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Sample records for primer paso hacia

  1. 71. South El Paso St., 911 (commercial), east facade, warehouse ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    71. South El Paso St., 911 (commercial), east facade, warehouse to left in background - South El Paso Street Historic District, South El Paso, South Oregon & South Santa Fe Streets, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  2. 76 FR 76707 - Brian Hamilton; El Paso Natural Gas and El Paso Western Pipelines; Notice of Complaint

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-08

    ...] Brian Hamilton; El Paso Natural Gas and El Paso Western Pipelines; Notice of Complaint Take notice that... complaint against El Paso Natural Gas and El Paso Western Pipelines (Respondents) alleging that...

  3. 76 FR 5120 - Television Broadcasting Services; El Paso, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-28

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; El Paso, TX AGENCY: Federal Communications... Comcorp of El Paso License Corp. the licensee of station KTSM-TV, channel 9, El Paso, Texas, requesting the substitution of channel 16 for channel 9 at El Paso. DATES: Comments must be filed on or...

  4. Phonics Primer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elam, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    This primer lists the 44 sounds in the English language and then gives steps for teaching those 44 sounds and their most common spelling patterns. In addition to learning sounds and spellings, each day the student must read lists of phonetically related words and spell these words from dictation. Phonics instruction must be reinforced by having…

  5. Salinas primer.

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, Timothy Francis; Reese, Garth M.; Bhardwaj, Manoj Kumar

    2004-08-01

    Salinas provides a massively parallel implementation of structural dynamics finite element analysis. This capability is required for high fidelity, validated models used in modal, vibration, static and shock analysis of weapons systems. General capabilities for modal, statics and transient dynamics are provided. Salinas is similar to commercial codes like Nastran or Abaqus. It has some nonlinear capability, but excels in linear computation. It is different than the above commercial codes in that it is designed to operate efficiently in a massively parallel environment. Even for an experienced analyst, running a new finite element package can be a challenge. This little primer is intended to make part of this task easier by presenting the basic steps in a simple way. The analyst is referred to the theory manual for details of the mathematics behind the work. The User's Notes should be used for more complex inputs, and will have more details about the process (as well as many more examples). More information can be found on our web pages, 3 or 4. Finite element analysis can be deceptive. Any software can give the wrong answers if used improperly, and occasionally even when used properly. Certainly a solid background in structural mechanics is necessary to build an adequate finite element model and interpret the results. This primer should provide a quick start in answering some of the more common questions that come up in using Salinas.

  6. 27 CFR 9.84 - Paso Robles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Paso Robles. 9.84 Section 9.84 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.84...

  7. 76 FR 19276 - Television Broadcasting Services; El Paso, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-07

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; El Paso, TX AGENCY: Federal Communications... to a petition for rulemaking filed by Comcorp of El Paso License Corp. (``Comcorp''), the licensee of KTSM-TV, channel 9, El Paso, Texas, requesting the substitution of channel 16 for channel 9 at El...

  8. 76 FR 61135 - Environmental Impact Statement: El Paso County, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-03

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: El Paso County, TX AGENCY: Federal Highway... proposed ] improvements to Loop 375 Border Highway West, in El Paso County, Texas, is being rescinded. FOR... Loop 375 C sar Ch vez Highway (Border Highway West Extension) in El Paso, Texas, to include the...

  9. 76 FR 44280 - Television Broadcasting Services; El Paso, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-25

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; El Paso, TX AGENCY: Federal Communications...''), licensee of KVIA-TV, channel 7, El Paso, Texas, requesting the substitution of channel 17 for channel 7 at El Paso. KVIA-TV has experienced extensive signal coverage problems on channel 7 following the...

  10. 76 FR 28946 - Television Broadcasting Services; El Paso, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; El Paso, TX AGENCY: Federal Communications... NPG of Texas, LP (``NPG''), licensee of station KVIA-TV, El Paso, Texas, requesting the substitution of channel 17 for channel 7 at El Paso. NPG states that the proposed channel substitution will...

  11. 76 FR 48833 - El Paso Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-09

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission El Paso Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application Take notice that on July 20, 2011, El Paso Natural Gas Company (El Paso), P.O. Box 1087, Colorado Springs, Colorado 80944...) of the Natural Gas Act, to abandon, in place, El Paso's El Paso-Douglas Line (Line No. 1004) in...

  12. 76 FR 77994 - Brian Hamilton v. El Paso Natural Gas, El Paso Western Pipelines; Notice Announcing Docket Number...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Brian Hamilton v. El Paso Natural Gas, El Paso Western Pipelines; Notice Announcing Docket Number Change On December 2, 2011, the Commission issued a notice in docket number...

  13. Platero como el primer paso liteario (Platero y Yo: A Student's Introduction to Literary Analysis).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohrtman, Dennis W.

    This instructional guide is to be used by teachers in the instruction of "Platero y Yo," written by Juan Ramon Jimenez, one of Spain's foremost poets. A systematic study is provided of movement throughout the text, by analyzing verb tenses, to help novice Spanish literature students grasp the scholastic and psychological interpretations of poetic…

  14. Polyacid macromolecule primers

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, Toshifumi.

    1989-12-26

    Hydrophilic polyacids are described, such as macromolecules of polyitaconic acid and polyacrylic acid, where such macromolecules have molecular weights >50,000 as primers between a polymeric top coating, such as polyurethane, and an oxidized aluminum or aluminum alloy. A near monolayer of primer is used in polymeric adhesive/oxidized aluminum adhered joint systems in 0.05% primer concentration to give superior results in standard peel tests. 2 figs.

  15. Polyacid macromolecule primers

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, Toshifumi

    1989-01-01

    Hydrophylic polyacids, such as macromolecules of polyitaconic acid and polyacrylic acid, where such macromolecules have molecular weights >50,000 as primers between a polymeric top coating, such as polyurethane, and an oxidized aluminum or aluminum alloy. A near monolayer of primer is used in polymeric adhesive/oxidized aluminum adhered joint systems in 0.05% primer concentration to give superior results in standard peel tests.

  16. 76 FR 66708 - El Paso Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-27

    ... October 7, 2011, El Paso Natural Gas Company (El Paso), P.O. Box 1087, Colorado Springs, Colorado 80904... Department, El Paso Natural Gas Company, P.O. Box 1087, Colorado Springs, Colorado 80904, by telephone at... Craig V. Richardson, Vice President & General Counsel, El Paso Natural Gas Company, P.O. Box...

  17. Transmission Investment: A Primer

    SciTech Connect

    McGarvey, Joe

    2006-10-15

    This primer highlights recent trends in transmission investment, summarizes the division of jurisdictional authority over transmission, and presents four alternative models for transmission ownership. (author)

  18. Super Guppy Swallows T-38s; Heads for El Paso

    NASA Video Gallery

    Two NASA T-38 aircraft were swallowed whole by NASA's Super Guppy recently on Dryden Flight Research Center's back ramp. The Guppy then airlifted the two retired T-38s to El Paso, Texas, where they...

  19. Landsat's Decades-Long Look at El Paso, Texas

    NASA Video Gallery

    Landsat satellites have captured hundreds of images of the regionsurrounding El Paso, Texas since the program started in 1972. On May30, 2013, Landsat 8 began adding to the program’s extensive ...

  20. RadNet Air Data From El Paso, TX

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for El Paso, TX from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  1. Social disparities in children's respiratory health in El Paso, Texas.

    PubMed

    Grineski, Sara E; Collins, Timothy W; Chavez-Payan, Paola; Jimenez, Anthony M; Clark-Reyna, Stephanie; Gaines, Marie; Kim, Young-an

    2014-03-11

    The objectives of this study were to assess prevalence of children's respiratory health conditions and to measure and describe social disparities in children's respiratory problems and access to health resources for asthma/wheezing management. Data were collected through a cross-sectional, observational mail survey of all primary caretakers of 4th and 5th grade children in El Paso Independent School District (El Paso, TX, USA). 6295 primary caretakers received surveys at their home address and 1904 surveys were completed and returned for a 30% response rate. El Paso children have high rates of asthma (17%) and allergies (51%). In terms of social disparities, children that are male, not poor, obese, Hispanic, born in El Paso, have a US-born caretaker, and have a caretaker who has lower levels Spanish proficiency have increased odds of respiratory problems. Among children with asthma and wheezing, disparities exist in access to care; those that are poor, with a Spanish-speaking caretaker, or with a foreign-born caretaker had increased odds of seeking care in urgent care center, emergency rooms and hospitals. Results have scholarly and practical implications for broader trends in terms of increasing prevalence of respiratory health problems across multiple scales (from El Paso to the US context to worldwide) and health disparities experienced within the rapidly growing US Hispanic population.

  2. Quick spacecraft charging primer

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, Brian Arthur

    2014-03-12

    This is a presentation in PDF format which is a quick spacecraft charging primer, meant to be used for program training. It goes into detail about charging physics, RBSP examples, and how to identify charging.

  3. 77 FR 20617 - El Paso Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-05

    ... 23, 2012, El Paso Natural Gas Company (El Paso), P.O. Box 1087, Colorado Springs, Colorado 80904... Nevada Avenue, P.O. Box 1087, Colorado Springs, Colorado 80904, by telephone at (719) 667-7514 or...

  4. 76 FR 41235 - El Paso Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-13

    ... 28, 2011, El Paso Natural Gas Company (El Paso), P.O. Box 1087, Colorado Springs, Colorado 80944... Interstate Gas Company, P.O. Box 1087, Colorado Springs, CO 80944, telephone no. (719) 667-7514, facsimile...

  5. 75 FR 62515 - El Paso Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    ... notice that on September 28, 2010, El Paso Natural Gas Company (EPNG), P.O. Box 1087, Colorado Springs..., Director, Regulatory Affairs, El Paso Natural Gas Company, P.O. Box 1087, Colorado Springs, Colorado...

  6. 77 FR 14776 - El Paso Natural Gas Company; Notice of Amendment to Presidential Permit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-13

    ... notice that on February 20, 2012, El Paso Natural Gas Company (El Paso), P.O. Box 1087, Colorado Springs... Nevada Avenue, P.O. Box 1087, Colorado Springs, Colorado 80944, or call at 719-667-7514, or email...

  7. 76 FR 18756 - El Paso Natural Gas Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-05

    ... Take notice that on March 22, 2011, El Paso Natural Gas Company (El Paso), Post Office Box 1087... application should be directed to Susan C. Stires, Post Box Office 1087, Colorado Springs, CO 80944,...

  8. China Energy Primer

    SciTech Connect

    Ni, Chun Chun

    2009-11-16

    Based on extensive analysis of the 'China Energy Databook Version 7' (October 2008) this Primer for China's Energy Industry draws a broad picture of China's energy industry with the two goals of helping users read and interpret the data presented in the 'China Energy Databook' and understand the historical evolution of China's energy inustry. Primer provides comprehensive historical reviews of China's energy industry including its supply and demand, exports and imports, investments, environment, and most importantly, its complicated pricing system, a key element in the analysis of China's energy sector.

  9. PRELIMINARY RESEARCH FINDINGS OF THE EL PASO CHILDREN'S HEALTH STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The El-Paso-Ciudad Juarez area is one of the largest metropolitan areas on the U.S.-Mexico border. Sources of air pollutants inlcude the more than 18 million vehicles, which annually cross between the two cities, heavily traveled roads and interstate freeways, and local indust...

  10. Bilingual Immersion: A Longitudinal Evaluation of the El Paso Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gersten, Russell; And Others

    A study assessed and compared the effectiveness of two distinct approaches of bilingual education used within a single school district in El Paso (Texas). The program designs, one a traditional transitional bilingual and the other a bilingual immersion, were implemented under similar conditions of resources, school year length, class size, and…

  11. Community and Contemporary Chicano Art: Four El Paso Artists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eklund, Lori; Medrano, Jerry

    2000-01-01

    Presents an instructional resource for middle and high school students that focuses on artworks by the El Paso (Texas) artists Luis Jimenez, Carlos Callejo, Gaspar Enriquez, and Gloria Osuna Perez. Explains that the artwork represents the artists' personal relationship to community. Provides background information and an activity for each artwork.…

  12. The Chicanos of El Paso: A Case of Changing Colonization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Oscar J.

    Using historical statistics and key indicators, data were synthesized to identify longitudinal trends and patterns in the social, economic, and political status of El Paso's Chicanos. Data related to group achievement were analyzed. A framework adapted to local conditions based on the internal colonialism model was used for the periodization of El…

  13. 76 FR 28016 - El Paso Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ... Paso Natural Gas Company (El Paso), P.O. Box 1087, Colorado Springs, CO 80944, filed with the Federal... Gas Company, P.O. Box 1087, Colorado Springs, CO 80944, at (719) 667-7514 (phone), (719) 667-7534 (fax... Paso Natural ] Gas Company, P.O. Box 1087, Colorado Springs, Colorado 80944, at (719) 520-4534...

  14. 75 FR 42727 - El Paso Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-22

    ... notice that on July 13, 2010, El Paso Natural Gas Company (El Paso), P.O. Box 1087, Colorado Springs... Gas Company, P.O. Box 1087, Colorado Springs, Colorado 80944, or by calling (719) 667-7514 (telephone... and General Counsel, El Paso Natural Gas Company, P.O. Box 1087, Colorado Springs, Colorado 80944,...

  15. 76 FR 66711 - El Paso Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-27

    ... October 11, 2011, El Paso Natural Gas Company (El Paso), P.O. Box 1087, Colorado Springs, Colorado 80904..., Director, Regulatory Affairs Department, El Paso Natural Gas Company, P.O. Box 1087, Colorado Springs... Company, P.O. Box 1087, Colorado Springs, Colorado 80904, by telephone at (719) 520-4227, by facsimile...

  16. El Paso Formation - a Lower Ordovician platform carbonate deposit

    SciTech Connect

    Clemons, R.E.

    1987-05-01

    The eastward-transgressive Lower Ordovician El Paso Formation conformably overlies Bliss Sandstone in southern New Mexico. Locally, lower El Paso was deposited on low hills of plutonic and volcanic rocks. The region subsided gradually throughout Canadian time, receiving the El Paso carbonate rock blanket up to 460 m thick. Lithologic and chronologic correlative rocks were deposited over most of the southwestern US as the first Paleozoic carbonate platform sequence. The El Paso Formation contains four members, listed here in ascending order: Hitt Canyon, Jose, McKelligon, and Padre. Gradually decreasing sand content upward through the Hitt Canyon indicates deepening water and/or greater distance to shore. Girvanella(.) oncolites are locally abundant. Stromatolite mounds near the top of the Hitt Canyon, combined with an influx of sand, ooids, and rounded bioclasts in the Jose Member, recorded a shoaling phase. The overlying McKelligon Member contains little or no sand, and sponge-Calathium mounds are prominent at some locales. Stromatolite mounds are interbedded with sponge-Calathium mounds in a few sections. Lower Padre Member beds are typically silty to sandy and locally contain thinly-laminated zones. The Padre contains more restricted fauna that includes traces of ostracods. Pervasive bioturbation of El Paso beds and fauna consisting of echinoderms, sponges, gastropods, trilobites, Nuia, Calathium, cephalopods, and algae plus minor brachiopods and Pulchrilamina indicate predominating shallow-subtidal environments. Low-energy platform environments, in which a large volume of micritic muds accumulated, were disturbed thousands of times by storms producing abundant thin, poorly washed biosparite, intrasparite, and intrasparrudite lenses.

  17. Systems Engineering Measurement Primer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-03-01

    Systems Engineering Measurement Primer A Basic Introduction to Systems Engineering Measurement Concepts and Use Version 1.0 March 1998 This document...Federal Systems Garry Roedler Lockheed Martin Management & Data Systems Cathy Tilton The National Registry, Inc. E. Richard Widmann Raytheon Systems...IV 1. INTRODUCTION

  18. An SAT® Validity Primer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Emily J.

    2015-01-01

    This primer should provide the reader with a deeper understanding of the concept of test validity and will present the recent available validity evidence on the relationship between SAT® scores and important college outcomes. In addition, the content examined on the SAT will be discussed as well as the fundamental attention paid to the fairness of…

  19. Primer on Social Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darcy, Robert L.

    An elaboration of the author's booklet entitled "First Steps Toward Economic Understanding," this primer is designed to help the reader develop a functional understanding of the economic process so that he can make wiser decisions on issues of social policy and on matters affecting his economic well-being. The document is not "economics in one…

  20. Primer on Water Quality

    MedlinePlus

    ... fs-027-01.pdf--665KB A Primer on Water Quality What is in the water? Is it safe for drinking? Can fish and ... affect water quality. What do we mean by "water quality"? Water quality can be thought of as ...

  1. BatchPrimer3: A high throughput web application for PCR and sequencing primer design

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new web primer design program, BatchPrimer3, is developed based on Primer3. BatchPrimer3 adopted the Primer3 core program as a major primer design engine to choose the best primer pairs. A new score-based primer picking module is incorporated into BatchPrimer3 and used to pick position-restricte...

  2. Primer on molecular genetics

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    This report is taken from the April 1992 draft of the DOE Human Genome 1991--1992 Program Report, which is expected to be published in May 1992. The primer is intended to be an introduction to basic principles of molecular genetics pertaining to the genome project. The material contained herein is not final and may be incomplete. Techniques of genetic mapping and DNA sequencing are described.

  3. Coal Bed Methane Primer

    SciTech Connect

    Dan Arthur; Bruce Langhus; Jon Seekins

    2005-05-25

    During the second half of the 1990's Coal Bed Methane (CBM) production increased dramatically nationwide to represent a significant new source of income and natural gas for many independent and established producers. Matching these soaring production rates during this period was a heightened public awareness of environmental concerns. These concerns left unexplained and under-addressed have created a significant growth in public involvement generating literally thousands of unfocused project comments for various regional NEPA efforts resulting in the delayed development of public and fee lands. The accelerating interest in CBM development coupled to the growth in public involvement has prompted the conceptualization of this project for the development of a CBM Primer. The Primer is designed to serve as a summary document, which introduces and encapsulates information pertinent to the development of Coal Bed Methane (CBM), including focused discussions of coal deposits, methane as a natural formed gas, split mineral estates, development techniques, operational issues, producing methods, applicable regulatory frameworks, land and resource management, mitigation measures, preparation of project plans, data availability, Indian Trust issues and relevant environmental technologies. An important aspect of gaining access to federal, state, tribal, or fee lands involves education of a broad array of stakeholders, including land and mineral owners, regulators, conservationists, tribal governments, special interest groups, and numerous others that could be impacted by the development of coal bed methane. Perhaps the most crucial aspect of successfully developing CBM resources is stakeholder education. Currently, an inconsistent picture of CBM exists. There is a significant lack of understanding on the parts of nearly all stakeholders, including industry, government, special interest groups, and land owners. It is envisioned the Primer would being used by a variety of

  4. Crystalline Silica Primer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1992-01-01

    substance and will present a nontechnical overview of the techniques used to measure crystalline silica. Because this primer is meant to be a starting point for anyone interested in learning more about crystalline silica, a list of selected readings and other resources is included. The detailed glossary, which defines many terms that are beyond the scope of this publication, is designed to help the reader move from this presentation to a more technical one, the inevitable next step.

  5. Modeling Visibility in the EL Paso del Norte Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzgerald, R. M.; Medina, R.; DuBois, D. W.; Novlan, D.

    2013-12-01

    Poor visibility is a subject of growing public concern throughout the U.S, and an active area of research. Its societal impacts in air quality, aviation transport and traffic are significant. Aerosols play a fundamental role in the attenuation of solar radiation, and also affect visibility. The scattering and extinction coefficients of aerosol particles in the Paso del Norte Region have been calculated using the T- matrix model in conjunction with a laser particle counter. Inter-comparison of the model's results of the scattering and absorption coefficients against the corresponding data from a Photoacustic Extinctiometer instrument (which measures in-situ absorption and scattering coefficients of aerosol particles) shows excellent agreement. In addition, the volume-weighted method is used to determine the composite index of refraction which is representative of the aerosols for the Paso del Norte Airshed to obtain information of the type of aerosol particles present in the Airshed. The Single Scattering Albedo has also been retrieved using our methodology to obtain further insight into the type of aerosols present on a given day. Finally, the Koschmieder equation has been used to calculate the visual range or visibility, and was correlated with the PM2.5 and PM10 particle concentration present in the Airshed. Our methodology will allow a better understanding of the size and type of aerosol particles that are most detrimental to the visibility for the Paso del Norte Region.

  6. Modeling visibility in the Paso del Norte (PDN) Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medina Calderon, Richard

    Poor visibility is a subject of growing public concern throughout the U.S, and an active area of research. Its societal impacts on air quality, aviation transport and traffic are significant. Aerosols play a fundamental role in the attenuation of solar radiation, and also affect visibility. The scattering and extinction coefficients of aerosol particles in the Paso del Norte Region have been calculated using the T- matrix model in conjunction with a laser particle counter. Inter-comparison of the model's results of the scattering and absorption coefficients against the corresponding data from a Photoacustic extinctiometer instrument (which measures in-situ absorption and scattering coefficients of aerosol particles) shows excellent agreement. In addition, the volume-weighted method is used to determine the composite index of refraction which is representative of the aerosols for the Paso del Norte Region to obtain information of the type of aerosol particles present in the Region. The Single Scattering Albedo has also been retrieved using this methodology to obtain further insight into the type of aerosols present on a given day. Finally, the Koschmieder equation has been used to calculate the visual range or visibility, and was correlated with the PM2.5 and PM10 particle concentration present in the Region. Our methodology will allow a better understanding of the size and type of aerosol particles that are most detrimental to the visibility for the Paso Del Norte Region.

  7. Paso del Norte ozone study VOC measurements, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Seila, R.L.; Main, H.; Arriaga, J.L.; Martinez, G.V.; Ramadan, A.B.

    1999-01-01

    The results of VOC determinations of ambient air samples collected at surface air quality monitoring sites and near sources of interest on the US and Mexican side of the border during six weeks of the 1996 Paso del Norte Ozone Study are reported. Carbonyl samples were collected on DNPH impregnated cartridges at three surface sites and analyzed by HPLC to quantify 13, C-1 to C-8 species. Whole air samples were collected in electro-polished stainless steel canisters which were returned to laboratory for determination of C-2 to C-10+ hydrocarbons by cryogenic preconcentration capillary gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (gc-fid). Several sources were sampled: rush hour traffic, propane-powered bus exhaust, automobile paint shop emissions, propane fuel, petroleum refinery, and industrial manufacturing site. Spatial and temporal characteristics of VOC species concentrations and compositions are presented. Overall surface TNMOC values ranged from 0.1 to 3.4 ppmC with the highest concentrations recorded in the morning at three vehicle-dominated sites, two in Cuidad Juarez and one in downtown El Paso. Toluene in El Paso samples and propane, which is used as a cooking and transportation fuel in Cuidad Juarez, were the most abundant hydrocarbons.

  8. Paso del Norte ozone study VOC measurements, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Seila, R.L.; Main, H.; Arriaga, J.L.; Martinez, G.V.; Ramadan, A.B.

    1999-11-01

    The results of VOC determinations of ambient air samples collected at surface air quality monitoring sites and near sources of interest on the US and Mexican side of the border during six weeks of the 1996 Paso del Norte Ozone Study are reported. Carbonyl samples were collected on DNPH impregnated cartridges at three surface sites and analyzed by HPLC to quantify 13, C-1 to C-8 species. Whole air samples were collected in electro-polished stainless steel canisters which were returned to laboratory for determination of C-2 to C-10+ hydrocarbons by cryogenic preconcentration capillary gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (gc-fid). Several sources were sampled: rush hour traffic, propane-powered bus exhaust, automobile paint shop emissions, propane fuel, petroleum refinery, and industrial manufacturing site. Spatial and temporal characteristics of VOC species concentrations and compositions are presented. Overall surface TNMOC values ranged from 0.1 to 3.4 ppmC with the highest concentrations recorded in the morning at three vehicle-dominated sites, two in Cuidad Juarez and one in downtown El Paso. Toluene in El Paso samples and propane, which is used as a cooking and transportation fuel in Cuidad Juarez, were the most abundant hydrocarbons.

  9. Primer on Beam Optics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Inc. San Diego, California Table of Contents Page 1 . Introduction 1 1.1 Organization of Primer 1 1.2 Introduction to Neutral Particle Beam...Optical Systems 3 2. Fundamentals of Charged Particle Optics 10 2.1 Introduction 1 ° 2.2 Phase Space and Nonlinear Motion 10 2.3 Linear Maps 22 2.4...102 Figures Figure Pag© 1 . Generic Neutral Particle Beam Device 4 2. An orthogonal three dimensional coordinate system 11 3. Trajectory of a

  10. Laser Doppler velocimetry primer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bachalo, William D.

    1985-01-01

    Advanced research in experimental fluid dynamics required a familiarity with sophisticated measurement techniques. In some cases, the development and application of new techniques is required for difficult measurements. Optical methods and in particular, the laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV) are now recognized as the most reliable means for performing measurements in complex turbulent flows. And such, the experimental fluid dynamicist should be familiar with the principles of operation of the method and the details associated with its application. Thus, the goals of this primer are to efficiently transmit the basic concepts of the LDV method to potential users and to provide references that describe the specific areas in greater detail.

  11. Limited-life cartridge primers

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, Daniel M.; Rosen, Robert S.

    2005-04-19

    A cartridge primer which utilizes an explosive that can be designed to become inactive in a predetermined period of time: a limited-life primer. The explosive or combustible material of the primer is an inorganic reactive multilayer (RML). The reaction products of the RML are sub-micron grains of non-corrosive inorganic compounds that would have no harmful effects on firearms or cartridge cases. Unlike use of primers containing lead components, primers utilizing RML's would not present a hazard to the environment. The sensitivity of an RML is determined by the physical structure and the stored interfacial energy. The sensitivity lowers with time due to a decrease in interfacial energy resulting from interdiffusion of the elemental layers. Time-dependent interdiffusion is predictable, thereby enabling the functional lifetime of an RML primer to be predetermined by the initial thickness and materials selection of the reacting layers.

  12. Limited-life cartridge primers

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, D.M.; Rosen, R.S.

    1998-06-30

    A cartridge primer is described which utilizes an explosive that can be designed to become inactive in a predetermined period of time: a limited-life primer. The explosive or combustible material of the primer is an inorganic reactive multilayer (RML). The reaction products of the RML are sub-micron grains of non-corrosive inorganic compounds that would have no harmful effects on firearms or cartridge cases. Unlike use of primers containing lead components, primers utilizing RML`s would not present a hazard to the environment. The sensitivity of an RML is determined by the physical structure and the stored interfacial energy. The sensitivity lowers with time due to a decrease in interfacial energy resulting from interdiffusion of the elemental layers. Time-dependent interdiffusion is predictable, thereby enabling the functional lifetime of an RML primer to be predetermined by the initial thickness and materials selection of the reacting layers. 10 figs.

  13. Limited-life cartridge primers

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, Daniel M.; Rosen, Robert S.

    1998-01-01

    A cartridge primer which utilizes an explosive that can be designed to become inactive in a predetermined period of time: a limited-life primer. The explosive or combustible material of the primer is an inorganic reactive multilayer (RML). The reaction products of the RML are sub-micron grains of non-corrosive inorganic compounds that would have no harmful effects on firearms or cartridge cases. Unlike use of primers containing lead components, primers utilizing RML's would not present a hazard to the environment. The sensitivity of an RML is determined by the physical structure and the stored interfacial energy. The sensitivity lowers with time due to a decrease in interfacial energy resulting from interdiffusion of the elemental layers. Time-dependent interdiffusion is predictable, thereby enabling the functional lifetime of an RML primer to be predetermined by the initial thickness and materials selection of the reacting layers.

  14. Multiplexed Primer Prediction for PCR

    SciTech Connect

    2007-07-23

    MPP predicts sets of multiplex-compatible primers for Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), finding a near minimal set of primers such that at least one amplicon will be generated from every target sequence in the input file. The code finds highly conserved oligos that are suitable as primers, according to user-specified desired primer characteristics such as length, melting temperature, and amplicon length. The primers are predicted not to form unwanted dimer or hairpin structures. The target sequences used as input can be diverse, since no multiple sequence alighment is required. The code is scalable, taking up to tens of thousands of sequences as input, and works, for example, to find a "universal primer set" for all viral genomes provided as a single input file. The code generates a periodic check-point file, thus in the event of premature execution termination, the application can be restarted from the last check-point file.

  15. A primer on water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leopold, Luna Bergere; Langbein, Walter Basil

    1960-01-01

    When you open the faucet you expect water to flow. And you expect it to flow night or day, summer or winter, whether you want to fill a glass or water the lawn. It should be clean and pure, without any odor.You have seen or read about places where the water doesn't have these qualities. You may have lived in a city where you were allowed to water the lawn only during a few hours of certain days. We know a large town where the water turns brown after every big rainstorm.Beginning shortly after World War II, large areas in the Southwestern United States had a 10-year drought, and newspapers published a lot of information about its effects. Some people say that the growing demand for water will cause serious shortages over much of the country in the next 10 to 40 years. But it has always been true that while water wells and springs dry up in some places, floods may be occurring in other places at the same time.Nearly every month news stories are published describing floods somewhere in the country. In fact, every year, on the average, 75,000 persons are forced from their homes by floods. In some years, as in 1951 when the lower Kansas River experienced a great flood, half a million people are affected. To understand the reasons for such recurring distress, it is necessary to know something about rivers and about the flat land or flood plain that borders the river.Interest in water and related problems is growing as our population increases and as the use of water becomes steadily greater. To help meet this heightened interest in general information about water and its use and control is the reason this primer was written. The primer is in two parts. The first part tells about hydrology, or the science that concerns the relation of water to our earth, and the second part describes the development of water supplies and the use of water. The Geological Survey is publishing this primer in nontechnical language in the hope that it will enable the general reader to

  16. The composition of wet deposition in El Paso, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emmert, Sonny

    The composition of precipitation reflects the transport of particles from varying air mass source regions as well as input from local environmental and anthropogenic activities. Air research in El Paso, TX, U.S.A/Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico has been traditionally limited to studies of local inputs of air pollution; no transition has been made to studying the scavenging, washout, and transport of pollutants by precipitation. The goal of this research project was to identify transported pollutants in precipitation, and determine if there were any health and ecological implications. The research investigated biological, chemical, and geological constituents in precipitation samples collected between September 2004 and October 2005. A variety of analysis techniques were used to determine composition of the precipitation. These techniques included bacterial and fungal plate counts, inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry, ion chromatography, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and electron microprobe analysis. Samples were collected from an urban site in El Paso, Texas at the campus of the University of Texas at El Paso. Wet only samples were the target of the sample collection. Particulate matter <10 microns was correlated with fungal growth while particulate matter < 2.5 microns was correlated with bacterial growth in analyzed samples. Microscopy methods revealed new techniques in particle characterization, evidence of anthropogenic influence, and a wide variety of particle compositions. The ionic chemistry results reflected elevated levels of ions as well as an overall alkalinity of rainwater samples. Elemental analysis of the inorganic fraction suggested elevated enrichment of Phosphorus in the study area and possible ratios for transport identification of southwestern dust storms.

  17. 1996 Paso del Norte ozone study VOC measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Seila, R.L.; Main, H.; Arriaga, J.L.; Martinez, G.; Ramadan, A.B.

    1999-07-01

    Ambient air VOC samples were collected at surface air quality monitoring sites, near sources of interest, and aloft on the US and Mexican side of the border during a six week period of the 1996 Paso del Norte Ozone Study. On nine intensive operations (IOP) days, when high ozone concentrations were forecast, five 2-hr samples were collected at five IOP sites, three on the US side and two on the Mexican side. Six special survey sites on the US side and two on the Mexican side were sampled to characterize up-wind, down-wind and other emissions. In Ciudad Juarez, rush hour traffic, propane-powered bus exhaust, automobile paint shop emissions, propane and butane fuels, and an industrial manufacturing site were sampled. Carbonyl samples were collected at three surface sites. Carbonyl and canister grab samples were also collected during aircraft and hot air balloon flights. Most of the hydrocarbon samples were collected in electro-polished stainless steel canisters which were returned to laboratories for determination of C-2 to C-10+ hydrocarbons by cryogenic preconcentration GC-FID. The carbonyl samples were collected on DNPH impregnated C-18 Sep-Pak cartridges and analyzed by HPLC to quantify 13, C-1 to C-8 species. This paper presents the spatial and temporal characteristics of VOC species concentrations and compositions to examine the differences and similarities of the various locations and time periods. Overall surface TNMOC values ranged from 0.1 to 3.4 ppmC with the highest concentrations being recorded in the morning at three vehicle-dominated sites, two in Ciudad Juarez and one in downtown El Paso. Toluene in El Paso samples and propane, which is used as a cooking and transportation fuel in Ciudad Juarez, were the most abundant hydrocarbons. The most abundant carbonyls were acetaldehyde and acetone.

  18. Metabolomics: A Primer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaojing; Locasale, Jason W

    2017-04-01

    Metabolomics generates a profile of small molecules that are derived from cellular metabolism and can directly reflect the outcome of complex networks of biochemical reactions, thus providing insights into multiple aspects of cellular physiology. Technological advances have enabled rapid and increasingly expansive data acquisition with samples as small as single cells; however, substantial challenges in the field remain. In this primer we provide an overview of metabolomics, especially mass spectrometry (MS)-based metabolomics, which uses liquid chromatography (LC) for separation, and discuss its utilities and limitations. We identify and discuss several areas at the frontier of metabolomics. Our goal is to give the reader a sense of what might be accomplished when conducting a metabolomics experiment, now and in the near future.

  19. Ground-water resources of the El Paso area, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sayre, Albert Nelson; Livingston, Penn Poore

    1945-01-01

    El Paso, Tex., and Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico, and the industries in -that area draw their water supplies from wells, most of which are from 600 to 800 feet deep. In 1906, the estimated average pumpage there was about 1,000,000 gallons a day, and by 1935 it had increased to 15,400,000 gallons a day. The water-bearing beds, consisting of sand and gravel interbedded wire clay, tie in the deep structural trough known as the Hueco bolson, between the Organ and Franklin Mountains on the west, the Hueco, Finlay, and Malone Mountains on the east, the Tularosa Basin on the north, and the mountain ranges of Mexico on the south. From the gorge above El Paso to that beginning near Fort Quitman, about 90 miles southeast .of El Paso, the Rio Grande has eroded a flat-bottomed, steepwalled valley, 6 to 8 miles wide and 225 to 350 feet deep. No other large drainage channels have been developed on the bolson. The valley is known as the El Paso Valley, and the uneroded upland part of the bolson is called the Mesa. In the lowest parts of the El Paso Valley, the water-table is nearly at the surface. The quality of the underground water in the valley varies greatly both vertically and laterally. To a depth of about 400 to 500 feet it is in general too highly mineralized for municipal use, but between about. 500 and 900 feet good water may be obtained from several beds. In the beds between 500 and 900 feet the water level in wells is in places as. much as 20 feet lower than that in the shallow beds. Beneath the Mesa the water level .varies from about 200 feet beneath the surface, where the ground elevation is least, to about 400 feet. where it is highest. The water beneath the Mesa in general is of satisfactory quality and contains less than 500 parts per million of dissolved solids. Two cones of depression in the water table have been formed by the pumping near El Paso--one m the vicinity of the Mesa well field, the other around the Montana well field in the valley. The water

  20. Short-term water consumption dynamics in El Paso, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fullerton, Thomas M.; ElíAs, Arturo

    2004-08-01

    Time series analysis of water consumption patterns has been the subject of increasing attention in recent years. For many municipalities such efforts offer a means for developing potentially useful planning tools. Because data requirements are not extensive, model development is feasible for markets where information is limited. The work at hand examines the applicability of such a tool in El Paso, Texas, a growing metropolitan economy located in a semiarid region. Sample data are from January 1994 through December 2002. In addition to estimating a linear transfer function equation of water consumption in this city the model is subjected to a series of simulation benchmark tests.

  1. Neuraminidase subtyping of avian influenza viruses with PrimerHunter-designed primers and quadruplicate primer pools.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yanyan; Khan, Mazhar I; Khan, Mazhar; Măndoiu, Ion; Măndoiu, Ion I

    2013-01-01

    We have previously developed a software package called PrimerHunter to design primers for PCR-based virus subtyping. In this study, 9 pairs of primers were designed with PrimerHunter and successfully used to differentiate the 9 neuraminidase (NA) genes of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) in multiple PCR-based assays. Furthermore, primer pools were designed and successfully used to decrease the number of reactions needed for NA subtyping from 9 to 4. The quadruplicate primer-pool method is cost-saving, and was shown to be suitable for the NA subtyping of both cultured AIVs and uncultured AIV swab samples. The primers selected for this study showed excellent sensitivity and specificity in NA subtyping by RT-PCR, SYBR green-based Real-time PCR and Real-time RT-PCR methods. AIV RNA of 2 to 200 copies (varied by NA subtypes) could be detected by these reactions. No unspecific amplification was displayed when detecting RNAs of other avian infectious viruses such as Infectious bronchitis virus, Infectious bursal disease virus and Newcastle disease virus. In summary, this study introduced several sensitive and specific PCR-based assays for NA subtyping of AIVs and also validated again the effectiveness of the PrimerHunter tool for the design of subtyping primers.

  2. Summary of extensometric measurements in El Paso, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heywood, Charles E.

    2003-01-01

    Two counter-weighted-pipe borehole extensometers were installed on the left bank of the Rio Grande between El Paso, Texas, and Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico, in 1992. A shallow extensometer measures vertical compaction in the 6- to 100-meter aquifer-system depth interval. A deep extensometer measures vertical compaction in the 6- to 305-meter aquifer-system depth interval. Both extensometers are referenced to the same surface datum, which allows time-series differencing to determine vertical compaction in the depth interval between 100 and 305 meters. From April 2, 1993, through June 13, 2002, 1.6 centimeters of compaction occurred in the 6-to 305-m depth interval. Until February 1999, most aquifer-system compaction occurred in the deeper aquifer-system interval between 100 and 305 meters, from which ground water was extracted. After that time, compaction in the shallow interval from 6 to 100 meters was predominant and attained a maximum of 7.6 millimeters by June 13, 2002. Minor residual compaction is expected to continue; continued maintenance of the El Paso extensometers would document this process.

  3. Ozone studies in the Paso del Norte region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becerra-Davila, Fernando

    The Paso del Norte region forms the largest contiguous bi-national conglomerate on the US-Mexico border. With a combined population of around 2 million inhabitants, the Paso del Norte region is isolated, more than 500 km away from the nearest urban area of comparable size, thus making it an ideal location for air quality studies of an isolated urban environment. The meteorological conditions leading to a high ozone episode in this region, such as the historical ozone episode of June 2006, are analyzed. It is well known that stagnation and minimal winds, high temperatures, and pressure ridges over the region are conducive to high ozone episodes. In addition, the planetary boundary height is studied to understand its impact on high ozone episodes. Several studies report that ground level ozone non-attainment regulations could be caused not only by local emissions, but also by atmospheric transport. In this work the atmospheric advection of pollutants into the region is analyzed using HYSPLIT backward trajectories. Furthermore, a novel backward trajectory clustering technique is implemented for the summer of 2006. The "ozone weekend effect" (OWE) is a phenomenon by which in some geographical regions ambient ozone concentrations tend to be higher on weekends than on weekdays, despite the lower emissions of ozone precursors during those days. The observed local OWE has never previously been studied in terms of the photolysis rates of four of the main ozone precursors. In this research a novel method that allows the calculation of actinic fluxes, photolysis frequencies and photolysis rates with a high degree of accuracy and reliability has been developed. This method utilizes a combination of the experimental data available for this region in conjunction with a radiative transfer model (TUV model). Three weekend-weekday cases during summers 2006, 2009 and 2010 are studied in this work. In this research, the photolysis impact on the local OWE is studied. The results

  4. 30 CFR 56.6304 - Primer protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Primer protection. 56.6304 Section 56.6304... Primer protection. (a) Tamping shall not be done directly on a primer. (b) Rigid cartridges of explosives... the primer except where the blasthole contains sufficient depth of water to protect the primer...

  5. 30 CFR 56.6304 - Primer protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Primer protection. 56.6304 Section 56.6304... Primer protection. (a) Tamping shall not be done directly on a primer. (b) Rigid cartridges of explosives... the primer except where the blasthole contains sufficient depth of water to protect the primer...

  6. 30 CFR 56.6304 - Primer protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Primer protection. 56.6304 Section 56.6304... Primer protection. (a) Tamping shall not be done directly on a primer. (b) Rigid cartridges of explosives... the primer except where the blasthole contains sufficient depth of water to protect the primer...

  7. 30 CFR 56.6304 - Primer protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Primer protection. 56.6304 Section 56.6304... Primer protection. (a) Tamping shall not be done directly on a primer. (b) Rigid cartridges of explosives... the primer except where the blasthole contains sufficient depth of water to protect the primer...

  8. 30 CFR 56.6304 - Primer protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Primer protection. 56.6304 Section 56.6304... Primer protection. (a) Tamping shall not be done directly on a primer. (b) Rigid cartridges of explosives... the primer except where the blasthole contains sufficient depth of water to protect the primer...

  9. ATMOSPHERIC VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND MEASUREMENTS DURING THE 1996 PASO DEL NORTE OZONE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ambient air VOC samples were collected at surface air quality monitoring sites, near sources of interest, and aloft on the US (El Paso) and Mexican (Ciudad Juarez) side of the border during a six-week period of the 1996 Paso del Norte Ozone Study. Samples were collected at five...

  10. 75 FR 70225 - El Paso Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission El Paso Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application November 9, 2010. Take notice that on October 29, 2010, El Paso Natural Gas Company (EPNG), P.O. Box 1087, Colorado Springs... Natural Gas Act (NGA) and Rule 207(a)(5) of the Commission's regulations, requesting the...

  11. 77 FR 3757 - El Paso Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-25

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission El Paso Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application Take notice that on January 5, 2012, El Paso Natural Gas Company (EPNG), Post Office Box 1087, Colorado Springs, Colorado 80944 filed an application in the above referenced docket pursuant to section 7(b) of the Natural...

  12. Evaluation of Academic Policy Formulation and Implementation Transmountain Early College High School, El Paso, Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heidemann, Virginia Margaret

    2010-01-01

    Transmountain Early College High School (TMECHS) opened in August 2008, created by a partnership between the El Paso Community College (EPCC) and the El Paso Independent School District (EPISD), and supported in its conceptualization, start-up, and first few years operation by grant funding and guidance from the Texas High School Project (THSP)…

  13. 78 FR 4124 - Foreign-Trade Zone 68-El Paso, TX, Application for Subzone, Expeditors International of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-18

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 68--El Paso, TX, Application for Subzone, Expeditors International of Washington, Inc., El Paso, TX An application has been submitted to the Foreign-Trade Zones Board (the Board) by the City of El Paso, grantee of FTZ 68, requesting special-purpose subzone...

  14. 40 CFR 81.82 - El Paso-Las Cruces-Alamogordo Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false El Paso-Las Cruces-Alamogordo... Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.82 El Paso-Las Cruces-Alamogordo Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The El Paso-Las Cruces-Alamogordo Interstate Air Quality Control Region (New...

  15. 77 FR 54650 - Intent To Rule on Request To Release Airport Property at the El Paso International Airport, El...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-05

    ... Rule on Request To Release Airport Property at the El Paso International Airport, El Paso, TX AGENCY...: The FAA proposes to rule and invite public comment on the release of land at the El Paso International... delivered to the FAA at the following: Ms. Monica Lombra[ntilde]a, Director of Aviation, El...

  16. 77 FR 59607 - El Paso Natural Gas Company; Notice of Public Scoping Meetings for the Planned SASABE Lateral...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-28

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission El Paso Natural Gas Company; Notice of Public Scoping Meetings for the... or Commission) Office of Energy Project's staff will hold public scoping meetings for El Paso Natural Gas Company's (El Paso) Sasabe Lateral Project (Project). The Project is a planned 60-...

  17. DELIVERING TIMELY AIR QUALITY, TRAFFIC, AND WEATHER INFORMATION TO YOUR COMMUNITY/THE PASO DEL NORTE ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has developed a technology transfer handbook for the EMPACT Paso del Norte Project. The EMPACT Paso del Norte Environmental Monitoring Project is a mobile vehicle emissions project that involves the international community of El Paso, TX; Sundland Park, NM; and Juarez, Mexico...

  18. [Energy education exhibits for Insights El Paso Science Museum

    SciTech Connect

    Shubinski, R.

    1998-05-27

    The grant in question, DE-FG03-94ER75954, was awarded to Insights El Paso Science Museum to build key exhibits. These exhibits helped the Museum fulfill its mission to ``promote curiosity and stimulate interest by exploratory, entertaining, exciting, and participatory learning in a broad range of scientific disciplines to persons of all ages regionally and internationally.`` There are several current Board of Directors members who also were Board members during the grant period and who helped construct some of the exhibits. Through speaking with them and reviewing minutes of Board meetings during 1994, it has been determined that seven of the ten proposed exhibits were constructed, with an eighth exhibit constructed as an alternative. Photos of seven of the exhibits and preliminary sketches of some are attached. Following is a list of the constructed exhibits: Hot or Cold, Give and Take, Conduction, Convection, Sources of Energy, Wind Generator, Solar Tracker, and Perpetual Motion.

  19. 77 FR 27774 - Kinder Morgan, Inc. and El Paso Corporation; Analysis of Proposed Agreement Containing Consent...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION Kinder Morgan, Inc. and El Paso Corporation; Analysis of Proposed Agreement Containing Consent Orders To Aid Public Comment; Correction AGENCY: Federal Trade Commission. ACTION: Proposed Consent...

  20. EPA Recognizes Two El Paso Federal Facilities for Significant Energy Reductions and Cost Savings

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    DALLAS - (April 28, 2015) Today the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recognized the Drug Enforcement Administration' El Paso Intelligence Center (EPIC) and the Armendariz US Courthouse for reducing their environmental impacts. As part of t

  1. Characterization and Transport of Aerosols in the El Paso- Juarez Airshed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, R. R.; Fitzgerald, R. M.

    2003-12-01

    Aerosol optical depth measurements, in conjunction with novel inversion techniques, are used to determine the size distribution of airborne particulates in the El Paso, TX-Juarez, MX region (El Paso-Juarez Airshed). The inversion method was developed using Twomey's regularization method as a foundation. In our methodology novel algorithms are developed to determine the constraint coefficient and the regularization matrices. The extinction coefficient of the airborne particulates is calculated utilizing the T-matrix code. SEM images of regional airborne particulates are analyzed to determine aerosol physical characteristics for input into the T-matrix. Subsequently, the Mesoscale Model 5 in combination with trajectory analysis is implemented to study the transport of particulates in the El Paso-Juarez Airshed. The impact of an urban area on the concentration of aerosols on the surrounding rural and pastoral areas is analyzed for the El Paso-Juarez Airshed.

  2. Congenital stationary night blindness in a Thoroughbred and a Paso Fino.

    PubMed

    Nunnery, Catherine; Pickett, J Phillip; Zimmerman, Kurt L

    2005-01-01

    This report documents congenital stationary night blindness (CSNB) in two non-Appaloosa horse breeds (Thoroughbred and Paso Fino). History of vision impairment since birth, normal ocular structures on ophthalmic examination, and electroretinographic findings were consistent with CSNB. In one horse (Thoroughbred), a 9-year follow-up was carried out. In the Paso Fino, severe vision impairment from birth to approximately 1 year of age in both dim and bright light situations led to humane euthanasia and histopathologic confirmation of the disorder.

  3. [Incident reporting systems in anesthesiology--methods and benefits using the example of PaSOS].

    PubMed

    Rall, Marcus; Reddersen, Silke; Zieger, Jörg; Schädle, Bertram; Hirsch, Patricia; Stricker, Eric; Martin, Jörg; Geldner, Götz; Schleppers, Alexander

    2008-09-01

    Preventing patient harm is one of the main tasks for the field of anesthesiology from early on. With the introduction of the national German incident reporting system PaSOS, which is hosted by the German anesthesia society, anesthesiology is again leading the field of patient safety. Important elements, success factors and background information for the introduction of successful incident reporting systems in an organization are given. Examples by and from PaSOS are given.

  4. Charter School Primer. Peter Lang Primer. Volume 34

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tryjankowski, Anne Marie

    2012-01-01

    The "Charter School Primer" presents an overview of public charter schools in the United States. The book discusses what charter schools are; the history of public charter school choice in the United States; the role of teachers, parents, boards, and unions in the charter school movement; and gives examples of innovations in education made…

  5. Vygotsky on Education Primer. Peter Lang Primer. Volume 30

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lake, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The "Vygotsky on Education Primer" serves as an introduction to the life and work of the Russian psychologist Lev Vygotsky. Even though he died almost eighty years ago, his life's work remains both relevant and significant to the field of education today. This book examines Vygotsky's emphasis on the role of cultural and historical context in…

  6. A Primer on Multilevel Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Andrew F.

    2006-01-01

    Multilevel modeling (MLM) is growing in use throughout the social sciences. Although daunting from a mathematical perspective, MLM is relatively easy to employ once some basic concepts are understood. In this article, I present a primer on MLM, describing some of these principles and applying them to the analysis of a multilevel data set on…

  7. A Hearing Aid Primer 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yetter, Carol J.

    2009-01-01

    This hearing aid primer is designed to define the differences among the three levels of hearing instrument technology: conventional analog circuit technology (most basic), digitally programmable/analog circuit technology (moderately advanced), and fully digital technology (most advanced). Both moderate and advanced technologies mean that hearing…

  8. Primer vector theory and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jezewski, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    A method developed to compute two-body, optimal, N-impulse trajectories was presented. The necessary conditions established define the gradient structure of the primer vector and its derivative for any set of boundary conditions and any number of impulses. Inequality constraints, a conjugate gradient iterator technique, and the use of a penalty function were also discussed.

  9. Postsecondary Data Connections: A Primer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Data Quality Campaign, 2011

    2011-01-01

    There is an increasing focus at the state and federal levels on linking data across the P-20/Workforce spectrum to help inform policies and practices. This primer is intended to provide policymakers with: (1) An overview of the status of states vis-a-vis the linking of postsecondary data to K-12 and workforce data; (2) A subset of questions…

  10. Freshwater Wetlands: A Citizen's Primer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catskill Center for Conservation and Development, Inc., Hobart, NY.

    The purpose of this "primer" for the general public is to describe the general characteristics of wetlands and how wetland alteration adversely affects the well-being of humans. Particular emphasis is placed on wetlands in New York State and the northeast. Topics discussed include wetland values, destruction of wetlands, the costs of…

  11. Straight Talk: A Communication Primer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maidment, Robert

    Using typical statements made by teachers and school administrators as examples, this self-help primer offers tips for developing conversational patterns that promote interpersonal understanding. The tips are designed to help readers learn about 40 effective conversational habits, including being specific, talking sparingly, admitting mistakes,…

  12. Alternative Teacher Compensation: A Primer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koppich, Julia E.; Rigby, Jessica

    2009-01-01

    This policy primer is designed to provide base-line information about new forms of teacher pay that are emerging around the country, to support the local conversations and negotiations that will lead to the development of innovative compensation systems. It identifies reasons why teacher compensation is high on local, state, and federal policy…

  13. Status of NC Primer Demonstration & Transition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-20

    Primer Demos: Gloss Paint Scheme 4 Demonstration COMPLETE BUNO Induction Date Non- Chrome Primer Date Delivery Date Carrier Deployments...Includes T-6, T-34, T-44, T-45* NC Primer Demos: Gloss Paint Scheme 6 P-3C Demonstration is on-going… • PPG-Deft 02-GN-084 demonstrated over CCC on OML...Only one P-3C demonstrating NC Primer, A/C # 510  Primed Sept. 15, 2011 NC Primer Demos: Gloss Paint Scheme 7 NC Primer Demos: Gloss Paint

  14. HIV lipodystrophy syndrome: a primer.

    PubMed

    Robinson, F Patrick

    2004-01-01

    Treatment with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has been implicated in the development of anthropomorphic and metabolic abnormalities termed HIV lipodystrophy syndrome (or LDS). This primer offers a comprehensive overview of LDS including epidemiology, hypothesized etiologies, and clinical consequences. The evidence-based literature is reviewed for current treatment strategies including discontinuation of specific antiretrovirals, pharmacological management of dyslipidemia and insulin resistance, exercise training, facial augmentation, liposuction, and hormonal therapy. Patient education, counseling, and adherence are discussed.

  15. Using Primers to Motivate Your Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graff, Dan

    2002-01-01

    Primers are used to motivate and uplift your class. They come in many different styles and can be used in a variety of ways. Making primers relevant to students helps them to learn and makes them feel appreciated and knowledgeable when they participate. Using primers in the classroom to make students feel valued brings much success.

  16. 30 CFR 57.6304 - Primer protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Primer protection. 57.6304 Section 57.6304... Transportation-Surface and Underground § 57.6304 Primer protection. (a) Tamping shall not be done directly on a primer. (b) Rigid cartridges of explosives or blasting agents that are 4 inches (100 millimeters)...

  17. 30 CFR 57.6304 - Primer protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Primer protection. 57.6304 Section 57.6304... Transportation-Surface and Underground § 57.6304 Primer protection. (a) Tamping shall not be done directly on a primer. (b) Rigid cartridges of explosives or blasting agents that are 4 inches (100 millimeters)...

  18. 30 CFR 75.1317 - Primer cartridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Primer cartridges. 75.1317 Section 75.1317... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1317 Primer cartridges. (a) Primer cartridges shall be primed and loaded only by a qualified person or a person working in...

  19. 30 CFR 75.1317 - Primer cartridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Primer cartridges. 75.1317 Section 75.1317... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1317 Primer cartridges. (a) Primer cartridges shall be primed and loaded only by a qualified person or a person working in...

  20. 30 CFR 75.1317 - Primer cartridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Primer cartridges. 75.1317 Section 75.1317... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1317 Primer cartridges. (a) Primer cartridges shall be primed and loaded only by a qualified person or a person working in...

  1. 30 CFR 75.1317 - Primer cartridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Primer cartridges. 75.1317 Section 75.1317... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1317 Primer cartridges. (a) Primer cartridges shall be primed and loaded only by a qualified person or a person working in...

  2. 30 CFR 57.6304 - Primer protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Primer protection. 57.6304 Section 57.6304... Transportation-Surface and Underground § 57.6304 Primer protection. (a) Tamping shall not be done directly on a primer. (b) Rigid cartridges of explosives or blasting agents that are 4 inches (100 millimeters)...

  3. 30 CFR 57.6304 - Primer protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Primer protection. 57.6304 Section 57.6304... Transportation-Surface and Underground § 57.6304 Primer protection. (a) Tamping shall not be done directly on a primer. (b) Rigid cartridges of explosives or blasting agents that are 4 inches (100 millimeters)...

  4. 30 CFR 75.1317 - Primer cartridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Primer cartridges. 75.1317 Section 75.1317... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1317 Primer cartridges. (a) Primer cartridges shall be primed and loaded only by a qualified person or a person working in...

  5. 30 CFR 57.6304 - Primer protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Primer protection. 57.6304 Section 57.6304... Transportation-Surface and Underground § 57.6304 Primer protection. (a) Tamping shall not be done directly on a primer. (b) Rigid cartridges of explosives or blasting agents that are 4 inches (100 millimeters)...

  6. Environmental Acceptable Medium Caliber Ammunition Percussion Primers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-01

    percussion primers typically consist of lead styphnate and antimony sulfide. Although highly effective, these heavy material compounds were identified under...Percussion primers, including those used in medium caliber ammunition, typically contain lead styphnate and antimony sulfide along with other constituents...Furthermore, current percussion primer compositions also contain barium nitrate. Although not negatively categorized by the Environmental Protection

  7. Social Disparities in Children’s Respiratory Health in El Paso, Texas

    PubMed Central

    Grineski, Sara E.; Collins, Timothy W.; Chavez-Payan, Paola; Jimenez, Anthony M.; Clark-Reyna, Stephanie; Gaines, Marie; Kim, Young-an

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess prevalence of children’s respiratory health conditions and to measure and describe social disparities in children’s respiratory problems and access to health resources for asthma/wheezing management. Data were collected through a cross-sectional, observational mail survey of all primary caretakers of 4th and 5th grade children in El Paso Independent School District (El Paso, TX, USA). 6295 primary caretakers received surveys at their home address and 1904 surveys were completed and returned for a 30% response rate. El Paso children have high rates of asthma (17%) and allergies (51%). In terms of social disparities, children that are male, not poor, obese, Hispanic, born in El Paso, have a US-born caretaker, and have a caretaker who has lower levels Spanish proficiency have increased odds of respiratory problems. Among children with asthma and wheezing, disparities exist in access to care; those that are poor, with a Spanish-speaking caretaker, or with a foreign-born caretaker had increased odds of seeking care in urgent care center, emergency rooms and hospitals. Results have scholarly and practical implications for broader trends in terms of increasing prevalence of respiratory health problems across multiple scales (from El Paso to the US context to worldwide) and health disparities experienced within the rapidly growing US Hispanic population. PMID:24619157

  8. Ground-water resources of the Hueco Bolson, northeast of El Paso, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knowles, Doyle Blewer; Kennedy, Richard A.

    1958-01-01

    The Hueco Bolson is in the extreme western part of Texas and south- central New Mexico, covering parts of El Paso County, Tex., and Dona Ana and Otero Counties, N. Mex. Wells tapping the bolson deposits furnish the major part of the water supply for the city of El Paso, Ciudad Juarez, Fort Bliss, Biggs Air Force Base, and private industries. in the area. The progressively increasing demand for water made it obvious that a comprehensive investigation of the quantity and quality of water in storage in the entire Hueco Bolson would be essential for the proper planning of future water supplies. A test-drilling program was started in 1953, jointly sponsored by the city of El Paso, the United States Army, the United States Air Force, and the Texas Board of Water Engineers. The drilling was supervised by the United States Geological Survey.

  9. Water based adhesive primers on aluminum substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Wightman, J.P.; Mori, S.

    1996-12-31

    The number of aluminum alloy bonding applications has been increasing recently in the automobile industry. Primer coating of aluminum substrates is one of the main processes used to promote bond performance. Solvent based organic primers have been used for a long time but environmental regulations now require the substitution of volatile organic compounds (VOC) by alternate materials such as water based adhesive primers. However, the bond strengths obtained with many water based primers are generally lower than for solvent based ones. Water based primers which have some reactive functional groups have been proposed recently but such primers require special treatment. This paper describes a study conducted to optimize bond strength using a water based adhesive as a primer in the adhesive bonding of anodized aluminum.

  10. Output testing of small-arms primers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, Laurence J.; Doris, Thomas A.; Schimmel, Morry L.

    1991-01-01

    The performance of two standard primers for initiating small-caliber ammunition are compared to that of a primer for initiating aircraft escape-system components. Three testing methods are employed including: (1) firing the primer to measure total energy delivered; (2) monitoring output in terms of gaseous product-mass flow rate and pressure as a function of time; and (3) firing the primer onto ignition material to study gas pressure produced during ignition and burning as a function of time. The results of the test demonstrate differences in the ignitability factors of the standard primers and time peak pressures of less than 100 microseconds. One unexpected result is that two percussion primers (the FA-41 and the M42C1) developed for different applications have the same ignitability. The ignitability test method is shown to yield the most useful data and can be used to specify percussion primers and optimize their performance.

  11. El Paso and White Sands area as seen from the Apollo 6 unmanned spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    The El Paso and White Sands area are photographed from the Apollo 6 (Spacecraft 020/Saturn 502) unmanned space mission three hours and eight minutes after liftoff. North is toward top of picture. Near bottom center of picture is the El Paso-Ciudad Juarez, Mexico metropolitan area. At the top is the White Sands National Monument area. Note Rio Grande River on left side of picture. The snow-covered Sacremento Mountains are seen in the upper right corner. The altitude of the spacecraft when this photograph was taken was 115 nautical miles.

  12. Participation in prenatal care in the Paso del Norte border region: the influence of acculturation.

    PubMed

    Fullerton, Judith T; Bader, Julia; Nelson, Carlene; Shannon, Rachel

    2006-01-01

    Women who resided on the El Paso, Texas/Juarez, Mexico border (the Paso del Norte region) were surveyed to determine the barriers and facilitators to receiving early and adequate prenatal care. Postpartum interviews and medical chart abstractions were conducted among 493 Hispanic women. Primary facilitators were all factors that made prenatal care services more accessible to women and a priority among other issues competing for time and resources. The factors reported by these women as barriers to timely entry and sustaining enrollment in prenatal care were related to the availability of social support networks and affiliation with the Mexican/Hispanic culture (acculturation).

  13. Sample Return Primer and Handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrow, Kirk; Cheuvront, Allan; Faris, Grant; Hirst, Edward; Mainland, Nora; McGee, Michael; Szalai, Christine; Vellinga, Joseph; Wahl, Thomas; Williams, Kenneth; Lee, Gentry; Duxbury, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    This three-part Sample Return Primer and Handbook provides a road map for conducting the terminal phase of a sample return mission. The main chapters describe element-by-element analyses and trade studies, as well as required operations plans, procedures, contingencies, interfaces, and corresponding documentation. Based on the experiences of the lead Stardust engineers, the topics include systems engineering (in particular range safety compliance), mission design and navigation, spacecraft hardware and entry, descent, and landing certification, flight and recovery operations, mission assurance and system safety, test and training, and the very important interactions with external support organizations (non-NASA tracking assets, landing site support, and science curation).

  14. GIS-MODELED INDICATORS OF MOBILE SOURCE EMISSIONS AND ADVERSE HEALTH EFFECTS AMONG CHILDREN IN EL PASO, TEXAS, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The El Paso Children's Health Study has been a major collaborative effort by NHEERL and NERL scientists to examine the role of mobile source emissions in the development of allergies and asthma among 4th and 5th grade children in El Paso, TX. The purpose of this study was to det...

  15. GIS-MODELED INDICATORS OF MOBILE SOURCE EMISSIONS AND ADVERSE HEALTH EFFECTS AMONG CHILDREN IN EL PASO, TEXAS,USA*

    EPA Science Inventory

    The El Paso Children's Health Study has been a major collaborative effort by NHEERL and NERL scientists to examine the role of mobile source emissions in the development of allergies and asthma among 4th and 5th grade children in El Paso, TX. The purpose of this study was to dete...

  16. 75 FR 42737 - Texas Gas Service Company, a Division of ONEOK, Inc. v. El Paso Natural Gas Company; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Texas Gas Service Company, a Division of ONEOK, Inc. v. El Paso Natural Gas...) (Complainants) filed a formal complaint against El Paso Natural Gas Company (EPNG) (Respondent) alleging...

  17. 77 FR 26539 - El Paso Natural Gas Company; Supplemental Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-04

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission El Paso Natural Gas Company; Supplemental Notice of Intent To Prepare an...) proposed by El Paso Natural Gas Company (EPNG). The Project involves modification, construction, and... to increase the capacity at the El Fresnal Meter Station; and Replacement of existing pipeline at...

  18. CONTINUOUS MEASUREMENT OF FINE AND ULTRAFINE PARTICULATE MATTER, CRITERIA POLLUTANTS AND METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS IN URBAN EL PASO, TEXAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Continuous measurements of aerosol size distributions were made in El Paso, TX, for a period in winter 1999. Size distribution measurements were performed at two urban locations in El Paso using two pairs of the scanning mobility particle sizer and the aerodynamic particle si...

  19. 78 FR 21934 - El Paso Natural Gas Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-12

    ... Authorization Take notice that on March 26, 2013, El Paso Natural Gas Company, L.L.C. (El Paso), P.O. Box 1087...., P.O. Box 1087, Colorado Springs, CO 80944, (719) 667-7517. Any person or the Commission's staff...

  20. 78 FR 22540 - El Paso Natural Gas Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission El Paso Natural Gas Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Petition for... Practice and Procedure, 18 CFR 385.207(a)(2)(2012), El Paso Natural Gas Company, L.L.C. (EPNG) submits...

  1. PrimerZ: streamlined primer design for promoters, exons and human SNPs.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Ming-Fang; Lin, Yi-Jung; Cheng, Yu-Chang; Lee, Kuo-Hsi; Huang, Cheng-Chih; Chen, Yuan-Tsong; Yao, Adam

    2007-07-01

    PrimerZ (http://genepipe.ngc.sinica.edu.tw/primerz/) is a web application dedicated primarily to primer design for genes and human SNPs. PrimerZ accepts genes by gene name or Ensembl accession code, and SNPs by dbSNP rs or AFFY_Probe IDs. The promoter and exon sequence information of all gene transcripts fetched from the Ensembl database (http://www.ensembl.org) are processed before being passed on to Primer3 (http://frodo.wi.mit.edu/cgi-bin/primer3/primer3_www.cgi) for individual primer design. All results returned from Primer 3 are organized and integrated in a specially designed web page for easy browsing. Besides the web page presentation, csv text file export is also provided for enhanced user convenience. PrimerZ automates highly standard but tedious gene primer design to improve the success rate of PCR experiments. More than 2000 primers have been designed with PrimerZ at our institute since 2004 and the success rate is over 70%. The addition of several new features has made PrimerZ even more useful to the research community in facilitating primer design for promoters, exons and SNPs.

  2. Primer design for large scale sequencing.

    PubMed

    Haas, S; Vingron, M; Poustka, A; Wiemann, S

    1998-06-15

    We have developed PRIDE, a primer design program that automatically designs primers in single contigs or whole sequencing projects to extend the already known sequence and to double strand single-stranded regions. The program is fully integrated into the Staden package (GAP4) and accessible with a graphical user interface. PRIDE uses a fuzzy logic-based system to calculate primer qualities. The computational performance of PRIDE is enhanced by using suffix trees to store the huge amount of data being produced. A test set of 110 sequencing primers and 11 PCR primer pairs has been designed on genomic templates, cDNAs and sequences containing repetitive elements to analyze PRIDE's success rate. The high performance of PRIDE, combined with its minimal requirement of user interaction and its fast algorithm, make this program useful for the large scale design of primers, especially in large sequencing projects.

  3. Primer design for large scale sequencing.

    PubMed Central

    Haas, S; Vingron, M; Poustka, A; Wiemann, S

    1998-01-01

    We have developed PRIDE, a primer design program that automatically designs primers in single contigs or whole sequencing projects to extend the already known sequence and to double strand single-stranded regions. The program is fully integrated into the Staden package (GAP4) and accessible with a graphical user interface. PRIDE uses a fuzzy logic-based system to calculate primer qualities. The computational performance of PRIDE is enhanced by using suffix trees to store the huge amount of data being produced. A test set of 110 sequencing primers and 11 PCR primer pairs has been designed on genomic templates, cDNAs and sequences containing repetitive elements to analyze PRIDE's success rate. The high performance of PRIDE, combined with its minimal requirement of user interaction and its fast algorithm, make this program useful for the large scale design of primers, especially in large sequencing projects. PMID:9611248

  4. 78 FR 15683 - Approval of Subzone Status, Expeditors International of Washington, Inc.; El Paso, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-12

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Approval of Subzone Status, Expeditors International of Washington, Inc.; El... application submitted by the City of El Paso, grantee of FTZ 68, requesting subzone status subject to the existing activation limit of FTZ 68, on behalf of Expeditors International of Washington, Inc., in El...

  5. Urban Impact of Dissolved Metals in the Paso del Norte Segment of the Rio Grande

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freiwan, Sumayeh Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    The Paso del Norte segment of the Rio Grande experiences two seasons per year; the (wet) irrigation season and the (dry) non-irrigation season. The goal of this study was to improve the understanding of occurrence and contribution of dissolved metals in this region during the non-irrigation season. The objectives of this study were to (1) evaluate…

  6. Mediated Debate, Historical Framing, and Public Art: The Juan de Onate Controversy in El Paso

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Frank G.; Ortega, Carlos F.

    2008-01-01

    In 1988, the El Paso, Texas, city council accepted a proposal to build twelve statues of historically important individuals as part of a downtown revitalization initiative. Juan de Onate was selected as the centerpiece statue of the XII Travelers Memorial of the Southwest. The decision to honor the Spanish colonizer triggered a local controversy…

  7. Comparing Values in Education on the U.S.-Mexican Border, El Paso and Ciudad Juarez.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rippberger, Susan; Staudt, Kathleen

    A three-year study examined attitudes toward education and public schools through behaviors in elementary schools in two United States-Mexican border towns, El Paso (Texas) and Ciudad Juarez (Mexico). It looked at curricular civic rituals such as the flag salute, and more covert normative training found in classroom organization and management…

  8. Nucleic acid amplification using modular branched primers

    DOEpatents

    Ulanovsky, Levy; Raja, Mugasimangalam C.

    2001-01-01

    Methods and compositions expand the options for making primers for use in amplifying nucleic acid segments. The invention eliminates the step of custom synthesis of primers for Polymerase Chain Reactions (PCR). Instead of being custom-synthesized, a primer is replaced by a combination of several oligonucleotide modules selected from a pre-synthesized library. A modular combination of just a few oligonucleotides essentially mimics the performance of a conventional, custom-made primer by matching the sequence of the priming site in the template. Each oligonucleotide module has a segment that matches one of the stretches within the priming site.

  9. Interaction and Relationship Between Groundwater and Surface Water at Keystone Heritage Park EL Paso Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, B.

    2012-12-01

    Belinda Gonzalez1, Joshua Villalobos1, Marissa Cameron 2 1Department of Geological Sciences, El Paso Community College, El Paso, TX 79925, USA 2Department of Geological Sciences, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968, USA beli_72764@yahoo.com Historically the floodplain of the Rio Grande River was dotted with shifting wetlands and ponds.The increasing population throughout the United States and Mexico has made it necessary to put the Rio Grande floodplain under till for cultivation. Along with cultivation, the river was channelized and dammed to prevent flooding and to stabilize the Mexico/U.S. border.The loss of wetland ecosystems in the area changed migration patterns of water fowl and destroyed priceless aquatic habitats.The area of our study, Keystone Heritage Park, is the last remaining open wetlands in El Paso County. Before efforts of restoration to reestablish wetlands associated with the Rio Grande can begin, there must be an in-depth, and complete, understanding of the surface and subsurface hydrological system which created and sustains this last remaining wetland. Studies of the wetland's soil properties and their effect on groundwater flow have indicated regions on the periphery of the wetlands where soils are saturated with moisture.These subsurface regions of saturated soils are semi-linear in shape and lead toward the wetland indicating that they are possible loci for groundwater flow for the wetland.These subsurface soil layers are possibly composed of mountain front alluvium that is being feed with meteoric water entering faults that bound the nearby Franklin Mountains.The primary goals of this study are 1) initiate a systematic data acquisition from 9 piezometers and 2 water level loggers of temporal variations in the depth of the groundwater due to regional pumping or rain fall and 2) generate a depth and TDS (Total Dissolved Solids) profile of the wetland pond to locate regions where groundwater maybe entering the lake.

  10. Atmospheric volatile organic compound measurements during the 1996 Paso del Norte Ozone Study.

    PubMed

    Seila, R L; Main, H H; Arriaga, J L; Martínez, G; Ramadan, A B

    2001-08-10

    Ambient air VOC samples were collected at surface air quality monitoring sites, near sources of interest, and aloft on the US (El Paso) and Mexican (Ciudad Juárez) side of the border during a six-week period of the 1996 Paso del Norte Ozone Study. Samples were collected at five sites, three on the US side and two on the Mexican side, during nine intensive operation days when high ozone levels were forecast for the area. Six other sites were sampled to characterize up-wind, down-wind and other emission sources. Samples for determining source profiles were collected for rush hour traffic, propane-powered bus exhaust, automobile paint shop emissions, propane fuels, and industrial manufacturing in Cd. Juárez and a refinery in El Paso. Most samples were collected in electro-polished stainless steel canisters for determination of C2 to C(10+) hydrocarbons by GC-FID. Carbonyl samples were collected on DNPH impregnated cartridges at three surface sites during aircraft flights and analyzed by HPLC. This paper presents the spatial and temporal characteristics of VOC species concentrations and compositions to examine the differences and similarities of the various locations and time periods. Overall surface, total non-methane hydrocarbon values ranged from 0.1 to 3.4 ppmC with the highest concentrations being recorded in the morning and evening at five vehicle-dominated sites, three in Cd. Juárez and two in El Paso. Toluene in El Paso samples and propane, which is used as a cooking and transportation fuel in Cd. Juárez, were the most abundant hydrocarbons. The most abundant carbonyls were acetaldehyde, acetone and formaldehyde.

  11. Hydrocarbon source apportionment for the 1996 Paso del Norte Ozone Study.

    PubMed

    Fujita, E M

    2001-08-10

    The 1996 Paso del Norte (PdN) ozone study was conducted to improve current understanding of the significant meteorological and air quality processes that lead to high concentrations of ozone in El Paso, Texas (USA) and Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua (Mexico). Two-hour canister samples were collected five times daily at 05.00-07.00 h, 07.00-09.00 h, 09.00-11.00 h, 11.00-13.00 h, and 15.00-17.00 h MST during intensive study periods at one urban and one rural site on each side of the border. An automated gas chromatograph was operated at one site in central El Paso. Source profiles (the fractional chemical composition of emissions) from motor vehicles, gasoline, liquefied petroleum gas, and commercial natural gas were combined with source profiles from other studies for input to the Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) receptor model to apportion the measured non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC) to sources. On-road vehicle emissions accounted for one-half to two-thirds of the NMHC in Ciudad Juárez and El Paso with the highest contributions occurring during the morning and afternoon commute periods. Emissions from diesel exhaust contributed approximately 2-3% of NMHC in Ciudad Juárez and less than 2% in El Paso. The average sum of liquid gasoline and gasoline vapor increased during the day in Ciudad Juárez from 2% at 06.00 h to approximately 12% at 16.00 h. Diurnal and day-of-the-week patterns in the liquid gasoline contributions are essentially identical to the corresponding patterns for motor vehicle exhaust, which suggest that a large fraction of the liquid gasoline contribution may be associated with tailpipe emissions rather than evaporative emissions from motor vehicles or industrial sources. Including the sum of the two sources put the upper limit for tailpipe contributions at 60-70% of NMHC.

  12. A Primer on Observational Measurement.

    PubMed

    Girard, Jeffrey M; Cohn, Jeffrey F

    2016-08-01

    Observational measurement plays an integral role in a variety of scientific endeavors within biology, psychology, sociology, education, medicine, and marketing. The current article provides an interdisciplinary primer on observational measurement; in particular, it highlights recent advances in observational methodology and the challenges that accompany such growth. First, we detail the various types of instrument that can be used to standardize measurements across observers. Second, we argue for the importance of validity in observational measurement and provide several approaches to validation based on contemporary validity theory. Third, we outline the challenges currently faced by observational researchers pertaining to measurement drift, observer reactivity, reliability analysis, and time/expense. Fourth, we describe recent advances in computer-assisted measurement, fully automated measurement, and statistical data analysis. Finally, we identify several key directions for future observational research to explore.

  13. A Practical Primer on Geostatistics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olea, Ricardo A.

    2009-01-01

    significant methodological implications. HISTORICAL REMARKS As a discipline, geostatistics was firmly established in the 1960s by the French engineer Georges Matheron, who was interested in the appraisal of ore reserves in mining. Geostatistics did not develop overnight. Like other disciplines, it has built on previous results, many of which were formulated with different objectives in various fields. PIONEERS Seminal ideas conceptually related to what today we call geostatistics or spatial statistics are found in the work of several pioneers, including: 1940s: A.N. Kolmogorov in turbulent flow and N. Wiener in stochastic processing; 1950s: D. Krige in mining; 1960s: B. Mathern in forestry and L.S. Gandin in meteorology CALCULATIONS Serious applications of geostatistics require the use of digital computers. Although for most geostatistical techniques rudimentary implementation from scratch is fairly straightforward, coding programs from scratch is recommended only as part of a practice that may help users to gain a better grasp of the formulations. SOFTWARE For professional work, the reader should employ software packages that have been thoroughly tested to handle any sampling scheme, that run as efficiently as possible, and that offer graphic capabilities for the analysis and display of results. This primer employs primarily the package Stanford Geomodeling Software (SGeMS) - recently developed at the Energy Resources Engineering Department at Stanford University - as a way to show how to obtain results practically. This applied side of the primer should not be interpreted as the notes being a manual for the use of SGeMS. The main objective of the primer is to help the reader gain an understanding of the fundamental concepts and tools in geostatistics. ORGANIZATION OF THE PRIMER The chapters of greatest importance are those covering kriging and simulation. All other materials are peripheral and are included for better comprehension of th

  14. Linear elastic fracture mechanics primer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Christopher D.

    1992-01-01

    This primer is intended to remove the blackbox perception of fracture mechanics computer software by structural engineers. The fundamental concepts of linear elastic fracture mechanics are presented with emphasis on the practical application of fracture mechanics to real problems. Numerous rules of thumb are provided. Recommended texts for additional reading, and a discussion of the significance of fracture mechanics in structural design are given. Griffith's criterion for crack extension, Irwin's elastic stress field near the crack tip, and the influence of small-scale plasticity are discussed. Common stress intensities factor solutions and methods for determining them are included. Fracture toughness and subcritical crack growth are discussed. The application of fracture mechanics to damage tolerance and fracture control is discussed. Several example problems and a practice set of problems are given.

  15. Primer: Shotgun Proteomics in Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Lujian; McClatchy, Daniel B.; Yates, John R.

    2009-01-01

    Mass spectrometry-based proteomics is increasingly used to address basic and clinical questions in biomedical research through studies of differential protein expression, protein-protein interactions, and post-translational modifications. The complex structural and functional organization of the human brain warrants the application of high-throughput, systematic approaches to understand the functional alterations under normal physiological conditions and the perturbations of neurological diseases. This primer focuses on shotgun proteomics based tandem mass spectrometry for the identification of proteins in a complex mixture. It describes the basic concepts of protein differential expression analysis and post-translational modification analysis and discusses several strategies to improve the coverage of the proteome. PMID:19607789

  16. Titanium Mass-balance Analysis of Paso Robles Soils: Elemental Gains and Losses as Affected by Acid Alteration Fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutter, Brad; Ming, Douglas W.

    2010-01-01

    The Columbia Hills soils have been exposed to aqueous alteration in alkaline [1] as well as acid conditions [2,3]. The Paso Robles class soils are bright soils that possess the highest S concentration of any soil measured on Mars [2]. Ferric-sulfate detection by Moessbauer analysis indicated that acid solutions were involved in forming these soils [4]. These soils are proposed to have formed by alteration of nearby rock by volcanic hydrothermal or fumarolic activity. The Paso Robles soils consist of the original Paso Robles-disturbed-Pasadena (PR-dist), Paso Robles- PasoLight (PR-PL), Arad-Samra, Arad-Hula, Tyrone- Berker Island1 and Tyrone-MountDarwin [2 ,3. ]Chemical characteristics indicate that the PR-dist and PR-PL soils could be derived from acid weathering of local Wishstone rocks while the Samra and Hula soils are likely derived from local Algonquin-Iroquet rock [3]. The Paso Robles soils were exposed to acidic sulfur bearing fluids; however, little else is known about the chemistry of the alteration fluid and its effects on the alteration of the proposed parent materials. The objectives of this work are to conduct titanium normalized mass-balance analysis to1) assess elemental gains and losses from the parent materials in the formation of the Paso Robles soils and 2) utilize this information to indicate the chemical nature of the alteration fluids.

  17. PrimerMapper: high throughput primer design and graphical assembly for PCR and SNP detection.

    PubMed

    O'Halloran, Damien M

    2016-02-08

    Primer design represents a widely employed gambit in diverse molecular applications including PCR, sequencing, and probe hybridization. Variations of PCR, including primer walking, allele-specific PCR, and nested PCR provide specialized validation and detection protocols for molecular analyses that often require screening large numbers of DNA fragments. In these cases, automated sequence retrieval and processing become important features, and furthermore, a graphic that provides the user with a visual guide to the distribution of designed primers across targets is most helpful in quickly ascertaining primer coverage. To this end, I describe here, PrimerMapper, which provides a comprehensive graphical user interface that designs robust primers from any number of inputted sequences while providing the user with both, graphical maps of primer distribution for each inputted sequence, and also a global assembled map of all inputted sequences with designed primers. PrimerMapper also enables the visualization of graphical maps within a browser and allows the user to draw new primers directly onto the webpage. Other features of PrimerMapper include allele-specific design features for SNP genotyping, a remote BLAST window to NCBI databases, and remote sequence retrieval from GenBank and dbSNP. PrimerMapper is hosted at GitHub and freely available without restriction.

  18. PrimerMapper: high throughput primer design and graphical assembly for PCR and SNP detection

    PubMed Central

    O’Halloran, Damien M.

    2016-01-01

    Primer design represents a widely employed gambit in diverse molecular applications including PCR, sequencing, and probe hybridization. Variations of PCR, including primer walking, allele-specific PCR, and nested PCR provide specialized validation and detection protocols for molecular analyses that often require screening large numbers of DNA fragments. In these cases, automated sequence retrieval and processing become important features, and furthermore, a graphic that provides the user with a visual guide to the distribution of designed primers across targets is most helpful in quickly ascertaining primer coverage. To this end, I describe here, PrimerMapper, which provides a comprehensive graphical user interface that designs robust primers from any number of inputted sequences while providing the user with both, graphical maps of primer distribution for each inputted sequence, and also a global assembled map of all inputted sequences with designed primers. PrimerMapper also enables the visualization of graphical maps within a browser and allows the user to draw new primers directly onto the webpage. Other features of PrimerMapper include allele-specific design features for SNP genotyping, a remote BLAST window to NCBI databases, and remote sequence retrieval from GenBank and dbSNP. PrimerMapper is hosted at GitHub and freely available without restriction. PMID:26853558

  19. A Primer on Sampling for Statewide Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaeger, Richard M.

    This paper is a primer on sampling procedures for statewide assessment. The careful reader should gain substantial knowledge about the promises and pitfalls of sampling for assessment. The primer has three basic objectives: (1) to define terms and concepts basic to sampling theory and its application, including population, sampling unit, sampling…

  20. Primer on Special Education in Charter Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luna, Tom

    2007-01-01

    This section of the Idaho Primer on Special Education in Charter Schools is divided into two parts: (1) a discussion of the legal status of charter schools and their linkage to other local education agencies (LEAs), and (2) a synopsis of federal laws that are most relevant to special education in charter schools. The Primer on Special Education in…

  1. SBE primer : multiplexing minisequencing-based genotyping

    SciTech Connect

    Kaderali, L.; Deshpande, A.; Uribe-Romeo, F. J.; Schliep, A.; Torney, D. C.

    2002-01-01

    Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis is a powerful tool for mapping and diagnosing disease-related alleles. Most of the known genetic diseases are caused by point mutations, and a growing number of SNPs will be routinely analyzed to diagnose genetic disorders. Mutation analysis by polymerase mediated single-base primer extension (minisequencing) can be massively parallelized using for example DNA microchips or flow cytometry with microspheres as solid support. By adding a unique oligonucleotide tag to the 5-inch end of the minisequencing primer and attaching the complementary anti-tag to the array or bead surface, the assay can be 'demultiplexed'. However, such high-throughput scoring of SNPs requires a high level of primer multiplexing in order to analyze multiple loci in one assay, thus enabling inexpensive and fast polymorphism scoring. Primers can be chosen from either the plus or the minus strand, and primers used in the same experiment must not bind to one another. To genotype a given number of polymorphic sites, the question is which primer to use for each SNP, and which primers to group into the same experiment. Furthermore, a crosshybridization-free tag/anti-tag code is required in order to sort the extended primers to the corresponding microspheres or chip spots. These problems pose challenging algorithmic questions. We present a computer program lo automate the design process for the assay. Oligonucleotide primers for the reaction are automatically selected by the software, a unique DNA tag/anti-tag system is generated, and the pairing of primers and DNA-Tags is automatically done in a way to avoid any crossreactivity. We report first results on a 45-plex genotyping assay, indicating that minisequencing can be adapted to be a powerful tool for high-throughput, massively parallel genotyping.

  2. Geoseismic issues considered for design of the Samalayuca pipeline, El Paso County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Keaton, J.R.; Beckwith, G.H.; Medina, O.

    1995-12-31

    The Samalayuca, Pipeline is a proposed 20-inch-diameter natural gas pipeline extending approximately 21 miles from the Hueco Compressor Station on the El Paso Natural Gas main line to the International Boundary with Mexico near Clint, Texas, about 25 miles southeast of El Paso. The purpose of the project is to supply gas for power generation at a plant south of Cuidad Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico. Geoseismic issues considered in the design of the Samalayuca Pipeline consisted of surface fault rupture, earthquake-induced landslides, and liquefaction-induced ground displacement.Faults represent two kinds of hazard to pipeline facilities: surface displacement and strong shaking. Earthquake-induced landslides and liquefaction require strong shaking to occur before these processes represent hazards to buried pipelines.

  3. PACES Participation in Educational Outreach Programs at the University of Texas at El Paso

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodge, Rebecca L.

    1997-01-01

    The University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP) is involved in several initiatives to improve science education within the El Paso area public schools. These include outreach efforts into the K- 12 classrooms; training programs for in-service teachers; and the introduction of a strong science core curricula within the College of Education. The Pan American Center for Earth and Environmental Studies (PACES), a NASA-funded University Research Center, will leverage off the goals of these existing initiatives to provide curriculum support materials at all levels. We will use currently available Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) materials as well as new materials developed specifically for this region, in an effort to introduce the Earth System Science perspective into these programs. In addition, we are developing curriculum support materials and classes within the Geology and Computer Departments, to provide education in the area of remote sensing and GIS applications at the undergraduate and graduate levels.

  4. U.S. EPA Settles with El Paso Natural Gas for Cleanup Costs at Abandoned Uranium Mines on Navajo Nation

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    SAN FRANCISCO - Today, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Department of Justice announced a settlement worth more than $500,000 with El Paso Natural Gas Company LLC, (EPNG) to reimburse government costs related to 19 abandoned uranium

  5. Composition and Formation of the "Paso Robles" Class Soils at Gusev Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yen, A. S.; Morris, Richard V.; Gellert, R.; Clark, B. C.; Ming, Douglas W.; Klingelhoefer, G.; McCoy, T. J.; Schmidt, M. E.

    2007-01-01

    Light-toned, subsurface soil deposits have been excavated by the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Spirit in six distinct locations along its traverse across the Columbia Hills of Gusev Crater. Samples at two of these sites have been analyzed in detail by the M ssbauer (MB) and Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometers (APXS), providing information on iron mineralogy and elemental chemistry, respectively. These soils are referred to as "Paso Robles" class deposits.

  6. The Keystone Dame Site and other Archaic and Formative Sites in Northwest El Paso, Texas.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-10-01

    specifically Apache plume, little-leaf sumac, acacia, sagebrush, was identified somewhat more often than tornilho. mesquite, and Mormon tea , or joint fir, which...Convolvulus - bindweed. Croton sp. - spurge. a Dithrvea wizlezenii - spectacle pod. SEhedra - mormon tea . Most of the Ephedra pollen in the samples...Lowell T. Bye, Robert A., Jr., Don Burgess, and Albino Mares Trias 1971 The Mammals of El Paso County, Texas. With 1975 Ethnobotany of the Western

  7. Primer on spontaneous heating and pyrophoricity

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    This primer was prepared as an information resource for personnel responsible for operation of DOE nuclear facilities. It has sections on combustion principles, spontaneous heating/ignition of hydrocarbons and organics, pyrophoric gases and liquids, pyrophoric nonmetallic solids, pyrophoric metals (including Pu and U), and accident case studies. Although the information in this primer is not all-encompassing, it should provide the reader with a fundamental knowledge level sufficient to recognize most spontaneous combustion hazards and how to prevent ignition and widespread fires. This primer is provided as an information resource only, and is not intended to replace any fire protection or hazardous material training.

  8. The Influence of Photolysis Rate Constants in Ozone Production for the Paso del Norte Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becerra, Fernando; Fitzgerald, Rosa

    2012-03-01

    In this research work we are focusing on understanding the relationship between photolysis rates and the photochemical ozone changes observed in the Paso del Norte region. The city of El Paso, Texas together with Ciudad Juarez, Mexico, forms the largest contiguous bi-national metropolitan area. This region suffers year-round ozone pollution events, and a better understanding is needed to mitigate them. Previous studies have found that ambient ozone concentrations tend to be higher on weekends rather than on weekdays, this phenomenon being referred to, as the ``weekend effect.'' If the ozone standard is exceeded more frequently on weekends, then this phenomenon must be considered in the design of ozone control strategies. In this work we investigate some of the most representative weekend ozone episodes at El Paso, TX, during the years 2009, 2010 and 2011 using the ozone photolysis rates. In this research the TUV radiative-transfer model is used to calculate the local photolysis rates and a UV MFRSR instrument is used to obtain experimental parameters. Seasonal variations and the weekday-weekend effect is studied. The results of this research will help to understand the underlying behavior of the photolysis rate constants when different atmospheric conditions are present.

  9. Phenomena that influence high ozone concentrations in the Paso del Norte area

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, C.P.; Roberts, P.T.; Main, H.H.; Dye, T.S.; Yarbrough, J.

    1998-12-31

    This paper summarizes the results of analyses of meteorological and air quality data for the 1996 Paso del Norte Ozone Study. The purpose of these data analyses was to develop an understanding of the significant chemical and physical processes which lead to high concentrations of ozone in the Paso del Norte study region which includes El Paso, TX; Sunland Park, NM; and Juarez, Mexico. This analysis has shown that the high ozone concentrations are a result of slow convective boundary layer growth, reduced convective boundary layer depth, light surface winds, and high morning surface ozone precursor concentrations. Overlying meteorological conditions observed during high ozone episodes include an upstream aloft high pressure system, aloft warming, and weak surface pressure gradients. The analysis has also shown that aloft carryover of ozone and ozone precursors does not significantly contribute to the surface ozone concentration. Furthermore, hydrocarbon and NO{sub x} data, although spatially limited, show that the system is most often NO{sub x} rather than VOC limited.

  10. Primers-4-Yeast: a comprehensive web tool for planning primers for Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Yofe, Ido; Schuldiner, Maya

    2014-02-01

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a key model organism of functional genomics, due to its ease and speed of genetic manipulations. In fact, in this yeast, the requirement for homologous sequences for recombination purposes is so small that 40 base pairs (bp) are sufficient. Hence, an enormous variety of genetic manipulations can be performed by simply planning primers with the correct homology, using a defined set of transformation plasmids. Although designing primers for yeast transformations and for the verification of their correct insertion is a common task in all yeast laboratories, primer planning is usually done manually and a tool that would enable easy, automated primer planning for the yeast research community is still lacking. Here we introduce Primers-4-Yeast, a web tool that allows primers to be designed in batches for S. cerevisiae gene-targeting transformations, and for the validation of correct insertions. This novel tool enables fast, automated, accurate primer planning for large sets of genes, introduces consistency in primer planning and is therefore suggested to serve as a standard in yeast research. Primers-4-Yeast is available at: http://www.weizmann.ac.il/Primers-4-Yeast

  11. Multiplexing Short Primers for Viral Family PCR

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, S N; Hiddessen, A L; Hara, C A; Williams, P L; Wagner, M; Colston, B W

    2008-06-26

    We describe a Multiplex Primer Prediction (MPP) algorithm to build multiplex compatible primer sets for large, diverse, and unalignable sets of target sequences. The MPP algorithm is scalable to larger target sets than other available software, and it does not require a multiple sequence alignment. We applied it to questions in viral detection, and demonstrated that there are no universally conserved priming sequences among viruses and that it could require an unfeasibly large number of primers ({approx}3700 18-mers or {approx}2000 10-mers) to generate amplicons from all sequenced viruses. We then designed primer sets separately for each viral family, and for several diverse species such as foot-and-mouth disease virus, hemagglutinin and neuraminidase segments of influenza A virus, Norwalk virus, and HIV-1.

  12. Use of labeled primers for differential display

    SciTech Connect

    Paunesku, T.; Woloschak, G.E.

    1995-01-01

    Two artifacts introduced in using differential display technology are (1) random priming from dT present from affinity purification of PolyA+ RNA and (2) hybridization of the arbitrary primer to template target sequences on both cDNA strands. We have developed a method eliminating both problems. By separately using 5`-end-labeled (T){sub 12}XY and arbitrary primers to label bands and comparing two differential display patterns, we can detect only those products incorporating the (T){sub 12}XY primer on the 3` ends and the arbitrary primer on 5` ends. Those bands that are generated randomly in the PCR are readily detectable and can be ignored.

  13. Climate Ready Estuaries Rolling Easements Primer

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Rolling easements enable wetlands and beaches to migrate inland and allow society to avoid the costs and hazards of protecting low lands from rising sea levels. This document provides a primer on more than a dozen rolling easement approaches.

  14. PCR hot-start using duplex primers.

    PubMed

    Kong, Deming; Shen, Hanxi; Huang, Yanping; Mi, Huaifeng

    2004-02-01

    A new technique of PCR hot-start using duplex primers has been developed which can decrease the undesirable products arising throughout PCR amplification thereby giving better results than a manual hot-start method.

  15. A Dozen Primers on Important Information Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dempsey, Kathy, Comp.

    2007-01-01

    This is a compilation of 12 primers on important information standards and protocols. These primers are: (1) Atom; (2) COinS; (3) MADS; (4) MARC 21/MARCXML; (5) MIX; (6) MXG; (7) OpenSearch; (8) PREMIS; (9) RESTful HTTP; (10) unAPI; (11) XMPP (aka Jabber); and (12) ZeeRex. The Atom Syndication Format defines a new XML-based syndication format for…

  16. Protective Coats For Zinc-Rich Primers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdowell, Louis G, III

    1993-01-01

    Report describes tests of topcoats for inorganic zinc-rich primers on carbon steel. Topcoats intended to provide additional protection against corrosion in acidic, salty seacoast-air/rocket-engine-exhaust environment of Space Shuttle launch site. Tests focused on polyurethane topcoats on epoxy tie coats on primers. Part of study involved comparison between "high-build" coating materials and thin-film coating materials.

  17. Are "universal" DNA primers really universal?

    PubMed

    Sharma, Pranay; Kobayashi, Tsuyoshi

    2014-11-01

    "Universal" DNA primers LCO 1490 and HCO 2198 were originally designed from three coding and six anticoding strands by comparing highly conserved regions of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) genes across 15 taxa. These primers have been successful in amplifying a 710-bp fragment of highly conserved regions of the COI gene for more than 80 invertebrate species from 11 phyla. In the present study, 130,843 variations were reviewed in the primer region of mitochondrial molecular markers by comparing 725 COI sequences from the kingdom Animalia. It was found that, for 177 invertebrate species, the forward primer (LCO 1490) showed only four conserved regions, compared to 12 in the original study. For ascidians, fungi and vertebrates, it showed approximately 50 % conserved regions, dropping to one conserved region for echinoderms. However, the reverse primer (HCO 2198) was highly conserved across 725 COI primer sequences. A similar pattern was observed in amino acid distributions. There was a significant difference in the means of base pair differences from the level of family, genus and species for LCO 1490 [analysis of variance (ANOVA), F 6,188 = 8.193, P < 0.001] and at the level of genus and species for HCO 2198 (ANOVA, F 6,77 = 2.538, P < 0.027). We conclude that, at different taxonomic levels, it is possible to design forward primers from reference sequences belonging to the level of order (maximum 5 bp differences), family (maximum 6 bp differences) or genus (maximum 1 bp difference). Reverse primers can be designed from the level of family (maximum 5 bp differences) or genus (maximum 2 bp differences).

  18. Use of labeled primers for differential display

    SciTech Connect

    Paunesku, T.; Woloschak, G.E.

    1995-02-01

    The differential display of eukaryotic cDNAs using PCR allows for determination of mRNA species differentially expressed when comparing two similar cell populations. This procedure uses a (T){sub 12}XY oligonucleotide as the 3 ft primer and an arbitrary 8-10-mer as the 5 ft primer. Labeling occurs by inclusion of {alpha}[{sup 33}P]-dATP in the PCR reaction. Two artifacts caused by this approach are (1) random printing from dT present from affinity purification of PolyA+RNA and (2) hybridization of the arbitrary primer to template target sequences on both cDNA strands. In this work, we have developed an approach for both eliminating smearing and identifying nonspecific bands on sequencing gels. By separately using 5 ft-end-labeled (T){sub 12}XY and arbitrary primers to label bands and comparing two differential display patterns rather than including labeled nucleotides in the PCR reaction itself, we can detect only those products incorporating the M{sub 12}XY primer on the 3 ft ends and the arbitrary primer on 5 ft ends. Those bands that are generated randomly in the PCR reaction are readily detectable and can be ignored. If on the other hand, one is interested only in a diagnostic banding pattern for differential display, benefit can be derived from the simplicity of the pattern obtained when labeled (T){sub 12}XY is used.

  19. PrimerDesign-M: A multiple-alignment based multiple-primer design tool for walking across variable genomes

    DOE PAGES

    Yoon, Hyejin; Leitner, Thomas

    2014-12-17

    Analyses of entire viral genomes or mtDNA requires comprehensive design of many primers across their genomes. In addition, simultaneous optimization of several DNA primer design criteria may improve overall experimental efficiency and downstream bioinformatic processing. To achieve these goals, we developed PrimerDesign-M. It includes several options for multiple-primer design, allowing researchers to efficiently design walking primers that cover long DNA targets, such as entire HIV-1 genomes, and that optimizes primers simultaneously informed by genetic diversity in multiple alignments and experimental design constraints given by the user. PrimerDesign-M can also design primers that include DNA barcodes and minimize primer dimerization. PrimerDesign-Mmore » finds optimal primers for highly variable DNA targets and facilitates design flexibility by suggesting alternative designs to adapt to experimental conditions.« less

  20. PrimerDesign-M: A multiple-alignment based multiple-primer design tool for walking across variable genomes

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Hyejin; Leitner, Thomas

    2014-12-17

    Analyses of entire viral genomes or mtDNA requires comprehensive design of many primers across their genomes. In addition, simultaneous optimization of several DNA primer design criteria may improve overall experimental efficiency and downstream bioinformatic processing. To achieve these goals, we developed PrimerDesign-M. It includes several options for multiple-primer design, allowing researchers to efficiently design walking primers that cover long DNA targets, such as entire HIV-1 genomes, and that optimizes primers simultaneously informed by genetic diversity in multiple alignments and experimental design constraints given by the user. PrimerDesign-M can also design primers that include DNA barcodes and minimize primer dimerization. PrimerDesign-M finds optimal primers for highly variable DNA targets and facilitates design flexibility by suggesting alternative designs to adapt to experimental conditions.

  1. Beam shaping for laser initiated optical primers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lizotte, Todd E.

    2008-08-01

    Remington was one of the first firearm manufacturing companies to file a patent for laser initiated firearms, in 1969. Nearly 40 years later, the development of laser initiated firearms has not become a mainstream technology in the civilian market. Requiring a battery is definitely a short coming, so it is easy to see how such a concept would be problematic. Having a firearm operate reliably and the delivery of laser energy in an efficient manner to ignite the shock-sensitive explosive primer mixtures is a tall task indeed. There has been considerable research on optical element based methods of transferring or compressing laser energy to ignite primer charges, including windows, laser chip primers and various lens shaped windows to focus the laser energy. The focusing of laser light needs to achieve igniting temperatures upwards of >400°C. Many of the patent filings covering this type of technology discuss simple approaches where a single point of light might be sufficient to perform this task. Alternatively a multi-point method might provide better performance, especially for mission critical applications, such as precision military firearms. This paper covers initial design and performance test of the laser beam shaping optics to create simultaneous multiple point ignition locations and a circumferential intense ring for igniting primer charge compounds. A simple initial test of the ring beam shaping technique was evaluated on a standard large caliber primer to determine its effectiveness on igniting the primer material. Several tests were conducted to gauge the feasibility of laser beam shaping, including optic fabrication and mounting on a cartridge, optic durability and functional ignition performance. Initial data will be presented, including testing of optically elements and empirical primer ignition / burn analysis.

  2. Primers on Special Education and Charter Schools: Compilation of Full Primer Set

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahearn, Eileen M.; Giovannetti, Elizabeth A.; Lange, Cheryl M.; Rhim, Lauren Morando; Warren, Sandra Hopfengardner

    2004-01-01

    This set of primers for charter school authorizers; charter school operators and state-level administrators has been developed to provide background information and resources for the "builders" of charter schools and policymakers to facilitate the successful inclusion of students with disabilities in charter schools. The primers open…

  3. Exquisite allele discrimination by toehold hairpin primers

    PubMed Central

    Byrom, Michelle; Bhadra, Sanchita; Jiang, Yu Sherry; Ellington, Andrew D.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to detect and monitor single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in biological samples is an enabling research and clinical tool. We have developed a surprising, inexpensive primer design method that provides exquisite discrimination between SNPs. The field of DNA computation is largely reliant on using so-called toeholds to initiate strand displacement reactions, leading to the execution of kinetically trapped circuits. We have now similarly found that the short toehold sequence to a target of interest can initiate both strand displacement within the hairpin and extension of the primer by a polymerase, both of which will further stabilize the primer:template complex. However, if the short toehold does not bind, neither of these events can readily occur and thus amplification should not occur. Toehold hairpin primers were used to detect drug resistance alleles in two genes, rpoB and katG, in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome, and ten alleles in the Escherichia coli genome. During real-time PCR, the primers discriminate between mismatched templates with Cq delays that are frequently so large that the presence or absence of mismatches is essentially a ‘yes/no’ answer. PMID:24990378

  4. Primer-design for multiplexed genotyping.

    PubMed

    Kaderali, Lars; Deshpande, Alina; Nolan, John P; White, P Scott

    2003-03-15

    Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis is a powerful tool for mapping and diagnosing disease-related alleles. Mutation analysis by polymerase-mediated single-base primer extension (minisequencing) can be massively parallelized using DNA microchips or flow cytometry with microspheres as solid support. By adding a unique oligonucleotide tag to the 5' end of the minisequencing primer and attaching the complementary antitag to the array or bead surface, the assay can be 'demultiplexed'. Such high-throughput scoring of SNPs requires a high level of primer multiplexing in order to analyze multiple loci in one assay, thus enabling inexpensive and fast polymorphism scoring. We present a computer program to automate the design process for the assay. Oligonucleotide primers for the reaction are automatically selected by the software, a unique DNA tag/antitag system is generated, and the pairing of primers and DNA tags is automatically done in a way to avoid any crossreactivity. We report results on a 45-plex genotyping assay, indicating that minisequencing can be adapted to be a powerful tool for high-throughput, massively parallel genotyping. The software is available to academic users on request.

  5. Associations between urban air pollution and pediatric asthma control in El Paso, Texas.

    PubMed

    Zora, Jennifer E; Sarnat, Stefanie Ebelt; Raysoni, Amit U; Johnson, Brent A; Li, Wen-Whai; Greenwald, Roby; Holguin, Fernando; Stock, Thomas H; Sarnat, Jeremy A

    2013-03-15

    Exposure to traffic-related pollutants poses a serious health threat to residents of major urban centers around the world. In El Paso, Texas, this problem is exacerbated by the region's arid weather, frequent temperature inversions, heavy border traffic, and an aged, poorly maintained vehicle fleet. The impact of exposure to traffic pollution, particularly on children with asthma, is poorly understood. Tracking the environmental health burden related to traffic pollution in El Paso is difficult, especially within school microenvironments, because of the lack of sensitive environmental health indicator data. The Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ) is a survey tool for the measurement of overall asthma control, yet has not previously been considered as an outcome in air pollution health effect research. We conducted a repeated measure panel study to examine weekly associations between ACQ scores and traffic- and non-traffic air pollutants among asthmatic schoolchildren in El Paso. In the main one- and two-pollutant epidemiologic models, we found non-significant, albeit suggestive, positive associations between ACQ scores and respirable particulate matter (PM10), coarse particulate matter (PM10-2.5), fine particulate matter (PM2.5), black carbon (BC), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), benzene, toluene, and ozone (O3). Notably, associations were stronger and significant for some subgroups, in particular among subjects taking daily inhaled corticosteroids. This pattern may indicate heightened immune system response in more severe asthmatics, those with worse asthma "control" and higher ACQ scores at baseline. If the ACQ is appropriately used in the context of air pollution studies, it could reflect clinically measurable and biologically relevant changes in lung function and asthma symptoms that result from poor air quality and may increase our understanding of how air pollution influences asthma exacerbation.

  6. Obstetric emergencies at the United States–Mexico border crossings in El Paso, Texas

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Jill A.; Rishel, Karen; Escobedo, Miguel A.; Arellano, Danielle E.; Cunningham, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe the frequency, characteristics, and patient outcomes for women who accessed Emergency Medical Services (EMS) for obstetric emergencies at the ports of entry (POE) between El Paso, Texas, United States of America, and Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, Mexico. Methods A descriptive study of women 12–49 years of age for whom an EMS ambulance was called to an El Paso POE location from December 2008–April 2011 was conducted. Women were identified through surveillance of EMS records. EMS and emergency department (ED) records were abstracted for all women through December 2009 and for women with an obstetric emergency through April 2011. For obstetric patients admitted to the hospital, additional prenatal and birth characteristics were collected. Frequencies and proportions were estimated for each variable; differences between residents of the United States and Mexico were tested. Results During December 2008–December 2009, 47.6% (68/143) of women receiving EMS assistance at an El Paso POE had an obstetric emergency, nearly 20 times the proportion for Texas overall. During December 2008–April 2011, 60.1% (66/109) of obstetric patients with ED records were admitted to hospital and 52 gave birth before discharge. Preterm birth (23.1%; No. = 12), low birth weight (9.6%; No. = 5), birth in transit (7.7%; No. = 4), and postpartum hemorrhage (5.8%; No. = 3) were common; fewer than one-half the women (46.2%; No. = 24) had evidence of prenatal care. Conclusions The high proportion of obstetric EMS transports and high prevalence of complications in this population suggest a need for binational risk reduction efforts. PMID:25915011

  7. Winter season air pollution in El Paso-Ciudad Juarez. A review of air pollution studies in an international airshed

    SciTech Connect

    Einfeld, W.; Church, H.W.

    1995-03-01

    This report summarizes a number of research efforts completed over the past 20 years in the El Paso del Norte region to characterize pollution sources and air quality trends. The El Paso del Norte region encompasses the cities of El Paso, Texas and Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua and is representative of many US-Mexico border communities that are facing important air quality issues as population growth and industrialization of Mexican border communities continue. Special attention is given to a group of studies carried out under special US Congressional funding and administered by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Many of these studies were fielded within the last several years to develop a better understanding of air pollution sources and trends in this typical border community. Summary findings from a wide range of studies dealing with such issues as the temporal and spatial distribution of pollutants and pollution potential from both stationary and mobile sources in both cities are presented. Particular emphasis is given to a recent study in El Paso-Ciudad Juarez that focussed on winter season PM{sub 10} pollution in El Paso-Ciudad Juarez. Preliminary estimates from this short-term study reveal that biomass combustion products and crustal material are significant components of winter season PM{sub 10} in this international border community.

  8. Investigation of Soil Permeability and Hydrological Properties of Flood Plain Deposits of the Rio Grande in EL Paso TX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schacht, D.; Jin, L.; Doser, D. I.

    2013-12-01

    The various soil types within the flood plains of Rio Grande in El Paso 's Lower Valley have long been utilized by local farmers. These soils are typically more conducive to farming than the more recent (Pliocene) sandy soils outside of the flood plain region. This project will explore the various properties of these soils types such as their grain size, depths, extent, and hydrological conductivity utilizing various geophysical and geochemical methods. The study site is located in El Paso 's Lower Valley and is situated in an actively farmed area. Soil maps from the Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS) and variations in vegetation growth will help delineate locations of soil types in the study area. The information that will be collected will produce baseline data to help track expected seasonal variations in the soil's moisture content and in the depth of the local water table. This project represents a collaboration between El Paso Community College's and the University of Texas at El Paso's Departments of Geological Sciences as a means for students majoring in Geological Sciences at El Paso Community College to gain hands on experience in researching geological issues through partnerships with their future institution and faculty.

  9. The 1996 Paso del Norte Ozone Study: analysis of meteorological and air quality data that influence local ozone concentrations.

    PubMed

    MacDonal, C P; Roberts, P T; Main, H H; Dye, T S; Coe, D L; Yarbrough, J

    2001-08-10

    The 1996 Paso del Norte Ozone Study and subsequent data analyses were implemented to develop an understanding of the chemical and physical processes which lead to high concentrations of ozone in the Paso del Norte study area which includes El Paso County, Texas, Sunland Park, New Mexico, and Ciudad Juárez, Mexico. Both the data and data analysis results are being used to support photochemical grid modeling. El Paso County and Sunland Park fail to meet the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for ozone, and neighboring Ciudad Juárez fails to meet the Mexican ambient standard for ozone. This paper summarizes the measurement campaigns of the 1996 Paso del Norte Ozone Study and the findings and conclusions that arose from subsequent data analyses. Data analyses showed that high ozone concentrations resulted from a combination of conditions, including high surface temperatures, strong sunlight with few clouds, light surface winds and high concentrations of ozone precursors at ground level in the morning, and slow convective boundary layer (CBL) growth. Synoptic-scale meteorological conditions observed during high ozone episodes included an aloft high-pressure system and aloft warming. Aloft carryover of ozone and ozone precursors did not significantly contribute to high concentrations of ozone at the surface.

  10. Results from an investigation of the integration of wind energy into the El Paso Electric grid system

    SciTech Connect

    Moroz, E.M.; Parks, N.J.; Swift, A.H.; Traichal, P.A.

    1997-12-31

    This paper documents some preliminary results from an evaluation of the costs and benefits to be gained from the integration of wind generated electricity into the El Paso Electric grid system. The study focused on the utilization of the considerable known wind potential of the Guadalupe/Delaware Mountains region, but also looked at other energetic wind resources within 15 miles of El Paso Electric`s Grid. The original project`s goal was to identify the added value of wind in terms of jobs, line support, risk reduction etc., that wind energy could bring to El Paso Electric. Although these goals have not yet been achieved the potential for water savings and reductions in gaseous emissions have been documented. Thus this paper focuses mainly on the water consumption and criteria pollutant emissions that could be avoided by adding wind energy to El Paso Electric`s generation mix. Preliminary data from a renewables attitude survey indicates that, from the 338 respondents, there is overwhelming public support for utilizing such renewable sources of electricity. This case study, which should be of direct relevance to the arid southwestern states and beyond, was sponsored by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and conducted in cooperation with El Paso Electric.

  11. El Paso County Geothermal Project at Fort Bliss. Final Project Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lear, Jon; Bennett, Carlon; Lear, Dan; Jones, Phil L.; Burdge, Mark; Barker, Ben; Segall, Marylin; Moore, Joseph; Nash, Gregory; Jones, Clay; Simmons, Stuart; Taylor, Nancy

    2016-02-01

    The El Paso County Geothermal Project at Fort Bliss was an effort to determine the scale and scope of geothermal resources previously identified on Fort Bliss’ McGregor Range in southern Otero County, New Mexico. The project was funded with a $5,000,000 grant to El Paso County from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) as part of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 and a $4,812,500 match provided by private sector partners. The project was administered through the DOE Golden Field Office to awardee El Paso County. The primary subcontractor to El Paso County and project Principal Investigator - Ruby Mountain Inc. (RMI) of Salt Lake City, Utah - assembled the project team consisting of Evergreen Clean Energy Management (ECEM) of Provo, Utah, and the Energy & Geoscience Institute at the University of Utah (EGI) in Salt Lake City, UT to complete the final phases of the project. The project formally began in May of 2010 and consisted of two preliminary phases of data collection and evaluation which culminated in the identification of a drilling site for a Resource Confirmation Well on McGregor Range. Well RMI 56-5 was drilled May and June 2013 to a depth of 3,030 ft. below ground level. A string of slotted 7 inch casing was set in 8.75 inch hole on bottom fill at 3,017 ft. to complete the well. The well was drilled using a technique called flooded reverse circulation, which is most common in mineral exploration. This technique produced an exceptionally large and complete cuttings record. An exciting development at the conclusion of drilling was the suspected discovery of a formation that has proven to be of exceptionally high permeability in three desalinization wells six miles to the south. Following drilling and preliminary testing and analysis, the project team has determined that the McGregor Range thermal anomaly is large and can probably support development in the tens of megawatts.

  12. Intermediate photovoltaic system application experiment operational performance. Volume 6: Newman Power Station, El Paso, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-01-01

    Performance data for the month of December 1981 for a 20 kW peak photovoltaic flat panel power system for an uninterruptable power supply load at an El Paso, Texas utility ae given. Data include monthly total and daily insolation, monthly total and daily electrical energy, and array efficiency. Also plotted are the data acquisition mode and recording intervals for each day of the month. Three site events (maintenance and system problems) are summarized, and missing data from December 25 through December 30 are explained.

  13. Climate Change, Health, and Communication: A Primer.

    PubMed

    Chadwick, Amy E

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is one of the most serious and pervasive challenges facing us today. Our changing climate has implications not only for the ecosystems upon which we depend, but also for human health. Health communication scholars are well-positioned to aid in the mitigation of and response to climate change and its health effects. To help theorists, researchers, and practitioners engage in these efforts, this primer explains relevant issues and vocabulary associated with climate change and its impacts on health. First, this primer provides an overview of climate change, its causes and consequences, and its impacts on health. Then, the primer describes ways to decrease impacts and identifies roles for health communication scholars in efforts to address climate change and its health effects.

  14. Development of Specific Primer for Tricholoma matsutake

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jang-Han

    2009-01-01

    In this study, in an effort to develop a method for the molecular detection of Tricholoma matsutake in Korea from other closely related Tricholomataceae, a species-specific PCR primer pair, TmF and TmR, was designed using nuclear ribosomal intertranscribed spacer (ITS) sequences. The DTmF and DTmR sequences were 5'-CCTGACGCCAATCTTTTCA-3' and 5'-GGAGAGCAGACTTGTGAGCA-3', respectively. The PCR primers reliably amplified only the ITS sequences of T. matsutake, and not those of other species used in this study. PMID:23983557

  15. Hydrothermal processes at Gusev Crater: An evaluation of Paso Robles class soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yen, A. S.; Morris, R.V.; Clark, B. C.; Gellert, Ralf; Knudson, A.T.; Squyres, S.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Ming, D. W.; Arvidson, R.; McCoy, T.; Schmidt, M.; Hurowitz, J.; Li, R.; Johnson, J. R.

    2008-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover Spirit analyzed multiple occurrences of sulfur-rich, light-toned soils along its traverse within Gusev Crater. These hydrated deposits are not readily apparent in images of undisturbed soil but are present at shallow depths and were exposed by the actions of the rover wheels. Referred to as 'Paso Robles' class soils, they are dominated by ferric iron sulfates, silica, and Mg-sulfates. Ca-sulfates, Ca-phosphates, and other minor phases are also indicated in certain specific samples. The chemical compositions are highly variable over both centimeter-scale distances and between the widely separated exposures, but they clearly reflect the elemental signatures of nearby rocks. The quantity of typical basaltic soil mixed into the light-toned materials prior to excavation by the rover wheels is minimal, suggesting negligible reworking of the deposits after their initial formation. The mineralogy, geochemistry, variability, association with local compositions, and geologic setting of the deposits suggest that Paso Robles class soils likely formed as hydrothermal and famarolic condensates derived from magma degassing and/ or oxidative alteration of crustal iron sulfide deposits. Their occurrence as unconsolidated, near-surface soils permits, though does not require, an age that is significantly younger than that of the surrounding rocks. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  16. Preliminary isostatic residual gravity anomaly map of Paso Robles 30 x 60 minute quadrangle, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McPhee, D.K.; Langenheim, V.E.; Watt, J.T.

    2011-01-01

    This isostatic residual gravity map is part of an effort to map the three-dimensional distribution of rocks in the central California Coast Ranges and will serve as a basis for modeling the shape of basins and for determining the location and geometry of faults within the Paso Robles quadrangle. Local spatial variations in the Earth\\'s gravity field, after accounting for variations caused by elevation, terrain, and deep crustal structure reflect the distribution of densities in the mid- to upper crust. Densities often can be related to rock type, and abrupt spatial changes in density commonly mark lithological or structural boundaries. High-density rocks exposed within the central Coast Ranges include Mesozoic granitic rocks (exposed northwest of Paso Robles), Jurassic to Cretaceous marine strata of the Great Valley Sequence (exposed primarily northeast of the San Andreas fault), and Mesozoic sedimentary and volcanic rocks of the Franciscan Complex [exposed in the Santa Lucia Range and northeast of the San Andreas fault (SAF) near Parkfield, California]. Alluvial sediments and Tertiary sedimentary rocks are characterized by low densities; however, with increasing depth of burial and age, the densities of these rocks may become indistinguishable from those of older basement rocks.

  17. Meteorological simulations of boundary-layer structure during the 1996 Paso del Norte Ozone Study.

    PubMed

    Brown, M J; Muller, C; Wang, G; Costigan, K

    2001-08-10

    Meteorological simulations centered around the border cities of El Paso and Ciudad Juárez have been performed during an ozone episode that occurred on August 13, 1996 during the 1996 Paso del Norte Ozone Study field campaign. Simulations were performed using the HOTMAC boundary-layer meteorological model using a 1, 2, 4 and 8-km horizontal grid size nested mesh system. Investigation of the vertical structure and evolution of the atmospheric boundary layer for the August 12-14 time period is emphasized in this paper due to its suspected importance in precipitating the ozone episode [Sci Total Environ (2001)]. This period was characterized by a slowly-evolving high pressure system over the region, a persistent upper-level jet at 2500-3500 m above ground level (agl), deep daytime mixed layer heights of 3500 m depth and unusually deep nighttime stable layers extending up to 2500 m above the ground. The fact that the boundary-layer growth stalled on the morning of August 13 relative to that on August 12 has been suggested as a possible reason for the ozone episode on the 13th. In addition, relatively weak surface-level winds were measured on August 13. Using both model results and experimental data we hypothesize explanations for the slower mixed-layer growth on the morning of the 13th and the stronger surface-level winds found on the 12th and 14th.

  18. Resource investigation of low- and moderate-temperature geothermal areas in Paso Robles, California

    SciTech Connect

    Campion, L.F.; Chapman, R.H.; Chase, G.W.; Youngs, L.G.

    1983-01-01

    Ninety-eight geothermal wells and springs were identified and plotted, and a geologic map and cross sections were compiled. Detailed geophysical, geochemical, and geological surveys were conducted. The geological and geophysical work delineated the basement highs and trough-like depressions that can exercise control on the occurrence of the thermal waters. The Rinconada fault was also evident. Cross sections drawn from oil well logs show the sediments conforming against these basement highs and filling the depressions. It is along the locations where the sediments meet the basement highs that three natural warm springs in the area occur. Deep circulation of meteoric waters along faults seems to be a reasonable source for the warm water. The Santa Margarita, Pancho Rico, and Paso Robles Formations would be the first permeable zones that abut the faults through which water would enter. Temperatures and interpretation of well logs indicate the warmest aquifer at the base of the Paso Robles Formation. Warm water may be entering higher up in the section, but mixing with water from cooler zones seems to be evident. Geothermometry indicates reservoir temperatures could be as high as 91/sup 0/C (196/sup 0/F).

  19. Meteorological Simulations of Ozone Episode Case Days during the 1996 Paso del Norte Ozone Study

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.J.; Costigan, K.; Muller, C.; Wang, G.

    1999-02-01

    Meteorological simulations centered around the border cities of El Paso and Ciudad Juarez have been performed during an ozone episode that occurred on Aug. 13,1996 during the 1996 Paso del Norte Ozone Study field campaign. Simulations were petiormed using the HOTMAC mesoscale meteorological model using a 1,2,4, and 8 km horizontal grid size nested mesh system. Investigation of the vertical structure and evolution of the atmospheric boundary layer for the Aug. 11-13 time period is emphasized in this paper. Comparison of model-produced wind speed profiles to rawirisonde and radar profiler measurements shows reasonable agreement. A persistent upper-level jet was captured in the model simulations through data assimilation. In the evening hours, the model was not able to produce the strong wind direction shear seen in the radar wind profiles. Based on virtual potential temperature profile comparisons, the model appears to correctly simulate the daytime growth of the convective mixed layer. However, the model underestimates the cooling of the surface layer at night. We found that the upper-level jet significantly impacted the turbulence structure of the boundary layer, leading to relatively high turbulent kinetic energy (tke) values aloft at night. The model indicates that these high tke values aloft enhance the mid-morning growth of the boundary layer. No upper-level turbulence measurements were available to verify this finding, however. Radar profiler-derived mixing heights do indicate relatively rapid morning growth of the mixed layer.

  20. Depositional environments and diagenesis of El Paso Group, Southern Hueco Mountains, Hudspeth County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Aluka, I.J.

    1988-01-01

    The El Paso Group, a predominantly carbonate sequence, overlies the time-transgressive Cambrian-Ordovician Bliss Sandstone, and underlies the Upper Ordovician Montoya Group. The sequence contains three units (in ascending order): lower limestone, middle cherty limestone, and upper dolomite. The units were deposited in a shelf lagoon with open and restricted circulation, subtidal and intertidal environments. Deposition in these environments is indicated by the presence of land-derived clastics (silt- and sand-size quartz), abundant pellets, micrite, a variety of textures (mudstones to grainstones), algal structures, cross-bedding, and inter-fingering of clastics with limestones due to sedimentary offlap and onlap resulting in clastic progradation west and east from the Diablo platform (the clastic source). The upper unit was, in part, deposited in a supratidal environment, as shown by the presence of abundant dolomite. In addition, the rocks of the El Paso Group were affected by various diagenetic processes, including dolomitization (supratidal dolomitization and dolomitization through meteoric mixing) and silicification, as exemplified by chert nodules and lenses and the presence of silica in intragranular voids and as intrapelmatozoan infillings. Silica partially replaced gastropods, cephalopods, and pelmatozoan ossicles. Recrystallization (aggrading neomorphism) converted carbonate muds into microspar and sparry calcite. Stylolitization (microstylolites and sutured stylolites) affected the rocks as indicated by the presence of iron oxides along the stylolites. The rocks were also affected by pyritization as shown silicified bioclasts.

  1. Ambient Concentrations of Metabolic Disrupting Chemicals and Children’s Academic Achievement in El Paso, Texas

    PubMed Central

    Clark-Reyna, Stephanie E.; Grineski, Sara E.; Collins, Timothy W.

    2016-01-01

    Concerns about children’s weight have steadily risen alongside the manufacture and use of myriad chemicals in the US. One class of chemicals, known as metabolic disruptors, interfere with human endocrine and metabolic functioning and are of specific concern to children’s health and development. This article examines the effect of residential concentrations of metabolic disrupting chemicals on children’s school performance for the first time. Census tract-level ambient concentrations for known metabolic disruptors come from the US Environmental Protection Agency’s National Air Toxics Assessment. Other measures were drawn from a survey of primary caretakers of 4th and 5th grade children in El Paso Independent School District (El Paso, TX, USA). A mediation model is employed to examine two hypothetical pathways through which the ambient level of metabolic disruptors at a child’s home might affect grade point average. Results indicate that concentrations of metabolic disruptors are statistically significantly associated with lower grade point averages directly and indirectly through body mass index. Findings from this study have practical implications for environmental justice research and chemical policy reform in the US. PMID:27598179

  2. The displaced eugeoclinal rocks in the El Paso Mountains and northern Mojave Desert: A Triassic sliver

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.S.; Glazner, A.F. . Dept. of Geology); Walker, J.D.; Martin, M.W. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-04-01

    Many workers have drawn attention to the displaced eugeoclinal rocks in the northern Mojave Desert and El Paso Mountains and their importance in models for the development of an active continental margin in the western Cordillera. Existing models can generally for either strike-slip juxtaposition or thrust emplacement. New field data, U-Pb zircon geochronology, and isotopic data for metasedimentary rocks and plutons in the northern Mojave Desert and El Paso Mountains shed light on the timing and mechanism of emplacement of the eugeoclinal allocthon. The observations and data above indicate that Early Triassic plutons in the northern Mojave Desert came through oceanic lithosphere but later Jurassic plutons intercepted continental lithosphere. The authors suggest a model where eugeoclinal rocks were deposited on oceanic crust which was initially brought southward along a strike-slip fault and later thrust eastward over the cratonal assemblage. Permian thrusting is incompatible with their data and observations. Intrusion of lower Triassic strata by Early Triassic plutons in the Lane Mountain area permits some Early Triassic thrusting but the oceanic affinity of the plutons implies that thrusting did not involve continental lithosphere.

  3. Size-Time-Composition Resolved Study of Aerosols Across El Paso, Texas in Fall 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahill, T. A.; Gill, T. E.; Pingitore, N. E.; Olvera, H. A.; Clague, J. W.; Barnes, D. E.; Perry, K. D.; Li, W.; Amaya, M. A.

    2009-12-01

    Systematic variations in the absolute amounts, size and composition of airborne particulate matter (PM) across the El Paso, Texas metropolitan area may differentially impact the respiratory status (e.g., asthma) and overall health of the local population. To understand these variations, we collected size-time resolved samples of PM with DRUM samplers during a one-month period in late autumn 2008 at three sites along a NW-SE (roughly upwind-downwind) transect across El Paso’s airshed. The DRUM sampler is a rotating-drum impactor separating and collecting aerosols on Mylar strips mounted on the drums, in 8 size stages from 10 μm to <0.1 μm. DRUM strips are analyzed with 3-hr time resolution by β-gauge for mass and by synchrotron X-ray fluorescence for elemental composition. We collected samples at Santa Teresa, New Mexico (a minimally developed area NW of El Paso, at the edge of a sparsely-inhabited expanse of the Chihuahuan Desert), at the edge of the University of Texas- El Paso (UTEP) campus (in the urban core of El Paso), and at Socorro, Texas (a suburban area in the valley of the Rio Grande, SE of the urban core). Results illustrate sharp excursions in mass and element concentrations in aerosol-laden periods lasting from several hours to several days, associated with stagnant air, inversions, smoke events, dust/high wind/frontal passage, and/or daily traffic patterns, punctuated by several periods of reduced aerosol levels after Pacific frontal passages. Mass and absorption data show an increasing influence of carbonaceous (absorbing) aerosols with decreasing particle size <~1 μm, and increasing influence of mineral (scattering) aerosols with increasing particle size >~1 μm. Calcium/silicon ratios were high (>1), especially in coarser stages and during high wind events, reflecting wind erosion of the Chihuahuan Desert’s calcareous soils. Concentrations of chlorine, silicon, calcium, coarse potassium, and lead increased during high wind events, while

  4. Summary of hydrologic information in the El Paso, Texas, area, with emphasis on ground-water studies, 1903-80

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, D.E.

    1983-01-01

    Flow in the Rio Grande is diverted for crop irrigation in the United States and the Republic of Mexico, and for limited municipal supply in El Paso. The flow is regulated by releases from reservoirs in New Mexico and varies widely in both quantity and quality (dissolved-solids concentrations). During 1943-80, the flow at El Paso ranged from 57,481 acre-feet (71 cubic hectometers) in 1956 to 631,800 acre-feet (779 cubic hectometers) in 1943 and averaged about 317,000 acre-feet per year (391 cubic hectometers).

  5. Forest Interpreter's Primer on Fire Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zelker, Thomas M.

    Specifically prepared for the use of Forest Service field-based interpreters of the management, protection, and use of forest and range resources and the associated human, cultural, and natural history found on these lands, this book is the second in a series of six primers on the multiple use of forest and range resources. Following an…

  6. Microsatellite primers for red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this note, we document polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR) primer pairs for 101, nuclear-encoded microsatellites designed and developed from a red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) genomic library. The 101 microsatellites (Genbank Accession Numbers EU015882-EU015982) were amplified successfully and used to...

  7. The FAS Child: A Primer for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wentz, Thomas L.; Larson, Julie

    1993-01-01

    This primer on fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) distinguishes between the syndrome and fetal alcohol effects (FAE), offers a history of FAS, outlines medical criteria for diagnosis, rates of incidence, factors influencing incidence and severity, developmental stages of children with FAS, clinical features, and educational implications and approaches.…

  8. Issues Primer. EEE708 Negotiated Study Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Leonie

    This issues primer is structured around a series of 20 contemporary concerns in the changing world of work and training in Australia in the early 1990s. It is part of the study materials for the one-semester distance education unit, Negotiated Study Program, in the Open Campus Program at Deakin University (Australia). Information on each issue is…

  9. School Safety & Youth Violence: A Legal Primer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Kirk A.; Ross, Catherine J.

    This legal primer on violence in schools addresses the responsibility of school officials to respond to undisciplined youths whose behavior threatens the welfare and safety of other children in attendance. It is broken down into sections that provide a brief overview of the key rules and guidelines for school officials and teachers in each topic…

  10. Microsatellite primer resource for Populus developed from

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, Tongming; Yang, Xiaohan; Gunter, Lee E; Tuskan, Gerald A; Wullschleger, Stan D; Huang, Prof. Minren; Li, Shuxian; Zhang, Xinye

    2008-01-01

    In this study, 148 428 simple sequence repeat (SSR) primer pairs were designed from the unambiguously mapped sequence scaffolds of the Nisqually-1 genome. The physical position of the priming sites were identified along each of the 19 Populus chromosomes, and it was specified whether the priming sequences belong to intronic, intergenic, exonic or UTR regions. A subset of 150 SSR loci were amplified and a high amplification success rate (72%) was obtained in P. tremuloides, which belongs to a divergent subgenus of Populus relative to Nisqually-1. PCR reactions showed that the amplification success rate of exonic primer pairs was much higher than that of the intronic/intergenic primer pairs. Applying ANOVA and regression analyses to the flanking sequences of microsatellites, the repeat lengths, the GC contents of the repeats, the repeat motif numbers, the repeat motif length and the base composition of the repeat motif, it was determined that only the base composition of the repeat motif and the repeat motif length significantly affect the microsatellite variability in P. tremuloides samples. The SSR primer resource developed in this study provides a database for selecting highly transferable SSR markers with known physical position in the Populus genome and provides a comprehensive genetic tool to extend the genome sequence of Nisqually-1 to genetic studies in different Populus species.

  11. Exploratory Development of Corrosion Inhibiting Primers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-07-01

    melamine , were selected for further evaluation in primer systems as examples of soluble and insoluble corrosion inhibitors. Other routes to potential...guanidine dichromate gave relatively poor performance. Melamine dich- romate pigment was more generally effective in preventing corrosion than the common...dihpneyl- guanidine ....... ..................... ... 66 9.2.1.3) Preparation Of Melamine Dichromate (Compound #25). 66 vii TABLE OF CONTENTS

  12. Apparatus For Tests Of Percussion Primers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, Laurence J.; Bailey, James W.; Schimmel, Morry L.

    1991-01-01

    Test apparatus and method developed to measure ignition capability of percussion primers. Closely simulates actual conditions and interfaces encountered in such applications as in munitions and rocket motors. Ignitability-testing apparatus is small bomb instrumented with pressure transducers. Sizes, shapes, and positions of bomb components and materials under test selected to obtain quantitative data on ignition.

  13. A primer on effectiveness and efficacy trials.

    PubMed

    Singal, Amit G; Higgins, Peter D R; Waljee, Akbar K

    2014-01-02

    Although efficacy and effectiveness studies are both important when evaluating interventions, they serve distinct purposes and have different study designs. Unfortunately, the distinction between these two types of trials is often poorly understood. In this primer, we highlight several differences between these two types of trials including study design, patient populations, intervention design, data analysis, and result reporting.

  14. A Primer on Simulation and Gaming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Richard F.

    In a primer intended for the administrative professions, for the behavioral sciences, and for education, simulation and its various aspects are defined, illustrated, and explained. Man-model simulation, man-computer simulation, all-computer simulation, and analysis are discussed as techniques for studying object systems (parts of the "real…

  15. Environmentally Acceptable Medium Caliber Ammunition Percussion Primers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-31

    typically contain lead styphnate and antimony sulfide along with other constituents. Although highly effective, these heavy metal compounds have been...contain barium nitrate. Although not negatively categorized by the EPA itself, barium compounds are generally regarded as toxic and likewise should...contains the lead styphnate based FA956 composition2 which is a typical formulation of conventional military ammunition percussion primers. The

  16. Early College High Schools Established from 2006 through 2008 in El Paso County, Texas: Discovering Factors Contributing to Hispanic Student Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz, Maluka Dorotea

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to (a) identify factors contributing to the success of Hispanic students in four Early College High Schools (ECHSs) in El Paso County, (b) identify components of the ECHSs that can be realistically considered for implementation by administrators of larger public high schools in El Paso County, and (c) determine…

  17. A Study of Y.W.C.A. Services Performed for Pregnant and Parenting High School Students of El Paso from 1982 to 1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Ronald B.

    Questionnaires and interviews were used to study the effectiveness of programs provided for pregnant and parenting students by the Young Women's Christian Association (YWCA) of El Paso, Texas. The study focused on the School-Age Parent Center (SPC), established in 1974 by the El Paso Independent School District, and the YWCA programs and services…

  18. GIS-modeled indicators of traffic-related air pollutants and adverse pulmonary health among children in El Paso, Texas, USA.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The El Paso Children?s Health Study examined 5,654 children enrolled in the El Paso, Texas public school district by questionnaire in 2001. Exposure measurements were first collected in the late fall of 1999. Then school-level and residence-level exposures to traffic-related air ...

  19. Variability in childhood allergy and asthma across ethnicity, language, and residency duration in El Paso, Texas: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background We evaluated the impact of migration to the USA-Mexico border city of El Paso, Texas (USA), parental language preference, and Hispanic ethnicity on childhood asthma to differentiate between its social and environmental determinants. Methods Allergy and asthma prevalence was surveyed among 9797 fourth and fifth grade children enrolled in the El Paso Independent School District. Parents completed a respiratory health questionnaire, in either English or Spanish, and a sub-sample of children received spirometry testing at their school. Here we report asthma and allergy outcomes across ethnicity and El Paso residency duration. Results Asthma and allergy prevalence increased with longer duration of El Paso residency independent of ethnicity and preferred language. Compared with immigrants who arrived in El Paso after entering first grade (18%), lifelong El Paso residents (68%) had more prevalent allergy (OR, 1.72; 95% CI, 1.32 - 2.24), prevalent asthma (OR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.24 - 2.46), and current asthma (OR, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.37 - 2.95). Spirometric measurements (FEV1/FVC and FEF25-75) also declined with increasing duration of El Paso residency (0.16% and 0.35% annual reduction, respectively). Conclusion These findings suggest that a community-wide environmental exposure in El Paso, delayed pulmonary development, or increased health of immigrants may be associated with allergy and asthma development in children raised there. PMID:19995440

  20. Rust transformation/rust compatible primers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emeric, Dario A.; Miller, Christopher E.

    1993-01-01

    Proper surface preparation has been the key to obtain good performance by a surface coating. The major obstacle in preparing a corroded or rusted surface is the complete removal of the contaminants and the corrosion products. Sandblasting has been traditionally used to remove the corrosion products before painting. However, sandblasting can be expensive, may be prohibited by local health regulations and is not applicable in every situation. To get around these obstacles, Industry developed rust converters/rust transformers and rust compatible primers (high solids epoxies). The potential use of these products for military equipment led personnel of the Belvoir Research, Development and Engineering Center (BRDEC) to evaluate the commercially available rust transformers and rust compatible primers. Prior laboratory experience with commercially available rust converters, as well as field studies in Hawaii and Puerto Rico, revealed poor performance, several inherent limitations, and lack of reliability. It was obvious from our studies that the performance of rust converting products was more dependent on the amount and type of rust present, as well as the degree of permeability of the coating, than on the product's ability to form an organometallic complex with the rust. Based on these results, it was decided that the Military should develop their own rust converter formulation and specification. The compound described in the specification is for use on a rusted surface before the application of an organic coating (bituminous compounds, primer or topcoat). These coatings should end the need for sandblasting or the removing of the adherent corrosion products. They also will prepare the surface for the application of the organic coating. Several commercially available rust compatible primers (RCP) were also tested using corroded surfaces. All of the evaluated RCP failed our laboratory tests for primers.

  1. Deconstructing the polymerase chain reaction: understanding and correcting bias associated with primer degeneracies and primer-template mismatches.

    PubMed

    Green, Stefan J; Venkatramanan, Raghavee; Naqib, Ankur

    2015-01-01

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is sensitive to mismatches between primer and template, and mismatches can lead to inefficient amplification of targeted regions of DNA template. In PCRs in which a degenerate primer pool is employed, each primer can behave differently. Therefore, inefficiencies due to different primer melting temperatures within a degenerate primer pool, in addition to mismatches between primer binding sites and primers, can lead to a distortion of the true relative abundance of targets in the original DNA pool. A theoretical analysis indicated that a combination of primer-template and primer-amplicon interactions during PCR cycles 3-12 is potentially responsible for this distortion. To test this hypothesis, we developed a novel amplification strategy, entitled "Polymerase-exonuclease (PEX) PCR", in which primer-template interactions and primer-amplicon interactions are separated. The PEX PCR method substantially and significantly improved the evenness of recovery of sequences from a mock community of known composition, and allowed for amplification of templates with introduced mismatches near the 3' end of the primer annealing sites. When the PEX PCR method was applied to genomic DNA extracted from complex environmental samples, a significant shift in the observed microbial community was detected. Furthermore, the PEX PCR method provides a mechanism to identify which primers in a primer pool are annealing to target gDNA. Primer utilization patterns revealed that at high annealing temperatures in the PEX PCR method, perfect match annealing predominates, while at lower annealing temperatures, primers with up to four mismatches with templates can contribute substantially to amplification. The PEX PCR method is simple to perform, is limited to PCR mixes and a single exonuclease step which can be performed without reaction cleanup, and is recommended for reactions in which degenerate primer pools are used or when mismatches between primers and

  2. Cycling of Lead Through Soil, Air, and Household Dust in El Paso, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pingitore, N. E.; Clague, J.; Amaya, M. A.

    2008-12-01

    Elimination of leaded gasoline in the US is associated with a dramatic overall decrease in ambient lead in the environment and blood lead levels in our population. However, Pb is such a potent neurotoxin for children during the formative growth years that legislation for additional reduction of airborne lead levels is under consideration. X-ray absorption spectroscopy of a suite of samples of local (El Paso) soil, airborne particulate matter, and household dust reveals that lead humate is the dominant Pb species in these diverse environmental materials. Lead humate is a stable complex of Pb with the humus component of soil, a product of interaction between the humus and such introduced contaminant lead species as lead oxide, lead sulfate, etc. Because lead humate forms only in soil, we conclude that the source of the majority of the lead in El Paso's airborne particulate matter and household dust is local soils. Analysis of lead isotopes in selected samples is consistent with this conclusion. Re-entrainment of low-density (relative to most Pb species) humus soil particles is the apparent pathway from soil to air. Deposition of airborne particulate matter and pedal traction are the presumed mechanisms for transfer to household interiors. Reduction of airborne lead in El Paso by reducing input from its dominant local source may require extensive soil remediation, a tedious and expensive prospect. X-Ray absorption spectroscopy experiments were conducted at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory on beam lines 7-3, 10-2, and 11-2. Spectra were collected at the Pb L-III absorption edge in fluorescence mode using a 13-element or a 30-element Ge solid-state detector. This publication was made possible by grant numbers 1RO1-ES11367 and 1 S11 ES013339-04 from the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), NIH. Its contents are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official views of the NIEHS, NIH. Partial

  3. Residential Exposure to Nighttime Retained Heat in the El Paso, Texas, USA Desert Metroplex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaya, M. A.; Mohammed, M.; Pingitore, N. E.; Aldouri, R. K.; Benedict, B. A.

    2013-12-01

    The urban heat island is a well recognized and extensively studied phenomenon that has accelerating importance resulting from two trends associated with world-wide population growth: increasing urbanization and global warming. Urbanization, particularly when unplanned and haphazard, changes such thermal parameters as albedo, surface roughness, and heat capacities of surface materials. Rapid urbanization in the contiguous El Paso, Texas, USA - Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico bi-national metroplex has produced an urban heat island that is warmer than the surrounding Chihuahuan desert (temperature: 35-40 C summer; high elevation: 600-1675 m; rainfall: less than 250 mm annual). Despite the extensive literature on the urban heat island, little is known about urban nighttime land surface temperatures. We employed infrared satellite imaging to establish the variation of nighttime neighborhood surface temperatures across the city of El Paso, as well as all of El Paso County. The underlying purpose of our continuing investigation is to evaluate the geography of morbidity risk: are different neighborhoods at different risk of high nighttime temperatures. Those risks can include heat stress, and irritability and sleep deprivation, with possible resultant violence. Heat exposure at night is significant because residents are at home and 90% of El Pasoans do not have 'refrigerated' air conditioning, but instead have evaporative coolers, which are less expensive to own and operate, but are less effective since they raise the humidity of the partially cooled air. Our geographically weighted regression model showed that both day and nighttime land surface temperatures correlated with the normalized difference vegetation index, population density, and albedo. The association with the index and albedo was stronger during the daytime and with population density during the nighttime. Vegetation (negative) and population density (positive) were the dominant temperature drivers, with

  4. Application of GIS and remote sensing methods to the paleohydrography of the Paso del Norte region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, John F.

    The purpose of this project is to use geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing methods to investigate the paleohydrology of the Paso del Norte region during the latest pluvial event. During the research I gathered the best available geologic and hydrographic data sets and integrated these data within a GIS in order to create a digital paleohydrologic database for the region. In particular, I used the GIS to reconstruct the hydrography (i.e. streams, lakes, and watershed boundaries) that existed as a results of increased precipitation and a decrease in temperature in the recent geologic past. The existence of the pluvial lakes had an impact on ground-water and surface-water flow systems in this region. The results of my research are presented as two papers ready for peer-review publication submission and a third paper that is a previously published work. (1) Using GIS and Remote Sensing to Reconstruct Late Quaternary and Early Holocene Paleo-Hydrography Using Climate Data and Modern Topography---an Example from the Southwestern US. This paper describes the methods used to create a paleo-hydrography system for the Paso del Norte region, and the development of a water-balance equation that estimates the inputs and outputs of this system. (2) Estimating Water-Balance Equation for Playas in the Tularosa Basin of Southern New Mexico. This paper describes the calibration and testing of the GIS model presented in the first paper. Before it can be applied to paleohydrologic systems, it must be shown to reasonably approximate playa systems in the region under current conditions. Water balances were calculated for several playas and their associated drainages. (3) The Hydrogeologic Framework of Basin-Fill Aquifers and Associated Ground-water flow Systems in Southwestern New Mexico---An Overview. The paper is an overview of work done by many hydrogeologists in the Paso del Norte region; however, the primary source of most of our current knowledge is based on the

  5. Geospatial Distribution of Heavy Metals in an Urban Soil, El Paso, Texas, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaya, M. A.; Elkekli, A. R.; Clague, J. W.; Grimida, S. E.; Pingitore, N. E., Jr.

    2014-12-01

    Some 500 city blocks were selected randomly via population-based stratification. Equal volumes of soil collected from the public space (where present) in front of each house on a block yielded a composite sample. Composites provide neighborhood level "smoothing" relative to sampling many individual houses, and greatly decrease laboratory effort/cost. In the laboratory 10 g of soil were comminuted in a ceramic ball mill, mixed with cellulose/ paraffin binder, and pressed (20 tons) into a pellet. A Panalytical Epsilon5 EDS-XRF, using 8 sequential secondary target conditions and 12 NIST and USGS multi-element rock standards provided analyses. The concentration of Pb ranged from 11 to 420 ppm; Cr, 4.3 - 52 ppm; Cu, 6.5 - 390 ppm; Zn, 17 - 480 ppm; Cd, 0.4 - 12 ppm; and Sb, 2.9 - 20 ppm. High levels of all metals characterize the urban core area of El Paso, which dates to the late 19th Century. This area hosts both commercial and old residential structures, as well as major highways and a large railroad yard. There currently is, and was in the past, considerable light industry in the area. Two highly traveled highway and one railroad border crossing over the Rio Grande into contiguous Cd. Juarez (population close to 2 million) add to current and past contamination. A century-old Pb-Cu-Zn smelter, recently demolished, forms the western boundary of the urban core. Heavy metal pollution from the smelter is recognized near the former site. Its effect on the rest of the urban core is uncertain due to the current and former presence of other heavy metal sources. Aggressive post-World War II growth and expansion of El Paso into the surrounding desert, as is common in the US Southwest, placed newer housing onto more pristine land surfaces. This is reflected in generally low-to-background levels of heavy metals in these newer areas of the city. Thus there is a strong contamination and heavy metals exposure risk gradient between older and newer neighborhoods within a single city

  6. New primers for adhesive bonding of aluminum alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burrell, B. W.; Port, W. S.

    1971-01-01

    Synthetic polypeptide adhesive primers are effective, with high temperature epoxy resins, at temperatures from 100 deg to 300 deg C. Lap-shear failure loads and lap-shear strength of both primers are discussed.

  7. Discriminant analysis of components of El Paso Group rocks in southern Hueco Mountains, Hudspeth County, Texas - approach to depositional environments

    SciTech Connect

    Aluka, I.J.

    1987-08-01

    The El Paso Group of the Southern Hueco Mountains, Hudspeth County, Texas, crops out over an area of about 57 km/sup 2/ (22 mi/sup 2/) and is divided into three informal units - lower, middle, and upper. The lower contains the lower calcareous sandstone member and an overlying sandy limestone member; the middle is cherty limestone; and the upper unit contains two members: sandy dolomite and an upper silty dolomite. The El Paso Group rocks are classified into seven microfacies based on thin section studies of the rocks' components. These are organic allochems (peloids, gastropods, trilobite fragments, pelmatozoan ossicles, algae, and unidentifiable bioclasts); inorganic allochems (glauconite, stylolites, quartz grains, voids, lithoclasts, and ooids); matrix (micrite, microspar, recrystallized sparite, micritic size dolomite, microsparitic size dolomite, and sparitic size dolomite). Discriminant analysis of the components of the rocks tests the classification of the rocks into seven microfacies. Six discriminant functions, discriminant function scores for each sample, and probability of the sample's membership in each classification group are calculated during the study to discriminate among the groups. The eigenvalues, plots of discriminant scores, chi-square tests, Wilk's lambda, and the territorial map proved effective in classifying the components of the El Paso Group rocks; 100% of the grouped cases are correctly classified into seven microfacies. The components/microfacies indicate that the rocks of El Paso Group were deposited in shelf lagoon with open circulation, restricted circulation in shelf, subtidal, intertidal, and tidal flat environments.

  8. SPRINGTIME SPATIAL CONCENTRATION GRADIENTS OF NITROGEN DIOXIDE AND VOLATILE ORGANIC SPECIES IN THE EL PASO CHILDREN'S HEALTH STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Each year, over 18 million vehicles cross the international border between El Paso, TX (USA) and Ciudad Juarez (Mexico). The border traffic congestion, as well as the more typical intra-urban and interstate traffic, provide an opportunity to investigate the health effects of PM ...

  9. INTRA-URBAN GRADIENTS OF FINE PARTICULATE MATTER (PM2.5) IN THE EL PASO CHILDREN'S HEALTH STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    El Paso, Texas, a metropolitan area with over 500,000 residents, is located directly across the US/Mexico border from Ciudad Juarez with over 1 million residents. An estimated 18 million vehicles annually cross the international border between these two large cities. The border...

  10. PrimerSuite: A High-Throughput Web-Based Primer Design Program for Multiplex Bisulfite PCR

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jennifer; Johnston, Andrew; Berichon, Philippe; Ru, Ke-lin; Korbie, Darren; Trau, Matt

    2017-01-01

    The analysis of DNA methylation at CpG dinucleotides has become a major research focus due to its regulatory role in numerous biological processes, but the requisite need for assays which amplify bisulfite-converted DNA represents a major bottleneck due to the unique design constraints imposed on bisulfite-PCR primers. Moreover, a review of the literature indicated no available software solutions which accommodated both high-throughput primer design, support for multiplex amplification assays, and primer-dimer prediction. In response, the tri-modular software package PrimerSuite was developed to support bisulfite multiplex PCR applications. This software was constructed to (i) design bisulfite primers against multiple regions simultaneously (PrimerSuite), (ii) screen for primer-primer dimerizing artefacts (PrimerDimer), and (iii) support multiplex PCR assays (PrimerPlex). Moreover, a major focus in the development of this software package was the emphasis on extensive empirical validation, and over 1300 unique primer pairs have been successfully designed and screened, with over 94% of them producing amplicons of the expected size, and an average mapping efficiency of 93% when screened using bisulfite multiplex resequencing. The potential use of the software in other bisulfite-based applications such as methylation-specific PCR is under consideration for future updates. This resource is freely available for use at PrimerSuite website (www.primer-suite.com). PMID:28117430

  11. PrimerSuite: A High-Throughput Web-Based Primer Design Program for Multiplex Bisulfite PCR.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jennifer; Johnston, Andrew; Berichon, Philippe; Ru, Ke-Lin; Korbie, Darren; Trau, Matt

    2017-01-24

    The analysis of DNA methylation at CpG dinucleotides has become a major research focus due to its regulatory role in numerous biological processes, but the requisite need for assays which amplify bisulfite-converted DNA represents a major bottleneck due to the unique design constraints imposed on bisulfite-PCR primers. Moreover, a review of the literature indicated no available software solutions which accommodated both high-throughput primer design, support for multiplex amplification assays, and primer-dimer prediction. In response, the tri-modular software package PrimerSuite was developed to support bisulfite multiplex PCR applications. This software was constructed to (i) design bisulfite primers against multiple regions simultaneously (PrimerSuite), (ii) screen for primer-primer dimerizing artefacts (PrimerDimer), and (iii) support multiplex PCR assays (PrimerPlex). Moreover, a major focus in the development of this software package was the emphasis on extensive empirical validation, and over 1300 unique primer pairs have been successfully designed and screened, with over 94% of them producing amplicons of the expected size, and an average mapping efficiency of 93% when screened using bisulfite multiplex resequencing. The potential use of the software in other bisulfite-based applications such as methylation-specific PCR is under consideration for future updates. This resource is freely available for use at PrimerSuite website (www.primer-suite.com).

  12. Electrocoat Process for Non-Chromate Primers in DOD Manufacturing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-29

    2 with two levels of corrosion inhibitor – MIL-PRF-23377N Cr-free spray primer – MIL-PRF-23377C Solvent Cr spray primer – MIL-PRF-85582C Water...NC spray primer Residual coating Results summary- Galvanic assemblies Corrosion mechanism different between Electrocoat and spray primers...An application method which uses direct electrical current to deposit the coating ● Waterborne coating ● Chromium-free (no heavy metals

  13. Unusual Recharge Processes near Arroyos of the Rio Grande Aquifer, El Paso/Juarez Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merino, M.; Hibbs, B. J.; Hogan, J.; Eastoe, C. J.; Druhan, J.

    2005-12-01

    The twin-cities of El Paso and Juarez share the water resources of the Hueco Bolson aquifer and overlying Rio Grande aquifer. Both aquifers span the international border between Mexico and the United States. Salinity in the Rio Grande aquifer varies widely, some parts of the shallow aquifer containing less than 1,000 mg/L total dissolved solids (TDS), other parts of the aquifer exceeding 5,000 mg/L TDS. One sizable part of the "Lower Valley" area, approximately 45 km below El Paso contains very dilute water near the outer edge of the floodplain. Historically it had been thought that the dilute waters in this location were derived from recharge from arroyos that drained proximal parts of the Hueco Bolson. Instead, our hydrogen and oxygen isotope data and carbon-14 data indicate that these dilute waters were derived from pre-dam infiltration of the Rio Grande. Relatively light and slightly evaporated pre-dam waters (-11.5 del O18) at the arroyos are also relatively young (60 to 90 percent modern carbon), tagging them as runoff waters from pre-dam snowmelt in Colorado. These isotopically light waters are found up to 110 meters beneath land surface. Prior to Rio Grande rectification and channelization of the mid-1930's, the Rio Grande flowed near the outer edge of the floodplain where these pre-dam, dilute waters are found at depth. Review of predevelopment drill stem tests indicated a permeable zone about 150 to 230 meters deep that had a lower hydraulic head than the overlying Rio Grande aquifer. The permeable zone acted as a predevelopment sink for flow that induced recharge from the Rio Grande and Rio Grande aquifer. Thus, we can account for local predevelopment recharge of the Rio Grande aquifer from infiltration of dilute water from the Rio Grande prior to the historic era of channel rectification, and not from recharge from flanking arroyos as had been postulated by previous researchers.

  14. Lead Contamination of Urban Soil in the El Paso (Texas)--Juarez (Mexico) Border Metroplex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pingitore, N. E.; Amaya, M. A.; Clague, J.

    2005-12-01

    We present an unusually detailed map of the distribution of lead in El Paso--Juarez soils, one that is based on x-ray fluorescence analysis of 1000 composite soil samples collected in the region. Mixing equal volumes of samples taken from the public space in front of individual houses or structures around a single municipal block created a single composite sample to characterize each of the 500 blocks studied in each city. Maps based on such composites highlight the distribution of lead at the neighborhood level, and de-emphasize any anomalous elevated level associated with an individual house or structure. In both cities, levels of lead are highest in their contiguous downtown commercial districts, which date to the 19th Century and are linked by the traditional border river crossing area at the Rio Grande. Rail yards, transport hubs, light industry complexes, and the oldest residential areas lie adjacent to, and inter-tongue with, this commercial district on both sides of the border. A century-old smelter, placed on standby six years ago, abuts the western limit of the old urban core in El Paso. The continuity of this elevated-lead zone, the proximity of the smelter, the many potential lead sources associated with traditional commercial activities, and the age of its structures, make it difficult to differentiate lead sources. Lead values decrease systematically away from this urban core zone, with the lowest levels generally encountered in peripheral, lightly populated developments and communities. The binational distribution of Pb in soil is consistent with Pb measurements reported on particulate matter taken from nine air monitoring stations (covering both cities) during the 1990s. Soil data thus can complement air studies by providing an essentially infinite geographic network of sampling sites that, with varying accuracy, record and integrate air conditions over years and decades. Research supported by NIEHS Grant 1RO1-ES11367.

  15. Irregular recurrence of paleoearthquakes along the central Garlock fault near El Paso Peaks, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dawson, T.E.; McGill, S.F.; Rockwell, T.K.

    2003-01-01

    New investigations at the El Paso Peaks paleoseismic site have refined and extended the record of paleoearthquakes for the central Garlock fault. Event evidence, in the form of buried fissures, scarps, folds, and upward terminations, has allowed us to identify six well-resolved earthquakes, designated as events W, U, R, Q, K, and F, within the last ???7000 years. The exposures that we excavated did not reveal additional evidence for three poorly resolved events reported by McGill and Rockwell [1998]. Evidence for event Y, identified in the previous study, was reexamined and found not to be a paleoearthquake. Radiocarbon dates of detrital charcoal, combined with a method of interpolating the event ages with revised sedimentation rates, provide our preferred constraints on the timing of faulting events. The most recent surface-rupturing earthquake, event W, occurred between A.D. 1450 and 1640. The penultimate event U occurred between A.D. 675 and 950. Event R, which was unrecognized in the previous study, occurred between A.D. 250 and 475. Event Q occurred relatively shortly before event R, between A.D. 25 and 275. Event K occurred between 3340 and 2930 B.C. The oldest identified paleoearthquake, event F, occurred between 5300 and 4670 B.C. The event ages indicate that earthquake recurrence is highly irregular at the El Paso Peaks site, with individual preferred intervals ranging from as little as 215 years to as many as 3300 years. The irregular recurrence of surface-rupturing earthquakes along the central Garlock fault may be related to temporal and spatial clustering of earthquakes proposed for faults in the Eastern California Shear Zone.

  16. Genetics and health communication: a primer.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Marisa S

    2015-01-01

    The progress of genetic knowledge has been swift and steadfast. As we move forward in the genomic era, post Human Genome Project, and continue to explore how one's genes interact with one's environment, it becomes increasingly important for all audiences to have a firm grasp of the vocabulary used in this health context. This primer is intended to be used as a reference and to introduce and/or make more clear concepts related to genetics to increase understanding.

  17. A primer for criticality calculations with DANTSYS

    SciTech Connect

    Busch, R.D.

    1997-08-01

    With the closure of many experimental facilities, the nuclear safety analyst has to rely on computer calculations to identify safe limits for the handling and storage of fissile materials. Although deterministic methods often do not provide exact models of a system, a substantial amount of reliable information on nuclear systems can be obtained using these methods if the user understands their limitations. To guide criticality specialists in this area, the Nuclear Criticality Safety Group at the University of New Mexico (UNM) in cooperation with the Radiation Transport Group at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has designed a primer to help the analyst understand and use the DANTSYS deterministic transport code for nuclear criticality safety analyses. DANTSYS is the new name of the group of codes formerly known as: ONEDANT, TWODANT, TWOHEX, TWOGQ, and THREEDANT. The primer is designed to teach bu example, with each example illustrating two or three DANTSYS features useful in criticality analyses. Starting with a Quickstart chapter, the primer gives an overview of the basic requirements for DANTSYS input and allows the user to quickly run a simple criticality problem with DANTSYS. Each chapter has a list of basic objectives at the beginning identifying the goal of the chapter and the individual DANTSYS features covered in detail in the chapter example problems. On completion of the primer, it is expected that the user will be comfortable doing criticality calculations with DANTSYS and can handle 60--80% of the situations that normally arise in a facility. The primary provides a set of input files that can be selective modified by the user to fit each particular problem.

  18. Fractal antenna and fractal resonator primer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Nathan

    2015-03-01

    Self-similarity and fractals have opened new and important avenues for antenna and electronic solutions over the last 25 years. This primer provides an introduction to the benefits provided by fractal geometry in antennas, resonators, and related structures. Such benefits include, among many, wider bandwidths, smaller sizes, part-less electronic components, and better performance. Fractals also provide a new generation of optimized design tools, first used successfully in antennas but applicable in a general fashion.

  19. Specific PCR product primer design using memetic algorithm.

    PubMed

    Yang, Cheng-Hong; Cheng, Yu-Huei; Chuang, Li-Yeh; Chang, Hsueh-Wei

    2009-01-01

    To provide feasible primer sets for performing a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) experiment, many primer design methods have been proposed. However, the majority of these methods require a relatively long time to obtain an optimal solution since large quantities of template DNA need to be analyzed. Furthermore, the designed primer sets usually do not provide a specific PCR product size. In recent years, evolutionary computation has been applied to PCR primer design and yielded promising results. In this article, a memetic algorithm (MA) is proposed to solve primer design problems associated with providing a specific product size for PCR experiments. The MA is compared with a genetic algorithm (GA) using an accuracy formula to estimate the quality of the primer design and test the running time. Overall, 50 accession nucleotide sequences were sampled for the comparison of the accuracy of the GA and MA for primer design. Five hundred runs of the GA and MA primer design were performed with PCR product lengths of 150-300 bps and 500-800 bps, and two different methods of calculating T(m) for each accession nucleotide sequence were tested. A comparison of the accuracy results for the GA and MA primer design showed that the MA primer design yielded better results than the GA primer design. The results further indicate that the proposed method finds optimal or near-optimal primer sets and effective PCR products in a dry dock experiment. Related materials are available online at http://bio.kuas.edu.tw/ma-pd/.

  20. Universal COI primers for DNA barcoding amphibians.

    PubMed

    Che, Jing; Chen, Hong-Man; Yang, Jun-Xiao; Jin, Jie-Qiong; Jiang, Ke; Yuan, Zhi-Yong; Murphy, Robert W; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2012-03-01

    DNA barcoding is a proven tool for the rapid and unambiguous identification of species, which is essential for many activities including the vouchering tissue samples in the genome 10K initiative, genealogical reconstructions, forensics and biodiversity surveys, among many other applications. A large-scale effort is underway to barcode all amphibian species using the universally sequenced DNA region, a partial fragment of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I COI. This fragment is desirable because it appears to be superior to 16S for barcoding, at least for some groups of salamanders. The barcoding of amphibians is essential in part because many species are now endangered. Unfortunately, existing primers for COI often fail to achieve this goal. Herein, we report two new pairs of primers (➀, ➁) that in combination serve to universally amplify and sequence all three orders of Chinese amphibians as represented by 36 genera. This taxonomic diversity, which includes caecilians, salamanders and frogs, suggests that the new primer pairs will universally amplify COI for the vast majority species of amphibians.

  1. Karst development in the Tobosa basin (Ordovician-Devonian) strata in the El Paso border region of west Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Lemone, D.V. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-02-01

    Karst development within the Tobosa basin strata in the El Paso border region is best displayed during two time intervals: Middle Ordovician (27 Ma) developed on the Lower Ordovician El Paso Group and Middle Silurian to Middle Devonian (40 Ma) karst developed on the Lower-Middle Fusselman Formation. These major exposure intervals are recognized in regional outcrops as well as in the subsurface of the Permian Basin where they form major reservoirs. Minor local karsting is noted also within and upon the Upper Ordovician (Montoya Group) and within the shoaling upward members of overlying the Fusselman Formation. Middle Ordovician karsting with major cavern development extends down into McKellingon Canyon Formation approximately 1,000 feet below the top of the Lower Ordovician El Paso Group. The McKellingon is overlain by the cavern roof-forming early diagenetic dolomites, lower Scenic Drive Formation which in turn is overlain by the locally karsted upper Scenic Drive and Florida Mountains formations. Collapse of the overlying Montoya Group into El Paso Group rocks is observed. The Fusselman Formation rests disconformably on the Montoya Group. It is a massive, vuggy, fine- to coarsely-crystalline, whitish dolomite. Extensive karsting has developed on the top of the Fusselman. The middle Devonian Canutillo Formation with a basal flooding deposit overlies this karst surface. Minor karsting following fracture systems extends from the major karst of the El Paso Group up into the major karst in the Fusselman. The karst seems to be following and developing along the same linear fracture systems. If so, it is not unreasonable to interpret these fracture systems as being inherited from the earlier Precambrian structures underlying them.

  2. CRISPR Primer Designer: Design primers for knockout and chromosome imaging CRISPR-Cas system.

    PubMed

    Yan, Meng; Zhou, Shi-Rong; Xue, Hong-Wei

    2015-07-01

    The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated system enables biologists to edit genomes precisely and provides a powerful tool for perturbing endogenous gene regulation, modulation of epigenetic markers, and genome architecture. However, there are concerns about the specificity of the system, especially the usages of knocking out a gene. Previous designing tools either were mostly built-in websites or ran as command-line programs, and none of them ran locally and acquired a user-friendly interface. In addition, with the development of CRISPR-derived systems, such as chromosome imaging, there were still no tools helping users to generate specific end-user spacers. We herein present CRISPR Primer Designer for researchers to design primers for CRISPR applications. The program has a user-friendly interface, can analyze the BLAST results by using multiple parameters, score for each candidate spacer, and generate the primers when using a certain plasmid. In addition, CRISPR Primer Designer runs locally and can be used to search spacer clusters, and exports primers for the CRISPR-Cas system-based chromosome imaging system.

  3. Hydrology of Central Florida Lakes - A Primer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schiffer, Donna M.

    1998-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Lakes are among the most valued natural resources of central Florida. The landscape of central Florida is riddled with lakeswhen viewed from the air, it almost seems there is more water than land. Florida has more naturally formed lakes than other southeastern States, where many lakes are created by building dams across streams. The abundance of lakes on the Florida peninsula is a result of the geology and geologic history of the State. An estimated 7,800 lakes in Florida are greater than 1 acre in surface area. Of these, 35 percent are located in just four counties (fig. 1): Lake, Orange, Osceola, and Polk (Hughes, 1974b). Lakes add to the aesthetic and commercial value of the area and are used by many residents and visitors for fishing, boating, swimming, and other types of outdoor recreation. Lakes also are used for other purposes such as irrigation, flood control, water supply, and navigation. Residents and visitors commonly ask questions such as Whyare there so many lakes here?, Why is my lake drying up (or flooding)?, or Is my lake spring-fed? These questions indicate that the basic hydrology of lakes and the interaction of lakes with ground water and surface water are not well understood by the general population. Because of the importance of lakes to residents of central Florida and the many questions and misconceptions about lakes, this primer was prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the St. Johns River Water Management District and the South Florida Water Management District. The USGS has been collecting hydrologic data in central Florida since the 1920s, obtaining valuable information that has been used to better understand the hydrology of the water resources of central Florida, including lakes. In addition to data collection, as of 1994, the USGS had published 66 reports and maps on central Florida lakes (Garcia and Hoy, 1995). The main purpose of this primer is to describe the hydrology of lakes in central

  4. Spectrophotometric determination of tetrazene in primers and primer mixes by use of resorcinol.

    PubMed

    Norwitz, G; Keliher, P N

    1979-06-01

    A spectrophotometric method is proposed for the determination of tetrazene (tetracene) in primers and primer mixes that involves treatment of the tetrazene with resorcinol solution and measurement of the intensity of the yellow colour of the diazo-dye produced. In the application of the method, lead styphnate and barium nitrate are first removed by extraction with ammonium acetate solution and then nitrocellulose and PETN are removed by extraction with acetone. The insoluble matter containing the tetrazene is boiled with resorcinol reagent, the solution filtered, and the absorbance measured at 400 nm. Conditions for optimum colour development are studied and the nature of the reaction is considered.

  5. Hubble Space Telescope Primer for Cycle 21

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzaga, S.; et al.

    2012-12-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope Primer for Cycle 21 is a companion document to the HST Call for Proposals1. It provides an overview of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), with basic information about telescope operations, instrument capabilities, and technical aspects of the proposal preparation process. A thorough understanding of the material in this document is essential for the preparation of a competitive proposal. This document is available as an online HTML document and a PDF file. The HTML version, optimized for online browsing, contains many links to additional information. The PDF version is optimized for printing, but online PDF readers have search capabilities for quick retrieval of specific information.

  6. A primer on clinical trial design.

    PubMed

    Ellimoottil, Chad; Vijan, Sandeep; Flanigan, Robert C

    2015-03-01

    A well-designed and executed clinical trial is the gold standard of evidence-based medicine. It is important for readers to understand the rationale for the study design, identify common pitfalls, and scrutinize limitations. Herein, we present a brief overview of types of designs used for clinical trials and discuss the use of appropriate end points, the selection of study participants, randomization, sample size calculation, blinding, and analysis of data. Finally, we emphasize the importance of accurate and transparent reporting. Our goal is to provide a primer for practicing urologists to enhance their understanding of the clinical trial literature.

  7. Aerosol characterizaton in El Paso-Juarez airshed using optical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esparza, Angel Eduardo

    2011-12-01

    The assessment and characterization of atmospheric aerosols and their optical properties are of great significance for several applications such as air pollution studies, atmospheric visibility, remote sensing of the atmosphere, and impacts on climate change. Decades ago, the interest in atmospheric aerosols was primarily for visibility impairment problems; however, recently interest has intensified with efforts to quantify the optical properties of aerosols, especially because of the uncertainties surrounding the role of aerosols in climate change. The main objective of the optical characterization of aerosols is to understand their properties. These properties are determined by the aerosols' chemical composition, size, shape and concentration. The general purpose of this research was to contribute to a better characterization of the aerosols present in the Paso del Norte Basin. This study permits an alternative approach in the understanding of air pollution for this zone by analyzing the predominant components and their contributions to the local environment. This dissertation work had three primary objectives, in which all three are intertwined by the general purpose of the aerosol characterization in the Paso del Norte region. The first objective was to retrieve the columnar aerosol size distribution for two different cases (clean and polluted scenarios) at each season (spring, summer, fall and winter) of the year 2009. In this project, instruments placed in buildings within the University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP) as well as a monitoring site (CAMS 12) from the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) provided the measurements that delimited the aerosol size distribution calculated by our model, the Environmental Physics Inverse Reconstruction (EPIRM) model. The purpose of this objective was to provide an alternate method of quantifying and size-allocating aerosols in situ, by using the optical properties of the aerosols and inversely reconstruct and

  8. Infrasound from the El Paso super-bolide of October 9, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    ReVelle, D.O.; Whitaker, R.W.; Armstrong, W.T.

    1998-12-31

    During the noon hour on October 9, 1997 an extremely bright fireball ({approx}-21.5 in stellar magnitude putting it into the class of a super-bolide) was observed over western Texas with visual sightings from as far away as Arizona to northern Mexico and even in northern New Mexico over 300 miles away. This event produced tremendously loud sonic boom reports in the El Paso area. It was also detected locally by 4 seismometers which are part of a network of 5 seismic stations operated by the University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP). Subsequent investigations of the data from the six infrasound arrays used by LANL (Los Alamos National Laboratory) and operated for the DOE (Department of Energy) as a part of the CTB (Comprehensive Test Ban) Research and Development program for the IMS (International Monitoring System) showed the presence of an infrasonic signal from the proper direction at the correct time for this super-bolide from two of the six arrays. Both the seismic and infrasound recordings indicated that an explosion occurred in the atmosphere at source heights from 28--30 km, having its epicenter slightly to the northeast of Horizon City, Texas. The signal characteristics, analyzed from {approx}0.1 to 5.0 Hz, include a total duration of {approx}4 min (at Los Alamos, LA) to >{approx}5 min at Lajitas, Texas, TXAR, another CTB IMS array operated by E. Herrin at Southern Methodist University (SMU) for a source directed from LA toward {approx}171--180 deg and from TXAR of {approx}321-4 deg respectively from true north. The observed signal trace velocities (for the part of the recording with the highest cross-correlation) at LA ranged from 300--360 m/sec with a signal velocity of 0.30 {+-} 0.03 km/sec, implying a Stratospheric (S Type) ducted path. The dominant signal frequency at LA was from 0.20 to 0.80 Hz, with a peak near 0.3 Hz. These highly correlated signals at LA had a very large, peak to peak, maximum amplitude of 21.0 microbars (2.1 Pa). The analysis, using

  9. Providing Bridges from 2YC to 4YC in the El Paso Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doser, D. I.; Villalobos, J. I.

    2012-12-01

    For the past ~3 years the University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP) has been working closely with El Paso Community College (EPCC) to help ease the transfer of geoscience and environmental science students between our institutions. We have initiated a number of activities to accomplish this including: articulation of degree programs to build a 2+2 transfer plan, review of introductory course content, cross-institution research projects with EPCC students and co-sponsored student research symposiums. One of the most successful activities has been our cross-institutional research projects that involve either individual students working with a UTEP undergraduate/UTEP faculty member team or EPCC classes that join UTEP classes for some aspect of field work or project. The EPCC students gain confidence in their ability to succeed by working with UTEP students and finding out that they are as capable of engaging in and completing research as their 4YC peers. They also have an opportunity to meet UTEP professors first as mentors and professional colleagues rather than in a classroom setting. The research symposium serves as an excellent venue for showcasing their research to the EPCC and UTEP community, as well as interacting with local and out of town professionals who serve as judges for the research presentations. Feedback provided by the judges assists students in refining their presentations for out of town professional meetings. The first students participating in the research program are graduating from UTEP in the summer and fall of 2012. Many EPCC students involved in research have obtained summer internships in industry, the public sector or at other academic institutions, some even prior to attending UTEP. Several have received competitive scholarships. The greatest challenges to the research program include finding UTEP faculty who are willing to work with EPCC students and financial support for the students during their research activities. The greatest challenges

  10. Global Health in Family Medicine Summer Primer

    PubMed Central

    Rouleau, Katherine; Janakiram, Praseedha; Nicolle, Eileen; Godoy-Ruiz, Paula; Pakes, Barry N.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Problem addressed Despite the rapid emergence of global health training across North American universities, there remains a gap in educational programs focusing on the unique role of family medicine and primary care in global health. Objective of program The objective of the Global Health in Family Medicine Summer Primer, developed in 2013 by the Department of Family and Community Medicine at the University of Toronto in Ontario, is to strengthen global health competencies among family medicine residents and faculty. Program description The course covers the meaning of global health; global health ethics; the place of family medicine, primary care, and primary health care in the global health context; epidemiology; infectious diseases; the social determinants of health; and care of vulnerable populations locally and globally. The course is delivered in an intensive 5-day format with didactic lectures, group discussions, interactive workshops, and lived-experience panels. Conclusion The Global Health in Family Medicine Summer Primer has proven to be a successful educational initiative and provides valuable lessons learned for other academic science centres in developing global health training programs for family medicine residents and faculty. PMID:26380854

  11. Biggs AAF, El Paso, Texas. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-14

    4. TITLE (aind Subtitle.) 5 TYPE OF REPORT 6 PERI00 CZO,(ERLD Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Final repto Observations (RUSSWO)- Biggs AAF...34"’i ~DATA PROCESSING DIVISION .! tx Air Weather Service ( MAC . . REVISED UNIFORM SUMMARY OF : SURFACE WEATHER OBSERVATIONS ,t’ BIGGS AAF TX (E...PLI1it,* ), f ,, .) Revised Unifovim Suinnaury of Surface Wea ther Find.) rept Observations (RUSSWO)-"Biggs AAF, El Paso, 7 A~..4OA.4 -I COTRACT OR GRIANT

  12. Confirmation and investigation of higher science curiosity in Juarez Middle School students compared to their peers in El Paso, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmona Miranda, Karla

    In the last 20 years attitudes towards science and science classes in K-12 education have been an important topic of investigation due to the decreasing number of students choosing Science, Technology, Engineering and Math (STEM) related careers, and the increasing need for STEM prepared workers to cover the job demands of the future. The purpose of this study is to confirm a previously measured difference in scientific curiosity between middle school students in El Paso and in Ciudad Juarez, and to collect additional data that might tell us what the possible factors or reasons for this difference are. Our sample consists of 156 middle school students from Juarez public schools, and 448 middle school students from El Paso public middle schools. The Children's Science Curiosity Scale of Harty & Beall (1984) will be used to measure the curiosity level. Additionally, the students will be asked to respond to "Why do you like or dislike science?" Our results show that those obtained by Ortiz (2006) in a similar study persist but with a reduction of standard deviations. The percentage of students that state that they do not like science in Ciudad Juarez and El Paso are 9% and 14%, respectively. The most common reason to like science among students in Ciudad Juarez was related to the topics covered in class, and among students in El Paso was related to the experiments and hands-on activities done in class. After analyzing contingency tables with chi-squared tests and calculating the respective contingency coefficients, it is safe to say that even though relationships between the reasons to like or dislike science and country exist, these relationships are not strong. Other results, limitations, and future research also are discussed.

  13. Spatial variability of unpaved road dust PM10 emission factors near El Paso, Texas.

    PubMed

    Kuhns, Hampden; Gillies, John; Etyemezian, Vicken; Dubois, David; Ahonen, Sean; Nikolic, Djordje; Durham, Clyde

    2005-01-01

    The testing re-entrained aerosol kinetic emissions from roads technique is compared with distance-based emission factors (EFs; g/VKT) measured downwind of a dirt road by using towers instrumented with real-time meteorological and particle sensors at multiple heights. The emission potential (EP), defined as the EF divided by the vehicle speed (m/sec), and weight index permits the intercomparison of emissions from multiple roadways surveyed by the TRAKER vehicle. A survey of 72 km of unpaved roads on the Ft. Bliss Military Base near El Paso, Texas, indicated that 60% of all measured EPs fell between 6.7 (g/VKT)/(m/sec) and 9.6 (g/VKT)/(m/sec). The EP measured across the base was approximately 50% lower than those collected in the vicinity of the instrumented towers. This implies that EFs measured for other vehicles on the same test section should be reduced by 50% to more accurately represent EFs for the entire military base. Using geographic information system-based soil maps, the inferred EFs are related to differences in soil types over the survey area. Variations among five different soil types accounted for <10% of variation in EP. Individual measurements using the testing re-entrained aerosol kinetic emissions from roads technique did show larger spatial variations in EP; however, these were not effectively captured by the soil classifications, partly because of the comparatively coarse spatial classification used in the soil survey data.

  14. Hydrologic interpretation of geophysical data from the southeastern Hueco Bolson, El Paso, and Hudspeth Counties, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gates, Joseph Spencer; Stanley, W.D.

    1976-01-01

    Airborne-electromagnetic and earth-resistivity surveys were used to explore for fresh ground water in the Hueco Bolson southeast of El Paso, Texas. Aerial surveys were made along about 500 miles (800 km) of flight line, and 67 resistivity soundings were made along 110 miles (180 km) of profile. The surveys did not indicate the presence of any large bodies of fresh ground water, but several areas may be underlain by small to moderate amounts of fresh to slightly saline water.The material underlying the flood plain of the Rio Grande is predominantly clay or sand of low resistivity. Along a band on the mesa next to and parallel to the flood plain, more resistive material composed partly of deposits of an ancient river channel extends to depths of about 400 to 1,700 feet (120 to 520 m). Locally, the lower part of this more resistive material is saturated with fresh to slightly saline water. The largest body of fresh to slightly saline ground water detected in this study is between Fabens and Tornillo, Texas, mostly in the sandhill area between the flood plain and the mesa. Under assumed conditions, the total amount of water in storage may be as much as 400,000 to 800,000 acre-feet (500 million to 1 billion m ).The resistivity data indicate that the deep artesian zone southwest of Fabens extends from a depth of about 1,200 feet (365 m) to about 2,800 feet (855 m).

  15. Sensitivity modeling study for an ozone occurrence during the 1996 Paso Del Norte Ozone Campaign.

    PubMed

    Lu, Duanjun; Reddy, Remata S; Fitzgerald, Rosa; Stockwell, William R; Williams, Quinton L; Tchounwou, Paul B

    2008-12-01

    Surface ozone pollution has been a persistent environmental problem in the US and Europe as well as the developing countries. A key prerequisite to find effective alternatives to meeting an ozone air quality standard is to understand the importance of local anthropogenic emissions, the significance of biogenic emissions, and the contribution of long-range transport. In this study, an air quality modeling system that includes chemistry and transport, CMAQ, an emission processing model, SMOKE, and a mesoscale numerical meteorological model, WRF, has been applied to investigate an ozone event occurring during the period of the 1996 Paso del Norte Ozone Campaign. The results show that the modeling system exhibits the capability to simulate this high ozone occurrence by providing a comparable temporal variation of surface ozone concentration at one station and to capture the spatial evolution of the event. Several sensitivity tests were also conducted to identify the contributions to high surface ozone concentration from eight VOC subspecies, biogenic VOCs, anthropogenic VOCs and long-range transportation of ozone and its precursors. It is found that the reductions of ETH, ISOP, PAR, OLE and FORM help to mitigate the surface ozone concentration, and like anthropogenic VOCs, biogenic VOC plays a nonnegligible role in ozone formation. But for this case, long-range transport of ozone and its precursors appears to produce an insignificant contribution.

  16. Yard flooding by irrigation canals increased the risk of West Nile disease in El Paso, Texas

    PubMed Central

    Cardenas, Victor M.; Jaime, Javier; Ford, Paula B.; Gonzalez, Fernando J.; Carrillo, Irma; Gallegos, Jorge E.; Watts, Douglas M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the effects of use of water from irrigation canals to flood residential yards on the risk of West Nile disease in El Paso, Texas. Methods West Nile disease confirmed cases in 2009–2010 were compared with a random sample of 50 residents of the county according to access to and use of water from irrigation canals by subjects or their neighbors, as well as geo-referenced closest distance between their home address and the nearest irrigation canal. A windshield survey of 600 meters around the study subjects’ home address recorded the presence of irrigation canals. The distance from the residence of 182 confirmed cases of West Nile disease reported in 2003–2010 to canals was compared to that of the centroids of 182 blocks selected at random. Results Cases were more likely than controls to report their neighbors flooded their yards with water from canals. Irrigation canals were more often observed in neighborhoods of cases than of controls. Using the set of addresses of 182 confirmed cases and 182 hypothetic controls the authors found a statistically significant inverse relation with risk of West Nile disease. Conclusions Flooding of yards with water from canals increased the risk of West Nile disease. PMID:21943648

  17. The DOE infrastructure support program at the University of Texas at El Paso. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-01

    The University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP) is located on 300 acres, only a few hundred years from the US/Mexico border. The DOE Infrastructure Support Program was initiated at UTEP in 1987. The purpose of the program was to assist the University in building the infrastructure required for its emerging role as a regional center for energy-related research. Equally important was the need to strength the University`s ability to complete for sponsored energy-related programs at the state and national levels and to provide opportunities for faculty, staff and students to participate in energy-related research and outreach activities. The program had four major objectives, as follows: (1) implement energy research, outreach and demonstration projects already funded, and prepare new proposals to fund university research interests; (2) establish an Energy Center as a separate operational entity to provide continuing infrastructure support for energy-related programs; (3) strengthen university/private sector energy research linkages; and (4) involve minority graduate and undergraduate students in energy research and outreach activities. Each of the above objectives has been exceeded substantially, and, as a consequence, the University has become a regional leader in energy and environmental research and outreach efforts.

  18. Distribution and Sources of Lead in Urban Soil in El Paso, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pingitore, N. E.; Amaya, M. A.; Clague, J.

    2005-05-01

    The geographic distribution of lead in El Paso soils is presented in maps based on 500 composite soil samples collected in the region. Each composite sample comprises equal volumes of samples taken from the public space in front of individual houses or structures around a single municipal block. The use of such composites highlights the distribution of lead at the neighborhood level, and de-emphasizes any anomalous elevated level associated with an individual house or structure. Lead levels are highest in the downtown commercial district, in the adjacent area to the east, which comprises an old central business, transport, and light industry complex, and to the west in the area of a century-old smelter, placed on standby six years ago. The continuity of this zone, and the age of its structures, make it difficult to differentiate lead sources. Lead values decrease systematically away from this urban core zone, with the lowest levels generally encountered in the peripheral, lightly populated developments and communities. This geographic distribution of Pb in soil is consistent with Pb measurements reported on particulate matter taken from four air monitoring stations during the 1990s. Soil data thus can complement air studies by providing an essentially infinite geographic network of sampling sites that, with varying accuracy, record and integrate air conditions over years and decades. Research supported by NIEHS Grant 1RO1-ES11367.

  19. Minority Universities Systems Engineering (MUSE) Program at the University of Texas at El Paso

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robbins, Mary Clare; Usevitch, Bryan; Starks, Scott A.

    1997-01-01

    In 1995, The University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP) responded to the suggestion of NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (NASA JPL) to form a consortium comprised of California State University at Los Angeles (CSULA), North Carolina Agricultural and Technical University (NCAT), and UTEP from which developed the Minority Universities Systems Engineering (MUSE) Program. The mission of this consortium is to develop a unique position for minority universities in providing the nation's future system architects and engineers as well as enhance JPL's system design capability. The goals of this collaboration include the development of a system engineering curriculum which includes hands-on project engineering and design experiences. UTEP is in a unique position to take full advantage of this program since UTEP has been named a Model Institution for Excellence (MIE) by the National Science Foundation. The purpose of MIE is to produce leaders in Science, Math, and Engineering. Furthermore, UTEP has also been selected as the site for two new centers including the Pan American Center for Earth and Environmental Sciences (PACES) directed by Dr. Scott Starks and the FAST Center for Structural Integrity of Aerospace Systems directed by Dr. Roberto Osegueda. The UTEP MUSE Program operates under the auspices of the PACES Center.

  20. The geologic structure of part of the southern Franklin Mountains, El Paso County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, W.R.; Julian, F.E. . Dept. of Geosciences)

    1993-02-01

    The Franklin Mountains are a west tilted fault block mountain range which extends northwards from the city of El Paso, Texas. Geologic mapping in the southern portion of the Franklin Mountains has revealed many previously unrecognized structural complexities. Three large high-angle faults define the boundaries of map. Twenty lithologic units are present in the field area, including the southernmost Precambrian meta-sedimentary rocks in the Franklin Mountains (Lanoria Quartzite and Thunderbird group conglomerates). The area is dominated by Precambrian igneous rocks and lower Paleozoic carbonates, but Cenozoic ( ) intrusions are also recognized. Thin sections and rock slabs were used to describe and identify many of the lithologic units. The Franklin Mountains are often referred to as a simple fault block mountain range related to the Rio Grande Rift. Three critical regions within the study area show that these mountains contain structural complexities. In critical area one, Precambrian granites and rhyolites are structurally juxtaposed, and several faults bisecting the area affect the Precambrian/Paleozoic fault contact. Critical area two contains multiple NNW-trending faults, three sills and a possible landslide. This area also shows depositional features related to an island of Precambrian rock exposed during deposition of the lower Paleozoic rocks. Critical area three contains numerous small faults which generally trend NNE. They appear to be splays off of one of the major faults bounding the area. Cenozoic kaolinite sills and mafic intrusion have filled many of the fault zones.

  1. Great Lakes rivermouths: a primer for managers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pebbles, Victoria; Larson, James; Seelbach, Paul; Pebbles, Victoria; Larson, James; Seelbach, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Between the North American Great Lakes and their tributaries are the places where the confluence of river and lake waters creates a distinct ecosystem: the rivermouth ecosystem. Human development has often centered around these rivermouths, in part, because they provide a rich array of ecosystem services. Not surprisingly, centuries of intense human activity have led to substantial pressures on, and alterations to, these ecosystems, often diminishing or degrading their ecological functions and associated ecological services. Many Great Lakes rivermouths are the focus of intense restoration efforts. For example, 36 of the active Great Lakes Areas of Concern (AOCs) are rivermouths or areas that include one or more rivermouths. Historically, research of rivermouth ecosystems has been piecemeal, focused on the Great Lakes proper or on the upper reaches of tributaries, with little direct study of the rivermouth itself. Researchers have been divided among disciplines, agencies and institutions; and they often work independently and use disparate venues to communicate their work. Management has also been fragmented with a focus on smaller, localized, sub-habitat units and socio-political or economic elements, rather than system-level consideration. This Primer presents the case for a more holistic approach to rivermouth science and management that can enable restoration of ecosystem services with multiple benefits to humans and the Great Lakes ecosystem. A conceptual model is presented with supporting text that describes the structures and processes common to all rivermouths, substantiating the case for treating these ecosystems as an identifiable class.1 Ecological services provided by rivermouths and changes in how humans value those services over time are illustrated through case studies of two Great Lakes rivermouths—the St. Louis River and the Maumee River. Specific ecosystem services are identified in italics throughout this Primer and follow definitions described

  2. Oligonucleotide primers for PCR amplification of coelomate introns.

    PubMed

    Jarman, Simon N; Ward, Robert D; Elliott, Nicholas G

    2002-09-01

    Abstract Seven novel oligonucleotide primer pairs for polymerase chain reaction amplification of introns from nuclear genes in coelomates were designed and tested. Each pair bound to adjacent exons that are separated by a single intron in most coelomate species. The primer sets amplified introns in species as widely separated by the course of evolution as oysters (Mollusca: Protostoma) and salmon (Chordata: Deuterostoma). Each primer set was tested on a further 6 coelomate species and found to amplify introns in most cases. These primer sets may therefore be useful tools for developing nuclear DNA markers in diverse coelomate species for studies of population genetics, phylogenetics, or genome mapping.

  3. Brownfields Technology Primer: Selecting and Using Phytoremediation for Site Cleanup

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This primer explains the phytoremediation process, discusses the potential advantages and considerations in selecting phytoremediation to clean up brownfields sites, and provides information on additional resources about phytoremediation.

  4. Attic Dust Analysis Approach for Evaluation of Heavy Metal Deposition on the El Paso Del Norte Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shekhter, E. G.; van Pelt, S.; Pannell, K.; Gill, T. E.; Barnes, M. A.

    2010-12-01

    The El Paso del Norte region in the United States is a region of complex topography that is the home to more than 2 million people who share the same air. A large non-ferrous smelter (primary lead-copper smelter),owned by the American Smelting and Refining Company (ASARCO), was functioning in the Rio Grande River valley on the west side of the Franklin Mountains that divide the city of El Paso and across the river from Juarez, Mexico’s largest city on the United States border. During the more than 100 years of operation, beginning in 1887, the ASARCO smelter emissions considerably deteriorated the already complex environmental condition on the US-Mexican border. In order to identify the sources and patterns of heavy metal dispersion, we used an attic dust analyses approach which has not been previously been applied in this area. Undisturbed attic dust can provide an integrated history of atmospheric loading of particulates emanating from geological, biological and anthropogenic sources and can help to reconstruct the air pollution history on a local scale. We sampled attic dust and dust from undisturbed surfaces in 15 buildings of varying ages from three neighborhoods in the cities of El Paso and Juarez. The dust samples and samples of unpolluted buried soil horizons in the area were extracted with aqua regia and analyzed by ICP-AES and ICP-MS. Enrichment ratios (ER) were calculated by dividing the concentration of a trace metal in the attic dust by the mean concentration of the same element in the buried soil horizons. Mean ER for Pb were 263.3, 95.4, and 70.2 for dust collected in a neighborhood near the smelter, downtown Juarez, and an El Paso neighborhood on the other side of the Franklin Mountains from the smelter. Greater ER for As, Cd, Zn, Sb, and Cu followed the same trends, by neighborhood, noted for Pb. In addition, dust collected from attics surfaces (pipes, ducts, storage containers) post-dating smelter disclosure had lower ER for the trace metals

  5. HST archive primer, version 4.1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fruchter, A. (Editor); Baum, S. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    This version of the HST Archive Primer provides the basic information a user needs to know to access the HST archive via StarView the new user interface to the archive. Using StarView, users can search for observations interest, find calibration reference files, and retrieve data from the archive. Both the terminal version of StarView and the X-windows version feature a name resolver which simplifies searches of the HST archive based on target name. In addition, the X-windows version of StarView allows preview of all public HST data; compressed versions of public images are displayed via SAOIMAGE, while spectra are plotted using the public plotting package, XMGR. Finally, the version of StarView described here features screens designed for observers preparing Cycle 5 HST proposals.

  6. Primer on tritium safe handling practices

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    This Primer is designed for use by operations and maintenance personnel to improve their knowledge of tritium safe handling practices. It is applicable to many job classifications and can be used as a reference for classroom work or for self-study. It is presented in general terms for use throughout the DOE Complex. After reading it, one should be able to: describe methods of measuring airborne tritium concentration; list types of protective clothing effective against tritium uptake from surface and airborne contamination; name two methods of reducing the body dose after a tritium uptake; describe the most common method for determining amount of tritium uptake in the body; describe steps to take following an accidental release of airborne tritium; describe the damage to metals that results from absorption of tritium; explain how washing hands or showering in cold water helps reduce tritium uptake; and describe how tritium exchanges with normal hydrogen in water and hydrocarbons.

  7. Formaldehyde as hypothetical primer of biohomochirality

    SciTech Connect

    Goldanskii, V.I.

    1996-07-01

    One of the most intriguing and crucial problems of the prebiotic evolution and the origin of life is the explanation of the origin of biohomochirality. A scheme of conversions originated by formaldehyde (FA) as hypothetical primer of biohomochirality is proposed. The merit of FA as executor of this function is based -inter alia - on the distinguished role of FA as one of the earliest and simplest molecules in both warm, terrestrial and cold, extraterrestrial scenarios of the origin of life. The confirmation of the role of FA as primer of biohomochirality would support the option of an RNA world as an alternative to the protein world. The suggested hypothesis puts forward for the first time a concrete sequence of chemical reactions which can lead to biohomochirality. The spontaneous breaking of the mirror symmetry is secured by the application of the well-known Frank scheme (combination of autocatalysis and {open_quote}{open_quote}annihilation{close_quote}{close_quote} of L and D enantiomers) to the series of interactions of FA {open_quote}{open_quote}trimers{close_quote}{close_quote} (i.e. C{sub 3}H{sub 6}O{sub 3} compounds) of (aaa), (apa) and (app) types, where the monomeric groups (a) means {open_quote}{open_quote}achirons{close_quote}{close_quote} (a=CH{sub n}, n{ge}2 and C=M, M=C,O) and (p) mean {open_quote}{open_quote}prochirons{close_quote}{close_quote} (p=HC{asterisk}OM, M=H,C). {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  8. Solute Sources and Budget for the Rio Grande above El Paso, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogan, J. F.; Phillips, F. M.; Hendrickx, J. M.

    2001-12-01

    Issues of water quality, especially salinity, limit the use of water resources from the Rio Grande. Identification and quantification of salinity sources is critical for improved river management. In the headwater region salts are typically derived from atmospheric deposition and chemical weathering reactions. Salinity increases during transit may result from both natural (saline groundwater, hydrothermal springs and dissolution of evaporite deposits) and anthropogenic (agricultural return flow and wastewater from sewage treatment plants) sources. These increases are magnified by evapotranspiration (this includes evaporation from open water, transpiration from irrigated agriculture and transpiration from natural riparian areas). With multiple salinity sources and evapotranspiration acting simultaneously, understanding the solute balance for the Rio Grande at a level needed for improved river management is difficult. We have conducted synoptic sampling of the Rio Grande from the headwaters in Colorado to south of El Paso, Texas. Sampling was conducted in January and August of 2000 and 2001. The total dissolved solids content (TDS) of the Rio Grande increases from < 50 mg/L in headwater regions of Colorado to > 2000 mg/L south of El Paso, Texas. The Cl/Br (wt/wt) ratio for river water increases from ~50 in the headwaters (typical for atmospheric deposition) to ~700 in the lower basin. This increase in Cl/Br ratio demonstrates the importance of additional salinity sources. Three end-members are recognized using Cl/Br mixing plots for winter samples: atmospheric deposition, a hydrothermal end-member localized around Truth of Consequences, NM, and a third end-member that may represent groundwater. Samples collected during the summer months are shifted off the winter mixing lines indicating concentration through ET. Increases in salinity were not a simple function of distance downriver, but rather occurred in a series of steps. Some of these steps are correlated with

  9. Modeling particle number concentrations along Interstate 10 in El Paso, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olvera, Hector A.; Jimenez, Omar; Provencio-Vasquez, Elias

    2014-12-01

    Annual average daily particle number concentrations around a highway were estimated with an atmospheric dispersion model and a land use regression model. The dispersion model was used to estimate particle concentrations along Interstate 10 at 98 locations within El Paso, Texas. This model employed annual averaged wind speed and annual average daily traffic counts as inputs. A land use regression model with vehicle kilometers traveled as the predictor variable was used to estimate local background concentrations away from the highway to adjust the near-highway concentration estimates. Estimated particle number concentrations ranged between 9.8 × 103 particles/cc and 1.3 × 105 particles/cc, and averaged 2.5 × 104 particles/cc (SE 421.0). Estimates were compared against values measured at seven sites located along I10 throughout the region. The average fractional error was 6% and ranged between -1% and -13% across sites. The largest bias of -13% was observed at a semi-rural site where traffic was lowest. The average bias amongst urban sites was 5%. The accuracy of the estimates depended primarily on the emission factor and the adjustment to local background conditions. An emission factor of 1.63 × 1014 particles/veh-km was based on a value proposed in the literature and adjusted with local measurements. The integration of the two modeling techniques ensured that the particle number concentrations estimates captured the impact of traffic along both the highway and arterial roadways. The performance and economical aspects of the two modeling techniques used in this study shows that producing particle concentration surfaces along major roadways would be feasible in urban regions where traffic and meteorological data are readily available.

  10. Modeling particle number concentrations along Interstate 10 in El Paso, Texas

    PubMed Central

    Olvera, Hector A.; Jimenez, Omar; Provencio-Vasquez, Elias

    2014-01-01

    Annual average daily particle number concentrations around a highway were estimated with an atmospheric dispersion model and a land use regression model. The dispersion model was used to estimate particle concentrations along Interstate 10 at 98 locations within El Paso, Texas. This model employed annual averaged wind speed and annual average daily traffic counts as inputs. A land use regression model with vehicle kilometers traveled as the predictor variable was used to estimate local background concentrations away from the highway to adjust the near-highway concentration estimates. Estimated particle number concentrations ranged between 9.8 × 103 particles/cc and 1.3 × 105 particles/cc, and averaged 2.5 × 104 particles/cc (SE 421.0). Estimates were compared against values measured at seven sites located along I10 throughout the region. The average fractional error was 6% and ranged between -1% and -13% across sites. The largest bias of -13% was observed at a semi-rural site where traffic was lowest. The average bias amongst urban sites was 5%. The accuracy of the estimates depended primarily on the emission factor and the adjustment to local background conditions. An emission factor of 1.63 × 1014 particles/veh-km was based on a value proposed in the literature and adjusted with local measurements. The integration of the two modeling techniques ensured that the particle number concentrations estimates captured the impact of traffic along both the highway and arterial roadways. The performance and economical aspects of the two modeling techniques used in this study shows that producing particle concentration surfaces along major roadways would be feasible in urban regions where traffic and meteorological data are readily available. PMID:25313294

  11. Modeling particle number concentrations along Interstate 10 in El Paso, Texas.

    PubMed

    Olvera, Hector A; Jimenez, Omar; Provencio-Vasquez, Elias

    2014-12-01

    Annual average daily particle number concentrations around a highway were estimated with an atmospheric dispersion model and a land use regression model. The dispersion model was used to estimate particle concentrations along Interstate 10 at 98 locations within El Paso, Texas. This model employed annual averaged wind speed and annual average daily traffic counts as inputs. A land use regression model with vehicle kilometers traveled as the predictor variable was used to estimate local background concentrations away from the highway to adjust the near-highway concentration estimates. Estimated particle number concentrations ranged between 9.8 × 10(3) particles/cc and 1.3 × 10(5) particles/cc, and averaged 2.5 × 10(4) particles/cc (SE 421.0). Estimates were compared against values measured at seven sites located along I10 throughout the region. The average fractional error was 6% and ranged between -1% and -13% across sites. The largest bias of -13% was observed at a semi-rural site where traffic was lowest. The average bias amongst urban sites was 5%. The accuracy of the estimates depended primarily on the emission factor and the adjustment to local background conditions. An emission factor of 1.63 × 10(14) particles/veh-km was based on a value proposed in the literature and adjusted with local measurements. The integration of the two modeling techniques ensured that the particle number concentrations estimates captured the impact of traffic along both the highway and arterial roadways. The performance and economical aspects of the two modeling techniques used in this study shows that producing particle concentration surfaces along major roadways would be feasible in urban regions where traffic and meteorological data are readily available.

  12. Characterization of ambient particulate matter in the Paso del Norte region

    SciTech Connect

    Li, W.W.; Currey, R.M.; Valenzuela, V.H.; Meuzelaar, H.L.C.; Sheya, S.A.; Anderson, J.R.; Banerjee, S.; Griffin, J.B.

    1999-07-01

    Air pollution in the Paso del Norte region, where West Texas abuts the southern boundary of New Mexico and the northern boundary of Chihuahua, Mexico is a common concern to the residents on both sides of the border. Parts of the region fail to meet the US and Mexican Ambient Air Quality Standards for particulate matter, ozone, and carbon monoxide. The regional air pollution problem is complicated due to arid climate, complex terrain topography, frequently occurring temperature inversions, extensive unpaved urban areas, an aging and poorly maintained vehicle fleet, and a number of other uncontrolled anthropogenic emission sources. The issue is further complicated by concerns arising from recent scientific evidence of the health effects associated with exposures to fine particulate matter. A study designed to address particulate matter (PM) air pollution problems in the region is currently undertaken by researchers from member universities of the Southwest Center for Environmental Research and Policy and several governmental agencies. The study attempts to (1) characterize the fine fraction of PM; (2) identify and characterize the major regional emission sources; (3) apportion the fine fraction of PM to the source emissions; and (4) establish a regional technological information clearinghouse. The short-term goal of this research is to initiate a research program to characterize, identify, and quantify the sources and nature of the PM in the region. The long-term goal of this study is to establish regional research capabilities to continue air quality monitoring, evaluation, modeling, and control after the implementation of the study. A scoping study to collect regional PM was conducted in December 1998.

  13. Influence of deposit architecture on intrastratal deformation, slope deposits of the Tres Pasos Formation, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auchter, Neal C.; Romans, Brian W.; Hubbard, Stephen M.

    2016-07-01

    Slope sediments on passive and active margins deform and fail across a broad range of scales ranging from loading and sediment remobilization near the sediment-water interface to submarine landslides and mass movements that incorporate significant volumes of slope deposits. Deformational styles are characterized by updip extension and downdip compressional features that occur above a detachment surface. Conditions for failure and deformation include the presence of weak layer(s) that serve as a detachment surface, competency contrasts that allow for detachment and downslope movement, deformation above a detachment surface, and a triggering mechanism(s) that initiates failure. Slope failure processes and products are well documented at scales resolvable by seismic-reflection surveys and in instances of extensive downslope failure, but the processes and products associated with intermediate-scale slope deformation are poorly understood. Intrastratal deformation is defined as stratigraphically isolated zones of deformation bounded above and below by concordant and undeformed strata. In this study, outcrop examples of intrastratal deformation from the Upper Cretaceous Tres Pasos Formation are used to elucidate the influence of depositional architecture on slope deformation. The facies distribution associated with compensational stacking of lobe deposits is shown to have a first-order control on the location and style of deformation. Detachment planes that form in mudstone deposits associated with lobe fringe and interlobe deposits are spatially limited and deformation is restricted to interbedded sandstone and mudstone associated with off-axial lobe positions. Downslope translation was arrested by stratigraphic buttresses associated with more sandstone-prone axial deposits. Emplacement of a regionally extensive mass transport deposit is interpreted as the triggering mechanism for contemporaneous intrastratal deformation of > 60 m of underlying stratigraphy. A vertical

  14. Unauthorized Border Crossings and Migrant Deaths: Arizona, New Mexico, and El Paso, Texas, 2002–2003

    PubMed Central

    Sapkota, Sanjeeb; Kohl, Harold W.; Gilchrist, Julie; McAuliffe, Jay; Parks, Bruce; England, Bob; Flood, Tim; Sewell, C. Mack; Perrotta, Dennis; Escobedo, Miguel; Stern, Corrine E.; Zane, David; Nolte, Kurt B.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the major causes of and risk factors for death among migrants who died while making unauthorized border crossings into the United States from Mexico. Methods. Decedents were included in the study if (1) their remains were found between January 1, 2002, and December 31, 2003, in any US county along the 650-mi (1040-km) section of the US–Mexican border from Yuma, Ariz, to El Paso, Tex; (2) their immigration status was unauthorized; and (3) they were believed to have died during transit from Mexico to the United States. Characteristics of the decedents and causes of and risk factors for their deaths were examined. Results. Among the 409 decedents meeting our inclusion criteria, environmental heat exposure (n=250; 61.1%) was the leading cause of death, followed by vehicle crashes (n=33; 8.1%) and drownings (n=24; 5.9%). Male decedents (n= 298; 72.8%) outnumbered female decedents (n = 105; 25.6%) nearly 3 to 1. More than half of the decedents were known to be Mexican nationals (n=235; 57.5%) and were aged 20 to 39 years (n=213; 52.0%); the nationality of 148 (36.2%) decedents was undetermined. Conclusions. Deaths among migrants making unauthorized crossings of the US–Mexican border are due to causes that are largely preventable. Prevention strategies should target young Mexican men, and focus on preventing them from conceiving plans to cross the border, discouraging them from using dangerous routes as crossing points, and providing search-and-rescue teams to locate lost or injured migrant crossers. PMID:16735618

  15. The Fluid Reading Primer: Animated Decoding Support for Emergent Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zellweger, Polle T.; Mackinlay, Jock D.

    A prototype application called the Fluid Reading Primer was developed to help emergent readers with the process of decoding written words into their spoken forms. The Fluid Reading Primer is part of a larger research project called Fluid Documents, which is exploring the use of interactive animation of typography to show additional information in…

  16. A Primer for the NEWBASIC/CATALYST System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwyer, Thomas A.; And Others

    Assuming no previous experience with computers, this primer is designed to help students, teachers, scientists, and other scholars to learn how to use the NEWBASIC/CATALYST system (NBS). The primer contains nine sections: (1) instructions for establishing contact with the computer (logging on); (2) examples and problems to lead the student through…

  17. Uncoupling primer and releaser responses to pheromone in honey bees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grozinger, Christina M.; Fischer, Patrick; Hampton, Jacob E.

    2007-05-01

    Pheromones produce dramatic behavioral and physiological responses in a wide variety of species. Releaser pheromones elicit rapid responses within seconds or minutes, while primer pheromones produce long-term changes which may take days to manifest. Honeybee queen mandibular pheromone (QMP) elicits multiple distinct behavioral and physiological responses in worker bees, as both a releaser and primer, and thus produces responses on vastly different time scales. In this study, we demonstrate that releaser and primer responses to QMP can be uncoupled. First, treatment with the juvenile hormone analog methoprene leaves a releaser response (attraction to QMP) intact, but modulates QMP’s primer effects on sucrose responsiveness. Secondly, two components of QMP (9-ODA and 9-HDA) do not elicit a releaser response (attraction) but are as effective as QMP at modulating a primer response, downregulation of foraging-related brain gene expression. These results suggest that different responses to a single pheromone may be produced via distinct pathways.

  18. Moisture insensitive primer: A myth or truth

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Chandresh; Maurya, Rajkumar; Jain, Upendra; Gupta, Ankur; Garg, Jayshree

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the mean shear bond strength (SBS) of moisture insensitive primer (MIP) used for orthodontic bonding in the presence and absence of saliva. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 human noncarious maxillary premolars with sound buccal surfaces, recently extracted were collected in two groups of each 30. Maxillary premolar brackets were bonded to the teeth using light cure (Transbond XT, 3M Unitek, Monrovia, CA, USA) and MIP (Transbond MIP 3M Unitek, Monrovia, CA, USA,) in the presence and absence of saliva. Operators’ saliva was used during the bonding under moist condition. After debonding, all the specimens were examined under a stereomicroscope (×40 magnification) for adhesive remnant using adhesive remnant index (ARI). The SBS tests were done using Instron universal testing machine at cross-head speed of 1 mm/min, force passing parallel to the buccal surface using custom rod and registered in Newtons later converted into Megapascals. Results: Light cure and MIP (Transbond MIP and Transbond XT, 3M Unitek, Monrovia, CA, USA) in the absence of saliva showed higher mean SBS than the presence of saliva. Group I (light cure and MIP) in the absence of saliva showed mean SBS of 9.65 ± 0.90 Mpa. Group II (light cure and MIP) with the presence of saliva showed mean SBS of 9.03 ± 1.14 Mpa. The difference between both the groups was statistically significant, as confirmed by paired t-test (P < 0.05). In-Group I, ARI scores showed that more than half of the adhesive was left over the tooth surface, and Group II showed that there was no or insignificant amount of adhesive left over the tooth surface. Chi-square test revealed significant difference in debonding characteristics among the test groups of ARI (P < 0.05). Failure occurred mainly in resin– bracket base and resin – adhesive interfaces (χ² = 10.04, df = 3, P = 0.031). Conclusion: Moisture insensitive primer is effective in the presence/absence of moisture and has shown SBS value of more

  19. Primer on electricity futures and other derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Stoft, S.; Belden, T.; Goldman, C.; Pickle, S.

    1998-01-01

    Increased competition in bulk power and retail electricity markets is likely to lower electricity prices, but will also result in greater price volatility as the industry moves away from administratively determined, cost-based rates and encourages market-driven prices. Price volatility introduces new risks for generators, consumers, and marketers. Electricity futures and other derivatives can help each of these market participants manage, or hedge, price risks in a competitive electricity market. Futures contracts are legally binding and negotiable contracts that call for the future delivery of a commodity. In most cases, physical delivery does not take place, and the futures contract is closed by buying or selling a futures contract on or near the delivery date. Other electric rate derivatives include options, price swaps, basis swaps, and forward contracts. This report is intended as a primer for public utility commissioners and their staff on futures and other financial instruments used to manage price risks. The report also explores some of the difficult choices facing regulators as they attempt to develop policies in this area.

  20. Identifying and locating tectonic tremor beneath the San Andreas Fault near Parkfield, CA, with the PASO array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, D. E.; Thurber, C. H.; Montgomery-Brown, E. D.; Brown, J. R.; Shelly, D. R.

    2011-12-01

    Tectonic tremor is a weak but persistent shaking of the Earth that was first discovered in subduction zones and later found beneath the San Andreas Fault (SAF). Tremor events represent spasmodic slip on the deep extension of the SAF, occurring at a depth of about 20-25 kilometers. Tremor occurs deeper than the nearby regular earthquakes, which can be found at maximum depths of 12-15 kilometers. Tremor is characterized by bursts of low frequency and/or very low frequency earthquakes (LFE/VLF) with dominant energy in the 1-10 Hz range. Tremor tells us about fault slip at depth in both space and time by illuminating the fault down to about the base of the crust. In the pursuit of deriving information about deep fault behavior and crustal structure, we are analyzing continuous data from the previously untapped Parkfield Area Seismic Observatory (PASO) temporary array, operated in 2000-2002 and 2004-2006. We started the identification process by correlating templates of known events from a nearby station array based on an existing catalog of tremor events. Using the dense PASO array and various correlation methods, including autocorrelation (Brown et. al. 2008), a scanning algorithm (Rowe, 2005), and cross correlation of template events (Shelly et al., 2007), we will refine the locations of these known events and seek to identify undiscovered clusters of LFEs and tremor. After generating an updated catalog initially for the month of September 2002, we will use S-wave arrivals from the 59 stations comprising the PASO array to provide strong constraints on the locations of identified events.

  1. Evidence for long-term impact of Pasos Adelante: using a community-wide survey to evaluate chronic disease risk modification in prior program participants.

    PubMed

    Carvajal, Scott C; Miesfeld, Noelle; Chang, Jean; Reinschmidt, Kerstin M; de Zapien, Jill Guernsey; Fernandez, Maria L; Rosales, Cecilia; Staten, Lisa K

    2013-10-01

    Effective community-level chronic disease prevention is critical to population health within developed and developing nations. Pasos Adelante is a preventive intervention that aims to reduce chronic disease risk with evidence of effectiveness in US-Mexico residing, Mexican origin, participants. This intervention and related ones also implemented with community health workers have been shown to improve clinical, behavioral and quality of life indicators; though most evidence is from shorter-term evaluations and/or lack comparison groups. The current study examines the impact of this program using secondary data collected in the community 3-6 years after all participants completed the program. A proportional household survey (N = 708) was used that included 48 respondents who indicated they had participated in Pasos. Using propensity score matching to account for differences in program participants versus other community residents (the program targeted those with diabetes and associated risk factors), 148 natural controls were identified for 37 matched Pasos participants. Testing a range of behavioral and clinical indicators of chronic disease risk, logistic regression models accounting for selection bias showed two significant findings; Pasos participants were more physically active and drank less whole milk. These findings add to the evidence of the effectiveness of Pasos Adalente and related interventions in reducing chronic disease risk in Mexican-origin populations, and illustrate the use of innovative techniques for using secondary, community-level data to complement prior evaluation research.

  2. Research Experience for Undergraduate and Early College High School Students at University of Texas at El Paso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medrano, Omar; Gonzalez, E.; Mason, P. A.

    2014-01-01

    A program of astrophysics research, education, and outreach to high school students recently developed at the University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP) is described. Undergraduate students engage in observational research at McDonald Observatory, using the 2.1 and 2.7-m telescopes. An observational astronomy laboratory was developed for undergraduate majors. In addition, UTEP physics majors mentored area early-college high school students for hundreds of hours of summer research experience. UTEP and UT-Austin are partner institutions and this program is funded by NSF grant 0958783.

  3. Shear bond strength comparison of moisture-insensitive primer and self-etching primer

    PubMed Central

    Goswami, Arunima; Mitali, Borah; Roy, BK

    2014-01-01

    Context: The detrimental effect of moisture on orthodontic bonding has long been known. Hydrophilic bonding materials have been introduced suggesting the possibility of obtaining successful orthodontic bonding to a moisture contaminated enamel surface. Aims: This study has been performed with an aim to compare the in vitro shear bond strength (SBS) and debonding characteristic of moisture-insensitive primer (MIP) (Transbond MIP) (3M Unitek, South Peck Road, Monrovia, California, USA) and self-etching primer (SEP) (Transbond Plus SEP) (3M Unitek, South Peck Road, Monrovia, California, USA) in combination with a color changing adhesive system (Transbond Plus Color Change) (3M Unitek, South Peck Road, Monrovia, California, USA) under both dry and contaminated condition. Settings and Design: Randomized controlled clinical study. Subjects and Methods: One hundred and twenty freshly extracted teeth for the purpose of orthodontic treatment were collected. Teeth were randomly assigned into four groups, each consisting of 30 specimen and stainless steel brackets were bonded using each primer-adhesive combination under different enamel conditions, that is, dry and enamel contaminated with natural saliva. SBS and adhesive remnant index were calculated for each group. Results: Analysis of variance of SBS for both MIP and SEP under dry and contaminated condition showed no statistical significance (P = 0.5). Chi-square test showed significant difference in debonding characteristics among the test groups (P < 0.001). All the groups showed typical debonding characteristics of separation either at the bracket-adhesive interface or within the adhesive itself. Conclusions: Moisture contamination did not affect the SBS and adhesive remaining on tooth for both MIP and SEP. PMID:25143933

  4. Plastid primers for angiosperm phylogenetics and phylogeography1

    PubMed Central

    Prince, Linda M.

    2015-01-01

    Premise of the study: PCR primers are available for virtually every region of the plastid genome. Selection of which primer pairs to use is second only to selection of the genic region. This is particularly true for research at the species/population interface. Methods: Primer pairs for 130 regions of the chloroplast genome were evaluated in 12 species distributed across the angiosperms. Likelihood of amplification success was inferred based upon number and location of mismatches to target sequence. Intraspecific sequence variability was evaluated under three different criteria in four species. Results: Many published primer pairs should work across all taxa sampled, with the exception of failure due to genomic reorganization events. Universal barcoding primers were the least likely to work (65% success). The list of most variable regions for use within species has little in common with the lists identified in prior studies. Discussion: Published primer sequences should amplify a diversity of flowering plant DNAs, even those designed for specific taxonomic groups. “Universal” primers may have extremely limited utility. There was little consistency in likelihood of amplification success for any given publication across lineages or within lineage across publications. PMID:26082876

  5. PD5: A General Purpose Library for Primer Design Software

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Michael C.; Aubrey, Wayne; Young, Michael; Clare, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    Background Complex PCR applications for large genome-scale projects require fast, reliable and often highly sophisticated primer design software applications. Presently, such applications use pipelining methods to utilise many third party applications and this involves file parsing, interfacing and data conversion, which is slow and prone to error. A fully integrated suite of software tools for primer design would considerably improve the development time, the processing speed, and the reliability of bespoke primer design software applications. Results The PD5 software library is an open-source collection of classes and utilities, providing a complete collection of software building blocks for primer design and analysis. It is written in object-oriented C++ with an emphasis on classes suitable for efficient and rapid development of bespoke primer design programs. The modular design of the software library simplifies the development of specific applications and also integration with existing third party software where necessary. We demonstrate several applications created using this software library that have already proved to be effective, but we view the project as a dynamic environment for building primer design software and it is open for future development by the bioinformatics community. Therefore, the PD5 software library is published under the terms of the GNU General Public License, which guarantee access to source-code and allow redistribution and modification. Conclusions The PD5 software library is downloadable from Google Code and the accompanying Wiki includes instructions and examples: http://code.google.com/p/primer-design PMID:24278254

  6. Isolation and characterization of Staphylococcus aureus strains from a Paso del Norte dairy.

    PubMed

    Matyi, S A; Dupre, J M; Johnson, W L; Hoyt, P R; White, D G; Brody, T; Odenwald, W F; Gustafson, J E

    2013-06-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine if methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains could be identified in the milk of dairy cattle in a Paso del Norte region dairy of the United States. Using physiological and PCR-based identification schemes, a total of 40 Staph. aureus strains were isolated from 29 raw milk samples of 133 total samples analyzed. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis after digestion with the SmaI enzyme revealed that the 40 confirmed strains were represented by 5 pulsed-field types, which each contained 3 or more strains. Of 7 hospital strains isolated from cows undergoing antibiotic therapy, 3 demonstrated resistance to 3 or more antimicrobial classes and displayed similar pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns. A secondary purpose of this study was to elucidate the evolutionary relationships of strains isolated in this study to genomically characterized Staph. aureus strains. Therefore, Roche 454 GS (Roche Diagnostics Corp., Dallas, TX) pyrosequencing was used to produce draft genome sequences of an MRSA raw milk isolate (H29) and a methicillin-susceptible Staph. aureus (PB32). Analysis using the BLASTn database (http://blast.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/) demonstrated that the H29 draft genome was highly homologous to the human MRSA strain JH1, yet the β-lactamase plasmid carried by H29 was different from that carried by JH1. Genomic analysis of H29 also clearly explained the multidrug resistance phenotype of this raw milk isolate. Analysis of the PB32 draft genome (using BLASTn) demonstrated that this raw milk isolate was most related to human MRSA strain 04-02981. Although PB32 is not a MRSA, the PB32 draft genome did reveal the presence of a unique staphylococcal cassette mec (SCCmec) remnant. In addition, the PB32 draft genome revealed the presence of a novel bovine staphylococcal pathogenicity island, SaPIbovPB32. This study demonstrates the presence of clones closely related to human and (or) bovine Staph. aureus strains

  7. A physicists guide to The Los Alamos Primer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, B. Cameron

    2016-11-01

    In April 1943, a group of scientists at the newly established Los Alamos Laboratory were given a series of lectures by Robert Serber on what was then known of the physics and engineering issues involved in developing fission bombs. Serber’s lectures were recorded in a 24 page report titled The Los Alamos Primer, which was subsequently declassified and published in book form. This paper describes the background to the Primer and analyzes the physics contained in its 22 sections. The motivation for this paper is to provide a firm foundation of the background and contents of the Primer for physicists interested in the Manhattan Project and nuclear weapons.

  8. PCR Amplicon Prediction from Multiplex Degenerate Primer and Probe Sets

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, S. N.

    2013-08-08

    Assessing primer specificity and predicting both desired and off-target amplification products is an essential step for robust PCR assay design. Code is described to predict potential polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplicons in a large sequence database such as NCBI nt from either singleplex or a large multiplexed set of primers, allowing degenerate primer and probe bases, with target mismatch annotates amplicons with gene information automatically downloaded from NCBI, and optionally it can predict whether there are also TaqMan/Luminex probe matches within predicted amplicons.

  9. Quantitative PCR measurements of the effects of introducing inosines into primers provides guidelines for improved degenerate primer design.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Linda; Gibbs, Mark J; Rodoni, Brendan C

    2008-11-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is used to detect groups of viruses with the use of group-specific degenerate primers. Inosine residues are sometimes used in the primers to match variable positions within the complementary target sequences, but there is little data on their effects on cDNA synthesis and amplification. A quantitative reverse-transcription PCR was used to measure the rate of amplification with primers containing inosine residues substituted at different positions and in increasing numbers. Experiments were conducted using standard quantities of cloned DNA copied from Potato virus Y genomic RNA and RNA (cRNA) transcribed from the cloned DNA. Single inosine residues had no affect on the amplification rate in the forward primer, except at one position close to the 3' terminus. Conversely, single inosine residues significantly reduced the amplification rate when placed at three out of four positions in the reverse primer. Four or five inosine substitutions could be tolerated with some decline in rates, but amplification often failed from cRNA templates with primers containing larger numbers of inosines. Greater declines in the rate of amplification were observed with RNA templates, suggesting that reverse transcription suffers more than PCR amplification when inosine is included in the reverse primer.

  10. Utilizing geophysical methods for asessment and characterization of canal seepage in El Paso's lower valley irrigation delivery systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cegon, Amanda Brooke

    El Paso County Water Improvement District No. 1 (EPCWID No.1) delivers the Rio Grande water for agricultural production and urban uses through numerous networked irrigation canals. Of the nearly 86 billion gallons of water released annually for irrigation uses in Texas, billions are lost due to evaporation and seepage in unlined canals with 56 million gallons of the billions are lost in Franklin Canal annually due to improper lining and sediment variation of the canals. To characterize seepage patterns and identify areas of high seepage, Electrical Resistivity, Ground Truthing via soil sample analysis were used along three, half-mile long sectioned canals during irrigation and non-irrigation seasons. The data lines acquired were processed in EARTHIMAGER 2D to create 2D vertical resistivity inversion profiles to locate potential areas of high seepage/high resistivity. The research results will help El Paso County Water Improvement District No. 1 to develop management strategies to conserve water and improve the delivery efficiency systems which leads to economic growth in the Rio Grande Basin.

  11. The effect of urban canopy parameterizations on mesoscale meteorological model simulations in the Paso del Norte area

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.J.; Williams, M.D.

    1997-04-01

    Since mesoscale numerical models do not have the spatial resolution to directly simulate the fluid dynamics and thermodynamics in and around urban structures, urban canopy parameterizations are sometimes used to approximate the drag, heating, and enhanced turbulent kinetic energy (tke) produced by the sub-grid scale urban elements. In this paper, we investigate the effect of the urban canopy parameterizations used in the HOTMAC mesoscale meteorological model by turning the parameterizations on and off. The model simulations were performed in the Paso del Norte region, which includes the cities of El Paso and Ciudad Juarez, the Franklin and Sierra Juarez mountains, and the Rio Grande. The metropolitan area is surrounded by relatively barren scrubland and is intersected by strips of vegetation along the Rio Grande. Results indicate that the urban canopy parameterizations do affect the mesoscale flow field, reducing the magnitude of wind speed and changing the magnitude of the sensible heat flux and tke in the metropolitan area. A nighttime heat island and a daytime cool island exist when urban canopy parameters are turned on, but associated recirculation flows are not readily apparent. Model-computed solar, net, and longwave radiation values look reasonable, agreeing for the most part with published measurements.

  12. DPPrimer – A Degenerate PCR Primer Design Tool

    PubMed Central

    Gahoi, Shachi; Arya, L; Anil, Rai; Marla, ss

    2013-01-01

    Designed degenerate primers unlike conventional primers are superior in matching and amplification of large number of genes, from related gene families. DPPrimer tool was designed to predict primers for PCR amplification of homologous gene from related or diverse plant species. The key features of this tool include platform independence and user friendliness in primer design. Embedded features such as search for functional domains, similarity score selection and phylogebetic tree further enhance the user friendliness of DPPrimer tool. Performance of DPPrimer tool was evaluated by successful PCR amplification of ADP-glucose phosphorylase genes from wheat, barley and rice. Availability DPPrimer is freely accessible at http://202.141.12.147/DGEN_tool/index.html PMID:24307773

  13. BTSC VAPOR INSTRUSION PRIMER "VAPOR INTRUSION CONSIDERATION FOR REDEVELOPMENT"

    EPA Science Inventory

    This primer is designed for brownfields stakeholders concerned about vapor intrusion, including property owners, real estate developers, and contractors performing environmental site investigations. It provides an overview of the vapor intrusion issue and how it can impact the ap...

  14. Best Development Practices: A Primer for Smart Growth

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Best Development Practices: A Primer for Smart Growth lists specific practices to achieve development principles that mix land uses, support transportation options, protect natural systems, and provide housing choices.

  15. 20. BUILDINGS 243247. PRIMER DRYHOUSES. HEATING LAYOUT. October 16, 1917 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. BUILDINGS 243-247. PRIMER DRYHOUSES. HEATING LAYOUT. October 16, 1917 - Frankford Arsenal, Building Nos. 242-246A, South side Craig Road between Eakin & Walbach Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  16. 13. BUILDING 239. ARTILLERY PRIMER SHOP. ADDITIONS AND ALTERATIONS. FIRST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. BUILDING 239. ARTILLERY PRIMER SHOP. ADDITIONS AND ALTERATIONS. FIRST FLOOR PLAN AND ELEVATIONS. May 12, 1920. - Frankford Arsenal, Building Nos. 239-239A, Southeast corner of Clay Street & Cray Road, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  17. 19. BUILDINGS 243247. PRIMER DRYHOUSES. BUILDING LAYOUT. February 16, 1917 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. BUILDINGS 243-247. PRIMER DRYHOUSES. BUILDING LAYOUT. February 16, 1917 - Frankford Arsenal, Building Nos. 242-246A, South side Craig Road between Eakin & Walbach Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  18. 18. BUILDING 243247. PRIMER DRYHOUSES. GENERAL LAYOUT. February 16, 1917 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. BUILDING 243-247. PRIMER DRYHOUSES. GENERAL LAYOUT. February 16, 1917 - Frankford Arsenal, Building Nos. 242-246A, South side Craig Road between Eakin & Walbach Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  19. El Paso Electric Company Diablo Substation to the US-Mexico border 115kV transmission line project. Final Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    This Environmental Assessment documents the analysis of alternative corridors for development and operation of a proposed 115 kilovolt transmission line using private lands and transporting power to the US-Mexico international border. The project will require (1) an amendment to El Paso Electric Company`s existing export authorization to transfer power across this border, and (2) a Presidential Permit for construction of the transmission line. The project would be located in Dona Ana county in southern New Mexico, approximately five miles west of El Paso, Texas. The alternative corridors, specific locations within those corridors, and structure types are identified and analyzed in the environmental studies.

  20. PCR Primers for identification of high sucrose Saccharum genotypes.

    PubMed

    Vinayak, Vandana; Dhawan, Ashok K; Gupta, V K

    2010-01-01

    The progeny of a cross between high sucrose sugarcane clone S. officinarum 'Gungera' and a low sucrose clone S. spontaneum 'SES 603' resulted in interspecific hybrids that were named as ISH-1 to ISH-29 and graded on the basis of sucrose content. Hybrids ISH-1, ISH-5, ISH-17 and ISH-23 were selected as very high sucrose (65 to 100 mg/g tissue) genotypes, whereas ISH-10, ISH-11, ISH-12 and ISH-25 were very low sucrose (2 to 25 mg/g tissue) genotypes. DNA from leaves of both the parent clones, as also the progeny hybrids, was amplified using selected primers, in order to identify markers for sucrose content. Ten specific primers were examined: primers 'A' and 'B' that detect polymorphism in promoter region of sucrose synthase-2 gene; primers AI, SS and SPS that were designed on the basis of nucleotide sequences of genes for acid invertase, sucrose synthase and sucrose phosphate synthase enzymes, respectively and primers MSSCIR43, MSSCIRI, SMC226CG, SMC1039CG and SCB07 selected for relation to sucrose accumulation process. DNA products specific to low or high sucrose clones were identified. Primer 'A' and AI amplified DNA products of size 230 and 500 bp, respectively only in high sucrose genotypes ('Gungera', ISH-1, ISH-5, ISH-17 and ISH-23), while primer SMC226CG generated a DNA product of size 920 bp only in low sucrose genotypes ('SES 603', ISH-10, ISH-11, ISH-12 and ISH-25). Ten random decamer primers were also examined, but their products did not show relationship to sucrose content of genotypes.

  1. PrecisePrimer: an easy-to-use web server for designing PCR primers for DNA library cloning and DNA shuffling.

    PubMed

    Pauthenier, Cyrille; Faulon, Jean-Loup

    2014-07-01

    PrecisePrimer is a web-based primer design software made to assist experimentalists in any repetitive primer design task such as preparing, cloning and shuffling DNA libraries. Unlike other popular primer design tools, it is conceived to generate primer libraries with popular PCR polymerase buffers proposed as pre-set options. PrecisePrimer is also meant to design primers in batches, such as for DNA libraries creation of DNA shuffling experiments and to have the simplest interface possible. It integrates the most up-to-date melting temperature algorithms validated with experimental data, and cross validated with other computational tools. We generated a library of primers for the extraction and cloning of 61 genes from yeast DNA genomic extract using default parameters. All primer pairs efficiently amplified their target without any optimization of the PCR conditions.

  2. Hydrogeological characterization of a bank filtration experiment site at the Rio Grande, El Paso, Texas, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langford, R.; Schulze-Makuch, D.; Pillai, S.; Abdel-Fattah, A.; Widmer, K.

    2003-04-01

    An experiment site was constructed along an artificial channel of the Rio Grande in El Paso, Texas. The experiment was funded by the EPA and is designed to measure the effectiveness of bank filtration in an arid environment. Regionally, the experiment is important because of the hundreds of thousands of people drinking water from shallow wells drilled in close proximity to septic systems. A pumping well was drilled 17 meters from the stream bank and screened from 3.5 to 8 m depth. A cruciform array of observation wells with several multilevel completions allows detection of downstream and vertical movement of water as well as flow from the stream to the well. All of the wells were continuously cored during drilling. Analysis of the cores reveals that the site consists of two stacked channels filled with sand deposited from the meandering Rio Grande. A grid of ground-penetrating radar lines provided three-dimensional coverage between wells and showed bedding to 6.5 m depth. Constant head hydraulic conductivities show that the aquifer consists of two more permeable units separated by the less permeable upper fill of the lower channel complex, with vertical hydraulic conductivities of (1x10-6 to 2x10-6 m/s?). The intervals above and below this interval have the highest vertical conductivities (up to 3.5x10-5 m/s). A multiple pumping and tracer test was conducted using the cruciform array of the field site that consisted of a pumping well, 16 observation wells, and a stream sampling point. The average hydraulic conductivity of the geological media at the field site was about 2 x 10-3 m/s based on pumping test analysis. However, the type curve responses revealed significant heterogeneity of hydraulic conductivity throughout the field site. For the tracer test, bromide and microspheres were used as tracers. Microspheres were used to mimic the behavior of Giardia and Cryptosporidium. The tracers (bromide and microspheres of different sizes and colors) were injected in one

  3. Polymerization behavior of Klenow fragment and Taq DNA polymerase in short primer extension reactions.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guojie; Guan, Yifu

    2010-10-01

    DNA polymerases amplify DNA fragments through primer extension reactions. However, polymerization behavior of short primers in the primer extension process has not been systematically explored. In this study, we examined the minimal primer length required for primer extension, and the effect of primer length, mismatches and other conditions on DNA polymerization using a non-radioactive method. Under the condition we conducted, the shortest primers polymerized by Klenow fragment (KF) and Taq DNA polymerase in our experiments were respectively heptamer and octamer. The extension efficiency was also affected by the up-stream overhanging structure of the primer-template complex. We hypothesized a simple model to interpret these observations based on the polymerase structures. Furthermore, it was found that the longer the primer, the more efficient is the primer extension. These polymerization behavior of short primers lay foundation about DNA polymerization mechanism and development of novel nucleic acid detection assays.

  4. TSUNAMI Primer: A Primer for Sensitivity/Uncertainty Calculations with SCALE

    SciTech Connect

    Rearden, Bradley T; Mueller, Don; Bowman, Stephen M; Busch, Robert D.; Emerson, Scott

    2009-01-01

    This primer presents examples in the application of the SCALE/TSUNAMI tools to generate k{sub eff} sensitivity data for one- and three-dimensional models using TSUNAMI-1D and -3D and to examine uncertainties in the computed k{sub eff} values due to uncertainties in the cross-section data used in their calculation. The proper use of unit cell data and need for confirming the appropriate selection of input parameters through direct perturbations are described. The uses of sensitivity and uncertainty data to identify and rank potential sources of computational bias in an application system and TSUNAMI tools for assessment of system similarity using sensitivity and uncertainty criteria are demonstrated. Uses of these criteria in trending analyses to assess computational biases, bias uncertainties, and gap analyses are also described. Additionally, an application of the data adjustment tool TSURFER is provided, including identification of specific details of sources of computational bias.

  5. Speciation of Lead in Airborne Particulate Matter in El Paso, TX, by X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pingitore, N. E.; Clague, J.; Amaya, M. A.; Olvera, H. A.

    2007-12-01

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy indicates that lead humate is the dominant species of lead in airborne particulate matter in El Paso, Texas. Lead humate is a stable complex of Pb with the humus component of soil, and is the major Pb species that we found in El Paso soils. Because Pb-contaminated soil is the only significant source of lead humate, re-entrainment of such soil likely provides most of the lead found in particulate matter in the local atmosphere. Elimination of leaded gasoline dramatically decreased lead in particulate matter in the US over the last three decades. Consequently, there was a significant decrease in blood lead levels. Nonetheless, because Pb is such a potent neurotoxin for children, further reductions in airborne lead levels are being called for. Our result can inform this regulatory debate. We examined a total of 20 TSP (Total Suspended Particulate) samples collected at 3 stations in various seasons in 1999 and 2005. Low lead concentrations in the particulate matter and intimately associated filter medium compromised data quality. Six samples proved suitable for standard EXAFS analysis, and XANES analysis was possible with all 20. Comparisons of the XANES and EXAFS of our air samples indicated homogeneity of speciation with regard to geography, season, and year. The XANES and EXAFS spectra were a close match to those of both a lead humate standard and a typical El Paso soil sample with an elevated lead level. X-Ray absorption spectroscopy experiments were conducted at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory on beam lines 7-3, 10-2, and 11-2. Spectra were collected at the Pb L-III absorption edge in fluorescence mode using a 13-element or a 30-element Ge solid-state detector. This publication was made possible by grant numbers 1RO1-ES11367 and 1 S11 ES013339-01A1 from the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), NIH. Its contents are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the

  6. Simulated ground-water flow in the Hueco Bolson, an alluvial-basin aquifer system near El Paso, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heywood, Charles E.; Yager, Richard M.

    2003-01-01

    The neighboring cities of El Paso, Texas, and Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico, have historically relied on ground-water withdrawals from the Hueco Bolson, an alluvial-aquifer system, to supply water to their growing populations. By 1996, ground-water drawdown exceeded 60 meters in some areas under Ciudad Juarez and El Paso. A simulation of steady-state and transient ground-water flow in the Hueco Bolson in westernmost Texas, south-central New Mexico, and northern Chihuahua, Mexico, was developed using MODFLOW-96. The model is needed by El Paso Water Utilities to evaluate strategies for obtaining the most beneficial use of the Hueco Bolson aquifer system. The transient simulation represents a period of 100 years beginning in 1903 and ending in 2002. The period 1903 through 1968 was represented with 66 annual stress periods, and the period 1969 through 2002 was represented with 408 monthly stress periods. The ground-water flow model was calibrated using MODFLOWP and UCODE. Parameter values representing aquifer properties and boundary conditions were adjusted through nonlinear regression in a transient-state simulation with 96 annual time steps to produce a model that approximated (1) 4,352 water levels measured in 292 wells from 1912 to 1995, (2) three seepage-loss rates from a reach of the Rio Grande during periods from 1979 to 1981, (3) three seepage-loss rates from a reach of the Franklin Canal during periods from 1990 to 1992, and (4) 24 seepage rates into irrigation drains from 1961 to 1983. Once a calibrated model was obtained with MODFLOWP and UCODE, the optimal parameter set was used to create an equivalent MODFLOW-96 simulation with monthly temporal discretization to improve computations of seepage from the Rio Grande and to define the flow field for a chloride-transport simulation. Model boundary conditions were modified at appropriate times during the simulation to represent changes in well pumpage, drainage of agricultural fields, and channel

  7. ADVERSE IMPACT OF HOME DAMPNESS AND LENGTH OF RESIDENCE ON ATOPY AND LUNG FUNCTION AMONG CHILDREN IN EL PASO, TEXAS, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The El Paso Children's Health Study examined ambient exposures to motor vehicle emissions and their effect on the prevalence of allergy and asthma among children living in a major United States-Mexico border city. In the spring of 2001, the parents of all fourth and fifth grad...

  8. Nutrition Knowledge Predicts Eating Behavior of All Food Groups "except" Fruits and Vegetables among Adults in the Paso del Norte Region: Que Sabrosa Vida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Shreela V.; Gernand, Alison D.; Day, R. Sue

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association between nutrition knowledge and eating behavior in a predominantly Mexican American population on the Texas-Mexico border. Design: Cross-sectional using data from the baseline survey of the Que Sabrosa Vida community nutrition initiative. Setting: El Paso and surrounding counties in Texas. Participants: Data…

  9. Chicano Studies Bibliography: A Guide to the Resources of the Library at the University of Texas at El Paso. Supplement to 3rd Edition, 1974-75.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marquez, Benjamin, Ed.

    Compiled to facilitate research in the field of Chicano Studies, this bibliography cites approximately 197 books and periodical articles published between 1937 and 1974. This bibliography is intended as a guide to select items which are part of the Chicano Materials Collection at the University of Texas at El Paso. Arranged alphabetically by the…

  10. Geophysical survey, Paso Robles geothermal area, California, part of the resource assessment of low- and moderate-temperature geothermal resource areas in California

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, R.H.; Chase, G.W.; Youngs, L.G.

    1980-11-10

    Some general background information concerning the geology and geothermal occurrences in the Southern Coast Ranges is included, as well as the more detailed information dealing with the Paso Robles area proper. Results for two geophysical methods that have been used in the area: the ground magnetic and gravity surveys, are discussed and interpreted.

  11. Residential exposure to air toxics is linked to lower grade point averages among school children in El Paso, Texas, USA

    PubMed Central

    Clark-Reyna, Stephanie E.; Grineski, Sara E.; Collins, Timothy W.

    2015-01-01

    Children in low-income neighborhoods tend to be disproportionately exposed to environmental toxicants. This is cause for concern because exposure to environmental toxicants negatively affect health, which can impair academic success. To date, it is unknown if associations between air toxics and academic performance found in previous school-level studies persist when studying individual children. In pairing the National Air Toxics Assessment (NATA) risk estimates for respiratory and diesel particulate matter risk disaggregated by source, with individual-level data collected through a mail survey, this paper examines the effects of exposure to residential environmental toxics on academic performance for individual children for the first time and adjusts for school-level effects using generalized estimating equations. We find that higher levels of residential air toxics, especially those from non-road mobile sources, are statistically significantly associated with lower grade point averages among fourth and fifth grade school children in El Paso (Texas, USA). PMID:27034529

  12. Seepage investigation on the Rio Grande from below Caballo Reservoir, New Mexico, to El Paso, Texas, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gunn, Mark A.; Roark, D. Michael

    2014-01-01

    A seepage investigation was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the New Mexico Interstate Stream Commission, along an approximately 106-mile reach of the Rio Grande from below Caballo Reservoir, New Mexico, to El Paso, Texas, during June 26–28, 2012, to determine gain or loss of streamflow due to seepage to or from the river channel. Discharge measurements were made during the irrigation season at high flow including 5 sites along the Rio Grande, 5 diversions, and 63 inflows. The net gain or loss of flow in the river channel was computed for four reaches within the 106-mile reach of the Rio Grande. The normalized percentage difference was computed for each reach to determine the difference between discharge measured at upstream and downstream sites, and the normalized percentage uncertainty was computed to determine if a computed gain or loss exceeded cumulative uncertainty associated with measurement of discharge.

  13. Organic petrology of Paleocene Marcelina Formation coals, Paso Diablo mine, western Venezuela: Tectonic controls on coal type

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hackley, P.C.; Martinez, M.

    2007-01-01

    About 7??Mt of high volatile bituminous coal are produced annually from the four coal zones of the Upper Paleocene Marcelina Formation at the Paso Diablo open-pit mine of western Venezuela. As part of an ongoing coal quality study, we have characterized twenty-two coal channel samples from the mine using organic petrology techniques. Samples also were analyzed for proximate-ultimate parameters, forms of sulfur, free swelling index, ash fusion temperatures, and calorific value. Six of the samples represent incremental benches across the 12-13??m thick No. 4 bed, the stratigraphically lowest mined coal, which is also mined at the 10??km distant Mina Norte open-pit. Organic content of the No. 4 bed indicates an upward increase of woody vegetation and/or greater preservation of organic material throughout the life of the original mire(s). An upward increase in telovitrinite and corresponding decrease in detrovitrinite and inertinite illustrate this trend. In contrast, stratigraphically higher coal groups generally exhibit a 'dulling upward' trend. The generally high inertinite content, and low ash yield and sulfur content, suggest that the Paso Diablo coals were deposited in rain-fed raised mires, protected from clastic input and subjected to frequent oxidation and/or moisture stress. However, the two thinnest coal beds (both 0.7??m thick) are each characterized by lower inertinite and higher telovitrinite content relative to the rest of Paso Diablo coal beds, indicative of less well-established raised mire environments prior to drowning. Foreland basin Paleocene coals of western Venezuela, including the Paso Diablo deposit and time-correlative coal deposits of the Ta??chira and Me??rida Andes, are characterized by high inertinite and consistently lower ash and sulfur relative to Eocene and younger coals of the area. We interpret these age-delimited coal quality characteristics to be due to water availability as a function of the tectonic control of subsidence rate. It

  14. PCR Primers for Metazoan Mitochondrial 12S Ribosomal DNA Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Machida, Ryuji J.; Kweskin, Matthew; Knowlton, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Background Assessment of the biodiversity of communities of small organisms is most readily done using PCR-based analysis of environmental samples consisting of mixtures of individuals. Known as metagenetics, this approach has transformed understanding of microbial communities and is beginning to be applied to metazoans as well. Unlike microbial studies, where analysis of the 16S ribosomal DNA sequence is standard, the best gene for metazoan metagenetics is less clear. In this study we designed a set of PCR primers for the mitochondrial 12S ribosomal DNA sequence based on 64 complete mitochondrial genomes and then tested their efficacy. Methodology/Principal Findings A total of the 64 complete mitochondrial genome sequences representing all metazoan classes available in GenBank were downloaded using the NCBI Taxonomy Browser. Alignment of sequences was performed for the excised mitochondrial 12S ribosomal DNA sequences, and conserved regions were identified for all 64 mitochondrial genomes. These regions were used to design a primer pair that flanks a more variable region in the gene. Then all of the complete metazoan mitochondrial genomes available in NCBI's Organelle Genome Resources database were used to determine the percentage of taxa that would likely be amplified using these primers. Results suggest that these primers will amplify target sequences for many metazoans. Conclusions/Significance Newly designed 12S ribosomal DNA primers have considerable potential for metazoan metagenetic analysis because of their ability to amplify sequences from many metazoans. PMID:22536450

  15. Initialization of Formation Flying Using Primer Vector Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mailhe, Laurie; Schiff, Conrad; Folta, David

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we extend primer vector analysis to formation flying. Optimization of the classical rendezvous or free-time transfer problem between two orbits using primer vector theory has been extensively studied for one spacecraft. However, an increasing number of missions are now considering flying a set of spacecraft in close formation. Missions such as the Magnetospheric MultiScale (MMS) and Leonardo-BRDF (Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function) need to determine strategies to transfer each spacecraft from the common launch orbit to their respective operational orbit. In addition, all the spacecraft must synchronize their states so that they achieve the same desired formation geometry over each orbit. This periodicity requirement imposes constraints on the boundary conditions that can be used for the primer vector algorithm. In this work we explore the impact of the periodicity requirement in optimizing each spacecraft transfer trajectory using primer vector theory. We first present our adaptation of primer vector theory to formation flying. Using this method, we then compute the AV budget for each spacecraft subject to different formation endpoint constraints.

  16. Primer design for PCR reactions in forensic biology.

    PubMed

    Elkins, Kelly M

    2015-01-01

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a popular method to copy DNA in vitro. Its invention revolutionized fields ranging from clinical medicine to anthropology, molecular biology, and forensic biology. The method employs one of many available heat-stable DNA polymerases in a reaction that is repeated many times in situ. The DNA polymerase reads a template DNA strand and using the components of the reaction mix, catalyzes the addition of free 2'-deoxynucleotide triphosphate nitrogenous bases to short segment of DNA that forms a complement with the template via Watson-Crick base pairing. This short segment of DNA is referred to as a PCR primer and it is essential to the success of the reaction. The most widely used application of PCR in forensic labs is the amplification of short tandem repeat (STR) loci used in DNA typing. The STRs are routinely evaluated in concert with 16 or more reactions, a multiplex, run in one test tube simultaneously. In a multiplex, it is essential that the primers work specifically and accurately on the intended reactions without hindering the other reactions. The primers, which are very specific, also can be used to probe single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a DNA sequence of interest by single base extension. Primers are often designed using one of many available automated software packages. Here the process of manually designing PCR primers for forensic biology using no-cost software is described.

  17. Implementation of InTeGrate Modules into Introductory Courses in the El Paso Higher Education Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doser, D. I.; Villalobos, J. I.; Henry, I. E.

    2014-12-01

    InTeGrate (Interdisciplinary Teaching about Earth for a Sustainable Future) has developed teaching modules that focus on Earth sustainability and Earth-centered societal issues. We have begun to implement modules on climate change, earth materials and freshwater into introductory geology and environmental science courses taught at the University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP), El Paso Community College (EPCC) and local early college high schools (ECHS) for classes of 20 to 220 students. Our eventual goal is to insure students taking introductory classes at any institution will be exposed to comparable content and be similarly prepared for advanced courses. Our initial results suggest that the modules' use of case studies and analysis of authentic data sets are very appealing to our student body (over 70% Hispanic). Since many students do not speak English at home, they were challenged by vocabulary presented in some modules. Modules containing glossaries and extensive background material (such as concept maps and annotated figures) proved very helpful to these students. The use of pre-activity quizzes insured that the students had mastered basic concepts needed for in-class activities. Modifications required to teach these modules in larger classes included condensing materials and reducing the amount of color figures to save paper and printer costs, streamlining dissemination/collection of in-class group assignments, and adapting assignments such as jigsaws and gallery walks to the confines of a large lecture hall with fixed seating. Student reflections indicated students were able to make connections to societal issues and retain these ideas through the end of the courses.

  18. Carbonyl compounds, hydrocarbons and priority pollutants in the southwestern USA. II. The El Paso - Ciudad Juarez transborder airshed

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.S.; Popp, C.J.; Dixon, R.W.

    1996-12-31

    The combined airshed of El Paso, Texas (USA) and Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua (Mexico) presents a unique situation where autonomous governmental rules and regulations, economic situations, and cultural differences impact the common air quality of two different countries. Effective mitigation can only be achieved upon sufficient understanding of current atmospheric photochemistry. Atmospheric concentrations and seasonal and diurnal behavior of routinely monitored criteria pollutants and a wide range of reactive organic compounds have been quantified at separate sampling locations in each of the two cities during field studies in January and July of 1995. During the measurement campaigns, no exceedances of US ambient air quality standards were observed for any criteria pollutants. Similar concentrations were observed at both sites for both periods, with the exception of NO{sub x} compounds, which occurred at more elevated levels (>200 ppb) in Juarez during winter late evening periods. As expected summer O{sub 3} values were greater than winter values ({approx}33 ppb and {approx}14 ppb, respectively). Analysis of ambient non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC) showed biogenic species, such as isoprene, {alpha}-pinene, {beta}-pinene, likely play a relatively minor role in local photochemistry, being detected infrequently and at low mixing ratios ({approx}0.2 ppb). NMHCs were dominated by species typically of anthropogenic origin. Concentrations of all carbonyls were higher in the summer than in the winter, in some cases by a factor of 10 or more. Acetone, an anthropogenic marker, was similar in concentration to formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. Carbonyl concentrations were considerably higher in Juarez in summer than in El Paso, while concentrations were similar in the winter. The wintertime similarities are likely due to the presence of temperature inversions and a more constant air masses over both cities. PAN and PPN levels were similar to those reported for other urban areas.

  19. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated activity of particulate organic matter from the Paso del Norte airshed along the U.S.-Mexico border.

    PubMed

    Arrieta, Daniel E; Ontiveros, Cynthia C; Li, Wen-Whai; Garcia, Jose H; Denison, Michael S; McDonald, Jacob D; Burchiel, Scott W; Washburn, Barbara Shayne

    2003-08-01

    In this study, we determined the biologic activity of dichloromethane-extracted particulate matter < 10 micro m in aerodynamic diameter (PM10) obtained from filters at three sites in the Paso del Norte airshed, which includes El Paso, Texas, USA; Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico, and Sunland Park, New Mexico, USA. The extracts were rich in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and had significant biologic activity, measured using two in vitro assay systems: ethoxyresorufin-(O-deethylase (EROD) induction and the aryl hydrocarbon-receptor luciferase reporter system. In most cases, both EROD (5.25 pmol/min/mg protein) and luciferase activities (994 relative light units/mg) were highest in extracts from the Advance site located in an industrial neighborhood in Juarez. These values represented 58% and 55%, respectively, of induction associated with 1 micro M ss-naphthoflavone exposures. In contrast, little activity was observed at the Northeast Clinic site in El Paso, the reference site. In most cases, luciferase and EROD activity from extracts collected from the Tillman Health Center site, situated in downtown El Paso, fell between those observed at the other two sites. Overall, a statistically significant correlation existed between PM10 and EROD and luciferase activities. Chemical analysis of extracts collected from the Advance site demonstrated that concentrations of most PAHs were higher than those reported in most other metropolitan areas in the United States. Calculations made with these data suggest a cancer risk of 5-12 cases per 100,000 people. This risk estimate, as well as comparisons with the work of other investigators, raises concern regarding the potential for adverse health effects to the residents of this airshed. Further work is needed to understand the sources, exposure, and effects of PM10 and particulate organic material in the Paso del Norte airshed.

  20. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated activity of particulate organic matter from the Paso del Norte airshed along the U.S.-Mexico border.

    PubMed Central

    Arrieta, Daniel E; Ontiveros, Cynthia C; Li, Wen-Whai; Garcia, Jose H; Denison, Michael S; McDonald, Jacob D; Burchiel, Scott W; Washburn, Barbara Shayne

    2003-01-01

    In this study, we determined the biologic activity of dichloromethane-extracted particulate matter < 10 micro m in aerodynamic diameter (PM10) obtained from filters at three sites in the Paso del Norte airshed, which includes El Paso, Texas, USA; Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico, and Sunland Park, New Mexico, USA. The extracts were rich in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and had significant biologic activity, measured using two in vitro assay systems: ethoxyresorufin-(O-deethylase (EROD) induction and the aryl hydrocarbon-receptor luciferase reporter system. In most cases, both EROD (5.25 pmol/min/mg protein) and luciferase activities (994 relative light units/mg) were highest in extracts from the Advance site located in an industrial neighborhood in Juarez. These values represented 58% and 55%, respectively, of induction associated with 1 micro M ss-naphthoflavone exposures. In contrast, little activity was observed at the Northeast Clinic site in El Paso, the reference site. In most cases, luciferase and EROD activity from extracts collected from the Tillman Health Center site, situated in downtown El Paso, fell between those observed at the other two sites. Overall, a statistically significant correlation existed between PM10 and EROD and luciferase activities. Chemical analysis of extracts collected from the Advance site demonstrated that concentrations of most PAHs were higher than those reported in most other metropolitan areas in the United States. Calculations made with these data suggest a cancer risk of 5-12 cases per 100,000 people. This risk estimate, as well as comparisons with the work of other investigators, raises concern regarding the potential for adverse health effects to the residents of this airshed. Further work is needed to understand the sources, exposure, and effects of PM10 and particulate organic material in the Paso del Norte airshed. PMID:12896850

  1. KENO-VI Primer: A Primer for Criticality Calculations with SCALE/KENO-VI Using GeeWiz

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, Stephen M

    2008-09-01

    The SCALE (Standardized Computer Analyses for Licensing Evaluation) computer software system developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is widely used and accepted around the world for criticality safety analyses. The well-known KENO-VI three-dimensional Monte Carlo criticality computer code is one of the primary criticality safety analysis tools in SCALE. The KENO-VI primer is designed to help a new user understand and use the SCALE/KENO-VI Monte Carlo code for nuclear criticality safety analyses. It assumes that the user has a college education in a technical field. There is no assumption of familiarity with Monte Carlo codes in general or with SCALE/KENO-VI in particular. The primer is designed to teach by example, with each example illustrating two or three features of SCALE/KENO-VI that are useful in criticality analyses. The primer is based on SCALE 6, which includes the Graphically Enhanced Editing Wizard (GeeWiz) Windows user interface. Each example uses GeeWiz to provide the framework for preparing input data and viewing output results. Starting with a Quickstart section, the primer gives an overview of the basic requirements for SCALE/KENO-VI input and allows the user to quickly run a simple criticality problem with SCALE/KENO-VI. The sections that follow Quickstart include a list of basic objectives at the beginning that identifies the goal of the section and the individual SCALE/KENO-VI features that are covered in detail in the sample problems in that section. Upon completion of the primer, a new user should be comfortable using GeeWiz to set up criticality problems in SCALE/KENO-VI. The primer provides a starting point for the criticality safety analyst who uses SCALE/KENO-VI. Complete descriptions are provided in the SCALE/KENO-VI manual. Although the primer is self-contained, it is intended as a companion volume to the SCALE/KENO-VI documentation. (The SCALE manual is provided on the SCALE installation DVD.) The primer provides specific examples of

  2. ConservedPrimers 2.0: A high-throughput pipeline for comparative genome referenced intron-flanking PCR primer design and its application in wheat SNP discovery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In some genomic applications it is necessary to design large numbers of PCR primers in exons flanking one or several introns on the basis of orthologous gene sequences in related species. The primer pairs designed by this target gene approach are called "intron-flanking primers" or because they ar...

  3. New cyt b gene universal primer set for forensic analysis.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Oceja, A; Gamarra, D; Borragan, S; Jiménez-Moreno, S; de Pancorbo, M M

    2016-07-01

    Analysis of mitochondrial DNA, and in particular the cytochrome b gene (cyt b), has become an essential tool for species identification in routine forensic practice. In cases of degraded samples, where the DNA is fractionated, universal primers that are highly efficient for the amplification of the target region are necessary. Therefore, in the present study a new universal cyt b primer set with high species identification capabilities, even in samples with highly degraded DNA, has been developed. In order to achieve this objective, the primers were designed following the alignment of complete sequences of the cyt b from 751 species from the Class of Mammalia listed in GenBank. A highly variable region of 148bp flanked by highly conserved sequences was chosen for placing the primers. The effectiveness of the new pair of primers was examined in 63 animal species belonging to 38 Families from 14 Orders and 5 Classes (Mammalia, Aves, Reptilia, Actinopterygii, and Malacostraca). Species determination was possible in all cases, which shows that the fragment analyzed provided a high capability for species identification. Furthermore, to ensure the efficiency of the 148bp fragment, the intraspecific variability was analyzed by calculating the concordance between individuals with the BLAST tool from the NCBI (National Center for Biotechnological Information). The intraspecific concordance levels were superior to 97% in all species. Likewise, the phylogenetic information from the selected fragment was confirmed by obtaining the phylogenetic tree from the sequences of the species analyzed. Evidence of the high power of phylogenetic discrimination of the analyzed fragment of the cyt b was obtained, as 93.75% of the species were grouped within their corresponding Orders. Finally, the analysis of 40 degraded samples with small-size DNA fragments showed that the new pair of primers permits identifying the species, even when the DNA is highly degraded as it is very common in

  4. A High Temperature Hermetic Primer and a Variable Spring Tester

    SciTech Connect

    Begeal, D.R.

    1994-05-01

    Percussion primers are used at Sandia to ignite energetic components such as pyrotechnic actuators and thermal batteries. This report describes a High Temperature Hermetic Primer (HTHP) that was developed to replace a previous G16 Percussion Primer Subassembly (Gl6PPS). The ignition mix in these primers is the same as in the discontinued Remington 44G16 (KC1O{sub 3}, SbS{sub 3}, and Ca{sub 2}Si). The HTHP has nearly the same sensitivity as the 44G16 and a significantly lower sensitivity than the G16PPS. In parallel with the HTHP development, we also designed a Variable Spring Tester (VST) to determine percussion primer ignition sensitivity with firing pins that have the same mass as those used in field applications. The tester is capable of accelerating firing pins over a velocity range of 100 to 600 inches per second for pins weighing up to 6 grams. The desired impulse can be preselected with an accuracy of better than {plus_minus}1%. The actual impulse is measured on every shot. The VST was characterized using the WW42Cl primer, as well as with the G16PPS and the HTHP. Compared to data from conventional ball drop testers, we found that ignition sensitivities were lower and there was less scatter in the sensitivity data. Our experiments indicate that ignition sensitivity is not strictly energy dependent, but also depends on the rate of deposition, or firing pin velocity in this case. Development results for the HTHP and Variable Spring Tester are discussed and design details are shown.

  5. Selective and universal primers for trematode barcoding in freshwater snails.

    PubMed

    Routtu, J; Grunberg, D; Izhar, R; Dagan, Y; Guttel, Y; Ucko, M; Ben-Ami, F

    2014-07-01

    Trematodes are significant pathogens of high medical, veterinary, and environmental importance. They are hard to isolate from their intermediate hosts, and their early life stages are difficult to identify morphologically. Therefore, primers were developed for trematodes to create a species barcoding system and allow selective PCR amplification in mixed samples. The specific oligonucleotide primer was universal for trematodes that infected several freshwater snail species in Israel. The diagnostic tool is based on the 18S rDNA gene. In contrast to morphological identification, trematode barcoding is rapid as it is based on a sequence of only 800 bp, and it classifies species accurately due to high polymorphism between conserved areas.

  6. Novel nuclear intron-spanning primers for Arecaceae evolutionary biology.

    PubMed

    Bacon, Christine D; Feltus, F Alex; Paterson, Andrew H; Bailey, C Donovan

    2008-01-01

    In this study, 96 nuclear 'conserved intron-scanning primers' were screened across subfamilies the Arecaceae (palms) for potential use in research focused on palm evolutionary biology. Primers were evaluated based on their ability to amplify single polymerase chain reaction products in Arecaceae, the clarity of sequencing reads, and the interspecific variability observed. Ultimately, the results suggest that: (i) seven of the loci are likely to be suitable when comparing non-Arecaceae outgroups and Arecaceae ingroups; (ii) seven loci may be of use when comparing subfamilies of Arecaceae; and (iii) four of the loci may be of use when comparing closely related genera.

  7. Teaching Thermal Hydraulics & Numerical Methods: An Introductory Control Volume Primer

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, D.S.

    2004-10-03

    This paper covers the basics of the implementation of the control volume method in the context of the Homogeneous Equilibrium Model (HEM)(T/H) code using the conservation equations of mass, momentum, and energy. This primer uses the advection equation as a template. The discussion will cover the basic equations of the control volume portion of the course in the primer, which includes the advection equation, numerical methods, along with the implementation of the various equations via FORTRAN into computer programs and the final result for a three equation HEM code and its validation.

  8. Changes in Rous Sarcoma Virus RNA Secondary Structure near the Primer Binding Site upon tRNATrp Primer Annealing

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Shannon; Leis, Jonathan

    1999-01-01

    Predicted secondary-structure elements encompassing the primer binding site in the 5′ untranslated region of Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) RNA play an integral role in multiple viral replications steps including reverse transcription, DNA integration, and RNA packaging (A. Aiyar, D. Cobrinik, Z. Ge, H. J. Kung, and J. Leis, J. Virol. 66:2464–2472, 1992; D. Cobrinik, A. Aiyar, Z. Ge, M. Katzman, H. Huang, and J. Leis, J. Virol. 65:3864–3872, 1991; J. T. Miller, Z. Ge, S. Morris, K. Das, and J. Leis, J. Virol. 71:7648–7656, 1997). These elements include the U5-Leader stem, U5-IR stem-loop, and U5-TΨC interaction region. Limited digestion of the 5′ untranslated region of wild-type and mutant RSV RNAs with structure- and/or sequence-specific RNases detects the presence of the U5-Leader stem and the U5-IR stem-loop. When a tRNATrp primer is annealed to wild-type RNAs in vitro, limited nuclease mapping indicates that the U5-IR stem becomes partially unwound. This is not observed when mutant RNAs with altered U5-IR stem-loop structures are substituted for wild-type RNAs. The U5-Leader stem also becomes destabilized when the tRNA primer is annealed to either wild-type or mutant RNA fragments. Nuclease mapping studies of tRNATrp, as well as the viral RNA, indicate that the U5-TΨC helix does form in vitro upon primer annealing. Collectively, these data suggest that the various structural elements near the RSV primer binding site undergo significant changes during the process of primer annealing. PMID:10400722

  9. Complementation of a primer binding site-impaired murine leukemia virus-derived retroviral vector by a genetically engineered tRNA-like primer.

    PubMed Central

    Lund, A H; Duch, M; Lovmand, J; Jørgensen, P; Pedersen, F S

    1997-01-01

    Reverse transcription of retroviral genomes is primed by a tRNA annealed to an 18-nucleotide primer binding site. Here, we present a primer complementation system to study molecular interaction of the replication machinery with the primer and primer binding site in vivo. Introduction of eight base substitutions into the primer binding site of a murine leukemia virus-based vector allowed efficient RNA encapsidation but resulted in severely reduced vector replication capacity. Replication was restored upon complementation with a synthetic gene designed to encode a complementary tRNA-like primer, but not with a noncomplementary tRNA-like molecule. The engineered primer was shown to be involved in both the initiation of first-strand synthesis and second-strand transfer. These results provide an in vivo demonstration that the retroviral replication machinery may recognize sequence complementarity rather than actual primer binding site and 3' primer sequences. Use of mutated primer binding site vectors replicating via engineered primers may add additional control features to retroviral gene transfer technology. PMID:8995641

  10. Blood Donation and Transfusion: A Primer for Health Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felts, W. Michael; Glascoff, Mary A.

    1991-01-01

    Presents a primer for health educators about blood donation and transfusion, examining the nature of human blood, the background of blood transfusion, blood donation criteria, risks related to homologous blood transfusion, directed blood donation, potential alternatives to homologous transfusion, and resources for education on the subject. (SM)

  11. Factor Scores, Structure and Communality Coefficients: A Primer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odum, Mary

    2011-01-01

    (Purpose) The purpose of this paper is to present an easy-to-understand primer on three important concepts of factor analysis: Factor scores, structure coefficients, and communality coefficients. Given that statistical analyses are a part of a global general linear model (GLM), and utilize weights as an integral part of analyses (Thompson, 2006;…

  12. STITCHER 2.0: primer design for overlapping PCR applications.

    PubMed

    O'Halloran, Damien M; Uriagereka-Herburger, Isabel; Bode, Katrin

    2017-03-30

    Overlapping polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a common technique used by researchers in very diverse fields that enables the user to 'stitch' individual pieces of DNA together. Previously, we have reported a web based tool called STITCHER that provides a platform for researchers to automate the design of primers for overlapping PCR applications. Here we present STITCHER 2.0, which represents a substantial update to STITCHER. STITCHER 2.0 is a newly designed web tool that automates the design of primers for overlapping PCR. Unlike STITCHER, STITCHER 2.0 considers diverse algorithmic parameters, and returns multiple result files that include a facility for the user to draw their own primers as well as comprehensive visual guides to the user's input, output, and designed primers. These result files provide greater control and insight during experimental design and troubleshooting. STITCHER 2.0 is freely available to all users without signup or login requirements and can be accessed at the following webpage: www.ohalloranlab.net/STITCHER2.html.

  13. The development, characterization and testing of magnesium-rich primers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battocchi, Dante

    Aluminum alloys are widely used in aircraft industry for their strength and light weight. Those alloys that are hardened by precipitation, especially the Copper-rich of the 2000 series, are prone to corrosion and are protected against it using chromate containing coatings. The primary component of these coating systems is Chromium 6+ (CrVI) that has been found to be very toxic in the environment and carcinogenic, toxic and mutagenic in humans. The Mg-rich primer development is the result of a successful multi-year project funded by the US Air-force with its objective the replacement of coatings based on CrVI with a class of coatings less toxic and with comparable protective performances. The Mg rich primer fulfilled the USAF requirements and it is currently undergoing commercial and military qualifications testing. The use of Mg as one of the active pigments in coatings allows the primer to protect the underlying Al sacrificially, not considered possible for this substrate until now. Mg is anodic to most of the other structural metals and when particulate Mg became available commercially, the concept of the primer was first developed by analogy to Zn-rich coatings for steel. When Mg and Al are in contact and immersed in a corrosive environment, magnesium corrodes preferentially and protects the aluminum.

  14. Deeper Learning: A Primer for State Legislators. ECS Education Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aragon, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    A growing number of schools across the country are working hard to provide a "deeper" learning experience for their students, and state legislators are being asked to create policies that support wide-scale implementation of 21st century learning practices. This primer is created for state policymakers seeking to modify instruction and…

  15. Children on Medication: A Primer for School Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadow, Kenneth D.

    Intended as a primer for school personnel, the book discusses children whose various disorders require them to be on medication, and describes the behavioral effects of these drugs along with their major side effects. Fundamental concepts in pharmacotherapy are reviewed, including dosage adjustment and side effects, and a brief introduction to the…

  16. Improved primer for bonding polyurethane adhesives to metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Constanza, L. J.

    1969-01-01

    Primer ensures effective bonding integrity of polyurethane adhesives on metal surfaces at temperatures ranging from minus 423 degrees to plus 120 degrees F. It provides greater metal surface protection and bond strengths over this temperature range than could be attained with other adhesive systems.

  17. Wash Primer Replacement Based on the Superprimer Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    wash primer on  CRS  under military primers  and a CARC topcoat ( creep  in mm)   Table 19. SST and CCT test results for AU­23 and modified versions as a...wash primer on  CRS   under epoxy primers and a CARC topcoat ( creep  in mm)   Table 20. SST and CCT test results for EPZ­0 and EPZ­1 on  CRS  under epoxy... alloys , that is completely devoid of  Cr (VI), HAPs, phosphoric acid  and has low VOC, without sacrificing corrosion protection  performance under

  18. A Primer on Individualized Education Programs for Handicapped Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Scottie, Ed.

    Intended to be a practical guide for administrators, teachers, and parents on how to meet the individualized education program (IEP) requirements of Public Law 94-142, the primer provides 10 author contributed chapters to aid the reader in developing, implementing, and monitoring an IEP for every handicapped child. Chapters have the following…

  19. Assessing the Nation's Literacy: A State Policy Primer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Governors' Association, Washington, DC.

    This primer is designed to provide a step-by-step guide for state policymakers and state agency officials interested in assessing the literacy skills of the people of their state. Chapter 1 describes the importance of assessing the literacy skills in each state. Literacy is discussed as an economic necessity, a requirement for a healthy democracy,…

  20. STITCHER 2.0: primer design for overlapping PCR applications

    PubMed Central

    O’Halloran, Damien M.; Uriagereka-Herburger, Isabel; Bode, Katrin

    2017-01-01

    Overlapping polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a common technique used by researchers in very diverse fields that enables the user to ‘stitch’ individual pieces of DNA together. Previously, we have reported a web based tool called STITCHER that provides a platform for researchers to automate the design of primers for overlapping PCR applications. Here we present STITCHER 2.0, which represents a substantial update to STITCHER. STITCHER 2.0 is a newly designed web tool that automates the design of primers for overlapping PCR. Unlike STITCHER, STITCHER 2.0 considers diverse algorithmic parameters, and returns multiple result files that include a facility for the user to draw their own primers as well as comprehensive visual guides to the user’s input, output, and designed primers. These result files provide greater control and insight during experimental design and troubleshooting. STITCHER 2.0 is freely available to all users without signup or login requirements and can be accessed at the following webpage: www.ohalloranlab.net/STITCHER2.html. PMID:28358011

  1. 5. LOOKING NORTH TOWARD BARRICADES AROUND BUILDING NO. 230, PRIMER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. LOOKING NORTH TOWARD BARRICADES AROUND BUILDING NO. 230, PRIMER AND DETONATOR LOADING BUILDING. BARRICADES DIRECT FORCE OF BLAST UPWARD IN THE EVENT OF AN EXPLOSION. - Picatinny Arsenal, 200 Area, Shell Component Loading, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  2. Exploding the Myths about DETC Accreditation: A Primer for Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Distance Education and Training Council, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Prospective distance education students are faced with a bewildering number of choices in selecting an institution that is best suited to achieving their educational goals. They also face a confusing forest of institutions' promotional claims of being the best or most respected school. This primer is intended to help the prospective student of an…

  3. Sights, Sounds, Senses in Step with Reading. Primer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Mildred W.; Messerli, John H.

    This Title III bibliography presents books, films, filmstrips, and records that correlate with stories from primers. The list of books is prepared from the suggested lists of the Ginn, Houghton Mifflin, Lippincott, and Scott, Foresman reading series. The bibliography includes sections about animals, birthdays, cowboys, fantasy, helpers, holidays,…

  4. A Primer on Fresh Water: The Environmental Citizenship Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environment Canada, Ottawa (Ontario).

    Water is the lifeblood of the environment as no organisms can survive without it. This reference booklet is designed to help people make environmentally responsible decisions. The primer is targeted at the general public (grade 8 to post-secondary) to be used by educators, communities and organizations as well as individuals, as part of a learning…

  5. Depth profiles and free volume in aircraft primer films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Horn, J. D.; Chen, H.; Jean, Y. C.; Zhang, W.; Jaworowski, M. R.

    2015-06-01

    Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) and associated techniques provide non-destructive methods to study the free volume inside polymeric materials, and to study material characteristics over a depth profile. Cast free films of organic- or aqueous-based, non-chromated aerospace primers, when cured for about one week, had very different water vapour transport (through-plane) behaviour. In addition, both types of primer films showed strong anisotropic behaviour in in-plane versus through-plane water vapour transport rates. We report the differences between the organic- and aqueous-based aircraft primer films samples and their surface depth profiles. In bulk PALS measurements, an aged, organic-based film exhibited typical lifetimes and intensities for a particulate-containing polymer film on both faces. In contrast, aqueous-based films exhibited face oriented-dependent differences. In all aqueous- based samples, the I3 value of the back of the sample was smaller. The primer film samples were also evaluated with mono-energetic positron beam techniques to generate depth profile information. The heterogeneity in the samples was verified by Doppler broadening of energy spectroscopy (DBES). A model for the differences in the faces of the films, and their layered structure is discussed.

  6. Method to amplify variable sequences without imposing primer sequences

    DOEpatents

    Bradbury, Andrew M.; Zeytun, Ahmet

    2006-11-14

    The present invention provides methods of amplifying target sequences without including regions flanking the target sequence in the amplified product or imposing amplification primer sequences on the amplified product. Also provided are methods of preparing a library from such amplified target sequences.

  7. A Primer on Economics for Financial Aid Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, Sandy

    This primer is intended to provide college financial aid professionals with a background in fundamental areas of economics. Its goal is to provide a stronger understanding of the key principles that shape need analysis systems. Part 1 presents basic economic concepts and discusses their application to college enrollment and student aid. These…

  8. Comparison of three different primer sets for sexing birds.

    PubMed

    Çakmak, Emel; Akın Pekşen, Çiğdem; Bilgin, C Can

    2017-01-01

    Because many bird species are monomorphic or only sexually dimorphic in adult stages, it is difficult to determine their sexes, which may cause significant problems in population and conservation studies. DNA-based sexing relies on the chromodomain helicase DNA binding ( CHD) gene located on the W chromosome and its homolog on the Z chromosome, giving distinct banding patterns on agarose gel as a result of length differences in intronic regions within this gene. We used 3 specific primer sets, CHD1F/CHD1R, 2550F/2718R, and P2/P8, for sex determination of 230 samples from 77 avian species. We report here the records for 70 of those species analyzed using the CHD1F/CHD1R primer set, and 49 species using 2550F/2718R, and 46 species using P2/P8. CHD1F/CHD1R PCR products on agarose gel generally showed an apparent single band in males and 2 bands in females, but the products of 2550F/2718R (61%) and P2/P8 (42%) showed distinct banding patterns for separate bird orders. However, when PCR products of these last 2 primer pairs labeled with fluorescent dye were run in a capillary gel and detected using a DNA analyzer, P2/P8 gave 2 distinguishable peaks in females, whereas 2550F/2718R results remained the same. DNA sexing with any of those 3 primer sets can be used for all sexually monomorphic avian taxa although the primer sets should be compared before choosing the most efficient one for molecular sexing of the studied species.

  9. PREJUICIO Y DISTANCIA SOCIAL HACIA PERSONAS HOMOSEXUALES POR PARTE DE JÓVENES UNIVERSITARIOS

    PubMed Central

    Fernández Rodríguez, María del C.; Squiabro, José Calderón

    2014-01-01

    Se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal con el propósito de explorar actitudes de rechazo y distancia social hacia las personas gays y lesbianas (GL) en 565 universitarios. Se utilizó una escala para medir Prejuicio y otra escala para medir Distancia Social. Los participantes reflejaron niveles moderados de prejuicio y distancia social (DS) hacia las personas gays y lesbianas. Los varones (M=104.5, DT= 27.47) mostraron significativamente más prejuicio que las mujeres (M=98.8, DT= 23.41). Los hombres (M=22.7, DT= 7.00) mostraron significativamente mayor DS que las mujeres (M=21.1, DT= 5.41). Las personas que asisten con regularidad a la iglesia mostraron más prejuicio y DS que los que no asisten. Se analiza importancia de incluir el tema de la diversidad sexual a través del currículo para desmontar prejuicios hacia la comunidad homosexual. PMID:25606066

  10. primers4clades: a web server that uses phylogenetic trees to design lineage-specific PCR primers for metagenomic and diversity studies.

    PubMed

    Contreras-Moreira, Bruno; Sachman-Ruiz, Bernardo; Figueroa-Palacios, Iraís; Vinuesa, Pablo

    2009-07-01

    Primers4clades is an easy-to-use web server that implements a fully automatic PCR primer design pipeline for cross-species amplification of novel sequences from metagenomic DNA, or from uncharacterized organisms, belonging to user-specified phylogenetic clades or taxa. The server takes a set of non-aligned protein coding genes, with or without introns, aligns them and computes a neighbor-joining tree, which is displayed on screen for easy selection of species or sequence clusters to design lineage-specific PCR primers. Primers4clades implements an extended CODEHOP primer design strategy based on both DNA and protein multiple sequence alignments. It evaluates several thermodynamic properties of the oligonucleotide pairs, and computes the phylogenetic information content of the predicted amplicon sets from Shimodaira-Hasegawa-like branch support values of maximum likelihood phylogenies. A non-redundant set of primer formulations is returned, ranked according to their thermodynamic properties. An amplicon distribution map provides a convenient overview of the coverage of the target locus. Altogether these features greatly help the user in making an informed choice between alternative primer pair formulations. Primers4clades is available at two mirror sites: http://maya.ccg.unam.mx/primers4clades/and http://floresta.eead.csic.es/primers4clades/. Three demo data sets and a comprehensive documentation/tutorial page are provided for easy testing of the server's capabilities and interface.

  11. Final Environmental Assessment for Proposed Colorado Springs Airport/El Paso County School District 11 Property Acquisition and Future Development at Peterson Air Foce Base, Colorado

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-01

    deep at the installation. The soils of El Paso County change from west to east as the rock changes from older igneous granite varieties to younger...sedimentary rocks and recent deposits of unconsolidated, alluvial stream channels and colluvial slopes. The igneous rocks in the far west are...predominantly comprised of Cretaceous and Tertiary rocks . These include Pierre Shale, Fox Hills Sandstone, the Laramie Formation, and the Dawson Arkose

  12. Utilizing Continuous Resistivity Profiling for Assessment and Characterization of Canal Seepage in El Paso's Lower Valley Irrigation Network System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, W. A.; Sheng, Z.

    2009-12-01

    Annually, billions of gallons of water are lost through seepage along sections of the irrigation network. To conserve water, El Paso County Water Improvement District has been assessing seepage losses and investigating measures for reducing such losses. Resistivity techniques were used to identify areas of high seepage and provide information on locations along canals that need to be structurally modified in an effort to curb water lost through seepage. Several half mile sections were selected along canals with varying seepage rates to conduct electric resistivity surveys in order generate soil profiles during the non-irrigation and irrigation seasons. Two different multiple channel resistivity meters (The“OhmMapper and the Super Sting R8”) were used, which both allow a vertical resistivity profile to be collected using a single current transmission. The results presented are preliminary and we believe that upon completion findings will serve multiple purposes. Firstly, a better understanding of seepage patterns, seepage rate and its spatial variation can be obtained. Secondly, our findings could be used to produce geological profiles associated with seepage areas which will enable the irrigation district to develop guidelines for improving delivery efficiency, especially during drought. And thirdly, our results will be transferable to other areas of the state and will have a positive impact on the environment and the overall quality of life.

  13. Applications of particle-tracking techniques to bank infiltration: a case study from El Paso, Texas, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Fattah, Ahmad; Langford, Richard; Schulze-Makuch, Dirk

    2008-08-01

    This paper presents results of a small scale study that utilized particle-tracking techniques to evaluate transport of river water through an alluvial aquifer in a bank infiltration testing site in El Paso, Texas, USA. The particle-tracking survey was used to better define filtration parameters. Several simulations were generated to allow visualization of the effects of well placement and pumping rate on flow paths, travel time, the size of the pumping influence zone, and proportion of river-derived water and groundwater mixing in the pumping well. Simulations indicate that migration of river water into the aquifer is generally slow. Most water does not arrive at the well by the end of an 18-day pumping period at 0.54 m3/min pumping rate for a well located 18 m from the river. Forty-four percent of the water pumped from the well was river water. The models provided important information needed to design appropriate sampling schedules for bank filtration practices and ensured meeting adequate soil-retention times. The pumping rate has more effect on river water travel time than the location of the pumping well from the river. The examples presented in this paper indicate that operating the pumping well at a doubled distance from the river increased the time required for the water to travel to the well, but did not greatly change the capture zone.

  14. An Aquifer Storage and Recovery system with reclaimed wastewater to preserve native groundwater resources in El Paso, Texas.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Zhuping

    2005-06-01

    The traditional concept of Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR) has been emphasized and extensively applied for water resources conservation in arid and semi-arid regions using groundwater systems as introduced in Pyne's book titled Groundwater Recharge and Wells. This paper extends the ASR concept to an integrated level in which either treated or untreated surface water or reclaimed wastewater is stored in a suitable aquifer through a system of spreading basins, infiltration galleries and recharge wells; and part or all of the stored water is recovered through production wells, dual function recharge wells, or by streams receiving increased discharge from the surrounding recharged aquifer as needed. In this paper, the author uses the El Paso Water Utilities (EPWU) ASR system for injection of reclaimed wastewater into the Hueco Bolson aquifer as an example to address challenges and resolutions faced during the design and operation of an ASR system under a new ASR system definition. This new ASR system concept consists of four subsystems: source water, storage space-aquifer, recharge facilities and recovery facilities. Even though facing challenges, this system has successfully recharged approximately 74.7 million cubic meters (19.7 billion gallons) of reclaimed wastewater into the Hueco Bolson aquifer through 10 recharge wells in the last 18 years. This ASR system has served dual purposes: reuse of reclaimed wastewater to preserve native groundwater, and restoration of groundwater by artificial recharge of reclaimed wastewater into the Hueco Bolson aquifer.

  15. Metabolic syndrome associated with ischemic stroke among the Mexican Hispanic population in the El Paso/US-Mexico border region.

    PubMed

    Osborn, Michael F; Miller, Charles C; Badr, Ahmed; Zhang, Jun

    2014-07-01

    The Hispanic population carries a disproportionate burden of stroke compared with the non-Hispanic White population. Most studies have been conducted on Caribbean Hispanics, indicating a need to better understand the characteristics of stroke and its prevalence among the Hispanic populations of Mexican descent. In this report, data were collected in the El Paso/US-Mexico border region, where 82% of the population is Mexican Hispanic, through a retrospective study of ischemic stroke from 2005-2010. Odds ratios (ORs), 95% confidence intervals, logistic regression, and multivariate analysis of the ORs adjusted for other variables, were used to analyze the effects of various risk factors on ischemic stroke. The metabolic syndrome and its components, specifically hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia appeared to be strongly associated with ischemic stroke in the Mexican Hispanic population. Mexican Hispanic ischemic stroke patients were nearly 7 times more likely to have this syndrome, compared with Mexican Hispanic controls from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Likewise, the patients were nearly 40 times more likely to have hypertension and 11 times more likely to have diabetes. Efforts to prevent ischemic stroke and limit its impact in the Mexican Hispanic population should focus on controlling hypertension and diabetes.

  16. Comparison of two carbonate mound sequences in the Lower Ordovician El Paso Formation, west Texas and southern New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Clemons, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    The El Paso Formations consists of four members, in ascending order: Hitt Canyon, Jose McKelligon and Padre. Mounds in the McKelligon Member exposed in the southern Franklin Mountains were described by Toomey (1970). Most of these mounds are small but one large one is 5.8 m thick and about 13.7 m long in outcrop. The mound rock is chiefly bioclastic wackestone with minor packstone and boundstone. The varied fauna contains echinoderms, sponges and spicules, gastropods, trilobites, digitate algae, Nuia, Girvanella, Pulchrilamina, Calathium, and minor brachiopods and cephalopods. Intraclastic, bioclastic grainstone fills channels cut in the mounds. Similar, but smaller and less spectacular mounds occur in the McKelligon Member in the Florida, Big Hatchet, and Caballo Mountains, Lone Mountain, Cooke's Range, and elsewhere in southwestern New Mexico. A second type of mound is common in the upper part of the Hitt Canyon Member in the Cooke's Range, Red Hills, Caballo and Big Hatchet Mountains. These mounds also are typically small but one in the Red Hills is 13.7 m thick and about 30 m long in outcrop. The mound complex is about 75-80% SH-C and LLH-C stromatolite boundstone and bioclastic wackestone. The remaining 20-25% is bioclastic packstone and grainstone between the SH-C stromatolites and filling channels cut in the mound complex. The limited fauna contains small fragments of echinoderms, gastropods, trilobites, spicules, and Nuia.

  17. Organic geochemical investigation and coal-bed methane characteristics of the Guasare coals (Paso Diablo mine, western Venezuela)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Quintero, K.; Martinez, M.; Hackley, P.; Marquez, G.; Garban, G.; Esteves, I.; Escobar, M.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work was to carry out a geochemical study of channel samples collected from six coal beds in the Marcelina Formation (Zulia State, western Venezuela) and to determine experimentally the gas content of the coals from the Paso Diablo mine. Organic geochemical analyses by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and isotopic analyses on-line in coalbed gas samples were performed. The results suggest that the Guasare coals were deposited in a continental environment under highly dysoxic and low salinity conditions. The non-detection of 18??(H)-oleanane does not preclude that the organic facies that gave rise to the coals were dominated by angiosperms. In addition, the presence of the sesquiterpenoid cadalene may indicate the subordinate contribution of gymnosperms (conifers) in the Paleocene Guasare mire. The average coalbed gas content obtained was 0.6 cm3/g. ??13C and D values indicate that thermogenic gas is prevalent in the studied coals. Copyright ?? Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  18. Retrieval of the single scattering albedo in the El Paso-Juarez Airshed using the TUV model and a UV-MFRSR radiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medina, Richard; Fitzgerald, Rosa M.; Min, Qilong

    2012-01-01

    A methodology to retrieve Single Scattering Albedo (SSA) values employing the ratio of Direct to Diffuse Irradiances (DDR) is used and applied to the El Paso-Juarez Airshed, a challenging region where air masses interact. The TUV model was used to obtain the calculated DDR irradiances, and the experimental irradiances were obtained from a UV-MFRSR instrument located in the city of El Paso, Texas. The wavelengths used were 332 nm and 368 nm. The retrieved SSA values at both 332 nm and 368 nm were higher in a lightly polluted day (0.66-0.81 at 332 nm, and 0.61 to 0.80 at 368 nm) than in a heavier polluted day (0.56-0.70 at 332 nm and 0.53-0.66 at 368 nm). A sensitivity study of the ground albedo and the asymmetry parameter was performed, which indicated that the variation of the asymmetry parameter is a secondary effect in the retrievals of SSA. In addition, the variation of SSA values during the day was also analyzed for the El Paso-Juarez Airshed and linked to the flow of air masses into the region using HYSPLIT trajectories. A presence of absorptive aerosols was observed during the late morning and the middle of the day. This methodology can be applied in any area, and is particularly useful for cities that experience episodes of high PM concentrations.

  19. Soil-borne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in El Paso, Texas: Analysis of a potential problem in the United States/Mexico border region

    PubMed Central

    De La Torre-Roche, Roberto J.; Lee, Wen-Yee; Campos-Díaz, Sandra I.

    2009-01-01

    Ultrasonic extraction followed by Stir Bar Sorptive Extraction (SBSE) and thermal desorption inline coupled with Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry (TD/GC/MS)was used to perform a comprehensive determination of soil-borne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in El Paso, Texas. The method provided good sensitivity and faster processing time for the analysis. The total PAHs in El Paso soil ranged from 0.1 to 2225.5 µg kg−1. Although the majority of PAH concentrations did not exceed the soil screening levels regulated by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, the existence of PAHs in this ecosystem is ubiquitous. Naphthalene were found in 100% of the soil samples; while the heavy PAHs (five- and six-ring) were not often detected and mostly remained in closer proximity to industrial areas and major traffic points. The results ruled out the possibility of petroleum refining as the significant source of local soil-borne PAH contamination, but they suggested that the PAHs found in El Paso soil were closely linked to human activities and possible other industrial processes. PMID:18768257

  20. White primer permits a corrosion-resistant coating of minimum weight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albrecht, R. H.; Jensen, D. P.; Schnake, P.

    1966-01-01

    White primer for coating 2219 aluminum alloy supplies a base for a top coating of enamel. A formulation of pigments and vehicle results in a primer with high corrosion resistance and minimum film thickness.

  1. Generation of polymerase chain reaction-specific probes for library screening using single degenerate primers.

    PubMed

    Hommes, N G; Arp, D J; Sayavedra-Soto, L A

    1995-03-01

    Degenerate oligonucleotide primers were made to peptide sequences from hydroxylamine oxidoreductase (HAO) from Nitrosomonas europaea. The primers were used singly in PCR reactions to amplify portions of the gene for HAO from genomic DNA. Southern hybridizations using fragments amplified with each primer showed that they labeled the same genomic DNA fragments. The PCR-amplified fragments were successfully used to screen a gene library for clones containing the HAO gene. The method of isolating genes by PCR with single primers has general utility.

  2. New primer strategy improves precision of differential display.

    PubMed

    Zhao, S; Ooi, S L; Pardee, A B

    1995-05-01

    To increase the reproducibility and to reduce the false positives in the initial mRNA differential display, modified long composite primers were developed based on both mRNA differential display and RNA arbitrarily primed PCR fingerprinting methods. Ten-base nucleotides were added at the 5' ends of the primers used in the initial mRNA differential display. These included a restriction site to aid cloning. PCR began with one low-stringency cycle (40 degrees C for annealing) followed by 35 high-stringency cycles (60 degrees C for annealing). The modified method significantly improved the reproducibility and sensitivity of the mRNA differential display while still keeping the characteristics of the original method.

  3. [Screening of peafowl microsatellite primers and analysis of genetic diversity].

    PubMed

    Bao, Wen-Bin; Chen, Guo-Hong; Shu, Jing-Ting; Xu, Qi; Li, Hui-Fang

    2006-10-01

    The applicability of chicken microsatellite primers to peafowl population was analyzed in the present paper, and the results showed 14 of 29 pairs of microsatellite primers from chicken could amplify peafowl DNA and produce specific allele patterns. A mean of 1.71 alleles was found for each locus. Seven pairs were highly polymorphic, and MCW0080 and MCW0098 were ideal markers for peafowl. Genetic diversity analysis within and between the green peafowl and the blue peafowl populations demonstrated that the expected heterozygosity of two peafowl populations were 0.2482 and 0.2744, respectively. The inbreeding index (FST), Reynolds' genetic distance and gene flow between the two populations were 0.078, 0.0603 and 3.896 respectively. These results indicate that the heterozygosity and the genetic diversity of these two peafowl populations were very low, and suggest a tendency towards intermixing.

  4. Recombination of polynucleotide sequences using random or defined primers

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Frances H.; Shao, Zhixin; Affholter, Joseph A.; Zhao, Huimin; Giver, Lorraine J.

    2001-01-01

    A method for in vitro mutagenesis and recombination of polynucleotide sequences based on polymerase-catalyzed extension of primer oligonucleotides is disclosed. The method involves priming template polynucleotide(s) with random-sequences or defined-sequence primers to generate a pool of short DNA fragments with a low level of point mutations. The DNA fragments are subjected to denaturization followed by annealing and further enzyme-catalyzed DNA polymerization. This procedure is repeated a sufficient number of times to produce full-length genes which comprise mutants of the original template polynucleotides. These genes can be further amplified by the polymerase chain reaction and cloned into a vector for expression of the encoded proteins.

  5. Recombination of polynucleotide sequences using random or defined primers

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Frances H.; Shao, Zhixin; Affholter, Joseph A.; Zhao, Huimin H; Giver, Lorraine J.

    2000-01-01

    A method for in vitro mutagenesis and recombination of polynucleotide sequences based on polymerase-catalyzed extension of primer oligonucleotides is disclosed. The method involves priming template polynucleotide(s) with random-sequences or defined-sequence primers to generate a pool of short DNA fragments with a low level of point mutations. The DNA fragments are subjected to denaturization followed by annealing and further enzyme-catalyzed DNA polymerization. This procedure is repeated a sufficient number of times to produce full-length genes which comprise mutants of the original template polynucleotides. These genes can be further amplified by the polymerase chain reaction and cloned into a vector for expression of the encoded proteins.

  6. Guidelines - A Primer for Communicating Effectively with NABIR Stakeholders

    SciTech Connect

    A Harding; B Metting; C Word; G Bilyard; G Hund; J Amaya; J Weber; S Gajewski; S Underriner; T Peterson

    1998-12-10

    This primer is a tool to help prepare scientists for meetings with stakeholders. It was prepared for staff involved with the Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research (NABIR) program, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy. It discusses why some efforts in science communication may succeed while others fail, provides methods of approaching group interactions about science that may better orient expert participants, and summarizes experience drawn from observations of @oups interacting about topics in bioremediation or the NABIR program. The primer also provides briez usefid models for interacting with either expert or non-expert groups. Finally, it identifies topical areas that may help scientists prepare for public meetings, based on the developers' ongoing research in science communication in public forums.

  7. Primer and interviews: molecular mechanisms of morphological evolution.

    PubMed

    Kiefer, Julie C

    2010-12-01

    The beauty of the developing embryo, and the awe that it inspires, lure many scientists into the field of developmental biology. What compels cells to divide, migrate, and morph into a being with a complex body plan? Evolutionary developmental biologists hold similar fascinations, with dynamics that take place on a grander timescale. How do phenotypic traits diverge over evolutionary time? This primer illustrates how a deep understanding of the basic principles that underlie developmental biology have changed how scientists think about the evolution of body form. The primer culminates in a conversation with David Stern, PhD, and Michael Shapiro, PhD, who discuss current topics in morphological evolution, why the field should be of interest to classic developmental biologists, and what lies ahead.

  8. Stability of the high-temperature G-16 primer composition

    SciTech Connect

    Durand, N.A.; Weinmaster, R.R.; Massis, T.A.; Fleming, W.

    1988-01-01

    The stability of the G-16 pyrotechnic primer mixture of antimony sulfide, calcium silicide, and potassium chlorate was studied at temperatures up to 200/sup 0/C in sealed and open environments. Data have shown that this mixture is stable in open environments at 200/sup 0/C for up to 48 hours. However, in sealed, limited volume environments, the mixture completely decomposes within 24 hours at 200/sup 0/C. In sealed environments, the mixture shows stability with copper present. Both functional testing and chemical analysis were used to evaluate the primer composition after temperature exposure. The degree of degradation of the mixture was determined from the concentration of final reaction products (sulfate and chloride ions), using ion chromatography. When copper was present, the intermediate reaction products were scavenged by the copper, and the degradation was reduced. The role of copper in the reaction was verified with differential scanning calorimetry and surface analysis. 3 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Primer and interviews: Molecular mechanisms of morphological evolution

    PubMed Central

    Kiefer, Julie C

    2010-01-01

    The beauty of the developing embryo, and the awe that it inspires, lure many scientists into the field of developmental biology. What compels cells to divide, migrate, and morph into a being with a complex body plan? Evolutionary developmental biologists hold similar fascinations, with dynamics that take place on a grander timescale. How do phenotypic traits diverge over evolutionary time? This primer illustrates how a deep understanding of the basic principles that underlie developmental biology have changed how scientists think about the evolution of body form. The primer culminates in a conversation with David Stern, PhD, and Michael Shapiro, PhD, who discuss current topics in morphological evolution, why the field should be of interest to classic developmental biologists, and what lies ahead. Developmental Dynamics 239:3497–3505, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:21069831

  10. Guidelines - A Primer for Communicating Effectively with NABIR Stakeholders

    SciTech Connect

    Bilyard, Gordon R.; Word, Charlotte J.; Weber, James R.; Harding, Anna K.

    2000-09-27

    This primer is a tool to help prepare scientists for meetings with stakeholders. It was prepared for staff involved with the Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research (NABIR) program, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy. It discusses why some efforts in science communication may succeed while others fail, provides methods of approaching group interactions about science that may better orient expert participants, and summarizes experience drawn from observations of groups interacting about topics in bioremediation or the NABIR program. The primer also provides brief, useful models for interacting with either expert or non-expert groups. Finally, it identifies topical areas that may help scientists prepare for public meetings, based on the developers' ongoing research in science communication in public forums.

  11. Microsatellite primers for the rare shrub Acacia adinophylla (Fabaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Nevill, Paul G.; Wardell-Johnson, Grant

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Microsatellite primers were developed for the rare shrub Acacia adinophylla (Fabaceae) to assess genetic diversity and its spatial structuring. Methods and Results: Shotgun sequencing on an Illumina MiSeq produced 6,372,575 reads. Using the QDD pipeline, we designed 60 primer pairs, which were screened using PCR. Seventeen loci were developed, of which 12 loci were identified that were polymorphic, amplified reliably, and could be consistently scored. These loci were then screened for variation in individuals from three populations. The number of alleles observed for these 12 loci ranged from three to 18 and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.13 to 0.85. Conclusions: These markers will enable the quantification of genetic impact of proposed mining activities on the short-range endemic Acacia adinophylla. PMID:27843728

  12. Primer on molecular genetics. DOE Human Genome Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    This report is taken from the April 1992 draft of the DOE Human Genome 1991--1992 Program Report, which is expected to be published in May 1992. The primer is intended to be an introduction to basic principles of molecular genetics pertaining to the genome project. The material contained herein is not final and may be incomplete. Techniques of genetic mapping and DNA sequencing are described.

  13. Genotypic resistance testing in HIV by arrayed primer extension

    PubMed Central

    Bodem, Jochen; Gerhold-Ay, Aslihan; Jacob, Anette; Fellenberg, Kurt; Kräusslich, Hans-Georg; Hoheisel, Jörg D.

    2008-01-01

    The analysis of mutations that are associated with the occurrence of drug resistance is important for monitoring the antiretroviral therapy of patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Here, we describe the establishment and successful application of Arrayed Primer Extension (APEX) for genotypic resistance testing in HIV as a rapid and economical alternative to standard sequencing. The assay is based on an array of oligonucleotide primers that are immobilised via their 5′-ends. Upon hybridisation of template DNA, a primer extension reaction is performed in the presence of the four dideoxynucleotides, each labelled with a distinct fluorophore. The inserted label immediately indicates the sequence at the respective position. Any mutation changes the colour pattern. We designed a microarray for the analysis of 26 and 33 codons in the HIV protease and reverse transcriptase, respectively, which are of special interest with respect to drug resistance. The enormous genome variability of HIV represents a big challenge for genotypic resistance tests, which include a hybridisation step, both in terms of specificity and probe numbers. The use of degenerated oligonucleotides resulted in a significant reduction in the number of primers needed. For validation, DNA of 94 and 48 patients that exhibited resistance to inhibitors of HIV protease and reverse transcriptase, respectively, were analysed. The validation included HIV subtype B, prevalent in industrialised countries, as well as non-subtype B samples that are more common elsewhere. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00216-007-1775-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:18202840

  14. A Strategic Planning Primer: Model, Methods, and Misunderstandings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-06-01

    primer is published in an attempt to org-ani,e and codi fs the Institute’,, strateg ic plaunins, experience. aind to contribute to) the field of know ledge...intended purposes Performing resource analysis and integration. By institutionalizing a formal process such as the PPBES, the Army can ensure that...which locus on organizational strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats. and is often summarized by the acronym SWOT . The thrust of this model is

  15. Ab Initio Atomistic Thermodynamics for Surfaces: A Primer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-01

    Ab Initio Atomistic Thermodynamics for Surfaces: A Primer Jutta Rogal and Karsten Reuter Fritz - Haber -Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft... Fritz - Haber -Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft Faradayweg 4-6 D-14195 Berlin Germany 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING...of the Fritz - Haber -Institut, in particular Wei-Xue Li, Cathy Stampfl and Mira Todorova. Particular thanks go to Matthias Scheffler for his continued

  16. Primer on Molecular Genetics; DOE Human Genome Program

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    1992-04-01

    This report is taken from the April 1992 draft of the DOE Human Genome 1991--1992 Program Report, which is expected to be published in May 1992. The primer is intended to be an introduction to basic principles of molecular genetics pertaining to the genome project. The material contained herein is not final and may be incomplete. Techniques of genetic mapping and DNA sequencing are described.

  17. Retention of Pre-Construction Primer in Tank Coating System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-11-01

    topcoats were measured for DFT . 6.3 All topcoats were light colored in ballast tanks based on recommendations by certification/standards agencies...Control of Biofilm Formation in Marine Environment using Some N2O2 Donor Schiff Bases NACE Corrosion 97, Page No. 220 Mar-97 Guan, Shiwei, Ph.D...construction primer in ship’s ballast tanks. Based on the results of this study, secondary surface preparation should consist of abrasive blast cleaning

  18. Development of a Nonchromate Structural Adhesive Bond Primer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-01

    Prevent corrosion of base metal • Applied to porous anodized surface • Overcoated with non-inhibited epoxy adhesive • High adhesive bond strength...primers •Long-running surveillance of chromate-free alternatives by UTC companies shows weak corrosion inhibition • (A) strontium chromate...solubility of multiple inhibitors 7705 Al / EcoTuff™ After corrosion test Bright deposits: 50 wt% W + Zn mixed oxide 3M Commercial EW5000AS(P) 3M Lab

  19. Small Commercial Building Re-tuning: A Primer

    SciTech Connect

    Cort, Katherine A.; Hostick, Donna J.; Underhill, Ronald M.; Fernandez, Nicholas; Katipamula, Srinivas

    2013-09-30

    To help building owners and managers address issues related to energy-efficient operation of small buildings, DOE has developed a Small Building Re-tuning training curriculum. This "primer" provides additional background information to understand some of the concepts presented in the Small Building Re-tuning training. The intent is that those who are less familiar with the buidling energy concepts will review this material before taking the building re-tuning training class.

  20. The U.S. Militarys Force Structure: A Primer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-01

    CONGRESS OF THE UNITED STATES CONGRESSIONAL BUDGET OFFICE CBO The U.S. Military’s Force Structure : A Primer JULY 2016 CBONotes Unless otherwise...Military’s Force Structure ? 1 What Does This Analysis Indicate About the Budgetary Effects of Altering the Force Structure ? 4 How Is This Report...Organized? 51 Introduction 7What Is Force Structure ? 8 BOX 1-1. DEFINING SUPPORT UNITS 10 How CBO Estimated the Costs of the Military’s Force Structure 10

  1. Sequence analysis reveals genomic factors affecting EST-SSR primer performance and polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chunxian; Bock, Clive H; Beckman, Tom G

    2014-12-01

    This study was to explore genomic factors affecting the performance and polymorphism of 340 randomly selected EST-SSR (expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeat) primers through BLAST of primer sequences to a reference genome. Genotyping showed 111 failed and 229 succeeded. The failed types included "no peaks" (NP, 69 primers), "weak peaks" (WP, 30), and "multiple peaks" (MP, 12). The successful types were divided into HM (homozygous between two selected parents, 78 primers) and HT (heterozygous at least in one parent, 151 primers). The BLAST revealed primer alignment status, genomic amplicon size (GAS), and genomic and expressed amplicon size difference (ASD). The alignment status was categorized as: "no hits found" (NHF); "multiple partial alignments" (MPA); "single partial alignment" (SPA); "multiple full alignments" (MFA); and "single full alignment" (SFA). NHF and partial alignment (PA) mainly resulted from discrepant nucleotides in contig-derived primers. The ASD separated 247 non-NHF primers into: "deletion", "same size", "insertion", "intron (GAS ≤500)", "intron (GAS >500)", and "error" categories. Most SFA primers were successful. About 88 % "error", 53 % NHF primers, and 47 % "intron (GAS >500)" failed. The "deletion" and "insertion" primers had the higher HT rates, and the "same size" had the highest HM rate. Optimized primer selection criteria are discussed.

  2. 40 CFR 63.745 - Standards: Primer and topcoat application operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .../L (4.5 lb/gal) of primer (less water), as applied, for general aviation rework facilities; or 650 g/L (5.4 lb/gal) of exterior primer (less water), as applied, to large commercial aircraft components... produce fully assembled, large commercial aircraft; or 350 g/L (2.9 lb/gal) of primer (less water),...

  3. 40 CFR 63.745 - Standards: Primer and topcoat application operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .../L (4.5 lb/gal) of primer (less water), as applied, for general aviation rework facilities; or 650 g/L (5.4 lb/gal) of exterior primer (less water), as applied, to large commercial aircraft components... produce fully assembled, large commercial aircraft; or 350 g/L (2.9 lb/gal) of primer (less water),...

  4. Design of primers and probes for quantitative real-time PCR methods.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Alicia; Rodríguez, Mar; Córdoba, Juan J; Andrade, María J

    2015-01-01

    Design of primers and probes is one of the most crucial factors affecting the success and quality of quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) analyses, since an accurate and reliable quantification depends on using efficient primers and probes. Design of primers and probes should meet several criteria to find potential primers and probes for specific qPCR assays. The formation of primer-dimers and other non-specific products should be avoided or reduced. This factor is especially important when designing primers for SYBR(®) Green protocols but also in designing probes to ensure specificity of the developed qPCR protocol. To design primers and probes for qPCR, multiple software programs and websites are available being numerous of them free. These tools often consider the default requirements for primers and probes, although new research advances in primer and probe design should be progressively added to different algorithm programs. After a proper design, a precise validation of the primers and probes is necessary. Specific consideration should be taken into account when designing primers and probes for multiplex qPCR and reverse transcription qPCR (RT-qPCR). This chapter provides guidelines for the design of suitable primers and probes and their subsequent validation through the development of singlex qPCR, multiplex qPCR, and RT-qPCR protocols.

  5. Sensory reception of the primer pheromone ethyl oleate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muenz, Thomas S.; Maisonnasse, Alban; Plettner, Erika; Le Conte, Yves; Rössler, Wolfgang

    2012-05-01

    Social work force distribution in honeybee colonies critically depends on subtle adjustments of an age-related polyethism. Pheromones play a crucial role in adjusting physiological and behavioral maturation of nurse bees to foragers. In addition to primer effects of brood pheromone and queen mandibular pheromone—both were shown to influence onset of foraging—direct worker-worker interactions influence adult behavioral maturation. These interactions were narrowed down to the primer pheromone ethyl oleate, which is present at high concentrations in foragers, almost absent in young bees and was shown to delay the onset of foraging. Based on chemical analyses, physiological recordings from the antenna (electroantennograms) and the antennal lobe (calcium imaging), and behavioral assays (associative conditioning of the proboscis extension response), we present evidence that ethyl oleate is most abundant on the cuticle, received by olfactory receptors on the antenna, processed in glomeruli of the antennal lobe, and learned in olfactory centers of the brain. The results are highly suggestive that the primer pheromone ethyl oleate is transmitted and perceived between individuals via olfaction at close range.

  6. Teaching Thermal Hydraulics & Numerical Methods: An Introductory Control Volume Primer

    SciTech Connect

    D. S. Lucas

    2004-10-01

    A graduate level course for Thermal Hydraulics (T/H) was taught through Idaho State University in the spring of 2004. A numerical approach was taken for the content of this course since the students were employed at the Idaho National Laboratory and had been users of T/H codes. The majority of the students had expressed an interest in learning about the Courant Limit, mass error, semi-implicit and implicit numerical integration schemes in the context of a computer code. Since no introductory text was found the author developed notes taught from his own research and courses taught for Westinghouse on the subject. The course started with a primer on control volume methods and the construction of a Homogeneous Equilibrium Model (HEM) (T/H) code. The primer was valuable for giving the students the basics behind such codes and their evolution to more complex codes for Thermal Hydraulics and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The course covered additional material including the Finite Element Method and non-equilibrium (T/H). The control volume primer and the construction of a three-equation (mass, momentum and energy) HEM code are the subject of this paper . The Fortran version of the code covered in this paper is elementary compared to its descendants. The steam tables used are less accurate than the available commercial version written in C Coupled to a Graphical User Interface (GUI). The Fortran version and input files can be downloaded at www.microfusionlab.com.

  7. Preliminary Evaluation of the Acute Toxicity of Desensitized Primer Compounds and Primer Waste Effluents to Representative Aquatic Organisims

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-11-01

    daphnids, with 48-hour LC50 values for these two materials being several orders of magnitude lower than those observed for lead styphnate , PETN and... styphnate (PoTNR), tetracene (= tetrazene), pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), .and FA 956 priming mixture. The FA 956 mixture is composed of: 37...PbTNR, 4% tetracene, 5% PETN, 32% barium nitrate, 15% antimony sulfide and 7% aluminum (Small and Rosenblatt, 1974). Each of these primer components was

  8. Integrated Analysis of the Hydrology of a Mitigated Wetland Utilizing Water Quality and Electrical Conductivity in El Paso Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, R.; Lucero, M.; Villalobos, J. I.; Doser, D. I.; Sheng, Z.

    2011-12-01

    Keystone Heritage Park (KHP) is a 52-acre nature preserve containing a natural wetland within city limits of El Paso, Texas. The source of water for the wetland has been an issue of interest as efforts to restore this wetland back to it native habit are currently underway. KHP is situated within the Mesilla Bolson - a Tertiary fault-block basin- and is adjacent to the Franklin mountains - a Laramide related fault block mountain range. The wetlands of Keystone are located in the shallow water bearing zones within the Mesilla Bolson which includes the overlying Rio Grande Alluvium. It is thought the primary sources of groundwater and surface water for the KHP wetlands are by means of mountain-front recharge and through groundwater traveling south coming from the Rio Grande. The goal of this project was to identify possible locations of freshwater springs originating from these sources flowing into the wetlands. The project and data covered a period where the wetlands are at their driest (Dec.-May) due to winter weather and when they are at their fullest due to monsoonal rains (July- Aug.). By utilizing a Horiba portable pH/EC/TDS Meter quality of surface and groundwater was gathered throughout the wetlands at 14 sites. Preliminary results suggest several springs recharging the wetlands during both dry and wet periods. Further investigation of this result led to the use of an EM-31 data logger for conductivity data to better understand the relationships between groundwater, surface water, soil properties, and the mobilization of minerals entering the wetlands.

  9. Integrated Analysis of the Hydrology of a Mitigated Wetland in El Paso,Texas Utilizing Water Quality and Electrical Conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, R.; Lucero, M.; Villalobos, J. I.; Doser, D. I.; Sheng, Z.; Wetland, Conductivity, Salinity, Water Quality

    2010-12-01

    Keystone Heritage Park (KHP) is a 52-acre nature preserve containing a natural wetland within city limits of El Paso, Texas. The source of water for the wetland has been an issue of interest as efforts to restore this wetland back to it native habit are currently underway. KHP is situated within the Mesilla Bolson - a Tertiary fault-block basin- and is adjacent to the Franklin mountains - a Laramide related fault block mountain range. The wetlands of Keystone are located in the shallow water bearing zones within the Mesilla Bolson which include the overlying Rio Grande Alluvium. It is thought the primary sources of groundwater and surface water for the KHP wetlands are by means of mountain-front recharge and through groundwater traveling south coming from the Rio Grande. The goal of this project was to identify possible locations of freshwater springs originating from these sources flowing into the wetlands. The project and data covered a period where the wetlands are at their driest (Dec.-May) due to winter weather and when they are at their fullest due to monsoonal rains (July- Aug.). By utilizing a Horiba portable pH/EC/TDS Meter quality of surface and groundwater was gathered throughout the wetlands at 14 sites. Preliminary results suggest several springs recharging the wetlands during both dry and wet periods. Further investigation of this result led to the use of an EM-31 data logger for conductivity data to better understand the relationships between groundwater, surface water, soil properties, and the mobilization of minerals entering the wetlands.

  10. Recovery of the mitochondrial COI barcode region in diverse Hexapoda through tRNA-based primers

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background DNA barcoding uses a 650 bp segment of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene as the basis for an identification system for members of the animal kingdom and some other groups of eukaryotes. PCR amplification of the barcode region is a key step in the analytical chain, but it sometimes fails because of a lack of homology between the standard primer sets and target DNA. Results Two forward PCR primers were developed following analysis of all known arthropod mitochondrial genome arrangements and sequence alignment of the tRNA-W gene which was usually located within 200 bp upstream of the COI gene. These two primers were combined with a standard reverse primer (LepR1) to produce a cocktail which generated a barcode amplicon from 125 of 141 species that included representatives of 121 different families of Hexapoda. High quality sequences were recovered from 79% of the species including groups, such as scale insects, that invariably fail to amplify with standard primers. Conclusions A cocktail of two tRNA-W forward primers coupled with a standard reverse primer amplifies COI for most hexapods, allowing characterization of the standard barcode primer binding region in COI 5' as well as the barcode segment. The current results show that primers designed to bind to highly conserved gene regions upstream of COI will aid the amplification of this gene region in species where standard primers fail and provide valuable information to design a primer for problem groups. PMID:20615258

  11. Transferability of retrotransposon primers derived from Persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.) across other plant species.

    PubMed

    Du, X Y; Hu, Q N; Zhang, Q L; Wang, Y B; Luo, Z R

    2013-06-06

    Retrotransposon-based molecular markers are powerful molecular tools. However, these markers are not readily available due to the difficulty in obtaining species-specific retrotransposon primers. Although recent techniques enabling the rapid isolation of retrotransposon sequences have facilitated primer development, this process nonetheless remains time-consuming and costly. Therefore, research into the transferability of retrotransposon primers developed from one plant species onto others would be of great value. The present study investigated the transferability of retrotransposon primers derived from 'Luotian-tianshi' persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.) across other fruit crops, as well as within the genus using inter-retrotransposon amplified polymorphism molecular marker. Fourteen of the 26 retrotransposon primers tested (53.85%) produced robust and reproducible amplification products across all fruit crops tested, indicating their applicability across plant species. Four of the 13 fruit crops showed the best transferability performances: persimmon, grape, citrus, and peach. Furthermore, similarity coefficients and UPGMA clustering indicated that these primers could further offer a potential tool for germplasm differentiation, parentage identification, genetic diversity assessment, classification, and phylogenetic studies across a variety of plant species. Transferability was further confirmed by examining published primers derived from Rosaceae, Gramineae, and Solanaceae. This study is one of the few currently available studies concerning the transferability of retrotransposon primers across plant species in general, and is the first successful study of the transferability of retrotransposon primers derived from persimmon. The primers presented here will help reduce costs for future retrotransposon primer development and therefore contribute to the popularization of retrotransposon molecular markers.

  12. Comparison and validation of some ITS primer pairs useful for fungal metabarcoding studies.

    PubMed

    Op De Beeck, Michiel; Lievens, Bart; Busschaert, Pieter; Declerck, Stéphan; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Colpaert, Jan V

    2014-01-01

    Current metabarcoding studies aiming to characterize microbial communities generally rely on the amplification and sequencing of relatively short DNA regions. For fungi, the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region in the ribosomal RNA (rRNA) operon has been accepted as the formal fungal barcode. Despite an increasing number of fungal metabarcoding studies, the amplification efficiency of primers is generally not tested prior to their application in metabarcoding studies. Some of the challenges that metabarcoding primers should overcome efficiently are the amplification of target DNA strands in samples rich in non-target DNA and environmental pollutants, such as humic acids, that may have been co-extracted with DNA. In the current study, three selected primer pairs were tested for their suitability as fungal metabarcoding primers. The selected primer pairs include two primer pairs that have been frequently used in fungal metabarcoding studies (ITS1F/ITS2 and ITS3/ITS4) and a primer pair (ITS86F/ITS4) that has been shown to efficiently amplify the ITS2 region of a broad range of fungal taxa in environmental soil samples. The selected primer pairs were evaluated in a 454 amplicon pyrosequencing experiment, real-time PCR (qPCR) experiments and in silico analyses. Results indicate that experimental evaluation of primers provides valuable information that could aid in the selection of suitable primers for fungal metabarcoding studies. Furthermore, we show that the ITS86F/ITS4 primer pair outperforms other primer pairs tested in terms of in silico primer efficiency, PCR efficiency, coverage, number of reads and number of species-level operational taxonomic units (OTUs) obtained. These traits push the ITS86F/ITS4 primer pair forward as highly suitable for studying fungal diversity and community structures using DNA metabarcoding.

  13. Comparison and Validation of Some ITS Primer Pairs Useful for Fungal Metabarcoding Studies

    PubMed Central

    Op De Beeck, Michiel; Lievens, Bart; Busschaert, Pieter; Declerck, Stéphan; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Colpaert, Jan V.

    2014-01-01

    Current metabarcoding studies aiming to characterize microbial communities generally rely on the amplification and sequencing of relatively short DNA regions. For fungi, the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region in the ribosomal RNA (rRNA) operon has been accepted as the formal fungal barcode. Despite an increasing number of fungal metabarcoding studies, the amplification efficiency of primers is generally not tested prior to their application in metabarcoding studies. Some of the challenges that metabarcoding primers should overcome efficiently are the amplification of target DNA strands in samples rich in non-target DNA and environmental pollutants, such as humic acids, that may have been co-extracted with DNA. In the current study, three selected primer pairs were tested for their suitability as fungal metabarcoding primers. The selected primer pairs include two primer pairs that have been frequently used in fungal metabarcoding studies (ITS1F/ITS2 and ITS3/ITS4) and a primer pair (ITS86F/ITS4) that has been shown to efficiently amplify the ITS2 region of a broad range of fungal taxa in environmental soil samples. The selected primer pairs were evaluated in a 454 amplicon pyrosequencing experiment, real-time PCR (qPCR) experiments and in silico analyses. Results indicate that experimental evaluation of primers provides valuable information that could aid in the selection of suitable primers for fungal metabarcoding studies. Furthermore, we show that the ITS86F/ITS4 primer pair outperforms other primer pairs tested in terms of in silico primer efficiency, PCR efficiency, coverage, number of reads and number of species-level operational taxonomic units (OTUs) obtained. These traits push the ITS86F/ITS4 primer pair forward as highly suitable for studying fungal diversity and community structures using DNA metabarcoding. PMID:24933453

  14. Studies on the minimal lengths required for DNA primers to be extended by the Tetrahymena telomerase: implications for primer positioning by the enzyme.

    PubMed

    Baran, Nava; Haviv, Yonit; Paul, Beena; Manor, Haim

    2002-12-15

    Telomerase is a specialized reverse transcriptase that contains an integral RNA subunit including a short template sequence. It extends telomeric 3' overhangs and chromosome breakpoints by catalyzing reiterative copying of this internal template into single-stranded telomeric DNA repeats. Here we report for the first time that in vitro the ciliate Tetrahymena telomerase can efficiently extend very short single-stranded DNA primers (<6 nt). These data indicate that interactions with nucleotides further upstream are not essential for elongation of longer primers. We also report that the minimal lengths required for primers to be extended by the telomerase depend on the positions along the template at which the primers are initially aligned. At a primer concentration of 2.5 micro M, primers aligned in the beginning, middle and next to the end of the template, respectively, must consist of at least 4, 5 and 6 nt to be extended by the telomerase. At a primer concentration of 50 micro M, the corresponding minimal lengths are 3, 4 and 5 nt. The systematic variation of the minimal required primer lengths supports the presence of a site within the telomerase ribonucleoprotein complex that mediates specific positioning of 3' termini of telomeric and non-telomeric DNA in the beginning of the template during telomere synthesis.

  15. Rapid identification of Zygosaccharomyces with genus-specific primers.

    PubMed

    Hulin, Michelle; Wheals, Alan

    2014-03-03

    There has been a recent and rapid increase in the number of species of the genus Zygosaccharomyces which now comprises Z. bailii, Z. bisporus, Z. gambellarensis, Z. kombuchaensis, Z. lentus, Z. machadoi, Z. mellis, Z. parabaillii, Z. pseudobailii, Z. pseudorouxii, Z. rouxii, Z. sapae, and Z. siamensis. Z. pseudorouxii is an unofficial name given to isolates closely related to the newly-described species Z. sapae. The Zygosaccharomyces genus contains species that are important as food and beverage spoilage organisms and others are associated with fermentations and sweet foodstuffs, such as honey. Their economic significance means that the ability to identify them rapidly is of significant importance. Although Z. rouxii and Z. bailii have been genome-sequenced the extent of sequence data for the others, especially the newly-discovered species, is sometimes extremely limited which makes identification slow. However, parts of the ITS1/5.8S/ITS2 rDNA region contain sequences of sufficient similarity within the genus and of sufficient difference with outgroups, to be potential regions for the design of genus-wide specific primers. We report here the development of genus-specific primers that can detect all the major Zygosaccharomyces species including all those associated with foods; the rare and localised species Z. machadoi and Z. gambellarensis are not detected. The size of the single amplicon produced varies between species and in some cases is sufficiently different to assign provisional species identification. Sequence data from rDNA regions are available for virtually all described yeast species in all genera, thus, prior to having sufficient sequence data from structural genes, rDNA regions may provide more generally suitable candidates for both genus-specific and species-specific primer design.

  16. Shining On: A primer on solar radiation data

    SciTech Connect

    Dunlap, M.A.; Cook, G.; Marion, B.; Riordan, C.; Renne, D.

    1992-05-01

    This document is a primer on solar radiation data. General uses of solar energy are presented. The manner in which solar radiation data is used to aid engineers in optimizing the use of solar thermal conversion and photovoltaic conversion is discussed. Methods for acquiring and assimilating the solar radiation data are illustrated. This would include the design and use of pyranometers and pyrheliometers. Seasonal and geographical variations in solar flux reaching the earth are evaluated. Other uses of compiled data include the determination of meteorological impacts of atmospheric disturbances such as volcano eruptions.

  17. Steel Primer Chamber Assemblies for Dual Initiated Pyrovalves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guemsey, Carl S.; Mizukami, Masashi; Zenz, Zac; Pender, Adam A.

    2009-01-01

    A solution was developed to mitigate the potential risk of ignition failures and burn-through in aluminum primer chamber assemblies on pyrovalves. This was accomplished by changing the assembly material from aluminum to steel, and reconfiguration of flame channels to provide more direct paths from initiators to boosters. With the geometric configuration of the channels changed, energy is more efficiently transferred from the initiators to the boosters. With the alloy change to steel, the initiator flame channels do not erode upon firing, eliminating the possibility of burn-through. Flight qualification tests have been successfully passed.

  18. A NASTRAN primer for the analysis of rotating flexible blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, Charles; Aiello, Robert A.; Ernst, Michael A.; Mcgee, Oliver G.

    1987-01-01

    This primer provides documentation for using MSC NASTRAN in analyzing rotating flexible blades. The analysis of these blades includes geometrically nonlinear (large displacement) analysis under centrifugal loading, and frequency and mode shape (normal modes) determination. The geometrically nonlinear analysis using NASTRAN Solution sequence 64 is discussed along with the determination of frequencies and mode shapes using Solution Sequence 63. A sample problem with the complete NASTRAN input data is included. Items unique to rotating blade analyses, such as setting angle and centrifugal softening effects are emphasized.

  19. Guidelines - A Primer for Communicating Effectively with NABIR Stakeholders

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, James R.; Schell, Charlotte J.; Marino, T; Bilyard, Gordon R.

    2004-02-10

    This version of the communication primer comprises two interlocking parts: Pat 1, a practical section, intended to prepare you for public interactions, and Part 2, a theoretical section that provides social and technical bases for the practices recommended in Part 1. The mutual support of practice and theory is very familiar in science and clearly requires a willingness to observe and revise our prior assumptions--in this document, we invoke both. We hope that is offering will represent a step both towards improving practice and maturing the theory of practical science communication.

  20. Fluid‐driven seismicity response of the Rinconada fault near Paso Robles, California, to the 2003 M 6.5 San Simeon earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hardebeck, Jeanne L.

    2012-01-01

    The 2003 M 6.5 San Simeon, California, earthquake caused significant damage in the city of Paso Robles and a persistent cluster of aftershocks close to Paso Robles near the Rinconada fault. Given the importance of secondary aftershock triggering in sequences of large events, a concern is whether this cluster of events could trigger another damaging earthquake near Paso Robles. An epidemic‐type aftershock sequence (ETAS) model is fit to the Rinconada seismicity, and multiple realizations indicate a 0.36% probability of at least one M≥6.0 earthquake during the next 30 years. However, this probability estimate is only as good as the projection into the future of the ETAS model. There is evidence that the seismicity may be influenced by fluid pressure changes, which cannot be forecasted using ETAS. The strongest evidence for fluids is the delay between the San Simeon mainshock and a high rate of seismicity in mid to late 2004. This delay can be explained as having been caused by a pore pressure decrease due to an undrained response to the coseismic dilatation, followed by increased pore pressure during the return to equilibrium. Seismicity migration along the fault also suggests fluid involvement, although the migration is too slow to be consistent with pore pressure diffusion. All other evidence, including focal mechanisms and b‐value, is consistent with tectonic earthquakes. This suggests a model where the role of fluid pressure changes is limited to the first seven months, while the fluid pressure equilibrates. The ETAS modeling adequately fits the events after July 2004 when the pore pressure stabilizes. The ETAS models imply that while the probability of a damaging earthquake on the Rinconada fault has approximately doubled due to the San Simeon earthquake, the absolute probability remains low.

  1. Primer for evaluating ecological risk at petroleum release sites.

    PubMed

    Claff, R

    1999-02-01

    Increasingly, risk-based approaches are being used to guide decision making at sites such as service stations and petroleum product terminals, where petroleum products have been inadvertently released to the soil. For example, the API Decision Support System software, DSS, evaluates site human health risk along six different routes of exposure. The American Society for Testing and Materials' Risk-Based Corrective Action (RBCA) standard, ASTM 1739, establishes a tiered framework for evaluating petroleum release sites on the basis of human health risk. Though much of the risk assessment focus has been on human health risk, regulatory agencies recognize that protection of human health may not fully protect the environment; and EPA has developed guidance on identifying ecological resources to be protected through risk-based decision making. Not every service station or petroleum product terminal site warrants a detailed ecological risk assessment. In some cases, a simple preliminary assessment will provide sufficient information for decision making. Accordingly, the American Petroleum Institute (API) is developing a primer for site managers, to assist them in conducting this preliminary assessment, and in deciding whether more detailed ecological risk assessments are warranted. The primer assists the site manager in identifying relevant ecological receptors and habitats, in identifying chemicals and exposure pathways of concern, in developing a conceptual model of the site to guide subsequent actions, and in identifying conditions that may warrant immediate response.

  2. FullSSR: Microsatellite Finder and Primer Designer

    PubMed Central

    Metz, Sebastián; Cabrera, Juan Manuel; Rueda, Eva; Giri, Federico; Amavet, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Microsatellites are genomic sequences comprised of tandem repeats of short nucleotide motifs widely used as molecular markers in population genetics. FullSSR is a new bioinformatic tool for microsatellite (SSR) loci detection and primer design using genomic data from NGS assay. The software was tested with 2000 sequences of Oryza sativa shotgun sequencing project from the National Center of Biotechnology Information Trace Archive and with partial genome sequencing with ROCHE 454® from Caiman latirostris, Salvator merianae, Aegla platensis, and Zilchiopsis collastinensis. FullSSR performance was compared against other similar SSR search programs. The results of the use of this kind of approach depend on the parameters set by the user. In addition, results can be affected by the analyzed sequences because of differences among the genomes. FullSSR simplifies the detection of SSRs and primer design on a big data set. The command line interface of FullSSR was intended to be used as part of genomic analysis tools pipeline; however, it can be used as a stand-alone program because the results are easily interpreted for a nonexpert user. PMID:27366148

  3. Development of a unique polyurethane primer/topcoat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Novak, Howard L.; Klotz, James M.

    1994-01-01

    USBI Company, a Division of Pratt & Whitney Government Engines and Space Propulsion, is involved in corrosion and environmental research and development activities both at their headquarters in Huntsville, Alabama and their Florida Operations at Kennedy Space Center, Florida. The programs involve the development of environmentally compatible materials that improve the corrosion protection of expensive Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB) that are part of the Space Shuttle systems developed and managed by Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. Coatings For Industry, a paint manufacturer in Souderton, PA helped formulate and produce the first lot of BOOSTERCOAT paint. High strength aluminum aerospace flight hardware exposed to harsh seacoast environments and seawater immersion presently uses high volatile organic compound (VOC) chromated and lead bearing primers and epoxy topcoats for corrosion protection. Epoxy paint tends to be brittle and has relatively low ultraviolet (UV) exposure resistance. A unique, environmentally compatible, non-leaded/non-chromated, low VOC polyurethane single coat (primer/topcoat) trade named BOOSTERCOAT has been developed for excellent corrosion protection, flexibility, adhesion, chemical and solvent resistance properties. This report will discuss the development of BOOSTERCOAT and the potential opportunities for commercial use in the energy, transportation, chemical, maritime, structural fields.

  4. FullSSR: Microsatellite Finder and Primer Designer.

    PubMed

    Metz, Sebastián; Cabrera, Juan Manuel; Rueda, Eva; Giri, Federico; Amavet, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Microsatellites are genomic sequences comprised of tandem repeats of short nucleotide motifs widely used as molecular markers in population genetics. FullSSR is a new bioinformatic tool for microsatellite (SSR) loci detection and primer design using genomic data from NGS assay. The software was tested with 2000 sequences of Oryza sativa shotgun sequencing project from the National Center of Biotechnology Information Trace Archive and with partial genome sequencing with ROCHE 454® from Caiman latirostris, Salvator merianae, Aegla platensis, and Zilchiopsis collastinensis. FullSSR performance was compared against other similar SSR search programs. The results of the use of this kind of approach depend on the parameters set by the user. In addition, results can be affected by the analyzed sequences because of differences among the genomes. FullSSR simplifies the detection of SSRs and primer design on a big data set. The command line interface of FullSSR was intended to be used as part of genomic analysis tools pipeline; however, it can be used as a stand-alone program because the results are easily interpreted for a nonexpert user.

  5. Microsatellite primer development for post oak, Quercus stellata (Fagaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Chatwin, Warren B.; Carpenter, Kyrie K.; Jimenez, Felix R.; Elzinga, Dave B.; Johnson, Leigh A.; Maughan, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    • Premise of the study: The American Cross Timbers forest ecosystem runs from southeastern Kansas to Central Texas and is primarily composed of post oak (Quercus stellata). This old-growth forest currently occupies only about 2% of its ancestral range. To facilitate genetic research on this species, we developed microsatellite primers specific to post oak from reduced genomic libraries. • Methods and Results: Two Q. stellata individuals, sampled from the northern and southern range of the post oak forest, were subject to genomic reduction and 454 pyrosequencing. Bioinformatic analysis identified putative microsatellites from which 12 polymorphic primer sets were screened on three populations. The number of alleles observed ranged from five to 20 across all populations, while observed and expected heterozygosity values ranged from 0.05 to 0.833 and 0.236 to 0.893, respectively, within individual populations. • Conclusions: We report the development of microsatellite markers, specific to post oak, to aid the study of genetic diversity and population structure of extant forest remnants. PMID:25309841

  6. New Primers for Discovering Fungal Diversity Using Nuclear Large Ribosomal DNA

    PubMed Central

    Gloor, Gregory B.; Lindo, Zoë

    2016-01-01

    Metabarcoding has become an important tool in the discovery of biodiversity, including fungi, which are the second most speciose group of eukaryotes, with diverse and important ecological roles in terrestrial ecosystems. We have designed and tested new PCR primers that target the D1 variable region of nuclear large subunit (LSU) ribosomal DNA; one set that targets the phylum Ascomycota and another that recovers all other fungal phyla. The primers yield amplicons compatible with the Illumina MiSeq platform, which is cost-effective and has a lower error rate than other high throughput sequencing platforms. The new primer set LSU200A-F/LSU476A-R (Ascomycota) yielded 95–98% of reads of target taxa from environmental samples, and primers LSU200-F/LSU481-R (all other fungi) yielded 72–80% of target reads. Both primer sets have fairly low rates of data loss, and together they cover a wide variety of fungal taxa. We compared our results with these primers by amplifying and sequencing a subset of samples using the previously described ITS3_KYO2/ITS4_KYO3 primers, which amplify the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) of Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. With approximately equivalent read depth, our LSU primers recovered a greater number and phylogenetic diversity of sequences than the ITS2 primers. For instance, ITS3_KYO2/ITS4_KYO3 primers failed to pick up any members of Eurotiales, Mytilinidiales, Pezizales, Saccharomycetales, or Venturiales within Ascomycota, or members of Exobasidiomycetes, Microbotryomycetes, Pucciniomycetes, or Tremellomycetes within Basidiomycota, which were retrieved in good numbers from the same samples by our LSU primers. Among the OTUs recovered using the LSU primers were 127 genera and 28 species that were not obtained using the ITS2 primers, although the ITS2 primers recovered 10 unique genera and 16 species that were not obtained using either of the LSU primers These features identify the new primer sets developed in this study as useful

  7. A Tale of Tails: Dissecting the Enhancing Effect of Tailed Primers in Real-Time PCR

    PubMed Central

    Vandenbussche, Frank; Mathijs, Elisabeth; Lefebvre, David; De Clercq, Kris; Van Borm, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Non-specific tail sequences are often added to the 5’-terminus of primers to improve the robustness and overall performance of diagnostic assays. Despite the widespread use of tailed primers, the underlying working mechanism is not well understood. To address this problem, we conducted a detailed in vitro and in silico analysis of the enhancing effect of primer tailing on 2 well-established foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) RT-qPCR assays using an FMDV reference panel. Tailing of the panFMDV-5UTR primers mainly affected the shape of the amplification curves. Modelling of the raw fluorescence data suggested a reduction of the amplification efficiency due to the accumulation of inhibitors. In depth analysis of PCR products indeed revealed the rapid accumulation of forward-primer derived artefacts. More importantly, tailing of the forward primer delayed artefacts formation and concomitantly restored the sigmoidal shape of the amplification curves. Our analysis also showed that primer tailing can alter utilisation patterns of degenerate primers and increase the number of primer variants that are able to participate in the reaction. The impact of tailed primers was less pronounced in the panFMDV-3D assay with only 5 out of 50 isolates showing a clear shift in Cq values. Sequence analysis of the target region of these 5 isolates revealed several mutations in the inter-primer region that extend an existing hairpin structure immediately downstream of the forward primer binding site. Stabilisation of the forward primer with either a tail sequence or cationic spermine units restored the sensitivity of the assay, which suggests that the enhancing effect in the panFMDV-3D assay is due to a more efficient extension of the forward primer. ur results show that primer tailing can alter amplification through various mechanisms that are determined by both the assay and target region. These findings expand our understanding of primer tailing and should enable a more targeted and

  8. A sputtered zirconia primer for improved thermal shock resistance of plasma-sprayed ceramic turbine seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bill, R. C.; Sovey, J.; Allen, G. P.

    1981-01-01

    It is shown that the application of sputtered Y2O3-stabilized ZrO2 (YSZ) primer in plasma-sprayed YSZ ceramic-coated turbine blades results in an improvement, by a factor of 5-6, in the thermal shock life of specimens with a sprayed, porous, Ni-Cr-Al-Y intermediate layer. Species with and without the primer were found to be able to survive 1000 cycles when the intermediate layer was used, but reduced laminar cracking was observed in the specimen with the primer. It is suggested that the sputtered YZS primer-induced properties are due to (1) more effective wetting and adherence of the plasma-sprayed YZS particles to the primer, and (2) the primer's retardation of impinging, molten plasma sprayed particles solidification rates, which result in a less detrimental residual stress distribution.

  9. Universal multiplexable matK primers for DNA barcoding of angiosperms1

    PubMed Central

    Heckenhauer, Jacqueline; Barfuss, Michael H. J.; Samuel, Rosabelle

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: PCR amplification of the matK barcoding region is often difficult when dealing with multiple angiosperm families. We developed a primer cocktail to amplify this region efficiently across angiosperm diversity. Methods and Results: We developed 14 matK primers (seven forward, seven reverse) for multiplex PCR, using sequences available in GenBank for 178 taxa belonging to 123 genera in 41 families and 18 orders. Universality of these new multiplexed primers was tested with 53 specimens from 44 representative angiosperm families in 23 different orders. Our primers showed high PCR amplification and sequencing success. Conclusions: These results show that our newly developed primers are highly effective for multiplex PCR and can be employed in future barcode projects involving taxonomically diverse samples across angiosperms. Using multiplex primers for barcoding will reduce the cost and time needed for PCR amplification. PMID:27347449

  10. Primer Output and Initial Projectile Motion for 5.56- and 7.62-mm Ammunition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    is presented. The impulse resulting from the primers’ (Nos. 41 and 34, respectively) output is measured and compared with the bullet momentum ...Rifled and Smoothbore Barrels 8 3.4 Primer Impulse and Bullet Momentum Measurements 9 3.5 Further Demonstrations of Primer Brisance 11 3.6 Variation in...Fig. 10 Impulse from the primer graphed vs. momentum imparted to the bullet for M855 and M80 bullets with 2 assumptions of propellant motion behavior

  11. A Primer on Vibrational Ball Bearing Feature Generation for Prognostics and Diagnostics Algorithms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    A Primer on Vibrational Ball Bearing Feature Generation for Prognostics and Diagnostics Algorithms by Kwok F Tom ARL-TR-7230 March 2015...TR-7230 March 2015 A Primer on Vibrational Ball Bearing Feature Generation for Prognostics and Diagnostics Algorithms Kwok F Tom...DATES COVERED (From - To) 10/2012–09/2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Primer on Vibrational Ball Bearing Feature Generation for Prognostics and

  12. Cross-kingdom amplification using Bacteria-specific primers: Complications for studies of coral microbial ecology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Galkiewicz, J.P.; Kellogg, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    PCR amplification of pure bacterial DNA is vital to the study of bacterial interactions with corals. Commonly used Bacteria-specific primers 8F and 27F paired with the universal primer 1492R amplify both eukaryotic and prokaryotic rRNA genes. An alternative primer set, 63F/1542R, is suggested to resolve this problem. Copyright ?? 2008, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  13. A method for predicting service life of zinc rich primers on carbon steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoppesch, C. W.

    1986-01-01

    The service life of zinc rich primers on carbon steel can be estimated by immersing a primer coated glass slide into an aqueous copper sulfate solution and measuring the amount of zinc that reacts with the copper in 15 minutes. This zinc availability test was used to evaluate eleven primers currently available for which marine beach exposure data was available from previous programs. Results were evaluated and a correlation between zinc availability and ASTM rust grade was shown.

  14. Quantitative experimental determination of primer-dimer formation risk by free-solution conjugate electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Desmarais, Samantha M; Leitner, Thomas; Barron, Annelise E

    2012-02-01

    DNA barcodes are short, unique ssDNA primers that "mark" individual biomolecules. To gain better understanding of biophysical parameters constraining primer-dimer formation between primers that incorporate barcode sequences, we have developed a capillary electrophoresis method that utilizes drag-tag-DNA conjugates to quantify dimerization risk between primer-barcode pairs. Results obtained with this unique free-solution conjugate electrophoresis approach are useful as quantitatively precise input data to parameterize computation models of dimerization risk. A set of fluorescently labeled, model primer-barcode conjugates were designed with complementary regions of differing lengths to quantify heterodimerization as a function of temperature. Primer-dimer cases comprised two 30-mer primers, one of which was covalently conjugated to a lab-made, chemically synthesized poly-N-methoxyethylglycine drag-tag, which reduced electrophoretic mobility of ssDNA to distinguish it from ds primer-dimers. The drag-tags also provided a shift in mobility for the dsDNA species, which allowed us to quantitate primer-dimer formation. In the experimental studies, pairs of oligonucleotide primer barcodes with fully or partially complementary sequences were annealed, and then separated by free-solution conjugate CE at different temperatures, to assess effects on primer-dimer formation. When less than 30 out of 30 base-pairs were bonded, dimerization was inversely correlated to temperature. Dimerization occurred when more than 15 consecutive base-pairs formed, yet non-consecutive base-pairs did not create stable dimers even when 20 out of 30 possible base-pairs bonded. The use of free-solution electrophoresis in combination with a peptoid drag-tag and different fluorophores enabled precise separation of short DNA fragments to establish a new mobility shift assay for detection of primer-dimer formation.

  15. Retrieval of the Single Scattering Albedo in the EL Paso-Juarez Airshed Using the Tuv Model and a Uv-Mfrsr Radiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medina Calderon, R.; Environmental Physics At Utep

    2010-12-01

    A methodology to retrieve Single Scattering Albedo (SSA) values based in Direct to Diffuse Ratio (DDR) measurements was implemented for the El Paso-Juarez Airshed. The methodology used the TUV Model and has been applied to the measurements of a UV-MFRSR located in El Paso, Texas. The inferred SSAs at both 332 and 368 nm were higher in a clean day than in a dirty polluted day. Also, studies made about the asymmetric factor indicated that variation in the asymmetry parameter is the secondary effect on the retrievals of SSA. In summary, it was found that the TUV Model can be used as a diagnostic model to interpret UV-MFRSR Irradiance data and to successfully retrieve single scattering albedo. This methodology can be applied in any part of the country. However it is particularly useful for US Southwest cities that experience episodes of high PM concentrations.Retrieval values of SSA Values of SSA for Clean,and Dirty days with their corresponding values of Aerosol Optical Depth

  16. Assessment of arsenic and heavy metal concentrations in water and sediments of the Rio Grande at El Paso-Juarez metroplex region.

    PubMed

    Rios-Arana, J V; Walsh, E J; Gardea-Torresdey, J L

    2004-01-01

    The Rio Grande located along the US-Mexico border is affected by anthropogenic activities along its geographical course. Runoff and wind deposition of smelting residues may contribute to the pollution of the Rio Grande in the El Paso-Ciudad Juarez area. Few studies have addressed the presence or impacts of heavy metals or arsenic in this ecosystem. This study reports a survey of heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Cd, Ni, Pb, and Zn) and arsenic (As) in water and sediments of the Rio Grande collected from seven sites in the El Paso-Juarez region. Since water quality influences metal content in water, physical (temperature, flow and conductivity), and chemical (pH, dissolved oxygen, nitrates, alkalinity, and water hardness) parameters were measured at each site. Arsenic and heavy metal levels were determined using Inductively Couple Plasma (ICP) emission spectroscopy following EPA procedures. Zinc and lead were found as both total and dissolved metals in most of the samples, with concentrations of total recoverable metals reaching up to 105 and 70 microg/l, respectively. Most metals were found in sediment samples collected from four of seven sites. The highest Cu concentration (35 mg/l) was found at the American Dam site. Concentrations of metals found through this survey will be used as a reference for future studies in monitoring arsenic, heavy metals, and their impacts in the Rio Grande.

  17. Illegal sales of cigarettes to minors--Ciudad Juárez, Mexico; El Paso, Texas; and Las Cruces, New Mexico, 1999.

    PubMed

    1999-05-21

    In 1996, the United States-Mexico Binational Commission (US-MBC) Health Working Group identified prevention of tobacco use, particularly among adolescents, as a priority and subsequently recommended joint efforts toward reducing illegal sales of cigarettes to minors. A 1997 survey of 561 commercial cigarette outlets in Mexico City found that 79% of retailers sold cigarettes to minors. To assess the illegal sale of cigarettes to minors in other regions of Mexico and on both sides of the U.S.-Mexico border, during January-February 1999 the General Directorate of Epidemiology in Mexico, the Chihuahua State Department of Health Services (CDH), the Ciudad Juarez Department of Health (CJDH), the Texas Department of Health (TDH), and the New Mexico Department of Health (NMDH) surveyed cigarette outlets in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico; El Paso, Texas; and Las Cruces, New Mexico. This report summarizes the results of these surveys, which indicate that almost all retailers in the surveyed outlets in Ciudad Juarez sold cigarettes to minors and that sales rates to minors were substantially lower in El Paso and Las Cruces.

  18. Degenerative Suspensory Ligament Desmitis (DSLD) in Peruvian Paso Horses Is Characterized by Altered Expression of TGFβ Signaling Components in Adipose-Derived Stromal Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Wei; Sandy, John; Li, Jun; Brounts, Sabrina; Galante, Jorge; Plaas, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Equine degenerative suspensory ligament desmitis (DSLD) in Peruvian Paso horses typically presents at 7–15 years and is characterized by lameness, focal disorganization of collagen fibrils, and chondroid deposition in the body of the ligament. With the aim of developing a test for disease risk (that can be used to screen horses before breeding) we have quantified the expression of 76 TGFβ-signaling target genes in adipose-derived stromal fibroblasts (ADSCs) from six DSLD-affected and five unaffected Paso horses. Remarkably, 35 of the genes showed lower expression (p<0.05) in cells from DSLD-affected animals and this differential was largely eliminated by addition of exogenous TGFβ1. Moreover, TGFβ1-mediated effects on expression were prevented by the TGFβR1/2 inhibitor LY2109761, showing that the signaling was via a TGFβR1/2 complex. The genes affected by the pathology indicate that it is associated with a generalized metabolic disturbance, since some of those most markedly altered in DSLD cells (ATF3, MAPK14, ACVRL1 (ALK1), SMAD6, FOS, CREBBP, NFKBIA, and TGFBR2) represent master-regulators in a wide range of cellular metabolic responses. PMID:27902739

  19. Seroprevalence of select bloodborne pathogens and associated risk behaviors among injection drug users in the Paso del Norte region of the United States – Mexico border

    PubMed Central

    Baumbach, Joan P; Foster, Lily N; Mueller, Mark; Cruz, Michelle Firestone; Arbona, Sonia; Melville, Sharon; Ramos, Rebeca; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2008-01-01

    Background The region situated where the borders of Mexico, Texas and New Mexico meet is known as 'Paso del Norte'. The Paso del Norte Collaborative was formed to study the seroprevalence of select pathogens and associated risk behaviors among injection drug users (IDUs) in the region. Methods Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) was used: 459 IDU participants included 204 from Mexico; 155 from Texas; and 100 from New Mexico. Each of the three sites used a standardized questionnaire that was verbally administered and testing was performed for select bloodborne infections. Results Participants were mostly male (87.4%) and Hispanic/Latino (84.7%) whose median age was 38. In Mexico, Texas and New Mexico, respectively: hepatitis B virus (HBV) was seen in 88.3%, 48.6% and 59.6% of participants; hepatitis C virus (HCV) in 98.7%, 76.4% and 80.0%; human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in 2.1%, 10.0% and 1.0%; and syphilis in 4.0%, 9.9% and 3.0%. Heroin was the drug injected most often. More IDUs in New Mexico were aware of and used needle exchange programs compared with Texas and Mexico. Conclusion There was mixed success using RDS: it was more successfully applied after establishing good working relationships with IDU populations. Study findings included similarities and distinctions between the three sites that will be used to inform prevention interventions. PMID:19014605

  20. Degenerative Suspensory Ligament Desmitis (DSLD) in Peruvian Paso Horses Is Characterized by Altered Expression of TGFβ Signaling Components in Adipose-Derived Stromal Fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Luo, Wei; Sandy, John; Trella, Katie; Gorski, Daniel; Gao, Shuguang; Li, Jun; Brounts, Sabrina; Galante, Jorge; Plaas, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Equine degenerative suspensory ligament desmitis (DSLD) in Peruvian Paso horses typically presents at 7-15 years and is characterized by lameness, focal disorganization of collagen fibrils, and chondroid deposition in the body of the ligament. With the aim of developing a test for disease risk (that can be used to screen horses before breeding) we have quantified the expression of 76 TGFβ-signaling target genes in adipose-derived stromal fibroblasts (ADSCs) from six DSLD-affected and five unaffected Paso horses. Remarkably, 35 of the genes showed lower expression (p<0.05) in cells from DSLD-affected animals and this differential was largely eliminated by addition of exogenous TGFβ1. Moreover, TGFβ1-mediated effects on expression were prevented by the TGFβR1/2 inhibitor LY2109761, showing that the signaling was via a TGFβR1/2 complex. The genes affected by the pathology indicate that it is associated with a generalized metabolic disturbance, since some of those most markedly altered in DSLD cells (ATF3, MAPK14, ACVRL1 (ALK1), SMAD6, FOS, CREBBP, NFKBIA, and TGFBR2) represent master-regulators in a wide range of cellular metabolic responses.

  1. The corrosion protection of 2219-T87 aluminum by organic and inorganic zinc-rich primers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danford, M. D.; Mendrek, M. J.; Walsh, D. W.

    1995-01-01

    The behavior of zinc-rich primer-coated 2219-T87 aluminum in a 3.5-percent Na-Cl was investigated using electrochemical techniques. The alternating current (ac) method of electro-chemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), in the frequency range of 0.001 to 40,000 Hz, and the direct current (dc) method of polarization resistance (PR) were used to evaluate the characteristics of an organic, epoxy zinc-rich primer and an inorganic, ethyl silicate zinc-rich primer. A dc electrochemical galvanic corrosion test was also used to determine the corrosion current of each zinc-rich primer anode coupled to a 2219-T87 aluminum cathode. Duration of the EIS/PR and galvanic testing was 21 days and 24 h, respectively. the galvanic test results demonstrated a very high galvanic current between the aluminum cathode and both zinc-rich primer anodes (37.9 micro A/cm(exp 2) and 23.7 micro A/cm(exp 2) for the organic and inorganic primers, respectively). The PR results demonstrated a much higher corrosion rate of the zinc in the inorganic primer than in the organic primer, due primarily to the higher porosity in the former. Based on this investigation, the inorganic zinc-rich primer appears to provide superior galvanic protection and is recommended for additional study for application in the solid rocket booster aft skirt.

  2. Anti-biofilm dentin primer with quaternary ammonium and silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Cheng, L; Zhang, K; Melo, M A S; Weir, M D; Zhou, X; Xu, H H K

    2012-06-01

    Antibacterial bonding agents could combat recurrent caries at the tooth-composite margins. The objectives of this study were to develop novel antibacterial dentin primers containing quaternary ammonium dimethacrylate (QADM) and nanoparticles of silver (NAg), and to investigate the effects on dentin bond strength and dental plaque microcosm biofilms for the first time. Scotchbond Multi-Purpose ("SBMP") bonding agent was used. QADM and NAg were incorporated into SBMP primer, yielding 4 primers: SBMP primer (control), control + 10% QADM (mass), control + 0.05% NAg, and control + 10% QADM + 0.05% NAg. Human saliva was collected to grow microcosm biofilms. The NAg particle size (mean ± SD; n = 100) was 2.7 ± 0.6 nm. Dentin shear bond strengths (n = 10) with human third molars were approximately 30 MPa for all groups (p > 0.1). QADM-NAg-containing primer increased the bacteria inhibition zone by 9-fold, compared with control primer (p < 0.05). QADM-NAg-containing primer reduced lactic acid production and colony-forming units of total micro-organisms, total streptococci, and mutans streptococci by an order of magnitude. In conclusion, novel QADM-NAg-containing primers were strongly antibacterial without compromising dentin bond strength, and hence are promising to inhibit biofilms and secondary caries. The processing method of incorporating QADM and NAg together into the same primer produced the strongest antibacterial effect, which could have a wide applicability to other bonding systems.

  3. Greene SCPrimer: a rapid comprehensive tool for designing degenerate primers from multiple sequence alignments

    PubMed Central

    Jabado, Omar J.; Palacios, Gustavo; Kapoor, Vishal; Hui, Jeffrey; Renwick, Neil; Zhai, Junhui; Briese, Thomas; Lipkin, W. Ian

    2006-01-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is widely applied in clinical and environmental microbiology. Primer design is key to the development of successful assays and is often performed manually by using multiple nucleic acid alignments. Few public software tools exist that allow comprehensive design of degenerate primers for large groups of related targets based on complex multiple sequence alignments. Here we present a method for designing such primers based on tree building followed by application of a set covering algorithm, and demonstrate its utility in compiling Multiplex PCR primer panels for detection and differentiation of viral pathogens. PMID:17135211

  4. Express Primer Tool for high-throughput gene cloning and expression

    SciTech Connect

    2002-12-01

    A tool to assist in the design of primers for DNA amplification. The Express Primer web-based tool generates primer sequences specifically for the generation of expression clones for both lab scale and high-throughput projects. The application is designed not only to allow the user complete flexibility to specify primer design parameters but also to minimize the amount of manual intervention needed to generate a large number of primers for simultaneous amplification of multiple target genes. The Express Primer Tool enables the user to specify various experimental parameters (e.g. optimal Tm, Tm range, maximum Tm difference) for single or multiple candidate sequence(s) in FASTA format input as a flat text (ASCII) file. The application generates condidate primers, selects optimal primer pairs, and writes the forward and reverse primers pairs to an Excel file that is suitable for electronic submission to a synthesis facility. The program parameters emphasize high-throughput but allow for target atrition at various stages of the project.

  5. The Corrosion Protection of 2219-T87 Aluminum by Organic and Inorganic Zinc-Rich Primers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danford, M. D.; Mendrek, M. J.; Walsh, D. W.

    1995-01-01

    The behavior of zinc-rich primer-coated 2219-T87 aluminum in a 3.5-percent Na-Cl was investigated using electrochemical techniques. The alternating current (ac) method of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), in the frequency range of 0.001 to 40,000 Hz, and the direct current (dc) method of polarization resistance (PR) were used to evaluate the characteristics of an organic, epoxy zinc-rich primer and an inorganic, ethyl silicate zinc-rich primer. A dc electrochemical galvanic corrosion test was also used to determine the corrosion current of each zinc-rich primer anode coupled to a 2219-T87 aluminum cathode. Duration of the EIS/PR and galvanic testing was 21 days and 24 h, respectively. The galvanic test results demonstrated a very high galvanic current between the aluminum cathode and both zinc-rich primer anodes (37.9 pA/CM2 and 23.7 pA/CM2 for the organic and inorganic primers, respectively). The PR results demonstrated a much higher corrosion rate of the zinc in the inorganic primer than in the organic primer, due primarily to the higher porosity in the former. Based on this investigation, the inorganic zinc-rich primer appears to provide superior galvanic protection and is recommended for additional study for application in the solid rocket booster aft skirt.

  6. Plasmid ColE1 incompatibility determined by interaction of RNA I with primer transcript.

    PubMed Central

    Tomizawa, J; Itoh, T

    1981-01-01

    Mutants of plasmid pNT7 that can coexist with plasmid pMB9 in growing bacteria have been isolated. These mutants show altered incompatibility properties and increased copy numbers. Each mutant has a single base change at or near the center of one of the three palindromes in the region that specifies two RNA species: a larger one (primer transcripts) that provides a primer for DNA replication and a smaller one (RNA I) that is the incompatibility-specific inhibitor of primer formation. In vitro transcription studies show that the single base changes affect both the ability of RNA I to inhibit primer formation and the sensitivity of primer formation to inhibition by RNA I. RNA I hybridizes to the primer transcript, and the rate of hybridization is reduced by the single base changes. Based on analyses of inhibition of in vitro primer formation by RNA I and of in vivo properties of the mutant plasmids, we conclude that incompatibility between two plasmids can be attributed to inhibition of primer formation on one of the plasmids by the RNA I of the other. Inhibition of primer formation by RNA I appears to be the mechanism that determines the copy number of pNT7 and its derivatives. Images PMID:6171811

  7. Urban development under extreme hydrologic and weather conditions for El Paso-Juarez: Recommendations resulting from hydrologic modeling, GIS, and remote sensing analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barud-Zubillaga, Alberto

    During the 2006 El Paso-Juarez flood there were many concerns regarding the capability of the existing stormwater system to handle 50- and 100-year flood events in El Paso, Texas and Juarez, Mexico area. Moreover in 2008, a considerable wet year from the normal 223 mm of annual precipitation for El Paso demonstrated that the area could very well received large amounts of precipitation at localized areas in short periods of time, representing a great flood threat to residents living in areas prone to flood. Some climate change projections for the area are exactly what had occurred over the last two decades; an increased number of torrential rainstorms over smaller concentrated pieces of land separated by longer years of drought between rainstorms. This study consisted in three projects focused on three critical regions within the El Paso-Juarez area that were greatly affected by the 2006 Flood. The goal was to identify if natural arroyos or the existent built stormwater system, could properly managed the projected precipitation patterns. The three projects described in this dissertation touch on the following points: (a) the importance of a reliable precipitation model that could accurately describes precipitation patterns in the region under extreme drought and wet climates conditions; (b) differences in land use/land cover characteristics as factors promoting or disrupting the possibility for flooding, and (c) limitations and capabilities of existent stormwater systems and natural arroyos as means to control flooding. Conclusions and recommendations are shown below, which apply not only to each particular project, but also to all study areas and similar areas in the El Paso-Juarez region. Urbanization can improve or worsen a pre-existing natural stormwater system if built under its required capacity. Such capacity should be calculated considering extreme weather conditions, based on a denser network of precipitation stations to capture the various microclimates

  8. A Primer to Single-Particle Cryo-Electron Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yifan; Grigorieff, Nikolaus; Penczek, Pawel A.; Walz, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Summary Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) of single-particle specimens is used to determine the structure of proteins and macromolecular complexes without the need for crystals. Recent advances in detector technology and software algorithms now allow images of unprecedented quality to be recorded and structures to be determined at near-atomic resolution. However, compared with X-ray crystallography, cryo-EM is a young technique with distinct challenges. This primer explains the different steps and considerations involved in structure determination by single-particle cryo-EM to provide an overview for scientists wishing to understand more about this technique and the interpretation of data obtained with it, as well as a starting guide for new practitioners. PMID:25910204

  9. Antibiotic resistance: a primer and call to action.

    PubMed

    Smith, Rachel A; M'ikanatha, Nkuchia M; Read, Andrew F

    2015-01-01

    During the past century, discoveries of microorganisms as causes of infections and antibiotics as effective therapeutic agents have contributed to significant gains in public health in many parts of the world. Health agencies worldwide are galvanizing attention toward antibiotic resistance, which is a major threat to public health (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2013; World Health Organization, 2014). Some life scientists believe that we are approaching the post-antibiotic age (Davies & Davies, 2010). The growing threat of antimicrobial resistance is fueled by complex factors with biological, behavioral, and societal aspects. This primer provides an overview of antibiotic resistance and its growing burden on public health, the biological and behavioral mechanisms that increase antibiotic resistance, and examples of where health communication scholars can contribute to efforts to make our current antibiotic drugs last as long as possible. In addition, we identify compelling challenges for current communication theories and practices.

  10. Primer Vector Optimization: Survey of Theory, new Analysis and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzman

    This paper presents a preliminary study in developing a set of optimization tools for orbit rendezvous, transfer and station keeping. This work is part of a large scale effort undergoing at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and a.i. solutions, Inc. to build generic methods, which will enable missions with tight fuel budgets. Since no single optimization technique can solve efficiently all existing problems, a library of tools where the user could pick the method most suited for the particular mission is envisioned. The first trajectory optimization technique explored is Lawden's primer vector theory [Ref. 1]. Primer vector theory can be considered as a byproduct of applying Calculus of Variations (COV) techniques to the problem of minimizing the fuel usage of impulsive trajectories. For an n-impulse trajectory, it involves the solution of n-1 two-point boundary value problems. In this paper, we look at some of the different formulations of the primer vector (dependent on the frame employed and on the force model). Also, the applicability of primer vector theory is examined in effort to understand when and why the theory can fail. Specifically, since COV is based on "small variations", singularities in the linearized (variational) equations of motion along the arcs must be taken into account. These singularities are a recurring problem in analyzes that employ "small variations" [Refs. 2, 3]. For example, singularities in the (2-body problem) variational equations along elliptic arcs occur when [Ref. 4], 1) the difference between the initial and final times is a multiple of the reference orbit period, 2) the difference between the initial and final true anomalies are given by k, for k= 0, 1, 2, 3,..., note that this cover the 3) the time of flight is a minimum for the given difference in true anomaly. For the N-body problem, the situation is more complex and is still under investigation. Several examples, such as the initialization of an orbit (ascent trajectory) and

  11. Evaluation of non toxic alkyd primers by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, L.S.; Garcia, G. |; Lopez, C.

    1998-12-31

    The purpose of this work was to compare the protective capacity of several alkyd primers pigmented with 12.1 volume percent either of calcium phosphate or micronized zinc phosphate as anticorrosive pigments. A paint containing zinc chromate was used as reference. The performance of these paints on steel was assessed through Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) using a 3% NaCl solution. After 576 hr immersion, the paint with calcium phosphate and specially that with micronized zinc phosphate, showed a better behavior than paint with zinc chromate. Paint rating, using impedance parameters (ionic resistance and capacitance of the paint film, and breakpoint frequency), was in agreement with the visible paint deterioration and corrosion, In addition, there was a good correlation between these parameter and the open circuit corrosion potential of the metallic substrate.

  12. Microsatellite primers for the rare sedge Lepidosperma bungalbin (Cyperaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Nevill, Paul G.; Wardell-Johnson, Grant

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Microsatellite markers were developed for the rare sedge Lepidosperma bungalbin (Cyperaceae) to assess genetic variation and its spatial structuring. Methods and Results: We conducted shotgun sequencing on an Illumina MiSeq and produced 6,215,872 sequence reads. The QDD pipeline was used to design 60 primer pairs that were screened using PCR. We developed 17 loci, of which 12 loci were identified that were polymorphic, amplified reliably, and could be consistently scored. We then screened these loci for variation in individuals from three populations. The number of alleles observed for these 12 loci across the three populations ranged from nine to 19 and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.41 to 0.89. Conclusions: These markers will enable the quantification of the potential impact of mining on genetic variation within L. bungalbin and establish a baseline for future management of genetic variation of the rare sedge. PMID:27843727

  13. Prader-Willi syndrome: A primer for clinicians

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The advent of sensitive genetic testing modalities for the diagnosis of Prader-Willi syndrome has helped to define not only the phenotypic features of the syndrome associated with the various genotypes but also to anticipate clinical and psychological problems that occur at each stage during the life span. With advances in hormone replacement therapy, particularly growth hormone children born in circumstances where therapy is available are expected to have an improved quality of life as compared to those born prior to growth hormone. This manuscript was prepared as a primer for clinicians-to serve as a resource for those of you who care for children and adults with Prader-Willi syndrome on a daily basis in your practices. Appropriate and anticipatory interventions can make a difference. PMID:22008714

  14. ParaDiS-FEM dislocation dynamics simulation code primer

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, M; Hommes, G; Aubry, S; Arsenlis, A

    2011-09-27

    The ParaDiS code is developed to study bulk systems with periodic boundary conditions. When we try to perform discrete dislocation dynamics simulations for finite systems such as thin films or cylinders, the ParaDiS code must be extended. First, dislocations need to be contained inside the finite simulation box; Second, dislocations inside the finite box experience image stresses due to the free surfaces. We have developed in-house FEM subroutines to couple with the ParaDiS code to deal with free surface related issues in the dislocation dynamics simulations. This primer explains how the coupled code was developed, the main changes from the ParaDiS code, and the functions of the new FEM subroutines.

  15. Development of a Universal Intimin Antiserum and PCR Primers

    PubMed Central

    Batchelor, Miranda; Knutton, Stuart; Caprioli, Alfredo; Huter, Veronika; Zanial, Mazlina; Dougan, Gordon; Frankel, Gad

    1999-01-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) constitute a significant risk to human health worldwide. A hallmark of both pathogens is their ability to produce characteristic attaching-and-effacing (A/E) lesions in intestinal epithelial cells. Genes encoding A/E lesion formation map to a chromosomal pathogenicity island termed the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE). Intimin, an LEE-encoded bacterial adhesion molecule, mediates the intimate bacterium-host cell interaction characteristic of A/E lesions. On the basis of characterization of the C-terminal 280-amino-acid cell binding domain of intimin (Int280661–939), four distinct Int280 types (types α, β, γ, and δ) have been identified. Importantly, Int280α and Int280β antisera specifically recognized their respective intimin types. Using a conserved region of the intimin molecule (Int388–667) and primers synthesized to generate the recombinant Int388–667, we have now generated universal intimin antiserum and PCR primers that are reactive with the different intimin types expressed by both human and animal A/E lesion-forming strains. Use of immunogold electron microscopy to visualize intimin on the surfaces of EPEC and EHEC strains revealed, in general, a uniform distribution on the bacterial cell surface. However, a filamentous staining pattern was observed with a few strains expressing intimin γ. Cloning of the intimin eae gene from one such strain (strain ICC57) into strain CVD206, an EPEC strain which harbors a null deletion in eae, produced a uniform intimin staining pattern indicating that, if the filamentous staining pattern defines a filamentous form of intimin γ, it is dependent upon the genetic background of the strain and is not a feature of the intimin molecule. PMID:10565891

  16. Variations in the sensitivity of different primers for detecting Wolbachia in Anastrepha (diptera: tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Marcon, Helena Sanches; Coscrato, Virgínia Elias; Selivon, Denise; Perondini, André Luiz Paranhos; Marino, Celso Luis

    2011-01-01

    Wolbachia are endosymbiont bacteria of the family Rickettsiacea that are widespread in invertebrates and occur between 20% and 60% of Neotropical insects. These bacteria are responsible for reproductive phenomena such as cytoplasmic incompatibility, male killing, feminization and parthenogenesis. Supergroups A and B of Wolbachia are common in insects and can be identified using primers for 16S rDNA, ftsZ and wsp; these primers vary in their ability to detect Wolbachia. The ftsZ primer was the first primer used to detect Wolbachia in Anastrepha fruit flies. The primers for 16S rDNA, ftsZ and wsp and the corresponding PCR conditions have been optimized to study the distribution of Wolbachia and their effect on the biology of Anastrepha in Brazil. In this work, we examined the ability of these primers to detect Wolbachia in Anastrepha populations from three regions in the State of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. All of the samples were positive for Wolbachia supergroup A when screened with primers for 16S A rDNA and wsp A; the wsp B primer also gave a positive result, indicating cross-reactivity. The ftsZ primer showed a poor ability to detect Wolbachia in Anastrepha and generated false negatives in 44.9% of the samples. These findings indicate that reliable PCR detection of Wolbachia requires the use of primers for 16S rDNA and wsp to avoid cross-reactions and false negatives, and that the ftsZ primer needs to be redesigned to improve its selectivity. PMID:24031693

  17. Development of a ceramic primer with higher bond durability for resin cement.

    PubMed

    Li, Rui

    2010-07-01

    To increase the bond durability of resin to the CAD/CAM ceramic surface, two types of two-bottle type ceramic primers, consisting of Primer A1 or A2 and Primer B, were designed. Primer A1 was prepared by dissolving 25, 50, or 100 mg of gamma-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane in 1 mL of ethanol. Primer A2 was prepared by dissolving 50 mg of mixed silanes, consisting of 1,2-bis(trimethoxysilyl)ethane to gamma-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane, in 1 mL of ethanol. Mole fractions of 1,2-bis(trimethoxysilyl)ethane to gamma-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane were 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 mol%. Primer B was prepared after dissolving 0.01, 0.05 or 0.1 mol L(-1) hydrochloric acid in ethanol by 50 vol%. Ceramic surface was silanated with a mixture of Primers A1 and B or Primers A2 and B for 1 min, and then air-dried. Commercial GC ceramic primer and Porcelain Liner M were utilized. Thereafter, dual-curing type resin cement was bonded to silanated ceramic surface through visible-light irradiation. Shear bond strength of resin to the ceramic surface was measured, before and after thermo-cycling. Addition of 0.01 or 0.05 mol L(-1) hydrochloric acid to the gamma-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane allowed for significant increases in the bond strength. However, thermo-cycling resulted in significant decreases of approximately 5 MPa in the bond strength. Conversely, when the mixed silane, where 30 mol% of 1,2-bis(trimethoxysilyl)ethane dissolved in gamma-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane, was utilized with 0.05 mol L(-1) hydrochloric acid, the reduction in the bond strength decreased to approximately 2 MPa. The designed ceramic primers exhibited higher ceramic bond durability than commercial ceramic primers.

  18. Effects of metal primers on bonding of adhesive resin cement to noble alloys for porcelain fusing.

    PubMed

    Okuya, Nobuhiro; Minami, Hiroyuki; Kurashige, Hisanori; Murahara, Sadaaki; Suzuki, Shiro; Tanaka, Takuo

    2010-03-01

    This study evaluated the effects of metal primers on the bonding of adhesive resin to four pure metals (Au, Pd, Ag, Cu) and two noble alloys for porcelain fusing (high-gold and high-palladium content alloys). Bonding surface was polished with 600-grit silicon carbide paper and primed with one of the three metal primers (V-Primer, Metaltite, and M.L. Primer). Bonded specimens were fabricated by applying adhesive resin (Super-Bond C&B) on the primed surface. Shear bond strength (SBS) was determined both before and after thermocycling (4-60 degrees C for 2,000 cycles). The highest SBS values to each pure metal after thermocycling were 33.5 MPa for Au by M.L. Primer, 35.0 MPa for Ag by V-Primer, and 34.4 MPa for Cu by Metaltite. SBS to high-gold content alloy after thermocycling was 33.3 MPa by M.L. Primer. None of the primers was effective for pure Pd and high-palladium content alloy after thermocycling.

  19. Design of a Percussion and Electric Primer Gun Firing Power Supply

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-01

    solenoid failure . As new instrumentation techniques such as high -speed video and laser interferometry have been introduced into our gun testing...Design of a Percussion and Electric Primer Gun Firing Power Supply by Peter T. Bartkowski ARL-TR-6987 July 2014...Percussion and Electric Primer Gun Firing Power Supply Peter T. Bartkowski Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, ARL

  20. Primer for identifying cold-water refuges to protect and restore thermal diversity in riverine landscapes

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA recently released a primer that provides guidance to Region 10 Tribes, States, and local watershed community groups to support the identification, protection, and restoration of critical cold water refuges for the protection of salmonids. This primer will assist these entiti...

  1. Novel primers for detection of genetically diverse virulent Agrobacterium tumefaciens bv1 strains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Novel primers were developed to amplify a 243 bp fragment of an intergenic region between gene5 and tms2 on the T-DNA of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. These primers exhibit 100% positive correlation with strain virulence, 100% negative correlation with avirulence and did not generate extraneous bands,...

  2. A new PCR method: one primer amplification of PCR-CTPP products.

    PubMed

    Yin, Guang; Mitsuda, Yoko; Ezaki, Takayuki; Hamajima, Nobuyuki

    2012-10-01

    Polymerase chain reaction with confronting two-pair primers (PCR-CTPP) is a convenient method for genotyping single nucleotide polymorphisms, saving time, and costs. It uses four primers for PCR; F1 and R1 for one allele, and F2 and R2 for the other allele, by which three different sizes of DNA are amplified; between F1 and R1, between F2 and R2, and between F1 and R2. To date, we have applied PCR-CTPP successfully for genotyping more than 60 polymorphisms. However, it is not rare that PCR does not produce balanced amplification of allele specific bands. Accordingly, the method was modified by attaching a common sequence at the 5' end of two-pair primers and adding another primer with the common sequence in PCR, in total five different primers in a tube for PCR. The modification allowed one primer amplification for the products of initial PCR with confronting two-pair primers, named as one primer amplification of PCR-CTPP products (OPA-CTPP). This article demonstrates an example for an A/G polymorphism of paraoxonase 1 (PON1) Gln192Arg (rs662). PCR-CTPP failed clear genotyping for the polymorphism, while OPA-CTPP successfully produced PCR products corresponding to the allele. The present example indicated that the OPA-CTPP would be useful in the case that PCR-CTPP failed to produce balanced PCR products specific to each allele.

  3. GSP: A web-based platform for designing genome-specific primers in polyploids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sequences among subgenomes in a polyploid species have high similarity. This makes difficult to design genome-specific primers for sequence analysis. We present a web-based platform named GSP for designing genome-specific primers to distinguish subgenome sequences in the polyploid genome backgr...

  4. Single primer-triggered isothermal amplification for double-stranded DNA detection.

    PubMed

    Ma, Cuiping; Han, Dianang; Deng, Meilian; Wang, Jingfei; Shi, Chao

    2015-01-11

    Here we have devised a new generation of isothermal double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) detection method, termed single primer-triggered isothermal amplification (SAMP). It is very simple only requiring one primer and a few copies of dsDNA in less than an hour are detectable with multiple signal amplification steps.

  5. Demystifying Special Education in Virtual Charter Schools. Special Report. Primers on Special Education in Charter Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhim, Lauren Morando; Kowal, Julie

    2008-01-01

    This special report is a supplement to a series of special education primers created to inform state officials, authorizers and charter school operators about special education in the charter sector. The primer series also provides tools to help these stakeholders build charter school capacity to provide special education and related services. In…

  6. Development and evaluation of new primers for PCR-based identification of Prevotella intermedia.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yanbin; Liu, Dali; Wang, Yiwei; Zhu, Cailian; Liang, Jingping; Shu, Rong

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to develop new Prevotella intermedia-specific PCR primers based on the 16S rRNA. The new primer set, Pi-192 and Pi-468, increased the accuracy of PCR-based P. intermedia identification and could be useful in the detection of P. intermedia as well as epidemiological studies on periodontal disease.

  7. A Comprehensive Evaluation of PCR Primers to Amplify the nifH Gene of Nitrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Gaby, John Christian; Buckley, Daniel H.

    2012-01-01

    The nifH gene is the most widely sequenced marker gene used to identify nitrogen-fixing Bacteria and Archaea. Numerous PCR primers have been designed to amplify nifH, but a comprehensive evaluation of nifH PCR primers has not been performed. We performed an in silico analysis of the specificity and coverage of 51 universal and 35 group-specific nifH primers by using an aligned database of 23,847 nifH sequences. We found that there are 15 universal nifH primers that target 90% or more of nitrogen fixers, but that there are also 23 nifH primers that target less than 50% of nifH sequences. The nifH primers we evaluated vary in their phylogenetic bias and their ability to recover sequences from commonly sampled environments. In addition, many of these primers will amplify genes that do not mediate nitrogen fixation, and thus it would be advisable for researchers to screen their sequencing results for the presence of non-target genes before analysis. Universal primers that performed well in silico were tested empirically with soil samples and with genomic DNA from a phylogenetically diverse set of nitrogen-fixing strains. This analysis will be of great utility to those engaged in molecular analysis of nifH genes from isolates and environmental samples. PMID:22848735

  8. A Highly Reactive Imidazolium-Bridged Dinucleotide Intermediate in Nonenzymatic RNA Primer Extension.

    PubMed

    Walton, Travis; Szostak, Jack W

    2016-09-14

    Because of its importance for the origin of life, the nonenzymatic copying of RNA templates has been the subject of intense study for several decades. Previous characterizations of template-directed primer extension using 5'-phosphoryl-2-methylimidazole-activated nucleotides (2-MeImpNs) as substrates have assumed a classical in-line nucleophilic substitution mechanism, in which the 3'-hydroxyl of the primer attacks the phosphate of the incoming monomer, displacing the 2-methylimidazole leaving group. However, we have found that the initial rate of primer extension depends on the pH and concentration at which the activated monomer is maintained prior to the primer extension reaction. These and other results suggest an alternative mechanism, in which two monomers react with each other to form an imidazolium-bridged dinucleotide intermediate, which then binds to the template. Subsequent attack of the 3'-hydroxyl of the primer displaces an activated nucleotide as the leaving group and results in extension of the primer by one nucleotide. Analysis of monomer solutions by NMR indicates formation of the proposed imidazolium-bridged dinucleotide in the expected pH-dependent manner. We have used synthetic methods to prepare material that is enriched in this proposed intermediate and show that it is a highly reactive substrate for primer extension. The formation of an imidazolium-bridged dinucleotide intermediate provides a mechanistic interpretation of previously observed catalysis by an activated nucleotide located downstream from the site of primer extension.

  9. MFEprimer-2.0: a fast thermodynamics-based program for checking PCR primer specificity.

    PubMed

    Qu, Wubin; Zhou, Yang; Zhang, Yanchun; Lu, Yiming; Wang, Xiaolei; Zhao, Dongsheng; Yang, Yi; Zhang, Chenggang

    2012-07-01

    Evaluating the specificity of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers is an essential step in PCR primer design. The MFEprimer-2.0 server allows users to check primer specificity against genomic DNA and messenger RNA/complementary DNA sequence databases quickly and easily. MFEprimer-2.0 uses a k-mer index algorithm to accelerate the search process for primer binding sites and uses thermodynamics to evaluate binding stability between each primer and its DNA template. Several important characteristics, such as the sequence, melting temperature and size of each amplicon, either specific or non-specific, are reported on the results page. Based on these characteristics and the user-friendly output, users can readily draw conclusions about the specificity of PCR primers. Analyses for degenerate primers and multiple PCR primers are also supported in MFEprimer-2.0. In addition, the databases supported by MFEprimer-2.0 are comprehensive, and custom databases can also be supported on request. The MFEprimer-2.0 server does not require a login and is freely available at http://biocompute.bmi.ac.cn/CZlab/MFEprimer-2.0. More over, the MFEprimer-2.0 command-line version and local server version are open source and can be downloaded at https://github.com/quwubin/MFEprimer/wiki/Manual/.

  10. Microarrays for high-throughput genotyping of MICA alleles using allele-specific primer extension.

    PubMed

    Baek, I C; Jang, J-P; Choi, H-B; Choi, E-J; Ko, W-Y; Kim, T-G

    2013-10-01

    The role of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I chain-related gene A (MICA), a ligand of NKG2D, has been defined in human diseases by its allele associations with various autoimmune diseases, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and cancer. This study describes a practical system to develop MICA genotyping by allele-specific primer extension (ASPE) on microarrays. From the results of 20 control primers, strict and reliable cut-off values of more than 30,000 mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) as positive and less than 3000 MFI as negative, were applied to select high-quality specific extension primers. Among 55 allele-specific primers, 44 primers could be initially selected as optimal primer. Through adjusting the length, six primers were improved. The other failed five primers were corrected by refractory modification. MICA genotypes by ASPE on microarrays showed the same results as those by nucleotide sequencing. On the basis of these results, ASPE on microarrays may provide high-throughput genotyping for MICA alleles for population studies, disease-gene associations and HSCT.

  11. Novel computational methods for increasing PCR primer design effectiveness in directed sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kelvin; Brownley, Anushka; Stockwell, Timothy B; Beeson, Karen; McIntosh, Tina C; Busam, Dana; Ferriera, Steve; Murphy, Sean; Levy, Samuel

    2008-01-01

    Background Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is used in directed sequencing for the discovery of novel polymorphisms. As the first step in PCR directed sequencing, effective PCR primer design is crucial for obtaining high-quality sequence data for target regions. Since current computational primer design tools are not fully tuned with stable underlying laboratory protocols, researchers may still be forced to iteratively optimize protocols for failed amplifications after the primers have been ordered. Furthermore, potentially identifiable factors which contribute to PCR failures have yet to be elucidated. This inefficient approach to primer design is further intensified in a high-throughput laboratory, where hundreds of genes may be targeted in one experiment. Results We have developed a fully integrated computational PCR primer design pipeline that plays a key role in our high-throughput directed sequencing pipeline. Investigators may specify target regions defined through a rich set of descriptors, such as Ensembl accessions and arbitrary genomic coordinates. Primer pairs are then selected computationally to produce a minimal amplicon set capable of tiling across the specified target regions. As part of the tiling process, primer pairs are computationally screened to meet the criteria for success with one of two PCR amplification protocols. In the process of improving our sequencing success rate, which currently exceeds 95% for exons, we have discovered novel and accurate computational methods capable of identifying primers that may lead to PCR failures. We reveal the laboratory protocols and their associated, empirically determined computational parameters, as well as describe the novel computational methods which may benefit others in future primer design research. Conclusion The high-throughput PCR primer design pipeline has been very successful in providing the basis for high-quality directed sequencing results and for minimizing costs associated with labor and

  12. Multi-primer target PCR for rapid identification of bovine DRB3 alleles.

    PubMed

    Ledwidge, S A; Mallard, B A; Gibson, J P; Jansen, G B; Jiang, Z H

    2001-08-01

    Multi-primer target polymerase chain reaction (MPT-PCR) is a rapid method for the identification of specific BoLA-DRB3 alleles. In a single PCR reaction, the presence of two alleles associated with increased risk, DRB3.2*23 (DRB3*2701-2703, 2705-2707) and decreased risk, DRB3.2*16 (DRB3*1501, 1502), of mastitis in Canadian Holstein can be detected. Two outer primers amplify exon 2 of DRB3. Simultaneously, two inner, allele-specific primers amplify individual alleles. Initially, 40 cows previously typed by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) were genotyped using the multi-primer approach. An additional 30 cows were first genotyped by multi-primer target PCR, then by PCR-RFLP. All animals were correctly identified and there were no false positives. This technique can readily be modified to identify other BoLA alleles of interest.

  13. A novel technique for detecting single nucleotide polymorphisms by analyzing consumed allele-specific primers.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, G; Umetsu, K; Yuasa, I; Sato, M; Sakabe, M; Naito, E; Yamanouchi, H; Suzuki, T

    2001-02-01

    We present a simple and rapid polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based technique, termed consumed allele-specific primer analysis (CASPA), as a new strategy for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis. The method involves the use of labeled allele-specific primers, differing in length, with several noncomplementary nucleotides added in the 5'-terminal region. After PCR amplification, the amounts of the remaining primers not incorporated into the PCR products are determined. Thus, nucleotide substitutions are identified by measuring the consumption of primers. In this study, the CASPA method was successfully applied to ABO genotyping. In the present method, the allele-specific primer only anneals with the target polymorphic site on the DNA, so it is not necessary to analyze the PCR products. Therefore, this method is only little affected by modification of the PCR products. The CASPA method is expected to be a useful tool for typing of SNPs.

  14. Identification of putative sequence specific PCR primers for detection of the toxigenic fungal species Stachybotrys chartarum.

    PubMed

    Haugland, R A; Heckman, J L

    1998-12-01

    The nucleotide sequence of a c 936 bp segment of the nuclear rRNA gene operon was determined for the toxigenic fungal species Stachybotrys chartarum and for other species of Stachybotrys and the related genus Memnoniella. This information was used to infer the phylogenetic relationships of these organisms and to search for sequence specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers for S. chartarum in the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions. Searches for candidate primers were performed both by computer using the commercially available Oligo(R) v5.0 primer analysis software package and by manual inspection of the aligned sequences. Primers identified in both types of searches were evaluated for their specificities using a priming efficiency analysis algorithm available in the Oligo(R) 5.0 software. The automated computer searches were unsuccessful in finding S. chartarum-specific primers but did identify a group-specific reverse primer (designated as StacR4) for a phylogenetically related cluster of species that included S. chartarum. Manual searches led to the identification of a reverse primer (designated as StacR3) that was predicted to be specific for only S. chartarum and one other species of Stachybotrys. Experimental PCR analyses using these primers in conjunction with a universal forward primer indicated that the computer-generated amplification efficiency predictions were correct in most instances. A notable exception was the finding that StacR3 was specific only for S. chartarum. The relative merits of different PCR strategies for the detection of S. chartarum employing either one or both of the primers identified in this study are discussed.

  15. A Review of the Proposed North County Center in Paso Robles--An Educational Center of the San Luis Obispo County Community College District. Commission Report 97-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Postsecondary Education Commission, Sacramento.

    This three-part report presents the recommendations of the California Postsecondary Education Commission on a proposal by the San Luis Obispo County Community College District (SLOCCCD) to create an educational center in the City of Paso Robles. Part 1 provides the Commission's conclusions and recommendations, indicating that, based on a needs…

  16. 40 CFR 63.3092 - How must I control emissions from my electrodeposition primer system if I want to comply with the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... electrodeposition primer system if I want to comply with the combined primer-surfacer, topcoat, final repair, glass bonding primer, and glass bonding adhesive emission limit? 63.3092 Section 63.3092 Protection of... combined primer-surfacer, topcoat, final repair, glass bonding primer, and glass bonding adhesive...

  17. 40 CFR 63.3092 - How must I control emissions from my electrodeposition primer system if I want to comply with the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... electrodeposition primer system if I want to comply with the combined primer-surfacer, topcoat, final repair, glass bonding primer, and glass bonding adhesive emission limit? 63.3092 Section 63.3092 Protection of... combined primer-surfacer, topcoat, final repair, glass bonding primer, and glass bonding adhesive...

  18. 40 CFR 63.3092 - How must I control emissions from my electrodeposition primer system if I want to comply with the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... electrodeposition primer system if I want to comply with the combined primer-surfacer, topcoat, final repair, glass bonding primer, and glass bonding adhesive emission limit? 63.3092 Section 63.3092 Protection of... combined primer-surfacer, topcoat, final repair, glass bonding primer, and glass bonding adhesive...

  19. KENO V.a Primer: A Primer for Criticality Calculations with SCALE/KENO V.a Using CSPAN for Input

    SciTech Connect

    Busch, R.D.

    2003-01-17

    The SCALE (Standardized Computer Analyses for Licensing Evaluation) computer software system developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is widely used and accepted around the world for criticality safety analyses. The well-known KENO V.a three-dimensional Monte Carlo criticality computer code is the primary criticality safety analysis tool in SCALE. The KENO V.a primer is designed to help a new user understand and use the SCALE/KENO V.a Monte Carlo code for nuclear criticality safety analyses. It assumes that the user has a college education in a technical field. There is no assumption of familiarity with Monte Carlo codes in general or with SCALE/KENO V.a in particular. The primer is designed to teach by example, with each example illustrating two or three features of SCALE/KENO V.a that are useful in criticality analyses. The primer is based on SCALE 4.4a, which includes the Criticality Safety Processor for Analysis (CSPAN) input processor for Windows personal computers (PCs). A second edition of the primer, which uses the new KENO Visual Editor, is currently under development at ORNL and is planned for publication in late 2003. Each example in this first edition of the primer uses CSPAN to provide the framework for data input. Starting with a Quickstart section, the primer gives an overview of the basic requirements for SCALE/KENO V.a input and allows the user to quickly run a simple criticality problem with SCALE/KENO V.a. The sections that follow Quickstart include a list of basic objectives at the beginning that identifies the goal of the section and the individual SCALE/KENO V.a features which are covered in detail in the example problems in that section. Upon completion of the primer, a new user should be comfortable using CSPAN to set up criticality problems in SCALE/KENO V.a.

  20. Demystifying Kepler Data: A Primer for Systematic Artifact Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinemuchi, K.; Barclay, T.; Fanelli, M.; Pepper, J.; Still, M.; Howell, B.

    2012-01-01

    The Kepler spacecraft has collected data of high photometric precision and cadence almost continuously since operations began on 2009 May 2. Primarily designed to detect planetary transits and asteroseismological signals from solar-like stars, Kepler has provided high quality data for many areas of investigation. Unconditioned simple aperture time-series photometry are however affected by systematic structure. Examples of these systematics are differential velocity aberration, thermal gradients across the spacecraft, and pointing variations. While exhibiting some impact on Kepler's primary science, these systematics can critically handicap potentially ground-breaking scientific gains in other astrophysical areas, especially over long timescales greater than 10 days. As the data archive grows to provide light curves for 10(exp 5) stars of many years in length, Kepler will only fulfill its broad potential for stellar astrophysics if these systematics are understood and mitigated. Post-launch developments in the Kepler archive, data reduction pipeline and open source data analysis software have occurred to remove or reduce systematic artifacts. This paper provides a conceptual primer for users of the Kepler data archive to understand and recognize systematic artifacts within light curves and some methods for their removal. Specific examples of artifact mitigation are provided using data available within the archive. Through the methods defined here, the Kepler community will find a road map to maximizing the quality and employment of the Kepler legacy archive.

  1. Maximum Likelihood, Profile Likelihood, and Penalized Likelihood: A Primer

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Stephen R.; Chu, Haitao; Greenland, Sander

    2014-01-01

    The method of maximum likelihood is widely used in epidemiology, yet many epidemiologists receive little or no education in the conceptual underpinnings of the approach. Here we provide a primer on maximum likelihood and some important extensions which have proven useful in epidemiologic research, and which reveal connections between maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods. For a given data set and probability model, maximum likelihood finds values of the model parameters that give the observed data the highest probability. As with all inferential statistical methods, maximum likelihood is based on an assumed model and cannot account for bias sources that are not controlled by the model or the study design. Maximum likelihood is nonetheless popular, because it is computationally straightforward and intuitive and because maximum likelihood estimators have desirable large-sample properties in the (largely fictitious) case in which the model has been correctly specified. Here, we work through an example to illustrate the mechanics of maximum likelihood estimation and indicate how improvements can be made easily with commercial software. We then describe recent extensions and generalizations which are better suited to observational health research and which should arguably replace standard maximum likelihood as the default method. PMID:24173548

  2. A Transparent Window into Biology: A Primer on Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Corsi, Ann K; Wightman, Bruce; Chalfie, Martin

    2015-06-01

    A little over 50 years ago, Sydney Brenner had the foresight to develop the nematode (round worm) Caenorhabditis elegans as a genetic model for understanding questions of developmental biology and neurobiology. Over time, research on C. elegans has expanded to explore a wealth of diverse areas in modern biology including studies of the basic functions and interactions of eukaryotic cells, host-parasite interactions, and evolution. C. elegans has also become an important organism in which to study processes that go awry in human diseases. This primer introduces the organism and the many features that make it an outstanding experimental system, including its small size, rapid life cycle, transparency, and well-annotated genome. We survey the basic anatomical features, common technical approaches, and important discoveries in C. elegans research. Key to studying C. elegans has been the ability to address biological problems genetically, using both forward and reverse genetics, both at the level of the entire organism and at the level of the single, identified cell. These possibilities make C. elegans useful not only in research laboratories, but also in the classroom where it can be used to excite students who actually can see what is happening inside live cells and tissues.

  3. Complement: A primer for the coming therapeutic revolution.

    PubMed

    Barnum, Scott R

    2017-04-01

    The complement system is an important part of the innate and adaptive immune systems. Originally characterized as a single serum component contributing to the killing of bacteria, we now know that there are close to sixty complement proteins, multiple activation pathways and a wide range of effector functions mediated by complement. The system plays a critical role in host defense against bacteria, viruses, fungi and other pathogens. However, inappropriate complement activation contributes to the pathophysiology of autoimmune diseases and many inflammatory syndromes. Over the last several decades, therapeutic approaches to inhibit complement activation at various steps in the pathways have met with initial success, particularly at the level of the terminal pathway. This success, combined with insight from animal model studies, has lead to an unprecedented effort by biotech and pharmaceutical companies to begin developing complement inhibitors. As a result, complement has been brought for the first time to the attention of pharmacologists, toxicologists, project managers and others in the drug development industry, as well as those in the investment world. The purpose of this primer is to provide a broad overview of complement immunobiology to help those new to complement understand the rationale behind the current therapeutic directions and the investment potential of these new therapeutics.

  4. A primer to frequent itemset mining for bioinformatics

    PubMed Central

    Naulaerts, Stefan; Meysman, Pieter; Bittremieux, Wout; Vu, Trung Nghia; Vanden Berghe, Wim; Goethals, Bart

    2015-01-01

    Over the past two decades, pattern mining techniques have become an integral part of many bioinformatics solutions. Frequent itemset mining is a popular group of pattern mining techniques designed to identify elements that frequently co-occur. An archetypical example is the identification of products that often end up together in the same shopping basket in supermarket transactions. A number of algorithms have been developed to address variations of this computationally non-trivial problem. Frequent itemset mining techniques are able to efficiently capture the characteristics of (complex) data and succinctly summarize it. Owing to these and other interesting properties, these techniques have proven their value in biological data analysis. Nevertheless, information about the bioinformatics applications of these techniques remains scattered. In this primer, we introduce frequent itemset mining and their derived association rules for life scientists. We give an overview of various algorithms, and illustrate how they can be used in several real-life bioinformatics application domains. We end with a discussion of the future potential and open challenges for frequent itemset mining in the life sciences. PMID:24162173

  5. A primer to frequent itemset mining for bioinformatics.

    PubMed

    Naulaerts, Stefan; Meysman, Pieter; Bittremieux, Wout; Vu, Trung Nghia; Vanden Berghe, Wim; Goethals, Bart; Laukens, Kris

    2015-03-01

    Over the past two decades, pattern mining techniques have become an integral part of many bioinformatics solutions. Frequent itemset mining is a popular group of pattern mining techniques designed to identify elements that frequently co-occur. An archetypical example is the identification of products that often end up together in the same shopping basket in supermarket transactions. A number of algorithms have been developed to address variations of this computationally non-trivial problem. Frequent itemset mining techniques are able to efficiently capture the characteristics of (complex) data and succinctly summarize it. Owing to these and other interesting properties, these techniques have proven their value in biological data analysis. Nevertheless, information about the bioinformatics applications of these techniques remains scattered. In this primer, we introduce frequent itemset mining and their derived association rules for life scientists. We give an overview of various algorithms, and illustrate how they can be used in several real-life bioinformatics application domains. We end with a discussion of the future potential and open challenges for frequent itemset mining in the life sciences.

  6. Review of Attachment, play, and authenticity: A Winnicott primer.

    PubMed

    Penn, Linda S

    2009-12-01

    Reviews the book, Attachment, play, and authenticity: A Winnicott primer by Steven Tuber (see record 2008-04633-000). In this book, Tuber does not attempt to offer a comprehensive review of Winnicott's work. Rather, he focuses on what he sees as Winnicott's most central concepts, offering close examination of a few articles that he feels best represent each of these concepts, and frames each with the noting of a central dilemma or paradox. Tuber describes the book as an attempt to teach through "playing" with Winnicott (play being central to Winnicott's ideas) and engaging the reader to join in the play. The book is based on a series of lectures from a course on Winnicott he has given to his clinical psychology doctoral students at the City University of New York. The reviewer noted that the author omitted some information that she considered to be important. However, she concludes that this book is a compelling read that captures what she sees as the essence of Winnicott's work, and as Winnicott would have loved, presents it without jargon or pretense in the simple terms that best elucidate Winnicott's view of the human experience. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. The corrosion mechanisms for primer coated 2219-T87 aluminum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danford, Merlin D.; Knockemus, Ward W.

    1987-01-01

    To investigate metal surface corrosion and the breakdown of metal protective coatings, the ac Impedance Method was applied to zinc chromate primer coated 2219-T87 aluminum. The EG&GPARC Model 368 ac Impedance Measurement System, along with dc measurements with the same system using the Polarization Resistance Method, was used to monitor changing properties of coated aluminum disks immersed in 3.5 percent NaCl solutions buffered at pH 5.5 and pH 8.2 over periods of 40 days each. The corrosion system can be represented by an electronic analog called an equivalent circuit consisting of resistors and capacitors in specific arrangements. This equivalent circuit parallels the impedance behavior of the corrosion system during a frequency scan. Values for resistances and capacitances, that can be assigned in the equivalent circuit following a least squares analysis of the data, describe changes occurring on the corroding metal surface and in the protective coatings. A suitable equivalent circuit has been determined which predicts the correct Bode phase and magnitude for the experimental sample. The dc corrosion current density data are related to equivalent circuit element parameters.

  8. A Transparent Window into Biology: A Primer on Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Corsi, Ann K.; Wightman, Bruce; Chalfie, Martin

    2015-01-01

    A little over 50 years ago, Sydney Brenner had the foresight to develop the nematode (round worm) Caenorhabditis elegans as a genetic model for understanding questions of developmental biology and neurobiology. Over time, research on C. elegans has expanded to explore a wealth of diverse areas in modern biology including studies of the basic functions and interactions of eukaryotic cells, host–parasite interactions, and evolution. C. elegans has also become an important organism in which to study processes that go awry in human diseases. This primer introduces the organism and the many features that make it an outstanding experimental system, including its small size, rapid life cycle, transparency, and well-annotated genome. We survey the basic anatomical features, common technical approaches, and important discoveries in C. elegans research. Key to studying C. elegans has been the ability to address biological problems genetically, using both forward and reverse genetics, both at the level of the entire organism and at the level of the single, identified cell. These possibilities make C. elegans useful not only in research laboratories, but also in the classroom where it can be used to excite students who actually can see what is happening inside live cells and tissues. PMID:26088431

  9. Primer of statistics in dental research: Part II.

    PubMed

    Shintani, Ayumi

    2014-04-01

    The Part I of Primer of Statistics in Dental Research covered five topics that are often mentioned in statistical check list of many peer-review journals including (1) statistical graph, (2) how to deal with outliers, (3) p-value and confidence interval, (4) testing equivalence, and (5) multiplicity Adjustment. The Part II of the series covers another set of important topics in dental statistics including (1) selecting the proper statistical tests, (2) repeated measures analysis, (3) epidemiological consideration for causal association, and (4) analysis of agreement. First, a guide in selecting the proper statistical tests based on the research question will be laid out in text and with a table so that researchers choose the univariable statistical test by answering five simple questions. Second, the importance of utilizing repeated measures analysis will be illustrated. This is a key component of data analysis as in many dental studies, observations are considered repeated in a single patient (several teeth are measured in a single patient). Third, concepts of confounding and the use of regression analysis are explained by going over a famous observational cohort study. Lastly, the use of proper agreement analysis vs. correlation for study of agreement will be discussed to avoid a common pitfall in dental research.

  10. A Transparent window into biology: A primer on Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed Central

    Corsi, Ann K; Wightman, Bruce; Chalfie, Martin

    2015-01-01

    A little over 50 years ago, Sydney Brenner had the foresight to develop the nematode (round worm) Caenorhabditis elegans as a genetic model for understanding questions of developmental biology and neurobiology. Over time, research on C. elegans has expanded to explore a wealth of diverse areas in modern biology including studies of the basic functions and interactions of eukaryotic cells, host-parasite interactions, and evolution. C. elegans has also become an important organism in which to study processes that go awry in human diseases. This primer introduces the organism and the many features that make it an outstanding experimental system, including its small size, rapid life cycle, transparency, and well-annotated genome. We survey the basic anatomical features, common technical approaches, and important discoveries in C. elegans research. Key to studying C. elegans has been the ability to address biological problems genetically, using both forward and reverse genetics, both at the level of the entire organism and at the level of the single, identified cell. These possibilities make C. elegans useful not only in research laboratories, but also in the classroom where it can be used to excite students who actually can see what is happening inside live cells and tissues. PMID:26087236

  11. Digital model for simulated effects of ground-water pumping in the Hueco Bolson, El Paso Area, Texas, New Mexico, and Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meyer, W.R.

    1976-01-01

    The model study showed that a proposed plan of development for 1973-91, in which pumping would be increased by 29 percent in the Texas part of the bolson and by 34 percent in Ciudad Juarez, would cause additional waterlevel declines of as much as 45 feet (13.7 m) in the vicinity of El Paso and 70 feet (21.3 m) in Ciudad Juarez. The study also showed that nearly 60 percent of the water would come from storage in the water-table part of the bolson aquifer (model layer 2) and 28 percent from leakage from the alluvium (model layer 1). By the end of the period, 9.84 million acrefeet (12,133 hm3) of fresh water would be in storage in the Texas part of the bolson, as compared to 10.6 million acre-feet (13,070 hm3) in storage in 1973.

  12. Application of a stream-aquifer model to Monument Creek for development of a method to estimate transit losses for reusable water, El Paso County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuhn, Gerhard; Arnold, L. Rick

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Colorado Springs Utilities, the Colorado Water Conservation Board, and the El Paso County Water Authority, began a study in 2004 to (1) apply a stream-aquifer model to Monument Creek, (2) use the results of the modeling to develop a transit-loss accounting program for Monument Creek, (3) revise the existing transit-loss accounting program for Fountain Creek to incorporate new water-management strategies and allow for incorporation of future changes in water-management strategies, and (4) integrate the two accounting programs into a single program with a Web-based user interface. The purpose of this report is to present the results of applying a stream-aquifer model to the Monument Creek study reach. More...

  13. Selected hydrologic data for the Mesilla ground-water basin, 1987 through 1992 water years, Dona Ana County, New Mexico, and El Paso County, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nickerson, Edward L.

    1995-01-01

    The Mesilla ground-water basin monitoring program was established in 1987 to document hydrologic conditions and establish a long-term, continuous data base to permit future quantitative evaluation of the ground-water flow system and stream/aquifer relations. Data collection is divided into three program elements. These are the (1) Mesilla ground- water basin observation-well program; (2) Mesilla Valley hydrologic sections; and (3) Rio Grande seepage investigations. This report is a compilation of hydrologic data collected for the Mesilla ground- water basin monitoring program during the 1987 through 1992 water years. Hydrologic data presented in the report include well records and water levels for 181 wells; mean daily river stage and ground- water levels at 37 sites; seepage investigations of the Rio Grande from Radium Springs, New Mexico, to El Paso, Texas; and chemical analyses of 29 water samples collected from the Rio Grande.

  14. Summary of water-quality data, October 1987 through September 1997, for Fountain and Monument Creeks, El Paso and Pueblo Counties, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bossong, Clifford R.

    2001-01-01

    Fountain and Monument Creeks, which drain parts of El Paso and Pueblo Counties in Colorado, have been sampled systematically by the U.S. Geological Survey for many years to obtain records of water-quality properties and constituents; the data are stored in the National Water Inventory System. Statistical summaries of these data indicate that they have spatial and temporal trends. Comparison of water-quality data to in-stream regulatory standards, some of which were calculated in this report, indicate that some exceedances are widespread in the system and that some occur locally. Nonparametric tests to quantitatively detect monotonic trends in water-quality data indicate that many water-quality properties and constituents do not have significant monotonic trends; detected trends were mostly downward.

  15. Fungal-specific PCR primers developed for analysis of the ITS region of environmental DNA extracts

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Kendall J; Rygiewicz, Paul T

    2005-01-01

    Background The Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) regions of fungal ribosomal DNA (rDNA) are highly variable sequences of great importance in distinguishing fungal species by PCR analysis. Previously published PCR primers available for amplifying these sequences from environmental samples provide varying degrees of success at discriminating against plant DNA while maintaining a broad range of compatibility. Typically, it has been necessary to use multiple primer sets to accommodate the range of fungi under study, potentially creating artificial distinctions for fungal sequences that amplify with more than one primer set. Results Numerous sequences for PCR primers were tested to develop PCR assays with a wide range of fungal compatibility and high discrimination from plant DNA. A nested set of 4 primers was developed that reflected these criteria and performed well amplifying ITS regions of fungal rDNA. Primers in the 5.8S sequence were also developed that would permit separate amplifications of ITS1 and ITS2. A range of basidiomycete fruiting bodies and ascomycete cultures were analyzed with the nested set of primers and Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) fingerprinting to demonstrate the specificity of the assay. Single ectomycorrhizal root tips were similarly analyzed. These primers have also been successfully applied to Quantitative PCR (QPCR), Length Heterogeneity PCR (LH-PCR) and Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) analyses of fungi. A set of wide-range plant-specific primers were developed at positions corresponding to one pair of the fungal primers. These were used to verify that the host plant DNA was not being amplified with the fungal primers. Conclusion These plant primers have been successfully applied to PCR-RFLP analyses of forest plant tissues from above- and below-ground samples and work well at distinguishing a selection of plants to the species level. The complete set of primers was developed with an emphasis on

  16. Development of acceptance criteria for batches of silane primer for external tank thermal protection system bonding applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikes, F.; Mowrey, C.; Reis, E.

    1985-01-01

    Results of lap shear tests of various silane primers are presented in graphs and tables. The OH-absorption of these primers (FTIR area values) are correlated with the lap shear tests of coated panels.

  17. In vitro short-term bonding performance of zirconia treated with hot acid etching and primer conditioning etching and primer conditioning.

    PubMed

    Xie, Haifeng; Chen, Chen; Dai, Wenyong; Chen, Gang; Zhang, Feimin

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate and compare the resin bond strengths of zirconia conditioned as follows: alumina sandblasting; alumina sandblasting+application of 10-MDP-containing primer; alumina sandblasting+application of Z-Prime Plus or Metal/Zirconia Primer (new zirconia primers); tribochemical silica coating+silanization; hot acid etching in three different combinations [H2SO4/(NH4)2SO4, HF/HNO3, H2SO4/HF/HNO3]+application of 10-MDP-containing primer. Shear bond strengths (SBS) after water storage for 24 h and 40 days were measured to assess resin bonding performance. Surface and chemical properties of conditioned zirconia surfaces and primers were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy. Surface roughness ranked in descending order was: hot acid etching > tribochemical silica coating > alumina sandblasting. Combination of tribochemical silica coating and silanization showed the highest initial SBS (12.46±2.13 MPa) (P<0.01). Etching with H2SO4/(NH4)2SO4 (13.15±3.24 MPa) and HF/HNO3 (13.48±2.15 MPa) showed significantly better bond durability (P<0.01). Hot acid etching seemed to be a promising surface roughening treatment to improve resin-zirconia bonding.

  18. Multiplex Degenerate Primer Design for Targeted Whole Genome Amplification of Many Viral Genomes

    DOE PAGES

    Gardner, Shea N.; Jaing, Crystal J.; Elsheikh, Maher M.; ...

    2014-01-01

    Background . Targeted enrichment improves coverage of highly mutable viruses at low concentration in complex samples. Degenerate primers that anneal to conserved regions can facilitate amplification of divergent, low concentration variants, even when the strain present is unknown. Results . A tool for designing multiplex sets of degenerate sequencing primers to tile overlapping amplicons across multiple whole genomes is described. The new script, run_tiled_primers, is part of the PriMux software. Primers were designed for each segment of South American hemorrhagic fever viruses, tick-borne encephalitis, Henipaviruses, Arenaviruses, Filoviruses, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, Rift Valley fever virus, and Japanese encephalitis virus.more » Each group is highly diverse with as little as 5% genome consensus. Primer sets were computationally checked for nontarget cross reactions against the NCBI nucleotide sequence database. Primers for murine hepatitis virus were demonstrated in the lab to specifically amplify selected genes from a laboratory cultured strain that had undergone extensive passage in vitro and in vivo. Conclusions . This software should help researchers design multiplex sets of primers for targeted whole genome enrichment prior to sequencing to obtain better coverage of low titer, divergent viruses. Applications include viral discovery from a complex background and improved sensitivity and coverage of rapidly evolving strains or variants in a gene family.« less

  19. MRPrimerV: a database of PCR primers for RNA virus detection

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyerin; Kang, NaNa; An, KyuHyeon; Kim, Doyun; Koo, JaeHyung; Kim, Min-Soo

    2017-01-01

    Many infectious diseases are caused by viral infections, and in particular by RNA viruses such as MERS, Ebola and Zika. To understand viral disease, detection and identification of these viruses are essential. Although PCR is widely used for rapid virus identification due to its low cost and high sensitivity and specificity, very few online database resources have compiled PCR primers for RNA viruses. To effectively detect viruses, the MRPrimerV database (http://MRPrimerV.com) contains 152 380 247 PCR primer pairs for detection of 1818 viruses, covering 7144 coding sequences (CDSs), representing 100% of the RNA viruses in the most up-to-date NCBI RefSeq database. Due to rigorous similarity testing against all human and viral sequences, every primer in MRPrimerV is highly target-specific. Because MRPrimerV ranks CDSs by the penalty scores of their best primer, users need only use the first primer pair for a single-phase PCR or the first two primer pairs for two-phase PCR. Moreover, MRPrimerV provides the list of genome neighbors that can be detected using each primer pair, covering 22 192 variants of 532 RefSeq RNA viruses. We believe that the public availability of MRPrimerV will facilitate viral metagenomics studies aimed at evaluating the variability of viruses, as well as other scientific tasks. PMID:27899620

  20. RNA Primer Extension Hinders DNA Synthesis by Escherichia coli Mutagenic DNA Polymerase IV

    PubMed Central

    Tashjian, Tommy F.; Lin, Ida; Belt, Verena; Cafarelli, Tiziana M.; Godoy, Veronica G.

    2017-01-01

    In Escherichia coli the highly conserved DNA damage regulated dinB gene encodes DNA Polymerase IV (DinB), an error prone specialized DNA polymerase with a central role in stress-induced mutagenesis. Since DinB is the DNA polymerase with the highest intracellular concentrations upon induction of the SOS response, further regulation must exist to maintain genomic stability. Remarkably, we find that DinB DNA synthesis is inherently poor when using an RNA primer compared to a DNA primer, while high fidelity DNA polymerases are known to have no primer preference. Moreover, we show that the poor DNA synthesis from an RNA primer is conserved in DNA polymerase Kappa, the human DinB homolog. The activity of DinB is modulated by interactions with several other proteins, one of which is the equally evolutionarily conserved recombinase RecA. This interaction is known to positively affect DinB’s fidelity on damaged templates. We find that upon interaction with RecA, DinB shows a significant reduction in DNA synthesis when using an RNA primer. Furthermore, with DinB or DinB:RecA a robust pause, sequence and lesion independent, occurs only when RNA is used as a primer. The robust pause is likely to result in abortive DNA synthesis when RNA is the primer. These data suggest a novel mechanism to prevent DinB synthesis when it is not needed despite its high concentrations, thus protecting genome stability. PMID:28298904

  1. Construction of Specific Primers for Rapid Detection of South African Exportable Vegetable Macergens

    PubMed Central

    Aremu, Bukola Rhoda; Babalola, Olubukola Oluranti

    2015-01-01

    Macergens are bacteria causing great damages to the parenchymatous tissues of vegetable both on the field and in transit. To effectively and rapidly investigate the diversity and distribution of these macergens, four specific primers were designed by retrieving 16S rDNA sequences of pectolytic bacteria from GenBank through the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). These were aligned using ClusterW via BioEdit and primers were designed using Primer3Plus platform. The size and primer location of each species and PCR product size were accurately defined. For specificity enhancement, DNA template of known macergens (Pectobacterium chrysanthermi) and fresh healthy vegetable were used. These primers yielded expected size of approximately 1100 bp product only when tested with known macergens and no amplicon with fresh healthy vegetable was detected. Rapid detection of macergens in rotten vegetable samples was then carried out using these primers. Nucleotide sequences of macergens identified were deposited into the GenBank and were assigned accession numbers. Hence, with these specific primers, macergens can be identified with minimal quantities of the vegetable tissues using molecular techniques, for future use of the quarantine section of the Agricultural Department of the country for quick and rapid detection of macergens before exportation. PMID:26437427

  2. Universal Primers for Detection and Sequencing of Hepatitis B Virus Genomes across Genotypes A to G.

    PubMed

    Chook, Jack Bee; Teo, Woon Li; Ngeow, Yun Fong; Tee, Kok Keng; Ng, Kee Peng; Mohamed, Rosmawati

    2015-06-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) has been divided into 10 genotypes, A to J, based on an 8% nucleotide sequence divergence between genotypes. The conventional practice of using a single set of primers to amplify a near-complete HBV genome is hampered by its low analytical sensitivity. The current practice of using overlapping conserved primer sets to amplify a complete HBV genome in a clinical sample is limited by the lack of pan-primers to detect all HBV genotypes. In this study, we designed six highly conserved, overlapping primer sets to cover the complete HBV genome. We based our design on the sequences of 5,154 HBV genomes of genotypes A to I downloaded from the GenBank nucleotide database. These primer sets were tested on 126 plasma samples from Malaysia, containing genotypes A to D and with viral loads ranging from 20 to >79,780,000 IU/ml. The overall success rates for PCR amplification and sequencing were >96% and >94%, respectively. Similarly, there was 100% amplification and sequencing success when the primer sets were tested on an HBV reference panel of genotypes A to G. Thus, we have established primer sets that gave a high analytical sensitivity for PCR-based detection of HBV and a high rate of sequencing success for HBV genomes in most of the viral genotypes, if not all, without prior known sequence data for the particular genotype/genome.

  3. Indexed PCR Primers Induce Template-Specific Bias in Large-Scale DNA Sequencing Studies.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, James L; Kelly, Ryan P; Lowell, Natalie C; Port, Jesse A

    2016-01-01

    Massively parallel sequencing is rapidly emerging as an efficient way to quantify biodiversity at all levels, from genetic variation and expression to ecological community assemblage. However, the number of reads produced per sequencing run far exceeds the number required per sample for many applications, compelling researchers to sequence multiple samples per run in order to maximize efficiency. For studies that include a PCR step, this can be accomplished using primers that include an index sequence allowing sample origin to be determined after sequencing. The use of indexed primers assumes they behave no differently than standard primers; however, we found that indexed primers cause substantial template sequence-specific bias, resulting in radically different profiles of the same environmental sample. Likely the outcome of differential amplification efficiency due to primer-template mismatch, two indexed primer sets spuriously change the inferred sequence abundance from the same DNA extraction by up to 77.1%. We demonstrate that a double PCR approach alleviates these effects in applications where indexed primers are necessary.

  4. Human DNA polymerase α in binary complex with a DNA:DNA template-primer.

    PubMed

    Coloma, Javier; Johnson, Robert E; Prakash, Louise; Prakash, Satya; Aggarwal, Aneel K

    2016-04-01

    The Polα/primase complex assembles the short RNA-DNA fragments for priming of lagging and leading strand DNA replication in eukaryotes. As such, the Polα polymerase subunit encounters two types of substrates during primer synthesis: an RNA:DNA helix and a DNA:DNA helix. The engagement of the polymerase subunit with the DNA:DNA helix has been suggested as the of basis for primer termination in eukaryotes. However, there is no structural information on how the Polα polymerase subunit actually engages with a DNA:DNA helix during primer synthesis. We present here the first crystal structure of human Polα polymerase subunit in complex with a DNA:DNA helix. Unexpectedly, we find that portion of the DNA:DNA helix in contact with the polymerase is not in a B-form but in a hybrid A-B form. Almost all of the contacts observed previously with an RNA primer are preserved with a DNA primer--with the same set of polymerase residues tracking the sugar-phosphate backbone of the DNA or RNA primer. Thus, rather than loss of specific contacts, the free energy cost of distorting DNA from B- to hybrid A-B form may augur the termination of primer synthesis in eukaryotes.

  5. Guidelines for the tetra-primer ARMS-PCR technique development.

    PubMed

    Medrano, Ruan Felipe Vieira; de Oliveira, Camila Andréa

    2014-07-01

    The tetra-primer amplification refractory mutation system-polymerase chain (ARMS-PCR) reaction is a simple and economical method to genotype single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). It uses four primers in a single PCR and is followed just by gel electrophoresis. However, the optimization step can be very hardworking and time-consuming. Hence, we propose to demonstrate and discuss critical steps for its development, in a way to provide useful information. Two SNPs that provided different amplification conditions were selected. DNA extraction methods, annealing temperatures, PCR cycles protocols, reagents, and primers concentration were also analyzed. The use of tetra-primer ARMS-PCR could be impaired for SNPs in DNA regions rich in cytosine and guanine and for samples with DNA not purified. The melting temperature was considered the factor of greater interference. However, small changes in the reagents concentration significantly affect the PCR, especially MgCl2. Balancing the inner primers band is also a key step. So, in order to balance the inner primers band, intensity is important to observe which one has the weakest band and promote its band by increasing its concentration. The use of tetra-primer ARMS-PCR attends the expectations of modern genomic research and allows the study of SNPs in a fast, reliable, and low-cost way.

  6. Primer effect in the detection of mitochondrial DNA point heteroplasmy by automated sequencing.

    PubMed

    Calatayud, Marta; Ramos, Amanda; Santos, Cristina; Aluja, Maria Pilar

    2013-06-01

    The correct detection of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) heteroplasmy by automated sequencing presents methodological constraints. The main goals of this study are to investigate the effect of sense and distance of primers in heteroplasmy detection and to test if there are differences in the accurate determination of heteroplasmy involving transitions or transversions. A gradient of the heteroplasmy levels was generated for mtDNA positions 9477 (transition G/A) and 15,452 (transversion C/A). Amplification and subsequent sequencing with forward and reverse primers, situated at 550 and 150 bp from the heteroplasmic positions, were performed. Our data provide evidence that there is a significant difference between the use of forward and reverse primers. The forward primer is the primer that seems to give a better approximation to the real proportion of the variants. No significant differences were found concerning the distance at which the sequencing primers were placed neither between the analysis of transitions and transversions. The data collected in this study are a starting point that allows to glimpse the importance of the sequencing primers in the accurate detection of point heteroplasmy, providing additional insight into the overall automated sequencing strategy.

  7. RNA Primer Extension Hinders DNA Synthesis by Escherichia coli Mutagenic DNA Polymerase IV.

    PubMed

    Tashjian, Tommy F; Lin, Ida; Belt, Verena; Cafarelli, Tiziana M; Godoy, Veronica G

    2017-01-01

    In Escherichia coli the highly conserved DNA damage regulated dinB gene encodes DNA Polymerase IV (DinB), an error prone specialized DNA polymerase with a central role in stress-induced mutagenesis. Since DinB is the DNA polymerase with the highest intracellular concentrations upon induction of the SOS response, further regulation must exist to maintain genomic stability. Remarkably, we find that DinB DNA synthesis is inherently poor when using an RNA primer compared to a DNA primer, while high fidelity DNA polymerases are known to have no primer preference. Moreover, we show that the poor DNA synthesis from an RNA primer is conserved in DNA polymerase Kappa, the human DinB homolog. The activity of DinB is modulated by interactions with several other proteins, one of which is the equally evolutionarily conserved recombinase RecA. This interaction is known to positively affect DinB's fidelity on damaged templates. We find that upon interaction with RecA, DinB shows a significant reduction in DNA synthesis when using an RNA primer. Furthermore, with DinB or DinB:RecA a robust pause, sequence and lesion independent, occurs only when RNA is used as a primer. The robust pause is likely to result in abortive DNA synthesis when RNA is the primer. These data suggest a novel mechanism to prevent DinB synthesis when it is not needed despite its high concentrations, thus protecting genome stability.

  8. Shop primer as part of the corrosion protective coating for submerged steel structures

    SciTech Connect

    Bjordal, M.; Steinsmo, U.

    1998-12-31

    In Norwegian workshops the standard pre-treatment procedures for steel structures intended for sub-sea use, normally include removal of shop primer by blast cleaning to Sa 2 1/2 before application of corrosion protective coatings. This is also stated in the Norwegian offshore standard NORSOK. Omitting this stage in fabrication will represent large reductions in both time consumption and costs, and reduce the volume of waste from the blast cleaning. This report presents results from investigations of how a shop primer will influence on the coating properties. The aim of the investigation was to test whether the systems are good enough if the shop primer is left on the surface. Two different zinc silicate shop primers have been included in the investigation. As protective coatings the authors have used three different epoxy mastic systems with Al pigments. In addition to panels with original shop primer, they have also tested shop primed panels pre-treated in various ways, such as heated, corroded and blast cleaned to various degrees before coating. The coatings have been tested in the ASTM-G8 121 test and in a long term test in sea water polarized with a Zn anode. They have found that coatings including the zinc silicate shop primer are more susceptible to cathodic disbonding than the coating applied directly on blast cleaned steel. It is however possible to meet the NORSOK criteria with a zinc silicate shop primer as first coat.

  9. Noncontinuously binding loop-out primers for avoiding problematic DNA sequences in PCR and sanger sequencing.

    PubMed

    Sumner, Kelli; Swensen, Jeffrey J; Procter, Melinda; Jama, Mohamed; Wooderchak-Donahue, Whitney; Lewis, Tracey; Fong, Michael; Hubley, Lindsey; Schwarz, Monica; Ha, Youna; Paul, Eleri; Brulotte, Benjamin; Lyon, Elaine; Bayrak-Toydemir, Pinar; Mao, Rong; Pont-Kingdon, Genevieve; Best, D Hunter

    2014-09-01

    We present a method in which noncontinuously binding (loop-out) primers are used to exclude regions of DNA that typically interfere with PCR amplification and/or analysis by Sanger sequencing. Several scenarios were tested using this design principle, including M13-tagged PCR primers, non-M13-tagged PCR primers, and sequencing primers. With this technique, a single oligonucleotide is designed in two segments that flank, but do not include, a short region of problematic DNA sequence. During PCR amplification or sequencing, the problematic region is looped-out from the primer binding site, where it does not interfere with the reaction. Using this method, we successfully excluded regions of up to 46 nucleotides. Loop-out primers were longer than traditional primers (27 to 40 nucleotides) and had higher melting temperatures. This method allows the use of a standardized PCR protocol throughout an assay, keeps the number of PCRs to a minimum, reduces the chance for laboratory error, and, above all, does not interrupt the clinical laboratory workflow.

  10. Comprehensive Primer Design for Analysis of Population Genetics in Non-Sequenced Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Tezuka, Ayumi; Matsushima, Noe; Nemoto, Yoriko; Akashi, Hiroshi D.; Kawata, Masakado; Makino, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear sequence markers are useful tool for the study of the history of populations and adaptation. However, it is not easy to obtain multiple nuclear primers for organisms with poor or no genomic sequence information. Here we used the genomes of organisms that have been fully sequenced to design comprehensive sets of primers to amplify polymorphic genomic fragments of multiple nuclear genes in non-sequenced organisms. First, we identified a large number of candidate polymorphic regions that were flanked on each side by conserved regions in the reference genomes. We then designed primers based on these conserved sequences and examined whether the primers could be used to amplify sequences in target species, montane brown frog (Rana ornativentris), anole lizard (Anolis sagrei), guppy (Poecilia reticulata), and fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster), for population genetic analysis. We successfully obtained polymorphic markers for all target species studied. In addition, we found that sequence identities of the regions between the primer sites in the reference genomes affected the experimental success of DNA amplification and identification of polymorphic loci in the target genomes, and that exonic primers had a higher success rate than intronic primers in amplifying readable sequences. We conclude that this comparative genomic approach is a time- and cost-effective way to obtain polymorphic markers for non-sequenced organisms, and that it will contribute to the further development of evolutionary ecology and population genetics for non-sequenced organisms, aiding in the understanding of the genetic basis of adaptation. PMID:22393396

  11. PCR Primers for Metazoan Nuclear 18S and 28S Ribosomal DNA Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Machida, Ryuji J.; Knowlton, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Background Metagenetic analyses, which amplify and sequence target marker DNA regions from environmental samples, are increasingly employed to assess the biodiversity of communities of small organisms. Using this approach, our understanding of microbial diversity has expanded greatly. In contrast, only a few studies using this approach to characterize metazoan diversity have been reported, despite the fact that many metazoan species are small and difficult to identify or are undescribed. One of the reasons for this discrepancy is the availability of universal primers for the target taxa. In microbial studies, analysis of the 16S ribosomal DNA is standard. In contrast, the best gene for metazoan metagenetics is less clear. In the present study, we have designed primers that amplify the nuclear 18S and 28S ribosomal DNA sequences of most metazoan species with the goal of providing effective approaches for metagenetic analyses of metazoan diversity in environmental samples, with a particular emphasis on marine biodiversity. Methodology/Principal Findings Conserved regions suitable for designing PCR primers were identified using 14,503 and 1,072 metazoan sequences of the nuclear 18S and 28S rDNA regions, respectively. The sequence similarity of both these newly designed and the previously reported primers to the target regions of these primers were compared for each phylum to determine the expected amplification efficacy. The nucleotide diversity of the flanking regions of the primers was also estimated for genera or higher taxonomic groups of 11 phyla to determine the variable regions within the genes. Conclusions/Significance The identified nuclear ribosomal DNA primers (five primer pairs for 18S and eleven for 28S) and the results of the nucleotide diversity analyses provide options for primer combinations for metazoan metagenetic analyses. Additionally, advantages and disadvantages of not only the 18S and 28S ribosomal DNA, but also other marker regions as targets

  12. An Investigation to Improve Quality Evaluations of Primers and Propellant for 20mm Munitions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, L. J.; Holmes, C.; McGrory, J.; Schimmel, M. L.

    1997-01-01

    To reduce the frequency of electrically initiated, 20mm munition hangfires (delayed ignitions), a joint Army/NASA investigation was conducted to recommend quality evaluation improvements for acceptance of both primers and gun propellant. This effort focused only on evaluating ignition and combustion performance as potential causes of hangfires: poor electrical initiation of the primer, low output performance of the primer, low ignition sensitivity of the gun propellant, and the effects of cold temperature. The goal was to determine the "best" of the Army and NASA test methods to assess the functional performance of primers and gun propellants. The approach was to evaluate the performance of both high-quality and deliberately defective primers to challenge the sensitivity of test methods. In addition, the ignition sensitivity of different manufacturing batches of gun propellants was evaluated. The results of the investigation revealed that improvements can be made in functional evaluations that can assist in identifying and reducing ignition and performance variations. The "best" functional evaluation of primers and propellant is achieved through a combination of both Army and NASA test methods. Incorporating the recommendations offered in this report may provide for considerable savings in reducing the number of cartridge firings, while significantly lowering the rejection rate of primer, propellant and cartridge lots. The most probable causes for ignition and combustion-related hangfires were the lack of calcium silicide in the primer mix, a low output performance of primers, and finally, poor ignition sensitivity of gun propellant. Cold temperatures further reduce propellant ignition sensitivity, as well as reducing burn rate and chamber pressures.

  13. Design and evaluation of primers targeting genes encoding NO-forming nitrite reductases: implications for ecological inference of denitrifying communities

    PubMed Central

    Bonilla-Rosso, Germán; Wittorf, Lea; Jones, Christopher M.; Hallin, Sara

    2016-01-01

    The detection of NO-forming nitrite reductase genes (nir) has become the standard when studying denitrifying communities in the environment, despite well-known amplification biases in available primers. We review the performance of 35 published and 121 newly designed primers targeting the nirS and nirK genes, against sequences from complete genomes and 47 metagenomes from three major habitats where denitrification is important. There were no optimal universal primer pairs for either gene, although published primers targeting nirS displayed up to 75% coverage. The alternative is clade-specific primers, which show a trade-off between coverage and specificity. The test against metagenomic datasets showed a distinct performance of primers across habitats. The implications of clade-specific nir primers choice and their performance for ecological inference when used for quantitative estimates and in sequenced-based community ecology studies are discussed and our phylogenomic primer evaluation can be used as a reference along with their environmental specificity as a guide for primer selection. Based on our results, we also propose a general framework for primer evaluation that emphasizes the testing of coverage and phylogenetic range using full-length sequences from complete genomes, as well as accounting for environmental range using metagenomes. This framework serves as a guideline to simplify primer performance comparisons while explicitly addressing the limitations and biases of the primers evaluated. PMID:27966627

  14. Computational intelligence-based polymerase chain reaction primer selection based on a novel teaching-learning-based optimisation.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yu-Huei

    2014-12-01

    Specific primers play an important role in polymerase chain reaction (PCR) experiments, and therefore it is essential to find specific primers of outstanding quality. Unfortunately, many PCR constraints must be simultaneously inspected which makes specific primer selection difficult and time-consuming. This paper introduces a novel computational intelligence-based method, Teaching-Learning-Based Optimisation, to select the specific and feasible primers. The specified PCR product lengths of 150-300 bp and 500-800 bp with three melting temperature formulae of Wallace's formula, Bolton and McCarthy's formula and SantaLucia's formula were performed. The authors calculate optimal frequency to estimate the quality of primer selection based on a total of 500 runs for 50 random nucleotide sequences of 'Homo species' retrieved from the National Center for Biotechnology Information. The method was then fairly compared with the genetic algorithm (GA) and memetic algorithm (MA) for primer selection in the literature. The results show that the method easily found suitable primers corresponding with the setting primer constraints and had preferable performance than the GA and the MA. Furthermore, the method was also compared with the common method Primer3 according to their method type, primers presentation, parameters setting, speed and memory usage. In conclusion, it is an interesting primer selection method and a valuable tool for automatic high-throughput analysis. In the future, the usage of the primers in the wet lab needs to be validated carefully to increase the reliability of the method.

  15. Estimation of teaching-learning-based optimization primer design using regression analysis for different melting temperature calculations.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yu-Huei

    2015-01-01

    Primers plays important role in polymerase chain reaction (PCR) experiments, thus it is necessary to select characteristic primers. Unfortunately, manual primer design manners are time-consuming and easy to get human negligence because many PCR constraints must be considered simultaneously. Automatic programs for primer design were developed urgently. In this study, the teaching-learning-based optimization (TLBO), a robust and free of algorithm-specific parameters method, is applied to screen primers conformed primer constraints. The optimal primer frequency (OPF) based on three known melting temperature formulas is estimated by 500 runs for primer design in each different number of generations. We selected optimal primers from fifty random nucleotide sequences of Homo sapiens at NCBI. The results indicate that the SantaLucia's formula is better coupled with the method to get higher optimal primer frequency and shorter CPU-time than the Wallace's formula and the Bolton and McCarthy's formula. Through the regression analysis, we also find the generations are significantly associated with the optimal primer frequency. The results are helpful for developing the novel TLBO-based computational method to design feasible primers.

  16. Magnetic Helicity and Large Scale Magnetic Fields: A Primer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackman, Eric G.

    2015-05-01

    Magnetic fields of laboratory, planetary, stellar, and galactic plasmas commonly exhibit significant order on large temporal or spatial scales compared to the otherwise random motions within the hosting system. Such ordered fields can be measured in the case of planets, stars, and galaxies, or inferred indirectly by the action of their dynamical influence, such as jets. Whether large scale fields are amplified in situ or a remnant from previous stages of an object's history is often debated for objects without a definitive magnetic activity cycle. Magnetic helicity, a measure of twist and linkage of magnetic field lines, is a unifying tool for understanding large scale field evolution for both mechanisms of origin. Its importance stems from its two basic properties: (1) magnetic helicity is typically better conserved than magnetic energy; and (2) the magnetic energy associated with a fixed amount of magnetic helicity is minimized when the system relaxes this helical structure to the largest scale available. Here I discuss how magnetic helicity has come to help us understand the saturation of and sustenance of large scale dynamos, the need for either local or global helicity fluxes to avoid dynamo quenching, and the associated observational consequences. I also discuss how magnetic helicity acts as a hindrance to turbulent diffusion of large scale fields, and thus a helper for fossil remnant large scale field origin models in some contexts. I briefly discuss the connection between large scale fields and accretion disk theory as well. The goal here is to provide a conceptual primer to help the reader efficiently penetrate the literature.

  17. Binary electrokinetic separation of target DNA from background DNA primers.

    SciTech Connect

    James, Conrad D.; Derzon, Mark Steven

    2005-10-01

    This report contains the summary of LDRD project 91312, titled ''Binary Electrokinetic Separation of Target DNA from Background DNA Primers''. This work is the first product of a collaboration with Columbia University and the Northeast BioDefense Center of Excellence. In conjunction with Ian Lipkin's lab, we are developing a technique to reduce false positive events, due to the detection of unhybridized reporter molecules, in a sensitive and multiplexed detection scheme for nucleic acids developed by the Lipkin lab. This is the most significant problem in the operation of their capability. As they are developing the tools for rapidly detecting the entire panel of hemorrhagic fevers this technology will immediately serve an important national need. The goal of this work was to attempt to separate nucleic acid from a preprocessed sample. We demonstrated the preconcentration of kilobase-pair length double-stranded DNA targets, and observed little preconcentration of 60 base-pair length single-stranded DNA probes. These objectives were accomplished in microdevice formats that are compatible with larger detection systems for sample pre-processing. Combined with Columbia's expertise, this technology would enable a unique, fast, and potentially compact method for detecting/identifying genetically-modified organisms and multiplexed rapid nucleic acid identification. Another competing approach is the DARPA funded IRIS Pharmaceutical TIGER platform which requires many hours for operation, and an 800k$ piece of equipment that fills a room. The Columbia/SNL system could provide a result in 30 minutes, at the cost of a few thousand dollars for the platform, and would be the size of a shoebox or smaller.

  18. A primer on trace metal-sediment chemistry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horowitz, Arthur J.

    1985-01-01

    In most aquatic systems, concentrations of trace metals in suspended sediment and the top few centimeters of bottom sediment are far greater than concentrations of trace metals dissolved in the water column. Consequently, the distribution, transport, and availability of these constituents can not be intelligently evaluated, nor can their environmental impact be determined or predicted solely through the sampling and analysis of dissolved phases. This Primer is designed to acquaint the reader with the basic principles that govern the concentration and distribution of trace metals associated with bottom and suspended sediments. The sampling and analysis of suspended and bottom sediments are very important for monitoring studies, not only because trace metal concentrations associated with them are orders of magnitude higher than in the dissolved phase, but also because of several other factors. Riverine transport of trace metals is dominated by sediment. In addition, bottom sediments serve as a source for suspended sediment and can provide a historical record of chemical conditions. This record will help establish area baseline metal levels against which existing conditions can be compared. Many physical and chemical factors affect a sediment's capacity to collect and concentrate trace metals. The physical factors include grain size, surface area, surface charge, cation exchange capacity, composition, and so forth. Increases in metal concentrations are strongly correlated with decreasing grain size and increasing surface area, surface charge, cation exchange capacity, and increasing concentrations of iron and manganese oxides, organic matter, and clay minerals. Chemical factors are equally important, especially for differentiating between samples having similar bulk chemistries and for inferring or predicting environmental availability. Chemical factors entail phase associations (with such sedimentary components as interstitial water, sulfides, carbonates, and organic

  19. A primer on incentive regulation for electric utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, L.J.

    1995-10-01

    In contemplating a regulatory approach, the challenge for regulators is to develop a model that provides incentives for utilities to engage in socially desirable behavior. In this primer, we provide guidance on this process by discussing (1) various models of economic regulation, (2) problems implementing these models, and (3) the types of incentives that various models of regulation provide electric utilities. We address five regulatory models in depth. They include cost-of-service regulation in which prudently incurred costs are reflected dollar-for-dollar in rates and four performance-based models: (1) price-cap regulation, in which ceilings are placed on the average price that a utility can charge its customers; (2) revenue-cap regulation, in which a ceiling is placed on revenues; (3) rate-of-return bandwidth regulation, in which a utility`s rates are adjusted if earnings fall outside a {open_quotes}band{close_quotes} around equity returns; and (4) targeted incentives, in which a utility is given incentives to improve specific components of its operations. The primary difference between cost-of-service and performance-based approaches is the latter sever the tie between costs and prices. A sixth, {open_quotes}mixed approach{close_quotes} combines two or more of the five basic ones. In the recent past, a common mixed approach has been to combine targeted incentives with cost-of-service regulation. A common example is utilities that are subject to cost-of-service regulation are given added incentives to increase the efficiency of troubled electric-generating units.

  20. Primers for phylogeny reconstruction in Bignonieae (Bignoniaceae) using herbarium samples1

    PubMed Central

    Zuntini, Alexandre R.; Fonseca, Luiz Henrique M.; Lohmann, Lúcia G.

    2013-01-01

    • Premise of the study: New primers were developed for Bignonieae to enable phylogenetic studies within this clade using herbarium samples. • Methods and Results: Internal primers were designed based on available sequences of the plastid ndhF gene and the rpl32-trnL intergenic spacer region, and the nuclear gene PepC. The resulting primers were used to amplify DNA extracted from herbarium materials. High-quality data were obtained from herbarium samples up to 53 yr old. • Conclusions: The standardized methodology allows the inclusion of herbarium materials as alternative sources of DNA for phylogenetic studies in Bignonieae. PMID:25202586

  1. PCR primers for 30 novel gene regions in the nuclear genomes of Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Wahlberg, Niklas; Peña, Carlos; Ahola, Milla; Wheat, Christopher W; Rota, Jadranka

    2016-01-01

    We report primer pairs for 30 new gene regions in the nuclear genomes of Lepidoptera that can be amplified using a standard PCR protocol. The new primers were tested across diverse Lepidoptera, including nonditrysians and a wide selection of ditrysians. These new gene regions give a total of 11,043 bp of DNA sequence data and they show similar variability to traditionally used nuclear gene regions in studies of Lepidoptera. We feel that a PCR-based approach still has its place in molecular systematic studies of Lepidoptera, particularly at the intrafamilial level, and our new set of primers now provides a route to generating phylogenomic datasets using traditional methods.

  2. Improved COI barcoding primers for Southeast Asian perching birds (Aves: Passeriformes).

    PubMed

    Lohman, David J; Prawiradilaga, Dewi M; Meier, Rudolf

    2009-01-01

    The All Birds Barcoding Initiative aims to assemble a DNA barcode database for all bird species, but the 648-bp 'barcoding' region of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) can be difficult to amplify in Southeast Asian perching birds (Aves: Passeriformes). Using COI sequences from complete mitochondrial genomes, we designed a primer pair that more reliably amplifies and sequences the COI barcoding region of Southeast Asian passerine birds. The 655-bp region amplified with these primers overlaps the COI region amplified with other barcoding primer pairs, enabling direct comparison of sequences with previously published DNA barcodes.

  3. Microsatellite primers in the lichen symbiotic alga Trebouxia decolorans (Trebouxiophyceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Dal Grande, Francesco; Beck, Andreas; Singh, Garima; Schmitt, Imke

    2013-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed for the symbiotic green alga Trebouxia decolorans to study fine-scale population structure and clonal diversity. • Methods and Results: Using Illumina pyrosequencing, 20 microsatellite primer sets were developed for T. decolorans. The primer sets were tested on 43 individuals sampled from four subpopulations in Germany. The primers amplified di-, tri-, and tetranucleotide repeats with three to 15 alleles per locus, and the unbiased haploid diversity per locus ranged from 0.636 to 0.821. • Conclusions: The identified microsatellite markers will be useful to study the genetic diversity, dispersal, and reproductive mode of this common lichen photobiont. PMID:25202529

  4. A Primer on Electric Utilities, Deregulation, and Restructuring of U.S. Electricity Markets

    SciTech Connect

    Warwick, William M.

    2002-06-03

    This primer is offered as an introduction to utility restructuring to better prepare readers for ongoing changes in public utilities and associated energy markets. It is written for use by individuals with responsibility for the management of facilities that use energy, including energy managers, procurement staff, and managers with responsibility for facility operations and budgets. The primer was prepared by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory under sponsorship from the U.S. Department of Energy?s Federal Energy Management Program. The impetus for this primer originally came from the Government Services Administration who supported its initial development.

  5. Chrome-Free Paint Primer for Zn/Ni Plated High-Strength Steel (Briefing Charts)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-19

    Chrome-Free Paint Primer for Zn/Ni Plated High- Strength Steel 11-19-14 Presentation at ASETSDefense 2014 George Zafiris Team: Mark Jaworowski, Mike...AND SUBTITLE Chrome-Free Paint Primer for Zn/Ni Plated High-Strength Steel 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...by ANSI Std Z39-18 Background High-Strength Steel (Substrate) LHE Cd layer Cr(VI) Primer CCC High-Strength Steel (Substrate) LHE Zn/Ni layer

  6. Express primer tool for high-throughput gene cloning and expression.

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, J. R.; Laible, P. D.; Gu, M.; Scott, H. N.; Collart, F. R.; Biosciences Division

    2002-12-01

    High-throughput approaches for gene cloning and expression require the development of new nonstandard tools for molecular biologists and biochemists. We introduce a Web-based tool to design primers specifically for the generation of expression clones for both laboratory-scale and high-throughput projects. The application is designed not only to allow the user complete flexibility to specify primer design parameters but also to minimize the amount of manual intervention needed to generate a large number of primers for the simultaneous amplification of multiple target genes.

  7. Use of tannin anticorrosive reaction primer to improve traditional coating systems

    SciTech Connect

    Matamala, G.; Droguett, G. ); Smeltzer, W. . Inst. for Materials Research)

    1994-04-01

    Different anticorrosive schemes applied over plain or previously shot-blasted surfaces of AISI 1010 (UNS G10100) steel plates were compared. Plates were painted with alkydic, vinylic, and epoxy anticorrosive schemes over metal treated previously with pine tannin reaction primer and over its own schemes without previous primer treatment. Anticorrosive tests were conducted in a salt fog chamber according to ASTM B 117-73. Rusting, blistering, and adhesion were assessed over time. The survey was complemented with potentiodynamic scanning tests in sodium chloride (NaCl) solution with a concentration equivalent to seawater. Corrosion currents were determined using Tafel and polarization resistance techniques. Results showed the reaction primer inhibited corrosion by improving adherence. Advantages over traditional conversion primers formulated in a base of zinc chromate in phosphoric medium were evident.

  8. Abridged adapter primers increase the target scope of Hi-Plex.

    PubMed

    Nguyen-Dumont, Tú; Hammet, Fleur; Mahmoodi, Maryam; Pope, Bernard J; Giles, Graham G; Hopper, John L; Southey, Melissa C; Park, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    Previously, we reported Hi-Plex, an amplicon-based method for targeted massively parallel sequencing capable of generating 60 amplicons simultaneously. In further experiments, however, we found our approach did not scale to higher amplicon numbers. Here, we report a modification to the original Hi-Plex protocol that includes the use of abridged adapter oligonucleotides as universal primers (bridge primers) in the initial PCR mixture. Full-length adapter primers (indexing primers) are included only during latter stages of thermal cycling with concomitant application of elevated annealing temperatures. Using this approach, we demonstrate the application of Hi-Plex across a broad range of amplicon numbers (16-plex, 62-plex, 250-plex, and 1003-plex) while preserving the low amount (25 ng) of input DNA required.

  9. Mechanism of Concerted RNA-DNA Primer Synthesis by the Human Primosome.

    PubMed

    Baranovskiy, Andrey G; Babayeva, Nigar D; Zhang, Yinbo; Gu, Jianyou; Suwa, Yoshiaki; Pavlov, Youri I; Tahirov, Tahir H

    2016-05-06

    The human primosome, a 340-kilodalton complex of primase and DNA polymerase α (Polα), synthesizes chimeric RNA-DNA primers to be extended by replicative DNA polymerases δ and ϵ. The intricate mechanism of concerted primer synthesis by two catalytic centers was an enigma for over three decades. Here we report the crystal structures of two key complexes, the human primosome and the C-terminal domain of the primase large subunit (p58C) with bound DNA/RNA duplex. These structures, along with analysis of primase/polymerase activities, provide a plausible mechanism for all transactions of the primosome including initiation, elongation, accurate counting of RNA primer length, primer transfer to Polα, and concerted autoregulation of alternate activation/inhibition of the catalytic centers. Our findings reveal a central role of p58C in the coordinated actions of two catalytic domains in the primosome and ultimately could impact the design of anticancer drugs.

  10. Development of Primer Pairs from Molecular Typing of Rabies Virus Variants Present in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-Hernández, Dolores G.; Lara-Padilla, Eleazar; Zárate-Segura, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Nucleoprotein (N) gene from rabies virus (RABV) is a useful sequence target for variant studies. Several specific RABV variants have been characterized in different mammalian hosts such as skunk, dog, and bats by using anti-nucleocapsid monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) via indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) test, a technique not available in many laboratories in Mexico. In the present study, a total of 158 sequences of N gene from RABV were used to design eight pairs of primers (four external and four internal primers), for typing four different RABV variants (dog, skunk, vampire bat, and nonhematophagous bat) which are most common in Mexico. The results indicate that the primer and the typing variant from the brain samples, submitted to nested and/or real-time PCR, are in agreement in all four singleplex reactions, and the designed primer pairs are an alternative for use in specific variant RABV typing. PMID:27563666

  11. Design of primer pairs for species-specific diagnosis of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi using PCR.

    PubMed

    da Silveira Neto, Osvaldo José; Duarte, Sabrina Castilho; da Costa, Hérika Xavier; Linhares, Guido Fontgalland Coelho

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to design and evaluate new primers for species-specific detection of L. infantum chagasi using PCR. Two combinations of primer pairs were established with the aim of obtaining specific amplification products from the L. infantum chagasi 18S rRNA gene. The combinations of the primer pairs and the respective sizes of the PCR products, based on the U422465 GenBank reference sequence of L. infantum chagasi, were: LCS1/LCS3 (259 bp) and LCS2/LCS3 (820 bp). It was concluded that the new PCR assays optimized using the primer pairs LCS1/LCS3 and LCS2/LCS3 were effective for specific detection of L. infantum chagasi, with analytical sensitivity to detect 1 pg/µL of DNA.

  12. Development of Primer Pairs from Molecular Typing of Rabies Virus Variants Present in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Bastida-González, Fernando; Ramírez-Hernández, Dolores G; Chavira-Suárez, Erika; Lara-Padilla, Eleazar; Zárate-Segura, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Nucleoprotein (N) gene from rabies virus (RABV) is a useful sequence target for variant studies. Several specific RABV variants have been characterized in different mammalian hosts such as skunk, dog, and bats by using anti-nucleocapsid monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) via indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) test, a technique not available in many laboratories in Mexico. In the present study, a total of 158 sequences of N gene from RABV were used to design eight pairs of primers (four external and four internal primers), for typing four different RABV variants (dog, skunk, vampire bat, and nonhematophagous bat) which are most common in Mexico. The results indicate that the primer and the typing variant from the brain samples, submitted to nested and/or real-time PCR, are in agreement in all four singleplex reactions, and the designed primer pairs are an alternative for use in specific variant RABV typing.

  13. A Telecommunications Primer for College Presidents. Part I. The Technologies Defined. Educational Technology Profile 25.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ralph Lee

    1978-01-01

    Intended for use by presidents, planners, and administrators to acquaint them with developments in electronic communications, this primer describes cable television, common carrier, videotape recorders and videodiscs, satellites, microwave, circuit integration, digital transmission, data packet switching, and fiber optics. (LBH)

  14. FUNGAL-SPECIFIC PCR PRIMERS DEVELOPED FOR ANALYSIS OF THE ITS REGION OF ENVIRONMENTAL DNA EXTRACTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background The Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) regions of fungal ribosomal DNA (rDNA) are highly variable sequences of great importance in distinguishing fungal species by PCR analysis. Previously published PCR primers available for amplifying these sequences from environmenta...

  15. Mega primer-mediated molecular cloning strategy for chimaeragenesis and long DNA fragment insertion.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Liu, Chang-Jun; Jiang, Hui; Zhou, Lu; Li, Wen-Ying; Zhu, Ling-Yun; Wu, Lei; Meng, Er; Zhang, Dong-Yi

    2017-04-30

    Molecular cloning methods based on primer and overlap-extension PCR are widely used due to their simplicity, reliability, low cost and high efficiency. In this article, an efficient mega primer-mediated (MP) cloning strategy for chimaeragenesis and long DNA fragment insertion is presented. MP cloning is a seamless, restriction/ligation-independent method that requires only three steps: (i) the first PCR for mega primer generation; (ii) the second PCR for exponential amplification mediated by the mega primers and (iii) DpnI digestion and transformation. Most importantly, for chimaeragenesis, genes can be assembled and constructed into the plasmid vector in a single PCR step. By employing this strategy, we successfully inserted four DNA fragments (approximately 500 bp each) into the same vector simultaneously. In conclusion, the strategy proved to be a simple and efficient tool for seamless cloning.

  16. Microsatellite primers in the foundation tree species Pinus edulis and P. monophylla (Pinaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Krohn, Andrew L.; Flores-Rentería, Lluvia; Gehring, Catherine A.

    2013-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Microsatellite primers were developed in the foundational tree species Pinus edulis to investigate population differentiation of P. edulis and hybridization among closely related species. • Methods and Results: Using a hybridization protocol, primer sets for 11 microsatellite loci were developed using megagametophyte tissue from P. edulis and scored for polymorphism in three populations of P. edulis and a single P. monophylla population. The primers amplified simple and compound di-, tri-, and pentanucleotide repeats with two to 18 alleles per locus. • Conclusions: These results demonstrate the utility of the described primers for studies of population differentiation within and among P. edulis populations as well as across putative hybrid zones where P. edulis may coexist with sister species. PMID:25202571

  17. Primer retention owing to the absence of RNase H1 is catastrophic for mitochondrial DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Holmes, J Bradley; Akman, Gokhan; Wood, Stuart R; Sakhuja, Kiran; Cerritelli, Susana M; Moss, Chloe; Bowmaker, Mark R; Jacobs, Howard T; Crouch, Robert J; Holt, Ian J

    2015-07-28

    Encoding ribonuclease H1 (RNase H1) degrades RNA hybridized to DNA, and its function is essential for mitochondrial DNA maintenance in the developing mouse. Here we define the role of RNase H1 in mitochondrial DNA replication. Analysis of replicating mitochondrial DNA in embryonic fibroblasts lacking RNase H1 reveals retention of three primers in the major noncoding region (NCR) and one at the prominent lagging-strand initiation site termed Ori-L. Primer retention does not lead immediately to depletion, as the persistent RNA is fully incorporated in mitochondrial DNA. However, the retained primers present an obstacle to the mitochondrial DNA polymerase γ in subsequent rounds of replication and lead to the catastrophic generation of a double-strand break at the origin when the resulting gapped molecules are copied. Hence, the essential role of RNase H1 in mitochondrial DNA replication is the removal of primers at the origin of replication.

  18. A new approach to primer selection in polymerase chain reaction experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Pearson, W.R.; Robins, G.; Wrege, D.E.; Zhang, Tongtong

    1995-12-31

    We address the problem of primer selection in polymerase chain reaction (PCR) experiments. We prove that the problem of minimizing the number of primers required to amplify a set of DNA sequences is NP-complete, and show that even approximating solutions to this problem to within a constant factor times optimal is intractable. On the practical side, we give a simple branch-and-bound algorithm that solves the primers minimization problem within reasonable time for typical instances. We present an efficient approximation scheme for this problem, and prove that our heuristic always produces solutions no worse than a logarithmic factor times the optimal, this being the best approximation possible within polynomial time. Finally, we analyze a weighted variant, where both the number of primers as well as the sum of their {open_quotes}costs{close_quotes} is optimized simultaneously. We conclude by presenting the empirical performance of our methods on biological data.

  19. Oligonucleotide primers, probes and molecular methods for the environmental monitoring of methanogenic archaea

    PubMed Central

    Narihiro, Takashi; Sekiguchi, Yuji

    2011-01-01

    Summary For the identification and quantification of methanogenic archaea (methanogens) in environmental samples, various oligonucleotide probes/primers targeting phylogenetic markers of methanogens, such as 16S rRNA, 16S rRNA gene and the gene for the α‐subunit of methyl coenzyme M reductase (mcrA), have been extensively developed and characterized experimentally. These oligonucleotides were designed to resolve different groups of methanogens at different taxonomic levels, and have been widely used as hybridization probes or polymerase chain reaction primers for membrane hybridization, fluorescence in situ hybridization, rRNA cleavage method, gene cloning, DNA microarray and quantitative polymerase chain reaction for studies in environmental and determinative microbiology. In this review, we present a comprehensive list of such oligonucleotide probes/primers, which enable us to determine methanogen populations in an environment quantitatively and hierarchically, with examples of the practical applications of the probes and primers. PMID:21375721

  20. Geohydrologic site characterization of the municipal solid waste landfill facility, US Army Air Defense Artillery Center and Fort Bliss, El Paso County, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abeyta, Cynthia G.

    1996-01-01

    Geohydrologic conditions of the Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Facility (MSWLF) on the U.S. Army Air Defense Artillery Center and Fort Bliss, El Paso County, Texas, were evaluated by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Army. The 106.03-acre MSWLF has been in operation since January 1974. The landfill contains household refuse, Post solid wastes, bulky items, grass and tree trimmings from family housing, refuse from litter cans, construction debris, classified waste (dry), dead animals, asbestos, and empty oil cans. The MSWLF, located about 1,200 feet east of the nearest occupied structure, is estimated to receive an average of approximately 56 tons of municipal solid waste per day and, at a fill rate of 1-4 acres per year, is expected to reach its capacity by the year 2004. The MSWLF is located in the Hueco Bolson, 4 miles east of the Franklin Mountains. Elevations at the MSWLF range from 3,907 to 3,937 feet above sea level. The climate at the MSWLF and vicinity is arid continental, characterized by an abundance of sunny days, high summer temperatures, relatively cool winters typical of arid areas, scanty rainfall, and very low humidity throughout the year. Average annual temperature near the MSWLF and vicinity is 63.3 degrees Fahrenheit and annual precipitation is 7.8 inches. Potential evaporation in the El Paso area was estimated to be 65 inches per year. Soils at and adjacent to the MSWLF are nearly level to gently sloping, have a fine sandy loam subsoil, and are moderately deep over caliche. The MSWLF is underlain by Hueco Bolson deposits of Tertiary age and typically are composed of unconsolidated to slightly consolidated interbedded sands, clay, silt, gravel, and caliche. Individual beds are not well defined and range in thickness from a fraction of an inch to about 100 feet. The primary source of ground water in the MSWLF area is in the deposits of the Hueco Bolson. A relatively thick vadose zone of approximately 300 feet overlies the