature equilibration, quenching, and electron probe X-ray microanalysis techniques have been used in the present study. The isotherms are obtained in the <span class="hlt">primary</span> phase fields of Ca2SiO4, melilite, spinel, periclase, and merwinite related to blast furnace slags. Effects of <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3, MgO, and binary basicity on liquidus temperatures have been discussed. In addition, extensive solid solutions have been measured for different <span class="hlt">primary</span> phases and will be used for development and optimization of the thermodynamic database.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10194727','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10194727"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Primary</span> Standards Laboratory report 1st half 1993</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Levy, W.G.T.</p> <p>1993-11-01</p> <p>Sandia National Laboratories operates the <span class="hlt">Primary</span> Standards Laboratory for the Department of Energy, Albuquerque Operations Office (DOE/<span class="hlt">AL</span>). This report summarizes metrology activities that received emphasis in the first half of 1993 and provides information pertinent to the operation of the DOE/<span class="hlt">AL</span> <span class="hlt">system</span>-wide Standards and Calibration Program.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1000894','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1000894"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling and Analysis of Alternative Concept of ITER Vacuum Vessel <span class="hlt">Primary</span> Heat Transfer <span class="hlt">System</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Carbajo, Juan J; Yoder Jr, Graydon L; Dell'Orco, Giovanni; Curd, Warren; Kim, Seokho H</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>A RELAP5-3D model of the ITER (Latin for the way ) vacuum vessel (VV) <span class="hlt">primary</span> heat transfer <span class="hlt">system</span> has been developed to evaluate a proposed design change that relocates the heat exchangers (HXs) from the exterior of the tokamak building to the interior. This alternative design protects the HXs from external hazards such as wind, tornado, and aircraft crash. The proposed design integrates the VV HXs into a VV pressure suppression <span class="hlt">system</span> (VVPSS) tank that contains water to condense vapour in case of a leak into the plasma chamber. The proposal is to also use this water as the ultimate sink when removing decay heat from the VV <span class="hlt">system</span>. The RELAP5-3D model has been run under normal operating and abnormal (decay heat) conditions. Results indicate that this alternative design is feasible, with no effects on the VVPSS tank under normal operation and with tank temperature and pressure increasing under decay heat conditions resulting in a requirement to remove steam generated if the VVPSS tank low pressure must be maintained.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27107139','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27107139"><span id="translatedtitle">Mechanism for the <span class="hlt">primary</span> transformation of acetaminophen in a soil/water <span class="hlt">system</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liang, Chuanzhou; Lan, Zhonghui; Zhang, Xu; Liu, Yingbao</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>The transformation of acetaminophen (APAP) in a soil/water <span class="hlt">system</span> was systematically investigated by a combination of kinetic studies and a quantitative analysis of the reaction intermediates. Biotransformation was the predominant pathway for the elimination of APAP, whereas hydrolysis or other chemical transformation, and adsorption processes made almost no contribution to the transformation under a dark incubation. Bacillus aryabhattai strain 1-Sj-5-2-5-M, Klebsiella pneumoniae strain S001, and Bacillus subtilis strain HJ5 were the main bacteria identified in the biotransformation of APAP. The soil-to-water ratio and soil preincubation were able to alter the transformation kinetic pattern. Light irradiation promoted the overall transformation kinetics through enhanced biotransformation and extra photosensitized chemical reactions. The transformation pathways were strongly dependent on the initial concentration of APAP. The main <span class="hlt">primary</span> transformation products were APAP oligomers and p-aminophenol, with the initial addition of 26.5 and 530 μM APAP, respectively. APAP oligomers accounted for more than 95% of transformed APAP, indicating that almost no bound residues were generated through the transformation of APAP in the soil/water <span class="hlt">system</span>. The potential environmental risks of APAP could increase following the transformation of APAP in the soil/water <span class="hlt">system</span> because of the higher toxicity of the transformation intermediates. PMID:27107139</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27357039','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27357039"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessment of <span class="hlt">Primary</span> Production of Horticultural Safety Management <span class="hlt">Systems</span> of Mushroom Farms in South Africa.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dzingirayi, Garikayi; Korsten, Lise</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Growing global consumer concern over food safety in the fresh produce industry requires producers to implement necessary quality assurance <span class="hlt">systems</span>. Varying effectiveness has been noted in how countries and food companies interpret and implement food safety standards. A diagnostic instrument (DI) for global fresh produce industries was developed to measure the compliancy of companies with implemented food safety standards. The DI is made up of indicators and descriptive grids for context factors and control and assurance activities to measure food safety output. The instrument can be used in <span class="hlt">primary</span> production to assess food safety performance. This study applied the DI to measure food safety standard compliancy of mushroom farming in South Africa. Ten farms representing almost half of the industry farms and more than 80% of production were independently assessed for their horticultural safety management <span class="hlt">system</span> (HSMS) compliance via in-depth interviews with each farm's quality assurance personnel. The data were processed using Microsoft Office Excel 2010 and are represented in frequency tables. The diagnosis revealed that the mushroom farming industry had an average food safety output. The farms were implementing an average-toadvanced HSMS and operating in a medium-risk context. Insufficient performance areas in HSMSs included inadequate hazard analysis and analysis of control points, low specificity of pesticide assessment, and inadequate control of suppliers and incoming materials. Recommendations to the industry and current shortcomings are suggested for realization of an improved industry-wide food safety assurance <span class="hlt">system</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008SPIE.7018E..10W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008SPIE.7018E..10W"><span id="translatedtitle">Advancement of the segment support <span class="hlt">system</span> for the Thirty Meter Telescope <span class="hlt">primary</span> mirror</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Williams, Eric C.; Baffes, Curtis; Mast, Terry; Nelson, Jerry; Platt, Benjamin; Ponchione, R. J.; Ponslet, Eric; Setoodeh, Shahriar; Sirota, Mark; Stephens, Vince; Stepp, Larry; Tubb, Alan</p> <p>2008-07-01</p> <p>This paper presents refinements to the design of the TMT <span class="hlt">primary</span> mirror segment passive-support <span class="hlt">system</span> that are effective in reducing gravity print-through and thermal distortion effects. First, a novel analytical method is presented for tuning the axial and lateral support <span class="hlt">systems</span> in a manner that results in improved optical performance when subject to varying gravity fields. The method utilizes counterweights attached to the whiffletrees to cancel astigmatic and comatic errors normally resulting when the lateral support <span class="hlt">system</span> resists transverse loads induced by gravity. Secondly, several central diaphragm designs are presented and analyzed to assess lateral-gravity and thermal distortion performance: 1) a simple flat diaphragm, 2) a stress-relieving diaphragm having a slotted outer rim and a circumferential convolution near the outside diameter, and 3) a flat diaphragm having a slotted outer rim. The latter design is chosen based on results from analytical studies which show it to have better overall optical performance in the presence of gravity and thermal environments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19955097','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19955097"><span id="translatedtitle">Revitalising <span class="hlt">primary</span> healthcare requires an equitable global economic <span class="hlt">system</span> - now more than ever.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sanders, David; Baum, Fran E; Benos, Alexis; Legge, David</p> <p>2011-08-01</p> <p>The promised revitalisation of <span class="hlt">primary</span> healthcare (PHC) is happening at a time when the contradictions and unfairness of the global economic <span class="hlt">system</span> have become clear, suggesting that the current <span class="hlt">system</span> is unsustainable. In the past two decades, one of the most significant impediments to the implementation of comprehensive PHC has been neoliberal economic policies and their imposition globally. This article questions what will be required for PHC to flourish. PHC incorporates five key principles: equitable provision of services, comprehensive care, intersectoral action, community involvement and appropriate technology. This article considers intersectoral action and comprehensiveness and their potential to be implemented in the current global environment. It highlights the constraints to intersectoral action through a case study of nutrition in the context of globalisation of the food chain. It also explores the challenges to implementing a comprehensive approach to health that are posed by neoliberal health sector reforms and donor practices. The paper concludes that even well-designed health <span class="hlt">systems</span> based on PHC have little influence over the broader economic forces that shape their operation and their ability to improve health. Reforming these economic forces will require greater regulation of the national and global economic environment to emphasise people's health rather than private profit, and action to address climate change. Revitalisation of PHC and progress towards health equity are unlikely without strong regulation of the market. The further development and strengthening of social movements for health will be key to successful advocacy action.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26307856','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26307856"><span id="translatedtitle">Changes in functional connectivity of pain modulatory <span class="hlt">systems</span> in women with <span class="hlt">primary</span> dysmenorrhea.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wei, Shyh-Yuh; Chao, Hsiang-Tai; Tu, Cheng-Hao; Li, Wei-Chi; Low, Intan; Chuang, Chih-Ying; Chen, Li-Fen; Hsieh, Jen-Chuen</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Menstrual pain is the most prevalent gynecological complaint, and is usually without organic cause (termed <span class="hlt">primary</span> dysmenorrhea, PDM). The high comorbidity in the later life of PDM with many functional pain disorders (associated with central dysfunction of pain inhibition, eg, fibromyalgia) suggests possible maladaptive functionality of pain modulatory <span class="hlt">systems</span> already occurred in young PDM women, making them vulnerable to functional pain disorders. Periaqueductal gray (PAG) matter functions as a critical hub in the neuraxis of pain modulatory <span class="hlt">systems</span>; therefore, we investigated the functional connectivity of PAG in PDM. Forty-six PDM subjects and 49 controls received resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging during menstruation and periovulatory phases. The PAG of PDM subjects exhibited adaptive/reactive hyperconnectivity with the sensorimotor cortex during painful menstruation, whereas it exhibited maladaptive hypoconnectivity with the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and default mode network (involving the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, or posterior parietal cortex) during menstruation or periovulatory phase. We propose that the maladaptive descending pain modulatory <span class="hlt">systems</span> in PDM may underpin the central susceptibility to subsequent development of various functional disorders later in life. This hypothesis is corroborated by the growing body of evidence that hypoconnectivity between PAG and default mode network is a coterminal to many functional pain disorders.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3284175','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3284175"><span id="translatedtitle">Users’ satisfaction with the <span class="hlt">primary</span> health care information <span class="hlt">system</span> in Croatia: a cross-sectional study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Andrijašević, Lidija; Angebrandt, Petra; Kern, Josipa</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Aim To evaluate the <span class="hlt">primary</span> health care information <span class="hlt">system</span> from the general practitioner's (GP) point of view. Methods Sixty-seven Croatian GPs were distributed a questionnaire about characteristics of the GP’s office, overall impression of the application, handling of daily routine information, more sophisticated information needs, and data security, and rated their satisfaction with each component from 1 to 5. We also compared two most frequently used applications – application with distantly installed software (DIS) and that with locally installed software (LIS, personal computer-based application). Results GPs were most satisfied with the daily procedures and the reminder component of the health information <span class="hlt">system</span> (rating 4.1). The overall impression ranked second (3.5) and flexibility of applications followed closely (3.4). The most questionable aspect of applications was data security (3.0). LIS <span class="hlt">system</span> received better overall rate than DIS (4.2 vs 3.2). Conclusion Applications received better ratings for daily routine use than for overall impression and ability to get specific information according the GPs’ needs. Poor ratings on the capability of the application, complaints about unreliable links, and doubts about data security point to a need for more user-friendly interfaces, more information on the capability of the application, and a valid certificate of assessment for every application. PMID:22351580</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4926712','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4926712"><span id="translatedtitle">Patients’ perceptions of the triage <span class="hlt">system</span> in a <span class="hlt">primary</span> healthcare facility, Cape Town, South Africa</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Adeniji, Adeloye Amoo</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Background In public healthcare facilities, where the patient numbers and the available resources are often disproportionate, triage is used to prioritise when patients are seen. Patients may not understand the triage process and have strong views on how to improve their experience. Aim This study explored the views of patients who had undergone triage in the emergency centre of a <span class="hlt">primary</span> care facility. Setting Gugulethu Community Health Centre, Cape Town. Methods A purposive sample consisted of five women (one coded green, three orange, one yellow) and four men (one coded green and three yellow). A semi-structured qualitative interview was conducted in either Xhosa or English and the transcripts analysed using the framework method. Results All of the respondents complained of a lack of information and poor understanding of the triage process. Those coded green experienced the process as biased and unfair and reported that the triage nurse was rude and unprofessional. By contrast, those coded yellow or orange found the triage nurse to be helpful and professional. Most patients turned to support staff (e.g. security staff or cleaners) for assistance in dealing with the triage <span class="hlt">system</span>. Most patients waited longer than the guidelines recommend and the green-coded patients complained about this issue. Conclusion Patients did not have a good experience of the triage <span class="hlt">system</span>. Managers of the triage <span class="hlt">system</span> need to design better strategies to improve patient acceptance and share information. The important role of support staff needs to be recognised and strengthened. PMID:27380788</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27357039','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27357039"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessment of <span class="hlt">Primary</span> Production of Horticultural Safety Management <span class="hlt">Systems</span> of Mushroom Farms in South Africa.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dzingirayi, Garikayi; Korsten, Lise</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Growing global consumer concern over food safety in the fresh produce industry requires producers to implement necessary quality assurance <span class="hlt">systems</span>. Varying effectiveness has been noted in how countries and food companies interpret and implement food safety standards. A diagnostic instrument (DI) for global fresh produce industries was developed to measure the compliancy of companies with implemented food safety standards. The DI is made up of indicators and descriptive grids for context factors and control and assurance activities to measure food safety output. The instrument can be used in <span class="hlt">primary</span> production to assess food safety performance. This study applied the DI to measure food safety standard compliancy of mushroom farming in South Africa. Ten farms representing almost half of the industry farms and more than 80% of production were independently assessed for their horticultural safety management <span class="hlt">system</span> (HSMS) compliance via in-depth interviews with each farm's quality assurance personnel. The data were processed using Microsoft Office Excel 2010 and are represented in frequency tables. The diagnosis revealed that the mushroom farming industry had an average food safety output. The farms were implementing an average-toadvanced HSMS and operating in a medium-risk context. Insufficient performance areas in HSMSs included inadequate hazard analysis and analysis of control points, low specificity of pesticide assessment, and inadequate control of suppliers and incoming materials. Recommendations to the industry and current shortcomings are suggested for realization of an improved industry-wide food safety assurance <span class="hlt">system</span>. PMID:27357039</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22392177','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22392177"><span id="translatedtitle">Structural and optical properties of low temperature grown <span class="hlt">Al</span>N films on sapphire using helicon sputtering <span class="hlt">system</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Chen, Meei-Ru; Chen, Hou-Guang; Kao, Hui-Ling Wu, Ming-Guei; Tzou, An-Jye; Chen, Jyh Shin; Chou, Hsiung</p> <p>2015-05-15</p> <p><span class="hlt">Al</span>N thin films have been deposited directly on c-plane sapphire substrates at low temperatures by a helicon sputtering <span class="hlt">system</span>. The structural quality of <span class="hlt">Al</span>N epitaxial films was characterized by x-ray diffractometry and transmission electron microscopy. The films exhibit smooth surface with root-mean-square roughness as small as 0.7 nm evaluated by atomic force microscope. The optical transmittance spectra show a steep absorption edge at the wavelength of 200 nm and a high transmittance of over 80% in the visible range. The band-edge transition (6.30 eV) of <span class="hlt">Al</span>N film was observed in the cathodoluminescence spectrum recorded at 11 K. The spectral response of metal–semiconductor–metal photodetectors constructed with <span class="hlt">Al</span>N/sapphire reveals the peak responsivity at 200 nm and a UV/visible rejection ratio of about two orders of magnitude. The results of this low temperature deposition suggest the feasibility of the epitaxial growth of <span class="hlt">Al</span>N on sapphire substrates and the incorporation of the <span class="hlt">Al</span>N films in the surface acoustic wave devices and the optical devices at deep ultraviolet region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900019290','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900019290"><span id="translatedtitle">Liquid Rocket Booster (LRB) for the Space Transportation <span class="hlt">System</span> (STS) <span class="hlt">systems</span> study. Appendix F: Performance and trajectory for <span class="hlt">ALS</span>/LRB launch vehicles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>By simply combining two baseline pump-fed LOX/RP-1 Liquid Rocket Boosters (LRBs) with the Denver core, a launch vehicle (Option 1 Advanced Launch <span class="hlt">System</span> (<span class="hlt">ALS</span>)) is obtained that can perform both the 28.5 deg (<span class="hlt">ALS</span>) mission and the polar orbit <span class="hlt">ALS</span> mission. The Option 2 LRB was obtained by finding the optimum LOX/LH2 engine for the STS/LRB reference mission (70.5 K lb payload). Then this engine and booster were used to estimate <span class="hlt">ALS</span> payload for the 28.5 deg inclination <span class="hlt">ALS</span> mission. Previous studies indicated that the optimum number of STS/LRB engines is four. When the engine/booster sizing was performed, each engine had 478 K lb sea level thrust and the booster carried 625,000 lb of useable propellant. Two of these LRBs combined with the Denver core provided a launch vehicle that meets the payload requirements for both the <span class="hlt">ALS</span> and STS reference missions. The Option 3 LRB uses common engines for the cores and boosters. The booster engines do not have the nozzle extension. These engines were sized as common <span class="hlt">ALS</span> engines. An <span class="hlt">ALS</span> launch vehicle that has six core engines and five engines per booster provides 109,100 lb payload for the 28.5 deg mission. Each of these LOX/LH2 LRBs carries 714,100 lb of useable propellant. It is estimated that the STS/LRB reference mission payload would be 75,900 lb.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/605755','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/605755"><span id="translatedtitle">Formation and stability of {beta}-quartz solid-solution phase in the Li-Si-<span class="hlt">Al</span>-O-N <span class="hlt">system</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Nordmann, A.; Cheng, Y.B.</p> <p>1997-12-01</p> <p>The development of crystalline phases in lithium oxynitride glass-ceramics was examined, with particular emphasis placed on the effect of the nitrogen source (<span class="hlt">Al</span>N or Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) on the formation and stability of a {beta}-quartz solid-solution (ss) phase. Oxynitride glasses derived from the Li-Si-<span class="hlt">Al</span>-O-N <span class="hlt">system</span> were heated-treated at temperatures up to 1,200 C to yield glass-ceramics in which {beta}-quartz(ss) and {beta}-spodumene(ss) of approximate composition Li{sub 2}O {center_dot} <span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 2}O{sub 3} {center_dot} 4SiO{sub 2} formed as major phases and in which X-phase (Si{sub 3}<span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 6}O{sub 12}N{sub 2}) and silicon oxynitride (Si{sub 2}N{sub 2}O) were present as minor phases. The nitrogen-containing {beta}-quartz(ss) phase that was prepared with <span class="hlt">Al</span>N was stable at 1,200 C; however, the use of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} as the nitrogen source was significantly less effective in promoting such thermal stabilization. Lattice parameter measurements revealed that <span class="hlt">Al</span>N and Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} had different effects on the crystalline structures, and it was proposed that the enhanced thermal stability of the {beta}-quartz(ss) phase that was prepared with <span class="hlt">Al</span>N was due to both the replacement of oxygen by nitrogen and the positioning of excess <span class="hlt">Al</span>{sup 3+} ions into interstitial sites within the {beta}-quartz(ss) crystal lattice.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24111037','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24111037"><span id="translatedtitle">A new control method depending on <span class="hlt">primary</span> phase angle of transcutaneous energy transmission <span class="hlt">system</span> for artificial heart.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Miura, H; Saito, I; Sato, F; Shiraishi, Y; Yambe, T; Matsuki, H</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>A new control method for stabilizing output voltage of the transcutaneous energy transmission <span class="hlt">system</span> for artificial heart is proposed. This method is <span class="hlt">primary</span> side, is outside of the body, which is not depending on a signal transmission <span class="hlt">system</span> from the implanted device. The impedance observed from <span class="hlt">primary</span> side changes from inductive to capacitive and the output voltage decreases drastically when the output current is large and the coupling factor is higher than that of the optimal condition. In this case, the driving frequency should be changed to higher so that the phase angle of the <span class="hlt">primary</span> impedance is zero degree. The preliminary examination showed that this control method can enhance the output voltage limit to twice and the feasibility of the <span class="hlt">primary</span> side control.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPCM...28q5302D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPCM...28q5302D"><span id="translatedtitle">A basin-hopping Monte Carlo investigation of the structural and energetic properties of 55- and 561-atom bimetallic nanoclusters: the examples of the ZrCu, Zr<span class="hlt">Al</span>, and Cu<span class="hlt">Al</span> <span class="hlt">systems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>De Souza, Douglas G.; Cezar, Henrique M.; Rondina, Gustavo G.; de Oliveira, Marcelo F.; Da Silva, Juarez L. F.</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>We report a basin-hopping Monte Carlo investigation within the embedded-atom method of the structural and energetic properties of bimetallic ZrCu, Zr<span class="hlt">Al</span>, and Cu<span class="hlt">Al</span> nanoclusters with 55 and 561 atoms. We found that unary Zr55, Zr561, Cu55, Cu561, <span class="hlt">Al</span>55, and <span class="hlt">Al</span>561 <span class="hlt">systems</span> adopt the well known compact icosahedron (ICO) structure. The excess energy is negative for all <span class="hlt">systems</span> and compositions, which indicates an energetic preference for the mixing of both chemical species. The ICO structure is preserved if a few atoms of the host <span class="hlt">system</span> are replaced by different species, however, the composition limit in which the ICO structure is preserved depends on both the host and new chemical species. Using several structural analyses, three classes of structures, namely ideal ICO, nearly ICO, and distorted ICO structures, were identified. As the amounts of both chemical species change towards a more balanced composition, configurations far from the ICO structure arise and the dominant structures are nearly spherical, which indicates a strong minimization of the surface energy by decreasing the number of atoms with lower coordination on the surface. The average bond lengths follow Vegard’s law almost exactly for ZrCu and Zr<span class="hlt">Al</span>, however, this is not the case for Cu<span class="hlt">Al</span>. Furthermore, the radial distribution allowed us to identify the presence of an onion-like behavior in the surface of the 561-atom Cu<span class="hlt">Al</span> nanocluster with the <span class="hlt">Al</span> atoms located in the outermost surface shell, which can be explained by the lower surface energies of the <span class="hlt">Al</span> surfaces compared with the Cu surfaces. In ZrCu and Zr<span class="hlt">Al</span> the radial distribution indicates a nearly homogeneous distribution for the chemical species, however, with a slightly higher concentration of <span class="hlt">Al</span> atoms on the Zr<span class="hlt">Al</span> surface, which can also be explained by the lower surface energy.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27045947','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27045947"><span id="translatedtitle">A basin-hopping Monte Carlo investigation of the structural and energetic properties of 55- and 561-atom bimetallic nanoclusters: the examples of the ZrCu, Zr<span class="hlt">Al</span>, and Cu<span class="hlt">Al</span> <span class="hlt">systems</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>De Souza, Douglas G; Cezar, Henrique M; Rondina, Gustavo G; de Oliveira, Marcelo F; Da Silva, Juarez L F</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>We report a basin-hopping Monte Carlo investigation within the embedded-atom method of the structural and energetic properties of bimetallic ZrCu, Zr<span class="hlt">Al</span>, and Cu<span class="hlt">Al</span> nanoclusters with 55 and 561 atoms. We found that unary Zr55, Zr561, Cu55, Cu561, <span class="hlt">Al</span>55, and <span class="hlt">Al</span>561 <span class="hlt">systems</span> adopt the well known compact icosahedron (ICO) structure. The excess energy is negative for all <span class="hlt">systems</span> and compositions, which indicates an energetic preference for the mixing of both chemical species. The ICO structure is preserved if a few atoms of the host <span class="hlt">system</span> are replaced by different species, however, the composition limit in which the ICO structure is preserved depends on both the host and new chemical species. Using several structural analyses, three classes of structures, namely ideal ICO, nearly ICO, and distorted ICO structures, were identified. As the amounts of both chemical species change towards a more balanced composition, configurations far from the ICO structure arise and the dominant structures are nearly spherical, which indicates a strong minimization of the surface energy by decreasing the number of atoms with lower coordination on the surface. The average bond lengths follow Vegard's law almost exactly for ZrCu and Zr<span class="hlt">Al</span>, however, this is not the case for Cu<span class="hlt">Al</span>. Furthermore, the radial distribution allowed us to identify the presence of an onion-like behavior in the surface of the 561-atom Cu<span class="hlt">Al</span> nanocluster with the <span class="hlt">Al</span> atoms located in the outermost surface shell, which can be explained by the lower surface energies of the <span class="hlt">Al</span> surfaces compared with the Cu surfaces. In ZrCu and Zr<span class="hlt">Al</span> the radial distribution indicates a nearly homogeneous distribution for the chemical species, however, with a slightly higher concentration of <span class="hlt">Al</span> atoms on the Zr<span class="hlt">Al</span> surface, which can also be explained by the lower surface energy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1221954','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1221954"><span id="translatedtitle">Simulation of atomic diffusion in the Fcc Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> <span class="hlt">system</span>: A kinetic Monte Carlo study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Alfonso, Dominic R.; Tafen, De Nyago</p> <p>2015-04-28</p> <p>The atomic diffusion in fcc Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> binary alloys was studied by kinetic Monte Carlo simulation. The environment dependent hopping barriers were computed using a pair interaction model whose parameters were fitted to relevant data derived from electronic structure calculations. Long time diffusivities were calculated and the effect of composition change on the tracer diffusion coefficients was analyzed. These results indicate that this variation has noticeable impact on the atomic diffusivities. A reduction in the mobility of both Ni and <span class="hlt">Al</span> is demonstrated with increasing <span class="hlt">Al</span> content. As a result, examination of the pair interaction between atoms was carried out for the purpose of understanding the predicted trends.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5087231','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5087231"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Primary</span> localized cutaneous amyloidosis with lichen and poikiloderma-like lesions and an excellent response to <span class="hlt">systemic</span> acitretin*</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>MA, Han; Su, Xiangyang; Zhu, Guoxing; Yin, Songchao; Lu, Chun; Lai, Wei</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Primary</span> localized cutaneous amyloidosis is a skin-limited amyloidosis that does not involve internal organs. It is clinically subclassified into 3 general categories and some rare variants. However, there is considerable overlap within the classification. Though there are a variety of therapeutic measures, the treatment is often unsatisfactory, particularly when the disease is severe and extensive. We describe a rare case of <span class="hlt">primary</span> localized cutaneous amyloidosis with lichen and poikiloderma-like lesions that showed an excellent response to <span class="hlt">systemic</span> acitretin.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20131733','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20131733"><span id="translatedtitle">Gaining in New Orleans. With help from a federal grant, wounded city builds a model <span class="hlt">primary</span>-care <span class="hlt">system</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zigmond, Jessica</p> <p>2010-01-18</p> <p>In the wake of Hurricane Katrina, a thriving <span class="hlt">primary</span>-care network of neighborhood clinics in New Orleans seemed unimaginable. But today, thanks to a federal grant, the flood-damaged city has built a model <span class="hlt">system</span>. "From the devastation emerged an opportunity to restructure and reorganize <span class="hlt">primary</span> care for low-income and vulnerable populations in New Orleans," says Melinda Abrams, left, of the Commonwealth Fund.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012SPIE.8444E..33C&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012SPIE.8444E..33C&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">An updated T-series thermocouple measurement <span class="hlt">system</span> for high-accuracy temperature measurements of the MMT <span class="hlt">primary</span> mirror</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Clark, D.; Gibson, J. D.</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>Starting in 2009, MMTO began design and installation of a new set of electronics to measure a set of radiallydistributed type T thermocouples installed after the <span class="hlt">primary</span> mirror polishing was completed. These thermocouples are arranged in both single measurement points and as thermopiles for differential temperature sensing. Since the goal of the <span class="hlt">primary</span> mirror temperature control <span class="hlt">system</span> is to minimize mirror seeing and mirror figure errors induced by temperature variation across the <span class="hlt">primary</span> mirror, it depends on excellent accuracy from the temperature sensing <span class="hlt">system</span>. The new electronics encompass on-board cold-junction compensation, real-time ITS-90 curve fitting, and Ethernet connectivity to the data servers running in the MMTO software infrastructure. We describe the hardware design, <span class="hlt">system</span> wiring, and software used in this <span class="hlt">system</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20060051711','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20060051711"><span id="translatedtitle">A Preliminary Assessment of Phase Separator Ground-Based and Reduced-Gravity Testing for <span class="hlt">ALS</span> <span class="hlt">Systems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hall, Nancy Rabel</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>A viewgraph presentation of phase separator ground-based and reduced-gravity testing for Advanced Life Support (<span class="hlt">ALS</span>) <span class="hlt">systems</span> is shown. The topics include: 1) Multiphase Flow Technology Program; 2) Types of Separators; 3) MOBI Phase Separators; 4) Experiment set-up; and 5) Preliminary comparison/results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1130193','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1130193"><span id="translatedtitle">Displacement Threshold Energy and Recovery in an <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Ti Nanolayered <span class="hlt">System</span> with Intrinsic Point Defect Partitioning</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gerboth, Matthew D.; Setyawan, Wahyu; Henager, Charles H.</p> <p>2014-01-07</p> <p>A method is established and validated using molecular dynamics (MD) to determine the displacement threshold energies as Ed in nanolayered, multilayered <span class="hlt">systems</span> of dissimilar metals. The method is applied to specifically oriented nanolayered films of <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Ti where the crystal structure and interface orientations are varied in atomic models and Ed is calculated. Methods for defect detection are developed and discussed based on prior research in the literature and based on specific crystallographic directions available in the nanolayered <span class="hlt">systems</span>. These are compared and contrasted to similar calculations in corresponding bulk materials, including fcc <span class="hlt">Al</span>, fcc Ti, hcp <span class="hlt">Al</span>, and hcp Ti. In all cases, the calculated Ed in the multilayers are intermediate to the corresponding bulk values but exhibit some important directionality. In the nanolayer, defect detection demonstrated systematic differences in the behavior of Ed in each layer. Importantly, collision cascade damage exhibits significant defect partitioning within the <span class="hlt">Al</span> and Ti layers that is hypothesized to be an intrinsic property of dissimilar nanolayered <span class="hlt">systems</span>. This type of partitioning could be partly responsible for observed asymmetric radiation damage responses in many multilayered <span class="hlt">systems</span>. In addition, a pseudo-random direction was introduced to approximate the average Ed without performing numerous simulations with random directions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3379951','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3379951"><span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of cell identity, morphology, apoptosis and mitotic activity in a <span class="hlt">primary</span> neural cell culture <span class="hlt">system</span> in Drosophila</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>In Drosophila, most neurogenetic research is carried out in vivo. Mammalian research demonstrates that <span class="hlt">primary</span> cell culture techniques provide a powerful model to address cell autonomous and non-autonomous processes outside their endogenous environment. We developed a cell culture <span class="hlt">system</span> in Drosophila using wildtype and genetically manipulated <span class="hlt">primary</span> neural tissue for long-term observations. We assessed the molecular identity of distinct neural cell types by immunolabeling and genetically expressed fluorescent cell markers. We monitored mitotic activity of cell cultures derived from wildtype and tumorous larval brains. Our <span class="hlt">system</span> provides a powerful approach to unveil developmental processes in the nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> and to complement studies in vivo. PMID:22554060</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16263574','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16263574"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Primary</span> paranasal sinus lymphoma: natural history and improved outcome with central nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> chemoprophylaxis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Laskin, Janessa J; Savage, Kerry J; Voss, Nicholas; Gascoyne, Randy D; Connors, Joseph M</p> <p>2005-12-01</p> <p>Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the paranasal sinus is an uncommon presentation of extranodal lymphoma. Its natural history, treatment and prognosis have been infrequently characterized in the medical literature; however, a tendency to involve the central nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> (CNS) has been noted. In British Columbia (population 4 million), a central database for lymphomas has allowed us to accurately track cases of paranasal sinus lymphoma diagnosed since 1980. A retrospective review was performed on the 44 patients who presented with <span class="hlt">primary</span> paranasal sinus lymphoma (stage I or II) between 1980 and 1999. Histologic features were identified and immunophenotypic classification performed. Complete diagnostic and follow-up data including stage, treatment, response rates, sites of relapse and survival data were available for all patients. There were 26 men and 18 women. The types of lymphoma found were: diffuse large B cell (including immunoblastic), n = 37 (84%); T/NK nasal type, n = 3 (8%); peripheral T cell, not otherwise classified, n = 2 (4%); and others, n = 2 (4%). The median age at presentation was 66 years (range 27-97 years). The median follow-up for living patients was 114 months. For all 44 patients, the 5- and 10-year overall survivals were 48% and 41% and the disease-specific survivals 62% and 62%, respectively. Beginning in May 1985, intrathecal chemotherapy was added to our standard treatment plan of multi-agent chemotherapy and local irradiation. Before 1985, 2 of 5 patients developed leptomeningeal metastasis. Following the institution of intrathecal chemotherapy, only 8% (3 of 39) of patients have developed CNS disease. Introduction of intrathecal chemoprophylaxis was also associated with an improvement in overall survival from 20% to 51% and disease-specific survival from 40% to 65%. <span class="hlt">Primary</span> paranasal sinus lymphoma is an uncommon presentation of lymphoma that carries the potential risk of spreading to the leptomeninges. Treatment with combined modality</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27377654','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27377654"><span id="translatedtitle">Pembrolizumab: first experience with recurrent <span class="hlt">primary</span> central nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> (CNS) tumors.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Blumenthal, Deborah T; Yalon, Michal; Vainer, Gilad W; Lossos, Alexander; Yust, Shlomit; Tzach, Lior; Cagnano, Emanuela; Limon, Dror; Bokstein, Felix</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Patients with progressive <span class="hlt">primary</span> brain tumors (PBT) are attracted to promising new treatments, even prior to convincing data. Anti-PD1 immunotherapies have been in the spotlight since publication of groundbreaking results for metastatic melanoma with pembrolizumab (PBL). Our objective was to report on the response and toxicity of PBL in patients with advanced PBT. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 22 patients (17 adults and 5 children) with recurrent central nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> tumors treated with PBL. We analyzed prior antineoplastic therapies, steroid usage, and outcomes. Patients received a median of two neoplastic therapies prior to PBL, and a median of three infusions of PBL in adults and four in children. Twelve patients (9 adults and 3 children) started PBL on steroids (median dose in adults 4 mg; range 2-8, and in children 1.5 mg, range 0.5-4) and five patients received steroids later during PBL treatment. Twelve patients (10 adults and 2 children) received concomitant bevacizumab with PBL. Side effects were minimal. All patients showed progressive tumor growth during therapy. Median OS from the start of PBL was 2.6 months in adults and 3.2 months in children. Two GB patients underwent tumor resection following treatment with PBL. Tumor-lymphocytic response in these cases was unremarkable, and PD-L1 immuno-staining was negative. In this series of 22 patients with recurrent <span class="hlt">primary</span> brain tumors, PBL showed no clinical or histologic efficacy. We do not recommend further use of PBL for recurrent PBT unless convincing prospective clinical trial data are published.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/877181','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/877181"><span id="translatedtitle">Enhanced Control of PWR <span class="hlt">Primary</span> Coolant Water Chemistry Using Selective Separation <span class="hlt">Systems</span> for Recovery and Recycle of Enriched Boric Acid</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ken Czerwinski; Charels Yeamans; Don Olander; Kenneth Raymond; Norman Schroeder; Thomas Robison; Bryan Carlson; Barbara Smit; Pat Robinson</p> <p>2006-02-28</p> <p>The objective of this project is to develop <span class="hlt">systems</span> that will allow for increased nuclear energy production through the use of enriched fuels. The developed <span class="hlt">systems</span> will allow for the efficient and selective recover of selected isotopes that are additives to power water reactors' <span class="hlt">primary</span> coolant chemistry for suppression of corrosion attack on reactor materials.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1805044','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1805044"><span id="translatedtitle">2005 PRETEXT: a revised staging <span class="hlt">system</span> for <span class="hlt">primary</span> malignant liver tumours of childhood developed by the SIOPEL group</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Aronson, Daniel; Clapuyt, Philippe; Czauderna, Piotr; de Ville de Goyet, Jean; Gauthier, Frédéric; MacKinlay, Gordon; Maibach, Rudolf; McHugh, Kieran; Olsen, Øystein E.; Otte, Jean-Bernard; Pariente, Danièle; Plaschkes, Jack; Childs, Margaret; Perilongo, Giorgio</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Over the last 15 years, various oncology groups throughout the world have used the PRETEXT <span class="hlt">system</span> for staging malignant <span class="hlt">primary</span> liver tumours of childhood. This paper, written by members of the radiology and surgery committees of the International Childhood Liver Tumor Strategy Group (SIOPEL), presents various clarifications and revisions to the original PRETEXT <span class="hlt">system</span>. PMID:17186233</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17186233','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17186233"><span id="translatedtitle">2005 PRETEXT: a revised staging <span class="hlt">system</span> for <span class="hlt">primary</span> malignant liver tumours of childhood developed by the SIOPEL group.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Roebuck, Derek J; Aronson, Daniel; Clapuyt, Philippe; Czauderna, Piotr; de Ville de Goyet, Jean; Gauthier, Frédéric; Mackinlay, Gordon; Maibach, Rudolf; McHugh, Kieran; Olsen, Oystein E; Otte, Jean-Bernard; Pariente, Danièle; Plaschkes, Jack; Childs, Margaret; Perilongo, Giorgio</p> <p>2007-02-01</p> <p>Over the last 15 years, various oncology groups throughout the world have used the PRETEXT <span class="hlt">system</span> for staging malignant <span class="hlt">primary</span> liver tumours of childhood. This paper, written by members of the radiology and surgery committees of the International Childhood Liver Tumor Strategy Group (SIOPEL), presents various clarifications and revisions to the original PRETEXT <span class="hlt">system</span>. PMID:17186233</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Red+AND+light&pg=4&id=EJ415035','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Red+AND+light&pg=4&id=EJ415035"><span id="translatedtitle">Red Light-Green Light: A Classwide Management <span class="hlt">System</span> for Students with Behavior Disorders in <span class="hlt">Primary</span> Grades.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Barbetta, Patricia M.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Red Light-Green Light is a levels <span class="hlt">system</span> providing immediate behavior modification feedback and varying privilege levels throughout the school day for <span class="hlt">primary</span> students with behavior disorders. This article presents guidelines for implementation, covering development of classroom rules, classroom expectations, and <span class="hlt">system</span> maintenance. Tips for…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9698E..0VE','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9698E..0VE"><span id="translatedtitle">Creating an optical spectroscopy <span class="hlt">system</span> for use in a <span class="hlt">primary</span> care clinical setting (Conference Presentation)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Eshein, Adam; Nguyen, The-Quyen; Radosevich, Andrew J.; Gould, Bradley; Wu, Wenli; Konda, Vani; Yang, Leslie W.; Koons, Ann; Feder, Seth; Valuckaite, Vesta; Roy, Hemant K.; Backman, Vadim</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>While there are a plethora of in-vivo spectroscopic techniques that have demonstrated the ability to detect a number of diseases in research trials, very few techniques have successfully become a fully realized clinical technology. This is primarily due to the stringent demands on a clinical device for widespread implementation. Some of these demands include: simple operation requiring minimal or no training, safe for in-vivo patient use, no disruption to normal clinic workflow, tracking of <span class="hlt">system</span> performance, warning for measurement abnormality, and meeting all FDA guidelines for medical use. Previously, our group developed a fiber optic probe-based optical sensing technique known as low-coherence enhanced backscattering spectroscopy (LEBS) to quantify tissue ultrastructure in-vivo. Now we have developed this technique for the application of prescreening patients for colonoscopy in a <span class="hlt">primary</span> care (PC) clinical setting. To meet the stringent requirements for a viable medical device used in a PC clinical setting, we developed several novel components including an automated calibration tool, optical contact sensor for signal acquisition, and a contamination sensor to identify measurements which have been affected by debris. The end result is a state-of-the-art medical device that can be realistically used by a PC physician to assess a person's risk for harboring colorectal precancerous lesions. The pilot study of this <span class="hlt">system</span> shows great promise with excellent stability and accuracy in identifying high-risk patients. While this <span class="hlt">system</span> has been designed and optimized for our specific application, the <span class="hlt">system</span> and design concepts are universal to most in-vivo fiber optic based spectroscopic techniques.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012IEITC..95..950K&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012IEITC..95..950K&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Performance Enhancement of Multi-Cyclic Detector for Cognitive Radios with an OFDM <span class="hlt">Primary</span> <span class="hlt">System</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kim, Minseok; Po, Kimtho; Takada, Jun-Ichi</p> <p></p> <p>Spectrum sensing, a key technical challenge in cognitive radios (CR) technology, is a technique that enables the spectrum of licensed <span class="hlt">systems</span> to be accessed without causing undue interference. It is well known that cyclostationarity detectors have great advantages over energy detectors in terms of the robustness to noise uncertainty that significantly degrades the performance as well as the capability to distinguish the signal of interest from the other interferences and noise. The generalized likelihood ratio test (GLRT) is a recognized sensing technique that utilizes the inherent cyclostationarity of the signal and has been intensively studied. However, no comprehensive evaluation on its performance enhancement has been published to date. Moreover high computational complexity is still a significant problem for its realization. This paper proposes a maximum ratio combining multi-cyclic detector which uses multiple cyclic frequencies for performance enhancement with reduced computational complexity. An orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) signal based on the ISDB-T (integrated services digital broadcasting terrestrial), a Japanese digital television broadcasting standard, was used in the evaluation assuming this as a <span class="hlt">primary</span> <span class="hlt">system</span> in WRAN (wireless regional area network) applications like IEEE 802.22.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatGe...9..505R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatGe...9..505R"><span id="translatedtitle">Partial decoupling of <span class="hlt">primary</span> productivity from upwelling in the California Current <span class="hlt">system</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Renault, Lionel; Deutsch, Curtis; McWilliams, James C.; Frenzel, Hartmut; Liang, Jun-Hong; Colas, François</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Coastal winds and upwelling of deep nutrient-rich water along subtropical eastern boundaries yield some of the ocean's most productive ecosystems. Simple indices of coastal wind strength have been extensively used to estimate the timing and magnitude of biological productivity on seasonal and interannual timescales and underlie the prediction that anthropogenic climate warming will increase the productivity by making coastal winds stronger. The effect of wind patterns on regional net <span class="hlt">primary</span> productivity is not captured by such indices and is poorly understood. Here we present evidence, using a realistic model of the California Current <span class="hlt">system</span> and satellite measurements, that the observed slackening of the winds near the coast has little effect on near-shore phytoplankton productivity despite a large reduction in upwelling velocity. On the regional scale the wind drop-off leads to substantially higher production even when the total upwelling rate remains the same. This partial decoupling of productivity from upwelling results from the impact of wind patterns on alongshore currents and the eddies they generate. Our results imply that productivity in eastern boundary upwelling <span class="hlt">systems</span> will be better predicted from indices of the coastal wind that account for its offshore structure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2642564','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2642564"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Primary</span> Care Physicians’ Use of an Electronic Medical Record <span class="hlt">System</span>: A Cognitive Task Analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hadas-Dayagi, Michal; Ziv, Amitai; Reis, Shmuel</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>OBJECTIVE To describe physicians’ patterns of using an Electronic Medical Record (EMR) <span class="hlt">system</span>; to reveal the underlying cognitive elements involved in EMR use, possible resulting errors, and influences on patient–doctor communication; to gain insight into the role of expertise in incorporating EMRs into clinical practice in general and communicative behavior in particular. DESIGN Cognitive task analysis using semi-structured interviews and field observations. PARTICIPANTS Twenty-five <span class="hlt">primary</span> care physicians from the northern district of the largest health maintenance organization (HMO) in Israel. RESULTS The comprehensiveness, organization, and readability of data in the EMR <span class="hlt">system</span> reduced physicians’ need to recall information from memory and the difficulty of reading handwriting. Physicians perceived EMR use as reducing the cognitive load associated with clinical tasks. Automaticity of EMR use contributed to efficiency, but sometimes resulted in errors, such as the selection of incorrect medication or the input of data into the wrong patient’s chart. EMR use interfered with patient–doctor communication. The main strategy for overcoming this problem involved separating EMR use from time spent communicating with patients. Computer mastery and enhanced physicians’ communication skills also helped. CONCLUSIONS There is a fine balance between the benefits and risks of EMR use. Automaticity, especially in combination with interruptions, emerged as the main cognitive factor contributing to errors. EMR use had a negative influence on communication, a problem that can be partially addressed by improving the spatial organization of physicians’ offices and by enhancing physicians’ computer and communication skills. PMID:19130148</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/911384','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/911384"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessment of Field Experience Related to Pressurized Water Reactor <span class="hlt">Primary</span> <span class="hlt">System</span> Leaks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Shah, Vikram Naginbhai; Ware, Arthur Gates; Atwood, Corwin Lee; Sattison, Martin Blaine; Hartley, Robert Scott; Hsu, C.</p> <p>1999-08-01</p> <p>This paper presents our assessment of field experience related to pressurized water reactor (PWR) <span class="hlt">primary</span> <span class="hlt">system</span> leaks in terms of their number of rates, how aging affects frequency of leak events, the safety significance of such leaks, industry efforts to reduce leaks, and effectiveness of current leak detection <span class="hlt">systems</span>. We have reviewed the licensee event reports to identify the events that took place during 1985 to the third quarter of 1996, and reviewed related technical literature and visited PWR plants to analyze these events. Our assessment shows that USNRC licensees have taken effective actions to reduce the number of leak events. One main reason for this decreasing trend was the elimination or reportable leakages from valve stem packing after 1991. Our review of leak events related to vibratory fatigue reveals a statistically significant decreasing trend with age (years of operation), but not in calendar time. Our assessment of worldwide data on leakage caused by thermal fatigue cracking is that the fatigue of aging piping is a safety significant issue. Our review of leak events has identified several susceptible sites in piping having high safety significance; but the inspection of some of these sites is not required by the ASME Code. These sites may be included in the risk-informed inspection programs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/9237','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/9237"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessment of Field Experience Related to Pressurized Water Reactor <span class="hlt">Primary</span> <span class="hlt">System</span> Leaks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>A. G. Ware; C. Hsu; C. L. Atwood; M. B. Sattison; R. S. Hartley; V. N. Shah</p> <p>1999-02-01</p> <p>This paper presents our assessment of field experience related to pressurized water reactor (PWR) <span class="hlt">primary</span> <span class="hlt">system</span> leaks in terms of their number and rates, how aging affects frequency of leak events, the safety significance of such leaks, industry efforts to reduce leaks, and effectiveness of current leak detection <span class="hlt">systems</span>. We have reviewed the licensee event reports to identify the events that took place during 1985 to the third quarter of 1996, and reviewed related technical literature and visited PWR plants to analyze these events. Our assessment shows that USNRC licensees have taken effective actions to reduce the number of leak events. One main reason for this decreasing trend was the elimination or reportable leakages from valve stem packing after 1991. Our review of leak events related to vibratory fatigue reveals a statistically significant decreasing trend with age (years of operation), but not in calendar time. Our assessment of worldwide data on leakage caused by thermal fatigue cracking is that the fatigue of aging piping is a safety significant issue. Our review of leak events has identified several susceptible sites in piping having high safety significance; but the inspection of some of these sites is not required by the ASME Code. These sites may be included in the risk-informed inspection programs.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016APLM....4f6101A&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016APLM....4f6101A&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Tunnel and electrostatic coupling in graphene-La<span class="hlt">Al</span>O3/SrTiO3 hybrid <span class="hlt">systems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Aliaj, I.; Torre, I.; Miseikis, V.; di Gennaro, E.; Sambri, A.; Gamucci, A.; Coletti, C.; Beltram, F.; Granozio, F. M.; Polini, M.; Pellegrini, V.; Roddaro, S.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>We report on the transport properties of hybrid devices obtained by depositing graphene on a La<span class="hlt">Al</span>O3/SrTiO3 oxide junction hosting a 4 nm-deep 2-dimensional electron <span class="hlt">system</span>. At low graphene-oxide inter-layer bias, the two electron <span class="hlt">systems</span> are electrically isolated, despite their small spatial separation. A very efficient reciprocal gating of the two neighboring 2-dimensional <span class="hlt">systems</span> is shown. A pronounced rectifying behavior is observed for larger bias values and ascribed to the interplay between electrostatic field-effects and tunneling across the La<span class="hlt">Al</span>O3 barrier. The relevance of these results in the context of strongly coupled bilayer <span class="hlt">systems</span> is discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24196169','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24196169"><span id="translatedtitle">Local decomposition induced by dislocation motions inside tetragonal <span class="hlt">Al</span>(2)Cu compound: slip <span class="hlt">system</span>-dependent dynamics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chen, D; Ma, X L</p> <p>2013-11-07</p> <p>Dislocations in a crystal are usually classified into several independent slip <span class="hlt">systems</span>. Motion of a partial dislocation in monometallic crystals may remove or create stacking fault characterized with a partial of a lattice translation vector. However, it is recently known that motion of partial dislocations in complex structure, such as that inside an intermetallic <span class="hlt">Al</span>2Cu compound, lead to a local composition deviation from its stoichiometric ratio and the resultant structure collapse. Here we report such a local decomposition behaviors are strongly dependent on slip <span class="hlt">system</span> of dislocations. Under applied external stress, we have studied dislocation motion behaviors in the three independent slip <span class="hlt">systems</span> of [001](110), [100]() and [110]() within tetragonal <span class="hlt">Al</span>2Cu crystal by using molecular dynamics method. We found dislocation motions in all these slip <span class="hlt">systems</span> result in local decomposition but their physical details differ significantly.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IJAEO..43..160H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IJAEO..43..160H"><span id="translatedtitle">Leaf chlorophyll constraint on model simulated gross <span class="hlt">primary</span> productivity in agricultural <span class="hlt">systems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Houborg, Rasmus; F. McCabe, Matthew; Cescatti, Alessandro; A. Gitelson, Anatoly</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Leaf chlorophyll content (Chll) may serve as an observational proxy for the maximum rate of carboxylation (Vmax), which describes leaf photosynthetic capacity and represents the single most important control on modeled leaf photosynthesis within most Terrestrial Biosphere Models (TBMs). The parameterization of Vmax is associated with great uncertainty as it can vary significantly between plants and in response to changes in leaf nitrogen (N) availability, plant phenology and environmental conditions. Houborg et <span class="hlt">al</span>. (2013) outlined a semi-mechanistic relationship between Vmax25 (Vmax normalized to 25 °C) and Chll based on inter-linkages between Vmax25, Rubisco enzyme kinetics, N and Chll. Here, these relationships are parameterized for a wider range of important agricultural crops and embedded within the leaf photosynthesis-conductance scheme of the Community Land Model (CLM), bypassing the questionable use of temporally invariant and broadly defined plant functional type (PFT) specific Vmax25 values. In this study, the new Chll constrained version of CLM is refined with an updated parameterization scheme for specific application to soybean and maize. The benefit of using in-situ measured and satellite retrieved Chll for constraining model simulations of Gross <span class="hlt">Primary</span> Productivity (GPP) is evaluated over fields in central Nebraska, U.S.A between 2001 and 2005. Landsat-based Chll time-series records derived from the Regularized Canopy Reflectance model (REGFLEC) are used as forcing to the CLM. Validation of simulated GPP against 15 site-years of flux tower observations demonstrate the utility of Chll as a model constraint, with the coefficient of efficiency increasing from 0.91 to 0.94 and from 0.87 to 0.91 for maize and soybean, respectively. Model performances particularly improve during the late reproductive and senescence stage, where the largest temporal variations in Chll (averaging 35-55 μg cm-2 for maize and 20-35 μg cm-2 for soybean) are observed. While</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ApPhL.102x2113Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ApPhL.102x2113Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Remotely sensed transport in microwave photoexcited GaAs/<span class="hlt">Al</span>GaAs two-dimensional electron <span class="hlt">system</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ye, Tianyu; Mani, R. G.; Wegscheider, W.</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>We demonstrate a strong correlation between the magnetoresistive response and the concurrent microwave reflection from the microwave photo-excited GaAs/<span class="hlt">Al</span>GaAs two-dimensional electron <span class="hlt">system</span> (2DES). These correlations are followed as a function of the microwave power, the microwave frequency, and the applied current. Notably, the character of the reflection signal remains unchanged even when the current is switched off in the GaAs/<span class="hlt">Al</span>GaAs Hall bar specimen. The results suggest a perceptible microwave-induced change in the electronic properties of the 2DES, even in the absence of an applied current.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985JaJAP..24L.143M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985JaJAP..24L.143M"><span id="translatedtitle">Direct Evidence for the DX Center Being a Substitutional Donor in <span class="hlt">Al</span>GaAs Alloy <span class="hlt">System</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mizuta, Masashi; Tachikawa, Masami; Kukimoto, Hiroshi; Minomura, Shigeru</p> <p>1985-02-01</p> <p>An experimental result that the DX center appears in GaAs:Si and GaAsd:Sn under hydrostatic pressure of about 30 kbars has been obtained for the first time. This indicates clearly that the DX center in the <span class="hlt">Al</span>GaAs alloy <span class="hlt">system</span> is due to a substitutional donor itself (not a complex referred to as “DX”). The change in nature from the the shallow donor to the deep DX center is discussed based on the complex multivalley conduction band structure of GaAs under various pressures and of <span class="hlt">Al</span>GaAs with various compositions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22492517','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22492517"><span id="translatedtitle">Study of the magnetic properties, structure, and phase transformation in the alloys of the Co-<span class="hlt">Al</span>-W <span class="hlt">system</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Davidov, D. I. Stepanova, N. N. Kazantseva, N. V. Rigmant, M. B. Shishkin, D. A.</p> <p>2015-10-27</p> <p>An experimental study of phase transformations in the <span class="hlt">system</span> of Co-<span class="hlt">Al</span>-W in the concentration area of the intermetallic compound Co{sub 3}(<span class="hlt">Al</span>, W) is presented. The structure and phase composition of the Co–9 at % Al–X at % W (X = 4.5, 6.8, 8.5, 10, 12.5) alloys in depending on the tungsten content are analyzed. The Curie temperature and magnetic properties of the alloys with the different phase composition are determined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860047008&hterms=Ytterbium&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DYtterbium','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860047008&hterms=Ytterbium&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DYtterbium"><span id="translatedtitle">Optimization of the Ni-Cr-<span class="hlt">Al</span>-Y/ZrO2-Y2O3 thermal barrier <span class="hlt">system</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Stecura, S.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>The effects of bond and thermal barrier coating compositions, thicknesses, and densities on air plasma spray deposited Ni-Cr-<span class="hlt">Al</span>-Y/ZrO2-Y2O3 life were evaluated in cyclic furnace oxidation tests at temperatures from 1110 to 1220 C. An empirical relation was developed to give life as a function of the above parameters. The thermal barrier <span class="hlt">system</span> tested which had the longest life consisted of Ni-35.0 wt pct Cr-5.9 wt pct <span class="hlt">Al</span>-0.95 wt pct Y bond coating and ZrO2-6.1 wt pct Y2O3 thermal barrier coating.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19850007569','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19850007569"><span id="translatedtitle">Optimization of the NiCr<span class="hlt">Al</span>-Y/ZrO-Y2O3 thermal barrier <span class="hlt">system</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Stecura, S.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>The effects of bond and thermal barrier coating compositions, thicknesses, and densities on air plasma spray deposited Ni-Cr-<span class="hlt">Al</span>-Y/ZrO2-Y2O3 life were evaluated in cyclic furnace oxidation tests at temperatures from 1110 to 1220 C. An empirical relation was developed to give life as a function of the above parameters. The thermal barrier <span class="hlt">system</span> tested which had the longest life consisted of Ni-35.0 wt% Cr-5.9 wt% <span class="hlt">Al</span>-0.95 wt% Y bond coating and ZrO2-6.1 wt% Y2O3 thermal barrier coating.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1185327','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1185327"><span id="translatedtitle">Metastability in the Mg<span class="hlt">Al</span><sub>2</sub>O<sub>4</sub>-<span class="hlt">Al</span><sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> <span class="hlt">System</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wilkerson, Kelley R.; Smith, Jeffrey D.; Hemrick, James G.</p> <p>2014-07-22</p> <p>Aluminum oxide must take a spinel form ( γ-<span class="hlt">Al</span><sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>) at elevated temperatures in order for extensive solid solution to form between Mg<span class="hlt">Al</span><sub>2</sub>O<sub>4</sub> and α-<span class="hlt">Al</span><sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>. The solvus line between Mg<span class="hlt">Al</span><sub>2</sub>O<sub>4</sub> and <span class="hlt">Al</span><sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> has been defined at 79.6 wt% <span class="hlt">Al</span><sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> at 1500°C, 83.0 wt% <span class="hlt">Al</span><sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> at 1600°C, and 86.5 wt% <span class="hlt">Al</span><sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> at 1700°C. A metastable region has been defined at temperatures up to 1700°C which could have significant implications for material processing and properties. Additionally, initial processing could have major implications on final chemistry. The spinel solid solution region has been extended to form an infinite solid solution with <span class="hlt">Al</span><sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> at elevated temperatures. A minimum in melting at 1975°C and a chemistry of 96 wt% <span class="hlt">Al</span><sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> rather than a eutectic is present, resulting in no eutectic crystal formation during solidification.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008SPIE.7156E..1TZ','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008SPIE.7156E..1TZ"><span id="translatedtitle">Optimization design for the supporting <span class="hlt">system</span> of 2m telescope <span class="hlt">primary</span> mirror</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhao, Fu; Wang, Ping; Gong, Yanjue; Zhang, Li; Lin, Jianlong</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>This paper describes the optimization solution improving the total quality of the <span class="hlt">primary</span> mirror supporting type. With the methods of Finite element analysis(FEA), Orthogonal experiment and BP Neural Network, the relationship between the structure parameters in <span class="hlt">primary</span> mirror supporting type and the deformation of the <span class="hlt">primary</span> mirror is built. With this relationship and Genetic Algorithm(GA) optimization design, a group of reasonable technology parameters is found that can improve the static stiffness of the <span class="hlt">primary</span> mirror supporting type so as to reduce the gravity deformation of the <span class="hlt">primary</span> mirror. The modal analysis and random vibration analysis are also discussed in detail, and the results indicate that the dynamic stiffness of the <span class="hlt">primary</span> mirror supporting type is also improved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4956266','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4956266"><span id="translatedtitle">Metabolic Profiling of <span class="hlt">Systemic</span> Lupus Erythematosus and Comparison with <span class="hlt">Primary</span> Sjögren’s Syndrome and <span class="hlt">Systemic</span> Sclerosis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bengtsson, Anders A.; Trygg, Johan; Wuttge, Dirk M.; Sturfelt, Gunnar; Theander, Elke; Donten, Magdalena; Moritz, Thomas; Sennbro, Carl-Johan; Torell, Frida; Lood, Christian; Surowiec, Izabella; Rännar, Stefan; Lundstedt, Torbjörn</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Systemic</span> lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease which can affect most organ <span class="hlt">systems</span> including skin, joints and the kidney. Clinically, SLE is a heterogeneous disease and shares features of several other rheumatic diseases, in particular <span class="hlt">primary</span> Sjögrens syndrome (pSS) and <span class="hlt">systemic</span> sclerosis (SSc), why it is difficult to diagnose The pathogenesis of SLE is not completely understood, partly due to the heterogeneity of the disease. This study demonstrates that metabolomics can be used as a tool for improved diagnosis of SLE compared to other similar autoimmune diseases. We observed differences in metabolic profiles with a classification specificity above 67% in the comparison of SLE with pSS, SSc and a matched group of healthy individuals. Selected metabolites were also significantly different between studied diseases. Biochemical pathway analysis was conducted to gain understanding of underlying pathways involved in the SLE pathogenesis. We found an increased oxidative activity in SLE, supported by increased xanthine oxidase activity and an increased turnover in the urea cycle. The most discriminatory metabolite observed was tryptophan, with decreased levels in SLE patients compared to control groups. Changes of tryptophan levels were related to changes in the activity of the aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) and/or to activation of the kynurenine pathway. PMID:27441838</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70014774','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70014774"><span id="translatedtitle">Heat capacity measurements for cryolite (Na3<span class="hlt">Al</span>F6) and reactions in the <span class="hlt">system</span> NaFe<span class="hlt">Al</span>SiOF</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Anovitz, Lawrence M.; Hemingway, B.S.; Westrum, E.F.; Metz, G.W.; Essene, E.J.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>The heat capacity of cryolite (Na3<span class="hlt">Al</span>F6) has been measured from 7 to 1000 K by low-temperature adiabatic and high-temperature differential scanning calorimetry. Low-temperature data were obtained on material from the same hand specimen in the calorimetric laboratories of the University of Michigan and U.S. Geological Survey. The results obtained are in good agreement, and yield average values for the entropy of cryolite of: S0298 = 238.5 J/mol KS0T-S0298 = 145.114 ln T+ 193.009*10-3T- 10.366* 105 T2- 872.89 J/mol K (273-836.5 K)??STrans = 9.9J/mol KS0T-S0298 =198.414 ln T+73.203* 10-3T-63.814* 105 T2-1113.11 J/mol K (836.5-1153 K) with the transition temperature between ??- and ??-cryolite taken at 836.5 K. These data have been combined with data in the literature to calculate phase equilibria for the <span class="hlt">system</span> NaFe<span class="hlt">Al</span>SiOF. The resultant phase diagrams allow constraints to be placed on the fO2, fF2, aSiO2 and T conditions of formation for assemblages in alkalic rocks. A sample application suggests that log fO2 is approximately -19.2, log fF2 is -31.9 to -33.2, and aSiO2 is -1.06 at assumed P T conditions of 1000 K, 1 bar for the villiaumite-bearing Ilimaussaq intrusion in southwestern Greenland. ?? 1987.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920000799','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920000799"><span id="translatedtitle">Feasibility of using a knowledge-based <span class="hlt">system</span> concept for in-flight <span class="hlt">primary</span> flight display research</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ricks, Wendell R.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>A study was conducted to determine the feasibility of using knowledge-based <span class="hlt">systems</span> architectures for inflight research of <span class="hlt">primary</span> flight display information management issues. The feasibility relied on the ability to integrate knowledge-based <span class="hlt">systems</span> with existing onboard aircraft <span class="hlt">systems</span>. And, given the hardware and software platforms available, the feasibility also depended on the ability to use interpreted LISP software with the real time operation of the <span class="hlt">primary</span> flight display. In addition to evaluating these feasibility issues, the study determined whether the software engineering advantages of knowledge-based <span class="hlt">systems</span> found for this application in the earlier workstation study extended to the inflight research environment. To study these issues, two integrated knowledge-based <span class="hlt">systems</span> were designed to control the <span class="hlt">primary</span> flight display according to pre-existing specifications of an ongoing <span class="hlt">primary</span> flight display information management research effort. These two <span class="hlt">systems</span> were implemented to assess the feasibility and software engineering issues listed. Flight test results were successful in showing the feasibility of using knowledge-based <span class="hlt">systems</span> inflight with actual aircraft data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApSS..360..559S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApSS..360..559S"><span id="translatedtitle">Single- and dual-wavelength laser pulses induced modification in 10×(<span class="hlt">Al</span>/Ti)/Si multilayer <span class="hlt">system</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Salatić, B.; Petrović, S.; Peruško, D.; Čekada, M.; Panjan, P.; Pantelić, D.; Jelenković, B.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The surface morphology of the ablation craters created in the multilayer 10×(<span class="hlt">Al</span>/Ti)/Si <span class="hlt">system</span> by nanosecond laser pulses at single- and dual wavelength has been studied experimentally and numerically. A complex multilayer thin film including ten (<span class="hlt">Al</span>/Ti) bilayers deposited by ion sputtering on Si(1 0 0) substrate to a total thickness of 260 nm were illuminated at different laser irradiance in the range 0.25-3.5 × 109 W cm-2. Single pulse laser irradiation was done at normal incidence in air, with the single wavelength, either at 532 nm or 1064 nm or with both laser light simultaneously in the ratio of 1:10 for energy per pulse between second harmonic and 1064 nm. Most of the absorbed laser energy was rapidly transformed into heat, producing intensive modifications of composition and morphology on the sample surface. The results show an increase in surface roughness, formation of specific nanostructures, appearance of hydrodynamic features and ablation of surface material with crater formation. Applying a small fraction (10%) of the second harmonic in dual-wavelength pulses, a modification of the 10×(<span class="hlt">Al</span>/Ti)/Si <span class="hlt">system</span> by a single laser pulse was reflected in the formation of wider and/or deeper craters. Numerical calculations show that the main physical mechanism in ablation process is normal evaporation without phase explosion. The calculated and experimental results agree relatively well for the whole irradiance range, what makes the model applicable to complex <span class="hlt">Al</span>/Ti multilayer <span class="hlt">systems</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MNRAS.460.1811S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MNRAS.460.1811S"><span id="translatedtitle">HD 35502: a hierarchical triple <span class="hlt">system</span> with a magnetic B5IVpe <span class="hlt">primary</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sikora, J.; Wade, G. A.; Bohlender, D. A.; Shultz, M.; Adelman, S. J.; Alecian, E.; Hanes, D.; Monin, D.; Neiner, C.; MiMeS Collaboration; BinaMIcS Collaboration</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>We present our analysis of HD 35502 based on high- and medium-resolution spectropolarimetric observations. Our results indicate that the magnetic B5IVsnp star is the <span class="hlt">primary</span> component of a spectroscopic triple <span class="hlt">system</span> and that it has an effective temperature of 18.4 ± 0.6 kK, a mass of 5.7 ± 0.6 M⊙, and a polar radius of 3.0^{+1.1}_{-0.5} R_{odot }. The two secondary components are found to be essentially identical A-type stars for which we derive effective temperatures (8.9 ± 0.3 kK), masses (2.1 ± 0.2 M⊙), and radii (2.1 ± 0.4 R⊙). We infer a hierarchical orbital configuration for the <span class="hlt">system</span> in which the secondary components form a tight binary with an orbital period of 5.668 66(6) d that orbits the <span class="hlt">primary</span> component with a period of over 40 yr. Least-Squares Deconvolution profiles reveal Zeeman signatures in Stokes V indicative of a longitudinal magnetic field produced by the B star ranging from approximately -4 to 0 kG with a median uncertainty of 0.4 kG. These measurements, along with the line variability produced by strong emission in Hα, are used to derive a rotational period of 0.853 807(3) d. We find that the measured v sin i = 75 ± 5 km s-1 of the B star then implies an inclination angle of the star's rotation axis to the line of sight of 24^{+6}_{-10}{}^circ. Assuming the Oblique Rotator Model, we derive the magnetic field strength of the B star's dipolar component (14^{+9}_{-3} kG) and its obliquity (63± 13deg). Furthermore, we demonstrate that the calculated Alfvén radius (41^{+17}_{-6}R_ast) and Kepler radius (2.1^{+0.4}_{-0.7}R_ast) place HD 35502's central B star well within the regime of centrifugal magnetosphere-hosting stars.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12319097','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12319097"><span id="translatedtitle">Applying quality assurance to the <span class="hlt">primary</span> health care service delivery <span class="hlt">system</span> in Tahoua, Niger.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Winter, L</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>The Quality Assurance Project is helping the government of Niger institutionalize quality assurance (QA) within the <span class="hlt">primary</span> health care delivery <span class="hlt">system</span> in the Tahoua region. Quality Improvement Teams (QIT) have been organized in the medical center of each of Tahoua's 7 districts. They use QA methods to solve service delivery problems. In Konni District, a key service delivery problem was poor case management of malaria. Health workers administered an incorrect dosage of chloroquine and aspirin to 66% of malaria cases. They did not use patient weight properly to calculate the dosage. The District Medical Officer ran an in-service training for the staff and hung up a treatment algorithm next to the triage table. The QIT developed a <span class="hlt">system</span> to make sure that staff took vital signs on all patients in the triage room. The <span class="hlt">system</span> improved work flow, provided privacy, and reduced congestion. Staff now have more time for clients and are more likely to use correct dosage. The QIT found high drop out rates in the ambulatory nutritional rehabilitation service (CRENA). It used a flow chart to define the CRENA process for managing malnourished children. A QA checklist helped the QIT obtain critical information about services through direct observations of service delivery and interviews with staff and clients. Other identified weaknesses were inconsistency of drawing the growth curve in the child's health booklet and lack of explanation about the child's progress to the mother. The QIT first aimed to improve the organization of patient flow. It integrated curative care into the CRENA service. The patient now moves from reception to health education, weighing station, counseling and appointment for return visits, curative care, and supplement distribution. The integrated curative service and reorganized patient flow clarify the role of the providers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ChPhL..31b8502X','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ChPhL..31b8502X"><span id="translatedtitle">Sensing Characteristics of Shear-Mode <span class="hlt">Al</span>N Solidly Mounted Resonators with a Silicone Microfluidic <span class="hlt">System</span> in Viscous Media</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xiong, Juan; Guo, Peng; Sun, Xi-Liang; Wang, Sheng-Fu; Hu, Ming-Zhe; Gu, Hao-Shuang</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Al</span>N solidly mounted resonators with silicone microfluidic <span class="hlt">systems</span> vibrating in shear mode are fabricated and characterized. The fabrication process is compatible with integrated circuits and the c-axis tilted <span class="hlt">Al</span>N films are deposited, which allow in-liquid operation through excitation of the shear mode. The silicone microfluidic <span class="hlt">system</span> is mounted on top of the sensor chip to transport the analyses and confine the flow to the active area. The properties of sensor operation in air, deionized water, ethanol, isopropanol, 80% glycol aqueous solution, glycol, and olive oil are characterized. The effects of different viscosities on the resonance frequency shift and Q-factor of the sensor have been discussed. The sensitivity and Q value in glycol of the sensor are 1.52 MHz cm2/μg and around 60, respectively. The results indicate the potential of a highly sensitive microfluidic sensor <span class="hlt">system</span> for the applications in viscous media.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22609675','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22609675"><span id="translatedtitle">Conversion of glucose into furans in the presence of <span class="hlt">Al</span>Cl3 in an ethanol-water solvent <span class="hlt">system</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yang, Yu; Hu, Changwei; Abu-Omar, Mahdi M</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>Glucose was converted into furans (5-hydroxymethylfurfural and 5-ethoxymethylfurfural) in the presence of <span class="hlt">Al</span>Cl(3) in an ethanol-water solvent <span class="hlt">system</span>. The <span class="hlt">system</span> showed high activity for the conversion of glucose into furans but low activity for the subsequent formation of LAs (levulinic acid and ethyl levulinate). High furans yield of 57% with low LAs yield of 11% can be obtained at 160 °C within 15 min. Glucose-based disaccharides (sucrose, maltose and cellobiose) and polysaccharides (starch but not cellulose) can also be converted to furans effectively under the same condition. <span class="hlt">Al</span>Cl(3) can be used to prepare furans from biomass-derived compounds in ethanol-water, a green solvent <span class="hlt">system</span>. PMID:22609675</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1221954-simulation-atomic-diffusion-fcc-nial-system-kinetic-monte-carlo-study','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1221954-simulation-atomic-diffusion-fcc-nial-system-kinetic-monte-carlo-study"><span id="translatedtitle">Simulation of atomic diffusion in the Fcc Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> <span class="hlt">system</span>: A kinetic Monte Carlo study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Alfonso, Dominic R.; Tafen, De Nyago</p> <p>2015-04-28</p> <p>The atomic diffusion in fcc Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> binary alloys was studied by kinetic Monte Carlo simulation. The environment dependent hopping barriers were computed using a pair interaction model whose parameters were fitted to relevant data derived from electronic structure calculations. Long time diffusivities were calculated and the effect of composition change on the tracer diffusion coefficients was analyzed. These results indicate that this variation has noticeable impact on the atomic diffusivities. A reduction in the mobility of both Ni and <span class="hlt">Al</span> is demonstrated with increasing <span class="hlt">Al</span> content. As a result, examination of the pair interaction between atoms was carried out formore » the purpose of understanding the predicted trends.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011RJPCA..85.1495L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011RJPCA..85.1495L"><span id="translatedtitle">Activities of the components in a spinel solid solution of the Fe-<span class="hlt">Al</span>-O <span class="hlt">system</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lykasov, A. A.; Kimyashev, A. A.</p> <p>2011-09-01</p> <p>The conditions of the equilibrium between the Fe3O4-Fe<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O4 solution and wustite are determined by measuring the EMF of galvanic cells containing a solid electrolyte, and the activities of the components in the Fe3O4-Fe<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O4 solution are calculated by treating the results of the experiment on the equilibrium between the spinel solution and wustite. Their properties are found to be different from those of ideal solutions at temperatures of 1000-1300 K. A significant positive deviation from the Raoult's law is believed to indicate the tendency of the solution to decompose. The experimental data are treated in terms of the theory of regular solutions, assuming the energy of mixing to be a function of temperature only. The critical temperature of decomposition for the Fe3O4-Fe<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O4 solution is found to be 1084 K.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20050168081&hterms=copper&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dcopper','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20050168081&hterms=copper&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dcopper"><span id="translatedtitle">Blanch Resistant and Thermal Barrier Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> Coating <span class="hlt">Systems</span> for Advanced Copper Alloys</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Raj, Sai V. (Inventor)</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>A method of forming an environmental resistant thermal barrier coating on a copper alloy is disclosed. The steps include cleansing a surface of a copper alloy, depositing a bond coat on the cleansed surface of the copper alloy, depositing a Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> top coat on the bond coat and consolidating the bond coat and the Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> top coat to form the thermal barrier coating. The bond coat may be a nickel layer or a layer composed of at least one of copper and chromium-copper alloy and either the bond coat or the Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> top coat or both may be deposited using a low pressure or vacuum plasma spray.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996SPIE.2831..133R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996SPIE.2831..133R"><span id="translatedtitle">Multispectral imaging of a space shuttle <span class="hlt">primary</span> reaction control <span class="hlt">system</span> firing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rall, David L. A.; Kofsky, Irving L.; Viereck, Rodney A.; Pike, Charles P.</p> <p>1996-11-01</p> <p>A series of three-second firings of Space Shuttle Orbiter's 870-lbf <span class="hlt">Primary</span> Reaction Control <span class="hlt">System</span> thruster motors were photographed from the crew cabin with an intensified video camera. The spectral imager sequentially recorded 4 ms exposures at 30 Hz in six 20 to 30 nm FWHM channels centered from 400 to 800 nm, chosen specifically to study bi- propellant (monomethyl hydrazine fuel/nitrogen dioxide oxidizer) thruster exhaust chemistry. The species producing the visible radiance were earlier identified as CN, CH, C2, NO2, and HNO; the electronic bands originating from the same excited states of CN (B-X) and CH (A-X) extend into the near UV. Images of the vacuum core viewing within a few degrees of perpendicular to the first several meters from the exit plane were analyzed to relate the spatial distribution of exhaust product species and afterburning chemistry to a flowfield-kinetics model. Profiles of radiance transverse to the exhaust symmetry-axis show substantial limb brightening in all six channels, indicating that the distribution of the radiating species corresponds to a `zone'-type model of liquid-fuel film-cooled engine performance. Profiles of band radiance along the axis indicate the production and quenching of excited species as the exhaust gas adiabatically expands and cools.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4960920','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4960920"><span id="translatedtitle">mTORC1 signaling in <span class="hlt">primary</span> central nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> lymphoma</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Nitta, Naoki; Nakasu, Satoshi; Shima, Ayako; Nozaki, Kazuhiko</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Background: Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 (mTORC1) acts as a downstream effector of phosphatidyl-inositol-3 kinase, which is frequently hyperactivated in glioblastoma multiforme and links to cell signaling in cellular proliferation, differentiation, metabolism, and survival. Although many studies have suggested the importance of mTORC1 in tumorigenesis, its role remains unclear in brain tumors other than glioblastoma. Methods: In the present study, we evaluated the activation of mTORC1 in 24 cases of <span class="hlt">primary</span> central nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> lymphoma (PCNSL). Results: Immunohistochemical analysis showed overexpression of Rheb, which is immediately upstream of mTORC1, in 20 cases of PCNSL. Immunohistochemical analysis also showed overexpression of phospho-4E-BP1 (Thr37/46) and phospho-S6 (Ser235/236), which are increased after mTORC1 activation as mTORC1 downstream effectors in 17 and 21 cases, respectively. Conclusion: Our data suggest that abnormal activation of the mTORC1 signaling pathway may cause tumor growth in patients with PCNSL. PMID:27512609</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3891969','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3891969"><span id="translatedtitle">Intermittency Coding in the <span class="hlt">Primary</span> Olfactory <span class="hlt">System</span>: A Neural Substrate for Olfactory Scene Analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Park, Il Memming; Bobkov, Yuriy V.; Ache, Barry W.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The spatial and temporal characteristics of the visual and acoustic sensory input are indispensable attributes for animals to perform scene analysis. In contrast, research in olfaction has focused almost exclusively on how the nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> analyzes the quality and quantity of the sensory signal and largely ignored the spatiotemporal dimension especially in longer time scales. Yet, detailed analyses of the turbulent, intermittent structure of water- and air-borne odor plumes strongly suggest that spatio-temporal information in longer time scales can provide major cues for olfactory scene analysis for animals. We show that a bursting subset of <span class="hlt">primary</span> olfactory receptor neurons (bORNs) in lobster has the unexpected capacity to encode the temporal properties of intermittent odor signals. Each bORN is tuned to a specific range of stimulus intervals, and collectively bORNs can instantaneously encode a wide spectrum of intermittencies. Our theory argues for the existence of a novel peripheral mechanism for encoding the temporal pattern of odor that potentially serves as a neural substrate for olfactory scene analysis. PMID:24431452</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26233232','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26233232"><span id="translatedtitle">Diagnostic delay and prognosis in <span class="hlt">primary</span> central nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> lymphoma compared with glioblastoma multiforme.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cerqua, R; Balestrini, S; Perozzi, C; Cameriere, V; Renzi, S; Lagalla, G; Mancini, G; Montanari, M; Leoni, P; Scerrati, M; Iacoangeli, M; Silvestrini, M; Luzzi, S; Provinciali, L</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and <span class="hlt">primary</span> central nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> lymphoma (PCNSL) are malignant cerebral neoplasms associated with poor prognosis. Early diagnosis and subsequent planning of adequate treatment strategy are relevant to improve survival and reduce neurological deficit. Two groups of patients affected by GBM and PCNSL were compared to identify: (1) factors influencing the time necessary to obtain a correct diagnosis; (2) the influence of the interval time from clinical onset to diagnosis on the prognosis. Fifty-six patients (28 PCNSL and 28 GBM, 23 females and 33 males) referred to the same hospital setting were retrospectively evaluated. The mean age at diagnosis was 61 years. The two groups were comparable in terms of age, sex, clinical symptoms at onset and performance status. There was no relevant difference in time span from clinical onset to first neuroimaging examination, while time span from first neuroimaging to final morphological diagnosis was much longer in PCNSL patients (p = 0.008). Multivariate Cox regression analysis, including both PCNSL and GBM cases, showed a significant association of the overall survival with: time to diagnosis (HR 0.06), age at onset (HR 1.04). Our results show a significant diagnostic delay in PCNSL cases. Age at onset of disease and time to diagnosis emerge as clinical factors affecting overall survival in both groups. Stereotactic-guided biopsy should be chosen as routine method to early diagnose PCNSL. The clinical relevance of early diagnosis in GBM and PCNSL needs to be emphasized to maximize the overall survival in both neoplasms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4372389','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4372389"><span id="translatedtitle">Pathologic Correlates of <span class="hlt">Primary</span> Central Nervous <span class="hlt">System</span> Lymphoma Defined in an Orthotopic Xenograft Model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kadoch, Cigall; Dinca, Eduard B.; Voicu, Ramona; Chen, Lingjing; Nguyen, Diana; Parikh, Seema; Karrim, Juliana; Shuman, Marc A.; Lowell, Clifford A.; Treseler, Patrick A.; James, C. David; Rubenstein, James L.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Purpose The prospect for advances in the treatment of patients with <span class="hlt">primary</span> central nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> lymphoma (PCNSL) is likely dependent on the systematic evaluation of its pathobiology. Animal models of PCNSL are needed to facilitate the analysis of its molecular pathogenesis and for the efficient evaluation of novel therapeutics. Experimental Design We characterized the molecular pathology of CNS lymphoma tumors generated by the intracerebral implantation of Raji B lymphoma cells in athymic mice. Lymphoma cells were modified for bioluminescence imaging to facilitate monitoring of tumor growth and response to therapy. In parallel, we identified molecular features of lymphoma xenograft histopathology that are evident in human PCNSL specimens. Results Intracerebral Raji tumors were determined to faithfully reflect the molecular pathogenesis of PCNSL, including the predominant immunophenotypic state of differentiation of lymphoma cells and their reactive microenvironment. We show the expression of interleukin-4 by Raji and other B lymphoma cell lines in vitro and by Raji tumors in vivo and provide evidence for a role of this cytokine in the M2 polarization of lymphoma macrophages both in the murine model and in diagnostic specimens of human PCNSL. Conclusion Intracerebral implantation of Raji cells results in a reproducible and invasive xenograft model, which recapitulates the histopathology and molecular features of PCNSL, and is suitable for preclinical testing of novel agents. We also show for the first time the feasibility and accuracy of tumor bioluminescence in the monitoring of a highly infiltrative brain tumor. PMID:19276270</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15886021','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15886021"><span id="translatedtitle">Task-relevant modulation of <span class="hlt">primary</span> somatosensory cortex suggests a prefrontal-cortical sensory gating <span class="hlt">system</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schaefer, Michael; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Rotte, Michael</p> <p>2005-08-01</p> <p>Increasing evidence suggests that somatosensory information is modulated cortically for task-specific sensory inflow: Several studies report short-term adaptation of representational maps in <span class="hlt">primary</span> somatosensory cortex (SI) due to attention or induced by task-related motor activity such as handwriting. Recently, it has been hypothesized that the frontal or prefrontal cortex may modulate SI. In order to test this hypothesis, we studied the functional organization of SI while subjects performed the Tower of Hanoi task. This task is known to be related to activation of frontal or prefrontal areas. The functional organization of SI while performing the Tower of Hanoi task was compared to the organization of SI during performing the same movements but without the Tower of Hanoi task and with rest. Topography of SI was assessed using neuromagnetic source imaging based on tactile stimulation of the first (D1) and fifth digits (D5). Performing the Tower of Hanoi task was accompanied by plastic changes in SI as indicated by significant shifts in the cortical representations of D1 and D5: They moved further apart during the Tower of Hanoi task compared to the control task containing the same movements but without the cognitive characteristic. Thus, we conclude that SI maps undergo dynamic modulation depending on motor tasks with different cognitive demands. The results suggest that this short-term plasticity may be regulated by a prefrontal-cortical sensory gating <span class="hlt">system</span>. PMID:15886021</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24431452','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24431452"><span id="translatedtitle">Intermittency coding in the <span class="hlt">primary</span> olfactory <span class="hlt">system</span>: a neural substrate for olfactory scene analysis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Park, Il Memming; Bobkov, Yuriy V; Ache, Barry W; Príncipe, José C</p> <p>2014-01-15</p> <p>The spatial and temporal characteristics of the visual and acoustic sensory input are indispensable attributes for animals to perform scene analysis. In contrast, research in olfaction has focused almost exclusively on how the nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> analyzes the quality and quantity of the sensory signal and largely ignored the spatiotemporal dimension especially in longer time scales. Yet, detailed analyses of the turbulent, intermittent structure of water- and air-borne odor plumes strongly suggest that spatio-temporal information in longer time scales can provide major cues for olfactory scene analysis for animals. We show that a bursting subset of <span class="hlt">primary</span> olfactory receptor neurons (bORNs) in lobster has the unexpected capacity to encode the temporal properties of intermittent odor signals. Each bORN is tuned to a specific range of stimulus intervals, and collectively bORNs can instantaneously encode a wide spectrum of intermittencies. Our theory argues for the existence of a novel peripheral mechanism for encoding the temporal pattern of odor that potentially serves as a neural substrate for olfactory scene analysis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/900228','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/900228"><span id="translatedtitle">Review of Failure Probability Calculations for HFIR <span class="hlt">Primary</span> Coolant <span class="hlt">System</span> Piping</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Simonen, Fredric A.</p> <p>2001-10-31</p> <p>During July 2001, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was requested by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Facilities Management, Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology, Germantown, Maryland, to review calculations of piping failure probabilities for the High Flux Test Reactor (HFIR) located at and operated by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The objective of the failure probability calculations was to estimate the probabilities of large leaks (>1500 gpm) that are of sufficient size to disable the <span class="hlt">primary</span> coolant <span class="hlt">system</span> of HFIR to the extent that there is a potential for core damage. PNNL reviewed the computational methods and the inputs to the calculations along with an evaluation of potential failure mechanisms not explicitly addressed by the ORNL calculations. The review concluded that the calculated failure probabilities even with consideration of uncertainties in the calculations and of other potential failure mechanisms provide a high level of confidence that failure frequencies are less than the stated goal of 10-6 piping failures per year.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ChPhB..24h7304L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ChPhB..24h7304L"><span id="translatedtitle">Charge trapping behavior and its origin in <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3/SiC MIS <span class="hlt">system</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Xin-Yu; Wang, Yi-Yu; Peng, Zhao-Yang; Li, Cheng-Zhan; Wu, Jia; Bai, Yun; Tang, Yi-Dan; Liu, Ke-An; Shen, Hua-Jun</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>Charge trapping behavior and its origin in <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3/SiC MOS structure are investigated by analyzing the capacitance-voltage (C-V) hysteresis and the chemical composition of the interface. The C-V hysteresis is measured as a function of oxide thickness series for an <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3/SiC MIS capacitor. The distribution of the trapped charges, extracted from the C-V curves, is found to mainly follow a sheet charge model rather than a bulk charge model. Therefore, the electron injection phenomenon is evaluated by using linear fitting. It is found that most of the trapped charges are not distributed exactly at the interface but are located in the bulk of the <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 layers, especially close to the border. Furthermore, there is no detectable oxide interface layer in the x-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) measurements. In addition, Rutherford back scattering (RBS) analysis shows that the width of the <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3/SiC interface is less than 1 nm. It could be concluded that the charge trapping sites in <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3/SiC structure might mainly originate from the border traps in <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 film rather than the interface traps in the interfacial transition layer. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61106080) and the National Science and Technology Major Project of the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (Grant No. 2013ZX02305).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23144196','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23144196"><span id="translatedtitle">Central nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> recurrence of <span class="hlt">systemic</span> lymphoma in the era of stem cell transplantation--an International <span class="hlt">Primary</span> Central Nervous <span class="hlt">System</span> Lymphoma Study Group project.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bromberg, Jacoline E; Doorduijn, Jeanette K; Illerhaus, Gerald; Jahnke, Kristoph; Korfel, Agniezka; Fischer, Lars; Fritsch, Kristina; Kuittinen, Outti; Issa, Samar; van Montfort, Cees; van den Bent, Martin J</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>Autologous stem cell transplantation has greatly improved the prognosis of <span class="hlt">systemic</span> recurrent non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. However, no prospective data are available concerning the feasibility and efficacy of this strategy for <span class="hlt">systemic</span> lymphoma relapsing in the central nervous <span class="hlt">system</span>. We, therefore, we performed an international multicenter retrospective study of patients with a central nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> recurrence of <span class="hlt">systemic</span> lymphoma to assess the outcome of these patients in the era of stem cell transplantation. We collected clinical and treatment data on patients with a first central nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> recurrence of <span class="hlt">systemic</span> lymphoma treated between 2000 and 2010 in one of five centers in four countries. Patient- and treatment-related factors were analyzed and compared descriptively. <span class="hlt">Primary</span> outcome measures were overall survival and percentage of patients transplanted. We identified 92 patients, with a median age of 59 years and a median Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group/World Health Organization performance status of 2, of whom 76% had diffuse large B-cell histology. The majority (79%) of these patients were treated with <span class="hlt">systemic</span> chemotherapy with or without intravenous rituximab. Twenty-seven patients (29%) were transplanted; age and insufficient response to induction chemotherapy were the main reasons for not being transplanted in the remaining 65 patients. The median overall survival was 7 months (95% confidence interval 2.6-11.4), being 8 months (95% confidence interval 3.8-5.2) for patients ≤ 65 years old. The 1-year survival rate was 34.8%; of the 27 transplanted patients 62% survived more than 1 year. The Memorial Sloan Kettering Prognostic Index for <span class="hlt">primary</span> central nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> lymphoma was prognostic for both undergoing transplantation and survival. In conclusion, despite the availability of autologous stem cell transplantation for patients with central nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> progression or relapse of <span class="hlt">systemic</span> lymphoma, prognosis is still poor. Long-term survival</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JMMM..411..103Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JMMM..411..103Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Spin Hall magnetoresistance in an ultrathin Co2Fe<span class="hlt">Al</span> <span class="hlt">system</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Yan-qing; Fu, Hua-rui; Sun, Niu-yi; Che, Wen-ru; Ding, Ding; Qin, Juan; You, Cai-yin; Shan, Rong; Zhu, Zhen-gang</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Spin Hall magnetoresistance (SMR) is observed in an ultrathin Co2Fe<span class="hlt">Al</span> layer covered by a thin Pt film. The Co2Fe<span class="hlt">Al</span> layer grown on a MgO substrate should be too thin to be continuous. The result reveals that the magnetic insulator layer, such as yttrium iron garnet (YIG) substrate which is frequently used so far, is actually not a requisite for the observation of SMR. This work may greatly help to understand the true nature of SMR effect.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhSS...58.1930A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhSS...58.1930A"><span id="translatedtitle">Study of the KNO3-<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 <span class="hlt">system</span> by differential scanning calorimetry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Amirov, A. M.; Gafurov, M. M.; Rabadanov, K. Sh.</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>The structural and the thermodynamic properties of potassium nitrate KNO3 and its composites with nanosized aluminum oxide <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 have been studied by differential scanning calorimetry. It has been found that an amorphous phase forms in composites (1- x)KNO3- x <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3. The thermal effect corresponding to this phase has been observed at 316°C. It has been found that the phase transition heats of potassium nitrate decreased as the aluminum oxide fraction increased.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22261726','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22261726"><span id="translatedtitle">Solid state amorphization in the <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Fe binary <span class="hlt">system</span> during high energy milling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Urban, P. Montes, J. M.; Cintas, J.</p> <p>2013-12-16</p> <p>In the present study, mechanical alloying (MA) of <span class="hlt">Al</span>75Fe25 elemental powders mixture was carried out in argon atmosphere, using a high energy attritor ball mill. The microstructure of the milled products at different stages of milling was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results showed that the amorphous phase content increased by increasing the milling time, and after 50 hours the amorphization process became complete. Heating the samples resulted in the crystallization of the synthesized amorphous alloys and the appearance of the equilibrium intermetallic compounds <span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 5}Fe{sub 2}.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22688112','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22688112"><span id="translatedtitle">[Case of <span class="hlt">primary</span> central nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> lymphoma after open head injury].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Honma, Mari; Ota, Mamoru; Sato, Naoki; Ogawa, Kazuei; Sugino, Takashi; Yamamoto, Teiji</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>A 65-year-old man had suffered contusion of the left frontal lobe of the brain with a skull base fracture, pneumocephalus, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage. He was treated with ceftriaxone 4 g/day for 14 days, but after 1 month he developed multiple cranial nerve palsies (bilateral III-X). CSF contained increased levels of protein (96 mg/dl) and mononuclear cells (72 cells/mm³), and low glucose levels (40 mg/dl, blood sugar 120 mg/dl), but no malignant cells were detected. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) disclosed swelling in multiple cranial nerves with Gd enhancement. Anti-biotic and antifungal therapy remitted the facial, glossopharyngeal, and vagus nerve palsies and reduced the Gd-enhancement lesion, as detected by MRI. However, the eyes were bilaterally dilated and medially fixed, and hearing impairments persisted. After 3 months, follow-up MRIs revealed the presence of Gd-enhanced small masses at the ventral pontine base, medulla, and cervicomedullary junctions despite a lack of change in neurological symptoms. Those lesions subsided favorably upon treatment with intravenous and oral corticosteroids. After 1 year and 9 months, Gd-enhanced small cystic masses appeared on the medulla and cerebellum. An open biopsy of the cerebellar tonsillar lesions revealed diffuse large B cell lymphoma. Although the development of <span class="hlt">primary</span> central nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> lymphoma after open head injury and infection has not been reported to date, central nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> lymphomas may mimic diverse neurological diseases. Brain biopsy remains the only definitive diagnosis, and thus should be pursued if blood and CSF markers appear normal. PMID:22688112</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25031012','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25031012"><span id="translatedtitle">MGMT promoter methylation and correlation with protein expression in <span class="hlt">primary</span> central nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> lymphoma.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Toffolatti, L; Scquizzato, E; Cavallin, S; Canal, F; Scarpa, M; Stefani, P M; Gherlinzoni, F; Dei Tos, A P</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>The O (6)-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) gene encodes for a DNA repairing enzyme of which silencing by promoter methylation is involved in brain tumorigenesis. MGMT promoter methylation represents a favorable prognostic factor and has been associated with a better response to alkylating agents in glioma and <span class="hlt">systemic</span> lymphoma. <span class="hlt">Primary</span> central nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> lymphoma (PCNSL) is a rare and aggressive extranodal malignant lymphoma. The current standard of care, based on high-dose methotrexate chemotherapy, has improved prognosis but outcome remains poor for a majority of patients. Therapeutic progress in this field is conditioned by limited biological and molecular knowledge about the disease. Temozolomide has recently emerged as an alternative option for PCNSL treatment. We aimed to analyze the MGMT gene methylation status in a series of 24 PCNSLs, to investigate the relationship between methylation status of the gene and immunohistochemical expression of MGMT protein and to evaluate the possible prognostic significance of these biomarkers. Our results confirm that methylation of the MGMT gene and loss of MGMT protein are frequent events in these lymphomas (54 % of our cases) and suggest that they are gender and age related. MGMT methylation showed high correlation with loss of protein expression (concordance correlation coefficient = -0.49; Fisher exact test: p < 0.01), different from what has been observed in other brain tumors. In the subgroup of ten patients who received high dose chemotherapy, the presence of methylated MGMT promoter (n = 4), seems to be associated with a prolonged overall survival (>60 months in three of four patients). The prognostic significance of these molecular markers in PCNSL needs to be further studied in groups of patients treated in a homogeneous way.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25425493','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25425493"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Primary</span> and secondary central nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> vasculitis: clinical manifestations, laboratory findings, neuroimaging, and treatment analysis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vera-Lastra, Olga; Sepúlveda-Delgado, Jesús; Cruz-Domínguez, María del Pilar; Medina, Gabriela; Casarrubias-Ramírez, Moisés; Molina-Carrión, Luis E; Pineda-Galindo, Luis F; Olvera-Acevedo, Arturo; Hernández-Gonzalez, Claudia; Jara, Luis J</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The objectives of this study are to compare the initial clinical, laboratory, and imaging features in <span class="hlt">primary</span> central nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> vasculitis (PCNSV) vs secondary central nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> vasculitis (SCNSV) and follow up after treatment with intravenous cyclophosphamide (IV-CYC) plus glucocorticosteroids (GCS): methylprednisolone (MP). Neurological, laboratory, and neuroimaging findings were analyzed in PCNSV and SCNSV patients. Cerebral biopsy (CB) was performed in nine patients. Both groups received at onset MP plus IV-CYC for 6 months, followed by bimonthly IV-CYC plus prednisone (PND) for 12 months. All patients were followed during 36 months. Thirty patients were included (12 PCNSV and 18 SCNSV). Focal and non-focal neurological manifestations were similar in both groups, headache being the most frequent manifestation in both groups. Fatigue, myalgias, arthralgias, neuropathy, low leukocytes and platelets, elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, positive antinuclear antibodies (ANA), anti-double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA), low complement, and rheumatoid factor were more frequent in SCNSV (p < 0.05). In cerebrospinal fluid, pleocytosis and proteins were higher in PCNSV (p < 0.05). Periventricular and subcortical hyperintense lesions were observed in cranial magnetic resonance imaging in both vasculitides. Cerebral angiography and angioresonance showed narrowing of vasculature in all patients in both groups. CB showed gliosis and lymphocytic infiltration within and around the walls in four patients and granulomatous infiltration in the other patients. After treatment, the Kaplan-Meier survival curve showed a higher relapse-free survival in PCNSV (p < 0.05). Neurological manifestations and neuroimaging findings were similar in both groups of vasculitides, but general symptoms, joint, musculoskeletal, and peripheral neuropathy were preponderant in SCNSV. After treatment with IV-CYC and GCS, patients with PCNSV</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AcSpA.156...22L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AcSpA.156...22L"><span id="translatedtitle">A simple and rapid method for direct determination of <span class="hlt">Al</span>(III) based on the enhanced resonance Rayleigh scattering of hemin-functionalized graphene-<span class="hlt">Al</span>(III) <span class="hlt">system</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ling, Yu; Chen, Ling Xiao; Dong, Jiang Xue; Li, Nian Bing; Luo, Hong Qun</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>A novel method for direct determination of <span class="hlt">Al</span>(III) by using hemin-functionalized graphene (H-GO) has been established based on the enhancement of resonance Rayleigh scattering (RRS) intensity. The characteristics of RRS spectra, the optimum reaction conditions, and the reaction mechanism have been investigated. In this experiment, the <span class="hlt">Al</span>(III) would exist in sol-gel <span class="hlt">Al</span>(OH)3 species under the condition of pH 5.9 in aqueous solutions. When H-GO existed in the solution, the sol-gel <span class="hlt">Al</span>(OH)3 would react with H-GO and result in enhancement of RRS intensity, owing to the enhanced hydrophobicity of H-GO surface. Therefore, a simple and rapid sensor for <span class="hlt">Al</span>(III) was developed. The increased intensity of RRS is directly proportional to the concentration of <span class="hlt">Al</span>(III) in the range of 10 nM-6 μM, along with a detection limit of 0.87 nM. Moreover, the sensor has been applied to determination of <span class="hlt">Al</span>(III) concentration in real water and aspirin tablet samples with satisfactory results. Therefore, the proposed method is promising as an effective means for selective and sensitive determination of <span class="hlt">Al</span>(III).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4828626','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4828626"><span id="translatedtitle">Reducing diagnostic errors in <span class="hlt">primary</span> care. A systematic meta-review of computerized diagnostic decision support <span class="hlt">systems</span> by the LINNEAUS collaboration on patient safety in <span class="hlt">primary</span> care</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Nurek, Martine; Kostopoulou, Olga; Delaney, Brendan C; Esmail, Aneez</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>ABSTRACT Background: Computerized diagnostic decision support <span class="hlt">systems</span> (CDDSS) have the potential to support the cognitive task of diagnosis, which is one of the areas where general practitioners have greatest difficulty and which accounts for a significant proportion of adverse events recorded in the <span class="hlt">primary</span> care setting. Objective: To determine the extent to which CDDSS may meet the requirements of supporting the cognitive task of diagnosis, and the currently perceived barriers that prevent the integration of CDDSS with electronic health record (EHR) <span class="hlt">systems</span>. Methods: We conducted a meta-review of existing systematic reviews published in English, searching MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO and Web of Knowledge for articles on the features and effectiveness of CDDSS for medical diagnosis published since 2004. Eligibility criteria included systematic reviews where individual clinicians were <span class="hlt">primary</span> end users. Outcomes we were interested in were the effectiveness and identification of specific features of CDDSS on diagnostic performance. Results: We identified 1970 studies and excluded 1938 because they did not fit our inclusion criteria. A total of 45 articles were identified and 12 were found suitable for meta-review. Extraction of high-level requirements identified that a more standardized computable approach is needed to knowledge representation, one that can be readily updated as new knowledge is gained. In addition, a deep integration with the EHR is needed in order to trigger at appropriate points in cognitive workflow. Conclusion: Developing a CDDSS that is able to utilize dynamic vocabulary tools to quickly capture and code relevant diagnostic findings, and coupling these with individualized diagnostic suggestions based on the best-available evidence has the potential to improve diagnostic accuracy, but requires evaluation. PMID:26339829</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC13C1153M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC13C1153M"><span id="translatedtitle">Quantifying Human Appropriated Net <span class="hlt">Primary</span> Productivity (HANPP) in a Ghanaian Cocoa <span class="hlt">System</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Morel, A.; Adu-Bredu, S.; Adu Sasu, M.; Ashley Asare, R.; Boyd, E.; Hirons, M. A.; Malhi, Y.; Mason, J.; Norris, K.; Robinson, E. J. Z.; McDermott, C. L.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Ghana is the second largest producer of cocoa (Theobroma cacoa), exporting approximately 18 percent of global volumes. These cocoa farms are predominantly small-scale, ranging in size from 2-4 hectares (ha). Traditionally, the model of cocoa expansion in Ghana relied on clearing new areas of forest and establishing a farm under remnant forest trees. This is increasingly less practical due to few unprotected forest areas remaining and management practices favoring close to full sun cocoa to maximize short-term yields. This study is part of a larger project, ECOLMITS, which is an interdisciplinary, ESPA-funded[1] initiative exploring the ecological limits of ecosystem <span class="hlt">system</span> services (ESS) for alleviating poverty in small-scale agroforestry <span class="hlt">systems</span>. The ecological study plots are situated within and around the Kakum National Forest, a well-protected, moist-evergreen forest of the Lower Guinea Forest region. Net <span class="hlt">primary</span> productivity (NPP) is a measure of the rate at which carbon dioxide (CO2) is incorporated into plant tissues (e.g. canopy, stem and root). For this study, NPP was monitored in situ using methods developed by the Global Environmental Monitoring Network (GEM, http://gem.tropicalforests.ox.ac.uk/). By comparing NPP measured in intact forest and farms, the human appropriated NPP (HANPP) of this <span class="hlt">system</span> can be estimated. The forest measures provide the "potential" NPP of the region, and then the reduction in NPP for farm plots is calculated for both land-cover change (HANPPLUC) and cocoa harvesting (HANPPHARV). The results presented are of the first year of NPP measurements across the cocoa landscape, including measurements from intact forest, logged forest and cocoa farms across a shade gradient and located at varying distances from the forest edge (e.g. 100 m, 500 m, 1 km and 5 km). These measures will have implications for carbon sequestration potential over the region and long-term sustainability of the Ghanaian cocoa sector. [1] Ecosystem Services for</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000SPIE.4093..397A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000SPIE.4093..397A"><span id="translatedtitle">Design of an interferometric <span class="hlt">system</span> for piston measurements in segmented <span class="hlt">primary</span> mirrors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Arasa, Josep; Laguarta, Ferran; Pizarro, Carlos; Tomas, Nuria; Pinto, Agusti</p> <p>2000-10-01</p> <p>Recently, telescopes with segmented <span class="hlt">primary</span> mirrors are becoming increasingly popular due to their ability of achieving large apertures without the inconveniences caused by the fabrication and handling of monolithic surfaces with 8m (or over) in diameter. The difference in position of each pair of adjacent segments along the local normal of their interface (called piston hereafter), however, needs to be precisely measured in order to provide a diffraction- limited image. If a <span class="hlt">system</span> yielding the nanometric accuracy required in piston measurements worked in daylight hours, the resultant saving in observation time would be an important advance on a majority of the state-of-the-art piston measurement <span class="hlt">systems</span>. An interferometric piston measurement instrument accomplishing such objectives has been designed starting from the usual Michelson configuration at the CD6 (Terrassa, Spain), and its final test has been carried out in the test workbench of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC, Canary Islands, Spain). Its optical layout relies on projecting the reference arm of the interferometer onto one of the segments of the pair considered, along the direction of the local normal to the surface while the measurement arm is projected onto the interface which divides the pair of segments considered. The field of view and its illumination are calculated to be equivalent in both segments. The lateral shift of the fringes in both interferograms determines the piston error present. A combination of monochromatic and white light is used, in order to remove the (lambda) /2 phase ambiguities present in piston measurements without losing the required resolution in the measurement. In this paper, the optical design of this interferometric piston measurement instrument will be presented. The particular configuration used in the interferometer, the implementation of an imaging <span class="hlt">system</span> allowing to see both the interface of the segments and the interference fringes, the effect of the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22491318','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22491318"><span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">primary</span> neuron culture <span class="hlt">system</span> for the study of herpes simplex virus latency and reactivation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kobayashi, Mariko; Kim, Ju-Youn; Camarena, Vladimir; Roehm, Pamela C; Chao, Moses V; Wilson, Angus C; Mohr, Ian</p> <p>2012-04-02</p> <p>Herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) establishes a life-long latent infection in peripheral neurons. This latent reservoir is the source of recurrent reactivation events that ensure transmission and contribute to clinical disease. Current antivirals do not impact the latent reservoir and there are no vaccines. While the molecular details of lytic replication are well-characterized, mechanisms controlling latency in neurons remain elusive. Our present understanding of latency is derived from in vivo studies using small animal models, which have been indispensable for defining viral gene requirements and the role of immune responses. However, it is impossible to distinguish specific effects on the virus-neuron relationship from more general consequences of infection mediated by immune or non-neuronal support cells in live animals. In addition, animal experimentation is costly, time-consuming, and limited in terms of available options for manipulating host processes. To overcome these limitations, a neuron-only <span class="hlt">system</span> is desperately needed that reproduces the in vivo characteristics of latency and reactivation but offers the benefits of tissue culture in terms of homogeneity and accessibility. Here we present an in vitro model utilizing cultured <span class="hlt">primary</span> sympathetic neurons from rat superior cervical ganglia (SCG) (Figure 1) to study HSV-1 latency and reactivation that fits most if not all of the desired criteria. After eliminating non-neuronal cells, near-homogeneous TrkA(+) neuron cultures are infected with HSV-1 in the presence of acyclovir (ACV) to suppress lytic replication. Following ACV removal, non-productive HSV-1 infections that faithfully exhibit accepted hallmarks of latency are efficiently established. Notably, lytic mRNAs, proteins, and infectious virus become undetectable, even in the absence of selection, but latency-associated transcript (LAT) expression persists in neuronal nuclei. Viral genomes are maintained at an average copy number of 25 per neuron</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24921962','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24921962"><span id="translatedtitle">Role of <span class="hlt">primary</span> substrate composition and concentration on attenuation of trace organic chemicals in managed aquifer recharge <span class="hlt">systems</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Alidina, Mazahirali; Li, Dong; Ouf, Mohamed; Drewes, Jörg E</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>This study was undertaken to investigate the role of <span class="hlt">primary</span> substrate composition and concentration on the attenuation of biodegradable emerging trace organic chemicals (TOrCs) in simulated managed aquifer recharge (MAR) <span class="hlt">systems</span>. Four sets of soil columns were established in the laboratory, each receiving synthetic feed solutions comprising different ratios and concentrations of peptone-yeast and humic acid as the <span class="hlt">primary</span> substrate to investigate the effect on removal of six TOrCs (atenolol, caffeine, diclofenac, gemfibrozil, primidone, and trimethoprim). Based on abiotic control experiments, adsorption was not identified as a significant attenuation mechanism for primidone, gemfibrozil and diclofenac. Caffeine, atenolol and trimethoprim displayed initial adsorptive losses, however, adsorption coefficients derived from batch tests confirmed that adsorption was limited and in the long-term experiment, biodegradation was the dominant attenuation process. Within a travel time of 16 h, caffeine - an easily degradable compound exhibited removal exceeding 75% regardless of composition or concentration of the <span class="hlt">primary</span> substrate. Primidone - a poorly degradable compound, showed no removal in any column regardless of the nature of the <span class="hlt">primary</span> substrate. The composition and concentration of the <span class="hlt">primary</span> substrate, however, had an effect on attenuation of moderately degradable TOrCs, such as atenolol, gemfibrozil and diclofenac, with the <span class="hlt">primary</span> substrate composition seeming to have a larger impact on TOrC attenuation than its concentration. When the <span class="hlt">primary</span> substrate consisted mainly of refractory substrate (humic acid), higher removal of the moderately degradable TOrCs was observed. The microbial communities in the columns receiving more refractory carbon, were noted to be more diverse and hence likely able to express a wider range of enzymes, which were more suitable for TOrC transformation. The effect of the <span class="hlt">primary</span> substrate on microbial community composition, diversity</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24921962','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24921962"><span id="translatedtitle">Role of <span class="hlt">primary</span> substrate composition and concentration on attenuation of trace organic chemicals in managed aquifer recharge <span class="hlt">systems</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Alidina, Mazahirali; Li, Dong; Ouf, Mohamed; Drewes, Jörg E</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>This study was undertaken to investigate the role of <span class="hlt">primary</span> substrate composition and concentration on the attenuation of biodegradable emerging trace organic chemicals (TOrCs) in simulated managed aquifer recharge (MAR) <span class="hlt">systems</span>. Four sets of soil columns were established in the laboratory, each receiving synthetic feed solutions comprising different ratios and concentrations of peptone-yeast and humic acid as the <span class="hlt">primary</span> substrate to investigate the effect on removal of six TOrCs (atenolol, caffeine, diclofenac, gemfibrozil, primidone, and trimethoprim). Based on abiotic control experiments, adsorption was not identified as a significant attenuation mechanism for primidone, gemfibrozil and diclofenac. Caffeine, atenolol and trimethoprim displayed initial adsorptive losses, however, adsorption coefficients derived from batch tests confirmed that adsorption was limited and in the long-term experiment, biodegradation was the dominant attenuation process. Within a travel time of 16 h, caffeine - an easily degradable compound exhibited removal exceeding 75% regardless of composition or concentration of the <span class="hlt">primary</span> substrate. Primidone - a poorly degradable compound, showed no removal in any column regardless of the nature of the <span class="hlt">primary</span> substrate. The composition and concentration of the <span class="hlt">primary</span> substrate, however, had an effect on attenuation of moderately degradable TOrCs, such as atenolol, gemfibrozil and diclofenac, with the <span class="hlt">primary</span> substrate composition seeming to have a larger impact on TOrC attenuation than its concentration. When the <span class="hlt">primary</span> substrate consisted mainly of refractory substrate (humic acid), higher removal of the moderately degradable TOrCs was observed. The microbial communities in the columns receiving more refractory carbon, were noted to be more diverse and hence likely able to express a wider range of enzymes, which were more suitable for TOrC transformation. The effect of the <span class="hlt">primary</span> substrate on microbial community composition, diversity</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=method+AND+specialised&pg=3&id=EJ897896','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=method+AND+specialised&pg=3&id=EJ897896"><span id="translatedtitle">At a Crossroad between Memory and Thinking: The Case of <span class="hlt">Primary</span> History Education in the Greek Cypriot Educational <span class="hlt">System</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Perikleous, Lukas</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>At the moment <span class="hlt">primary</span> history education in the Greek Cypriot educational <span class="hlt">system</span> is mainly about providing substantive knowledge and promoting Greek national identity and other social goals. Debates about history education are mostly about the kind of the past that should conveyed to the students and the social aims which should be promoted through…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=chaotic&pg=2&id=EJ1102358','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=chaotic&pg=2&id=EJ1102358"><span id="translatedtitle">Validating "Value Added" in the <span class="hlt">Primary</span> Grades: One District's Attempts to Increase Fairness and Inclusivity in Its Teacher Evaluation <span class="hlt">System</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Amrein-Beardsley, Audrey; Polasky, Sarah; Holloway-Libell, Jessica</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>One urban district in the state of Arizona sought to use an alternative achievement test (i.e., the Northwest Evaluation Association's (NWEA) Measures of Academic Progress for <span class="hlt">Primary</span> Grades (MAP)) to include more value-added ineligible teachers in the districts' growth and merit pay <span class="hlt">system</span>. The goal was to allow for its K-2 teachers to be more…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=209896&keyword=sage&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=79392967&CFTOKEN=48824458','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=209896&keyword=sage&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=79392967&CFTOKEN=48824458"><span id="translatedtitle">Profiling Bioactivity of the ToxCast Chemical Library Using BioMAP <span class="hlt">Primary</span> Human Cell <span class="hlt">Systems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The complexity of human biology has made prediction of health effects as a consequence of exposure to environmental chemicals especially challenging. Complex cell <span class="hlt">systems</span>, such as the Biologically Multiplexed Activity Profiling (BioMAP) <span class="hlt">primary</span>, human, cell-based disease models, ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED155646.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED155646.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">An Analysis of Two Beginning Reading Programs: Scott Foresman's "Reading Unlimited" and Pittsburgh LRDC's "New <span class="hlt">Primary</span> Grades Reading <span class="hlt">Systems</span>."</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Popp, Helen Mitchell</p> <p></p> <p>The two reading programs discussed in this paper, "Reading Unlimited" (RU) published by Scott Foresman and "New <span class="hlt">Primary</span> Grades Reading <span class="hlt">Systems</span>" (RS) by the University of Pittsburgh Learning Research and Development Center, provide maximal contrasts in materials and teaching strategies. The instructional strategies in RU are analytic and inductive,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Circulatory+AND+system&pg=2&id=EJ832124','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Circulatory+AND+system&pg=2&id=EJ832124"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of 5E Instructional Model in Student Success in <span class="hlt">Primary</span> School 6th Year Circulatory <span class="hlt">System</span> Topic</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Cardak, Osman; Dikmenli, Musa; Saritas, Ozge</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The aim of this study is to research the effect of the 5E instructional model on <span class="hlt">primary</span> (sixth grade) student success during the circulatory <span class="hlt">system</span> unit. This study was conducted with 38 students in two different classes by the same researcher in 2006-2007. One of the classes was assigned as the control group and the other as the experimental…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/7000272','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/7000272"><span id="translatedtitle">Phase stability of fcc- and hcp-based intermetallics: The Ti-<span class="hlt">Al</span> and Cd-Mg <span class="hlt">systems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Asta, M.; McCormack, R. . Dept. of Materials Science and Mineral Engineering); van Schilfgaarde, M. ); Ceder, G. . Dept. of Materials Science); de Fontaine, D. . Dept. of Materials Science and Mi</p> <p>1992-06-01</p> <p>In this paper we summarize results of first-principles phase stability studies of fcc- and hcp-based Ti-<span class="hlt">Al</span> alloys and of the hcp-based Cd-Mg <span class="hlt">system</span>. In particular, heats of formation for ordered alloy compounds are calculated with the linear muffin tin orbital method; effective cluster interactions are determined from the results of these calculations and are used to derive thermodynamic properties and composition-temperature phase diagrams.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10154302','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10154302"><span id="translatedtitle">In situ studies of amorphization of the Ge-<span class="hlt">Al</span> and Si-<span class="hlt">Al</span> <span class="hlt">systems</span> induced by 1 MeV electron irradiation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lin, X.W.; Seidman, D.N. |; Okamoto, P.R.</p> <p>1990-10-01</p> <p>Ge/<span class="hlt">Al</span> and Si/<span class="hlt">Al</span> bilayer specimens, as well as <span class="hlt">Al</span>-2.3 at. % Ge two-phase alloy specimens, were irradiated in situ with 1 MeV electrons at temperatures in the range 10--190 K in a high voltage electron microscope. At 10 K, it is found that for a Ge/<span class="hlt">Al</span> bilayer specimen, amorphization at the interface occurs only when the Ge layer faces the incident electron beam, while for a Si/<span class="hlt">Al</span> bilayer specimen amorphization occurs regardless of the direction of the incident beam. In this case, the critical fluence for amorphization ({Phi}{sub c}) to occur is {approx} 3 {times} 10{sup 23} cm{sup {minus}2} ({approx} 30,19 and 18 displacements per atom in Ge, Si and <span class="hlt">Al</span> respectively). In the case of <span class="hlt">Al</span> -- 2.3 at. % Ge alloy specimens irradiated at 10 and 50 K a crystalline-to-amorphous (c-to-a) transition is observed at {Phi}{sub c} {approx} 2.4 {times} 10{sup 23} cm{sup {minus}2} (24 and 14 dpa in Ge and <span class="hlt">Al</span> respectively). The temperature dependence of {Phi}{sub c} is also studied for a Ge/<span class="hlt">Al</span> bilayer specimen. The value of {Phi}{sub c} is a constant for T < {approx} 160, and then it increases rapidly with increasing T; {Phi}{sub c} becomes immeasurably large at a critical temperature of {approx} 190 K. The results can be understood in terms of an electron-irradiation-induced recoil-implantation mechanism.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19810054114&hterms=free+energy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dfree%2Benergy','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19810054114&hterms=free+energy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dfree%2Benergy"><span id="translatedtitle">The MgO-<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3-SiO2 <span class="hlt">system</span> - Free energy of pyrope and <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3-enstatite. [in earth mantle formation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Saxena, S. K.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>The model of fictive ideal components is used to determine Gibbs free energies of formation of pyrope and <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3-enstatite from the experimental data on coexisting garnet and orthopyroxene and orthopyroxene and spinel in the temperature range 1200-1600 K. It is noted that <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 forms an ideal solution with MgSiO3. These thermochemical data are found to be consistent with the <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 isopleths that could be drawn using most recent experimental data and with the reversed experimental data on the garnet-spinel field boundary.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3128023','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3128023"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Primary</span> care utilisation patterns among an urban immigrant population in the Spanish National Health <span class="hlt">System</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Background There is evidence suggesting that the use of health services is lower among immigrants after adjusting for age and sex. This study takes a step forward to compare <span class="hlt">primary</span> care (PC) utilisation patterns between immigrants and the native population with regard to their morbidity burden. Methods This retrospective, observational study looked at 69,067 individuals representing the entire population assigned to three urban PC centres in the city of Zaragoza (Aragon, Spain). Poisson models were applied to determine the number of annual PC consultations per individual based on immigration status. All models were first adjusted for age and sex and then for age, sex and case mix (ACG <span class="hlt">System</span>®). Results The age and sex adjusted mean number of total annual consultations was lower among the immigrant population (children: IRR = 0.79, p < 0.05; adults: IRR = 0.73, p < 0.05). After adjusting for morbidity burden, this difference decreased among children (IRR = 0.94, p < 0.05) and disappeared among adults (IRR = 1.00). Further analysis considering the PC health service and type of visit revealed higher usage of routine diagnostic tests among immigrant children (IRR = 1.77, p < 0.05) and a higher usage of emergency services among the immigrant adult population (IRR = 1.2, p < 0.05) after adjusting for age, sex and case mix. Conclusions Although immigrants make lower use of PC services than the native population after adjusting the consultation rate for age and sex, these differences decrease significantly when considering their morbidity burden. These results reinforce the 'healthy migration effect' and discount the existence of differences in PC utilisation patterns between the immigrant and native populations in Spain. PMID:21645335</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26093110','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26093110"><span id="translatedtitle">Environmental monitoring of urban streams using a <span class="hlt">primary</span> fish gill cell culture <span class="hlt">system</span> (FIGCS).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schnell, Sabine; Bawa-Allah, Kafilat; Otitoloju, Adebayo; Hogstrand, Christer; Miller, Thomas H; Barron, Leon P; Bury, Nic R</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">primary</span> fish gill cell culture <span class="hlt">system</span> (FIGCS) is an in vitro technique which has the potential to replace animals in whole effluent toxicity tests. In the current study FIGCS were transported into the field and exposed to filtered (0.2μm) river water for 24h from 4 sites, on 2 different sampling dates. Sites 1 and 2 are situated in an urban catchment (River Wandle, London, UK) with site 1 downstream of a sewage treatment work; site 3 is located in a suburban park (River Cray, Kent, UK), and site 4 is more rural (River Darent, Kent, UK). The change in transepithelial electrical resistance (TER), the expression of the metal responsive genes metallothionein A (mta) and B (mtb), cytochrome P450 1A1 (cyp1a1) and 3A27 (cyp3a27), involved in phase 1 metabolism, were assessed following exposure to sample water for 24h. TER was comparable between FIGCS exposed to 0.2μm filtered river water and those exposed to synthetic moderately soft water for 24h. During the first sampling time, there was an increase in mta, cyp1a1 and cyp3a27 gene expression in epithelium exposed to water from sites 1 and 2, and during the second sampling period an increase in cyp3a27 gene expression at sites 1 and 4. Urban river water is a complex mixture of contaminants (e.g., metals, pesticides, pharmaceuticals and polyaromatic hydrocarbons) and the increase in the expression of genes encoding mta, cyp1a1 and cyp3a27 in FIGCS is indicative of the presence of biologically active pollutants.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4656899','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4656899"><span id="translatedtitle">Efficacy of Procarbazine, Lomustine, and Vincristine Chemotherapy for Recurrent <span class="hlt">Primary</span> Central Nervous <span class="hlt">System</span> Lymphomas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kim, Young-Joo; Choe, Jai-ho; Park, Jae-Hyun</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Background Optimal treatment for recurrent <span class="hlt">primary</span> central nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> lymphomas (PCNSLs) has not been defined yet and there is no general consensus about the salvage chemotherapy after high-dose methotrexate (HD-MTX)-based chemotherapy. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine (PCV) chemotherapy for recurrent PCNSLs. Methods We reviewed eight immunocompetent patients (five males/three females, mean age: 56 years) who received salvage PCV chemotherapy (procarbazine 60 mg/m2, days 8 through 21: CCNU 110 mg/m2, day 1: vincristine 2 mg, days 8 and 28) for recurrent PCNSL and two patients switched to PCV chemotherapy due to severe adverse effects of HD-MTX chemotherapy. Radiologic responses, survival, and adverse effects were analyzed. Results Of the eight recurrent PCNSLs, three patients (37.5%) showed radiologic complete response, one patient (12.5%) showed partial response, and four patients (50%) showed progressive disease after PCV chemotherapy. Median progression free survival (PFS) from the first administration of PCV to relapse or last follow-up was 7 months (range 5-32 months) and median overall survival was 8 months (range 2-41 months). The two patients who switched to PCV chemotherapy showed PFS of 9 and 5 months from the beginning of PCV to relapse. The common side effects were thrombocytopenia, neutropenia, and peripheral neuropathy. There were 4 grade III or IV myelo-suppression, but no fatal complications, including severe hemorrhage or infection, were observed. Conclusion Salvage PCV chemotherapy has a moderate anti-lymphoma activity for recurrent PCNSLs after the HD-MTX-based chemotherapy with tolerable toxicity. PMID:26605261</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4740786','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4740786"><span id="translatedtitle">Antiglutamate Receptor Antibodies and Cognitive Impairment in <span class="hlt">Primary</span> Antiphospholipid Syndrome and <span class="hlt">Systemic</span> Lupus Erythematosus</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Gerosa, Maria; Poletti, Barbara; Pregnolato, Francesca; Castellino, Gabriella; Lafronza, Annalisa; Silani, Vincenzo; Riboldi, Piersandro; Meroni, Pier Luigi; Merrill, Joan T.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Systemic</span> lupus erythematosus (SLE) and antiphospholipid syndrome have an increased risk to develop cognitive impairment. A possible role for antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) and antiglutamate receptor (anti-NMDA) antibodies in the pathogenesis of neurological manifestations of these two conditions, have been suggested. In particular, the role of anti-NMDA antibodies in the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric SLE is supported by several experimental studies in animal models and by the finding of a correlation between anti-NMDA positivity in cerebrospinal fluid and neurological manifestations of SLE. However, data from the literature are controversial, as several studies have reported a correlation of these antibodies with mild cognitive impairment in SLE, but more recent studies have not confirmed this finding. The synergism between anti-NMDA and other concomitant autoantibodies, such as aPL, can be hypothesized to play a role in inducing the tissue damage and eventually the functional abnormalities. In line with this hypothesis, we have found a high incidence of at least one impaired cognitive domain in a small cohort of patients with <span class="hlt">primary</span> APS (PAPS) and SLE. Interestingly, aPL were associated with low scoring for language ability and attention while anti-NMDA titers and mini-mental state examination scoring were inversely correlated. However, when patients were stratified according to the presence/absence of aPL, the correlation was confirmed in aPL positive patients only. Should those findings be confirmed, the etiology of the prevalent defects found in PAPS patients as well as the synergism between aPL and anti-NMDA antibodies would need to be explored. PMID:26870034</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10421074','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10421074"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Systemic</span> chemotherapy with vincristine, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin and prednisolone following radiotherapy for <span class="hlt">primary</span> central nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> lymphoma: a phase II study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shibamoto, Y; Sasai, K; Oya, N; Hiraoka, M</p> <p>1999-04-01</p> <p>We treated 23 patients with <span class="hlt">primary</span> central nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> lymphoma with a protocol of conventional radiation up to 55 +/- 5 Gy followed by 4 to 6 cycles of intravenous doxorubicin (30 mg/m2), vincristine (1 mg/m2) and cyclophosphamide (350 mg/m2), and oral prednisolone (8-30 mg/m2) (VEPA chemotherapy) repeated at 2-week intervals. The median age of the 23 patients was 59 years, and the median World Health Organization performance status score was 2. Seventeen patients received 4 or more courses of the chemotherapy, but 6 received only 1 or 2 courses for various reasons. The median survival time for all 23 patients was 25.5 months and their 5-year survival rate was 23%. These values were 34 months and 32%, respectively, for the 17 patients who received 4-6 courses of chemotherapy. After treatment, decline in performance status unaccompanied with tumor recurrence was observed in 44% of the patients; the incidence was apparently higher in older than in younger patients. The survival results obtained with this combined radiochemotherapy regimen appear to be better than those reported in most previous studies of patients treated with radiation alone. Post-irradiation VEPA chemotherapy appears to be worthy of further evaluation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MMTB...47.2433D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MMTB...47.2433D"><span id="translatedtitle">Study on Viscosity of the La2O3-SiO2-<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 Slag <span class="hlt">System</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Deng, Yong-chun; Wu, Sheng-li; Jiang, Yin-ju; Jia, Su-qi</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>The viscosities and free-running temperatures of slag in a La2O3-SiO2-<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 slag <span class="hlt">system</span> were measured using an internal rotating cylinder method. For different La2O3 mass contents (45, 50, and 55 pct) in the La2O3-SiO2-<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 ternary slag, the slag viscosity and free-running temperature decreased with a decrease in SiO2 content and an increase in <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 content, and decreased with an increase in La2O3 content. Minor components B2O3, FeO, and MnO could decrease the viscosity and free-running temperature of La2O3-SiO2-<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 ternary slag, especially FeO, and a small amount of FeO and B2O3 had an additive effect on slag viscosity and free-running temperature reduction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1321965-structural-ordering-solid-liquid-interfaces-al-sm-system-molecular-dynamics-study','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1321965-structural-ordering-solid-liquid-interfaces-al-sm-system-molecular-dynamics-study"><span id="translatedtitle">Structural ordering at solid-liquid interfaces in <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Sm <span class="hlt">system</span>: A molecular-dynamics study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Sun, Yang; Zhang, Feng; Ye, Zhuo; Ding, Zejun; Mendelev, Mikhail I.; Kramer, Matthew J.; Wang, Cai -Zhuang; Ho, Kai -Ming</p> <p>2016-07-12</p> <p>The structural ordering at solid-liquid interfaces far from equilibrium is studied with molecular dynamics simulations for the <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Sm <span class="hlt">system</span>. Using the van-Hove self-correlation function as the criterion to identify attachment/detachment events that occur at the interface, we are able to determine the time-dependent interface position, and characterize the detailed interfacial structure ordering surrounding the attached atoms. For the interface between an undercooled <span class="hlt">Al</span>90Sm10 liquid and a metastable cubic structure, the solid induces the crystalline order of the cubic phase in the liquid layers, promoting the continuous growth of the crystal phase. When the same liquid is put in contact withmore » f.c.c. <span class="hlt">Al</span>, Sm from the liquid can still attach to the solid interface despite its insolubility in the <span class="hlt">Al</span> lattice. Non-f.c.c. order is revealed surrounding the attached Sm atoms. Lastly, we show that the local structure ordering at interface is highly correlated to solid packing and liquid ordering.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22907449','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22907449"><span id="translatedtitle">Catalytic oxidation with <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Ce-Fe-PILC as a post-treatment <span class="hlt">system</span> for coffee wet processing wastewater.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sanabria, Nancy R; Peralta, Yury M; Montañez, Mardelly K; Rodríguez-Valencia, Nelson; Molina, Rafael; Moreno, Sonia</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The effluent from the anaerobic biological treatment of coffee wet processing wastewater (CWPW) contains a non-biodegradable compound that must be treated before it is discharged into a water source. In this paper, the wet hydrogen peroxide catalytic oxidation (WHPCO) process using <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Ce-Fe-PILC catalysts was researched as a post-treatment <span class="hlt">system</span> for CWPW and tested in a semi-batch reactor at atmospheric pressure and 25 °C. The <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Ce-Fe-PILC achieved a high conversion rate of total phenolic compounds (70%) and mineralization to CO(2) (50%) after 5 h reaction time. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) of coffee processing wastewater after wet hydrogen peroxide catalytic oxidation was reduced in 66%. The combination of the two treatment methods, biological (developed by Cenicafé) and catalytic oxidation with <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Ce-Fe-PILC, achieved a 97% reduction of COD in CWPW. Therefore, the WHPCO using <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Ce-Fe-PILC catalysts is a viable alternative for the post-treatment of coffee processing wastewater.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JNuM..457...72O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JNuM..457...72O"><span id="translatedtitle">Phase equilibria investigations and thermodynamic modeling of the <span class="hlt">system</span> Bi2O3-<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Oudich, F.; David, N.; Mathieu, S.; Vilasi, M.</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">system</span> Bi2O3-<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 has been experimentally investigated above 600 °C by DTA, XRD and EPMA under air and low oxygen pressure. Only two compounds were found to exist in equilibrium, which are Bi2<span class="hlt">Al</span>4O9(1Bi2O3:2<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3) and Bi25<span class="hlt">Al</span>O39(25:1). The latter exhibits a sillenite structure and does not contain pentavalent bismuth. A peritectoid decomposition of (25:1) and a peritectic melting of (1:2) occur at 775 °C and 1075 °C respectively, while an eutectic transformation was observed at 815 °C for 97 mol% Bi2O3. On the basis of the results obtained within the present work as well as experimental data provided from literature, a thermodynamic modeling where the liquid phase is described by the two-sublattice ionic liquid model was performed according to the Calphad approach. The resulting thermodynamic optimization yielded good agreement with experimental results in the investigated region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/605812','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/605812"><span id="translatedtitle">Changes in microstructure during <span class="hlt">primary</span> creep of a Ti-47<span class="hlt">Al</span>-2Nb-1Mn-0.5W-0.5Mo-0.2Si alloy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Seo, D.Y.; Bieler, T.R.; An, S.U.; Larsen, D.E.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Cast gamma titanium aluminides are gaining acceptance as potential replacements for superalloy and steel components in many applications. One particular alloy with W, Mo, and Si additions has shown exceptional <span class="hlt">primary</span> creep resistance. Quantitative microscopic comparisons were made between microstructures in undeformed and deformed regions in creep specimens deformed to strains between 0.1 and 1.5 pct strain, using optical microscope, scanning electron microscope (SEM), and transmission electron microscope (TEM) techniques. As-hot isostatically pressed (hipped) and heat-treated (1,010 C for 50 hours) conditions were compared. The as-hipped specimen had a higher lamellar volume fraction, and it crept more than 100 times faster. The lamellar spacing in the lamellar grains systematically decreased by 15 to 35%, with increasing stress, during the first 0.1 to 2% strain. Precipitates containing W, Mo, and/or Si were observed in the deformed gage and undeformed grip sections of the heat-treated specimens. Precipitation is nucleated by heat treatment, but, during creep deformation, a more homogeneous and faster growth process occurs in the gage section than in the aged but undeformed grip section. The gage section had a 35% higher precipitate volume fraction, but their average size was smaller. A lower volume fraction of lamellar grains and the presence of precipitates account for the excellent creep resistance in the heat-treated alloy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22345239','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22345239"><span id="translatedtitle">Phase and structural behavior of Sm<span class="hlt">Al</span>O{sub 3}–RAlO{sub 3} (R = Eu, Gd) <span class="hlt">systems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ohon, N.; Vasylechko, L.; Prots, Yu.; Schmidt, M.</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>Highlights: • Continuous solid solutions exist in the Sm<span class="hlt">Al</span>O{sub 3}–RAlO{sub 3} (R = Eu, Gd) <span class="hlt">systems</span>. • Lattice parameter crossover was found in solid solutions Sm{sub 1−x}R{sub x}<span class="hlt">Al</span>O{sub 3} (R = Eu, Gd). • Thermally induced lattice crossovers occur in Sm{sub 0.9}R{sub 0.1}<span class="hlt">Al</span>O{sub 3} at elevated temperatures. • First-order structural phase transition Pbnm↔R3{sup ¯}c was found in Sm{sub 1−x}R{sub x}<span class="hlt">Al</span>O{sub 3} (R = Eu, Gd). • Phase diagram of the <span class="hlt">systems</span> Sm<span class="hlt">Al</span>O{sub 3}–Eu<span class="hlt">Al</span>O{sub 3} and Sm<span class="hlt">Al</span>O{sub 3}–Gd<span class="hlt">Al</span>O{sub 3} has been constructed. - Abstract: Phase and structural behavior in the Sm<span class="hlt">Al</span>O{sub 3}–RAlO{sub 3} (R = Eu, Gd) <span class="hlt">systems</span> has been studied in a whole concentration range by means of laboratory X-ray diffraction, in situ synchrotron powder diffraction and differential thermal analysis techniques. Continuous solid solutions with orthorhombic perovskite structure have been found in both <span class="hlt">systems</span>. Peculiarity of the solid solutions of Sm{sub 1−x}Eu{sub x}<span class="hlt">Al</span>O{sub 3} and Sm{sub 1−x}Gd{sub x}<span class="hlt">Al</span>O{sub 3} is the existence of two lattice parameter crossovers in each <span class="hlt">system</span> occurred at x{sub Eu} = 0.07 and 0.62 and at x{sub Gd} = 0.04 and 0.33, respectively. The temperature induced lattice crossovers in the Sm{sub 0.9}Eu{sub 0.1}<span class="hlt">Al</span>O{sub 3} and Sm{sub 0.9}Gd{sub 0.1}<span class="hlt">Al</span>O{sub 3} samples have been found at 387 and 922 K and at 501 and 894 K. First-order reversible structural phase transformations Pbnm↔R3{sup ¯}c have been detected in both <span class="hlt">systems</span> at the elevated temperatures. The temperatures of these transitions increase linearly with the decreasing of the samarium content. Phase diagrams of the pseudo-binary <span class="hlt">systems</span> Sm<span class="hlt">Al</span>O{sub 3}–Eu<span class="hlt">Al</span>O{sub 3} and Sm<span class="hlt">Al</span>O{sub 3}–Gd<span class="hlt">Al</span>O{sub 3} have been constructed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7209323','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7209323"><span id="translatedtitle">High-transition-temperature superconductors in the Nb-<span class="hlt">Al</span>-Ge <span class="hlt">system</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Giorgi, A.L.; Szklarz, E.G.</p> <p>1972-09-26</p> <p>The patent describes superconducting materials of the nominal composition Nb(x)<span class="hlt">Al</span>(y)Ge(l-y), where x is in the range of 1.9 to 2.8 and y is in the range of 0.5 to 0.9, having transition temperatures in the 19 -20K. range which are readily produced by annealing arc-melted compositions, or cold-pressed, heat-treated compositions at moderate temperatures for reasonably long times (about 50 hours).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9120562','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9120562"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of adaptation on neural coding by <span class="hlt">primary</span> sensory interneurons in the cricket cercal <span class="hlt">system</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Clague, H; Theunissen, F; Miller, J P</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Methods of stochastic <span class="hlt">systems</span> analysis were applied to examine the effect of adaptation on frequency encoding by two functionally identical <span class="hlt">primary</span> interneurons of the cricket cercal <span class="hlt">system</span>. Stimulus reconstructions were obtained from a linear filtering transformation of spike trains elicited in response to bursts of broadband white noise air current stimuli (5-400 Hz). Each linear reconstruction was compared with the actual stimulus in the frequency domain to obtain a measure of waveform coding accuracy as a function of frequency. The term adaptation in this paper refers to the decrease in firing rate of a cell after the onset or increase in power of a white noise stimulus. The increase in firing rate after stimulus offset or decrease in stimulus power is assumed to be a complementary aspect of the same phenomenon. As the spike rate decreased during the course of adaptation, the total amount of information carried about the velocity waveform of the stimulus also decreased. The quality of coding of frequencies between 70 and 400 Hz decreased dramatically. The quality of coding of frequencies between 5 and 70 Hz decreased only slightly or even increased in some cases. The disproportionate loss of information about the higher frequencies could be attributed in part to the more rapid loss of spikes correlated with high-frequency stimulus components than of spikes correlated with low-frequency components. An increase in the responsiveness of a cell to frequencies > 70 Hz was correlated with a decrease in the ability of that cell to encode frequencies in the 5-70 Hz range. This nonlinear property could explain the improvement seen in some cases in the coding accuracy of frequencies between 5 and 70 Hz during the course of adaptation. Waveform coding properties also were characterized for fully adapted neurons at several stimulus intensities. The changes in coding observed through the course of adaptation were similar in nature to those found across stimulus powers</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvB..94i4111G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvB..94i4111G"><span id="translatedtitle">Phase and structural stability in Ni-<span class="hlt">Al</span> <span class="hlt">systems</span> from first principles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Goiri, Jon Gabriel; Van der Ven, Anton</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>We report on a comprehensive first-principles study of phase stability in the Ni-<span class="hlt">Al</span> binary, both at zero Kelvin and at finite temperature. First-principles density functional theory calculations of the energies of enumerated orderings on fcc and the sublattices of B2 not only predict the stability of known phases, but also reveal the stability of a family of ordered phases that combine features of L 12 and L 10 in different ratios to adjust their overall composition. The calculations also confirm the stability of vacancy ordered B2 derivatives that are stable in the <span class="hlt">Al</span>-rich half of the phase diagram. We introduce strain order parameters to systematically analyze instabilities with respect to the Bain path connecting the fcc and bcc lattices. Many unstable orderings on both fcc and bcc are predicted around compositions of xNi=0.625 , where a martensitic phase transformation is known to occur. Cluster expansion techniques together with Monte Carlo simulations were used to calculate a finite-temperature-composition phase diagram of the Ni-<span class="hlt">Al</span> binary. The calculated phase diagram together with an analysis of Bain instabilities reveals the importance of anharmonicity in determining the phase bounds between the B2 based β phase and the L 12 based γ' phase, as well as properties related to martensitic transformations that are observed upon quenching Ni-rich β .</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999PhDT.......256M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999PhDT.......256M"><span id="translatedtitle">Phase equilibria and transformations in the Ti-<span class="hlt">Al</span>-Nb <span class="hlt">system</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mishurda, Joseph Constantine</p> <p></p> <p>The phase equilibria and transformations in the Nb-Ti-<span class="hlt">Al</span> <span class="hlt">system</span> in the vicinity of the Sigma phase field have been examined with respect to the Liquidus Surface (Phase 1), the Phase Equilibria and Equilibrium Transformations (Phase II), and the Phase Transformations, Mechanisms and Kinetics (Phase III). Eight alloy compositions were produced by arc melting. The alloys were characterized by differential thermal analysis, metallography, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (BSEI), electron probe microanalysis and transmission electron microscopy. The liquidus examination shed new light on previous microstructural interpretations, opening up new possibilities for microstructural development and control of multiphase alloys. Differential thermal analysis has identified the existence of a beta to sigma + gamma transformation in an alloy where it was not previously thought to exist. The results differed from the calculated diagram by higher titanium solubility in the sigma and delta phases than predicted at lower temperatures and a lower solubility of alpha2 and gamma. The high temperature betao transforms to gamma + sigma in a eutectoid fashion resulting in a desirable lamellar structure of sigma and gamma. The existence of a new body centered tetragonal crystal structure ao = 5.11A and co 28.12A with a point group symmetry of P4/mmm, at 700°C was discovered. A plethel section was found for the sigma + beta two phase alloys. A betao + O + sigma three phase field passes through the alloys between 981 and 1000°C. The plethel section at the transformation has an eutectoid characteristic, however, the nature of the transformation changes to a peritectoid. At temperatures below 970°C, the first transformation to occur is the decomposition of the metastable betao phase to an intermediate metastable phase O'. Reasonable values for Q were obtained, applicable to the diffusion limited region of the TTT-curve. The microstructure evolution of the sigma + beta</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10892035','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10892035"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Primary</span> blast injury: pathophysiology and implications for treatment. Part III: Injury to the central nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> and the limbs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Guy, R J; Glover, M A; Cripps, N P</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>There are some structures in which changes consistent with <span class="hlt">primary</span> blast may be found despite secondary and tertiary blast being the most frequent sources of injury. The Central Nervous <span class="hlt">System</span> for example, especially the brain, is well protected yet there are historical and experimental accounts of damage which cannot be attributed to secondary or tertiary blast or even air embolism resulting from pulmonary disruption. Similarly, analysis and experimental simulation of specific skeletal injuries has shown that <span class="hlt">primary</span> blast alone can fracture bones and that it is likely to be responsible for limb avulsions in victims exposed to stress waves of sufficiently high intensity. PMID:10892035</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/114567','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/114567"><span id="translatedtitle">Analysis and design modifications for upgrade of storage ring bump pulse <span class="hlt">system</span> driving the injection bump magnets at the <span class="hlt">ALS</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Stover, G.D.</p> <p>1995-04-01</p> <p>A fast (4.0 ms half period) resonant discharge pulse <span class="hlt">system</span>, using SCRs, was designed and constructed to drive the injection bump magnet <span class="hlt">system</span> at the Advanced Light Source (<span class="hlt">ALS</span>). The commissioning process revealed a high frequency resonance (T = 800 NS) superimposed on the driver discharge wave form. In addition, the peak amplitude of the magnet load recovery current exceeded design specifications. A SPICE analysis confirmed the suspected mechanisms for the parasitic ringing and the excessive load current {open_quotes}undershoot{close_quotes}. This paper will address the subsequent analysis, measurements, and modifications carried out during the maintenance shutdown in June 1993.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012PhLB..710..426P&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012PhLB..710..426P&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Nuclear rainbow in the 16O + 27<span class="hlt">AL</span> <span class="hlt">system</span>: The role of couplings at energies far above the barrier</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pereira, D.; Linares, R.; Oliveira, J. R. B.; Lubian, J.; Chamon, L. C.; Gomes, P. R. S.; Cunsolo, A.; Cappuzzello, F.; Cavallaro, M.; Carbone, D.; Foti, A.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>High precision elastic and inelastic angular distributions have been measured for the 16O + 27<span class="hlt">Al</span> <span class="hlt">system</span> at a beam energy of 100 MeV. The data analysis confirms a rainbow formation as already predicted by parameter-free Coupled Channel calculations. It also helps to reveal the crucial role of inelastic couplings in the rainbow formation for heavier <span class="hlt">systems</span> even at energies far above the Coulomb barrier. This feature, well known in atomic/molecular scattering, is experimentally studied for the first time in Nuclear Physics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3750424','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3750424"><span id="translatedtitle">Reforming healthcare <span class="hlt">systems</span> on a locally integrated basis: is there a potential for increasing collaborations in <span class="hlt">primary</span> healthcare?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>. This is with the exception of private medical clinics, where collaborations decreased both outside and within LHNs. Conclusion Health <span class="hlt">system</span> reforms aimed at creating geographically based networks influenced <span class="hlt">primary</span> healthcare practices’ both among themselves (horizontal collaborations) and with hospitals (vertical collaborations). There is evidence of increased collaborations within defined geographic areas, particularly among new type of <span class="hlt">primary</span> healthcare. PMID:23835105</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AIPA....5h7149A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AIPA....5h7149A"><span id="translatedtitle">Electrical properties of GaAs metal-oxide-semiconductor structure comprising <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 gate oxide and <span class="hlt">Al</span>N passivation layer fabricated in situ using a metal-organic vapor deposition/atomic layer deposition hybrid <span class="hlt">system</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Aoki, Takeshi; Fukuhara, Noboru; Osada, Takenori; Sazawa, Hiroyuki; Hata, Masahiko; Inoue, Takayuki</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>This paper presents a compressive study on the fabrication and optimization of GaAs metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) structures comprising a <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 gate oxide, deposited via atomic layer deposition (ALD), with an <span class="hlt">Al</span>N interfacial passivation layer prepared in situ via metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The established protocol afforded self-limiting growth of <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 in the atmospheric MOCVD reactor. Consequently, this enabled successive growth of MOCVD-formed <span class="hlt">Al</span>N and ALD-formed <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 layers on the GaAs substrate. The effects of <span class="hlt">Al</span>N thickness, post-deposition anneal (PDA) conditions, and crystal orientation of the GaAs substrate on the electrical properties of the resulting MOS capacitors were investigated. Thin <span class="hlt">Al</span>N passivation layers afforded incorporation of optimum amounts of nitrogen, leading to good capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics with reduced frequency dispersion. In contrast, excessively thick <span class="hlt">Al</span>N passivation layers degraded the interface, thereby increasing the interfacial density of states (Dit) near the midgap and reducing the conduction band offset. To further improve the interface with the thin <span class="hlt">Al</span>N passivation layers, the PDA conditions were optimized. Using wet nitrogen at 600 °C was effective to reduce Dit to below 2 × 1012 cm-2 eV-1. Using a (111)A substrate was also effective in reducing the frequency dispersion of accumulation capacitance, thus suggesting the suppression of traps in GaAs located near the dielectric/GaAs interface. The current findings suggest that using an atmosphere ALD process with in situ <span class="hlt">Al</span>N passivation using the current MOCVD <span class="hlt">system</span> could be an efficient solution to improving GaAs MOS interfaces.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27197396','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27197396"><span id="translatedtitle">The energetic contributions of aquatic <span class="hlt">primary</span> producers to terrestrial food webs in a mid-size river <span class="hlt">system</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kautza, Adam; Mazeika, S; Sullivan, P</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Rivers are increasingly recognized as providing nutritional subsidies (i.e., energy and nutrients) to adjacent terrestrial food webs via depredation of aquatic organisms (e.g., emergent aquatic insects, crayfish, fish) by terrestrial consumers. However, because these prey organisms assimilate energy from both aquatic (e.g., benthic algae, phytoplankton, aquatic macrophytes) and terrestrial (e.g., riparian leaf detritus) <span class="hlt">primary</span> producers, river subsidies to terrestrial consumers represent a combination of aquatically and terrestrially derived energy. To date, the explicit contribution of energy derived from aquatic <span class="hlt">primary</span> producers to terrestrial consumers has not been fully explored yet might be expected to be quantitatively important to terrestrial food webs. At 12 reaches along a 185-km segment of the sixth-order Scioto River <span class="hlt">system</span> (Ohio, USA), we quantified the relative contribution of energy derived from aquatic <span class="hlt">primary</span> producers to a suite of terrestrial riparian consumers that integrate the adjacent landscape across multiple spatial scales through their foraging activities (tetragnathid spiders, rove beetles, adult coenagrionid damselflies, riparian swallows, and raccoons). We used naturally abundant stable isotopes (13C and 15N) of periphyton, phytoplankton, macrophytes, and terrestrial vegetation to evaluate the energetic contribution of aquatic <span class="hlt">primary</span> producers to terrestrial food webs. Shoreline tetragnathid spiders were most reliant on aquatic <span class="hlt">primary</span> producers (50%), followed by wider-ranging raccoons (48%), damselflies (44%), and riparian swallows (41%). Of the <span class="hlt">primary</span> producers, phytoplankton (19%) provisioned the greatest nutritional contribution to terrestrial consumers (considered collectively), followed by periphyton (14%) and macrophytes (11%). Our findings provide empirical evidence that aquatic <span class="hlt">primary</span> producers of large streams and rivers can be a critical nutritional resource for terrestrial food webs. We also show that aquatically</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27197396','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27197396"><span id="translatedtitle">The energetic contributions of aquatic <span class="hlt">primary</span> producers to terrestrial food webs in a mid-size river <span class="hlt">system</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kautza, Adam; Mazeika, S; Sullivan, P</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Rivers are increasingly recognized as providing nutritional subsidies (i.e., energy and nutrients) to adjacent terrestrial food webs via depredation of aquatic organisms (e.g., emergent aquatic insects, crayfish, fish) by terrestrial consumers. However, because these prey organisms assimilate energy from both aquatic (e.g., benthic algae, phytoplankton, aquatic macrophytes) and terrestrial (e.g., riparian leaf detritus) <span class="hlt">primary</span> producers, river subsidies to terrestrial consumers represent a combination of aquatically and terrestrially derived energy. To date, the explicit contribution of energy derived from aquatic <span class="hlt">primary</span> producers to terrestrial consumers has not been fully explored yet might be expected to be quantitatively important to terrestrial food webs. At 12 reaches along a 185-km segment of the sixth-order Scioto River <span class="hlt">system</span> (Ohio, USA), we quantified the relative contribution of energy derived from aquatic <span class="hlt">primary</span> producers to a suite of terrestrial riparian consumers that integrate the adjacent landscape across multiple spatial scales through their foraging activities (tetragnathid spiders, rove beetles, adult coenagrionid damselflies, riparian swallows, and raccoons). We used naturally abundant stable isotopes (13C and 15N) of periphyton, phytoplankton, macrophytes, and terrestrial vegetation to evaluate the energetic contribution of aquatic <span class="hlt">primary</span> producers to terrestrial food webs. Shoreline tetragnathid spiders were most reliant on aquatic <span class="hlt">primary</span> producers (50%), followed by wider-ranging raccoons (48%), damselflies (44%), and riparian swallows (41%). Of the <span class="hlt">primary</span> producers, phytoplankton (19%) provisioned the greatest nutritional contribution to terrestrial consumers (considered collectively), followed by periphyton (14%) and macrophytes (11%). Our findings provide empirical evidence that aquatic <span class="hlt">primary</span> producers of large streams and rivers can be a critical nutritional resource for terrestrial food webs. We also show that aquatically</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PMM...116..544D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PMM...116..544D"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimation of excess energies and activity coefficients for the penternary Ni-Cr-Co-<span class="hlt">Al</span>-Mo <span class="hlt">system</span> and its subsystems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dogan, A.; Arslan, H.; Dogan, T.</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Using different prediction methods, such as the General Solution Model of Kohler and Muggianu, the excess energy and activities of molybdenum for the sections of the phase diagram for the penternary Ni-Cr-Co-<span class="hlt">Al</span>-Mo <span class="hlt">system</span> with mole ratios xNi/ xMo = 1, xCr/ xMo = 1, xCo/ xMo = 1, and x<span class="hlt">Al</span>/ xMo = r = 0.5 and 1, were thermodynamically investigated at a temperature of 2000 K, whereas the excess energy and activities of Bi for the section corresponding to the ternary Bi-Ga-Sb <span class="hlt">system</span> with mole ratio xGa/ xSb = 1/9 were thermodynamically investigated at a temperature of 1073 K. In the case of r = 0.5 and 1 in the alloys Ni-Cr-Co-<span class="hlt">Al</span>-Mo, a positive deviation in the activity coefficient was revealed, as molybdenum content increased. Moreover, in the calculations performed in Chou's GSM model, the obtained values for excess Gibbs energies are negative in the whole concentration range of bismuth at 1073 K and exhibit the minimum of about -2.2 kJ/mol at the mole ratio xGa/ xSb = 1/9 in the alloy Bi-Ga-Sb.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JTST...24..953E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JTST...24..953E"><span id="translatedtitle">Corrosion of NiCoCr<span class="hlt">Al</span>Y Coatings and TBC <span class="hlt">Systems</span> Subjected to Water Vapor and Sodium Sulfate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Eriksson, Robert; Yuan, Kang; Li, Xin-Hai; Lin Peng, Ru</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>Thermal barrier coating (TBC) <span class="hlt">systems</span> are commonly used in gas turbines for protection against high-temperature degradation. Penetration of the ceramic top coat by corrosive species may cause corrosion damage on the underlying NiCoCr<span class="hlt">Al</span>Y bond coat and cause failure of the TBC <span class="hlt">system</span>. In the current study, four oxidation/corrosion conditions were tried: (i) lab air, (ii) water vapor, (iii) sodium sulfate deposited on the specimens, and (iv) water vapor + sodium sulfate. The test was done at 750 °C in a cyclic test rig with 48 h cycles. The corrosion damage was studied on NiCoCr<span class="hlt">Al</span>Y-coated specimens, thin APS TBC specimens, and thick APS TBC specimens. Water vapor was found to have very minor influence on the oxidation, while sodium sulfate increased the TGO thickness both for NiCoCr<span class="hlt">Al</span>Y specimens and TBC-coated specimens; the influence of the TBC thickness was found to be very small. Sodium sulfate promoted thicker TGO; more Cr-rich TGO; the formation of Y oxides, and internally, Y sulfides; pore formation in the coating as well as in the substrate; and the formation of a Cr-depleted zone in the substrate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9524E..0RL','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9524E..0RL"><span id="translatedtitle">Design and simulation of the active support <span class="hlt">system</span> for a 1.2m meniscus <span class="hlt">primary</span> mirror</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Haitao; Fan, Bin; Zeng, Zhige; Li, Xiaojin; Wang, Hongqiao; Liu, Rong</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>Thin meniscus <span class="hlt">primary</span> mirrors with active support have been used successfully in many large telescopes, and also draw attention of many optical fabricators. Because the active support <span class="hlt">system</span> can correct the low order figure errors, such as astigmatism, coma, trefoil 3rd astigmatism, the optical fabricators can just focus on to remove high order figure errors. This will shorten the fabrication time. In this paper, we present an active support <span class="hlt">system</span> for a 1.2m meniscus parabolic <span class="hlt">primary</span> mirror. It contains 37 axial push-pull force supports, 3 axial fixed points, and 4 lateral restraints. Some basic performance of the active support <span class="hlt">system</span> is analyzed and the figure error correction capability is also studied based on Zernike modes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11922980','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11922980"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Primary</span> afferent fibers establish dye-coupled connections in the frog central nervous <span class="hlt">system</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bácskai, Timea; Matesz, Clara</p> <p></p> <p>Neurobiotin and Lucifer yellow, indicators of gap junctional coupling, were applied to <span class="hlt">primary</span> afferent fibers of the frog. Following application of tracers to cervical or lumbar dorsal root fibers, a large number of labeled granule cells were detected in the corpus cerebelli, the brainstem, and the spinal cord. The vestibular nerve was found to be in dye-coupled connection with the granule cells of the auricular lobe of the cerebellum. After application of the tracers to the trigeminal nerve, elicited dye-coupled neurons located mainly in the termination area of the descending limb of the mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus. In control experiments with biotinylated dextrane amine, only <span class="hlt">primary</span> afferent fibers were labeled. Our results suggest that gap junctional coupling exists between <span class="hlt">primary</span> afferent fibers and their postsynaptic targets in the frog.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1003913','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1003913"><span id="translatedtitle">Cyclotron resonance at microwave frequencies in two-dimensional hole <span class="hlt">system</span> in <span class="hlt">Al</span>GaAs/GaAs quantum wells.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ong, N. P.; Bayrakci, S. P.; Lai, K. W.; Pan, Wei; Tsui, Daniel Chee; West, Ken W.; Pfeiffer, Loren N.</p> <p>2003-07-01</p> <p>Cyclotron resonance at the microwave frequency is used to measure the band edge mass (m{sub b}) in the two-dimensional hole (2DH) <span class="hlt">system</span>, confined in 30 nm quantum wells in the <span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 0.1}Ga{sub 0.9}As/GaAs/<span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 0.1}Ga{sub 0.9}As heterostructures. We find that for 2DH density p {le} 1.0 x 10{sup 10} cm{sup -2}, m{sub b} is nearly constant, {approx}0.35m{sub e}. It increases with increasing density, to {approx}0.5m{sub e} at p = 7.4 x 10{sup 10} cm{sup -2}.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SSSci..13.2124W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SSSci..13.2124W"><span id="translatedtitle">Hydrothermal transformation of magadiite into ferrierite in <span class="hlt">Al</span> 2O 3-Na 2O-ethylenediamine-H 2O <span class="hlt">system</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Yu; Yang, Yang; Cui, Miao; Sun, Jiangbo; Qi, Lin; Ji, Shouhua; Meng, Changgong</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>This study investigated the transformation of magadiite into ferrierite in <span class="hlt">Al</span> 2O 3-Na 2O-ethylenediamine (EDA)-H 2O <span class="hlt">system</span>. The influence of various parameters such as reaction temperature, time, alkalinity, the reactant Na 2O/SiO 2 ratio and EDA/SiO 2 ratio were examined. Thermal and acid stability of the synthetic ferrierite are presented. Highly crystallized and pure ferrierite could be obtained from dispersion with the molar composition: 0.01 Na 2O: 0.005 <span class="hlt">Al</span> 2O 3: SiO 2: 30 H 2O: 20 EDA by heating at 433 K for 48 h. The structure of ferrierite was destroyed when the temperature rose above 873 K and the framework of the sample, stirred in 5 mol/L HCl for 3 h, is consistent with the untreated ferrierite.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22273493','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22273493"><span id="translatedtitle">Morphology and properties of a hybrid organic-inorganic <span class="hlt">system</span>: <span class="hlt">Al</span> nanoparticles embedded into CuPc thin film</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Molodtsova, O. V.; Babenkov, S. V.; Aristova, I. M.; Vilkov, O. V.; Aristov, V. Yu.</p> <p>2014-04-28</p> <p>The evolution of the morphology and the electronic structure of the hybrid organic-inorganic <span class="hlt">system</span> composed of aluminum nanoparticles (NPs) distributed in an organic semiconductor matrix—copper phthalocyanine (CuPc)—as a function of nominal aluminum content was studied by transmission electron microscopy and by photoemission spectroscopy methods. The aluminum atoms deposited onto the CuPc surface diffuse into the organic matrix and self-assemble to NPs in a well-defined manner with a narrow diameter distribution, which depends on the amount of aluminum that is evaporated onto the CuPc film. We find clear evidence of a charge transfer from <span class="hlt">Al</span> to CuPc and we have been able to determine the lattice sites where <span class="hlt">Al</span> ions sit. The finally at high coverage about 64 Å the formation of metallic aluminum overlayer on CuPc thin film takes place.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2010JNuM..397....1S&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2010JNuM..397....1S&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Ab-initio calculations and phase diagram assessments of An-<span class="hlt">Al</span> <span class="hlt">systems</span> (An = U, Np, Pu)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sedmidubský, D.; Konings, R. J. M.; Souček, P.</p> <p>2010-02-01</p> <p>The enthalpies of formation of binary intermetallic compounds An<span class="hlt">Al</span> n(n=2,3,4, An=U,Np,Pu) were assessed from first principle calculations of total energies performed using full potential APW + lo technique within density functional theory ( WIEN2k). The substantial contribution to entropies, S298°, arising from lattice vibrations was calculated by direct method within harmonic crystal approximation ( Phonon software + VASP for obtaining Hellmann-Feynman forces). The electronic heat capacity and the corresponding contribution to entropy were estimated from the density of states at Fermi level obtained from electronic structure calculations. The phase diagrams of the relevant <span class="hlt">systems</span> An-<span class="hlt">Al</span> were calculated based on the thermodynamic data assessed from ab-initio calculations, known equilibrium and calorimetry data by employing the FactSage program.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4616419','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4616419"><span id="translatedtitle">An Update of the Mayo Clinic Cohort of Patients With Adult <span class="hlt">Primary</span> Central Nervous <span class="hlt">System</span> Vasculitis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Salvarani, Carlo; Brown, Robert D.; Christianson, Teresa; Miller, Dylan V.; Giannini, Caterina; Huston, John; Hunder, Gene G.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Abstract <span class="hlt">Primary</span> central nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> vasculitis (PCNSV) is an uncommon condition in which lesions are limited to vessels of the brain and spinal cord. Because the clinical manifestations are not specific, the diagnosis is often difficult, and permanent disability and death are frequent outcomes. This study is based on a cohort of 163 consecutive patients with PCNSV who were examined at the Mayo Clinic over a 29-year period from 1983 to 2011. The aim of the study was to define the characteristics of these patients, which represents the largest series in adults reported to date. A total of 105 patients were diagnosed by angiographic findings and 58 by biopsy results. The patients diagnosed by biopsy more frequently had at presentation cognitive dysfunction, greater cerebrospinal fluid total protein concentrations, less frequent cerebral infarcts, and more frequent leptomeningeal gadolinium-enhanced lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), along with less mortality and disability at last follow-up. The patients diagnosed by angiograms more frequently had at presentation hemiparesis or a persistent neurologic deficit or stroke, more frequent infarcts on MRI and an increased mortality. These differences were mainly related to the different size of the vessels involved in the 2 groups. Although most patients responded to therapy with glucocorticoids alone or in conjunction with cyclophosphamide and tended to improve during the follow-up period, an overall increased mortality rate was observed. Relapses occurred in one-quarter of the patients and were less frequent in patients treated with prednisone and cyclophosphamide compared with those treated with prednisone alone. The mortality rate and degree of disability at last follow-up were greater in those with increasing age, cerebral infarctions on MRI, angiographic large vessel involvement, and diagnosis made by angiography alone, but were lower in those with gadolinium-enhanced lesions on MRI and in those with</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9057891','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9057891"><span id="translatedtitle">N-deacetyl ketoconazole-induced hepatotoxicity in a <span class="hlt">primary</span> culture <span class="hlt">system</span> of rat hepatocytes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rodriguez, R J; Acosta, D</p> <p>1997-02-28</p> <p>Ketoconazole (KT) is an azole antifungal agent that has been associated with hepatotoxicity. The mechanism of its hepatotoxicity has not yet been resolved. It has been suggested that a reactive metabolite may be the cause of toxicity because the hepatic injury does not appear to be mediated through an immunoallergic mechanism. Several metabolites of KT have been reported in the literature of which the deacetylated metabolite, N-deacetyl ketoconazole (DAK), is the major metabolite which undergoes further metabolism by the flavin-containing monooxygenases (FMO) to form a potentially toxic dialdehyde. The objective of this study was to evaluate DAK's cytotoxicity and the role of FMO in a <span class="hlt">primary</span> culture <span class="hlt">system</span> of rat hepatocytes. Cytotoxicity was evaluated by measuring the leakage of the cytosolic enzyme, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), into the medium and by assessing mitochondrial reduction of 3-(4,5-dimethythiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT). The cultures were exposed to various concentrations of DAK (20-160 microM) for 0.5-4 h. There was a significant increase (P < 0.05) in LDH leakage and an immediate decrease in MTT reduction (P < 0.05) as early as 0.5 h. The MTT reduction assay appeared to be more sensitive than the LDH assay in that lower concentrations were needed to observe a 50% reduction of MTT (107, 90, 75, 58 microM DAK at 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 h, respectively). The concentrations to observe 50% LDH leakage from the hepatocytes were 155, 133, 100, 70 microM DAK at 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 h, respectively. Moreover, co-treatment with methimazole, a competitive substrate for FMO, produced a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in % LDH leakage as early as 0.5 h, when compared to cells treated solely with DAK. Also, the toxicity was significantly (P < 0.05) enhanced as early as 0.5 h by n-octylamine, a known positive effector for FMO. These results demonstrate that DAK is a more potent cytotoxicant than its parent compound, KT, as reported previously</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhDT.......137K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhDT.......137K"><span id="translatedtitle">Design and evaluation of a <span class="hlt">primary</span>/secondary pumping <span class="hlt">system</span> for a heat pump assisted solar thermal loop</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Krockenberger, Kyle G.</p> <p></p> <p>A heat pump assisted solar thermal <span class="hlt">system</span> was designed, commissioned, tested and analyzed over a period of two years. The unique <span class="hlt">system</span> uses solar energy whenever it is available, but switches to heat pump mode at night or whenever there is a lack of solar energy. The solar thermal energy is added by a variety of flat plat solar collectors and an evacuated tube heat pipe solar collector. The working medium in the entire <span class="hlt">system</span> is a 50% mixture of propylene glycol and water for freeze protection. During the design and evaluation the <span class="hlt">primary</span> / secondary pumping <span class="hlt">system</span> was the focus of the evaluation. Testing within this research focused on the operation modes, pump stability, and <span class="hlt">system</span> efficiency. It was found that the <span class="hlt">system</span> was in full operation, the pumps were stable and that the efficiency factor of the <span class="hlt">system</span> was 1.95.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/532645','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/532645"><span id="translatedtitle">VXI based multibunch detector and QPSK modulator for the PEP-II/<span class="hlt">ALS</span>/DA{Phi}NE longitudinal feedback <span class="hlt">system</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Young, A.; Fox, J.; Teytelman, D.</p> <p>1997-04-01</p> <p>The PEP-II/<span class="hlt">ALS</span>/DA{Phi}NE feedback <span class="hlt">systems</span> are complex <span class="hlt">systems</span> implemented using analog, digital and microwave circuits. The VXI hardware implementation for the Front-end and Back-end analog processing modules is presented. The Front-end module produces a baseband beam phase signal from pickups using a microwave tone burst generator. The Back-end VXI module generates an AM/QPSK modulated signal from a baseband correction signal computed in a digital signal processor. These components are implemented in VXI packages that allow a wide spectrum of <span class="hlt">system</span> functions including a 120 MHz bandwidth rms detector, reference phase servo, woofer link to the RF control <span class="hlt">system</span>, standard VXI status/control, and user defined registers. The details of the design and implementation of the VXI modules including performance characteristics are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=1997E%26PSL.153..209K&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=1997E%26PSL.153..209K&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Melting enthalpies of mantle peridotite: calorimetric determinations in the <span class="hlt">system</span> CaO-MgO-<span class="hlt">Al</span> 2O 3-SiO 2 and application to magma generation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kojitani, Hiroshi; Akaogi, Masaki</p> <p>1997-12-01</p> <p>High-temperature drop calorimetry in the temperature range of 1398-1785 K was performed for the samples of mixtures of synthetic anorthite (An), diopside (Di), enstatite (En) and forsterite (Fo) with the same compositions as those of <span class="hlt">primary</span> melts generated at 1.1, 3 and 4 GPa at most 10° above the solidus of anhydrous mantle peridotite in the CaO-MgO-<span class="hlt">Al</span> 2O 3-SiO 2 <span class="hlt">system</span>. From the differences between the heat contents ( H T-H 298) of liquid and that of crystal mixture at the liquidus temperature, melting enthalpies of the samples of 1.1, 3 and 4 GPa-<span class="hlt">primary</span> melt compositions were determined at 1 atm to be 531 ± 39 J · g -1 at 1583 K, 604 ± 21 J · g -1 at 1703 K, 646 ± 21 J · g -1 at 1753 K, respectively. These heat of fusion values suggest that mixing enthalpy of the melt in the An-Di-En-Fo <span class="hlt">system</span> is approximately zero within the experimental errors when we use the heat of fusion of Fo by Richet et <span class="hlt">al</span>. (P. Richet, F. Leclerc, L. Benoist, Melting of forsterite and spinel, with implications for the glass transition of Mg 2SiO 4 liquid, Geophys. Res. Lett. 20 (1993) 1675-1678). The measured enthalpies of melting at 1 atm were converted into those for melting reactions which occur under high pressures by correcting enthalpy changes associated with solid-state mineral reactions. Correcting the effects of pressure, temperature and FeO and Na 2O components on the melting enthalpies at 1 atm, heat of fusion values of a representative mantle peridotite just above the solidus under high pressure were estimated to be 590 J at 1.1 GPa and 1523 K, 692 J at 3 GPa and 1773 K, and 807 J at 4 GPa and 1923 K for melting reactions producing liquid of 1 g, with uncertainties of 50 J. By applying these melting enthalpies to a mantle diapir model which generates present MORBs, a potential mantle temperature of 1533 K has been estimated, assuming an eruption temperature of magma of 1473 K.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3883570','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3883570"><span id="translatedtitle">Associations of <span class="hlt">Primary</span> and Secondary Organic Aerosols With Airway and <span class="hlt">Systemic</span> Inflammation in an Elderly Panel Cohort</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Delfino, Ralph J.; Staimer, Norbert; Tjoa, Thomas; Arhami, Mohammad; Polidori, Andrea; Gillen, Daniel L.; George, Steven C.; Shafer, Martin M.; Schauer, James J.; Sioutas, Constantinos</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Background Exposure-response information about particulate air-pollution constituents is needed to protect sensitive populations. Particulate matter <2.5 mm (PM2.5) components may induce oxidative stress through reactive-oxygen-species generation, including <span class="hlt">primary</span> organics from combustion sources and secondary organics from photochemically oxidized volatile organic compounds. We evaluated differences in airway versus <span class="hlt">systemic</span> inflammatory responses to <span class="hlt">primary</span> versus secondary organic particle components, particle size fractions, and the potential of particles to induce cellular production of reactive oxygen species. Methods A total of 60 elderly subjects contributed up to 12 weekly measurements of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (NO; airway inflammation biomarker), and plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6; <span class="hlt">systemic</span> inflammation biomarker). PM2.5 mass fractions were PM0.25 (<0.25 µm) and PM0.25–2.5 (0.25–2.5 µm). <span class="hlt">Primary</span> organic markers included PM2.5 <span class="hlt">primary</span> organic carbon, and PM0.25 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and hopanes. Secondary organic markers included PM2.5 secondary organic carbon, and PM0.25 water soluble organic carbon and n-alkanoic acids. Gaseous pollutants included carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen oxides (NOx; combustion emissions markers), and ozone (O3; photochemistry marker). To assess PM oxidative potential, we exposed rat alveolar macrophages in vitro to aqueous extracts of PM0.25 filters and measured reactive-oxygen-species production. Biomarker associations with exposures were evaluated with mixed-effects models. Results Secondary organic markers, PM0.25–2.5, and O3 were positively associated with exhaled NO. <span class="hlt">Primary</span> organic markers, PM0.25, CO, and NOx were positively associated with IL-6. Reactive oxygen species were associated with both outcomes. Conclusions Particle effects on airway versus <span class="hlt">systemic</span> inflammation differ by composition, but overall particle potential to induce generation of cellular reactive oxygen species is related to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=history+AND+education&pg=7&id=EJ953776','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=history+AND+education&pg=7&id=EJ953776"><span id="translatedtitle">Structures and <span class="hlt">Systems</span> and Bodies and Things: Historical Research on <span class="hlt">Primary</span> Schooling and Its Professional Relevance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Cunningham, Peter</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Recalling its origins as a research journal addressing educationists this article seeks to understand historical research published in "History of Education" as aimed at a professional audience. <span class="hlt">Primary</span> schooling provides a significant focus as the study of education history was fostered especially in the training of elementary teachers.1 In that…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=self-care+AND+University&pg=5&id=EJ162548','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=self-care+AND+University&pg=5&id=EJ162548"><span id="translatedtitle">A Dynamic <span class="hlt">Primary</span> Care Curriculum Based on the Problem-Oriented <span class="hlt">System</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Bouchard, Richard E.; Tufo, Henry M.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>The audit of medical care in <span class="hlt">primary</span> care practices has proven to be a valuable tool for teaching the essentials of efficient health care delivery to medical students at the University of Vermont. Practice standards and methods are continually revised based on the audit of the providers of care and the curriculum is updated based on student…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Cambodia&id=EJ1041813','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Cambodia&id=EJ1041813"><span id="translatedtitle">Student Transition from <span class="hlt">Primary</span> to Lower Secondary School in Cambodia: Narrative Insights into Complex <span class="hlt">Systems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Edwards, D. Brent, Jr.; Zimmermann, Thomas; Sitha, Chhinh; Williams, James H.; Kitamura, Yuto</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This article has three purposes. First, it presents findings from a study of student retention and dropout in Cambodia, as pupils transition from <span class="hlt">primary</span> to lower secondary school. Second, it aims to understand from an in-depth, emic perspective the dynamics of this process and the challenges that individual families and their students face around…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=European+AND+Convention+AND+on+AND+Human+AND+Rights&id=EJ864915','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=European+AND+Convention+AND+on+AND+Human+AND+Rights&id=EJ864915"><span id="translatedtitle">State Liability for Abuse in <span class="hlt">Primary</span> Schools: <span class="hlt">Systemic</span> Failure and "O'Keeffe" v. "Hickey"</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>O'Mahony, Conor</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Due to the historical arrangement between Church and State, the Irish State has always discharged its duty to provide for free <span class="hlt">primary</span> education exclusively through the provision of funding to privately owned and managed schools. Consequently, in "O'Keeffe" v. "Hickey," where a woman sued the State in respect of sex abuse she suffered when in…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ990110.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ990110.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Uneven Distribution of Novice Teachers in the Chilean <span class="hlt">Primary</span> School <span class="hlt">System</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Meckes, Lorena; Bascope, Martin</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>This study examines the allocation of novice <span class="hlt">primary</span> teachers in Chilean schools, looking at their characteristics and at the attributes of the schools at which they are hired after having completed their initial teacher training. The study reveals that in Chile, more qualified novice teachers are more prone to get jobs in socio-economically…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Mintzberg%27s+AND+Management+AND+Roles&id=EJ630865','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Mintzberg%27s+AND+Management+AND+Roles&id=EJ630865"><span id="translatedtitle">Construing <span class="hlt">Systems</span> of Management among <span class="hlt">Primary</span> Headteachers: Moving Forward from Work Activity Studies.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Jones, Norah; Connolly, Michael</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>A study used a Personal Construct Theory/Repertory Grid approach to examine the work of 12 Welsh <span class="hlt">primary</span> headteachers. Analysis of thematic work-activity grids suggests principals have a more coherent view of their work (as centered on children and education) than Henry Mintzberg's observational studies portrayed. (Contains 36 references.) (MLH)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.alsa.org/','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="http://www.alsa.org/"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">ALS</span> Association</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... toward a world without <span class="hlt">ALS</span>! Walk to Defeat ALS® Walk to Defeat ALS® draws people of all ... We need your help. I Will Advocate National <span class="hlt">ALS</span> Registry The National <span class="hlt">ALS</span> Registry is a congressionally ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JMiMi..26h4007B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JMiMi..26h4007B"><span id="translatedtitle">Characterization of a smartphone size haptic rendering <span class="hlt">system</span> based on thin-film <span class="hlt">Al</span>N actuators on glass substrates</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bernard, F.; Casset, F.; Danel, J. S.; Chappaz, C.; Basrour, S.</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>This paper presents for the first time the characterization of a smartphone-size haptic rendering <span class="hlt">system</span> based on the friction modulation effect. According to previous work and finite element modeling, the homogeneous flexural modes are needed to get the haptic feedback effect. The device studied consists of a thin film <span class="hlt">Al</span>N transducers deposited on an 110  ×  65 mm2 glass substrate. The transducer’s localization on the glass plate allows a transparent central area of 90  ×  49 mm2. Electrical and mechanical parameters of the <span class="hlt">system</span> are extracted from measurement. From this extraction, the electrical impedance matching reduced the applied voltage to 17.5 V AC and the power consumption to 1.53 W at the resonance frequency of the vibrating <span class="hlt">system</span> to reach the haptic rendering specification. Transient characterizations of the actuation highlight a delay under the dynamic tactile detection. The characterization of the <span class="hlt">Al</span>N transducers used as sensors, including the noise rejection, the delay or the output charge amplitude allows detections with high accuracy of any variation due to external influences. Those specifications are the first step to a low-power-consumption feedback-looped <span class="hlt">system</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/561197','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/561197"><span id="translatedtitle">Final report spent nuclear fuel retrieval <span class="hlt">system</span> <span class="hlt">primary</span> cleaning development testing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ketner, G.L.; Meeuwsen, P.V.</p> <p>1997-09-01</p> <p>Developmental testing of the <span class="hlt">primary</span> cleaning station for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and canisters is reported. A <span class="hlt">primary</span> clean machine will be used to remove the gross sludge from canisters and fuel while maintaining water quality in the downstream process area. To facilitate SNF separation from canisters and minimize the impact to water quality, all canisters will be subjected to mechanical agitation and flushing with the <span class="hlt">Primary</span> Clean Station. The <span class="hlt">Primary</span> Clean Station consists of an outer containment box with an internally mounted, perforated wash basket. A single canister containing up to 14 fuel assemblies will be loaded into the wash basket, the confinement box lid closed, and the wash basket rotated for a fixed cycle time. During this cycle, basin water will be flushed through the wash basket and containment box to remove and entrain the sludge and carry it out of the box. <span class="hlt">Primary</span> cleaning tests were performed to provide information concerning the removal of sludge from the fuel assemblies while in the basin canisters. The testing was also used to determine if additional fuel cleaning is required outside of the fuel canisters. Hydraulic performance and water demand requirements of the cleaning station were also evaluated. Thirty tests are reported in this document. Tests demonstrated that sludge can be dislodged and suspended sufficiently to remove it from the canister. Examination of fuel elements after cleaning suggested that more than 95% of the exposed fuel surfaces were cleaned so that no visual evidence of remained. As a result of testing, recommendations are made for the cleaning cycle. 3 refs., 16 figs., 4 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15992498','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15992498"><span id="translatedtitle">Computer visualisation of patient safety in <span class="hlt">primary</span> care: a <span class="hlt">systems</span> approach adapted from management science and engineering.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Singh, Ranjit; Singh, Ashok; Fox, Chester; Seldan Taylor, John; Rosenthal, Thomas; Singh, Gurdev</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Patient safety and medical errors in ambulatory <span class="hlt">primary</span> care are receiving increasing attention from policy makers, accreditation bodies and researchers, as well as by practising family physicians and their patients. While a great deal of progress has been made in understanding errors in hospital settings, it is important to recognise that ambulatory settings pose a very large and different set of challenges and that the types of hazards that exist and the strategies required to reduce them are very different. What is needed is a logical theoretical model for understanding the causes of errors in <span class="hlt">primary</span> care, the role of healthcare <span class="hlt">systems</span> in contributing to errors, the propagation of errors through complex <span class="hlt">systems</span> and, importantly, for understanding ambulatory <span class="hlt">primary</span> care in the context of the larger healthcare <span class="hlt">system</span>. The authors have developed such a model using a formal '<span class="hlt">systems</span> engineering' approach borrowed from the management sciences and engineering. This approach has not previously been formally described in the medical literature.This paper outlines the formal <span class="hlt">systems</span> approach, presents our visual model of the <span class="hlt">system</span>, and describes some experiences with and potential applications of the model for monitoring and improving safety. Applications include providing a framework to help focus research efforts, creation of new (visual) error reporting and taxonomy <span class="hlt">systems</span>, furnishing a common and unambiguous vision for the healthcare team, and facilitating retrospective and prospective analyses of errors and adverse events. It is aimed at <span class="hlt">system</span> redesign for safety improvement through a computer-based patient-centred safety enhancement and monitoring instrument (SEMI-P). This model can be integrated with electronic medical records (EMRs).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23671077','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23671077"><span id="translatedtitle">182Hf-182W age dating of a 26<span class="hlt">Al</span>-poor inclusion and implications for the origin of short-lived radioisotopes in the early Solar <span class="hlt">System</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Holst, Jesper C; Olsen, Mia B; Paton, Chad; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Schiller, Martin; Wielandt, Daniel; Larsen, Kirsten K; Connelly, James N; Jørgensen, Jes K; Krot, Alexander N; Nordlund, Ake; Bizzarro, Martin</p> <p>2013-05-28</p> <p>Refractory inclusions [calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions, (CAIs)] represent the oldest Solar <span class="hlt">System</span> solids and provide information regarding the formation of the Sun and its protoplanetary disk. CAIs contain evidence of now extinct short-lived radioisotopes (e.g., (26)<span class="hlt">Al</span>, (41)Ca, and (182)Hf) synthesized in one or multiple stars and added to the protosolar molecular cloud before or during its collapse. Understanding how and when short-lived radioisotopes were added to the Solar <span class="hlt">System</span> is necessary to assess their validity as chronometers and constrain the birthplace of the Sun. Whereas most CAIs formed with the canonical abundance of (26)<span class="hlt">Al</span> corresponding to (26)<span class="hlt">Al</span>/(27)<span class="hlt">Al</span> of ∼5 × 10(-5), rare CAIs with fractionation and unidentified nuclear isotope effects (FUN CAIs) record nucleosynthetic isotopic heterogeneity and (26)<span class="hlt">Al</span>/(27)<span class="hlt">Al</span> of <5 × 10(-6), possibly reflecting their formation before canonical CAIs. Thus, FUN CAIs may provide a unique window into the earliest Solar <span class="hlt">System</span>, including the origin of short-lived radioisotopes. However, their chronology is unknown. Using the (182)Hf-(182)W chronometer, we show that a FUN CAI recording a condensation origin from a solar gas formed coevally with canonical CAIs, but with (26)<span class="hlt">Al</span>/(27)<span class="hlt">Al</span> of ∼3 × 10(-6). The decoupling between (182)Hf and (26)<span class="hlt">Al</span> requires distinct stellar origins: steady-state galactic stellar nucleosynthesis for (182)Hf and late-stage contamination of the protosolar molecular cloud by a massive star(s) for (26)<span class="hlt">Al</span>. Admixing of stellar-derived (26)<span class="hlt">Al</span> to the protoplanetary disk occurred during the epoch of CAI formation and, therefore, the (26)<span class="hlt">Al</span>-(26)Mg systematics of CAIs cannot be used to define their formation interval. In contrast, our results support (182)Hf homogeneity and chronological significance of the (182)Hf-(182)W clock. PMID:23671077</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23671077','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23671077"><span id="translatedtitle">182Hf-182W age dating of a 26<span class="hlt">Al</span>-poor inclusion and implications for the origin of short-lived radioisotopes in the early Solar <span class="hlt">System</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Holst, Jesper C; Olsen, Mia B; Paton, Chad; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Schiller, Martin; Wielandt, Daniel; Larsen, Kirsten K; Connelly, James N; Jørgensen, Jes K; Krot, Alexander N; Nordlund, Ake; Bizzarro, Martin</p> <p>2013-05-28</p> <p>Refractory inclusions [calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions, (CAIs)] represent the oldest Solar <span class="hlt">System</span> solids and provide information regarding the formation of the Sun and its protoplanetary disk. CAIs contain evidence of now extinct short-lived radioisotopes (e.g., (26)<span class="hlt">Al</span>, (41)Ca, and (182)Hf) synthesized in one or multiple stars and added to the protosolar molecular cloud before or during its collapse. Understanding how and when short-lived radioisotopes were added to the Solar <span class="hlt">System</span> is necessary to assess their validity as chronometers and constrain the birthplace of the Sun. Whereas most CAIs formed with the canonical abundance of (26)<span class="hlt">Al</span> corresponding to (26)<span class="hlt">Al</span>/(27)<span class="hlt">Al</span> of ∼5 × 10(-5), rare CAIs with fractionation and unidentified nuclear isotope effects (FUN CAIs) record nucleosynthetic isotopic heterogeneity and (26)<span class="hlt">Al</span>/(27)<span class="hlt">Al</span> of <5 × 10(-6), possibly reflecting their formation before canonical CAIs. Thus, FUN CAIs may provide a unique window into the earliest Solar <span class="hlt">System</span>, including the origin of short-lived radioisotopes. However, their chronology is unknown. Using the (182)Hf-(182)W chronometer, we show that a FUN CAI recording a condensation origin from a solar gas formed coevally with canonical CAIs, but with (26)<span class="hlt">Al</span>/(27)<span class="hlt">Al</span> of ∼3 × 10(-6). The decoupling between (182)Hf and (26)<span class="hlt">Al</span> requires distinct stellar origins: steady-state galactic stellar nucleosynthesis for (182)Hf and late-stage contamination of the protosolar molecular cloud by a massive star(s) for (26)<span class="hlt">Al</span>. Admixing of stellar-derived (26)<span class="hlt">Al</span> to the protoplanetary disk occurred during the epoch of CAI formation and, therefore, the (26)<span class="hlt">Al</span>-(26)Mg systematics of CAIs cannot be used to define their formation interval. In contrast, our results support (182)Hf homogeneity and chronological significance of the (182)Hf-(182)W clock.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_25 --> <center> <div class="footer-extlink text-muted"><small>Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from this site.</small> </div> </center> <div id="footer-wrapper"> <div class="footer-content"> <div id="footerOSTI" class=""> <div class="row"> <div class="col-md-4 text-center col-md-push-4 footer-content-center"><small><a href="http://www.science.gov/disclaimer.html">Privacy and Security</a></small> <div class="visible-sm visible-xs push_footer"></div> </div> <div class="col-md-4 text-center col-md-pull-4 footer-content-left"> <img src="https://www.osti.gov/images/DOE_SC31.png" alt="U.S. Department of Energy" usemap="#doe" height="31" width="177"><map style="display:none;" name="doe" id="doe"><area shape="rect" coords="1,3,107,30" href="http://www.energy.gov" alt="U.S. Deparment of Energy"><area shape="rect" coords="114,3,165,30" href="http://www.science.energy.gov" alt="Office of Science"></map> <a ref="http://www.osti.gov" style="margin-left: 15px;"><img src="https://www.osti.gov/images/footerimages/ostigov53.png" alt="Office of Scientific and Technical Information" height="31" width="53"></a> <div class="visible-sm visible-xs push_footer"></div> </div> <div class="col-md-4 text-center footer-content-right"> <a href="http://www.osti.gov/nle"><img src="https://www.osti.gov/images/footerimages/NLElogo31.png" alt="National Library of Energy" height="31" width="79"></a> <a href="http://www.science.gov"><img src="https://www.osti.gov/images/footerimages/scigov77.png" alt="science.gov" height="31" width="98"></a> <a href="http://worldwidescience.org"><img src="https://www.osti.gov/images/footerimages/wws82.png" alt="WorldWideScience.org" height="31" width="90"></a> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <p><br></p> </div><!-- container --> </body> </html>