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Sample records for primary systemic al

  1. Concomitant diagnosis of primary Sjögren's syndrome and systemic AL amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Delèvaux, I; André, M; Amoura, Z; Kémény, J L; Piette, J C; Aumaître, O

    2001-07-01

    A 48 year old woman was referred to hospital for buccal discomfort. Physical examination showed a macroglossia and features of xerostomia. She was diagnosed as having primary Sjögren's syndrome according to the criteria proposed by the European Community study group in 1993. Furthermore, a lower lip salivary gland biopsy showed amyloid deposits that were also seen in the stomach and in the bone marrow. Echocardiography was consistent with cardiac amyloidosis. Serum immunofixation identified a monoclonal IgGlambda. As far as is known, this is the first report of systemic primary amyloidosis associated with Sjögren's syndrome. The relation between these two disorders is discussed.

  2. /Cu-Al System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kish, Orel; Froumin, Natalya; Aizenshtein, Michael; Frage, Nachum

    2014-05-01

    Wettability and interfacial interaction of the Ta2O5/Cu-Al system were studied. Pure Cu does not wet the Ta2O5 substrate, and improved spreading is achieved when relatively a high fraction of the active element (~40 at.% Al) was added. The Al2O3 and AlTaO4 phases were observed at the Ta2O5/Cu-Al interface. A thermodynamic evaluation allowed us to suggest that the lack of wetting bellow 40 at.% Al is due to the presence of a native oxide, which covers the drop. The conditions of the native oxide decomposition and the formation of the volatile Al2O suboxide strongly depend on the vacuum level during sessile drop experiments and the composition of the Cu-Al alloy. In our case, Al contents greater than 40% provides thermodynamic conditions for the formation of Al2O (as a result of Al reaction with Al2O3) and the drop spreading. It was suggested that the final contact angle in the Ta2O5/Cu-Al system (50°) is determined by Ta adsorption on the newly formed alumina interlayer.

  3. ALS superbend magnet system

    SciTech Connect

    Zbasnik, J.; Wang, S.T.; Chen, J.Y.; DeVries, G.J.; DeMarco, R.; Fahmie, M.; Geyer, A.; Green, M.A.; Harkins, J.; Henderson, T.; Hinkson, J.; Hoyer, E.H.; Krupnick, J.; Marks, S.; Ottens, F.; Paterson, J.A.; Pipersky, P.; Portmann, G.; Robin, D.A.; Schlueter, R.D.; Steier, C.; Taylor, C.E.; Wahrer, R.

    2000-09-15

    The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is preparing to upgrade the Advanced Light Source (ALS) with three superconducting dipoles (Superbends). In this paper we present the final magnet system design which incorporates R&D test results and addresses the ALS operational concerns of alignment, availability, and economy. The design incorporates conduction-cooled Nb-Ti windings and HTS current leads, epoxy-glass suspension straps, and a Gifford-McMahon cryocooler to supply steady state refrigeration. We also present the current status of fabrication and testing.

  4. Dynamic Modeling of ALS Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of dynamic modeling and simulation of Advanced Life Support (ALS) systems is to help design them. Static steady state systems analysis provides basic information and is necessary to guide dynamic modeling, but static analysis is not sufficient to design and compare systems. ALS systems must respond to external input variations and internal off-nominal behavior. Buffer sizing, resupply scheduling, failure response, and control system design are aspects of dynamic system design. We develop two dynamic mass flow models and use them in simulations to evaluate systems issues, optimize designs, and make system design trades. One model is of nitrogen leakage in the space station, the other is of a waste processor failure in a regenerative life support system. Most systems analyses are concerned with optimizing the cost/benefit of a system at its nominal steady-state operating point. ALS analysis must go beyond the static steady state to include dynamic system design. All life support systems exhibit behavior that varies over time. ALS systems must respond to equipment operating cycles, repair schedules, and occasional off-nominal behavior or malfunctions. Biological components, such as bioreactors, composters, and food plant growth chambers, usually have operating cycles or other complex time behavior. Buffer sizes, material stocks, and resupply rates determine dynamic system behavior and directly affect system mass and cost. Dynamic simulation is needed to avoid the extremes of costly over-design of buffers and material reserves or system failure due to insufficient buffers and lack of stored material.

  5. Long-term outcomes of primary systemic light chain (AL) amyloidosis in patients treated upfront with bortezomib or lenalidomide and the importance of risk adapted strategies.

    PubMed

    Kastritis, Efstathios; Roussou, Maria; Gavriatopoulou, Maria; Migkou, Magdalini; Kalapanida, Despina; Pamboucas, Constantinos; Kaldara, Elisavet; Ntalianis, Argyrios; Psimenou, Erasmia; Toumanidis, Savvas T; Tasidou, Anna; Terpos, Evangelos; Dimopoulos, Meletios A

    2015-04-01

    Bortezomib and lenalidomide are increasingly used in patients with AL amyloidosis, but long term data on their use as primary therapy in AL amyloidosis are lacking while early mortality remains significant. Thus, we analyzed the long term outcomes of 85 consecutive unselected patients, which received primary therapy with bortezomib or lenalidomide and we prospectively evaluated a risk adapted strategy based on bortezomib/dexamethasone to reduce early mortality. Twenty-six patients received full-dose bortezomib/dexamethasone, 36 patients lenalidomide with oral cyclophosphamide and low-dose dexamethasone and 23 patients received bortezomib/dexamethasone at a dose and schedule adjusted to the risk of early death. On intent to treat, 67% of patients achieved a hematologic response (24% hemCRs) and 34% an organ response; both were more frequent with bortezomib. An early death occurred in 20%: in 36% of those treated with full-dose bortezomib/dexamethasone, in 22% of lenalidomide-treated patients but only in 4.5% of patients treated with risk-adapted bortezomib/dexamethasone. Activity of full vs. adjusted dose bortezomib/dexamethasone was similar; twice weekly vs. weekly administration of bortezomib also had similar activity. After a median follow up of 57 months, median survival is 47 months and is similar for patients treated with bortezomib vs. lenalidomide-based regimens. However, risk adjusted-bortezomib/dexamethasone was associated with improved 1-year survival vs. full-dose bortezomib/dexamethasone or lenalidomide-based therapy (81% vs. 56% vs. 53%, respectively). In conclusion, risk-adapted bortezomib/dexamethasone may reduce early mortality and preserve activity while long term follow up indicates that remissions obtained with lenalidomide or bortezomib may be durable, even without consolidation with alkylators. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Al Qaeda as a System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-15

    either as welcome guests or parasites . As welcome guests, Al Qaeda members take sanctuary in sponsor states. Sponsor states provide Al Qaeda with...sponsorship, Al Qaeda takes sanctuary as parasites either overtly or covertly. They take overt sanctuary in countries that publicly claim a policy...39 Yehudit Barsky, “Al Qa’ida, Iran, and Hezbollah: A Continuing Symbiosis ,” The American Jewish Committee Series on Terrorism , February 2004, 2-3

  7. Revealing heterogeneous nucleation of primary Si and eutectic Si by AlP in hypereutectic Al-Si alloys

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jiehua; Hage, Fredrik S.; Liu, Xiangfa; Ramasse, Quentin; Schumacher, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The heterogeneous nucleation of primary Si and eutectic Si can be attributed to the presence of AlP. Although P, in the form of AlP particles, is usually observed in the centre of primary Si, there is still a lack of detailed investigations on the distribution of P within primary Si and eutectic Si in hypereutectic Al-Si alloys at the atomic scale. Here, we report an atomic-scale experimental investigation on the distribution of P in hypereutectic Al-Si alloys. P, in the form of AlP particles, was observed in the centre of primary Si. However, no significant amount of P was detected within primary Si, eutectic Si and the Al matrix. Instead, P was observed at the interface between the Al matrix and eutectic Si, strongly indicating that P, in the form of AlP particles (or AlP ‘patch’ dependent on the P concentration), may have nucleated on the surface of the Al matrix and thereby enhanced the heterogeneous nucleation of eutectic Si. The present investigation reveals some novel insights into heterogeneous nucleation of primary Si and eutectic Si by AlP in hypereutectic Al-Si alloys and can be used to further develop heterogeneous nucleation mechanisms based on adsorption. PMID:27120994

  8. Revealing heterogeneous nucleation of primary Si and eutectic Si by AlP in hypereutectic Al-Si alloys.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiehua; Hage, Fredrik S; Liu, Xiangfa; Ramasse, Quentin; Schumacher, Peter

    2016-04-28

    The heterogeneous nucleation of primary Si and eutectic Si can be attributed to the presence of AlP. Although P, in the form of AlP particles, is usually observed in the centre of primary Si, there is still a lack of detailed investigations on the distribution of P within primary Si and eutectic Si in hypereutectic Al-Si alloys at the atomic scale. Here, we report an atomic-scale experimental investigation on the distribution of P in hypereutectic Al-Si alloys. P, in the form of AlP particles, was observed in the centre of primary Si. However, no significant amount of P was detected within primary Si, eutectic Si and the Al matrix. Instead, P was observed at the interface between the Al matrix and eutectic Si, strongly indicating that P, in the form of AlP particles (or AlP 'patch' dependent on the P concentration), may have nucleated on the surface of the Al matrix and thereby enhanced the heterogeneous nucleation of eutectic Si. The present investigation reveals some novel insights into heterogeneous nucleation of primary Si and eutectic Si by AlP in hypereutectic Al-Si alloys and can be used to further develop heterogeneous nucleation mechanisms based on adsorption.

  9. Revealing heterogeneous nucleation of primary Si and eutectic Si by AlP in hypereutectic Al-Si alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiehua; Hage, Fredrik S.; Liu, Xiangfa; Ramasse, Quentin; Schumacher, Peter

    2016-04-01

    The heterogeneous nucleation of primary Si and eutectic Si can be attributed to the presence of AlP. Although P, in the form of AlP particles, is usually observed in the centre of primary Si, there is still a lack of detailed investigations on the distribution of P within primary Si and eutectic Si in hypereutectic Al-Si alloys at the atomic scale. Here, we report an atomic-scale experimental investigation on the distribution of P in hypereutectic Al-Si alloys. P, in the form of AlP particles, was observed in the centre of primary Si. However, no significant amount of P was detected within primary Si, eutectic Si and the Al matrix. Instead, P was observed at the interface between the Al matrix and eutectic Si, strongly indicating that P, in the form of AlP particles (or AlP ‘patch’ dependent on the P concentration), may have nucleated on the surface of the Al matrix and thereby enhanced the heterogeneous nucleation of eutectic Si. The present investigation reveals some novel insights into heterogeneous nucleation of primary Si and eutectic Si by AlP in hypereutectic Al-Si alloys and can be used to further develop heterogeneous nucleation mechanisms based on adsorption.

  10. Assessment of patient safety culture in primary care setting, Al-Mukala, Yemen.

    PubMed

    Webair, Hana H; Al-Assani, Salwa S; Al-Haddad, Reema H; Al-Shaeeb, Wafa H; Bin Selm, Manal A; Alyamani, Abdulla S

    2015-10-13

    Patient safety culture in primary care is the first step to achieve high quality health care. This study aims to provide a baseline assessment of patient safety culture in primary care settings in Al-Mukala, Yemen as a first published study from a least developed country. A survey was conducted in primary healthcare centres and units in Al-Mukala District, Yemen. A comprehensive sample from the available 16 centres was included. An Arabic version of the Medical Office Survey on Patient Safety Culture was distributed to all health workers (110). Participants were physicians, nurses and administrative staff. The response rate from the participating centres was 71 %. (N = 78). The percent positive responses of the items is equal to the percentage of participants who answered positively. Composite scores were calculated by averaging the percent positive response on the items within a dimension. Positive safety culture was defined as 60 % or more positive responses on items or dimensions. Patient safety culture was perceived to be generally positive with the exception of the dimensions of 'Communication openness', 'Work pressure and pace' and 'Patient care tracking/follow-up', as the percent positive response of these dimensions were 58, 57, and 52 % respectively. Overall, positive rating on quality and patient safety were low (49 and 46 % respectively). Although patient safety culture in Al-Mukala primary care setting is generally positive, patient safety and quality rating were fairly low. Implementation of a safety and quality management system in Al-Mukala primary care setting are paramount. Further research is needed to confirm the applicability of the Medical Office Survey on Patient Safety Culture (MOSPSC) for Al-Mukala primary care.

  11. Viking orbiter system primary mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goudy, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    An overview of Viking Orbiter (VO) system and subsystem performances during the primary mission (the time period from VO-1 launch on August 20, 1975, through November 15, 1976) is presented. Brief descriptions, key design requirements, pertinent historical information, unique applications or situations, and predicted versus actual performances are included for all VO-1 and VO-2 subsystems, both individually and as an integrated system.

  12. Neuronal inclusion protein TDP-43 has no primary genetic role in FTD and ALS.

    PubMed

    Gijselinck, Ilse; Sleegers, Kristel; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan; Robberecht, Wim; Martin, Jean-Jacques; Vandenberghe, Rik; Sciot, Raf; Dermaut, Bart; Goossens, Dirk; van der Zee, Julie; De Pooter, Tim; Del-Favero, Jurgen; Santens, Patrick; De Jonghe, Peter; De Deyn, Peter P; Van Broeckhoven, Christine; Cruts, Marc

    2009-08-01

    The nuclear TAR DNA binding protein (TDP-43) is deposited in ubiquitin-positive inclusions in frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), two clinicopathologically overlapping neurodegenerative diseases. In this study we excluded mutations and copy number variations in the gene encoding TDP-43 (TARDBP) from an extended series of 173 FTD and 237 ALS patients. Further, we did not identify association of common genetic variants in these patients. Our data implicate that TDP-43 has no primary genetic role in the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying central nervous system neurodegeneration in these diseases.

  13. Systems Engineering Techniques for ALS Decision Making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriquez, Luis F.; Drysdale, Alan E.; Jones, Harry; Levri, Julie A.

    2004-01-01

    The Advanced Life Support (ALS) Metric is the predominant tool for predicting the cost of ALS systems. Metric goals for the ALS Program are daunting, requiring a threefold increase in the ALS Metric by 2010. Confounding the problem, the rate new ALS technologies reach the maturity required for consideration in the ALS Metric and the rate at which new configurations are developed is slow, limiting the search space and potentially giving the perspective of a ALS technology, the ALS Metric may remain elusive. This paper is a sequel to a paper published in the proceedings of the 2003 ICES conference entitled, "Managing to the metric: an approach to optimizing life support costs." The conclusions of that paper state that the largest contributors to the ALS Metric should be targeted by ALS researchers and management for maximum metric reductions. Certainly, these areas potentially offer large potential benefits to future ALS missions; however, the ALS Metric is not the only decision-making tool available to the community. To facilitate decision-making within the ALS community a combination of metrics should be utilized, such as the Equivalent System Mass (ESM)-based ALS metric, but also those available through techniques such as life cycle costing and faithful consideration of the sensitivity of the assumed models and data. Often a lack of data is cited as the reason why these techniques are not considered for utilization. An existing database development effort within the ALS community, known as OPIS, may provide the opportunity to collect the necessary information to enable the proposed systems analyses. A review of these additional analysis techniques is provided, focusing on the data necessary to enable these. The discussion is concluded by proposing how the data may be utilized by analysts in the future.

  14. Primary Atomic Clock Reference System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    An artist's concept of the Primary Atomic Clock Reference System (PARCS) plarned to fly on the International Space Station (ISS). PARCS will make even more accurate atomic time available to everyone, from physicists testing Einstein's Theory of Relativity, to hikers using the Global Positioning System to find their way. In ground-based atomic clocks, lasers are used to cool and nearly stop atoms of cesium whose vibrations are used as the time base. The microgravity of space will allow the atoms to be suspended in the clock rather than circulated in an atomic fountain, as required on Earth. PARCS is being developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory with principal investigators at the National Institutes of Standards and Technology and the University of Colorado, Boulder. See also No. 0103191

  15. Primary Atomic Clock Reference System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    An artist's concept of the Primary Atomic Clock Reference System (PARCS) plarned to fly on the International Space Station (ISS). PARCS will make even more accurate atomic time available to everyone, from physicists testing Einstein's Theory of Relativity, to hikers using the Global Positioning System to find their way. In ground-based atomic clocks, lasers are used to cool and nearly stop atoms of cesium whose vibrations are used as the time base. The microgravity of space will allow the atoms to be suspended in the clock rather than circulated in an atomic fountain, as required on Earth. PARCS is being developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory with principal investigators at the National Institutes of Standards and Technology and the University of Colorado, Boulder. See also No. 0100120.

  16. Primary Atomic Clock Reference System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    An artist's concept of the Primary Atomic Clock Reference System (PARCS) plarned to fly on the International Space Station (ISS). PARCS will make even more accurate atomic time available to everyone, from physicists testing Einstein's Theory of Relativity, to hikers using the Global Positioning System to find their way. In ground-based atomic clocks, lasers are used to cool and nearly stop atoms of cesium whose vibrations are used as the time base. The microgravity of space will allow the atoms to be suspended in the clock rather than circulated in an atomic fountain, as required on Earth. PARCS is being developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory with principal investigators at the National Institutes of Standards and Technology and the University of Colorado, Boulder. See also No. 0103191

  17. Primary Atomic Clock Reference System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    An artist's concept of the Primary Atomic Clock Reference System (PARCS) plarned to fly on the International Space Station (ISS). PARCS will make even more accurate atomic time available to everyone, from physicists testing Einstein's Theory of Relativity, to hikers using the Global Positioning System to find their way. In ground-based atomic clocks, lasers are used to cool and nearly stop atoms of cesium whose vibrations are used as the time base. The microgravity of space will allow the atoms to be suspended in the clock rather than circulated in an atomic fountain, as required on Earth. PARCS is being developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory with principal investigators at the National Institutes of Standards and Technology and the University of Colorado, Boulder. See also No. 0100120.

  18. Job satisfaction among primary health care physicians and nurses in Al-madinah Al-munawwara.

    PubMed

    Al Juhani, Abdullah M; Kishk, Nahla A

    2006-01-01

    Job satisfaction is the affective orientation that an employee has towards his work. Greater physician satisfaction is associated with greater patient adherence and satisfaction. Nurses' job satisfaction, have great impact on the organizational success. Knowing parts of job dissatisfaction among physicians and nurses is important in forming strategies for retaining them in primary health care (PHC) centers. Therefore, this study aimed at assessing the level of job satisfaction among PHC physicians and nurses in Al- Madina Al- Munawwara. Also, to explore the relationship of their personal and job characteristics with job satisfaction. A descriptive cross- sectional epidemiological approach was adopted. A self completion questionnaire was distributed to physicians and nurses at PHC centers. A multi-dimensional job scale adopted by Traynor and Wade (1993) was modified and used. The studied sample included 445 health care providers, 23.6% were physicians and 76.4% were nurses. Job dissatisfaction was highly encountered where 67.1% of the nurses & 52.4% of physicians were dissatisfied. Professional opportunities, patient care and financial reward were the most frequently encountered domains with which physicians were dissatisfied. The dissatisfying domains for majority of nurses were professional opportunities, workload and appreciation reward. Exploring the relation between demographic and job characteristics with job satisfaction revealed that older, male, non-Saudi, specialists physicians had insignificantly higher mean score of job satisfaction than their counterparts. While older, female, non-Saudi, senior nurses had significantly higher mean score than their counterparts. It is highly recommended to reduce workload for nurses and provision of better opportunities promotional for PHC physicians and nurses.

  19. HYPERTENSION CARE IN AL ASYAH PRIMARY HEALTH CARE CENTER, AL QASSIM, SAUDI ARABIA: AN AUDIT OF STRUCTURE, PROCESS, AND OUTCOME

    PubMed Central

    Surour, Atef M.; Saleh, Mahmoud A.; Al-Alfi, Mohammed A.; Al-Saigul, Abdullah M.; Riyadh, Mohammed A.

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study is to assess the quality of hypertension care in Al-Asyah primary health cares (PHC) center, Al Qassim Region, Saudi Arabia through an auditing of structure, process, and outcome. Subjects and methods: All files of registered hypertensive patients in the PHC center were reviewed as recommended by WHO, National Quality Assurance protocol, protocol of management of hypertension and criteria in the Sixth report of Joint National Committee on detection, evaluation and treatment of high blood pressure (JNCVI), to evaluate the structure, process, and outcome of hypertension care. Result: All hypertensive patients registered in Al Asyah PHC center ( 201 patients ) were included in this study. The prevalence of HTN among adults (≥15 years) was7.4% and increased with age. Patients were mostly Saudi (94.5%) with a mean age of 58.6 ± 13.9 years. Most of the patients were diagnosed as essential HTN (98.5%) at Al Asyah PHC center (87.1%). The mean duration of the HTN was 7.7 years, and 48.8% had a family history of HTN and 35.3% had diabetes mellitus. Most patients were obese or overweight (53.7% and 31.3% respectively), blood pressure of 79.6% of the patients was well controlled, and 45.3% of these patients had at least one complication. Ischemic heart disease, left ventricular hypertrophy, stroke, and myocardial infarction were the most common recorded complications. Conclusion: This study proves that all essential resources needed for hypertension care are available, but the results of process and outcome indicators show the need for the improvement of the referral system as well as good continuous constant health education programs to encourage the patients, their families and the community to observe more healthy lifestyles. PMID:23012041

  20. Primary central nervous system lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Pels, Hendrik; Schlegel, Uwe

    2006-07-01

    There is no class I evidence for any therapeutic option in primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL). When possible, patients should be included in clinical trials. The role of surgery is restricted to stereotactic biopsy in order to gain material for histopathologic diagnosis. Radiotherapy alone is associated with a median survival of no more than 1.5 years; cure is exceptional. However, in patients aged younger than 60 years, cure is the therapeutic aim. Polychemotherapy based on high-dose methotrexate with deferred radiation results in long-term survival in most of these patients and possibly cure in a substantial fraction of these patients. With regard to chemotherapy in PCNSL, the following must be considered: 1) the most efficient drug in PCNSL is methotrexate at a dosage of at least 1.5 g/m(2) per single dose; 2) methotrexate alone will lead to complete remission in only some patients, whereas the combination of methotrexate with other drugs is more efficient; and 3) the value of additional intraventricular chemotherapy and the necessity of "consolidation" radiotherapy after response to chemotherapy are not yet defined. For patients aged older than 60 years, no curative regimen with acceptable toxicity has yet been established. The combination of radiotherapy with methotrexate-based chemotherapy leads to severe long-term neurotoxic sequelae, ie, cognitive dysfunction, in most older patients and in some patients aged younger than 60 years.

  1. Advanced Launch System (ALS) actuation and power systems impact operability and cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sundberg, Gale R.

    1990-01-01

    To obtain the Advanced Launch System (ALS) primary goals of reduced costs and improved operability, there must be significant reductions in the launch operations and servicing requirements relative to current vehicle designs and practices. One of the primary methods for achieving these goals is by using vehicle electrical power system and controls for all actuation and avionics requirements. A brief status review of the ALS and its associated Advanced Development Program is presented to demonstrate maturation of those technologies that will help meet the overall operability and cost goals. The electric power and actuation systems are highlighted as a specific technology ready not only to meet the stringent ALS goals (cryogenic field valves and thrust vector controls with peak power demands to 75 hp), but also those of other launch vehicles, military and civilian aircraft, lunar/Martian vehicles, and a multitude of commercial applications.

  2. Advanced launch system (ALS) - Electrical actuation and power systems improve operability and cost picture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sundberg, Gale R.

    1990-01-01

    To obtain the Advanced Launch System (ALS) primary goals of reduced costs and improved operability, there must be significant reductions in the launch operations and servicing requirements relative to current vehicle designs and practices. One of the primary methods for achieving these goals is by using vehicle electrrical power system and controls for all aviation and avionics requirements. A brief status review of the ALS and its associated Advanced Development Program is presented to demonstrate maturation of those technologies that will help meet the overall operability and cost goals. The electric power and actuation systems are highlighted as a sdpecific technology ready not only to meet the stringent ALS goals (cryogenic field valves and thrust vector controls with peak power demands to 75 hp), but also those of other launch vehicles, military ans civilian aircraft, lunar/Martian vehicles, and a multitude of comercial applications.

  3. Advanced Launch System (ALS): Electrical actuation and power systems improve operability and cost picture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sundberg, Gale R.

    1990-01-01

    To obtain the Advanced Launch System (ALS) primary goals of reduced costs and improved operability, there must be significant reductions in the launch operations and servicing requirements relative to current vehicle designs and practices. One of the primary methods for achieving these goals is by using vehicle electrical power system and controls for all actuation and avionics requirements. A brief status review of the ALS and its associated Advanced Development Program is presented to demonstrate maturation of those technologies that will help meet the overall operability and cost goals. The electric power and actuation systems are highlighted as a specific technology ready not only to meet the stringent ALS goals (cryogenic field valves and thrust vector controls with peak power demands to 75 hp), but also those of other launch vehicles, military and civilian aircraft, lunar/Martian vehicles, and a multitude of commercial applications.

  4. Advanced Launch System (ALS) actuation and power systems impact operability and cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sundberg, Gale R.

    1990-01-01

    To obtain the Advanced Launch System (ALS) primary goals of reduced costs and improved operability, there must be significant reductions in the launch operations and servicing requirements relative to current vehicle designs and practices. One of the primary methods for achieving these goals is by using vehicle electrical power system and controls for all actuation and avionics requirements. A brief status review of the ALS and its associated Advanced Development Program is presented to demonstrate maturation of those technologies that will help meet the overall operability and cost goals. The electric power and actuation systems are highlighted as a specific technology ready not only to meet the stringent ALS goals (cryogenic field valves and thrust vector controls with peak power demands to 75 hp), but also those of other launch vehicles, military and civilian aircraft, lunar/Martian vehicles, and a multitude of commercial applications.

  5. Advanced launch system (ALS) - Electrical actuation and power systems improve operability and cost picture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sundberg, Gale R.

    1990-01-01

    To obtain the Advanced Launch System (ALS) primary goals of reduced costs and improved operability, there must be significant reductions in the launch operations and servicing requirements relative to current vehicle designs and practices. One of the primary methods for achieving these goals is by using vehicle electrrical power system and controls for all aviation and avionics requirements. A brief status review of the ALS and its associated Advanced Development Program is presented to demonstrate maturation of those technologies that will help meet the overall operability and cost goals. The electric power and actuation systems are highlighted as a sdpecific technology ready not only to meet the stringent ALS goals (cryogenic field valves and thrust vector controls with peak power demands to 75 hp), but also those of other launch vehicles, military ans civilian aircraft, lunar/Martian vehicles, and a multitude of comercial applications.

  6. Advanced launch system (ALS) actuation and power systems impact operability and cost

    SciTech Connect

    Sundberg, G.R. . Lewis Research Center)

    1990-09-01

    To obtain the advanced launch system (ALS) primary goals of reduced costs ($300/lb earth to LEO) and improved operability, there must be significant reductions in the launch operability, there must be significant reductions in the launch operations and servicing requirements relative to current vehicle designs and practices. One of the primary methods for achieving these goals is by using electrical actuation integrated with a single vehicle electrical power system and controls for all actuation and avionics requirements. This paper reviews the ALS and its associated advanced development program to demonstrate maturation of those technologies that will help meet the overall operability and cost goals. The electric power and actuation systems are highlighted as a specific technology ready not only to meet the ALS goals (cryogenic fuel valves and thrust vector controls with peak power demands to 75 hp), but also those of other launch vehicles, military and civilian aircraft, lunar/Martian vehicles and a multitude of commercial applications.

  7. Preoperational test report, primary ventilation system

    SciTech Connect

    Clifton, F.T.

    1997-11-04

    This represents a preoperational test report for Primary Ventilation Systems, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The system provides vapor space filtered venting of tanks AY101, AY102, AZ101, AZ102. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System.

  8. Refinement of primary Si grains in Al-20%Si alloy slurry through serpentine channel pouring process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Zhi-kai; Mao, Wei-min; Liu, Zhi-yong; Wang, Dong; Yue, Rui

    2016-05-01

    In this study, a serpentine channel pouring process was used to prepare the semi-solid Al-20%Si alloy slurry and refine primary Si grains in the alloy. The effects of the pouring temperature, number of curves in the serpentine channel, and material of the serpentine channel on the size of primary Si grains in the semi-solid Al-20%Si alloy slurry were investigated. The results showed that the pouring temperature, number of the curves, and material of the channel strongly affected the size and distribution of the primary Si grains. The pouring temperature exerted the strongest effect, followed by the number of the curves and then the material of the channel. Under experimental conditions of a four-curve copper channel and a pouring temperature of 701°C, primary Si grains in the semi-solid Al-20%Si alloy slurry were refined to the greatest extent, and the lath-like grains were changed into granular grains. Moreover, the equivalent grain diameter and the average shape coefficient of primary Si grains in the satisfactory semi-solid Al-20%Si alloy slurry were 24.4 μm and 0.89, respectively. Finally, the refinement mechanism and distribution rule of primary Si grains in the slurry prepared through the serpentine channel pouring process were analyzed and discussed.

  9. 77 FR 6466 - Schedule for Rating Disabilities; AL Amyloidosis (Primary Amyloidosis)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-08

    ... hemic and lymphatic systems to include AL amyloidosis. This regulatory action is necessary to add AL... lymphatic systems, 38 CFR 4.117, by creating diagnostic code 7717. The schedule previously did not contain a... amyloidosis because it was the first available diagnostic code in the Hemic and Lymphatic Systems listed in...

  10. Mechanistic Selection and Growth of Twinned Bicrystalline Primary Si in Near Eutectic Al-Si Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Choonho

    2006-01-01

    Morphological evolution and selection of angular primary silicon is investigated in near-eutectic Al-Si alloys. Angular silicon arrays are grown directionally in a Bridgman furnace at velocities in the regime of 10-3 m/sec and with a temperature gradient of 7.5 x 103 K/m. Under these conditions, the primary Si phase grows as an array of twinned bicrystalline dendrites, where the twinning gives rise to a characteristic 8-pointed star-shaped primary morphology. While this primary Si remains largely faceted at the growth front, a complex structure of coherent symmetric twin boundaries enables various adjustment mechanisms which operate to optimize the characteristic spacings within the primary array. In the work presented here, this primary silicon growth morphology is examined in detail. In particular, this thesis describes the investigation of: (1) morphological selection of the twinned bicrystalline primary starshape morphology; (2) primary array behavior, including the lateral propagation of the starshape grains and the associated evolution of a strong <100> texture; (3) the detailed structure of the 8-pointed star-shaped primary morphology, including the twin boundary configuration within the central core; (4) the mechanisms of lateral propagation and spacing adjustment during array evolution; and (5) the thermosolutal conditions (i.e. operating state) at the primary growth front, including composition and phase fraction in the vicinity of the primary tip.

  11. Correlative characterization of primary Al{sub 3}(Sc,Zr) phase in an Al–Zn–Mg based alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Li, J.H.; Wiessner, M.; Albu, M.; Wurster, S.; Sartory, B.; Hofer, F.; Schumacher, P.

    2015-04-15

    Three-dimensional electron backscatter diffraction, focused ion beam, transmission electron microscopy and energy filtered transmission electron microscopy were employed to investigate the structural information of primary Al{sub 3}(Sc,Zr) phase, i.e. size, shape, element distribution and orientation relationship with the α-Al matrix. It was found that (i) most primary Al{sub 3}(Sc,Zr) phases have a cubic three-dimensional morphology, with a size of about 6–10 μm, (ii) most primary Al{sub 3}(Sc,Zr) phases are located within the α-Al matrix, and exhibit a cube to cube orientation relationship with the α-Al matrix, and (iii) a layer by layer growth was observed within primary Al{sub 3}(Sc,Zr) phases. Al, Cu, Si and Fe are enriched in the α-Al matrix between the layers of cellular eutectic Al{sub 3}(Sc,Zr) phase, while Sc, Ti and Zr are enriched in small Al{sub 3}(Sc,Zr) phases. A peritectic reaction and subsequent eutectic reaction between Al{sub 3}Sc and Al was proposed to interpret the observed layer by layer growth. This paper demonstrates that the presence of impurities (Fe, Si, Cu, Ti) in the diffusion field surrounding the growing Al{sub 3}(Sc,Zr) particle enhances the heterogeneous nucleation of Al{sub 3}(Sc,Zr) phases. - Highlights: • Most fine cubic primary Al{sub 3}(Sc,Zr) phases were observed within the α-Al matrix. • A layer by layer growth within primary Al{sub 3}(Sc,Zr) phase was observed. • A peritectic and subsequent eutectic reaction between Al{sub 3}Sc and Al was proposed. • Impurities in diffusion fields enhance heterogeneous nucleation of Al{sub 3}(Sc,Zr)

  12. Violence against Primary Health Care Workers in Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Gilany, Abdel-Hady; El-Wehady, Adel; Amr, Mostafa

    2010-01-01

    This self-report questionnaire study was carried out in Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia to highlight the magnitude, predictors, and circumstances of workplace violence against primary health care (PHC) workers. A total of 1,091 workers completed a self-administered questionnaire. About 28% were exposed to at least one violent event during the past year.…

  13. 75 FR 65279 - Schedule for Rating Disabilities; AL Amyloidosis (Primary Amyloidosis)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ... AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 4 RIN 2900-AN75 Schedule for Rating Disabilities; AL Amyloidosis (Primary Amyloidosis... the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Schedule for Rating Disabilities (rating schedule) by updating... disability evaluation to fully implement the decision by the Secretary of Veterans Affairs to grant...

  14. Primary systemic amyloidosis presenting as constrictive pericarditis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vikas; Fishman, Joel E; Alfonso, Carlos E

    2011-01-01

    The most frequent presentation of cardiac amyloidosis is with endomyocardial deposition, and resultant restrictive cardiomyopathy. We present a case of primary systemic amyloidosis causing constrictive pericarditis (CP) and congestive heart failure without clinical evidence of endomyocardial deposition. A comprehensive evaluation by noninvasive and invasive studies facilitated the differentiation of CP from restrictive cardiomyopathy and the patient was effectively treated with pericardectomy. To our knowledge, this is the first documented case of primary systemic amyloidosis causing selective CP with successful antemortem diagnosis and treatment in a young man.

  15. Project Design Concept Primary Ventilation System

    SciTech Connect

    MCGREW, D.L.

    2000-10-02

    Tank Farm Restoration and Safe Operation (TFRSO), Project W-3 14 was established to provide upgrades that would improve the reliability and extend the system life of portions of the waste transfer, electrical, ventilation, instrumentation and control systems for the Hanford Site Tank Farms. An assessment of the tank farm system was conducted and the results are documented in system assessment reports. Based on the deficiencies identified in the tank farm system assessment reports, and additional requirements analysis performed in support of the River Protection Project (RPP), an approved scope for the TFRSO effort was developed and documented in the Upgrade Scope Summary Report (USSR), WHC-SD-W314-RPT-003, Rev. 4. The USSR establishes the need for the upgrades and identifies the specific equipment to be addressed by this project. This Project Design Concept (PDC) is in support of the Phase 2 upgrades and provides an overall description of the operations concept for the W-314 Primary Ventilation Systems. Actual specifications, test requirements, and procedures are not included in this PDC. The PDC is a ''living'' document, which will be updated throughout the design development process to provide a progressively more detailed description of the W-314 Primary Ventilation Systems design. The Phase 2 upgrades to the Primary Ventilation Systems shall ensure that the applicable current requirements are met for: Regulatory Compliance; Safety; Mission Requirements; Reliability; and Operational Requirements.

  16. Challenging mimickers of primary systemic vasculitis.

    PubMed

    Miloslavsky, Eli M; Stone, John H; Unizony, Sebastian H

    2015-01-01

    The need to distinguish true primary systemic vasculitis from its multiple potential mimickers is one of the most challenging diagnostic conundrums in clinical medicine. This article reviews 9 challenging vasculitis mimickers: fibromuscular dysplasia, calciphylaxis, segmental arterial mediolysis, antiphospholipid syndrome, hypereosinophilic syndrome, lymphomatoid granulomatosis, malignant atrophic papulosis, livedoid vasculopathy, and immunoglobulin G4-related disease.

  17. Evaluating Primary Dendrite Trunk Diameters in Directionally Solidified Al-Si Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, R. N.; Tewari, S. N.; Poirier, D. R.

    2014-01-01

    The primary dendrite trunk diameters of Al-Si alloys that were directionally solidified over a range of processing conditions have been measured. These data are analyzed with a model based primarily on an assessment of secondary dendrite arm dissolution in the mushy zone. Good fit with the experimental data is seen and it is suggested that the primary dendrite trunk diameter is a useful metric that correlates well with the actual solidification processing parameters. These results are placed in context with the limited results from the aluminium - 7 wt. % silicon samples directionally solidified aboard the International Space Station as part of the MICAST project.

  18. [Transforming health systems based on primary care].

    PubMed

    Durán-Arenas, Luis; Salinas-Escudero, Guillermo; Granados-García, Víctor; Martínez-Valverde, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    Access to health services is a social basic determinant of health in Mexico unlike what happens in developed countries. The demand for health services is focused on primary care, but the design meets only the supply of hospital care services. So it generates a dissonance between the needs and the effective design of health services. In addition, the term affiliation refers to population contributing or in the recruitment process, that has been counted as members of these social security institutions (SS) and Popular Insurance (SP). In the case of Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS) three of four contributors are in contact with health services; while in the SP, this indicator does not exist. Moreover, the access gap between health services is found in the health care packages so that members of the SS and SP do not have same type of coverage. The question is: which model of health care system want the Mexicans? Primary care represents the first choice for increasing the health systems performance, as well as to fulfill their function of social protection: universal access and coverage based on needs, regardless whether it is a public or private health insurance. A central aspect for development of this component is the definition of the first contact with the health system through the creation of a primary health care team, led by a general practitioner as the responsible of a multidisciplinary health team. The process addresses the concepts of primary care nursing, consumption of inputs (mainly medical drugs), maintenance and general services. Adopting a comprehensive strategy that will benefit all Mexicans equally and without discrimination, this primary care system could be financed with a total operating cost of approximately $ 22,809 million by year.

  19. Phase diagrams of Al-Si and Al-Ge systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagaya, Hiroko-Matsuo; Imazawa, Kazumoto; Sato, Mayumi; Soma, Toshinobu

    1998-03-01

    Considering the contributions from the band and local mode frequencies, the temperature- and pressure-dependent mean-square displacement for Al-Si and Al-Ge solid solutions is quantitatively calculated to be similar to that for matrix Al. Then, the concentration-dependence of the Debye temperature at higher and lower temperatures is estimated, the pressure effect on the solidus curve is presented by applying Lindeman's melting law to the Al-Si and Al-Ge alloy systems. The solidus curve obtained increases as a function of the pressure, and is in good agreement with the observed tendency for these solid solutions.

  20. Realization of a primary spectrophotometric system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Škerović, V.; Vukadin, P.; Zarubica, V.; Zeković, Lj

    2008-08-01

    The first step in establishing measurement uniformity in spectrophotometry is the realization of a versatile, fully evaluated and documented measurement system, which may, after metrological validation, be upheld as the primary spectrophotometric standard. In this paper, the development and realization of the spectrophotometer—primary standard in the Laboratory for Photometry of Bureau of Measures and Precious Metals—are presented. The construction of the system, as well as its metrological characterization, is shown. Evaluation of systematic errors due to various influential quantities and physical effects, such as light beam geometry effects, inter-reflections, nonlinearities and others, is presented. The results of measurements of spectral transmittance made with neutral optical filters and the evaluation of total measurement uncertainty are presented. Validation of the results was preformed according to National Institute for Standards and Technologies (NIST) certified standards of spectral transmittance.

  1. Systemic primary carnitine deficiency with hypoglycemic encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Jun, Jae Sung; Lee, Eun Joo; Park, Hyung Doo

    2016-01-01

    Acute hypoglycemia in children is not an uncommon disease that can be encountered in the Emergency Department. Most cases of childhood hypoglycemia are caused by ketotic hypoglycemia due to missed meals. Often, hypoketotic hypoglycemia can also occur, which suggests hyperinsulinemia or a defect in fatty acid oxidation. Carnitine is essential for long chain fatty acids transfer into mitochondria for oxidation. We present a case of systemic primary carnitine deficiency who presented with seizures due to hypoketotic hypoglycemia. PMID:28164076

  2. Outlier Benchmark Systems With Gaia Primaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marocco, Federico; Pinfield, David J.; Montes, David; Zapatero Osorio, Maria Rosa; Smart, Richard L.; Cook, Neil J.; Caballero, José A.; Jones, Hugh, R. A.; Lucas, Phil W.

    2016-07-01

    Benchmark systems are critical to assisting sub-stellar physics. While the known population of benchmarks hasincreased significantly in recent years, large portions of the age-metallicity parameter space remain unexplored.Gaia will expand enormously the pool of well characterized primary stars, and our simulations show that we couldpotentially have access to more than 6000 benchmark systems out to 300 pc, allowing us to whittle down thesenbsp;systems into a large sample with outlier properties that will reveal the nature of ultra-cool dwarfs in rare parameternbsp;space. In this contribution we present the preliminary results from our effort to identify and characterize ultra-coolnbsp;companions to Gaia-imaged stars with unusual values of metallicity. Since these systems are intrinsically rare, wenbsp;expand the volume probed by targeting faint, low-proper motion systems.nbsp;/p>

  3. Thermal Properties in the MgAl2O4-Al2O3 System

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkerson, Dr. Kelley R.; Smith, Jeffrey D; Hemrick, James Gordon

    2013-01-01

    Compositional effects on the thermal diffusivity in the MgAl2O4-Al2O3 system were studied. The lowest thermal diffusivity, 0.0258 +/-5% cm/s, was measured between 79.8 and 83.9 wt% Al2O3 quenched from various temperatures between 1500 and 1700C. All of the chemistries in this range extend past the solvus, but still form a singe super-saturated spinel solid solution, regardless of quenching tempeature. A super-saturated metastable solid solution region was observed at 1500, 1600, and 1700C extending to 83.9, 85.2, and 87.1 wt% Al2O3, respectively. Beyond 83.9% Al2O3 a significant increase in thermal diffusivity, 11.7%, was observed and its attributed to precipiation of Al2O3 through spinodal decomposition.

  4. Primary Care Providers and a System Problem

    PubMed Central

    Wiener, Renda Soylemez; Sullivan, Donald; Ganzini, Linda; Slatore, Christopher G.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As lung cancer screening with low-dose CT scanning is implemented, an increasing number of people will be diagnosed with pulmonary nodules. Primary care clinicians care for the vast majority of these patients, but their experiences with communication and managing distress in this population are not well understood. METHODS: We conducted qualitative interviews of 15 primary care providers (PCPs) at two academic medical centers who care for patients with pulmonary nodules. We used qualitative description analysis, focusing on clinicians’ information exchange and other communication behaviors. RESULTS: Most PCPs believed they had inadequate information to counsel patients regarding lung nodules, although this information is desired. PCPs were concerned patients could “fall through the cracks” but did not have access to a reliable system to ensure follow-up adherence. They were limited by time, knowledge, and resources in providing the preferred level of care. Most PCPs did not discuss the specific risk a nodule was lung cancer, in part because they did not have ready access to this information. PCPs believed most patients did not have substantial distress as a result of nodule detection. Most PCPs did not include patients when making decisions about the follow-up plan. CONCLUSIONS: PCPs often lack systemic resources to optimize patient-centered approaches when discussing incidental pulmonary nodules with patients. With the advent of lung cancer screening, pulmonologists can assist primary care colleagues by providing accurate information to counsel patients and assisting in managing conversations about the risk of cancer. Pulmonologists should support efforts to implement reliable systems to ensure adherence to follow-up. PMID:25790082

  5. REPOSITORY SURFACE FACILITIES PRIMARY SYSTEM CRANE DATA

    SciTech Connect

    K. Schwartztrauber

    2005-03-14

    The purpose of this calculation is to compile crane design data for the mechanical primary structures, systems, and components (SSCs) required for the repository Waste Handling Building (WHB) and Carrier Preparation Building (CPB). The work presented in this document has been prepared in accordance with Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management approved program document AP-3.12Q, Calculations. This calculation has been developed to supplement information previously prepared using the development plan for ''WHB/WTB Space Program Analysis for Site Recommendation'' (Reference 5), which concentrates on the primary, primary support, facility support, and miscellaneous building support areas located in the WHB and Waste Treatment Building (WTB). The development plan was completed in accordance with AP-2.13Q, ''Technical Product Development Planning''. The work in this calculation is a continuance of the work described in the previous development plan; therefore, in accordance with AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities'', a new Technical Work Plan is not required.

  6. 'Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi's 3-Step Magnitude System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafez, Ihsan; Stephenson, F. Richard; Orchiston, Wayne

    'Abd al-Rahmān al-ūfī's Book of the Fixed Stars dates from around AD 964 and is one of the most important medieval Arabic treatises on astronomy. In this paper we begin with a very brief introduction to the Book of the Fixed Stars. This book contains an extensive star catalogue that lists star coordinates and magnitude estimates for all of the Ptolemaic stars. However, in his book al-hūfī utilized three distinct intermediate magnitude values whereas Ptolemy only mentioned two. We believe that al-hūfī used what we have termed a '3-step intermediate magnitude system,' which is more accurate than Ptolemy's 2-step intermediate system. In this paper we examine in detail the accuracy of this unique 3-step system in comparison with Ptolemy's and modern magnitude values.

  7. Investigation of Phase Equilibria and Some Properties of Alloys of Ti-Al-Fe and Ti-Al-V Systems,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Some data on the structure and properties of Ti-Al-Fe alloys are presented. The phase equilibria in alloys in the system Ti-Al-V were studies...However, the data available in the literature on phase equilibria in the systems Ti-Al-Fe and Ti-Al-V require refinement, as they are insufficiently

  8. Thermodynamic Modeling of the Al-Cr-Mn Ternary System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Senlin; Jung, In-Ho

    2017-03-01

    The phase diagram information available in the literature on the Al-Cr-Mn system was comprehensively evaluated and optimized for the first time to obtain a set of Gibbs energies of all the solid and liquid phases in the Al-Cr-Mn system. The Modified Quasi-chemical Model (MQM) was utilized to describe the Gibbs energy of the liquid phase of the Al-Cr-Mn system. The Compound Energy Formalism (CEF) was used to model the solid solution phases. A revision of the Al-Mn system was simultaneously conducted to consider the γ_H (Al8Mn5) phase. The liquid Cr-Mn phase was also remodeled using the Modified Quasi-chemical Model (MQM) to obtain a consistent description of the ternary Al-Cr-Mn liquid phase. Accurate description of the phase diagram of the entire Al-Cr-Mn system was obtained from the thermodynamic models with optimized parameters in the present study, and the model parameters can be used to predict the thermodynamic properties of the ternary system.

  9. Primary helium heater for propellant pressurization systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reichmuth, D. M.; Nguyen, T. V.; Pieper, J. L.

    1991-01-01

    The primary helium heater is a unique design that provides direct heating of pressurant gas for large pressure fed propulsion systems. It has been conceptually designed to supply a heated (800-1000 R) pressurization gas to both a liquid oxygen and an RP-1 propellant tank. This pressurization gas is generated within the heater by mixing super critical helium (40-300 R and 3000-1600 psi) with an appropriate amount of combustion products from a 4:1 throttling stoichiometric LO2/LH2 combustor. This simple, low cost and reliable mixer utilizes the large quantity of helium to provide stoichiometric combustor cooling, extend the throttling limits and enhance the combustion stability margin. Preliminary combustion, thermal, and CFD analyses confirm that this low-pressure-drop direct helium heater can provide the constant-temperature pressurant suitable for tank pressurization of both fuel and oxidizer tanks of large pressure fed vehicles.

  10. Quality of health education posters in primary health care centers in Al-khobar town, eastern province.

    PubMed

    Al-Sowielem, L S

    2001-01-01

    Health Education (HE) is vital to each of the seven other central ele-ments of Public Health Care (PHC). HE must be carefully planned and implemented. A crucial part of HE is planning, production and placement of effective HE posters. Assess the quality of health education posters in Al-Khobar PHC centers. A cross-sectional study of a sample of 138 HE posters in three PHC centers in Al-Khobar was conducted. The quality of posters in relation to set criteria was measured using a data sheet and scoring system developed by the investigator. The health education subjects displayed were among the common health problems in Saudi Arabia in 134 (97.1 %) of the posters.More than one-third (34.8%) had been displayed for more than one year. In 74 (53.6%) of the posters, the source of scientific information was unknown. The assessment showed that 109 (79%) posters were of optimal quality. The study showed that the health education posters in PHC centers in Al-Khobar were relatively satisfactory, though they did not fulfill some of the required criteria. Health education posters should be included in the assessment of health education programs in primary health care centers.

  11. Primary reflector for solar energy collection systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. G. (Inventor); Stephens, J. B.

    1978-01-01

    A fixed, linear, ground-based primary reflector is disclosed which has an extended curved sawtooth-contoured surface covered with a metalized polymeric reflecting material. The device reflects solar energy to a movably supported collector that is kept at the concentrated line focus of the reflector primary. The primary reflector may be constructed by a process utilizing well-known freeway paving machinery.

  12. Interdiffusion in the Mg-Al system and Intrinsic Diffusion in (Al3Mg2) Phase

    SciTech Connect

    Brennan, Sarah; Bermudez, Katrina; Kulkarni, Nagraj S; Sohn, Yong Ho

    2011-01-01

    Increasing use and development of lightweight Mg-alloys have led to the desire for more fundamental research in and understanding of Mg-based systems. As a strengthening component, Al is one of the most important and common alloying elements for Mg-alloys. In this study, solid-to-solid diffusion couple techniques were employed to examine the interdiffusion between pure Mg and Al. Diffusion anneals were carried out at 300 , 350 , and 400 C for 720, 360, and 240 hours, respectively. Optical and scanning electron microscopies (SEM) were employed to observe the formation of the intermetallics -Al12Mg17 and -Al3Mg2, but not -phase. Concentration profiles were determined using X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (XEDS). The growth constants and activation energies were determined for each intermetallic phase.

  13. Homogenization of alloys in the system Al-Mg-Sc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drits, M. E.; Toropova, L. S.; Bykov, Yu. G.

    1983-07-01

    A reduction in homogenizing anneal temperature and a reduction in soaking time leads to an increase in yield point for alloys of the system Al-Mg-Sc. The optimum homogenizing schedule for alloys of this system is heating to 400°C and soaking for up to 10 h. This homogenizing schedule provides an alloy structure of fine coherent ScAl3-phase precipitates and dissolution of excess β-phase precipitates.

  14. Primary central nervous system posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders.

    PubMed

    Castellano-Sanchez, Amilcar A; Li, Shiyong; Qian, Jiang; Lagoo, Anand; Weir, Edward; Brat, Daniel J

    2004-02-01

    Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLDs) represent a spectrum ranging from Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-driven polyclonal lymphoid proliferations to EBV+ or EBV- malignant lymphomas. Central nervous system (CNS) PTLDs have not been characterized fully. We reviewed the clinical, radiologic, and pathologic features of 12 primary CNS PTLDs to define them more precisely. Patients included 10 males and 2 females (median age, 43.4 years) who were recipients of kidney (n = 5), liver (n = 2), heart (n = 2), peripheral blood stem cells (n = 2), or bone marrow (n = 1). All received immunosuppressive therapy. CNS symptoms developed 3 to 131 months (mean, 31 months) after transplantation. By neuroimaging, most showed multiple (3 to 9) intra-axial, contrast-enhancing lesions. Histologic sections showed marked expansion of perivascular spaces by large, cytologically malignant lymphoid cells that were CD45+, CD20+, EBV+ and showed light chain restriction or immunoglobulin gene rearrangement. In distinction to PTLDs in other organ systems, CNS PTLDs were uniformly high-grade lymphomas that fulfilled the World Health Organization criteria for monomorphic PTLDs. Extremely short survival periods were noted for each CNS PTLD that followed peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. Survival of others with CNS PTLD varied; some lived more than 2 years.

  15. Primary Dendrite Arm Spacings in Al-7Si Alloy Directionally Solidified on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angart, Samuel; Lauer, Mark; Poirier, David; Tewari, Surendra; Rajamure, Ravi; Grugel, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Samples from directionally solidified Al- 7 wt. % Si have been analyzed for primary dendrite arm spacing (lambda) and radial macrosegregation. The alloy was directionally solidified (DS) aboard the ISS to determine the effect of mitigating convection on lambda and macrosegregation. Samples from terrestrial DS-experiments thermal histories are discussed for comparison. In some experiments, lambda was measured in microstructures that developed during the transition from one speed to another. To represent DS in the presence of no convection, the Hunt-Lu model was used to represent diffusion controlled growth under steady-state conditions. By sectioning cross-sections throughout the entire length of a solidified sample, lambda was measured and calculated using the model. During steady-state, there was reasonable agreement between the measured and calculated lambda's in the space-grown samples. In terrestrial samples, the differences between measured and calculated lambda's indicated that the dendritic growth was influenced by convection.

  16. Pediatric primary care as a component of systems of care.

    PubMed

    Brown, Jonathan D

    2010-02-01

    Systems of care should be defined in a manner that includes primary care. The current definition of systems of care shares several attributes with the definition of primary care: both are defined as community-based services that are accessible, accountable, comprehensive, coordinated, culturally competent, and family focused. However, systems of care is defined as serving only children and youth with serious emotional disturbance and their families and does not fully embrace the concept of primary prevention. Although similarities in the definitions of primary care and systems of care may provide a theoretical foundation for including primary care within the systems of care framework, a definition of systems of care that incorporates the idea of prevention and takes into account the broad population served in primary care would provide communities with a definition that can be used to further the work of integrating primary care into systems of care.

  17. Development of Educational Management System in Small Primary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsammarry, Yupayao; Sirisuthi, Chaiyuth; Duangcharthom, Surat

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of the research were: (1) to study the factors of Educational Management System in Small Primary School; (2) to investigate current situations problems and guidelines of developing educational management in small primary school; (3) to develop Educational Management System in Small Primary School; and (4) to examine the results of…

  18. Quality of Diabetes Care in Primary Health Centres in North Al-Batinah of Oman

    PubMed Central

    Al-Shafaee, Mohammed; Al-Farsi, Yousuf; Al-Kaabi, Yousuf; Banerjee, Yajnavalka; Al-Zadjali, Najat; Al-Zakwani, Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess the quality of diabetic care provided in primary health care settings in Oman. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of randomly selected 500 patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) attending 6 primary care diabetic clinics in the north Al-Batinah region of Oman from January to December 2010. Nine standards on the quality of diabetes care were audited. Results: The mean age of the sample was 51±13 years, ranging from 15 to 87 years; the majority (61%) were females. The mean duration of DM was 4±3 years, ranging from 1 to 18 years. Seventy-seven percent of the patients attended diabetic clinics at least 4 times per year. Of the 9 assessed diabetic standards, HbA1c was documented in 33% of the patients, body mass index in 12%, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in 40%, urinary albumin:creatinine ratio in 28%, creatinine in 63% and blood pressure (BP) in 96%. Optimal control among the documented indicators was noted in 32, 21, 25, 85, 95 and 19%, respectively. Twenty percent of the patients had their ECGs done while only 39% of the patients had foot examination. No patient had attained control in all of HbA1c., BP and LDL-C. Conclusion: There is a gap between the recommended DM care guidelines and current practice with consequent poor quality of care in these patients. PMID:25024774

  19. Solidification of Liquid Distributed in its Primary Matrix Phase of Al-10Cu-Fe Alloy and Their Tribological Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, L. Sankara; Jha, A. K.; Ojha, S. N.

    2016-12-01

    Solidification behavior of liquid phase entrained in its primary solid has been investigated. A hypoeutectic alloy based on Al-Cu-Fe system containing Fe and Si was thermal cycled between semisolid regions to low temperatures. The freezing characteristics of the liquid were recorded in inverse rate cooling curves. The continuous network of the liquid phase progressively changed into isolated droplets with their different size and size distribution. Such droplets revealed undercooling of the melt varying from 20 to 35 °C below the eutectic temperature of the alloy. This behavior of melt undercooling is discussed in light of independent nucleation events associated with freezing of droplets. Solidification structure of droplets revealed particulate eutectic phases in contrast to lamellar eutectic microstructure in the interdendritic region of the as-cast alloy. The droplet distribution and their solidification structure resulted in an improvement in tribological characteristics of the alloy. This effect is correlated with features of wear surfaces generated on the matting surfaces.

  20. Solidification of Liquid Distributed in its Primary Matrix Phase of Al-10Cu-Fe Alloy and Their Tribological Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, L. Sankara; Jha, A. K.; Ojha, S. N.

    2017-02-01

    Solidification behavior of liquid phase entrained in its primary solid has been investigated. A hypoeutectic alloy based on Al-Cu-Fe system containing Fe and Si was thermal cycled between semisolid regions to low temperatures. The freezing characteristics of the liquid were recorded in inverse rate cooling curves. The continuous network of the liquid phase progressively changed into isolated droplets with their different size and size distribution. Such droplets revealed undercooling of the melt varying from 20 to 35 °C below the eutectic temperature of the alloy. This behavior of melt undercooling is discussed in light of independent nucleation events associated with freezing of droplets. Solidification structure of droplets revealed particulate eutectic phases in contrast to lamellar eutectic microstructure in the interdendritic region of the as-cast alloy. The droplet distribution and their solidification structure resulted in an improvement in tribological characteristics of the alloy. This effect is correlated with features of wear surfaces generated on the matting surfaces.

  1. In situ observation of ultrasonic cavitation-induced fragmentation of the primary crystals formed in Al alloys.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Tzanakis, Iakovos; Eskin, Dmitry; Mi, Jiawei; Connolley, Thomas

    2017-11-01

    The cavitation-induced fragmentation of primary crystals formed in Al alloys were investigated for the first time by high-speed imaging using a novel experimental approach. Three representative primary crystal types, Al3Ti, Si and Al3V with different morphologies and mechanical properties were first extracted by deep etching of the corresponding Al alloys and then subjected to ultrasonic cavitation processing in distilled water. The dynamic interaction between the cavitation bubbles and primary crystals was imaged in situ and in real time. Based on the recorded image sequences, the fragmentation mechanisms of primary crystals were studied. It was found that there are three major mechanisms by which the primary crystals were fragmented by cavitation bubbles. The first one was a slow process via fatigue-type failure. A cyclic pressure exerted by stationary pulsating bubbles caused the propagation of a crack pre-existing in the primary crystal to a critical length which led to fragmentation. The second mechanism was a sudden process due to the collapse of bubbles in a passing cavitation cloud. The pressure produced upon the collapse of the cloud promoted rapid monotonic crack growth and fast fracture in the primary crystals. The third observed mechanism was normal bending fracture as a result of the high pressure arising from the collapse of a bubble cloud and the crack formation at the branch connection points of dendritic primary crystals. The fragmentation of dendrite branches due to the interaction between two freely moving dendritic primary crystals was also observed. A simplified fracture analysis of the observed phenomena was performed. The specific fragmentation mechanism for the primary crystals depended on their morphology and mechanical properties. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A sustainable primary care system: lessons from the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Faber, Marjan J; Burgers, Jako S; Westert, Gert P

    2012-01-01

    The Dutch primary care system has drawn international attention, because of its high performance at low cost. Primary care practices are easily accessible during office hours and collaborate in a unique out-of-hours system. After the reforms in 2006, there are no copayments for patients receiving care in the primary care practice in which they are registered. Financial incentives support the transfer of care from hospital specialists to primary care physicians, and task delegation from primary care physicians to practice nurses. Regional collaborative care groups of primary care practices offer disease management programs. The quality assessment system and the electronic medical record system are predominantly driven by health care professionals. Bottom-up and top-down activities contributed to a successful Dutch primary care system.

  3. Reaction diffusion in the NiCrAl and CoCrAl systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, S. R.

    1978-01-01

    The paper assesses the effect of overlay coating and substrate composition on the kinetics of coating depletion by interdiffusion. This is accomplished by examining the constitution, kinetics and activation energies for a series of diffusion couples primarily of the NiCrAl/Ni-10Cr or CoCrAl/Ni-10Cr type annealed at temperatures in the range 1000-1205 C for times up to 500 hr. A general procedure is developed for analyzing diffusion in multicomponent multiphase systems. It is shown that by introducing the concept of beta-source strength, which can be determined from appropriate phase diagrams, the Wagner solution for consumption of a second phase in a semiinfinite couple is successfully applied to the analysis of MCrAl couples. Thus, correlation of beta-recession rate constants with couple composition, total and diffusional activation energies, and interdiffusion coefficients are determined.

  4. Distribution and size of lava shields on the Al Haruj al Aswad and the Al Haruj al Abyad Volcanic Systems, Central Libya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elshaafi, Abdelsalam; Gudmundsson, Agust

    2017-05-01

    The Al Haruj Volcanic Province (AHVP) consists of two distinct volcanic systems. In the north is the system of Al Haruj al Aswad, covering an area of 34,200 km2, while in the south the system of Al Haruj al Abyad, covering an area of 7,850 km2. The systems have produced some 432 monogenetic volcanoes, primarily scoria (cinder) cones, lava shields, and maars. The density distribution of the volcanoes in each system, plotted as eruption points or sites, has a roughly elliptical surface expression, suggesting similar plan-view geometry of the magma sources, here suggested as deep-seated reservoirs. More specifically, the Al Haruj al Aswad magma reservoir has major and minor axes of 210 km and 119 km, respectively, and an area of 19,176 km2, the corresponding figures for the Haruj al Abyad reservoir being 108 km and 74 km, for the axes, and 6209 km2 for the area. We measured 55 lava shields on the AHVP. They are mostly restricted to the northern and southern parts of AHVP and date from late Miocene to (at least) the end of Pleistocene, while some may have been active into Holocene. In fact, although primarily monogenetic, some of the lava shields show evidence of (possibly Holocene) fissure eruptions in the summit parts. The early lava shields tend to be located at the edges of volcanic systems and with greater volumes than later (more central) shields. The average lava shield basal diameter is 4.5 km and height 63 m. There is strong linear correlation between lava shield volume and basal area, the coefficient of determination (R2) being about 0.75. When 22 Holocene Icelandic lava shields are added to the dataset, for comparison, the correlation between volume and basal area becomes R2 = 0.95. Numerical models suggest that the local stress fields favoured rupture and dyke injection at the margins of the source reservoirs during late Miocene - early Pliocene, in agreement with the distribution of the early, large-volume shields.

  5. Teachers' Performance Motivation System in Thai Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasathang, Sarojn; Tesaputa, Kowat; Sataphonwong, Pattananusron

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to: 1) study the present conditions and desirable condition of the motivation systems as well as how to find methods for motivating the performance of teachers in primary schools, 2) develop a motivation system for the performance of teachers in primary schools, 3) study the effects of using the motivation system for compliance…

  6. Pediatric Primary Care as a Component of Systems of Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Jonathan D.

    2010-01-01

    Systems of care should be defined in a manner that includes primary care. The current definition of systems of care shares several attributes with the definition of primary care: both are defined as community-based services that are accessible, accountable, comprehensive, coordinated, culturally competent, and family focused. However, systems of…

  7. Pediatric Primary Care as a Component of Systems of Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Jonathan D.

    2010-01-01

    Systems of care should be defined in a manner that includes primary care. The current definition of systems of care shares several attributes with the definition of primary care: both are defined as community-based services that are accessible, accountable, comprehensive, coordinated, culturally competent, and family focused. However, systems of…

  8. [Al

    PubMed

    Purath; Köppe; Schnöckel

    1999-10-04

    A "naked" aluminum atom links two aluminum tetrahedra in the [Al(7){N(SiMe(3))(2)}(6)](-) ion (see picture), which results from the reaction of a metastable AlCl solution with LiN(SiMe(3))(2) and crystallizes with [Li(OEt(2))(3)](+) as cation. This unique structure among molecular metal atom clusters represents a small but characteristic section of cubic close-packed aluminum.

  9. Interatomic potential for the Al-Cu system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apostol, F.; Mishin, Y.

    2011-02-01

    An angular-dependent interatomic potential has been developed for the Al-Cu system based on existing embedded-atom method potentials for Al and Cu and fitting of the cross-interaction functions to experimental and first-principles data. The potential reproduces lattice parameters, formation energies, and elastic constants of the θ and θ' phases of this system. It predicts the θ' phase to be more stable than θ at 0 K but to become less stable at hight temperatures due to vibrational entropy. The temperate and entropy of this phase transformation are in good agreement with previous first-principles calculations [ C. Wolverton and V. Ozoliņš, Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.86.5518 86, 5518 (2001)]. The potential provides a reasonable description of the phase stability across the Al-Cu phase diagram, dilute heats of solution, and other thermodynamic properties. It has also been tested for generalized stacking fault energies in the presence of a copper layer embedded in Al. This configuration bears some resemblance to Guinier-Preston zones that strengthen Al-Cu alloys. The trends predicted by the potential for uniform shearing of this configuration are in agreement with results of first-principles density-functional calculations performed in this work. The potential is expected to be suitable for atomistic simulations of precipitation hardening of Al-Cu alloys.

  10. Crystal structure of novel compounds in the systems Zr-Cu-Al, Mo-Pd-Al and partial phase equilibria in the Mo-Pd-Al system.

    PubMed

    Khan, Atta U; Rogl, P; Giester, G

    2012-02-28

    The crystal structures of three Al-rich compounds have been solved from X-ray single crystal diffractometry: τ(1)-MoPd(2-x)Al(8+x) (x = 0.067); τ(7)-Zr(Cu(1-x)Al(x))(12) (x = 0.514) and τ(9)-ZrCu(1-x)Al(4) (x = 0.144). τ(1)-MoPd(2-x)Al(8+x) adopts a unique structure type (space group Pbcm; lattice parameters a = 0.78153(2), b = 1.02643(3) and c = 0.86098(2) nm), which can be conceived as a superstructure of the Mo(Cu(x)Al(1-x))(6)Al(4) type. Whereas Mo-atoms occupy the 4d site, Pd(2) occupies the 4c site, Al and Pd(1) atoms randomly share the 4d position and the rest of the positions are fully occupied by Al. A Bärnighausen tree documents the crystallographic group-subgroup relation between the structure types of Mo(Cu(x)Al(1-x))(6)Al(4) and τ(1). τ(7)-Zr(Cu(1-x)Al(x))(12) (x = 0.514) has been confirmed to crystallize with the ThMn(12) type (space group I4/mmm; lattice parameters a = 0.85243(2) and c = 0.50862(3) nm). In total, 4 crystallographic sites were defined, out of which, Zr occupies site 2a, the 8f site is fully occupied by Cu, the 8i site is entirely occupied by Al, but the 8j site turned out to comprise a random mixture of Cu and Al atoms. The compound τ(9)-ZrCu(1-x)Al(4) (x = 0.144) crystallizes in a unique structure type (space group P4/nmm; lattice parameters a = 0.40275(3) and c = 1.17688(4) nm) which exhibits full atom order but a vacancy (14.4%) on the 2c site, shared with Cu atoms. τ(9)-ZrCu(1-x)Al(4) is a superstructure of Cu with an arrangement of three unit cells of Cu in the direction of the c-axis. A Bärnighausen tree documents this relationship. The ZrCu(1-x)Al(4) type (n = 3) is part of a series of structures which follow this building principle: Cu (n = 1), TiAl(3) (n = 2), τ(5)-TiNi(2-x)Al(5) (n = 4), HfGa(2) (n = 6) and Cu(3)Pd (n = 7). A partial isothermal section for the Al-rich part of the Mo-Pd-Al system at 860 °C has been established with two ternary compounds τ(1)-MoPd(2-x)Al(8+x) and τ(2) (unknown structure). The

  11. [Primary central nervous system lymphoma: report of one case].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Peng; Su, Rong-Gang

    2002-04-01

    One case of primary central nervous system lymphoma was reported. The patient received comprehensive therapy, mainly the surgical treatment, with the survival time 12 months, and local recurrence was considered as the major cause of death. The pathology, imagine examination, diagnosis and treatment of primary central nervous system lymphoma were discussed.

  12. Primary healthcare system and practice characteristics in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Khoo, Hwee Sing; Lim, Yee Wei; Vrijhoef, Hubertus Jm

    2014-01-01

    It is crucial to adapt and improve the (primary) health care systems of countries to prepare for future patient profiles and their related needs. The main aim of this study was to acquire a comprehensive overview of the perceptions of primary care experts in Singapore about the state of primary care in Singapore, and to compare this with the state of primary care in other countries. Notwithstanding ranked 2(nd) in terms of efficiency of health care, Singapore is facing significant health care challenges. Emails were sent to 85 experts, where they were asked to rate Singapore's primary care system based on nine internationally adopted health system characteristics and six practice characteristics (response rate = 29%). The primary care system in Singapore received an average of 10.9 out of 30 possible points. Lowest ratings were given to: earnings of primary care physicians compared to specialists, requirement for 24 hr accessibility of primary care services, standard of family medicine in academic departments, reflection of community served by practices in patient lists, and the access to specialists without needing to be referred by primary care physicians. Singapore was categorized as a 'low' primary care country according to the experts.

  13. Characteristics of primary electric propulsion systems. [conferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byers, D. C.

    1979-01-01

    The use of advanced electric propulsion systems is expected to provide cost and performance benefits for future energetic space missions. A methodology to predict the characteristics of advanced electric propulsion systems was developed and programmed for computer calculations to allow evaluation of a broad set of technology and mission assumptions. The impact on overall thrust system characteristics was assessed for variations of propellant type, total accelerating voltage, thruster area, specific impulse, and power system approach. The data may be used both to provide direction to technology emphasis and allow for preliminary estimates of electric propulsion system properties for a wide variety of applications.

  14. Iron intermetallic phases in the Al corner of the Al-Si-Fe system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalifa, W.; Samuel, F. H.; Gruzleski, J. E.

    2003-03-01

    The iron intermetallics observed in six dilute Al-Si-Fe alloys were studied using thermal analysis, optical microscopy, and image, scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray, and electron probe microanalysis/wavelength dispersive spectroscopy (EPMA/WDS) analyses. The alloys were solidified in two different molds, a preheated graphite mold (600°C) and a cylindrical metallic mold (at room temperature), to obtain slow (}0.2 °C/s) and rapid (}15 °C/s) cooling rates. The results show that the volume fraction of iron intermetallics obtained increases with the increase in the amount of Fe and Si added, as well as with the decrease in cooling rate. The low cooling rate produces larger-sized intermetallics, whereas the high cooling rate results in a higher density of intermetallics. Iron addition alone is more effective than either Si or Fe+Si additions in producing intermetallics. The alloy composition and cooling rate control the stability of the intermetallic phases: binary Al-Fe phases predominate at low cooling rates and a high Fe:Si ratio; the β-Al5FeSi phase is dominant at a high Si content and low cooling rate; the α-iron intermetallics (e.g., α-Al8Fe2Si) exist between these two; while Si-rich ternary phases such as the δ-iron Al4FeSi2 intermetallic are stabilized at high cooling rates and Si contents of 0.9 wt pct and higher. Calculations of the solidification paths representing segregations of Fe and Si to the liquid using the Scheil equation did not conform to the actual solidification paths, due to the fact that solid diffusion is not taken into account in the equation. The theoretical models of Brody and Flemings[44] and Clyne and Kurz[45] also fail to explain the observed departure from the Scheil behavior, because these models give less weight to the effect of solid back-diffusion. An adjusted 500°C metastable isothermal section of the Al-Si-Fe phase diagram has been proposed (in place of the equilibrium one), which correctly predicts the

  15. School Management Information Systems in Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demir, Kamile

    2006-01-01

    Developments in information technologies have been impacting upon educational organizations. Principals have been using management information systems to improve the efficiency of administrative services. The aim of this research is to explore principals' perceptions about management information systems and how school management information…

  16. Systemic AL amyloidosis in a Beech Marten (Martes foina).

    PubMed

    Scaglione, F E; Mignone, W; Ferrero, E; Poggi, M; Biolatti, B; Bollo, E

    2013-10-01

    A wild Beech Marten (Martes foina), was referred for necropsy to the Department of Animal Pathology of the University of Turin (Italy). At gross examination, whitish and firm masses, 10-mm in diameter, were found on the heart and in the kidney. Spleen showed lighter color and greater consistency, and the cut surface of the liver appeared scattered with whitish-yellow coalescing foci homogeneously distributed. Amyloid deposits were present in the perivascular and intercellular spaces of the visceral organs, such as the heart, liver, and kidneys. Amyloid stained positively with Congo red with and without 5% potassium permanganate pretreatment and showed green birefringence observable under polarized light. A diagnosis of systemic AL amyloidosis was made. This is the first description of systemic AL amyloidosis in a wild Stone Marten.

  17. An Assessment of the Al- Fe- N System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillert, Mats; Jonsson, Stefan

    1992-11-01

    The thermodynamic properties of the Al-Fe-N system are assessed, taking various types of information into account. For solid AIN, a description very similar to that given by JANAF is found to yield reasonable predictions for the solubility of A1N in face-centered cubic (fcc) Fe and in liquid Fe. An ionic two-sublattice model is applied to the liquid phase, containing two N species, N-3 and N0 The melting point of A1N is taken as 3068 K, and a required gas pressure of 9.75 bar is predicted. A sublimation point of 2690 K at 1 bar is also predicted. A plot of the liquidus surfaces in the Fe-rich end of the Al-Fe-N system is presented.

  18. Effect of a transverse magnetic field on primary-Si distribution during directional solidification in hypereutectic Al-Si alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Shaodong; Dai, Yanchao; Gagnoud, Annie; Fautrelle, Yves; Moreau, Rene; Deng, Kang; Ren, Zhongming; Li, Xi

    2017-06-01

    The effect of a transverse magnetic field on the distribution of the primary Si in a directionally solidified Al-21 wt.% Si alloy is investigated. The results reveal that the application of the magnetic field leads to the appearance of banded structures of primary Si. Furthermore, the inclination of the banded structure decreases with the increase of magnetic-field intensity. The in situ measurement results of the Seebeck signal confirm the existence of a thermoelectric power difference between the solid phase and the liquid phase at the solid/liquid interface in the directionally solidified Al-21 wt.% Si alloy. Thus, the formation of the banded structures should be attributed to the thermoelectric magnetic convection (TEMC) and the resultant force of the primary Si, i.e., gravity force and thermoelectric magnetic force (TEMF). The migration of the primary Si toward the lower left side of the sample is induced by the resultant force, which leads to the formation of banded structures. Moreover, the increase of magnetic-field intensity increases the resultant force of the primary Si, resulting in a decrease of the inclination of banded structure.

  19. Application of Total Quality Management System in Thai Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prueangphitchayathon, Setthiya; Tesaputa, Kowat; Somprach, Kanokorn

    2015-01-01

    The present study seeks to develop a total quality management (TQM) system that can be applied to primary schools. The approach focuses on customer orientation, total involvement of all constituencies and continuous improvement. TQM principles were studied and synthesized according to case studies of the best practices in 3 primary schools (small,…

  20. Application of Total Quality Management System in Thai Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prueangphitchayathon, Setthiya; Tesaputa, Kowat; Somprach, Kanokorn

    2015-01-01

    The present study seeks to develop a total quality management (TQM) system that can be applied to primary schools. The approach focuses on customer orientation, total involvement of all constituencies and continuous improvement. TQM principles were studied and synthesized according to case studies of the best practices in 3 primary schools (small,…

  1. Developing Primary Science Teacher Expertise: Thinking about the System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bull, Ally

    2016-01-01

    This report comes from an exploratory project looking at professional learning and development for primary science teachers. In recent years there has been increased interest in science in New Zealand for social and economic reasons. However, there has been concern that the primary school system is not preparing students as well as it could in…

  2. Primary care training and the evolving healthcare system.

    PubMed

    Peccoralo, Lauren A; Callahan, Kathryn; Stark, Rachel; DeCherrie, Linda V

    2012-01-01

    With growing numbers of patient-centered medical homes and accountable care organizations, and the potential implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, the provision of primary care in the United States is expanding and changing. Therefore, there is an urgent need to create more primary-care physicians and to train physicians to practice in this environment. In this article, we review the impact that the changing US healthcare system has on trainees, strategies to recruit and retain medical students and residents into primary-care internal medicine, and the preparation of trainees to work in the changing healthcare system. Recruitment methods for medical students include early preclinical exposure to patients in the primary-care setting, enhanced longitudinal patient experiences in clinical clerkships, and primary-care tracks. Recruitment methods for residents include enhanced ambulatory-care training and primary-care programs. Financial-incentive programs such as loan forgiveness may encourage trainees to enter primary care. Retaining residents in primary-care careers may be encouraged via focused postgraduate fellowships or continuing medical education to prepare primary-care physicians as both teachers and practitioners in the changing environment. Finally, to prepare primary-care trainees to effectively and efficiently practice within the changing system, educators should consider shifting ambulatory training to community-based practices, encouraging resident participation in team-based care, providing interprofessional educational experiences, and involving trainees in quality-improvement initiatives. Medical educators in primary care must think innovatively and collaboratively to effectively recruit and train the future generation of primary-care physicians.

  3. Advanced Launch System (ALS) Space Transportation Expert System Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-01

    verification, validation and testing of knowledge-based systems, August 1989. Cha, Stephen, Nancy Leveson and Timothy Shimeall. "Safety verification in...89 workshop on verification, validation and testing of knowledge-based systems, August 1989. 5-31 STRESS REPORT NO. GDSS-DSES-89-001 Leveson, Nancy G...34Software safety: why, what, and how." Computing surveys, vol. 18, no. 2, June, 1986. Leveson, Nancy G. "Safety as software quality." IEEE Software

  4. In Situ Al Based Composites Fabricated in Al-SiO2-C System by Reaction Sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokhnache, El Oualid; Wang, Guisong; Geng, Lin; Kaveendran, Balasubramaniam; Henniche, Abdelkhalek; Ramdani, Noureddine

    2015-07-01

    In situ Al-based composites with different SiO2/C/Al molar ratios were fabricated by reaction hot pressing. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to investigate the reaction mechanisms in the Al-SiO2-C system. X-ray diffraction results revealed that no new resultant phase was observed below the melting temperature of aluminum except the SiO2, C and Al phases. Heating at different synthesis temperatures showed that, up to 1000°C with a holding time of 1 h, the reactions in the Al-SiO2-C system took place completely, where the final products were Al2O3, SiC, Al4C3 and Si. Microstructural observation showed that the in situ synthesized Al2O3, SiC, Al4C3, and Si were dispersed uniformly and had fine sizes less than 2 µm. The formed interfaces between the reinforcements and Al matrix are clean and free from any interfacial phase. During cooling, the synthesized Si formed a multilayer growth in the (111) direction. When the SiO2/C/Al molar ratio was (6/3/9), more Al2O3 and Si were produced along with the complete prevention of Al4C3 in the Al-SiO2-C system. The yield strength, ultimate tensile strength and Brinell hardness of the in situ fabricated composites are significantly higher than those of pure aluminum matrix, with a decrease of ductility. Mechanisms governing the tensile fracture process are also discussed.

  5. [Comprehensive primary care and segmented health systems in South America].

    PubMed

    Giovanella, Ligia; Almeida, Patty Fidelis de

    2017-10-02

    The article analyzes recent reforms in primary health care in the South American countries, discussing the scope and challenges for establishing comprehensive primary health care in the region's health systems. The data sources were case studies conducted in 12 countries, and the analytical lines were the strategic components in the design and implementation of primary health care: national policy approaches, characteristics of financing, organization and provision, and the workforce in primary health care. The crosscutting analysis from a comparative perspective provides an overview of primary health care in the region's countries and highlights convergences and asymmetries. A common trait is the recovery of the expanded definition of primary health care with family and community components, a territorial base, multidisciplinary team, incorporation of community health workers, and social participation. Implementation revealed heterogeneities in the advances and contradictions in the models. Insufficient supply of physicians, difficulties in provision and physician retention in remote and peripheral areas, as well as in primary health care itself, precarious employment relations, and absence of career plans are common problems, and there have been recent initiatives in government intervention to direct the workforce to the public system. Segmentation of the supply of primary health care converges with the segmentation of social protection in the various countries, through maintenance of social insurance or selective and targeted insurance or coverage by private health insurance, and persistent exclusion of populations from the right to health. The article argues that implementation of comprehensive primary health care is conditioned by the prevailing modalities of social protection in health.

  6. Primary Health Care in Canada: Systems in Motion

    PubMed Central

    Hutchison, Brian; Levesque, Jean-Frederic; Strumpf, Erin; Coyle, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    Context: During the 1980s and 1990s, innovations in the organization, funding, and delivery of primary health care in Canada were at the periphery of the system rather than at its core. In the early 2000s, a new policy environment emerged. Methods: This policy analysis examines primary health care reform efforts in Canada during the last decade, drawing on descriptive information from published and gray literature and from a series of semistructured interviews with informed observers of primary health care in Canada. Findings: Primary health care in Canada has entered a period of potentially transformative change. Key initiatives include support for interprofessional primary health care teams, group practices and networks, patient enrollment with a primary care provider, financial incentives and blended-payment schemes, development of primary health care governance mechanisms, expansion of the primary health care provider pool, implementation of electronic medical records, and quality improvement training and support. Conclusions: Canada's experience suggests that primary health care transformation can be achieved voluntarily in a pluralistic system of private health care delivery, given strong government and professional leadership working in concert. PMID:21676023

  7. [Experimental systemic enzyme therapy of gouty and primary glomerulonephritis].

    PubMed

    Mukhin, I V; Nikolenko, V Iu

    2003-01-01

    The influence of a systemic enzymotherapy on the morphological, biochemical, and functional manifestations of the kidney damage during the experimental gouty and primary glomerulonephritis is described in comparison to the results obtained by traditional methods.

  8. The stabilization system of primary oscillation for a micromechanical gyroscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranov, Pavel; Nesterenko, Tamara; Tsimbalist, Edvard; Vtorushin, Sergey

    2017-06-01

    The mode of primary oscillations of a micromechanical gyroscope (MMG) sensor is provided by an electrostatic comb-drive actuator in which the interaction between the micromechanical structures and electronics occurs by means of a single or differential capacitive sensor. Two pairs of capacitive sensors are traditionally used for frequency stabilization of MMG primary oscillations. The first pair of capacitive sensors excites primary oscillations, while the second measures the amplitude of primary oscillations. The stabilization system provides a continuous frequency tuning of primary oscillations that increases the duration of transition processes, the time of operational readiness, and the instability of the output signal from the secondary oscillation channel of the MMGs. This paper presents a new approach to the primary oscillation control system of the two-component MMG. The method of calculating the natural resonant frequency is based on measurements of the total current passing through the comb-driver actuator capacitances, and a lock-in detection is suggested. This paper consists of the results of the numerical analysis, the description of the proposed approach to the frequency control of the primary MMG oscillations, and the Simulink model of the behaviour of the MMG stabilization system, depending on its mechanical-and-physical properties with regard to a 2% shift of the natural resonant frequency. The frequency control of the primary oscillations at 2% frequency detuning is performed within 0.11 s.

  9. Simulation of the ALS longitudinal multibunch feedback system

    SciTech Connect

    Byrd, J.

    1993-05-01

    Longitudinal coupled bunch growth rates in the Advanced Light Source (ALS), a 1.5 GeV electron storage ring for producing synchrotron radiation, indicate the need for damping via a feedback (FB) system. The design of the system is based on the proposed PEP-II longitudinal FB system which uses a digital filter to provide the required phase and amplitude response. We report the results of a detailed computer simulation of the FB system including single particle longitudinal beam dynamics, measured RF cavity fundamental and higher order modes, and response of major FB components such as the power amplifier and kicker. The simulation addresses issues such as required FB power and gain, noise, digital filter effects, and varying initial bunch conditions.

  10. Contribution to Kinetics of Superplastic Deformation of Dispersion Strengthened Al-Al4C3 System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besterci, Michal; Varchola, Marián; Kováč, Ladislav; Velgosová, Oksana

    2012-02-01

    The influence of temperature at constant strain rate has been evaluated with respect to superplastic behavior of dispersion strengthened Al-Al4C3 composite with 4 vol.% of Al4C3 phase. The dispersion strengthened Al-Al4C3 was prepared by powder metallurgy. Material can be characterized by grain size around 1 μm and dispersed particle Al4C3 size around 50 nm. This material showed superplastic behavior for strain rate 10-3 s-1 by test temperature 573 K. The mechanism of superplastic deformation was also investigated. For the presented material with low content of disperse particle slip on grain boundaries is typical. The final fracture is transcrystalline with dimples with their mean size 1.25 μm. The dimples are initialized by Al4C3 particles in size from 40 to 50 nm.

  11. Klystron 'efficiency loop' for the ALS storage ring RF system

    SciTech Connect

    Kwiatkowski, Slawomir; Julian, Jim; Baptiste, Kenneth

    2002-05-20

    The recent energy crisis in California has led us to investigate the high power RF systems at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) in order to decrease the energy consumption and power costs. We found the Storage Ring Klystron Power Amplifier system operating as designed but with significant power waste. A simple proportional-integrator (PI) analog loop, which controls the klystron collector beam current, as a function of the output RF power, has been designed and installed. The design considerations, besides efficiency improvement, were to interface to the existing system without major expense. They were to also avoid the klystron cathode power supply filter's resonance in the loop's dynamics, and prevent a conflict with the existing Cavity RF Amplitude Loop dynamics. This efficiency loop will allow us to save up to 700 MW-hours of electrical energy per year and increase the lifetime of the klystron.

  12. High-temperature phase equilibria in the Al-rich corner of the Al-Ti-C system

    SciTech Connect

    Frage, N.; Frumin, N.; Levin, L.; Polak, M.; Dariel, M.P.

    1998-04-01

    A thermodynamic analysis of the Al-rich corner in the ternary Al-Ti-C diagram, providing phase relations and regions of phase stability, is presented. An invariant four-phase equilibrium between Al, Al{sub 4}C{sub 3}, Al{sub 3}Ti, and TiC{sub x} takes place at 0.53 at. pct Ti, 7.10{sup {minus}6} at. pct C, and TiC{sub 0.883} at 966 K. The carbon content of the TiC{sub x} phase, which extends from x = 0.48 to 0.98, exerts a significant effect on phase relationships in this ternary system. In particular, it is shown that stoichiometric TiC is not stable in the presence of liquid Al. For example, at 1,300 K, a two-phase equilibrium between Al{sub L} and TiC{sub x} exists only in the 0.91 < x < 0.82 range. Thus, the interaction of Al{sub L} with stoichiometric TiC leads to the formation of the Al{sub 4}C{sub 3} aluminum carbide phase, whereas for x < 0.82, only the intermetallic compound Al{sub 3}Ti can form at this temperature. The results of this analysis were confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements of relevant composites.

  13. Metastability in the MgAl2O4-Al2O3 System

    DOE PAGES

    Wilkerson, Kelley R.; Smith, Jeffrey D.; Hemrick, James G.

    2014-07-22

    Aluminum oxide must take a spinel form ( γ-Al2O3) at elevated temperatures in order for extensive solid solution to form between MgAl2O4 and α-Al2O3. The solvus line between MgAl2O4 and Al2O3 has been defined at 79.6 wt% Al2O3 at 1500°C, 83.0 wt% Al2O3 at 1600°C, and 86.5 wt% Al2O3 at 1700°C. A metastable region has been defined at temperatures up to 1700°C which could have significant implications for material processing and properties. Additionally, initial processing could have major implications on final chemistry. The spinel solid solution region has been extended to form an infinite solid solution with Al2O3 at elevatedmore » temperatures. A minimum in melting at 1975°C and a chemistry of 96 wt% Al2O3 rather than a eutectic is present, resulting in no eutectic crystal formation during solidification.« less

  14. Viking 75 project: Viking lander system primary mission performance report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooley, C. G.

    1977-01-01

    Viking Lander hardware performance during launch, interplanetary cruise, Mars orbit insertion, preseparation, separation through landing, and the primary landed mission, with primary emphasis on Lander engineering and science hardware operations, the as-flown mission are described with respect to Lander system performance and anomalies during the various mission phases. The extended mission and predicted Lander performance is discussed along with a summary of Viking goals, mission plans, and description of the Lander, and its subsystem definitions.

  15. Faceted growth of primary Al{sub 2}Cu crystals during directional solidification in high magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Chuanjun; Ren, Zhongming; Shen, Yu; Wang, Qiuliang; Dai, Yinming; Wang, Hui

    2013-10-21

    The high magnetic field is widely used to modify the crystal morphology. In this work, the effect of the magnetic field on growing behavior of faceted crystals in the Al-40 wt. %Cu alloy was investigated using directional solidification technique. It was found that the faceted growth of primary Al{sub 2}Cu phase was degraded and the primary spacing was reduced upon applying the magnetic field. Additionally, the length of the mushy zone first decreased and then increased with increase of the magnetic field intensity. The quantitative analysis reveals that the shear stress induced by the fluid motion is insufficient to break the atom bonds at the solid-liquid interface. However, both of the thermoelectric magnetic convection (TEMC) and the thermoelectric magnetic force (TEMF) cause dendrites to fracture and reduce the primary spacing. The two effects also weaken the faceting growth. Moreover, the instability of the solid-liquid interface is generated by the TEMF, which further leads to degrade the faceted growth. The length of mushy zone was changed by the TEMC and reached the minimum in the magnetic field of 0.5 T, which is in good agreement with the predicted value (0.83 T)

  16. Influence of the permeability of networked primary Si on the ejection of hypereutectic Al-Si melts by centrifugation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youn, Ji Won; Jeon, Je-Beom; Park, Jin Man; Seo, Seok Yong; Lim, Jeon Taik; Kim, Suk Jun; Kim, Ki Young

    2017-03-01

    The separation of high purity Si for solar cells from Al-Si alloy melt in the mushy zone was investigated using an advanced centrifugal technique. The efficiency of separating Si, based on the weight ratio of separated Si to Si in alloy melt, was maximized by optimizing the permeability of a porous structure of Si (Si foam.) For the optimization of the permeability, two fundamental microstructure variables, size and the solid fraction of primary Si platelets, were controlled by adjusting the Si content in the melts and the rotation start temperature, respectively. The best separation efficiency (48.3% with 3N purity) was achieved when Si content in melt was 24% and the solid fraction was 8.7%. The melt with 23% Si led to a higher separation efficiency (69.8%) for a solid fraction of 10.4%, but Al sandwiched between the Si platelets resulted in a decrease in the purity to 2N.

  17. Influence of the permeability of networked primary Si on the ejection of hypereutectic Al-Si melts by centrifugation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youn, Ji Won; Jeon, Je-Beom; Park, Jin Man; Seo, Seok Yong; Lim, Jeon Taik; Kim, Suk Jun; Kim, Ki Young

    2017-02-01

    The separation of high purity Si for solar cells from Al-Si alloy melt in the mushy zone was investigated using an advanced centrifugal technique. The efficiency of separating Si, based on the weight ratio of separated Si to Si in alloy melt, was maximized by optimizing the permeability of a porous structure of Si (Si foam.) For the optimization of the permeability, two fundamental microstructure variables, size and the solid fraction of primary Si platelets, were controlled by adjusting the Si content in the melts and the rotation start temperature, respectively. The best separation efficiency (48.3% with 3N purity) was achieved when Si content in melt was 24% and the solid fraction was 8.7%. The melt with 23% Si led to a higher separation efficiency (69.8%) for a solid fraction of 10.4%, but Al sandwiched between the Si platelets resulted in a decrease in the purity to 2N.

  18. Effect of rotational speed on rapid separation of primary silicon from an Al-Si alloy by novel centrifugation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youn, Ji Won; Jeon, Je-Beom; Hee Seo, Kum; Kim, Suk Jun; Young Kim, Ki

    2016-01-01

    The optimum rotational speed (RS) of a novel centrifugation method for obtaining high-purity Si separated from Al-Si melts was evaluated numerically and experimentally. Numerical calculations showed that the separation efficiency (Si to Al ratio in the separated solid) increases and finally reaches a plateau at a high RS. The calculated relationship between RS and the separation efficiency was consistent with experimentally measured data except for the removal of primary Si crystallites, which happened at centrifugation at 800 revolutions per minute (RPM). Based on the acquired data, it was established that 700 RPM is the optimal RS for our centrifugation apparatus (developed in a previous study) to maximize the separation efficiency.

  19. Long-period ordered superstructures that appear in an (Al,Ga)-rich (Al,Ga)Ti system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, Takayoshi; Hagihara, Koji; Hata, Satoshi; Shigyo, Hajime; Nakashima, Hideharu; Umakoshi, Yukichi; Arya, Ashok; Kulkarni, Ulhas D.

    2013-01-01

    Long-period ordered superstructures in an (Al,Ga)-rich (Al,Ga)Ti system composed of (Al,Ga) x Ti100- x (x = 50-65 at. %) were investigated by using melt-spun ribbons, focusing on the ordering process of the superstructural phases. Compositional regions in which h-(Al,Ga)2Ti (Ga2Zr-type), (Al,Ga)5Ti3 and (Al,Ga)3Ti2 with threefold, fourfold and fivefold periodicity, respectively, appeared coherently in the L10 matrix were identified by electron diffraction patterns in two different temperature conditions of as-spun (a relatively high-temperature state) and heat-treatment at 700°C (a relatively low-temperature state). The (Al,Ga)5Ti3 superstructural phase always existed between the compositional region where h-(Al,Ga)2Ti and (Al,Ga)3Ti2 dominantly appear. Therefore, periodical ordering proceeds following the periodicity of the concentration wave of pure (Al,Ga) layers parallel to {310) in the Ti (002) layers from threefold to fivefold periodicity via fourfold periodicity. We found that the (Al,Ga)3Ti2 long-period superstructural phase preferentially appeared with increasing Ga concentration in the melt-spun ribbon annealed at 700°C. In other words, the h-(Al,Ga)2Ti superstructure with threefold periodicity preferentially appeared at the high temperature and a low Ga concentration. Thus, the (Al,Ga)3Ti2-type superstructure was never produced without the addition of Ga in the present study. The long-period ordered superstructures were composed of three pairs of primitive cells, (Al,Ga)Ti2, (Al,Ga)Ti3 and (Al,Ga)Ti4, with periodic atomic arrangements corresponding to lean rhombus, fat rhombus and square, respectively. We discuss the ordering process throughout the (Al,Ga)5 ? superstructure based on the periodic concentration wave and exchange of atoms. The effect of long-period ordered superstructures on hardness is also mentioned.

  20. The 747 primary flight control systems reliability and maintenance study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The major operational characteristics of the 747 Primary Flight Control Systems (PFCS) are described. Results of reliability analysis for separate control functions are presented. The analysis makes use of a NASA computer program which calculates reliability of redundant systems. Costs for maintaining the 747 PFCS in airline service are assessed. The reliabilities and cost will provide a baseline for use in trade studies of future flight control system design.

  1. 78 FR 28896 - Design Limits and Loading Combinations for Metal Primary Reactor Containment System Components

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ... COMMISSION Design Limits and Loading Combinations for Metal Primary Reactor Containment System Components... Combinations for Metal Primary Reactor Containment System Components,'' in which there are no substantive... loading combinations for metal primary reactor containment system components. ADDRESSES: Please refer...

  2. Cryptanalysis and improvement of Yan et al.'s biometric-based authentication scheme for telecare medicine information systems.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Dheerendra; Mukhopadhyay, Sourav; Chaturvedi, Ankita; Kumari, Saru; Khan, Muhammad Khurram

    2014-06-01

    Remote user authentication is desirable for a Telecare Medicine Information System (TMIS) for the safety, security and integrity of transmitted data over the public channel. In 2013, Tan presented a biometric based remote user authentication scheme and claimed that his scheme is secure. Recently, Yan et al. demonstrated some drawbacks in Tan's scheme and proposed an improved scheme to erase the drawbacks of Tan's scheme. We analyze Yan et al.'s scheme and identify that their scheme is vulnerable to off-line password guessing attack, and does not protect anonymity. Moreover, in their scheme, login and password change phases are inefficient to identify the correctness of input where inefficiency in password change phase can cause denial of service attack. Further, we design an improved scheme for TMIS with the aim to eliminate the drawbacks of Yan et al.'s scheme.

  3. Measured Activities of Al and Ni in gamma-(Ni) and gamma'-(Ni)3Al in the Ni-Al-Pt System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copland, Evan

    2007-01-01

    Adding Pt to Ni-Al coatings is critical to achieving the required oxidation protection of Ni-based superalloys, but the nature of the Pt effect remains unresolved. This research provides a fundamental part of the answer by measuring the influence of Pt on the activities of Al and Ni in gamma-(Ni), gamma prime-(Ni)3Al and liquid in the Ni-Al-Pt system. Measurements have been made at 25 compositions in the Ni-rich corner over the temperature range, T = 1400-1750 K, by the vapor pressure technique with a multiple effusion-cell mass spectrometer (multi-cell KEMS). These measurements clearly show adding Pt (for X(sub Pt) less than 0.25) decreases a(Al) while increasing a(Ni). This solution behavior supports the idea that Pt increases Al transport to an alloy / Al2O3 interface and also limits the interaction between the coating and substrate alloys in the gamma-(Ni) + gamma prime-(Ni)3Al region. This presentation will review the progress of this study.

  4. Combustion synthesis of ceramic-metal composite materials - The TiC-Al2O3-Al system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feng, H. J.; Moore, John J.; Wirth, D. G.

    1992-01-01

    Combustion synthesis was applied for producing ceramic-metal composites with reduced levels of porosity, by allowing an excess amount of liquid metal, generated by the exothermic reaction during synthesis, to infiltrate the pores. It is shown that this method, when applied to TiC-Al2O3 system, led to a decreased level of porosity in the resulting TiC-Al2O3-Al product, as compared with that of TiC-Al2O3 system. This in situ procedure is more efficient than the two-stage conventional processes (i.e., sintering followed by liquid metal infiltration), although there are limitations with respect to total penetration of the liquid metal and maintaining a stable propagation of the combustion reaction.

  5. Combustion synthesis of ceramic-metal composite materials - The TiC-Al2O3-Al system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feng, H. J.; Moore, John J.; Wirth, D. G.

    1992-01-01

    Combustion synthesis was applied for producing ceramic-metal composites with reduced levels of porosity, by allowing an excess amount of liquid metal, generated by the exothermic reaction during synthesis, to infiltrate the pores. It is shown that this method, when applied to TiC-Al2O3 system, led to a decreased level of porosity in the resulting TiC-Al2O3-Al product, as compared with that of TiC-Al2O3 system. This in situ procedure is more efficient than the two-stage conventional processes (i.e., sintering followed by liquid metal infiltration), although there are limitations with respect to total penetration of the liquid metal and maintaining a stable propagation of the combustion reaction.

  6. Primary electric power generation systems for advanced-technology engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cronin, M. J.

    1983-01-01

    The advantages of the all electric airplane are discussed. In the all electric airplane the generator is the sole source of electric power; it powers the primary and secondary flight controls, the environmentals, and the landing gear. Five candidates for all electric power systems are discussed and compared. Cost benefits of the all electric airplane are discussed.

  7. An Exploratory Study on How Primary Pupils Approach Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koski, Marja-Ilona; de Vries, Marc

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a study of systems thinking among 27 primary pupils (8-10 years old) and their teacher. The study included a pre-test for the teacher and the pupils, lesson planning, the actual lesson and a post-test for the pupils. The research focused on finding an answer to three questions: (1) do pupils see a system as a structure…

  8. [Primary central nervous system lymphoma: pathogenesis and histomorphology].

    PubMed

    Méhes, Gábor

    2017-03-08

    Lymphoproliferative diseases of the central nervous system are rare, diagnostics and treatment are accordingly challenging. Since the introduction of the 2008 WHO lymphoma classification, primary CNS DLBCL - also covering the associated primary ocular (vitreoretinal) lymphoma - is a separate entity. The special localization is related with a series of newly recognized genetic, genomic and immunologic features directing to the strong interaction between transformed lymphoma cells, neural tissue components and the local immune response. Histological differentiation is frequently disabled by the limited sampling opportunities and requires the application of all available hematopathologic technologies including immunohistochemistry, cytology, liquor serology, flow cytometry, fluorescence in situ hybridization and polymerase chain reaction with sequencing.

  9. [Validation of an adverse event reporting system in primary care].

    PubMed

    de Lourdes Rojas-Armadillo, María; Jiménez-Báez, María Valeria; Chávez-Hernández, María Margarita; González-Fondón, Araceli

    2016-01-01

    Patient safety is a priority issue in health systems, due to the damage costs, institutional weakening, lack of credibility, and frustration on those who committed an error that resulted in an adverse event. There is no standardized instrument for recording, reporting, and analyzing sentinel or adverse events (AE) in primary care. Our aim was to design and validate a surveillance system for recording sentinel events, adverse events and near miss incidents in primary care. We made a review of systems for recording and reporting adverse events in primary care. Then, we proposed an instrument to record these events, and register faults in the structure and process, in primary health care units in the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social. We showed VENCER-MF format to 35 subjects. Out of them, 100% identified a failure in care process, 90% recorded a sentinel event, 85% identified the cause of this event, 75% of them suggested some measures for avoiding the recurrence of adverse events. We used a Cronbach's alpha of 0.6, p=0.03. The instrument VENCER-MF has a good consistency for the identification of adverse events.

  10. NiAl-based Polyphase in situ Composites in the NiAl-Ta-X (X = Cr, Mo, or V) Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, D. R.; Oliver, B. F.; Noebe, R. D.; Whittenberger, J. D.

    1995-01-01

    Polyphase in situ composites were generated by directional solidification of ternary eutectics. This work was performed to discover if a balance of properties could be produced by combining the NiAl-Laves phase and the NiAl-refractory metal phase eutectics. The systems investigated were the Ni-Al-Ta-X (X = Cr, Mo, or V) alloys. Ternary eutectics were found in each of these systems and the eutectic composition, temperature, and morphology were determined. The ternary eutectic systems examined were the NiAl-NiAlTa-(Mo, Ta), NiAl-(Cr, Al) NiTa-Cr, and the NiAl-NiAlTa-V systems. Each eutectic consists of NiAl, a C14 Laves phase, and a refractory metal phase. Directional solidification was performed by containerless processing techniques in a levitation zone refiner to minimize alloy contamination. Room temperature fracture toughness of these materials was determined by a four-point bend test. Preliminary creep behavior was determined by compression tests at elevated temperatures, 1100-l400 K. Of the ternary eutectics, the one in the NiAl-Ta-Cr system was found to be the most promising. The fracture toughness of the NiAl-(Cr, Al)NiTa-Cr eutectic was intermediate between the values of the NiAl-NiAlTa eutectic and the NiAl-Cr eutectic. The creep strength of this ternary eutectic was similar to or greater than that of the NiAl-Cr eutectic.

  11. Shortening the Time of Heat Treatment of Silumins of the Al - Si - Cu System by Modifying their Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikitin, K. V.; Chikova, O. A.; Amosov, E. A.; Nikitin, V. I.

    2016-11-01

    The possibility of shortening the heat treatment hold of silumins of the Al - Si - Cu system by changing the parameters of the structure under chill casting is considered and a criterion for their evaluation is suggested. Alloys AK6M2 and AK8M3ch are used to demonstrate experimentally that decrease in the sizes of the crystals of primary silicon and in the transverse size of the α-Al secondary dendrite arms can halve the time of holding for quenching and aging at a guaranteed margin of the strength properties.

  12. Compact TPV Generation System Using Al2O3/Er3Al5O12 Eutectic Ceramics Selective Emitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adachi, Yusuke; Yugami, Hiroo; Shibata, Kouji; Nakagawa, Narihito

    2004-11-01

    The emissive properties of Al2O3Er3Al5O12 eutectic ceramics have been measured as a candidate of selective emitters. It is identified that the Al2O3Er3Al5O12 eutectic ceramics have selective emission bands at the wavelength of 1.5 μm, and the emittance at the emission peak is over 0.8. The selective emissive power for GaSb photovoltaic (PV) cells of 49 kW/m2 is achieved by this material at 1600 K. Since the emission bands match the sensitive region of GaSb PV cells, the Al2O3Er3Al5O12 eutectic ceramics are suited as emitter materials in thermophotovoltaic (TPV) systems using GaSb PV cells. The optical design of small-scale TPV systems for portable power sources has been investigated with the three-dimensional ray tracing simulation. Using a mirror/PV optical design, the concentrated thermal radiation is irradiated on PV cells with the view factor over 0.75.

  13. Effect of Shrinkage on Primary Dendrite Arm Spacing during Binary Al-Si Alloy Solidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hongda; Hamed, Mohamed S.; Shankar, Sumanth

    2011-08-01

    Upward and downward directional solidification of hypoeutectic Al-Si alloys were numerically simulated inside a cylindrical container. Undercooling of the liquidus temperature prior to the solidification event was introduced in the numerical model. The finite-volume method was used to solve the energy, concentration, momentum, and continuity equations. Temperature and liquid concentrations inside the mushy zone were coupled with local equilibrium assumptions. An energy equation was applied to determine the liquid fraction inside the mushy zone while considering the temperature undercooling at the solidifying dendrite/liquid interface. Momentum and continuity equations were coupled by the SIMPLE algorithm. Flow velocity distribution at various times, G, R, λ 1, and solidification time at mushy zone/liquid interface during solidification were predicted. The effect of shrinkage during solidification on these solidification parameters was quantified. Transient temperature distribution, solidification time for the mushy zone/liquid interface, and λ 1 were validated by laboratory experiments. It was found that better agreement could be achieved when the fluid flow due to solidification shrinkage was considered. Considering shrinkage in upward solidification was found to only have a marginal effect on solidification parameters, such as G, R, and λ 1; whereas, in the downward solidification, fluid flow due to shrinkage had a significant effect on these solidification parameters. Considering shrinkage during downward solidification resulted in a smaller R, stronger fluid flow, and increased solidification time at the mushy zone/liquid interface. Further, the flow pattern was significantly altered when solidification shrinkage was considered in the simulation. The effect of shrinkage on G and λ 1 strongly depended on the instantaneous location of the mushy zone/liquid interface in the computational domain. The numerical results could be validated by experimental data

  14. Interdiffusion and Intrinsic Diffusion in the Mg-Al System

    SciTech Connect

    Brennan, Sarah; Bermudez, Katrina; Sohn, Yong Ho; Kulkarni, Nagraj S

    2012-01-01

    Solid-to-solid diffusion couples were assembled and annealed to examine the diffusion between pure Mg (99.96%) and Al (99.999%). Diffusion anneals were carried out at 300 , 350 , and 400 C for 720, 360, and 240 hours, respectively. Optical and scanning electron microscopes were utilized to identify the formation of the intermetallic phases, -Al12Mg17 and -Al3Mg2 and absence of the -phase in the diffusion couples. Thicknesses of the -Al12Mg17 and -Al3Mg2 phases were measured and the parabolic growth constants were calculated to determine the activation energies for the growth, 165 and 86 KJ/mole, respectively. Concentration profiles were determined with electron microprobe analysis using pure elemental standards. Composition-dependent interdiffusion coefficients in Mg-solid solution, -Al12Mg17 and - Al3Mg2 and Al-solid solutions were calculated based on the Boltzmann-Matano analysis. Average effective interdiffusion coefficients for each phase were also calculated, and the magnitude was the highest for the -Al3Mg2 phase, followed by -Al12Mg17, Al-solid solution and Mg-solid solution. Intrinsic diffusion coefficients based on Huemann s analysis (e.g., marker plane) were determined for the ~38 at.% Mg in the -Al3Mg2 phase. Activation energies and the pre-exponential factors for the inter- and intrinsic diffusion coefficients were calculated for the temperature range examined. The -Al3Mg2 phase was found to have the lowest activation energies for growth and interdiffusion among all four phases studied. At the marker location in the -Al3Mg2 phase, the intrinsic diffusion of Al was found to be faster than that of Mg. Extrapolations of the impurity diffusion coefficients in the terminal solid solutions were made and compared to the available self- and impurity diffusion data from literature. Thermodynamic factor, tracer diffusion coefficients and atomic mobilities at the marker plane composition were approximated using available literature values of Mg activity in the -Al

  15. Using systems science for population health management in primary care.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Kong, Nan; Lawley, Mark A; Pagán, José A

    2014-10-01

    Population health management is becoming increasingly important to organizations managing and providing primary care services given ongoing changes in health care delivery and payment systems. The objective of this study is to show how systems science methodologies could be incorporated into population health management to compare different interventions and improve health outcomes. The New York Academy of Medicine Cardiovascular Health Simulation model (an agent-based model) and data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System were used to evaluate a lifestyle program that could be implemented in primary care practice settings. The program targeted Medicare-age adults and focused on improving diet and exercise and reducing weight. The simulation results suggest that there would be significant reductions projected in the proportion of the Medicare-age population with diabetes after the implementation of the proposed lifestyle program for a relatively long term (3 and 5 years). Similar results were found for the subpopulations with high cholesterol, but the proposed intervention would not have a significant effect in the proportion of the population with hypertension over a time period of <5 years. Systems science methodologies can be useful to compare the health outcomes of different interventions. These tools can become an important component of population health management because they can help managers and other decision makers evaluate alternative programs in primary care settings. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Primary Exhaust Cooler at the Propulsion Systems Laboratory

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1952-09-21

    One of the two primary coolers at the Propulsion Systems Laboratory at the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory. Engines could be run in simulated altitude conditions inside the facility’s two 14-foot-diameter and 24-foot-long test chambers. The Propulsion Systems Laboratory was the nation’s only facility that could run large full-size engine systems in controlled altitude conditions. At the time of this photograph, construction of the facility had recently been completed. Although not a wind tunnel, the Propulsion Systems Laboratory generated high-speed airflow through the interior of the engine. The air flow was pushed through the system by large compressors, adjusted by heating or refrigerating equipment, and de-moisturized by air dryers. The exhaust system served two roles: reducing the density of the air in the test chambers to simulate high altitudes and removing hot gases exhausted by the engines being tested. It was necessary to reduce the temperature of the extremely hot engine exhaust before the air reached the exhauster equipment. As the air flow exited through exhaust section of the test chamber, it entered into the giant primary cooler seen in this photograph. Narrow fins or vanes inside the cooler were filled with water. As the air flow passed between the vanes, its heat was transferred to the cooling water. The cooling water was cycled out of the system, carrying with it much of the exhaust heat.

  17. Targetable genetic features of primary testicular and primary central nervous system lymphomas

    PubMed Central

    Chapuy, Bjoern; Roemer, Margaretha G. M.; Stewart, Chip; Tan, Yuxiang; Abo, Ryan P.; Zhang, Liye; Dunford, Andrew J.; Meredith, David M.; Thorner, Aaron R.; Jordanova, Ekaterina S.; Liu, Gang; Feuerhake, Friedrich; Ducar, Matthew D.; Illerhaus, Gerald; Gusenleitner, Daniel; Linden, Erica A.; Sun, Heather H.; Homer, Heather; Aono, Miyuki; Pinkus, Geraldine S.; Ligon, Azra H.; Ligon, Keith L.; Ferry, Judith A.; Freeman, Gordon J.; van Hummelen, Paul; Golub, Todd R.; Getz, Gad; Rodig, Scott J.; de Jong, Daphne; Monti, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Primary central nervous system lymphomas (PCNSLs) and primary testicular lymphomas (PTLs) are extranodal large B-cell lymphomas (LBCLs) with inferior responses to current empiric treatment regimens. To identify targetable genetic features of PCNSL and PTL, we characterized their recurrent somatic mutations, chromosomal rearrangements, copy number alterations (CNAs), and associated driver genes, and compared these comprehensive genetic signatures to those of diffuse LBCL and primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma (PMBL). These studies identify unique combinations of genetic alterations in discrete LBCL subtypes and subtype-selective bases for targeted therapy. PCNSLs and PTLs frequently exhibit genomic instability, and near-uniform, often biallelic, CDKN2A loss with rare TP53 mutations. PCNSLs and PTLs also use multiple genetic mechanisms to target key genes and pathways and exhibit near-uniform oncogenic Toll-like receptor signaling as a result of MYD88 mutation and/or NFKBIZ amplification, frequent concurrent B-cell receptor pathway activation, and deregulation of BCL6. Of great interest, PCNSLs and PTLs also have frequent 9p24.1/PD-L1/PD-L2 CNAs and additional translocations of these loci, structural bases of immune evasion that are shared with PMBL. PMID:26702065

  18. Targetable genetic features of primary testicular and primary central nervous system lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Chapuy, Bjoern; Roemer, Margaretha G M; Stewart, Chip; Tan, Yuxiang; Abo, Ryan P; Zhang, Liye; Dunford, Andrew J; Meredith, David M; Thorner, Aaron R; Jordanova, Ekaterina S; Liu, Gang; Feuerhake, Friedrich; Ducar, Matthew D; Illerhaus, Gerald; Gusenleitner, Daniel; Linden, Erica A; Sun, Heather H; Homer, Heather; Aono, Miyuki; Pinkus, Geraldine S; Ligon, Azra H; Ligon, Keith L; Ferry, Judith A; Freeman, Gordon J; van Hummelen, Paul; Golub, Todd R; Getz, Gad; Rodig, Scott J; de Jong, Daphne; Monti, Stefano; Shipp, Margaret A

    2016-02-18

    Primary central nervous system lymphomas (PCNSLs) and primary testicular lymphomas (PTLs) are extranodal large B-cell lymphomas (LBCLs) with inferior responses to current empiric treatment regimens. To identify targetable genetic features of PCNSL and PTL, we characterized their recurrent somatic mutations, chromosomal rearrangements, copy number alterations (CNAs), and associated driver genes, and compared these comprehensive genetic signatures to those of diffuse LBCL and primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma (PMBL). These studies identify unique combinations of genetic alterations in discrete LBCL subtypes and subtype-selective bases for targeted therapy. PCNSLs and PTLs frequently exhibit genomic instability, and near-uniform, often biallelic, CDKN2A loss with rare TP53 mutations. PCNSLs and PTLs also use multiple genetic mechanisms to target key genes and pathways and exhibit near-uniform oncogenic Toll-like receptor signaling as a result of MYD88 mutation and/or NFKBIZ amplification, frequent concurrent B-cell receptor pathway activation, and deregulation of BCL6. Of great interest, PCNSLs and PTLs also have frequent 9p24.1/PD-L1/PD-L2 CNAs and additional translocations of these loci, structural bases of immune evasion that are shared with PMBL. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology.

  19. Composition and solidification microstructure selection in the interdendritic matrix between primary Al{sub 3}Fe dendrites in hypereutectic Al-Fe alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, D.; Korgul, P.; Jones, H.

    1996-07-01

    The composition and constitution of matrix microstructure between plate-like Al{sub 3}Fe dendrites in Bridgman-grown hypereutectic Al-Fe alloys has been determined as a function of alloy concentration C{sub 0} and growth velocity V in the ranges 2.5 < C{sub 0} < 28.1 wt%Fe and 0.01 < V < 5.0 mm/s. The transition at V = 0.1 mm/s from a fully eutectic matrix at C{sub 0} = 3.5 wt%Fe to one containing {alpha}Al dendrites at C{sub 0} {ge} 4.7 wt%Fe is attributed to growth temperatures of {alpha}Al dendrites that are higher than those of eutectic in a matrix of lower iron-content, which results from these conditions. The matrix eutectic changes from irregular {alpha}-Al-Al{sub 3}Fe to regular {alpha}Al-Al{sub x}Fe with increasing V, the transition velocity increasing from 0.1 to 0.2 mm/s for C{sub 0} values of 9.5 and 14 wt%Fe up to 0.35--1.0 mm/s for C{sub 0} values of 18.7--28.1 wt%Fe. This increased transition velocity, compared with that for {alpha}-Al-Al{sub 3}Fe to {alpha}Al-Al{sub 6}Fe at lower concentration, is indicative of a lower formation temperature for the {alpha}Al-Al{sub x}Fe than the {alpha}Al-Al{sub 6}Fe eutectic.

  20. Advising potential recipients on the use of organs from donors with primary central nervous system tumors.

    PubMed

    Warrens, Anthony N; Birch, Rhiannon; Collett, David; Daraktchiev, Maren; Dark, John H; Galea, George; Gronow, Katie; Neuberger, James; Hilton, David; Whittle, Ian R; Watson, Christopher J E

    2012-02-27

    Deciding to use an organ from a donor with a primary central nervous system (CNS) tumor necessitates offsetting the risk of tumor transmission with the chances of survival if the patient waits for another offer of a transplant. Published data vary in the quoted risk of tumor transmission. We used data obtained by reviewing 246 UK recipients of organs taken from donors with CNS tumors and found no evidence of a difference in overall patient mortality for recipients of a kidney, liver, or cardiothoracic organ, compared with recipients of organs from donors without a CNS tumor. Recent publication of the UK experience of transplanting organs from CNS tumor donors found no transmission in 448 recipients of organs from 177 donors with a primary CNS tumor (Watson et al., Am J Transplant 2010; 10: 1437). This 0% transmission rate is associated with an upper 95% confidence interval limit of 1.5%. Using a series of assumptions of risk, we compared the risks of dying as a result of the transmission of a primary brain tumor with the risks of dying if not transplanted. On this basis, the use of kidneys from a donor with a primary CNS tumor provides a further 8 years of life over someone who waited for a donor who did not have a primary CNS tumor, in addition to the life years gained by the transplant itself. The benefits for the recipients of livers and cardiothoracic organs were less, but there was no disadvantage in the impact on life expectancy.

  1. A primary mirror metrology system for the GMT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakich, A.

    2016-07-01

    The Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT)1 is a 25 m "doubly segmented" telescope composed of seven 8.4 m "unit Gregorian telescopes", on a common mount. Each primary and secondary mirror segment will ideally lie on the geometrical surface of the corresponding rotationally symmetrical full aperture optical element. Therefore, each primary and conjugated secondary mirror segment will feed a common instrument interface, their focal planes co-aligned and cophased. First light with a subset of four unit telescopes is currently scheduled for 2022. The project is currently considering an important aspect of the assembly, integration and verification (AIV) phase of the project. This paper will discuss a dedicated system to directly characterize the on-sky performance of the M1 segments, independently of the M2 subsystem. A Primary Mirror Metrology System (PMS) is proposed. The main purpose of this system will be to he4lp determine the rotation axis of an instrument rotator (the Gregorian Instrument Rotator or GIR in this case) and then to characterize the deflections and deformations of the M1 segments with respect to this axis as a function of gravity and temperature. The metrology system will incorporate a small (180 mm diameter largest element) prime focus corrector (PFC) that simultaneously feeds a <60" square acquisition and guiding camera field, and a Shack Hartmann wavefront sensor. The PMS is seen as a significant factor in risk reduction during AIV; it allows an on-sky characterization of the primary mirror segments and cells, without the complications of other optical elements. The PMS enables a very useful alignment strategy that constrains each primary mirror segments' optical axes to follow the GIR axis to within a few arc seconds. An additional attractive feature of the incorporation of the PMS into the AIV plan, is that it allows first on-sky telescope operations to occur with a system of considerably less optical and control complexity than the final doubly

  2. RELAP5 MODEL OF THE DIVERTOR PRIMARY HEAT TRANSFER SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Popov, Emilian L; Yoder Jr, Graydon L; Kim, Seokho H

    2010-08-01

    This report describes the RELAP5 model that has been developed for the divertor primary heat transfer system (PHTS). The model is intended to be used to examine the transient performance of the divertor PHTS and evaluate control schemes necessary to maintain parameters within acceptable limits during transients. Some preliminary results are presented to show the maturity of the model and examine general divertor PHTS transient behavior. The model can be used as a starting point for developing transient modeling capability, including control system modeling, safety evaluations, etc., and is not intended to represent the final divertor PHTS design. Preliminary calculations using the models indicate that during normal pulsed operation, present pressurizer controls may not be sufficient to keep system pressures within their desired range. Additional divertor PHTS and control system design efforts may be required to ensure system pressure fluctuation during normal operation remains within specified limits.

  3. Preoperational test report, primary ventilation condenser cooling system

    SciTech Connect

    Clifton, F.T.

    1997-10-29

    This represents the preoperational test report for the Primary Ventilation Condenser Cooling System, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The system uses a closed chilled water piping loop to provide offgas effluent cooling for tanks AY101, AY102, AZ1O1, AZ102; the offgas is cooled from a nominal 100 F to 40 F. Resulting condensation removes tritiated vapor from the exhaust stack stream. The piping system includes a package outdoor air-cooled water chiller with parallel redundant circulating pumps; the condenser coil is located inside a shielded ventilation equipment cell. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System.

  4. A continuous hyperspatial monitoring system of evapotranspiration and gross primary productivity from Unmanned Aerial Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Sheng; Bandini, Filippo; Jakobsen, Jakob; Zarco-Tejada, Pablo J.; Köppl, Christian Josef; Haugård Olesen, Daniel; Ibrom, Andreas; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter; Garcia, Monica

    2017-04-01

    Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) can collect optical and thermal hyperspatial (<1m) imagery with low cost and flexible revisit times regardless of cloudy conditions. The reflectance and radiometric temperature signatures of the land surface, closely linked with the vegetation structure and functioning, are already part of models to predict Evapotranspiration (ET) and Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) from satellites. However, there remain challenges for an operational monitoring using UAS compared to satellites: the payload capacity of most commercial UAS is less than 2 kg, but miniaturized sensors have low signal to noise ratios and small field of view requires mosaicking hundreds of images and accurate orthorectification. In addition, wind gusts and lower platform stability require appropriate geometric and radiometric corrections. Finally, modeling fluxes on days without images is still an issue for both satellite and UAS applications. This study focuses on designing an operational UAS-based monitoring system including payload design, sensor calibration, based on routine collection of optical and thermal images in a Danish willow field to perform a joint monitoring of ET and GPP dynamics over continuous time at daily time steps. The payload (<2 kg) consists of a multispectral camera (Tetra Mini-MCA6), a thermal infrared camera (FLIR Tau 2), a digital camera (Sony RX-100) used to retrieve accurate digital elevation models (DEMs) for multispectral and thermal image orthorectification, and a standard GNSS single frequency receiver (UBlox) or a real time kinematic double frequency system (Novatel Inc. flexpack6+OEM628). Geometric calibration of the digital and multispectral cameras was conducted to recover intrinsic camera parameters. After geometric calibration, accurate DEMs with vertical errors about 10cm could be retrieved. Radiometric calibration for the multispectral camera was conducted with an integrating sphere (Labsphere CSTM-USS-2000C) and the laboratory

  5. Behavior modification in primary care: the pressure system model.

    PubMed

    Katz, D L

    2001-01-01

    The leading causes of death in the United States are predominantly attributable to modifiable behaviors. Patients with behavioral risk factors for premature death and disability, including dietary practices; sexual practices; level of physical activity; motor vehi cle use patterns; and tobacco, alcohol, and illicit sub stance use, are seen far more consistently by primary care providers than by mental health specialists. Yet models of behavior modification are reported, debated, and revised almost exclusively in the psychology literature. While the Stages of Change Model, or Transtheo retical Model, has won application in a broadening array of clinical settings, its application in the primary care setting is apparently quite limited despite evidence of its utility [Prochaska J, Velicer W. Am J Health Promot 1997;12:38-48]. The lack of a rigorous behavioral model developed for application in the primary care setting is an impediment to the accomplishment of public health goals specified in the Healthy People objectives and in the reports of the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. The Pressure System Model reported here synthesizes elements of established behavior modification theories for specific application under the constraints of the primary care setting. Use of the model in both clinical and research settings, with outcome evaluation, is encouraged as part of an effort to advance public health.

  6. Attitude-referenced radiometer study. Part 2: Primary calibration system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williamson, W. R.; Otte, A. A.

    1971-01-01

    A primary calibration system, PCS, for infrared radiometers has been developed, built, and tested. The system allows radiometers to be calibrated with less than 1 percent error for use in earth coverage horizon measurements, earth resources surveys, and synoptic meteorological measurement. The final design, fabrication and test of the PCS are reported. A detailed description of the PCS construction is presented, along with the results of a complete series of functional tests. Test to verify the source thermal characteristics, collimator reflectance, and output beam characteristics are described and their results presented.

  7. Apollo experience report guidance and control systems: Primary guidance, navigation, and control system development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holley, M. D.; Swingle, W. L.; Bachman, S. L.; Leblanc, C. J.; Howard, H. T.; Biggs, H. M.

    1976-01-01

    The primary guidance, navigation, and control systems for both the lunar module and the command module are described. Development of the Apollo primary guidance systems is traced from adaptation of the Polaris Mark II system through evolution from Block I to Block II configurations; the discussion includes design concepts used, test and qualification programs performed, and major problems encountered. The major subsystems (inertial, computer, and optical) are covered. Separate sections on the inertial components (gyroscopes and accelerometers) are presented because these components represent a major contribution to the success of the primary guidance, navigation, and control system.

  8. Microleakage of adhesive resin systems in the primary and permanent dentitions.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Donald C; Lee, Jacob

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the in vitro microleakage of fourth-generation filled and unfilled adhesive resin systems with fifth-generation filled and unfilled adhesive resin systems in both primary and permanent teeth. Eighty extracted or exfoliated human noncarious teeth (40 primary and 40 permanent) were assigned to each of 8 groups. Groups 1, 3, 5 and 7 were primary teeth, and groups 2, 4, 6 and 8 contained permanent teeth. Groups 1 and 2 were bonded with Optibond Fl (Kerr), groups 3 and 4 with Scotchbond Multipurpose (3M), groups 5 and 6 with Optibond Solo Plus (Kerr) and groups 7 and 8 with Single Bond (3M). All teeth received a Class V cavity preparation, and the cavosurface margins were placed entirely in enamel. They were then restored with TPH Spectrum Shade Al (Dentsply Caulk). All teeth were thermocycled, stained with basic fuchsin, sectioned and viewed under the microscope. Measurements were recorded in absolute millimeters and relative grades as judged by 2 evaluators. No significant difference in microleakage was observed between fourth- and fifth-generation adhesive resin systems, whether filled or unfilled, or applied on primary or permanent teeth. Significant differences were found in the amount of microleakage at the gingival and occlusal surfaces in all groups. One-bottle, fifth-generation adhesive resin systems permit easier application with the same effectives as the 2-bottle, fourth-generation systems. One-bottle, fifth-generation adhesive resin systems permit easier application with the same effectiveness as the 2-bottle, fourth-gerenration systems.

  9. Mechanical and Microstructural Properties of PTFE/Al/W System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Jing; Jiang, Fengchun; Vecchio, Kenneth S.; Meyers, Marc A.; Nesterenko, Vitali F.

    2007-12-01

    Mechanical and microstructural properties of high density PTFE/Al/W composites consisting of PTFE matrix, aluminum and tungsten particles were investigated. Three types of samples having different porosities and particle sizes of W with an identical weight ratio between PTFE, Al and W were fabricated by Cold Isostatic Pressing. The quasi-static and Hopkinson Bar compression tests were employed to investigate the mechanical properties of these materials. The results demonstrated that the porous PTFE/Al/W composite samples containing fine W particles have higher quasi-static and dynamic fracture stresses than higher density PTFE/Al/W samples containing coarse W particles. ESEM micrographs revealed that deformation occurred mainly in the PTFE matrix while metal particles remain undeformed. We observed nano-fibers of PTFE caused by high strain rate deformation.

  10. Use of Fuzzy Logic Systems for Assessment of Primary Faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrović, Ivica; Jozsa, Lajos; Baus, Zoran

    2015-09-01

    In electric power systems, grid elements are often subjected to very complex and demanding disturbances or dangerous operating conditions. Determining initial fault or cause of those states is a difficult task. When fault occurs, often it is an imperative to disconnect affected grid element from the grid. This paper contains an overview of possibilities for using fuzzy logic in an assessment of primary faults in the transmission grid. The tool for this task is SCADA system, which is based on information of currents, voltages, events of protection devices and status of circuit breakers in the grid. The function model described with the membership function and fuzzy logic systems will be presented in the paper. For input data, diagnostics system uses information of protection devices tripping, states of circuit breakers and measurements of currents and voltages before and after faults.

  11. Seasonal regulation of primary production in eastern boundary upwelling systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messié, Monique; Chavez, Francisco P.

    2015-05-01

    The regulation of seasonal satellite-derived primary production (PP) was investigated within a 150 km coastal box in four eastern boundary upwelling systems (EBUS): California, Peru, Northwest Africa and Benguela. The following regulating factors were considered: (1) wind-driven nitrate supply; (2) iron supply inferred from proxies (shelf mud belt width, modeled atmospheric iron deposition, river discharge); (3) temperature; (4) light and (5) physical export consisting of offshore export, eddy-driven and wind-driven subduction. The ratio of potential new production (carbon-equivalent of nitrate supply) to primary production, termed the N-ratio, is shown to be an indicator of PP limitation by nitrate supply (low N-ratios) vs. inhibition by other factors (high N-ratios). The factors regulating PP were assessed by analyzing the N-ratios and computing spatial correlations between PP and each factor each month. The regulation of primary production was found to vary spatially, seasonally and from one EBUS to another. Macronutrient supply is shown to be the dominant regulating factor off Northwest Africa and during some seasons and locations in other systems. Light regulation within the mixed layer occurs in all EBUS in winter but may only inhibit PP (high N-ratios) off Peru and Benguela. Evidence for iron limitation was found in each EBUS (except Northwest Africa) at varying levels and was greatest off Peru during austral winter when iron demand by phytoplankton increases due to low light levels. Rapid offshore advection combined with wind-driven and/or eddy-driven subduction may inhibit PP off California. A simple generalization regarding the regulation of primary production in EBUS is not forthcoming.

  12. Vapor Pressures in the Al(I)+Al2O3(s) System: Reconsidering Al2O3(s) Condensation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copland, Evan

    2005-01-01

    The vaporization behavior of the A1-O system has been studied on numerous occasions but significant uncertainties remain. The origin of this uncertainty must be understood before A1-O vaporization behavior can be accurately determined. The condensation of A12O3 and clogging of the effusion orifice is a difficult problem for the Knudsen effusion technique that influences the measured vaporization behavior but has only received limited attention. This study reconsiders this behavior in detail. A new theory for A12O3 condensation is proposed together with procedures that will improve the measured thermodynamic properties of A1-O vaporization.

  13. EVALUATION OF THE TEMPORARY TENT COVER TRUSS SYSTEM AP PRIMARY VENT SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    HAQ MA

    2009-12-31

    The purpose of this calculation is to evaluate a temporary ten cover truss system. This system will be used to provide weather protection to the workers during replacement of the filter for the Primary Ventilation System in AP Tank Farm. The truss system has been fabricated utilizing tubes and couplers, which are normally used for scaffoldings.

  14. Development of a primary angular shock calibration system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Jun

    2008-06-01

    Primary angular shock calibration system is developed by Changcheng Institute of Metrology & Measurement (CIMM). It uses brushless servo motor driving the air bearing system to generate rotational angle, angular velocity and angular acceleration. Both grating and heterodyne laser interferometer with diffraction grating is used to measure the angular movement, which are traceable to the International System of Units (SI). It can be used to calibrate angular transducers, i.e. angular accelerometer, angular velocity transducer, and rotational angle transducer to obtain sensitivity by angular shock or other kinds of excitation. Heterodyne laser interferometer with diffraction grating is successfully used in the measurement of angular acceleration. The method of using grating and scanning heads measure angular acceleration is developed. One characteristic of this system is that it could generate different kind of excitation signals, which include half sine, trapezoidal, sinusoidal, etc. and it can work as a high performance rate table to generate constant angular velocity. The preliminary test shows the uncertainty in calibrating angular accelerometer should be better than 2%. This paper introduces the mechanic system, control system and measurement system of the angular shock calibration system.

  15. 1073 K (800 °C) Isothermal Section of the Co-Al-V System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Guangjing; Yin, Fucheng; Liu, Ye; Zhao, Manxiu

    2017-08-01

    The isothermal section of the Co-Al-V ternary system at 1073 K (800 °C) has been determined by means of X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Thirteen three-phase regions have been confirmed experimentally. A new ternary compound named `T' phase (Al2CoV) is found in this study which possesses a face-centered cubic (fcc) structure with a lattice parameter of 11.7224 Å. The T phase can be in equilibrium with Al3V, Al8V5, α-V, Al5Co2, and AlCo. The maximum solubility of Al in Co3V, σ-CoV, and CoV3 is 5.6, 6.3, and 4 at. pct, respectively. The maximum solubility of Co in Al3V, Al8V5, and α-V is 1.1, 2.5, and 24.9 at. pct, respectively. The maximum solubility of V in Al9Co2, Al13Co4, Al3Co, Al5Co2, AlCo, and α-Co is 0.3, 0.2, 0.1, 2.1, 35.0, and 16.4 at. pct, respectively.

  16. Primary central nervous system lymphoma mimicking pituitary apoplexy: case report.

    PubMed

    Quintero Wolfe, Stacey; Hood, Brian; Barker, Jennifer; Benveniste, Ronald J

    2009-01-01

    Lymphoma involving the pituitary gland is very rare and usually results from metastatic spread of systemic lymphoma. We present a case of primary central nervous system (CNS) large B cell lymphoma that manifested as pituitary apoplexy. A 45-year-old woman presented with headache, and then rapidly developed a third nerve palsy and bitemporal hemianopsia. Imaging suggested a pituitary macroadenoma, with spontaneous necrosis, extending into the suprasellar region, compressing the optic chiasm and invading the right cavernous sinus. The patient underwent transsphenoidal resection which revealed a vascular, firm tumor. An aggressive decompression of the optic chiasm was performed with complete resolution of both visual fields and third nerve palsy. Final pathology showed B cell lymphoma. Systemic work-up including bone marrow aspiration and CSF studies showed no other foci of lymphoma, and the patient was HIV-negative. Chemotherapy with methotrexate, vincristine, procarbazine, and dexamethasone was administered for primary CNS lymphoma. This is an uncommon diagnosis of which the clinician should be aware in order to tailor surgical intervention and provide early institution of proper therapy.

  17. Manufacture of the ALS storage ring vacuum system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Kurt

    1991-08-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) storage ring has a 4.9 meter magnetic radius and an antechamber type vacuum chamber. These two requirements makes conventional bent tube manufacturing techniques difficult. The ALS sector vacuum chambers have been made by machining two halves out of aluminum plate and welding at the mid plane. Each of these chambers have over 50 penetrations with metal sealed flanges and seven metal sealed poppet valves which use the chamber wall as the valve seat. The sector chambers are 10 meters long and some features in the chambers must be located to .25 mm. This paper describes how and how successfully these features have been achieved.

  18. A Computerized Decision Support System for Depression in Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    Kurian, Benji T.; Trivedi, Madhukar H.; Grannemann, Bruce D.; Claassen, Cynthia A.; Daly, Ella J.; Sunderajan, Prabha

    2009-01-01

    Objective: In 2004, results from The Texas Medication Algorithm Project (TMAP) showed better clinical outcomes for patients whose physicians adhered to a paper-and-pencil algorithm compared to patients who received standard clinical treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD). However, implementation of and fidelity to the treatment algorithm among various providers was observed to be inadequate. A computerized decision support system (CDSS) for the implementation of the TMAP algorithm for depression has since been developed to improve fidelity and adherence to the algorithm. Method: This was a 2-group, parallel design, clinical trial (one patient group receiving MDD treatment from physicians using the CDSS and the other patient group receiving usual care) conducted at 2 separate primary care clinics in Texas from March 2005 through June 2006. Fifty-five patients with MDD (DSM-IV criteria) with no significant difference in disease characteristics were enrolled, 32 of whom were treated by physicians using CDSS and 23 were treated by physicians using usual care. The study's objective was to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of implementing a CDSS to assist physicians acutely treating patients with MDD compared to usual care in primary care. Primary efficacy outcomes for depression symptom severity were based on the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS17) evaluated by an independent rater. Results: Patients treated by physicians employing CDSS had significantly greater symptom reduction, based on the HDRS17, than patients treated with usual care (P < .001). Conclusions: The CDSS algorithm, utilizing measurement-based care, was superior to usual care for patients with MDD in primary care settings. Larger randomized controlled trials are needed to confirm these findings. Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00551083 PMID:19750065

  19. Development of an allergy management support system in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Flokstra - de Blok, Bertine MJ; van der Molen, Thys; Christoffers, Wianda A; Kocks, Janwillem WH; Oei, Richard L; Oude Elberink, Joanne NG; Roerdink, Emmy M; Schuttelaar, Marie Louise; van der Velde, Jantina L; Brakel, Thecla M; Dubois, Anthony EJ

    2017-01-01

    Background Management of allergic patients in the population is becoming more difficult because of increases in both complexity and prevalence. Although general practitioners (GPs) are expected to play an important role in the care of allergic patients, they often feel ill-equipped for this task. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop an allergy management support system (AMSS) for primary care. Methods Through literature review, interviewing and testing in secondary and primary care patients, an allergy history questionnaire was constructed by allergists, dermatologists, GPs and researchers based on primary care and specialists’ allergy guidelines and their clinical knowledge. Patterns of AMSS questionnaire responses and specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE)-test outcomes were used to identify diagnostic categories and develop corresponding management recommendations. Validity of the AMSS was investigated by comparing specialist (gold standard) and AMSS diagnostic categories. Results The two-page patient-completed AMSS questionnaire consists of 12 (mainly) multiple choice questions on symptoms, triggers, severity and medication. Based on the AMSS questionnaires and sIgE-test outcome of 118 patients, approximately 150 diagnostic categories of allergic rhinitis, asthma, atopic dermatitis, anaphylaxis, food allergy, hymenoptera allergy and other allergies were identified, and the corresponding management recommendations were formulated. The agreement between the allergy specialists’ assessments and the AMSS was 69.2% (CI 67.2–71.2). Conclusion Using a systematic approach, it was possible to develop an AMSS that allows for the formulation of diagnostic and management recommendations for GPs managing allergic patients. The AMSS thus holds promise for the improvement of the quality of primary care for this increasing group of patients. PMID:28352197

  20. Analysis of Dendritic Primary Al Grain Ripening and Solid Fraction Measurement in A356 Alloy Semi-Solid Slurry Using Segregation Sensitive Reagent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Li; Harada, Yohei; Kumai, Shinji

    Ripening of dendritic primary Al grain in semi-solid state has been paid much attention to since it is the most economical way to produce semi-solid slurry containing spheroidal Al grains for thixocasting. Also, solid fraction is the key factor in all the semi-solid processes. A segregation sensitive reagent (Weck's reagent) can help to study both the two topics, revealing the inner-primary Al grain's optical microstructure evolution during semi-solid heat treatments (partial re-melting) of small A356 alloy samples cut from both as-DC cast and compressed ingots (Recrystallization and partial re-melting process). With the help of this etching technique, the influence of induced strain on the ripening mechanism of primary Al grains was investigated precisely. Furthermore, the peripheral part of the primary Al grain grown during water quenching was distinguished by the reagent. Therefore we could exclude this area when measuring the solid fraction and avoid overestimation by image analysis.

  1. Primary propulsion/large space system interaction study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coyner, J. V.; Dergance, R. H.; Robertson, R. I.; Wiggins, J. V.

    1981-01-01

    An interaction study was conducted between propulsion systems and large space structures to determine the effect of low thrust primary propulsion system characteristics on the mass, area, and orbit transfer characteristics of large space systems (LSS). The LSS which were considered would be deployed from the space shuttle orbiter bay in low Earth orbit, then transferred to geosynchronous equatorial orbit by their own propulsion systems. The types of structures studied were the expandable box truss, hoop and column, and wrap radial rib each with various surface mesh densities. The impact of the acceleration forces on system sizing was determined and the effects of single point, multipoint, and transient thrust applications were examined. Orbit transfer strategies were analyzed to determine the required velocity increment, burn time, trip time, and payload capability over a range of final acceleration levels. Variables considered were number of perigee burns, delivered specific impulse, and constant thrust and constant acceleration modes of propulsion. Propulsion stages were sized for four propellant combinations; oxygen/hydrogen, oxygen/methane, oxygen/kerosene, and nitrogen tetroxide/monomethylhydrazine, for pump fed and pressure fed engine systems. Two types of tankage configurations were evaluated, minimum length to maximize available payload volume and maximum performance to maximize available payload mass.

  2. Fiber optic signal collection system for primary flight control applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harper, Sandy L.

    1994-10-01

    The FOPMN is a fiber-optic signal collection system for primary flight control applications. An avionics bay protected electro-optic interface unit transmits light down fiber optic cable to an optical sensor housed in the harsh environment of a hydraulic actuator. The interface unit also receives the sensor's reflected pattern and calculates independent positions from the multiplexed signals. This paper discusses the FOPMN method for fiber-optically sensing and multiplexing two channels of position of a TEF actuator's main ram cylinder. Currently installed in NASA Dryden's SRA F/A-18, the FOPMN has accumulated approximately 15 hours of flight time. A performance comparison is made between the FOPMN positions and the flight control computer's feedback mechanism (the actuator LVDTs). Included is a discussion of some of the lessons learned as a result of testing the FOPMN in the lab and in flight. The FOPMN is well on its way to proving itself as a robust fiber optic system with the ability to multiplex numerous optical sensors for primary flight control. The success of the FOPMN leads to the second phase of the project--optical loop closure. Our goal for this phase is to have four FOPMN sensor channels on the main ram and/or the main control valve of the actuator to serve as the quad redundant feedback mechanism for flight control.

  3. Primary Emotional Systems and Personality: An Evolutionary Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Montag, Christian; Panksepp, Jaak

    2017-01-01

    The present article highlights important concepts of personality including stability issues from the perspective of situational demands and stability over the life-course. Following this more introductory section, we argue why individual differences in primary emotional systems may represent the phylogenetically oldest parts of human personality. Our argumentation leads to the need to increasingly consider individual differences in the raw affects/emotions of people to understand human personality in a bottom–up fashion, which can be coordinated with top–down perspectives. In support of this idea, we also review existing evidence linking individual differences in primal emotions as assessed with the Affective Neuroscience Personality Scales and the widely accepted Big Five Model of Personality. In this context, we provide additional evidence on the link between primal emotions and personality in German and Chinese sample populations. In short, this article addresses evolutionary perspectives in the evaluation of human personality, highlighting some of the ancestral emotional urges that probably still control variations in the construction of human personality structures. Moreover, we address how individual differences in primary emotional systems can illuminate linkages to major human psychopathologies and the potential advantages and disadvantages of carrying a certain personality trait within certain cultural/environmental niches. PMID:28443039

  4. Fission Product Migration in Primary System and Containment

    SciTech Connect

    2015-04-01

    Version 00 ART MOD2 aims at a comprehensive analysis for the FP behaviour in primary system and in containment during severe accidents and therefore the code considers the removal of radio-nuclides of up to 60 materials including chemical compounds by natural deposition and by the engineered safety features (ESF) such as spray systems. As for the natural deposition of radio-nuclides, the code can consider the phenomena such as gravitational settling, thermophoresis, diffusiophoresis, Brownian diffusion, diffusion under laminar or turbulent flows, resuspension, condensation, chemisorption and revaporization. The code also models the aerosol growth by agglomeration of aerosols and condensation/evaporation of volatile material at the aerosol surface. Recently, the models for iodine chemistry in containment sump water was incorporated into ART MOD2 ART MOD2 was modified in January 2015 to correct coding errors and improve the vibration of the calculation result of water (H2O) vapor.

  5. An evaluation of four telemedicine systems for primary care.

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, E V; Conrath, D W; Bloor, W G; Tranquada, B

    1977-01-01

    In an evaluation of the efficacy of four two-way telecommunication systems for use in primary care, more than 1,000 patients seeking care at a community health center received an additional remote examination by use of either color television, black and white television, still-frame black and white television, or hands-free telephone. The diagnosis, clinical tests and X rays requested, and proposed patient management were compared to the actual care received by the patients at the health center. There were no significant differences between any of the modes in relation to diagnostic accuracy, time for the diagnostic interview, tests requested, or referral rates. Furthermore, patient attitudes did not vary significantly. Thus the relatively inexpensive telephone proved to be as efficient and effective a means for delivery of remote physician care as did any of the visual communication systems. PMID:873812

  6. Optimized Battery-Type Reactor Primary System Design Utilizing Lead

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Yong H.; Son, Hyoung M.; Lee, Il S.; Suh, Kune Y.

    2006-07-01

    A number of small and medium size reactors are being developed worldwide as well as large electricity generation reactors for co-generation, district heating or desalination. The Seoul National University has started to develop 23 MWth BORIS (Battery Optimized Reactor Integral System) as a multi-purpose reactor. BORIS is an integral-type optimized fast reactor with an ultra long life core. BORIS is being designed to meet the Generation IV nuclear energy system goals of sustainability, safety, reliability and economics. Major features of BORIS include 20 consecutive years of operation without refueling; elimination of an intermediate heat transport loop and main coolant pump; open core without individual subassemblies; inherent negative reactivity feedback; and inherent load following capability. Its one mission is to provide incremental electricity generation to match the needs of developing nations and especially remote communities without major electrical grid connections. BORIS consists of a reactor module, heat exchanger, coolant module, guard vessel, reactor vessel auxiliary cooling system (RVACS), secondary system, containment and the seismic isolation. BORIS is designed to generate 10 MWe with the resulting thermal efficiency of 45 %. BORIS uses lead as the primary system coolant because of the inherent safety of the material. BORIS is coupled with a supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle as the secondary system to gain a high cycle efficiency in the range of 45 %. The reference core consists of 757 fuel rods without assembly with an active core height of 0.8 m. The BORIS core consists of single enrichment zone composed of a Pu-MA (minor actinides)-U-N fuel and a ferritic-martensitic stainless steel clad. This study is intended to set up appropriate reactor vessel geometry by performing thermal hydraulic analysis on RVACS using computational fluid dynamics codes; to examine the liquid metal coolant behavior along the subchannels; to find out whether the

  7. The LBL Advanced Light Source (ALS) transverse coupled-bunch feedback system: Recent commissioning results

    SciTech Connect

    Barry, W.; Byrd, J.; Corlett, J.

    1994-10-01

    The ALS transverse coupled-bunch feedback system is described along with some recent commissioning results. Results presented include transfer function measurements, demonstrations of multi-bunch damping, and demonstrations of simultaneous transverse and longitudinal systems operation.

  8. Reaction of the Primary Alane (2,4,6-t-Bu(3)H(2)C(6)AlH(2))(2) with Nitriles, Isonitriles, and Primary Amines.

    PubMed

    Wehmschulte, Rudolf J.; Power, Philip P.

    1998-12-28

    The reactions of the sterically encumbered primary alane (MesAlH(2))(2) (Mes = C(6)H(2)-2,4,6-t-Bu(3)) with the nitriles t-BuCN, MesCN (Mes = C(6)H(2)-2,4,6-Me(3)) or MeCN lead eventually to dimeric amido alane products in which one of the ortho t-Bu groups of the Mes ligand is metalated and the nitrile is reduced to the amide ligand N(H)CH(2)R (R = t-Bu, Mes, or Me). The compounds (R = t-Bu, 2 (cis), 3 (trans); Mes, 4 (cis), 5 (trans); Me, 6 (cis)) have been isolated and characterized spectroscopically and also by X-ray crystallography in the cases of 4 and 5. The intermediate, dimeric iminato complex [MesAl(H){&mgr;(2)-NC(H)t-Bu}](2) (1), can also be isolated under carefully controlled, mild conditions. Reaction of (MesAlH(2))(2) with the isonitrile t-BuNC affords the cyclic species {MesAlN(t-Bu)CH(2)}(2) (7) featuring a six-membered (AlNC)(2) ring which, when heated, affords the cyclometalated species (8). Recognition that the products 2-6 and 8 were derivatives of primary amides led to an investigation of synthetic approaches to these product types via the direct reaction of (MesAlH(2))(2) with some primary amines. Treatment of (MesAlH(2))(2) with H(2)NCH(2)Mes affords the dimeric amido alane [Mes(H)Al{&mgr;(2)-N(H)CH(2)Mes}](2) as a mixture of trans (9) and cis (10) isomers. Further heating of 9 and 10 affords the ortho-metalated compounds 4 and 5. The reaction of (MesAlH(2))(2) with H(2)NSiPh(3) furnishes the bis amido aluminum compound MesAl{N(H)SiPh(3)}(2) (11) and [Mes(H)Al{N(H)SiPh(3)}](2). The latter yields the dimeric imide {MesAlNSiPh(3)}(2) (12) at elevated temperature.

  9. Shuttle primary reaction control system engine exhaust plume contamination effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koontz, Steve; Ehlers, Horst; Pedley, Mike; Cross, John; Hakes, Charles

    1993-01-01

    Space Shuttle proximity operations constitute an important part of the SSF induced external environment. The impingement of primary reaction control system (PRCS) engine plumes on SSF functional surfaces during docking or berthing and separation leads to concerns about molecular contamination and high speed particle impact. The Shuttle Plume Impingement flight Experiment (SPIE) was designed to provide a direct measure of both the molecular contamination and particle impact rates produced by Shuttle PRCS engines in the LEO environment. The measured permanent deposition produced by PRCS engine firings was less than that assumed in current SSF programatic assessments. Only two to three possible high velocity particle impact pits were observed on the RMS end effector hardware.

  10. Shuttle primary reaction control system engine exhaust plume contamination effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koontz, Steve; Ehlers, Horst; Pedley, Mike; Cross, John; Hakes, Charles

    1993-01-01

    Space Shuttle proximity operations constitute an important part of the SSF induced external environment. The impingement of primary reaction control system (PRCS) engine plumes on SSF functional surfaces during docking or berthing and separation leads to concerns about molecular contamination and high speed particle impact. The Shuttle Plume Impingement flight Experiment (SPIE) was designed to provide a direct measure of both the molecular contamination and particle impact rates produced by Shuttle PRCS engines in the LEO environment. The measured permanent deposition produced by PRCS engine firings was less than that assumed in current SSF programatic assessments. Only two to three possible high velocity particle impact pits were observed on the RMS end effector hardware.

  11. Primary large-cell lymphoma of the central nervous system

    SciTech Connect

    Amendola, B.E.; McClatchey, K.D.; Amendola, M.A.; Gebarski, S.S.

    1986-06-01

    Primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the central nervous system (CNS) is a rare disease. Seven patients were seen and treated at the University of Michigan Medical Center between January 1969 and December 1983. All patients had histologically proven diagnoses of large cell lymphoma with clinical and radiologic evidence of involvement limited to the CNS. Five of seven patients received postoperative radiation therapy, two of whom have had apparent local control at 1- and 2-year follow-up. The two patients without postoperative radiation died of local recurrence 2 and 3 months following subtotal resection. These poor results suggest that adjuvant therapy may be required for improved control of this type of extranodal lymphoma.

  12. Neuropsychological profile of patients with primary systemic hypertension.

    PubMed

    Ostrosky-Solis, F; Mendoza, V U; Ardila, A

    2001-01-01

    Arterial hypertension represents a risk factor for cerebrovascular disease. It has been hypothesized that chronic hypertension may eventually result in small subcortical infarcts associated with some cognitive impairments. One hundred fourteen patients with primary systemic hypertension (PSH) and 114 matched subjects were selected. PSH patients were further divided in four groups depending upon the hypertension severity. In addition to the medical and laboratory exams, a neuropsychological evaluation was administered. The NEUROPSI neuropsychological test battery was used. An association between level of hypertension and cognitive impairment was observed. Most significant differences were observed in the following domains: Reading, executive functioning, constructional, and memory-recall. No differences were observed in orientation, memory-recognition, and language. Some neuropsychological functions appeared impaired even in the PSH group with the least risk factors. Cognitive evaluation may be important in cases of PSH not only to determine early subtle cognitive changes, but also for follow-up purposes, and to assess the efficacy of different therapeutic procedures.

  13. 49 CFR 214.529 - In-service failure of primary braking system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false In-service failure of primary braking system. 214... Maintenance Machines and Hi-Rail Vehicles § 214.529 In-service failure of primary braking system. (a) In the event of a total in-service failure of its primary braking system, an on-track roadway...

  14. 49 CFR 214.529 - In-service failure of primary braking system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false In-service failure of primary braking system. 214... Maintenance Machines and Hi-Rail Vehicles § 214.529 In-service failure of primary braking system. (a) In the event of a total in-service failure of its primary braking system, an on-track roadway...

  15. 49 CFR 214.529 - In-service failure of primary braking system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false In-service failure of primary braking system. 214... Maintenance Machines and Hi-Rail Vehicles § 214.529 In-service failure of primary braking system. (a) In the event of a total in-service failure of its primary braking system, an on-track roadway...

  16. 49 CFR 214.529 - In-service failure of primary braking system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false In-service failure of primary braking system. 214... Maintenance Machines and Hi-Rail Vehicles § 214.529 In-service failure of primary braking system. (a) In the event of a total in-service failure of its primary braking system, an on-track roadway...

  17. Chromosomal Imbalances in Primary Lymphomas of the Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Rickert, Christian H.; Dockhorn-Dworniczak, Barbara; Simon, Ronald; Paulus, Werner

    1999-01-01

    Twenty-two primary central nervous system lymphomas of immunocompetent adults were studied by comparative genomic hybridization. All were high-grade diffuse large B cell lymphomas. Comparative genomic hybridization revealed an average of 5.5 chromosomal changes per tumor, with gains being more common than losses (3.5 vs. 2.0). The most frequent DNA copy number changes were gains on chromosomes 1, 12, 18 (41% each), 7 (23%), and 11 (18%) and losses involving chromosomes 6 (59%), 18, and 20 (18% each). Commonly involved regions were +12q (41%), +18q (36%), +1q (32%), and +7q (23%), as well as −6q (50%), −6p (18%), −17p, and −18p (14% each). High-level gains were found on 7 chromosomes, mainly involving chromosomes 18q (23%), 12q (18%), and 1q (14%). Minimal common regions of over- and underrepresentation were found on +1q25–31, −6q16–21, +7q11.2, +12p11.2–13, +12q12–14, +12q22–24.1, and +18q12.2–21.3. A significant correlation between loss of DNA copy numbers on chromosome 6q and shorter survival could be established (10.2 vs. 22.3 months; P < 0.05). Our findings suggest that chromosomal imbalances of primary central nervous system lymphomas are similar to those of diffuse large B cell lymphomas at other locations and are probably not related to cerebral presentation; however, they may be prognostically relevant. PMID:10550299

  18. Chemotherapy in newly diagnosed primary central nervous system lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Hashemi-Sadraei, Nooshin; Peereboom, David M.

    2010-01-01

    Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) accounts for only 3% of brain tumors. It can involve the brain parenchyma, leptomeninges, eyes and the spinal cord. Unlike systemic lymphoma, durable remissions remain uncommon. Although phase III trials in this rare disease are difficult to perform, many phase II trials have attempted to define standards of care. Treatment modalities for patients with newly diagnosed PCNSL include radiation and/or chemotherapy. While the role of radiation therapy for initial management of PCNSL is controversial, clinical trials will attempt to improve the therapeutic index of this modality. Routes of chemotherapy administration include intravenous, intraocular, intraventricular or intra-arterial. Multiple trials have outlined different methotrexate-based chemotherapy regimens and have used local techniques to improve drug delivery. A major challenge in the management of patients with PCNSL remains the delivery of aggressive treatment with preservation of neurocognitive function. Because PCNSL is rare, it is important to perform multicenter clinical trials and to incorporate detailed measurements of long-term toxicities. In this review we focus on different chemotherapeutic approaches for immunocompetent patients with newly diagnosed PCNSL and discuss the role of local drug delivery in addition to systemic therapy. We also address the neurocognitive toxicity of treatment. PMID:21789140

  19. Primary Standards Laboratory report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-01

    Sandia National Laboratories operates the Primary Standards Laboratory (PSL) for the Department of Energy, Albuquerque Operations Office (DOE/AL). This report summarizes metrology activities that received emphasis in the first half of 1990 and provides information pertinent to the operation of the DOE/AL system-wide Standards and Calibration Program.

  20. Effect of Al(OH)3 on the hydrogen generation of aluminum-water system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, Hsin-Te; Lee, To-Ying; Chen, Yu-Kuang; Wang, Hong-Wen; Cao, Guozhong

    2012-12-01

    Many metal oxides effectively modify metallic aluminum (Al) powders to produce hydrogen in neutral water at room temperature. In this study, hydrogen is generated even more rapidly from the reacted solution when the by-product Al(OH)3 (bayerite) is present. The influence of Al(OH)3 on the hydrogen generation during the aluminum/water reaction is highly dependent on the surface area and the crystallinity of Al(OH)3. High surface area and poor crystallinity of Al(OH)3 render the system a rapid hydrogen generation rate. The self-catalytic phenomenon can be explained by the formation of AlO(OH) (boehmite) from the reaction of by-product β-Al(OH)3 and the surface passive oxide layer Al2O3. Furthermore, by taking advantage of the exothermic heat from the Al/water reaction, hydrogen yield is able to reach 70% within 30 min in a common aqueous solution (pH < 10) containing fine Al(OH)3. This hydrogen generation technology relies on common, nontoxic, noncorrosive additives and is therefore a very promising system for creating a use-on-demand hydrogen source.

  1. Power Systems for Future Missions: Appendices A-L

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gill, S. P.; Frye, P. E.; Littman, Franklin D.; Meisl, C. J.

    1994-01-01

    Selection of power system technology for space applications is typically based on mass, readiness of a particular technology to meet specific mission requirements, and life cycle costs (LCC). The LCC is typically used as a discriminator between competing technologies for a single mission application. All other future applications for a given technology are usually ignored. As a result, development cost of a technology becomes a dominant factor in the LCC comparison. Therefore, it is common for technologies such as DIPS and LMR-CBC to be potentially applicable to a wide range of missions and still lose out in the initial LCC comparison due to high development costs. This collection of appendices (A through L) contains the following power systems technology plans: CBC DIPS Technology Roadmap; PEM PFC Technology Roadmap; NAS Battery Technology Roadmap; PV/RFC Power System Technology Roadmap; PV/NAS Battery Technology Roadmap; Thermionic Reactor Power System Technology Roadmap; SP-100 Power System Technology Roadmap; Dynamic SP-100 Power System Technology Roadmap; Near-Term Solar Dynamic Power System Technology Roadmap; Advanced Solar Dynamic Power System Technology Roadmap; Advanced Stirling Cycle Dynamic Isotope Power System Technology Roadmap; and the ESPPRS (Evolutionary Space Power and Propulsion Requirements System) User's Guide.

  2. Recommendations from primary care providers for integrating mental health in a primary care system in rural Nepal.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Bibhav; Tenpa, Jasmine; Thapa, Poshan; Gauchan, Bikash; Citrin, David; Ekstrand, Maria

    2016-09-19

    Globally, access to mental healthcare is often lacking in rural, low-resource settings. Mental healthcare services integration in primary care settings is a key intervention to address this gap. A common strategy includes embedding mental healthcare workers on-site, and receiving consultation from an off-site psychiatrist. Primary care provider perspectives are important for successful program implementation. We conducted three focus groups with all 24 primary care providers at a district-level hospital in rural Nepal. We asked participants about their concerns and recommendations for an integrated mental healthcare delivery program. They were also asked about current practices in seeking referral for patients with mental illness. We collected data using structured notes and analyzed the data by template coding to develop themes around concerns and recommendations for an integrated program. Participants noted that the current referral system included sending patients to the nearest psychiatrist who is 14 h away. Participants did not think this was effective, and stated that integrating mental health into the existing primary care setting would be ideal. Their major concerns about a proposed program included workplace hierarchies between mental healthcare workers and other clinicians, impact of staff turnover on patients, reliability of an off-site consultant psychiatrist, and ability of on-site primary care providers to screen patients and follow recommendations from an off-site psychiatrist. Their suggestions included training a few existing primary care providers as dedicated mental healthcare workers, recruiting both senior and junior mental healthcare workers to ensure retention, recruiting academic psychiatrists for reliability, and training all primary care providers to appropriately screen for mental illness and follow recommendations from the psychiatrist. Primary care providers in rural Nepal reported the failure of the current system of referral, which

  3. The Australian experiment: how primary health care organizations supported the evolution of a primary health care system.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Caroline; Jackson, Claire L; Marley, John E; Wells, Robert

    2012-03-01

    Primary health care in Australia has undergone 2 decades of change. Starting with a vision for a national health strategy with general practice at its core, Australia established local meso-level primary health care organizations--Divisions of General Practice--moving from focus on individual practitioners to a professional collective local voice. The article identifies how these meso-level organizations have helped the Australian primary health care system evolve by supporting the roll-out of initiatives including national practice accreditation, a focus on quality improvement, expansion of multidisciplinary teams into general practice, regional integration, information technology adoption, and improved access to care. Nevertheless, there are still challenges to ensuring equitable access and the supply and distribution of a primary care workforce, addressing the increasing rates of chronic disease and obesity, and overcoming the fragmentation of funding and accountability in the Australian system.

  4. Primary Central Nervous System Anaplastic Large T-cell Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Splavski, Bruno; Muzevic, Dario; Ladenhauser-Palijan, Tatjana; Jr, Brano Splavski

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) of T-cell origin is an exceptionally rare, highly malignant intracranial neoplasm. Although such a tumor typically presents with a focal mass lesion. Case report: Past medical history of a 26-year-old male patient with a PCNS lymphoma of T-cell origin was not suggestive of intracranial pathology or any disorder of other organs and organic systems. To achieve a gross total tumor resection, surgery was performed via osteoplastic craniotomy using the left frontal transcortical transventricular approach. Histological and immunohistochemical analyses of the tissue removed described tumor as anaplastic large cell lymphoma of T-cells (T-ALCL). Postoperative and neurological recovery was complete, while control imaging of the brain showed no signs of residual tumor at a six-month follow-up. The patient, who did not appear immunocompromized, was referred to a hematologist and an oncologist where corticosteroids, the particular chemotherapeutic protocol and irradiation therapy were applied. Conclusion: Since PCNS lymphoma is a potentially curable brain tumor, we believe that proper selection of the management options, including early radical tumor resection for solitary PCNS lymphoma, may be proposed as a major treatment of such a tumor in selected patients, resulting in a satisfactory outcome. PMID:27703297

  5. Comment on 'The remote sensing of ocean primary productivity - Use of a new data compilation to test satellite algorithms' by William Balch et al

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platt, Trevor; Sathyendranath, Shubha

    1993-01-01

    Various conclusions by Balch et al. (1992) about the current state of modeling primary production in the sea (lack of improvement in primary production models, since 1957, utility of analytical models, and merits or weaknesses of complex models) are commented on. It is argued that since they are based on a false premise, these conclusions are not robust, and that the approach used by Balch et al. (the model of Platt and Sathyendranath, 1988) was inadequate for the question they set out to address. The present criticism is based mainly on the issue of whether implementation was correct with respect to parameter selection. It is concluded that the findings of Balch et al. with respect to the model of Platt and Sathyendranath is unreliable. Balch replies that satellite-derived estimates of primary production should be compared directly to that measured in situ in as many regions as possible. This will provide a first-order estimate of the magnitude of the error involved in estimating primary production from space.

  6. Comment on 'The remote sensing of ocean primary productivity - Use of a new data compilation to test satellite algorithms' by William Balch et al

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platt, Trevor; Sathyendranath, Shubha

    1993-01-01

    Various conclusions by Balch et al. (1992) about the current state of modeling primary production in the sea (lack of improvement in primary production models, since 1957, utility of analytical models, and merits or weaknesses of complex models) are commented on. It is argued that since they are based on a false premise, these conclusions are not robust, and that the approach used by Balch et al. (the model of Platt and Sathyendranath, 1988) was inadequate for the question they set out to address. The present criticism is based mainly on the issue of whether implementation was correct with respect to parameter selection. It is concluded that the findings of Balch et al. with respect to the model of Platt and Sathyendranath is unreliable. Balch replies that satellite-derived estimates of primary production should be compared directly to that measured in situ in as many regions as possible. This will provide a first-order estimate of the magnitude of the error involved in estimating primary production from space.

  7. Phase diagram of the Al-Er-Mo ternary system at 873 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Yanfang; Yang, Wenchao; Tang, Chenghuang; Lan, Yanni; Zhan, Yong Zhong

    2015-11-01

    The phase relationship in the Al-Er-Mo ternary system at 873 K has been investigated based on the equilibrated method mainly by means of X-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The existence of 10 binary compounds and two ternary compounds has been confirmed. The results present that the isothermal section at 873 K is governed by 15 single-phase regions, 29 two-phase regions and 15 three-phase regions. By using the phase-disappearing method, Al8Mo3 has a narrow homogeneity range (from 72 to 73 at% Al), while the homogeneity range of AlMo3 is from 21% to 28.5% at% Al. Also, the maximum solubility of Al in Mo is about 16 at%.

  8. Terahertz spectroscopy of an electron-hole bilayer system in AlN/GaN/AlN quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Condori Quispe, H.; Islam, S. M.; Bader, S.; Chanana, A.; Lee, K.; Chaudhuri, R.; Nahata, A.; Xing, H. G.; Jena, D.; Sensale-Rodriguez, B.

    2017-08-01

    We report studies on the nanoscale transport dynamics of carriers in strained AlN/GaN/AlN quantum wells: an electron-hole bilayer charge system with a large difference in transport properties between charge layers. From electronic band diagram analysis, the presence of spatially separated two-dimensional electron and hole charge layers is predicted at opposite interfaces. Since these charge layers exhibit distinct spectral signatures at terahertz frequencies, a combination of terahertz and far-infrared spectroscopy enables us to extract (a) individual contributions to the total conductivity and (b) effective scattering rates for charge-carriers in each layer. Furthermore, by comparing direct-current and THz-extracted conductivity levels, we are able to determine the extent to which structural defects affect charge transport. Our results evidence that (i) a non-unity Hall-factor and (ii) the considerable contribution of holes to the overall conductivity lead to a lower apparent mobility in Hall-effect measurements. Overall, our work demonstrates that terahertz spectroscopy is a suitable technique for studying bilayer charge systems with large differences in transport properties between layers such as quantum wells in III-nitride semiconductors.

  9. Laves-phase structural changes in the system CaAl2-xMgx.

    PubMed

    Amerioun, Shahrad; Simak, Sergei I; Häussermann, Ulrich

    2003-03-10

    Compounds CaAl(2)(-)(x)Mg(x) (0 < or = x < or = 2) were synthesized and structurally characterized by X-ray diffraction experiments. With increasing Mg content x the sequence of Laves phase structures MgCu(2) --> MgNi(2) --> MgZn(2) is revealed. The homogeneity ranges of the underlying phases were determined to be 0 < or = x < 0.24(1) (MgCu(2) type), 0.66(2) < x < 1.07(3) (MgNi(2) type), and 1.51(5) < x < or = 2.0 (MgZn(2) type). Mg/Al site occupancies in CaAl(1.34)Mg(0.66) and in CaAl(0.44)Mg(1.56) were refined from neutron powder diffraction experiments and exposed a pronounced segregation of Al and Mg in MgNi(2)-type CaAl(1.34)Mg(0.66) where Al atoms preferentially occupy the positions corresponding to trigonal bipyramids. In MgZn(2)-type CaAl(0.44)Mg(1.56), however, the Mg/Al distribution was found to be nearly uniform. Structural stability in the quasi-binary system CaAl(2)(-)(x)Mg(x) was investigated by first-principles calculations in which random occupational disorder of Mg and Al was modeled with the virtual crystal approximation. The theoretical calculations reproduced the experimental compositional stability ranges of the three different Laves phase structures very well. Structural changes in the quasi-binary system CaAl(2)(-)(x)Mg(x) are induced by the electron concentration, which decreases with increasing x. The stability of the different Laves phase structures as a function of electron concentration was analyzed by the method of moments.

  10. Solid state phase equilibria and intermetallic compounds of the Al-Cr-Ho system

    SciTech Connect

    Pang, Mingjun; Zhan, Yongzhong; Du, Yong

    2013-02-15

    The solid state phase equilibria of the Al-Cr-Ho ternary system at 500 Degree-Sign C were experimentally investigated. The phase relations at 500 Degree-Sign C are governed by 14 three-phase regions, 29 two-phase regions and 15 single-phase regions. The existences of 10 binary compounds and 2 ternary phases have been confirmed. Al{sub 11}Cr{sub 2}, Al{sub 11}Cr{sub 4} and Al{sub 17}Ho{sub 2} were not found at 500 Degree-Sign C. Crystal structures of Al{sub 9}Cr{sub 4} and Al{sub 8}Cr{sub 4}Ho were determined by the Rietveld X-ray powder data refinement. Al{sub 9}Cr{sub 4} was found to exhibit cubic structure with space group I4-bar 3m (no. 217) and lattice parameters a=0.9107(5) nm. Al{sub 8}Cr{sub 4}Ho crystallizes in ThMn{sub 12} structure type with space group I4/mmm (no. 139) and lattice parameters a=0.8909(4) nm, c=0.5120(5) nm. It is concluded that the obtained Al{sub 4}Cr phase in this work should be {mu}-Al{sub 4}Cr by comparing with XRD pattern of the hexagonal {mu}-Al{sub 4}Mn compound. - Graphical abstract: The solid state phase equilibria of the Al-Cr-Ho ternary system at 500 Degree-Sign C. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Al-Cr-Ho system has been investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Al{sub 9}Cr{sub 4} has cubic structure with space group I4-bar 3m. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Al{sub 8}Cr{sub 4}Ho crystallizes in ThMn{sub 12} type with space group I4/mmm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Al{sub 4}Cr phase is {mu}-type at 500 Degree-Sign C.

  11. Pathway analysis of primary central nervous system lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Tun, Han W; Personett, David; Baskerville, Karen A; Menke, David M; Jaeckle, Kurt A; Kreinest, Pamela; Edenfield, Brandy; Zubair, Abba C; O'Neill, Brian P; Lai, Weil R; Park, Peter J; McKinney, Michael

    2008-03-15

    Primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma (PCNSL) is a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) confined to the CNS. A genome-wide gene expression comparison between PCNSL and non-CNS DLBCL was performed, the latter consisting of both nodal and extranodal DLBCL (nDLBCL and enDLBCL), to identify a "CNS signature." Pathway analysis with the program SigPathway revealed that PCNSL is characterized notably by significant differential expression of multiple extracellular matrix (ECM) and adhesion-related pathways. The most significantly up-regulated gene is the ECM-related osteopontin (SPP1). Expression at the protein level of ECM-related SPP1 and CHI3L1 in PCNSL cells was demonstrated by immunohistochemistry. The alterations in gene expression can be interpreted within several biologic contexts with implications for PCNSL, including CNS tropism (ECM and adhesion-related pathways, SPP1, DDR1), B-cell migration (CXCL13, SPP1), activated B-cell subtype (MUM1), lymphoproliferation (SPP1, TCL1A, CHI3L1), aggressive clinical behavior (SPP1, CHI3L1, MUM1), and aggressive metastatic cancer phenotype (SPP1, CHI3L1). The gene expression signature discovered in our study may represent a true "CNS signature" because we contrasted PCNSL with wide-spectrum non-CNS DLBCL on a genomic scale and performed an in-depth bioinformatic analysis.

  12. Reversible Ammonia Sorption for the Primary Life Support System (PLSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wojtowicz, Marek A.; Cosgrove, Joseph E.; Serio, Michael A.; Jennings, Mallory A.

    2012-01-01

    Results are presented on the development of regenerable trace-contaminant (TC) sorbent for use in Extravehicular Activities (EVAs), and more specifically in the Primary Life Support System (PLSS). Since ammonia is the most important TC to be captured, data presented in this paper are limited to ammonia sorption, with results relevant to other TCs to be reported at a later time. The currently available TC-control technology involves the use of a packed bed of acid-impregnated granular charcoal. The sorbent is non-regenerable, and its use is associated with appreciable pressure drop, i.e. power consumption. The objective of this work is to demonstrate the feasibility of using vacuum-regenerable sorbents for PLSS application. In this study, several carbon sorbent monoliths were fabricated and tested. Multiple adsorption/vacuum-regeneration cycles were demonstrated at room temperature, as well as carbon surface conditioning that enhances ammonia sorption without impairing sorbent regeneration. Depending on sorbent monolith geometry, the reduction in pressure drop with respect to granular sorbent was found to be between 50% and two orders of magnitude. Resistive heating of the carbon sorbent monolith was demonstrated by applying voltage to the opposite ends of the monolith.

  13. Mutational analysis of primary central nervous system lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Bruno, Aurélie; Boisselier, Blandine; Labreche, Karim; Marie, Yannick; Polivka, Marc; Jouvet, Anne; Adam, Clovis; Figarella-Branger, Dominique; Miquel, Catherine; Eimer, Sandrine; Houillier, Caroline; Soussain, Carole; Mokhtari, Karima; Daveau, Romain; Hoang-Xuan, Khê

    2014-07-15

    Little is known about the genomic basis of primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) tumorigenesis. To investigate the mutational profile of PCNSL, we analyzed nine paired tumor and germline DNA samples from PCNSL patients by high throughput exome sequencing. Eight genes of interest have been further investigated by focused resequencing in 28 additional PCNSL tumors to better estimate their incidence. Our study identified recurrent somatic mutations in 37 genes, some involved in key signaling pathways such as NFKB, B cell differentiation and cell cycle control. Focused resequencing in the larger cohort revealed high mutation rates for genes already described as mutated in PCNSL such as MYD88 (38%), CD79B (30%), PIM1 (22%) and TBL1XR1 (19%) and for genes not previously reported to be involved in PCNSL tumorigenesis such as ETV6 (16%), IRF4 (14%), IRF2BP2 (11%) and EBF1 (11%). Of note, only 3 somatically acquired SNVs were annotated in the COSMIC database. Our results demonstrate a high genetic heterogeneity of PCNSL and mutational pattern similarities with extracerebral diffuse large B cell lymphomas, particularly of the activated B-cell (ABC) subtype, suggesting shared underlying biological mechanisms. The present study provides new insights into the mutational profile of PCNSL and potential targets for therapeutic strategies.

  14. {sup 26}Al IN THE EARLY SOLAR SYSTEM: NOT SO UNUSUAL AFTER ALL

    SciTech Connect

    Jura, M.; Xu, S.; Young, E. D. E-mail: sxu@astro.ucla.edu

    2013-10-01

    Recently acquired evidence shows that extrasolar asteroids exhibit over a factor of 100 variation in the iron to aluminum abundance ratio. This large range likely is a consequence of igneous differentiation that resulted from heating produced by radioactive decay of {sup 26}Al with an abundance comparable to that in the solar system's protoplanetary disk at birth. If so, the conventional view that our solar system began with an unusually high amount of {sup 26}Al should be discarded.

  15. Primary expert system applied in design of electron-optical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Wei; Tong, Linsu

    1995-09-01

    It is well known that the structure of electron optical system is complicated, so many factors, such as magnification, geometrical aberrations, and space charge effect must be taken into account in the design. At present, the main work of electron optical system CAD is solving equations and calculating numerical values. However, the designs perhaps need more inference and expertise than numerical calculations. In this paper, a primary expert system which is applied in design of electron optical system is established. This expert system is combined with the simulation software SEU-3D program to design some practical electron optical systems. Although the knowledge base is small and rules are not abundant, this paper has used this system to obtain some very useful results. The initial success with this system suggests that further work need to be done whether more rules and knowledge will be added to extend the ability of expert system.

  16. Component Activity Measurements in the Ti-Al-O System by Knudsen Cell Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copland, Evan; Jacobson, Nathan S.

    2003-01-01

    Titanium-aluminides (containing (alpha)2-Ti3Al and gamma-TiAl intermetallic phases) have received continued research focus due to their potential as low-density materials for structural applications at intermediate temperatures. However their application above about 850C is hindered by poor oxidation resistance, characterized by the formation of a non-protective TiO2+Al2O3 scale and an oxygen-enriched subsurface zone. Consistent with this are measured titanium and aluminum activities in "oxygen-free" titanium-aluminides, which indicate Al2O3 is only stable for aluminum concentrations greater then 54 atom percent at 1373 K. However, the inability to form a protective Al2O3 scale is in apparent conflict with phase diagram studies, as experimental isothermal sections of the Ti-Al-O system show gamma-TiAl + alpha2-Ti3Al structures are in equilibrium only with Al2O3. The apparent resolution to this conflict lies in the inclusion of oxygen effects in the thermodynamic measurements

  17. Thermodynamic assessments and inter-relationships between systems involving Al, Am, Ga, Pu, and U

    SciTech Connect

    Perron, A.; Turchi, P. E. A.; Landa, A.; Oudot, B.; Ravat, B.; Delaunay, F.

    2016-12-01

    We present a newly developed self-consistent CALPHAD thermodynamic database involving Al, Am, Ga, Pu, and U. A first optimization of the slightly characterized Am-Al and completely unknown Am-Ga phase diagrams is proposed. To this end, phase diagram features as crystal structures, stoichiometric compounds, solubility limits, and melting temperatures have been studied along the U-Al → Pu-Al → Am-Al, and U-Ga → Pu-Ga → Am-Ga series, and the thermodynamic assessments involving Al and Ga alloying are compared. In addition, two distinct optimizations of the Pu-Al phase diagram are proposed to account for the low temperature and Pu-rich region controversy. We included the previously assessed thermodynamics of the other binary systems (Am-Pu, Am-U, Pu-U, and Al-Ga) in the database and is briefly described in the present work. In conclusion, predictions on phase stability of ternary and quaternary systems of interest are reported to check the consistency of the database.

  18. Thermodynamic assessments and inter-relationships between systems involving Al, Am, Ga, Pu, and U

    DOE PAGES

    Perron, A.; Turchi, P. E. A.; Landa, A.; ...

    2016-12-01

    We present a newly developed self-consistent CALPHAD thermodynamic database involving Al, Am, Ga, Pu, and U. A first optimization of the slightly characterized Am-Al and completely unknown Am-Ga phase diagrams is proposed. To this end, phase diagram features as crystal structures, stoichiometric compounds, solubility limits, and melting temperatures have been studied along the U-Al → Pu-Al → Am-Al, and U-Ga → Pu-Ga → Am-Ga series, and the thermodynamic assessments involving Al and Ga alloying are compared. In addition, two distinct optimizations of the Pu-Al phase diagram are proposed to account for the low temperature and Pu-rich region controversy. We includedmore » the previously assessed thermodynamics of the other binary systems (Am-Pu, Am-U, Pu-U, and Al-Ga) in the database and is briefly described in the present work. In conclusion, predictions on phase stability of ternary and quaternary systems of interest are reported to check the consistency of the database.« less

  19. Thermodynamic assessments and inter-relationships between systems involving Al, Am, Ga, Pu, and U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perron, A.; Turchi, P. E. A.; Landa, A.; Oudot, B.; Ravat, B.; Delaunay, F.

    2016-12-01

    A newly developed self-consistent CALPHAD thermodynamic database involving Al, Am, Ga, Pu, and U is presented. A first optimization of the slightly characterized Am-Al and completely unknown Am-Ga phase diagrams is proposed. To this end, phase diagram features as crystal structures, stoichiometric compounds, solubility limits, and melting temperatures have been studied along the U-Al → Pu-Al → Am-Al, and U-Ga → Pu-Ga → Am-Ga series, and the thermodynamic assessments involving Al and Ga alloying are compared. In addition, two distinct optimizations of the Pu-Al phase diagram are proposed to account for the low temperature and Pu-rich region controversy. The previously assessed thermodynamics of the other binary systems (Am-Pu, Am-U, Pu-U, and Al-Ga) is also included in the database and is briefly described in the present work. Finally, predictions on phase stability of ternary and quaternary systems of interest are reported to check the consistency of the database.

  20. Systems integration and demonstration of advanced reusable structure for ALS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibbins, Martin N.

    1991-01-01

    The objective was to investigate the potential of advanced material to achieve life cycle cost (LCC) benefits for reusable structure on the advanced launch system. Three structural elements were investigated - all components of an Advanced Launch System reusable propulsion/avionics module. Leading aeroshell configurations included sandwich structure using titanium, graphite/polyimide (Gr/PI), or high-temperature aluminum (HTA) face sheets. Thrust structure truss concepts used titanium, graphite/epoxy, or silicon carbide/aluminum struts. Leading aft bulkhead concepts employed graphite epoxy and aluminum. The technical effort focused on the aeroshell because the greatest benefits were expected there. Thermal analyses show the structural temperature profiles during operation. Finite element analyses show stresses during splash-down. Weight statements and manufacturing cost estimates were prepared for calculation of LCC for each design. The Gr/PI aeroshell showed the lowest potential LCC, but the HTA aeroshell was judged to be lower risk. A technology development plan was prepared to validate the applicable structural technology.

  1. Electrical conductivity optimization of the Na3AlF6-Al2O3-Sm2O3 molten salts system for Al-Sm intermediate binary alloy production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Chun-fa; Jiao, Yun-fen; Wang, Xu; Cai, Bo-qing; Sun, Qiang-chao; Tang, Hao

    2017-09-01

    Metal Sm has been widely used in making Al-Sm magnet alloy materials. Conventional distillation technology to produce Sm has the disadvantages of low productivity, high costs, and pollution generation. The objective of this study was to develop a molten salt electrolyte system to produce Al-Sm alloy directly, with focus on the electrical conductivity and optimal operating conditions to minimize the energy consumption. The continuously varying cell constant (CVCC) technique was used to measure the conductivity for the Na3AlF6-AlF3-LiF-MgF2-Al2O3-Sm2O3 electrolysis medium in the temperature range from 905 to 1055°C. The temperature ( t) and the addition of Al2O3 ( W(Al2O3)), Sm2O3 ( W(Sm2O3)), and a combination of Al2O3 and Sm2O3 into the basic fluoride system were examined with respect to their effects on the conductivity ( κ) and activation energy. The experimental results showed that the molten electrolyte conductivity increases with increasing temperature ( t) and decreases with the addition of Al2O3 or Sm2O3 or both. We concluded that the optimal operation conditions for Al-Sm intermediate alloy production in the Na3AlF6-AlF3-LiF-MgF2-Al2O3-Sm2O3 system are W(Al2O3) + W(Sm2O3) = 3wt%, W(Al2O3): W(Sm2O3) = 7:3, and a temperature of 965 to 995°C, which results in satisfactory conductivity, low fluoride evaporation losses, and low energy consumption.

  2. A dichotomy in primary marine organic aerosol-cloud-climate system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceburnis, D.; Ovadnevaite, J.; Martucci, G.; Bialek, J.; Monahan, C.; Rinaldi, M.; Facchini, C.; Berresheim, H.; Worsnop, D. R.; O'Dowd, C.

    2011-12-01

    D. Ceburnis1, J. Ovadnevaite1, G. Martucci1, J. Bialek1, C. Monahan1, M. Rinaldi2, M. C. Facchini2, H. Berresheim1, D. R. Worsnop3,4 and C. D. O'Dowd1 1School of Physics & Centre for Climate and Air Pollution Studies, National University of Ireland Galway, University Road, Galway, Ireland 2Institute of Atmospheric Sciences and Climate, National Research Council, Bologna, 20129, Italy. 3 Aerodyne Research, Inc., 45 Manning Road, Billerica, MA 01821-3976, USA 4 Physics Department, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 64, 00014, Helsinki, Finland Organic matter has been observed to significantly contribute to particulate matter in every environment including pristine remote oceans. A significant if not dominant contribution of insoluble organic matter to marine aerosol has been proved to be of biogenic origin1,2. High time resolution measurements of marine organic matter have demonstrated a dynamic system with regular organic matter plume events occurring during summer3 as well as frequent open ocean particle formation events4. High-time resolution measurements of primary marine organic sea-spray physico-chemical properties reveal an apparent dichotomous behavior in terms of water uptake: specifically sea-spray aerosol enriched in organic matter possesses a low hygroscopic Growth Factor (GF~1.25) while simultaneously having a cloud condensation nucleus/condensation nuclei (CCN/CN) activation efficiency of between 83% at 0.25% supersaturation and 100% at 0.75%5. Simultaneous retrieval of Cloud Droplet Number Concentration (CDNC) during primary organic aerosol plumes reveal CDNC concentrations of 350 cm-3 in newly formed marine stratocumulus cloud for boundary layer organic mass concentrations of 3-4 ug m-36. It is suggested that marine hydrogels are responsible for this dichotomous behavior which has profound impacts to aerosol-cloud-climate system along with a better understood process analysis of aerosol formation by sea-spray7. A hydrophobic character of organic matter

  3. Modelacio de sedimentadors en plantes de tractament d'aigues residuals. Aplicacio al proces de fermentacio - elutracio de fangs primaris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribes Bertomeu, Josep

    the development and validation of a general settling model that allows simulating the main settling operations taking place in a WWTP, considering both primary and secondary settlers and thickeners. It consists in a one-dimensional model based on the flux theory of Kynch and the double-exponential settling function of Takacs that takes into account flocculation, hindered settling and compression processes. The model has been applied to simulation of settlers and thickeners by means of splitting the system into several horizontal layers, all of them considered as completely mixed reactors which are interconnected by mass flux obtained from the settling model. In order to simulate the conversion processes taking place during sedimentation, the general quality model BNRM1 has been added, and it has been proposed an iterative procedure for solving the equations for each layer in which the settler has been divided. The settling flux model validation, along with the quality model, has been carried out by applying them to a simulation of primary sludge fermentation - elutriation process. This process has been studied on a pilot plant located in the Carraixet WWTP in Alboraia (Valencia). In order to simulate the observed decrease in solids separation efficiency in the studied fermentation - elutriation process, the quality model has been modified with the addition of a new process called "disintegration of complex particulate material". This process influences the settleability of the sludge because it is considered that the disintegrated solids become non-settleable solids. This modification implies the addition of two new kinetic parameters (the specific disintegration velocity for volatile particulate material and the specific disintegration velocity for non volatile particulate material). However, the settling parameter that represents the non-settleable fraction of total suspended solids is eliminated from the model and it has been transformed into an experimental

  4. Early accretion of protoplanets inferred from a reduced inner solar system (26)Al inventory.

    PubMed

    Schiller, Martin; Connelly, James N; Glad, Aslaug C; Mikouchi, Takashi; Bizzarro, Martin

    2015-06-15

    The mechanisms and timescales of accretion of 10-1000 km sized planetesimals, the building blocks of planets, are not yet well understood. With planetesimal melting predominantly driven by the decay of the short-lived radionuclide (26)Al ((26)Al→(26)Mg; t1/2 = 0.73 Ma), its initial abundance determines the permissible timeframe of planetesimal-scale melting and its subsequent cooling history. Currently, precise knowledge about the initial (26)Al abundance [((26)Al/(27)Al)0] exists only for the oldest known solids, calcium aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) - the so-called canonical value. We have determined the (26)Al/(27)Al of three angrite meteorites, D'Orbigny, Sahara 99555 and NWA 1670, at their time of crystallization, which corresponds to (3.98 ± 0.15)×10(-7), (3.64 ± 0.18)×10(-7), and (5.92 ± 0.59)×10(-7), respectively. Combined with a newly determined absolute U-corrected Pb-Pb age for NWA 1670 of 4564.39 ± 0.24 Ma and published U-corrected Pb-Pb ages for the other two angrites, this allows us to calculate an initial ((26)Al/(27)Al)0 of [Formula: see text] for the angrite parent body (APB) precursor material at the time of CAI formation, a value four times lower than the accepted canonical value of 5.25 × 10(-5). Based on their similar (54)Cr/(52)Cr ratios, most inner solar system materials likely accreted from material containing a similar (26)Al/(27)Al ratio as the APB precursor at the time of CAI formation. To satisfy the abundant evidence for widespread planetesimal differentiation, the subcanonical (26)Al budget requires that differentiated planetesimals, and hence protoplanets, accreted rapidly within 0.25 ± 0.15 Ma of the formation of canonical CAIs.

  5. Early accretion of protoplanets inferred from a reduced inner solar system 26Al inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiller, Martin; Connelly, James N.; Glad, Aslaug C.; Mikouchi, Takashi; Bizzarro, Martin

    2015-06-01

    The mechanisms and timescales of accretion of 10-1000 km sized planetesimals, the building blocks of planets, are not yet well understood. With planetesimal melting predominantly driven by the decay of the short-lived radionuclide 26Al (26Al→26Mg; t1/2 = 0.73 Ma), its initial abundance determines the permissible timeframe of planetesimal-scale melting and its subsequent cooling history. Currently, precise knowledge about the initial 26Al abundance [(26Al/27Al)0] exists only for the oldest known solids, calcium aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) - the so-called canonical value. We have determined the 26Al/27Al of three angrite meteorites, D'Orbigny, Sahara 99555 and NWA 1670, at their time of crystallization, which corresponds to (3.98 ± 0.15) ×10-7, (3.64 ± 0.18) ×10-7, and (5.92 ± 0.59) ×10-7, respectively. Combined with a newly determined absolute U-corrected Pb-Pb age for NWA 1670 of 4564.39 ± 0.24 Ma and published U-corrected Pb-Pb ages for the other two angrites, this allows us to calculate an initial (26Al/27Al)0 of (1.33-0.18+0.21) ×10-5 for the angrite parent body (APB) precursor material at the time of CAI formation, a value four times lower than the accepted canonical value of 5.25 ×10-5. Based on their similar 54Cr/52Cr ratios, most inner solar system materials likely accreted from material containing a similar 26Al/27Al ratio as the APB precursor at the time of CAI formation. To satisfy the abundant evidence for widespread planetesimal differentiation, the subcanonical 26Al budget requires that differentiated planetesimals, and hence protoplanets, accreted rapidly within 0.25 ± 0.15 Ma of the formation of canonical CAIs.

  6. Vacuum system for the LBL advanced light source (ALS)

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, K.

    1988-05-01

    A 1.5 to 1.9 GeV synchrotron light source is being built at LBL. The vacuum system is designed to permit all synchrotron photons on the median plane to escape the electron channel and go into an antechamber through a 10 mm high slot. This slot offers effective RF isolation between the electron duct and the antechamber. All unused synchrotron photons within a few mrad of the median plane will be stopped by 96 nearly horizontal absorbers located in the antechamber. The gas, generated by the photons hitting the absorbers, will be directed down to reactive titanium surfaces. Twelve 10 meter long vessels constitute the vacuum chambers for all the lattice magnets. Each chamber will be machined from two thick plates of 5083-H321 aluminum and welded at the perimeter. The nominal wall thickness of the vacuum chamber is 40 mm, which makes it possible to machine a flange into the chamber without the use of welding. 5 refs., 5 figs.

  7. Vacuum system for the LBL Advanced Light Source (ALS)

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, K.; Henderson, T.; Meneghetti, J. )

    1989-03-01

    A 1.5 to 1.9 GeV synchrotron light source is being built at LBL. The vacuum system is designed to permit most synchrotron photons to escape the electron channel and be absorbed in an antechamber. The gas generated by the photons hitting the absorbers in the antechambers will be pumped by titanium sublimation pumps located directly under the absorbers. The electron channel and the antechamber are connected by a 10-mm-high slot that offers good electrodynamic isolation of the two chambers of frequencies affecting the store electron orbit. Twelve 10-meter-long vessels constitute the vacuum chambers for all the lattice magnets. Each chamber will be machined from two thick plates of 5083-H321 aluminum and welded at the perimeter. Machining both the inside and outside of the vacuum chamber permits the use of complex and accurate surfaces. The use of thick plates allows flanges to be machined directly into the wall of each chamber, thus avoiding much welding. 1 ref., 3 figs.

  8. The evolution of interface microstructure in a ZrO[sub 2]/Ag-Cu-Al-Ti system

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Youngmin; Yu, Jin )

    1993-08-01

    Among ceramic/metal (C/M) joining technologies, the active filler metal method has been studied extensively due to the simple brazing process and excellent joint strength. Active metal elements, typically Ti, are intentionally added to braze alloys to enhance the formation of reaction products between the ceramic and the braze metal at the C/M interface. In the brazing of Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] with the Ag-Cu-Ti filler metal, reaction products such as [gamma]-TiO, Cu[sub 2](Ti, Al)[sub 4]O, Ti[sub 3](Cu[sub 0.76]Al[sub 0.18]Sn[sub 0.06])[sub 3]O were found, while products such as Ti[sub 5]Si[sub 3] and TiN formed in the brazing of Si[sub 3]N[sub 4]. The presence of reaction layers at the C/M interface influences the interface strength in a complex way. In Cu/Al[sub 2]O[sub 3], Co/Al[sub 2]O[sub 3], Ni/Al[sub 2]O[sub 3], and Cu/diamond systems, maxima of joint strength were observed at some intermediate Ti addition, while the flexural strength decreased substantially with the thickening of the TiO layer in a ZrO[sub 2]/Ag-Cu-Sn-Ti system. Thus, composition of the braze alloy (particularly, the content of the active metal), process conditions such as brazing temperature and time, microstructure and mechanical properties of reaction products at the C/M interfaces, interfacial chemistry, and residual stress are primary factors to be studied in order to understand the strengths of the C/M interfaces systematically. In the present and the following papers, evolutions of interfacial microstructures at various brazing conditions, and corresponding interface strengths are reported, respectively, for a ZrO[sub 2]/Ag-Cu-Al-Ti system.

  9. Postperovskite phase equilibria in the MgSiO3-Al2O3 system.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, Jun; Tsuchiya, Taku

    2008-12-09

    We investigate high-P,T phase equilibria of the MgSiO(3)-Al(2)O(3) system by means of the density functional ab initio computation methods with multiconfiguration sampling. Being different from earlier studies based on the static substitution properties with no consideration of Rh(2)O(3)(II) phase, present calculations demonstrate that (i) dissolving Al(2)O(3) tends to decrease the postperovskite transition pressure of MgSiO(3) but the effect is not significant ( approximately -0.2 GPa/mol% Al(2)O(3)); (ii) Al(2)O(3) produces the narrow perovskite+postperovskite coexisting P,T area (approximately 1 GPa) for the pyrolitic concentration (x(Al2O3) approximately 6 mol%), which is sufficiently responsible to the deep-mantle D'' seismic discontinuity; (iii) the transition would be smeared (approximately 4 GPa) for the basaltic Al-rich composition (x(Al2O3) approximately 20 mol%), which is still seismically visible unless iron has significant effects; and last (iv) the perovskite structure spontaneously changes to the Rh(2)O(3)(II) with increasing the Al concentration involving small displacements of the Mg-site cations.

  10. Development of Effective Academic Affairs Administration System in Thai Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thongnoi, Niratchakorn; Srisa-ard, Boonchom; Sri-ampai, Anan

    2013-01-01

    This research aimed to: 1) study current situations and problems of academic affairs administration system in Primary Schools. 2) develop an effective academic affairs administration system, and 3) evaluate the implementation of the developed system in the primary school, Thailand. Research and Development (R&D) was employed which consisted of…

  11. Solid Solution Effects on the MgAl2O4 System

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hara, Kelley; Smith, Jeffrey D; Hemrick, James Gordon

    2009-01-01

    Phase relations between the binaries MgAl2O4-ZnAl2O4 and MgAl2O4-MgGa2O4 were studied. Stoichiometric MgAl2O4 spinel can be formed in the laboratory through a coprecipitation method. Complete solid solution formation in the MgAl2O4-MgGa2O4 system was confirmed through X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. XRD analysis of the MgAl2O4-ZnAl2O4 system did not confirm solid solution due to the similar lattice parameters of the two end points, however, previous studies have shown that complete solid solution does form. Thermal conductivity data is pending and will be included in the presentation. Based on previous experimentation and open literature, it is suspected that thermal conductivity will be decreased with the addition of solid solution. With increased amounts of disruption to the lattice from solid solution it is also theorized that the temperature at which the mean free path still impacts thermal conductivity could be increased.

  12. Synthesis of MAX Phases in the Hf-Al-C System.

    PubMed

    Lapauw, Thomas; Tunca, Bensu; Cabioc'h, Thierry; Lu, Jun; Persson, Per O Å; Lambrinou, Konstantina; Vleugels, Jozef

    2016-11-07

    For the first time, MAX phases in the Hf-Al-C system were experimentally synthesized using reactive hot pressing. HfC was observed as the main competing phase. The lattice parameters of Hf2AlC and Hf3AlC2 were determined by Rietveld refinement based on the X-ray diffraction data. The atomic stacking sequence was revealed by high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy. Mixtures of 211 and 312 stacking were observed within the same grain, including 523 layers. This transition in atomic structure is discussed.

  13. Direct Metal Deposition by Laser in TiNi-Al System for Graded Structure Fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shishkovsky, I.; Kakovkina, N.; Missemer, F.

    2016-07-01

    Intermetallic phase formation was studied in powdered TiNi-Al system under layerwise laser cladding with the aim of forming a gradient of properties due to a change in the concentration relation of Al in the NiTi powder mixture from one layer to another. The relationship between the laser cladding parameters and the intermetallic phase structures in consecutively cladded layers were determined. The structure of intermetallic compounds formed by laser synthesis was studied by optical microscopy, measurement of microhardness, SEM with EDX analysis. Microhardness doubling from 500 HV to 1000 HV was achieved due to nitinol matrix enrichment by Al, which is promising for aerospace applications.

  14. The Al-Rich Part of the System CaO-Al 2O 3-MgO . Part I. Phase Relationships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Göbbels, M.; Woermann, E.; Jung, J.

    1995-12-01

    In the Al-rich part of the ternary system CaO-Al 2O 3MgO two new ternary phases Ca 2Mg 2Al 28O 46 (CAM-I) and CaMg 2Al 16O 27 (CAM-II) with limited solid solution ranges were found. Due to the fact that the compositions of the Mg-rich end members of these solid solutions lie on the join between hibonite (CaAl 12O 19) and spinel (MgAl 2O 4), the model of the crystal structures of these phases can be constructed by a suitable combination of hibonite and spinel units. Both phases, CAM-I and CAM-II, exhibit solid solution ranges described by a substitution mechanism also found in the binary spinel phase, MgAl 2O 4: 3 Mg 2+ = 2 Al 3+ + □. Thus the ternary phases can be expressed by the chemical formulas. Ca 2Mg 2-3 xAl 28+2 x□ xO 46 for CAM-I with 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.30 and CaMg 2-3 yAl 16+2 y□ yO 27 for CAM-II with 0 ≤ y ≤ 0.2.

  15. Effects of Al2O3 and CaO/SiO2 Ratio on Phase Equilbria in the ZnO-"FeO"-Al2O3-CaO-SiO2 System in Equilibrium with Metallic Iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Baojun; Hayes, Peter C.; Jak, Evgueni

    2011-02-01

    The phase equilibria and liquidus temperatures in the ZnO-"FeO"-Al2O3-CaO-SiO2 system in equilibrium with metallic iron have been determined experimentally in the temperature range 1383 K to 1573 K (1150 °C to 1300 °C). The experimental conditions were selected to characterize lead blast furnace and imperial smelting furnace slags. The results are presented in a form of pseudoternary sections ZnO-"FeO"-(Al2O3 + CaO + SiO2) with fixed CaO/SiO2 and (CaO + SiO2)/Al2O3 ratios. It was found that wustite and spinel are the major primary phases in the composition range investigated. Effects of Al2O3 concentration as well as the CaO/SiO2 ratio on the primary phase field, the liquidus temperature, and the partitioning of ZnO between liquid and solid phases have been discussed for zinc-containing slags.

  16. Speciation in the AlCl3/SO2Cl2 catholyte system.

    SciTech Connect

    Boyle, Timothy J.; Ingersoll, David T.; Tallant, David Robert; Andrews, Nicholas L.; Rodriguez, Mark Andrew; Alam, Todd Michael

    2005-02-01

    The fundamental chemical behavior of the AlCl{sub 3}/SO{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} catholyte system was investigated using {sup 27}Al NMR spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Three major Al-containing species were found to be present in this catholyte system, where the ratio of each was dependent upon aging time, concentration, and/or storage temperature. The first species was identified as [Cl{sub 2}Al({mu}-Cl)]{sub 2} in equilibrium with AlCl{sub 3}. The second species results from the decomposition of SO{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} which forms Cl{sub 2}(g) and SO{sub 2}(g). The SO{sub 2}(g) is readily consumed in the presence of AlCl{sub 3} to form the crystallographically characterized species [Cl{sub 2}Al({mu}-O{sub 2}SCl)]{sub 2} (1). For 1, each Al is tetrahedrally (T{sub d}) bound by two terminal Cl and two {mu}-O ligands whereas, the S is three-coordinated by two {mu}-O ligands and one terminal Cl. The third molecular species also has T{sub d}-coordinated Al metal centers but with increased oxygen coordination. Over time it was noted that a precipitate formed from the catholyte solutions. Raman spectroscopic studies show that this gel or precipitate has a component that was consistent with thionyl chloride. We have proposed a polymerization scheme that accounts for the precipitate formation. Further NMR studies indicate that the precipitate is in equilibrium with the solution.

  17. HETEROGENEOUS DISTRIBUTION OF {sup 26}Al AT THE BIRTH OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Makide, Kentaro; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Krot, Alexander N.; Huss, Gary R.; Ciesla, Fred J.; Yang, Le; Hellebrand, Eric; Gaidos, Eric

    2011-06-01

    It is believed that {sup 26}Al, a short-lived (t{sub 1/2} = 0.73 Ma) and now extinct radionuclide, was uniformly distributed in the nascent solar system (SS) with the initial {sup 26}Al/{sup 27}Al ratio of {approx}5.2 x 10{sup -5}, suggesting an external, stellar origin rather than local, solar source. However, the stellar source of {sup 26}Al and the manner in which it was injected into the SS remain controversial: the {sup 26}Al could have been produced by an asymptotic giant branch star, a supernova, or a Wolf-Rayet star and injected either into the protosolar molecular cloud, protosolar cloud core, or protoplanetary disk. Corundum (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) is predicted to be the first condensate from a cooling gas of solar composition. Here we show that micron-sized corundum condensates from {sup 16}O-rich ({Delta}{sup 17}O {approx} -25 per mille ) gas of solar composition recorded heterogeneous distribution of {sup 26}Al at the birth of the SS: the inferred initial {sup 26}Al/{sup 27}Al ratio ranges from {approx}6.5x10{sup -5} to <2x10{sup -6}; 52% of corundum grains measured are {sup 26}Al-poor. Abundant {sup 26}Al-poor, {sup 16}O-rich refractory objects include grossite- and hibonite-rich calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) in CH (high metal abundance and high iron concentration) chondrites, platy hibonite crystals in CM (Mighei-like) chondrites, and CAIs with fractionation and unidentified nuclear effects CAIs chondrites. Considering the apparently early and short duration (<0.3 Ma) of condensation of refractory {sup 16}O-rich solids in the SS, we infer that {sup 26}Al was injected into the collapsing protosolar molecular cloud and later homogenized in the protoplanetary disk. The apparent lack of correlation between {sup 26}Al abundance and O-isotope composition of corundum grains constrains the stellar source of {sup 26}Al in the SS.

  18. Development of a biocompatible nanodelivery system for tuberculosis drugs based on isoniazid-Mg/Al layered double hydroxide

    PubMed Central

    Saifullah, Bullo; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; El Zowalaty, Mohamed Ezzat; Fakurazi, Sharida; Webster, Thomas J; Geilich, Benjamin M; Hussein, Mohd Zobir

    2014-01-01

    The primary challenge in finding a treatment for tuberculosis (TB) is patient non-compliance to treatment due to long treatment duration, high dosing frequency, and adverse effects of anti-TB drugs. This study reports on the development of a nanodelivery system that intercalates the anti-TB drug isoniazid into Mg/Al layered double hydroxides (LDHs). Isoniazid was found to be released in a sustained manner from the novel nanodelivery system in humans in simulated phosphate buffer solutions at pH 4.8 and pH 7.4. The nanodelivery formulation was highly biocompatible compared to free isoniazid against human normal lung and 3T3 mouse fibroblast cells. The formulation was active against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and gram-positive bacteria and gram-negative bacteria. Thus results show significant promise for the further study of these nanocomposites for the treatment of TB. PMID:25336952

  19. Evaluation of primary care: The "Primary Care Assessment Tools - Facility version" for the Spanish health system.

    PubMed

    Pasarín, M Isabel; Berra, Silvina; González, Angelina; Segura, Andreu; Tebé, Cristian; García-Altés, Anna; Vallverdú, Inma; Starfield, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    To obtain versions of the Primary Care Assessment Tools (PCAT)-Facility version to evaluate primary care (PC) in the Spanish context, and to analyze its feasibility, reliability and validity. Cultural adaptation was performed through the use of forward and backward translations into Spanish and Catalan, observations and opinions of a panel of experts, and cognitive interviews with target users (PC team managers). A pilot phase was carried out in a sample of 130 managers of PC teams in Catalonia. A post-test questionnaire was sent 4-5 months later to all 194 managers of PC teams in the Barcelona health region. Analysis of metric properties included: 1) description of items and verification of Likert assumptions, since domain scores are obtained by summing item scores; 2) reliability analysis (Cronbach's alpha coefficient, Pearson's correlation coefficient, test-retest analysis); and 3) validity analysis (expert panel, cognitive interviews, and convergent and discriminant validity). Substantial adaptation was required for the accessory section of the questionnaire, but less was required in PC domain measurements. Items were added to the comprehensiveness domain to reflect services usually available in Spain. The lowest Cronbach's alpha scores were found for Access (0.62) and Coordination (0.59 and 0.65), while values were >0.70 for the remaining domains. The Spanish version of the PCAT-Facility questionnaire is now available and shows adequate reliability and validity. The Spanish PCAT version will facilitate national and international comparisons of PC and analysis of the determinants of quality of service provision. Copyright © 2011 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. 77 FR 40250 - Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, et al.; Increasing the Primary Reserve Capacity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-09

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 930 Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, et al.; Increasing... order for tart cherries (order). The order regulates the handling of tart cherries grown in the States... locally by the Cherry Industry Administrative Board (Board). This action increases the volume of...

  1. Operation and performance of the PEP-II prototype longitudinal damping system at ALS

    SciTech Connect

    Teytelman, D.; Claus, R.; Fox, J.

    1995-05-01

    A modular programmable longitudinal feedback system has been developed as a component of the PEP-II R+D program. This system is based on a family of VME and VXI packaged signal processing functions which implement a general purpose digital feedback controller for accelerators with bunch spacings of 2 ns. A complete PEP-II prototype system has been configured and installed for use at the LBL Advanced Light Source. The system configuration used for tests at the ALS is described and results are presented showing the action of the feedback system. Open and closed loop results showing the detection and calculation of feedback signals from bunch motion are presented and the system is shown to damp coupled-bunch instabilities in the ALS. Use of the system for accelerator diagnostics is illustrated via measurement of grow-damp transients which quantify growth rates without feedback, damping rates with feedback, and identify unstable modes.

  2. Timing and extent of Mg and Al isotopic homogenization in the early inner Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Ritesh Kumar; Chaussidon, Marc

    2014-03-01

    The first million years of the Solar System is a key period when the first solids were formed from the nebula gas. The chronology of the different processes at the origin of these solids is still largely unknown and relies strongly on the assumption made of homogeneous distribution for short-lived radioactive nuclides such as 26Al. This assumption is questioned. In this study, in situ 26Al-26Mg isotope systematics was studied with high precision in 12 calcium, aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) (1 type A, 2 type B, 5 type C, and 4 fine grained spinel-rich), 2 amoeboid olivine aggregates (AOAs), and 2 Al-rich chondrules from Efremovka and Vigarano. The (26Al/27Al)i in these early Solar System solids (the subscript ‘i’ stands for the initial isotope ratio obtained from the mineral 26Al isochron) range from ∼6.5×10-5 to 0.2×10-5 with δMgi*26 from -0.08 to +0.37‰. The (26Al/27Al)i and δMgi*26 of CAIs and chondrules can be explained by formation of their precursors from a homogeneous reservoir (Solar System Initial, noted hereafter SSI) with initial magnesium isotopic composition of δMgSSI*26=-0.052±0.013‰ and initial (26Al/27Al)SSI abundance of (5.62±0.42)×10-5. The high precision magnesium isotope data obtained in the present study and literature data allows identifying a few epochs of formation/reprocessing of CAIs. The time periods of these epochs correspond well with the median life times of the pre-main sequence evolution of stars of Solar mass if we anchor the (Al26/Al27)SSI=(5.62±0.42)×10-5 to the beginning of class I phase. This provides a natural explanation to the range of (26Al/27Al)i - (∼6 to 0.02) × 10-5 seen in corundum grains, FUN (Fractionation and Unidentified Nuclear Effects) CAIs, ultrarefractory CAIs, normal CAIs, and chondrules, and suggests a possible relationship between the astrophysical conditions and the formation of these early solids. Corundum grains, FUN CAIs, ultrarefractory CAIs would have formed during the class 0 of

  3. Prevalence of primary hyperaldosteronism in a systemic arterial hypertension league.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Maria Jacqueline Silva; Figueiredo Neto, José Albuquerque de; Memória, Edson Viriato; Lopes, Maíra de Castro; Faria, Manuel dos Santos; Salgado Filho, Natalino; Oliveira, Thiara Castro de

    2009-01-01

    Until recently, primary hyperaldosteronism was considered a rare cause of secondary hypertension. However, in recent years, many studies have suggested that this disease can affect up to 20% of hypertensive individuals. To determine the prevalence of primary hyperaldosteronism in hypertensive patients treated at the hypertension league of a university hospital. Serum aldosterone and plasma renin activity levels were measured in 105 patients while they were undergoing standard antihypertensive treatment, with the exception of those using betablockers and spironolactone, in fasting condition and after rest in the supine position for 20 minutes. Those with an aldosterone/plasma renin activity ratio > 25 were submitted to the saline suppression test and, after the confirmation of the autonomy of aldosterone secretion, a computed tomography of the adrenals was performed. The results are presented as percentages and means and standard deviations. Of the 105 patients, 6.54% presented refractory hypertension. Nine presented an aldosterone/plasma renin activity ratio > 25 (8.5% of the total). Of these, 08 were submitted to the saline suppression test and 01 (with refractory hypertension) had the diagnosis of primary hyperaldosteronism confirmed (0.96% of the total). A computed tomography of the adrenals was performed, which showed normal results. The prevalence of primary hyperaldosteronism in the studied sample was 0.96% of the total. However, when only the patients with refractory hypertension were evaluated, the prevalence was 14.3%.

  4. Primary Nocturnal Enuresis: A Structural and Strategic Family Systems Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Teresa B.

    2000-01-01

    Exploration of the literature regarding primary nocturnal enuresis suggests there are various causes including genetic, biological, physiological, and psychological explanations. Treatments typically consist of medication and behavioral intervention. However, it was believed that this enuretic case was caused by psychological trauma. A series of…

  5. Crystallization paths in SiO2-Al2O3-CaO system as a genotype of silicate materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutsyk, V. I.; Zelenaya, A. E.

    2013-12-01

    The phases trajectories in the fields of primary crystallization of cristobalite (SiO2cr), tridymite (SiO2tr), mullite (3Al2O3-2SiO2) and in a field of liquid immiscibility are analyzed on a basis of computer model for T-x-y diagram of SiO2-Al2O3-CaO system. The concentration fields with unique set of microconstituents and the fields without individual crystallization schemes and microconstituents are revealed.

  6. Thermal explosion in Al-Ni system: influence of mechanical activation.

    PubMed

    White, Jeremiah D E; Reeves, Robert V; Son, Steven F; Mukasyan, Alexander S

    2009-12-03

    The influence of short-term (5-15 min) highly energetic ball milling on the ignition characteristics of a gasless heterogeneous Ni-Al reactive system has been investigated. By using Al-Ni clad particles (30-40 microm diameter Al spheres coated by a 3-3.5 microm layer of Ni, that corresponds to a 1:1 Ni/Al atomic ratio), it was shown that such mechanical treatment leads to a significant decrease in the self-ignition temperature of the system. For example, after 15 min of ball milling, the ignition temperature appears to be approximately 600 K, well below the eutectic (913 K) in the considered binary system, which is the ignition temperature for the initial clad particles. Thus, it was demonstrated that the thermal explosion process for mechanically treated reactive media can be solely defined by solid-state reactions. Additionally, thermal analysis measurements revealed that mechanical activation results in a substantial decrease in the effective activation energy (from 84 to 28 kcal/mol) of interaction between Al and Ni. This effect, that is, mechanical activation of chemical reaction, is connected to a substantial increase of contact area between reactive particles and fresh interphase boundaries formed in an inert atmosphere during ball milling. It is also important that by varying the time of mechanical activation one can precisely control the ignition temperature in high-density energetic heterogeneous systems.

  7. High Density Hydrogen Storage System Demonstration Using NaAlH4 Based Complex Compound Hydrides

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel A. Mosher; Xia Tang; Ronald J. Brown; Sarah Arsenault; Salvatore Saitta; Bruce L. Laube; Robert H. Dold; Donald L. Anton

    2007-07-27

    This final report describes the motivations, activities and results of the hydrogen storage independent project "High Density Hydrogen Storage System Demonstration Using NaAlH4 Based Complex Compound Hydrides" performed by the United Technologies Research Center under the Department of Energy Hydrogen Program, contract # DE-FC36-02AL67610. The objectives of the project were to identify and address the key systems technologies associated with applying complex hydride materials, particularly ones which differ from those for conventional metal hydride based storage. This involved the design, fabrication and testing of two prototype systems based on the hydrogen storage material NaAlH4. Safety testing, catalysis studies, heat exchanger optimization, reaction kinetics modeling, thermochemical finite element analysis, powder densification development and material neutralization were elements included in the effort.

  8. Oxidation of primary amines to oximes with molecular oxygen using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and WO3/Al2O3 as catalysts.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Ken; Watanabe, Tomonari; Murahashi, Shun-Ichi

    2013-03-15

    The oxidative transformation of primary amines to their corresponding oximes proceeds with high efficiency under molecular oxygen diluted with molecular nitrogen (O2/N2 = 7/93 v/v, 5 MPa) in the presence of the catalysts 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and tungusten oxide/alumina (WO3/Al2O3). The method is environmentally benign, because the reaction requires only molecular oxygen as the terminal oxidant and gives water as a side product. Various alicyclic amines and aliphatic amines can be converted to their corresponding oximes in excellent yields. It is noteworthy that the oxidative transformation of primary amines proceeds chemoselectively in the presence of other functional groups. The key step of the present oxidation is a fast electron transfer from the primary amine to DPPH followed by proton transfer to give the α-aminoalkyl radical intermediate, which undergoes reaction with molecular oxygen and hydrogen abstraction to give α-aminoalkyl hydroperoxide. Subsequent reaction of the peroxide with WO3/Al2O3 gives oximes. The aerobic oxidation of secondary amines gives the corresponding nitrones. Aerobic oxidative transformation of cyclohexylamines to cyclohexanone oximes is important as a method for industrial production of ε-caprolactam, a raw material for Nylon 6.

  9. Fluidic emergency roll control system. [for emergency aircraft control following failure of primary roll control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haefner, K. B.; Honda, T. S.

    1973-01-01

    A fluidic emergency roll control system for aircraft stabilization in the event of primary flight control failure was evaluated. The fluidic roll control units were designed to provide roll torque proportional to an electrical command as operated by two diametrically opposed thrust nozzles located in the wing tips. The control package consists of a solid propellant gas generator, two diametrically opposed vortex valve modulated thrust nozzles, and an electromagnetic torque motor. The procedures for the design, development, and performance testing of the system are described.

  10. Phase equilibria and structural investigations in the system Al-Fe-Si.

    PubMed

    Marker, Martin C J; Skolyszewska-Kühberger, Barbara; Effenberger, Herta S; Schmetterer, Clemens; Richter, Klaus W

    2011-12-01

    The Al-Fe-Si system was studied for an isothermal section at 800 °C in the Al-rich part and at 900 °C in the Fe-rich part, and for half a dozen vertical sections at 27, 35, 40, 50 and 60 at.% Fe and 5 at.% Al. Optical microscopy and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used for initial sample characterization, and Electron Probe Microanalysis (EPMA) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) of the annealed samples was used to determine the exact phase compositions. Thermal reactions were studied by Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA). Our experimental results are generally in good agreement with the most recent phase diagram versions of the system Al-Fe-Si. A new ternary high-temperature phase τ12 (cF96, NiTi2-type) with the composition Al48Fe36Si16 was discovered and was structurally characterized by means of single-crystal and powder XRD. The variation of the lattice parameters of the triclinic phase τ1 with the composition Al2+x Fe3Si3-x (-0.3 < x < 1.3) was studied in detail. For the binary phase FeSi2 only small solubility of Al was found in the low-temperature modification LT-FeSi2 (ζβ ) but significant solubility in the high-temperature modification HT-FeSi2 (ζα ) (8.5 at.% Al). It was found that the high-temperature modification of FeSi2 is stabilized down to much lower temperature in the ternary, confirming earlier literature suggestions on this issue. DTA results in four selected vertical sections were compared with calculated sections based on a recent CALPHAD assessment. The deviations of liquidus values are significant suggesting the need for improvement of the thermodynamic models.

  11. Process for preparing high-transition-temperature superconductors in the Nb-Al-Ge system

    DOEpatents

    Giorgi, A.L.; Szklarz, E.G.

    1973-01-30

    The patent describes a process for preparing superconducting materials in the Nb-Al-Ge system having transition temperatures in excess of 19K. The process comprises premixing powdered constituents, pressing them into a plug, heating the plug to 1,450-1,800C for 30 minutes to an hour under vacuum or an inert atmosphere, and annealing at moderate temperatures for reasonably long times (approximately 50 hours). High transition-temperature superconductors, including those in the Nb3(Al,Ge) system, prepared in accordance with this process exhibit little degradation in the superconducting transition temperature on being ground to -200 mesh powder. (GRA)

  12. Structural and electronic properties of the graphene/Al/Ni(111) intercalation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voloshina, E. N.; Generalov, A.; Weser, M.; Böttcher, S.; Horn, K.; Dedkov, Yu S.

    2011-11-01

    Decoupling of the graphene layer from the ferromagnetic substrate via intercalation of sp metal has recently been proposed as an effective way to realize a single-layer graphene-based spin-filter. Here, the structural and electronic properties of the prototype system, graphene/Al/Ni(111), are investigated via a combination of electron diffraction and spectroscopic methods. These studies are accompanied by state-of-the-art electronic structure calculations. The properties of this prospective Al-intercalation-like system and its possible implementations in future graphene-based devices are discussed.

  13. A Computerized System for In-Service Formative Evaluation in Primary Care Residencies

    PubMed Central

    Beaujon, H. Jan

    1980-01-01

    A computerized system for in-service formative evaluation in primary care residencies is described. Used by three primary care residency programs at the Medical University of South Carolina, the system includes among its applications: ongoing evaluations of and by residents (rotations, monitoring, chart audits), annual in-service examinations, annual faculty and resident evaluations, and alumni surveys.

  14. Phase relations of a high-Mg basalt from the Aleutian Island arc - Implications for primary island arc basalts and high-Al basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gust, D. A.; Perfit, M. R.

    1987-01-01

    An experimental investigation of a primitive high-Mg basalt, MK-15, collected from lava flows of the Unalaska Island in the Aleutian Island arc has been conducted in order to study primary and parental island arc basalts and the development of island arc magmas. The results suggest a model in which high-Al basalts are generated by moderate amounts of crystal fractionation from more primitive (high Mg/Mg + Fe, lower Al2O3) basaltic magmas near the arc crust-mantle boundary. Somewhere between 20-30 depth, significant amounts of clinopyroxene and olivine, with lesser amounts of spinel and possibly amphibole, fractionate, forming layer of olivine-clinopyroxenite at the base of the arc crust.

  15. Health system challenges to integration of mental health delivery in primary care in Kenya- perspectives of primary care health workers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Health system weaknesses in Africa are broadly well known, constraining progress on reducing the burden of both communicable and non-communicable disease (Afr Health Monitor, Special issue, 2011, 14-24), and the key challenges in leadership, governance, health workforce, medical products, vaccines and technologies, information, finance and service delivery have been well described (Int Arch Med, 2008, 1:27). This paper uses focus group methodology to explore health worker perspectives on the challenges posed to integration of mental health into primary care by generic health system weakness. Methods Two ninety minute focus groups were conducted in Nyanza province, a poor agricultural region of Kenya, with 20 health workers drawn from a randomised controlled trial to evaluate the impact of a mental health training programme for primary care, 10 from the intervention group clinics where staff had received the training programme, and 10 health workers from the control group where staff had not received the training). Results These focus group discussions suggested that there are a number of generic health system weaknesses in Kenya which impact on the ability of health workers to care for clients with mental health problems and to implement new skills acquired during a mental health continuing professional development training programmes. These weaknesses include the medicine supply, health management information system, district level supervision to primary care clinics, the lack of attention to mental health in the national health sector targets, and especially its absence in district level targets, which results in the exclusion of mental health from such district level supervision as exists, and the lack of awareness in the district management team about mental health. The lack of mental health coverage included in HIV training courses experienced by the health workers was also striking, as was the intensive focus during district supervision on HIV to

  16. 19F NMR study of the equilibria and dynamics of the Al3+/F- system.

    PubMed

    Bodor, A; Tóth, I; Bányai, I; Szabó, Z; Hefter, G T

    2000-06-12

    A careful reinvestigation by high-field 19F NMR (470 MHz) spectroscopy has been made of the Al3+/F- system in aqueous solution under carefully controlled conditions of pH, concentration, ionic strength (I), and temperature. The 19F NMR spectra show five distinct signals at 278 K and I = 0.6 M (TMACl) which have been attributed to the complexes AlFi(3-i)+(aq) with i < or = 5. There was no need to invoke AlFi(OH)j(3-i-j)+ mixed complexes in the model under our experimental conditions (pH < or = 6.5), nor was any evidence obtained for the formation of AlF6(3-)(aq) at very high ratios of F-/Al3+. The stepwise equilibrium constants obtained for the complexes by integration of the 19F signals are in good agreement with literature data given the differences in medium and temperature. In I = 0.6 M TMACl at 278 K and in I = 3 M KCl at 298 K the log Ki values are 6.42, 5.41, 3.99, 2.50, and 0.84 (for species i = 1-5) and 6.35, 5.25, and 4.11 (for species i = 1-3), respectively. Disappearance of the 19F NMR signals under certain conditions was shown to be due to precipitation. Certain 19F NMR signals exhibit temperature- and concentration-dependent exchange broadening. Detailed line shape analysis of the spectra and magnetization transfer measurements indicate that the kinetics are dominated by F- exchange rather than complex formation. The detected reactions and their rate constants are AlF2(2+) + *F- reversible AlF*F2+ + F- (k02 = (1.8 +/- 0.3) x 10(6) M-1 s-1), AlF3(0) + *F- reversible AlF2*F0 + F- (k03 = (3.9 +/- 0.9) x 10(6) M-1 s-1), and AlF3(0) + H*F reversible AlF2*F0 + HF (kH03 = (6.6 +/- 0.5) x 10(4) M-1 s-1). The rates of these exchange reactions increase markedly with increasing F- substitution. Thus, the reactions of AlF2+(aq) were too inert to be detected even on the T1 NMR time scale, while some of the reactions of AlF3(0)(aq) were fast, causing large line broadening. The ligand exchange appears to follow an associative interchange mechanism. The cis

  17. AlGaInN laser diode technology and systems for defence and security applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najda, Stephen P.; Perlin, Piotr; Suski, Tadek; Marona, Lujca; Boćkowski, Mike; Leszczyński, Mike; Wisniewski, Przemek; Czernecki, Robert; Kucharski, Robert; Targowski, Grzegorz; Watson, Scott; Kelly, Antony E.

    2015-10-01

    AlGaInN laser diodes is an emerging technology for defence and security applications such as underwater communications and sensing, atomic clocks and quantum information. The AlGaInN material system allows for laser diodes to be fabricated over a very wide range of wavelengths from u.v., ~380nm, to the visible ~530nm, by tuning the indium content of the laser GaInN quantum well. Thus AlGaInN laser diode technology is a key enabler for the development of new disruptive system level applications in displays, telecom, defence and other industries. Ridge waveguide laser diodes are fabricated to achieve single mode operation with optical powers up to 100mW with the 400-440nm wavelength range with high reliability. Visible free-space and underwater communication at frequencies up to 2.5GHz is reported using a directly modulated 422nm GaN laser diode. Low defectivity and highly uniform GaN substrates allow arrays and bars to be fabricated. High power operation operation of AlGaInN laser bars with up to 20 emitters have been demonstrated at optical powers up to 4W in a CS package with common contact configuration. An alternative package configuration for AlGaInN laser arrays allows for each individual laser to be individually addressable allowing complex free-space or optical fibre system integration with a very small form-factor.

  18. A new Li-Al-N-H system for reversible hydrogen storage.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jun; Fang, Zhigang Zak; Sohn, Hong Yong

    2006-07-27

    Complex metal hydrides are considered as a class of candidate materials for hydrogen storage. Lithium-based complex hydrides including lithium alanates (LiAlH(4) and Li(3)AlH(6)) are among the most promising materials owing to its high hydrogen content. In the present work, we investigated dehydrogenation/rehydrogenation reactions of a combined system of Li(3)AlH(6) and LiNH(2). Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of Li(3)AlH(6)/3LiNH(2)/4 wt % TiCl(3)-(1)/(3)AlCl(3) mixtures indicated that a large amount of hydrogen (approximately 7.1 wt %) can be released between 150 degrees C and 300 degrees C under a heating rate of 5 degrees C/min in two dehydrogenation reaction steps. The results also show that the dehydrogenation reaction of the new material system is nearly 100% reversible under 2000 psi pressure hydrogen at 300 degrees C. Further, a short-cycle experiment has demonstrated that the new combined material system of alanates and amides can maintain its hydrogen storage capacity upon cycling of the dehydrogenation/rehydrogenation reactions.

  19. Cathode for use in high energy primary thionyl chloride cell systems and high energy primary thionyl chloride cell systems including the cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, C. W., Jr.; Wade, W. L., Jr.; Binder, M.; Gilman, S.

    1985-08-01

    A cathode is provided for use in high energy primary lithium-thionyl chloride cell systems or calcium-thionyl chloride cell systems. The cathode comprises an expanded metallic current collector screen into which has been pasted a mixture of a low surface area conductive carbon black and a high surface area conductive carbon black previously mixed with a binder.

  20. Description of the primary flight display and flight guidance system logic in the NASA B-737 transport systems research vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knox, Charles E.

    1990-01-01

    A primary flight display format was integrated with the flight guidance and control system logic in support of various flight tests conducted with the NASA Transport Systems Research Vehicle B-737-100 airplane. The functional operation of the flight guidance mode control panel and the corresponding primary flight display formats are presented.

  1. Primary Dendrite Arm Spacing and Trunk Diameter in Al-7-Weight-Percentage Si Alloy Directionally Solidified Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghods, M.; Tewari, S. N.; Lauer, M.; Poirier, D. R.; Grugel, R. N.

    2016-01-01

    Under a NASA-ESA collaborative research project, three Al-7-weight-percentage Si samples (MICAST-6, MICAST-7 and MICAST 2-12) were directionally solidified aboard the International Space Station to determine the effect of mitigating convection on the primary dendrite array. The samples were approximately 25 centimeters in length with a diameter of 7.8 millimeter-diameter cylinders that were machined from [100] oriented terrestrially grown dendritic Al-7Si samples and inserted into alumina ampoules within the Sample Cartridge Assembly (SCA) inserts of the Low Gradient Furnace (LGF). The feed rods were partially remelted in space and directionally solidified to effect the [100] dendrite-orientation. MICAST-6 was grown at 5 microns per second for 3.75 centimeters and then at 50 microns per second for its remaining 11.2 centimeters of its length. MICAST-7 was grown at 20 microns per second for 8.5 centimeters and then at 10 microns per second for 9 centimeters of its remaining length. MICAST2-12 was grown at 40 microns per second for 11 centimeters. The thermal gradient at the liquidus temperature varied from 22 to 14 degrees Kelvin per centimeter during growth of MICAST-6, from 26 to 24 degrees Kelvin per centimeter for MICAST-7 and from 33 to 31 degrees Kelvin per centimeter for MICAST2-12. Microstructures on the transverse sections along the sample length were analyzed to determine nearest-neighbor spacing of the primary dendrite arms and trunk diameters of the primary dendrite-arrays. This was done along the lengths where steady-state growth prevailed and also during the transients associated with the speed-changes. The observed nearest-neighbor spacings during steady-state growth of the MICAST samples show a very good agreement with predictions from the Hunt-Lu primary spacing model for diffusion controlled growth. The observed primary dendrite trunk diameters during steady-state growth of these samples also agree with predictions from a coarsening-based model

  2. Wettability and phase formation in the TiC{sub x}/Al system

    SciTech Connect

    Frumin, N.; Frage, N.; Polak, M.; Dariel, M.P.

    1997-10-15

    The introduction of reinforcements such as carbide or oxide ceramics into a metallic matrix improves high temperature strength, creep resistance and low temperature toughness. Modification of the ceramic phase can also be used in order to improve wetting in a metal/ceramic system. The wettability of ceramic surfaces by metallic melts is strongly dependent on the stoichiometry of the ceramic compound (oxide or carbide). Titanium carbide has a wide range of stability (0.55 < C/Ti {le} 1), and its chemical, physical and mechanical properties largely depend on the composition. For instance, chemical inertness and hardness increase with increasing C/Ti ratio. The use of TiC as a reinforcing phase in aluminum alloys or in TiC/Al cermets has not been exploited fully. Titanium carbide exhibits adequate wetting by Al{sub (L)} due to chemical interactions at high temperatures that may also lead to the formation of the Al{sub 4}C{sub 3} phase. The presence of this phase at the interface is undesirable because it is weak and brittle. Moreover, Al{sub 4}C{sub 3} decomposes in the presence of water to form Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and methane gas. The present work was aimed at finding the proper conditions and the Ti/C ratio in non-stoichiometric TiC{sub x} that would improve wetting and prevent the formation of Al{sub 4}C{sub 3}.

  3. Optimization design for the supporting system of 5m collimator primary mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Shaohua; Ma, Tianmeng; Zhang, Ming

    2016-10-01

    Primary mirror is an important component of collimator. The surface figure error of primary mirror is a critical factor affecting the imaging quality of collimator. Besides, the support system of primary mirror of collimator must be steady, while collimator need be moved safely as an elementary optical measuring tool. The support system of the primary mirror is composed of axial support and lateral support. Due to the axis of the primary mirror is horizontal when collimator working, the lateral support of the primary mirror has a far greater impact on the figure error of the primary mirror. In this paper, static structure analysis with finite element method is carried out for a 5m collimator primary mirror with V-block support under gravity load. With the analysis, the relationship between the structure parameters in primary mirror V-block support and the deformation of the primary mirror is built. With this relationship, the optimization parameters are found out to reduce the gravity deformation of the primary mirror.

  4. Critical Assessment and Thermodynamic Modeling of the Al-Fe-O System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shishin, Denis; Prostakova, Viktoria; Jak, Evgueni; Decterov, Sergei A.

    2016-02-01

    A complete literature review, critical evaluation, and thermodynamic modeling of the phase diagrams and thermodynamic properties of phases in the Al-Fe-O system at 1 atm total pressure are presented. Optimized model equations for the thermodynamic properties of all phases are obtained, which reproduce all available thermodynamic and phase-equilibrium data within experimental error limits from 298.15 K (25 °C) to above the liquidus temperatures at all compositions and oxygen partial pressures from metal saturation to 1 atm. The complex phase relationships in the system have been elucidated, and discrepancies among the data have been resolved. The database of the model parameters can be used along with software for Gibbs-energy minimization in order to calculate all thermodynamic properties and any type of phase diagram section. The modified quasichemical model was used for the liquid oxide phase. A sublattice model, based upon the Compound Energy Formalism, was developed for spinel, which expands from magnetite, Fe3O4, to hercynite, FeAl2O4. The distribution of cations between octahedral and tetrahedral sites and oxygen nonstoichiometry in spinel are taken into account. The model for metallic liquid assumes random mixing of associates: Fe, Al, O, AlO, and Al2O. It describes well the minimum that is observed on the solubility of oxygen in liquid iron as a function of the Al content. The solid solution between hematite and corundum exhibiting a miscibility gap, as well as a small solubility of Al2O3 in wüstite are quantitatively described by a simple Bragg-Williams model.

  5. Workforce requirements for a primary oral health care system.

    PubMed

    van Palenstein Helderman, W; Mikx, F; Truin, G J; Hoang, T H; Pham, H L

    2000-12-01

    To present the case for a primary health care (PHC) approach for dental care in Vietnam, and thereby contribute to a better understanding of the oral health problems that exist in many developing countries. Information was obtained in Vietnam through discussions with dental and medical authorities of provincial health offices, educational institutions, hospitals, health centres and schools and by collecting data from record books and reports. Dentistry lacks a PHC strategy and consequently urgent oral care and oral disease prevention and control are not available for the majority of the population in Vietnam. The curriculum of dental students and dental auxiliaries is not adequately directed to the oral health needs of the population. The present number of dental personnel is too low. A basic oral health care package (BOHCP) advocated by the WHO which could be incorporated into primary health services at sub-district level and in the school dental service would be most suitable to meet the oral health needs of the population in Vietnam. The oral health education component of the BOHCP may have more impact when it is conducted in close collaboration with non-dental health personnel and lay persons. The curriculum of dental personnel should be adjusted to meet the requirements of their future tasks. Dental auxiliaries, provided they are well trained can carry out the BOHCP. Consequently, there is a large need for this type of dental personnel in Vietnam.

  6. Composition Optimization of Al-DOPING Lithium Manganese Oxide from Al2O3-Li2CO3-MnO2 Ternary System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Gang; Sun, Xinyan; Hong, Jianhe; He, Mingzhong

    2013-07-01

    In order to synthesize eutectic compound of Al doping lithium manganese oxide which can be used as cathode material in lithium battery, using γ-Al2O3, Li2CO3 and MnO2 as starting raw materials, the composition optimization research work has been done by the solid state synthesis method. A limited composition range was found in Al2O3-Li2CO3-MnO2 ternary system, in which the synthesized Al doping lithium manganese oxides have single spinel structure and good electrochemical performance. The results showed that the LiAl0.04Mn1.96O4 material presented better charge-discharge cycling behavior than pure LiMn2O4, and showed the best electrochemistry property among the compounds in the Al2O3-Li2O-Mn2O3 ternary system. LiAl0.04Mn1.96O4 still kept perfect cubic structure, but LiMn2O4 kept the coexistence of the cubic and tetragonal phases after 50 charge-discharge cycles.

  7. The W. M. Keck Telescope segmented primary mirror active control system

    SciTech Connect

    Jared, R.C.; Arthur, A.A.; Andreae, S.; Biocca, A.; Cohen, R.W.; Fuertes, J.M.; Franck, J.; Gabor, G.; Llacer, J.; Mast, T.; Meng, J.; Merrick, T.; Minor, R.; Nelson, J.; Orayani, M.; Salz, P.; Schaefer, B.; Witebsky, C.

    1989-07-01

    The ten meter diameter primary mirror of the W. M. Keck Telescope is a mosaic of thirty-six hexagonal mirrors. An active control system stabilizes the primary mirror. The active control system uses 168 measurements of the relative positions of adjacent mirror segments and 3 measurements of the primary mirror position in the telescope structure to control the 108 degrees of freedom needed to stabilize the figure and position of the primary mirror. The components of the active control system are relative position sensors, electronics, computers, actuators that position the mirrors, and software. The software algorithms control the primary mirror, perform star image stacking, emulate the segments, store and fit calibration data, and locate hardware defects. We give an overview of the active control system, its functional requirements and test measurements. 12 refs.

  8. Synthesis of MAX Phases in the Zr-Ti-Al-C System.

    PubMed

    Tunca, Bensu; Lapauw, Thomas; Karakulina, Olesia M; Batuk, Maria; Cabioc'h, Thierry; Hadermann, Joke; Delville, Rémi; Lambrinou, Konstantina; Vleugels, Jozef

    2017-03-20

    This study reports on the synthesis and characterization of MAX phases in the (Zr,Ti)n+1AlCn system. The MAX phases were synthesized by reactive hot pressing and pressureless sintering in the 1350-1700 °C temperature range. The produced ceramics contained large fractions of 211 and 312 (n = 1, 2) MAX phases, while strong evidence of a 413 (n = 3) stacking was found. Moreover, (Zr,Ti)C, ZrAl2, ZrAl3, and Zr2Al3 were present as secondary phases. In general, the lattice parameters of the hexagonal 211 and 312 phases followed Vegard's law over the complete Zr-Ti solid solution range, but the 312 phase showed a non-negligible deviation from Vegard's law around the (Zr0.33,Ti0.67)3Al1.2C1.6 stoichiometry. High-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy combined with X-ray diffraction demonstrated ordering of the Zr and Ti atoms in the 312 phase, whereby Zr atoms occupied preferentially the central position in the close-packed M6X octahedral layers. The same ordering was also observed in 413 stackings present within the 312 phase. The decomposition of the secondary (Zr,Ti)C phase was attributed to the miscibility gap in the ZrC-TiC system.

  9. New investigation of phase equilibria in the system Al-Cu-Si.

    PubMed

    Ponweiser, Norbert; Richter, Klaus W

    2012-01-25

    The phase equilibria and invariant reactions in the system Al-Cu-Si were investigated by a combination of optical microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and electron probe micro analysis (EPMA). Isothermal phase equilibria were investigated within two isothermal sections. The isothermal section at 500 °C covers the whole ternary composition range and largely confirms the findings of previous phase diagram investigations. The isothermal section at 700 °C describes phase equilibria only in the complex Cu-rich part of the phase diagram. A new ternary compound τ was found in the region between (Al,Cu)-γ(1) and (Cu,Si)-γ and its solubility range was determined. The solubility of Al in κ-CuSi was found to be extremely high at 700 °C. In contrast, no ternary solubility in the β-phase of Cu-Al was found, although this phase is supposed to form a complete solid solution according to previous phase diagram assessments. Two isopleths, at 10 and 40 at.% Si, were investigated by means of DTA and a partial ternary reaction scheme (Scheil diagram) was constructed, based on the current work and the latest findings in the binary systems Al-Cu and Cu-Si. The current study shows that the high temperature equilibria in the Cu-rich corner are still poorly understood and additional studies in this area would be favorable.

  10. Kr implantation into heavy ion irradiated monolithic U-Mo/Al systems: SIMS and SEM investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zweifel, T.; Valle, N.; Grygiel, C.; Monnet, I.; Beck, L.; Petry, W.

    2016-03-01

    Worldwide, high performance research and material test reactors are aiming to convert their fuel from high enriched uranium towards low enriched ones. High density U-Mo/Al based nuclear fuels are considered as a promising candidate for this conversion. However, during in-pile test irradiations, the formation of an interdiffusion layer (IDL) between the U-Mo and the Al matrix is observed, caused by irradiation enhanced U-Al interdiffusion processes. This IDL accumulates fission gases at the IDL/matrix interfaces. Together, these two effects strongly reduce the performance of this new fuel type. Recently, the out-of-pile technique of heavy ion irradiation (127I) on U-Mo/Al layer systems proved to be an alternative to time-consuming in-pile test irradiations for certain fuel behaviour aspects. Here we present SIMS and SEM investigations of non-conventional 82Kr implantation into previously heavy ion irradiated U-Mo/Al layer systems. It is shown that Kr accumulates inside μm large porosities at the IDL/matrix interfaces. This critical accumulation of μm-sized large gas bubbles is directly related to the presence of the irradiation induced IDL. Without IDL no critical accumulation of fission gas bubbles occurs.

  11. A Study of Phase Composition and Structure of Alloys of the Al - Mg - Si - Fe System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mailybaeva, A. D.; Zolotorevskii, V. S.; Smagulov, D. U.; Islamkulov, K. M.

    2017-03-01

    The Thermo-Calc software is used to compute the phase transformations occurring during cooling of alloys. Polythermal and isothermal sections of the phase diagram of the Al - Mg - Si - Fe system are plotted. The phase composition and the structure of aluminum alloys in cast condition and after a heat treatment are studied experimentally.

  12. On amorphization and nanocomposite formation in Al-Ni-Ti system by mechanical alloying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, N.; Dey, G. K.; Murty, B. S.; Pabi, S. K.

    2005-11-01

    Amorphous structure generated by mechanical alloying (MA) is often used as a precursor for generating nanocomposites through controlled devitrification. The amorphous forming composition range of ternary Al-Ni-Ti system was calculated using the extended Miedema's semi-empirical model. Eleven compositions of this system showing a wide range of negative enthalpy of mixing (-Delta H^mix) and amorphization (-Delta H^amor) of the constituent elements were selected for synthesis by MA. The Al_{88}Ni_{6}Ti_{6 } alloy with relatively small negative Delta H^mix (-0.4 kJ/mol) and Delta H^amor (-14.8 kJ/mol) became completely amorphous after 120 h of milling, which is possibly the first report of complete amorphization of an Al-based rare earth element free Al-TM-TM system (TM = transition metal) by MA. The alloys of other compositions selected had much more negative Delta H^mix and H^amor; but they yielded either nanocomposites of partial amorphous and crystalline structure or no amorphous phase at all in the as-milled condition, evidencing a high degree of stability of the intermetallic phases under the MA environment. Hence, the negative Delta H^mix and Delta H^amor are not so reliable for predicting the amorphization in the present system by MA.

  13. Early accretion of protoplanets inferred from a reduced inner solar system 26Al inventory

    PubMed Central

    Schiller, Martin; Connelly, James N.; Glad, Aslaug C.; Mikouchi, Takashi; Bizzarro, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms and timescales of accretion of 10–1000 km sized planetesimals, the building blocks of planets, are not yet well understood. With planetesimal melting predominantly driven by the decay of the short-lived radionuclide 26Al (26Al→26Mg; t1/2 = 0.73 Ma), its initial abundance determines the permissible timeframe of planetesimal-scale melting and its subsequent cooling history. Currently, precise knowledge about the initial 26Al abundance [(26Al/27Al)0] exists only for the oldest known solids, calcium aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) – the so-called canonical value. We have determined the 26Al/27Al of three angrite meteorites, D’Orbigny, Sahara 99555 and NWA 1670, at their time of crystallization, which corresponds to (3.98 ± 0.15)×10−7, (3.64 ± 0.18)×10−7, and (5.92 ± 0.59)×10−7, respectively. Combined with a newly determined absolute U-corrected Pb–Pb age for NWA 1670 of 4564.39 ± 0.24 Ma and published U-corrected Pb–Pb ages for the other two angrites, this allows us to calculate an initial (26Al/27Al)0 of (1.33−0.18+0.21)×10−5 for the angrite parent body (APB) precursor material at the time of CAI formation, a value four times lower than the accepted canonical value of 5.25 × 10−5. Based on their similar 54Cr/52Cr ratios, most inner solar system materials likely accreted from material containing a similar 26Al/27Al ratio as the APB precursor at the time of CAI formation. To satisfy the abundant evidence for widespread planetesimal differentiation, the subcanonical 26Al budget requires that differentiated planetesimals, and hence protoplanets, accreted rapidly within 0.25 ± 0.15 Ma of the formation of canonical CAIs. PMID:27429474

  14. An ion thruster module for primary propulsion systems.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, H. J.; Poeschel, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    The development of a 30 cm thruster module having the operational characteristics, weight, and structural integrity consistent with flight hardware is described. Elements of the program discussed in this paper are selection of an ion optical system design, development of the discharge chamber and its control, and the results of extensive performance mapping tests. The thruster system operates at 2750 sec specific impulse at 69% over-all efficiency and can be throttled from 2.0 A to 0.16 A beam current with a control system requiring a single electrical input. The 1 kV ion beam is formed by a high perveance, two grid ion optical system.

  15. AlGaInN laser diode technology for systems applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najda, S. P.; Perlin, P.; Suski, T.; Marona, L.; Bockowski, M.; Leszczyński, M.; Wisniewski, P.; Czernecki, R.; Kucharski, R.; Targowski, G.; Watson, S.; Kelly, A. E.

    2016-02-01

    Gallium Nitride (GaN) laser diodes fabricated from the AlGaInN material system is an emerging technology that allows laser diodes to be fabricated over a very wide wavelength range from u.v. to the visible, and is a key enabler for the development of new system applications such as (underwater and terrestrial) telecommunications, quantum technologies, display sources and medical instrumentation.

  16. Electronic systems for transverse coupled-bunch feedback in the Advanced Light Source (ALS)

    SciTech Connect

    Barry, W.; Lambertson, G.R.; Lo, C.C.

    1993-10-01

    In order to effectively control a large number of transverse coupled-bunch modes in the LBL Advanced Light Source (ALS) storage ring, a broad-band, bunch-by-bunch feedback system has been designed, and is beginning to undergo testing and commissioning. This paper addresses, in some detail, the major electronic components of the feedback system. In particular, the components described include: broad-band microwave position detection receivers, closed orbit offset signal rejection circuitry, and baseband quadrature processing circuitry.

  17. Control System Modeling for the Thirty Meter Telescope Primary Mirror

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacMynowski, Douglas G.; Thompson, Peter M.; Shelton, J. Chris; Roberts, Lewis C., Jr.; Colavita, M. Mark; Sirota, Mark J.

    2011-01-01

    The Thirty Meter Telescope primary mirror is composed of 492 segments that are controlled to high precision in the presence of wind and vibration disturbances, despite the interaction with structural dynamics. The higher bandwidth and larger number of segments compared with the Keck telescopes requires greater attention to modeling to ensure success. We focus here on the development and validation of a suite of quasi-static and dynamic modeling tools required to support the design process, including robustness verification, performance estimation, and requirements flowdown. Models are used to predict the dynamic response due to wind and vibration disturbances, estimate achievable bandwidth in the presence of control-structure-interaction (CSI) and uncertainty in the interaction matrix, and simulate and analyze control algorithms and strategies, e.g. for control of focus-mode, and sensor calibration. Representative results illustrate TMT performance scaling with parameters, but the emphasis is on the modeling framework itself.

  18. Contribution of polymers to classical primary insulation of distribution system

    SciTech Connect

    Shwehdi, M.H.; Al-Rawi, A.

    1996-12-31

    Insulation composites used on present distribution lines frequently consist of several types of materials such as wood, porcelain, polymers and fiberglass reinforced plastics (FRP) connected in series. A study included the laboratory determination of the critical flashover voltage (CFO) of 17 single component and 90 combinations of two components were conducted. The acquired data were used to develop methods of predicting CFO levels of various multiple series electrical insulations. This paper illustrates the results and analyses of the classical primary insulation (porcelain), and of the modern-day insulation of polymers. It also presents the result of whether polymers may add or supplement insulation strength to the two dielectric combination using statistical methods. The paper also presents advantages and guidelines for the use of polymers to either replace or complement porcelain. This may help optimize the choice of dielectrics on distribution lines.

  19. Primary lymphoma of the central nervous system: a case report.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, R A; Braye, S G

    1979-01-01

    A 46-year-old female presented with a 1-week history of mental change, confusion and headaches. Investigations revealed evidence of sterile meningitis. CAT scanning of the brain demonstrated marked contrast enhancement around the ependyma, and later examinations showed extension of the process deep into the white matter, Cerebral biopsies were non-diagnostic and, despite ventricular drainage and treatment with antibiotics and high dose steriods, the patent died. At postmortem there was extensive tumour tissue distributed in a butterfly shape around the ventricles, and microscopy revealed typical apperances of primary CNS lymphoma. On the basis of the experience of this case and a review of recent literature, it is suggested that the CAT scan appearances of this tumour are quite typical, and that cranial irradiation may be justified in the absence of specific histological diagnosis.

  20. Measurement of cold challenge responses in primary Raynaud's phenomenon and Raynaud's phenomenon associated with systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed Central

    O'Reilly, D; Taylor, L; el-Hadidy, K; Jayson, M I

    1992-01-01

    Using computed thermography continuous temperature recordings were made before and after cold challenge of the fingers of control subjects and patients with primary Raynaud's phenomenon and Raynaud's phenomenon associated with systemic sclerosis. Basal skin temperature measurements (Tpre) were significantly lower in patients with primary Raynaud's phenomenon and Raynaud's phenomenon associated with systemic sclerosis than in the controls. Temperatures immediately after cold challenge (T0) were significantly lower in patients with primary Raynaud's phenomenon and Raynaud's phenomenon associated with systemic sclerosis than in controls. The lag phase before the start of temperature recovery (Tlag) was significantly greater in patients with primary Raynaud's phenomenon and Raynaud's phenomenon associated with systemic sclerosis than in control subjects. The maximum recovery index (R%) was significantly less in patients with primary Raynaud's phenomenon and Raynaud's phenomenon associated with systemic sclerosis than in controls. The maximum rate of change of temperature during the rapid phase of rewarming (Gmax) was significantly greater in controls than in patients with primary Raynaud's phenomenon and Raynaud's phenomenon associated with systemic sclerosis. Discriminant analysis showed that the dynamic parameters of rewarming (Tlag, Gmax, and R%) showed greater variation between the patients with primary Raynaud's phenomenon and those with Raynaud's phenomenon associated with systemic sclerosis than did Tpre or T0. This method of analysis of cold challenge will be used in studies of the effects of treatment of Raynaud's phenomenon. PMID:1466594

  1. High Temperature Aerogels in the Al2O3-SiO2 System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurwitz, Frances I.; Aranda, Denisse V.; Gallagher, Meghan E.

    2008-01-01

    Al2O3-SiO2 aerogels are of interest as constituents of thermal insulation systems for use at high temperatures. Al2O3 and mullite aerogels are expected to crystallize at higher temperatures than their SiO2 counterparts, hence avoiding the shrinkages that accompany the formation of lower temperature SiO2 phases and preserving pore structures into higher temperature regimes. The objective of this work is to determine the influence of processing parameters on shrinkage, gel structure (including surface area, pore size and distribution) and pyrolysis behavior.

  2. Direct Evidence of Nanometric Invasionlike Grain Boundary Penetration in the Al/Ga System

    SciTech Connect

    Pereiro-Lopez, E.; Cloetens, P.; Ludwig, W.; Bellet, D.; Lemaignan, C.

    2005-11-18

    We report the first in situ results of deformation during grain boundary penetration in the Al/Ga system, obtained with a novel, nondestructive hard x-ray synchrotron projection microscopy technique. Focusing the beam to a state-of-the-art spot size of 90x90 nm{sup 2}, we demonstrate that penetration is accompanied by continuous relative separation of the Al grains of the same final amplitude as the final Ga layer thickness in the absence of external stress. The formation of nanometric intergranular liquid layers is originated by a crack propagation process and inherently implies the presence of weak stress levels.

  3. Top-level modeling of an als system utilizing object-oriented techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, L. F.; Kang, S.; Ting, K. C.

    The possible configuration of an Advanced Life Support (ALS) System capable of supporting human life for long-term space missions continues to evolve as researchers investigate potential technologies and configurations. To facilitate the decision process the development of acceptable, flexible, and dynamic mathematical computer modeling tools capable of system level analysis is desirable. Object-oriented techniques have been adopted to develop a dynamic top-level model of an ALS system.This approach has several advantages; among these, object-oriented abstractions of systems are inherently modular in architecture. Thus, models can initially be somewhat simplistic, while allowing for adjustments and improvements. In addition, by coding the model in Java, the model can be implemented via the World Wide Web, greatly encouraging the utilization of the model. Systems analysis is further enabled with the utilization of a readily available backend database containing information supporting the model. The subsystem models of the ALS system model include Crew, Biomass Production, Waste Processing and Resource Recovery, Food Processing and Nutrition, and the Interconnecting Space. Each subsystem model and an overall model have been developed. Presented here is the procedure utilized to develop the modeling tool, the vision of the modeling tool, and the current focus for each of the subsystem models.

  4. Comparison of the King’s and MiToS staging systems for ALS

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Ton; Al Khleifat, Ahmad; Stahl, Daniel R; Lazo La Torre, Claudia; Murphy, Caroline; Young, Carolyn; Shaw, Pamela J; Leigh, P Nigel; Al-Chalabi, Ammar

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To investigate and compare two ALS staging systems, King’s clinical staging and Milano-Torino (MiToS) functional staging, using data from the LiCALS phase III clinical trial (EudraCT 2008-006891-31). Methods: Disease stage was derived retrospectively for each system from the ALS Functional Rating Scale-Revised subscores using standard methods. The two staging methods were then compared for timing of stages using box plots, correspondence using chi-square tests, agreement using a linearly weighted kappa coefficient and concordance using Spearman’s rank correlation. Results: For both systems, progressively higher stages occurred at progressively later proportions of the disease course, but the distribution differed between the two methods. King’s stage 3 corresponded to MiToS stage 1 most frequently, with earlier King’s stages 1 and 2 largely corresponding to MiToS stage 0 or 1. The Spearman correlation was 0.54. There was fair agreement between the two systems with kappa coefficient of 0.21. Conclusion: The distribution of timings shows that the two systems are complementary, with King’s staging showing greatest resolution in early to mid-disease corresponding to clinical or disease burden, and MiToS staging having higher resolution for late disease, corresponding to functional involvement. We therefore propose using both staging systems when describing ALS. PMID:28054828

  5. Comparison of the King's and MiToS staging systems for ALS.

    PubMed

    Fang, Ton; Al Khleifat, Ahmad; Stahl, Daniel R; Lazo La Torre, Claudia; Murphy, Caroline; Young, Carolyn; Shaw, Pamela J; Leigh, P Nigel; Al-Chalabi, Ammar

    2017-05-01

    To investigate and compare two ALS staging systems, King's clinical staging and Milano-Torino (MiToS) functional staging, using data from the LiCALS phase III clinical trial (EudraCT 2008-006891-31). Disease stage was derived retrospectively for each system from the ALS Functional Rating Scale-Revised subscores using standard methods. The two staging methods were then compared for timing of stages using box plots, correspondence using chi-square tests, agreement using a linearly weighted kappa coefficient and concordance using Spearman's rank correlation. For both systems, progressively higher stages occurred at progressively later proportions of the disease course, but the distribution differed between the two methods. King's stage 3 corresponded to MiToS stage 1 most frequently, with earlier King's stages 1 and 2 largely corresponding to MiToS stage 0 or 1. The Spearman correlation was 0.54. There was fair agreement between the two systems with kappa coefficient of 0.21. The distribution of timings shows that the two systems are complementary, with King's staging showing greatest resolution in early to mid-disease corresponding to clinical or disease burden, and MiToS staging having higher resolution for late disease, corresponding to functional involvement. We therefore propose using both staging systems when describing ALS.

  6. The Microstructure-Processing-Property Relationships in an Al Matrix Composite System Reinforced by Al-Cu-Fe Alloy Particles

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Fei

    2004-01-01

    Metal matrix composites (MMC), especially Al matrix composites, received a lot of attention during many years of research because of their promise for the development of automotive and aerospace materials with improved properties and performance, such as lighter weight and better structural properties, improved thermal conductivity and wear resistance. In order to make the MMC materials more viable in various applications, current research efforts on the MMCs should continue to focus on two important aspects, including improving the properties of MMCs and finding more economical techniques to produce MMCs. Solid state vacuum sintering was studied in tap densified Al powder and in hot quasi-isostatically forged samples composed of commercial inert gas atomized or high purity Al powder, generated by a gas atomization reaction synthesis (GARS) technique. The GARS process results in spherical Al powder with a far thinner surface oxide. The overall results indicated the enhanced ability of GARS-processed Al and Al alloy powders for solid state sintering, which may lead to simplification of current Al powder consolidation processing methods. Elemental Al-based composites reinforced with spherical Al-Cu-Fe alloy powders were produced by quasi-isostatic forging and vacuum hot pressing (VHP) consolidation methods. Microstructures and tensile properties of AYAl-Cu-Fe composites were characterized. It was proved that spherical Al-Cu-Fe alloy powders can serve as an effective reinforcement particulate for elemental Al-based composites, because of their high hardness and a preferred type of matrix/reinforcement interfacial bonding, with reduced strain concentration around the particles. Ultimate tensile strength and yield strength of the composites were increased over the corresponding Al matrix values, far beyond typical observations. This remarkable strengthening was achieved without precipitation hardening and without severe strain hardening during consolidation because of

  7. RASC-AL (Revolutionary Aerospace Systems Concepts-Academic Linkage): 2002 Advanced Concept Design Presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Revolutionary Aerospace Systems Concepts-Academic Linkage (RASC-AL) is a program of the Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI) in collaboration with the Universities Space Research Association's (USRA) ICASE institute through the NASA Langley Research Center. The RASC-AL key objectives are to develop relationships between universities and NASA that lead to opportunities for future NASA research and programs, and to develop aerospace systems concepts and technology requirements to enable future NASA missions. The program seeks to look decades into the future to explore new mission capabilities and discover what's possible. NASA seeks concepts and technologies that can make it possible to go anywhere, at anytime, safely, reliably, and affordably to accomplish strategic goals for science, exploration, and commercialization. University teams were invited to submit research topics from the following themes: Human and Robotic Space Exploration, Orbital Aggregation & Space Infrastructure Systems (OASIS), Zero-Emissions Aircraft, and Remote Sensing. RASC-AL is an outgrowth of the HEDS-UP (University Partners) Program sponsored by the LPI. HEDS-UP was a program of the Lunar and Planetary Institute designed to link universities with NASA's Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) enterprise. The first RASC-AL Forum was held November 5-8, 2002, at the Hilton Cocoa Beach Oceanfront Hotel in Cocoa Beach, Florida. Representatives from 10 university teams presented student research design projects at this year's Forum. Each team contributed a written report and these reports are presented.

  8. Primary-secondary pumping conversion: Retrofit of an existing campus chilled water distribution system

    SciTech Connect

    Sczomak, D.P.; Nguyen, P.N.

    1996-08-01

    The chilled water distribution system within an existing 8,300 ton (29,200 kW) capacity regional chilled water plant at Michigan State University (MSU) is being converted from a primary pumping arrangement to a primary-secondary arrangement. The plant presently provides chilled water for air conditioning to twelve remote buildings. In the future, MSU plans to increase the plant`s capacity to 10,800 tons (38,000 kW) in order to serve seven more buildings. The addition of buildings to the distribution system has caused the existing primary pumps to be incapable of producing enough pressure to offset system losses at design flow rates. The existing system has become unable to concurrently provide adequate flow, design supply water temperature and efficient chiller operation due to the distribution system deficiencies. The primary-secondary pumping conversion will include modifications to the distribution piping, the addition of five variable speed secondary pumps, additions and modifications to the control systems, the trimming of impellers on six of the existing primary pumps and replacement of two primary pumps. The campus central control system will be utilized to provide automatic chiller staging, interface with the packaged secondary pump control systems, and control of the building interconnections. The total construction cost is approximately $1,400,000 and is scheduled for completion prior to the 1996 cooling season. Provisions have been made for two additional secondary pumps to accommodate the connection of additional buildings to the distribution system in the future.

  9. 75 FR 36689 - United States, et al. v. Election Systems & Software, Inc.; Public Comments and Response on...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-28

    ... Antitrust Division United States, et al. v. Election Systems & Software, Inc.; Public Comments and Response... United States, et al. v. Election Systems & Software Inc., Case No. 1:10-00380-JDB, which were filed in.... Election Systems and Software, Inc., Defendant. Case No.: 1:10-cv-00380 Judge: Bates, John D. Deck...

  10. Ultrasound assisted combustion synthesis of TiC in Al-Ti-C system.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhiwei; Rakita, Milan; Xu, Wilson; Wang, Xiaoming; Han, Qingyou

    2015-11-01

    This research investigated the effects of high-intensity ultrasound on the combustion synthesis of TiC particles in Al-Ti-C system. The process involved that high-intensity ultrasound was applied on the surface of a compacted Al-Ti-C pellet directly through a Nb probe during the thermal explosion reaction. By comparing with the sample without ultrasonic treatment, it was found that the thermal explosion reaction for synthesizing TiC phase could take place thoroughly in the ultrasonically treated sample. During the process of synthesizing TiC phase, the dissolution of solid graphite particles into the Al-Ti melt, as well as the nucleation and growth of TiC particles could be promoted effectively due to the effects of ultrasound, leading to an enhancement of the formation of TiC particles. Ultrasound assisted combustion synthesis as a simple and effective approach was proposed for synthesizing materials in this research.

  11. The growth of Au/Pd/alumina/Cu Al system studied by SRPES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemšák, Slavomír; Libra, Jiří; Skála, Tomáš; Mašek, Karel; Škoda, Michal; Cabala, Miloš; Matolín, Vladimír

    2008-05-01

    An ultra-thin alumina layer grown on Cu-9at.%Al (1 1 1) surface was studied using synchrotron radiation photoelectron spectroscopy (SRPES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and low energy electron diffraction (LEED). By deconvolving SRPES spectra of the Al 2p doublet, four components belonging to metallic as well as oxide phases were recognized. Pd-Au alloy formation was confirmed by SRPES measurement during Pd and Au deposition. The study of the system's thermal stability reveals diffusion of Pd and Au atoms through the alumina layer. While Au atoms start to diffuse under the alumina layer at 670 K, Pd atoms are forming Pd-Al surface alloy at this temperature. The diffusion of Pd atoms through alumina occurs when sample was heated over 770 K. Alumina layer was stable even after heating the sample at 870 K, but its structure was corrupted probably due to the diffusion of metal atoms.

  12. A new ordered tetragonal phase in the Ti3Al+Nb system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsiung, L. M.; Wadley, H. N. G.

    1992-01-01

    Results are reported from an experimental study of phase stability in a plasma-sprayed Ti3Al+Nb alloy using TEM and electron diffraction techniques. The alloys was produced from Ti3Al+Nb powder via an inductively coupled plasma deposition process. Evidence was found for the ordering of the B2 phase to a structure similar to the DO3-type phase, but with a tetragonal distortion. An ordered tetragonal phase (T) is proposed to account for these observations, and the existence of the B2 - T ordering transformation in the Ti3Al+Nb system is suggested. The T phase can be regarded as a DO3-like phase with a tetragonal distortion. The tegragonality c0/a0 is approximately equal to 1.02, and a0 equals 0.65 +/-0.01 nm.

  13. Intention and Usage of Computer Based Information Systems in Primary Health Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosizah; Kuntoro; Basuki N., Hari

    2016-01-01

    The computer-based information system (CBIS) is adopted by almost all of in health care setting, including the primary health center in East Java Province Indonesia. Some of softwares available were SIMPUS, SIMPUSTRONIK, SIKDA Generik, e-puskesmas. Unfortunately they were most of the primary health center did not successfully implemented. This…

  14. Current Management of Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, Christopher J.; Bovi, Joseph

    2010-03-01

    Primary central nervous cell lymphoma (PCNSL) is an uncommon neoplasm of the brain, leptomeninges, and rarely the spinal cord. Initially thought to be characteristically associated with congenital, iatrogenic, or acquired immunosuppression, PCNSL is now recognized with increasing frequency in immunocompetent individuals. The role of surgery is limited to establishing diagnosis, as PCNSL is often multifocal with a propensity to involve the subarachnoid space. A whole-brain radiation volume has empirically been used to adequately address the multifocal tumor frequently encountered at the time of PCNSL diagnosis. Despite high rates of response after whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT), rapid recurrence is common and long-term survival is the exception. Chemotherapy alone or in combination with WBRT has more recently become the treatment of choice. Most effective regimens contain high-dose methotrexate and or other agents that are capable of penetrating the blood-brain barrier. High response rates and improved survival with the use of chemotherapy has led to treatment strategies that defer or eliminate WBRT in hopes of lessening the risk of neurotoxicity attributed to WBRT. Unfortunately, elimination of WBRT is also associated with a higher rate of relapse. Combined chemotherapy and WBRT regimens are now being explored that use lower total doses of radiation and altered fractionation schedules with the aim of maintaining high rates of tumor control while minimizing neurotoxicity. Pretreatment, multifactor prognostic indices have recently been described that may allow selection of treatment regimens that strike an appropriate balance of risk and benefit for the individual PCNSL patient.

  15. Implementation of an integrated primary care cardiometabolic risk prevention and management network in Montréal: does greater coordination of care with primary care physicians have an impact on health outcomes?

    PubMed Central

    Sylvie, Provost; Raynald, Pineault; Dominique, Grimard; José, Pérez; Michel, Fournier; Yves, Lévesque; Johanne, Desforges; Pierre, Tousignant; Roxane, Borgès Da Silva

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Chronic disease management requires substantial services integration. A cardiometabolic risk management program inspired by the Chronic Care Model was implemented in Montréal for patients with diabetes or hypertension. One of this study’s objectives was to assess the impact of care coordination between the interdisciplinary teams and physicians on patient participation in the program, lifestyle improvements and disease control. Methods: We obtained data on health outcomes from a register of clinical data, questionnaires completed by patients upon entry into the program and at the 12-month mark, and we drew information on the program’s characteristics from the implementation analysis. We conducted multiple regression analyses, controlling for patient sociodemographic and health characteristics, to measure the association between interdisciplinary team coordination with primary care physicians and various health outcomes. Results: A total of 1689 patients took part in the study (60.1% participation rate). Approximately 40% of patients withdrew from the program during the first year. At the 12-month follow-up (n = 992), we observed a significant increase in the proportion of patients achieving the various clinical targets. The perception by the interdisciplinary team of greater care coordination with primary care physicians was associated with increased participation in the program and the achievement of better clinical results. Conclusion: Greater coordination of patient services between interdisciplinary teams and primary care physicians translates into benefits for patients. PMID:28402799

  16. Rate and correlates of depression among elderly people attending primary health care centres in Al-Dakhiliyah governorate, Oman.

    PubMed

    Al-Sabahi, S M; Al Sinawi, H N; Al-Hinai, S S; Youssef, R M

    2014-04-03

    This study determined the rates and correlates of depression among community-dwelling elderly people, based on data from the comprehensive health assessment conducted in Al-Dakhiliyah governorate in Oman in 2008-2010. Data covered sociodemographic characteristics, medical and nutrition status, functional abilities, depression and dementia. The rate of depression was 16.9%, higher among women than men (19.3% versus 14.3%). Depression was independently predicted by the presence of social risk (OR = 3.44), dementia (OR = 3.17), impairment in activities of daily living (OR = 2.19), joint problems (OR = 1.52) and mobility restriction (OR = 1.43). If dementia was excluded from the model, depression was additionally predicted by poor perception of health (OR = 2.09), impairment in instrumental activities of daily living (OR = 1.47) and older ages of 70-< 80 years (OR = 1.63) and ≥ 80 years (OR = 1.75). Although not presenting as a complaint, depression in not uncommon among elderly people.

  17. Assessing & Developing Primary Care for Children: Reforms in Health Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grason, Holly Allen, Ed.; Guyer, Bernard, Ed.

    This publication is a compilation of papers presented at an April 1994 workshop sponsored by the National Center for Education in Maternal and Child Health and the Bureau-funded Johns Hopkins Child and Adolescent Health Policy Center (CAHPC). The papers are as follows: (1) "Defining the Issues and Planning for Change: Health Care Systems,…

  18. Progress in systemic chemotherapy of primary breast cancer: an overview.

    PubMed

    Hortobagyi, G N

    2001-01-01

    Substantial progress has been made in the multidisciplinary management of primary breast cancer during the last 30 years. Adjuvant chemotherapy has been shown to significantly reduce the annual risk of cancer recurrence and mortality, and these effects persist even 15 years after diagnosis. Combination chemotherapy is superior to single-agent therapy and anthracycline-containing regimens. Those that combine an anthracycline with 5-fluorouracil and cyclophosphamide are more effective than regimens without an anthracycline. Six cycles of a single regimen appear to provide optimal benefit. Dose reductions below the standard range are associated with inferior results. Dose increases that require growth factor or hematopoietic stem cell support are under investigation; at this time, the existing results provide no compelling reason to use this strategy outside a clinical trial. Regimens using fixed crossover designs with two non-cross-resistant regimens are being evaluated. The addition of a taxane to anthracycline-containing regimens is currently under intense scrutiny, and preliminary analysis of the first three clinical trials has shown encouraging, albeit not compelling, results. For patients with estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer, the sequential administration of chemotherapy and 5 years of tamoxifen therapy provides additive benefits. No compelling evidence exists to combine ovarian ablation with chemotherapy. Most side effects and toxic effects are self-limited, although premature menopause requires monitoring and preventive interventions to preserve bone mineral density. The small risk of acute leukemia is of concern, and additional research to develop safer regimens is clearly indicated. The overall effect of optimal local/regional treatment combined with an anthracycline-containing adjuvant chemotherapy and a taxane (and, for patients with estrogen receptor-positive tumors, 5 years of tamoxifen therapy) is a greater than 50% reduction in annual risks of

  19. Simulation of primary-slag melting behavior in the cohesive zone of a blast furnace, considering the effect of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Fe{sub t}O, and basicity in the sinter ore

    SciTech Connect

    Hino, Mitsutaka; Nagasaka, Tetsuya; Katsumata, Akitoshi; Higuchi, Kenichi; Yamaguchi, Kazuyoshi; Kon-No, Norimitsu

    1999-08-01

    The alumina content in the iron ore imported to Japan is increasing year by year, and some problems in blast furnace operation, due to the use of the high-alumina-containing sinter, have already been reported. In order to clarify the mechanism of the harmful effect of alumina on the blast furnace operation, the behavior of the primary melt, which is formed in the sinter at the cohesive zone of the blast furnace, has been simulated by dripping slag through an iron or oxide funnel. The effects of basicity, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and Fe{sub t}O contents in the five slag systems on the dripping temperature and weight of slag remaining on the funnel have been discussed. It was found that the eutectic melt formed in the sinter would play an important role in the dripping behavior of the slag in the blast furnace through the fine porosity of the reduced iron and ore particles. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} increased the weight of the slag remaining on the funnel, and its effect became very significant in the acidic and low-Fe{sub t}O-containing slag. It was estimated that the increase of the weight of the slag remaining on the funnel by Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} in the ore could result in a harmful effect on the permeability resistance and an indirect reduction rate of the sinter in the blast furnace.

  20. The development process for the space shuttle primary avionics software system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, T. W.

    1987-01-01

    Primary avionics software system; software development approach; user support and problem diagnosis; software releases and configuration; quality/productivity programs; and software development/production facilities are addressed. Also examined are the external evaluations of the IBM process.

  1. Quasiparticle band structure for the Hubbard systems: Application to. alpha. -CeAl sub 2

    SciTech Connect

    Costa-Quintana, J.; Lopez-Aguilar, F. ); Balle, S. ); Salvador, R. Supercomputer Computations Research Institute, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida 32306-4052 )

    1990-04-01

    A self-energy formalism for determining the quasiparticle band structure of the Hubbard systems is deduced. The self-energy is obtained from the dynamically screened Coulomb interaction whose bare value is the correlation energy {ital U}. A method for integrating the Schroedingerlike equation with the self-energy operator is given. The method is applied to the cubic Laves phase of {alpha}-CeAl{sub 2} because it is a clear Hubbard system with a very complex electronic structure and, moreover, this system provides us with sufficient experimental data for testing our method.

  2. Venous thromboembolism in systemic autoimmune diseases: A narrative review with emphasis on primary systemic vasculitides.

    PubMed

    Tamaki, Hiromichi; Khasnis, Atul

    2015-08-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a prevalent multifactorial health condition associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Population-based epidemiological studies have revealed an association between systemic autoimmune diseases and deep venous thrombosis (DVT)/VTE. The etiopathogenesis of increased risk of VTE in systemic autoimmune diseases is not entirely clear but multiple contributors have been explored, especially in the context of systemic inflammation and disordered thrombogenesis. Epidemiologic data on increased risk of VTE in patients with primary systemic vasculitides (PSV) have accumulated in recent years and some of these studies suggest the increased risk while patients have active diseases. This could lead us to hypothesize that venous vascular inflammation has a role to play in this phenomenon, but this is unproven. The role of immunosuppressive agents in modulating the risk of VTE in patients with PSV is not yet clear except for Behçet's disease, where most of the studies are retrospective. Sensitizing physicians to this complication has implications for prevention and optimal management of patients with these complex diseases. This review will focus on the epidemiology and available evidence regarding pathogenesis, and will attempt to summarize the best available data regarding evaluation and treatment of these patients.

  3. Heterogeneous distribution of 26Al at the birth of the solar system: Evidence from refractory grains and inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krot, A. N.; Makide, K.; Nagashima, K.; Huss, G. R.; Ogliore, R. C.; Ciesla, F. J.; Yang, L.; Hellebrand, E.; Gaidos, E.

    2012-12-01

    Abstract-We review recent results on O- and Mg-isotope compositions of refractory grains (corundum, hibonite) and calcium, aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) from unequilibrated ordinary and carbonaceous chondrites. We show that these refractory objects originated in the presence of nebular gas enriched in 16O to varying degrees relative to the standard mean ocean water value: the Δ17OSMOW value ranges from approximately -16‰ to -35‰, and recorded heterogeneous distribution of 26<span class="hlt">Al</span> in their formation region: the inferred (26<span class="hlt">Al</span>/27<span class="hlt">Al</span>)0 ranges from approximately 6.5 × 10-5 to <2 × 10-6. There is no correlation between O- and Mg-isotope compositions of the refractory objects: 26<span class="hlt">Al</span>-rich and 26<span class="hlt">Al</span>-poor refractory objects have similar O-isotope compositions. We suggest that 26<span class="hlt">Al</span> was injected into the 26<span class="hlt">Al</span>-poor collapsing protosolar molecular cloud core, possibly by a wind from a neighboring massive star, and was later homogenized in the protoplanetary disk by radial mixing, possibly at the canonical value of 26<span class="hlt">Al</span>/27<span class="hlt">Al</span> ratio (approximately 5 × 10-5). The 26<span class="hlt">Al</span>-rich and 26<span class="hlt">Al</span>-poor refractory grains and inclusions represent different generations of refractory objects, which formed prior to and during the injection and homogenization of 26<span class="hlt">Al</span>. Thus, the duration of formation of refractory grains and CAIs cannot be inferred from their 26<span class="hlt">Al</span>-26Mg systematics, and the canonical (26<span class="hlt">Al</span>/27<span class="hlt">Al</span>)0 does not represent the initial abundance of 26<span class="hlt">Al</span> in the solar <span class="hlt">system</span>; instead, it may or may not represent the average abundance of 26<span class="hlt">Al</span> in the fully formed disk. The latter depends on the formation time of CAIs with the canonical 26<span class="hlt">Al</span>/27<span class="hlt">Al</span> ratio relative to the timing of complete delivery of stellar 26<span class="hlt">Al</span> to the solar <span class="hlt">system</span>, and the degree of its subsequent homogenization in the disk. The injection of material containing 26<span class="hlt">Al</span> resulted in no observable changes in O-isotope composition of the solar <span class="hlt">system</span>. Instead, the variations in O-isotope compositions between individual</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19800047753&hterms=aloe&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Daloe','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19800047753&hterms=aloe&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Daloe"><span><span class="hlt">Al</span>-26 from red giants. [connections with anomalous Mg-26 content in meteorites and solar <span class="hlt">system</span> formation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Norgaard, H.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>Simplified models of thermally pulsing red giants are investigated, with particular emphasis on predicting the extent to which nuclear processing at the base of the convective envelope in conjunction with processing in the thermally unstable He shell can synthesize <span class="hlt">Al</span>-26 (tau/1/2/ = 7.2 x 10 to the 5th yr). Values of <span class="hlt">Al</span>-26/<span class="hlt">Al</span>-27 of about 0.5-1, with <span class="hlt">Al</span>-27/<span class="hlt">Al</span>-27(solar) of about 1-2, are predicted in some cases. It is pointed out that such results can lead to isotope shifts in the absorption lines of <span class="hlt">Al</span>H and <span class="hlt">Al</span>O, which should be observationally identifiable in some late-type supergiants. The possible connection with the anomalous Mg-26 content (assigned to the decay of <span class="hlt">Al</span>-26) detected in some meteorites and the connection with formation of the solar <span class="hlt">system</span> are also touched on.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19800047753&hterms=red+shift&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dred%2Bshift','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19800047753&hterms=red+shift&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dred%2Bshift"><span><span class="hlt">Al</span>-26 from red giants. [connections with anomalous Mg-26 content in meteorites and solar <span class="hlt">system</span> formation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Norgaard, H.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>Simplified models of thermally pulsing red giants are investigated, with particular emphasis on predicting the extent to which nuclear processing at the base of the convective envelope in conjunction with processing in the thermally unstable He shell can synthesize <span class="hlt">Al</span>-26 (tau/1/2/ = 7.2 x 10 to the 5th yr). Values of <span class="hlt">Al</span>-26/<span class="hlt">Al</span>-27 of about 0.5-1, with <span class="hlt">Al</span>-27/<span class="hlt">Al</span>-27(solar) of about 1-2, are predicted in some cases. It is pointed out that such results can lead to isotope shifts in the absorption lines of <span class="hlt">Al</span>H and <span class="hlt">Al</span>O, which should be observationally identifiable in some late-type supergiants. The possible connection with the anomalous Mg-26 content (assigned to the decay of <span class="hlt">Al</span>-26) detected in some meteorites and the connection with formation of the solar <span class="hlt">system</span> are also touched on.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/81737','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/81737"><span>A novel <span class="hlt">primary</span> <span class="hlt">system</span> for compressible flow calibration uncertainty analysis for the preliminary design</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kegel, T.</p> <p>1995-08-01</p> <p>The operation of a <span class="hlt">primary</span> <span class="hlt">system</span> for compressible flow calibration is typically based on either a gravimetric or volumetric method of mass determination. The gravimetric method provides direct determination of mass while the volumetric method utilizes measurements of density and volume. This paper describes the preliminary design of a <span class="hlt">primary</span> <span class="hlt">system</span> that features both gravimetric and volumetric mass determination. The emphasis is on the presentation of an uncertainty analysis procedure to be used for preliminary design decisions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21494107','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21494107"><span>A new phase in the <span class="hlt">system</span> lithium-aluminum: Characterization of orthorhombic Li{sub 2}<span class="hlt">Al</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Puhakainen, Kati; Bostroem, Magnus; Groy, Thomas L.; Haeussermann, Ulrich</p> <p>2010-11-15</p> <p>Investigation of the Li rich part of the binary Li-<span class="hlt">Al</span> <span class="hlt">system</span> revealed the existence of a new phase, orthorhombic Li{sub 2}<span class="hlt">Al</span>, which is isostructural to Li{sub 2}Ga and Li{sub 2}In. The crystal structure was determined from single crystal X-ray diffraction data (Cmcm, a=4.658(2) A, b=9.767(4) A, c=4.490(2) A, Z=4). Refinement of atomic position site occupancies yielded a composition Li{sub 1.92}<span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 1.08} (64 at% Li) indicating a small homogeneity range, Li{sub 2-x}<span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 1+x}. Li{sub 2}<span class="hlt">Al</span> is the peritectic decomposition product of the stoichiometric compound Li{sub 9}<span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 4}, which is stable below 270{+-}2 {sup o}C. Li{sub 2}<span class="hlt">Al</span> itself decomposes peritectically to Li{sub 3}<span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 2} and Li rich melt at 335{+-}2 {sup o}C. The discovery of Li{sub 2}<span class="hlt">Al</span> (Li{sub 2-x}<span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 1+x}) settles a long standing inconsistency in the Li-<span class="hlt">Al</span> phase diagram which was based on the assumption that Li{sub 9}<span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 4} possesses a high temperature modification. - Graphical abstract: A new phase, Li{sub 2}<span class="hlt">Al</span>, has been discovered in the binary Li-<span class="hlt">Al</span> <span class="hlt">system</span>. The structure of orthorhombic Li{sub 2}<span class="hlt">Al</span> is closely related to that of the established monoclinic phase Li{sub 9}<span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 4}.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24732871','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24732871"><span>Peripheral neuropathy in <span class="hlt">primary</span> HIV infection associates with <span class="hlt">systemic</span> and central nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> immune activation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Samantha X Y; Ho, Emily L; Grill, Marie; Lee, Evelyn; Peterson, Julia; Robertson, Kevin; Fuchs, Dietmar; Sinclair, Elizabeth; Price, Richard W; Spudich, Serena</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>Peripheral neuropathy (PN) is a frequent complication of chronic HIV infection. We prospectively studied individuals with <span class="hlt">primary</span> HIV infection (<1 year after transmission) to assess the presence of and laboratory associations with PN in this early stage. Standardized examination and analysis of blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was performed in participants with laboratory-confirmed <span class="hlt">primary</span> HIV infection. PN was defined as ≥1 of the following unilateral or bilateral signs: decreased distal limb position, vibration, or temperature sense or hyporeflexia; symptomatic PN (SPN) was defined as the presence of these signs with symptoms. Analysis used nonparametric statistics. Overall, 20 (35%) of 58 antiretroviral-naive male subjects without diabetes evaluated at a median of 107 days post HIV transmission met criteria for PN. Thirteen (65%) of 20 PN subjects met criteria for SPN; 6 (30%) of 20 had bilateral findings. PN subjects and no PN subjects (NPN) did not differ in median age, days post HIV transmission, blood CD4 or CD8 counts, CSF or plasma HIV RNA levels, CSF white blood cell counts, or CSF to blood albumin ratio. PN and SPN subjects had elevated CSF neopterin (P = 0.003 and P = 0.0005), CSF monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (P = 0.006 and P = 0.01), and blood neopterin (P = 0.006 and P = 0.009) compared with NPN subjects. PN subjects had a higher percentage of activated phenotype CSF CD8 T lymphocytes than NPN subjects (P = 0.009). Signs of PN were detected by detailed neurologic examination in 35% of men enrolled in a neurological study at a median of 3.5 months after HIV transmission. PN during this early period may be mediated by <span class="hlt">systemic</span> and nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> immune responses to HIV.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19760050746&hterms=frictions+metal&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dfrictions%2Bmetal','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19760050746&hterms=frictions+metal&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dfrictions%2Bmetal"><span>Effect of adsorbed films on friction of <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3-metal <span class="hlt">systems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Pepper, S. V.</p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>The kinetic friction of polycrystalline <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 sliding on Cu, Ni, and Fe in ultrahigh vacuum was studied as a function of the surface chemistry of the metal. Clean metal surfaces were exposed to O2, Cl2, C2H4, and C2H3Cl, and the change in friction due to the adsorbed species was observed. Auger electron spectroscopy assessed the elemental composition of the metal surface. It was found that the <span class="hlt">systems</span> exposed to Cl2 exhibited low friction, interpreted as the van der Waals force between the <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 and metal chloride. The generation of metal oxide by oxygen exposures resulted in an increase in friction, interpreted as due to strong interfacial bonds established by reaction of metal oxide with <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 to form the complex oxide (spinel). The only effect of C2H4 was to increase the friction of the Fe <span class="hlt">system</span>, but C2H3Cl exposures decreases friction in both Ni and Fe <span class="hlt">systems</span>, indicating the dominance of the chlorine over the ethylene complex on the surface</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4825311','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4825311"><span>Clinical profile and treatment outcome of older (>75 years) patients with <span class="hlt">systemic</span> <span class="hlt">AL</span> amyloidosis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Sachchithanantham, Sajitha; Offer, Mark; Venner, Christopher; Mahmood, Shameem A.; Foard, Darren; Rannigan, Lisa; Lane, Thirusha; Gillmore, Julian D.; Lachmann, Helen J.; Hawkins, Philip N.; Wechalekar, Ashutosh D.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Systemic</span> <span class="hlt">AL</span> amyloidosis, a disease with improving outcomes using novel therapies, is increasingly recognized in the elderly but treatment and outcomes have not been systematically studied in this group of patients in whom comorbidities and frailty may compound morbidity and mortality. We report the outcomes of 295 patients with <span class="hlt">systemic</span> <span class="hlt">AL</span> amyloidosis ≥75 years seen at the UK National Amyloidosis Centre from 2005–2012. The median age was 78.5 years. The median overall survival was 20 months. Two hundred and thirty-eight patients received chemotherapy and 57 elected for supportive care only (overall survival – 24 and 8.4 months, respectively). On intention-to-treat analysis, 44% achieved a hematologic response including a very good partial response or better in 23%. The median overall survival was 6.2 years in patients achieving very good partial response or better at the 6-month landmark analysis and 1.5 years in non-responders. Factors independently indicating a poor prognosis were: cardiac involvement, performance status ≥2; systolic blood pressure <100 mmHg and, on landmark analysis, achieving less than a very good partial response. Treatment of <span class="hlt">systemic</span> <span class="hlt">AL</span> amyloidosis in the elderly is challenging. Deep clonal responses are associated with excellent survival and organ responses. Achieving a response to the first-line regimen appears particularly important as outcomes of non-responders are similar to those of untreated patients. Prospective trials with lower toxicity, outpatient treatment regimens are needed. PMID:26294730</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100029536','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100029536"><span>Space Shuttle Program <span class="hlt">Primary</span> Avionics Software <span class="hlt">System</span> (PASS) Success Legacy - Quality and Reliability Date</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Orr, James K.; Peltier, Daryl</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Thsi slide presentation reviews the avionics software <span class="hlt">system</span> on board the space shuttle, with particular emphasis on the quality and reliability. The <span class="hlt">Primary</span> Avionics Software <span class="hlt">System</span> (PASS) provides automatic and fly-by-wire control of critical shuttle <span class="hlt">systems</span> which executes in redundant computers. Charts given show the number of space shuttle flights vs time, PASS's development history, and other charts that point to the reliability of the <span class="hlt">system</span>'s development. The reliability of the <span class="hlt">system</span> is also compared to predicted reliability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006PSSAR.203.2581J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006PSSAR.203.2581J"><span>Real-time investigations of selenization reactions in the <span class="hlt">system</span> Cu-In-<span class="hlt">Al</span>-Se</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jost, Stefan; Hergert, Frank; Hock, Rainer; Purwins, Michael; Enderle, Ralph</p> <p>2006-09-01</p> <p>In this article we present results of a detailed study of selenization reactions in the quaternary <span class="hlt">system</span> Cu-In-<span class="hlt">Al</span>-Se and of the binary subsystem aluminum-selenium. The investigation of solid-state reactions involved in the formation of the compound semiconductor Cu(In,<span class="hlt">Al</span>)Se2 was performed using real-time X-ray diffraction (XRD) with a time resolution of 22.5 s while annealing an elemental layer stack of the metals covered with selenium. A temperature-resolved phase analysis shows that the formation of the semiconductor takes place via metal-selenides. Ex-situ XRD measurements of the processed thin films show a phase segregation concerning the aluminum content of the formed chalcopyrite. Subsequent Rietveld-refinement of real-time measurements reveals a formation reaction of the quaternary semiconductor Cu(In,<span class="hlt">Al</span>)Se2 from the -In2Se3 related crystal structure of (<span class="hlt">Al</span>,In)2Se3 and Cu2Se as educts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JAP...120t5304L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JAP...120t5304L"><span>Structural and thermoelectric properties of SiGe/<span class="hlt">Al</span> multilayer <span class="hlt">systems</span> during metal induced crystallization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lindorf, M.; Rohrmann, H.; Span, G.; Raoux, S.; Jordan-Sweet, J.; Albrecht, M.</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>While the process of metal induced crystallization (MIC) is widely used in the fabrication of thin film electronic devices, its application to the field of thermoelectrics is fairly new. Especially, its implementation in the field of the classic thermoelectric material SiGe could lead to a low cost approach by combining the benefits of low thermal budget, self-doping, and thin film and sputter deposition compatibility. In this work, samples consisting of SiGe/<span class="hlt">Al</span> multilayers deposited on aluminum oxide based substrates have been prepared. Special emphasis was put on the ratio of <span class="hlt">Al</span> to SiGe and the resulting changes in transport properties during annealing. On one hand, a certain amount of <span class="hlt">Al</span> is needed to ensure a complete MIC process for the SiGe, but on the other hand, an excess of <span class="hlt">Al</span> results in a metallic <span class="hlt">system</span> with low thermoelectric efficiency. In-situ characterization during annealing of the samples was carried out via x-ray diffraction, electrical resistivity, and Seebeck measurements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MS%26E..124a2023R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MS%26E..124a2023R"><span>Reliability model of fault-tolerant data processing <span class="hlt">system</span> with <span class="hlt">primary</span> and backup nodes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rahman, P. A.; Bobkova, E. Yu</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>This paper deals with the fault-tolerant data processing <span class="hlt">systems</span>, which are widely used in modern world of information technologies and have acceptable overhead expenses in hardware implementation. A simplified reliability model for duplex <span class="hlt">systems</span> and the offered by authors advanced model for data processing <span class="hlt">systems</span> with <span class="hlt">primary</span> and backup nodes based on a three-state model of recoverable elements, which takes into consideration different failure rates of passive and active nodes and finite time of node activation, are also given. A calculation formula for the availability factor of the dual-node data processing <span class="hlt">system</span> with <span class="hlt">primary</span> and backup nodes and calculation examples are also provided.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010GeCoA..74.4844S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010GeCoA..74.4844S"><span>26<span class="hlt">Al</span>- 26Mg dating of asteroidal magmatism in the young Solar <span class="hlt">System</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schiller, Martin; Baker, Joel A.; Bizzarro, Martin</p> <p>2010-08-01</p> <p>We present high-precision Mg isotope data for most classes of basaltic meteorites including eucrites, mesosiderite silicate clasts, angrites and the ungrouped Northwest Africa (NWA) 2976 measured by pseudo-high-resolution multiple-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and utilising improved techniques for chemical purification of Mg. With the exception of the angrites Angra dos Reis, Lewis Cliff (LEW) 86010, NWA 1296 and NWA 2999 and the diogenite Bilanga, which have either been shown to have young ages by other dating techniques or have low <span class="hlt">Al</span>/Mg ratios, all bulk samples of basaltic meteorites have 26Mg excesses ( δ26Mg=+0.0135 to +0.0392‰). The 26Mg excesses cannot be explained by analytical artefacts, cosmogenic effects or heterogeneity of initial 26<span class="hlt">Al</span>/ 27<span class="hlt">Al</span>, <span class="hlt">Al</span>/Mg ratios or Mg isotopes in asteroidal parent bodies as compared to Earth or chondrites. The 26Mg excesses record asteroidal melting and formation of basaltic magmas with super-chondritic <span class="hlt">Al</span>/Mg and confirm that radioactive decay of short-lived 26<span class="hlt">Al</span> was the <span class="hlt">primary</span> heat source that melted planetesimals. Model 26<span class="hlt">Al</span>- 26Mg ages for magmatism on the eucrite/mesosiderite, angrite and NWA 2976 parent bodies are 2.6-3.2, 3.9-4.1 and 3.5 Myr, respectively, after formation of calcium-aluminium-rich inclusions (CAIs). However, the validity of these model ages depends on whether the elevated <span class="hlt">Al</span>/Mg ratios of basaltic meteorites result from magma ocean evolution on asteroids through fractional crystallisation or directly during partial melting. Mineral isochrons for the angrites Sahara (Sah) 99555 and D'Orbigny, and NWA 2976, yield ages of 5.06-0.05+0.06Myr and 4.86-0.09+0.10Myr, respectively, after CAI formation. Both isochrons have elevated initial δ26Mg values. Given the brecciated and equilibrated texture of NWA 2976 it is probable that its isochron age and elevated initial δ26Mg(+0.0175±0.0034‰) reflects thermal resetting during an impact event and slow cooling on its parent body. However</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4930633','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4930633"><span>Evaluation of <span class="hlt">primary</span> stability of innovated orthodontic miniscrew <span class="hlt">system</span> (STS): An ex-vivo study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Seifi, Massoud</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Background Stability is determined as one of the requirements in use of Temporary Anchorage Devices (TAD) in orthodontics. Miniscrew has been a widely used Bone Anchor. Compared with mini-implant that necessitates osseointegration; mechanical retention is a determining factor for <span class="hlt">primary</span> stability of miniscrew. Studies investigated various ways to increase <span class="hlt">primary</span> stability. The aim of this study is to introduce a new configuration of miniscrew <span class="hlt">system</span> which is believed to obtain more <span class="hlt">primary</span> stability. Material and Methods Freshly ovine mandibles were cut in blocks. Twenty-seven miniscrews (diameter 1.6 × 8 mm; G2, Dual Top Anchor <span class="hlt">System</span>, Jeil Medical, Seoul, Korea) were inserted in the blocks and divided in 2 experimental groups: single miniscrew and the innovated design “Seifi Twin Screw (STS)”. <span class="hlt">Primary</span> stability was evaluated by Periotest “M”® device. Results Independent t-test showed a significant difference between 2 experimental groups in periotest evaluation (p< 0.05). STS demonstrated higher <span class="hlt">primary</span> stability due to its mechanical configuration and design. Conclusions The STS provides higher <span class="hlt">primary</span> stability and was found to be effective in increased success rate of miniscrew <span class="hlt">systems</span> from the standpoint of <span class="hlt">primary</span> stability. Key words:Anchorage procedures, anchorage techniques, orthodontic anchorage procedures, miniscrews, temporary anchorage device. PMID:27398174</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol23/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol23-sec141-544.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol23/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol23-sec141-544.pdf"><span>40 CFR 141.544 - What if my <span class="hlt">system</span> uses chloramines, ozone, or chlorine dioxide for <span class="hlt">primary</span> disinfection?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>..., ozone, or chlorine dioxide for <span class="hlt">primary</span> disinfection? 141.544 Section 141.544 Protection of Environment... Benchmark § 141.544 What if my <span class="hlt">system</span> uses chloramines, ozone, or chlorine dioxide for <span class="hlt">primary</span> disinfection? If your <span class="hlt">system</span> uses chloramines, ozone or chlorine dioxide for <span class="hlt">primary</span> disinfection your <span class="hlt">system</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol22/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol22-sec141-544.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol22/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol22-sec141-544.pdf"><span>40 CFR 141.544 - What if my <span class="hlt">system</span> uses chloramines, ozone, or chlorine dioxide for <span class="hlt">primary</span> disinfection?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>..., ozone, or chlorine dioxide for <span class="hlt">primary</span> disinfection? 141.544 Section 141.544 Protection of Environment... Benchmark § 141.544 What if my <span class="hlt">system</span> uses chloramines, ozone, or chlorine dioxide for <span class="hlt">primary</span> disinfection? If your <span class="hlt">system</span> uses chloramines, ozone or chlorine dioxide for <span class="hlt">primary</span> disinfection your <span class="hlt">system</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol24/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol24-sec141-544.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol24/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol24-sec141-544.pdf"><span>40 CFR 141.544 - What if my <span class="hlt">system</span> uses chloramines, ozone, or chlorine dioxide for <span class="hlt">primary</span> disinfection?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>..., ozone, or chlorine dioxide for <span class="hlt">primary</span> disinfection? 141.544 Section 141.544 Protection of Environment... Benchmark § 141.544 What if my <span class="hlt">system</span> uses chloramines, ozone, or chlorine dioxide for <span class="hlt">primary</span> disinfection? If your <span class="hlt">system</span> uses chloramines, ozone or chlorine dioxide for <span class="hlt">primary</span> disinfection your <span class="hlt">system</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol24/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol24-sec141-544.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol24/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol24-sec141-544.pdf"><span>40 CFR 141.544 - What if my <span class="hlt">system</span> uses chloramines, ozone, or chlorine dioxide for <span class="hlt">primary</span> disinfection?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>..., ozone, or chlorine dioxide for <span class="hlt">primary</span> disinfection? 141.544 Section 141.544 Protection of Environment... Benchmark § 141.544 What if my <span class="hlt">system</span> uses chloramines, ozone, or chlorine dioxide for <span class="hlt">primary</span> disinfection? If your <span class="hlt">system</span> uses chloramines, ozone or chlorine dioxide for <span class="hlt">primary</span> disinfection your <span class="hlt">system</span>...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol23/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol23-sec141-544.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol23/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol23-sec141-544.pdf"><span>40 CFR 141.544 - What if my <span class="hlt">system</span> uses chloramines, ozone, or chlorine dioxide for <span class="hlt">primary</span> disinfection?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>..., ozone, or chlorine dioxide for <span class="hlt">primary</span> disinfection? 141.544 Section 141.544 Protection of Environment... Benchmark § 141.544 What if my <span class="hlt">system</span> uses chloramines, ozone, or chlorine dioxide for <span class="hlt">primary</span> disinfection? If your <span class="hlt">system</span> uses chloramines, ozone or chlorine dioxide for <span class="hlt">primary</span> disinfection your <span class="hlt">system</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22255054','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22255054"><span>Hydrogen migration dynamics in hydrated <span class="hlt">Al</span> clusters: The <span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 17}{sup (−)}·H{sub 2}O <span class="hlt">system</span> as an example</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Álvarez-Barcia, S.; Flores, J. R.</p> <p>2014-02-28</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub m}{sup (−)}·(H{sub 2}O){sub n} <span class="hlt">systems</span> are known to undergo water splitting processes in the gas phase giving H{sub k}<span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub m}(OH){sub k}{sup (−)}·(H{sub 2}O){sub n−k} <span class="hlt">systems</span>, which can generate H{sub 2}. The migration of H atoms from one <span class="hlt">Al</span> atom to another on the cluster's surface is of critical importance to the mechanism of the complete H{sub 2} production process. We have applied a combination of Molecular Dynamics and Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus theory including tunneling effects to study the gas-phase evolution of HAl{sub 17}(OH){sup (−)}, which can be considered a model <span class="hlt">system</span>. First, we have performed an extensive search for local minima and the connecting saddle points using a density functional theory method. It is found that in the water-splitting process <span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 17}{sup (−)}·(H{sub 2}O) → HAl{sub 17}(OH){sup (−)}, the H atom which bonds to the <span class="hlt">Al</span> cluster losses rather quickly its excess energy, which is easily “absorbed” by the cluster because of its flexibility. This fact ultimately determines that long-range hydrogen migration is not a very fast process and that, probably, tunneling only plays a secondary role in the migration dynamics, at least for moderate energies. Reduction of the total energy results in the process being very much slowed down. The consequences on the possible mechanisms of H{sub 2} generation from the interaction of <span class="hlt">Al</span> clusters and water molecules are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3616885','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3616885"><span>Evidence for integrating eye health into <span class="hlt">primary</span> health care in Africa: a health <span class="hlt">systems</span> strengthening approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Background The impact of unmet eye care needs in sub-Saharan Africa is compounded by barriers to accessing eye care, limited engagement with communities, a shortage of appropriately skilled health personnel, and inadequate support from health <span class="hlt">systems</span>. The renewed focus on <span class="hlt">primary</span> health care has led to support for greater integration of eye health into national health <span class="hlt">systems</span>. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate available evidence of integration of eye health into <span class="hlt">primary</span> health care in sub-Saharan Africa from a health <span class="hlt">systems</span> strengthening perspective. Methods A scoping review method was used to gather and assess information from published literature, reviews, WHO policy documents and examples of eye and health care interventions in sub-Saharan Africa. Findings were compiled using a health <span class="hlt">systems</span> strengthening framework. Results Limited information is available about eye health from a health <span class="hlt">systems</span> strengthening approach. Particular components of the health <span class="hlt">systems</span> framework lacking evidence are service delivery, equipment and supplies, financing, leadership and governance. There is some information to support interventions to strengthen human resources at all levels, partnerships and community participation; but little evidence showing their successful application to improve quality of care and access to comprehensive eye health services at the <span class="hlt">primary</span> health level, and referral to other levels for specialist eye care. Conclusion Evidence of integration of eye health into <span class="hlt">primary</span> health care is currently weak, particularly when applying a health <span class="hlt">systems</span> framework. A realignment of eye health in the <span class="hlt">primary</span> health care agenda will require context specific planning and a holistic approach, with careful attention to each of the health <span class="hlt">system</span> components and to the public health <span class="hlt">system</span> as a whole. Documentation and evaluation of existing projects are required, as are pilot projects of systematic approaches to interventions and application of best practices</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ApPhL..98i1905M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ApPhL..98i1905M"><span>Influence of sample processing parameters on thermal boundary conductance value in an <span class="hlt">Al/Al</span>N <span class="hlt">system</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Monachon, Christian; Hojeij, Mohamad; Weber, Ludger</p> <p>2011-02-01</p> <p>The influence of sample processing parameters on the thermal boundary conductance (TBC) between aluminum and aluminum nitride has been investigated by transient thermoreflectance. An evaporated <span class="hlt">Al</span> layer on the polished substrate yielded a TBC at ambient of roughly 47 MW m-2 K-1. The largest improvement (by a factor of 5) was obtained by plasma-etching of the substrate and subsequent evaporation of the metal layer. Electron microscopy suggests that the differences in TBC were mainly due to the (partial) elimination of the native oxide layer on the substrate. The importance of an adequate model for data extraction on measured TBC is highlighted.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28647664','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28647664"><span>Patient-perceived responsiveness of <span class="hlt">primary</span> care <span class="hlt">systems</span> across Europe and the relationship with the health expenditure and remuneration <span class="hlt">systems</span> of <span class="hlt">primary</span> care doctors.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Murante, Anna Maria; Seghieri, Chiara; Vainieri, Milena; Schäfer, Willemijn L A</p> <p>2017-08-01</p> <p>Health <span class="hlt">systems</span> are expected to be responsive, that is to provide services that are user-oriented and respectful of people. Several surveys have tried to measure all or some of the dimensions of the responsiveness (e.g. autonomy, choice, clarity of communication, confidentiality, dignity, prompt attention, quality of basic amenities, and access to family and community support), however there is little evidence regarding the level of responsiveness of <span class="hlt">primary</span> care (PC) <span class="hlt">systems</span>. This work analyses the capacity of <span class="hlt">primary</span> care <span class="hlt">systems</span> to be responsive. Data collected from 32 PC <span class="hlt">systems</span> were used to investigate whether a relationship exists between the responsiveness of PC <span class="hlt">systems</span> and the PC doctor remuneration <span class="hlt">systems</span> and domestic health expenditure. There appears to be a higher responsiveness of PC when doctors are paid via capitation than when they only receive a fee for services or a mixed payment method. In addition, countries that spend more on health services are associated with higher levels of dignity and autonomy. Quality, as measured from the patient's perspective, does not necessarily overlap with PC performance based on structure and process indicators. The results could also stimulate a new debate on the role of economic resources and PC workforce payment mechanisms in the achievement of quality goals, in this case related to the capacity of PC <span class="hlt">systems</span> to be responsive. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26339834','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26339834"><span>Developing a patient safety incident classification <span class="hlt">system</span> for <span class="hlt">primary</span> care. A literature review and Delphi-survey by the LINNEAUS collaboration on patient safety in <span class="hlt">primary</span> care.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Klemp, Kerstin; Dovey, Susan; Valderas, Jose M; Rohe, Julia; Godycki-Cwirko, Maciek; Elliott, Phillip; Beyer, Martin; Gerlach, Ferdin M; Hoffmann, Barbara</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>Despite awareness that comparative analysis of patient safety data from several data sources would promote risk reduction, there has been little effort to establish an incident classification <span class="hlt">system</span> that is generally applicable to patient safety data in European <span class="hlt">primary</span> care. To describe the development of a patient safety incident classification <span class="hlt">system</span> for <span class="hlt">primary</span> care. A systematic review was followed by an expert group discussion and a modified Delphi survey, to provide consensus statements. We developed a classification <span class="hlt">system</span> providing a mechanism for classifying patient safety incidents across Europe, taking into account the varying organizational arrangements that exist for <span class="hlt">primary</span> care. It takes into account organizational processes and outcomes related to patient safety incidents and can supplement existing classification <span class="hlt">systems</span>. Classification <span class="hlt">systems</span> are key tools in the analysis of patient safety incidents. A <span class="hlt">system</span> that has relevance for <span class="hlt">primary</span> care is now available.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4427341','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4427341"><span>Neurocognitive Features Distinguishing <span class="hlt">Primary</span> Central Nervous <span class="hlt">System</span> Lymphoma from Other Possible Causes of Rapidly Progressive Dementia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Deutsch, Mariel B.; Mendez, Mario F.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Objective Define the neurocognitive features of <span class="hlt">primary</span> central nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> lymphoma (PCNSL) presenting with dementia, and compare with other causes of rapidly progressive dementia (RPD). Background PCNSL can present as an RPD. Differentiating PCNSL from other RPDs is critical because lymphomatous dementia may be reversible, and untreated PCNSL is fatal. Methods We performed a meta-analysis of case reports of dementia from PCNSL (between 1950 and 2013); 20 patients (14 with lymphomatosis cerebri) met our criteria. We compared these patients to a case series of patients with RPD from Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and other non-PCNSL etiologies (Sala et <span class="hlt">al</span>, 2012. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord. 26:267–271). Results Median age was 66 (range 41–81); 70% were men. Time from symptom onset to evaluation was < 6 months in 65%. No patients had seizures; 5% had headaches; 45% had non-aphasic speech difficulty. There was significantly more memory impairment in patients with PCNSL than other RPDs and significantly less myoclonus and parkinsonism. Behavioral changes and cerebellar signs were not significantly different. Significantly more patients with PCNSL than other RPDs had white matter changes; significantly fewer had atrophy. Elevated CSF protein and pleocytosis were more frequent in PCNSL; patients with other RPDs tended to have normal CSF ± 14-3-3 protein. Conclusions Unlike patients with RPD from other causes, those with PCNSL commonly present with impaired memory, apathy, and abnormal speech and gait, without headache, seizure, or myoclonus. White-matter changes and CSF abnormalities predominate. Improved clinical awareness of PCNSL can prompt earlier diagnosis and treatment. PMID:25812125</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25812125','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25812125"><span>Neurocognitive features distinguishing <span class="hlt">primary</span> central nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> lymphoma from other possible causes of rapidly progressive dementia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Deutsch, Mariel B; Mendez, Mario F</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Define the neurocognitive features of <span class="hlt">primary</span> central nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> lymphoma (PCNSL) presenting with dementia, and compare with other causes of rapidly progressive dementia (RPD). PCNSL can present as an RPD. Differentiating PCNSL from other RPDs is critical because lymphomatous dementia may be reversible, and untreated PCNSL is fatal. We performed a meta-analysis of case reports of dementia from PCNSL (between 1950 and 2013); 20 patients (14 with lymphomatosis cerebri) met our criteria. We compared these patients to a case series of patients with RPD from Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and other non-PCNSL etiologies (Sala et <span class="hlt">al</span>, 2012. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord. 26:267-271). Median age was 66 years (range 41 to 81); 70% were men. Time from symptom onset to evaluation was <6 months in 65%. No patients had seizures; 5% had headaches; 45% had non-aphasic speech difficulty. There was significantly more memory impairment in patients with PCNSL than other RPDs and significantly less myoclonus and parkinsonism. Behavioral changes and cerebellar signs were not significantly different. Significantly more patients with PCNSL than other RPDs had white matter changes; significantly fewer had atrophy. Elevated CSF protein and pleocytosis were more frequent in PCNSL; patients with other RPDs tended to have normal CSF±14-3-3 protein. Unlike patients with RPD from other causes, those with PCNSL commonly present with impaired memory, apathy, and abnormal speech and gait, without headache, seizure, or myoclonus. White matter changes and CSF abnormalities predominate. Improved clinical awareness of PCNSL can prompt earlier diagnosis and treatment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.8973E..0IK','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.8973E..0IK"><span>Optimal microelectromechanical <span class="hlt">systems</span> (MEMS) device for achieving high pyroelectric response of <span class="hlt">Al</span>N</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kebede, Bemnnet; Coutu, Ronald A.; Starman, LaVern</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>This paper discusses research being conducted on aluminum nitride (<span class="hlt">Al</span>N) as a pyroelectric material for use in detecting applications. <span class="hlt">Al</span>N is being investigated because of its high pyroelectric coefficient, thermal stability, and high Curie temperature. In order to determine suitability of the pyroelectric properties of <span class="hlt">Al</span>N for use as a detector, testing of several devices was conducted. These devices were fabricated using microelectromechanical <span class="hlt">systems</span> (MEMS) fabrication processes; the devices were also designed to allow for voltage and current measurements. The deposited <span class="hlt">Al</span>N films used were 150 nm - 300 nm in thickness. Thin-films were used to rapidly increase the temperature response after the thermal stimulus was applied to the pyroelectric material. This is important because the pyroelectric effect is directly proportional to the rate of temperature change. The design used was a face-electrode bridge that provides thermal isolation which minimizes heat loss to the substrate, thereby increasing operation frequency of the pyroelectric device. A thermal stimulus was applied to the pyroelectric material and the response was measured across the electrodes. A thermal imaging camera was used to monitor the changes in temperature. Throughout the testing process, the annealing temperatures, type of layers, and thicknesses were also varied. These changes resulted in improved MEMS designs, which were fabricated to obtain an optimal design configuration for achieving a high pyroelectric response. A pyroelectric voltage response of 38.9 mVp-p was measured without filtering, 12.45 mVp-p was measured in the infrared (IR) region using a Si filter, and 6.38 mVp-p was measured in the short wavelength IR region using a long pass filter. The results showed that <span class="hlt">Al</span>N's pyroelectric properties can be used in detecting applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28787910','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28787910"><span>Fatigue of Ti6<span class="hlt">Al</span>4V Structural Health Monitoring <span class="hlt">Systems</span> Produced by Selective Laser Melting.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Strantza, Maria; Vafadari, Reza; de Baere, Dieter; Vrancken, Bey; van Paepegem, Wim; Vandendael, Isabelle; Terryn, Herman; Guillaume, Patrick; van Hemelrijck, Danny</p> <p>2016-02-11</p> <p>Selective laser melting (SLM) is an additive manufacturing (AM) process which is used for producing metallic components. Currently, the integrity of components produced by SLM is in need of improvement due to residual stresses and unknown fracture behavior. Titanium alloys produced by AM are capable candidates for applications in aerospace and industrial fields due to their fracture resistance, fatigue behavior and corrosion resistance. On the other hand, structural health monitoring (SHM) <span class="hlt">system</span> technologies are promising and requested from the industry. SHM <span class="hlt">systems</span> can monitor the integrity of a structure and during the last decades the research has primarily been influenced by bionic engineering. In that aspect a new philosophy for SHM has been developed: the so-called effective structural health monitoring (eSHM) <span class="hlt">system</span>. The current <span class="hlt">system</span> uses the design freedom provided by AM. The working principle of the <span class="hlt">system</span> is based on crack detection by means of a network of capillaries that are integrated in a structure. The main objective of this research is to evaluate the functionality of Ti6<span class="hlt">Al</span>4V produced by the SLM process in the novel SHM <span class="hlt">system</span> and to confirm that the eSHM <span class="hlt">system</span> can successfully detect cracks in SLM components. In this study four-point bending fatigue tests on Ti6<span class="hlt">Al</span>4V SLM specimens with an integrated SHM <span class="hlt">system</span> were conducted. Fractographic analysis was performed after the final failure, while finite element simulations were used in order to determine the stress distribution in the capillary region and on the component. It was proven that the SHM <span class="hlt">system</span> does not influence the crack initiation behavior during fatigue. The results highlight the effectiveness of the eSHM on SLM components, which can potentially be used by industrial and aerospace applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22590673','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22590673"><span>Formation mechanism for the nanoscale amorphous interface in pulse-welded <span class="hlt">Al</span>/Fe bimetallic <span class="hlt">systems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Li, Jingjing; Yu, Qian; Zhang, Zijiao; Xu, Wei; Sun, Xin</p> <p>2016-05-16</p> <p>Pulse or impact welding traditionally has been referred to as “solid-state” welding. By integrating advanced interface characterizations and diffusion calculations, we report that the nanoscale amorphous interface in the pulse-welded <span class="hlt">Al</span>/Fe bimetallic <span class="hlt">system</span> is formed by rapid heating and melting of a thin <span class="hlt">Al</span> layer at the interface, diffusion of iron atoms in the liquid aluminum, and subsequent rapid quenching with diffused iron atoms in solution. This finding challenges the commonly held belief regarding the solid-state nature of the impact-based welding process for dissimilar metals. Elongated ultra-fine grains with high dislocation density and ultra-fine equiaxed grains also are observed in the weld interface vicinity on the steel and aluminum sides, respectively, which further confirms that melting and the subsequent recrystallization occurred on the aluminum side of the interface.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1327114','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1327114"><span>FORMATION MECHANISM FOR THE NANOSCALE AMORPHOUS INTERFACE IN PULSE-WELDED <span class="hlt">AL</span>/FE BIMETALLIC <span class="hlt">SYSTEM</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Li, Jingjing; Yu, Qian; Zhang, Zijiao; Xu, Wei; Sun, Xin</p> <p>2016-05-20</p> <p>Pulse or impact welding traditionally has been referred to as “solid-state” welding. By integrating advanced interface characterizations and diffusion calculations, we report that the nanoscale amorphous interface in the pulse-welded <span class="hlt">Al</span>/Fe bimetallic <span class="hlt">system</span> is formed by rapid heating and melting of a thin <span class="hlt">Al</span> layer at the interface, diffusion of iron atoms in the liquid aluminum, and subsequent rapid quenching with diffused iron atoms in solution. This finding challenges the commonly held belief regarding the solid-state nature of the impact-based welding process for dissimilar metals. Elongated ultra-fine grains with high dislocation density and ultra-fine equiaxed grains also are observed in the weld interface vicinity on the steel and aluminum sides, respectively, which further confirms that melting and the resulted recrystallization occurred on the aluminum side of the interface.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22111950','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22111950"><span>Elastic scattering measurements for {sup 7}Be+{sup 27}<span class="hlt">Al</span> <span class="hlt">system</span> at RIBRAS facility</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Morcelle, V.; Lichtenthaeler, R.; Morais, M. C.; Lepine-Szily, A.; Guimaraes, V.; Faria, P. N. de; Gasques, L.; Pires, K. C. C.; Condori, R. P.; Gomes, P. R. S.; Lubian, J.; Mendes, D. R. Jr.; Barioni, A.; Shorto, J. M. B.; Zamora, J. C.</p> <p>2013-05-06</p> <p>Elastic scattering angular distribution measurements of {sup 7}Be+{sup 27}<span class="hlt">Al</span> <span class="hlt">system</span> were performed at the laboratory energy of 15.6 MeV. The {sup 7}Be secondary beam was produced by the proton transfer reaction {sup 3}He({sup 6}Li,{sup 7}Be) and impinged on {sup 27}<span class="hlt">Al</span> and {sup 197}Au targets, using the Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) facility, RIBRAS. The elastic angular distribution was obtained within the angular range of 15{sup 0} - 80{sup 0} at the center of mass frame. Optical model calculations have been performed using the Woods- Saxon form factors and the Sao Paulo potential to fit the experimental data. The total reaction cross section was derived.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhPro..39..382S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhPro..39..382S"><span>Direct Metal Deposition of Functional Graded Structures in Ti- <span class="hlt">Al</span> <span class="hlt">System</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shishkovsky, I.; Missemer, F.; Smurov, I.</p> <p></p> <p>A direct laser metal deposition (DLMD) technology with co-axial powder injection is used to fabricate a complex functional graded structure (FGS) fabrication. The aim of the study is to demonstrate the possibility to produce intermetallic phases in the Ti-<span class="hlt">Al</span> powder <span class="hlt">systems</span> in the course of a single-step DMD process. Besides, relationships between the main laser cladding parameters and the intermetallic phase structures of the built-up objects have been studied. In our research we applied the optical microscopy, X-ray analysis, microhardness measurement and SEM with EDX analysis of the laser-fabricated intermetallics. The discussion of the mechanisms of Ti x <span class="hlt">Al</span> y (x,y = 1.3) intermetallic transformations in exothermal reactions is also offered in the report.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017MSHT...58..515K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017MSHT...58..515K"><span>Strength of "Light" Ferritic and Austenitic Steels Based on the Fe - Mn - <span class="hlt">Al</span> - C <span class="hlt">System</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kaputkina, L. M.; Svyazhin, A. G.; Smarygina, I. V.; Kindop, V. E.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>The phase composition, the hardness, the mechanical properties at room temperature, and the resistance to hot (950 - 1000°C) and warm (550°C) deformation are studied for cast deformable "light" ferritic and austenitic steels of the Fe - (12 - 25)% Mn - (0 - 15)% <span class="hlt">Al</span> - (0 - 2)% C <span class="hlt">system</span> alloyed additionally with about 5% Ni. The high-aluminum high-manganese low-carbon and carbonless ferritic steels at a temperature of about 0.5 T melt have a specific strength close to that of the austenitic steels and may be used as weldable scale-resistant and wear-resistant materials. The high-carbon Fe - (20 - 24)% Mn - (5 - 9)% <span class="hlt">Al</span> - 5% Ni - 1.5% C austenitic steels may be applied as light high-strength materials operating at cryogenic temperatures after a solution treatment and as scale- and heat-resistant materials in an aged condition.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApPhL.108t1606L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApPhL.108t1606L"><span>Formation mechanism for the nanoscale amorphous interface in pulse-welded <span class="hlt">Al</span>/Fe bimetallic <span class="hlt">systems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Jingjing; Yu, Qian; Zhang, Zijiao; Xu, Wei; Sun, Xin</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Pulse or impact welding traditionally has been referred to as "solid-state" welding. By integrating advanced interface characterizations and diffusion calculations, we report that the nanoscale amorphous interface in the pulse-welded <span class="hlt">Al</span>/Fe bimetallic <span class="hlt">system</span> is formed by rapid heating and melting of a thin <span class="hlt">Al</span> layer at the interface, diffusion of iron atoms in the liquid aluminum, and subsequent rapid quenching with diffused iron atoms in solution. This finding challenges the commonly held belief regarding the solid-state nature of the impact-based welding process for dissimilar metals. Elongated ultra-fine grains with high dislocation density and ultra-fine equiaxed grains also are observed in the weld interface vicinity on the steel and aluminum sides, respectively, which further confirms that melting and the subsequent recrystallization occurred on the aluminum side of the interface.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JSSCh.243..168M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JSSCh.243..168M"><span>Investigation of the phase relations in the U-<span class="hlt">Al</span>-Ge ternary <span class="hlt">system</span>: Influence of the <span class="hlt">Al</span>/Ge substitution on the properties of the intermediate phases</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Moussa, C.; El Sayah, Z.; Chajewski, G.; Berche, A.; Dorcet, V.; Pikul, A. P.; Pasturel, M.; Joanny, L.; Stepnik, B.; Tougait, O.</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>The phase relations within the U-<span class="hlt">Al</span>-Ge ternary <span class="hlt">system</span> were studied for two isothermal sections, at 673 K for the whole Gibbs triangle and at 1173 K for the concentration range 25-100 at% U. The identification of the phases, their composition ranges and stability were determined by x-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy coupled to energy dispersive spectroscopy and differential thermal analysis. The tie-lines and the solubility domains were determined for the U-Ge and U-<span class="hlt">Al</span> binaries, the UAl3-UGe3 solid-solution and for the unique ternary intermediate phase U3<span class="hlt">Al</span>2-xGe3+x. The experimental isopleth section of the pseudo-binary UAl3-UGe3 reveals an isomorphous solid solution based on the Cu3Au-type below the solidus. The U3<span class="hlt">Al</span>2-xGe3+x solid solution extends for -0.1≤x≤1.35 and -0.2≤x≤1.5 at 673 K and 1173 K respectively. It crystallizes in the I-centered tetragonal symmetry. The reciprocal lattice of several compositions of the U3<span class="hlt">Al</span>2-xGe3+x solid solution was examined by electron diffraction at room temperature, revealing the presence of a c-glide plane. Their crystal structure was refined by single crystal x-ray diffraction suggesting an isomorphous solid solution best described with the non-centrosymmetric space group I4cm in the paramagnetic domain. The magnetic measurements confirm the ferromagnetic ordering of the solid solution U3<span class="hlt">Al</span>2-xGe3+x with an increase of Tc with the <span class="hlt">Al</span> content. The thermal variation of the specific heat bear out the magnetic transitions with some delocalized character of the uranium 5f electrons.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26778761','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26778761"><span>Preparation of gaseous CRMs from the <span class="hlt">primary</span> <span class="hlt">system</span> for (222)Rn activity measurement.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kim, B J; Kim, B C; Lee, K B; Lee, J M; Park, T S</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>For disseminating the gaseous radon standard traceable to the KRISS <span class="hlt">primary</span> <span class="hlt">system</span> based on the defined solid angle counting method, two kinds of radon CRM (a glass ampule type and a stainless steel cylinder type) were developed. The activity of the CRM was certified by subtracting a residual activity from the measured activity by the <span class="hlt">primary</span> <span class="hlt">system</span>. After certification, the ampule CRM was used to calibrate a radon-monitoring instrument and the cylinder CRM to calibrate an HPGe <span class="hlt">system</span>. We also improved the measurement procedure of the radon <span class="hlt">primary</span> <span class="hlt">system</span>. In a typical radon energy spectrum, the radon peak overlaps with the polonium peak. For more reliable and accurate measurement of radon activity, a fitting method was adopted for the evaluation of radon area in the alpha energy spectrum. The result of radon activity evaluated by using the fitting method is in good agreement with that by the previous integration method. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21875563','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21875563"><span>Role for <span class="hlt">primary</span> cilia as flow detectors in the cardiovascular <span class="hlt">system</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Van der Heiden, Kim; Egorova, Anastasia D; Poelmann, Robert E; Wentzel, Jolanda J; Hierck, Beerend P</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The cardiovascular <span class="hlt">system</span> is exposed to biochemical and biomechanical signals. Various sensors for these signals have been described and they contribute to cardiovascular development, maintenance of vessel integrity during adult life, and to pathogenesis. In the past 10years, <span class="hlt">primary</span> cilia, membrane-covered, rod-like cellular protrusions, were discovered on multiple cell types of the cardiovascular <span class="hlt">system</span>. <span class="hlt">Primary</span> cilia are sensory organelles involved in several key (developmental) signaling pathways and in chemo- and mechanosensing on a myriad of cell types. In the embryonic and adult cardiovascular <span class="hlt">system</span>, they have been demonstrated to function as shear stress sensors on endothelial cells and could act as strain sensors on smooth muscle cells and cardiomyocytes and as chemosensors on fibroblasts. This review will cover their occurrence and elaborate on established and possible functions of <span class="hlt">primary</span> cilia in the cardiovascular <span class="hlt">system</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5512530','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5512530"><span>Study on the Impact Resistance of Bionic Layered Composite of TiC-TiB2/<span class="hlt">Al</span> from <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Ti-B4C <span class="hlt">System</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zhao, Qian; Liang, Yunhong; Zhang, Zhihui; Li, Xiujuan; Ren, Luquan</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Mechanical property and impact resistance mechanism of bionic layered composite was investigated. Due to light weight and high strength property, white clam shell was chosen as bionic model for design of bionic layered composite. The intercoupling model between hard layer and soft layer was identical to the layered microstructure and hardness tendency of the white clam shell, which connected the bionic design and fabrication. TiC-TiB2 reinforced <span class="hlt">Al</span> matrix composites fabricated from <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Ti-B4C <span class="hlt">system</span> with 40 wt. %, 50 wt. % and 30 wt. % <span class="hlt">Al</span> contents were treated as an outer layer, middle layer and inner layer in hard layers. Pure <span class="hlt">Al</span> matrix was regarded as a soft layer. Compared with traditional homogenous <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Ti-B4C composite, bionic layered composite exhibited high mechanical properties including flexural strength, fracture toughness, compressive strength and impact toughness. The intercoupling effect of layered structure and combination model of hard and soft played a key role in high impact resistance of the bionic layered composite, proving the feasibility and practicability of the bionic model of a white clam shell. PMID:28773827</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28773827','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28773827"><span>Study on the Impact Resistance of Bionic Layered Composite of TiC-TiB₂/<span class="hlt">Al</span> from <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Ti-B₄C <span class="hlt">System</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhao, Qian; Liang, Yunhong; Zhang, Zhihui; Li, Xiujuan; Ren, Luquan</p> <p>2016-08-20</p> <p>Mechanical property and impact resistance mechanism of bionic layered composite was investigated. Due to light weight and high strength property, white clam shell was chosen as bionic model for design of bionic layered composite. The intercoupling model between hard layer and soft layer was identical to the layered microstructure and hardness tendency of the white clam shell, which connected the bionic design and fabrication. TiC-TiB₂ reinforced <span class="hlt">Al</span> matrix composites fabricated from <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Ti-B₄C <span class="hlt">system</span> with 40 wt. %, 50 wt. % and 30 wt. % <span class="hlt">Al</span> contents were treated as an outer layer, middle layer and inner layer in hard layers. Pure <span class="hlt">Al</span> matrix was regarded as a soft layer. Compared with traditional homogenous <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Ti-B₄C composite, bionic layered composite exhibited high mechanical properties including flexural strength, fracture toughness, compressive strength and impact toughness. The intercoupling effect of layered structure and combination model of hard and soft played a key role in high impact resistance of the bionic layered composite, proving the feasibility and practicability of the bionic model of a white clam shell.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24739412','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24739412"><span>Central nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> involvement in <span class="hlt">primary</span> Sjogren`s syndrome manifesting as multiple sclerosis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liu, Jing-Yao; Zhao, Teng; Zhou, Chun-Kui</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>Central nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> symptoms in patients with <span class="hlt">primary</span> Sjogren`s syndrome are rare. They can present as extraglandular manifestations and require a differential diagnosis from multiple sclerosis. Due to a variety of presentations, Sjogren`s syndrome with neurologic involvement may be difficult to diagnose. Here, we report a case of a 75-year-old woman who was first diagnosed with multiple sclerosis in 2010, but who was subsequently diagnosed with <span class="hlt">primary</span> Sjogren`s syndrome 2 years later after showing signs of atypical neurologic manifestations. Therefore, <span class="hlt">primary</span> Sjogren`s syndrome should be suspected in patients who present with atypical clinical and radiologic neurologic manifestations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JPhCS.786a2041S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JPhCS.786a2041S"><span>Implementation of coulometric titration <span class="hlt">system</span> at constant current for developing of certified materials as <span class="hlt">primary</span> standards</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Suarez, H.; Cristancho, R.; Peralta, F.; Torres, H.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Coulometry is a <span class="hlt">primary</span> method for measuring high purity substances. This is used to certify the <span class="hlt">primary</span> reference materials required in a chemical analysis process. This paper describes the coulometric titration <span class="hlt">system</span> developed by the National Metrology Institute (NMI) of Colombia for the certification of hydrochloric acid 0.1mol/kg reference materials. In addition, it also shows preliminary studies for future development of potassium chloride (KCl) and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium salt (EDTA-Na2) certification.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=neurolinguistic+AND+programming&pg=4&id=ED290975','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=neurolinguistic+AND+programming&pg=4&id=ED290975"><span>Gender Differences in the <span class="hlt">Primary</span> Representational <span class="hlt">System</span> according to Neurolinguistic Programming.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Cassiere, M. F.; And Others</p> <p></p> <p>Neurolinguistic Programming (NLP) is a currently popular therapeutic modality in which individuals organize information through three basic sensory <span class="hlt">systems</span>, one of which is the <span class="hlt">Primary</span> Representational <span class="hlt">System</span> (PRS). This study was designed to investigate gender differences in PRS according to the predicate preference method. It was expected that…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15520782','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15520782"><span>Childhood <span class="hlt">primary</span> angiitis of the central nervous <span class="hlt">system</span>: two biopsy-proven cases.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yaari, Roy; Anselm, Irina A; Szer, Ilona S; Malicki, Denise M; Nespeca, Mark P; Gleeson, Joseph G</p> <p>2004-11-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Primary</span> angiitis of the central nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> is a rare idiopathic vasculitis predominantly affecting the central nervous <span class="hlt">system</span>. The literature includes 10 histologically confirmed cases in childhood. We identify two additional cases, one presenting with both uveitis and cerebrospinal fluid neutrophilic pleocytosis, which has not been reported previously, and demonstrate the importance of biopsy in suspected cases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=neurolinguistic+AND+programming&pg=3&id=ED290975','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=neurolinguistic+AND+programming&pg=3&id=ED290975"><span>Gender Differences in the <span class="hlt">Primary</span> Representational <span class="hlt">System</span> according to Neurolinguistic Programming.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Cassiere, M. F.; And Others</p> <p></p> <p>Neurolinguistic Programming (NLP) is a currently popular therapeutic modality in which individuals organize information through three basic sensory <span class="hlt">systems</span>, one of which is the <span class="hlt">Primary</span> Representational <span class="hlt">System</span> (PRS). This study was designed to investigate gender differences in PRS according to the predicate preference method. It was expected that…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1065290.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1065290.pdf"><span>Relationships between Digestive, Circulatory, and Urinary <span class="hlt">Systems</span> in Portuguese <span class="hlt">Primary</span> Textbooks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Carvalho, Graça S.; Clèment, Pierre</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>In this study, 63 Portuguese <span class="hlt">primary</span> schoolbooks (1920-2005) were analyzed. The analysis focused on text information (reference to blood absorption and association of the digestive <span class="hlt">system</span> to other human <span class="hlt">systems</span>) and on information from images (presence or absence of image "confusion" (when the sequence of the digestive tract is not…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title49-vol4/pdf/CFR-2013-title49-vol4-sec214-529.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title49-vol4/pdf/CFR-2013-title49-vol4-sec214-529.pdf"><span>49 CFR 214.529 - In-service failure of <span class="hlt">primary</span> braking <span class="hlt">system</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>... Maintenance Machines and Hi-Rail Vehicles § 214.529 In-service failure of <span class="hlt">primary</span> braking <span class="hlt">system</span>. (a) In the... machine may be operated for the remainder of its tour of duty with the use of a secondary braking <span class="hlt">system</span> or by coupling to another machine, if such operations may be done safely. (b) If the total...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19589478','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19589478"><span>Role of high-dose chemotherapy and autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation in <span class="hlt">primary</span> <span class="hlt">systemic</span> amyloidosis: a systematic review.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mhaskar, Rahul; Kumar, Ambuj; Behera, Madhusmita; Kharfan-Dabaja, Mohamed A; Djulbegovic, Benjamin</p> <p>2009-08-01</p> <p>Significant uncertainty exists regarding the efficacy of high-dose chemotherapy and autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (AHCT) for the treatment of patients with <span class="hlt">primary</span> <span class="hlt">systemic</span> (<span class="hlt">AL</span>) amyloidosis. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy of AHCT versus conventional chemotherapy (CC) in patients with <span class="hlt">AL</span> amyloidosis using methodology recommended by the Cochrane Collaboration. A comprehensive literature search yielded 820 studies. Twelve studies met the inclusion criteria: 1 randomized controlled trial (RCT), 2 other controlled studies, and 9 single-arm trials. The 1 RCT and 2 controlled studies compared AHCT and CC, and 9 single-arm studies assessed the efficacy of AHCT without a control. The pooled hazard ratio for overall survival (OS) in the 3 controlled studies was 1.79 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.11 to 2.91) favoring CC. The pooled proportion for mortality in the single-arm studies (n = 7) was 0.35 (95% CI = 0.25 to 0.46). The pooled odds ratio for complete hematologic response (CHR) from 2 controlled studies was 0.64 (95% CI = 0.25 to 1.64), indicating no difference between AHCT and CC. In the single-arm studies, the pooled proportion for CHR was 0.35 (95% CI = 0.26 to 0.44), and the pooled proportion for treatment-related mortality (TRM) was 0.12 (95% CI = 0.09 to 0.14). In the controlled studies, there was no heterogeneity for any outcome; however, in the single-arm studies, there was a significant heterogeneity for the outcomes of OS, CHR, renal response, and partial hematologic response. Our findings indicate that AHCT does not appear to be superior to CC in improving OS in patients with <span class="hlt">AL</span> amyloidosis. But the quality of our evidence is low, indicating a need for well-designed and adequately powered RCTs to better address the role of AHCT in <span class="hlt">AL</span> amyloidosis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED522273.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED522273.pdf"><span>The Place of Creativity in Pakistani <span class="hlt">Primary</span> Education <span class="hlt">System</span>: An Investigation into the Factors Enhancing and Inhibiting <span class="hlt">Primary</span> School Children's Creativity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Shaheen, Robina</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The study presented in this book provides a baseline analysis of the extent to which the <span class="hlt">primary</span> education <span class="hlt">system</span> in Pakistan is capable of enhancing or inhibiting children's creativity. It involved 1008 <span class="hlt">primary</span> schools who participated in a survey, 154 children who took the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking, and classroom observation in 16…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23474336','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23474336"><span>Thermodynamics of greenhouse <span class="hlt">systems</span> for the northern latitudes: analysis, evaluation and prospects for <span class="hlt">primary</span> energy saving.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bronchart, Filip; De Paepe, Michel; Dewulf, Jo; Schrevens, Eddie; Demeyer, Peter</p> <p>2013-04-15</p> <p>In Flanders and the Netherlands greenhouse production <span class="hlt">systems</span> produce economically important quantities of vegetables, fruit and ornamentals. Indoor environmental control has resulted in high <span class="hlt">primary</span> energy use. Until now, the research on saving <span class="hlt">primary</span> energy in greenhouse <span class="hlt">systems</span> has been mainly based on analysis of energy balances. However, according to the thermodynamic theory, an analysis based on the concept of exergy (free energy) and energy can result in new insights and <span class="hlt">primary</span> energy savings. Therefore in this paper, we analyse the exergy and energy of various processes, inputs and outputs of a general greenhouse <span class="hlt">system</span>. Also a total <span class="hlt">system</span> analysis is then performed by linking the exergy analysis with a dynamic greenhouse climate growth simulation model. The exergy analysis indicates that some processes ("Sources") lie at the origin of several other processes, both destroying the exergy of <span class="hlt">primary</span> energy inputs. The exergy destruction of these Sources is caused primarily by heat and vapour loss. Their impact can be compensated by exergy input from heating, solar radiation, or both. If the exergy destruction of these Sources is reduced, the necessary compensation can also be reduced. This can be accomplished through insulating the greenhouse and making the building more airtight. Other necessary Sources, namely transpiration and loss of CO2, have a low exergy destruction compared to the other Sources. They are therefore the best candidate for "pump" technologies ("vapour heat pump" and "CO2 pump") designed to have a low <span class="hlt">primary</span> energy use. The combination of these proposed technologies results in an exergy efficient greenhouse with the highest <span class="hlt">primary</span> energy savings. It can be concluded that exergy analyses add additional information compared to only energy analyses and it supports the development of <span class="hlt">primary</span> energy efficient greenhouse <span class="hlt">systems</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/AD1036636','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/AD1036636"><span>Modeling Slip <span class="hlt">System</span> Strength Evolution in Ti 7<span class="hlt">Al</span> Informed by In situ Grain Stress Measurements (Postprint)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2017-02-17</p> <p>AFRL-RX-WP-JA-2017-0215 MODELING SLIP <span class="hlt">SYSTEM</span> STRENGTH EVOLUTION IN TI-7<span class="hlt">AL</span> INFORMED BY IN-SITU GRAIN STRESS MEASUREMENTS (POSTPRINT...March 2014 – 3 October 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE MODELING SLIP <span class="hlt">SYSTEM</span> STRENGTH EVOLUTION IN TI-7<span class="hlt">AL</span> INFORMED BY IN-SITU GRAIN STRESS...2017.02.042 14. ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 words) Far-field high-energy X-ray diffraction microscopy is used to asses the evolution of slip <span class="hlt">system</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5357758','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5357758"><span>Comparison of the Mismatch Repair <span class="hlt">System</span> between <span class="hlt">Primary</span> and Metastatic Colorectal Cancers Using Immunohistochemistry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Jung, Jiyoon; Kang, Youngjin; Lee, Yoo Jin; Kim, Eojin; Ahn, Bokyung; Lee, Eunjung; Kim, Joo Young; Lee, Jeong Hyeon; Lee, Youngseok; Kim, Chul Hwan; Chae, Yang-Seok</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Background Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common malignancies worldwide. Approximately 10%–15% of the CRC cases have defective DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes. Although the high level of microsatellite instability status is a predictor of favorable outcome in <span class="hlt">primary</span> CRC, little is known about its frequency and importance in secondary CRC. Immunohistochemical staining (IHC) for MMR proteins (e.g., MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2) has emerged as a useful technique to complement polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses. Methods In this study, comparison between the MMR <span class="hlt">system</span> of <span class="hlt">primary</span> CRCs and paired liver and lung metastatic lesions was done using IHC and the correlation with clinical outcomes was also examined. Results Based on IHC, 7/61 <span class="hlt">primary</span> tumors (11.4%) showed deficient MMR <span class="hlt">systems</span>, while 13/61 secondary tumors (21.3%) showed deficiencies. In total, 44 cases showed proficient expression in both the <span class="hlt">primary</span> and metastatic lesions. Three cases showed deficiencies in both the <span class="hlt">primary</span> and paired metastatic lesions. In 10 cases, proficient expression was found only in the <span class="hlt">primary</span> lesions, and not in the corresponding metastatic lesions. In four cases, proficient expression was detected in the secondary tumor, but not in the <span class="hlt">primary</span> tumor. Conclusions Although each IHC result and the likely defective genes were not exactly matched between the <span class="hlt">primary</span> and the metastatic tumors, identical results for <span class="hlt">primary</span> and metastatic lesions were obtained in 77% of the cases (47/61). These data are in agreement with the previous microsatellite detection studies that used PCR and IHC. PMID:28192899</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5345462','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5345462"><span>Integration of Oral Health into <span class="hlt">Primary</span> Health Care <span class="hlt">System</span>: Views of <span class="hlt">Primary</span> Health Care Workers in Lagos State, Nigeria</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ogunbodede, Eyitope; Adeniyi, Abiola</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The limited access to oral health care in developing countries can be greatly improved by integrating oral health into the <span class="hlt">Primary</span> Health Care (PHC) <span class="hlt">system</span>. This study was designed to assess the views of PHC workers on integrating oral health care into the PHC <span class="hlt">system</span>. A self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted in two selected local government areas of Lagos State. The instrument contained three sections assessing sociodemographic features, knowledge of common oral diseases and views on integration of oral health into PHC respectively. The mean knowledge score was 7.75 (SD=±1.81), while 60.4% of the respondents had average knowledge scores. Educational status (P=0.018) and designation (P=0.033) were significantly related to the mean knowledge scores. There was no significant difference in the oral health knowledge of the various cadres (P=0.393). Majority (85.4%) of the respondents were willing to include oral health education in their job schedule and 82% believed they needed more training on oral health. The knowledge of the respondents on the causes of the common oral diseases was deficient. Oral health education should be included in the future curriculum of these personnel. PMID:28299117</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AJ....148...79Q','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AJ....148...79Q"><span><span class="hlt">AL</span> Cassiopeiae: An F-type Contact Binary <span class="hlt">System</span> with a Cool Stellar Companion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Qian, S.-B.; Zhou, X.; Zola, S.; Zhu, L.-Y.; Zhao, E.-G.; Liao, W.-P.; Leung, K.-C.</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>According to the general catalog of variable stars, <span class="hlt">AL</span> Cas was classified as an EW-type eclipsing binary with a spectral type of B and an orbital period of P = 0.5005555 days. The first photometric light curves of the close binary in the B, V, R, and I bands are presented. New low-resolution spectra indicate that its spectral type is about F7 rather than B-type. A photometric analysis with the Wilson-Devinney method suggests that it is a contact binary (f = 39.3%) with a mass ratio of 0.61. Using 17 newly determined eclipse times together with those collected from the literature, we found that the observed-calculated (O - C) curve of <span class="hlt">AL</span> Cas shows a cyclic change with a period of 86.6 yr and an amplitude of 0.0181 days. The periodic variation was analyzed for the light-travel time effect via the presence of a third body. The mass of the third body was determined to be M 3sin i' = 0.29(± 0.05) M ⊙ when a total mass of 2.14 M ⊙ for <span class="hlt">AL</span> Cas is adopted. It is expected that the cool companion star may have played an important role in the origin and evolution of the <span class="hlt">system</span> by removing angular momentum from the central binary <span class="hlt">system</span> during early dynamical interaction and/or late dynamical evolution. This causes the original detached <span class="hlt">system</span> to have a low angular momentum and a short initial orbital period. Then it can evolve into the present contact configuration via a case A mass transfer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22342232','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22342232"><span><span class="hlt">AL</span> Cassiopeiae: An F-type contact binary <span class="hlt">system</span> with a cool stellar companion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Qian, S.-B.; Zhou, X.; Zhu, L.-Y.; Zhao, E.-G.; Liao, W.-P.; Zola, S.; Leung, K.-C.</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>According to the general catalog of variable stars, <span class="hlt">AL</span> Cas was classified as an EW-type eclipsing binary with a spectral type of B and an orbital period of P = 0.5005555 days. The first photometric light curves of the close binary in the B, V, R, and I bands are presented. New low-resolution spectra indicate that its spectral type is about F7 rather than B-type. A photometric analysis with the Wilson-Devinney method suggests that it is a contact binary (f = 39.3%) with a mass ratio of 0.61. Using 17 newly determined eclipse times together with those collected from the literature, we found that the observed–calculated (O – C) curve of <span class="hlt">AL</span> Cas shows a cyclic change with a period of 86.6 yr and an amplitude of 0.0181 days. The periodic variation was analyzed for the light-travel time effect via the presence of a third body. The mass of the third body was determined to be M {sub 3}sin i' = 0.29(± 0.05) M {sub ☉} when a total mass of 2.14 M {sub ☉} for <span class="hlt">AL</span> Cas is adopted. It is expected that the cool companion star may have played an important role in the origin and evolution of the <span class="hlt">system</span> by removing angular momentum from the central binary <span class="hlt">system</span> during early dynamical interaction and/or late dynamical evolution. This causes the original detached <span class="hlt">system</span> to have a low angular momentum and a short initial orbital period. Then it can evolve into the present contact configuration via a case A mass transfer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23514334','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23514334"><span>The range and diversity of providers' viewpoints towards the Iraqi <span class="hlt">primary</span> health care <span class="hlt">system</span>: an exploration using Q-methodology.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shabila, Nazar P; Al-Tawil, Namir G; Al-Hadithi, Tariq S; Sondorp, Egbert</p> <p>2013-03-21</p> <p>The increasingly recognized need for reorganizing the <span class="hlt">primary</span> health care services in Iraq calls for a comprehensive assessment of the <span class="hlt">system</span> to better understand its problems and needs for development. As part of such comprehensive assessment and due to the important role of <span class="hlt">primary</span> health care providers in adopting any change, we ought to explore the range and diversity of viewpoints of <span class="hlt">primary</span> health care providers towards the Iraqi <span class="hlt">primary</span> health care <span class="hlt">system</span>. This explorative study was carried out in Erbil governorate, Iraq from May to July 2011. Data were collected from <span class="hlt">primary</span> health care providers using Q-methodology to elicit subjective viewpoints and identify shared patterns among individuals. Forty <span class="hlt">primary</span> health care providers representing eight <span class="hlt">primary</span> health care centers sorted 41 statements reflecting different aspects of the Iraqi <span class="hlt">primary</span> health care <span class="hlt">system</span> into a distribution on a scale of nine from "disagree most" to "agree most". By-person factor analysis was used to derive latent viewpoints through centroid factor extraction and varimax rotation of factors. Analysis of the participants' Q-sorts resulted in four distinct viewpoints among <span class="hlt">primary</span> health care providers toward the current <span class="hlt">primary</span> health care <span class="hlt">system</span>. One factor emphasized positive aspects of the current <span class="hlt">primary</span> health care <span class="hlt">system</span> that is content with the current <span class="hlt">primary</span> health care <span class="hlt">system</span>. The other three factors highlighted the negative aspects and they included (i) professionally-centered viewpoint, (ii) comprehensive perception and problem-based solutions and (iii) critical to leadership/governance aspects of the <span class="hlt">system</span>. This study revealed diverse viewpoints of <span class="hlt">primary</span> health care providers toward the current Iraqi <span class="hlt">primary</span> health care <span class="hlt">system</span> and recognized the particular issues related to each viewpoint. The findings can contribute to a better understanding of health policy makers and <span class="hlt">primary</span> health care managers concerning the problems facing the <span class="hlt">primary</span> health care <span class="hlt">system</span> that</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25986983','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25986983"><span>[<span class="hlt">Primary</span> malignant melanoma of the central nervous <span class="hlt">system</span>: A diagnostic challenge].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Quillo-Olvera, Javier; Uribe-Olalde, Juan Salvador; Alcántara-Gómez, Leopoldo Alberto; Rejón-Pérez, Jorge Dax; Palomera-Gómez, Héctor Guillermo</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The rare incidence of <span class="hlt">primary</span> malignant melanoma of the central nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> and its ability to mimic other melanocytic tumors on images makes it a diagnostic challenge for the neurosurgeon. A 51-year-old patient, with a tumor located in the right forniceal callosum area. Total surgical excision was performed. Histopathological result was consistent with the diagnosis of <span class="hlt">primary</span> malignant melanoma of the central nervous <span class="hlt">system</span>, after ruling out extra cranial and extra spinal melanocytic lesions. The <span class="hlt">primary</span> malignant melanoma of the central nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> is extremely rare. There are features in magnetic resonance imaging that increase the diagnostic suspicion; nevertheless there are other tumors with more prevalence that share some of these features through image. Since there is not an established therapeutic standard its prognosis is discouraging. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/49254','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/49254"><span>APR: A geographic information <span class="hlt">system</span> based <span class="hlt">primary</span> router for underground residential distribution design</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Yeh, E.C.; Sumic, Z. |; Venkata, S.S.</p> <p>1995-02-01</p> <p>This paper presents an automated tool for optimizing the routing of <span class="hlt">primary</span> cables in underground residential distribution <span class="hlt">systems</span> (URD). Although initially developed as one of the modules in Puget Sound Power and Light Co.`s automated electrical plant design program, Automated <span class="hlt">Primary</span> Router (APR) can also be used in standalone mode. APR, implemented in a Geographic Information <span class="hlt">System</span> (GIS)-based environment, is capable of efficiently accessing and manipulating geographically referenced data from a facilities management <span class="hlt">system</span> database. It also provides a full-fledged Graphic User Interface, along with on-line visualization and accurate cost estimation to facilitate the design process. APR employs a heuristic search algorithm to find the best <span class="hlt">primary</span> cable routes either for new residential developments, or for existing URD <span class="hlt">systems</span> as part of the ongoing cable replacement program. Based on the test results, APR shows significant stability and efficiency in finding the optimal solution for <span class="hlt">primary</span> cable routing. With this performance, APR can help distribution engineers improve the quality of URD design, producing standardized and economically justifiable <span class="hlt">primary</span> cable routes. Because geographically referenced design data are digitally stored in the GIS database, APR further increases the reusability and accessibility of the URD design information.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/152688','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/152688"><span>APR: A geographic information <span class="hlt">system</span> based <span class="hlt">primary</span> router for underground residential distribution design</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Yeh, E.C.; Sumic, Z. |; Venkata, S.S.</p> <p>1994-12-31</p> <p>This paper presents an automated tool for optimizing the routing of <span class="hlt">primary</span> cables in underground residential distribution <span class="hlt">systems</span> (URD). Although initially developed as on of the modules in Puget Sound Power and Light Co.`s automated electrical plant design program, Automated <span class="hlt">Primary</span> Router (APR) can also be used in standalone mode. APR, implemented in a Geographic Information <span class="hlt">System</span> (GIS)-based environment, is capable of efficiently accessing and manipulating geographically referenced data from a facilities management <span class="hlt">system</span> database. It also provides a full-fledged Graphic User Interface, along with on-line visualization and accurate cost estimation to facilitate the design process. APR employs a heuristic search algorithm to find the best <span class="hlt">primary</span> cable routes whether for new residential developments, or for existing URD <span class="hlt">systems</span> as part of the ongoing cable replacement program. Based on the test results, APR shows significant stability and efficiency in finding the optimal solution for <span class="hlt">primary</span> cable routing. With this performance, APR can help distribution engineers improve the quality of URD design, producing standardized and economically justifiable <span class="hlt">primary</span> cable routes. Because geographically referenced design data are digitally stored in the GIS database, APR further increases the reusability and accessibility of the URD design information.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/67710','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/67710"><span>The amplitude and phase control of the <span class="hlt">ALS</span> Storage Ring RF <span class="hlt">System</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lo, C.C.; Taylor, B.; Baptiste, K.</p> <p>1995-03-01</p> <p>A 500MHz, 300KW Klystron power amplifier provides RF power to the <span class="hlt">ALS</span> Storage Ring. In order to accommodate the amplitude and phase changes during beam stacking and decay, which demand continuously varying power levels from the Klystron, four loops are used to keep the <span class="hlt">system</span> operating properly, with two of those loops dedicated to keeping the two cavity tuners on tune. Description of the control loops and their performance data will be given. Using the modulation anode of the Klystron in the amplitude loop will be discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol24/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol24-sec141-535.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol24/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol24-sec141-535.pdf"><span>40 CFR 141.535 - What if my <span class="hlt">system</span> uses chloramines, ozone, or chlorine dioxide for <span class="hlt">primary</span> disinfection?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>..., ozone, or chlorine dioxide for <span class="hlt">primary</span> disinfection? 141.535 Section 141.535 Protection of Environment... § 141.535 What if my <span class="hlt">system</span> uses chloramines, ozone, or chlorine dioxide for <span class="hlt">primary</span> disinfection? If your <span class="hlt">system</span> uses chloramines, ozone, or chlorine dioxide for <span class="hlt">primary</span> disinfection, you must...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol23/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol23-sec141-535.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol23/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol23-sec141-535.pdf"><span>40 CFR 141.535 - What if my <span class="hlt">system</span> uses chloramines, ozone, or chlorine dioxide for <span class="hlt">primary</span> disinfection?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>..., ozone, or chlorine dioxide for <span class="hlt">primary</span> disinfection? 141.535 Section 141.535 Protection of Environment... § 141.535 What if my <span class="hlt">system</span> uses chloramines, ozone, or chlorine dioxide for <span class="hlt">primary</span> disinfection? If your <span class="hlt">system</span> uses chloramines, ozone, or chlorine dioxide for <span class="hlt">primary</span> disinfection, you must...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol23/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol23-sec141-535.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol23/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol23-sec141-535.pdf"><span>40 CFR 141.535 - What if my <span class="hlt">system</span> uses chloramines, ozone, or chlorine dioxide for <span class="hlt">primary</span> disinfection?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>..., ozone, or chlorine dioxide for <span class="hlt">primary</span> disinfection? 141.535 Section 141.535 Protection of Environment... § 141.535 What if my <span class="hlt">system</span> uses chloramines, ozone, or chlorine dioxide for <span class="hlt">primary</span> disinfection? If your <span class="hlt">system</span> uses chloramines, ozone, or chlorine dioxide for <span class="hlt">primary</span> disinfection, you must...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol24/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol24-sec141-535.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol24/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol24-sec141-535.pdf"><span>40 CFR 141.535 - What if my <span class="hlt">system</span> uses chloramines, ozone, or chlorine dioxide for <span class="hlt">primary</span> disinfection?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>..., ozone, or chlorine dioxide for <span class="hlt">primary</span> disinfection? 141.535 Section 141.535 Protection of Environment... § 141.535 What if my <span class="hlt">system</span> uses chloramines, ozone, or chlorine dioxide for <span class="hlt">primary</span> disinfection? If your <span class="hlt">system</span> uses chloramines, ozone, or chlorine dioxide for <span class="hlt">primary</span> disinfection, you must...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21448880','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21448880"><span>{sup 60}Fe AND {sup 26}<span class="hlt">Al</span> IN CHONDRULES FROM UNEQUILIBRATED CHONDRITES: IMPLICATIONS FOR EARLY SOLAR <span class="hlt">SYSTEM</span> PROCESSES</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mishra, R. K.; Goswami, J. N.; Rudraswami, N. G.; Tachibana, S.; Huss, G. R.</p> <p>2010-05-10</p> <p>The presence of about a dozen short-lived nuclides in the early solar <span class="hlt">system</span>, including {sup 60}Fe and {sup 26}<span class="hlt">Al</span>, has been established from isotopic studies of meteorite samples. An accurate estimation of solar <span class="hlt">system</span> initial abundance of {sup 60}Fe, a distinct product of stellar nucleosynthesis, is important to infer the stellar source of this nuclide. Previous studies in this regard suffered from the lack of exact knowledge of the time of formation of the analyzed meteorite samples. We present here results obtained from the first combined study of {sup 60}Fe and {sup 26}<span class="hlt">Al</span> records in early solar <span class="hlt">system</span> objects to remove this ambiguity. Chondrules from unequilibrated ordinary chondrites belonging to low petrologic grades were analyzed for their Fe-Ni and <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Mg isotope systematics. The <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Mg isotope data provide the time of formation of the analyzed chondrules relative to the first solar <span class="hlt">system</span> solids, the Ca-<span class="hlt">Al</span>-rich inclusions. The inferred initial {sup 60}Fe/{sup 56}Fe values of four chondrules, combined with their time of formation based on <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Mg isotope data, yielded a weighted mean value of (6.3 {+-} 2) x 10{sup -7} for solar <span class="hlt">system</span> initial {sup 60}Fe/{sup 56}Fe. This argues for a high-mass supernova as the source of {sup 60}Fe along with {sup 26}<span class="hlt">Al</span> and several other short-lived nuclides present in the early solar <span class="hlt">system</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/186788','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/186788"><span>Combustion synthesis of metal-matrix composites. Part 2: The Ti-Ti{sub x}<span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub y}-<span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 2}O{sub 3} <span class="hlt">system</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kunrath, A.O.; Strohaecker, T.R.; Moore, J.J.</p> <p>1996-01-15</p> <p>The production of high performance materials (ceramics, intermetallics and composites) by combustion synthesis is receiving considerable attention since the process offers certain advantages with respect to simplicity and a relatively low energy requirement. The methods by which combustion synthesis (or SHS) can be used to produce metal matrix composites were outlined in an earlier paper. The use of excess liquid metal in the combustion synthesis reaction has already been successfully employed to achieve low porosity products. This metallic phase may be generated by an in-situ reduction of a metal oxide or by adding an excess of some metal to the reactants. Coupling a simultaneous consolidation (pressing) process with the SHS reaction has been found to produce dense bodies. This work discussed in this paper is concerned with the synthesis of a metallic/intermetallic matrix composite reaction <span class="hlt">system</span> which can be represented by equation. With this reaction, high volume fractions of metallic/intermetallic phases can be produced. The metal-matrix produced by this reaction is predominantly a mixture of Ti{sub 3}<span class="hlt">Al</span> + Ti as indicated in the appropriate area of the Ti-<span class="hlt">Al</span> phase diagram. Increasing x increases the volume fraction of Ti. Ti<span class="hlt">Al</span> was observed in only one of the four different stoichiometries studied, i.e., x = 1, as detected by XRD. Using this reaction, there is a constant amount of excess <span class="hlt">Al</span> and a variable excess of Ti. These stoichiometries produce composites with varying Ti-<span class="hlt">Al</span> ratios that allow the matrix composition of the composite to be varied along the concentration axis of the Ti-<span class="hlt">Al</span> phase diagram.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/922165','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/922165"><span>A Potentiometric, Spectrophotometric and Pitzer Ion-Interaction Study of Reaction Equilibria in the Aqueous H+-<span class="hlt">Al</span>3+, H+-Oxalate and H+-<span class="hlt">Al</span>3+-Oxalate <span class="hlt">Systems</span> up to 5 mol*dm-3 NaCl</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Boily, Jean F.; Qafoku, Odeta; Felmy, Andrew R.</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>Aluminium-oxalate complexation was determined in acidic media of aqueous NaCl solutions ranging from 0.1-5.0 mol•dm-3. Complexation in the H+-<span class="hlt">Al</span>3+ and H+-Oxalate <span class="hlt">systems</span> was also studied to provide a set of internally consistent thermodynamic data. The ionic strength dependent formation constants describing the stabilities of the <span class="hlt">Al</span>3+, <span class="hlt">Al</span>OH2+, <span class="hlt">Al</span>3(OH)45+, <span class="hlt">Al</span>13O4(OH)247+, H2L, HL-, L2-, <span class="hlt">Al</span>L+, <span class="hlt">Al</span>L2- and <span class="hlt">Al</span>L33- species (where L is the oxalate ion) was also described using a Pitzer ion interaction model. The derived parameters can be used to predict chemical speciation in the H+-<span class="hlt">Al</span>3+-Oxalate <span class="hlt">system</span> in the 0.1-5.0 mol•dm-3 NaCl range.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27578837','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27578837"><span>A human factors <span class="hlt">systems</span> approach to understanding team-based <span class="hlt">primary</span> care: a qualitative analysis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mundt, Marlon P; Swedlund, Matthew P</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Research shows that high-functioning teams improve patient outcomes in <span class="hlt">primary</span> care. However, there is no consensus on a conceptual model of team-based <span class="hlt">primary</span> care that can be used to guide measurement and performance evaluation of teams. To qualitatively understand whether the <span class="hlt">Systems</span> Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety (SEIPS) model could serve as a framework for creating and evaluating team-based <span class="hlt">primary</span> care. We evaluated qualitative interview data from 19 clinicians and staff members from 6 <span class="hlt">primary</span> care clinics associated with a large Midwestern university. All health care clinicians and staff in the study clinics completed a survey of their communication connections to team members. Social network analysis identified key informants for interviews by selecting the respondents with the highest frequency of communication ties as reported by their teammates. Semi-structured interviews focused on communication patterns, team climate and teamwork. Themes derived from the interviews lent support to the SEIPS model components, such as the work <span class="hlt">system</span> (Team, Tools and Technology, Physical Environment, Tasks and Organization), team processes and team outcomes. Our qualitative data support the SEIPS model as a promising conceptual framework for creating and evaluating <span class="hlt">primary</span> care teams. Future studies of team-based care may benefit from using the SEIPS model to shift clinical practice to high functioning team-based <span class="hlt">primary</span> care. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23415798','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23415798"><span>Apotopes and innate immune <span class="hlt">system</span>: novel players in the <span class="hlt">primary</span> biliary cirrhosis scenario.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lleo, Ana; Invernizzi, Pietro</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p>Our understanding of <span class="hlt">primary</span> biliary cirrhosis has been rapidly growing over the past decade and the disease is now regarded as a model for other female-predominant, organ-specific autoimmune conditions. <span class="hlt">Primary</span> biliary cirrhosis ensues from a multi-lineage loss of tolerance to the E2 component of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. One of the major unanswered questions in the pathogenesis of <span class="hlt">primary</span> biliary cirrhosis is the specificity of small intrahepatic bile ducts attack while PDC-E2 is present in mitochondria of all nucleated cells. Recent findings suggest that the uniqueness of the <span class="hlt">primary</span> target tissue, biliary epithelium, may be of considerable importance for understanding <span class="hlt">primary</span> biliary cirrhosis and that the biliary epithelial cell is more than an innocent victim. Rather, it attracts an immune attack by virtue of the unique apoptotic mechanisms and by the way it handles PDC-E2. Moreover, recent evidence suggests that apoptotic bodies of biliary epithelial cell are able to activate the innate immune <span class="hlt">system</span> in the presence of anti-mitochondrial antibodies. This review article is intended to provide a critical overview of the role of apoptosis in biliary epithelial cells, the activation of the innate immune <span class="hlt">system</span>, and its biological and clinical significance in <span class="hlt">primary</span> biliary cirrhosis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1028683','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1028683"><span>Comparison of Carbon and Hi-Z <span class="hlt">Primary</span> Collimators for the LHC Phase II Collimation <span class="hlt">System</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Keller, Lewis; Markiewicz, Thomas; Smith, Jeffrey; Assmann, Ralph; Bracco, Chiara; Weiler, Thomas; /Karlsruhe, Inst. Technol.</p> <p>2011-10-31</p> <p>A current issue with the LHC collimation <span class="hlt">system</span> is single-diffractive, off-energy protons from the <span class="hlt">primary</span> collimators that pass completely through the secondary collimation <span class="hlt">system</span> and are absorbed immediately downbeam in the cold magnets of the dispersion suppressor section. Simulations suggest that the high impact rate could result in quenching of these magnets. We have studied replacing the 60 cm <span class="hlt">primary</span> graphite collimators, which remove halo mainly by inelastic strong interactions, with 5.25 mm tungsten, which remove halo mainly by multiple coulomb scattering and thereby reduce the rate of single-diffractive interactions that cause losses in the dispersion suppressor.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4007783','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4007783"><span><span class="hlt">Primary</span> <span class="hlt">Systemic</span> Amyloidosis and High Levels of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme: Two Case Reports</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Praena-Segovia, J.; Sanchez-Gastaldo, A.; Bernabeu-Wittel, M.; Ocete-Pérez, R.; Ávila-Polo, R.; Martino, M. L.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Infiltrative heart diseases are caused by a heterogeneous group of disorders; amyloidosis and sarcoidosis are two frequent causes of myocardial infiltration, which differ in clinical and biological outcome and treatment issues. The presence of high levels of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) in a patient with infiltrative heart disease may increase suspicion of sarcoidosis. Nevertheless, no mention about increased ACE levels in extracerebral <span class="hlt">primary</span> <span class="hlt">systemic</span> amyloidosis is available. We present two cases of <span class="hlt">primary</span> <span class="hlt">systemic</span> amyloidosis, which are cardiac involvement and elevated ACE levels. PMID:24826302</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8245808','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8245808"><span>Office <span class="hlt">systems</span> for promoting screening mammography. A survey of <span class="hlt">primary</span> care practices.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Melville, S K; Luckmann, R; Coghlin, J; Gann, P</p> <p>1993-12-01</p> <p>Office tracking, scheduling, and reminder <span class="hlt">systems</span> have been shown to improve utilization of screening mammography, but little is known about the use of these <span class="hlt">systems</span> by <span class="hlt">primary</span> care physicians. We surveyed 132 <span class="hlt">primary</span> care and obstetrics and gynecology practices affiliated with an independent practice association model health maintenance organization in central Massachusetts to determine their use of reminder, scheduling, and follow-up <span class="hlt">systems</span>, and education and counseling services aimed at increasing screening mammography rates. The use of chart flags to remind physicians of a patient's need for mammography screening was reported by 30% of practices. Thirty-one percent reported the use of flow sheets, and 27% reported the use of mail or telephone patient reminders. At least one of these three <span class="hlt">systems</span> was used by 57% of the practices, whereas 43% reported having none of these three <span class="hlt">systems</span>. Variations in the use of these office <span class="hlt">systems</span> were related to specialty type, physician number, and clinical staffing. The majority of practices (77%) reported using written educational materials, and 42% offered prevention counseling with nonphysician staff. Very few offices (8%) reported using mail or telephone reminders for previously scheduled appointments. Despite the proven effectiveness of reminder <span class="hlt">systems</span> for screening mammography, many practices do not have a <span class="hlt">system</span> in place. Promotion of reminder <span class="hlt">systems</span> in <span class="hlt">primary</span> care practices could have a substantial impact on mammography utilization.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17041358','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17041358"><span>Central nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> compromise in <span class="hlt">primary</span> Sjögren's syndrome.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Anaya, Juan-Manuel; Villa, Luis A; Restrepo, Lucas; Molina, Jose F; Mantilla, Rubén D; Vargas, Sergio</p> <p>2002-08-01</p> <p>Central nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> (CNS) involvement in <span class="hlt">primary</span> Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is poorly understood, and its frequency as well as its manifestations are subjects of controversy. The current study was undertaken to determine the prevalence and the clinical and immunogenetic characteristics of CNS compromise in a well defined group of patients with <span class="hlt">primary</span> SS. In this retrospective study, patients fulfilled the European classification criteria. Among 120 patients with <span class="hlt">primary</span> SS, 3 (2.5%) had CNS compromise (multiple sclerosis-like illness, complicated migraine, and optic neuritis with epilepsy). The CNS involvement coincided with the onset of sicca symptoms in 1 case. All 3 patients carried the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) DQB1*0303 allele and tested positive for anti-Ro antibodies, but not for anti-cardiolipin antibodies. Although rare, CNS compromise in <span class="hlt">primary</span> SS can be the presenting manifestation of the disease in a few cases, and may be severe and varied.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ResPh...7.1878S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ResPh...7.1878S"><span>Combustion synthesis in the Ni-<span class="hlt">Al</span>-Nb ternary <span class="hlt">system</span>: A Time-Resolved X-ray Diffraction study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sytschev, Alexander E.; Kovalev, Dmitry Yu.; Vrel, Dominique; Vadchenko, Sergey G.</p> <p></p> <p>Combustion synthesis of intermetallics, using the thermal explosion mode, in the Ni-<span class="hlt">Al</span>-Nb ternary <span class="hlt">system</span> is presented, with a 40:40:20 atomic ratio. The kinetic pathway is determined using Time-Resolved X-ray Diffraction, with a time-step resolution of 1 s and demonstrated a first formation of the B2 Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> structure followed by progressive dissolution of Nb to yield Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span>Nb intermetallic Laves phase, representing 35 w% of the final product. SEM observations show a double dendritic (coarse and fine) microstructure, resulting from eutectic crystallization. Due to a high cooling rate, Nb dissolution is not complete at the surface, and yields slightly more complex microstructure, including the Ni2<span class="hlt">Al</span>Nb Geissler phase, the (Ni,<span class="hlt">Al</span>)2Nb Laves phase, and (Ni, <span class="hlt">Al</span>)7Nb6.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18677544','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18677544"><span>Overweight and obesity and their relation to dietary habits and socio-demographic characteristics among male <span class="hlt">primary</span> school children in <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Hassa, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Amin, Tarek Tawfik; Al-Sultan, Ali Ibrahim; Ali, Ayub</p> <p>2008-09-01</p> <p>Several studies were carried out to study the prevalence of overweight and obesity among Saudi children, but those assessed the association between eating habits, socio-demographic differentials and obesity in these children are scarce. To assess the magnitude of obesity and overweight among male <span class="hlt">primary</span> schoolchildren and to find the possible association between obesity/overweight with dietary habits and socio-demographic differentials among them. A cross-sectional descriptive study including 1,139 Saudi male enrolled in the fifth and sixth grades in public <span class="hlt">primary</span> schools in <span class="hlt">Al</span> Hassa, KSA, through a multistage random sampling technique, submitted to interview using Youth and Adolescent Food Frequency Questionnaire, gathering data regarding dietary intake, some dietary habits, followed by anthropometric measurements with calculation of body mass index, the interpretation of which was based on using Cole's tables for standard definition of overweight and obesity. Socio-demographics data were collected through parental questionnaire form. Data analysis was carried out using SPSS 12 (SPSS Inc. Chicago, IL, USA), univariate as well as multivariate analyses were conducted. The age ranged from 10 to 14 years. The prevalence of overweight among the included subjects was 14.2% while obesity was 9.7%, more in urban, older age students, mothers of obese and overweight were less educated, more working. Missing and or infrequent intake of breakfast at home, frequent consumption of fast foods, low servings of fruits, vegetables, milk and dairy product per day, with frequent consumption of sweets/candy and carbonated drinks were all predictors of obesity and overweight among the included male schoolchildren. The prevalence of childhood obesity is escalating and approaching figures reported in the developed countries. Less healthy dietary habits and poor food choices may be responsible for this high prevalence.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26720646','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26720646"><span>Propagation Properties of the Precipitation Band in an <span class="hlt">Al</span>Cl₃/NaOH <span class="hlt">System</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ban, Takahiko; Nagatsu, Yuichiro; Tokuyama, Hideaki</p> <p>2016-01-19</p> <p>When inherently immobile solid particles collectively form precipitates in a reaction-diffusion <span class="hlt">system</span> involving a redissolution reaction, a propagation phenomenon may occur in which a dynamic pattern of precipitation bands forms. This propagating precipitation phenomenon has been studied by many researchers. However, two completely different processes-i.e., the reaction-diffusion of reactants and the crystal growth of products-progress simultaneously in the <span class="hlt">system</span>, thereby rendering the phenomenon complex. There are no well-established experimental laws for this propagating precipitation phenomenon, such as the spacing, time, and width laws associated with the well-known Liesegang phenomenon, which is static in the sense that precipitation bands form and remain at the same position. In fact, it has not been clarified which of the processes controls the propagation phenomenon. Accordingly, we have investigated the apparent diffusion coefficient associated with the dynamics of propagating precipitation band in an <span class="hlt">Al</span>Cl3/NaOH <span class="hlt">system</span> for the case in which a large excess of outer electrolytes (i.e., OH(-)) diffuses into gel in which inner electrolytes (i.e.,<span class="hlt">Al</span>(3+)) are homogeneously distributed. An isolated precipitation band of <span class="hlt">Al</span>(OH)3 was formed horizontally in a test tube and propagated vertically in proportion to the square root of time. In our experimental results, we found that the apparent diffusion coefficient, D(p), possesses an exponential dependence on the initial concentrations of the outer electrolyte, and the inner electrolyte; the measured relation was D(p) = D[<span class="hlt">Al</span>(3+)](-0.6)[OH(-)](0.6), where D = (0.63 ± 0.04) × 10(5) cm(2)/s. From our model equations based on the prenucleation theory, which take into account a redissolution reaction, we found that the dynamics of the reaction front of the outer and the inner electrolytes was an important factor in controlling the propagation of the precipitation band. In our simulation results, we obtained a similar</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21300663','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21300663"><span>{sup 26}<span class="hlt">Al</span> AND THE FORMATION OF THE SOLAR <span class="hlt">SYSTEM</span> FROM A MOLECULAR CLOUD CONTAMINATED BY WOLF-RAYET WINDS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gaidos, Eric; Krot, Alexander N.; Williams, Jonathan P.; Raymond, Sean N. E-mail: sasha@higp.hawaii.edu E-mail: sean.raymond@colorado.edu</p> <p>2009-05-10</p> <p>In agreement with previous work, we show that the presence of the short-lived radionuclide (SLR) {sup 26}<span class="hlt">Al</span> in the early solar <span class="hlt">system</span> was unlikely (less than 2% a priori probability) to be the result of direct introduction of supernova (SN) ejecta into the gaseous disk during the Class II stage of protosolar evolution. We also show that Bondi-Hoyle accretion of any contaminated residual gas from the Sun's natal star cluster contributed negligible {sup 26}<span class="hlt">Al</span> to the primordial solar <span class="hlt">system</span>. Our calculations are consistent with the absence of the oxygen isotopic signature expected with any late introduction of SN ejecta into the protoplanetary disk. Instead, the presence of {sup 26}<span class="hlt">Al</span> in the oldest solar <span class="hlt">system</span> solids (calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs)) and its apparent uniform distribution with the inferred canonical {sup 26}<span class="hlt">Al</span>/{sup 27}<span class="hlt">Al</span> ratio of (4.5-5) x 10{sup -5} support the inheritance of {sup 26}<span class="hlt">Al</span> from the Sun's parent giant molecular cloud. We propose that this radionuclide originated in a prior generation of massive stars that formed in the same molecular cloud and contaminated that cloud by Wolf-Rayet winds. We calculated the Galactic distribution of {sup 26}<span class="hlt">Al</span>/{sup 27}<span class="hlt">Al</span> ratios that arise from such contamination using the established embedded cluster mass and stellar initial mass functions, published nucleosynthetic yields from the winds of massive stars, and by assuming rapid and uniform mixing into the cloud. Although our model predicts that the majority of stellar <span class="hlt">systems</span> contain no {sup 26}<span class="hlt">Al</span> from massive stars, and that the a priori probability that the {sup 26}<span class="hlt">Al</span>/{sup 27}<span class="hlt">Al</span> ratio will reach or exceed the canonical solar <span class="hlt">system</span> value is only {approx}6%, the maximum in the distribution of nonzero values is close to the canonical {sup 26}<span class="hlt">Al</span>/{sup 27}<span class="hlt">Al</span> ratio. We find that the Sun most likely formed 4-5 million years (Myr) after the massive stars that were the source of {sup 26}<span class="hlt">Al</span>. Furthermore, our model can explain the initial solar <span class="hlt">system</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/186789','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/186789"><span>Combustion synthesis of metal-matrix composites. Part 3: The <span class="hlt">Al-TiC-Al</span>{sub 2}O{sub 3} <span class="hlt">system</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kunrath, A.O.; Strohaecker, T.R.; Moore, J.J.</p> <p>1996-01-15</p> <p>The principle of combustion synthesis to produce metal matrix composites has been outlined in earlier papers. Applying pressure either during or immediately after the reaction is completed is the most commonly used method to achieve high densification of the synthesized products. Some advanced ceramics (TiC and TiB{sub 2}) have been reported to achieve up to 95% of theoretical density using this technique. The current research is a continuation of the work on the TiC-<span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 2}O{sub 3}-<span class="hlt">Al</span> <span class="hlt">system</span>, in which an excess amount of liquid aluminum is generated by the exothermic reaction and infiltrates the pores of the ceramic matrix improving the densification of the product. The current research is aimed at synthesizing high volume fractions, i.e., > 50%, metal matrix composites using the SHS reaction. The stability of this reaction is inversely proportional to the excess amount of the metal phase added to the reactants, i.e. x<span class="hlt">Al</span>. The excess <span class="hlt">Al</span> acts as a diluent, taking heat from the reaction front, and making it difficult to ignite and/or sustain the reaction in pellets with stoichiometries of high volume fractions of metal. For this reason, the simultaneous combustion (thermal explosion) mode was chosen to perform the synthesis reaction and in which the whole pellet is heated to the ignition temperature.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26363955','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26363955"><span>[Differences and similarities of <span class="hlt">primary</span> care in the German and Spanish health care <span class="hlt">systems</span>].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Salvador Comino, María Rosa; Krane, Sibylla; Schelling, Jörg; Regife García, Víctor</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>An efficient <span class="hlt">primary</span> care is of particular importance for any countries' health care <span class="hlt">system</span>. Many differences exist on how distinctive countries try to obtain the goal of an efficient, cost-effective <span class="hlt">primary</span> care for its population. In this article we conducted a selective literature review, which includes both scientific and socio-political publications. The findings are complemented with the experience of a Spanish physician from Seville in her last year of training in family medicine, who completed a four months long rotation in the German health care <span class="hlt">system</span>. We highlighted different features by comparing both countries, including their health care expenditure, the relation between <span class="hlt">primary</span> and secondary care, the organization in the academic field and the training of future <span class="hlt">primary</span> care physicians. It is clear that <span class="hlt">primary</span> care in both countries plays a central role, have to deal with shortcomings, and in some points one <span class="hlt">system</span> can learn from the other. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1164045','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1164045"><span>Solution-based thermodynamic modeling of the Ni-<span class="hlt">Al</span>-Mo <span class="hlt">system</span> using first-principles calculations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Zhou, S H; Wang, Y; Chen, L -Q; Liu, Z -K; Napolitano, R E</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>A solution-based thermodynamic description of the ternary Ni–Al–Mo <span class="hlt">system</span> is developed here, incorporating first-principles calculations and reported modeling of the binary Ni–<span class="hlt">Al</span>, Ni–Mo and Al–Mo <span class="hlt">systems</span>. To search for the configurations with the lowest energies of the N phase, the Alloy Theoretic Automated Toolkit (ATAT) was employed and combined with VASP. The liquid, bcc and γ-fcc phases are modeled as random atomic solutions, and the γ'-Ni3<span class="hlt">Al</span> phase is modeled by describing the ordering within the fcc structure using two sublattices, summarized as (<span class="hlt">Al</span>,Mo,Ni)0.75(<span class="hlt">Al</span>,Mo,Ni)0.25. Thus, γ-fcc and γ'-Ni3<span class="hlt">Al</span> are modeled with a single Gibbs free energy function with appropriate treatment of the chemical ordering contribution. In addition, notable improvements are the following: first, the ternary effects of Mo and <span class="hlt">Al</span> in the B2-Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> and D0a-Ni3Mo phases, respectively, are considered; second, the N-Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span>8Mo3 phase is described as a solid solution using a three-sublattice model; third, the X-Ni14<span class="hlt">Al</span>75Mo11 phase is treated as a stoichiometric compound. Model parameters are evaluated using first-principles calculations of zero-Kelvin formation enthalpies and reported experimental data. In comparison with the enthalpies of formation for the compounds ψ-<span class="hlt">Al</span>Mo, θ-<span class="hlt">Al</span>8Mo3 and B2-Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span>, the first-principles results indicate that the N-Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span>8Mo3 phase, which is stable at high temperatures, decomposes into other phases at low temperature. Resulting phase equilibria are summarized in the form of isothermal sections and liquidus projections. To clearly identify the relationship between the γ-fcc and γ'-Ni3<span class="hlt">Al</span> phases in the ternary Ni–Al–Mo <span class="hlt">system</span>, the specific γ-fcc and γ'-Ni3<span class="hlt">Al</span> phase fields are plotted in x(<span class="hlt">Al</span>)–x(Mo)–T space for a temperature range 1200–1800 K.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20225195','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20225195"><span>Long-term survival with favorable cognitive outcome after chemotherapy in <span class="hlt">primary</span> central nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> lymphoma.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Juergens, Annika; Pels, Hendrik; Rogowski, Sabine; Fliessbach, Klaus; Glasmacher, Axel; Engert, Andreas; Reiser, Marcel; Diehl, Volker; Vogt-Schaden, Marlies; Egerer, Gerlinde; Schackert, Gabriele; Reichmann, Heinz; Kroschinsky, Frank; Bode, Udo; Herrlinger, Ulrich; Linnebank, Michael; Deckert, Martina; Fimmers, Rolf; Schmidt-Wolf, Ingo G H; Schlegel, Uwe</p> <p>2010-02-01</p> <p>To evaluate long-term progression-free survival and overall survival, quality of life, and cognitive function in <span class="hlt">primary</span> central nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> lymphoma after <span class="hlt">systemic</span> and intraventricular chemotherapy without radiotherapy. A long-term follow-up was conducted on surviving <span class="hlt">primary</span> central nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> lymphoma patients having been enrolled in a pilot/phase II trial between September 1995 and December 2001. Initially, 65 patients (median age, 62 years) had been treated with <span class="hlt">systemic</span> and intraventricular chemotherapy without radiotherapy. All living patients were contacted, and a neurological examination, comprehensive neuropsychological testing, quality-of-life assessment, and imaging were performed. Twenty-one of all 65 patients (32 %) and 17 of 30 patients 60 years or younger (57%), respectively, were still alive at median follow-up of 100 months (range, 77-149 months). Nineteen of 21 patients completed all investigations; 1 was lost to follow-up. In three patients, an exclusively extraneural relapse of a high-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was diagnosed after 9, 31, and 40 months, respectively. All of them experienced complete remission to high dose. Neither late neurotoxicity nor compromise of quality of life was found in any of the patients examined. <span class="hlt">Primary</span> polychemotherapy based on high-dose methotrexate (MTX) and cytarabine (Ara-C) is highly efficient in treatment of <span class="hlt">primary</span> central nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> lymphoma. About half of patients 60 years or younger can obviously be cured with this regimen without long-term neurotoxic sequelae or quality-of-life compromise.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApSS..355..930S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApSS..355..930S"><span>Influence of SiC surface polarity on the wettability and reactivity in an <span class="hlt">Al</span>/SiC <span class="hlt">system</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shen, Ping; Wang, Yi; Ren, Lihua; Li, Shixin; Liu, Yuhua; Jiang, Qichuan</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>The wetting of (0 0 0 1) 6H-SiC single crystals by molten <span class="hlt">Al</span> was investigated using a dispensed sessile drop method in a high vacuum at 973-1173 K. The wettability and reactivity in this <span class="hlt">system</span> are sensitive to the surface polarity of SiC. The interfacial reaction on the Si-terminated surface is rapid. The formation of a continuous <span class="hlt">Al</span>4C3 product layer at the interface leads to an equilibrium contact angle of 56 ± 1° at 1173 K. In comparison, the interfacial reaction on the C-terminated surface is sluggish. The interface is only partially covered by discrete <span class="hlt">Al</span>4C3 platelets even after dwelling at 1173 K for 2 h. The final wettability, however, is much better (θF = 41 ± 1°) than that of the Si-terminated surface which was covered by a dense <span class="hlt">Al</span>4C3 layer, suggesting that the formation of <span class="hlt">Al</span>4C3 should not always contribute to the wetting in the <span class="hlt">Al</span>/SiC <span class="hlt">system</span>. A plausible explanation is that the clean (i.e., deoxidized) C-terminated surface should be well wetted by molten <span class="hlt">Al</span> in nature, owing to the strong chemical interactions between liquid <span class="hlt">Al</span> and the surface atoms of the C-terminated SiC. It is likely that the presence of the oxide film at the surface of the molten <span class="hlt">Al</span> drop or the SiC substrate and the rapid formation of <span class="hlt">Al</span>4C3, which prevent the establishment of a real <span class="hlt">Al</span>/SiC interface, conceal the intrinsic wettability of this <span class="hlt">system</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920041145&hterms=ALS&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DALS','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920041145&hterms=ALS&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DALS"><span>Aerodynamics of the advanced launch <span class="hlt">system</span> (<span class="hlt">ALS</span>) propulsion and avionics (P/A) module</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ferguson, Stan; Savage, Dick</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>This paper discusses the design and testing of candidate Advanced Launch <span class="hlt">System</span> (<span class="hlt">ALS</span>) Propulsion and Avionics (P/A) Module configurations. The P/A Module is a key element of future launch <span class="hlt">systems</span> because it is essential to the recovery and reuse of high-value propulsion and avionics hardware. The <span class="hlt">ALS</span> approach involves landing of first stage (booster) and/or second stage (core) P/A modules near the launch site to minimize logistics and refurbishment cost. The key issue addressed herein is the aerodynamic design of the P/A module, including the stability characteristics and the lift-to-drag (L/D) performance required to achieve the necessary landing guidance accuracy. The reference P/A module configuration was found to be statically stable for the desired flight regime, to provide adequate L/D for targeting, and to have effective modulation of the L/D performance using a body flap. The hypersonic aerodynamic trends for nose corner radius, boattail angle and body flap deflections were consistent with pretest predictions. However, the levels for the L/D and axial force for hypersonic Mach numbers were overpredicted by impact theories.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ISPAnIII3..233W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ISPAnIII3..233W"><span>Uls LiDAR Supported Analyses of Laser Beam Penetration from Different <span class="hlt">ALS</span> <span class="hlt">Systems</span> Into Vegetation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wieser, M.; Hollaus, M.; Mandlburger, G.; Glira, P.; Pfeifer, N.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>This study analyses the underestimation of tree and shrub heights for different airborne laser scanner <span class="hlt">systems</span> and point cloud distribution within the vegetation column. Reference data was produced by a novel UAV-borne laser scanning (ULS) with a high point density in the complete vegetation column. With its physical parameters (e.g. footprint) and its relative accuracy within the block as stated in Section 2.2 the reference data is supposed to be highly suitable to detect the highest point of the vegetation. An airborne topographic (<span class="hlt">ALS</span>) and topo-bathymetric (ALB) <span class="hlt">system</span> were investigated. All data was collected in a period of one month in leaf-off condition, while the dominant tree species in the study area are deciduous trees. By robustly estimating the highest 3d vegetation point of each laser <span class="hlt">system</span> the underestimation of the vegetation height was examined in respect to the ULS reference data. This resulted in a higher under-estimation of the airborne topographic <span class="hlt">system</span> with 0.60 m (trees) and 0.55 m (shrubs) than for the topo-bathymetric <span class="hlt">system</span> 0.30 m (trees) and 0.40 m (shrubs). The degree of the underestimation depends on structural characteristics of the vegetation itself and physical specification of the laser <span class="hlt">system</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3878728','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3878728"><span>A <span class="hlt">systems</span>-based partnership learning model for strengthening <span class="hlt">primary</span> healthcare</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Background Strengthening <span class="hlt">primary</span> healthcare <span class="hlt">systems</span> is vital to improving health outcomes and reducing inequity. However, there are few tools and models available in published literature showing how <span class="hlt">primary</span> care <span class="hlt">system</span> strengthening can be achieved on a large scale. Challenges to strengthening <span class="hlt">primary</span> healthcare (PHC) <span class="hlt">systems</span> include the dispersion, diversity and relative independence of <span class="hlt">primary</span> care providers; the scope and complexity of PHC; limited infrastructure available to support population health approaches; and the generally poor and fragmented state of PHC information <span class="hlt">systems</span>. Drawing on concepts of comprehensive PHC, integrated quality improvement (IQI) methods, <span class="hlt">system</span>-based research networks, and <span class="hlt">system</span>-based participatory action research, we describe a learning model for strengthening PHC that addresses these challenges. We describe the evolution of this model within the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander <span class="hlt">primary</span> healthcare context, successes and challenges in its application, and key issues for further research. Discussion IQI approaches combined with <span class="hlt">system</span>-based participatory action research and <span class="hlt">system</span>-based research networks offer potential to support program implementation and ongoing learning across a wide scope of <span class="hlt">primary</span> healthcare practice and on a large scale. The Partnership Learning Model (PLM) can be seen as an integrated model for large-scale knowledge translation across the scope of priority aspects of PHC. With appropriate engagement of relevant stakeholders, the model may be applicable to a wide range of settings. In IQI, and in the PLM specifically, there is a clear role for research in contributing to refining and evaluating existing tools and processes, and in developing and trialling innovations. Achieving an appropriate balance between funding IQI activity as part of routine service delivery and funding IQI related research will be vital to developing and sustaining this type of PLM. Summary This paper draws together</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050199431','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050199431"><span>Vapor/Mist Used to Lubricate Gears After Loss of <span class="hlt">Primary</span> Lubrication <span class="hlt">System</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Handschuh, Robert F.; Morales, Wilfredo</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Loss of lubrication in rotorcraft drive <span class="hlt">systems</span> is a demanding requirement placed on drive <span class="hlt">system</span> manufacturers. The drive <span class="hlt">system</span> must operate for at least 30 minutes once the <span class="hlt">primary</span> lubrication <span class="hlt">system</span> has failed. This test is a military requirement that must be passed prior to certification of the aircraft. As new aircraft engines, operating at higher speeds, are fielded, the requirements for the drive <span class="hlt">system</span> become increasingly more difficult. Also, the drive <span class="hlt">system</span> must be lightweight, which minimizes the opportunity to use the gear bodies to absorb the tremendous amount of heating that takes place. In many cases, the amount of heat generated because of the high speed and load requires an emergency lubrication <span class="hlt">system</span> that negatively impacts the aircraft's weight, complexity, and cost. A single mesh spur gear test rig is being used at the NASA Glenn Research Center to investigate possible emergency lubrication <span class="hlt">system</span> improvements that will minimize the impact of having these <span class="hlt">systems</span> onboard rotorcraft. A technique currently being investigated uses a vapor/mist <span class="hlt">system</span> to lubricate the contacting surfaces after the <span class="hlt">primary</span> lubrication <span class="hlt">system</span> has been shut down. A number of tests were conducted in which the vapor/mist used the same lubricant as the <span class="hlt">primary</span> <span class="hlt">system</span>, but at a greatly reduced flow rate. Each test was initiated with the <span class="hlt">primary</span> lubrication <span class="hlt">system</span> operational and at steady-state conditions for a given speed and load. Then the <span class="hlt">primary</span> lubrication <span class="hlt">system</span> was shut down, and the vapor/mist lubrication <span class="hlt">system</span> was initiated. An example of the tests conducted is shown in the figures. These preliminary tests have uncovered a mechanism that provides a lubricious, carbonaceous solid on the surface that actually reduces the surface temperature of the meshing gear teeth during operation. Surface analysis of the carbonaceous solid revealed it was graphitic. This mechanism is the synthetic lubricant "coking" on the active profile of the gears, which reduces the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10187773','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10187773"><span>Analysis of DSP-based longitudinal feedback <span class="hlt">system</span>: Trials at SPEAR and <span class="hlt">ALS</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hindi, H.; Eisen, N.; Fox, J.; Linscott, I.; Oxoby, G.; Sapozhnikov, L.; Serio, M.</p> <p>1993-04-01</p> <p>Recently a single-channel prototype of the proposed PEP-II longitudinal feedback <span class="hlt">system</span> was successfully demonstrated at SPEAR and <span class="hlt">ALS</span> on single-bunch beams. The phase oscillations are detected via a wide-band pick up. The feedback signal is then computed using a digital signal processor (DSP) and applied to the beam by phase modulating the rf. We analyze results in the frequency- and the time-domain and show how the closed-loop transfer functions can be obtained rigorously by proper modeling of the various components of this hybrid continuous/digital <span class="hlt">system</span>. The technique of downsampling was used in the experiments to reduce the number of computations and allowed the use of the same digital hardware on both machines.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20146645','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20146645"><span>Exceptional oral manifestations of amyloid light chain protein (<span class="hlt">AL</span>) <span class="hlt">systemic</span> amyloidosis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Elad, Sharon; Czerninski, Rakefet; Fischman, Stuart; Keshet, Na'ama; Drucker, Scott; Davidovich, Tzipporah; Goldschmidt, Neta</p> <p>2010-03-01</p> <p>Oral amyloidosis is usually presented in the tongue and is often associated with multiple myeloma. We present three patients with unusual oral manifestations of <span class="hlt">primary</span> amyloidosis, which to the best of our knowledge have not been previously published. In two cases the oral manifestation was overt at the time of diagnosis and all cases ended in patient mortality. Since these oral manifestations can contribute to the diagnosis of <span class="hlt">systemic</span> amyloidosis, clinicians should be made aware of them. Future research should assess the significance of oral manifestation as a prognostic indicator.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27484777','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27484777"><span><span class="hlt">Primary</span> Care Behavioral Health Provider Training: Systematic Development and Implementation in a Large Medical <span class="hlt">System</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dobmeyer, Anne C; Hunter, Christopher L; Corso, Meghan L; Nielsen, Matthew K; Corso, Kent A; Polizzi, Nicholas C; Earles, Jay E</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>The expansion of integrated, collaborative, behavioral health services in <span class="hlt">primary</span> care requires a trained behavioral health workforce with specific competencies to deliver effective, evidence-informed, team-based care. Most behavioral health providers do not have training or experience working as <span class="hlt">primary</span> care behavioral health consultants (BHCs), and require structured training to function effectively in this role. This article discusses one such training program developed to meet the needs of a large healthcare <span class="hlt">system</span> initiating widespread implementation of the <span class="hlt">primary</span> care behavioral health model of service delivery. It details the Department of Defense's experience in developing its extensive BHC training program, including challenges of addressing personnel selection and hiring issues, selecting a model for training, developing and implementing a phased training curriculum, and improving the training over time to address identified gaps. Future directions for training improvements and lessons learned in a large healthcare <span class="hlt">system</span> are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24090138','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24090138"><span><span class="hlt">Primary</span> healthcare in transition--a qualitative study of how managers perceived a <span class="hlt">system</span> change.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Maun, Andy; Nilsson, Kerstin; Furåker, Carina; Thorn, Jörgen</p> <p>2013-10-03</p> <p><span class="hlt">Primary</span> healthcare in Sweden has undergone widespread reforms in recent years, including freedom of choice regarding provider, freedom of establishment and increased privatisation. The key aims of the reforms were to strengthen the role of the patient and improve performance in terms of access and responsiveness. The aim of this study was to explore how managers at publicly owned <span class="hlt">primary</span> healthcare centres perceived the transition of the <span class="hlt">primary</span> healthcare <span class="hlt">system</span> and the impact it has had on their work. In this qualitative study, 24 managers of publicly owned <span class="hlt">primary</span> healthcare centres in the metropolitan region of Gothenburg were recruited. Semi-structured interviews were conducted and data were analysed using content analysis inspired by Silverman. The analysis revealed two core themes: The transition is perceived as a rapid change, enforced mainly through financial incentives and Prioritisation conflicts arise between patient groups with different needs, demands and levels of empowerment. The transition has produced powerful and rapid effects that were considered to be both positive and negative. While the new financial incentives were seen as a driving force and a tool for change, they also became a stress factor due to uncertainty, competition with other <span class="hlt">primary</span> healthcare centres and negative feelings associated with staff cutbacks. The shift in power towards the patient improved access and service but also led to more patients with unreasonable demands. Managers found it difficult to prioritise correctly between patient groups with different needs, demands and levels of empowerment and they were concerned about potentially negative effects on less empowered patients, e.g. multi-morbid patients. Managers also experienced shortcomings in their change management skills. This qualitative study shows the complexity of the <span class="hlt">system</span> change and describes the different effects and perceptions of the transition from a manager's perspective. This suggests a need for</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3854127','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3854127"><span><span class="hlt">Primary</span> healthcare in transition – a qualitative study of how managers perceived a <span class="hlt">system</span> change</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Background <span class="hlt">Primary</span> healthcare in Sweden has undergone widespread reforms in recent years, including freedom of choice regarding provider, freedom of establishment and increased privatisation. The key aims of the reforms were to strengthen the role of the patient and improve performance in terms of access and responsiveness. The aim of this study was to explore how managers at publicly owned <span class="hlt">primary</span> healthcare centres perceived the transition of the <span class="hlt">primary</span> healthcare <span class="hlt">system</span> and the impact it has had on their work. Methods In this qualitative study, 24 managers of publicly owned <span class="hlt">primary</span> healthcare centres in the metropolitan region of Gothenburg were recruited. Semi-structured interviews were conducted and data were analysed using content analysis inspired by Silverman. Results The analysis revealed two core themes: The transition is perceived as a rapid change, enforced mainly through financial incentives and Prioritisation conflicts arise between patient groups with different needs, demands and levels of empowerment. The transition has produced powerful and rapid effects that were considered to be both positive and negative. While the new financial incentives were seen as a driving force and a tool for change, they also became a stress factor due to uncertainty, competition with other <span class="hlt">primary</span> healthcare centres and negative feelings associated with staff cutbacks. The shift in power towards the patient improved access and service but also led to more patients with unreasonable demands. Managers found it difficult to prioritise correctly between patient groups with different needs, demands and levels of empowerment and they were concerned about potentially negative effects on less empowered patients, e.g. multi-morbid patients. Managers also experienced shortcomings in their change management skills. Conclusions This qualitative study shows the complexity of the <span class="hlt">system</span> change and describes the different effects and perceptions of the transition from a manager</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25414954','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25414954"><span>Building the foundation for health <span class="hlt">system</span> transformation: Oregon's Patient-Centered <span class="hlt">Primary</span> Care Home program.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rissi, Jill Jamison; Gelmon, Sherril; Saulino, Evan; Merrithew, Nicole; Baker, Robin; Hatcher, Paige</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Health <span class="hlt">system</span> reform is largely dependent upon the transformation of <span class="hlt">primary</span> care in addition to the alignment of incentives that mediate the allocation of resources. The Patient-Centered Medical Home (PCMH) is a model of enhanced <span class="hlt">primary</span> care that encourages coordination, patient-centered care, integration of public health services, and innovative methods for improving population health-all critical elements of health <span class="hlt">system</span> reform. Because it changes the way <span class="hlt">primary</span> care is organized and delivered, the PCMH model has been adopted as a foundational component of Oregon's health <span class="hlt">system</span> transformation. This article presents insights drawn from an evaluation of the implementation of Oregon's Patient-Centered <span class="hlt">Primary</span> Care Home (PCPCH) program and the adoption of the model by <span class="hlt">primary</span> care providers. We used a mixed-methods approach consisting of 2 surveys of recognized PCPCH practices, qualitative document analysis, and key informant interviews. Evaluation research findings were triangulated with findings from PCPCH clinic site visits conducted as part of a regulatory verification process. Survey results describe a broad range of strategies and practices adopted by recognized PCPCH clinics within 6 defined core attributes: (1) access to care; (2) accountability; (3) comprehensive whole-person care; (4) continuity; (5) coordination and integration; and (6) person- and family-centered care. We also identify 4 key factors that influenced the conceptualization, development, and implementation of the PCPCH program: (1) support and motivations; (2) administrative barriers and resource constraints; (3) alignment of short- and long-term financial incentives; and (4) leadership and interpersonal relationships. This evaluation provides insights into the factors that influence implementation of a <span class="hlt">primary</span> care home program as public policy; the strategies and challenges associated with implementation of the model; and the implications of both for other states that are engaged in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28738146','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28738146"><span>High-Throughput Structural and Functional Characterization of the Thin Film Materials <span class="hlt">System</span> Ni-Co-<span class="hlt">Al</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Decker, Peer; Naujoks, Dennis; Langenkämper, Dennis; Somsen, Christoph; Ludwig, Alfred</p> <p>2017-08-11</p> <p>High-throughput methods were used to investigate a Ni-Co-<span class="hlt">Al</span> thin film materials library, which is of interest for structural and functional applications (superalloys, shape memory alloys). X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements were performed to identify the phase regions of the Ni-Co-<span class="hlt">Al</span> <span class="hlt">system</span> in its state after annealing at 600 °C. Optical, electrical, and magneto-optical measurements were performed to map functional properties and confirm XRD results. All results and literature data were used to propose a ternary thin film phase diagram of the Ni-Co-<span class="hlt">Al</span> thin film <span class="hlt">system</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20447153','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20447153"><span>A new classification <span class="hlt">system</span> for <span class="hlt">primary</span> lymphatic dysplasias based on phenotype.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Connell, F; Brice, G; Jeffery, S; Keeley, V; Mortimer, P; Mansour, S</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>Traditional classification <span class="hlt">systems</span> for lymphoedema are of limited use for the diagnosis of specific forms of <span class="hlt">primary</span> lymphoedema. The understanding of <span class="hlt">primary</span> lymphoedema has been impeded by confusing terminology and a tendency to simply divide patients into three categories based on the age of onset: lymphoedema congenita manifests at or shortly after birth, lymphoedema praecox is apparent before the age of 35 years and lymphoedema tarda manifests thereafter. The clinical presentation in the spectrum of <span class="hlt">primary</span> lymphoedema disorders is very variable; the phenotypes of <span class="hlt">primary</span> lymphoedema conditions vary in the age of onset, site of the oedema, inheritance patterns, associated features and genetic causes. Different inheritance patterns are recognised and there are numerous associated anomalies. Some subgroups, such as Milroy disease and Lymphoedema distichiasis, are well characterised, but others are not. A new clinical classification for <span class="hlt">primary</span> lymphoedema has been developed as a diagnostic algorithm. Its use is demonstrated on 333 probands referred to our lymphoedema clinic. Grouping patients by accurate phenotyping facilitates molecular investigations, understanding of inheritance patterns, and the natural history of different types of <span class="hlt">primary</span> lymphoedema. Descriptions of the diagnostic categories, some of which have not been previously clearly defined as distinct clinical entities, are illustrated by clinical cases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23748456','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23748456"><span>Release and <span class="hlt">systemic</span> accumulation of heavy metals from preformed crowns used in restoration of <span class="hlt">primary</span> teeth.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kodaira, Hiroe; Ohno, Kohachiro; Fukase, Naoko; Kuroda, Midori; Adachi, Shiki; Kikuchi, Motohiro; Asada, Yoshinobu</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Preformed crowns for restoration of <span class="hlt">primary</span> teeth are used in various treatments and are essential for restoring the crowns of <span class="hlt">primary</span> molars. However, there are concerns that mechanical, chemical, and thermal stimulation may cause release of components of such crowns. We examined <span class="hlt">systemic</span> accumulation of heavy metals associated with preformed crowns (3M Stainless Steel <span class="hlt">Primary</span> Molar Crowns) used in <span class="hlt">primary</span> tooth restoration. The participants were 37 children who had visited the Pediatric Dental Clinic of Tsurumi University Dental Hospital. They were divided into two groups: 22 participants without a history of being fitted with a preformed crown for <span class="hlt">primary</span> tooth restoration (controls), and 15 participants with preformed crowns for <span class="hlt">primary</span> tooth restoration. Analysis of hair samples showed a significant difference in the level of the trace element Cr - an important component of the preformed crowns - between children with and without preformed crowns, but no significant differences in Fe or Ni levels. Levels of the trace elements Ni, Cr, and Fe were within allowable ranges, indicating that these minerals were not likely to be harmful.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4518726','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4518726"><span>Mammaglobin-A Immunohistochemistry in <span class="hlt">Primary</span> Central Nervous <span class="hlt">System</span> Neoplasms and Intracranial Metastatic Breast Carcinoma</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cimino, Patrick J.; Perrin, Richard J.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Metastases represent the most common type of intracranial neoplasm. In women, 30% of such tumors derive from breast carcinoma. In neurosurgical cases with ambiguous cellular morphology and/or limited biopsy material, immunohistochemistry (IHC) is often performed to distinguish metastases from <span class="hlt">primary</span> central nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> (CNS) neoplasms. IHC for mammaglobin-A (MGA), a protein expressed in a majority of breast carcinomas, is commonly applied in this setting, but its utility for distinguishing <span class="hlt">primary</span> CNS neoplasms from metastatic breast carcinoma is unknown; the reactivity of MGA in <span class="hlt">primary</span> and metastatic CNS neoplasms has never been described. Here, we describe the frequency and patterns of IHC reactivity for MGA in metastatic and <span class="hlt">primary</span> CNS neoplasms from patients with well-documented histories of breast carcinoma. Following a published protocol previously applied to non-CNS neoplasms, MGA staining of moderate to strong intensity within 5% or more of a neoplasm was considered positive. Based on these criteria, 3 of 12 (25.0%) glioblastomas, 1 of 10 (10.0%) meningiomas, and 47 of 95 (49.5%) metastases were positive. Importantly, the cytoarchitectural staining characteristics among all four MGA positive <span class="hlt">primary</span> CNS neoplasms (cytoplasmic and nuclear) differed from those of the metastases (cytoplasmic and membranous). These findings suggest that MGA IHC staining intensity and distribution can distinguish metastases from <span class="hlt">primary</span> CNS neoplasms (**P=0.0086) in women with a history of breast carcinoma but also indicate that cytological staining patterns must be interpreted for more accurate tumor classification. PMID:23958549</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23958549','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23958549"><span>Mammaglobin-A immunohistochemistry in <span class="hlt">primary</span> central nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> neoplasms and intracranial metastatic breast carcinoma.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cimino, Patrick J; Perrin, Richard J</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>Metastases represent the most common type of intracranial neoplasm. In women, 30% of such tumors derive from breast carcinoma. In neurosurgical cases with ambiguous cellular morphology and/or limited biopsy material, immunohistochemistry (IHC) is often performed to distinguish metastases from <span class="hlt">primary</span> central nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> (CNS) neoplasms. IHC for mammaglobin-A (MGA), a protein expressed in a majority of breast carcinomas, is commonly applied in this setting, but its utility for distinguishing <span class="hlt">primary</span> CNS neoplasms from metastatic breast carcinoma is unknown; the reactivity of MGA in <span class="hlt">primary</span> and metastatic CNS neoplasms has never been described. Here, we describe the frequency and patterns of IHC reactivity for MGA in metastatic and <span class="hlt">primary</span> CNS neoplasms from patients with well-documented histories of breast carcinoma. Following a published protocol previously applied to non-CNS neoplasms, MGA staining of moderate to strong intensity within 5% or more of a neoplasm was considered positive. On the basis of these criteria, 3 of 12 (25.0%) glioblastomas, 1 of 10 (10.0%) meningiomas, and 47 of 95 (49.5%) metastases were positive. Importantly, the cytoarchitectural staining characteristics among all 4 MGA-positive <span class="hlt">primary</span> CNS neoplasms (cytoplasmic and nuclear) differed from those of the metastases (cytoplasmic and membranous). These findings suggest that MGA IHC staining intensity and distribution can distinguish metastases from <span class="hlt">primary</span> CNS neoplasms (P=0.0086) in women with a history of breast carcinoma but also indicate that cytologic staining patterns must be interpreted for more accurate tumor classification.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21370547','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21370547"><span>Thermal transformation of quaternary compounds in NaF-CaF{sub 2}-<span class="hlt">Al</span>F{sub 3} <span class="hlt">system</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Zaitseva, Julia N.; Yakimov, Igor S.; Kirik, Sergei D.</p> <p>2009-08-15</p> <p>Details of quaternary compounds formation in the <span class="hlt">system</span> NaF-CaF{sub 2}-<span class="hlt">Al</span>F{sub 3} are specified. To achieve this aim, the samples of phases NaCa<span class="hlt">Al</span>F{sub 6} and Na{sub 2}Ca{sub 3}<span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 2}F{sub 14} have been obtained by high-temperature solid-phase synthesis. Their thermal behavior when heated up to 800 deg. C has been studied using the methods of high-temperature X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermal analysis (TA). The <span class="hlt">system</span> under consideration can be regarded as a quasibinary section CaF{sub 2}-Na<span class="hlt">Al</span>F{sub 4}, where at T=745-750 deg. C invariant equilibrium is implemented with the phases CaF{sub 2}-NaCa<span class="hlt">Al</span>F{sub 6}-Na{sub 2}Ca{sub 3}<span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 2}F{sub 14}-(liquid melt)-(Na<span class="hlt">Al</span>F{sub 4}). The peculiarity of the equilibrium is Na<span class="hlt">Al</span>F{sub 4} metastability at normal pressure. Below the equilibrium temperature the quaternary phase Na{sub 2}Ca{sub 3}<span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 2}F{sub 14} is stable and NaCa<span class="hlt">Al</span>F{sub 6} above this temperature. The phase NaCa<span class="hlt">Al</span>F{sub 6} fixed by rapid quenching from high temperatures and when heated up to 640 deg. C decomposes, yielding Na{sub 2}Ca{sub 3}<span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 2}F{sub 14}. Further heating in vacuum at temperature up to 740 deg. C results in decomposition of Na{sub 2}Ca{sub 3}<span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 2}F{sub 14} into CaF{sub 2} and Na{sub 3}<span class="hlt">Al</span>F{sub 6}. The expected reverse transformation of Na{sub 2}Ca{sub 3}<span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 2}F{sub 14} into NaCa<span class="hlt">Al</span>F{sub 6} has not been observed under experimental conditions. Transformations in bulk samples reveal direct and reverse transformation of quaternary phases. Synopsis: Thermal transformation of the quaternary compounds in <span class="hlt">system</span> (NaF-CaF{sub 2}-<span class="hlt">Al</span>F{sub 3}) was investigated using high-temperature X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermal analysis (TA). In the <span class="hlt">system</span> the invariant equilibrium is implemented with the phases CaF{sub 2}-NaCa<span class="hlt">Al</span>F{sub 6}-Na{sub 2}Ca{sub 3}<span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 2}F{sub 14}-(liquid melt)-(Na<span class="hlt">Al</span>F{sub 4}) at T=745-750 deg. C. - Graphical Abstract: The paper concerns of a small piece of the ternary <span class="hlt">system</span> (NaF-CaF{sub 2}-<span class="hlt">Al</span>F{sub 3}) which is very important for</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=MAMMOGRAPHY&pg=2&id=EJ692530','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=MAMMOGRAPHY&pg=2&id=EJ692530"><span>Office <span class="hlt">Systems</span> and Their Influence on Mammography Use in Rural and Urban <span class="hlt">Primary</span> Care</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Engelman, Kimberly K.; Ellerbeck, Edward F.; Perpich, Denise; Nazir, Niaman; McCarter, Kevin; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Breast cancer screening rates are lower in rural communities. Although studies have addressed barriers to mammography for rural residents, physician practice barriers have received less attention. Purpose: Controlled clinical trials have shown that the use of office reminder <span class="hlt">systems</span> in <span class="hlt">primary</span> care practices is related to increased clinical care…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740022381','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740022381"><span>Space shuttle/food <span class="hlt">system</span> study. Volume 2, Appendix F: Flight food and <span class="hlt">primary</span> packaging</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p>The analysis and selection of food items and <span class="hlt">primary</span> packaging, the development of menus, the nutritional analysis of diet, and the analyses of alternate food mixes and contingency foods is reported in terms of the overall food <span class="hlt">system</span> design for space shuttle flight. Stowage weights and cubic volumes associated with each alternate mix were also evaluated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1079832.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1079832.pdf"><span>Using a Learning Management <span class="hlt">System</span> to Personalise Learning for <span class="hlt">Primary</span> School Students</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Edmunds, Bronwyn; Hartnett, Maggie</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This paper reports on one aspect of a descriptive multiple-case study which set out to explore the role of a learning management <span class="hlt">system</span> (LMS) in personalising learning for students from the perspective of three teachers in one <span class="hlt">primary</span> school in New Zealand. The intention was to provide insight into the role the LMS could play in classrooms when…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1068617.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1068617.pdf"><span>Investigating Nigerian <span class="hlt">Primary</span> School Teachers' Preparedness to Adopt Personal Response <span class="hlt">System</span> in ESL Classroom</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Agbatogun, Alaba Olaoluwakotansibe</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>This study investigated the extent to which computer literacy dimensions (computer general knowledge, documents and documentations, communication and surfing as well as data inquiry), computer use and academic qualification as independent variables predicted <span class="hlt">primary</span> school teachers' attitude towards the integration of Personal Response <span class="hlt">System</span> in…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=neurolinguistic+AND+programming&pg=4&id=EJ291139','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=neurolinguistic+AND+programming&pg=4&id=EJ291139"><span>Assessment of <span class="hlt">Primary</span> Representational <span class="hlt">Systems</span> with Neurolinguistic Programming: Examination of Preliminary Literature.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Dorn, Fred J.; And Others</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>Reviews the inconsistent findings of studies on neurolinguistic programing and recommends some areas that should be examined to verify various claims. Discusses methods of assessing client's <span class="hlt">primary</span> representational <span class="hlt">systems</span>, including predicate usage and eye movements, and suggests that more reliable methods of assessing PRS must be found. (JAC)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=neurolinguistic+AND+programming&pg=5&id=EJ297736','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=neurolinguistic+AND+programming&pg=5&id=EJ297736"><span>Assessing <span class="hlt">Primary</span> Representational <span class="hlt">System</span> (PRS) Preference for Neurolinguistic Programming (NLP) Using Three Methods.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Dorn, Fred J.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>Considered three methods of identifying <span class="hlt">Primary</span> Representational <span class="hlt">System</span> (PRS)--an interview, a word list, and a self-report--in a study of 120 college students. Results suggested the three methods offer little to counselors either collectively or individually. Results did not validate the PRS construct, suggesting the need for further research.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1086212.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1086212.pdf"><span>Development of Quality Assurance <span class="hlt">System</span> in Culture and Nation Character Education in <span class="hlt">Primary</span> Education in Indonesia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Susilana, Rudi; Asra</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of national education is to develop skills and build dignified national character and civilization in educating nation life (Act No. 20, 2003). The paper describes a <span class="hlt">system</span> of quality assurance in culture and character education in <span class="hlt">primary</span> education. This study employs the six sigma model which consists of the formula DMAIC (Define,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=p16+AND+cancer&id=EJ692530','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=p16+AND+cancer&id=EJ692530"><span>Office <span class="hlt">Systems</span> and Their Influence on Mammography Use in Rural and Urban <span class="hlt">Primary</span> Care</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Engelman, Kimberly K.; Ellerbeck, Edward F.; Perpich, Denise; Nazir, Niaman; McCarter, Kevin; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Breast cancer screening rates are lower in rural communities. Although studies have addressed barriers to mammography for rural residents, physician practice barriers have received less attention. Purpose: Controlled clinical trials have shown that the use of office reminder <span class="hlt">systems</span> in <span class="hlt">primary</span> care practices is related to increased clinical care…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=intimate+AND+relationships&pg=5&id=EJ1075703','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=intimate+AND+relationships&pg=5&id=EJ1075703"><span>Job Realities of <span class="hlt">Primary</span> School Principals in Greece: Similarities and Variations in a Highly Centralized <span class="hlt">System</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Dimopoulos, Kostas; Dalkavouki, Katerina; Koulaidis, Vasilis</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This study aims at investigating <span class="hlt">primary</span> school principals' work on a daily basis in order to understand the ways in which the centralized educational <span class="hlt">system</span> affects their practices. Four typical cases of principals were selected and asked to keep daily records for a period of four months. Data from logs were complemented with data collected…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Intimate+AND+relationships&pg=4&id=EJ1075703','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Intimate+AND+relationships&pg=4&id=EJ1075703"><span>Job Realities of <span class="hlt">Primary</span> School Principals in Greece: Similarities and Variations in a Highly Centralized <span class="hlt">System</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Dimopoulos, Kostas; Dalkavouki, Katerina; Koulaidis, Vasilis</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This study aims at investigating <span class="hlt">primary</span> school principals' work on a daily basis in order to understand the ways in which the centralized educational <span class="hlt">system</span> affects their practices. Four typical cases of principals were selected and asked to keep daily records for a period of four months. Data from logs were complemented with data collected…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=neurolinguistic+AND+programming&pg=5&id=EJ297736','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=neurolinguistic+AND+programming&pg=5&id=EJ297736"><span>Assessing <span class="hlt">Primary</span> Representational <span class="hlt">System</span> (PRS) Preference for Neurolinguistic Programming (NLP) Using Three Methods.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Dorn, Fred J.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>Considered three methods of identifying <span class="hlt">Primary</span> Representational <span class="hlt">System</span> (PRS)--an interview, a word list, and a self-report--in a study of 120 college students. Results suggested the three methods offer little to counselors either collectively or individually. Results did not validate the PRS construct, suggesting the need for further research.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=neurolinguistic+AND+programming&pg=4&id=EJ291139','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=neurolinguistic+AND+programming&pg=4&id=EJ291139"><span>Assessment of <span class="hlt">Primary</span> Representational <span class="hlt">Systems</span> with Neurolinguistic Programming: Examination of Preliminary Literature.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Dorn, Fred J.; And Others</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>Reviews the inconsistent findings of studies on neurolinguistic programing and recommends some areas that should be examined to verify various claims. Discusses methods of assessing client's <span class="hlt">primary</span> representational <span class="hlt">systems</span>, including predicate usage and eye movements, and suggests that more reliable methods of assessing PRS must be found. (JAC)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25488034','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25488034"><span>Post-transplantation <span class="hlt">primary</span> central nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> lymphoma in a patient with <span class="hlt">systemic</span> lupus erythematosus and prolonged use of immunosuppressant.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tse, Teresa P K; Chan, Allan N L; Chan, Tony K T; Po, Y C</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Post-transplantation <span class="hlt">primary</span> central nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> lymphoma is an uncommon and fatal post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder. Such lymphomas have been described in only a few case series in the literature. The incidence of this condition is rising with improved survival after organ transplantation. A case of post-transplantation <span class="hlt">primary</span> central nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> lymphoma in a young Chinese woman with <span class="hlt">systemic</span> lupus erythematosus is described here. She presented with right-sided weakness and memory loss after tooth extraction 2 weeks before admission. Contrast computed tomography of the brain demonstrated a contrast rim-enhancing lesion over the left frontal lobe. With a history of recent dental procedure, long-term immunosuppressive therapy and computed tomography findings, cerebral abscess was highly suspected. Emergency operation was performed. Histopathology showed post-transplantation <span class="hlt">primary</span> central nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> lymphoma, with cells positive for B-cell marker CD20. Immunosuppressant was stopped and she was treated with radiotherapy and rituximab (anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody). She remained disease-free at 16 months. Post-transplantation <span class="hlt">primary</span> central nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> lymphoma is rare with variable presentation and radiological features. We believe rituximab may have a role in the treatment of such lymphomas.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2751043','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2751043"><span>Developing Tomorrow's Integrated Community Health <span class="hlt">Systems</span>: A Leadership Challenge for Public Health and <span class="hlt">Primary</span> Care</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Welton, William E.; Kantner, Theodore A.; Katz, Sheila Moriber</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>As the nation's health <span class="hlt">system</span> moves away from earlier models to one grounded in population health and market-based <span class="hlt">systems</span> of care, new challenges arise for public health professionals, <span class="hlt">primary</span> care practitioners, health plan and institutional managers, and community leaders. Among the challenges are the need to develop creative concepts of organization and accountability and to assure that dynamic, <span class="hlt">system</span>-oriented structures support the new kind of leadership that is required. Developing tomorrow's integrated community health <span class="hlt">systems</span> will challenge the leadership skills and integrative abilities of public health professionals, <span class="hlt">primary</span> care practitioners, and managers. These leaders and their new organizations must, in turn, assume increased accountability for improving community health. PMID:9184684</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890030008&hterms=Mn&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DMn','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890030008&hterms=Mn&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DMn"><span>Iron-base superalloys - A phase analysis of the multicomponent <span class="hlt">system</span> (Fe-Mn-Cr-Mo-Nb-<span class="hlt">Al</span>-Si-C)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Gupta, H.; Nowotny, H.; Lemkey, F. D.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>In the course of studies on the iron-rich multicomponent <span class="hlt">system</span> Fe-Mn-Cr-Mo-Nb-<span class="hlt">Al</span>-Si-C, work was concentrated on pertinent quinary and six-component combinations namely Fe-Mn-<span class="hlt">Al</span>-Si-C, Fe-Cr-<span class="hlt">Al</span>-Si-C and Fe-Mn-Cr-<span class="hlt">Al</span>-Si-C which had been elaborated at 65, 72, and 80 wt pct Fe. Manganese acts as a strong stabilizer for the cementite carbide. Chromium seems to stabilize the iron aluminide Fe2<span class="hlt">Al</span>5 which forms in a considerable amount within an alloy of nominal composition Fe(65)Mn(15)Cr(12)<span class="hlt">Al</span>(5)Si(2)C(1) (percent by weight). Although the Mn3<span class="hlt">Al</span>C carbide is, like Fe3<span class="hlt">Al</span>C, a perovskite carbide, manganese does not appear to favor the formation of the perovskite carbide. Because of the relatively low sintering temperature (700 C), for <span class="hlt">al</span> large portion of the samples equilibria conditions are not always reached.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/203519','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/203519"><span>Mechanical behavior of the in situ composite alloys in the <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Ni-Ti <span class="hlt">system</span> near the Li{sub 2} phase field</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Biswas, S.; Varin, R.A.</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>The Vickers microhardness (VHN) test at room temperature and compressive tests at temperatures up to 1,000 C were carried out on the three-phase composite alloy, consisting of the L1{sub 2}, face-centered cubic (fcc) <span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 2}TiNi, and <span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 2}Ti intermetallic phases, in the <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Ti-Ni <span class="hlt">system</span>. The microhardness tests indicated that the fcc <span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 2}TiNi phase was very hard and brittle. Comparatively, the L1{sub 2} phase was softer and more crack resistant. A considerable hardening was noticed due to the precipitation of <span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 2}Ti within L1{sub 2}. In addition, the VHN of the L1{sub 2} phase was found to increase with the combined content of nickel and titanium without the presence of any observable precipitates. Under compressive loading at room temperature, microcracks nucleated in the fcc <span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 2}TiNi phase. These cracks propagated catastrophically at a stress barely approaching yield stress, resulting in nil ductility. This behavior was observed up to 800 C. Between 900 C and 950 C, brittle-to-ductile transition in compressive behavior was observed for the three-phase alloy. Compressive ductility of the order of 80 pct was observed at 1,000 C. The mechanism of dynamic recrystallization was found to be operative at 1,000 C. Metallographic investigation revealed new recrystallized grains in the <span class="hlt">primary</span> L1{sub 2} matrix. However, the oscillatory nature of the true stress-true strain curve could not be explained with the help of the existing model of dynamic recrystallization.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1337537','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1337537"><span>Investigating Power <span class="hlt">System</span> <span class="hlt">Primary</span> and Secondary Reserve Interaction under High Wind Power Penetration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Zhang, Yingchen; Tan, Jin; Krad, Ibrahim; Yang, Rui; Gevorgian, Vahan; Ela, Erik</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Power <span class="hlt">system</span> frequency needs to be maintained close to its nominal value at all times to successfully balance load and generation and maintain <span class="hlt">system</span> reliability. Adequate <span class="hlt">primary</span> frequency response and secondary frequency response are the <span class="hlt">primary</span> forces to correct an energy imbalance at the second-to-minute level. As wind energy becomes a larger portion of the world's energy portfolio, there is an increased need for wind to provide frequency response. This paper addresses one of the major concerns about using wind for frequency regulation: the unknown factor of the interaction between <span class="hlt">primary</span> and secondary reserves. The lack of a commercially available tool to model this has limited the energy industry's understanding of when the depletion of <span class="hlt">primary</span> reserves will impact the performance of secondary response or vice versa. This paper investigates the issue by developing a multi-area frequency response integration tool with combined <span class="hlt">primary</span> and secondary capabilities. The simulation is conducted in close coordination with economical energy scheduling scenarios to ensure credible simulation results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22831870','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22831870"><span>Classification of lymphatic-<span class="hlt">system</span> malformations in <span class="hlt">primary</span> lymphoedema based on MR lymphangiography.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liu, N F; Yan, Z X; Wu, X F</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>The study aims to investigate lymphatic-<span class="hlt">system</span> malformations and proposes a classification of <span class="hlt">primary</span> lymphoedema based on comprehensive imaging data of both lymph vessel- and lymph-node abnormalities. A total of 378 patients with <span class="hlt">primary</span> lymphoedema of the lower extremity were examined with magnetic resonance lymphangiography (MRL) using gadobenate dimeglumine as contrast agent. Lymph vessels and drainage lymph nodes were evaluated, leading to the proposal of the classification of <span class="hlt">primary</span> lymphoedema and the relative proportions. A total of 63 (17%) patients exhibited defects of the inguinal lymph nodes with mild or moderate dilatation of afferent lymph vessels. A total of 123 (32%) patients exhibited lymphatic anomalies as lymphatic aplasia, hypoplasia or hyperplasia with no obvious defect of the drainage lymph nodes. The involvement of both lymph vessel- and lymph-node abnormalities in the affected limb was found in 192 (51%) patients. The <span class="hlt">primary</span> lymphoedema was classified as three major types as: (1) lymph nodes affected only; (2) lymph vessel affected only with three subtypes and (3) both lymph vessel and lymph node affected with subgroups. A comprehensive classification of lymphatic-<span class="hlt">system</span> malformation in <span class="hlt">primary</span> lymphoedema is proposed, which clearly defines the location and pathologic characteristics of both lymphatics and lymph node and may lead to further study of the aetiology as well as rational treatment of the disease. Copyright © 2012 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JCrGr.436...46H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JCrGr.436...46H"><span>Investigation of <span class="hlt">Al</span>N thin film growth on MgO(111) substrates using low temperature helicon sputtering <span class="hlt">system</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hsu, Wei-Fan; Kao, Hui-Ling; Lin, Zih-Ping</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>An aluminum nitride (<span class="hlt">Al</span>N) thin film has been grown on annealed magnesium oxide (MgO) (111)-plane substrate using low temperature helicon sputtering <span class="hlt">system</span>. Both <span class="hlt">Al</span>N films on as-received and annealed MgO(111) substrate are single crystalline with <span class="hlt">Al</span>N[0001] || MgO[111]. X-ray rocking curve shows that <span class="hlt">Al</span>N film on annealed MgO exhibits superior crystalline quality, which means more suitable for <span class="hlt">Al</span>N crystal growth. Two different growths were found for the deposition of <span class="hlt">Al</span>N on annealed MgO. It is believed that the partially recovered substrate surface caused by annealing process provides atomic smooth surface terraces with small lattice mismatch for <span class="hlt">Al</span>N crystal to grow in 2D mode, enhance grain size, and thus reduce the dislocation density. This is the first time demonstrated for the growth mechanism of single crystal <span class="hlt">Al</span>N thin film prepared on MgO(111) by sputtering <span class="hlt">system</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011HTMP...30..205B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011HTMP...30..205B"><span>Observation of Anisotropy of Creep Fracture Using Small Punch Test for <span class="hlt">Al-Al</span>4C3 <span class="hlt">System</span> Produced by Equal Channel Angular Pressing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Besterci, Michal; Dobeš, Ferdinand; Ballóková, Beáta; Sülleiová, Katarína; Kvačkaj, Tibor</p> <p>2011-06-01</p> <p>The anisotropy of the creep properties and fracture using small punch tests for the <span class="hlt">Al-Al</span>4C3 <span class="hlt">system</span> produced by ECAP were analysed in this work. Small punch creep tests under constant force were performed at the temperature of 623 K. It was shown that the fracture results, i.e. time to fracture and deflection at fracture were different in specimens with different orientation with respect to the axis of ECAP deformation. Fracture surface analysis of the tested small punch specimens was conducted. Fractures have transcrystalline ductile character. The fracture dimples are equiaxial as well as elongated in the dependence on strain direction. Fracture dimples are of two categories, the small ones sized from 0.1 to 0.5 μm and large ones ranging from 3 to 6 μm.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1347806','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1347806"><span>An Icosahedral Quasicrystal and Its 1/0 Crystalline Approximant in the Ca–Au–<span class="hlt">Al</span> <span class="hlt">System</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Pham, Joyce; Kreyssig, Andreas; Goldman, Alan I.; Miller, Gordon J.</p> <p>2016-10-17</p> <p>A new icosahedral quasicrystalline phase, CaAu4.5–x<span class="hlt">Al</span>1.5+x [0.11 ≤ x ≤ 0.40(6); CaAu4.4<span class="hlt">Al</span>1.6, aQC = 5.383(4) Å, and Pm35], and its lowest-order 1/0 cubic crystalline approximant phase, CaAu3+x<span class="hlt">Al</span>1–x [0 ≤ x ≤ 0.31(1); a = 9.0766(5)–9.1261(8) Å, Pa3(No. 205), and Pearson symbol cP40], have been discovered in the Ca-poor region of the Ca–Au–<span class="hlt">Al</span> <span class="hlt">system</span>. In the crystalline approximant, eight [Au3–x<span class="hlt">Al</span>1+x] tetrahedra fill the unit cell, and each tetrahedron is surrounded by four Ca atoms, thus forming a three-dimensional network of {Ca4/4[Au3–x<span class="hlt">Al</span>1+x]} tetrahedral stars. A computational study of Au and <span class="hlt">Al</span> site preferences concurs with the experimental results, which indicate a preference for near-neighbor Au–<span class="hlt">Al</span> interactions over Au–Au and Al–<span class="hlt">Al</span> interactions. Analysis of the electronic density of states and the associated crystal orbital Hamilton population curves was used to rationalize the descriptions of CaAu4.5–x<span class="hlt">Al</span>1.5+x [0.11 ≤ x ≤ 0.46(6)] and CaAu3+x<span class="hlt">Al</span>1–x [0 ≤ x ≤ 0.31(1)] as polar intermetallic species, whereby Ca atoms engage in polar covalent bonding with the electronegative, electron-deficient [Au3–x<span class="hlt">Al</span>1+x] tetrahedral clusters and the observed phase width of the crystalline approximant.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-03-15/pdf/2010-5519.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-03-15/pdf/2010-5519.pdf"><span>75 FR 12256 - United States, et <span class="hlt">al</span>. v. Election <span class="hlt">Systems</span> and Software, Inc.; Proposed Final Judgment and...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-03-15</p> <p>... Antitrust Division United States, et <span class="hlt">al</span>. v. Election <span class="hlt">Systems</span> and Software, Inc.; Proposed Final Judgment and.... v. Election <span class="hlt">Systems</span> and Software Inc., Civil Action No. 10-00380. On March 8, 2010, the United States filed a Complaint alleging that the proposed acquisition by Election <span class="hlt">Systems</span> and Software,...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-06-15/pdf/2011-14628.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-06-15/pdf/2011-14628.pdf"><span>76 FR 35017 - United States et <span class="hlt">al</span>. v. United Regional Health Care <span class="hlt">System</span>; Public Comments and Response on...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-06-15</p> <p>... Antitrust Division United States et <span class="hlt">al</span>. v. United Regional Health Care <span class="hlt">System</span>; Public Comments and Response... States and State of Texas v. United Regional Health Care <span class="hlt">System</span>, Civil Action No. 7:11-cv- 00030-0, which.... United Regional Health Care <span class="hlt">System</span>, Defendant. Case No.: 7:11-cv-00030 Response Of Plaintiff United...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4828618','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4828618"><span>A safety incident reporting <span class="hlt">system</span> for <span class="hlt">primary</span> care. A systematic literature review and consensus procedure by the LINNEAUS collaboration on patient safety in <span class="hlt">primary</span> care</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Klemp, Kerstin; Zwart, Dorien; Hansen, Jørgen; Hellebek, Torben; Luettel, Dagmar; Verstappen, Wim; Beyer, Martin; Gerlach, Ferdin M.; Hoffmann, Barbara; Esmail, Aneez</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Background: Incident reporting is widely used in both patient safety improvement programmes, and in research on patient safety. Objective: To identify the key requirements for incident reporting <span class="hlt">systems</span> in <span class="hlt">primary</span> care; to develop an Internet-based incident reporting and learning <span class="hlt">system</span> for <span class="hlt">primary</span> care. Methods: A literature review looking at the purpose, design and requirements of an incident reporting <span class="hlt">system</span> (IRS) was used to update an existing incident reporting <span class="hlt">system</span>, widely used in Germany. Then, an international expert panel with knowledge on IRS developed the criteria for the design of a new web-based incident reporting <span class="hlt">system</span> for European <span class="hlt">primary</span> care. A small demonstration project was used to create a web-based reporting <span class="hlt">system</span>, to be made freely available for practitioners and researchers. The expert group compiled recommendations regarding the desirable features of an incident reporting <span class="hlt">system</span> for European <span class="hlt">primary</span> care. These features covered the purpose of reporting, who should be involved in reporting, the mode of reporting, design considerations, feedback mechanisms and preconditions necessary for the implementation of an IRS. Results: A freely available web-based reporting form was developed, based on these criteria. It can be modified for local contexts. Practitioners and researchers can use this <span class="hlt">system</span> as a means of recording patient safety incidents in their locality and use it as a basis for learning from errors. Conclusion: The LINNEAUS collaboration has provided a freely available incident reporting <span class="hlt">system</span> that can be modified for a local context and used throughout Europe. PMID:26339835</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24020596','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24020596"><span>Patient-centered <span class="hlt">primary</span> health care: synergy potential for health <span class="hlt">systems</span> strengthening.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Stender, S C; Christensen, A</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>The ultimate goal of government health <span class="hlt">systems</span> is to provide highly effective equitable services that save lives and reduce morbidity and mortality. The pressure to conform to duplicative global and donor initiatives compounds existing challenges to health <span class="hlt">systems</span> strengthening such as shortages of human resources for health, weak supply chains, inadequate laboratory services and parallel data management <span class="hlt">systems</span>. This article illustrates how <span class="hlt">primary</span> health care, as the point of entry into the health care <span class="hlt">system</span> for the majority of individuals in sub-Saharan Africa, should be strengthened to ensure that individuals and their communities receive essential, holistic care.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25763257','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25763257"><span>Structural and contextual dimensions of Iranian <span class="hlt">primary</span> health care <span class="hlt">system</span> at local level.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zanganeh Baygi, Mehdi; Seyedin, Hesam; Salehi, Masoud; Jafari Sirizi, Mehdi</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>In recent years, family physician plan was established as the main strategy of health <span class="hlt">system</span> in Iran, while organizational structure of the <span class="hlt">primary</span> health care <span class="hlt">system</span> has remained the same as thirty years ago. This study was performed to illustrate structural and contextual dimensions of organizational structure and relationship between them in Iranian <span class="hlt">primary</span> health care <span class="hlt">system</span> at local level. A cross-sectional quantitative study was conducted from January to June 2013, during which 121 questionnaires were distributed among senior and junior managers of city health centers at Medical Sciences universities in Iran. Validity of the questionnaire was confirmed by experts (CVI = 0.089 and CVR more than 0.85) and Cronbach α was utilized for reliability (α = 0.904). We used multistage sampling method in this study and analysis of the data was performed by SPSS software using different tests. Local level of <span class="hlt">primary</span> health care <span class="hlt">system</span> in Iran had mechanical structure, but in contextual dimensions the results showed different types. There was a significant relationship between structural and contextual dimensions (r = 0.642, P value < 0.001). Goals and culture dimensions had strongest effects on structural dimensions. Because of the changes in goals and strategies of Iranian health <span class="hlt">system</span> in recent years, it is urgently recommended to reform the current structure to increase efficiency and effectiveness of the <span class="hlt">system</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4341539','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4341539"><span>Structural and Contextual Dimensions of Iranian <span class="hlt">Primary</span> Health Care <span class="hlt">System</span> at Local Level</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zanganeh Baygi, Mehdi; Seyedin, Hesam; Salehi, Masoud; Jafari Sirizi, Mehdi</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Background: In recent years, family physician plan was established as the main strategy of health <span class="hlt">system</span> in Iran, while organizational structure of the <span class="hlt">primary</span> health care <span class="hlt">system</span> has remained the same as thirty years ago. Objectives: This study was performed to illustrate structural and contextual dimensions of organizational structure and relationship between them in Iranian <span class="hlt">primary</span> health care <span class="hlt">system</span> at local level. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional quantitative study was conducted from January to June 2013, during which 121 questionnaires were distributed among senior and junior managers of city health centers at Medical Sciences universities in Iran. Validity of the questionnaire was confirmed by experts (CVI = 0.089 and CVR more than 0.85) and Cronbach α was utilized for reliability (α = 0.904). We used multistage sampling method in this study and analysis of the data was performed by SPSS software using different tests. Results: Local level of <span class="hlt">primary</span> health care <span class="hlt">system</span> in Iran had mechanical structure, but in contextual dimensions the results showed different types. There was a significant relationship between structural and contextual dimensions (r = 0.642, P value < 0.001). Goals and culture dimensions had strongest effects on structural dimensions. Conclusions: Because of the changes in goals and strategies of Iranian health <span class="hlt">system</span> in recent years, it is urgently recommended to reform the current structure to increase efficiency and effectiveness of the <span class="hlt">system</span>. PMID:25763257</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12114137','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12114137"><span>Development of a handheld computer documentation <span class="hlt">system</span> to enhance an integrated <span class="hlt">primary</span> care clerkship.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pipas, Catherine F; Carney, Patricia A; Eliassen, M Scottie; Mengshol, Sarah C; Fall, Leslie H; Olson, Ardis L; Schifferdecker, Karen E; Russell, Margaret T; Peltier, Deborah A; Nierenberg, David W</p> <p>2002-07-01</p> <p>Documentation <span class="hlt">systems</span> are used by medical schools and residency programs to record the clinical experiences of their learners. The authors developed a <span class="hlt">system</span> for their school's (Dartmouth's) multidisciplinary <span class="hlt">primary</span> care clerkship (family medicine, internal medicine, pediatrics) that documents students' clinical and educational experiences and provides feedback designed to enhance clinical training utilizing a timely data-reporting <span class="hlt">system</span>. The five critical components of the <span class="hlt">system</span> are (1) a valid, reliable and feasible data-collection instrument; (2) orientation of and ongoing support for student and faculty users; (3) generation and distribution of timely feedback reports to students, preceptors, and clerkship directors; (4) adequate financial and technical support; and (5) a database design that allows for overall evaluation of educational outcomes. The <span class="hlt">system</span>, whose development began in 1997, generated and distributed approximately 150 peer-comparison reports of clinical teaching experiences to students, preceptors, and course directors during 2001, in formats that are easy to interpret and use to individualize learning. The authors present report formats and annual cost estimate comparisons of paper- and computer-based <span class="hlt">system</span> development and maintenance, which range from $35,935 to $53,780 for the paper-based <span class="hlt">system</span> and from $46,820 to $109,308 for the computer-based <span class="hlt">system</span>. They mention ongoing challenges in components of the <span class="hlt">system</span>. They conclude that a comprehensive documentation and feedback <span class="hlt">system</span> provides an essential infrastructure for the evaluation and enhancement of community-based teaching and learning in <span class="hlt">primary</span> care ambulatory clerkships, whether separate or integrated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21604505','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21604505"><span>[The <span class="hlt">primary</span> research and development of software oversampling mapping <span class="hlt">system</span> for electrocardiogram].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhou, Yu; Ren, Jie</p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>We put forward a new concept of software oversampling mapping <span class="hlt">system</span> for electrocardiogram (ECG) to assist the research of the ECG inverse problem to improve the generality of mapping <span class="hlt">system</span> and the quality of mapping signals. We then developed a conceptual <span class="hlt">system</span> based on the traditional ECG detecting circuit, Labview and DAQ card produced by National Instruments, and at the same time combined the newly-developed oversampling method into the <span class="hlt">system</span>. The results indicated that the <span class="hlt">system</span> could map ECG signals accurately and the quality of the signals was good. The improvement of hardware and enhancement of software made the <span class="hlt">system</span> suitable for mapping in different situations. So the <span class="hlt">primary</span> development of the software for oversampling mapping <span class="hlt">system</span> was successful and further research and development can make the <span class="hlt">system</span> a powerful tool for researching ECG inverse problem.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010048750&hterms=eutectic&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Deutectic','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010048750&hterms=eutectic&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Deutectic"><span>Lamellar Spacing Selection in <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Si Eutectic <span class="hlt">System</span>: a Theoretical Investigation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Catalina, Adrian V.; Sen, Subhayu; Curreri, Peter A.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>It is well known that irregular eutectics such as <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Si and Fe-C exhibit larger lamellar spacings and undercoolings compared to the predictions made by the Jackson and Hunt (JH) theory. In this paper, we reexamine the JH theory and relax some of the assumptions used in that treatment. The modified theoretical model has enhanced capabilities to predict the lamellar spacing in both regular and irregular eutectics. For the <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Si <span class="hlt">system</span> in particular we identified two different spacing selection mechanisms:a) for a particular growth rate, a nearly isothermal interface can be achieved at a unique minimum spacing lambda(sub I); b) the average spacing in the microstructure (lambda(sub av) greater than lambda(sub I)) is essentially dictated by the undercooling of the faceted phase. Based on the modified theoretical model a semi-empirical expression has been developed to account for the influence of the temperature gradient. Application of a Mullin and Sekerka type stability analysis for eutectics will also be presented and the results compared to the modified JH model. It will be shown that the both theoretical approaches are in good agreement with each other and also with the published experimental measurements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007MMTA...38.1956B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007MMTA...38.1956B"><span>Determination of the Solid-Liquid Interface Energy in the <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Cu-Ag <span class="hlt">System</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bulla, A.; Carreno-Bodensiek, C.; Pustal, B.; Berger, R.; Bührig-Polaczek, A.; Ludwig, A.</p> <p>2007-09-01</p> <p>The solid-liquid interface energy, σ SL , is of major importance during phase transformation. It has a strong influence on solidification morphologies and the final grain structure. The “grain boundary groove in an applied temperature gradient” method developed by Gündüz et <span class="hlt">al</span>.[6] was found to be suitable for measuring the solid-liquid interface energy in ternary alloy <span class="hlt">systems</span> (e.g., <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Cu-Ag). In order to measure the solid-liquid interface energy, a radial heat flow apparatus was constructed and assembled. This apparatus ensures a stable temperature gradient for hours and leads to grain boundary grooves in chemical equilibrium. After rapid quenching, the samples were metallographically prepared and the local curvature of the grooves was analyzed. To determine the interface energy, the Gibbs Thomson equation was used, which requires the local curvature of the grain boundary grooves and the adherent local undercooling obtained from heat flux simulations on the scale of the grooves.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15366623','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15366623"><span>Micro-tensile bond strength of adhesive <span class="hlt">systems</span> applied on occlusal <span class="hlt">primary</span> enamel.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ramires-Romito, Ana Cláudia; Reis, Alessandra; Loguercio, Alessandro Dourado; de Góes, Mario Fernando; Grande, Rosa Helena Miranda</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>The aim of this study was to evaluate the micro-tensile bond strength of adhesive <span class="hlt">systems</span> (OptiBond Solo, Kerr; Prime & Bond NT, Dentsply) on occlusal surface of <span class="hlt">primary</span> molars. The adhesives were tested under manufacturers' specifications and after contamination of the bonding site with saliva. Hourglass cylindrical-shaped samples were obtained and subjected to a tensile force. No significant difference was observed among the groups. OptiBond Solo and Prime & Bond NT showed similar values of bond strengths when applied on occlusal enamel of <span class="hlt">primary</span> molar under either saliva contamination or not.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5566381','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5566381"><span><span class="hlt">Primary</span> lymphomas of the central nervous <span class="hlt">system</span>: patterns of failure and factors that influence survival</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Loeffler, J.S.; Ervin, T.J.; Mauch, P.; Skarin, A.; Weinstein, H.J.; Canellos, G.; Cassady, J.R.</p> <p>1985-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Primary</span> lymphomas of the CNS are rare tumors accounting for less than 2% of all extranodal non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. The treatment for this disease has been disappointing. Radiation therapy and surgery have produced consistently poor control of this disease, with a median survival of 15 months. A review of ten cases of <span class="hlt">primary</span> lymphoma of the CNS treated at the Joint Center for Radiation Therapy or Dana-Farber Cancer Institute (Boston) from 1968 to 1981 is presented. All patients had biopsy- proven CNS lymphomas without <span class="hlt">systemic</span> disease at presentation. In this series, control of CNS lymphoma was seen only in patients receiving craniospinal radiation or CNS-penetrating chemotherapy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22085327','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22085327"><span>Health <span class="hlt">system</span> factors affecting communication with pediatricians: gendered work culture in <span class="hlt">primary</span> care.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lynch, Sean</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>This qualitative study examined the roles that practice setting, education level, and gender may play in social workers' communication satisfaction with pediatricians. Taking an ethnographic approach, the researcher interviewed social workers and pediatricians who worked together to provide mental health services in <span class="hlt">primary</span> care. The results suggested that gender at the health <span class="hlt">system</span> level may be an issue and that gendered work culture in <span class="hlt">primary</span> care was a factor in communication. In particular, reimbursement, an aspect of the gendered work culture, was a substantial communication barrier, and the implications for Medicaid billing are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24809759','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24809759"><span>Comparing the Asthma APGAR <span class="hlt">system</span> and the Asthma Control Test™ in a multicenter <span class="hlt">primary</span> care sample.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rank, Matthew A; Bertram, Susan; Wollan, Peter; Yawn, Roy A; Yawn, Barbara P</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>To compare asthma control assessment using the Asthma APGAR <span class="hlt">system</span>, a tool developed by <span class="hlt">primary</span> care clinicians, in a multicenter <span class="hlt">primary</span> care sample with the Asthma Control Test (ACT™)/Childhood Asthma Control Test (CACT™), a tool developed by asthma specialists. This is a substudy of a multicenter, randomized, controlled pragmatic trial that tests the effectiveness of the Asthma APGAR <span class="hlt">system</span> in <span class="hlt">primary</span> care practices. As part of the study, enrolled patients completed both the ACT™/CACT™ and the Asthma APGAR <span class="hlt">system</span> between March 1, 2011, and December 31, 2011. Kappa and McNemar statistics were used to compare the results of questionnaires. Of the 468 patients in our sample, 306 (65%) were classified as not controlled by the ACT™/CACT™ or the Asthma APGAR <span class="hlt">system</span>. The overall agreement was 84.4%, with a kappa value of .68 (substantial agreement) and a McNemar test P value of .35 (suggesting no significant difference in the direction of disagreement). Of those with poor control as defined by the Asthma APGAR <span class="hlt">system</span>, 23.8% (73) had no controller medications and 76.5% (234) were seldom or sometimes able to avoid identified triggers for their asthma. Of those who stated that they had been prescribed controller medications, 116 of 332 (35%) stated that they did not use the controller medication on a daily basis. The Asthma APGAR <span class="hlt">system</span> and the ACT™/CACT™ similarly assess asthma control in a multicenter <span class="hlt">primary</span> care-based sample. The Asthma APGAR <span class="hlt">system</span> identified an "actionable item" in more than 75% (234) of the individuals with poor asthma control, thus linking an assessment of poor asthma control with a management strategy. Copyright © 2014 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19433999','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19433999"><span><span class="hlt">System</span> factors affect the recognition and management of posttraumatic stress disorder by <span class="hlt">primary</span> care clinicians.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Meredith, Lisa S; Eisenman, David P; Green, Bonnie L; Basurto-Dávila, Ricardo; Cassells, Andrea; Tobin, Jonathan</p> <p>2009-06-01</p> <p>Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is common with an estimated prevalence of 8% in the general population and up to 17% in <span class="hlt">primary</span> care patients. Yet, little is known about what determines <span class="hlt">primary</span> care clinician's (PCC's) provision of PTSD care. To describe PCC's reported recognition and management of PTSD and identify how <span class="hlt">system</span> factors affect the likelihood of performing clinical actions with regard to patients with PTSD or "PTSD treatment proclivity." Linked cross-sectional surveys of medical directors and PCCs. Forty-six medical directors and 154 PCCs in community health centers (CHCs) within a practice-based research network in New York and New Jersey. Two <span class="hlt">system</span> factors (degree of integration between <span class="hlt">primary</span> care and mental health services, and existence of linkages with other community, social, and legal services) as reported by medical directors, and PCC reports of self-confidence, perceived barriers, and PTSD treatment proclivity. Surveys from 47 (of 58) medical directors (81% response rate) and 154 PCCs (86% response rate). PCCs from CHCs with better mental health integration reported greater confidence, fewer barriers, and higher PTSD treatment proclivity (all P < 0.05). The PCCs in CHCs with better community linkages reported greater confidence, fewer barriers, higher PTSD treatment proclivity, and lower proclivity to refer patients to mental health specialists or to use a "watch and wait" approach (all P < 0.05). <span class="hlt">System</span> factors play an important role in PCC PTSD management. Interventions are needed that restructure <span class="hlt">primary</span> care practices by making mental health services more integrated and community linkages stronger.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26594800','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26594800"><span>A PCA3 gene-based transcriptional amplification <span class="hlt">system</span> targeting <span class="hlt">primary</span> prostate cancer.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Neveu, Bertrand; Jain, Pallavi; Têtu, Bernard; Wu, Lily; Fradet, Yves; Pouliot, Frédéric</p> <p>2016-01-12</p> <p>Targeting specifically <span class="hlt">primary</span> prostate cancer (PCa) cells for immune therapy, gene therapy or molecular imaging is of high importance. The PCA3 long non-coding RNA is a unique PCa biomarker and oncogene that has been widely studied. This gene has been mainly exploited as an accurate diagnostic urine biomarker for PCa detection. In this study, the PCA3 promoter was introduced into a new transcriptional amplification <span class="hlt">system</span> named the 3-Step Transcriptional Amplification <span class="hlt">System</span> (PCA3-3STA) and cloned into type 5 adenovirus. PCA3-3STA activity was highly specific for PCa cells, ranging between 98.7- and 108.0-fold higher than that for benign <span class="hlt">primary</span> prostate epithelial or non-PCa cells, respectively. In human PCa xenografts, PCA3-3STA displayed robust bioluminescent signals at levels that are sufficient to translate to positron emission tomography (PET)-based reporter imaging. Remarkably, when freshly isolated benign or cancerous prostate biopsies were infected with PCA3-3STA, the optical signal produced from <span class="hlt">primary</span> PCa biopsies was significantly higher than from benign prostate biopsies (4.4-fold, p < 0.0001). PCA3-3STA therefore represents a PCa-specific expression <span class="hlt">system</span> with the potential to target, with high accuracy, <span class="hlt">primary</span> or metastatic PCa epithelial cells for imaging, vaccines, or gene therapy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2328061','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2328061"><span>Perceived role of <span class="hlt">primary</span> care physicians in Nova Scotia's reformed health care <span class="hlt">system</span>. Qualitative study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Sangster, L. M.; McGuire, D. P.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>OBJECTIVE: To determine <span class="hlt">primary</span> care physicians' perceptions of their role in a reformed health <span class="hlt">system</span>. DESIGN: Qualitative study using in-depth interviews. SETTING: Province of Nova Scotia. PARTICIPANTS: Purposefully selected sample of 14 practising <span class="hlt">primary</span> care physicians. MAIN OUTCOME FINDINGS: Participants identified seven aspects of their role: primarily, diagnosis and treatment of patient's medical problems; then coordination, counseling, education, advocacy, disease prevention, and gatekeeping. The range of activities and degree of responsibility assumed by participants, however, varied. Factors affecting role perception fell into three categories: philosophical view of health and medicine, willingness to collaborate, and practical realities. Participants differed in their understanding of <span class="hlt">primary</span> health care and their overall vision of the health <span class="hlt">system</span>. Remuneration policies and concerns about sharing accountability were factors preventing an integrated, collaborative approach to care. Personal, patient, and structural realities also limited physicians' roles. CONCLUSIONS: This sample of <span class="hlt">primary</span> care physicians had diverse perceptions of their role. Results of this study could provide information for identifying issues that need to be addressed to facilitate changes taking place in the health care <span class="hlt">system</span>. PMID:10889862</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SPIE.8126E..0PH','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SPIE.8126E..0PH"><span>The optical metrology <span class="hlt">system</span> for cryogenic testing of the JWST <span class="hlt">primary</span> mirror segments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hadaway, James B.; Chaney, David M.; Carey, Larkin B.</p> <p>2011-09-01</p> <p>The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) <span class="hlt">primary</span> mirror is 6.6 m in diameter and consists of 18 hexagonal mirror segments each approximately 1.5 m point-to-point. Each <span class="hlt">primary</span> mirror segment assembly (PMSA) is constructed from a lightweight beryllium substrate with both a radius-of-curvature actuation <span class="hlt">system</span> and a six degree-of-freedom hexapod actuation <span class="hlt">system</span>. With the JWST being a near to mid-infrared observatory, the nominal operational temperature of a PMSA is 45 K. Each PMSA must be optically tested at 45 K twice, first to measure the change in the surface figure & radius-of-curvature between ambient & cryogenic temperatures and then to verify performance at cryo following final polishing. This testing is conducted at Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) X-Ray & Cryogenic Facility (XRCF). The chamber & metrology <span class="hlt">system</span> can accommodate up to six PMSAs per cryo test. This paper will describe the optical metrology <span class="hlt">system</span> used during PMSA cryogenic testing. This <span class="hlt">system</span> evolved from <span class="hlt">systems</span> used during the JWST mirror technology development program. The main components include a high-speed interferometer, a computer-generated holographic null, an absolute distance meter, a tiltable window, and an imaging <span class="hlt">system</span> for alignment. The optical metrology <span class="hlt">system</span> is used to measure surface figure error, radius-of-curvature, conic constant, prescription alignment, clear aperture, and the range & resolution of the PMSA actuation <span class="hlt">systems</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016RuPhJ..59..134S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016RuPhJ..59..134S"><span>Semi-Empirical Study of the Indirect Exchange Interaction in the Rem - <span class="hlt">Al</span> <span class="hlt">System</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shakarov, Kh. O.</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>The Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida exchange interaction (RKKY) is semi-empirically studied for the first time in compounds of binary REM - <span class="hlt">Al</span> <span class="hlt">systems</span> (REM - rare-earth metals: Gd, Dy, Ho, Er) using experimental values of paramagnetic Curie point (θp) of these compounds. Prediction of the RKKY theory was confirmed, i.e. there is a direct proportional dependence of θp value on de Gennes factor for equiatomic compounds of heavy REM with aluminum, just as in the case of pure REM. Values of the indirect exchange interaction parameter were semi-empirically estimated for the studied compounds. In general, it was established that RKKY-type exchange interaction is typical for REM compounds with aluminum, just as for pure REM.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011RJPCA..85...55K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011RJPCA..85...55K"><span>Peculiarities of the iron reduction mechanism in Fe-<span class="hlt">Al</span>-K <span class="hlt">system</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Krylova, A. Yu.; Chernavskii, P. A.; Lyadov, A. S.; Sagitov, S. A.; Krylova, M. V.; Khadzhiev, S. N.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Temperature-programmed reduction was used in combination with measurements of magnetization to determine the peculiarities of iron reduction in the Fe-K-<span class="hlt">Al</span> <span class="hlt">system</span>. It was found that reduction by hydrogen proceeds with the formation of metallic iron through the stage of magnetite formation (Fe3O4); the effective activation energies are 63 and 39 kJ/mol for the I and II stages, respectively. It was shown that substituting carbon oxide for hydrogen leads to iron reduction proceeding only to the stage of magnetite formation ( E Fe 3O4 = 94 kJ/mol). The magnetite interacts with CO to produce carbide (presumably Hegge carbide Fe2C). Iron reduction in the synthesis gas occurs with the preferential participation of hydrogen or carbon dioxide, depending on the rate of temperature rise.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22074614','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22074614"><span>Evaluation of the implementation of an integrated <span class="hlt">primary</span> care network for prevention and management of cardiometabolic risk in Montré<span class="hlt">al</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Provost, Sylvie; Pineault, Raynald; Tousignant, Pierre; Hamel, Marjolaine; Da Silva, Roxane Borgès</p> <p>2011-11-10</p> <p>The goal of this project is to evaluate the implementation of an integrated and interdisciplinary program for prevention and management of cardiometabolic risk (PCMR). The intervention is based on the Chronic Care Model. The study will evaluate the implementation of the PCMR in 6 of the 12 health and social services centres (CSSS) in Montré<span class="hlt">al</span>, and the effects of the PCMR on patients and the practice of their <span class="hlt">primary</span> care physicians up to 40 months following implementation, as well as the sustainability of the program. Objectives are: 1-to evaluate the effects of the PCMR and their persistence on patients registered in the program and the practice of their <span class="hlt">primary</span> care physicians, by implementation site and degree of exposure to the program; 2-to assess the degree of implementation of PCMR in each CSSS territory and identify related contextual factors; 3-to establish the relationships between the effects observed, the degree of PCMR implementation and the related contextual factors; 4-to assess the impact of the PCMR on strengthening local services networks. The evaluation will use a mixed design that includes two complementary research strategies. The first strategy is similar to a quasi-experimental "before-after" design, based on a quantitative approach; it will look at the program's effects and their variations among the six territories. The effects analysis will use data from a clinical database and from questionnaires completed by participating patients and physicians. Over 3000 patients will be recruited. The second strategy corresponds to a multiple case study approach, where each of the six CSSS constitutes a case. With this strategy, qualitative methods will set out the context of implementation using data from semi-structured interviews with program managers. The quantitative data will be analyzed using linear or multilevel models complemented with an interpretive approach to qualitative data analysis. Our study will identify contextual factors</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3282661','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3282661"><span>Evaluation of the implementation of an integrated <span class="hlt">primary</span> care network for prevention and management of cardiometabolic risk in Montré<span class="hlt">al</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Background The goal of this project is to evaluate the implementation of an integrated and interdisciplinary program for prevention and management of cardiometabolic risk (PCMR). The intervention is based on the Chronic Care Model. The study will evaluate the implementation of the PCMR in 6 of the 12 health and social services centres (CSSS) in Montré<span class="hlt">al</span>, and the effects of the PCMR on patients and the practice of their <span class="hlt">primary</span> care physicians up to 40 months following implementation, as well as the sustainability of the program. Objectives are: 1-to evaluate the effects of the PCMR and their persistence on patients registered in the program and the practice of their <span class="hlt">primary</span> care physicians, by implementation site and degree of exposure to the program; 2-to assess the degree of implementation of PCMR in each CSSS territory and identify related contextual factors; 3-to establish the relationships between the effects observed, the degree of PCMR implementation and the related contextual factors; 4-to assess the impact of the PCMR on strengthening local services networks. Methods/Design The evaluation will use a mixed design that includes two complementary research strategies. The first strategy is similar to a quasi-experimental "before-after" design, based on a quantitative approach; it will look at the program's effects and their variations among the six territories. The effects analysis will use data from a clinical database and from questionnaires completed by participating patients and physicians. Over 3000 patients will be recruited. The second strategy corresponds to a multiple case study approach, where each of the six CSSS constitutes a case. With this strategy, qualitative methods will set out the context of implementation using data from semi-structured interviews with program managers. The quantitative data will be analyzed using linear or multilevel models complemented with an interpretive approach to qualitative data analysis. Discussion Our study will</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24301716','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24301716"><span>Payment <span class="hlt">systems</span> and incentives in <span class="hlt">primary</span> care: implications of recent reforms in Estonia and Romania.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dan, Sorin; Savi, Riin</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Since the early 1990s, major reform in healthcare has been adopted in former communist countries in Central and Eastern Europe. More than 20 years after, reform in healthcare still draws much interest from policy makers and academics alike. One of the dynamic components of reform has been the reform of payment <span class="hlt">systems</span> in <span class="hlt">primary</span> care. This article looks at recent developments in payment <span class="hlt">systems</span> and financial incentives in Estonia and Romania. We conclude that finding the appropriate mix in paying and incentivizing <span class="hlt">primary</span> care providers in a transitional context is no easy solution for healthcare policy makers who need to carefully weigh in the advantages and inherent problems of various payment arrangements. In a transitional, rapidly changing healthcare <span class="hlt">system</span> and society, and a context of financial stringency, the theoretical effects of payment mechanisms may be more difficult to predict and manage than it is expected.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5090079','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5090079"><span>Randomized Clinical Trial of Composite Restorations in <span class="hlt">Primary</span> Teeth: Effect of Adhesive <span class="hlt">System</span> after Three Years</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Donmez, Secil Bektaş; Uysal, Serdar; Ozdemir, Pinar; Tekcicek, Meryem; Zimmerli, Brigitte; Lussi, Adrian</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical performance of composite restorations placed with different adhesive <span class="hlt">systems</span> in <span class="hlt">primary</span> teeth. In 32 patients, 128 composite restorations were placed using a split-mouth design as follows (4 groups/patient): three-step etch-and-rinse (Group 1), two-step etch-and-rinse (Group 2), two-step self-etch (Group 3), and one-step self-etch (Group 4). The restorations were clinically evaluated at baseline and at 6, 18, and 36 months according to the FDI criteria. There was no significant difference between the adhesive <span class="hlt">systems</span> in retention of the restorations (p > 0.05). Over time, there was a statistically significant decrease in marginal adaptation in all groups, whereas surface and marginal staining significantly increased in Groups 3 and 4 (p < 0.05). The etch-and-rinse adhesive <span class="hlt">systems</span> resulted in better marginal adaptation than the self-etch adhesive <span class="hlt">systems</span> (p < 0.05). It was concluded that preetching of the <span class="hlt">primary</span> enamel might help improve the clinical performance of the self-etch adhesive <span class="hlt">systems</span> in <span class="hlt">primary</span> teeth. PMID:27833917</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20799599','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20799599"><span>Implementing a gatekeeper <span class="hlt">system</span> to strengthen <span class="hlt">primary</span> care in Egypt: pilot study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ward, T R</p> <p>2010-06-01</p> <p>Overuse of hospital outpatient clinics in Egypt, due to lack of an effective gatekeeper <span class="hlt">system</span>, has threatened the sustainability of improved <span class="hlt">primary</span> care services. In this pilot project in Menoufia in the Nile delta region, the price of direct hospital outpatient visits was increased, encouraging patients to attend <span class="hlt">primary</span> care clinics first. As a result, direct hospital outpatient utilization decreased by 63% in the project area compared with a 4% increase in a control district. The majority of this reduction was accounted for by patients attending either public <span class="hlt">primary</span> care clinics or private clinics. Increasing the price of direct hospital outpatient visits was an effective way to establish a gatekeeper role for family health clinics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28929269','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28929269"><span>Behavioral Health Integration in Health Care Settings: Lessons Learned from a Pediatric Hospital <span class="hlt">Primary</span> Care <span class="hlt">System</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Godoy, Leandra; Long, Melissa; Marschall, Donna; Hodgkinson, Stacy; Bokor, Brooke; Rhodes, Hope; Crumpton, Howard; Weissman, Mark; Beers, Lee</p> <p>2017-09-19</p> <p>Behavioral health integration within <span class="hlt">primary</span> care has been evolving, but literature traditionally focuses on smaller scale efforts. We detail how behavioral health has been integrated across a large, urban pediatric hospital <span class="hlt">system</span>'s six <span class="hlt">primary</span> care clinics (serving over 35,000 children annually and insured predominately through Medicaid) and discuss strategies for success in sustaining and expanding efforts to achieve effective integration of behavioral health into <span class="hlt">primary</span> care. In a time span of 3 years, the clinics have implemented routine, universal behavioral health screening at well child visits, participated in a 15-month behavioral health screening quality improvement learning collaborative, and integrated the work of psychologists and psychiatrists. Additional work remains to be done in improving family engagement, further expanding services, and ensuring sustainability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25493914','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25493914"><span>Equity in <span class="hlt">primary</span> health care delivery: an examination of the cohesiveness of strategies relating to the <span class="hlt">primary</span> healthcare <span class="hlt">system</span>, the health workforce and hepatitis C.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Scarborough, Jane; Eliott, Jaklin; Miller, Emma; Aylward, Paul</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>To suggest ways of increasing the cohesiveness of national <span class="hlt">primary</span> healthcare strategies and hepatitis C strategies, with the aim of ensuring that all these strategies include ways to address barriers and facilitators to access to <span class="hlt">primary</span> healthcare and equity for people with hepatitis C. A critical review was conducted of the first national <span class="hlt">Primary</span> Healthcare <span class="hlt">System</span> Strategy and Health Workforce Strategy with the concurrent Hepatitis C Strategy. Content relating to provision of healthcare in private general practice was examined, focussing on issues around access and equity. In all strategies, achieving access to care and equity was framed around providing sufficient medical practitioners for particular locations. Equity statements were present in all policies but only the Hepatitis C Strategy identified discrimination as a barrier to equity. Approaches detailed in the <span class="hlt">Primary</span> Healthcare <span class="hlt">System</span> Strategy and Health Workforce Strategy regarding current resource allocation, needs assessment and general practitioner incentives were limited to groups defined within these documents and may not identify or meet the needs of people with hepatitis C. Actions in the <span class="hlt">primary</span> healthcare <span class="hlt">system</span> and health workforce strategies should be extended to additional groups beyond those listed as priority groups within the strategies. Future hepatitis C strategies should outline appropriate, detailed needs assessment methodologies and specify how actions in the broad strategies can be applied to benefit the <span class="hlt">primary</span> healthcare needs of people with hepatitis C.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JSSCh.249..149I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JSSCh.249..149I"><span>Structural investigation of the Sr<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O4-Ba<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O4 solid solution <span class="hlt">system</span> with unstable domain walls</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ishii, Y.; Tsukasaki, H.; Kawaguchi, S.; Ouchi, Y.; Mori, S.</p> <p>2017-05-01</p> <p>We investigated the structural phase transition of the Ba1 - xSrx<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O4 solid-solution <span class="hlt">system</span> (x ⩾ 0.6) via in situ powder X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The sequence of structural phase transitions P63 22 ↔ P63 (√{ 3}ap) ↔ P21 occurs in a composition window of x=0.8-1.0. Ba substitution suppresses the P63 intermediate and low-temperature P21 phases, which disappear at x=0.7 and 0.6, respectively. The P21 phase boundary exhibits first-order characteristics, at which the cell parameters change discontinuously and the cell volume slightly contracts as the temperature increases. In the P21 phase, unstable twin walls are observed; the shapes and the crystal axes of each twin domain change as the temperature increases. This instability can be attributed to the latent instabilities that both the Ba<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O4 and Sr<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O4 compounds possess.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1349018','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1349018"><span>Investigating Power <span class="hlt">System</span> <span class="hlt">Primary</span> and Secondary Reserve Interaction under High Wind Penetration Using Frequency Response Model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Tan, Jin; Zhang, Yingchen; Krad, Ibrahim; Gevorgian, Vahan; Ela, Erik</p> <p>2015-10-12</p> <p>Power <span class="hlt">system</span> frequency needs to be maintained close to its nominal value at all times to avoid machine damage, under-frequency load-shedding and even blackouts. Adequate <span class="hlt">primary</span> frequency response and secondary frequency response are the <span class="hlt">primary</span> forces to correct an energy imbalance at the second to minute level. As wind energy becomes a larger portion of the world's energy portfolio, there are greater oppotunities for wind to provide frequency response services. This paper addresses one area of frequency control that has been missing in previous work - the reliabilty impacts and interactions between <span class="hlt">primary</span> and secondary frequency control. The lack of a commercially available tools to simulate the interaction of these two responses has limited the energy industry's understanding of when the depletion of <span class="hlt">primary</span> control reserve will impact the performance of secondary conrol response or vice versa. To investigate this issue, in this paper we develop a multi-area frequency response integration model with combined <span class="hlt">primary</span> and secondary frequency control capabilities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4410115','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4410115"><span>Does a quality management <span class="hlt">system</span> improve quality in <span class="hlt">primary</span> care practices in Switzerland? A longitudinal study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Goetz, Katja; Hess, Sigrid; Jossen, Marianne; Huber, Felix; Rosemann, Thomas; Brodowski, Marc; Künzi, Beat; Szecsenyi, Joachim</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Objectives To examine the effectiveness of the quality management programme—European Practice Assessment—in <span class="hlt">primary</span> care in Switzerland. Design Longitudinal study with three points of measurement. Setting <span class="hlt">Primary</span> care practices in Switzerland. Participants In total, 45 of 91 <span class="hlt">primary</span> care practices completed European Practice Assessment three times. Outcomes The interval between each assessment was around 36 months. A variance analyses for repeated measurements were performed for all 129 quality indicators from the domains: ‘infrastructure’, ‘information’, ‘finance’, and ‘quality and safety’ to examine changes over time. Results Significant improvements were found in three of four domains: ‘quality and safety’ (F=22.81, p<0.01), ‘information’ (F=27.901, p<0.01) and ‘finance’ (F=4.073, p<0.02). The 129 quality indicators showed a significant improvement within the three points of measurement (F=33.864, p<0.01). Conclusions The European Practice Assessment for <span class="hlt">primary</span> care practices thus provides a functioning quality management programme, focusing on the sustainable improvement of structural and organisational aspects to promote high quality of <span class="hlt">primary</span> care. The implementation of a quality management <span class="hlt">system</span> which also includes a continuous improvement process would give added value to provide good care. PMID:25900466</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013CSR....52...62L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013CSR....52...62L"><span><span class="hlt">Primary</span> production and sinking export during fall in the Hudson Bay <span class="hlt">system</span>, Canada</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lapoussière, Amandine; Michel, Christine; Gosselin, Michel; Poulin, Michel; Martin, Johannie; Tremblay, Jean-Éric</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Primary</span> production and organic material sinking export were investigated in the Hudson Bay <span class="hlt">system</span> (i.e., Hudson Bay, Hudson Strait and Foxe Basin) under ice-free conditions during early fall 2005, using the 14C-uptake method and short-term free-drifting particle interceptor traps deployed below the euphotic zone at 50 m. Principal component analysis revealed spatial patterns of <span class="hlt">primary</span> production and chlorophyll a (chl a) biomass in the euphotic zone that were shaped by hydrographic conditions and nutrient concentrations linked to freshwater/seawater influence. <span class="hlt">Primary</span> production rates varied widely, from 70 to 435 mg C m-2 d-1, while the range of particulate organic carbon (POC) sinking fluxes was narrow, from 50 to 77 mg C m-2 d-1. Consequently, high ratios of POC sinking export to <span class="hlt">primary</span> production (i.e., export ratios; range of 0.38-0.69) were observed at stations where <span class="hlt">primary</span> production was low and dominated by small cells, and where heterotrophic protist dominated in biomass. These results show that at short temporal scales neither protist community structure nor biomass or production rates could be used to predict the magnitude of POC sinking export from the euphotic zone.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPSJ...85k4602N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPSJ...85k4602N"><span>Crystallographic Features and State Stability of the Decagonal Quasicrystal in the <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Co-Cu Alloy <span class="hlt">System</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nakayama, Kei; Mizutani, Akito; Koyama, Yasumasa</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>In the <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Co-Cu alloy <span class="hlt">system</span>, both the decagonal quasicrystal with the space group of Poverline{10}m2 and its approximant <span class="hlt">Al</span>13Co4 phase with monoclinic Cm symmetry are present around 20 at. % Co-10 at. % Cu. In this study, we examined the crystallographic features of prepared <span class="hlt">Al</span>-(30 - x) at. % Co-x at. % Cu samples mainly by transmission electron microscopy in order to make clear the crystallographic relation between the decagonal quasicrystal and the monoclinic <span class="hlt">Al</span>13Co4 structure. The results revealed a coexistence state consisting of decagonal quasicrystal and approximant <span class="hlt">Al</span>13Co4 regions in <span class="hlt">Al</span>-20 at. % Co-10 at. % Cu alloy samples. With the help of the coexistence state, the orientation relationship was established between the monoclinic <span class="hlt">Al</span>13Co4 structure and the decagonal quasicrystal. In the determined relationship, the crystallographic axis in the quasicrystal was found to be parallel to the normal direction of the (010)m plane in the <span class="hlt">Al</span>13Co4 structure, where the subscript m denotes the monoclinic <span class="hlt">system</span>. Based on data obtained experimentally, the state stability of the decagonal quasicrystal was also examined in terms of the Hume-Rothery (HR) mechanism on the basis of the nearly-free-electron approximation. It was found that a model based on the HR mechanism could explain the crystallographic features such as electron diffraction patterns and atomic arrangements found in the decagonal quasicrystal. In other words, the HR mechanism is most likely appropriate for the stability of the decagonal quasicrystal in the <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Co-Cu alloy <span class="hlt">system</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2614732','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2614732"><span>Postperovskite phase equilibria in the MgSiO3–<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 <span class="hlt">system</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Tsuchiya, Jun; Tsuchiya, Taku</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>We investigate high-P,T phase equilibria of the MgSiO3–<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 <span class="hlt">system</span> by means of the density functional ab initio computation methods with multiconfiguration sampling. Being different from earlier studies based on the static substitution properties with no consideration of Rh2O3(II) phase, present calculations demonstrate that (i) dissolving <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 tends to decrease the postperovskite transition pressure of MgSiO3 but the effect is not significant (≈-0.2 GPa/mol% <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3); (ii) <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 produces the narrow perovskite+postperovskite coexisting P,T area (≈1 GPa) for the pyrolitic concentration (x<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 ≈6 mol%), which is sufficiently responsible to the deep-mantle D″ seismic discontinuity; (iii) the transition would be smeared (≈4 GPa) for the basaltic <span class="hlt">Al</span>-rich composition (x<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 ≈20 mol%), which is still seismically visible unless iron has significant effects; and last (iv) the perovskite structure spontaneously changes to the Rh2O3(II) with increasing the <span class="hlt">Al</span> concentration involving small displacements of the Mg-site cations. PMID:19036928</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26035344','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26035344"><span>NaF-KF-<span class="hlt">Al</span>F3 <span class="hlt">System</span>: Phase Transition in K2Na<span class="hlt">Al</span>3F12 Ternary Fluoride.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kirik, Sergei D; Zaitseva, Yulia N; Leshok, Darya Yu; Samoilo, Alexandr S; Dubinin, Petr S; Yakimov, Igor S; Simakov, Dmitry A; Gusev, Alexandr O</p> <p>2015-06-15</p> <p>Phase formation in the NaF-KF-<span class="hlt">Al</span>F3 <span class="hlt">system</span>, in the vicinity of the K2Na<span class="hlt">Al</span>3F12 composition, has been studied. The samples have been prepared by melting the starting components at 650 °C. A new phase has been revealed, which appeared to be a low-temperature form of the well-known K2Na<span class="hlt">Al</span>3F12 ternary fluoride obtained by the hydrothermal synthesis method. The high-temperature form melts at 598 °C and is stable in a narrow temperature region of about 15 deg below the melting point. Thermal analysis, high temperature X-ray diffraction, IR-spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence, and X-ray powder diffraction crystal structure analysis have been applied to study the composition, crystal structure, and thermal properties of the low-temperature phase. The crystal structure consists of trigonal-hexagonal two-dimensional (2D) grids built from the [<span class="hlt">Al</span>F6] octahedra connected via vertices. The 2D grids have a specific wave-like conformation with a wavelength of 11.88 Å and an amplitude of 0.46 Å. There is a shift of the adjacent grids relative to each other. Because of this shift, the space between the grids changes. The shift leads to the formation of pores adapted to potassium and sodium ions. The reasons for the wave-like structure of layers are discussed. It is shown that the two polymorphic forms differ in the order of cation occupations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017NRL....12..148O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017NRL....12..148O"><span>Structural Behaviour of Solid Solutions in the Nd<span class="hlt">Al</span>O3-SrTiO3 <span class="hlt">System</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ohon, Natalia; Stepchuk, Roman; Blazhivskyi, Kostiantyn; Vasylechko, Leonid</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>Single-phase mixed aluminates-titanates Nd1- x Sr x <span class="hlt">Al</span>1- x Ti x O3 ( x = 0.3 ÷ 0.9) were prepared from stoichiometric amounts of constituent oxides Nd2O3, <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3, TiO2 and strontium carbonate SrCO3 by solid-state reaction technique in air at 1773 K. Crystal structure parameters of Nd1- x Sr x <span class="hlt">Al</span>1- x Ti x O3 were refined by full-profile Rietveld refinement in space groups R overline{3} c ( x = 0.3, 0.5, 0.7 and 0.8) and Pm overline{3} m ( x = 0.9). Comparison of the obtained structural parameters with the literature data for the end members of the <span class="hlt">system</span> Nd<span class="hlt">Al</span>O3 and SrTiO3 revealed formation of two kinds of solid solutions Nd1-xSrx<span class="hlt">Al</span>1-xTixO3 with the cubic and rhombohedral perovskite structure. Morphotropic rhombohedral-to-cubic phase transition in Nd1-xSrx<span class="hlt">Al</span>1-xTixO3 series occurs at x = 0.84. Based on the results obtained as well as the literature data for the parent compounds, the tentative phase diagram of the Nd<span class="hlt">Al</span>O3-SrTiO3 pseudo-binary <span class="hlt">system</span> have been constructed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28241672','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28241672"><span>Structural Behaviour of Solid Solutions in the Nd<span class="hlt">Al</span>O3-SrTiO3 <span class="hlt">System</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ohon, Natalia; Stepchuk, Roman; Blazhivskyi, Kostiantyn; Vasylechko, Leonid</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p>Single-phase mixed aluminates-titanates Nd1-x Sr x <span class="hlt">Al</span>1-x Ti x O3 (x = 0.3 ÷ 0.9) were prepared from stoichiometric amounts of constituent oxides Nd2O3, <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3, TiO2 and strontium carbonate SrCO3 by solid-state reaction technique in air at 1773 K. Crystal structure parameters of Nd1-x Sr x <span class="hlt">Al</span>1-x Ti x O3 were refined by full-profile Rietveld refinement in space groups R [Formula: see text] c (x = 0.3, 0.5, 0.7 and 0.8) and Pm [Formula: see text] m (x = 0.9). Comparison of the obtained structural parameters with the literature data for the end members of the <span class="hlt">system</span> Nd<span class="hlt">Al</span>O3 and SrTiO3 revealed formation of two kinds of solid solutions Nd1-xSrx<span class="hlt">Al</span>1-xTixO3 with the cubic and rhombohedral perovskite structure. Morphotropic rhombohedral-to-cubic phase transition in Nd1-xSrx<span class="hlt">Al</span>1-xTixO3 series occurs at x = 0.84. Based on the results obtained as well as the literature data for the parent compounds, the tentative phase diagram of the Nd<span class="hlt">Al</span>O3-SrTiO3 pseudo-binary <span class="hlt">system</span> have been constructed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27893519','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27893519"><span>Effects of Hospital <span class="hlt">Systems</span> on Medical Home Transformation in <span class="hlt">Primary</span> Care Residency Training Practices.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Knierim, Kyle; Hall, Tristen; Fernald, Douglas; Staff, Thomas J; Buscaj, Emilie; Allen, Jessica Cornett; Onysko, Mary; Dickinson, W Perry</p> <p>2016-11-23</p> <p>Most <span class="hlt">primary</span> care residency training practices have close financial and administrative relationships with teaching hospitals and health <span class="hlt">systems</span>. Many residency practices have begun integrating the core principles of the patient-centered medical home (PCMH) into clinical workflows and educational experiences. Little is known about how the relationships with hospitals and health <span class="hlt">systems</span> affect these transformation efforts. Data from the Colorado Residency PCMH Project were analyzed. Results show that teaching hospitals and health <span class="hlt">systems</span> have significant opportunities to influence residency practices' transformation, particularly in the areas of supporting team-based care, value-based payment reforms, and health information technology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27342835','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27342835"><span>Health policy and the policymaking <span class="hlt">system</span>: A case study of <span class="hlt">primary</span> care in Ireland.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kelly, Niall; Garvey, John; Palcic, Dónal</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>In 2001 the Irish government published a reforming policy intended to modernise and expand the delivery of <span class="hlt">primary</span> care in Ireland. Fifteen years later, the Irish health <span class="hlt">system</span> remains beset by problems indicative of a fragmented and underdeveloped <span class="hlt">primary</span> care <span class="hlt">system</span>. This case study examines the formation and implementation of the 2001 <span class="hlt">primary</span> care policy and identifies key risk categories within the policymaking process itself that inhibited the timely achievement of policy objectives. Our methodology includes a directed content analysis of the policy formation and implementation documents and the influencing academic literature, as well as semi-structured interviews with key personnel involved in the process. We identify three broad risk categories - power, resources and capability - within the policymaking process that strongly influenced policy formation and implementation. We additionally show that the disjoint between policy formation and policy implementation was a contested issue among those involved in the policy process and provided space for these risks to critically undermine Ireland's <span class="hlt">primary</span> care policy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18481578','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18481578"><span>Effect of adhesive <span class="hlt">systems</span> and bevel on enamel margin integrity in <span class="hlt">primary</span> and permanent teeth.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Swanson, T K; Feigal, R J; Tantbirojn, D; Hodges, J S</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>This study compared the effectiveness of self-etch and total-etch adhesive <span class="hlt">systems</span> in bonding to the beveled and nonbeveled margins of <span class="hlt">primary</span> and permanent teeth. This in vitro, factorial-designed study allowed evaluation of 3 factors: (1) tooth type; (2) presence of a bevel; and (3) adhesive type. Two preparations, each including a beveled and nonbeveled margin, were completed on buccal surfaces of 60 extracted molars (30 <span class="hlt">primary</span> and 30 permanent). Preparations were randomly assigned to self-etch or a total-etch adhesive <span class="hlt">system</span> and restored with resin composite. After thermocycling, teeth were stained with silver nitrate, sectioned, and measured for microleakage. Statistical analysis used a repeated measures analysis of variance. Beveled margins had less microleakage than nonbeveled margins for <span class="hlt">primary</span> and permanent teeth (P < .001). Total-etch had less microleakage than self-etch adhesives on <span class="hlt">primary</span> (53% less, P < .001) and on permanent teeth (22% less, P = .01). Self-etch had considerably more microleakage when enamel margins were not beveled. Comparably less microleakage, however, was found for total-etch and self-etch in restorations with beveled margins. Total-etch adhesive and beveled margins resulted in the least microleakage. Margin beveling has a greater effect in minimizing microleakage than the type of adhesive used.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28382683','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28382683"><span>Increased light-use efficiency sustains net <span class="hlt">primary</span> productivity of shaded coffee plants in agroforestry <span class="hlt">system</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Charbonnier, Fabien; Roupsard, Olivier; le Maire, Guerric; Guillemot, Joannès; Casanoves, Fernando; Lacointe, André; Vaast, Philippe; Allinne, Clémentine; Audebert, Louise; Cambou, Aurélie; Clément-Vidal, Anne; Defrenet, Elsa; Duursma, Remko A; Jarri, Laura; Jourdan, Christophe; Khac, Emmanuelle; Leandro, Patricia; Medlyn, Belinda E; Saint-André, Laurent; Thaler, Philippe; Van Den Meersche, Karel; Barquero Aguilar, Alejandra; Lehner, Peter; Dreyer, Erwin</p> <p>2017-08-01</p> <p>In agroforestry <span class="hlt">systems</span>, shade trees strongly affect the physiology of the undergrown crop. However, a major paradigm is that the reduction in absorbed photosynthetically active radiation is, to a certain extent, compensated by an increase in light-use efficiency, thereby reducing the difference in net <span class="hlt">primary</span> productivity between shaded and non-shaded plants. Due to the large spatial heterogeneity in agroforestry <span class="hlt">systems</span> and the lack of appropriate tools, the combined effects of such variables have seldom been analysed, even though they may help understand physiological processes underlying yield dynamics. In this study, we monitored net <span class="hlt">primary</span> productivity, during two years, on scales ranging from individual coffee plants to the entire plot. Absorbed radiation was mapped with a 3D model (MAESPA). Light-use efficiency and net assimilation rate were derived for each coffee plant individually. We found that although irradiance was reduced by 60% below crowns of shade trees, coffee light-use efficiency increased by 50%, leaving net <span class="hlt">primary</span> productivity fairly stable across all shade levels. Variability of aboveground net <span class="hlt">primary</span> productivity of coffee plants was caused primarily by the age of the plants and by intraspecific competition among them (drivers usually overlooked in the agroforestry literature) rather than by the presence of shade trees. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19780016329','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19780016329"><span><span class="hlt">Primary</span> reaction control <span class="hlt">system</span>/remote manipulator <span class="hlt">system</span> interaction with loaded arm. Space shuttle engineering and operations support</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Taylor, E. C.; Davis, J. D.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>A study of the interaction between the orbiter <span class="hlt">primary</span> reaction control <span class="hlt">system</span> (PRCS) and the remote manipulator <span class="hlt">system</span> (RMS) with a loaded arm is documented. This analysis was performed with the Payload Deployment and Retrieval <span class="hlt">Systems</span> Simulation (PDRSS) program with the passive arm bending option. The passive-arm model simulates the arm as massless elastic links with locked joints. The study was divided into two parts. The first part was the evaluation of the response of the arm to step inputs (i.e. constant jet torques) about each of the orbiter body axes. The second part of the study was the evaluation of the response of the arm to minimum impulse <span class="hlt">primary</span> RCS jet firings with both single pulse and pulse train inputs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017MMTB...48.1547J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017MMTB...48.1547J"><span>Phase Equilibria in the <span class="hlt">System</span> "FeO"-CaO-SiO2-<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3-MgO at Different CaO/SiO2 Ratios</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jang, Kyoung-oh; Ma, Xiaodong; Zhu, Jinming; Xu, Haifa; Wang, Geoff; Zhao, Baojun</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>The "FeO"-containing slags play an important role in the operation of an ironmaking blast furnace (BF), in particular the <span class="hlt">primary</span> slags such as the <span class="hlt">system</span> "FeO"-CaO-SiO2-<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3-2 mass pct MgO with CaO/SiO2 weight ratios of 1.3, 1.5, and 1.8 saturated with metallic iron. To investigate the characteristics of such a slag <span class="hlt">system</span> and its behavior in BF, the phase equilibria and liquidus temperatures in the slag <span class="hlt">system</span> have been experimentally determined using the high-temperature equilibration and quenching technique followed by an electron probe X-ray microanalysis (EPMA). Isotherms between 1553 K and 1603 K (1280 °C and 1330 °C) were determined in the <span class="hlt">primary</span> phase fields of dicalcium silicate, melilite, spinel, and monoxide [(Mg,Fe2+)O]. Pseudo-ternary phase diagrams of (CaO + SiO2)-<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3-"FeO" with a fixed MgO concentration at 2 mass pct and at CaO/SiO2 ratios of 1.3, 1.5, and 1.8 have been discussed, respectively, simplifying the complexity of the slag <span class="hlt">system</span> for easy understanding and applying in BF operation. It was found that the liquidus temperatures increase in melilite and spinel <span class="hlt">primary</span> phase fields, but decrease in dicalcium silicate and monoxide <span class="hlt">primary</span> phase fields with increasing <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3/(CaO + SiO2) ratio. In addition, the liquidus temperatures decrease with increasing "FeO" concentration in dicalcium silicate and melilite <span class="hlt">primary</span> phase fields, while showing an increasing trend in the spinel and monoxide <span class="hlt">primary</span> phase fields. The data resulted from this study can be used to improve and optimize currently available database of thermodynamic models used in FactSage.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017MMTB..tmp...60J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017MMTB..tmp...60J"><span>Phase Equilibria in the <span class="hlt">System</span> "FeO"-CaO-SiO2-<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3-MgO at Different CaO/SiO2 Ratios</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jang, Kyoung-oh; Ma, Xiaodong; Zhu, Jinming; Xu, Haifa; Wang, Geoff; Zhao, Baojun</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>The "FeO"-containing slags play an important role in the operation of an ironmaking blast furnace (BF), in particular the <span class="hlt">primary</span> slags such as the <span class="hlt">system</span> "FeO"-CaO-SiO2-<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3-2 mass pct MgO with CaO/SiO2 weight ratios of 1.3, 1.5, and 1.8 saturated with metallic iron. To investigate the characteristics of such a slag <span class="hlt">system</span> and its behavior in BF, the phase equilibria and liquidus temperatures in the slag <span class="hlt">system</span> have been experimentally determined using the high-temperature equilibration and quenching technique followed by an electron probe X-ray microanalysis (EPMA). Isotherms between 1553 K and 1603 K (1280 °C and 1330 °C) were determined in the <span class="hlt">primary</span> phase fields of dicalcium silicate, melilite, spinel, and monoxide [(Mg,Fe2+)O]. Pseudo-ternary phase diagrams of (CaO + SiO2)-<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3-"FeO" with a fixed MgO concentration at 2 mass pct and at CaO/SiO2 ratios of 1.3, 1.5, and 1.8 have been discussed, respectively, simplifying the complexity of the slag <span class="hlt">system</span> for easy understanding and applying in BF operation. It was found that the liquidus temperatures increase in melilite and spinel <span class="hlt">primary</span> phase fields, but decrease in dicalcium silicate and monoxide <span class="hlt">primary</span> phase fields with increasing <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3/(CaO + SiO2) ratio. In addition, the liquidus temperatures decrease with increasing "FeO" concentration in dicalcium silicate and melilite <span class="hlt">primary</span> phase fields, while showing an increasing trend in the spinel and monoxide <span class="hlt">primary</span> phase fields. The data resulted from this study can be used to improve and optimize currently available database of thermodynamic models used in FactSage.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25591411','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25591411"><span><span class="hlt">Primary</span> health care and public health: foundations of universal health <span class="hlt">systems</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>White, Franklin</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The aim of this review is to advocate for more integrated and universally accessible health <span class="hlt">systems</span>, built on a foundation of <span class="hlt">primary</span> health care and public health. The perspective outlined identified health <span class="hlt">systems</span> as the frame of reference, clarified terminology and examined complementary perspectives on health. It explored the prospects for universal and integrated health <span class="hlt">systems</span> from a global perspective, the role of healthy public policy in achieving population health and the value of the social-ecological model in guiding how best to align the components of an integrated health service. The importance of an ethical private sector in partnership with the public sector is recognized. Most health <span class="hlt">systems</span> around the world, still heavily focused on illness, are doing relatively little to optimize health and minimize illness burdens, especially for vulnerable groups. This failure to improve the underlying conditions for health is compounded by insufficient allocation of resources to address priority needs with equity (universality, accessibility and affordability). Finally, public health and <span class="hlt">primary</span> health care are the cornerstones of sustainable health <span class="hlt">systems</span>, and this should be reflected in the health policies and professional education <span class="hlt">systems</span> of all nations wishing to achieve a health <span class="hlt">system</span> that is effective, equitable, efficient and affordable.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010MMTB...41..386Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010MMTB...41..386Z"><span>Phase Equilibria Studies in the <span class="hlt">System</span> ZnO-``FeO''-<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3-CaO-SiO2 Relevant to Imperial Smelting Furnace Slags: Part II</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhao, Baojun; Hayes, Peter C.; Jak, Evgueni</p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>The phase equilibria and the liquidus temperatures in the <span class="hlt">system</span> ZnO-“FeO”-<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3-CaO-SiO2 have been determined experimentally in equilibrium with metallic iron. Specifically, the effects of <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 concentrations in Imperial Smelting Furnace slags are identified, and the results are presented in the form of pseudo-ternary sections ZnO-“FeO”-(<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 + CaO + SiO2) in which CaO/SiO2 = 0.93 and (CaO + SiO2)/<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 = 5.0 and 3.5, respectively. It was found that, in the presence of <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3, the spinel phase is formed, the spinel <span class="hlt">primary</span> phase field expands, and the wustite and melilite <span class="hlt">primary</span> phase fields are reduced in size with an increasing <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 concentration. The implications of the findings to industrial practice are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/883120','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/883120"><span>INTEGRATED DRILLING <span class="hlt">SYSTEM</span> USING MUD ACTUATED DOWN HOLE HAMMER AS <span class="hlt">PRIMARY</span> ENGINE</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>John V. Fernandez; David S. Pixton</p> <p>2005-12-01</p> <p>A history and project summary of the development of an integrated drilling <span class="hlt">system</span> using a mud-actuated down-hole hammer as its <span class="hlt">primary</span> engine are given. The summary includes laboratory test results, including atmospheric tests of component parts and simulated borehole tests of the hammer <span class="hlt">system</span>. Several remaining technical hurdles are enumerated. A brief explanation of commercialization potential is included. The <span class="hlt">primary</span> conclusion for this work is that a mud actuated hammer can yield substantial improvements to drilling rate in overbalanced, hard rock formations. A secondary conclusion is that the down-hole mud actuated hammer can serve to provide other useful down-hole functions including generation of high pressure mud jets, generation of seismic and sonic signals, and generation of diagnostic information based on hammer velocity profiles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21273747','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21273747"><span><span class="hlt">Primary</span> angiitis of the central nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> mimicking tumor-like lesion--case report.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tanei, Takafumi; Nakahara, Norimoto; Takebayashi, Shigenori; Ito, Masafumi; Hashizume, Yoshio; Wakabayashi, Toshihiko</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>A 60-year-old man presented with a rare case of <span class="hlt">primary</span> angiitis of the central nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> mimicking a tumor-like lesion and manifesting as slight disorientation, left hemiparesis, and motor aphasia. Computed tomography showed multiple low density lesions in the left frontal lobe, brain stem, and right parietal lobe. Magnetic resonance images revealed a slightly enhanced mass lesion in the right parietal lobe with surrounding brain edema. Serum, cerebrospinal fluid, and other image examinations did not show any abnormal findings, so surgical removal of the right parietal mass was performed. Histological examination revealed that the mass consisted of hemorrhagic infarction without cellular atypia. Proliferations of endothelial cells in small and medium arteries, and infiltration of macrophages in the perivascular space were detected in the infarction tissues. The histological diagnosis was <span class="hlt">primary</span> angiitis of the central nervous <span class="hlt">system</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988MTA....19.1645A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988MTA....19.1645A"><span>Microstructural characterization of the dispersed phases in <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Ce-Fe <span class="hlt">system</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ayer, Raghavan; Angers, L. M.; Mueller, R. R.; Scanlon, J. C.; Klein, C. F.</p> <p>1988-07-01</p> <p>Analytical electron microscopy studies were conducted on a rapidly solidified <span class="hlt">Al</span>-8.8Fe-3.7Ce alloy and arc melted buttons of aluminum rich <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Fe-Ce alloys to determine the characteristics of the metastable and equilibrium phases. The rapidly solidified alloy consisted of binary and ternary metastable phases in the as-extruded condition. The binary metastable phase was identified to be <span class="hlt">Al</span>6Fe, while the ternary metastable phases were identified to be <span class="hlt">Al</span>10Fe2Ce and <span class="hlt">Al</span>20Fe5Ce. The <span class="hlt">Al</span>20Fe5Ce was a decagonal quasicrystal while the <span class="hlt">Al</span>10Fe2Ce phase was determined to have an orthorhombic crystal structure belonging to space group Cmmm, Cmm2, or C222. Microscopy studies of RS alloy and cast buttons annealed at 700 K established the equilibrium phases to be <span class="hlt">Al</span>13Fe4, <span class="hlt">Al</span>4Ce, and an <span class="hlt">Al</span>13Fe3Ce ternary phase which was first identified in the present study. The crystal structure of the equilibrium ternary phase was determined to be orthorhombic with a Cmcm or Cmc2 space group. The details of X-ray microanalysis and convergent beam electron diffraction analysis are described.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=299062','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=299062"><span>Activated neu oncogene sequences in <span class="hlt">primary</span> tumors of the peripheral nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> induced in rats by transplacental exposure to ethylnitrosourea.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Perantoni, A O; Rice, J M; Reed, C D; Watatani, M; Wenk, M L</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>Neurogenic tumors were selectively induced in high incidence in F344 rats by a single transplacental exposure to the direct-acting alkylating agent N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (EtNU). We prepared DNA for transfection of NIH 3T3 cells from <span class="hlt">primary</span> glial tumors of the brain and from schwannomas of the cranial and spinal nerves that developed in the transplacentally exposed offspring between 20 and 40 weeks after birth. DNA preparations from 6 of 13 schwannomas, but not from normal liver, kidney, or intestine of tumor-bearing rats, transformed NIH 3T3 cells. NIH 3T3 clones transformed by schwannoma DNA contained rat repetitive DNA sequences, and all isolates contained rat neu oncogene sequences. One schwannoma yielded a transformant with rat-specific sequences for both neu and N-ras. A point mutation in the transmembrane region of the putative protein product of neu was identified in all six transformants and in the <span class="hlt">primary</span> tumors from which they were derived as well as in 5 of 6 schwannomas tested that did not transform NIH 3T3 cells. Of 59 gliomas, only one yielded transforming DNA, and an activated N-ras oncogene was identified. The normal cellular neu sequence for the transmembrane region, but not the mutated sequence, was identified in DNA from all 11 gliomas surveyed by oligonucleotide hybridization. Activation of the neu oncogene, originally identified [Schechter, <span class="hlt">A.L</span>., Stern, D.F., Vaidyanathan, L., Decker, S.J., Drebin, J.A., Greene, M.I. & Weinberg, R.A. (1984) Nature (London) 312, 513-516] in cultured cell lines derived from EtNU-induced neurogenic tumors that by biochemical but not histologic criteria were thought to originate in the central nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> in BD-IX rats, appears specifically associated with tumors of the peripheral nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> in the F344 inbred strain. Images PMID:3476947</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19760016494','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19760016494"><span>Oil-air mist lubrication as an emergency <span class="hlt">system</span> and as a <span class="hlt">primary</span> lubrication <span class="hlt">system</span>. [for helicopter engines</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Loomis, W. R.</p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>The feasibility of an emergency aspirator once-through lubrication <span class="hlt">system</span> was demonstrated as a viable survivability concept for Army helicopter mainshaft engine bearings for periods as long as 30 minutes. It was also shown in an experimental study using a 46-mm bore bearing test machine that an oil-air mist once-through <span class="hlt">system</span> with auxiliary air cooling is an effective <span class="hlt">primary</span> lubrication <span class="hlt">system</span> at speeds up to 2,500,000 DN for extended operating periods of at least 50 hours.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1340510-sensitivity-polycrystal-plasticity-slip-system-kinematic-hardening-laws-al-t6','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1340510-sensitivity-polycrystal-plasticity-slip-system-kinematic-hardening-laws-al-t6"><span>Sensitivity of polycrystal plasticity to slip <span class="hlt">system</span> kinematic hardening laws for <span class="hlt">Al</span> 7075-T6</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Hennessey, Conor; Castelluccio, Gustavo M.; McDowell, David L.</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>The prediction of formation and early growth of microstructurally small fatigue cracks requires use of constitutive models that accurately estimate local states of stress, strain, and cyclic plastic strain. However, few research efforts have attempted to systematically consider the sensitivity of overall cyclic stress-strain hysteresis and higher order mean stress relaxation and plastic strain ratcheting responses introduced by the slip <span class="hlt">system</span> back-stress formulation in crystal plasticity, even for face centered cubic (FCC) crystal <span class="hlt">systems</span>. This paper explores the performance of two slip <span class="hlt">system</span> level kinematic hardening models using a finite element crystal plasticity implementation as a User Material Subroutine (UMAT)more » within ABAQUS, with fully implicit numerical integration. The two kinematic hardening formulations aim to reproduce the cyclic deformation of polycrystalline <span class="hlt">Al</span> 7075-T6 in terms of both macroscopic cyclic stress-strain hysteresis loop shape, as well as ratcheting and mean stress relaxation under strain- or stress-controlled loading with mean strain or stress, respectively. The first formulation is an Armstrong-Frederick type hardening-dynamic recovery law for evolution of the back stress. This approach is capable of reproducing observed deformation under completely reversed uniaxial loading conditions, but overpredicts the rate of cyclic ratcheting and associated mean stress relaxation. The second formulation corresponds to a multiple back stress Ohno-Wang type hardening law with nonlinear dynamic recovery. The adoption of this back stress evolution law greatly improves the capability to model experimental results for polycrystalline specimens subjected to cycling with mean stress or strain. As a result, the relation of such nonlinear dynamic recovery effects are related to slip <span class="hlt">system</span> interactions with dislocation substructures.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1340510-sensitivity-polycrystal-local-plasticity-slip-system-kinematic-hardening-laws-al-t6','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1340510-sensitivity-polycrystal-local-plasticity-slip-system-kinematic-hardening-laws-al-t6"><span>Sensitivity of polycrystal [local] plasticity to slip <span class="hlt">system</span> kinematic hardening laws for <span class="hlt">Al</span> 7075-T6</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Hennessey, Conor; Castelluccio, Gustavo M.; McDowell, David L.</p> <p>2017-01-22</p> <p>The prediction of formation and early growth of microstructurally small fatigue cracks requires use of constitutive models that accurately estimate local states of stress, strain, and cyclic plastic strain. However, few research efforts have attempted to systematically consider the sensitivity of overall cyclic stress-strain hysteresis and higher order mean stress relaxation and plastic strain ratcheting responses introduced by the slip <span class="hlt">system</span> back-stress formulation in crystal plasticity, even for face centered cubic (FCC) crystal <span class="hlt">systems</span>. This paper explores the performance of two slip <span class="hlt">system</span> level kinematic hardening models using a finite element crystal plasticity implementation as a User Material Subroutine (UMAT)more » within ABAQUS, with fully implicit numerical integration. The two kinematic hardening formulations aim to reproduce the cyclic deformation of polycrystalline <span class="hlt">Al</span> 7075-T6 in terms of both macroscopic cyclic stress-strain hysteresis loop shape, as well as ratcheting and mean stress relaxation under strain- or stress-controlled loading with mean strain or stress, respectively. The first formulation is an Armstrong-Frederick type hardening-dynamic recovery law for evolution of the back stress. This approach is capable of reproducing observed deformation under completely reversed uniaxial loading conditions, but overpredicts the rate of cyclic ratcheting and associated mean stress relaxation. The second formulation corresponds to a multiple back stress Ohno-Wang type hardening law with nonlinear dynamic recovery. The adoption of this back stress evolution law greatly improves the capability to model experimental results for polycrystalline specimens subjected to cycling with mean stress or strain. As a result, the relation of such nonlinear dynamic recovery effects are related to slip <span class="hlt">system</span> interactions with dislocation substructures.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NIMPA.721...21S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NIMPA.721...21S"><span>Thick target neutron yield from 145 MeV 19F+27<span class="hlt">Al</span> <span class="hlt">system</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sunil, C.; Bandyopadhyay, T.; Nandy, M.; Suman, Vitisha; Paul, S.; Nanal, V.; Pillay, R. G.; Sarkar, P. K.</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>The double differential neutron energy distribution has been measured for the 19F+27<span class="hlt">Al</span> <span class="hlt">system</span> at 145 MeV projectile energy. The time of flight technique was used to measure the energy while pulse shape discrimination has been used to separate the neutrons from photons. The results are compared with the statistical nuclear reaction model codes PACE and EMPIRE. The PACE code appears to predict the slope and the end point energy of the experimental spectra fairly well but over predicts the values. The slope obtained from the EMPIRE calculations appears to be harder while the values being closer to the experimental results. The yield from the Hauser-Feshbach based compound nucleus model calculations agree reasonably well with the experimental results at the backward angles but not in the forward directions. The energy integrated angular distribution from 145 MeV projectiles show an enhanced emission in the forward angles compared to the similar results from 110 MeV projectiles. This analysis suggests some contribution from the pre-equilibrium emissions from the <span class="hlt">system</span> at the higher projectile energy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JAP...117d4303M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JAP...117d4303M"><span>Quasiperiodic <span class="hlt">Al</span>GaAs superlattices for neuromorphic networks and nonlinear control <span class="hlt">systems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Malyshev, K. V.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The application of quasiperiodic <span class="hlt">Al</span>GaAs superlattices as a nonlinear element of the FitzHugh-Nagumo neuromorphic network is proposed and theoretically investigated on the example of Fibonacci and figurate superlattices. The sequences of symbols for the figurate superlattices were produced by decomposition of the Fibonacci superlattices' symbolic sequences. A length of each segment of the decomposition was equal to the corresponding figurate number. It is shown that a nonlinear network based upon Fibonacci and figurate superlattices provides better parallel filtration of a half-tone picture; then, a network based upon traditional diodes which have cubic voltage-current characteristics. It was found that the figurate superlattice F011(1) as a nonlinear network's element provides the filtration error almost twice less than the conventional "cubic" diode. These advantages are explained by a wavelike shape of the decreasing part of the quasiperiodic superlattice's voltage-current characteristic, which leads to multistability of the network's cell. This multistability promises new interesting nonlinear dynamical phenomena. A variety of wavy forms of voltage-current characteristics opens up new interesting possibilities for quasiperiodic superlattices and especially for figurate superlattices in many areas—from nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> modeling to nonlinear control <span class="hlt">systems</span> development.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22412999','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22412999"><span>Quasiperiodic <span class="hlt">Al</span>GaAs superlattices for neuromorphic networks and nonlinear control <span class="hlt">systems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Malyshev, K. V.</p> <p>2015-01-28</p> <p>The application of quasiperiodic <span class="hlt">Al</span>GaAs superlattices as a nonlinear element of the FitzHugh–Nagumo neuromorphic network is proposed and theoretically investigated on the example of Fibonacci and figurate superlattices. The sequences of symbols for the figurate superlattices were produced by decomposition of the Fibonacci superlattices' symbolic sequences. A length of each segment of the decomposition was equal to the corresponding figurate number. It is shown that a nonlinear network based upon Fibonacci and figurate superlattices provides better parallel filtration of a half-tone picture; then, a network based upon traditional diodes which have cubic voltage-current characteristics. It was found that the figurate superlattice F{sup 0}{sub 11}(1) as a nonlinear network's element provides the filtration error almost twice less than the conventional “cubic” diode. These advantages are explained by a wavelike shape of the decreasing part of the quasiperiodic superlattice's voltage-current characteristic, which leads to multistability of the network's cell. This multistability promises new interesting nonlinear dynamical phenomena. A variety of wavy forms of voltage-current characteristics opens up new interesting possibilities for quasiperiodic superlattices and especially for figurate superlattices in many areas—from nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> modeling to nonlinear control <span class="hlt">systems</span> development.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5348463','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5348463"><span>Modeling PWR <span class="hlt">systems</span> for monitoring <span class="hlt">primary</span>-to-secondary leakage using tritium tracer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Peiffer, D.G. )</p> <p>1992-02-01</p> <p>This paper discusses several techniques available for monitoring <span class="hlt">primary</span> to secondary leakage, focusing on the advantages and disadvantages of each. A mathematical model of Millstone 2 describes the behavior of tritium activity in the secondary plant water when a leak exists. Real data from Millstone 2 illustrate the accuracy and reliability of the model and use of the model to measure the mass of water in the secondary <span class="hlt">system</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15825280','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15825280"><span>[Correction of spectral interferences by ICP-AES <span class="hlt">primary</span> expert <span class="hlt">system</span>].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ying, H; Yang, P; Wang, X; Huang, B</p> <p>1998-12-01</p> <p>A subpackage for spectral interference correction has been set up in ICP-AES <span class="hlt">primary</span> expert <span class="hlt">system</span>. Some numerical recipes have been applied in this subpackage, such as curve smoothing, derivative spectrum, FFT technique, spectral resolving etc. A comprehensive method for spectral interference correction is presented. All these numeric recipes have been tested with simulated data and also utilized in several typical examples of real spectra. Results are satisfactory.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27390299','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27390299"><span>Validation of <span class="hlt">Systemic</span> Lupus Erythematosus Diagnosis as the <span class="hlt">Primary</span> Cause of Renal Failure in the US Renal Data <span class="hlt">System</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Broder, Anna; Mowrey, Wenzhu B; Izmirly, Peter; Costenbader, Karen H</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Using American College of Rheumatology (ACR) and <span class="hlt">Systemic</span> Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) criteria for <span class="hlt">systemic</span> lupus erythematosus (SLE) classification as gold standards, we determined sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV) of having SLE denoted as the <span class="hlt">primary</span> cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in the US Renal Data <span class="hlt">System</span> (USRDS). ESRD patients were identified by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes in electronic medical records of 1 large tertiary care center, Montefiore Hospital, from 2006 to 2012. Clinical data were extracted and reviewed to establish SLE diagnosis. Data were linked by social security number, name, and date of birth to the USRDS, where <span class="hlt">primary</span> causes of ESRD were ascertained. Of 7,396 ESRD patients at Montefiore, 97 met ACR/SLICC SLE criteria, and 86 had SLE by record only. Among the 97 SLE patients, the attributed causes of ESRD in the USRDS were 77 SLE and 12 with other causes (unspecified glomerulonephritis, hypertension, scleroderma), and 8 missing. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV for SLE in the USRDS were 79%, 99.9%, 93%, and 99.7%, respectively. Of the 60 patients with biopsy-proven lupus nephritis, 44 (73%) had SLE as <span class="hlt">primary</span> ESRD cause in the USRDS. Attribution of the <span class="hlt">primary</span> ESRD causes among SLE patients with ACR/SLICC criteria differed by race, ethnicity, and transplant status. The diagnosis of SLE as the <span class="hlt">primary</span> cause of ESRD in the USRDS has good sensitivity, and excellent specificity, PPV, and NPV. Nationwide access to medical records and biopsy reports may significantly improve sensitivity of SLE diagnosis. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24079756','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24079756"><span>Health <span class="hlt">system</span> challenges to integration of mental health delivery in <span class="hlt">primary</span> care in Kenya--perspectives of <span class="hlt">primary</span> care health workers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jenkins, Rachel; Othieno, Caleb; Okeyo, Stephen; Aruwa, Julyan; Kingora, James; Jenkins, Ben</p> <p>2013-09-30</p> <p>Health <span class="hlt">system</span> weaknesses in Africa are broadly well known, constraining progress on reducing the burden of both communicable and non-communicable disease (Afr Health Monitor, Special issue, 2011, 14-24), and the key challenges in leadership, governance, health workforce, medical products, vaccines and technologies, information, finance and service delivery have been well described (Int Arch Med, 2008, 1:27). This paper uses focus group methodology to explore health worker perspectives on the challenges posed to integration of mental health into <span class="hlt">primary</span> care by generic health <span class="hlt">system</span> weakness. Two ninety minute focus groups were conducted in Nyanza province, a poor agricultural region of Kenya, with 20 health workers drawn from a randomised controlled trial to evaluate the impact of a mental health training programme for <span class="hlt">primary</span> care, 10 from the intervention group clinics where staff had received the training programme, and 10 health workers from the control group where staff had not received the training). These focus group discussions suggested that there are a number of generic health <span class="hlt">system</span> weaknesses in Kenya which impact on the ability of health workers to care for clients with mental health problems and to implement new skills acquired during a mental health continuing professional development training programmes. These weaknesses include the medicine supply, health management information <span class="hlt">system</span>, district level supervision to <span class="hlt">primary</span> care clinics, the lack of attention to mental health in the national health sector targets, and especially its absence in district level targets, which results in the exclusion of mental health from such district level supervision as exists, and the lack of awareness in the district management team about mental health. The lack of mental health coverage included in HIV training courses experienced by the health workers was also striking, as was the intensive focus during district supervision on HIV to the detriment of other</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3242526','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3242526"><span><span class="hlt">Systemically</span> administered PEDF against <span class="hlt">primary</span> and secondary tumours in a clinically relevant osteosarcoma model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Broadhead, M L; Dass, C R; Choong, P F M</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Background: Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is an endogenous glycoprotein with a potential role as a therapeutic for osteosarcoma. Animal studies have demonstrated the biological effects of PEDF on osteosarcoma; however, these results are difficult to extrapolate for human use due to the chosen study design and drug delivery methods. Methods: In this study we have attempted to replicate the human presentation and treatment of osteosarcoma using a murine orthotopic model of osteosarcoma. The effects of PEDF on osteosarcoma cell lines were evaluated in vitro prior to animal experimentation. Orthotopic tumours were induced by intra-tibial injection of SaOS-2 osteosarcoma cells. Treatment with PEDF was delayed until after the macroscopic appearance of <span class="hlt">primary</span> tumours. Pigment epithelium-derived factor was administered <span class="hlt">systemically</span> via an implanted intraperitoneal micro-osmotic pump. Results: In vitro, PEDF inhibited proliferation, induced apoptosis and inhibited cell cycling of osteosarcoma cells. Pigment epithelium-derived factor promoted adhesion to Collagen I and inhibited invasion through Collagen I. In vivo, treatment with PEDF caused a reduction in both <span class="hlt">primary</span> tumour volume and burden of pulmonary metastases. <span class="hlt">Systemic</span> administration of PEDF did not cause toxic effects on normal tissues. Conclusion: <span class="hlt">Systemically</span> delivered PEDF is effective in suppressing the size of <span class="hlt">primary</span> and secondary tumours in an orthotopic murine model of osteosarcoma. PMID:21979423</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3715251','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3715251"><span>Deployment and Validation of a Smart <span class="hlt">System</span> for Screening of Language Disorders in <span class="hlt">Primary</span> Care</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Martín-Ruiz, María Luisa; Duboy, Miguel Ángel Valero; de la Cruz, Iván Pau</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Neuro-evolutive development from birth until the age of six years is a decisive factor in a child's quality of life. Early detection of development disorders in early childhood can facilitate necessary diagnosis and/or treatment. <span class="hlt">Primary</span>-care pediatricians play a key role in its detection as they can undertake the preventive and therapeutic actions requested to promote a child's optimal development. However, the lack of time and little specific knowledge at <span class="hlt">primary</span>-care avoid to applying continuous early-detection anomalies procedures. This research paper focuses on the deployment and evaluation of a smart <span class="hlt">system</span> that enhances the screening of language disorders in <span class="hlt">primary</span> care. Pediatricians get support to proceed with early referral of language disorders. The proposed model provides them with a decision-support tool for referral actions to trigger essential diagnostic and/or therapeutic actions for a comprehensive individual development. The research was conducted by starting from a sample of 60 cases of children with language disorders. Validation was carried out through two complementary steps: first, by including a team of seven experts from the fields of neonatology, pediatrics, neurology and language therapy, and, second, through the evaluation of 21 more previously diagnosed cases. The results obtained show that therapist positively accepted the <span class="hlt">system</span> proposal in 18 cases (86%) and suggested <span class="hlt">system</span> redesign for single referral to a speech therapist in three remaining cases. PMID:23752564</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22391497','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22391497"><span>Analysis of N-16 concentration in <span class="hlt">primary</span> cooling <span class="hlt">system</span> of AP1000 power reactor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Rohanda, Anis; Waris, Abdul</p> <p>2015-04-16</p> <p>Nitrogen-16 (N-16) is one of the radiation safety parameter on the <span class="hlt">primary</span> reactor <span class="hlt">system</span>. The activation product, N-16, is the predominant contributor to the activity in the reactor coolant <span class="hlt">system</span> during reactor operation. N-16 is activation product derived from activation of O-16 with fast neutron based on {sup 16}O(n,p){sup 16}N reaction. Thus study is needed and it performs to determine N-16 concentration in reactor coolant (<span class="hlt">primary</span> coolant) in supporting radiation safety. One of the way is using analytical methode based on activation and redecay princip to obtain N-16 concentration. The analysis was performed on the configuration basis and operational of Westinghouse AP1000 power reactor in several monitoring points at coolant reactor <span class="hlt">system</span>. The results of the calculation of N-16 concentration at the core outlet, reactor vessel outlet, pressurizer line, inlet and outlet of steam generators, <span class="hlt">primary</span> pumps, reactor vessels inlet and core inlet are: 281, 257, 255, 250, 145, 142, 129 and 112 µCi/gram respectively. The results of analysis compared with AP1000 design control document as standard values. The verification showed very high accuracy comparation between analytical results and standard values.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AIPC.1656f0012R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AIPC.1656f0012R"><span>Analysis of N-16 concentration in <span class="hlt">primary</span> cooling <span class="hlt">system</span> of AP1000 power reactor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rohanda, Anis; Waris, Abdul</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Nitrogen-16 (N-16) is one of the radiation safety parameter on the <span class="hlt">primary</span> reactor <span class="hlt">system</span>. The activation product, N-16, is the predominant contributor to the activity in the reactor coolant <span class="hlt">system</span> during reactor operation. N-16 is activation product derived from activation of O-16 with fast neutron based on 16O(n,p)16N reaction. Thus study is needed and it performs to determine N-16 concentration in reactor coolant (<span class="hlt">primary</span> coolant) in supporting radiation safety. One of the way is using analytical methode based on activation and redecay princip to obtain N-16 concentration. The analysis was performed on the configuration basis and operational of Westinghouse AP1000 power reactor in several monitoring points at coolant reactor <span class="hlt">system</span>. The results of the calculation of N-16 concentration at the core outlet, reactor vessel outlet, pressurizer line, inlet and outlet of steam generators, <span class="hlt">primary</span> pumps, reactor vessels inlet and core inlet are: 281, 257, 255, 250, 145, 142, 129 and 112 µCi/gram respectively. The results of analysis compared with AP1000 design control document as standard values. The verification showed very high accuracy comparation between analytical results and standard values.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23752564','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23752564"><span>Deployment and validation of a smart <span class="hlt">system</span> for screening of language disorders in <span class="hlt">primary</span> care.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Martín-Ruiz, María Luisa; Duboy, Miguel Ángel Valero; de la Cruz, Iván Pau</p> <p>2013-06-10</p> <p>Neuro-evolutive development from birth until the age of six years is a decisive factor in a child's quality of life. Early detection of development disorders in early childhood can facilitate necessary diagnosis and/or treatment. <span class="hlt">Primary</span>-care pediatricians play a key role in its detection as they can undertake the preventive and therapeutic actions requested to promote a child's optimal development. However, the lack of time and little specific knowledge at <span class="hlt">primary</span>-care avoid to applying continuous early-detection anomalies procedures. This research paper focuses on the deployment and evaluation of a smart <span class="hlt">system</span> that enhances the screening of language disorders in <span class="hlt">primary</span> care. Pediatricians get support to proceed with early referral of language disorders. The proposed model provides them with a decision-support tool for referral actions to trigger essential diagnostic and/or therapeutic actions for a comprehensive individual development. The research was conducted by starting from a sample of 60 cases of children with language disorders. Validation was carried out through two complementary steps: first, by including a team of seven experts from the fields of neonatology, pediatrics, neurology and language therapy, and, second, through the evaluation of 21 more previously diagnosed cases. The results obtained show that therapist positively accepted the <span class="hlt">system</span> proposal in 18 cases (86%) and suggested <span class="hlt">system</span> redesign for single referral to a speech therapist in three remaining cases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16586496','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16586496"><span>International study on low-grade <span class="hlt">primary</span> central nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> lymphoma.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jahnke, Kristoph; Korfel, Agnieszka; O'Neill, Brian Patrick; Blay, Jean-Yves; Abrey, Lauren E; Martus, Peter; Poortmans, Philip M P; Shenkier, Tamara N; Batchelor, Tracy T; Neuwelt, Edward A; Raizer, Jeffrey J; Schiff, David; Pels, Hendrik; Herrlinger, Ulrich; Stein, Harald; Thiel, Eckhard</p> <p>2006-05-01</p> <p>The aim of this study was to characterize the clinical presentation, course, and outcome of low-grade <span class="hlt">primary</span> central nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> lymphoma. Cases were assessed in a retrospective series collected from 18 cancer centers in 5 countries. Forty patients (18 men, 22 women; median age, 60 years [range, 19-78]) were identified. Involvement of a cerebral hemisphere or deeper brain structures was seen in 37 patients, only leptomeningeal involvement in 2 patients, and spinal cord disease in 1 patient. Chemotherapy/radiotherapy was conducted in 15 patients, radiotherapy alone in 12, chemotherapy alone in 10, and tumor resection alone in 2, whereas 1 patient received no treatment. The median progression-free, disease-specific, and overall survival were 61.5 (range, 0-204), 130 (range, 1-204), and 79 (range, 1-204) months, respectively. Only age 60 years or older was associated with shorter progression-free (p = 0.009), disease-specific (p = 0.015), and overall survival (p = 0.001) in multivariate analysis. Low-grade <span class="hlt">primary</span> central nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> lymphoma differs from the high-grade subtype in its pathological, clinical, and radiological features. It has a better long-term outcome than <span class="hlt">primary</span> central nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> lymphoma in general with age 60 years or older adversely affecting survival.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28032835','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28032835"><span>Activities and Attributes of Nurse Practitioner Leaders: Lessons from a <span class="hlt">Primary</span> Care <span class="hlt">System</span> Change.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>O'Rourke, Tammy; Higuchi, Kathryn Smith</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Nurse practitioners (NPs) are being encouraged to practice to the full extent of their skills, and they have a critical role to play in leading health <span class="hlt">system</span> reform. The evidence in support of NP-led initiatives is growing; however, in spite of the positive outcomes associated with these initiatives, considerable opposition to and debate about the potential for NPs to lead health <span class="hlt">system</span> change and interprofessional teams continues. To date, we know very little about NP leadership activities, particularly those activities that contribute to <span class="hlt">primary</span> care <span class="hlt">system</span> change, and there are very few examples of this type of leadership. The qualitative descriptive study here was part of a larger case study that examined stakeholder participation in a <span class="hlt">system</span> change led by NPs. The change involved the introduction of a new NP-led model of team-based <span class="hlt">primary</span> care delivery in Ontario, Canada. Data from participant interviews and public documents were analyzed to describe the activities and attributes (perseverance, risk-taking and effective communication) of two NP leaders who were the drivers of this change. Knowledge of these activities and attributes has the potential to inform NP leadership roles in health <span class="hlt">system</span> policy planning and implementation. However, to be able to provide effective leadership in <span class="hlt">system</span> change, NPs need access to educational content about public policy and opportunities to develop and practice the skills required to work with multiple stakeholders, including those who oppose change.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22118333','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22118333"><span>Use of email in communication between the Finnish <span class="hlt">primary</span> healthcare <span class="hlt">system</span> and general practitioners.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Karhula, Tuula; Kauppila, Timo; Elonheimo, Outi; Brommels, Mats</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The volume of emails is rising rapidly everywhere. However, there is no data available concerning how <span class="hlt">primary</span> healthcare physicians feel about the use of email communication between themselves, with their managers and with other people contacting them. The objective of this study was to find out what the attitudes of <span class="hlt">primary</span> care physicians are towards email at work. The use of email was studied among a convenience sample of <span class="hlt">primary</span> healthcare physicians. Physicians thought that email was a good instrument for delivering information but not as an instrument for leadership. Physicians in lead positions thought more often than ordinary general practitioners (GPs) that email is good for information. The leaders used email more actively than other GPs. The contents of the emails received by the GPs differed depending on the site of work. The total number of emails was higher in urban areas than in rural areas. Emails relating to administration, educational information and meeting materials were more often sent in rural than in urban <span class="hlt">primary</span> healthcare settings. Information about daily work arrangements and about social events were more frequently emailed in urban than in rural surroundings. Email was considered important for information inside the <span class="hlt">system</span> but a somewhat difficult tool for discussing complicated subjects. Generally, it was agreed that there was some unimportant information filtering through this medium to the target GPs. GPs were uncertain whether important data reached everybody who needed it or not. Still, almost everybody used the email <span class="hlt">system</span> regularly and the use of it was considered relatively easy. GPs were generally prone to adopt advice and instructions given via email and implemented those in their working routines. The use of the email <span class="hlt">system</span> was related to technical ability to use the <span class="hlt">system</span>. The easier the GP thought that the email <span class="hlt">system</span> was the more he used it. Rural GPs were more critical in applying advice shared via email than their</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/926171','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/926171"><span>Cooperative Research and Development of <span class="hlt">Primary</span> Surface Recuperator for Advanced Microturbine <span class="hlt">Systems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Escola, George</p> <p>2007-01-17</p> <p>Recuperators have been identified as key components of advanced gas turbines <span class="hlt">systems</span> that achieve a measure of improvement in operating efficiency and lead the field in achieving very low emissions. Every gas turbine manufacturer that is studying, developing, or commercializing advanced recuperated gas turbine cycles requests that recuperators operate at higher temperature without a reduction in design life and must cost less. The Solar Cooperative Research and Development of <span class="hlt">Primary</span> Surface Recuperator for Advanced Microturbine <span class="hlt">Systems</span> Program is directed towards meeting the future requirements of advanced gas turbine <span class="hlt">systems</span> by the following: (1) The development of advanced alloys that will allow recuperator inlet exhaust gas temperatures to increase without significant cost increase. (2) Further characterization of the creep and oxidation (dry and humid air) properties of nickel alloy foils (less than 0.13 mm thick) to allow the economical use of these materials. (3) Increasing the use of advanced robotic <span class="hlt">systems</span> and advanced in-process statistical measurement <span class="hlt">systems</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol22/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol22-sec141-535.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol22/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol22-sec141-535.pdf"><span>40 CFR 141.535 - What if my <span class="hlt">system</span> uses chloramines, ozone, or chlorine dioxide for <span class="hlt">primary</span> disinfection?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>..., ozone, or chlorine dioxide for <span class="hlt">primary</span> disinfection? 141.535 Section 141.535 Protection of Environment... REGULATIONS Enhanced Filtration and Disinfection-<span class="hlt">Systems</span> Serving Fewer Than 10,000 People Disinfection Profile § 141.535 What if my <span class="hlt">system</span> uses chloramines, ozone, or chlorine dioxide for <span class="hlt">primary</span> disinfection? If...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28375369','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28375369"><span>Comparison of degradation and recaesiation between GaAs and <span class="hlt">Al</span>GaAs photocathodes in an unbaked vacuum <span class="hlt">system</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Feng, Cheng; Zhang, Yijun; Shi, Feng; Qian, Yunsheng; Cheng, Hongchang; Zhang, Junju; Liu, Xinxin; Zhang, Xiang</p> <p>2017-03-20</p> <p>The lifetime and reliability of a photocathode during operation are always raised problems and the photocathode performance depends on the vacuum condition. With the purpose of investigating the stability and reliability of a GaAs-based photocathode in a harsher vacuum environment, reflection-mode exponential-doped GaAs and <span class="hlt">Al</span>GaAs photocathodes are metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxial grown and then (Cs, O) activated inside an unbaked vacuum chamber. The degraded photocurrents are compared after activation and recaesiations between GaAs and <span class="hlt">Al</span>GaAs photocathdoes under illumination with an equal initial photocurrent and an equal optical flux, respectively. It is found that the performance on degradation and recaesiations between GaAs and <span class="hlt">Al</span>GaAs photocathodes are different. In the unbaked vacuum <span class="hlt">system</span>, the stability of an <span class="hlt">Al</span>GaAs photocathode after (Cs, O) activation is always better than that of a GaAs photocathode. After multiple recaesiations, the photocurrent decay curves of the <span class="hlt">Al</span>GaAs photocathode are nearly coincident, which means a nearly constant operational lifetime. Moreover, operational lifetime of an <span class="hlt">Al</span>GaAs photocathode is longer than that of a GaAs photocathode, which further illuminates that <span class="hlt">Al</span>GaAs photocathodes are superior to GaAs photocathodes in stability and repeatability under markedly harsher vacuum conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JEMat.tmp..771W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JEMat.tmp..771W"><span>Design of a Thermoelectric Material Using the CALPHAD Technique: Thermodynamic Reassessment of the <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Sb-Zn <span class="hlt">System</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Wei; Yang, Lili; Wang, Nan; Zhang, Haifeng; Jia, Yanping</p> <p>2017-09-01</p> <p>The β-Sb3Zn4 intermetallic compound, one of the most promising thermoelectric materials in the mid-1990s, has attracted much interest due to its high thermoelectric performance in the intermediate temperature range. To improve the thermoelectric properties of the compound β-Sb3Zn4, <span class="hlt">Al</span> doping is an effective method. Therefore, accurate theoretical analysis of the <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Sb-Zn <span class="hlt">system</span> is essential for the design of such thermoelectric materials. In this work, the <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Sb-Zn <span class="hlt">system</span> was reassessed by means of the calculation of phase diagram (CALPHAD) technique. A set of self-consistent thermodynamic parameters was obtained and can be used to extrapolate to related high-order <span class="hlt">systems</span>. Some phase equilibria and thermochemical properties can be predicted using the present thermodynamic description.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JEMat.tmp...19A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JEMat.tmp...19A"><span>Effects of Codoping with Ga and P on Thermoelectric Properties of Ba8<span class="hlt">Al</span>16Si30 Clathrate <span class="hlt">System</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Anno, Hiroaki; Ueda, Takahiro; Okamoto, Kazuya</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>We have investigated the effects of Codoping With Ga and P on the thermoelectric properties of the Ba8<span class="hlt">Al</span>16Si30 clathrate <span class="hlt">system</span>, attempting to optimize the carrier concentration. The elastic properties, which are important for design of thermoelectric devices, were investigated by ultrasonic testing. Ga/P-codoped specimens with nominal compositions Ba8<span class="hlt">Al</span>16Ga x Si30-2x P x (x = 1.0, 1.5, 2.0) were prepared by arc melting and spark plasma sintering and their Seebeck coefficient, electrical conductivity, and thermal conductivity were measured. Analytical studies revealed that the total content of <span class="hlt">Al</span> and Ga, expressed as atoms per formula unit, increased to 15.65 at nominal x = 2.0, exceeding the maximum content (y = 15.16) of <span class="hlt">Al</span> for the Ba8<span class="hlt">Al</span> y Si46-y clathrate <span class="hlt">system</span>. Ultrasonic tests determined the Young's modulus, shear modulus, bulk modulus, and Poisson's ratio to be 102.55 GPa, 40.14 GPa, 76.85 GPa, and 0.2775, respectively, for Ba8<span class="hlt">Al</span>16Ga x Si30-2x P x (x = 2.0). The Hall carrier concentration decreased from ˜1.0 × 1021 cm-3 for Ba8<span class="hlt">Al</span> y Si46-y to ˜6.3 × 1020 cm-3 for Ba8<span class="hlt">Al</span>16Ga x Si30-2x P x (x = 2.0), suggesting that Ga/P codoping may be useful for tuning the carrier concentration. The value of the Seebeck coefficient at ˜320 K increased from -46 μV K-1 for Ba8<span class="hlt">Al</span> y Si46-y to -67 μV K-1 for Ba8<span class="hlt">Al</span>16Ga x Si30-2x P x (x = 2.0). The dimensionless thermoelectric figure␣of merit ZT at 900 K improved from ˜0.4 for Ba8<span class="hlt">Al</span> y Si46-y to ˜0.47 for Ba8<span class="hlt">Al</span>16Ga x Si30-2x P x (x = 2.0).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JEMat..46.1730A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JEMat..46.1730A"><span>Effects of Codoping with Ga and P on Thermoelectric Properties of Ba8<span class="hlt">Al</span>16Si30 Clathrate <span class="hlt">System</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Anno, Hiroaki; Ueda, Takahiro; Okamoto, Kazuya</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>We have investigated the effects of Codoping With Ga and P on the thermoelectric properties of the Ba8<span class="hlt">Al</span>16Si30 clathrate <span class="hlt">system</span>, attempting to optimize the carrier concentration. The elastic properties, which are important for design of thermoelectric devices, were investigated by ultrasonic testing. Ga/P-codoped specimens with nominal compositions Ba8<span class="hlt">Al</span>16Ga x Si30-2 x P x ( x = 1.0, 1.5, 2.0) were prepared by arc melting and spark plasma sintering and their Seebeck coefficient, electrical conductivity, and thermal conductivity were measured. Analytical studies revealed that the total content of <span class="hlt">Al</span> and Ga, expressed as atoms per formula unit, increased to 15.65 at nominal x = 2.0, exceeding the maximum content ( y = 15.16) of <span class="hlt">Al</span> for the Ba8<span class="hlt">Al</span> y Si46- y clathrate <span class="hlt">system</span>. Ultrasonic tests determined the Young's modulus, shear modulus, bulk modulus, and Poisson's ratio to be 102.55 GPa, 40.14 GPa, 76.85 GPa, and 0.2775, respectively, for Ba8<span class="hlt">Al</span>16Ga x Si30-2 x P x ( x = 2.0). The Hall carrier concentration decreased from ˜1.0 × 1021 cm-3 for Ba8<span class="hlt">Al</span> y Si46- y to ˜6.3 × 1020 cm-3 for Ba8<span class="hlt">Al</span>16Ga x Si30-2 x P x ( x = 2.0), suggesting that Ga/P codoping may be useful for tuning the carrier concentration. The value of the Seebeck coefficient at ˜320 K increased from -46 μV K-1 for Ba8<span class="hlt">Al</span> y Si46- y to -67 μV K-1 for Ba8<span class="hlt">Al</span>16Ga x Si30-2 x P x ( x = 2.0). The dimensionless thermoelectric figure of merit ZT at 900 K improved from ˜0.4 for Ba8<span class="hlt">Al</span> y Si46- y to ˜0.47 for Ba8<span class="hlt">Al</span>16Ga x Si30-2 x P x ( x = 2.0).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28154629','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28154629"><span>Suicidal ideations, plans and attempts in <span class="hlt">primary</span> care: cross-sectional study of consultants at <span class="hlt">primary</span> health care <span class="hlt">system</span> in Morocco.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Oneib, Bouchra; Sabir, Maria; Otheman, Yassine; Abda, Naima; Ouanass, Abderrazzak</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The aim of the study is to estimate the prevalence of suicidal ideation among Moroccan consultants in <span class="hlt">primary</span> health care <span class="hlt">system</span>. We conducted a cross sectional survey in three health care centers in two cities of Morocco to estimate the prevalence of suicidal ideation, plan and suicide attempts among 396 consultants in the <span class="hlt">primary</span> health care <span class="hlt">system</span>, using the Mini International neuropsychiatric interview. Patients were 18 years and older, without known psychiatric or chronic somatic disease. Statistical analysis was performed by the SPSS 13.0 software. The prevalence of suicidal ideation was 5.3%, and 2.7% of the patients planned their suicide and 1.2% tried to commit suicide. The multivariate analysis did not demonstrate significant association. Suicidal ideation, plan and suicide attempts are prevalent in <span class="hlt">primary</span> health care patients, but they are still under diagnosed. An adequate training of physicians and the establishment of education programs is essential to reduce the rate of suicide.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860029693&hterms=pet&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dpet','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860029693&hterms=pet&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dpet"><span><span class="hlt">Primary</span> propulsion of electrothermal, ion, and chemical <span class="hlt">systems</span> for space-based radar orbit transfer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wang, S.-Y.; Staiger, P. J.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>An orbit transfer mission concept has been studied for a Space-Based Radar (SBR) where 40 kW required for radar operation is assumed available for orbit transfer propulsion. Arcjet, pulsed electrothermal (PET), ion, and storable chemical <span class="hlt">systems</span> are considered for the <span class="hlt">primary</span> propulsion. Transferring two SBR per shuttle flight to 1112 km/60 deg using eiectrical propulsion <span class="hlt">systems</span> offers an increased payload at the expense of increased trip time, up to 2000 kg each, which may be critical for survivability. Trade offs between payload mass, transfer time, launch site, inclination, and height of parking orbits are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19850019660','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19850019660"><span><span class="hlt">Primary</span> propulsion of electrothermal, ion and chemical <span class="hlt">systems</span> for space-based radar orbit transfer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wang, S. Y.; Staiger, P. J.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>An orbit transfer mission concept has been studied for a Space-Based Radar (SBR) where 40 kW required for radar operation is assumed available for orbit transfer propulsion. Arcjet, pulsed electrothermal (PET), ion, and storable chemical <span class="hlt">systems</span> are considered for the <span class="hlt">primary</span> propulsion. Transferring two SBR per shuttle flight to 1112 km/60 deg using electrical propulsion <span class="hlt">systems</span> offers an increased payload at the expense of increased trip time, up to 2000 kg each, which may be critical for survivability. Trade offs between payload mass, transfer time, launch site, inclination, and height of parking orbits are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860029693&hterms=pets&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dpets','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860029693&hterms=pets&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dpets"><span><span class="hlt">Primary</span> propulsion of electrothermal, ion, and chemical <span class="hlt">systems</span> for space-based radar orbit transfer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wang, S.-Y.; Staiger, P. J.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>An orbit transfer mission concept has been studied for a Space-Based Radar (SBR) where 40 kW required for radar operation is assumed available for orbit transfer propulsion. Arcjet, pulsed electrothermal (PET), ion, and storable chemical <span class="hlt">systems</span> are considered for the <span class="hlt">primary</span> propulsion. Transferring two SBR per shuttle flight to 1112 km/60 deg using eiectrical propulsion <span class="hlt">systems</span> offers an increased payload at the expense of increased trip time, up to 2000 kg each, which may be critical for survivability. Trade offs between payload mass, transfer time, launch site, inclination, and height of parking orbits are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17392945','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17392945"><span><span class="hlt">Systems</span> and complexity thinking in general practice. Part 2: application in <span class="hlt">primary</span> care research.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sturmberg, Joachim P</p> <p>2007-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Systems</span> organise themselves upward toward larger wholes, and downward toward ever smaller parts. The upward view describes holism or emergence (complexity science view), the downward view reductionism or analysis (Newtonian science view). Both views provide valid and valuable information, one being contextual, the other specific. A <span class="hlt">systems</span> and complexity view allows a simultaneous understanding of a phenomenon from different perspectives, providing the opportunity to identify potentially different outcomes from a single action. The findings from studies on prescribing antibiotics and continuity of care will demonstrate and draw attention to the potential of this approach for <span class="hlt">primary</span> care research.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22426680','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22426680"><span><span class="hlt">Primary</span> breast lymphoma sequentially relapsed in the peripheral and central nervous <span class="hlt">system</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tang, Tzung-Chih; Chang, Hung; Chuang, Wen-Yu</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Primary</span> breast lymphoma (PBL) is an uncommon extranodal type of lymphoma, exhibiting more aggressive behavior and poorer prognosis. Patients with PBL have a higher incidence to relapse in central nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> (CNS), which is always leading to a dismal outcome even treating with high intensity chemotherapy plus radiotherapy. Lymphoma involving the peripheral nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> (PNS), either primarily or secondarily, is also rare. But no PBL with PNS relapse has been reported before. Herein, we reported a case of PBL who presented with subsequent relapse in two discrete sites of the PNS followed by the CNS.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2151168','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2151168"><span>[Revitalization of the federal and state efforts to promote community-based <span class="hlt">primary</span> care <span class="hlt">systems</span>].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Carlson, R H</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Progress toward a strengthened public health <span class="hlt">system</span> is clearly emerging in the United States, but still faces a number of financial and functional barriers. There is no question, however, that the importance being placed on <span class="hlt">primary</span> care <span class="hlt">systems</span> is making a difference as more and more communities are seeking and implementing effective approaches that bring resources together in ways that work. That, of course, is the ultimate objective; that is, that all public agencies assure their constituents that their needed services are being provided in an affordable way.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/988753','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/988753"><span>Solid Solution Effects on the Mg<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O4-MgGa2O4 <span class="hlt">System</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>O'Hara, Kelley; Smith, Jeffrey D; Hemrick, James Gordon</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Phase relations between two spinel compounds (Mg<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O4 and MgGa2O4) were studied. Stoichiometric Mg<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O4 was formed in the laboratory through a coprecipitation method. Complete solid solution formation int eh Mg<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O4-MgGa2O4 <span class="hlt">systems</span> was confirmed through X-ray diffraction analysis. Solid solution between Mg<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O4-MgGa2O4 decreases thermal conductivity at all temperatures up to 900oC. At 200oC with 10 mol% additoin of MgGa2O4 thermal conductivity decreases approximately 25%, and at 900oC there was still an 8% decrease. Additionally, preliminary studies show that porosity between 5% and 10% does not have an appreciable effect on the thermal conductivity in this study.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3497618','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3497618"><span>Dynamics of the Establishment of <span class="hlt">Systemic</span> Potyvirus Infection: Independent yet Cumulative Action of <span class="hlt">Primary</span> Infection Sites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lafforgue, Guillaume; Tromas, Nicolas; Elena, Santiago F.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>In the clinic, farm, or field, for many viruses there is a high prevalence of mixed-genotype infections, indicating that multiple virions have initiated infection and that there can be multiple sites of <span class="hlt">primary</span> infection within the same host. The dynamic process by which multiple <span class="hlt">primary</span> infection sites interact with each other and the host is poorly understood, undoubtedly due to its high complexity. In this study, we attempted to unravel the basic interactions underlying this process using a plant RNA virus, as removing the inoculated leaf can instantly and rigorously eliminate all <span class="hlt">primary</span> infection sites. Effective population size in the inoculated leaf and time of removal of the inoculated leaf were varied in experiments, and it was found that both factors positively influenced if the plant became <span class="hlt">systemically</span> infected and what proportion of cells in the <span class="hlt">systemic</span> tissue were infected, as measured by flow cytometry. Fitting of probabilistic models of infection to our data demonstrated that a null model in which the action of each focus is independent of the presence of other foci was better supported than a dependent-action model. The cumulative effect of independently acting foci therefore determined when plants became infected and how many individual cells were infected. There was no evidence for interference between <span class="hlt">primary</span> infection sites, which is surprising given the planar structure of leaves. By showing that a simple null model is supported, we experimentally confirmed—to our knowledge for the first time—the minimal components that dictate interactions of a conspecific virus population establishing <span class="hlt">systemic</span> infection. PMID:22993154</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2633148','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2633148"><span>Microtensile and Microshear Bond Strength of an Antibacterial Self-Etching <span class="hlt">System</span> to <span class="hlt">Primary</span> Tooth Dentin</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Yildirim, Sibel; Tosun, Gül; Koyutürk, Alp Erdin; Şener, Yaḡmur; Şengün, Abdulkadir; Özer, Füsun; Imazato, Satoshi</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Objectives The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the bonding ability of antibacterial bonding <span class="hlt">system</span> to <span class="hlt">primary</span> dentin was not different from the parental material which did not contain any antibacterial component. Methods Extracted human non-carious <span class="hlt">primary</span> molars were ground to expose the coronal dentin, and then randomly divided into two experimental groups: treatment with Clearfil Protect Bond or with Clearfil SE Bond (Kuraray Medical Inc.). Composite-dentin sticks with a cross-sectional area of approximately 0.90 mm2 were prepared and subsequently subjected to microtensile bond strength (μTBS) and microshear bond strength (μSBS) tests. For the μTBS tests, specimens were attached to an Instron testing machine with a cyanoacrylate adhesive. For μSBS testing, the sticks were mechanically fixed to the μSBS testing apparatus. The bonds were stressed in shear or tension at a crosshead speed of 1mm/min until failure occurred. Resin-dentin interfaces produced by each <span class="hlt">system</span> were examined using SEM. The data were analyzed with Mann-Whitney’s U test. Results The μTBS and μSBS of Clearfil Protect Bond were 30.69±9.71 and 9.94±3.78 MPa, respectively. Clearfil SE Bond showed significantly greater values of 37.31±9.57 and 12.83±3.15 MPa, respectively. SEM analysis demonstrated similar micro-morphological features including the thickness of the hybrid layer for both materials. Conclusions It was showed that antibacterial self-etching <span class="hlt">system</span> Clearfil Protect Bond showed lower bond strength values compared to <span class="hlt">primary</span> dentin than that of to Clearfil SE Bond on <span class="hlt">primary</span> dentin. (Eur J Dent 2008;2:11–17) PMID:19212503</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27573316','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27573316"><span>Georeferenced and secure mobile health <span class="hlt">system</span> for large scale data collection in <span class="hlt">primary</span> care.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sa, Joao H G; Rebelo, Marina S; Brentani, Alexandra; Grisi, Sandra J F E; Iwaya, Leonardo H; Simplicio, Marcos A; Carvalho, Tereza C M B; Gutierrez, Marco A</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>Mobile health consists in applying mobile devices and communication capabilities for expanding the coverage and improving the effectiveness of health care programs. The technology is particularly promising for developing countries, in which health authorities can take advantage of the flourishing mobile market to provide adequate health care to underprivileged communities, especially <span class="hlt">primary</span> care. In Brazil, the <span class="hlt">Primary</span> Care Information <span class="hlt">System</span> (SIAB) receives <span class="hlt">primary</span> health care data from all regions of the country, creating a rich database for health-related action planning. Family Health Teams (FHTs) collect this data in periodic visits to families enrolled in governmental programs, following an acquisition procedure that involves filling in paper forms. This procedure compromises the quality of the data provided to health care authorities and slows down the decision-making process. To develop a mobile <span class="hlt">system</span> (GeoHealth) that should address and overcome the aforementioned problems and deploy the proposed solution in a wide underprivileged metropolitan area of a major city in Brazil. The proposed solution comprises three main components: (a) an Application Server, with a database containing family health conditions; and two clients, (b) a Web Browser running visualization tools for management tasks, and (c) a data-gathering device (smartphone) to register and to georeference the family health data. A data security framework was designed to ensure the security of data, which was stored locally and transmitted over public networks. The <span class="hlt">system</span> was successfully deployed at six <span class="hlt">primary</span> care units in the city of Sao Paulo, where a total of 28,324 families/96,061 inhabitants are regularly followed up by government health policies. The health conditions observed from the population covered were: diabetes in 3.40%, hypertension (age >40) in 23.87% and tuberculosis in 0.06%. This estimated prevalence has enabled FHTs to set clinical appointments proactively, with the aim of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JSSCh.252....1S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JSSCh.252....1S"><span>Structural aspects of the formation of solid solutions in the NaF-KF-<span class="hlt">Al</span>F3 <span class="hlt">system</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Samoilo, Alexander S.; Zaitseva, Yulia N.; Dubinin, Peter S.; Piksina, Oksana E.; Ruzhnikov, Sergei G.; Yakimov, Igor S.; Kirik, Sergei D.</p> <p>2017-08-01</p> <p>The formation of solid solutions in the ternary <span class="hlt">system</span> NaF-KF-<span class="hlt">Al</span>F3 has been studied by X-ray diffraction and thermal analysis. Chiolite has been shown to form solid solutions with the composition (Na(5-x)Kx)<span class="hlt">Al</span>3F14, in the limited range of 0<x<0.4. The lattice parameters change in the intervals for (a) 7.010 (3) -7.050 (3) Å, for (c) 10.365 (10) -10.400 (10) Å. According to the investigation of the crystal structure, potassium cations substitute sodium only in the 2-fold position in the amount of 40%. The solid solutions are stable in the range from room to melting point temperature. A wide range of solid solutions based on β-cryolite (Na3<span class="hlt">Al</span>F6) and elpasolite (K2Na<span class="hlt">Al</span>F6) above 540 °C has been studied in detail. It is only the 8-fold cationic position in the β-cryolite structure which appears to have contributed into the substitution in the full range of solid solutions. The solid solution decays into a mixture of α-Na3<span class="hlt">Al</span>F6 and K2Na<span class="hlt">Al</span>F6 upon calcination below 540 °C., followed by further cooling without changing the α-Na3<span class="hlt">Al</span>F6 composition. Elpasolitе initially containing an excess of sodium ions, has yielded cryolite and stoichiometric K2Na<span class="hlt">Al</span>F6 below 340 °C. The phase K2Na<span class="hlt">Al</span>3F12 present in two polymorphic forms, has not formed a wide range of solid solutions; however, a slight excess of potassium ions has improved the stability of the high-temperature form.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27559279','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27559279"><span>Inter-rater reliability of a modified version of Delitto et <span class="hlt">al.'s</span> classification-based <span class="hlt">system</span> for low back pain: a pilot study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Apeldoorn, Adri T; van Helvoirt, Hans; Ostelo, Raymond W; Meihuizen, Hanneke; Kamper, Steven J; van Tulder, Maurits W; de Vet, Henrica C W</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Observational inter-rater reliability study. To examine: (1) the inter-rater reliability of a modified version of Delitto et <span class="hlt">al.'s</span> classification-based algorithm for patients with low back pain; (2) the influence of different levels of familiarity with the <span class="hlt">system</span>; and (3) the inter-rater reliability of algorithm decisions in patients who clearly fit into a subgroup (clear classifications) and those who do not (unclear classifications). Patients were examined twice on the same day by two of three participating physical therapists with different levels of familiarity with the <span class="hlt">system</span>. Patients were classified into one of four classification groups. Raters were blind to the others' classification decision. In order to quantify the inter-rater reliability, percentages of agreement and Cohen's Kappa were calculated. A total of 36 patients were included (clear classification n = 23; unclear classification n = 13). The overall rate of agreement was 53% and the Kappa value was 0·34 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0·11-0·57], which indicated only fair inter-rater reliability. Inter-rater reliability for patients with a clear classification (agreement 52%, Kappa value 0·29) was not higher than for patients with an unclear classification (agreement 54%, Kappa value 0·33). Familiarity with the <span class="hlt">system</span> (i.e. trained with written instructions and previous research experience with the algorithm) did not improve the inter-rater reliability. Our pilot study challenges the inter-rater reliability of the classification procedure in clinical practice. Therefore, more knowledge is needed about factors that affect the inter-rater reliability, in order to improve the clinical applicability of the classification scheme.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26049312','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26049312"><span>Work <span class="hlt">system</span> factors influencing physicians' screen sharing behaviors in <span class="hlt">primary</span> care encounters.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Asan, Onur; Carayon, Pascale; Beasley, John W; Montague, Enid</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>While the use of electronic health records (EHRs) in <span class="hlt">primary</span> care has increased dramatically, its potential benefits need to be considered in light of potential negative impacts on physician-patient interactions and the increase in physician cognitive workload. This study aims to understand work <span class="hlt">system</span> factors contributing to physicians' use of the EHR as a communication tool during <span class="hlt">primary</span>-care encounters. We interviewed 14 <span class="hlt">primary</span> care physicians on their use of EHRs as a communication tool in patient visits. A qualitative content analysis guided by the work <span class="hlt">system</span> model identified factors influencing physicians' decisions to share or not share the computer screen with their patients. The analysis revealed 26 factors that influenced physicians' decisions to share the screen, most related to the "task" (reviewing lab records), "tools and technology" (using algorithm calculators for risk prediction), or "individual" (patient interest) elements of the work <span class="hlt">system</span>. The analysis revealed 15 factors that influenced physicians' decisions not to share the screen, most related to the "individual" (patient's acute pain), "organization" (insufficient time), or "task" (documenting embarrassing information) elements of the work <span class="hlt">system</span>. Eleven physicians made individual decisions to share or not to share the screen in a particular visit based on work-<span class="hlt">system</span> related factors. Three doctors always shared the screen, based on the idea that it is polite and builds trust. However, several physicians also reported that it was time consuming and caused unnecessary distractions. Understanding these factors is essential to effective EHR redesign and training for improving physician-patient communication. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17765806','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17765806"><span><span class="hlt">Primary</span> human herpesvirus-6 infection in the central nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> can cause severe disease.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mannonen, Laura; Herrgård, Eila; Valmari, Pekka; Rautiainen, Paula; Uotila, Kari; Aine, Marjo-Riitta; Karttunen-Lewandowski, Pirkko; Sankala, Juhani; Wallden, Tiina; Koskiniemi, Marjaleena</p> <p>2007-09-01</p> <p>Human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) infection is common in infancy, and symptoms are usually mild. However, encephalitis and other neurologic complications have been reported. <span class="hlt">Primary</span> HHV-6 infection has been rarely confirmed in the central nervous <span class="hlt">system</span>. We studied 21 children with suspected HHV-6 infection, drawn from a prospective, large-scale study of neurologic infections in Finland. Human herpesvirus-6 polymerase chain reaction was performed on cerebrospinal fluid samples, and antibody tests were performed on serum and cerebrospinal fluid. We identified nine children, aged 3 to 24 months, who had HHV-6-specific nucleic acid in cerebrospinal fluid. <span class="hlt">Primary</span> infection was confirmed by seroconversion of specific antibodies in six, whereas one had a fourfold increase, and one had a fourfold decrease, in the antibody titer supporting recent infection. Generalized and prolonged seizures appeared in six children, four had a rash, four had ataxia, and four had gastroenteritis. All but two had a high fever. At follow-up, four children had evident neurologic sequelae, ataxia, and developmental disability, and needed special education. <span class="hlt">Primary</span> HHV-6 infection may invade the central nervous <span class="hlt">system</span>, and can cause neurologic symptoms and potentially permanent disability in children aged <or=2 years. The possibility of HHV-6 infection must be considered when treating acutely ill children, and especially those with convulsions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3809019','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3809019"><span>A microfluidic <span class="hlt">system</span> to study cytoadhesion of Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes to <span class="hlt">primary</span> brain microvascularendothelial cells</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Herricks, Thurston; Seydel, Karl B.; Turner, George; Molyneux, Malcolm; Heyderman, Robert; Taylor, Terrie; Rathod, Pradipsinh K.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The cellular events leading to severe and complicated malaria in some Plasmodium falciparum infections are poorly understood. Additional tools are required to better understand the pathogenesis of this disease. In this technical report, we describe a microfluidic culture <span class="hlt">system</span> and image processing algorithms that were developed to observe cytoadhesion interactions of P. falciparum parasitized erythrocytes rolling on <span class="hlt">primary</span> brain microvascularendothelial cells. We isolated and cultured human <span class="hlt">primary</span> vascular endothelial cells in a closed loop microfluidic culture <span class="hlt">system</span> where a peristaltic pump and media reservoirs were integrated onto a microscope stage insert. We developed image processing methods to enhance contrast of rolling parasitized erythrocytes on endothelial cells and to estimate the local wall shear stress. The velocity of parasitized erythrocytes rolling on <span class="hlt">primary</span> brain microvascularendothelial cells was then measured under physiologically relevant wall shear stresses. Finally, we deployed this method successfully at a field site in Blantyre, Malawi. The method is a promising new tool for the investigation of the pathogenesis of severe malaria. PMID:21743938</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009PrOce..83..376D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009PrOce..83..376D"><span>Trends in <span class="hlt">primary</span> production, sea surface temperature and wind in upwelling <span class="hlt">systems</span> (1998-2007)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Demarcq, Hervé</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>We take advantage of the longest high quality single-sensor global data set of ocean color available today to explore recent trends in the <span class="hlt">primary</span> productivity of the main eastern boundary upwelling <span class="hlt">systems</span> (EBUEs): California, Canary, Humboldt and Benguela. The chlorophyll- a concentration is used as a proxy for <span class="hlt">primary</span> production. SST data from AVHRR and wind speed data from QuikSCAT are used in conjunction with this data set to analyse forcing mechanisms explaining the chlorophyll biomass. Whereas the worldwide <span class="hlt">primary</span>-production biomass shows on average decreasing trends, as already observed in the stratified part of the worldwide ocean, the productivity of most EBUEs increases during the study period. These contrasting trends are both significant, at least for the mid latitude range of 50°S-50°N, where the data coverage is sufficient for accurate estimation. Probably due to the large scale atmospheric forcing, trends in sea surface temperature (SST) show non-significant relationships with the trends in biomass within upwelling <span class="hlt">systems</span>, suggesting that SST anomalies cannot be used as an indicator of change in upwelling intensity in a continuous warming context. On the other hand, upwelling favourable equatorward winds show a significant correlation with the observed trends in biomass, suggesting that the trends in the trade winds are probably linked to an increase in the intensity of the Hadley cell circulation observed during the last several decades.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920071474&hterms=space+heater&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dspace%2Bheater','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920071474&hterms=space+heater&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dspace%2Bheater"><span>Design and testing of the U.S. Space Station Freedom <span class="hlt">primary</span> propulsion <span class="hlt">system</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Morano, Joseph S.; Delventhal, Rex A.; Chilcot, Kimberly J.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">primary</span> propulsion <span class="hlt">system</span> (PPS) for the Space Station Freedom is discussed in terms of salient design characteristics and key testing procedures. The rocket engine modules contain reboost and attitude control thrusters, and their designs are illustrated showing the mounting structures, thruster solenoid valves, and thrust chambers. The propellant tank assembly for storing gaseous N pressurant and hydrazine propellant is described as are the <span class="hlt">system</span> avionics, thruster solenoid valves, and latching isolation valves. PPS testing conducted on the development <span class="hlt">systems</span> includes the use of a propulsion-module development unit, a development test article, and <span class="hlt">system</span> qualification testing. Specific test articles include functional heaters, mass/thermal simulated components, flight-quality structures, and software control operations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28484072','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28484072"><span>A <span class="hlt">Primary</span> Care <span class="hlt">System</span> to Improve Health Care Efficiency: Lessons from Ecuador.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Aldulaimi, Sommer; Mora, Francisco E</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Ecuador is a country with few resources to spend on health care. Historically, Ecuador has struggled to find a model for health care that is efficient, effective, and available to all people in the country, even those in underserved and rural communities. In 2000, the Ecuador Ministry of Public Health implemented a new <span class="hlt">system</span> of health care that used <span class="hlt">primary</span> care as its platform. Since then, Ecuador has been able to increase its health care efficiency, increasing its ranking from 111 of 211 countries worldwide in 2000, to 20 of 211 countries in 2014. This article briefly reviews the new components of the <span class="hlt">system</span> implemented in Ecuador and examines the tools used to accomplish this. The discussion also compares and contrasts the Ecuador and US <span class="hlt">systems</span>, and identifies concepts and policies from Ecuador that could improve the US <span class="hlt">system</span>. © Copyright 2017 by the American Board of Family Medicine.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3215502','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3215502"><span>Colon Targeted Drug Delivery <span class="hlt">Systems</span>: A Review on <span class="hlt">Primary</span> and Novel Approaches</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Philip, Anil K.; Philip, Betty</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The colon is a site where both local and <span class="hlt">systemic</span> delivery of drugs can take place. Local delivery allows topical treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. However, treatment can be made effective if the drugs can be targeted directly into the colon, thereby reducing the <span class="hlt">systemic</span> side effects. This review, mainly compares the <span class="hlt">primary</span> approaches for CDDS (Colon Specific Drug Delivery) namely prodrugs, pH and time dependent <span class="hlt">systems</span>, and microbially triggered <span class="hlt">systems</span>, which achieved limited success and had limitations as compared with newer CDDS namely pressure controlled colonic delivery capsules, CODESTM, and osmotic controlled drug delivery which are unique in terms of achieving in vivo site specificity, and feasibility of manufacturing process. PMID:22125706</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5308111','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5308111"><span>Treatment of a <span class="hlt">primary</span> intracranial germ cell tumor with <span class="hlt">systemic</span> chemotherapy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kirshner, J.J.; Ginsberg, S.J.; Fitzpatrick, A.V.; Comis, R.L.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Primary</span> germ cell neoplasms of the central nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> (CNS) are rare tumors which generally respond to radiotherapy. Experience is limited in managing the refractory patient. We report a patient whose suprasellar dysgerminoma responded completely to 5,000 rad. Seven years later, disease recurrence was refractory to an additional 4,000 rad. Theorizing that the ''blood-brain barrier'' was no longer intact after extensive radiotherapy and tumor involvement of the ventricular <span class="hlt">system</span>, the patient was treated with <span class="hlt">systemic</span> bleomycin, cisplatin, and vinblastine. Pharmacokinetic studies revealed that the bleomycin and cisplatin entered the cerebrospinal fluid. Serial CT scans and CSF levels of beta-HCG confirmed the clinical impression of a partial remission. Subsequent tumor progression was refractory to therapy with intraventricular bleomycin. It is concluded that <span class="hlt">systemic</span> chemotherapy may be beneficial in certain cases of CNS germ cell neoplasms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920071474&hterms=PPS&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DPPS','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920071474&hterms=PPS&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DPPS"><span>Design and testing of the U.S. Space Station Freedom <span class="hlt">primary</span> propulsion <span class="hlt">system</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Morano, Joseph S.; Delventhal, Rex A.; Chilcot, Kimberly J.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">primary</span> propulsion <span class="hlt">system</span> (PPS) for the Space Station Freedom is discussed in terms of salient design characteristics and key testing procedures. The rocket engine modules contain reboost and attitude control thrusters, and their designs are illustrated showing the mounting structures, thruster solenoid valves, and thrust chambers. The propellant tank assembly for storing gaseous N pressurant and hydrazine propellant is described as are the <span class="hlt">system</span> avionics, thruster solenoid valves, and latching isolation valves. PPS testing conducted on the development <span class="hlt">systems</span> includes the use of a propulsion-module development unit, a development test article, and <span class="hlt">system</span> qualification testing. Specific test articles include functional heaters, mass/thermal simulated components, flight-quality structures, and software control operations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992jpnt.confTW...M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992jpnt.confTW...M"><span>Design and testing of the U.S. Space Station Freedom <span class="hlt">primary</span> propulsion <span class="hlt">system</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Morano, Joseph S.; Delventhal, Rex A.; Chilcot, Kimberly J.</p> <p>1992-07-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">primary</span> propulsion <span class="hlt">system</span> (PPS) for the Space Station Freedom is discussed in terms of salient design characteristics and key testing procedures. The rocket engine modules contain reboost and attitude control thrusters, and their designs are illustrated showing the mounting structures, thruster solenoid valves, and thrust chambers. The propellant tank assembly for storing gaseous N pressurant and hydrazine propellant is described as are the <span class="hlt">system</span> avionics, thruster solenoid valves, and latching isolation valves. PPS testing conducted on the development <span class="hlt">systems</span> includes the use of a propulsion-module development unit, a development test article, and <span class="hlt">system</span> qualification testing. Specific test articles include functional heaters, mass/thermal simulated components, flight-quality structures, and software control operations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997JSSCh.131...24T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997JSSCh.131...24T"><span>An XRD and Electron Diffraction Study of Cristobalite-Related Phases in the Na<span class="hlt">Al</span>O 2-Na<span class="hlt">Al</span>SiO 4<span class="hlt">System</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Thompson, John G.; Melnitchenko, Alexandra; Palethorpe, Stephen R.; Withers, Ray L.</p> <p>1997-06-01</p> <p>A detailed study of the sodium aluminate-carnegieite <span class="hlt">system</span> (Na2-x<span class="hlt">Al</span>2-xSixO4, 0≤x≤1) at temperatures between 800 and 1300°C has revealed five previously unreported phases. All of the new phases can be described as modulated variants of an underlyingβ-cristobalite parent structure. Atx≈0.05 theγ-Na<span class="hlt">Al</span>O2-type structure (P41212,a=1/2ap,c=cp) (p=parent) is stabilized to room-temperature; atx≈0.2-0.45 an orthorhombic (Pbca,a=2ap,b=2bp,c=1/2cp) KGaO2-type structure is obtained, except atx≈0.35 where a new tetragonal (P41212,a=2ap,c=cp) phase is observed; atx≈0.5-0.6 a new cubic (P213,a=2ap) phase is obtained; atx≈0.7-0.9 a new orthorhombic (Pc21b,a=2ap,b=2bp,c=2cp) phase is obtained. XRD and electron diffraction data, refined unit cell dimensions, and the phase relationships at 1300°C are presented. The proposed space group symmetries are based on observed extinction conditions and constraints provided by a modulated structure description of the new phases. The materials are prepared by gel synthesis followed by solid state reaction in air.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4395364','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4395364"><span>First-Principles Calculations, Experimental Study, and Thermodynamic Modeling of the <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Co-Cr <span class="hlt">System</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Liu, Xuan L.; Gheno, Thomas; Lindahl, Bonnie B.; Lindwall, Greta; Gleeson, Brian; Liu, Zi-Kui</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The phase relations and thermodynamic properties of the condensed <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Co-Cr ternary alloy <span class="hlt">system</span> are investigated using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) and phase-equilibria experiments that led to X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA) measurements. A thermodynamic description is developed by means of the calculations of phase diagrams (CALPHAD) method using experimental and computational data from the present work and the literature. Emphasis is placed on modeling the bcc-A2, B2, fcc-γ, and tetragonal-σ phases in the temperature range of 1173 to 1623 K. Liquid, bcc-A2 and fcc-γ phases are modeled using substitutional solution descriptions. First-principles special quasirandom structures (SQS) calculations predict a large bcc-A2 (disordered)/B2 (ordered) miscibility gap, in agreement with experiments. A partitioning model is then used for the A2/B2 phase to effectively describe the order-disorder transitions. The critically assessed thermodynamic description describes all phase equilibria data well. A2/B2 transitions are also shown to agree well with previous experimental findings. PMID:25875037</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006MSAIS..10..126Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006MSAIS..10..126Z"><span>The panels for <span class="hlt">primary</span> and secondary mirror reflectors and the Active Surface <span class="hlt">System</span> for the new Sardinia Radio Telescope</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zacchiroli, G.; Fiocchi, F.; Maccaferri, G.; Morsiani, M.; Orfei, A.; Pernechele, C.; Pisanu, T.; Roda, J.; Vargiu, G.</p> <p></p> <p>In this paper we will describe the panels for the <span class="hlt">primary</span> and secondary mirror reflectors and the active surface <span class="hlt">system</span> that will be provided on the Sardinia Radio Telescope. The panels for the <span class="hlt">primary</span> and secondary mirror have been designed to allow an operating frequency up to 100 GHz. The active surface <span class="hlt">system</span> will be used to overcome the effect of gravity deformation on the antenna gain and to re-shape the <span class="hlt">primary</span> mirror in a parabolic form, in order to avoid large phase error contribution on the gain for the highest frequencies placed in the <span class="hlt">primary</span> focus.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JTST...26.1659N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JTST...26.1659N"><span>A Combined Brazing and Aluminizing Process for Repairing Turbine Blades by Thermal Spraying Using the Coating <span class="hlt">System</span> NiCrSi/NiCoCr<span class="hlt">AlY/Al</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nicolaus, M.; Möhwald, K.; Maier, H. J.</p> <p>2017-10-01</p> <p>The repair and maintenance of components in the aerospace industry play an increasingly important role due to rising manufacturing costs. Besides welding, vacuum brazing is a well-established repair process for turbine blades made of nickel-based alloys. After the coating of the worn turbine blade has been removed, the manual application of the nickel-based filler metal follows. Subsequently, the hot gas corrosion-protective coating is applied by thermal spraying. The brazed turbine blade is aluminized to increase the hot gas corrosion resistance. The thermal spray technology is used to develop a two-stage hybrid technology that allows shortening the process chain for repair brazing turbine blades and is described in the present paper. In the first step, the coating is applied on the base material. Specifically, the coating <span class="hlt">system</span> employed here is a layer <span class="hlt">system</span> consisting of nickel filler metal, NiCoCr<span class="hlt">Al</span>Y and aluminum. The second step represents the combination of brazing and aluminizing of the coating <span class="hlt">system</span> which is subjected to a heat treatment. The microstructure, which results from the combined brazing and aluminizing process, is characterized and the relevant diffusion processes in the coating <span class="hlt">system</span> are illustrated. The properties of the coating and the ramifications with respect to actual applications will be discussed.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JTST..tmp..132N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JTST..tmp..132N"><span>A Combined Brazing and Aluminizing Process for Repairing Turbine Blades by Thermal Spraying Using the Coating <span class="hlt">System</span> NiCrSi/NiCoCr<span class="hlt">AlY/Al</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nicolaus, M.; Möhwald, K.; Maier, H. J.</p> <p>2017-08-01</p> <p>The repair and maintenance of components in the aerospace industry play an increasingly important role due to rising manufacturing costs. Besides welding, vacuum brazing is a well-established repair process for turbine blades made of nickel-based alloys. After the coating of the worn turbine blade has been removed, the manual application of the nickel-based filler metal follows. Subsequently, the hot gas corrosion-protective coating is applied by thermal spraying. The brazed turbine blade is aluminized to increase the hot gas corrosion resistance. The thermal spray technology is used to develop a two-stage hybrid technology that allows shortening the process chain for repair brazing turbine blades and is described in the present paper. In the first step, the coating is applied on the base material. Specifically, the coating <span class="hlt">system</span> employed here is a layer <span class="hlt">system</span> consisting of nickel filler metal, NiCoCr<span class="hlt">Al</span>Y and aluminum. The second step represents the combination of brazing and aluminizing of the coating <span class="hlt">system</span> which is subjected to a heat treatment. The microstructure, which results from the combined brazing and aluminizing process, is characterized and the relevant diffusion processes in the coating <span class="hlt">system</span> are illustrated. The properties of the coating and the ramifications with respect to actual applications will be discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1378148','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1378148"><span>Gut mucosal nutritional support--enteral nutrition as <span class="hlt">primary</span> therapy after multiple <span class="hlt">system</span> trauma.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kudsk, K A</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Over the past 10 years, several clinical and experimental studies report the potential benefit of enteral nutrition as <span class="hlt">primary</span> therapy after multiple <span class="hlt">system</span> trauma. In this study, 98 patients sustaining blunt and penetrating trauma were randomised to receive either enteral or parenteral feeding for 15 days. There were significantly fewer infectious complications in patients randomised to receive enteral feeding with particular benefit shown in the most severely injured patients. Serum protein concentrations correlated with the clinical outcome with an increase in constitutive protein and decrease in acute phase protein concentrations occurring in the enteral group through a decrease in septic complications and possible direct hepatic 'reprioritisation'. Enteral feeding serves as a <span class="hlt">primary</span> therapy affecting the outcome of critically ill patients. PMID:8125392</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/431177','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/431177"><span>Environmental standards for <span class="hlt">primary</span> and secondary containment <span class="hlt">systems</span> and transfer stations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Maguire, D.M.</p> <p>1995-04-01</p> <p>Environmental Standards for <span class="hlt">Primary</span> and Secondary Containment <span class="hlt">Systems</span> and Transfer Stations will supersede all previous requirements for design of dikes, storage tanks, and transfer stations in order to maintain consistency throughout the Y-12 Plant. This document is organized into six distinct sections, each with a specific purpose. Section I outlines the objectives of the document along with its applications and limitations; this section should be of interest to all readers for essential background information. Section II lists all definitions and is consistent with definitions outlined by environmental regulations. Section III discusses <span class="hlt">primary</span> containment standards. Section IV outlines secondary containment standards; this section contains the actual standards for the diking of storage tanks and storage containers. Section V discusses transfer station standards. Section VI of this document outlines how exemptions may be granted for specific cases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1986GeCoA..50.1911B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1986GeCoA..50.1911B"><span>Equilibrium aluminium hydroxo-oxalate phases during initial clay formation; H +-<span class="hlt">Al</span> 3+-oxalic acid-Na + <span class="hlt">system</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bilinski, Halka; Horvath, Laszlo; Ingri, Nils; Sjöberg, Staffan</p> <p>1986-09-01</p> <p>The conditions necessary for initial clay formation have been studied in different model <span class="hlt">systems</span> comprising different organic acids besides Si and <span class="hlt">Al</span>. In the present paper the solid phases and the precipitation boundary characterizing the subsystem H +-<span class="hlt">Al</span> 3+-oxalic acid (H 2L) are discussed. pH and tyndallometric measurements were performed in an ionic medium of 0.6 M Na(Cl) at 25 °C. The two phases <span class="hlt">Al</span> 3(OH) 7(C 2O 4) · 3H 2O (phase I) and Na<span class="hlt">Al</span>(OH) 2(C 2O 4) · 3H 2O (phase II) determine the precipitation boundary. The following formation constants for the two phases were deduced: lgβ1 = lg([ <span class="hlt">Al</span>3+] -3[ H2C2O4] -1[ H+] 9 = -21.87 ± 0.08 and lgβ11 = lg([ <span class="hlt">Al</span>3+] -1[ H2C2O4] -1[ H+] 4 = -5.61 ± 0.06. Phase I exists in the range [ <span class="hlt">Al</span>] tot≥ 10 -4.4moldm-3,[ H2C2O4] tot ≥ 10 -4.9moldm-3 and at pH < 6.8, thus being a possible precipitate in oxalic-rich natural waters. The more soluble sodium phase is unlikely to exist in natural waters. The two phases are metastable relative to crystalline gibbsite and may be considered as the first precipitation step in the transition from aqueous <span class="hlt">Al</span> oxalates down to stable <span class="hlt">Al</span> hydroxide. Model calculations illustrating these competing hydrolysis-complexation reactions are discussed in terms of predominance and speciation diagrams. The solid phases have been characterized by X-ray analysis of powders, TGA and IR spectra, and tentative structures are proposed. Phase I seems to be an octahedral layer structure, in which 3/5 of the octahedral sites between two close packed oxygen sheets are occupied by <span class="hlt">Al</span> 3+ and the oxalate ion acts as a bridge ligand between two aluminium atoms. Phase II forms a more open sheet structure and has ion exchange properties. Powder data for a phase crystallized from the studied solution after a year are also presented. This phase, Na 4<span class="hlt">Al</span> 2(OH) 2(C 2O 4) 4 · 10H 2O, supports the results from the equilibrium analysis of recent solution data by SJöBERG and ÖHMAN (1985), who have found the dinuclear</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010SPIE.7622E..2AG','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010SPIE.7622E..2AG"><span>Optimization of <span class="hlt">system</span> parameters for modulator design in x-ray scatter correction using <span class="hlt">primary</span> modulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gao, Hewei; Zhu, Lei; Fahrig, Rebecca</p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>The impact of the <span class="hlt">system</span> parameters of the modulator on X-ray scatter correction using <span class="hlt">primary</span> modulation is studied and an optimization of the modulator design is presented. Recently, a promising scatter correction method for X-ray computed tomography (CT) that uses a checkerboard pattern of attenuating blockers (<span class="hlt">primary</span> modulator) placed between the X-ray source and the object has been developed and experimentally verified. The blocker size, d, and the blocker transmission factor, α, are critical to the performance of the <span class="hlt">primary</span> modulation method. In this work, an error caused by aliasing of <span class="hlt">primary</span> whose magnitude depends on the choices of d and α, and the scanned object, is set as the object function to be minimized, with constraints including the X-ray focal spot, the physical size of the detector element, and the noise level. The optimization is carried out in two steps. In the first step, d is chosen as small as possible but should meet a lower-bound condition. In the second step, α should be selected to balance the error level in the scatter estimation and the noise level in the reconstructed image. The lower bound of d on our tabletop CT <span class="hlt">system</span> is 0.83 mm. Numerical simulations suggest 0.6 < α < 0.8 is appropriate. Using a Catphan 600 phantom, a copper modulator (d = 0.89 mm, α = 0.70) expectedly outperforms an aluminum modulator (d = 2.83 mm, α = 0.90). With the aluminum modulator, our method reduces the average error of CT number in selected contrast rods from 371.4 to 25.4 Hounsfield units (HU) and enhances the contrast to noise ratio (CNR) from 10.9 to 17.2; when the copper modulator is used, the error is further reduced to 21.9 HU and the CNR is further increased to 19.2.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26886388','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26886388"><span>Cardiac involvement in <span class="hlt">primary</span> <span class="hlt">systemic</span> vasculitis and potential drug therapies to reduce cardiovascular risk.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Misra, Durga Prasanna; Shenoy, Sajjan N</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Cardiac involvement is common in <span class="hlt">primary</span> <span class="hlt">systemic</span> vasculitides and may be due to direct effect of the disease on the heart or due to therapy. We shall review involvement of the heart in the various forms of <span class="hlt">primary</span> <span class="hlt">systemic</span> vasculitis. Among anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis (AAV), eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis most commonly involves the heart. Involvement of the heart confers poorer prognosis in AAV, which is also complicated by increased risk of cardiovascular events. Kawasaki's disease (KD) is the most common form of medium-vessel vasculitis to affect the heart, with coronary artery aneurysms being the most common manifestation. These predispose patients with KD to develop premature ischemic heart disease. Takayasu's arteritis is the most common large-vessel vasculitis to involve the heart and can result in aortic incompetence, myocarditis, or coronary heart disease. Involvement of the heart in Behcet's disease is usually in the form of intracardiac mass lesions, thrombosis, or endomyocardial fibrosis. Drugs used in the treatment of <span class="hlt">systemic</span> vasculitis influence the risk of developing cardiovascular events. Corticosteroid therapy has been shown to increase the risk of myocardial infarction, whereas methotrexate, azathioprine, mycophenolate mofetil, rituximab, and anti-tumor necrosis alpha agents favorably modulate the risk of cardiovascular events, predominantly by dampening <span class="hlt">systemic</span> inflammation. Awareness of cardiac involvement in vasculitis and accelerated cardiovascular risk in these patients should help clinicians to maximize the modulation of modifiable risk factors for heart disease in these individuals.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25056402','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25056402"><span>Frequent involvement of central nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> in <span class="hlt">primary</span> Sjögren syndrome.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Moreira, Isabel; Teixeira, Filipa; Martins Silva, Ana; Vasconcelos, Carlos; Farinha, Fátima; Santos, Ernestina</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Primary</span> Sjögren syndrome (pSS) is a <span class="hlt">systemic</span> autoimmune disease characterized by lymphocytic infiltration of the salivary and tear glands, and autoantibody secretion, in the absence of other <span class="hlt">systemic</span> autoimmune disorder. Among autoimmune diseases, it is a relatively common disease, but the burden of central nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> (CNS) involvement is controversial. This retrospective study evaluates the prevalence, clinical patterns and outcomes of CNS involvement in a cohort of patients with <span class="hlt">primary</span> Sjögren syndrome. We evaluated 93 patients with pSS diagnosed according to American-European Consensus Group criteria. Fourteen patients (15.1 %) had CNS involvement. All were women with an average age of onset of the disease of 42.1 ± 14.7 years (average ± SD) and an average age of onset of neurological involvement of 47.29 ± 16 years. Three had parkinsonian syndrome, two epilepsy, two motor and sensory deficits, two headache with brain magnetic resonance abnormalities, two neuromyelitis optica, two chronic progressive myelitis and one aseptic meningitis. Neurological involvement preceded Sjögren syndrome diagnosis in nine of the patients (64 %), and neurological outcome was good in 11 patients (78.6 %). Central nervous involvement was not as rare as expected, and the frequency was similar to the frequency of peripheral nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> involvement. In half of the patients, this was the first symptom of the disease, emphasizing the importance of considering this diagnosis, especially in young female with neurological symptoms without other evident cause.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23321962','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23321962"><span>EHR <span class="hlt">systems</span> in the Spanish Public Health National <span class="hlt">System</span>: the lack of interoperability between <span class="hlt">primary</span> and specialty care.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>de la Torre-Díez, Isabel; González, Sandra; López-Coronado, Miguel</p> <p>2013-02-01</p> <p>One of the problems of the Spanish Public Health National <span class="hlt">System</span> is the lack of interoperability in the implemented Electronic Health Records (EHRs) <span class="hlt">systems</span> in <span class="hlt">primary</span> and specialty care. There is a deficiency in the electronic health <span class="hlt">systems</span> that store the data of <span class="hlt">primary</span> care patients, so one of the basic problems that prevent that every hospital and health center working on the same method is that deficiency. In this paper we research on this problem and to give expression to a series of solutions to it. Bibliographic material in this work has been obtained mainly from MEDLINE source. Additionally, due to the lack of information and privacy about the different EHRs <span class="hlt">systems</span>, we have resorted to making direct contact with the organizations that have implemented those <span class="hlt">systems</span> and technological providers. Two solutions have been propounded given several aspects for a feasibility study. The first solution is based upon in the execution of backups in different EHRs databases, which implies a huge economical and infrastructure development. The second of these solutions so that due to the creation of protocols by means of Cloud Computing Technologies. It is crucial the need to reach a homogeneity concerning to the storage of patients clinical data. On the results achieved we can emphasize that maybe the main problems are not the economical handicaps or the large technological development needed, but, as for Health each Region manages its own competences, each one governs with independent policies and decisions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/565405','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/565405"><span>Observation, control, and modal analysis of longitudinal coupled-bunch instabilities in the <span class="hlt">ALS</span> via a digital feedback <span class="hlt">system</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Fox, J.D.; Claus, R.; Hindi, H.; Linscott, I.; Prabhakar, S.; Ross, W.; Teytelman, D.; Drago, A.; Serio, M.; Byrd, J.; Corlett, J.; Stover, G.</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>The operation of a longitudinal multibunch damping <span class="hlt">system</span> using digital signal processing (DSP) techniques is shown via measurements from the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) Advanced Light Source (<span class="hlt">ALS</span>). The feedback <span class="hlt">system</span> (developed for use by PEP-II, <span class="hlt">ALS</span>, and DA{Phi}NE) uses a parallel array of signal processors to implement a bunch-by-bunch feedback <span class="hlt">system</span> for sampling rates up to 500 MHz. The programmable DSP <span class="hlt">system</span> allows feedback control as well as accelerator diagnostics. A diagnostic technique is illustrated which uses the DSP <span class="hlt">system</span> to excite and then damp the beam. The resulting 12-ms time domain transient is Fourier analyzed to provide the simultaneous measurement of growth rates and damping rates of all unstable coupled-bunch beam modes. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26987280','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26987280"><span>[Perceptions of <span class="hlt">primary</span> care physicians in Madrid on the austerity measures in the health care <span class="hlt">system</span>].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Heras-Mosteiro, Julio; Otero-García, Laura; Sanz-Barbero, Belén; Aranaz-Andrés, Jesús María</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>To address the current economic crisis, governments have promoted austerity measures that have affected the taxpayer-funded health <span class="hlt">system</span>. We report the findings of a study exploring the perceptions of <span class="hlt">primary</span> care physicians in Madrid (Spain) on measures implemented in the Spanish health <span class="hlt">system</span>. We carried out a qualitative study in two <span class="hlt">primary</span> health care centres located in two neighbourhoods with unemployment and migrant population rates above the average of those in Madrid. Interviews were conducted with 12 <span class="hlt">primary</span> health care physicians. Interview data were analysed by using thematic analysis and by adopting some elements of the grounded theory approach. Two categories were identified: evaluation of austerity measures and evaluation of decision-making in this process. Respondents believed there was a need to promote measures to improve the taxpayer-funded health <span class="hlt">system</span>, but expressed their disagreement with the measures implemented. They considered that the measures were not evidence-based and responded to the need to decrease public health care expenditure in the short term. Respondents believed that they had not been properly informed about the measures and that there was adequate professional participation in the prioritization, selection and implementation of measures. They considered physician participation to be essential in the decision-making process because physicians have a more patient-centred view and have first-hand knowledge of areas requiring improvement in the <span class="hlt">system</span>. It is essential that public authorities actively involve health care professionals in decision-making processes to ensure the implementation of evidence-based measures with strong professional support, thus maintaining the quality of care. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24708853','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24708853"><span>Predicting length of stay from an electronic patient record <span class="hlt">system</span>: a <span class="hlt">primary</span> total knee replacement example.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Carter, Evelene M; Potts, Henry W W</p> <p>2014-04-04</p> <p>To investigate whether factors can be identified that significantly affect hospital length of stay from those available in an electronic patient record <span class="hlt">system</span>, using <span class="hlt">primary</span> total knee replacements as an example. To investigate whether a model can be produced to predict the length of stay based on these factors to help resource planning and patient expectations on their length of stay. Data were extracted from the electronic patient record <span class="hlt">system</span> for discharges from <span class="hlt">primary</span> total knee operations from January 2007 to December 2011 (n=2,130) at one UK hospital and analysed for their effect on length of stay using Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests for discrete data and Spearman's correlation coefficient for continuous data. Models for predicting length of stay for <span class="hlt">primary</span> total knee replacements were tested using the Poisson regression and the negative binomial modelling techniques. Factors found to have a significant effect on length of stay were age, gender, consultant, discharge destination, deprivation and ethnicity. Applying a negative binomial model to these variables was successful. The model predicted the length of stay of those patients who stayed 4-6 days (~50% of admissions) with 75% accuracy within 2 days (model data). Overall, the model predicted the total days stayed over 5 years to be only 88 days more than actual, a 6.9% uplift (test data). Valuable information can be found about length of stay from the analysis of variables easily extracted from an electronic patient record <span class="hlt">system</span>. Models can be successfully created to help improve resource planning and from which a simple decision support <span class="hlt">system</span> can be produced to help patient expectation on their length of stay.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27441147','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27441147"><span>Thermodynamic simulation on mineralogical composition of CaO-SiO2-<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3-MgO quaternary slag <span class="hlt">system</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liu, Chao; Zhang, Yu-Zhu; Li, Jie; Li, Jun-Guo; Kang, Yue</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>It is necessary to elucidate the crystallization thermodynamic of mineralogical phases during the cooling process of the molten BFS with different chemical composition, because the high-melting point mineral phase maybe crystallized during the fiber forming and thereafter cooling process. Thermodynamic calculation software FactSage6.4 and the hot remelting experiments were performed to explore the influence of basicity, <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 content and MgO content on the crystallization of mineralogical components and their transformation. The results showed that the main mineralography of the CaO-SiO2-<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3-MgO quaternary slag <span class="hlt">system</span> was melilite, and a certain amount of anorthite and calcium metasilicate. The crystallographic temperature of melilite is increased with the increasing of basicity, MgO and <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 content, which has a significant impact on the utilization performance of the mineral wool prepared with the hot blast furnace slag directly. With the increasing of basicity, there was a tendency that crystallographic amount of melilite increased to the summit and then declined, while the amount of anorthite and calcium metasilicate decreased consistently. Finally, these two mineralogical components could be replaced by magnesium rhodonite and spinel with the increasing of basicity. When the basicity and MgO content were 1.0 and 9 %, the crystallographic mass ratio of melilite and anorthite increased, while that of calcium silicate declined, and replaced by spinel finally with the increasing of <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 content. When the basicity and <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 content were 1.0 and 13 %, the crystallographic mass ratio of melilite increased, while that of anorthite and calcium silicate declined, and replaced by pyroxene and spinel with the increasing of MgO content. To decline fiberization temperature of the melt BFS, the basicity, MgO and <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 content should be decreased during the modification process of chemical composition, because the crystallization temperature of the <span class="hlt">primary</span> crystalline</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21095775','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21095775"><span>A telepresence robotic <span class="hlt">system</span> operated with a P300-based brain-computer interface: initial tests with <span class="hlt">ALS</span> patients.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Escolano, Carlos; Ramos Murguialday, Ander; Matuz, Tamara; Birbaumer, Niels; Minguez, Javier</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) open a new valuable communication channel for people with severe neurological or motor degenerative diseases, such as <span class="hlt">ALS</span> patients. On the other hand, the ability to teleoperate robots in a remote scenario provides a physical entity embodied in a real environment ready to perceive, explore, and interact. The combination of both functionalities provides a <span class="hlt">system</span> with benefits for <span class="hlt">ALS</span> patients in the context of neurorehabilitation or maintainment of the neural activity. This paper reports a BCI telepresence <span class="hlt">system</span> which offers navigation, exploration and bidirectional communication, only controlled by brain activity; and an initial study of applicability with <span class="hlt">ALS</span> patients. The results show the feasibility of this technology in real patients.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JAP...122j5101M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JAP...122j5101M"><span>Tuning the piezoelectric and mechanical properties of the <span class="hlt">Al</span>N <span class="hlt">system</span> via alloying with YN and BN</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Manna, Sukriti; Brennecka, Geoff L.; Stevanović, Vladan; Ciobanu, Cristian V.</p> <p>2017-09-01</p> <p>Recent advances in microelectromechanical <span class="hlt">systems</span> often require multifunctional materials, which are designed so as to optimize more than one property. Using density functional theory calculations for alloyed nitride <span class="hlt">systems</span>, we illustrate how co-alloying a piezoelectric material (<span class="hlt">Al</span>N) with different nitrides helps tune both its piezoelectric and mechanical properties simultaneously. Wurtzite <span class="hlt">Al</span>N-YN alloys display increased piezoelectric response with YN concentration, accompanied by mechanical softening along the crystallographic c direction. Both effects increase the electromechanical coupling coefficients relevant for transducers and actuators. Resonator applications, however, require superior stiffness, thus leading to the need to decouple the increased piezoelectric response from the softened lattice. We show that co-alloying of <span class="hlt">Al</span>N with YN and BN results in improved elastic properties while retaining some of the piezoelectric enhancements from YN alloying. This finding may lead to new avenues for tuning the design properties of piezoelectrics through composition-property maps.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JaJAP..52hJF07D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JaJAP..52hJF07D"><span>Enhanced Capability of Photoelectrochemical CO2 Conversion <span class="hlt">System</span> Using an <span class="hlt">Al</span>GaN/GaN Photoelectrode</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Deguchi, Masahiro; Yotsuhashi, Satoshi; Hashiba, Hiroshi; Yamada, Yuka; Ohkawa, Kazuhiro</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p>We report significantly improved photosynthesis <span class="hlt">system</span> based on <span class="hlt">Al</span>GaN/GaN photochemical process. The resultant energy conversion efficiency is 0.13% which is the same level as that of real plants. The capability of this <span class="hlt">system</span> is enhanced by high cathode potential due to the reduction of energy loss while utilizing the piezoelectric effect in the <span class="hlt">Al</span>GaN/GaN heterostructure. The Faradaic efficiency of the CO2 conversion to organic materials is enhanced, accompanied by an increment in photocurrent by modification of the <span class="hlt">Al</span>GaN/GaN photoelectrode structure and electrolytes. Furthermore, reaction products such as C2H4 and C2H5OH are generated by light illumination alone.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JNuM..417..176K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JNuM..417..176K"><span>Development of <span class="hlt">Al</span> added high-Cr ODS steels for fuel cladding of next generation nuclear <span class="hlt">systems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kimura, A.; Kasada, R.; Iwata, N.; Kishimoto, H.; Zhang, C. H.; Isselin, J.; Dou, P.; Lee, J. H.; Muthukumar, N.; Okuda, T.; Inoue, M.; Ukai, S.; Ohnuki, S.; Fujisawa, T.; Abe, T. F.</p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>A successful example of high-Cr oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels development is introduced with showing key technologies to overcome the issues to meet material requirements for next generation nuclear <span class="hlt">systems</span> as well as fusion blanket <span class="hlt">systems</span>. Corrosion issue requires Cr concentration more than 14 wt.%, but aging embrittlement issue requires it less than 16 wt.%. An addition of 4 wt.%<span class="hlt">Al</span> is effective to improve corrosion resistance of 16 wt.%Cr-ODS steel in supercritical water (SCW) and lead-bismuth eutectics (LBE), while it is detrimental to high-temperature strength. An addition of small amount of Zr or Hf results in a significant increase in creep strength at 973 K in <span class="hlt">Al</span>-added ODS steels. Feasibility of high-Cr ODS steel without <span class="hlt">Al</span> addition is assessed for fusion application in terms of corrosion resistance in SCW.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900019290','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900019290"><span>Liquid Rocket Booster (LRB) for the Space Transportation <span class="hlt">System</span> (STS) <span class="hlt">systems</span> study. Appendix F: Performance and trajectory for <span class="hlt">ALS</span>/LRB launch vehicles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>By simply combining two baseline pump-fed LOX/RP-1 Liquid Rocket Boosters (LRBs) with the Denver core, a launch vehicle (Option 1 Advanced Launch <span class="hlt">System</span> (<span class="hlt">ALS</span>)) is obtained that can perform both the 28.5 deg (<span class="hlt">ALS</span>) mission and the polar orbit <span class="hlt">ALS</span> mission. The Option 2 LRB was obtained by finding the optimum LOX/LH2 engine for the STS/LRB reference mission (70.5 K lb payload). Then this engine and booster were used to estimate <span class="hlt">ALS</span> payload for the 28.5 deg inclination <span class="hlt">ALS</span> mission. Previous studies indicated that the optimum number of STS/LRB engines is four. When the engine/booster sizing was performed, each engine had 478 K lb sea level thrust and the booster carried 625,000 lb of useable propellant. Two of these LRBs combined with the Denver core provided a launch vehicle that meets the payload requirements for both the <span class="hlt">ALS</span> and STS reference missions. The Option 3 LRB uses common engines for the cores and boosters. The booster engines do not have the nozzle extension. These engines were sized as common <span class="hlt">ALS</span> engines. An <span class="hlt">ALS</span> launch vehicle that has six core engines and five engines per booster provides 109,100 lb payload for the 28.5 deg mission. Each of these LOX/LH2 LRBs carries 714,100 lb of useable propellant. It is estimated that the STS/LRB reference mission payload would be 75,900 lb.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1221954','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1221954"><span>Simulation of atomic diffusion in the Fcc Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> <span class="hlt">system</span>: A kinetic Monte Carlo study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Alfonso, Dominic R.; Tafen, De Nyago</p> <p>2015-04-28</p> <p>The atomic diffusion in fcc Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> binary alloys was studied by kinetic Monte Carlo simulation. The environment dependent hopping barriers were computed using a pair interaction model whose parameters were fitted to relevant data derived from electronic structure calculations. Long time diffusivities were calculated and the effect of composition change on the tracer diffusion coefficients was analyzed. These results indicate that this variation has noticeable impact on the atomic diffusivities. A reduction in the mobility of both Ni and <span class="hlt">Al</span> is demonstrated with increasing <span class="hlt">Al</span> content. As a result, examination of the pair interaction between atoms was carried out for the purpose of understanding the predicted trends.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/991873','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/991873"><span>EVALUATION OF BEST AVAILABLE CONTROL TECHNOLOGY FOR TOXICS -TBACT- DOUBLE SHELL TANK FARMS <span class="hlt">PRIMARY</span> VENTILATION <span class="hlt">SYSTEMS</span> SUPPORTING WASTE TRANSFER OPERATIONS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>HAAS CC; KOVACH JL; KELLY SE; TURNER DA</p> <p>2010-06-24</p> <p>This report is an evaluation of Best Available Control Technology for Toxics (tBACT) for installation and operation of the Hanford double shell (DST) tank <span class="hlt">primary</span> ventilation <span class="hlt">systems</span>. The DST <span class="hlt">primary</span> ventilation <span class="hlt">systems</span> are being modified to support Hanford's waste retrieval, mixing, and delivery of single shell tank (SST) and DST waste through the DST storage <span class="hlt">system</span> to the Waste Treatment and Immobilizaiton Plant (WTP).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/991923','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/991923"><span>EVALUATION OF BEST AVAILABLE CONTROL TECHNOLOGY FOR TOXICS (TBACT) DOUBLE SHELL TANK FARMS <span class="hlt">PRIMARY</span> VENTILATION <span class="hlt">SYSTEM</span> SUPPORTING WASTE TRANSFER OPERATIONS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>KELLY SE; HAASS CC; KOVACH JL; TURNER DA</p> <p>2010-06-03</p> <p>This report is an evaluation of Best Available Control Technology for Toxics (tBACT) for installation and operation of the Hanford double shell (DST) tank <span class="hlt">primary</span> ventilation <span class="hlt">systems</span>. The DST <span class="hlt">primary</span> ventilation <span class="hlt">systems</span> are being modified to support Hanford's waste retrieval, mixing, and delivery of single shell tank (SST) and DST waste throught the DST storage <span class="hlt">system</span> to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP).</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_25 --> <center> <div class="footer-extlink text-muted"><small>Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. 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