Sample records for primenenie nanostrukturnogo materiala

  1. Prioritizing stream types according to their potential risk to receive crop plant material--A GIS-based procedure to assist in the risk assessment of genetically modified crops and systemic insecticide residues.


    Bundschuh, Rebecca; Kuhn, Ulrike; Bundschuh, Mirco; Naegele, Caroline; Elsaesser, David; Schlechtriemen, Ulrich; Oehen, Bernadette; Hilbeck, Angelika; Otto, Mathias; Schulz, Ralf; Hofmann, Frieder


    Crop plant residues may enter aquatic ecosystems via wind deposition or surface runoff. In the case of genetically modified crops or crops treated with systemic pesticides, these materials may contain insecticidal Bt toxins or pesticides that potentially affect aquatic life. However, the particular exposure pattern of aquatic ecosystems (i.e., via plant material) is not properly reflected in current risk assessment schemes, which primarily focus on waterborne toxicity and not on plant material as the route of uptake. To assist in risk assessment, the present study proposes a prioritization procedure of stream types based on the freshwater network and crop-specific cultivation data using maize in Germany as a model system. To identify stream types with a high probability of receiving crop materials, we developed a formalized, criteria-based and thus transparent procedure that considers the exposure-related parameters, ecological status--an estimate of the diversity and potential vulnerability of local communities towards anthropogenic stress--and availability of uncontaminated reference sections. By applying the procedure to maize, ten stream types out of 38 are expected to be the most relevant if the ecological effects from plant-incorporated pesticides need to be evaluated. This information is an important first step to identifying habitats within these stream types with a high probability of receiving crop plant material at a more local scale, including accumulation areas. Moreover, the prioritization procedure developed in the present study may support the selection of aquatic species for ecotoxicological testing based on their probability of occurrence in stream types having a higher chance of exposure. Finally, this procedure can be adapted to any geographical region or crop of interest and is, therefore, a valuable tool for a site-specific risk assessment of crop plants carrying systemic pesticides or novel proteins, such as insecticidal Bt toxins, expressed in genetically modified crops. PMID:26789360

  2. When Does Retrieval Induce Forgetting and when Does It Induce Facilitation? Implications for Retrieval Inhibition, Testing Effect, and Text Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Jason C. K.


    Retrieval practice can enhance long-term retention of the tested material (the testing effect), but it can also impair later recall of the nontested material--a phenomenon known as retrieval-induced forgetting (Anderson, M. C., Bjork, R. A., & Bjork, E. L. (1994). "Remembering can cause forgetting: retrieval dynamics in long-term memory." "Journal…

  3. NASA Historical Data Book. Volume 6; NASA Space Applications, Aeronautics and Space Research and Technology, Tracking and Data Acquisition/Support Operations, Commercial Programs and

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rumerman, Judy A.


    This sixth volume of the NASA Historical Data Book is a continuation of those earlier efforts. This fundamental reference tool presents information, much of it statistical, documenting the development of several critical areas of NASA responsibility for the period between 1979 and 1988. This volume includes detailed information on the space applications effort, the development and operation of aeronautics and space research and technology programs, tracking and data acquisition/space operations, commercial programs, facilities and installations, personnel, and finances and procurement during this era. Special thanks are owed to the student research assistants who gathered and input much of the tabular material-a particularly tedious undertaking. There are numerous people at NASA associated with historical study, technical information, and the mechanics of publishing who helped in myriad ways in the preparation of this historical data book.

  4. Single Stage Silicone Border Molded Closed Mouth Impression Technique-Part II.


    Solomon, E G R


    Functioning of a complete denture depends to a great extent on the impression technique. Several impression techniques have been described in the literature since the turn of this century when Greene [Clinical courses in dental prothesis, 1916] brothers introduced the first scientific system of recording dental impression. Advocates of each technique have their own claim of superiority over the other. The introduction of elastomeric impression materials [Skinner and Cooper, J Am Dent Assoc 51:523-536, 1955] has made possible new techniques of recording impression for complete denture construction. These rubber like materials are of two types; one has a polysulfide base and is popularily known as polysulfide rubber (Thiokol and Mercaptan). The other variety has a silicone base known as silicone rubber or silicone elastomer. Silicone elastomers are available in four different consistencies; a thin easy flowing light bodied material,a creamy medium bodied material, a highly viscous heavy bodied material and a kneadable putty material. This paper describes an active closed mouth impression technique with one stage border molding using putty silicone material as a substitute for low fusing compound. PMID:22942578

  5. Development of an improved detector for krypton-81 and other noble-gas isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Hurst, G.S.


    Phase 1 studies focused on the annealing (transient melting) of silicon and germanium targets with a krypton-fluoride (KrF) excimer laser. A suitable target of a semiconducting material--as a means of storing noble gas atoms--is a key component of a device called the RISTRON for counting isotopes of a noble gas. A means for isotopic selective counting of atoms such as 39Ar for ocean water circulation studies and 81Kr for groundwater and ice-cap dating would be of considerable interest to earth scientists. In the RISTRON, ions are created by resonance ionization of neutral krypton atoms released from one of the targets by pulsed laser melting, and these ions are implanted in a second target after isotopic enrichment. The studies evaluated the space charge or plasma effects created as an undesirable by-product of the annealing of a semiconductor with a pulsed excimer laser. The studies showed that the space charge produced when either silicon or germanium is annealed with a KrF laser can be removed with modest electric fields in less than one microsecond.

  6. Nonreversible immobilization of water-borne plutonium onto self-assembled adlayers of silanized humic materials.


    Shcherbina, Natalia S; Kalmykov, Stepan S; Karpiouk, Leonid A; Ponomarenko, Sergey A; Hatfield, Kirk; Haire, Richard; Perminova, Irina V


    The objective was to study plutonium partitioning between immobile and mobile humic materials at the water-solid interfaces. Immobilization of the humic materials on solid supports was performed in situ using self-adhesive silanized humic derivatives. The presence of the humic adlayers on solid supports was shown to significantly enhance Pu sorption and its retention under both steady state and dynamic conditions. While plutonium may exist in multiple oxidations states plus colloidal forms, the major thrust in this work was to study the behavior of most mobile--the PuO2(+) form in dilute solutions. The values of the plutonium partition coefficients (Kd) between water and humics-coated silica gels after 10 days exposure reached 1.6 × 10(4) L · kg(-1) at pH 7.5 under anaerobic conditions with a total plutonium concentration of 1.2 × 10(-8) M exceeding those for the uncoated SiO2 (6.3 × 10(2) L · kg(-1)). Column tests showed substantial sequestration of water-borne plutonium (up to 73%) on the humics-coated silica gels. Remobilization experiments conducted under batch conditions at different pH values (3.5, 4.5, 7.5) showed that no more than 3% of the sequestered Pu was remobilized from the humics-coated silica gels by treatment with dissolved humic materials at environmentally relevant pH of 7.5. Consequently, silanized humic materialas can be seen as both molecular probes and as potent candidate materials for scavenging mobile Pu from an aqueous phase. PMID:24533599

  7. Electric field effects in RUS measurements.


    Darling, Timothy W; Allured, Bradley; Tencate, James A; Carpenter, Michael A


    Much of the power of the Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy (RUS) technique is the ability to make mechanical resonance measurements while the environment of the sample is changed. Temperature and magnetic field are important examples. Due to the common use of piezoelectric transducers near the sample, applied electric fields introduce complications, but many materials have technologically interesting responses to applied static and RF electric fields. Non-contact optical, buffered, or shielded transducers permit the application of charge and externally applied electric fields while making RUS measurements. For conducting samples, in vacuum, charging produces a small negative pressure in the volume of the material--a state rarely explored. At very high charges we influence the electron density near the surface so the propagation of surface waves and their resonances may give us a handle on the relationship of electron density to bond strength and elasticity. Our preliminary results indicate a charge sign dependent effect, but we are studying a number of possible other effects induced by charging. In dielectric materials, external electric fields influence the strain response, particularly in ferroelectrics. Experiments to study this connection at phase transformations are planned. The fact that many geological samples contain single crystal quartz suggests a possible use of the piezoelectric response to drive vibrations using applied RF fields. In polycrystals, averaging of strains in randomly oriented crystals implies using the "statistical residual" strain as the drive. The ability to excite vibrations in quartzite polycrystals and arenites is explored. We present results of experimental and theoretical approaches to electric field effects using RUS methods. PMID:19850314

  8. Identification and Characterization of Well-Preserved Impact Ejecta Deposits Using THEMIS Global Infrared Mosaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, J. R.; Christensen, P. R.


    The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) onboard the 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft has been acquiring infrared observations of the Martian surface for nearly thirteen years. Daytime infrared images from the first twelve years of the mission have previously been used to generate a complete global mosaic, while nighttime infrared images have been used to generate a near-global mosaic between 60°N-60°S. A combined product has been generated by overlaying the daytime global mosaic with a colorized version of the nighttime global mosaic, resulting in a near-global map that can be used to more easily identify surface features with unique thermal characteristics.Well-preserved ejecta deposits associated with fresh impact craters are readily identifiable in the combined map by their characteristic nighttime temperature pattern, which is controlled by variations in the thermal inertia of the ejecta material. The pattern consists of relatively high thermal inertia material in and around the crater, an inner ejecta ring composed of intermediate thermal inertia material and an outer ejecta ring composed of low thermal inertia material.A near-global survey (60°N-60°S) of these well-preserved ejecta deposits has shown that the vast majority occur in a small region covering northern Terra Sirenum and eastern Daedalia Planum, with a smaller concentration present in Syria Planum. A comparison of THEMIS and Viking images has verified that the larger craters and ejecta deposits were present at the time of the Viking mission and are not the result of more recent impacts. The survey also identified similarly fresh impact craters across the planet that are lacking an outer ring of low thermal inertia ejecta material, possibly due to erosion of the original ejecta deposits. This suggests that local conditions in Terra Sirenum, Daedalia Planum and Syria Planum are favorable for the long-term preservation of the fine-grained component of fresh impact ejecta deposits.

  9. The origin of high sodium bicarbonate waters in the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foster, M.D.


    Some sodium bicarbonate waters at depth in the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plains have the same bicarbonate content as the shallower calcium bicarbonate waters in the same formation and appear to be the result of replacement of calcium by sodium through the action of base-exchange minerals. Others, however, contain several hundred parts per million more of bicarbonate than any of the calcium bicarbonate waters and much more bicarbonate than can be attributed to solution of calcium carbonate through the action of carbon dioxide derived from the air and soil. As the waters in the Potomac group (Cretaceous) are all low in sulphate and as the environmental conditions under which the sediments of the Potomac group were deposited do not indicate that large amounts of sulphate are available for solution, it does not seem probable that carbon dioxide generated by chemical or biochemical breakdown of sulphate is responsible for the high sodium bicarbonate waters in this area. Sulphate as a source of oxygen is not necessary for the generation of carbon dioxide by carbonaceous material. Oxygen is an important constituent of carbonaceous material and carbon dioxide is a characteristic decomposition product of such material-as, for example, peat and lignite. Experimental work showed that distilled water, calcium bicarbonate water, and sodium bicarbonate water, after contact with lignite, calcium carbonate, and permutite (a base-exchange material), had all increased greatly in sodium bicarbonate content and had become similar in chemical character and in mineral content to high sodium bicarbonate waters found in the Coastal Plain. The tests indicated that carbonaceous material can act as a source of carbon dioxide, which, when dissolved in water, enables it to take into solution more calcium carbonate. If base-exchange materials are also present to replace calcium with sodium, a still greater amount of bicarbonate can be held in solution. The presence of carbonaceous material

  10. Interim measure conceptual design for remediation at the former CCC/USDA grain storage facility at Centralia, Kansas : pilot test and remedy implementation.

    SciTech Connect

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division


    carbon tetrachloride in groundwater and soil, the CCC/USDA recommends initial short-term, field-scale pilot testing of a remedial approach that employs in situ chemical reduction (ISCR), in the form of a commercially available material marketed by Adventus Americas, Inc., Freeport, Illinois ( If the pilot test is successful, it will be followed by a request for KDHE authorization of full implementation of the ISCR approach. In the recommended ISCR approach, the Adventus EHC{reg_sign} material--a proprietary mixture of food-grade organic carbon and zero-valent iron--is introduced into the subsurface, where the components are released slowly into the formation. The compounds create highly reducing conditions in the saturated zone and the overlying vadose zone. These conditions foster chemical and biological reductive dechlorination of carbon tetrachloride. The anticipated effective lifetime of the EHC compounds following injection is 1-5 yr. Although ISCR is a relatively innovative remedial approach, the EHC technology has been demonstrated to be effective in the treatment of carbon tetrachloride contamination in groundwater and has been employed at a carbon tetrachloride contamination site elsewhere in Kansas (Cargill Flour Mill and Elevator, Wellington, Kansas; KDHE Project Code C209670158), with the approval of the KDHE. At Centralia, the CCC/USDA recommends use of the ISCR approach initially in a short-term pilot test addressing the elevated carbon tetrachloride levels identified in one of three persistently highly contaminated areas ('hot-spot areas') in the groundwater plume. In this test, a three-dimensional grid pattern of direct-push injection points will be used to distribute the EHC material (in slurry or aqueous form) throughout the volume of the contaminated aquifer and (in selected locations) the vadose zone in the selected hot-spot area. Injection of the EHC material will be conducted by a licensed contractor, under the