Science.gov

Sample records for primer paso hacia

  1. 90. Paso Del Norte Hotel, 115117 South El Paso St.,east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    90. Paso Del Norte Hotel, 115-117 South El Paso St.,east facade, west side of street - South El Paso Street Historic District, South El Paso, South Oregon & South Santa Fe Streets, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  2. 71. South El Paso St., 911 (commercial), east facade, warehouse ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    71. South El Paso St., 911 (commercial), east facade, warehouse to left in background - South El Paso Street Historic District, South El Paso, South Oregon & South Santa Fe Streets, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  3. 52. South El Paso St., 709711 (commercial), east facades, west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. South El Paso St., 709-711 (commercial), east facades, west side of street - South El Paso Street Historic District, South El Paso, South Oregon & South Santa Fe Streets, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  4. 15. South El Paso St., 305307 (commercial), east facades, west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. South El Paso St., 305-307 (commercial), east facades, west side of street - South El Paso Street Historic District, South El Paso, South Oregon & South Santa Fe Streets, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  5. 76 FR 76707 - Brian Hamilton; El Paso Natural Gas and El Paso Western Pipelines; Notice of Complaint

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-08

    ...] Brian Hamilton; El Paso Natural Gas and El Paso Western Pipelines; Notice of Complaint Take notice that... complaint against El Paso Natural Gas and El Paso Western Pipelines (Respondents) alleging that...

  6. Phonics Primer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elam, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    This primer lists the 44 sounds in the English language and then gives steps for teaching those 44 sounds and their most common spelling patterns. In addition to learning sounds and spellings, each day the student must read lists of phonetically related words and spell these words from dictation. Phonics instruction must be reinforced by having…

  7. 76 FR 19276 - Television Broadcasting Services; El Paso, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-07

    ... KTSM-TV, channel 9, El Paso, Texas, requesting the substitution of channel 16 for channel 9 at El Paso. Comcorp states that this channel substitution is necessary because KTSM-TV has experienced significant...

  8. 27 CFR 9.84 - Paso Robles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Paso Robles. 9.84 Section 9.84 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.84...

  9. Salinas primer.

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, Timothy Francis; Reese, Garth M.; Bhardwaj, Manoj Kumar

    2004-08-01

    Salinas provides a massively parallel implementation of structural dynamics finite element analysis. This capability is required for high fidelity, validated models used in modal, vibration, static and shock analysis of weapons systems. General capabilities for modal, statics and transient dynamics are provided. Salinas is similar to commercial codes like Nastran or Abaqus. It has some nonlinear capability, but excels in linear computation. It is different than the above commercial codes in that it is designed to operate efficiently in a massively parallel environment. Even for an experienced analyst, running a new finite element package can be a challenge. This little primer is intended to make part of this task easier by presenting the basic steps in a simple way. The analyst is referred to the theory manual for details of the mathematics behind the work. The User's Notes should be used for more complex inputs, and will have more details about the process (as well as many more examples). More information can be found on our web pages, 3 or 4. Finite element analysis can be deceptive. Any software can give the wrong answers if used improperly, and occasionally even when used properly. Certainly a solid background in structural mechanics is necessary to build an adequate finite element model and interpret the results. This primer should provide a quick start in answering some of the more common questions that come up in using Salinas.

  10. 76 FR 48833 - El Paso Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-09

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission El Paso Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application Take notice that on July 20, 2011, El Paso Natural Gas Company (El Paso), P.O. Box 1087, Colorado Springs, Colorado 80944...) of the Natural Gas Act, to abandon, in place, El Paso's El Paso-Douglas Line (Line No. 1004) in Dona...

  11. 76 FR 44280 - Television Broadcasting Services; El Paso, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-25

    ...''), licensee of KVIA-TV, channel 7, El Paso, Texas, requesting the substitution of channel 17 for channel 7 at El Paso. KVIA-TV has experienced extensive signal coverage problems on channel 7 following the June 12, 2009 digital transition deadline, after which the Video Division granted KVIA-TV Special...

  12. El Paso Manpower Needs Assessment for Educational Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiebiger, Leo J.

    This study was conducted to determine the manpower needs of El Paso, Texas, by surveying and interviewing employers in regard to numbers of employees, education and training level preferred, and related employee information. A second purpose was to identity specific kinds of skills needed by EL Paso business and industry. Information was gathered…

  13. 76 FR 77994 - Brian Hamilton v. El Paso Natural Gas, El Paso Western Pipelines; Notice Announcing Docket Number...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Brian Hamilton v. El Paso Natural Gas, El Paso Western Pipelines; Notice Announcing Docket Number Change On December 2, 2011, the Commission issued a notice in docket number...

  14. RadNet Air Data From El Paso, TX

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for El Paso, TX from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  15. Super Guppy Swallows T-38s; Heads for El Paso

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Two NASA T-38 aircraft were swallowed whole by NASA's Super Guppy recently on Dryden Flight Research Center's back ramp. The Guppy then airlifted the two retired T-38s to El Paso, Texas, where they...

  16. Landsat's Decades-Long Look at El Paso, Texas

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Landsat satellites have captured hundreds of images of the regionsurrounding El Paso, Texas since the program started in 1972. On May30, 2013, Landsat 8 began adding to the program’s extensive ...

  17. Platero como el primer paso liteario (Platero y Yo: A Student's Introduction to Literary Analysis).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohrtman, Dennis W.

    This instructional guide is to be used by teachers in the instruction of "Platero y Yo," written by Juan Ramon Jimenez, one of Spain's foremost poets. A systematic study is provided of movement throughout the text, by analyzing verb tenses, to help novice Spanish literature students grasp the scholastic and psychological interpretations of poetic…

  18. Platero como el primer paso liteario (Platero y Yo: A Student's Introduction to Literary Analysis).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohrtman, Dennis W.

    This instructional guide is to be used by teachers in the instruction of "Platero y Yo," written by Juan Ramon Jimenez, one of Spain's foremost poets. A systematic study is provided of movement throughout the text, by analyzing verb tenses, to help novice Spanish literature students grasp the scholastic and psychological interpretations of poetic…

  19. Polyacid macromolecule primers

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, Toshifumi.

    1989-12-26

    Hydrophilic polyacids are described, such as macromolecules of polyitaconic acid and polyacrylic acid, where such macromolecules have molecular weights >50,000 as primers between a polymeric top coating, such as polyurethane, and an oxidized aluminum or aluminum alloy. A near monolayer of primer is used in polymeric adhesive/oxidized aluminum adhered joint systems in 0.05% primer concentration to give superior results in standard peel tests. 2 figs.

  20. Polyacid macromolecule primers

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, Toshifumi

    1989-01-01

    Hydrophylic polyacids, such as macromolecules of polyitaconic acid and polyacrylic acid, where such macromolecules have molecular weights >50,000 as primers between a polymeric top coating, such as polyurethane, and an oxidized aluminum or aluminum alloy. A near monolayer of primer is used in polymeric adhesive/oxidized aluminum adhered joint systems in 0.05% primer concentration to give superior results in standard peel tests.

  1. Transmission Investment: A Primer

    SciTech Connect

    McGarvey, Joe

    2006-10-15

    This primer highlights recent trends in transmission investment, summarizes the division of jurisdictional authority over transmission, and presents four alternative models for transmission ownership. (author)

  2. Social disparities in children's respiratory health in El Paso, Texas.

    PubMed

    Grineski, Sara E; Collins, Timothy W; Chavez-Payan, Paola; Jimenez, Anthony M; Clark-Reyna, Stephanie; Gaines, Marie; Kim, Young-an

    2014-03-11

    The objectives of this study were to assess prevalence of children's respiratory health conditions and to measure and describe social disparities in children's respiratory problems and access to health resources for asthma/wheezing management. Data were collected through a cross-sectional, observational mail survey of all primary caretakers of 4th and 5th grade children in El Paso Independent School District (El Paso, TX, USA). 6295 primary caretakers received surveys at their home address and 1904 surveys were completed and returned for a 30% response rate. El Paso children have high rates of asthma (17%) and allergies (51%). In terms of social disparities, children that are male, not poor, obese, Hispanic, born in El Paso, have a US-born caretaker, and have a caretaker who has lower levels Spanish proficiency have increased odds of respiratory problems. Among children with asthma and wheezing, disparities exist in access to care; those that are poor, with a Spanish-speaking caretaker, or with a foreign-born caretaker had increased odds of seeking care in urgent care center, emergency rooms and hospitals. Results have scholarly and practical implications for broader trends in terms of increasing prevalence of respiratory health problems across multiple scales (from El Paso to the US context to worldwide) and health disparities experienced within the rapidly growing US Hispanic population.

  3. Quick spacecraft charging primer

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, Brian Arthur

    2014-03-12

    This is a presentation in PDF format which is a quick spacecraft charging primer, meant to be used for program training. It goes into detail about charging physics, RBSP examples, and how to identify charging.

  4. 77 FR 14776 - El Paso Natural Gas Company; Notice of Amendment to Presidential Permit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-13

    ... notice that on February 20, 2012, El Paso Natural Gas Company (El Paso), P.O. Box 1087, Colorado Springs... Nevada Avenue, P.O. Box 1087, Colorado Springs, Colorado 80944, or call at 719-667-7514, or email...

  5. 76 FR 18756 - El Paso Natural Gas Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-05

    ... Take notice that on March 22, 2011, El Paso Natural Gas Company (El Paso), Post Office Box 1087... application should be directed to Susan C. Stires, Post Box Office 1087, Colorado Springs, CO 80944,...

  6. 75 FR 62515 - El Paso Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission El Paso Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application October 4, 2010. Take notice that on September 28, 2010, El Paso Natural Gas Company (EPNG), P.O. Box 1087, Colorado Springs..., Director, Regulatory Affairs, El Paso Natural Gas Company, P.O. Box 1087, Colorado Springs, Colorado 80944...

  7. 76 FR 66711 - El Paso Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-27

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission El Paso Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application Take notice that on October 11, 2011, El Paso Natural Gas Company (El Paso), P.O. Box 1087, Colorado Springs, Colorado 80904, filed in the above referenced docket an application pursuant to section 7(c) of the Natural Gas Act (NGA...

  8. 76 FR 66708 - El Paso Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-27

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission El Paso Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application Take notice that on October 7, 2011, El Paso Natural Gas Company (El Paso), P.O. Box 1087, Colorado Springs, Colorado 80904, filed in the above referenced docket an application pursuant to section 3 of the Natural Gas Act (NGA...

  9. 76 FR 41235 - El Paso Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-13

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission El Paso Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application Take notice that on June 28, 2011, El Paso Natural Gas Company (El Paso), P.O. Box 1087, Colorado Springs, Colorado 80944...) of the Natural Gas Act, to abandon, by removal, the previously abandoned, in place, Benson Compressor...

  10. 77 FR 20617 - El Paso Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-05

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission El Paso Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application Take notice that on March 23, 2012, El Paso Natural Gas Company (El Paso), P.O. Box 1087, Colorado Springs, Colorado 80904, filed in the above referenced docket an application pursuant to section 3 of the Natural Gas Act (NGA...

  11. 75 FR 42727 - El Paso Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-22

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission El Paso Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application July 15, 2010. Take notice that on July 13, 2010, El Paso Natural Gas Company (El Paso), P.O. Box 1087, Colorado Springs, Colorado 80944, filed in Docket No. CP10-470-000, an application pursuant to section 7 of the Natural Gas...

  12. 76 FR 28016 - El Paso Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission El Paso Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application On April 26, 2011, El Paso Natural Gas Company (El Paso), P.O. Box 1087, Colorado Springs, CO 80944, filed with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (Commission) an application under section 7(b) of the Natural Gas Act (NGA...

  13. 76 FR 28946 - Television Broadcasting Services; El Paso, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; El Paso, TX AGENCY: Federal Communications... parte contacts (other than ex parte presentations exempt under 47 CFR 1.1204(a)) are prohibited in Commission proceedings, such as this one, which involve channel allotments. See 47 CFR 1.1208 for...

  14. 76 FR 5120 - Television Broadcasting Services; El Paso, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-28

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; El Paso, TX AGENCY: Federal Communications.... 11-4, adopted January 11, 2011, and released January 19, 2011. The full text of this document is... presentations exempt under 47 CFR 1.1204(a)) are prohibited in Commission proceedings, such as this one,...

  15. The Chicanos of El Paso: A Case of Changing Colonization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Oscar J.

    Using historical statistics and key indicators, data were synthesized to identify longitudinal trends and patterns in the social, economic, and political status of El Paso's Chicanos. Data related to group achievement were analyzed. A framework adapted to local conditions based on the internal colonialism model was used for the periodization of El…

  16. PRELIMINARY RESEARCH FINDINGS OF THE EL PASO CHILDREN'S HEALTH STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The El-Paso-Ciudad Juarez area is one of the largest metropolitan areas on the U.S.-Mexico border. Sources of air pollutants inlcude the more than 18 million vehicles, which annually cross between the two cities, heavily traveled roads and interstate freeways, and local indust...

  17. 76 FR 61135 - Environmental Impact Statement: El Paso County, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: El Paso County, TX AGENCY: Federal Highway... this notice to advise the public that the NOI to prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) for...

  18. The Chicanos of El Paso: A Case of Changing Colonization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Oscar J.

    Using historical statistics and key indicators, data were synthesized to identify longitudinal trends and patterns in the social, economic, and political status of El Paso's Chicanos. Data related to group achievement were analyzed. A framework adapted to local conditions based on the internal colonialism model was used for the periodization of El…

  19. Bilingual Immersion: A Longitudinal Evaluation of the El Paso Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gersten, Russell; And Others

    A study assessed and compared the effectiveness of two distinct approaches of bilingual education used within a single school district in El Paso (Texas). The program designs, one a traditional transitional bilingual and the other a bilingual immersion, were implemented under similar conditions of resources, school year length, class size, and…

  20. PRELIMINARY RESEARCH FINDINGS OF THE EL PASO CHILDREN'S HEALTH STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The El-Paso-Ciudad Juarez area is one of the largest metropolitan areas on the U.S.-Mexico border. Sources of air pollutants inlcude the more than 18 million vehicles, which annually cross between the two cities, heavily traveled roads and interstate freeways, and local indust...

  1. Historical Climatology Of Dust Events At El Paso, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, T. E.; Novlan, D. J.; Hardiman, M.; Collins, J. D., Jr.; Montelongo, M.; Baddock, M. C.

    2016-12-01

    El Paso, Texas is surrounded by highly-erodible playas, alluvial plains and sand sheets of the northern Chihuahuan Desert, making dust storms a regular occurrence in the city, and making dust a significant natural hazard to the metropolitan area, impacting health, safety and infrastructure. A systematic review of hourly meteorological records at El Paso Airport has revealed more than 2000 dust/sand weather events since 1932. We analyzed this dataset to summarize the seasonality and characteristics of El Paso dust events and relate them to climate indicators. Dust events in El Paso are most prevalent and long-lasting during the dry season (November- May), peaking in March- April; while localized, short-duration convective dust storms (haboobs) typically occur during the onset of the summer rainy (North American Monsoon) season. Most dust events arrive with southwest flow crossing near-upwind playas and ephemeral stream channels, although an increased frequency of dust arriving on northeast winds (from the Great Plains) is evident during periods of intense regional drought such as the 1930s Dust Bowl. Overall dust frequency and duration in El Paso is strongly skewed towards negative PDSI categories and anticorrelated with 6-month antecedent precipitation, revealing a strong coupling of aeolian processes and dryness in the northern Chihuahuan Desert. Annual dust hours peaked during the extreme droughts of the 1930s and 1950s and were lowest during the 1980s- 1990s wet period. Climatic factors such as ENSO and PDO did not strongly influence seasonality, frequency, intensity, or pathways of dust events at El Paso, although dust event frequency is highest under La Niña conditions (an indicator of drought in the Southwest) and average dust event duration decreases during El Niños/extremely wet periods (when sediment availability decreases due to higher land cover). Proximity to source areas, meteorology (wind strength and seasonality controlling transport capacity) and

  2. Using interactive Internet technology to promote physical activity in Latinas: Rationale, design, and baseline findings of Pasos Hacia La Salud.

    PubMed

    Marcus, Bess H; Hartman, Sheri J; Pekmezi, Dori; Dunsiger, Shira I; Linke, Sarah E; Marquez, Becky; Gans, Kim M; Bock, Beth C; Larsen, Britta A; Rojas, Carlos

    2015-09-01

    Internet-based interventions show promise as an effective channel for promoting physical activity. However, a paucity of research has been conducted among underserved groups despite recent increases in Internet access and physical activity-related health disparities in these communities. Thus, the current randomized controlled trial will test the efficacy of an individually tailored, Internet-based physical activity intervention for Latinas. This program was culturally and linguistically adapted for the target population through extensive formative research. Two hundred eighteen sedentary Latinas were randomly assigned to the Tailored Physical Activity Internet Intervention or the Wellness Contact Control Internet Group. The Physical Activity Internet Intervention, based on Social Cognitive Theory and the Transtheoretical Model, utilizes a website with features including self-monitoring, goal setting, discussion forum, links to online resources, individually tailored and motivation-matched physical activity feedback reports, and exercise tip sheets. Participants receive regular emails over the first 6months with a tapered dose during the second 6months (maintenance phase) to alert them to new content on the website. The main outcome is differences in minutes/week of moderate to vigorous physical activity at six months as measured by the 7-Day Physical Activity Recall and accelerometer data. High reach, low cost, culturally relevant Internet-based interventions that encourage physical activity among Latinas could help reduce health disparities and thus have a substantial positive impact on public health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Using interactive Internet technology to promote physical activity in Latinas: Rationale, design, and baseline findings of Pasos Hacia La Salud

    PubMed Central

    Marcus, Bess H.; Hartman, Sheri J.; Pekmezi, Dori; Dunsiger, Shira I.; Linke, Sarah; Marquez, Becky; Gans, Kim M.; Bock, Beth C.; Larsen, Britta A.; Rojas, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Internet-based interventions show promise as an effective channel for promoting physical activity. However, a paucity of research has been conducted among underserved groups despite recent increases in Internet access and physical activity-related health disparities in these communities. Thus, the current randomized controlled trial will test the efficacy of an individually tailored, Internet-based physical activity intervention for Latinas. This program was culturally and linguistically adapted for the target population through extensive formative research. Two hundred eighteen sedentary Latinas were randomly assigned to the Tailored Physical Activity Internet Intervention or the Wellness Contact Control Internet Group. The Physical Activity Internet Intervention, based on Social Cognitive Theory and the Transtheoretical Model, utilizes a website with features including self-monitoring, goal setting, discussion forum, links to online resources, individually tailored and motivation-matched physical activity feedback reports, and exercise tip sheets. Participants receive regular emails over the first 6 months with a tapered dose during the second 6 months (maintenance phase) to alert them to new content on the website. The main outcome is differences in minutes/week of moderate to vigorous physical activity at six months as measured by the 7-Day Physical Activity Recall and accelerometer data. High reach, low cost, culturally relevant Internet-based interventions that encourage physical activity among Latinas could help reduce health disparities and thus have a substantial positive impact on public health. PMID:26255237

  4. Pasos Hacia La Salud: a randomized controlled trial of an internet-delivered physical activity intervention for Latinas.

    PubMed

    Marcus, Bess H; Hartman, Sheri J; Larsen, Britta A; Pekmezi, Dori; Dunsiger, Shira I; Linke, Sarah; Marquez, Becky; Gans, Kim M; Bock, Beth C; Mendoza-Vasconez, Andrea S; Noble, Madison L; Rojas, Carlos

    2016-05-28

    Internet access has grown markedly in Latinos during the past decade. However, there have been no Internet-based physical activity interventions designed for Latinos, despite large disparities in lifestyle-related conditions, such as obesity and diabetes, particularly in Latina women. The current study tested the efficacy of a 6-month culturally adapted, individually tailored, Spanish-language Internet-based physical activity intervention. Inactive Latinas (N = 205) were randomly assigned to the Tailored Physical Activity Internet Intervention or the Wellness Contact Control Internet Group. Participants in both groups received emails on a tapered schedule over 6 months to alert them to new content on the website. The primary outcome was minutes/week of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) at 6 months as measured by the 7-Day Physical Activity Recall; activity was also measured by accelerometers. Data were collected between 2011 and 2014 and analyzed in 2015 at the University of California, San Diego. Increases in minutes/week of MVPA were significantly greater in the Intervention Group compared to the Control Group (mean difference = 50.00, SE = 9.5, p < 0.01). Increases in objectively measured MVPA were also significantly larger in the Intervention Group (mean differences = 31.0, SE = 10.7, p < .01). The Intervention Group was also significantly more likely to meet national physical activity guidelines at 6 months (OR = 3.12, 95% CI 1.46-6.66, p < .05). Findings from the current study suggest that this Internet-delivered individually tailored intervention successfully increased MVPA in Latinas compared to a Wellness Contact Control Internet Group. NCT01834287.

  5. El Paso Formation - a Lower Ordovician platform carbonate deposit

    SciTech Connect

    Clemons, R.E.

    1987-05-01

    The eastward-transgressive Lower Ordovician El Paso Formation conformably overlies Bliss Sandstone in southern New Mexico. Locally, lower El Paso was deposited on low hills of plutonic and volcanic rocks. The region subsided gradually throughout Canadian time, receiving the El Paso carbonate rock blanket up to 460 m thick. Lithologic and chronologic correlative rocks were deposited over most of the southwestern US as the first Paleozoic carbonate platform sequence. The El Paso Formation contains four members, listed here in ascending order: Hitt Canyon, Jose, McKelligon, and Padre. Gradually decreasing sand content upward through the Hitt Canyon indicates deepening water and/or greater distance to shore. Girvanella(.) oncolites are locally abundant. Stromatolite mounds near the top of the Hitt Canyon, combined with an influx of sand, ooids, and rounded bioclasts in the Jose Member, recorded a shoaling phase. The overlying McKelligon Member contains little or no sand, and sponge-Calathium mounds are prominent at some locales. Stromatolite mounds are interbedded with sponge-Calathium mounds in a few sections. Lower Padre Member beds are typically silty to sandy and locally contain thinly-laminated zones. The Padre contains more restricted fauna that includes traces of ostracods. Pervasive bioturbation of El Paso beds and fauna consisting of echinoderms, sponges, gastropods, trilobites, Nuia, Calathium, cephalopods, and algae plus minor brachiopods and Pulchrilamina indicate predominating shallow-subtidal environments. Low-energy platform environments, in which a large volume of micritic muds accumulated, were disturbed thousands of times by storms producing abundant thin, poorly washed biosparite, intrasparite, and intrasparrudite lenses.

  6. PrimerView: high-throughput primer design and visualization.

    PubMed

    O'Halloran, Damien M

    2015-01-01

    High-throughput primer design is routinely performed in a wide number of molecular applications including genotyping specimens using traditional PCR techniques as well as assembly PCR, nested PCR, and primer walking experiments. Batch primer design is also required in validation experiments from RNA-seq transcriptome sequencing projects, as well as in generating probes for microarray experiments. The growing popularity of next generation sequencing and microarray technology has created a greater need for more primer design tools to validate large numbers of candidate genes and markers. To meet these demands I here present a tool called PrimerView that designs forward and reverse primers from multi-sequence datasets, and generates graphical outputs that map the position and distribution of primers to the target sequence. This module operates from the command-line and can collect user-defined input for the design phase of each primer. PrimerView is a straightforward to use module that implements a primer design algorithm to return forward and reverse primers from any number of FASTA formatted sequences to generate text based output of the features for each primer, and also graphical outputs that map the designed primers to the target sequence. PrimerView is freely available without restrictions.

  7. China Energy Primer

    SciTech Connect

    Ni, Chun Chun

    2009-11-16

    Based on extensive analysis of the 'China Energy Databook Version 7' (October 2008) this Primer for China's Energy Industry draws a broad picture of China's energy industry with the two goals of helping users read and interpret the data presented in the 'China Energy Databook' and understand the historical evolution of China's energy inustry. Primer provides comprehensive historical reviews of China's energy industry including its supply and demand, exports and imports, investments, environment, and most importantly, its complicated pricing system, a key element in the analysis of China's energy sector.

  8. Water-budget studies of lower Mesilla Valley and El Paso Valley, El Paso County, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meyer, W.R.; Gordon, J.D.

    1973-01-01

    The total inflow of water to the lower Mesilla Valley in 1970 was 390,510 acre-feet. Of this amount, 43,300 acre-feet was consumptively used by crops and phreatophytes and 4,700 acre-feet was lost by evaporation. Ground-water storage increased by 320 acre-feet, and 360,860 acrefeet left the valley as surface- and ground-water outflow. Ground-water recharge was approximately 26,170 acre-feet.The total inflow to .the lower Mesilla Valley in 197l was 282,880 acre-feet, of which 41,800 acre-feet was consumptively used by crops and phreatophytes and 4,500 acre-feet was lost by evaporation. Ground-water storage decreased by 3,970 acre-feet and 244,320 acre-feet left the valley as surface- and ground-water outflow. Ground-water recharge was approximately 33,500 acre-feet. The average yearly inflow to the El Paso Valley in 1968-71 was 301,770 acre-feet. The average consumptive use by irrigated crops and phreatophytes was 138,870 acre-feet; the average evaporation loss was 27,000 acre-feet; the average change in ground-water storage was a decrease-of 3,225 acre-feet; and the average outflow from the valley was 96,640 acre-feet. Ground-water recharge averaged about 80,710 acre-feet.

  9. 78 FR 21934 - El Paso Natural Gas Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-12

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission El Paso Natural Gas Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on March 26, 2013, El Paso Natural Gas Company, L.L.C. (El Paso), P.O. Box 1087... directed to Francisco Tarin, Director, Regulatory Affairs Department, El Paso Natural Gas Company, L.L.C...

  10. BatchPrimer3: A high throughput web application for PCR and sequencing primer design

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A new web primer design program, BatchPrimer3, is developed based on Primer3. BatchPrimer3 adopted the Primer3 core program as a major primer design engine to choose the best primer pairs. A new score-based primer picking module is incorporated into BatchPrimer3 and used to pick position-restricte...

  11. Primer on Social Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darcy, Robert L.

    An elaboration of the author's booklet entitled "First Steps Toward Economic Understanding," this primer is designed to help the reader develop a functional understanding of the economic process so that he can make wiser decisions on issues of social policy and on matters affecting his economic well-being. The document is not "economics in one…

  12. An SAT® Validity Primer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Emily J.

    2015-01-01

    This primer should provide the reader with a deeper understanding of the concept of test validity and will present the recent available validity evidence on the relationship between SAT® scores and important college outcomes. In addition, the content examined on the SAT will be discussed as well as the fundamental attention paid to the fairness of…

  13. Systems Engineering Measurement Primer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-03-01

    Systems Engineering Measurement Primer A Basic Introduction to Systems Engineering Measurement Concepts and Use Version 1.0 March 1998 This document...Federal Systems Garry Roedler Lockheed Martin Management & Data Systems Cathy Tilton The National Registry, Inc. E. Richard Widmann Raytheon Systems...IV 1. INTRODUCTION

  14. Nulcear materials production: Primer

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-09-01

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Nuclear Materials Production (NMP) is responsible for managing the production and recovery of nuclear materials for national defense. NMP oversees the production of radioactive materials for government, commercial, industrial, and medical applications. This Primer is a general introduction to NMP's major activities.

  15. EasyExonPrimer: automated primer design for exon sequences.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaolin; Munroe, David J

    2006-01-01

    EasyExonPrimer is a web-based software that automates the design of PCR primers to amplify exon sequences from genomic DNA. EasyExonPrimer is written in Perl and uses Primer3 to design PCR primers based on the genome builds and annotation databases available at the University of California, Santa Cruz (UCSC) Genome Browser database (http://genome.ucsc.edu/). It masks repeats and known single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sites in the genome and designs standardised primers using optimised conditions. Users can input genes by RefSeq mRNA ID, gene name or keyword. The primer design is optimised for large-scale resequencing of exons. For exons larger than 1 kb, the user has the option of breaking the exon sequence down into overlapping smaller fragments. All primer pairs are then verified using the In-Silico PCR software to test for uniqueness in the genome. We have designed >1000 pairs of primers for 90 genes; 95% of the primer pairs successfully amplified exon sequences under standard PCR conditions without requiring further optimisation. EasyExonPrimer is available from http://129.43.22.27/~primer/. The source code is also available upon request. Xiaolin Wu (forestwu@mail.nih.gov).

  16. Modeling visibility in the Paso del Norte (PDN) Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medina Calderon, Richard

    Poor visibility is a subject of growing public concern throughout the U.S, and an active area of research. Its societal impacts on air quality, aviation transport and traffic are significant. Aerosols play a fundamental role in the attenuation of solar radiation, and also affect visibility. The scattering and extinction coefficients of aerosol particles in the Paso del Norte Region have been calculated using the T- matrix model in conjunction with a laser particle counter. Inter-comparison of the model's results of the scattering and absorption coefficients against the corresponding data from a Photoacustic extinctiometer instrument (which measures in-situ absorption and scattering coefficients of aerosol particles) shows excellent agreement. In addition, the volume-weighted method is used to determine the composite index of refraction which is representative of the aerosols for the Paso del Norte Region to obtain information of the type of aerosol particles present in the Region. The Single Scattering Albedo has also been retrieved using this methodology to obtain further insight into the type of aerosols present on a given day. Finally, the Koschmieder equation has been used to calculate the visual range or visibility, and was correlated with the PM2.5 and PM10 particle concentration present in the Region. Our methodology will allow a better understanding of the size and type of aerosol particles that are most detrimental to the visibility for the Paso Del Norte Region.

  17. Modeling Visibility in the EL Paso del Norte Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzgerald, R. M.; Medina, R.; DuBois, D. W.; Novlan, D.

    2013-12-01

    Poor visibility is a subject of growing public concern throughout the U.S, and an active area of research. Its societal impacts in air quality, aviation transport and traffic are significant. Aerosols play a fundamental role in the attenuation of solar radiation, and also affect visibility. The scattering and extinction coefficients of aerosol particles in the Paso del Norte Region have been calculated using the T- matrix model in conjunction with a laser particle counter. Inter-comparison of the model's results of the scattering and absorption coefficients against the corresponding data from a Photoacustic Extinctiometer instrument (which measures in-situ absorption and scattering coefficients of aerosol particles) shows excellent agreement. In addition, the volume-weighted method is used to determine the composite index of refraction which is representative of the aerosols for the Paso del Norte Airshed to obtain information of the type of aerosol particles present in the Airshed. The Single Scattering Albedo has also been retrieved using our methodology to obtain further insight into the type of aerosols present on a given day. Finally, the Koschmieder equation has been used to calculate the visual range or visibility, and was correlated with the PM2.5 and PM10 particle concentration present in the Airshed. Our methodology will allow a better understanding of the size and type of aerosol particles that are most detrimental to the visibility for the Paso del Norte Region.

  18. Paso del Norte ozone study VOC measurements, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Seila, R.L.; Main, H.; Arriaga, J.L.; Martinez, G.V.; Ramadan, A.B.

    1999-01-01

    The results of VOC determinations of ambient air samples collected at surface air quality monitoring sites and near sources of interest on the US and Mexican side of the border during six weeks of the 1996 Paso del Norte Ozone Study are reported. Carbonyl samples were collected on DNPH impregnated cartridges at three surface sites and analyzed by HPLC to quantify 13, C-1 to C-8 species. Whole air samples were collected in electro-polished stainless steel canisters which were returned to laboratory for determination of C-2 to C-10+ hydrocarbons by cryogenic preconcentration capillary gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (gc-fid). Several sources were sampled: rush hour traffic, propane-powered bus exhaust, automobile paint shop emissions, propane fuel, petroleum refinery, and industrial manufacturing site. Spatial and temporal characteristics of VOC species concentrations and compositions are presented. Overall surface TNMOC values ranged from 0.1 to 3.4 ppmC with the highest concentrations recorded in the morning at three vehicle-dominated sites, two in Cuidad Juarez and one in downtown El Paso. Toluene in El Paso samples and propane, which is used as a cooking and transportation fuel in Cuidad Juarez, were the most abundant hydrocarbons.

  19. Paso del Norte ozone study VOC measurements, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Seila, R.L.; Main, H.; Arriaga, J.L.; Martinez, G.V.; Ramadan, A.B.

    1999-11-01

    The results of VOC determinations of ambient air samples collected at surface air quality monitoring sites and near sources of interest on the US and Mexican side of the border during six weeks of the 1996 Paso del Norte Ozone Study are reported. Carbonyl samples were collected on DNPH impregnated cartridges at three surface sites and analyzed by HPLC to quantify 13, C-1 to C-8 species. Whole air samples were collected in electro-polished stainless steel canisters which were returned to laboratory for determination of C-2 to C-10+ hydrocarbons by cryogenic preconcentration capillary gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (gc-fid). Several sources were sampled: rush hour traffic, propane-powered bus exhaust, automobile paint shop emissions, propane fuel, petroleum refinery, and industrial manufacturing site. Spatial and temporal characteristics of VOC species concentrations and compositions are presented. Overall surface TNMOC values ranged from 0.1 to 3.4 ppmC with the highest concentrations recorded in the morning at three vehicle-dominated sites, two in Cuidad Juarez and one in downtown El Paso. Toluene in El Paso samples and propane, which is used as a cooking and transportation fuel in Cuidad Juarez, were the most abundant hydrocarbons.

  20. Primer on Beam Optics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-09-27

    emphasis on neutral particle beam (NPB) optical devices. It explains how the motion of charged particles in magnetic and electric fields is...Inc. San Diego, California Table of Contents Page 1. Introduction 1 1.1 Organization of Primer 1 1.2 Introduction to Neutral Particle Beam...102 Figures Figure Pag© 1. Generic Neutral Particle Beam Device 4 2. An orthogonal three dimensional coordinate system 11 3. Trajectory of a

  1. Primer on molecular genetics

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    This report is taken from the April 1992 draft of the DOE Human Genome 1991--1992 Program Report, which is expected to be published in May 1992. The primer is intended to be an introduction to basic principles of molecular genetics pertaining to the genome project. The material contained herein is not final and may be incomplete. Techniques of genetic mapping and DNA sequencing are described.

  2. Lead Free Electric Primer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-06

    Resonance NSWC-IH Naval Surface Warfare Center, Indian Head NTI Nano Technology, Inc . PAD Propellant Actuated Devices PEG Polyethylene Glycol... supplied hardware components and WC 868 propellant. Each round was assembled according to the drawing specification modifying only the primer...Nanotechnologies, Inc . (now NovaCentrix since July 2006), and it was characterized by the China Lake Chemistry Division prior to being used in formulation

  3. Coal Bed Methane Primer

    SciTech Connect

    Dan Arthur; Bruce Langhus; Jon Seekins

    2005-05-25

    During the second half of the 1990's Coal Bed Methane (CBM) production increased dramatically nationwide to represent a significant new source of income and natural gas for many independent and established producers. Matching these soaring production rates during this period was a heightened public awareness of environmental concerns. These concerns left unexplained and under-addressed have created a significant growth in public involvement generating literally thousands of unfocused project comments for various regional NEPA efforts resulting in the delayed development of public and fee lands. The accelerating interest in CBM development coupled to the growth in public involvement has prompted the conceptualization of this project for the development of a CBM Primer. The Primer is designed to serve as a summary document, which introduces and encapsulates information pertinent to the development of Coal Bed Methane (CBM), including focused discussions of coal deposits, methane as a natural formed gas, split mineral estates, development techniques, operational issues, producing methods, applicable regulatory frameworks, land and resource management, mitigation measures, preparation of project plans, data availability, Indian Trust issues and relevant environmental technologies. An important aspect of gaining access to federal, state, tribal, or fee lands involves education of a broad array of stakeholders, including land and mineral owners, regulators, conservationists, tribal governments, special interest groups, and numerous others that could be impacted by the development of coal bed methane. Perhaps the most crucial aspect of successfully developing CBM resources is stakeholder education. Currently, an inconsistent picture of CBM exists. There is a significant lack of understanding on the parts of nearly all stakeholders, including industry, government, special interest groups, and land owners. It is envisioned the Primer would being used by a variety of

  4. Crystalline Silica Primer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1992-01-01

    substance and will present a nontechnical overview of the techniques used to measure crystalline silica. Because this primer is meant to be a starting point for anyone interested in learning more about crystalline silica, a list of selected readings and other resources is included. The detailed glossary, which defines many terms that are beyond the scope of this publication, is designed to help the reader move from this presentation to a more technical one, the inevitable next step.

  5. The composition of wet deposition in El Paso, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emmert, Sonny

    The composition of precipitation reflects the transport of particles from varying air mass source regions as well as input from local environmental and anthropogenic activities. Air research in El Paso, TX, U.S.A/Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico has been traditionally limited to studies of local inputs of air pollution; no transition has been made to studying the scavenging, washout, and transport of pollutants by precipitation. The goal of this research project was to identify transported pollutants in precipitation, and determine if there were any health and ecological implications. The research investigated biological, chemical, and geological constituents in precipitation samples collected between September 2004 and October 2005. A variety of analysis techniques were used to determine composition of the precipitation. These techniques included bacterial and fungal plate counts, inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry, ion chromatography, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and electron microprobe analysis. Samples were collected from an urban site in El Paso, Texas at the campus of the University of Texas at El Paso. Wet only samples were the target of the sample collection. Particulate matter <10 microns was correlated with fungal growth while particulate matter < 2.5 microns was correlated with bacterial growth in analyzed samples. Microscopy methods revealed new techniques in particle characterization, evidence of anthropogenic influence, and a wide variety of particle compositions. The ionic chemistry results reflected elevated levels of ions as well as an overall alkalinity of rainwater samples. Elemental analysis of the inorganic fraction suggested elevated enrichment of Phosphorus in the study area and possible ratios for transport identification of southwestern dust storms.

  6. 1996 Paso del Norte ozone study VOC measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Seila, R.L.; Main, H.; Arriaga, J.L.; Martinez, G.; Ramadan, A.B.

    1999-07-01

    Ambient air VOC samples were collected at surface air quality monitoring sites, near sources of interest, and aloft on the US and Mexican side of the border during a six week period of the 1996 Paso del Norte Ozone Study. On nine intensive operations (IOP) days, when high ozone concentrations were forecast, five 2-hr samples were collected at five IOP sites, three on the US side and two on the Mexican side. Six special survey sites on the US side and two on the Mexican side were sampled to characterize up-wind, down-wind and other emissions. In Ciudad Juarez, rush hour traffic, propane-powered bus exhaust, automobile paint shop emissions, propane and butane fuels, and an industrial manufacturing site were sampled. Carbonyl samples were collected at three surface sites. Carbonyl and canister grab samples were also collected during aircraft and hot air balloon flights. Most of the hydrocarbon samples were collected in electro-polished stainless steel canisters which were returned to laboratories for determination of C-2 to C-10+ hydrocarbons by cryogenic preconcentration GC-FID. The carbonyl samples were collected on DNPH impregnated C-18 Sep-Pak cartridges and analyzed by HPLC to quantify 13, C-1 to C-8 species. This paper presents the spatial and temporal characteristics of VOC species concentrations and compositions to examine the differences and similarities of the various locations and time periods. Overall surface TNMOC values ranged from 0.1 to 3.4 ppmC with the highest concentrations being recorded in the morning at three vehicle-dominated sites, two in Ciudad Juarez and one in downtown El Paso. Toluene in El Paso samples and propane, which is used as a cooking and transportation fuel in Ciudad Juarez, were the most abundant hydrocarbons. The most abundant carbonyls were acetaldehyde and acetone.

  7. Laser Doppler velocimetry primer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bachalo, William D.

    1985-01-01

    Advanced research in experimental fluid dynamics required a familiarity with sophisticated measurement techniques. In some cases, the development and application of new techniques is required for difficult measurements. Optical methods and in particular, the laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV) are now recognized as the most reliable means for performing measurements in complex turbulent flows. And such, the experimental fluid dynamicist should be familiar with the principles of operation of the method and the details associated with its application. Thus, the goals of this primer are to efficiently transmit the basic concepts of the LDV method to potential users and to provide references that describe the specific areas in greater detail.

  8. Ground-water resources of the El Paso area, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sayre, Albert Nelson; Livingston, Penn Poore

    1945-01-01

    El Paso, Tex., and Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico, and the industries in -that area draw their water supplies from wells, most of which are from 600 to 800 feet deep. In 1906, the estimated average pumpage there was about 1,000,000 gallons a day, and by 1935 it had increased to 15,400,000 gallons a day. The water-bearing beds, consisting of sand and gravel interbedded wire clay, tie in the deep structural trough known as the Hueco bolson, between the Organ and Franklin Mountains on the west, the Hueco, Finlay, and Malone Mountains on the east, the Tularosa Basin on the north, and the mountain ranges of Mexico on the south. From the gorge above El Paso to that beginning near Fort Quitman, about 90 miles southeast .of El Paso, the Rio Grande has eroded a flat-bottomed, steepwalled valley, 6 to 8 miles wide and 225 to 350 feet deep. No other large drainage channels have been developed on the bolson. The valley is known as the El Paso Valley, and the uneroded upland part of the bolson is called the Mesa. In the lowest parts of the El Paso Valley, the water-table is nearly at the surface. The quality of the underground water in the valley varies greatly both vertically and laterally. To a depth of about 400 to 500 feet it is in general too highly mineralized for municipal use, but between about. 500 and 900 feet good water may be obtained from several beds. In the beds between 500 and 900 feet the water level in wells is in places as. much as 20 feet lower than that in the shallow beds. Beneath the Mesa the water level .varies from about 200 feet beneath the surface, where the ground elevation is least, to about 400 feet. where it is highest. The water beneath the Mesa in general is of satisfactory quality and contains less than 500 parts per million of dissolved solids. Two cones of depression in the water table have been formed by the pumping near El Paso--one m the vicinity of the Mesa well field, the other around the Montana well field in the valley. The water

  9. Short-term water consumption dynamics in El Paso, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fullerton, Thomas M.; ElíAs, Arturo

    2004-08-01

    Time series analysis of water consumption patterns has been the subject of increasing attention in recent years. For many municipalities such efforts offer a means for developing potentially useful planning tools. Because data requirements are not extensive, model development is feasible for markets where information is limited. The work at hand examines the applicability of such a tool in El Paso, Texas, a growing metropolitan economy located in a semiarid region. Sample data are from January 1994 through December 2002. In addition to estimating a linear transfer function equation of water consumption in this city the model is subjected to a series of simulation benchmark tests.

  10. Effects of the Paso Robles Geothermal Reservoir on water quality and availability in the Paso Robles Groundwater Basin, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rytuba, J. J.; Langenheim, V. E.; Goldstein, D.

    2012-12-01

    Geochemical and isotopic data from water wells and hot springs in the Paso Robles Groundwater Basin (PRGB) indicate that two water sources affect water quality and availability: meteoric water stored in Pliocene sediments, and geothermal waters present in deeper Miocene sediments. Understanding mixing of these two water sources is important in managing groundwater in the PRGB. The PRGB is the southernmost of several Salinas Valley groundwater basins. Demands from both population growth and agriculture have made water quality and availability a continuing concern. To address continuing depletion of groundwater, a 25 km pipe was recently constructed to bring water from Lake Nacimiento to supplement municipal water supplies. The PRGB is bounded on the west by the Rinconada Fault, and on the east by the San Juan and Red Hills faults. The main aquifer in the PRGB is in the Pliocene Paso Robles Formation (PRF). Aeromagnetic anomalies delineate the boundaries of the basin and thickness of basin fill. Aeromagnetic highs are coincident with surface and near surface presence of the highly magnetic La Panza granite, while aeromagnetic lows occur where basin fill is deepest and the La Panza granite is at a depth of over 1 km. The low temperature (<40oC) geothermal system in the Paso Robles area is located on the west side of the PRGB. The geothermal reservoir is present in the base of the PRF and the upper part of the Miocene Monterey Formation. The geothermal waters are Ca-Mg-SO4 waters, with gas chemistry dominated by CH4, N2, CO2, and H2S. Sulfur, barite and FeS precipitates occur in hot spring pools. The hot springs and geothermal wells are localized along the Rinconada and subsidiary faults. Several new hot springs developed along the Rinconada fault, including one in the Paso Robles city center after the 2003 M6.5 San Simeon earthquake. The city center hot spring was covered over and hot spring effluent was piped 1 km to a leach field in the Salinas River floodplain

  11. Limited-life cartridge primers

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, Daniel M.; Rosen, Robert S.

    1998-01-01

    A cartridge primer which utilizes an explosive that can be designed to become inactive in a predetermined period of time: a limited-life primer. The explosive or combustible material of the primer is an inorganic reactive multilayer (RML). The reaction products of the RML are sub-micron grains of non-corrosive inorganic compounds that would have no harmful effects on firearms or cartridge cases. Unlike use of primers containing lead components, primers utilizing RML's would not present a hazard to the environment. The sensitivity of an RML is determined by the physical structure and the stored interfacial energy. The sensitivity lowers with time due to a decrease in interfacial energy resulting from interdiffusion of the elemental layers. Time-dependent interdiffusion is predictable, thereby enabling the functional lifetime of an RML primer to be predetermined by the initial thickness and materials selection of the reacting layers.

  12. Limited-life cartridge primers

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, D.M.; Rosen, R.S.

    1998-06-30

    A cartridge primer is described which utilizes an explosive that can be designed to become inactive in a predetermined period of time: a limited-life primer. The explosive or combustible material of the primer is an inorganic reactive multilayer (RML). The reaction products of the RML are sub-micron grains of non-corrosive inorganic compounds that would have no harmful effects on firearms or cartridge cases. Unlike use of primers containing lead components, primers utilizing RML`s would not present a hazard to the environment. The sensitivity of an RML is determined by the physical structure and the stored interfacial energy. The sensitivity lowers with time due to a decrease in interfacial energy resulting from interdiffusion of the elemental layers. Time-dependent interdiffusion is predictable, thereby enabling the functional lifetime of an RML primer to be predetermined by the initial thickness and materials selection of the reacting layers. 10 figs.

  13. Limited-life cartridge primers

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, Daniel M.; Rosen, Robert S.

    2005-04-19

    A cartridge primer which utilizes an explosive that can be designed to become inactive in a predetermined period of time: a limited-life primer. The explosive or combustible material of the primer is an inorganic reactive multilayer (RML). The reaction products of the RML are sub-micron grains of non-corrosive inorganic compounds that would have no harmful effects on firearms or cartridge cases. Unlike use of primers containing lead components, primers utilizing RML's would not present a hazard to the environment. The sensitivity of an RML is determined by the physical structure and the stored interfacial energy. The sensitivity lowers with time due to a decrease in interfacial energy resulting from interdiffusion of the elemental layers. Time-dependent interdiffusion is predictable, thereby enabling the functional lifetime of an RML primer to be predetermined by the initial thickness and materials selection of the reacting layers.

  14. Multiplexed Primer Prediction for PCR

    SciTech Connect

    2007-07-23

    MPP predicts sets of multiplex-compatible primers for Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), finding a near minimal set of primers such that at least one amplicon will be generated from every target sequence in the input file. The code finds highly conserved oligos that are suitable as primers, according to user-specified desired primer characteristics such as length, melting temperature, and amplicon length. The primers are predicted not to form unwanted dimer or hairpin structures. The target sequences used as input can be diverse, since no multiple sequence alighment is required. The code is scalable, taking up to tens of thousands of sequences as input, and works, for example, to find a "universal primer set" for all viral genomes provided as a single input file. The code generates a periodic check-point file, thus in the event of premature execution termination, the application can be restarted from the last check-point file.

  15. Summary of extensometric measurements in El Paso, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heywood, Charles E.

    2003-01-01

    Two counter-weighted-pipe borehole extensometers were installed on the left bank of the Rio Grande between El Paso, Texas, and Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico, in 1992. A shallow extensometer measures vertical compaction in the 6- to 100-meter aquifer-system depth interval. A deep extensometer measures vertical compaction in the 6- to 305-meter aquifer-system depth interval. Both extensometers are referenced to the same surface datum, which allows time-series differencing to determine vertical compaction in the depth interval between 100 and 305 meters. From April 2, 1993, through June 13, 2002, 1.6 centimeters of compaction occurred in the 6-to 305-m depth interval. Until February 1999, most aquifer-system compaction occurred in the deeper aquifer-system interval between 100 and 305 meters, from which ground water was extracted. After that time, compaction in the shallow interval from 6 to 100 meters was predominant and attained a maximum of 7.6 millimeters by June 13, 2002. Minor residual compaction is expected to continue; continued maintenance of the El Paso extensometers would document this process.

  16. Ozone studies in the Paso del Norte region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becerra-Davila, Fernando

    The Paso del Norte region forms the largest contiguous bi-national conglomerate on the US-Mexico border. With a combined population of around 2 million inhabitants, the Paso del Norte region is isolated, more than 500 km away from the nearest urban area of comparable size, thus making it an ideal location for air quality studies of an isolated urban environment. The meteorological conditions leading to a high ozone episode in this region, such as the historical ozone episode of June 2006, are analyzed. It is well known that stagnation and minimal winds, high temperatures, and pressure ridges over the region are conducive to high ozone episodes. In addition, the planetary boundary height is studied to understand its impact on high ozone episodes. Several studies report that ground level ozone non-attainment regulations could be caused not only by local emissions, but also by atmospheric transport. In this work the atmospheric advection of pollutants into the region is analyzed using HYSPLIT backward trajectories. Furthermore, a novel backward trajectory clustering technique is implemented for the summer of 2006. The "ozone weekend effect" (OWE) is a phenomenon by which in some geographical regions ambient ozone concentrations tend to be higher on weekends than on weekdays, despite the lower emissions of ozone precursors during those days. The observed local OWE has never previously been studied in terms of the photolysis rates of four of the main ozone precursors. In this research a novel method that allows the calculation of actinic fluxes, photolysis frequencies and photolysis rates with a high degree of accuracy and reliability has been developed. This method utilizes a combination of the experimental data available for this region in conjunction with a radiative transfer model (TUV model). Three weekend-weekday cases during summers 2006, 2009 and 2010 are studied in this work. In this research, the photolysis impact on the local OWE is studied. The results

  17. A primer on water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leopold, Luna Bergere; Langbein, Walter Basil

    1960-01-01

    When you open the faucet you expect water to flow. And you expect it to flow night or day, summer or winter, whether you want to fill a glass or water the lawn. It should be clean and pure, without any odor.You have seen or read about places where the water doesn't have these qualities. You may have lived in a city where you were allowed to water the lawn only during a few hours of certain days. We know a large town where the water turns brown after every big rainstorm.Beginning shortly after World War II, large areas in the Southwestern United States had a 10-year drought, and newspapers published a lot of information about its effects. Some people say that the growing demand for water will cause serious shortages over much of the country in the next 10 to 40 years. But it has always been true that while water wells and springs dry up in some places, floods may be occurring in other places at the same time.Nearly every month news stories are published describing floods somewhere in the country. In fact, every year, on the average, 75,000 persons are forced from their homes by floods. In some years, as in 1951 when the lower Kansas River experienced a great flood, half a million people are affected. To understand the reasons for such recurring distress, it is necessary to know something about rivers and about the flat land or flood plain that borders the river.Interest in water and related problems is growing as our population increases and as the use of water becomes steadily greater. To help meet this heightened interest in general information about water and its use and control is the reason this primer was written. The primer is in two parts. The first part tells about hydrology, or the science that concerns the relation of water to our earth, and the second part describes the development of water supplies and the use of water. The Geological Survey is publishing this primer in nontechnical language in the hope that it will enable the general reader to

  18. 75 FR 70225 - El Paso Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission El Paso Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application November 9, 2010. Take notice that on October 29, 2010, El Paso Natural Gas Company (EPNG), P.O. Box 1087, Colorado Springs... Natural Gas Act (NGA) and Rule 207(a)(5) of the Commission's regulations, requesting the temporary...

  19. 77 FR 3757 - El Paso Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-25

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission El Paso Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application Take notice that on January 5, 2012, El Paso Natural Gas Company (EPNG), Post Office Box 1087, Colorado Springs, Colorado 80944 filed an application in the above referenced docket pursuant to section 7(b) of the Natural Gas...

  20. Evaluation of Academic Policy Formulation and Implementation Transmountain Early College High School, El Paso, Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heidemann, Virginia Margaret

    2010-01-01

    Transmountain Early College High School (TMECHS) opened in August 2008, created by a partnership between the El Paso Community College (EPCC) and the El Paso Independent School District (EPISD), and supported in its conceptualization, start-up, and first few years operation by grant funding and guidance from the Texas High School Project (THSP)…

  1. Evaluation of Academic Policy Formulation and Implementation Transmountain Early College High School, El Paso, Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heidemann, Virginia Margaret

    2010-01-01

    Transmountain Early College High School (TMECHS) opened in August 2008, created by a partnership between the El Paso Community College (EPCC) and the El Paso Independent School District (EPISD), and supported in its conceptualization, start-up, and first few years operation by grant funding and guidance from the Texas High School Project (THSP)…

  2. ATMOSPHERIC VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND MEASUREMENTS DURING THE 1996 PASO DEL NORTE OZONE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ambient air VOC samples were collected at surface air quality monitoring sites, near sources of interest, and aloft on the US (El Paso) and Mexican (Ciudad Juarez) side of the border during a six-week period of the 1996 Paso del Norte Ozone Study. Samples were collected at five...

  3. ATMOSPHERIC VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND MEASUREMENTS DURING THE 1996 PASO DEL NORTE OZONE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ambient air VOC samples were collected at surface air quality monitoring sites, near sources of interest, and aloft on the US (El Paso) and Mexican (Ciudad Juarez) side of the border during a six-week period of the 1996 Paso del Norte Ozone Study. Samples were collected at five...

  4. A Brief Taxometrics Primer

    PubMed Central

    Beauchaine, Theodore P.

    2009-01-01

    Taxometric procedures provide an empirical means of determining which psychiatric disorders are typologically distinct from normal behavioral functioning. Although most disorders reflect extremes along continuously distributed behavioral traits, identifying those that are discrete has important implications for accurate diagnosis, effective treatment, early identification of risk, and improved understanding of etiology. This article provides (a) brief descriptions of the conceptual bases of several taxometric procedures, (b) example analyses using simulated data, and (c) strategies for avoiding common pitfalls that are often observed in taxometrics research. To date, most taxometrics studies have appeared in the adult psychopathology literature. It is hoped that this primer will encourage interested readers to extend taxometrics research to child and adolescent populations. PMID:18088222

  5. Metabolomics: A Primer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaojing; Locasale, Jason W

    2017-04-01

    Metabolomics generates a profile of small molecules that are derived from cellular metabolism and can directly reflect the outcome of complex networks of biochemical reactions, thus providing insights into multiple aspects of cellular physiology. Technological advances have enabled rapid and increasingly expansive data acquisition with samples as small as single cells; however, substantial challenges in the field remain. In this primer we provide an overview of metabolomics, especially mass spectrometry (MS)-based metabolomics, which uses liquid chromatography (LC) for separation, and discuss its utilities and limitations. We identify and discuss several areas at the frontier of metabolomics. Our goal is to give the reader a sense of what might be accomplished when conducting a metabolomics experiment, now and in the near future.

  6. Neuraminidase Subtyping of Avian Influenza Viruses with PrimerHunter-Designed Primers and Quadruplicate Primer Pools

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yanyan; Khan, Mazhar; Măndoiu, Ion I.

    2013-01-01

    We have previously developed a software package called PrimerHunter to design primers for PCR-based virus subtyping. In this study, 9 pairs of primers were designed with PrimerHunter and successfully used to differentiate the 9 neuraminidase (NA) genes of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) in multiple PCR-based assays. Furthermore, primer pools were designed and successfully used to decrease the number of reactions needed for NA subtyping from 9 to 4. The quadruplicate primer-pool method is cost-saving, and was shown to be suitable for the NA subtyping of both cultured AIVs and uncultured AIV swab samples. The primers selected for this study showed excellent sensitivity and specificity in NA subtyping by RT-PCR, SYBR green-based Real-time PCR and Real-time RT-PCR methods. AIV RNA of 2 to 200 copies (varied by NA subtypes) could be detected by these reactions. No unspecific amplification was displayed when detecting RNAs of other avian infectious viruses such as Infectious bronchitis virus, Infectious bursal disease virus and Newcastle disease virus. In summary, this study introduced several sensitive and specific PCR-based assays for NA subtyping of AIVs and also validated again the effectiveness of the PrimerHunter tool for the design of subtyping primers. PMID:24312367

  7. Neuraminidase subtyping of avian influenza viruses with PrimerHunter-designed primers and quadruplicate primer pools.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yanyan; Khan, Mazhar I; Khan, Mazhar; Măndoiu, Ion; Măndoiu, Ion I

    2013-01-01

    We have previously developed a software package called PrimerHunter to design primers for PCR-based virus subtyping. In this study, 9 pairs of primers were designed with PrimerHunter and successfully used to differentiate the 9 neuraminidase (NA) genes of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) in multiple PCR-based assays. Furthermore, primer pools were designed and successfully used to decrease the number of reactions needed for NA subtyping from 9 to 4. The quadruplicate primer-pool method is cost-saving, and was shown to be suitable for the NA subtyping of both cultured AIVs and uncultured AIV swab samples. The primers selected for this study showed excellent sensitivity and specificity in NA subtyping by RT-PCR, SYBR green-based Real-time PCR and Real-time RT-PCR methods. AIV RNA of 2 to 200 copies (varied by NA subtypes) could be detected by these reactions. No unspecific amplification was displayed when detecting RNAs of other avian infectious viruses such as Infectious bronchitis virus, Infectious bursal disease virus and Newcastle disease virus. In summary, this study introduced several sensitive and specific PCR-based assays for NA subtyping of AIVs and also validated again the effectiveness of the PrimerHunter tool for the design of subtyping primers.

  8. Explanatory chapter: PCR primer design.

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Fernández, Rubén

    2013-01-01

    This chapter is intended as a guide on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primer design (for information on PCR, see General PCR and Explanatory Chapter: Troubleshooting PCR). In the next section, general guidelines will be provided, followed by a discussion on primer design for specific applications. A list of recommended software tools is shown at the end. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. 77 FR 59607 - El Paso Natural Gas Company; Notice of Public Scoping Meetings for the Planned SASABE Lateral...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-28

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission El Paso Natural Gas Company; Notice of Public Scoping Meetings for the... or Commission) Office of Energy Project's staff will hold public scoping meetings for El Paso Natural Gas Company's (El Paso) Sasabe Lateral Project (Project). The Project is a planned 60- mile-long...

  10. DELIVERING TIMELY AIR QUALITY, TRAFFIC, AND WEATHER INFORMATION TO YOUR COMMUNITY/THE PASO DEL NORTE ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has developed a technology transfer handbook for the EMPACT Paso del Norte Project. The EMPACT Paso del Norte Environmental Monitoring Project is a mobile vehicle emissions project that involves the international community of El Paso, TX; Sundland Park, NM; and Juarez, Mexico...

  11. 40 CFR 81.82 - El Paso-Las Cruces-Alamogordo Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false El Paso-Las Cruces-Alamogordo... Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.82 El Paso-Las Cruces-Alamogordo Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The El Paso-Las Cruces-Alamogordo Interstate Air Quality Control Region (New...

  12. DELIVERING TIMELY AIR QUALITY, TRAFFIC, AND WEATHER INFORMATION TO YOUR COMMUNITY/THE PASO DEL NORTE ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has developed a technology transfer handbook for the EMPACT Paso del Norte Project. The EMPACT Paso del Norte Environmental Monitoring Project is a mobile vehicle emissions project that involves the international community of El Paso, TX; Sundland Park, NM; and Juarez, Mexico...

  13. 30 CFR 56.6304 - Primer protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Primer protection. 56.6304 Section 56.6304... Primer protection. (a) Tamping shall not be done directly on a primer. (b) Rigid cartridges of explosives... the primer except where the blasthole contains sufficient depth of water to protect the primer...

  14. 30 CFR 56.6304 - Primer protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Primer protection. 56.6304 Section 56.6304... Primer protection. (a) Tamping shall not be done directly on a primer. (b) Rigid cartridges of explosives... the primer except where the blasthole contains sufficient depth of water to protect the primer...

  15. 30 CFR 56.6304 - Primer protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Primer protection. 56.6304 Section 56.6304... Primer protection. (a) Tamping shall not be done directly on a primer. (b) Rigid cartridges of explosives... the primer except where the blasthole contains sufficient depth of water to protect the primer...

  16. 30 CFR 56.6304 - Primer protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Primer protection. 56.6304 Section 56.6304... Primer protection. (a) Tamping shall not be done directly on a primer. (b) Rigid cartridges of explosives... the primer except where the blasthole contains sufficient depth of water to protect the primer...

  17. 30 CFR 56.6304 - Primer protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Primer protection. 56.6304 Section 56.6304... Primer protection. (a) Tamping shall not be done directly on a primer. (b) Rigid cartridges of explosives... the primer except where the blasthole contains sufficient depth of water to protect the primer...

  18. [Energy education exhibits for Insights El Paso Science Museum

    SciTech Connect

    Shubinski, R.

    1998-05-27

    The grant in question, DE-FG03-94ER75954, was awarded to Insights El Paso Science Museum to build key exhibits. These exhibits helped the Museum fulfill its mission to ``promote curiosity and stimulate interest by exploratory, entertaining, exciting, and participatory learning in a broad range of scientific disciplines to persons of all ages regionally and internationally.`` There are several current Board of Directors members who also were Board members during the grant period and who helped construct some of the exhibits. Through speaking with them and reviewing minutes of Board meetings during 1994, it has been determined that seven of the ten proposed exhibits were constructed, with an eighth exhibit constructed as an alternative. Photos of seven of the exhibits and preliminary sketches of some are attached. Following is a list of the constructed exhibits: Hot or Cold, Give and Take, Conduction, Convection, Sources of Energy, Wind Generator, Solar Tracker, and Perpetual Motion.

  19. BatchPrimer3: a high throughput web application for PCR and sequencing primer design.

    PubMed

    You, Frank M; Huo, Naxin; Gu, Yong Qiang; Luo, Ming-Cheng; Ma, Yaqin; Hane, Dave; Lazo, Gerard R; Dvorak, Jan; Anderson, Olin D

    2008-05-29

    Microsatellite (simple sequence repeat - SSR) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers are two types of important genetic markers useful in genetic mapping and genotyping. Often, large-scale genomic research projects require high-throughput computer-assisted primer design. Numerous such web-based or standard-alone programs for PCR primer design are available but vary in quality and functionality. In particular, most programs lack batch primer design capability. Such a high-throughput software tool for designing SSR flanking primers and SNP genotyping primers is increasingly demanded. A new web primer design program, BatchPrimer3, is developed based on Primer3. BatchPrimer3 adopted the Primer3 core program as a major primer design engine to choose the best primer pairs. A new score-based primer picking module is incorporated into BatchPrimer3 and used to pick position-restricted primers. BatchPrimer3 v1.0 implements several types of primer designs including generic primers, SSR primers together with SSR detection, and SNP genotyping primers (including single-base extension primers, allele-specific primers, and tetra-primers for tetra-primer ARMS PCR), as well as DNA sequencing primers. DNA sequences in FASTA format can be batch read into the program. The basic information of input sequences, as a reference of parameter setting of primer design, can be obtained by pre-analysis of sequences. The input sequences can be pre-processed and masked to exclude and/or include specific regions, or set targets for different primer design purposes as in Primer3Web and primer3Plus. A tab-delimited or Excel-formatted primer output also greatly facilitates the subsequent primer-ordering process. Thousands of primers, including wheat conserved intron-flanking primers, wheat genome-specific SNP genotyping primers, and Brachypodium SSR flanking primers in several genome projects have been designed using the program and validated in several laboratories. BatchPrimer3 is a

  20. Characterization and Transport of Aerosols in the El Paso- Juarez Airshed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, R. R.; Fitzgerald, R. M.

    2003-12-01

    Aerosol optical depth measurements, in conjunction with novel inversion techniques, are used to determine the size distribution of airborne particulates in the El Paso, TX-Juarez, MX region (El Paso-Juarez Airshed). The inversion method was developed using Twomey's regularization method as a foundation. In our methodology novel algorithms are developed to determine the constraint coefficient and the regularization matrices. The extinction coefficient of the airborne particulates is calculated utilizing the T-matrix code. SEM images of regional airborne particulates are analyzed to determine aerosol physical characteristics for input into the T-matrix. Subsequently, the Mesoscale Model 5 in combination with trajectory analysis is implemented to study the transport of particulates in the El Paso-Juarez Airshed. The impact of an urban area on the concentration of aerosols on the surrounding rural and pastoral areas is analyzed for the El Paso-Juarez Airshed.

  1. EPA Recognizes Two El Paso Federal Facilities for Significant Energy Reductions and Cost Savings

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    DALLAS - (April 28, 2015) Today the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recognized the Drug Enforcement Administration' El Paso Intelligence Center (EPIC) and the Armendariz US Courthouse for reducing their environmental impacts. As part of t

  2. 77 FR 27774 - Kinder Morgan, Inc. and El Paso Corporation; Analysis of Proposed Agreement Containing Consent...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION Kinder Morgan, Inc. and El Paso Corporation; Analysis of Proposed Agreement Containing Consent Orders To Aid Public Comment; Correction AGENCY: Federal Trade Commission. ACTION: Proposed Consent...

  3. Congenital stationary night blindness in a Thoroughbred and a Paso Fino.

    PubMed

    Nunnery, Catherine; Pickett, J Phillip; Zimmerman, Kurt L

    2005-01-01

    This report documents congenital stationary night blindness (CSNB) in two non-Appaloosa horse breeds (Thoroughbred and Paso Fino). History of vision impairment since birth, normal ocular structures on ophthalmic examination, and electroretinographic findings were consistent with CSNB. In one horse (Thoroughbred), a 9-year follow-up was carried out. In the Paso Fino, severe vision impairment from birth to approximately 1 year of age in both dim and bright light situations led to humane euthanasia and histopathologic confirmation of the disorder.

  4. [Incident reporting systems in anesthesiology--methods and benefits using the example of PaSOS].

    PubMed

    Rall, Marcus; Reddersen, Silke; Zieger, Jörg; Schädle, Bertram; Hirsch, Patricia; Stricker, Eric; Martin, Jörg; Geldner, Götz; Schleppers, Alexander

    2008-09-01

    Preventing patient harm is one of the main tasks for the field of anesthesiology from early on. With the introduction of the national German incident reporting system PaSOS, which is hosted by the German anesthesia society, anesthesiology is again leading the field of patient safety. Important elements, success factors and background information for the introduction of successful incident reporting systems in an organization are given. Examples by and from PaSOS are given.

  5. Charter School Primer. Peter Lang Primer. Volume 34

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tryjankowski, Anne Marie

    2012-01-01

    The "Charter School Primer" presents an overview of public charter schools in the United States. The book discusses what charter schools are; the history of public charter school choice in the United States; the role of teachers, parents, boards, and unions in the charter school movement; and gives examples of innovations in education made…

  6. Vygotsky on Education Primer. Peter Lang Primer. Volume 30

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lake, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The "Vygotsky on Education Primer" serves as an introduction to the life and work of the Russian psychologist Lev Vygotsky. Even though he died almost eighty years ago, his life's work remains both relevant and significant to the field of education today. This book examines Vygotsky's emphasis on the role of cultural and historical context in…

  7. Vygotsky on Education Primer. Peter Lang Primer. Volume 30

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lake, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The "Vygotsky on Education Primer" serves as an introduction to the life and work of the Russian psychologist Lev Vygotsky. Even though he died almost eighty years ago, his life's work remains both relevant and significant to the field of education today. This book examines Vygotsky's emphasis on the role of cultural and historical context in…

  8. Charter School Primer. Peter Lang Primer. Volume 34

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tryjankowski, Anne Marie

    2012-01-01

    The "Charter School Primer" presents an overview of public charter schools in the United States. The book discusses what charter schools are; the history of public charter school choice in the United States; the role of teachers, parents, boards, and unions in the charter school movement; and gives examples of innovations in education made…

  9. Straight Talk: A Communication Primer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maidment, Robert

    Using typical statements made by teachers and school administrators as examples, this self-help primer offers tips for developing conversational patterns that promote interpersonal understanding. The tips are designed to help readers learn about 40 effective conversational habits, including being specific, talking sparingly, admitting mistakes,…

  10. A Primer on Multilevel Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Andrew F.

    2006-01-01

    Multilevel modeling (MLM) is growing in use throughout the social sciences. Although daunting from a mathematical perspective, MLM is relatively easy to employ once some basic concepts are understood. In this article, I present a primer on MLM, describing some of these principles and applying them to the analysis of a multilevel data set on…

  11. A Hearing Aid Primer 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yetter, Carol J.

    2009-01-01

    This hearing aid primer is designed to define the differences among the three levels of hearing instrument technology: conventional analog circuit technology (most basic), digitally programmable/analog circuit technology (moderately advanced), and fully digital technology (most advanced). Both moderate and advanced technologies mean that hearing…

  12. Freshwater Wetlands: A Citizen's Primer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catskill Center for Conservation and Development, Inc., Hobart, NY.

    The purpose of this "primer" for the general public is to describe the general characteristics of wetlands and how wetland alteration adversely affects the well-being of humans. Particular emphasis is placed on wetlands in New York State and the northeast. Topics discussed include wetland values, destruction of wetlands, the costs of…

  13. A Hearing Aid Primer 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yetter, Carol J.

    2009-01-01

    This hearing aid primer is designed to define the differences among the three levels of hearing instrument technology: conventional analog circuit technology (most basic), digitally programmable/analog circuit technology (moderately advanced), and fully digital technology (most advanced). Both moderate and advanced technologies mean that hearing…

  14. Primer vector theory and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jezewski, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    A method developed to compute two-body, optimal, N-impulse trajectories was presented. The necessary conditions established define the gradient structure of the primer vector and its derivative for any set of boundary conditions and any number of impulses. Inequality constraints, a conjugate gradient iterator technique, and the use of a penalty function were also discussed.

  15. Postsecondary Data Connections: A Primer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Data Quality Campaign, 2011

    2011-01-01

    There is an increasing focus at the state and federal levels on linking data across the P-20/Workforce spectrum to help inform policies and practices. This primer is intended to provide policymakers with: (1) An overview of the status of states vis-a-vis the linking of postsecondary data to K-12 and workforce data; (2) A subset of questions…

  16. Freshwater Wetlands: A Citizen's Primer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catskill Center for Conservation and Development, Inc., Hobart, NY.

    The purpose of this "primer" for the general public is to describe the general characteristics of wetlands and how wetland alteration adversely affects the well-being of humans. Particular emphasis is placed on wetlands in New York State and the northeast. Topics discussed include wetland values, destruction of wetlands, the costs of…

  17. Alternative Teacher Compensation: A Primer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koppich, Julia E.; Rigby, Jessica

    2009-01-01

    This policy primer is designed to provide base-line information about new forms of teacher pay that are emerging around the country, to support the local conversations and negotiations that will lead to the development of innovative compensation systems. It identifies reasons why teacher compensation is high on local, state, and federal policy…

  18. Social Disparities in Children’s Respiratory Health in El Paso, Texas

    PubMed Central

    Grineski, Sara E.; Collins, Timothy W.; Chavez-Payan, Paola; Jimenez, Anthony M.; Clark-Reyna, Stephanie; Gaines, Marie; Kim, Young-an

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess prevalence of children’s respiratory health conditions and to measure and describe social disparities in children’s respiratory problems and access to health resources for asthma/wheezing management. Data were collected through a cross-sectional, observational mail survey of all primary caretakers of 4th and 5th grade children in El Paso Independent School District (El Paso, TX, USA). 6295 primary caretakers received surveys at their home address and 1904 surveys were completed and returned for a 30% response rate. El Paso children have high rates of asthma (17%) and allergies (51%). In terms of social disparities, children that are male, not poor, obese, Hispanic, born in El Paso, have a US-born caretaker, and have a caretaker who has lower levels Spanish proficiency have increased odds of respiratory problems. Among children with asthma and wheezing, disparities exist in access to care; those that are poor, with a Spanish-speaking caretaker, or with a foreign-born caretaker had increased odds of seeking care in urgent care center, emergency rooms and hospitals. Results have scholarly and practical implications for broader trends in terms of increasing prevalence of respiratory health problems across multiple scales (from El Paso to the US context to worldwide) and health disparities experienced within the rapidly growing US Hispanic population. PMID:24619157

  19. Pasos Adelante: the effectiveness of a community-based chronic disease prevention program.

    PubMed

    Staten, Lisa K; Scheu, Linda L; Bronson, Dan; Peña, Veronica; Elenes, JoJean

    2005-01-01

    Implementing programs that target primary prevention of chronic diseases is critical for at-risk populations. Pasos Adelante, or "Steps Forward," is a curriculum aimed at preventing diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and other chronic diseases in Hispanic populations. Pasos Adelante is adapted from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's cardiovascular disease prevention curriculum, Su Corazon, Su Vida, and includes sessions on diabetes and community advocacy and incorporates walking clubs. The Pasos Adelante curriculum was implemented in two Arizona, United States-Sonora, Mexico border counties. Key issues in these communities are safety, access to recreational facilities, climate, and cultural beliefs. Pasos Adelante is a 12-week program facilitated by community health workers. The program includes interactive sessions on chronic disease prevention, nutrition, and physical activity. Evaluation of the program included precurriculum and postcurriculum questionnaires with self-reported measures of physical activity and dietary patterns. Approximately 250 people participated in the program in Yuma and Santa Cruz counties. Postprogram evaluation results demonstrate a significant increase in moderate to vigorous walking among participants and shifts in nutritional patterns. The Pasos Adelante program demonstrates that an educational curriculum in conjunction with the support of community health workers can motivate people in Arizona/Sonora border communities to adopt healthy lifestyle behaviors.

  20. Seismic Hazard Analysis in EL Paso/juarez Area from Study of Young Fault Scarps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ashenfelter, K. R.

    2012-12-01

    The El Paso-Juarez metropolitan area contains a known record of active faulting, but also has one of the most poorly known paleoseismic records. The scarcity of data means that nearly 2 million people are exposed to a seismic hazard with little known on the actual risk. Active faults are known along the eastern side of the Franklin Mountains as well as young ruptures within the Hueco Bolson in East El Paso, yet the only fault with paleoseismic studies is the East Franklin's fault. Recent population increases in the El Paso region have led to a construction boom in east El Paso, and many of these construction sites cross known Quaternary fault ruptures. This research project contains two potential components: 1) An exploratory component: students can use existing fault maps and high resolution aerial photography to seek out sites where active construction sites might be unearthing exposures of young fault ruptures. The study is exploratory, and involves carefully mapping using field GIS systems to document areas for potential study, map possible faults, etc. 2) An active fault study in an urbanized environment: The east Franklins fault is a known active fault. The scarp is exposed near trans-mountain road, and along some side streets in NE El Paso. Potential studies include careful mapping of fault scarp topographic profiles, and mapping surface traces.

  1. Ground-water resources of the Hueco Bolson, northeast of El Paso, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knowles, Doyle Blewer; Kennedy, Richard A.

    1958-01-01

    The Hueco Bolson is in the extreme western part of Texas and south- central New Mexico, covering parts of El Paso County, Tex., and Dona Ana and Otero Counties, N. Mex. Wells tapping the bolson deposits furnish the major part of the water supply for the city of El Paso, Ciudad Juarez, Fort Bliss, Biggs Air Force Base, and private industries. in the area. The progressively increasing demand for water made it obvious that a comprehensive investigation of the quantity and quality of water in storage in the entire Hueco Bolson would be essential for the proper planning of future water supplies. A test-drilling program was started in 1953, jointly sponsored by the city of El Paso, the United States Army, the United States Air Force, and the Texas Board of Water Engineers. The drilling was supervised by the United States Geological Survey.

  2. Using Primers to Motivate Your Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graff, Dan

    2002-01-01

    Primers are used to motivate and uplift your class. They come in many different styles and can be used in a variety of ways. Making primers relevant to students helps them to learn and makes them feel appreciated and knowledgeable when they participate. Using primers in the classroom to make students feel valued brings much success.

  3. 30 CFR 57.6304 - Primer protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Primer protection. 57.6304 Section 57.6304... Transportation-Surface and Underground § 57.6304 Primer protection. (a) Tamping shall not be done directly on a primer. (b) Rigid cartridges of explosives or blasting agents that are 4 inches (100 millimeters)...

  4. 30 CFR 57.6304 - Primer protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Primer protection. 57.6304 Section 57.6304... Transportation-Surface and Underground § 57.6304 Primer protection. (a) Tamping shall not be done directly on a primer. (b) Rigid cartridges of explosives or blasting agents that are 4 inches (100 millimeters)...

  5. 30 CFR 75.1317 - Primer cartridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Primer cartridges. 75.1317 Section 75.1317... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1317 Primer cartridges. (a) Primer cartridges shall be primed and loaded only by a qualified person or a person working in...

  6. 30 CFR 75.1317 - Primer cartridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Primer cartridges. 75.1317 Section 75.1317... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1317 Primer cartridges. (a) Primer cartridges shall be primed and loaded only by a qualified person or a person working in...

  7. 30 CFR 75.1317 - Primer cartridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Primer cartridges. 75.1317 Section 75.1317... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1317 Primer cartridges. (a) Primer cartridges shall be primed and loaded only by a qualified person or a person working in...

  8. 30 CFR 75.1317 - Primer cartridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Primer cartridges. 75.1317 Section 75.1317... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1317 Primer cartridges. (a) Primer cartridges shall be primed and loaded only by a qualified person or a person working in...

  9. 30 CFR 57.6304 - Primer protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Primer protection. 57.6304 Section 57.6304... Transportation-Surface and Underground § 57.6304 Primer protection. (a) Tamping shall not be done directly on a primer. (b) Rigid cartridges of explosives or blasting agents that are 4 inches (100 millimeters)...

  10. 30 CFR 57.6304 - Primer protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Primer protection. 57.6304 Section 57.6304... Transportation-Surface and Underground § 57.6304 Primer protection. (a) Tamping shall not be done directly on a primer. (b) Rigid cartridges of explosives or blasting agents that are 4 inches (100 millimeters)...

  11. 30 CFR 75.1317 - Primer cartridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Primer cartridges. 75.1317 Section 75.1317... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1317 Primer cartridges. (a) Primer cartridges shall be primed and loaded only by a qualified person or a person working in...

  12. 30 CFR 57.6304 - Primer protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Primer protection. 57.6304 Section 57.6304... Transportation-Surface and Underground § 57.6304 Primer protection. (a) Tamping shall not be done directly on a primer. (b) Rigid cartridges of explosives or blasting agents that are 4 inches (100 millimeters)...

  13. Primer3--new capabilities and interfaces.

    PubMed

    Untergasser, Andreas; Cutcutache, Ioana; Koressaar, Triinu; Ye, Jian; Faircloth, Brant C; Remm, Maido; Rozen, Steven G

    2012-08-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a basic molecular biology technique with a multiplicity of uses, including deoxyribonucleic acid cloning and sequencing, functional analysis of genes, diagnosis of diseases, genotyping and discovery of genetic variants. Reliable primer design is crucial for successful PCR, and for over a decade, the open-source Primer3 software has been widely used for primer design, often in high-throughput genomics applications. It has also been incorporated into numerous publicly available software packages and web services. During this period, we have greatly expanded Primer3's functionality. In this article, we describe Primer3's current capabilities, emphasizing recent improvements. The most notable enhancements incorporate more accurate thermodynamic models in the primer design process, both to improve melting temperature prediction and to reduce the likelihood that primers will form hairpins or dimers. Additional enhancements include more precise control of primer placement-a change motivated partly by opportunities to use whole-genome sequences to improve primer specificity. We also added features to increase ease of use, including the ability to save and re-use parameter settings and the ability to require that individual primers not be used in more than one primer pair. We have made the core code more modular and provided cleaner programming interfaces to further ease integration with other software. These improvements position Primer3 for continued use with genome-scale data in the decade ahead.

  14. El Paso and White Sands area as seen from the Apollo 6 unmanned spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    The El Paso and White Sands area are photographed from the Apollo 6 (Spacecraft 020/Saturn 502) unmanned space mission three hours and eight minutes after liftoff. North is toward top of picture. Near bottom center of picture is the El Paso-Ciudad Juarez, Mexico metropolitan area. At the top is the White Sands National Monument area. Note Rio Grande River on left side of picture. The snow-covered Sacremento Mountains are seen in the upper right corner. The altitude of the spacecraft when this photograph was taken was 115 nautical miles.

  15. Participation in prenatal care in the Paso del Norte border region: the influence of acculturation.

    PubMed

    Fullerton, Judith T; Bader, Julia; Nelson, Carlene; Shannon, Rachel

    2006-01-01

    Women who resided on the El Paso, Texas/Juarez, Mexico border (the Paso del Norte region) were surveyed to determine the barriers and facilitators to receiving early and adequate prenatal care. Postpartum interviews and medical chart abstractions were conducted among 493 Hispanic women. Primary facilitators were all factors that made prenatal care services more accessible to women and a priority among other issues competing for time and resources. The factors reported by these women as barriers to timely entry and sustaining enrollment in prenatal care were related to the availability of social support networks and affiliation with the Mexican/Hispanic culture (acculturation).

  16. El Paso and White Sands area as seen from the Apollo 6 unmanned spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    The El Paso and White Sands area are photographed from the Apollo 6 (Spacecraft 020/Saturn 502) unmanned space mission three hours and eight minutes after liftoff. North is toward top of picture. Near bottom center of picture is the El Paso-Ciudad Juarez, Mexico metropolitan area. At the top is the White Sands National Monument area. Note Rio Grande River on left side of picture. The snow-covered Sacremento Mountains are seen in the upper right corner. The altitude of the spacecraft when this photograph was taken was 115 nautical miles.

  17. Strategic Leadership Primer (Third Edition)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    Department of Command, Leadership, and Management United States Army War College STRATEGIC LEADERSHIP PRIMER 3rd Edition 2010 United States Army ...UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) U.S. Army War College,Department of Command, Leadership, and Management,Carlisle,PA...by ANSI Std Z39-18 Department of Command, Leadership and Management United States Army War College Carlisle Barracks, PA 17013-5050 3rd Edition

  18. HIV lipodystrophy syndrome: a primer.

    PubMed

    Robinson, F Patrick

    2004-01-01

    Treatment with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has been implicated in the development of anthropomorphic and metabolic abnormalities termed HIV lipodystrophy syndrome (or LDS). This primer offers a comprehensive overview of LDS including epidemiology, hypothesized etiologies, and clinical consequences. The evidence-based literature is reviewed for current treatment strategies including discontinuation of specific antiretrovirals, pharmacological management of dyslipidemia and insulin resistance, exercise training, facial augmentation, liposuction, and hormonal therapy. Patient education, counseling, and adherence are discussed.

  19. Combination Primer/Topcoat Coating.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-16

    generally to a coating for metallic or polymeric composite substrates and more particularly to such a coating which can perform as both a primer and a...topcoat.-- 15 Many metal and polymeric composite surfaces require the protection of a coating. For exampleANavy aircraft surfaces need protection from the...invention top-evide-a-si-ngw--coati-ng which-lan be applied directly to.a metal or polymeric composite substrate and also perform as a topcoat.. 15

  20. 78 FR 22540 - El Paso Natural Gas Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission El Paso Natural Gas Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Petition for... Practice and Procedure, 18 CFR 385.207(a)(2)(2012), El Paso Natural Gas Company, L.L.C. (EPNG) submits...

  1. GIS-MODELED INDICATORS OF MOBILE SOURCE EMISSIONS AND ADVERSE HEALTH EFFECTS AMONG CHILDREN IN EL PASO, TEXAS, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The El Paso Children's Health Study has been a major collaborative effort by NHEERL and NERL scientists to examine the role of mobile source emissions in the development of allergies and asthma among 4th and 5th grade children in El Paso, TX. The purpose of this study was to det...

  2. GIS-MODELED INDICATORS OF MOBILE SOURCE EMISSIONS AND ADVERSE HEALTH EFFECTS AMONG CHILDREN IN EL PASO, TEXAS,USA*

    EPA Science Inventory

    The El Paso Children's Health Study has been a major collaborative effort by NHEERL and NERL scientists to examine the role of mobile source emissions in the development of allergies and asthma among 4th and 5th grade children in El Paso, TX. The purpose of this study was to dete...

  3. CONTINUOUS MEASUREMENT OF FINE AND ULTRAFINE PARTICULATE MATTER, CRITERIA POLLUTANTS AND METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS IN URBAN EL PASO, TEXAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Continuous measurements of aerosol size distributions were made in El Paso, TX, for a period in winter 1999. Size distribution measurements were performed at two urban locations in El Paso using two pairs of the scanning mobility particle sizer and the aerodynamic particle si...

  4. GIS-MODELED INDICATORS OF MOBILE SOURCE EMISSIONS AND ADVERSE HEALTH EFFECTS AMONG CHILDREN IN EL PASO, TEXAS, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The El Paso Children's Health Study has been a major collaborative effort by NHEERL and NERL scientists to examine the role of mobile source emissions in the development of allergies and asthma among 4th and 5th grade children in El Paso, TX. The purpose of this study was to det...

  5. CONTINUOUS MEASUREMENT OF FINE AND ULTRAFINE PARTICULATE MATTER, CRITERIA POLLUTANTS AND METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS IN URBAN EL PASO, TEXAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Continuous measurements of aerosol size distributions were made in El Paso, TX, for a period in winter 1999. Size distribution measurements were performed at two urban locations in El Paso using two pairs of the scanning mobility particle sizer and the aerodynamic particle si...

  6. Output testing of small-arms primers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, Laurence J.; Doris, Thomas A.; Schimmel, Morry L.

    1991-01-01

    The performance of two standard primers for initiating small-caliber ammunition are compared to that of a primer for initiating aircraft escape-system components. Three testing methods are employed including: (1) firing the primer to measure total energy delivered; (2) monitoring output in terms of gaseous product-mass flow rate and pressure as a function of time; and (3) firing the primer onto ignition material to study gas pressure produced during ignition and burning as a function of time. The results of the test demonstrate differences in the ignitability factors of the standard primers and time peak pressures of less than 100 microseconds. One unexpected result is that two percussion primers (the FA-41 and the M42C1) developed for different applications have the same ignitability. The ignitability test method is shown to yield the most useful data and can be used to specify percussion primers and optimize their performance.

  7. Water based adhesive primers on aluminum substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Wightman, J.P.; Mori, S.

    1996-12-31

    The number of aluminum alloy bonding applications has been increasing recently in the automobile industry. Primer coating of aluminum substrates is one of the main processes used to promote bond performance. Solvent based organic primers have been used for a long time but environmental regulations now require the substitution of volatile organic compounds (VOC) by alternate materials such as water based adhesive primers. However, the bond strengths obtained with many water based primers are generally lower than for solvent based ones. Water based primers which have some reactive functional groups have been proposed recently but such primers require special treatment. This paper describes a study conducted to optimize bond strength using a water based adhesive as a primer in the adhesive bonding of anodized aluminum.

  8. Mediated Debate, Historical Framing, and Public Art: The Juan de Onate Controversy in El Paso

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Frank G.; Ortega, Carlos F.

    2008-01-01

    In 1988, the El Paso, Texas, city council accepted a proposal to build twelve statues of historically important individuals as part of a downtown revitalization initiative. Juan de Onate was selected as the centerpiece statue of the XII Travelers Memorial of the Southwest. The decision to honor the Spanish colonizer triggered a local controversy…

  9. Comparing Values in Education on the U.S.-Mexican Border, El Paso and Ciudad Juarez.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rippberger, Susan; Staudt, Kathleen

    A three-year study examined attitudes toward education and public schools through behaviors in elementary schools in two United States-Mexican border towns, El Paso (Texas) and Ciudad Juarez (Mexico). It looked at curricular civic rituals such as the flag salute, and more covert normative training found in classroom organization and management…

  10. Urban Impact of Dissolved Metals in the Paso del Norte Segment of the Rio Grande

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freiwan, Sumayeh Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    The Paso del Norte segment of the Rio Grande experiences two seasons per year; the (wet) irrigation season and the (dry) non-irrigation season. The goal of this study was to improve the understanding of occurrence and contribution of dissolved metals in this region during the non-irrigation season. The objectives of this study were to (1) evaluate…

  11. Mediated Debate, Historical Framing, and Public Art: The Juan de Onate Controversy in El Paso

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Frank G.; Ortega, Carlos F.

    2008-01-01

    In 1988, the El Paso, Texas, city council accepted a proposal to build twelve statues of historically important individuals as part of a downtown revitalization initiative. Juan de Onate was selected as the centerpiece statue of the XII Travelers Memorial of the Southwest. The decision to honor the Spanish colonizer triggered a local controversy…

  12. 78 FR 58049 - Proposed Establishment of the Adelaida District, Creston District, El Pomar District, Paso Robles...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-20

    ... colluvial (deposited by landslides) sediments. The San Andreas Fault Zone stretches southeast to northwest... floodplains. The United States Department of Agriculture's 1978 General Soil Map for the Paso Robles Area of.... Over time, Huerhuero Creek has transported mixed sediments of granitic boulders, cobbles, finer...

  13. Urban Impact of Dissolved Metals in the Paso del Norte Segment of the Rio Grande

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freiwan, Sumayeh Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    The Paso del Norte segment of the Rio Grande experiences two seasons per year; the (wet) irrigation season and the (dry) non-irrigation season. The goal of this study was to improve the understanding of occurrence and contribution of dissolved metals in this region during the non-irrigation season. The objectives of this study were to (1) evaluate…

  14. 78 FR 15683 - Approval of Subzone Status, Expeditors International of Washington, Inc.; El Paso, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-12

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Approval of Subzone Status, Expeditors International of Washington, Inc.; El... application submitted by the City of El Paso, grantee of FTZ 68, requesting subzone status subject to the existing activation limit of FTZ 68, on behalf of Expeditors International of Washington, Inc., in El...

  15. Public Participation and Natural Habitat Preservation Along Arcade Creek, Del Paso Regional Park, Sacramento, California

    Treesearch

    Timothy J. Vendlinski; Steven N. Talley

    1989-01-01

    Thirty-six hectares (90 acres) of riparian forest, high terrace oak woodland-savanna, and upland vernal pools were preserved along Arcade Creek in Sacramento, California as a result of citizen involvement in a city-sponsored master plan process for Del Paso Regional Park. Citizens formed an organization and called for a comprehensive Environmental Impact Report to...

  16. Moving Welfare Families into Economic Self-Sufficiency: A Model from El Paso Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bombach, Kathleen

    2001-01-01

    Discusses how El Paso Community College (Texas) linked welfare-to-work participants to college credit programs that offer realistic pathways to certificates, associate degrees, and bachelor degrees. Stresses training for employment that offers a living wage over immediate employment. (AUTH/NB)

  17. Sample Return Primer and Handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrow, Kirk; Cheuvront, Allan; Faris, Grant; Hirst, Edward; Mainland, Nora; McGee, Michael; Szalai, Christine; Vellinga, Joseph; Wahl, Thomas; Williams, Kenneth; hide

    2007-01-01

    This three-part Sample Return Primer and Handbook provides a road map for conducting the terminal phase of a sample return mission. The main chapters describe element-by-element analyses and trade studies, as well as required operations plans, procedures, contingencies, interfaces, and corresponding documentation. Based on the experiences of the lead Stardust engineers, the topics include systems engineering (in particular range safety compliance), mission design and navigation, spacecraft hardware and entry, descent, and landing certification, flight and recovery operations, mission assurance and system safety, test and training, and the very important interactions with external support organizations (non-NASA tracking assets, landing site support, and science curation).

  18. Sample Return Primer and Handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrow, Kirk; Cheuvront, Allan; Faris, Grant; Hirst, Edward; Mainland, Nora; McGee, Michael; Szalai, Christine; Vellinga, Joseph; Wahl, Thomas; Williams, Kenneth; Lee, Gentry; Duxbury, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    This three-part Sample Return Primer and Handbook provides a road map for conducting the terminal phase of a sample return mission. The main chapters describe element-by-element analyses and trade studies, as well as required operations plans, procedures, contingencies, interfaces, and corresponding documentation. Based on the experiences of the lead Stardust engineers, the topics include systems engineering (in particular range safety compliance), mission design and navigation, spacecraft hardware and entry, descent, and landing certification, flight and recovery operations, mission assurance and system safety, test and training, and the very important interactions with external support organizations (non-NASA tracking assets, landing site support, and science curation).

  19. Interaction and Relationship Between Groundwater and Surface Water at Keystone Heritage Park EL Paso Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, B.

    2012-12-01

    Belinda Gonzalez1, Joshua Villalobos1, Marissa Cameron 2 1Department of Geological Sciences, El Paso Community College, El Paso, TX 79925, USA 2Department of Geological Sciences, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968, USA beli_72764@yahoo.com Historically the floodplain of the Rio Grande River was dotted with shifting wetlands and ponds.The increasing population throughout the United States and Mexico has made it necessary to put the Rio Grande floodplain under till for cultivation. Along with cultivation, the river was channelized and dammed to prevent flooding and to stabilize the Mexico/U.S. border.The loss of wetland ecosystems in the area changed migration patterns of water fowl and destroyed priceless aquatic habitats.The area of our study, Keystone Heritage Park, is the last remaining open wetlands in El Paso County. Before efforts of restoration to reestablish wetlands associated with the Rio Grande can begin, there must be an in-depth, and complete, understanding of the surface and subsurface hydrological system which created and sustains this last remaining wetland. Studies of the wetland's soil properties and their effect on groundwater flow have indicated regions on the periphery of the wetlands where soils are saturated with moisture.These subsurface regions of saturated soils are semi-linear in shape and lead toward the wetland indicating that they are possible loci for groundwater flow for the wetland.These subsurface soil layers are possibly composed of mountain front alluvium that is being feed with meteoric water entering faults that bound the nearby Franklin Mountains.The primary goals of this study are 1) initiate a systematic data acquisition from 9 piezometers and 2 water level loggers of temporal variations in the depth of the groundwater due to regional pumping or rain fall and 2) generate a depth and TDS (Total Dissolved Solids) profile of the wetland pond to locate regions where groundwater maybe entering the lake.

  20. Hydrocarbon source apportionment for the 1996 Paso del Norte Ozone Study.

    PubMed

    Fujita, E M

    2001-08-10

    The 1996 Paso del Norte (PdN) ozone study was conducted to improve current understanding of the significant meteorological and air quality processes that lead to high concentrations of ozone in El Paso, Texas (USA) and Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua (Mexico). Two-hour canister samples were collected five times daily at 05.00-07.00 h, 07.00-09.00 h, 09.00-11.00 h, 11.00-13.00 h, and 15.00-17.00 h MST during intensive study periods at one urban and one rural site on each side of the border. An automated gas chromatograph was operated at one site in central El Paso. Source profiles (the fractional chemical composition of emissions) from motor vehicles, gasoline, liquefied petroleum gas, and commercial natural gas were combined with source profiles from other studies for input to the Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) receptor model to apportion the measured non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC) to sources. On-road vehicle emissions accounted for one-half to two-thirds of the NMHC in Ciudad Juárez and El Paso with the highest contributions occurring during the morning and afternoon commute periods. Emissions from diesel exhaust contributed approximately 2-3% of NMHC in Ciudad Juárez and less than 2% in El Paso. The average sum of liquid gasoline and gasoline vapor increased during the day in Ciudad Juárez from 2% at 06.00 h to approximately 12% at 16.00 h. Diurnal and day-of-the-week patterns in the liquid gasoline contributions are essentially identical to the corresponding patterns for motor vehicle exhaust, which suggest that a large fraction of the liquid gasoline contribution may be associated with tailpipe emissions rather than evaporative emissions from motor vehicles or industrial sources. Including the sum of the two sources put the upper limit for tailpipe contributions at 60-70% of NMHC.

  1. Atmospheric volatile organic compound measurements during the 1996 Paso del Norte Ozone Study.

    PubMed

    Seila, R L; Main, H H; Arriaga, J L; Martínez, G; Ramadan, A B

    2001-08-10

    Ambient air VOC samples were collected at surface air quality monitoring sites, near sources of interest, and aloft on the US (El Paso) and Mexican (Ciudad Juárez) side of the border during a six-week period of the 1996 Paso del Norte Ozone Study. Samples were collected at five sites, three on the US side and two on the Mexican side, during nine intensive operation days when high ozone levels were forecast for the area. Six other sites were sampled to characterize up-wind, down-wind and other emission sources. Samples for determining source profiles were collected for rush hour traffic, propane-powered bus exhaust, automobile paint shop emissions, propane fuels, and industrial manufacturing in Cd. Juárez and a refinery in El Paso. Most samples were collected in electro-polished stainless steel canisters for determination of C2 to C(10+) hydrocarbons by GC-FID. Carbonyl samples were collected on DNPH impregnated cartridges at three surface sites during aircraft flights and analyzed by HPLC. This paper presents the spatial and temporal characteristics of VOC species concentrations and compositions to examine the differences and similarities of the various locations and time periods. Overall surface, total non-methane hydrocarbon values ranged from 0.1 to 3.4 ppmC with the highest concentrations being recorded in the morning and evening at five vehicle-dominated sites, three in Cd. Juárez and two in El Paso. Toluene in El Paso samples and propane, which is used as a cooking and transportation fuel in Cd. Juárez, were the most abundant hydrocarbons. The most abundant carbonyls were acetaldehyde, acetone and formaldehyde.

  2. Primer-BLAST: a tool to design target-specific primers for polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Ye, Jian; Coulouris, George; Zaretskaya, Irena; Cutcutache, Ioana; Rozen, Steve; Madden, Thomas L

    2012-06-18

    Choosing appropriate primers is probably the single most important factor affecting the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Specific amplification of the intended target requires that primers do not have matches to other targets in certain orientations and within certain distances that allow undesired amplification. The process of designing specific primers typically involves two stages. First, the primers flanking regions of interest are generated either manually or using software tools; then they are searched against an appropriate nucleotide sequence database using tools such as BLAST to examine the potential targets. However, the latter is not an easy process as one needs to examine many details between primers and targets, such as the number and the positions of matched bases, the primer orientations and distance between forward and reverse primers. The complexity of such analysis usually makes this a time-consuming and very difficult task for users, especially when the primers have a large number of hits. Furthermore, although the BLAST program has been widely used for primer target detection, it is in fact not an ideal tool for this purpose as BLAST is a local alignment algorithm and does not necessarily return complete match information over the entire primer range. We present a new software tool called Primer-BLAST to alleviate the difficulty in designing target-specific primers. This tool combines BLAST with a global alignment algorithm to ensure a full primer-target alignment and is sensitive enough to detect targets that have a significant number of mismatches to primers. Primer-BLAST allows users to design new target-specific primers in one step as well as to check the specificity of pre-existing primers. Primer-BLAST also supports placing primers based on exon/intron locations and excluding single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sites in primers. We describe a robust and fully implemented general purpose primer design tool that designs target-specific PCR

  3. Primer-BLAST: A tool to design target-specific primers for polymerase chain reaction

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Choosing appropriate primers is probably the single most important factor affecting the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Specific amplification of the intended target requires that primers do not have matches to other targets in certain orientations and within certain distances that allow undesired amplification. The process of designing specific primers typically involves two stages. First, the primers flanking regions of interest are generated either manually or using software tools; then they are searched against an appropriate nucleotide sequence database using tools such as BLAST to examine the potential targets. However, the latter is not an easy process as one needs to examine many details between primers and targets, such as the number and the positions of matched bases, the primer orientations and distance between forward and reverse primers. The complexity of such analysis usually makes this a time-consuming and very difficult task for users, especially when the primers have a large number of hits. Furthermore, although the BLAST program has been widely used for primer target detection, it is in fact not an ideal tool for this purpose as BLAST is a local alignment algorithm and does not necessarily return complete match information over the entire primer range. Results We present a new software tool called Primer-BLAST to alleviate the difficulty in designing target-specific primers. This tool combines BLAST with a global alignment algorithm to ensure a full primer-target alignment and is sensitive enough to detect targets that have a significant number of mismatches to primers. Primer-BLAST allows users to design new target-specific primers in one step as well as to check the specificity of pre-existing primers. Primer-BLAST also supports placing primers based on exon/intron locations and excluding single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sites in primers. Conclusions We describe a robust and fully implemented general purpose primer design tool

  4. UniPrimer: A Web-Based Primer Design Tool for Comparative Analyses of Primate Genomes.

    PubMed

    Batnyam, Nomin; Lee, Jimin; Lee, Jungnam; Hong, Seung Bok; Oh, Sejong; Han, Kyudong

    2012-01-01

    Whole genome sequences of various primates have been released due to advanced DNA-sequencing technology. A combination of computational data mining and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay to validate the data is an excellent method for conducting comparative genomics. Thus, designing primers for PCR is an essential procedure for a comparative analysis of primate genomes. Here, we developed and introduced UniPrimer for use in those studies. UniPrimer is a web-based tool that designs PCR- and DNA-sequencing primers. It compares the sequences from six different primates (human, chimpanzee, gorilla, orangutan, gibbon, and rhesus macaque) and designs primers on the conserved region across species. UniPrimer is linked to RepeatMasker, Primer3Plus, and OligoCalc softwares to produce primers with high accuracy and UCSC In-Silico PCR to confirm whether the designed primers work. To test the performance of UniPrimer, we designed primers on sample sequences using UniPrimer and manually designed primers for the same sequences. The comparison of the two processes showed that UniPrimer was more effective than manual work in terms of saving time and reducing errors.

  5. PrimerZ: streamlined primer design for promoters, exons and human SNPs.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Ming-Fang; Lin, Yi-Jung; Cheng, Yu-Chang; Lee, Kuo-Hsi; Huang, Cheng-Chih; Chen, Yuan-Tsong; Yao, Adam

    2007-07-01

    PrimerZ (http://genepipe.ngc.sinica.edu.tw/primerz/) is a web application dedicated primarily to primer design for genes and human SNPs. PrimerZ accepts genes by gene name or Ensembl accession code, and SNPs by dbSNP rs or AFFY_Probe IDs. The promoter and exon sequence information of all gene transcripts fetched from the Ensembl database (http://www.ensembl.org) are processed before being passed on to Primer3 (http://frodo.wi.mit.edu/cgi-bin/primer3/primer3_www.cgi) for individual primer design. All results returned from Primer 3 are organized and integrated in a specially designed web page for easy browsing. Besides the web page presentation, csv text file export is also provided for enhanced user convenience. PrimerZ automates highly standard but tedious gene primer design to improve the success rate of PCR experiments. More than 2000 primers have been designed with PrimerZ at our institute since 2004 and the success rate is over 70%. The addition of several new features has made PrimerZ even more useful to the research community in facilitating primer design for promoters, exons and SNPs.

  6. CODEHOP PCR and CODEHOP PCR primer design.

    PubMed

    Staheli, Jeannette P; Boyce, Richard; Kovarik, Dina; Rose, Timothy M

    2011-01-01

    While PCR primer design for the amplification of known sequences is usually quite straightforward, the design, and successful application of primers aimed at the detection of as yet unknown genes is often not. The search for genes that are presumed to be distantly related to a known gene sequence, such as homologous genes in different species, paralogs in the same genome, or novel pathogens in diverse hosts, often turns into the proverbial search for the needle in the haystack. PCR-based methods commonly used to address this issue involve the use of either consensus primers or degenerate primers, both of which have significant shortcomings regarding sensitivity and specificity. We have developed a novel primer design approach that diminishes these shortcomings and instead takes advantage of the strengths of both consensus and degenerate primer designs, by combining the two concepts into a Consensus-Degenerate Hybrid Oligonucleotide Primer (CODEHOP) approach. CODEHOP PCR primers contain a relatively short degenerate 3' core and a 5' nondegenerate clamp. The 3' degenerate core consists of a pool of primers containing all possible codons for a 3-4 aminoacid motif that is highly conserved in multiply aligned sequences from known members of a protein family. Each primer in the pool also contains a single 5' nondegenerate nucleotide sequence derived from a codon consensus across the aligned aminoacid sequences flanking the conserved motif. During the initial PCR amplification cycles, the degenerate core is responsible for specific binding to sequences encoding the conserved aminoacid motif. The longer consensus clamp region serves to stabilize the primer and allows the participation of all primers in the pool in the efficient amplification of products during later PCR cycles. We have developed an interactive web site and algorithm (iCODEHOP) for designing CODEHOP PCR primers from multiply aligned protein sequences, which is freely available online. Here, we describe the

  7. Titanium Mass-balance Analysis of Paso Robles Soils: Elemental Gains and Losses as Affected by Acid Alteration Fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutter, Brad; Ming, Douglas W.

    2010-01-01

    The Columbia Hills soils have been exposed to aqueous alteration in alkaline [1] as well as acid conditions [2,3]. The Paso Robles class soils are bright soils that possess the highest S concentration of any soil measured on Mars [2]. Ferric-sulfate detection by Moessbauer analysis indicated that acid solutions were involved in forming these soils [4]. These soils are proposed to have formed by alteration of nearby rock by volcanic hydrothermal or fumarolic activity. The Paso Robles soils consist of the original Paso Robles-disturbed-Pasadena (PR-dist), Paso Robles- PasoLight (PR-PL), Arad-Samra, Arad-Hula, Tyrone- Berker Island1 and Tyrone-MountDarwin [2 ,3. ]Chemical characteristics indicate that the PR-dist and PR-PL soils could be derived from acid weathering of local Wishstone rocks while the Samra and Hula soils are likely derived from local Algonquin-Iroquet rock [3]. The Paso Robles soils were exposed to acidic sulfur bearing fluids; however, little else is known about the chemistry of the alteration fluid and its effects on the alteration of the proposed parent materials. The objectives of this work are to conduct titanium normalized mass-balance analysis to1) assess elemental gains and losses from the parent materials in the formation of the Paso Robles soils and 2) utilize this information to indicate the chemical nature of the alteration fluids.

  8. Primer design for large scale sequencing.

    PubMed Central

    Haas, S; Vingron, M; Poustka, A; Wiemann, S

    1998-01-01

    We have developed PRIDE, a primer design program that automatically designs primers in single contigs or whole sequencing projects to extend the already known sequence and to double strand single-stranded regions. The program is fully integrated into the Staden package (GAP4) and accessible with a graphical user interface. PRIDE uses a fuzzy logic-based system to calculate primer qualities. The computational performance of PRIDE is enhanced by using suffix trees to store the huge amount of data being produced. A test set of 110 sequencing primers and 11 PCR primer pairs has been designed on genomic templates, cDNAs and sequences containing repetitive elements to analyze PRIDE's success rate. The high performance of PRIDE, combined with its minimal requirement of user interaction and its fast algorithm, make this program useful for the large scale design of primers, especially in large sequencing projects. PMID:9611248

  9. Primer design for large scale sequencing.

    PubMed

    Haas, S; Vingron, M; Poustka, A; Wiemann, S

    1998-06-15

    We have developed PRIDE, a primer design program that automatically designs primers in single contigs or whole sequencing projects to extend the already known sequence and to double strand single-stranded regions. The program is fully integrated into the Staden package (GAP4) and accessible with a graphical user interface. PRIDE uses a fuzzy logic-based system to calculate primer qualities. The computational performance of PRIDE is enhanced by using suffix trees to store the huge amount of data being produced. A test set of 110 sequencing primers and 11 PCR primer pairs has been designed on genomic templates, cDNAs and sequences containing repetitive elements to analyze PRIDE's success rate. The high performance of PRIDE, combined with its minimal requirement of user interaction and its fast algorithm, make this program useful for the large scale design of primers, especially in large sequencing projects.

  10. Degenerate primer design for highly variable genomes.

    PubMed

    Li, Kelvin; Shrivastava, Susmita; Stockwell, Timothy B

    2015-01-01

    The application of degenerate PCR primers towards target amplification and sequencing is a useful technique when a population of organisms under investigation is evolving rapidly, or is highly diverse. Degenerate bases in these primers are specified with ambiguity codes that represent alternative nucleotide configurations. Degenerate PCR primers allow the simultaneous amplification of a heterogeneous population by providing a mixture of PCR primers each of which anneal to an alternative genotype found in the isolated sample. However, as the number of degenerate bases specified in a pair of primers rises, the likelihood of amplifying unwanted alternative products also increases. These alternative products may confound downstream data analyses if their levels begin to obfuscate the desired PCR products. This chapter describes a set of computational methodologies that may be used to minimize the degeneracy of designed primers, while still maximizing the proportion of genotypes assayed in the targeted population.

  11. Exploratory Development of Corrosion Inhibiting Primers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-05-01

    PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT 42 Task 1 — Paint Systems Compatibility. 43 Task 2 — Adhesive Bonding Characteristics 45 PHASE IV - COST AND SCALE -UP...the required mechanical tests and the BR-127 control primer superior in others. PHASE IV - COST AND SCALE -UP ASSESSMENT An engineering assessment...required to provide a universal primer superior in all respects to the state-of-the-art hand- sprayed primer. PHASE IV - COST ANÜ SCALE -UP

  12. Nucleic acid amplification using modular branched primers

    DOEpatents

    Ulanovsky, Levy

    2001-01-01

    Methods and compositions expand the options for making primers for use in amplifying nucleic acid segments. The invention eliminates the step of custom synthesis of primers for Polymerase Chain Reactions (PCR). Instead of being custom-synthesized, a primer is replaced by a combination of several oligonucleotide modules selected from a pre-synthesized library. A modular combination of just a few oligonucleotides essentially mimics the performance of a conventional, custom-made primer by matching the sequence of the priming site in the template. Each oligonucleotide module has a segment that matches one of the stretches within the priming site.

  13. In silico PCR primer designing and validation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anil; Chordia, Nikita

    2015-01-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is an enzymatic reaction whose efficiency and sensitivity largely depend on the efficiency of the primers that are used for the amplification of a concerned gene/DNA fragment. Selective amplification of nucleic acid molecules initially present in minute quantities provides a powerful tool for analyzing nucleic acids. In silico method helps in designing primers. There are various programs available for PCR primer design. Here we described designing of primers using web-based tools like "Primer3" and "Web Primer". For designing the primer, DNA template sequence is required that can be taken from any of the available sequence databases, e.g., RefSeq database. The in silico validation can be carried out using BLAST tool and Gene Runner software, which check their efficiency and specificity. Thereafter, the primers designed in silico can be validated in the wet lab. After that, these validated primers can be synthesized for use in the amplification of concerned gene/DNA fragment.

  14. Nucleic acid amplification using modular branched primers

    DOEpatents

    Ulanovsky, Levy; Raja, Mugasimangalam C.

    2001-01-01

    Methods and compositions expand the options for making primers for use in amplifying nucleic acid segments. The invention eliminates the step of custom synthesis of primers for Polymerase Chain Reactions (PCR). Instead of being custom-synthesized, a primer is replaced by a combination of several oligonucleotide modules selected from a pre-synthesized library. A modular combination of just a few oligonucleotides essentially mimics the performance of a conventional, custom-made primer by matching the sequence of the priming site in the template. Each oligonucleotide module has a segment that matches one of the stretches within the priming site.

  15. Primer: Shotgun Proteomics in Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Lujian; McClatchy, Daniel B.; Yates, John R.

    2009-01-01

    Mass spectrometry-based proteomics is increasingly used to address basic and clinical questions in biomedical research through studies of differential protein expression, protein-protein interactions, and post-translational modifications. The complex structural and functional organization of the human brain warrants the application of high-throughput, systematic approaches to understand the functional alterations under normal physiological conditions and the perturbations of neurological diseases. This primer focuses on shotgun proteomics based tandem mass spectrometry for the identification of proteins in a complex mixture. It describes the basic concepts of protein differential expression analysis and post-translational modification analysis and discusses several strategies to improve the coverage of the proteome. PMID:19607789

  16. Linear elastic fracture mechanics primer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Christopher D.

    1992-01-01

    This primer is intended to remove the blackbox perception of fracture mechanics computer software by structural engineers. The fundamental concepts of linear elastic fracture mechanics are presented with emphasis on the practical application of fracture mechanics to real problems. Numerous rules of thumb are provided. Recommended texts for additional reading, and a discussion of the significance of fracture mechanics in structural design are given. Griffith's criterion for crack extension, Irwin's elastic stress field near the crack tip, and the influence of small-scale plasticity are discussed. Common stress intensities factor solutions and methods for determining them are included. Fracture toughness and subcritical crack growth are discussed. The application of fracture mechanics to damage tolerance and fracture control is discussed. Several example problems and a practice set of problems are given.

  17. A Practical Primer on Geostatistics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olea, Ricardo A.

    2009-01-01

    significant methodological implications. HISTORICAL REMARKS As a discipline, geostatistics was firmly established in the 1960s by the French engineer Georges Matheron, who was interested in the appraisal of ore reserves in mining. Geostatistics did not develop overnight. Like other disciplines, it has built on previous results, many of which were formulated with different objectives in various fields. PIONEERS Seminal ideas conceptually related to what today we call geostatistics or spatial statistics are found in the work of several pioneers, including: 1940s: A.N. Kolmogorov in turbulent flow and N. Wiener in stochastic processing; 1950s: D. Krige in mining; 1960s: B. Mathern in forestry and L.S. Gandin in meteorology CALCULATIONS Serious applications of geostatistics require the use of digital computers. Although for most geostatistical techniques rudimentary implementation from scratch is fairly straightforward, coding programs from scratch is recommended only as part of a practice that may help users to gain a better grasp of the formulations. SOFTWARE For professional work, the reader should employ software packages that have been thoroughly tested to handle any sampling scheme, that run as efficiently as possible, and that offer graphic capabilities for the analysis and display of results. This primer employs primarily the package Stanford Geomodeling Software (SGeMS) - recently developed at the Energy Resources Engineering Department at Stanford University - as a way to show how to obtain results practically. This applied side of the primer should not be interpreted as the notes being a manual for the use of SGeMS. The main objective of the primer is to help the reader gain an understanding of the fundamental concepts and tools in geostatistics. ORGANIZATION OF THE PRIMER The chapters of greatest importance are those covering kriging and simulation. All other materials are peripheral and are included for better comprehension of th

  18. A Primer on Observational Measurement.

    PubMed

    Girard, Jeffrey M; Cohn, Jeffrey F

    2016-08-01

    Observational measurement plays an integral role in a variety of scientific endeavors within biology, psychology, sociology, education, medicine, and marketing. The current article provides an interdisciplinary primer on observational measurement; in particular, it highlights recent advances in observational methodology and the challenges that accompany such growth. First, we detail the various types of instrument that can be used to standardize measurements across observers. Second, we argue for the importance of validity in observational measurement and provide several approaches to validation based on contemporary validity theory. Third, we outline the challenges currently faced by observational researchers pertaining to measurement drift, observer reactivity, reliability analysis, and time/expense. Fourth, we describe recent advances in computer-assisted measurement, fully automated measurement, and statistical data analysis. Finally, we identify several key directions for future observational research to explore.

  19. A Primer on Observational Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Girard, Jeffrey M.; Cohn, Jeffrey F.

    2017-01-01

    Observational measurement plays an integral role in a variety of scientific endeavors within biology, psychology, sociology, education, medicine, and marketing. The current article provides an interdisciplinary primer on observational measurement; in particular, it highlights recent advances in observational methodology and the challenges that accompany such growth. First, we detail the various types of instrument that can be used to standardize measurements across observers. Second, we argue for the importance of validity in observational measurement and provide several approaches to validation based on contemporary validity theory. Third, we outline the challenges currently faced by observational researchers pertaining to measurement drift, observer reactivity, reliability analysis, and time/expense. Fourth, we describe recent advances in computer-assisted measurement, fully-automated measurement, and statistical data analysis. Finally, we identify several key directions for future observational research to explore. PMID:26933139

  20. URPD: a specific product primer design tool

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) plays an important role in molecular biology. Primer design fundamentally determines its results. Here, we present a currently available software that is not located in analyzing large sequence but used for a rather straight-forward way of visualizing the primer design process for infrequent users. Findings URPD (yoUR Primer Design), a web-based specific product primer design tool, combines the NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq), UCSC In-Silico PCR, memetic algorithm (MA) and genetic algorithm (GA) primer design methods to obtain specific primer sets. A friendly user interface is accomplished by built-in parameter settings. The incorporated smooth pipeline operations effectively guide both occasional and advanced users. URPD contains an automated process, which produces feasible primer pairs that satisfy the specific needs of the experimental design with practical PCR amplifications. Visual virtual gel electrophoresis and in silico PCR provide a simulated PCR environment. The comparison of Practical gel electrophoresis comparison to virtual gel electrophoresis facilitates and verifies the PCR experiment. Wet-laboratory validation proved that the system provides feasible primers. Conclusions URPD is a user-friendly tool that provides specific primer design results. The pipeline design path makes it easy to operate for beginners. URPD also provides a high throughput primer design function. Moreover, the advanced parameter settings assist sophisticated researchers in performing experiential PCR. Several novel functions, such as a nucleotide accession number template sequence input, local and global specificity estimation, primer pair redesign, user-interactive sequence scale selection, and virtual and practical PCR gel electrophoresis discrepancies have been developed and integrated into URPD. The URPD program is implemented in JAVA and freely available at http://bio.kuas.edu.tw/urpd/. PMID:22713312

  1. URPD: a specific product primer design tool.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Li-Yeh; Cheng, Yu-Huei; Yang, Cheng-Hong

    2012-06-19

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) plays an important role in molecular biology. Primer design fundamentally determines its results. Here, we present a currently available software that is not located in analyzing large sequence but used for a rather straight-forward way of visualizing the primer design process for infrequent users. URPD (yoUR Primer Design), a web-based specific product primer design tool, combines the NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq), UCSC In-Silico PCR, memetic algorithm (MA) and genetic algorithm (GA) primer design methods to obtain specific primer sets. A friendly user interface is accomplished by built-in parameter settings. The incorporated smooth pipeline operations effectively guide both occasional and advanced users. URPD contains an automated process, which produces feasible primer pairs that satisfy the specific needs of the experimental design with practical PCR amplifications. Visual virtual gel electrophoresis and in silico PCR provide a simulated PCR environment. The comparison of Practical gel electrophoresis comparison to virtual gel electrophoresis facilitates and verifies the PCR experiment. Wet-laboratory validation proved that the system provides feasible primers. URPD is a user-friendly tool that provides specific primer design results. The pipeline design path makes it easy to operate for beginners. URPD also provides a high throughput primer design function. Moreover, the advanced parameter settings assist sophisticated researchers in performing experiential PCR. Several novel functions, such as a nucleotide accession number template sequence input, local and global specificity estimation, primer pair redesign, user-interactive sequence scale selection, and virtual and practical PCR gel electrophoresis discrepancies have been developed and integrated into URPD. The URPD program is implemented in JAVA and freely available at http://bio.kuas.edu.tw/urpd/.

  2. PrimerMapper: high throughput primer design and graphical assembly for PCR and SNP detection.

    PubMed

    O'Halloran, Damien M

    2016-02-08

    Primer design represents a widely employed gambit in diverse molecular applications including PCR, sequencing, and probe hybridization. Variations of PCR, including primer walking, allele-specific PCR, and nested PCR provide specialized validation and detection protocols for molecular analyses that often require screening large numbers of DNA fragments. In these cases, automated sequence retrieval and processing become important features, and furthermore, a graphic that provides the user with a visual guide to the distribution of designed primers across targets is most helpful in quickly ascertaining primer coverage. To this end, I describe here, PrimerMapper, which provides a comprehensive graphical user interface that designs robust primers from any number of inputted sequences while providing the user with both, graphical maps of primer distribution for each inputted sequence, and also a global assembled map of all inputted sequences with designed primers. PrimerMapper also enables the visualization of graphical maps within a browser and allows the user to draw new primers directly onto the webpage. Other features of PrimerMapper include allele-specific design features for SNP genotyping, a remote BLAST window to NCBI databases, and remote sequence retrieval from GenBank and dbSNP. PrimerMapper is hosted at GitHub and freely available without restriction.

  3. PrimerMapper: high throughput primer design and graphical assembly for PCR and SNP detection

    PubMed Central

    O’Halloran, Damien M.

    2016-01-01

    Primer design represents a widely employed gambit in diverse molecular applications including PCR, sequencing, and probe hybridization. Variations of PCR, including primer walking, allele-specific PCR, and nested PCR provide specialized validation and detection protocols for molecular analyses that often require screening large numbers of DNA fragments. In these cases, automated sequence retrieval and processing become important features, and furthermore, a graphic that provides the user with a visual guide to the distribution of designed primers across targets is most helpful in quickly ascertaining primer coverage. To this end, I describe here, PrimerMapper, which provides a comprehensive graphical user interface that designs robust primers from any number of inputted sequences while providing the user with both, graphical maps of primer distribution for each inputted sequence, and also a global assembled map of all inputted sequences with designed primers. PrimerMapper also enables the visualization of graphical maps within a browser and allows the user to draw new primers directly onto the webpage. Other features of PrimerMapper include allele-specific design features for SNP genotyping, a remote BLAST window to NCBI databases, and remote sequence retrieval from GenBank and dbSNP. PrimerMapper is hosted at GitHub and freely available without restriction. PMID:26853558

  4. U.S. EPA Settles with El Paso Natural Gas for Cleanup Costs at Abandoned Uranium Mines on Navajo Nation

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    SAN FRANCISCO - Today, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Department of Justice announced a settlement worth more than $500,000 with El Paso Natural Gas Company LLC, (EPNG) to reimburse government costs related to 19 abandoned uranium

  5. Geoseismic issues considered for design of the Samalayuca pipeline, El Paso County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Keaton, J.R.; Beckwith, G.H.; Medina, O.

    1995-12-31

    The Samalayuca, Pipeline is a proposed 20-inch-diameter natural gas pipeline extending approximately 21 miles from the Hueco Compressor Station on the El Paso Natural Gas main line to the International Boundary with Mexico near Clint, Texas, about 25 miles southeast of El Paso. The purpose of the project is to supply gas for power generation at a plant south of Cuidad Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico. Geoseismic issues considered in the design of the Samalayuca Pipeline consisted of surface fault rupture, earthquake-induced landslides, and liquefaction-induced ground displacement.Faults represent two kinds of hazard to pipeline facilities: surface displacement and strong shaking. Earthquake-induced landslides and liquefaction require strong shaking to occur before these processes represent hazards to buried pipelines.

  6. PACES Participation in Educational Outreach Programs at the University of Texas at El Paso

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodge, Rebecca L.

    1997-01-01

    The University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP) is involved in several initiatives to improve science education within the El Paso area public schools. These include outreach efforts into the K- 12 classrooms; training programs for in-service teachers; and the introduction of a strong science core curricula within the College of Education. The Pan American Center for Earth and Environmental Studies (PACES), a NASA-funded University Research Center, will leverage off the goals of these existing initiatives to provide curriculum support materials at all levels. We will use currently available Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) materials as well as new materials developed specifically for this region, in an effort to introduce the Earth System Science perspective into these programs. In addition, we are developing curriculum support materials and classes within the Geology and Computer Departments, to provide education in the area of remote sensing and GIS applications at the undergraduate and graduate levels.

  7. Primer on Special Education in Charter Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luna, Tom

    2007-01-01

    This section of the Idaho Primer on Special Education in Charter Schools is divided into two parts: (1) a discussion of the legal status of charter schools and their linkage to other local education agencies (LEAs), and (2) a synopsis of federal laws that are most relevant to special education in charter schools. The Primer on Special Education in…

  8. A Primer on Sampling for Statewide Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaeger, Richard M.

    This paper is a primer on sampling procedures for statewide assessment. The careful reader should gain substantial knowledge about the promises and pitfalls of sampling for assessment. The primer has three basic objectives: (1) to define terms and concepts basic to sampling theory and its application, including population, sampling unit, sampling…

  9. Composition and Formation of the "Paso Robles" Class Soils at Gusev Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yen, A. S.; Morris, Richard V.; Gellert, R.; Clark, B. C.; Ming, Douglas W.; Klingelhoefer, G.; McCoy, T. J.; Schmidt, M. E.

    2007-01-01

    Light-toned, subsurface soil deposits have been excavated by the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Spirit in six distinct locations along its traverse across the Columbia Hills of Gusev Crater. Samples at two of these sites have been analyzed in detail by the M ssbauer (MB) and Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometers (APXS), providing information on iron mineralogy and elemental chemistry, respectively. These soils are referred to as "Paso Robles" class deposits.

  10. Polymerase chain reaction with nearby primers.

    PubMed

    Garafutdinov, Ravil R; Galimova, Aizilya A; Sakhabutdinova, Assol R

    2017-02-01

    DNA analysis of biological specimens containing degraded nucleic acids such as mortal remains, archaeological artefacts, forensic samples etc. has gained more attention in recent years. DNA extracted from these samples is often inapplicable for conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR), so for its amplification the nearby primers are commonly used. Here we report the data that clarify the features of PCR with nearby and abutting primers. We have shown that the proximity of primers leads to significant reduction of the reaction time and ensures the successful performance of DNA amplification even in the presence of PCR inhibitors. The PCR with abutting primers is usually characterized by the absence of nonspecific amplification products that causes extreme sensitivity with limit of detection on single copy level. The feasibility of PCR with abutting primers was demonstrated on species identification of 100 years old rotten wood. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Electrostatic Discharge testing of propellants and primers

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, R.B.

    1994-02-01

    This report presents the results of testing of selected propellants and primers to Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) characteristic of the human body. It describes the tests and the fixturing built to accommodate loose material (propellants) and the packed energetic material of the primer. The results indicate that all powders passed and some primers, especially the electric primers, failed to pass established requirements which delineate insensitive energetic components. This report details the testing of components and materials to four ESD environments (Standard ESD, Severe ESD, Modified Standard ESD, and Modified Severe ESD). The purpose of this study was to collect data based on the customer requirements as defined in the Sandia Environmental Safety & Health (ES&H) Manual, Chapter 9, and to define static sensitive and insensitive propellants and primers.

  12. Building Pathways into the Geosciences for a Hispanic Community of Learners in El Paso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, K. C.; Andronicos, C. L.; Langford, R. P.

    2002-12-01

    Our goal is to expand minority participation in the geosciences at the University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP) by increasing the number of Hispanic students who major in either Geological Sciences or a new interdisciplinary program in Environmental Sciences. UTEP has an enrollment of ca. 15,000 students of which 70% are Hispanic and 10% are Mexican Nationals and is one of the largest Hispanic-serving institutions in the country. The demographics of the UTEP student body (85% of whom come from the El Paso region) reflect those of our dominantly Hispanic metroplex of more than 2 million inhabitants on both sides of the US-Mexican border. We are taking a two-pronged approach to building a community of aspiring geoscientists in El Paso. First, we are establishing an outreach program to enhance awareness of the geosciences among local high school students. The centerpiece of this program is a two-week summer camp for high school juniors that will expose 75 students and 15 teachers to a variety of topics in the geosciences and demonstrate how the biology, chemistry, and physics covered in high school courses integrates with geoscience. Second, we are building a Research Experience for our undergraduates by offering stipends to college students in exchange for progress towards a bachelors degree in Geological or Environmental Sciences and participation in research with geoscience faculty and graduate students. Since January, 2002, we have had 7 undergraduate students, 15 high school students, and three teachers participate in our program.

  13. The Influence of Photolysis Rate Constants in Ozone Production for the Paso del Norte Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becerra, Fernando; Fitzgerald, Rosa

    2012-03-01

    In this research work we are focusing on understanding the relationship between photolysis rates and the photochemical ozone changes observed in the Paso del Norte region. The city of El Paso, Texas together with Ciudad Juarez, Mexico, forms the largest contiguous bi-national metropolitan area. This region suffers year-round ozone pollution events, and a better understanding is needed to mitigate them. Previous studies have found that ambient ozone concentrations tend to be higher on weekends rather than on weekdays, this phenomenon being referred to, as the ``weekend effect.'' If the ozone standard is exceeded more frequently on weekends, then this phenomenon must be considered in the design of ozone control strategies. In this work we investigate some of the most representative weekend ozone episodes at El Paso, TX, during the years 2009, 2010 and 2011 using the ozone photolysis rates. In this research the TUV radiative-transfer model is used to calculate the local photolysis rates and a UV MFRSR instrument is used to obtain experimental parameters. Seasonal variations and the weekday-weekend effect is studied. The results of this research will help to understand the underlying behavior of the photolysis rate constants when different atmospheric conditions are present.

  14. Phenomena that influence high ozone concentrations in the Paso del Norte area

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, C.P.; Roberts, P.T.; Main, H.H.; Dye, T.S.; Yarbrough, J.

    1998-12-31

    This paper summarizes the results of analyses of meteorological and air quality data for the 1996 Paso del Norte Ozone Study. The purpose of these data analyses was to develop an understanding of the significant chemical and physical processes which lead to high concentrations of ozone in the Paso del Norte study region which includes El Paso, TX; Sunland Park, NM; and Juarez, Mexico. This analysis has shown that the high ozone concentrations are a result of slow convective boundary layer growth, reduced convective boundary layer depth, light surface winds, and high morning surface ozone precursor concentrations. Overlying meteorological conditions observed during high ozone episodes include an upstream aloft high pressure system, aloft warming, and weak surface pressure gradients. The analysis has also shown that aloft carryover of ozone and ozone precursors does not significantly contribute to the surface ozone concentration. Furthermore, hydrocarbon and NO{sub x} data, although spatially limited, show that the system is most often NO{sub x} rather than VOC limited.

  15. SBE primer : multiplexing minisequencing-based genotyping

    SciTech Connect

    Kaderali, L.; Deshpande, A.; Uribe-Romeo, F. J.; Schliep, A.; Torney, D. C.

    2002-01-01

    Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis is a powerful tool for mapping and diagnosing disease-related alleles. Most of the known genetic diseases are caused by point mutations, and a growing number of SNPs will be routinely analyzed to diagnose genetic disorders. Mutation analysis by polymerase mediated single-base primer extension (minisequencing) can be massively parallelized using for example DNA microchips or flow cytometry with microspheres as solid support. By adding a unique oligonucleotide tag to the 5-inch end of the minisequencing primer and attaching the complementary anti-tag to the array or bead surface, the assay can be 'demultiplexed'. However, such high-throughput scoring of SNPs requires a high level of primer multiplexing in order to analyze multiple loci in one assay, thus enabling inexpensive and fast polymorphism scoring. Primers can be chosen from either the plus or the minus strand, and primers used in the same experiment must not bind to one another. To genotype a given number of polymorphic sites, the question is which primer to use for each SNP, and which primers to group into the same experiment. Furthermore, a crosshybridization-free tag/anti-tag code is required in order to sort the extended primers to the corresponding microspheres or chip spots. These problems pose challenging algorithmic questions. We present a computer program lo automate the design process for the assay. Oligonucleotide primers for the reaction are automatically selected by the software, a unique DNA tag/anti-tag system is generated, and the pairing of primers and DNA-Tags is automatically done in a way to avoid any crossreactivity. We report first results on a 45-plex genotyping assay, indicating that minisequencing can be adapted to be a powerful tool for high-throughput, massively parallel genotyping.

  16. Climate change primer for respirologists.

    PubMed

    Takaro, Tim K; Henderson, Sarah B

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is already affecting the cardiorespiratory health of populations around the world, and these impacts are expected to increase. The present overview serves as a primer for respirologists who are concerned about how these profound environmental changes may affect their patients. The authors consider recent peer-reviewed literature with a focus on climate interactions with air pollution. They do not discuss in detail cardiorespiratory health effects for which the potential link to climate change is poorly understood. For example, pneumonia and influenza, which affect >500 million people per year, are not addressed, although clear seasonal variation suggests climate-related effects. Additionally, large global health impacts in low-resource countries, including migration precipitated by environmental change, are omitted. The major cardiorespiratory health impacts addressed are due to heat, air pollution and wildfires, shifts in allergens and infectious diseases along with respiratory impacts from flooding. Personal and societal choices about carbon use and fossil energy infrastructure should be informed by their impacts on health, and respirologists can play an important role in this discussion.

  17. Biomaterials: a primer for surgeons.

    PubMed

    Binyamin, Gary; Shafi, Bilal M; Mery, Carlos M

    2006-11-01

    Biomaterials offer the surgeon a powerful set of clinical tools for patient treatment and are found in virtually every instrument, device, implant, or piece of equipment in the operating room. In fact, surgeons have historically driven clinical application of biomaterials and stand uniquely positioned to contribute to the ongoing development of biomaterials. Having an understanding of the materials available and their basic properties can contribute to better and more effective outcomes. This article provides an overview of the biomaterials field. It begins with a definition and abbreviated history of the field, highlighting its clinical roots. An introduction to the four material classifications--metals, polymers, ceramics, and composites--is then presented, providing the reader with basic properties of each group and examples of materials. Sections on nanotechnology and tissue engineering also briefly describe development within the field. Finally, the evolution of treatments for pectus excavatum and congenital diaphragmatic hernias are presented, highlighting the role of biomaterials. While providing a primer of the field, this paper shows the broad interdisciplinary reach of material science in surgery and suggests sources for further investigations.

  18. A thermodynamic approach to PCR primer design.

    PubMed

    Mann, Tobias; Humbert, Richard; Dorschner, Michael; Stamatoyannopoulos, John; Noble, William Stafford

    2009-07-01

    We developed a primer design method, Pythia, in which state of the art DNA binding affinity computations are directly integrated into the primer design process. We use chemical reaction equilibrium analysis to integrate multiple binding energy calculations into a conservative measure of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) efficiency, and a precomputed index on genomic sequences to evaluate primer specificity. We show that Pythia can design primers with success rates comparable with those of current methods, but yields much higher coverage in difficult genomic regions. For example, in RepeatMasked sequences in the human genome, Pythia achieved a median coverage of 89% as compared with a median coverage of 51% for Primer3. For parameter settings yielding sensitivities of 81%, our method has a recall of 97%, compared with the Primer3 recall of 48%. Because our primer design approach is based on the chemistry of DNA interactions, it has fewer and more physically meaningful parameters than current methods, and is therefore easier to adjust to specific experimental requirements. Our software is freely available at http://pythia.sourceforge.net.

  19. Primer on spontaneous heating and pyrophoricity

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    This primer was prepared as an information resource for personnel responsible for operation of DOE nuclear facilities. It has sections on combustion principles, spontaneous heating/ignition of hydrocarbons and organics, pyrophoric gases and liquids, pyrophoric nonmetallic solids, pyrophoric metals (including Pu and U), and accident case studies. Although the information in this primer is not all-encompassing, it should provide the reader with a fundamental knowledge level sufficient to recognize most spontaneous combustion hazards and how to prevent ignition and widespread fires. This primer is provided as an information resource only, and is not intended to replace any fire protection or hazardous material training.

  20. PRISE (PRImer SElector): software for designing sequence-selective PCR primers.

    PubMed

    Fu, Qi; Ruegger, Paul; Bent, Elizabeth; Chrobak, Marek; Borneman, James

    2008-03-01

    This report presents PRImer Selector (PRISE), a new software package that implements several features that improve and streamline the design of sequence-selective PCR primers. The PRISE design process involves two main steps. In the first step, target and non-target DNA sequences are identified. In the second step, primers are designed to amplify target (but not non-target) sequences. One important feature of PRISE is that it automates the task of placing primer-template mismatches at the 3' end of the primers - a property that is crucial for sequence selectivity. Once a list of candidate primers has been produced, sorting tools in PRISE speed up the selection process by allowing a user to sort the primers by properties such as amplicon length, GC content and sequence selectivity. PRISE can be used to design primers with a range of specificities, targeting individual sequences as well as diverse assemblages of genes. PRISE also allows user-defined primers to be analyzed, enabling their properties to be examined in relation to target and non-target sequences. The utility of PRISE was demonstrated by using it to design sequence-selective PCR primers for an rRNA gene from the fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia.

  1. Primers-4-Yeast: a comprehensive web tool for planning primers for Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Yofe, Ido; Schuldiner, Maya

    2014-02-01

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a key model organism of functional genomics, due to its ease and speed of genetic manipulations. In fact, in this yeast, the requirement for homologous sequences for recombination purposes is so small that 40 base pairs (bp) are sufficient. Hence, an enormous variety of genetic manipulations can be performed by simply planning primers with the correct homology, using a defined set of transformation plasmids. Although designing primers for yeast transformations and for the verification of their correct insertion is a common task in all yeast laboratories, primer planning is usually done manually and a tool that would enable easy, automated primer planning for the yeast research community is still lacking. Here we introduce Primers-4-Yeast, a web tool that allows primers to be designed in batches for S. cerevisiae gene-targeting transformations, and for the validation of correct insertions. This novel tool enables fast, automated, accurate primer planning for large sets of genes, introduces consistency in primer planning and is therefore suggested to serve as a standard in yeast research. Primers-4-Yeast is available at: http://www.weizmann.ac.il/Primers-4-Yeast

  2. A practical primer on geostatistics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olea, Ricardo A.

    2009-01-01

    has significant methodological implications.Historical Remarks—As a discipline, geostatistics was firmly established in the 1960s by the French engineer Georges Matheron, who was interested in the appraisal of ore reserves in mining. Geostatistics did not develop overnight. Like other disciplines, it has built on previous results, many of which were formulated with different objectives in various fields.Pioneers—Seminal ideas conceptually related to what today we call geostatistics or spatial statistics are found in the work of several pioneers, including: 1940s: A.N. Kolmogorov in turbulent flow and N. Wiener in stochastic processing; 1950s: D. Krige in mining; 1960s: B. Mathern in forestry and L.S. Gandin in meteorologyCalculations—Serious applications of geostatistics require the use of digital computers. Although for most geostatistical techniques rudimentary implementation from scratch is fairly straightforward, coding programs from scratch is recommended only as part of a practice that may help users to gain a better grasp of the formulations.Software—For professional work, the reader should employ software packages that have been thoroughly tested to handle any sampling scheme, that run as efficiently as possible, and that offer graphic capabilities for the analysis and display of results. This primer employs primarily the package Stanford Geomodeling Software (SGeMS) - recently developed at the Energy Resources Engineering Department at Stanford University - as a way to show how to obtain results practically. This applied side of the primer should not be interpreted as the notes being a manual for the use of SGeMS. The main objective of the primer is to help the reader gain an understanding of the fundamental concepts and tools in geostatistics.Organization of the Primer—The chapters of greatest importance are those covering kriging and simulation. All other materials are peripheral and are included for better comprehension of these main

  3. Climate Ready Estuaries Rolling Easements Primer

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Rolling easements enable wetlands and beaches to migrate inland and allow society to avoid the costs and hazards of protecting low lands from rising sea levels. This document provides a primer on more than a dozen rolling easement approaches.

  4. PCR hot-start using duplex primers.

    PubMed

    Kong, Deming; Shen, Hanxi; Huang, Yanping; Mi, Huaifeng

    2004-02-01

    A new technique of PCR hot-start using duplex primers has been developed which can decrease the undesirable products arising throughout PCR amplification thereby giving better results than a manual hot-start method.

  5. Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment Tutorial - Primer

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document provides a Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment (QMRA) primer that organizes QMRA tutorials. The tutorials describe functionality of a QMRA infrastructure, guide the user through software use and assessment options, provide step-by-step instructions for implementi...

  6. Multiplexing Short Primers for Viral Family PCR

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, S N; Hiddessen, A L; Hara, C A; Williams, P L; Wagner, M; Colston, B W

    2008-06-26

    We describe a Multiplex Primer Prediction (MPP) algorithm to build multiplex compatible primer sets for large, diverse, and unalignable sets of target sequences. The MPP algorithm is scalable to larger target sets than other available software, and it does not require a multiple sequence alignment. We applied it to questions in viral detection, and demonstrated that there are no universally conserved priming sequences among viruses and that it could require an unfeasibly large number of primers ({approx}3700 18-mers or {approx}2000 10-mers) to generate amplicons from all sequenced viruses. We then designed primer sets separately for each viral family, and for several diverse species such as foot-and-mouth disease virus, hemagglutinin and neuraminidase segments of influenza A virus, Norwalk virus, and HIV-1.

  7. Use of labeled primers for differential display

    SciTech Connect

    Paunesku, T.; Woloschak, G.E.

    1995-01-01

    Two artifacts introduced in using differential display technology are (1) random priming from dT present from affinity purification of PolyA+ RNA and (2) hybridization of the arbitrary primer to template target sequences on both cDNA strands. We have developed a method eliminating both problems. By separately using 5`-end-labeled (T){sub 12}XY and arbitrary primers to label bands and comparing two differential display patterns, we can detect only those products incorporating the (T){sub 12}XY primer on the 3` ends and the arbitrary primer on 5` ends. Those bands that are generated randomly in the PCR are readily detectable and can be ignored.

  8. Hexavalent Chromium IV-Free Primer Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alldredge, Michael J.; Buck, Amy L.

    2015-01-01

    Primer materials provide corrosion protection for metal parts as well as an increased adhesion between metallic substrates and thermal protection systems (TPSs). Current primers for use in cryogenic applications contain hexavalent chromium. This hexavalent chromium provides excellent corrosion protection even in a cryogenic environment, but it is a carcinogen that requires special equipment and waste control procedures to use. The hazardous nature of hexavalent chromium makes it an obsolescence risk in the future. This study included two phases of evaluation. Thirteen primers were initially identified as candidates and twelve of those primers were tested in phase 1. Four of the best performing candidates from phase 1 continued into phase 2 testing. Phase 1 testing consisted mostly of liquid constituent and physical property testing. Cryoflex and salt fog testing were included in phase 1 because of their importance to the overall success of a candidate material. Phase 2 consisted of physical, thermal, and mechanical properties for nominally processed and fabricated specimens.

  9. A Dozen Primers on Important Information Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dempsey, Kathy, Comp.

    2007-01-01

    This is a compilation of 12 primers on important information standards and protocols. These primers are: (1) Atom; (2) COinS; (3) MADS; (4) MARC 21/MARCXML; (5) MIX; (6) MXG; (7) OpenSearch; (8) PREMIS; (9) RESTful HTTP; (10) unAPI; (11) XMPP (aka Jabber); and (12) ZeeRex. The Atom Syndication Format defines a new XML-based syndication format for…

  10. Protective Coats For Zinc-Rich Primers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdowell, Louis G, III

    1993-01-01

    Report describes tests of topcoats for inorganic zinc-rich primers on carbon steel. Topcoats intended to provide additional protection against corrosion in acidic, salty seacoast-air/rocket-engine-exhaust environment of Space Shuttle launch site. Tests focused on polyurethane topcoats on epoxy tie coats on primers. Part of study involved comparison between "high-build" coating materials and thin-film coating materials.

  11. Environmental Acceptable Medium Caliber Ammunition Percussion Primers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-01

    time (time lapse from primer strike to projectile exit from the weapon) and to make it suitable for use in the extreme temperature environment required...time between the initial contact of the weapon firing pin against the primer and the exit of the projectile from the muzzle. It is often considered the...compared to the standard lead styphnate baseline. All tests were conducted with a 119-mg WC844 (5.56-mm M855 ammunition caliber ball powder) propellant

  12. Environmentally Acceptable Medium Caliber Ammunition Percussion Primers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-31

    patented MIC was made by adding gas generate(s) to meet action time (time lapse from primer strike to projectile exit from the weapon) and to make it...pin against the primer and the exit of the projectile from the muzzle. It is often considered the most significant functional performance...WC844 (5.56mm M855 ammunition caliber ball powder) propellant charge. 26 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Figure 16

  13. A Dozen Primers on Important Information Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dempsey, Kathy, Comp.

    2007-01-01

    This is a compilation of 12 primers on important information standards and protocols. These primers are: (1) Atom; (2) COinS; (3) MADS; (4) MARC 21/MARCXML; (5) MIX; (6) MXG; (7) OpenSearch; (8) PREMIS; (9) RESTful HTTP; (10) unAPI; (11) XMPP (aka Jabber); and (12) ZeeRex. The Atom Syndication Format defines a new XML-based syndication format for…

  14. Are "universal" DNA primers really universal?

    PubMed

    Sharma, Pranay; Kobayashi, Tsuyoshi

    2014-11-01

    "Universal" DNA primers LCO 1490 and HCO 2198 were originally designed from three coding and six anticoding strands by comparing highly conserved regions of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) genes across 15 taxa. These primers have been successful in amplifying a 710-bp fragment of highly conserved regions of the COI gene for more than 80 invertebrate species from 11 phyla. In the present study, 130,843 variations were reviewed in the primer region of mitochondrial molecular markers by comparing 725 COI sequences from the kingdom Animalia. It was found that, for 177 invertebrate species, the forward primer (LCO 1490) showed only four conserved regions, compared to 12 in the original study. For ascidians, fungi and vertebrates, it showed approximately 50 % conserved regions, dropping to one conserved region for echinoderms. However, the reverse primer (HCO 2198) was highly conserved across 725 COI primer sequences. A similar pattern was observed in amino acid distributions. There was a significant difference in the means of base pair differences from the level of family, genus and species for LCO 1490 [analysis of variance (ANOVA), F 6,188 = 8.193, P < 0.001] and at the level of genus and species for HCO 2198 (ANOVA, F 6,77 = 2.538, P < 0.027). We conclude that, at different taxonomic levels, it is possible to design forward primers from reference sequences belonging to the level of order (maximum 5 bp differences), family (maximum 6 bp differences) or genus (maximum 1 bp difference). Reverse primers can be designed from the level of family (maximum 5 bp differences) or genus (maximum 2 bp differences).

  15. Aerospace Non Chrome Corrosion Inhibiting Primer Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    Aerospace Coatings | Title 1 AsetsDefense 2009 Workshop Aerospace Non Chrome Corrosion Inhibiting Primer Systems Roger Brown, Akzonobel Aerospace...DATE SEP 2009 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2009 to 00-00-2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Aerospace Non Chrome Corrosion Inhibiting Primer...Title 2 Overview comments and a historical perspective on non chrome systems A quick test; Technology development for replacement of chromated

  16. Use of labeled primers for differential display

    SciTech Connect

    Paunesku, T.; Woloschak, G.E.

    1995-02-01

    The differential display of eukaryotic cDNAs using PCR allows for determination of mRNA species differentially expressed when comparing two similar cell populations. This procedure uses a (T){sub 12}XY oligonucleotide as the 3 ft primer and an arbitrary 8-10-mer as the 5 ft primer. Labeling occurs by inclusion of {alpha}[{sup 33}P]-dATP in the PCR reaction. Two artifacts caused by this approach are (1) random printing from dT present from affinity purification of PolyA+RNA and (2) hybridization of the arbitrary primer to template target sequences on both cDNA strands. In this work, we have developed an approach for both eliminating smearing and identifying nonspecific bands on sequencing gels. By separately using 5 ft-end-labeled (T){sub 12}XY and arbitrary primers to label bands and comparing two differential display patterns rather than including labeled nucleotides in the PCR reaction itself, we can detect only those products incorporating the M{sub 12}XY primer on the 3 ft ends and the arbitrary primer on 5 ft ends. Those bands that are generated randomly in the PCR reaction are readily detectable and can be ignored. If on the other hand, one is interested only in a diagnostic banding pattern for differential display, benefit can be derived from the simplicity of the pattern obtained when labeled (T){sub 12}XY is used.

  17. VizPrimer: a web server for visualized PCR primer design based on known gene structure.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yang; Qu, Wubin; Lu, Yiming; Zhang, Yanchun; Wang, Xiaolei; Zhao, Dongsheng; Yang, Yi; Zhang, Chenggang

    2011-12-15

    The visualization of gene structure plays an important role in polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primer design, especially for eukaryotic genes with a number of splice variants that users need to distinguish between via PCR. Here, we describe a visualized web server for primer design named VizPrimer. It utilizes the new information technology (IT) tools, HTML5 to display gene structure and JavaScript to interact with the users. In VizPrimer, the users can focus their attention on the gene structure and primer design strategy, without wasting time calculating the exon positions of splice variants or manually configuring complicated parameters. In addition, VizPrimer is also suitable for the design of PCR primers for amplifying open reading frames and detecting single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). VizPrimer is freely available at http://biocompute.bmi.ac.cn/CZlab/VizPrimer/. The web server supported browsers: Chrome (≥5.0), Firefox (≥3.0), Safari (≥4.0) and Opera (≥10.0). zhangcg@bmi.ac.cn; yangyi528@vip.sina.com.

  18. PHUSER (Primer Help for USER): a novel tool for USER fusion primer design.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Lars Rønn; Hansen, Niels Bjørn; Bonde, Mads Tvillinggaard; Genee, Hans Jasper; Holm, Dorte Koefoed; Carlsen, Simon; Hansen, Bjarne Gram; Patil, Kiran Raosaheb; Mortensen, Uffe Hasbro; Wernersson, Rasmus

    2011-07-01

    Uracil-Specific Exision Reagent (USER) fusion is a recently developed technique that allows for assembly of multiple DNA fragments in a few simple steps. However, designing primers for USER fusion is both tedious and time consuming. Here, we present the Primer Help for USER (PHUSER) software, a novel tool for designing primers specifically for USER fusion and USER cloning applications. We also present proof-of-concept experimental validation of its functionality. PHUSER offers quick and easy design of PCR optimized primers ensuring directionally correct fusion of fragments into a plasmid containing a customizable USER cassette. Designing primers using PHUSER ensures that the primers have similar annealing temperature (T(m)), which is essential for efficient PCR. PHUSER also avoids identical overhangs, thereby ensuring correct order of assembly of DNA fragments. All possible primers are individually analysed in terms of GC content, presence of GC clamp at 3'-end, the risk of primer dimer formation, the risk of intra-primer complementarity (secondary structures) and the presence of polyN stretches. Furthermore, PHUSER offers the option to insert linkers between DNA fragments, as well as highly flexible cassette options. PHUSER is publicly available at http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/phuser/.

  19. Obstetric emergencies at the United States–Mexico border crossings in El Paso, Texas

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Jill A.; Rishel, Karen; Escobedo, Miguel A.; Arellano, Danielle E.; Cunningham, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe the frequency, characteristics, and patient outcomes for women who accessed Emergency Medical Services (EMS) for obstetric emergencies at the ports of entry (POE) between El Paso, Texas, United States of America, and Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, Mexico. Methods A descriptive study of women 12–49 years of age for whom an EMS ambulance was called to an El Paso POE location from December 2008–April 2011 was conducted. Women were identified through surveillance of EMS records. EMS and emergency department (ED) records were abstracted for all women through December 2009 and for women with an obstetric emergency through April 2011. For obstetric patients admitted to the hospital, additional prenatal and birth characteristics were collected. Frequencies and proportions were estimated for each variable; differences between residents of the United States and Mexico were tested. Results During December 2008–December 2009, 47.6% (68/143) of women receiving EMS assistance at an El Paso POE had an obstetric emergency, nearly 20 times the proportion for Texas overall. During December 2008–April 2011, 60.1% (66/109) of obstetric patients with ED records were admitted to hospital and 52 gave birth before discharge. Preterm birth (23.1%; No. = 12), low birth weight (9.6%; No. = 5), birth in transit (7.7%; No. = 4), and postpartum hemorrhage (5.8%; No. = 3) were common; fewer than one-half the women (46.2%; No. = 24) had evidence of prenatal care. Conclusions The high proportion of obstetric EMS transports and high prevalence of complications in this population suggest a need for binational risk reduction efforts. PMID:25915011

  20. Associations between urban air pollution and pediatric asthma control in El Paso, Texas.

    PubMed

    Zora, Jennifer E; Sarnat, Stefanie Ebelt; Raysoni, Amit U; Johnson, Brent A; Li, Wen-Whai; Greenwald, Roby; Holguin, Fernando; Stock, Thomas H; Sarnat, Jeremy A

    2013-03-15

    Exposure to traffic-related pollutants poses a serious health threat to residents of major urban centers around the world. In El Paso, Texas, this problem is exacerbated by the region's arid weather, frequent temperature inversions, heavy border traffic, and an aged, poorly maintained vehicle fleet. The impact of exposure to traffic pollution, particularly on children with asthma, is poorly understood. Tracking the environmental health burden related to traffic pollution in El Paso is difficult, especially within school microenvironments, because of the lack of sensitive environmental health indicator data. The Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ) is a survey tool for the measurement of overall asthma control, yet has not previously been considered as an outcome in air pollution health effect research. We conducted a repeated measure panel study to examine weekly associations between ACQ scores and traffic- and non-traffic air pollutants among asthmatic schoolchildren in El Paso. In the main one- and two-pollutant epidemiologic models, we found non-significant, albeit suggestive, positive associations between ACQ scores and respirable particulate matter (PM10), coarse particulate matter (PM10-2.5), fine particulate matter (PM2.5), black carbon (BC), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), benzene, toluene, and ozone (O3). Notably, associations were stronger and significant for some subgroups, in particular among subjects taking daily inhaled corticosteroids. This pattern may indicate heightened immune system response in more severe asthmatics, those with worse asthma "control" and higher ACQ scores at baseline. If the ACQ is appropriately used in the context of air pollution studies, it could reflect clinically measurable and biologically relevant changes in lung function and asthma symptoms that result from poor air quality and may increase our understanding of how air pollution influences asthma exacerbation. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Obstetric emergencies at the United States-Mexico border crossings in El Paso, Texas.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Jill A; Rishel, Karen; Escobedo, Miguel A; Arellano, Danielle E; Cunningham, Timothy J

    2015-02-01

    To describe the frequency, characteristics, and patient outcomes for women who accessed Emergency Medical Services (EMS) for obstetric emergencies at the ports of entry (POE) between El Paso, Texas, United States of America, and Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, Mexico. A descriptive study of women 12-49 years of age for whom an EMS ambulance was called to an El Paso POE location from December 2008-April 2011 was conducted. Women were identified through surveillance of EMS records. EMS and emergency department (ED) records were abstracted for all women through December 2009 and for women with an obstetric emergency through April 2011. For obstetric patients admitted to the hospital, additional prenatal and birth characteristics were collected. Frequencies and proportions were estimated for each variable; differences between residents of the United States and Mexico were tested. During December 2008-December 2009, 47.6% (68/143) of women receiving EMS assistance at an El Paso POE had an obstetric emergency, nearly 20 times the proportion for Texas overall. During December 2008-April 2011, 60.1% (66/109) of obstetric patients with ED records were admitted to hospital and 52 gave birth before discharge. Preterm birth (23.1%; No. = 12), low birth weight (9.6%; No. = 5), birth in transit (7.7%; No. = 4), and postpartum hemorrhage (5.8%; No. = 3) were common; fewer than one-half the women (46.2%; No. = 24) had evidence of prenatal care. The high proportion of obstetric EMS transports and high prevalence of complications in this population suggest a need for binational risk reduction efforts.

  2. Investigation of Soil Permeability and Hydrological Properties of Flood Plain Deposits of the Rio Grande in EL Paso TX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schacht, D.; Jin, L.; Doser, D. I.

    2013-12-01

    The various soil types within the flood plains of Rio Grande in El Paso 's Lower Valley have long been utilized by local farmers. These soils are typically more conducive to farming than the more recent (Pliocene) sandy soils outside of the flood plain region. This project will explore the various properties of these soils types such as their grain size, depths, extent, and hydrological conductivity utilizing various geophysical and geochemical methods. The study site is located in El Paso 's Lower Valley and is situated in an actively farmed area. Soil maps from the Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS) and variations in vegetation growth will help delineate locations of soil types in the study area. The information that will be collected will produce baseline data to help track expected seasonal variations in the soil's moisture content and in the depth of the local water table. This project represents a collaboration between El Paso Community College's and the University of Texas at El Paso's Departments of Geological Sciences as a means for students majoring in Geological Sciences at El Paso Community College to gain hands on experience in researching geological issues through partnerships with their future institution and faculty.

  3. The 1996 Paso del Norte Ozone Study: analysis of meteorological and air quality data that influence local ozone concentrations.

    PubMed

    MacDonal, C P; Roberts, P T; Main, H H; Dye, T S; Coe, D L; Yarbrough, J

    2001-08-10

    The 1996 Paso del Norte Ozone Study and subsequent data analyses were implemented to develop an understanding of the chemical and physical processes which lead to high concentrations of ozone in the Paso del Norte study area which includes El Paso County, Texas, Sunland Park, New Mexico, and Ciudad Juárez, Mexico. Both the data and data analysis results are being used to support photochemical grid modeling. El Paso County and Sunland Park fail to meet the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for ozone, and neighboring Ciudad Juárez fails to meet the Mexican ambient standard for ozone. This paper summarizes the measurement campaigns of the 1996 Paso del Norte Ozone Study and the findings and conclusions that arose from subsequent data analyses. Data analyses showed that high ozone concentrations resulted from a combination of conditions, including high surface temperatures, strong sunlight with few clouds, light surface winds and high concentrations of ozone precursors at ground level in the morning, and slow convective boundary layer (CBL) growth. Synoptic-scale meteorological conditions observed during high ozone episodes included an aloft high-pressure system and aloft warming. Aloft carryover of ozone and ozone precursors did not significantly contribute to high concentrations of ozone at the surface.

  4. Results from an investigation of the integration of wind energy into the El Paso Electric grid system

    SciTech Connect

    Moroz, E.M.; Parks, N.J.; Swift, A.H.; Traichal, P.A.

    1997-12-31

    This paper documents some preliminary results from an evaluation of the costs and benefits to be gained from the integration of wind generated electricity into the El Paso Electric grid system. The study focused on the utilization of the considerable known wind potential of the Guadalupe/Delaware Mountains region, but also looked at other energetic wind resources within 15 miles of El Paso Electric`s Grid. The original project`s goal was to identify the added value of wind in terms of jobs, line support, risk reduction etc., that wind energy could bring to El Paso Electric. Although these goals have not yet been achieved the potential for water savings and reductions in gaseous emissions have been documented. Thus this paper focuses mainly on the water consumption and criteria pollutant emissions that could be avoided by adding wind energy to El Paso Electric`s generation mix. Preliminary data from a renewables attitude survey indicates that, from the 338 respondents, there is overwhelming public support for utilizing such renewable sources of electricity. This case study, which should be of direct relevance to the arid southwestern states and beyond, was sponsored by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and conducted in cooperation with El Paso Electric.

  5. Winter season air pollution in El Paso-Ciudad Juarez. A review of air pollution studies in an international airshed

    SciTech Connect

    Einfeld, W.; Church, H.W.

    1995-03-01

    This report summarizes a number of research efforts completed over the past 20 years in the El Paso del Norte region to characterize pollution sources and air quality trends. The El Paso del Norte region encompasses the cities of El Paso, Texas and Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua and is representative of many US-Mexico border communities that are facing important air quality issues as population growth and industrialization of Mexican border communities continue. Special attention is given to a group of studies carried out under special US Congressional funding and administered by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Many of these studies were fielded within the last several years to develop a better understanding of air pollution sources and trends in this typical border community. Summary findings from a wide range of studies dealing with such issues as the temporal and spatial distribution of pollutants and pollution potential from both stationary and mobile sources in both cities are presented. Particular emphasis is given to a recent study in El Paso-Ciudad Juarez that focussed on winter season PM{sub 10} pollution in El Paso-Ciudad Juarez. Preliminary estimates from this short-term study reveal that biomass combustion products and crustal material are significant components of winter season PM{sub 10} in this international border community.

  6. El Paso County Geothermal Project at Fort Bliss. Final Project Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lear, Jon; Bennett, Carlon; Lear, Dan; Jones, Phil L.; Burdge, Mark; Barker, Ben; Segall, Marylin; Moore, Joseph; Nash, Gregory; Jones, Clay; Simmons, Stuart; Taylor, Nancy

    2016-02-01

    The El Paso County Geothermal Project at Fort Bliss was an effort to determine the scale and scope of geothermal resources previously identified on Fort Bliss’ McGregor Range in southern Otero County, New Mexico. The project was funded with a $5,000,000 grant to El Paso County from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) as part of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 and a $4,812,500 match provided by private sector partners. The project was administered through the DOE Golden Field Office to awardee El Paso County. The primary subcontractor to El Paso County and project Principal Investigator - Ruby Mountain Inc. (RMI) of Salt Lake City, Utah - assembled the project team consisting of Evergreen Clean Energy Management (ECEM) of Provo, Utah, and the Energy & Geoscience Institute at the University of Utah (EGI) in Salt Lake City, UT to complete the final phases of the project. The project formally began in May of 2010 and consisted of two preliminary phases of data collection and evaluation which culminated in the identification of a drilling site for a Resource Confirmation Well on McGregor Range. Well RMI 56-5 was drilled May and June 2013 to a depth of 3,030 ft. below ground level. A string of slotted 7 inch casing was set in 8.75 inch hole on bottom fill at 3,017 ft. to complete the well. The well was drilled using a technique called flooded reverse circulation, which is most common in mineral exploration. This technique produced an exceptionally large and complete cuttings record. An exciting development at the conclusion of drilling was the suspected discovery of a formation that has proven to be of exceptionally high permeability in three desalinization wells six miles to the south. Following drilling and preliminary testing and analysis, the project team has determined that the McGregor Range thermal anomaly is large and can probably support development in the tens of megawatts.

  7. Intermediate photovoltaic system application experiment operational performance. Volume 6: Newman Power Station, El Paso, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-01-01

    Performance data for the month of December 1981 for a 20 kW peak photovoltaic flat panel power system for an uninterruptable power supply load at an El Paso, Texas utility ae given. Data include monthly total and daily insolation, monthly total and daily electrical energy, and array efficiency. Also plotted are the data acquisition mode and recording intervals for each day of the month. Three site events (maintenance and system problems) are summarized, and missing data from December 25 through December 30 are explained.

  8. PrimerDesign-M: A multiple-alignment based multiple-primer design tool for walking across variable genomes

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Hyejin; Leitner, Thomas

    2014-12-17

    Analyses of entire viral genomes or mtDNA requires comprehensive design of many primers across their genomes. In addition, simultaneous optimization of several DNA primer design criteria may improve overall experimental efficiency and downstream bioinformatic processing. To achieve these goals, we developed PrimerDesign-M. It includes several options for multiple-primer design, allowing researchers to efficiently design walking primers that cover long DNA targets, such as entire HIV-1 genomes, and that optimizes primers simultaneously informed by genetic diversity in multiple alignments and experimental design constraints given by the user. PrimerDesign-M can also design primers that include DNA barcodes and minimize primer dimerization. PrimerDesign-M finds optimal primers for highly variable DNA targets and facilitates design flexibility by suggesting alternative designs to adapt to experimental conditions.

  9. PrimerDesign-M: A multiple-alignment based multiple-primer design tool for walking across variable genomes

    DOE PAGES

    Yoon, Hyejin; Leitner, Thomas

    2014-12-17

    Analyses of entire viral genomes or mtDNA requires comprehensive design of many primers across their genomes. In addition, simultaneous optimization of several DNA primer design criteria may improve overall experimental efficiency and downstream bioinformatic processing. To achieve these goals, we developed PrimerDesign-M. It includes several options for multiple-primer design, allowing researchers to efficiently design walking primers that cover long DNA targets, such as entire HIV-1 genomes, and that optimizes primers simultaneously informed by genetic diversity in multiple alignments and experimental design constraints given by the user. PrimerDesign-M can also design primers that include DNA barcodes and minimize primer dimerization. PrimerDesign-Mmore » finds optimal primers for highly variable DNA targets and facilitates design flexibility by suggesting alternative designs to adapt to experimental conditions.« less

  10. Beam shaping for laser initiated optical primers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lizotte, Todd E.

    2008-08-01

    Remington was one of the first firearm manufacturing companies to file a patent for laser initiated firearms, in 1969. Nearly 40 years later, the development of laser initiated firearms has not become a mainstream technology in the civilian market. Requiring a battery is definitely a short coming, so it is easy to see how such a concept would be problematic. Having a firearm operate reliably and the delivery of laser energy in an efficient manner to ignite the shock-sensitive explosive primer mixtures is a tall task indeed. There has been considerable research on optical element based methods of transferring or compressing laser energy to ignite primer charges, including windows, laser chip primers and various lens shaped windows to focus the laser energy. The focusing of laser light needs to achieve igniting temperatures upwards of >400°C. Many of the patent filings covering this type of technology discuss simple approaches where a single point of light might be sufficient to perform this task. Alternatively a multi-point method might provide better performance, especially for mission critical applications, such as precision military firearms. This paper covers initial design and performance test of the laser beam shaping optics to create simultaneous multiple point ignition locations and a circumferential intense ring for igniting primer charge compounds. A simple initial test of the ring beam shaping technique was evaluated on a standard large caliber primer to determine its effectiveness on igniting the primer material. Several tests were conducted to gauge the feasibility of laser beam shaping, including optic fabrication and mounting on a cartridge, optic durability and functional ignition performance. Initial data will be presented, including testing of optically elements and empirical primer ignition / burn analysis.

  11. RExPrimer: an integrated primer designing tool increases PCR effectiveness by avoiding 3' SNP-in-primer and mis-priming from structural variation.

    PubMed

    Piriyapongsa, Jittima; Ngamphiw, Chumpol; Assawamakin, Anunchai; Wangkumhang, Pongsakorn; Suwannasri, Payiarat; Ruangrit, Uttapong; Agavatpanitch, Gallissara; Tongsima, Sissades

    2009-12-03

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is very useful in many areas of molecular biology research. It is commonly observed that PCR success is critically dependent on design of an effective primer pair. Current tools for primer design do not adequately address the problem of PCR failure due to mis-priming on target-related sequences and structural variations in the genome. We have developed an integrated graphical web-based application for primer design, called RExPrimer, which was written in Python language. The software uses Primer3 as the primer designing core algorithm. Locally stored sequence information and genomic variant information were hosted on MySQLv5.0 and were incorporated into RExPrimer. RExPrimer provides many functionalities for improved PCR primer design. Several databases, namely annotated human SNP databases, insertion/deletion (indel) polymorphisms database, pseudogene database, and structural genomic variation databases were integrated into RExPrimer, enabling an effective without-leaving-the-website validation of the resulting primers. By incorporating these databases, the primers reported by RExPrimer avoid mis-priming to related sequences (e.g. pseudogene, segmental duplication) as well as possible PCR failure because of structural polymorphisms (SNP, indel, and copy number variation (CNV)). To prevent mismatching caused by unexpected SNPs in the designed primers, in particular the 3' end (SNP-in-Primer), several SNP databases covering the broad range of population-specific SNP information are utilized to report SNPs present in the primer sequences. Population-specific SNP information also helps customize primer design for a specific population. Furthermore, RExPrimer offers a graphical user-friendly interface through the use of scalable vector graphic image that intuitively presents resulting primers along with the corresponding gene structure. In this study, we demonstrated the program effectiveness in successfully generating primers for strong

  12. Cryopreservation of Peruvian Paso horse spermatozoa: dimethylacetamide preserved an optimal sperm function compared to dimethyl sulfoxide, ethylene glycol and glycerol.

    PubMed

    Santiani, A; Evangelista-Vargas, S; Vargas, S; Gallo, S; Ruiz, L; Orozco, V; Rosemberg, M

    2017-08-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of different cryoprotectant agents in the cryopreservation of Peruvian Paso horse semen. Twenty semen samples were collected from five Peruvian Paso horse stallions. Each sample was divided into 12 parts to form the groups: dimethylacetamide (DMA), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), ethylene glycol (EG) and glycerol (GLY), at 3%, 4% and 5%. Samples were frozen using a rate-controlled freezer. Sperm parameters evaluated were motility and viability/acrosomal status. After thawing, progressive motility in DMA group was higher (p < .05) than in DMSO, EG and GLY groups. Similarly, viable acrosome-intact spermatozoa were higher (p < .05) using DMA in comparison with DMSO. No differences were found when comparing concentrations for any of the cryoprotectant agents. In conclusion, DMA seems to be a good cryoprotectant agent for the cryopreservation of Peruvian Paso horse stallion semen. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Specific primer design for the polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Li-Yeh; Cheng, Yu-Huei; Yang, Cheng-Hong

    2013-10-01

    The design of primers has a major impact on the success of PCR in relation to the specificity and yield of the amplified product. Here, we introduce the applications of PCR as well as the definition and characteristics for PCR primer design. Recent primer design tools based on Primer3, along with several computational intelligence-based primer design methods which have been applied in primer design, are also reviewed. In addition, characteristics of population-based methods used in primer design are discussed in detail.

  14. Primers on Special Education and Charter Schools: Compilation of Full Primer Set

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahearn, Eileen M.; Giovannetti, Elizabeth A.; Lange, Cheryl M.; Rhim, Lauren Morando; Warren, Sandra Hopfengardner

    2004-01-01

    This set of primers for charter school authorizers; charter school operators and state-level administrators has been developed to provide background information and resources for the "builders" of charter schools and policymakers to facilitate the successful inclusion of students with disabilities in charter schools. The primers open…

  15. Permian (Leonardian) brachiopods from Paso Hondo Formation, Chiapas, southern Mexico. Paleobiogeographical implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-Martínez, Miguel A.; Sour-Tovar, Francisco; Barragán, Ricardo

    2016-11-01

    One of the most important marine sequences of calcareous rocks from the Paleozoic of Mexico outcrops in southern Chiapas. It is composed by different units from Early Permian, being the Paso Hondo Formation the youngest with a Leonardian age. Different groups of marine invertebrates as corals, bivalves, gastropods, bryozoans, brachiopods and crinoids have been previously reported of this unit. Five brachiopod species of the orders Productida, Athyridida, Spiriferida and Spiriferinida from the Barrio Allende section of this unit are herein described. The new species Dyoros (Lissosia) maya and Hustedia shumardi are proposed. Sedimentology and paleoecology of the Paso Hondo Formation, suggest a well-lighted shallow lagoon environment with continuous terrigenous input. The subgenus Dyoros (Lissosia), the genus Paucispinifera and the species Hustedia shumardi, Spiriferella propria and Spiriferellina tricosa are typical taxa from Permian localities of Texas, New Mexico and Coahuila. Their presence in the studied area suggests that during Early Permian there was a geographic connection between the different localities of the biotic Grandian Province (southern USA, northern Mexico and Venezuela) and southeastern Chiapas.

  16. Resource investigation of low- and moderate-temperature geothermal areas in Paso Robles, California

    SciTech Connect

    Campion, L.F.; Chapman, R.H.; Chase, G.W.; Youngs, L.G.

    1983-01-01

    Ninety-eight geothermal wells and springs were identified and plotted, and a geologic map and cross sections were compiled. Detailed geophysical, geochemical, and geological surveys were conducted. The geological and geophysical work delineated the basement highs and trough-like depressions that can exercise control on the occurrence of the thermal waters. The Rinconada fault was also evident. Cross sections drawn from oil well logs show the sediments conforming against these basement highs and filling the depressions. It is along the locations where the sediments meet the basement highs that three natural warm springs in the area occur. Deep circulation of meteoric waters along faults seems to be a reasonable source for the warm water. The Santa Margarita, Pancho Rico, and Paso Robles Formations would be the first permeable zones that abut the faults through which water would enter. Temperatures and interpretation of well logs indicate the warmest aquifer at the base of the Paso Robles Formation. Warm water may be entering higher up in the section, but mixing with water from cooler zones seems to be evident. Geothermometry indicates reservoir temperatures could be as high as 91/sup 0/C (196/sup 0/F).

  17. Preliminary isostatic residual gravity anomaly map of Paso Robles 30 x 60 minute quadrangle, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McPhee, D.K.; Langenheim, V.E.; Watt, J.T.

    2011-01-01

    This isostatic residual gravity map is part of an effort to map the three-dimensional distribution of rocks in the central California Coast Ranges and will serve as a basis for modeling the shape of basins and for determining the location and geometry of faults within the Paso Robles quadrangle. Local spatial variations in the Earth\\'s gravity field, after accounting for variations caused by elevation, terrain, and deep crustal structure reflect the distribution of densities in the mid- to upper crust. Densities often can be related to rock type, and abrupt spatial changes in density commonly mark lithological or structural boundaries. High-density rocks exposed within the central Coast Ranges include Mesozoic granitic rocks (exposed northwest of Paso Robles), Jurassic to Cretaceous marine strata of the Great Valley Sequence (exposed primarily northeast of the San Andreas fault), and Mesozoic sedimentary and volcanic rocks of the Franciscan Complex [exposed in the Santa Lucia Range and northeast of the San Andreas fault (SAF) near Parkfield, California]. Alluvial sediments and Tertiary sedimentary rocks are characterized by low densities; however, with increasing depth of burial and age, the densities of these rocks may become indistinguishable from those of older basement rocks.

  18. Meteorological simulations of boundary-layer structure during the 1996 Paso del Norte Ozone Study.

    PubMed

    Brown, M J; Muller, C; Wang, G; Costigan, K

    2001-08-10

    Meteorological simulations centered around the border cities of El Paso and Ciudad Juárez have been performed during an ozone episode that occurred on August 13, 1996 during the 1996 Paso del Norte Ozone Study field campaign. Simulations were performed using the HOTMAC boundary-layer meteorological model using a 1, 2, 4 and 8-km horizontal grid size nested mesh system. Investigation of the vertical structure and evolution of the atmospheric boundary layer for the August 12-14 time period is emphasized in this paper due to its suspected importance in precipitating the ozone episode [Sci Total Environ (2001)]. This period was characterized by a slowly-evolving high pressure system over the region, a persistent upper-level jet at 2500-3500 m above ground level (agl), deep daytime mixed layer heights of 3500 m depth and unusually deep nighttime stable layers extending up to 2500 m above the ground. The fact that the boundary-layer growth stalled on the morning of August 13 relative to that on August 12 has been suggested as a possible reason for the ozone episode on the 13th. In addition, relatively weak surface-level winds were measured on August 13. Using both model results and experimental data we hypothesize explanations for the slower mixed-layer growth on the morning of the 13th and the stronger surface-level winds found on the 12th and 14th.

  19. Depositional environments and diagenesis of El Paso Group, Southern Hueco Mountains, Hudspeth County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Aluka, I.J.

    1988-01-01

    The El Paso Group, a predominantly carbonate sequence, overlies the time-transgressive Cambrian-Ordovician Bliss Sandstone, and underlies the Upper Ordovician Montoya Group. The sequence contains three units (in ascending order): lower limestone, middle cherty limestone, and upper dolomite. The units were deposited in a shelf lagoon with open and restricted circulation, subtidal and intertidal environments. Deposition in these environments is indicated by the presence of land-derived clastics (silt- and sand-size quartz), abundant pellets, micrite, a variety of textures (mudstones to grainstones), algal structures, cross-bedding, and inter-fingering of clastics with limestones due to sedimentary offlap and onlap resulting in clastic progradation west and east from the Diablo platform (the clastic source). The upper unit was, in part, deposited in a supratidal environment, as shown by the presence of abundant dolomite. In addition, the rocks of the El Paso Group were affected by various diagenetic processes, including dolomitization (supratidal dolomitization and dolomitization through meteoric mixing) and silicification, as exemplified by chert nodules and lenses and the presence of silica in intragranular voids and as intrapelmatozoan infillings. Silica partially replaced gastropods, cephalopods, and pelmatozoan ossicles. Recrystallization (aggrading neomorphism) converted carbonate muds into microspar and sparry calcite. Stylolitization (microstylolites and sutured stylolites) affected the rocks as indicated by the presence of iron oxides along the stylolites. The rocks were also affected by pyritization as shown silicified bioclasts.

  20. Meteorological Simulations of Ozone Episode Case Days during the 1996 Paso del Norte Ozone Study

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.J.; Costigan, K.; Muller, C.; Wang, G.

    1999-02-01

    Meteorological simulations centered around the border cities of El Paso and Ciudad Juarez have been performed during an ozone episode that occurred on Aug. 13,1996 during the 1996 Paso del Norte Ozone Study field campaign. Simulations were petiormed using the HOTMAC mesoscale meteorological model using a 1,2,4, and 8 km horizontal grid size nested mesh system. Investigation of the vertical structure and evolution of the atmospheric boundary layer for the Aug. 11-13 time period is emphasized in this paper. Comparison of model-produced wind speed profiles to rawirisonde and radar profiler measurements shows reasonable agreement. A persistent upper-level jet was captured in the model simulations through data assimilation. In the evening hours, the model was not able to produce the strong wind direction shear seen in the radar wind profiles. Based on virtual potential temperature profile comparisons, the model appears to correctly simulate the daytime growth of the convective mixed layer. However, the model underestimates the cooling of the surface layer at night. We found that the upper-level jet significantly impacted the turbulence structure of the boundary layer, leading to relatively high turbulent kinetic energy (tke) values aloft at night. The model indicates that these high tke values aloft enhance the mid-morning growth of the boundary layer. No upper-level turbulence measurements were available to verify this finding, however. Radar profiler-derived mixing heights do indicate relatively rapid morning growth of the mixed layer.

  1. Increasing Minority Participation and Matriculation in the Geosciences at El Paso Community College

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villalobos, J. I.

    2011-12-01

    Community colleges currently serve 44% of all undergraduate students and 45% of all of all first time freshmen in the US. Hispanics now constitute 15% of the general population and 19% of the college population in the US. This increase has led to more institutions emerging as HSI (Hispanic Serving Institution) by the federal government. These facts illustrate the potential community colleges hold to encourage STEM (Science Technology Engineering and Math) majors to minorities as well as non-minorities. But the reality is the number of STEM degrees awarded at community colleges has not followed the same trends in enrollment. El Paso Community College (EPCC) currently enrolls 27,000 students with 85% of the student body being Hispanic. More than 130 programs of study are offered including an Associate of Science degree in Geological Sciences. Over the past three years we have implemented several initiatives in our effort to increase the number of Geological Science (GS) majors at EPCC. These efforts are aimed to decrease attrition rates of science majors by; streamlining the GS degree plan along with the process of course registration, introduce field-based research projects to students to allow hands on research, develop a work relationships with students and university faculty, increase the number of geology courses offered at EPCC including a field-based capstone course (GEOL 2407- Geological Field Methods), and strengthening the educational-bridge between the geological science departments of EPCC and University of Texas at El Paso.

  2. Ambient Concentrations of Metabolic Disrupting Chemicals and Children’s Academic Achievement in El Paso, Texas

    PubMed Central

    Clark-Reyna, Stephanie E.; Grineski, Sara E.; Collins, Timothy W.

    2016-01-01

    Concerns about children’s weight have steadily risen alongside the manufacture and use of myriad chemicals in the US. One class of chemicals, known as metabolic disruptors, interfere with human endocrine and metabolic functioning and are of specific concern to children’s health and development. This article examines the effect of residential concentrations of metabolic disrupting chemicals on children’s school performance for the first time. Census tract-level ambient concentrations for known metabolic disruptors come from the US Environmental Protection Agency’s National Air Toxics Assessment. Other measures were drawn from a survey of primary caretakers of 4th and 5th grade children in El Paso Independent School District (El Paso, TX, USA). A mediation model is employed to examine two hypothetical pathways through which the ambient level of metabolic disruptors at a child’s home might affect grade point average. Results indicate that concentrations of metabolic disruptors are statistically significantly associated with lower grade point averages directly and indirectly through body mass index. Findings from this study have practical implications for environmental justice research and chemical policy reform in the US. PMID:27598179

  3. The displaced eugeoclinal rocks in the El Paso Mountains and northern Mojave Desert: A Triassic sliver

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.S.; Glazner, A.F. . Dept. of Geology); Walker, J.D.; Martin, M.W. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-04-01

    Many workers have drawn attention to the displaced eugeoclinal rocks in the northern Mojave Desert and El Paso Mountains and their importance in models for the development of an active continental margin in the western Cordillera. Existing models can generally for either strike-slip juxtaposition or thrust emplacement. New field data, U-Pb zircon geochronology, and isotopic data for metasedimentary rocks and plutons in the northern Mojave Desert and El Paso Mountains shed light on the timing and mechanism of emplacement of the eugeoclinal allocthon. The observations and data above indicate that Early Triassic plutons in the northern Mojave Desert came through oceanic lithosphere but later Jurassic plutons intercepted continental lithosphere. The authors suggest a model where eugeoclinal rocks were deposited on oceanic crust which was initially brought southward along a strike-slip fault and later thrust eastward over the cratonal assemblage. Permian thrusting is incompatible with their data and observations. Intrusion of lower Triassic strata by Early Triassic plutons in the Lane Mountain area permits some Early Triassic thrusting but the oceanic affinity of the plutons implies that thrusting did not involve continental lithosphere.

  4. Hydrothermal processes at Gusev Crater: An evaluation of Paso Robles class soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yen, A. S.; Morris, R.V.; Clark, B. C.; Gellert, Ralf; Knudson, A.T.; Squyres, S.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Ming, D. W.; Arvidson, R.; McCoy, T.; Schmidt, M.; Hurowitz, J.; Li, R.; Johnson, J. R.

    2008-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover Spirit analyzed multiple occurrences of sulfur-rich, light-toned soils along its traverse within Gusev Crater. These hydrated deposits are not readily apparent in images of undisturbed soil but are present at shallow depths and were exposed by the actions of the rover wheels. Referred to as 'Paso Robles' class soils, they are dominated by ferric iron sulfates, silica, and Mg-sulfates. Ca-sulfates, Ca-phosphates, and other minor phases are also indicated in certain specific samples. The chemical compositions are highly variable over both centimeter-scale distances and between the widely separated exposures, but they clearly reflect the elemental signatures of nearby rocks. The quantity of typical basaltic soil mixed into the light-toned materials prior to excavation by the rover wheels is minimal, suggesting negligible reworking of the deposits after their initial formation. The mineralogy, geochemistry, variability, association with local compositions, and geologic setting of the deposits suggest that Paso Robles class soils likely formed as hydrothermal and famarolic condensates derived from magma degassing and/ or oxidative alteration of crustal iron sulfide deposits. Their occurrence as unconsolidated, near-surface soils permits, though does not require, an age that is significantly younger than that of the surrounding rocks. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  5. Primer-design for multiplexed genotyping.

    PubMed

    Kaderali, Lars; Deshpande, Alina; Nolan, John P; White, P Scott

    2003-03-15

    Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis is a powerful tool for mapping and diagnosing disease-related alleles. Mutation analysis by polymerase-mediated single-base primer extension (minisequencing) can be massively parallelized using DNA microchips or flow cytometry with microspheres as solid support. By adding a unique oligonucleotide tag to the 5' end of the minisequencing primer and attaching the complementary antitag to the array or bead surface, the assay can be 'demultiplexed'. Such high-throughput scoring of SNPs requires a high level of primer multiplexing in order to analyze multiple loci in one assay, thus enabling inexpensive and fast polymorphism scoring. We present a computer program to automate the design process for the assay. Oligonucleotide primers for the reaction are automatically selected by the software, a unique DNA tag/antitag system is generated, and the pairing of primers and DNA tags is automatically done in a way to avoid any crossreactivity. We report results on a 45-plex genotyping assay, indicating that minisequencing can be adapted to be a powerful tool for high-throughput, massively parallel genotyping. The software is available to academic users on request.

  6. Exquisite allele discrimination by toehold hairpin primers

    PubMed Central

    Byrom, Michelle; Bhadra, Sanchita; Jiang, Yu Sherry; Ellington, Andrew D.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to detect and monitor single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in biological samples is an enabling research and clinical tool. We have developed a surprising, inexpensive primer design method that provides exquisite discrimination between SNPs. The field of DNA computation is largely reliant on using so-called toeholds to initiate strand displacement reactions, leading to the execution of kinetically trapped circuits. We have now similarly found that the short toehold sequence to a target of interest can initiate both strand displacement within the hairpin and extension of the primer by a polymerase, both of which will further stabilize the primer:template complex. However, if the short toehold does not bind, neither of these events can readily occur and thus amplification should not occur. Toehold hairpin primers were used to detect drug resistance alleles in two genes, rpoB and katG, in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome, and ten alleles in the Escherichia coli genome. During real-time PCR, the primers discriminate between mismatched templates with Cq delays that are frequently so large that the presence or absence of mismatches is essentially a ‘yes/no’ answer. PMID:24990378

  7. Size-Time-Composition Resolved Study of Aerosols Across El Paso, Texas in Fall 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahill, T. A.; Gill, T. E.; Pingitore, N. E.; Olvera, H. A.; Clague, J. W.; Barnes, D. E.; Perry, K. D.; Li, W.; Amaya, M. A.

    2009-12-01

    Systematic variations in the absolute amounts, size and composition of airborne particulate matter (PM) across the El Paso, Texas metropolitan area may differentially impact the respiratory status (e.g., asthma) and overall health of the local population. To understand these variations, we collected size-time resolved samples of PM with DRUM samplers during a one-month period in late autumn 2008 at three sites along a NW-SE (roughly upwind-downwind) transect across El Paso’s airshed. The DRUM sampler is a rotating-drum impactor separating and collecting aerosols on Mylar strips mounted on the drums, in 8 size stages from 10 μm to <0.1 μm. DRUM strips are analyzed with 3-hr time resolution by β-gauge for mass and by synchrotron X-ray fluorescence for elemental composition. We collected samples at Santa Teresa, New Mexico (a minimally developed area NW of El Paso, at the edge of a sparsely-inhabited expanse of the Chihuahuan Desert), at the edge of the University of Texas- El Paso (UTEP) campus (in the urban core of El Paso), and at Socorro, Texas (a suburban area in the valley of the Rio Grande, SE of the urban core). Results illustrate sharp excursions in mass and element concentrations in aerosol-laden periods lasting from several hours to several days, associated with stagnant air, inversions, smoke events, dust/high wind/frontal passage, and/or daily traffic patterns, punctuated by several periods of reduced aerosol levels after Pacific frontal passages. Mass and absorption data show an increasing influence of carbonaceous (absorbing) aerosols with decreasing particle size <~1 μm, and increasing influence of mineral (scattering) aerosols with increasing particle size >~1 μm. Calcium/silicon ratios were high (>1), especially in coarser stages and during high wind events, reflecting wind erosion of the Chihuahuan Desert’s calcareous soils. Concentrations of chlorine, silicon, calcium, coarse potassium, and lead increased during high wind events, while

  8. Summary of hydrologic information in the El Paso, Texas, area, with emphasis on ground-water studies, 1903-80

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, D.E.

    1983-01-01

    Flow in the Rio Grande is diverted for crop irrigation in the United States and the Republic of Mexico, and for limited municipal supply in El Paso. The flow is regulated by releases from reservoirs in New Mexico and varies widely in both quantity and quality (dissolved-solids concentrations). During 1943-80, the flow at El Paso ranged from 57,481 acre-feet (71 cubic hectometers) in 1956 to 631,800 acre-feet (779 cubic hectometers) in 1943 and averaged about 317,000 acre-feet per year (391 cubic hectometers).

  9. A Study of Y.W.C.A. Services Performed for Pregnant and Parenting High School Students of El Paso from 1982 to 1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Ronald B.

    Questionnaires and interviews were used to study the effectiveness of programs provided for pregnant and parenting students by the Young Women's Christian Association (YWCA) of El Paso, Texas. The study focused on the School-Age Parent Center (SPC), established in 1974 by the El Paso Independent School District, and the YWCA programs and services…

  10. GIS-modeled indicators of traffic-related air pollutants and adverse pulmonary health among children in El Paso, Texas, USA.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The El Paso Children?s Health Study examined 5,654 children enrolled in the El Paso, Texas public school district by questionnaire in 2001. Exposure measurements were first collected in the late fall of 1999. Then school-level and residence-level exposures to traffic-related air ...

  11. Variability in childhood allergy and asthma across ethnicity, language, and residency duration in El Paso, Texas: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Svendsen, Erik R; Gonzales, Melissa; Ross, Mary; Neas, Lucas M

    2009-12-08

    We evaluated the impact of migration to the USA-Mexico border city of El Paso, Texas (USA), parental language preference, and Hispanic ethnicity on childhood asthma to differentiate between its social and environmental determinants. Allergy and asthma prevalence was surveyed among 9797 fourth and fifth grade children enrolled in the El Paso Independent School District. Parents completed a respiratory health questionnaire, in either English or Spanish, and a sub-sample of children received spirometry testing at their school. Here we report asthma and allergy outcomes across ethnicity and El Paso residency duration. Asthma and allergy prevalence increased with longer duration of El Paso residency independent of ethnicity and preferred language. Compared with immigrants who arrived in El Paso after entering first grade (18%), lifelong El Paso residents (68%) had more prevalent allergy (OR, 1.72; 95% CI, 1.32 - 2.24), prevalent asthma (OR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.24 - 2.46), and current asthma (OR, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.37 - 2.95). Spirometric measurements (FEV1/FVC and FEF25-75) also declined with increasing duration of El Paso residency (0.16% and 0.35% annual reduction, respectively). These findings suggest that a community-wide environmental exposure in El Paso, delayed pulmonary development, or increased health of immigrants may be associated with allergy and asthma development in children raised there.

  12. Early College High Schools Established from 2006 through 2008 in El Paso County, Texas: Discovering Factors Contributing to Hispanic Student Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz, Maluka Dorotea

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to (a) identify factors contributing to the success of Hispanic students in four Early College High Schools (ECHSs) in El Paso County, (b) identify components of the ECHSs that can be realistically considered for implementation by administrators of larger public high schools in El Paso County, and (c) determine…

  13. Variability in childhood allergy and asthma across ethnicity, language, and residency duration in El Paso, Texas: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background We evaluated the impact of migration to the USA-Mexico border city of El Paso, Texas (USA), parental language preference, and Hispanic ethnicity on childhood asthma to differentiate between its social and environmental determinants. Methods Allergy and asthma prevalence was surveyed among 9797 fourth and fifth grade children enrolled in the El Paso Independent School District. Parents completed a respiratory health questionnaire, in either English or Spanish, and a sub-sample of children received spirometry testing at their school. Here we report asthma and allergy outcomes across ethnicity and El Paso residency duration. Results Asthma and allergy prevalence increased with longer duration of El Paso residency independent of ethnicity and preferred language. Compared with immigrants who arrived in El Paso after entering first grade (18%), lifelong El Paso residents (68%) had more prevalent allergy (OR, 1.72; 95% CI, 1.32 - 2.24), prevalent asthma (OR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.24 - 2.46), and current asthma (OR, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.37 - 2.95). Spirometric measurements (FEV1/FVC and FEF25-75) also declined with increasing duration of El Paso residency (0.16% and 0.35% annual reduction, respectively). Conclusion These findings suggest that a community-wide environmental exposure in El Paso, delayed pulmonary development, or increased health of immigrants may be associated with allergy and asthma development in children raised there. PMID:19995440

  14. A Study of Y.W.C.A. Services Performed for Pregnant and Parenting High School Students of El Paso from 1982 to 1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Ronald B.

    Questionnaires and interviews were used to study the effectiveness of programs provided for pregnant and parenting students by the Young Women's Christian Association (YWCA) of El Paso, Texas. The study focused on the School-Age Parent Center (SPC), established in 1974 by the El Paso Independent School District, and the YWCA programs and services…

  15. Early College High Schools Established from 2006 through 2008 in El Paso County, Texas: Discovering Factors Contributing to Hispanic Student Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz, Maluka Dorotea

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to (a) identify factors contributing to the success of Hispanic students in four Early College High Schools (ECHSs) in El Paso County, (b) identify components of the ECHSs that can be realistically considered for implementation by administrators of larger public high schools in El Paso County, and (c) determine…

  16. GIS-modeled indicators of traffic-related air pollutants and adverse pulmonary health among children in El Paso, Texas, USA.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The El Paso Children?s Health Study examined 5,654 children enrolled in the El Paso, Texas public school district by questionnaire in 2001. Exposure measurements were first collected in the late fall of 1999. Then school-level and residence-level exposures to traffic-related air ...

  17. Climate Change, Health, and Communication: A Primer.

    PubMed

    Chadwick, Amy E

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is one of the most serious and pervasive challenges facing us today. Our changing climate has implications not only for the ecosystems upon which we depend, but also for human health. Health communication scholars are well-positioned to aid in the mitigation of and response to climate change and its health effects. To help theorists, researchers, and practitioners engage in these efforts, this primer explains relevant issues and vocabulary associated with climate change and its impacts on health. First, this primer provides an overview of climate change, its causes and consequences, and its impacts on health. Then, the primer describes ways to decrease impacts and identifies roles for health communication scholars in efforts to address climate change and its health effects.

  18. CEMAsuite: open source degenerate PCR primer design.

    PubMed

    Lane, Courtney E; Hulgan, Daniel; O'Quinn, Kelly; Benton, Michael G

    2015-11-15

    The codon-equivalent multiple alignment suite begins conservational analysis for polymerase chain reaction primer design at the protein level, allowing the user to design consensus primers capable of detecting homologous coding sequences even when low-to-moderate sequence information is available. This package also condenses the wealth of information associated with multiple sequence alignments and presents them in an intuitive manner, allowing the user to quickly and effectively address degenerate primer design considerations. https://sourceforge.net/projects/cemasuite/. benton@lsu.edu or cemasuite@gmail.com Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Primer removal during mammalian mitochondrial DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Uhler, Jay P; Falkenberg, Maria

    2015-10-01

    The small circular mitochondrial genome in mammalian cells is replicated by a dedicated replisome, defects in which can cause mitochondrial disease in humans. A fundamental step in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) replication and maintenance is the removal of the RNA primers needed for replication initiation. The nucleases RNase H1, FEN1, DNA2, and MGME1 have been implicated in this process. Here we review the role of these nucleases in the light of primer removal pathways in mitochondria, highlight associations with disease, as well as consider the implications for mtDNA replication initiation. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Development of Specific Primer for Tricholoma matsutake

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jang-Han

    2009-01-01

    In this study, in an effort to develop a method for the molecular detection of Tricholoma matsutake in Korea from other closely related Tricholomataceae, a species-specific PCR primer pair, TmF and TmR, was designed using nuclear ribosomal intertranscribed spacer (ITS) sequences. The DTmF and DTmR sequences were 5'-CCTGACGCCAATCTTTTCA-3' and 5'-GGAGAGCAGACTTGTGAGCA-3', respectively. The PCR primers reliably amplified only the ITS sequences of T. matsutake, and not those of other species used in this study. PMID:23983557

  1. Protegiendo a su familia de los terremotos-Los siete pasos a la seguridad para prepararse en caso de un terremoto (en espa?ol y en ingles)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Desarrollado por American Red Cross, Asian Pacific Fund

    2007-01-01

    Les escribimos esta carta para comunicarle un mensaje sumamente importante sobre las preparaciones de emergencia. Historicamente, hemos sufrido terremotos aqui en el Area de la Bahia de San Francisco que han causado graves privaciones para los residentes de la comunidad y da?os increibles a nuestras ciudades. Es probable que suframos un terremoto de gran magnitud en los proximos 30 a?os. Muchos de nosotros venimos de otros paises donde hemos pasado por terremotos y por eso creemos entenderlos. Sin embargo, la manera que nos preparamos para terremotos en nuestros paises de origen puede ser distinta a la que empleamos aca en los Estados Unidos. Muy pocas personas mueren a causa de los derrumbes de los edificios en el Area de la Bahia porque la mayoria de los edificios son construidos para resistir el sacudimiento de la tierra. Pero es muy probable que su familia no tenga atencion medica, alimentos o que esten separados del uno al otro por dias o semanas. Finalmente depende de usted mantener a su familia a salvo hasta que llegue asistencia, por eso les pedimos que nos unamos para aprender a cuidar a su familia antes, durante, y despues de un terremoto. El primer paso es leer este libro. Cada uno de su familia, ni?os y adultos, pueden aprender como prepararse para un terremoto. Haga participar e incluya sus ni?os; pueden ayudarle a prepararse. Aproveche las clases ofrecidas en su comunidad sobre las preparaciones de terremotos por la Cruz Roja Estadounidense (American Red Cross). Estos cursos de preparacion son gratis y disponibles en espa?ol para todos en la comunidad sin tomar en cuenta la historia de la familia, estado legal, genero o edad. Les recomendamos que tome ventaja de estas clases gratuitas. Para mas informacion consulte la ultima pagina de este libro. Recuerde que un terremoto puede ocurrir sin aviso y la unica manera de reducir el da?o de terremotos es estar preparados. !Preparese!

  2. Primer design versus PCR bias in methylation independent PCR amplifications.

    PubMed

    Wojdacz, Tomasz K; Borgbo, Tanni; Hansen, Lise Lotte

    2009-05-16

    Many protocols in methylation studies utilize one primer set to generate a PCR product from bisulfite modified template regardless of its methylation status (methylation independent amplification MIP). However, proportional amplification of methylated and unmethylated alleles is hard to achieve due to PCR bias favoring amplification of unmethylated relatively GC poor sequence. Two primer design systems have been proposed to overcome PCR bias in methylation independent amplifications. The first advises against including any CpG dinucleoteides into the primer sequence (CpG-free primers) and the second, recently published by us, is based on inclusion of a limited number of CpG sites into the primer sequence. Here we used the Methylation Sensitive High Resolution Melting (MS-HRM) technology to investigate the ability of primers designed according to both of the above mentioned primer design systems to proportionally amplify methylated and unmethylated templates. Ten "CpG-free" primer pairs and twenty primers containing limited number of CpGs were tested. In reconstruction experiments the "CpG-free" primers showed primer specific sensitivity and allowed us to detect methylation levels in the range from 5 to 50%. Whereas while using primers containing limited number of CpG sites we were able to consistently detect 1-0.1% methylation levels and effectively control PCR amplification bias. In conclusion, the primers with limited number of CpG sites are able to effectively reverse PCR bias and therefore detect methylated templates with significantly higher sensitivity than CpG free primers.

  3. Geospatial Distribution of Heavy Metals in an Urban Soil, El Paso, Texas, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaya, M. A.; Elkekli, A. R.; Clague, J. W.; Grimida, S. E.; Pingitore, N. E., Jr.

    2014-12-01

    Some 500 city blocks were selected randomly via population-based stratification. Equal volumes of soil collected from the public space (where present) in front of each house on a block yielded a composite sample. Composites provide neighborhood level "smoothing" relative to sampling many individual houses, and greatly decrease laboratory effort/cost. In the laboratory 10 g of soil were comminuted in a ceramic ball mill, mixed with cellulose/ paraffin binder, and pressed (20 tons) into a pellet. A Panalytical Epsilon5 EDS-XRF, using 8 sequential secondary target conditions and 12 NIST and USGS multi-element rock standards provided analyses. The concentration of Pb ranged from 11 to 420 ppm; Cr, 4.3 - 52 ppm; Cu, 6.5 - 390 ppm; Zn, 17 - 480 ppm; Cd, 0.4 - 12 ppm; and Sb, 2.9 - 20 ppm. High levels of all metals characterize the urban core area of El Paso, which dates to the late 19th Century. This area hosts both commercial and old residential structures, as well as major highways and a large railroad yard. There currently is, and was in the past, considerable light industry in the area. Two highly traveled highway and one railroad border crossing over the Rio Grande into contiguous Cd. Juarez (population close to 2 million) add to current and past contamination. A century-old Pb-Cu-Zn smelter, recently demolished, forms the western boundary of the urban core. Heavy metal pollution from the smelter is recognized near the former site. Its effect on the rest of the urban core is uncertain due to the current and former presence of other heavy metal sources. Aggressive post-World War II growth and expansion of El Paso into the surrounding desert, as is common in the US Southwest, placed newer housing onto more pristine land surfaces. This is reflected in generally low-to-background levels of heavy metals in these newer areas of the city. Thus there is a strong contamination and heavy metals exposure risk gradient between older and newer neighborhoods within a single city

  4. Residential Exposure to Nighttime Retained Heat in the El Paso, Texas, USA Desert Metroplex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaya, M. A.; Mohammed, M.; Pingitore, N. E.; Aldouri, R. K.; Benedict, B. A.

    2013-12-01

    The urban heat island is a well recognized and extensively studied phenomenon that has accelerating importance resulting from two trends associated with world-wide population growth: increasing urbanization and global warming. Urbanization, particularly when unplanned and haphazard, changes such thermal parameters as albedo, surface roughness, and heat capacities of surface materials. Rapid urbanization in the contiguous El Paso, Texas, USA - Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico bi-national metroplex has produced an urban heat island that is warmer than the surrounding Chihuahuan desert (temperature: 35-40 C summer; high elevation: 600-1675 m; rainfall: less than 250 mm annual). Despite the extensive literature on the urban heat island, little is known about urban nighttime land surface temperatures. We employed infrared satellite imaging to establish the variation of nighttime neighborhood surface temperatures across the city of El Paso, as well as all of El Paso County. The underlying purpose of our continuing investigation is to evaluate the geography of morbidity risk: are different neighborhoods at different risk of high nighttime temperatures. Those risks can include heat stress, and irritability and sleep deprivation, with possible resultant violence. Heat exposure at night is significant because residents are at home and 90% of El Pasoans do not have 'refrigerated' air conditioning, but instead have evaporative coolers, which are less expensive to own and operate, but are less effective since they raise the humidity of the partially cooled air. Our geographically weighted regression model showed that both day and nighttime land surface temperatures correlated with the normalized difference vegetation index, population density, and albedo. The association with the index and albedo was stronger during the daytime and with population density during the nighttime. Vegetation (negative) and population density (positive) were the dominant temperature drivers, with

  5. Application of GIS and remote sensing methods to the paleohydrography of the Paso del Norte region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, John F.

    The purpose of this project is to use geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing methods to investigate the paleohydrology of the Paso del Norte region during the latest pluvial event. During the research I gathered the best available geologic and hydrographic data sets and integrated these data within a GIS in order to create a digital paleohydrologic database for the region. In particular, I used the GIS to reconstruct the hydrography (i.e. streams, lakes, and watershed boundaries) that existed as a results of increased precipitation and a decrease in temperature in the recent geologic past. The existence of the pluvial lakes had an impact on ground-water and surface-water flow systems in this region. The results of my research are presented as two papers ready for peer-review publication submission and a third paper that is a previously published work. (1) Using GIS and Remote Sensing to Reconstruct Late Quaternary and Early Holocene Paleo-Hydrography Using Climate Data and Modern Topography---an Example from the Southwestern US. This paper describes the methods used to create a paleo-hydrography system for the Paso del Norte region, and the development of a water-balance equation that estimates the inputs and outputs of this system. (2) Estimating Water-Balance Equation for Playas in the Tularosa Basin of Southern New Mexico. This paper describes the calibration and testing of the GIS model presented in the first paper. Before it can be applied to paleohydrologic systems, it must be shown to reasonably approximate playa systems in the region under current conditions. Water balances were calculated for several playas and their associated drainages. (3) The Hydrogeologic Framework of Basin-Fill Aquifers and Associated Ground-water flow Systems in Southwestern New Mexico---An Overview. The paper is an overview of work done by many hydrogeologists in the Paso del Norte region; however, the primary source of most of our current knowledge is based on the

  6. Microsatellite primer resource for Populus developed from

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, Tongming; Yang, Xiaohan; Gunter, Lee E; Tuskan, Gerald A; Wullschleger, Stan D; Huang, Prof. Minren; Li, Shuxian; Zhang, Xinye

    2008-01-01

    In this study, 148 428 simple sequence repeat (SSR) primer pairs were designed from the unambiguously mapped sequence scaffolds of the Nisqually-1 genome. The physical position of the priming sites were identified along each of the 19 Populus chromosomes, and it was specified whether the priming sequences belong to intronic, intergenic, exonic or UTR regions. A subset of 150 SSR loci were amplified and a high amplification success rate (72%) was obtained in P. tremuloides, which belongs to a divergent subgenus of Populus relative to Nisqually-1. PCR reactions showed that the amplification success rate of exonic primer pairs was much higher than that of the intronic/intergenic primer pairs. Applying ANOVA and regression analyses to the flanking sequences of microsatellites, the repeat lengths, the GC contents of the repeats, the repeat motif numbers, the repeat motif length and the base composition of the repeat motif, it was determined that only the base composition of the repeat motif and the repeat motif length significantly affect the microsatellite variability in P. tremuloides samples. The SSR primer resource developed in this study provides a database for selecting highly transferable SSR markers with known physical position in the Populus genome and provides a comprehensive genetic tool to extend the genome sequence of Nisqually-1 to genetic studies in different Populus species.

  7. A Primer on Simulation and Gaming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Richard F.

    In a primer intended for the administrative professions, for the behavioral sciences, and for education, simulation and its various aspects are defined, illustrated, and explained. Man-model simulation, man-computer simulation, all-computer simulation, and analysis are discussed as techniques for studying object systems (parts of the "real…

  8. Sex Stereotyping in Mexican Reading Primers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heathcote, Olvia D.

    1982-01-01

    An investigation of sex role stereotypes appearing in primers used in Mexico found males depicted as active, intelligent, strong, and in command, and females shown as suitable only for doing housework, providing emotional support, aiding the elderly, and observing active males. (FL)

  9. The FAS Child: A Primer for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wentz, Thomas L.; Larson, Julie

    1993-01-01

    This primer on fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) distinguishes between the syndrome and fetal alcohol effects (FAE), offers a history of FAS, outlines medical criteria for diagnosis, rates of incidence, factors influencing incidence and severity, developmental stages of children with FAS, clinical features, and educational implications and approaches.…

  10. School Safety & Youth Violence: A Legal Primer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Kirk A.; Ross, Catherine J.

    This legal primer on violence in schools addresses the responsibility of school officials to respond to undisciplined youths whose behavior threatens the welfare and safety of other children in attendance. It is broken down into sections that provide a brief overview of the key rules and guidelines for school officials and teachers in each topic…

  11. Primers for Clinical Detection of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    San-Blas, Gioconda; Niño-Vega, Gustavo; Barreto, Laura; Hebeler-Barbosa, Flavia; Bagagli, Eduardo; Olivero de Briceño, Rosa; Mendes, Rinaldo Poncio

    2005-01-01

    From a 0.72-kb fragment universally generated in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis strains, primers were designed and tested on genomic DNA of this and other pathogenic fungi. They were specific and highly sensitive for P. brasiliensis DNA. Positive results were obtained when these were tested in clinical samples. PMID:16081993

  12. A primer on effectiveness and efficacy trials.

    PubMed

    Singal, Amit G; Higgins, Peter D R; Waljee, Akbar K

    2014-01-02

    Although efficacy and effectiveness studies are both important when evaluating interventions, they serve distinct purposes and have different study designs. Unfortunately, the distinction between these two types of trials is often poorly understood. In this primer, we highlight several differences between these two types of trials including study design, patient populations, intervention design, data analysis, and result reporting.

  13. Forest Interpreter's Primer on Fire Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zelker, Thomas M.

    Specifically prepared for the use of Forest Service field-based interpreters of the management, protection, and use of forest and range resources and the associated human, cultural, and natural history found on these lands, this book is the second in a series of six primers on the multiple use of forest and range resources. Following an…

  14. Apparatus For Tests Of Percussion Primers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, Laurence J.; Bailey, James W.; Schimmel, Morry L.

    1991-01-01

    Test apparatus and method developed to measure ignition capability of percussion primers. Closely simulates actual conditions and interfaces encountered in such applications as in munitions and rocket motors. Ignitability-testing apparatus is small bomb instrumented with pressure transducers. Sizes, shapes, and positions of bomb components and materials under test selected to obtain quantitative data on ignition.

  15. A Primer on Basic Effect Size Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elmore, Patricia B.; Rotou, Ourania

    The increased interest in reporting effect sizes means that it is necessary to consider what should be included in a primer on effect sizes. A review of papers on effect sizes and commonly repeated statistical analyses suggests that it is important to discuss effect sizes relative to bivariate correlation, t-tests, analysis of variance/covariance,…

  16. Internet Primer: Workshop Design and Objectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laverty, Corinne Y. C.

    1996-01-01

    Outlines the design, objectives, and evaluation of an introductory Internet workshop offered with library instruction classes in an electronic classroom at Queens University (Kingston, Ontario, Canada). Presents teaching tips and frequently-asked questions. The Internet primer handouts are appended. (AEF)

  17. A Primer on Simulation and Gaming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Richard F.

    In a primer intended for the administrative professions, for the behavioral sciences, and for education, simulation and its various aspects are defined, illustrated, and explained. Man-model simulation, man-computer simulation, all-computer simulation, and analysis are discussed as techniques for studying object systems (parts of the "real…

  18. Microsatellite primers for red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In this note, we document polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR) primer pairs for 101, nuclear-encoded microsatellites designed and developed from a red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) genomic library. The 101 microsatellites (Genbank Accession Numbers EU015882-EU015982) were amplified successfully and used to...

  19. Issues Primer. EEE708 Negotiated Study Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Leonie

    This issues primer is structured around a series of 20 contemporary concerns in the changing world of work and training in Australia in the early 1990s. It is part of the study materials for the one-semester distance education unit, Negotiated Study Program, in the Open Campus Program at Deakin University (Australia). Information on each issue is…

  20. Addressing the 61st Hour Challenge: Collaborating in El Paso to Create Seamless Pathways from High School to College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    Jobs for the Future and the Greater Texas Foundation's new report documents an early college program in El Paso, Texas that has enabled over a thousand students to earn a bachelor's degree, and holds lessons for early college advocates and leaders. Texas has been at the forefront of the early college movement since early college--which integrates…

  1. INTRA-URBAN GRADIENTS OF FINE PARTICULATE MATTER (PM2.5) IN THE EL PASO CHILDREN'S HEALTH STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    El Paso, Texas, a metropolitan area with over 500,000 residents, is located directly across the US/Mexico border from Ciudad Juarez with over 1 million residents. An estimated 18 million vehicles annually cross the international border between these two large cities. The border...

  2. SPRINGTIME SPATIAL CONCENTRATION GRADIENTS OF NITROGEN DIOXIDE AND VOLATILE ORGANIC SPECIES IN THE EL PASO CHILDREN'S HEALTH STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Each year, over 18 million vehicles cross the international border between El Paso, TX (USA) and Ciudad Juarez (Mexico). The border traffic congestion, as well as the more typical intra-urban and interstate traffic, provide an opportunity to investigate the health effects of PM ...

  3. Discriminant analysis of components of El Paso Group rocks in southern Hueco Mountains, Hudspeth County, Texas - approach to depositional environments

    SciTech Connect

    Aluka, I.J.

    1987-08-01

    The El Paso Group of the Southern Hueco Mountains, Hudspeth County, Texas, crops out over an area of about 57 km/sup 2/ (22 mi/sup 2/) and is divided into three informal units - lower, middle, and upper. The lower contains the lower calcareous sandstone member and an overlying sandy limestone member; the middle is cherty limestone; and the upper unit contains two members: sandy dolomite and an upper silty dolomite. The El Paso Group rocks are classified into seven microfacies based on thin section studies of the rocks' components. These are organic allochems (peloids, gastropods, trilobite fragments, pelmatozoan ossicles, algae, and unidentifiable bioclasts); inorganic allochems (glauconite, stylolites, quartz grains, voids, lithoclasts, and ooids); matrix (micrite, microspar, recrystallized sparite, micritic size dolomite, microsparitic size dolomite, and sparitic size dolomite). Discriminant analysis of the components of the rocks tests the classification of the rocks into seven microfacies. Six discriminant functions, discriminant function scores for each sample, and probability of the sample's membership in each classification group are calculated during the study to discriminate among the groups. The eigenvalues, plots of discriminant scores, chi-square tests, Wilk's lambda, and the territorial map proved effective in classifying the components of the El Paso Group rocks; 100% of the grouped cases are correctly classified into seven microfacies. The components/microfacies indicate that the rocks of El Paso Group were deposited in shelf lagoon with open circulation, restricted circulation in shelf, subtidal, intertidal, and tidal flat environments.

  4. SPRINGTIME SPATIAL CONCENTRATION GRADIENTS OF NITROGEN DIOXIDE AND VOLATILE ORGANIC SPECIES IN THE EL PASO CHILDREN'S HEALTH STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Each year, over 18 million vehicles cross the international border between El Paso, TX (USA) and Ciudad Juarez (Mexico). The border traffic congestion, as well as the more typical intra-urban and interstate traffic, provide an opportunity to investigate the health effects of PM ...

  5. Attic dust analysis approach for evaluation of heavy metal deposition in the El Paso Del Norte Region

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    During the 90 years from 1887 to 1977, a large smelter in the El Paso Del Norte region of North America smelted many ores including copper, lead, and zinc. In order to identify the patterns of heavy metal dispersion from the smelter, we sampled attic dust and dust from undisturbed surfaces in 15 bu...

  6. INTRA-URBAN GRADIENTS OF FINE PARTICULATE MATTER (PM2.5) IN THE EL PASO CHILDREN'S HEALTH STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    El Paso, Texas, a metropolitan area with over 500,000 residents, is located directly across the US/Mexico border from Ciudad Juarez with over 1 million residents. An estimated 18 million vehicles annually cross the international border between these two large cities. The border...

  7. PrimerDesign-M: a multiple-alignment based multiple-primer design tool for walking across variable genomes.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Hyejin; Leitner, Thomas

    2015-05-01

    Analyses of entire viral genomes or mtDNA requires comprehensive design of many primers across their genomes. Furthermore, simultaneous optimization of several DNA primer design criteria may improve overall experimental efficiency and downstream bioinformatic processing. To achieve these goals, we developed PrimerDesign-M. It includes several options for multiple-primer design, allowing researchers to efficiently design walking primers that cover long DNA targets, such as entire HIV-1 genomes, and that optimizes primers simultaneously informed by genetic diversity in multiple alignments and experimental design constraints given by the user. PrimerDesign-M can also design primers that include DNA barcodes and minimize primer dimerization. PrimerDesign-M finds optimal primers for highly variable DNA targets and facilitates design flexibility by suggesting alternative designs to adapt to experimental conditions. PrimerDesign-M is available as a webtool at http://www.hiv.lanl.gov/content/sequence/PRIMER_DESIGN/primer_design.html tkl@lanl.gov or seq-info@lanl.gov. Published by Oxford University Press 2014. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  8. Rust transformation/rust compatible primers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emeric, Dario A.; Miller, Christopher E.

    1993-01-01

    Proper surface preparation has been the key to obtain good performance by a surface coating. The major obstacle in preparing a corroded or rusted surface is the complete removal of the contaminants and the corrosion products. Sandblasting has been traditionally used to remove the corrosion products before painting. However, sandblasting can be expensive, may be prohibited by local health regulations and is not applicable in every situation. To get around these obstacles, Industry developed rust converters/rust transformers and rust compatible primers (high solids epoxies). The potential use of these products for military equipment led personnel of the Belvoir Research, Development and Engineering Center (BRDEC) to evaluate the commercially available rust transformers and rust compatible primers. Prior laboratory experience with commercially available rust converters, as well as field studies in Hawaii and Puerto Rico, revealed poor performance, several inherent limitations, and lack of reliability. It was obvious from our studies that the performance of rust converting products was more dependent on the amount and type of rust present, as well as the degree of permeability of the coating, than on the product's ability to form an organometallic complex with the rust. Based on these results, it was decided that the Military should develop their own rust converter formulation and specification. The compound described in the specification is for use on a rusted surface before the application of an organic coating (bituminous compounds, primer or topcoat). These coatings should end the need for sandblasting or the removing of the adherent corrosion products. They also will prepare the surface for the application of the organic coating. Several commercially available rust compatible primers (RCP) were also tested using corroded surfaces. All of the evaluated RCP failed our laboratory tests for primers.

  9. Hueco tanks: an initial evaluation of a potential geothermal area near El Paso, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, B.; Roy, R.F.; Hoffer, J.M.

    1980-09-01

    A potential geothermal resource about 40km northeast of El Paso, Texas is under investigation. The presence of old hot wells indicated the area of interest, and a geochemical survey outlined the possible geothermal anomaly. A shallow drilling program has revealed gradients consistently over 100/sup 0/C/km and as high as 300/sup 0/C/km on the Texas side of the state line, and a 300m hole yielded a heat flow of 8.3 H.F.U. in the limestone bedrock. Electrical soundings have shown the presence of a shallow conductive layer (probably hot and/or mineralized water) and a recently completed gravity survey delineates the faulting pattern apparently responsbile for the uprise of thermal waters. Indications are presently not for an electricity-grade resource, but of a hot water reservoir, with temperatures maybe reaching 120 to 140/sup 0/C.

  10. Los damnificados: El Paso medical team aids in Mexican earthquake disaster.

    PubMed

    Villescas, J

    1986-05-01

    The aftermath of the catastrophic earthquakes in Mexico City compromised health care in many parts of the capital. Teams of American medical volunteers from throughout the nation placed personal lives and careers on hold and headed south of the border. Under the auspices of the Salvation Army, "Clinica Esperanza" was founded in the poorest colonia of the city. The El Paso team was one of several who responded to the call. These volunteers combined their expertise with novel uses of existing space and material to help create a viable, efficient clinic. The journal distillation that follows provides a broad overview of events transpiring both in and out of Clinica Esperanza. May pharmacists come forward in number in this team concept in the event of a future cataclysm.

  11. Irregular recurrence of paleoearthquakes along the central Garlock fault near El Paso Peaks, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dawson, T.E.; McGill, S.F.; Rockwell, T.K.

    2003-01-01

    New investigations at the El Paso Peaks paleoseismic site have refined and extended the record of paleoearthquakes for the central Garlock fault. Event evidence, in the form of buried fissures, scarps, folds, and upward terminations, has allowed us to identify six well-resolved earthquakes, designated as events W, U, R, Q, K, and F, within the last ???7000 years. The exposures that we excavated did not reveal additional evidence for three poorly resolved events reported by McGill and Rockwell [1998]. Evidence for event Y, identified in the previous study, was reexamined and found not to be a paleoearthquake. Radiocarbon dates of detrital charcoal, combined with a method of interpolating the event ages with revised sedimentation rates, provide our preferred constraints on the timing of faulting events. The most recent surface-rupturing earthquake, event W, occurred between A.D. 1450 and 1640. The penultimate event U occurred between A.D. 675 and 950. Event R, which was unrecognized in the previous study, occurred between A.D. 250 and 475. Event Q occurred relatively shortly before event R, between A.D. 25 and 275. Event K occurred between 3340 and 2930 B.C. The oldest identified paleoearthquake, event F, occurred between 5300 and 4670 B.C. The event ages indicate that earthquake recurrence is highly irregular at the El Paso Peaks site, with individual preferred intervals ranging from as little as 215 years to as many as 3300 years. The irregular recurrence of surface-rupturing earthquakes along the central Garlock fault may be related to temporal and spatial clustering of earthquakes proposed for faults in the Eastern California Shear Zone.

  12. Lead Contamination of Urban Soil in the El Paso (Texas)--Juarez (Mexico) Border Metroplex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pingitore, N. E.; Amaya, M. A.; Clague, J.

    2005-12-01

    We present an unusually detailed map of the distribution of lead in El Paso--Juarez soils, one that is based on x-ray fluorescence analysis of 1000 composite soil samples collected in the region. Mixing equal volumes of samples taken from the public space in front of individual houses or structures around a single municipal block created a single composite sample to characterize each of the 500 blocks studied in each city. Maps based on such composites highlight the distribution of lead at the neighborhood level, and de-emphasize any anomalous elevated level associated with an individual house or structure. In both cities, levels of lead are highest in their contiguous downtown commercial districts, which date to the 19th Century and are linked by the traditional border river crossing area at the Rio Grande. Rail yards, transport hubs, light industry complexes, and the oldest residential areas lie adjacent to, and inter-tongue with, this commercial district on both sides of the border. A century-old smelter, placed on standby six years ago, abuts the western limit of the old urban core in El Paso. The continuity of this elevated-lead zone, the proximity of the smelter, the many potential lead sources associated with traditional commercial activities, and the age of its structures, make it difficult to differentiate lead sources. Lead values decrease systematically away from this urban core zone, with the lowest levels generally encountered in peripheral, lightly populated developments and communities. The binational distribution of Pb in soil is consistent with Pb measurements reported on particulate matter taken from nine air monitoring stations (covering both cities) during the 1990s. Soil data thus can complement air studies by providing an essentially infinite geographic network of sampling sites that, with varying accuracy, record and integrate air conditions over years and decades. Research supported by NIEHS Grant 1RO1-ES11367.

  13. Unusual Recharge Processes near Arroyos of the Rio Grande Aquifer, El Paso/Juarez Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merino, M.; Hibbs, B. J.; Hogan, J.; Eastoe, C. J.; Druhan, J.

    2005-12-01

    The twin-cities of El Paso and Juarez share the water resources of the Hueco Bolson aquifer and overlying Rio Grande aquifer. Both aquifers span the international border between Mexico and the United States. Salinity in the Rio Grande aquifer varies widely, some parts of the shallow aquifer containing less than 1,000 mg/L total dissolved solids (TDS), other parts of the aquifer exceeding 5,000 mg/L TDS. One sizable part of the "Lower Valley" area, approximately 45 km below El Paso contains very dilute water near the outer edge of the floodplain. Historically it had been thought that the dilute waters in this location were derived from recharge from arroyos that drained proximal parts of the Hueco Bolson. Instead, our hydrogen and oxygen isotope data and carbon-14 data indicate that these dilute waters were derived from pre-dam infiltration of the Rio Grande. Relatively light and slightly evaporated pre-dam waters (-11.5 del O18) at the arroyos are also relatively young (60 to 90 percent modern carbon), tagging them as runoff waters from pre-dam snowmelt in Colorado. These isotopically light waters are found up to 110 meters beneath land surface. Prior to Rio Grande rectification and channelization of the mid-1930's, the Rio Grande flowed near the outer edge of the floodplain where these pre-dam, dilute waters are found at depth. Review of predevelopment drill stem tests indicated a permeable zone about 150 to 230 meters deep that had a lower hydraulic head than the overlying Rio Grande aquifer. The permeable zone acted as a predevelopment sink for flow that induced recharge from the Rio Grande and Rio Grande aquifer. Thus, we can account for local predevelopment recharge of the Rio Grande aquifer from infiltration of dilute water from the Rio Grande prior to the historic era of channel rectification, and not from recharge from flanking arroyos as had been postulated by previous researchers.

  14. Deconstructing the Polymerase Chain Reaction: Understanding and Correcting Bias Associated with Primer Degeneracies and Primer-Template Mismatches

    PubMed Central

    Green, Stefan J.; Venkatramanan, Raghavee; Naqib, Ankur

    2015-01-01

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is sensitive to mismatches between primer and template, and mismatches can lead to inefficient amplification of targeted regions of DNA template. In PCRs in which a degenerate primer pool is employed, each primer can behave differently. Therefore, inefficiencies due to different primer melting temperatures within a degenerate primer pool, in addition to mismatches between primer binding sites and primers, can lead to a distortion of the true relative abundance of targets in the original DNA pool. A theoretical analysis indicated that a combination of primer-template and primer-amplicon interactions during PCR cycles 3–12 is potentially responsible for this distortion. To test this hypothesis, we developed a novel amplification strategy, entitled “Polymerase-exonuclease (PEX) PCR”, in which primer-template interactions and primer-amplicon interactions are separated. The PEX PCR method substantially and significantly improved the evenness of recovery of sequences from a mock community of known composition, and allowed for amplification of templates with introduced mismatches near the 3’ end of the primer annealing sites. When the PEX PCR method was applied to genomic DNA extracted from complex environmental samples, a significant shift in the observed microbial community was detected. Furthermore, the PEX PCR method provides a mechanism to identify which primers in a primer pool are annealing to target gDNA. Primer utilization patterns revealed that at high annealing temperatures in the PEX PCR method, perfect match annealing predominates, while at lower annealing temperatures, primers with up to four mismatches with templates can contribute substantially to amplification. The PEX PCR method is simple to perform, is limited to PCR mixes and a single exonuclease step which can be performed without reaction cleanup, and is recommended for reactions in which degenerate primer pools are used or when mismatches between primers

  15. Deconstructing the polymerase chain reaction: understanding and correcting bias associated with primer degeneracies and primer-template mismatches.

    PubMed

    Green, Stefan J; Venkatramanan, Raghavee; Naqib, Ankur

    2015-01-01

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is sensitive to mismatches between primer and template, and mismatches can lead to inefficient amplification of targeted regions of DNA template. In PCRs in which a degenerate primer pool is employed, each primer can behave differently. Therefore, inefficiencies due to different primer melting temperatures within a degenerate primer pool, in addition to mismatches between primer binding sites and primers, can lead to a distortion of the true relative abundance of targets in the original DNA pool. A theoretical analysis indicated that a combination of primer-template and primer-amplicon interactions during PCR cycles 3-12 is potentially responsible for this distortion. To test this hypothesis, we developed a novel amplification strategy, entitled "Polymerase-exonuclease (PEX) PCR", in which primer-template interactions and primer-amplicon interactions are separated. The PEX PCR method substantially and significantly improved the evenness of recovery of sequences from a mock community of known composition, and allowed for amplification of templates with introduced mismatches near the 3' end of the primer annealing sites. When the PEX PCR method was applied to genomic DNA extracted from complex environmental samples, a significant shift in the observed microbial community was detected. Furthermore, the PEX PCR method provides a mechanism to identify which primers in a primer pool are annealing to target gDNA. Primer utilization patterns revealed that at high annealing temperatures in the PEX PCR method, perfect match annealing predominates, while at lower annealing temperatures, primers with up to four mismatches with templates can contribute substantially to amplification. The PEX PCR method is simple to perform, is limited to PCR mixes and a single exonuclease step which can be performed without reaction cleanup, and is recommended for reactions in which degenerate primer pools are used or when mismatches between primers and

  16. Karst development in the Tobosa basin (Ordovician-Devonian) strata in the El Paso border region of west Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Lemone, D.V. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-02-01

    Karst development within the Tobosa basin strata in the El Paso border region is best displayed during two time intervals: Middle Ordovician (27 Ma) developed on the Lower Ordovician El Paso Group and Middle Silurian to Middle Devonian (40 Ma) karst developed on the Lower-Middle Fusselman Formation. These major exposure intervals are recognized in regional outcrops as well as in the subsurface of the Permian Basin where they form major reservoirs. Minor local karsting is noted also within and upon the Upper Ordovician (Montoya Group) and within the shoaling upward members of overlying the Fusselman Formation. Middle Ordovician karsting with major cavern development extends down into McKellingon Canyon Formation approximately 1,000 feet below the top of the Lower Ordovician El Paso Group. The McKellingon is overlain by the cavern roof-forming early diagenetic dolomites, lower Scenic Drive Formation which in turn is overlain by the locally karsted upper Scenic Drive and Florida Mountains formations. Collapse of the overlying Montoya Group into El Paso Group rocks is observed. The Fusselman Formation rests disconformably on the Montoya Group. It is a massive, vuggy, fine- to coarsely-crystalline, whitish dolomite. Extensive karsting has developed on the top of the Fusselman. The middle Devonian Canutillo Formation with a basal flooding deposit overlies this karst surface. Minor karsting following fracture systems extends from the major karst of the El Paso Group up into the major karst in the Fusselman. The karst seems to be following and developing along the same linear fracture systems. If so, it is not unreasonable to interpret these fracture systems as being inherited from the earlier Precambrian structures underlying them.

  17. Primer design using Primer Express® for SYBR Green-based quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Singh, Amarjeet; Pandey, Girdhar K

    2015-01-01

    To quantitate the gene expression, real-time RT-PCR or quantitative PCR (qPCR) is one of the most sensitive, reliable, and commonly used methods in molecular biology. The reliability and success of a real-time PCR assay depend on the optimal experiment design. Primers are the most important constituents of real-time PCR experiments such as in SYBR Green-based detection assays. Designing of an appropriate and specific primer pair is extremely crucial for correct estimation of transcript abundance of any gene in a given sample. Here, we are presenting a quick, easy, and reliable method for designing target-specific primers using Primer Express(®) software for real-time PCR (qPCR) experiments.

  18. Loop-Mediated Amplification Accelerated by Stem Primers

    PubMed Central

    Gandelman, Olga; Jackson, Rebecca; Kiddle, Guy; Tisi, Laurence

    2011-01-01

    Isothermal nucleic acid amplifications (iNAATs) have become an important alternative to PCR for in vitro molecular diagnostics in all fields. Amongst iNAATs Loop-mediated amplification (LAMP) has gained much attention over the last decade because of the simplicity of hardware requirements. LAMP demonstrates performance equivalent to that of PCR, but its application has been limited by the challenging primer design. The design of six primers in LAMP requires a selection of eight priming sites with significant restrictions imposed on their respective positioning and orientation. In order to relieve primer design constraints we propose an alternative approach which uses Stem primers instead of Loop primers and demonstrate the application of STEM-LAMP in assaying for Clostridium difficile, Listeria monocytogenes and HIV. Stem primers used in LAMP in combination with loop-generating and displacement primers gave significant benefits in speed and sensitivity, similar to those offered by Loop primers, while offering additional options of forward and reverse orientations, multiplexing, use in conjunction with Loop primers or even omission of one or two displacement primers, where necessary. Stem primers represent a valuable alternative to Loop primers and an additional tool for IVD assay development by offering more choices for primer design at the same time increasing assay speed, sensitivity, and reproducibility. PMID:22272122

  19. New primers for adhesive bonding of aluminum alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burrell, B. W.; Port, W. S.

    1971-01-01

    Synthetic polypeptide adhesive primers are effective, with high temperature epoxy resins, at temperatures from 100 deg to 300 deg C. Lap-shear failure loads and lap-shear strength of both primers are discussed.

  20. PrimerSuite: A High-Throughput Web-Based Primer Design Program for Multiplex Bisulfite PCR.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jennifer; Johnston, Andrew; Berichon, Philippe; Ru, Ke-Lin; Korbie, Darren; Trau, Matt

    2017-01-24

    The analysis of DNA methylation at CpG dinucleotides has become a major research focus due to its regulatory role in numerous biological processes, but the requisite need for assays which amplify bisulfite-converted DNA represents a major bottleneck due to the unique design constraints imposed on bisulfite-PCR primers. Moreover, a review of the literature indicated no available software solutions which accommodated both high-throughput primer design, support for multiplex amplification assays, and primer-dimer prediction. In response, the tri-modular software package PrimerSuite was developed to support bisulfite multiplex PCR applications. This software was constructed to (i) design bisulfite primers against multiple regions simultaneously (PrimerSuite), (ii) screen for primer-primer dimerizing artefacts (PrimerDimer), and (iii) support multiplex PCR assays (PrimerPlex). Moreover, a major focus in the development of this software package was the emphasis on extensive empirical validation, and over 1300 unique primer pairs have been successfully designed and screened, with over 94% of them producing amplicons of the expected size, and an average mapping efficiency of 93% when screened using bisulfite multiplex resequencing. The potential use of the software in other bisulfite-based applications such as methylation-specific PCR is under consideration for future updates. This resource is freely available for use at PrimerSuite website (www.primer-suite.com).

  1. PrimerSuite: A High-Throughput Web-Based Primer Design Program for Multiplex Bisulfite PCR

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jennifer; Johnston, Andrew; Berichon, Philippe; Ru, Ke-lin; Korbie, Darren; Trau, Matt

    2017-01-01

    The analysis of DNA methylation at CpG dinucleotides has become a major research focus due to its regulatory role in numerous biological processes, but the requisite need for assays which amplify bisulfite-converted DNA represents a major bottleneck due to the unique design constraints imposed on bisulfite-PCR primers. Moreover, a review of the literature indicated no available software solutions which accommodated both high-throughput primer design, support for multiplex amplification assays, and primer-dimer prediction. In response, the tri-modular software package PrimerSuite was developed to support bisulfite multiplex PCR applications. This software was constructed to (i) design bisulfite primers against multiple regions simultaneously (PrimerSuite), (ii) screen for primer-primer dimerizing artefacts (PrimerDimer), and (iii) support multiplex PCR assays (PrimerPlex). Moreover, a major focus in the development of this software package was the emphasis on extensive empirical validation, and over 1300 unique primer pairs have been successfully designed and screened, with over 94% of them producing amplicons of the expected size, and an average mapping efficiency of 93% when screened using bisulfite multiplex resequencing. The potential use of the software in other bisulfite-based applications such as methylation-specific PCR is under consideration for future updates. This resource is freely available for use at PrimerSuite website (www.primer-suite.com). PMID:28117430

  2. Primer3—new capabilities and interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Untergasser, Andreas; Cutcutache, Ioana; Koressaar, Triinu; Ye, Jian; Faircloth, Brant C.; Remm, Maido; Rozen, Steven G.

    2012-01-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a basic molecular biology technique with a multiplicity of uses, including deoxyribonucleic acid cloning and sequencing, functional analysis of genes, diagnosis of diseases, genotyping and discovery of genetic variants. Reliable primer design is crucial for successful PCR, and for over a decade, the open-source Primer3 software has been widely used for primer design, often in high-throughput genomics applications. It has also been incorporated into numerous publicly available software packages and web services. During this period, we have greatly expanded Primer3’s functionality. In this article, we describe Primer3’s current capabilities, emphasizing recent improvements. The most notable enhancements incorporate more accurate thermodynamic models in the primer design process, both to improve melting temperature prediction and to reduce the likelihood that primers will form hairpins or dimers. Additional enhancements include more precise control of primer placement—a change motivated partly by opportunities to use whole-genome sequences to improve primer specificity. We also added features to increase ease of use, including the ability to save and re-use parameter settings and the ability to require that individual primers not be used in more than one primer pair. We have made the core code more modular and provided cleaner programming interfaces to further ease integration with other software. These improvements position Primer3 for continued use with genome-scale data in the decade ahead. PMID:22730293

  3. Specific PCR product primer design using memetic algorithm.

    PubMed

    Yang, Cheng-Hong; Cheng, Yu-Huei; Chuang, Li-Yeh; Chang, Hsueh-Wei

    2009-01-01

    To provide feasible primer sets for performing a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) experiment, many primer design methods have been proposed. However, the majority of these methods require a relatively long time to obtain an optimal solution since large quantities of template DNA need to be analyzed. Furthermore, the designed primer sets usually do not provide a specific PCR product size. In recent years, evolutionary computation has been applied to PCR primer design and yielded promising results. In this article, a memetic algorithm (MA) is proposed to solve primer design problems associated with providing a specific product size for PCR experiments. The MA is compared with a genetic algorithm (GA) using an accuracy formula to estimate the quality of the primer design and test the running time. Overall, 50 accession nucleotide sequences were sampled for the comparison of the accuracy of the GA and MA for primer design. Five hundred runs of the GA and MA primer design were performed with PCR product lengths of 150-300 bps and 500-800 bps, and two different methods of calculating T(m) for each accession nucleotide sequence were tested. A comparison of the accuracy results for the GA and MA primer design showed that the MA primer design yielded better results than the GA primer design. The results further indicate that the proposed method finds optimal or near-optimal primer sets and effective PCR products in a dry dock experiment. Related materials are available online at http://bio.kuas.edu.tw/ma-pd/.

  4. A primer for criticality calculations with DANTSYS

    SciTech Connect

    Busch, R.D.

    1997-08-01

    With the closure of many experimental facilities, the nuclear safety analyst has to rely on computer calculations to identify safe limits for the handling and storage of fissile materials. Although deterministic methods often do not provide exact models of a system, a substantial amount of reliable information on nuclear systems can be obtained using these methods if the user understands their limitations. To guide criticality specialists in this area, the Nuclear Criticality Safety Group at the University of New Mexico (UNM) in cooperation with the Radiation Transport Group at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has designed a primer to help the analyst understand and use the DANTSYS deterministic transport code for nuclear criticality safety analyses. DANTSYS is the new name of the group of codes formerly known as: ONEDANT, TWODANT, TWOHEX, TWOGQ, and THREEDANT. The primer is designed to teach bu example, with each example illustrating two or three DANTSYS features useful in criticality analyses. Starting with a Quickstart chapter, the primer gives an overview of the basic requirements for DANTSYS input and allows the user to quickly run a simple criticality problem with DANTSYS. Each chapter has a list of basic objectives at the beginning identifying the goal of the chapter and the individual DANTSYS features covered in detail in the chapter example problems. On completion of the primer, it is expected that the user will be comfortable doing criticality calculations with DANTSYS and can handle 60--80% of the situations that normally arise in a facility. The primary provides a set of input files that can be selective modified by the user to fit each particular problem.

  5. Fractal antenna and fractal resonator primer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Nathan

    2015-03-01

    Self-similarity and fractals have opened new and important avenues for antenna and electronic solutions over the last 25 years. This primer provides an introduction to the benefits provided by fractal geometry in antennas, resonators, and related structures. Such benefits include, among many, wider bandwidths, smaller sizes, part-less electronic components, and better performance. Fractals also provide a new generation of optimized design tools, first used successfully in antennas but applicable in a general fashion.

  6. Genetics and health communication: a primer.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Marisa S

    2015-01-01

    The progress of genetic knowledge has been swift and steadfast. As we move forward in the genomic era, post Human Genome Project, and continue to explore how one's genes interact with one's environment, it becomes increasingly important for all audiences to have a firm grasp of the vocabulary used in this health context. This primer is intended to be used as a reference and to introduce and/or make more clear concepts related to genetics to increase understanding.

  7. Chromate concentration bias in primer paint particles.

    PubMed

    LaPuma, P T; Fox, J M; Kimmel, E C

    2001-06-01

    Chromate-containing primer paints are used to prevent corrosion on metal surfaces. Chromate contains hexavalent chromium (Cr6+), a human carcinogen. The objective of this research was to determine if there is a bias in the fraction of chromate found in various particle sizes generated during primer painting operations. A solvent-based, aviation primer paint was sprayed using a high-volume, low-pressure spray gun. Paint particles were collected and separated by size with seven-stage cascade impactors. It was determined that particles with a mass aerodynamic diameter < 2.0 microm contained significantly less Cr6+ per dry weight of paint than particles > 2.0 microm (P < 0.001). The median concentration of Cr6+ in particles < 2.0 microm is 18 micro g of Cr/mg of dry paint and the median concentration for particles > 2.0 microm is 70 microg of Cr/mg of dry paint. The mixed paint contains 18.75% strontium chromate, which equates to a ratio of 67 microg of Cr/mg of dry paint. Particles > 2.0 microm are more likely to impact in the upper tracheobronchial regions of the lung where mucociliary clearance is relatively rapid. Additionally, chromate emissions from spraying operations may be overestimated because larger particles, which are more easily trapped on an air filter, contain more chromate than the smaller particles, which are more likely to bypass an air filter.

  8. Universal COI primers for DNA barcoding amphibians.

    PubMed

    Che, Jing; Chen, Hong-Man; Yang, Jun-Xiao; Jin, Jie-Qiong; Jiang, Ke; Yuan, Zhi-Yong; Murphy, Robert W; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2012-03-01

    DNA barcoding is a proven tool for the rapid and unambiguous identification of species, which is essential for many activities including the vouchering tissue samples in the genome 10K initiative, genealogical reconstructions, forensics and biodiversity surveys, among many other applications. A large-scale effort is underway to barcode all amphibian species using the universally sequenced DNA region, a partial fragment of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I COI. This fragment is desirable because it appears to be superior to 16S for barcoding, at least for some groups of salamanders. The barcoding of amphibians is essential in part because many species are now endangered. Unfortunately, existing primers for COI often fail to achieve this goal. Herein, we report two new pairs of primers (➀, ➁) that in combination serve to universally amplify and sequence all three orders of Chinese amphibians as represented by 36 genera. This taxonomic diversity, which includes caecilians, salamanders and frogs, suggests that the new primer pairs will universally amplify COI for the vast majority species of amphibians.

  9. Aerosol characterizaton in El Paso-Juarez airshed using optical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esparza, Angel Eduardo

    2011-12-01

    The assessment and characterization of atmospheric aerosols and their optical properties are of great significance for several applications such as air pollution studies, atmospheric visibility, remote sensing of the atmosphere, and impacts on climate change. Decades ago, the interest in atmospheric aerosols was primarily for visibility impairment problems; however, recently interest has intensified with efforts to quantify the optical properties of aerosols, especially because of the uncertainties surrounding the role of aerosols in climate change. The main objective of the optical characterization of aerosols is to understand their properties. These properties are determined by the aerosols' chemical composition, size, shape and concentration. The general purpose of this research was to contribute to a better characterization of the aerosols present in the Paso del Norte Basin. This study permits an alternative approach in the understanding of air pollution for this zone by analyzing the predominant components and their contributions to the local environment. This dissertation work had three primary objectives, in which all three are intertwined by the general purpose of the aerosol characterization in the Paso del Norte region. The first objective was to retrieve the columnar aerosol size distribution for two different cases (clean and polluted scenarios) at each season (spring, summer, fall and winter) of the year 2009. In this project, instruments placed in buildings within the University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP) as well as a monitoring site (CAMS 12) from the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) provided the measurements that delimited the aerosol size distribution calculated by our model, the Environmental Physics Inverse Reconstruction (EPIRM) model. The purpose of this objective was to provide an alternate method of quantifying and size-allocating aerosols in situ, by using the optical properties of the aerosols and inversely reconstruct and

  10. CRISPR Primer Designer: Design primers for knockout and chromosome imaging CRISPR-Cas system.

    PubMed

    Yan, Meng; Zhou, Shi-Rong; Xue, Hong-Wei

    2015-07-01

    The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated system enables biologists to edit genomes precisely and provides a powerful tool for perturbing endogenous gene regulation, modulation of epigenetic markers, and genome architecture. However, there are concerns about the specificity of the system, especially the usages of knocking out a gene. Previous designing tools either were mostly built-in websites or ran as command-line programs, and none of them ran locally and acquired a user-friendly interface. In addition, with the development of CRISPR-derived systems, such as chromosome imaging, there were still no tools helping users to generate specific end-user spacers. We herein present CRISPR Primer Designer for researchers to design primers for CRISPR applications. The program has a user-friendly interface, can analyze the BLAST results by using multiple parameters, score for each candidate spacer, and generate the primers when using a certain plasmid. In addition, CRISPR Primer Designer runs locally and can be used to search spacer clusters, and exports primers for the CRISPR-Cas system-based chromosome imaging system.

  11. Infrasound from the El Paso super-bolide of October 9, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    ReVelle, D.O.; Whitaker, R.W.; Armstrong, W.T.

    1998-12-31

    During the noon hour on October 9, 1997 an extremely bright fireball ({approx}-21.5 in stellar magnitude putting it into the class of a super-bolide) was observed over western Texas with visual sightings from as far away as Arizona to northern Mexico and even in northern New Mexico over 300 miles away. This event produced tremendously loud sonic boom reports in the El Paso area. It was also detected locally by 4 seismometers which are part of a network of 5 seismic stations operated by the University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP). Subsequent investigations of the data from the six infrasound arrays used by LANL (Los Alamos National Laboratory) and operated for the DOE (Department of Energy) as a part of the CTB (Comprehensive Test Ban) Research and Development program for the IMS (International Monitoring System) showed the presence of an infrasonic signal from the proper direction at the correct time for this super-bolide from two of the six arrays. Both the seismic and infrasound recordings indicated that an explosion occurred in the atmosphere at source heights from 28--30 km, having its epicenter slightly to the northeast of Horizon City, Texas. The signal characteristics, analyzed from {approx}0.1 to 5.0 Hz, include a total duration of {approx}4 min (at Los Alamos, LA) to >{approx}5 min at Lajitas, Texas, TXAR, another CTB IMS array operated by E. Herrin at Southern Methodist University (SMU) for a source directed from LA toward {approx}171--180 deg and from TXAR of {approx}321-4 deg respectively from true north. The observed signal trace velocities (for the part of the recording with the highest cross-correlation) at LA ranged from 300--360 m/sec with a signal velocity of 0.30 {+-} 0.03 km/sec, implying a Stratospheric (S Type) ducted path. The dominant signal frequency at LA was from 0.20 to 0.80 Hz, with a peak near 0.3 Hz. These highly correlated signals at LA had a very large, peak to peak, maximum amplitude of 21.0 microbars (2.1 Pa). The analysis, using

  12. Providing Bridges from 2YC to 4YC in the El Paso Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doser, D. I.; Villalobos, J. I.

    2012-12-01

    For the past ~3 years the University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP) has been working closely with El Paso Community College (EPCC) to help ease the transfer of geoscience and environmental science students between our institutions. We have initiated a number of activities to accomplish this including: articulation of degree programs to build a 2+2 transfer plan, review of introductory course content, cross-institution research projects with EPCC students and co-sponsored student research symposiums. One of the most successful activities has been our cross-institutional research projects that involve either individual students working with a UTEP undergraduate/UTEP faculty member team or EPCC classes that join UTEP classes for some aspect of field work or project. The EPCC students gain confidence in their ability to succeed by working with UTEP students and finding out that they are as capable of engaging in and completing research as their 4YC peers. They also have an opportunity to meet UTEP professors first as mentors and professional colleagues rather than in a classroom setting. The research symposium serves as an excellent venue for showcasing their research to the EPCC and UTEP community, as well as interacting with local and out of town professionals who serve as judges for the research presentations. Feedback provided by the judges assists students in refining their presentations for out of town professional meetings. The first students participating in the research program are graduating from UTEP in the summer and fall of 2012. Many EPCC students involved in research have obtained summer internships in industry, the public sector or at other academic institutions, some even prior to attending UTEP. Several have received competitive scholarships. The greatest challenges to the research program include finding UTEP faculty who are willing to work with EPCC students and financial support for the students during their research activities. The greatest challenges

  13. Low-copy nuclear primers and ycf1 primers in Cactaceae.

    PubMed

    Franck, Alan R; Cochrane, Bruce J; Garey, James R

    2012-10-01

    To increase the number of variable regions available for phylogenetic study in the Cactaceae, primers were developed for a portion of the plastid ycf1 gene and intron-spanning regions of two low-copy nuclear genes (isi1, nhx1). • Primers were tested on several families within Caryophyllales, focusing on the Cactaceae. Gel electrophoresis indicated positive amplification in most samples. Sequences of these three regions (isi1, nhx1, ycf1) from Harrisia exhibited variation similar to or greater than two plastid regions (atpB-rbcL intergenic spacer and rpl16 intron). • The isi, nhx, and ycf1 primers amplify phylogenetically useful information applicable to the Cactaceae and other families in the Caryophyllales.

  14. MPprimer: a program for reliable multiplex PCR primer design.

    PubMed

    Shen, Zhiyong; Qu, Wubin; Wang, Wen; Lu, Yiming; Wu, Yonghong; Li, Zhifeng; Hang, Xingyi; Wang, Xiaolei; Zhao, Dongsheng; Zhang, Chenggang

    2010-03-18

    Multiplex PCR, defined as the simultaneous amplification of multiple regions of a DNA template or multiple DNA templates using more than one primer set (comprising a forward primer and a reverse primer) in one tube, has been widely used in diagnostic applications of clinical and environmental microbiology studies. However, primer design for multiplex PCR is still a challenging problem and several factors need to be considered. These problems include mis-priming due to nonspecific binding to non-target DNA templates, primer dimerization, and the inability to separate and purify DNA amplicons with similar electrophoretic mobility. A program named MPprimer was developed to help users for reliable multiplex PCR primer design. It employs the widely used primer design program Primer3 and the primer specificity evaluation program MFEprimer to design and evaluate the candidate primers based on genomic or transcript DNA database, followed by careful examination to avoid primer dimerization. The graph-expanding algorithm derived from the greedy algorithm was used to determine the optimal primer set combinations (PSCs) for multiplex PCR assay. In addition, MPprimer provides a virtual electrophotogram to help users choose the best PSC. The experimental validation from 2x to 5x plex PCR demonstrates the reliability of MPprimer. As another example, MPprimer is able to design the multiplex PCR primers for DMD (dystrophin gene which caused Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy), which has 79 exons, for 20x, 20x, 20x, 14x, and 5x plex PCR reactions in five tubes to detect underlying exon deletions. MPprimer is a valuable tool for designing specific, non-dimerizing primer set combinations with constrained amplicons size for multiplex PCR assays.

  15. Confirmation and investigation of higher science curiosity in Juarez Middle School students compared to their peers in El Paso, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmona Miranda, Karla

    In the last 20 years attitudes towards science and science classes in K-12 education have been an important topic of investigation due to the decreasing number of students choosing Science, Technology, Engineering and Math (STEM) related careers, and the increasing need for STEM prepared workers to cover the job demands of the future. The purpose of this study is to confirm a previously measured difference in scientific curiosity between middle school students in El Paso and in Ciudad Juarez, and to collect additional data that might tell us what the possible factors or reasons for this difference are. Our sample consists of 156 middle school students from Juarez public schools, and 448 middle school students from El Paso public middle schools. The Children's Science Curiosity Scale of Harty & Beall (1984) will be used to measure the curiosity level. Additionally, the students will be asked to respond to "Why do you like or dislike science?" Our results show that those obtained by Ortiz (2006) in a similar study persist but with a reduction of standard deviations. The percentage of students that state that they do not like science in Ciudad Juarez and El Paso are 9% and 14%, respectively. The most common reason to like science among students in Ciudad Juarez was related to the topics covered in class, and among students in El Paso was related to the experiments and hands-on activities done in class. After analyzing contingency tables with chi-squared tests and calculating the respective contingency coefficients, it is safe to say that even though relationships between the reasons to like or dislike science and country exist, these relationships are not strong. Other results, limitations, and future research also are discussed.

  16. Spectrophotometric determination of tetrazene in primers and primer mixes by use of resorcinol.

    PubMed

    Norwitz, G; Keliher, P N

    1979-06-01

    A spectrophotometric method is proposed for the determination of tetrazene (tetracene) in primers and primer mixes that involves treatment of the tetrazene with resorcinol solution and measurement of the intensity of the yellow colour of the diazo-dye produced. In the application of the method, lead styphnate and barium nitrate are first removed by extraction with ammonium acetate solution and then nitrocellulose and PETN are removed by extraction with acetone. The insoluble matter containing the tetrazene is boiled with resorcinol reagent, the solution filtered, and the absorbance measured at 400 nm. Conditions for optimum colour development are studied and the nature of the reaction is considered.

  17. The 1996 and 1997 Paso del Norte ozone studies: An overview of the field studies and data analyses

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, C.P.; Roberts, P.T.; Main, H.H.; Dye, T.S.; Coe, D.L.; Yarbrough, J.

    1999-07-01

    This paper summarizes the measurement campaigns of the 1996 and 1997 Paso del Norte Ozone Studies, the resultant data sets, and the findings and conclusions that arose from subsequent data analyses. The purpose of these data analyses was to develop an understanding of the significant chemical and physical processes that lead to high concentrations of ozone in the Paso del Norte study region which includes El Paso, TX; Sunland Park, NM; and Juarez, Mexico. High ozone concentrations resulted from a combination of conditions, including slow convective boundary layer (CBL) growth, reduced CBL depth, light surface winds, and high concentrations of ozone precursor at ground level in the morning. Synoptic-scale meteorological conditions observed during high ozone episodes included an upstream aloft high-pressure system, and aloft warming. Aloft carryover of ozone and ozone precursors did not significantly contribute to the surface ozone concentration. Furthermore, hydrocarbon and NO{sub x} data, although spatially limited, showed that the system is more often NO{sub x}-limited rather than VOC-limited.

  18. Hydrology of Central Florida Lakes - A Primer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schiffer, Donna M.

    1998-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Lakes are among the most valued natural resources of central Florida. The landscape of central Florida is riddled with lakeswhen viewed from the air, it almost seems there is more water than land. Florida has more naturally formed lakes than other southeastern States, where many lakes are created by building dams across streams. The abundance of lakes on the Florida peninsula is a result of the geology and geologic history of the State. An estimated 7,800 lakes in Florida are greater than 1 acre in surface area. Of these, 35 percent are located in just four counties (fig. 1): Lake, Orange, Osceola, and Polk (Hughes, 1974b). Lakes add to the aesthetic and commercial value of the area and are used by many residents and visitors for fishing, boating, swimming, and other types of outdoor recreation. Lakes also are used for other purposes such as irrigation, flood control, water supply, and navigation. Residents and visitors commonly ask questions such as Whyare there so many lakes here?, Why is my lake drying up (or flooding)?, or Is my lake spring-fed? These questions indicate that the basic hydrology of lakes and the interaction of lakes with ground water and surface water are not well understood by the general population. Because of the importance of lakes to residents of central Florida and the many questions and misconceptions about lakes, this primer was prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the St. Johns River Water Management District and the South Florida Water Management District. The USGS has been collecting hydrologic data in central Florida since the 1920s, obtaining valuable information that has been used to better understand the hydrology of the water resources of central Florida, including lakes. In addition to data collection, as of 1994, the USGS had published 66 reports and maps on central Florida lakes (Garcia and Hoy, 1995). The main purpose of this primer is to describe the hydrology of lakes in central

  19. Minority Universities Systems Engineering (MUSE) Program at the University of Texas at El Paso

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robbins, Mary Clare; Usevitch, Bryan; Starks, Scott A.

    1997-01-01

    In 1995, The University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP) responded to the suggestion of NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (NASA JPL) to form a consortium comprised of California State University at Los Angeles (CSULA), North Carolina Agricultural and Technical University (NCAT), and UTEP from which developed the Minority Universities Systems Engineering (MUSE) Program. The mission of this consortium is to develop a unique position for minority universities in providing the nation's future system architects and engineers as well as enhance JPL's system design capability. The goals of this collaboration include the development of a system engineering curriculum which includes hands-on project engineering and design experiences. UTEP is in a unique position to take full advantage of this program since UTEP has been named a Model Institution for Excellence (MIE) by the National Science Foundation. The purpose of MIE is to produce leaders in Science, Math, and Engineering. Furthermore, UTEP has also been selected as the site for two new centers including the Pan American Center for Earth and Environmental Sciences (PACES) directed by Dr. Scott Starks and the FAST Center for Structural Integrity of Aerospace Systems directed by Dr. Roberto Osegueda. The UTEP MUSE Program operates under the auspices of the PACES Center.

  20. Spatial variability of unpaved road dust PM10 emission factors near El Paso, Texas.

    PubMed

    Kuhns, Hampden; Gillies, John; Etyemezian, Vicken; Dubois, David; Ahonen, Sean; Nikolic, Djordje; Durham, Clyde

    2005-01-01

    The testing re-entrained aerosol kinetic emissions from roads technique is compared with distance-based emission factors (EFs; g/VKT) measured downwind of a dirt road by using towers instrumented with real-time meteorological and particle sensors at multiple heights. The emission potential (EP), defined as the EF divided by the vehicle speed (m/sec), and weight index permits the intercomparison of emissions from multiple roadways surveyed by the TRAKER vehicle. A survey of 72 km of unpaved roads on the Ft. Bliss Military Base near El Paso, Texas, indicated that 60% of all measured EPs fell between 6.7 (g/VKT)/(m/sec) and 9.6 (g/VKT)/(m/sec). The EP measured across the base was approximately 50% lower than those collected in the vicinity of the instrumented towers. This implies that EFs measured for other vehicles on the same test section should be reduced by 50% to more accurately represent EFs for the entire military base. Using geographic information system-based soil maps, the inferred EFs are related to differences in soil types over the survey area. Variations among five different soil types accounted for <10% of variation in EP. Individual measurements using the testing re-entrained aerosol kinetic emissions from roads technique did show larger spatial variations in EP; however, these were not effectively captured by the soil classifications, partly because of the comparatively coarse spatial classification used in the soil survey data.

  1. Study of NO2 photolysis rate coefficients for the Paso Del Norte region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wangchuk, Pema

    The photolysis of NO2 is one of the most influential chemical processes in the formation of photochemical air pollution. In this study, we compared simulated and measured nitrogen dioxide photolysis rate coefficients (JNO2) for the Paso Del Norte (PdN) region. The Tropospheric Ultraviolet-Visible (TUV) radiation transfer model was used to calculate J(NO2) values. The measurements of hemi-spherically integrated, spectrally resolved solar photon flux between the wavelengths 400 and 700 nm were used to obtain the photolysis rate coefficients for NO2. Results are presented for a selected episode on July, 2015. The work investigated the use of measured actinic flux to improve the NO2 photolysis rate coefficients used by air quality models in order to predict more accurately nitrogen dioxide concentrations for the PdN Region. Complimentary to this work, simulated irradiances at visible wavelengths for the PdN region were inter-compared with Multi-filter Rotating ShadowBand radiometer irradiances data. TUV program was successfully enhanced to tailor it for the PdN region which results in an improved methodology in optimizing the photolysis rate coefficients to increase the accuracy of air quality and forecasting capability.

  2. Yard flooding by irrigation canals increased the risk of West Nile disease in El Paso, Texas

    PubMed Central

    Cardenas, Victor M.; Jaime, Javier; Ford, Paula B.; Gonzalez, Fernando J.; Carrillo, Irma; Gallegos, Jorge E.; Watts, Douglas M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the effects of use of water from irrigation canals to flood residential yards on the risk of West Nile disease in El Paso, Texas. Methods West Nile disease confirmed cases in 2009–2010 were compared with a random sample of 50 residents of the county according to access to and use of water from irrigation canals by subjects or their neighbors, as well as geo-referenced closest distance between their home address and the nearest irrigation canal. A windshield survey of 600 meters around the study subjects’ home address recorded the presence of irrigation canals. The distance from the residence of 182 confirmed cases of West Nile disease reported in 2003–2010 to canals was compared to that of the centroids of 182 blocks selected at random. Results Cases were more likely than controls to report their neighbors flooded their yards with water from canals. Irrigation canals were more often observed in neighborhoods of cases than of controls. Using the set of addresses of 182 confirmed cases and 182 hypothetic controls the authors found a statistically significant inverse relation with risk of West Nile disease. Conclusions Flooding of yards with water from canals increased the risk of West Nile disease. PMID:21943648

  3. Hydrologic interpretation of geophysical data from the southeastern Hueco Bolson, El Paso, and Hudspeth Counties, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gates, Joseph Spencer; Stanley, W.D.

    1976-01-01

    Airborne-electromagnetic and earth-resistivity surveys were used to explore for fresh ground water in the Hueco Bolson southeast of El Paso, Texas. Aerial surveys were made along about 500 miles (800 km) of flight line, and 67 resistivity soundings were made along 110 miles (180 km) of profile. The surveys did not indicate the presence of any large bodies of fresh ground water, but several areas may be underlain by small to moderate amounts of fresh to slightly saline water.The material underlying the flood plain of the Rio Grande is predominantly clay or sand of low resistivity. Along a band on the mesa next to and parallel to the flood plain, more resistive material composed partly of deposits of an ancient river channel extends to depths of about 400 to 1,700 feet (120 to 520 m). Locally, the lower part of this more resistive material is saturated with fresh to slightly saline water. The largest body of fresh to slightly saline ground water detected in this study is between Fabens and Tornillo, Texas, mostly in the sandhill area between the flood plain and the mesa. Under assumed conditions, the total amount of water in storage may be as much as 400,000 to 800,000 acre-feet (500 million to 1 billion m ).The resistivity data indicate that the deep artesian zone southwest of Fabens extends from a depth of about 1,200 feet (365 m) to about 2,800 feet (855 m).

  4. Glanzmann thrombasthenia in a 17-year-old Peruvian Paso mare.

    PubMed

    Sanz, Macarena G; Wills, Tamara B; Christopherson, Peter; Hines, Melissa T

    2011-03-01

    A 17-year-old Peruvian Paso mare was evaluated for bilateral epistaxis that had been present for at least 3 years. The mare had mild anemia, platelet count within the reference interval, unremarkable coagulation times, and a negative Coggins test. On endoscopic examination, structural abnormalities were not observed in the nasal cavities, pharynx, larynx, trachea, or either guttural pouch, but petechiation was noted in the nasal mucosa. Additional tests revealed prolonged cutaneous bleeding time, normal concentration of von Willebrand factor antigen, an abnormal clot retraction test, and failure of plalelet aggregation in response to agonists, suggesting a functional disorder of platelets. Genetic analysis indicated the horse was homozygous for a 10-base-pair deletion that included the last 3 base pairs of exon 11 and the first 7 base pairs of intron 11 of the gene encoding glycoprotein IIb. The diagnosis was Glanzmann thrombasthenia (GT) caused by a structural defect in glycoprotein IIb. GT is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by a defect in the glycoprotein IIb-IIIa complex on platelet surfaces. Separate genes encode each glycoprotein, and mutations in either gene can result in GT. This case of GT is unique given the age of the mare at the time of diagnosis. We conclude that GT, although an inherited disorder, should be considered in horses with suspected dysfunctional platelets, regardless of age. ©2011 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  5. Sensitivity modeling study for an ozone occurrence during the 1996 Paso Del Norte Ozone Campaign.

    PubMed

    Lu, Duanjun; Reddy, Remata S; Fitzgerald, Rosa; Stockwell, William R; Williams, Quinton L; Tchounwou, Paul B

    2008-12-01

    Surface ozone pollution has been a persistent environmental problem in the US and Europe as well as the developing countries. A key prerequisite to find effective alternatives to meeting an ozone air quality standard is to understand the importance of local anthropogenic emissions, the significance of biogenic emissions, and the contribution of long-range transport. In this study, an air quality modeling system that includes chemistry and transport, CMAQ, an emission processing model, SMOKE, and a mesoscale numerical meteorological model, WRF, has been applied to investigate an ozone event occurring during the period of the 1996 Paso del Norte Ozone Campaign. The results show that the modeling system exhibits the capability to simulate this high ozone occurrence by providing a comparable temporal variation of surface ozone concentration at one station and to capture the spatial evolution of the event. Several sensitivity tests were also conducted to identify the contributions to high surface ozone concentration from eight VOC subspecies, biogenic VOCs, anthropogenic VOCs and long-range transportation of ozone and its precursors. It is found that the reductions of ETH, ISOP, PAR, OLE and FORM help to mitigate the surface ozone concentration, and like anthropogenic VOCs, biogenic VOC plays a nonnegligible role in ozone formation. But for this case, long-range transport of ozone and its precursors appears to produce an insignificant contribution.

  6. What is physics? The perceptions of middle and high school students in El Paso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagedorn, Eric; Ortiz, Manuela

    2005-03-01

    The border region of El Paso, Texas contains many families of low socioeconomic and educational background. The majority of local public high schools are not only failing to achieve in math and science, but few of the students take non-required science courses such as physics and chemistry. This is consistent with the disturbing national trend that only 11% of U.S. Hispanic children take both chemistry and physics in high school. In order to increase the number of students prepared for and willing to take physics in high school, we have been investigating the perceptions of middle and high school aged students about science in general and about physics in particular. Because parental attitudes play such a critical role in students development, this study also solicited the parental perceptions of the middle school students. Fifty-eight middle school students and 18 of their parents as well as 130 high school students responded to the prompt: ``Briefly write what you think physics is about.'' Responses were sorted and coded by hand as well as by using the TextSmart software package. Percentages for the various categories are provided as well as interpretation, theoretical explanations and possible educational implications.

  7. Distribution and Sources of Lead in Urban Soil in El Paso, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pingitore, N. E.; Amaya, M. A.; Clague, J.

    2005-05-01

    The geographic distribution of lead in El Paso soils is presented in maps based on 500 composite soil samples collected in the region. Each composite sample comprises equal volumes of samples taken from the public space in front of individual houses or structures around a single municipal block. The use of such composites highlights the distribution of lead at the neighborhood level, and de-emphasizes any anomalous elevated level associated with an individual house or structure. Lead levels are highest in the downtown commercial district, in the adjacent area to the east, which comprises an old central business, transport, and light industry complex, and to the west in the area of a century-old smelter, placed on standby six years ago. The continuity of this zone, and the age of its structures, make it difficult to differentiate lead sources. Lead values decrease systematically away from this urban core zone, with the lowest levels generally encountered in the peripheral, lightly populated developments and communities. This geographic distribution of Pb in soil is consistent with Pb measurements reported on particulate matter taken from four air monitoring stations during the 1990s. Soil data thus can complement air studies by providing an essentially infinite geographic network of sampling sites that, with varying accuracy, record and integrate air conditions over years and decades. Research supported by NIEHS Grant 1RO1-ES11367.

  8. The DOE infrastructure support program at the University of Texas at El Paso. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-01

    The University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP) is located on 300 acres, only a few hundred years from the US/Mexico border. The DOE Infrastructure Support Program was initiated at UTEP in 1987. The purpose of the program was to assist the University in building the infrastructure required for its emerging role as a regional center for energy-related research. Equally important was the need to strength the University`s ability to complete for sponsored energy-related programs at the state and national levels and to provide opportunities for faculty, staff and students to participate in energy-related research and outreach activities. The program had four major objectives, as follows: (1) implement energy research, outreach and demonstration projects already funded, and prepare new proposals to fund university research interests; (2) establish an Energy Center as a separate operational entity to provide continuing infrastructure support for energy-related programs; (3) strengthen university/private sector energy research linkages; and (4) involve minority graduate and undergraduate students in energy research and outreach activities. Each of the above objectives has been exceeded substantially, and, as a consequence, the University has become a regional leader in energy and environmental research and outreach efforts.

  9. Yard flooding by irrigation canals increased the risk of West Nile disease in El Paso, Texas.

    PubMed

    Cardenas, Victor M; Jaime, Javier; Ford, Paula B; Gonzalez, Fernando J; Carrillo, Irma; Gallegos, Jorge E; Watts, Douglas M

    2011-12-01

    To investigate the effects of use of water from irrigation canals to flood residential yards on the risk of West Nile disease in El Paso, Texas. West Nile disease confirmed cases in 2009 through 2010 were compared with a random sample of 50 residents of the county according to access to and use of water from irrigation canals by subjects or their neighbors, as well as geo-referenced closest distance between their home address and the nearest irrigation canal. A windshield survey of 600 m around the study subjects' home address recorded the presence of irrigation canals. The distance from the residence of 182 confirmed cases of West Nile disease reported in 2003 through 2010 to canals was compared with that of the centroids of 182 blocks selected at random. Cases were more likely than controls to report their neighbors flooded their yards with water from canals. Irrigation canals were more often observed in neighborhoods of cases than of controls. Using the set of addresses of 182 confirmed cases and 182 hypothetical controls the authors found a significant, inverse relation with risk of West Nile disease. Flooding of yards with water from canals increased the risk of West Nile disease. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The geologic structure of part of the southern Franklin Mountains, El Paso County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, W.R.; Julian, F.E. . Dept. of Geosciences)

    1993-02-01

    The Franklin Mountains are a west tilted fault block mountain range which extends northwards from the city of El Paso, Texas. Geologic mapping in the southern portion of the Franklin Mountains has revealed many previously unrecognized structural complexities. Three large high-angle faults define the boundaries of map. Twenty lithologic units are present in the field area, including the southernmost Precambrian meta-sedimentary rocks in the Franklin Mountains (Lanoria Quartzite and Thunderbird group conglomerates). The area is dominated by Precambrian igneous rocks and lower Paleozoic carbonates, but Cenozoic ( ) intrusions are also recognized. Thin sections and rock slabs were used to describe and identify many of the lithologic units. The Franklin Mountains are often referred to as a simple fault block mountain range related to the Rio Grande Rift. Three critical regions within the study area show that these mountains contain structural complexities. In critical area one, Precambrian granites and rhyolites are structurally juxtaposed, and several faults bisecting the area affect the Precambrian/Paleozoic fault contact. Critical area two contains multiple NNW-trending faults, three sills and a possible landslide. This area also shows depositional features related to an island of Precambrian rock exposed during deposition of the lower Paleozoic rocks. Critical area three contains numerous small faults which generally trend NNE. They appear to be splays off of one of the major faults bounding the area. Cenozoic kaolinite sills and mafic intrusion have filled many of the fault zones.

  11. Sensitivity Modeling Study for an Ozone Occurrence during the 1996 Paso Del Norte Ozone Campaign

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Duanjun; Reddy, Remata S.; Fitzgerald, Rosa; Stockwell, William R.; Williams, Quinton L.; Tchounwou, Paul B.

    2008-01-01

    Surface ozone pollution has been a persistent environmental problem in the US and Europe as well as the developing countries. A key prerequisite to find effective alternatives to meeting an ozone air quality standard is to understand the importance of local anthropogenic emissions, the significance of biogenic emissions, and the contribution of long-range transport. In this study, an air quality modeling system that includes chemistry and transport, CMAQ, an emission processing model, SMOKE, and a mesoscale numerical meteorological model, WRF, has been applied to investigate an ozone event occurring during the period of the 1996 Paso del Norte Ozone Campaign. The results show that the modeling system exhibits the capability to simulate this high ozone occurrence by providing a comparable temporal variation of surface ozone concentration at one station and to capture the spatial evolution of the event. Several sensitivity tests were also conducted to identify the contributions to high surface ozone concentration from eight VOC subspecies, biogenic VOCs, anthropogenic VOCs and long-range transportation of ozone and its precursors. It is found that the reductions of ETH, ISOP, PAR, OLE and FORM help to mitigate the surface ozone concentration, and like anthropogenic VOCs, biogenic VOC plays a nonnegligible role in ozone formation. But for this case, long-range transport of ozone and its precursors appears to produce an insignificant contribution. PMID:19190351

  12. A Primer on Risks, Issues and Opportunities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-01

    Defense AT&L: July-August 2016 8 9 Defense AT&L: July-August 2016 A Primer on Risks , Issues and Opportunities Thomas L. Conroy II, Ed.D. Conroy...example, program offices deal with tech­ nical risks in the form of technologies that are not mature enough or are unable to provide the same capability...in production that was achieved in development. They also deal with cost risks such as an insufficient budget or budgetary cost overruns and

  13. Hubble Space Telescope Primer for Cycle 21

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzaga, S.; et al.

    2012-12-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope Primer for Cycle 21 is a companion document to the HST Call for Proposals1. It provides an overview of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), with basic information about telescope operations, instrument capabilities, and technical aspects of the proposal preparation process. A thorough understanding of the material in this document is essential for the preparation of a competitive proposal. This document is available as an online HTML document and a PDF file. The HTML version, optimized for online browsing, contains many links to additional information. The PDF version is optimized for printing, but online PDF readers have search capabilities for quick retrieval of specific information.

  14. A primer on clinical trial design.

    PubMed

    Ellimoottil, Chad; Vijan, Sandeep; Flanigan, Robert C

    2015-03-01

    A well-designed and executed clinical trial is the gold standard of evidence-based medicine. It is important for readers to understand the rationale for the study design, identify common pitfalls, and scrutinize limitations. Herein, we present a brief overview of types of designs used for clinical trials and discuss the use of appropriate end points, the selection of study participants, randomization, sample size calculation, blinding, and analysis of data. Finally, we emphasize the importance of accurate and transparent reporting. Our goal is to provide a primer for practicing urologists to enhance their understanding of the clinical trial literature.

  15. Development of TRAP primers for Ricinus communis L.

    PubMed

    Simões, K S; Silva, S A; Machado, E L; Brasileiro, H S

    2017-04-13

    The objective of this article was to develop TRAP (target region amplification polymorphism) primers for castor bean, with the goal of making functional markers available for genetic studies about the species. To do this, oligonucleotides were designed based on ESTs, obtained from the NCBI (National Center for Biotechnology Information) databank, which code enzymes involved in metabolic routes of fatty acid synthesis, ricin synthesis, and resistance to castor bean pathogens. The forward primers were designed with the help of the Primer3 software and, for the reverse, six arbitrary primers were used. To standardize the amplification reactions, the following criteria were used to select the primers: sizes between 18 and 20 bp, guanine/cytosine (GC) in the range of 40 to 60%, and average annealing temperature between 55° and 62°C. The design quality of the primers was verified using the Net Primer application. Fifty-six primers were designed, which had an average GC percentage of 53.2%. A total of 336 combinations were obtained using the 56 fixed and 6 arbitrary primers. Based on polymerase chain reaction, 330 combinations (89%) presented good amplification patterns for the genomic DNA of castor bean. The size of the fragments amplified varied between 50 and 2072 bp. The TRAP primers designed and validated in this study are the first for castor bean and represent a significant increase in the molecular markers for this species.

  16. Attic Dust Analysis Approach for Evaluation of Heavy Metal Deposition on the El Paso Del Norte Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shekhter, E. G.; van Pelt, S.; Pannell, K.; Gill, T. E.; Barnes, M. A.

    2010-12-01

    The El Paso del Norte region in the United States is a region of complex topography that is the home to more than 2 million people who share the same air. A large non-ferrous smelter (primary lead-copper smelter),owned by the American Smelting and Refining Company (ASARCO), was functioning in the Rio Grande River valley on the west side of the Franklin Mountains that divide the city of El Paso and across the river from Juarez, Mexico’s largest city on the United States border. During the more than 100 years of operation, beginning in 1887, the ASARCO smelter emissions considerably deteriorated the already complex environmental condition on the US-Mexican border. In order to identify the sources and patterns of heavy metal dispersion, we used an attic dust analyses approach which has not been previously been applied in this area. Undisturbed attic dust can provide an integrated history of atmospheric loading of particulates emanating from geological, biological and anthropogenic sources and can help to reconstruct the air pollution history on a local scale. We sampled attic dust and dust from undisturbed surfaces in 15 buildings of varying ages from three neighborhoods in the cities of El Paso and Juarez. The dust samples and samples of unpolluted buried soil horizons in the area were extracted with aqua regia and analyzed by ICP-AES and ICP-MS. Enrichment ratios (ER) were calculated by dividing the concentration of a trace metal in the attic dust by the mean concentration of the same element in the buried soil horizons. Mean ER for Pb were 263.3, 95.4, and 70.2 for dust collected in a neighborhood near the smelter, downtown Juarez, and an El Paso neighborhood on the other side of the Franklin Mountains from the smelter. Greater ER for As, Cd, Zn, Sb, and Cu followed the same trends, by neighborhood, noted for Pb. In addition, dust collected from attics surfaces (pipes, ducts, storage containers) post-dating smelter disclosure had lower ER for the trace metals

  17. Formaldehyde as hypothetical primer of biohomochirality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldanskii, Vitalii I.

    1996-07-01

    One of the most intriguing and crucial problems of the prebiotic evolution and the origin of life is the explanation of the origin of biohomochirality. A scheme of conversions originated by formaldehyde (FA) as hypothetical primer of biohomochirality is proposed. The merit of FA as executor of this function is based -inter alia - on the distinguished role of FA as one of the earliest and simplest molecules in both warm, terrestrial and cold, extraterrestrial scenarios of the origin of life. The confirmation of the role of FA as primer of biohomochirality would support the option of an RNA world as an alternative to the protein world. The suggested hypothesis puts forward for the first time a concrete sequence of chemical reactions which can lead to biohomochirality. The spontaneous breaking of the mirror symmetry is secured by the application of the well-known Frank scheme (combination of autocatalysis and ``annihilation'' of L and D enantiomers) to the series of interactions of FA ``trimers'' (i.e. C3H6O3 compounds) of (aaa), (apa) and (app) types, where the monomeric groups (a) means ``achirons'' (a=CHn, n>=2 and C=M, M=C,O) and (p) mean ``prochirons'' (p=HC*OM, M=H,C).

  18. Global Health in Family Medicine Summer Primer

    PubMed Central

    Rouleau, Katherine; Janakiram, Praseedha; Nicolle, Eileen; Godoy-Ruiz, Paula; Pakes, Barry N.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Problem addressed Despite the rapid emergence of global health training across North American universities, there remains a gap in educational programs focusing on the unique role of family medicine and primary care in global health. Objective of program The objective of the Global Health in Family Medicine Summer Primer, developed in 2013 by the Department of Family and Community Medicine at the University of Toronto in Ontario, is to strengthen global health competencies among family medicine residents and faculty. Program description The course covers the meaning of global health; global health ethics; the place of family medicine, primary care, and primary health care in the global health context; epidemiology; infectious diseases; the social determinants of health; and care of vulnerable populations locally and globally. The course is delivered in an intensive 5-day format with didactic lectures, group discussions, interactive workshops, and lived-experience panels. Conclusion The Global Health in Family Medicine Summer Primer has proven to be a successful educational initiative and provides valuable lessons learned for other academic science centres in developing global health training programs for family medicine residents and faculty. PMID:26380854

  19. Alanylated lipoteichoic acid primer in Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Lipoteichoic acid is a major lipid-anchored polymer in Gram-positive bacteria such as Bacillus subtilis. This polymer typically consists of repeating phosphate-containing units and therefore has a predominant negative charge. The repeating units are attached to a glycolipid anchor which has a diacylglycerol (DAG) moiety attached to a dihexopyranose head group. D-alanylation is known as the major modification of type I and type IV lipoteichoic acids, which partially neutralizes the polymer and plays important roles in bacterial survival and resistance to the host immune system. The biosynthesis pathways of the glycolipid anchor and lipoteichoic acid have been fully characterized. However, the exact mechanism of D-alanyl transfer from the cytosol to cell surface lipoteichoic acid remains unclear. Here I report the use of mass spectrometry in the identification of possible intermediate species in the biosynthesis and D-alanylation of lipoteichoic acid: the glycolipid anchor, nascent lipoteichoic acid primer with one phosphoglycerol unit, as well as mono- and di-alanylated forms of the lipoteichoic acid primer. Monitoring these species as well as the recently reported D-alanyl-phosphatidyl glycerol should aid in shedding light on the mechanism of the D-alanylation pathway of lipoteichoic acid. PMID:27134729

  20. MultiPLX: automatic grouping and evaluation of PCR primers.

    PubMed

    Kaplinski, Lauris; Andreson, Reidar; Puurand, Tarmo; Remm, Maido

    2005-04-15

    MultiPLX is a new program for automatic grouping of PCR primers. It can use many different parameters to estimate the compatibility of primers, such as primer-primer interactions, primer-product interactions, difference in melting temperatures, difference in product length and the risk of generating alternative products from the template. A unique feature of the MultiPLX is the ability to perform automatic grouping of large number (thousands) of primer pairs. Binaries for Windows, Linux and Solaris are available from http://bioinfo.ebc.ee/download/. A graphical version with limited capabilities can be used through a web interface at http://bioinfo.ebc.ee/multiplx/. The source code of the program is available on request for academic users. maido.remm@ut.ee.

  1. Conflict Termination--Transitioning from Warrior to Constable: A Primer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-04-15

    of Civilian Buildings. C. Funding. D. Contracts. III. Miscellaneous Issues. A. Status of Parsons. B. Souvenirs and War Trophies. C. Adoptions. D...stability phases. While the primer does not cite examples of conflicts with developed countrieo, the primer will be as applicable to the developing ...countries of Eastern Europe as it is to those found in Africa. Additionally, the principles presented in this primer are also applicable to developed

  2. Solute Sources and Budget for the Rio Grande above El Paso, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogan, J. F.; Phillips, F. M.; Hendrickx, J. M.

    2001-12-01

    Issues of water quality, especially salinity, limit the use of water resources from the Rio Grande. Identification and quantification of salinity sources is critical for improved river management. In the headwater region salts are typically derived from atmospheric deposition and chemical weathering reactions. Salinity increases during transit may result from both natural (saline groundwater, hydrothermal springs and dissolution of evaporite deposits) and anthropogenic (agricultural return flow and wastewater from sewage treatment plants) sources. These increases are magnified by evapotranspiration (this includes evaporation from open water, transpiration from irrigated agriculture and transpiration from natural riparian areas). With multiple salinity sources and evapotranspiration acting simultaneously, understanding the solute balance for the Rio Grande at a level needed for improved river management is difficult. We have conducted synoptic sampling of the Rio Grande from the headwaters in Colorado to south of El Paso, Texas. Sampling was conducted in January and August of 2000 and 2001. The total dissolved solids content (TDS) of the Rio Grande increases from < 50 mg/L in headwater regions of Colorado to > 2000 mg/L south of El Paso, Texas. The Cl/Br (wt/wt) ratio for river water increases from ~50 in the headwaters (typical for atmospheric deposition) to ~700 in the lower basin. This increase in Cl/Br ratio demonstrates the importance of additional salinity sources. Three end-members are recognized using Cl/Br mixing plots for winter samples: atmospheric deposition, a hydrothermal end-member localized around Truth of Consequences, NM, and a third end-member that may represent groundwater. Samples collected during the summer months are shifted off the winter mixing lines indicating concentration through ET. Increases in salinity were not a simple function of distance downriver, but rather occurred in a series of steps. Some of these steps are correlated with

  3. Modeling particle number concentrations along Interstate 10 in El Paso, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olvera, Hector A.; Jimenez, Omar; Provencio-Vasquez, Elias

    2014-12-01

    Annual average daily particle number concentrations around a highway were estimated with an atmospheric dispersion model and a land use regression model. The dispersion model was used to estimate particle concentrations along Interstate 10 at 98 locations within El Paso, Texas. This model employed annual averaged wind speed and annual average daily traffic counts as inputs. A land use regression model with vehicle kilometers traveled as the predictor variable was used to estimate local background concentrations away from the highway to adjust the near-highway concentration estimates. Estimated particle number concentrations ranged between 9.8 × 103 particles/cc and 1.3 × 105 particles/cc, and averaged 2.5 × 104 particles/cc (SE 421.0). Estimates were compared against values measured at seven sites located along I10 throughout the region. The average fractional error was 6% and ranged between -1% and -13% across sites. The largest bias of -13% was observed at a semi-rural site where traffic was lowest. The average bias amongst urban sites was 5%. The accuracy of the estimates depended primarily on the emission factor and the adjustment to local background conditions. An emission factor of 1.63 × 1014 particles/veh-km was based on a value proposed in the literature and adjusted with local measurements. The integration of the two modeling techniques ensured that the particle number concentrations estimates captured the impact of traffic along both the highway and arterial roadways. The performance and economical aspects of the two modeling techniques used in this study shows that producing particle concentration surfaces along major roadways would be feasible in urban regions where traffic and meteorological data are readily available.

  4. Modeling particle number concentrations along Interstate 10 in El Paso, Texas

    PubMed Central

    Olvera, Hector A.; Jimenez, Omar; Provencio-Vasquez, Elias

    2014-01-01

    Annual average daily particle number concentrations around a highway were estimated with an atmospheric dispersion model and a land use regression model. The dispersion model was used to estimate particle concentrations along Interstate 10 at 98 locations within El Paso, Texas. This model employed annual averaged wind speed and annual average daily traffic counts as inputs. A land use regression model with vehicle kilometers traveled as the predictor variable was used to estimate local background concentrations away from the highway to adjust the near-highway concentration estimates. Estimated particle number concentrations ranged between 9.8 × 103 particles/cc and 1.3 × 105 particles/cc, and averaged 2.5 × 104 particles/cc (SE 421.0). Estimates were compared against values measured at seven sites located along I10 throughout the region. The average fractional error was 6% and ranged between -1% and -13% across sites. The largest bias of -13% was observed at a semi-rural site where traffic was lowest. The average bias amongst urban sites was 5%. The accuracy of the estimates depended primarily on the emission factor and the adjustment to local background conditions. An emission factor of 1.63 × 1014 particles/veh-km was based on a value proposed in the literature and adjusted with local measurements. The integration of the two modeling techniques ensured that the particle number concentrations estimates captured the impact of traffic along both the highway and arterial roadways. The performance and economical aspects of the two modeling techniques used in this study shows that producing particle concentration surfaces along major roadways would be feasible in urban regions where traffic and meteorological data are readily available. PMID:25313294

  5. Modeling particle number concentrations along Interstate 10 in El Paso, Texas.

    PubMed

    Olvera, Hector A; Jimenez, Omar; Provencio-Vasquez, Elias

    2014-12-01

    Annual average daily particle number concentrations around a highway were estimated with an atmospheric dispersion model and a land use regression model. The dispersion model was used to estimate particle concentrations along Interstate 10 at 98 locations within El Paso, Texas. This model employed annual averaged wind speed and annual average daily traffic counts as inputs. A land use regression model with vehicle kilometers traveled as the predictor variable was used to estimate local background concentrations away from the highway to adjust the near-highway concentration estimates. Estimated particle number concentrations ranged between 9.8 × 10(3) particles/cc and 1.3 × 10(5) particles/cc, and averaged 2.5 × 10(4) particles/cc (SE 421.0). Estimates were compared against values measured at seven sites located along I10 throughout the region. The average fractional error was 6% and ranged between -1% and -13% across sites. The largest bias of -13% was observed at a semi-rural site where traffic was lowest. The average bias amongst urban sites was 5%. The accuracy of the estimates depended primarily on the emission factor and the adjustment to local background conditions. An emission factor of 1.63 × 10(14) particles/veh-km was based on a value proposed in the literature and adjusted with local measurements. The integration of the two modeling techniques ensured that the particle number concentrations estimates captured the impact of traffic along both the highway and arterial roadways. The performance and economical aspects of the two modeling techniques used in this study shows that producing particle concentration surfaces along major roadways would be feasible in urban regions where traffic and meteorological data are readily available.

  6. Influence of deposit architecture on intrastratal deformation, slope deposits of the Tres Pasos Formation, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auchter, Neal C.; Romans, Brian W.; Hubbard, Stephen M.

    2016-07-01

    Slope sediments on passive and active margins deform and fail across a broad range of scales ranging from loading and sediment remobilization near the sediment-water interface to submarine landslides and mass movements that incorporate significant volumes of slope deposits. Deformational styles are characterized by updip extension and downdip compressional features that occur above a detachment surface. Conditions for failure and deformation include the presence of weak layer(s) that serve as a detachment surface, competency contrasts that allow for detachment and downslope movement, deformation above a detachment surface, and a triggering mechanism(s) that initiates failure. Slope failure processes and products are well documented at scales resolvable by seismic-reflection surveys and in instances of extensive downslope failure, but the processes and products associated with intermediate-scale slope deformation are poorly understood. Intrastratal deformation is defined as stratigraphically isolated zones of deformation bounded above and below by concordant and undeformed strata. In this study, outcrop examples of intrastratal deformation from the Upper Cretaceous Tres Pasos Formation are used to elucidate the influence of depositional architecture on slope deformation. The facies distribution associated with compensational stacking of lobe deposits is shown to have a first-order control on the location and style of deformation. Detachment planes that form in mudstone deposits associated with lobe fringe and interlobe deposits are spatially limited and deformation is restricted to interbedded sandstone and mudstone associated with off-axial lobe positions. Downslope translation was arrested by stratigraphic buttresses associated with more sandstone-prone axial deposits. Emplacement of a regionally extensive mass transport deposit is interpreted as the triggering mechanism for contemporaneous intrastratal deformation of > 60 m of underlying stratigraphy. A vertical

  7. Injuries sustained after falls from bridges across the United States-Mexico border at El Paso.

    PubMed

    McLean, Susan F; Tyroch, Alan H

    2012-05-01

    To compare demographics and motivations for falls from bridges at the United States-Mexico border and in El Paso County, Texas, and to analyze injuries and injury patterns to support intentionality and to provide treatment recommendations. A retrospective observational review was conducted of hospital admissions to a trauma center after falls from bridges from 1995 to 2009. Statistical methods used were chi-square testing, T-test for means comparison, univariate correlations, and regression analysis. Of the 97 evaluated patients, 81.4% fell from U.S.-Mexico border bridges, including one patient who fell from a railway bridge; 74.7% of those falling from border bridges had a non-U.S. address, contrasting with 22.2% of those who fell within the United States. Falls over the border were associated with more immigration-related motivations and fewer suicide attempts. Injuries included lower extremities in 76 (78.4%) and thoracolumbar spine in 27 (27.8%) patients; 16 patients with a thoracolumbar spine fracture (59.3%) also had a lower extremity injury. Mean hospital length of stay was 7.2 days. Mean injury severity score was 8.45 (range 1-43). Age, injury severity score, and pelvic fracture increased the hospital length of stay. Patients fell while emigrating-immigrating based on residence and motivating factors. A dyad of lower extremity and thoracolumbar spine injuries coincided in 59.3% of those with a thoracolumbar spine injury; thoracolumbar spine imaging of patients evaluated after falls from bridges is recommended. Proposed prevention strategies include posting signs on bridges and installing catch-net safety barriers.

  8. Unauthorized border crossings and migrant deaths: Arizona, New Mexico, and El Paso, Texas, 2002-2003.

    PubMed

    Sapkota, Sanjeeb; Kohl, Harold W; Gilchrist, Julie; McAuliffe, Jay; Parks, Bruce; England, Bob; Flood, Tim; Sewell, C Mack; Perrotta, Dennis; Escobedo, Miguel; Stern, Corrine E; Zane, David; Nolte, Kurt B

    2006-07-01

    We examined the major causes of and risk factors for death among migrants who died while making unauthorized border crossings into the United States from Mexico. Decedents were included in the study if (1) their remains were found between January 1, 2002, and December 31, 2003, in any US county along the 650-mi (1040-km) section of the US-Mexican border from Yuma, Ariz, to El Paso, Tex; (2) their immigration status was unauthorized; and (3) they were believed to have died during transit from Mexico to the United States. Characteristics of the decedents and causes of and risk factors for their deaths were examined. Among the 409 decedents meeting our inclusion criteria, environmental heat exposure (n=250; 61.1%) was the leading cause of death, followed by vehicle crashes (n=33; 8.1%) and drownings (n=24; 5.9%). Male decedents (n= 298; 72.8%) outnumbered female decedents (n = 105; 25.6%) nearly 3 to 1. More than half of the decedents were known to be Mexican nationals (n=235; 57.5%) and were aged 20 to 39 years (n=213; 52.0%); the nationality of 148 (36.2%) decedents was undetermined. Deaths among migrants making unauthorized crossings of the US-Mexican border are due to causes that are largely preventable. Prevention strategies should target young Mexican men, and focus on preventing them from conceiving plans to cross the border, discouraging them from using dangerous routes as crossing points, and providing search-and-rescue teams to locate lost or injured migrant crossers.

  9. Characterization of ambient particulate matter in the Paso del Norte region

    SciTech Connect

    Li, W.W.; Currey, R.M.; Valenzuela, V.H.; Meuzelaar, H.L.C.; Sheya, S.A.; Anderson, J.R.; Banerjee, S.; Griffin, J.B.

    1999-07-01

    Air pollution in the Paso del Norte region, where West Texas abuts the southern boundary of New Mexico and the northern boundary of Chihuahua, Mexico is a common concern to the residents on both sides of the border. Parts of the region fail to meet the US and Mexican Ambient Air Quality Standards for particulate matter, ozone, and carbon monoxide. The regional air pollution problem is complicated due to arid climate, complex terrain topography, frequently occurring temperature inversions, extensive unpaved urban areas, an aging and poorly maintained vehicle fleet, and a number of other uncontrolled anthropogenic emission sources. The issue is further complicated by concerns arising from recent scientific evidence of the health effects associated with exposures to fine particulate matter. A study designed to address particulate matter (PM) air pollution problems in the region is currently undertaken by researchers from member universities of the Southwest Center for Environmental Research and Policy and several governmental agencies. The study attempts to (1) characterize the fine fraction of PM; (2) identify and characterize the major regional emission sources; (3) apportion the fine fraction of PM to the source emissions; and (4) establish a regional technological information clearinghouse. The short-term goal of this research is to initiate a research program to characterize, identify, and quantify the sources and nature of the PM in the region. The long-term goal of this study is to establish regional research capabilities to continue air quality monitoring, evaluation, modeling, and control after the implementation of the study. A scoping study to collect regional PM was conducted in December 1998.

  10. Unauthorized Border Crossings and Migrant Deaths: Arizona, New Mexico, and El Paso, Texas, 2002–2003

    PubMed Central

    Sapkota, Sanjeeb; Kohl, Harold W.; Gilchrist, Julie; McAuliffe, Jay; Parks, Bruce; England, Bob; Flood, Tim; Sewell, C. Mack; Perrotta, Dennis; Escobedo, Miguel; Stern, Corrine E.; Zane, David; Nolte, Kurt B.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the major causes of and risk factors for death among migrants who died while making unauthorized border crossings into the United States from Mexico. Methods. Decedents were included in the study if (1) their remains were found between January 1, 2002, and December 31, 2003, in any US county along the 650-mi (1040-km) section of the US–Mexican border from Yuma, Ariz, to El Paso, Tex; (2) their immigration status was unauthorized; and (3) they were believed to have died during transit from Mexico to the United States. Characteristics of the decedents and causes of and risk factors for their deaths were examined. Results. Among the 409 decedents meeting our inclusion criteria, environmental heat exposure (n=250; 61.1%) was the leading cause of death, followed by vehicle crashes (n=33; 8.1%) and drownings (n=24; 5.9%). Male decedents (n= 298; 72.8%) outnumbered female decedents (n = 105; 25.6%) nearly 3 to 1. More than half of the decedents were known to be Mexican nationals (n=235; 57.5%) and were aged 20 to 39 years (n=213; 52.0%); the nationality of 148 (36.2%) decedents was undetermined. Conclusions. Deaths among migrants making unauthorized crossings of the US–Mexican border are due to causes that are largely preventable. Prevention strategies should target young Mexican men, and focus on preventing them from conceiving plans to cross the border, discouraging them from using dangerous routes as crossing points, and providing search-and-rescue teams to locate lost or injured migrant crossers. PMID:16735618

  11. Brownfields Technology Primer: Selecting and Using Phytoremediation for Site Cleanup

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This primer explains the phytoremediation process, discusses the potential advantages and considerations in selecting phytoremediation to clean up brownfields sites, and provides information on additional resources about phytoremediation.

  12. Oligonucleotide primers for PCR amplification of coelomate introns.

    PubMed

    Jarman, Simon N; Ward, Robert D; Elliott, Nicholas G

    2002-09-01

    Abstract Seven novel oligonucleotide primer pairs for polymerase chain reaction amplification of introns from nuclear genes in coelomates were designed and tested. Each pair bound to adjacent exons that are separated by a single intron in most coelomate species. The primer sets amplified introns in species as widely separated by the course of evolution as oysters (Mollusca: Protostoma) and salmon (Chordata: Deuterostoma). Each primer set was tested on a further 6 coelomate species and found to amplify introns in most cases. These primer sets may therefore be useful tools for developing nuclear DNA markers in diverse coelomate species for studies of population genetics, phylogenetics, or genome mapping.

  13. Homolog-specific PCR primer design for profiling splice variants.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Gyan Prakash; Hanumappa, Mamatha; Kushwaha, Garima; Nguyen, Henry T; Xu, Dong

    2011-05-01

    To study functional diversity of proteins encoded from a single gene, it is important to distinguish the expression levels among the alternatively spliced variants. A variant-specific primer pair is required to amplify each alternatively spliced variant individually. For this purpose, we developed a new feature, homolog-specific primer design (HSPD), in our high-throughput primer and probe design software tool, PRIMEGENS-v2. The algorithm uses a de novo approach to design primers without any prior information of splice variants or close homologs for an input query sequence. It not only designs primer pairs but also finds potential isoforms and homologs of the input sequence. Efficiency of this algorithm was tested for several gene families in soybean. A total of 187 primer pairs were tested under five different abiotic stress conditions with three replications at three time points. Results indicate a high success rate of primer design. Some primer pairs designed were able to amplify all splice variants of a gene. Furthermore, by utilizing combinations within the same multiplex pool, we were able to uniquely amplify a specific variant or duplicate gene. Our method can also be used to design PCR primers to specifically amplify homologs in the same gene family. PRIMEGENS-v2 is available at: http://primegens.org.

  14. Great Lakes rivermouths: a primer for managers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pebbles, Victoria; Larson, James; Seelbach, Paul; Pebbles, Victoria; Larson, James; Seelbach, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Between the North American Great Lakes and their tributaries are the places where the confluence of river and lake waters creates a distinct ecosystem: the rivermouth ecosystem. Human development has often centered around these rivermouths, in part, because they provide a rich array of ecosystem services. Not surprisingly, centuries of intense human activity have led to substantial pressures on, and alterations to, these ecosystems, often diminishing or degrading their ecological functions and associated ecological services. Many Great Lakes rivermouths are the focus of intense restoration efforts. For example, 36 of the active Great Lakes Areas of Concern (AOCs) are rivermouths or areas that include one or more rivermouths. Historically, research of rivermouth ecosystems has been piecemeal, focused on the Great Lakes proper or on the upper reaches of tributaries, with little direct study of the rivermouth itself. Researchers have been divided among disciplines, agencies and institutions; and they often work independently and use disparate venues to communicate their work. Management has also been fragmented with a focus on smaller, localized, sub-habitat units and socio-political or economic elements, rather than system-level consideration. This Primer presents the case for a more holistic approach to rivermouth science and management that can enable restoration of ecosystem services with multiple benefits to humans and the Great Lakes ecosystem. A conceptual model is presented with supporting text that describes the structures and processes common to all rivermouths, substantiating the case for treating these ecosystems as an identifiable class.1 Ecological services provided by rivermouths and changes in how humans value those services over time are illustrated through case studies of two Great Lakes rivermouths—the St. Louis River and the Maumee River. Specific ecosystem services are identified in italics throughout this Primer and follow definitions described

  15. HST archive primer, version 4.1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fruchter, A. (Editor); Baum, S. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    This version of the HST Archive Primer provides the basic information a user needs to know to access the HST archive via StarView the new user interface to the archive. Using StarView, users can search for observations interest, find calibration reference files, and retrieve data from the archive. Both the terminal version of StarView and the X-windows version feature a name resolver which simplifies searches of the HST archive based on target name. In addition, the X-windows version of StarView allows preview of all public HST data; compressed versions of public images are displayed via SAOIMAGE, while spectra are plotted using the public plotting package, XMGR. Finally, the version of StarView described here features screens designed for observers preparing Cycle 5 HST proposals.

  16. Primer on tritium safe handling practices

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    This Primer is designed for use by operations and maintenance personnel to improve their knowledge of tritium safe handling practices. It is applicable to many job classifications and can be used as a reference for classroom work or for self-study. It is presented in general terms for use throughout the DOE Complex. After reading it, one should be able to: describe methods of measuring airborne tritium concentration; list types of protective clothing effective against tritium uptake from surface and airborne contamination; name two methods of reducing the body dose after a tritium uptake; describe the most common method for determining amount of tritium uptake in the body; describe steps to take following an accidental release of airborne tritium; describe the damage to metals that results from absorption of tritium; explain how washing hands or showering in cold water helps reduce tritium uptake; and describe how tritium exchanges with normal hydrogen in water and hydrocarbons.

  17. Spectral analysis of clock noise: a primer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Percival, Donald B.

    2006-08-01

    The statistical characterization of clock noise is important for understanding how well a clock can perform in applications where timekeeping is important. The usual frequency domain characterization of clock noise is the power spectrum. We present a primer on how to estimate the power spectrum of clock noise given a finite sequence of measurements of time (or phase) differences between two clocks. The simplest estimator of the spectrum is the periodogram. Unfortunately this estimator is often problematic when applied to clock noise. Three estimators that overcome the deficiencies of the periodogram are the sinusoidal multitaper spectral estimator, Welch's overlapped segment averaging estimator and Burg's autoregressive estimator. We give complete details on how to calculate these three estimators. We apply them to two examples of clock noise and find that they all improve upon the periodogram and give comparable results. We also discuss some of the uses for the spectrum and its estimates in the statistical characterization of clock noise.

  18. Formaldehyde as hypothetical primer of biohomochirality

    SciTech Connect

    Goldanskii, V.I.

    1996-07-01

    One of the most intriguing and crucial problems of the prebiotic evolution and the origin of life is the explanation of the origin of biohomochirality. A scheme of conversions originated by formaldehyde (FA) as hypothetical primer of biohomochirality is proposed. The merit of FA as executor of this function is based -inter alia - on the distinguished role of FA as one of the earliest and simplest molecules in both warm, terrestrial and cold, extraterrestrial scenarios of the origin of life. The confirmation of the role of FA as primer of biohomochirality would support the option of an RNA world as an alternative to the protein world. The suggested hypothesis puts forward for the first time a concrete sequence of chemical reactions which can lead to biohomochirality. The spontaneous breaking of the mirror symmetry is secured by the application of the well-known Frank scheme (combination of autocatalysis and {open_quote}{open_quote}annihilation{close_quote}{close_quote} of L and D enantiomers) to the series of interactions of FA {open_quote}{open_quote}trimers{close_quote}{close_quote} (i.e. C{sub 3}H{sub 6}O{sub 3} compounds) of (aaa), (apa) and (app) types, where the monomeric groups (a) means {open_quote}{open_quote}achirons{close_quote}{close_quote} (a=CH{sub n}, n{ge}2 and C=M, M=C,O) and (p) mean {open_quote}{open_quote}prochirons{close_quote}{close_quote} (p=HC{asterisk}OM, M=H,C). {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  19. [Analysis of effectiveness of cDNA synthesis, induced using complementary primers and primers containing a noncomplementary base matrix].

    PubMed

    D'iachenko, L B; Chenchik, A A; Khaspekov, G L; Tatarenko, A O; Bibilashvili, R Sh

    1994-01-01

    We have studied the efficiency of DNA synthesis catalyzed by M-MLV reverse transcriptase or Thermus aquaticus DNA polymerase for primers (4-17 nucleotides long) either completely matched or possessing a single mismatched base pair at all possible positions in the primer. It has been shown that DNA synthesis efficiency depends not only on the position of mismatched base pair but on the length and primary structure of the primer. The enzyme, template, and primer concentrations determine the relative level of mismatched DNA synthesis.

  20. Identifying and locating tectonic tremor beneath the San Andreas Fault near Parkfield, CA, with the PASO array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, D. E.; Thurber, C. H.; Montgomery-Brown, E. D.; Brown, J. R.; Shelly, D. R.

    2011-12-01

    Tectonic tremor is a weak but persistent shaking of the Earth that was first discovered in subduction zones and later found beneath the San Andreas Fault (SAF). Tremor events represent spasmodic slip on the deep extension of the SAF, occurring at a depth of about 20-25 kilometers. Tremor occurs deeper than the nearby regular earthquakes, which can be found at maximum depths of 12-15 kilometers. Tremor is characterized by bursts of low frequency and/or very low frequency earthquakes (LFE/VLF) with dominant energy in the 1-10 Hz range. Tremor tells us about fault slip at depth in both space and time by illuminating the fault down to about the base of the crust. In the pursuit of deriving information about deep fault behavior and crustal structure, we are analyzing continuous data from the previously untapped Parkfield Area Seismic Observatory (PASO) temporary array, operated in 2000-2002 and 2004-2006. We started the identification process by correlating templates of known events from a nearby station array based on an existing catalog of tremor events. Using the dense PASO array and various correlation methods, including autocorrelation (Brown et. al. 2008), a scanning algorithm (Rowe, 2005), and cross correlation of template events (Shelly et al., 2007), we will refine the locations of these known events and seek to identify undiscovered clusters of LFEs and tremor. After generating an updated catalog initially for the month of September 2002, we will use S-wave arrivals from the 59 stations comprising the PASO array to provide strong constraints on the locations of identified events.

  1. Evidence for long-term impact of Pasos Adelante: using a community-wide survey to evaluate chronic disease risk modification in prior program participants.

    PubMed

    Carvajal, Scott C; Miesfeld, Noelle; Chang, Jean; Reinschmidt, Kerstin M; de Zapien, Jill Guernsey; Fernandez, Maria L; Rosales, Cecilia; Staten, Lisa K

    2013-10-01

    Effective community-level chronic disease prevention is critical to population health within developed and developing nations. Pasos Adelante is a preventive intervention that aims to reduce chronic disease risk with evidence of effectiveness in US-Mexico residing, Mexican origin, participants. This intervention and related ones also implemented with community health workers have been shown to improve clinical, behavioral and quality of life indicators; though most evidence is from shorter-term evaluations and/or lack comparison groups. The current study examines the impact of this program using secondary data collected in the community 3-6 years after all participants completed the program. A proportional household survey (N = 708) was used that included 48 respondents who indicated they had participated in Pasos. Using propensity score matching to account for differences in program participants versus other community residents (the program targeted those with diabetes and associated risk factors), 148 natural controls were identified for 37 matched Pasos participants. Testing a range of behavioral and clinical indicators of chronic disease risk, logistic regression models accounting for selection bias showed two significant findings; Pasos participants were more physically active and drank less whole milk. These findings add to the evidence of the effectiveness of Pasos Adalente and related interventions in reducing chronic disease risk in Mexican-origin populations, and illustrate the use of innovative techniques for using secondary, community-level data to complement prior evaluation research.

  2. Kentucky State Primer. A Primer on Developing Kentucky's Landfill Gas-to-Energy Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-05-01

    Throughout the country, the number of landfill gas-to-energy (LFGTE) projects is growing. Recovering methane gas at solid waste landfills provides significant environmental and economic benefits by eliminating methane emissions while capturing the emissions energy value. The methane captured from landfills can be transformed into a cost-effective fuel source for generating electricity and heat, firing boilers, or even powering vehicles. Permits, incentive programs, and policies for LFGTE project development vary greatly from state to state. To guide LFGTE project developers through the state permitting process and to help them to take advantage of state incentive programs, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agencys (EPAs) Landfill Methane Outreach Program (LMOP) has worked with state agencies to develop individual primers for states participating in the State Ally Program. By presenting the latest information on federal and state regulations and incentives affecting LFGTE projects in this primer, the LMOP and Kentucky state officials hope to facilitate development of many of the landfills listed in Table A. To develop this primer, the Commonwealth of Kentucky identified all the permits and funding programs that could apply to LFGTE projects developed in Kentucky. It should be noted, however, that the regulations, agencies, and policies described are subject to change. Changes are likely to occur whenever a state legislature meets, or when the federal government imposes new directions on state and local governments. LFGTE project developers should verify and continuously monitor the status of laws and rules that might affect their plans or the operations of their projects.

  3. Research Experience for Undergraduate and Early College High School Students at University of Texas at El Paso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medrano, Omar; Gonzalez, E.; Mason, P. A.

    2014-01-01

    A program of astrophysics research, education, and outreach to high school students recently developed at the University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP) is described. Undergraduate students engage in observational research at McDonald Observatory, using the 2.1 and 2.7-m telescopes. An observational astronomy laboratory was developed for undergraduate majors. In addition, UTEP physics majors mentored area early-college high school students for hundreds of hours of summer research experience. UTEP and UT-Austin are partner institutions and this program is funded by NSF grant 0958783.

  4. Aluminum Rich Epoxy Primer for Ground and Air Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-03-01

    UNCLASSIFIED DOCUMENT Aluminum Rich Epoxy Primer for Ground and Air Vehicles Monthly Technical Report for the Period: January 20, 2017...Objective: To further develop the Aluminum Rich Epoxy Primer systems for Air and Ground Vehicles while addressing the objective requirements...outlined within the BAA. Development Work: This past month has been spent evaluating different thixotrope systems for the Aluminum Rich

  5. Utilization of ribonucleotides and RNA primers by Tetrahymena telomerase.

    PubMed

    Collins, K; Greider, C W

    1995-11-01

    Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein (RNP) DNA polymerase involved in telomere synthesis. A short sequence within the telomerase RNA component provides a template for de novo addition of the G-rich strand of a telomeric simple sequence repeat onto chromosome termini. In vitro, telomerase can elongate single-stranded DNA primers processively: one primer can be extended by multiple rounds of template copying before product dissociation. Telomerase will incorporate dNTPs or ddNTPs and will elongate any G-rich, single-stranded primer DNA. In this report, we show that Tetrahymena telomerase was able to incorporate a ribonucleotide, rGTP, into product polynucleotide. Synthesis of the product [d(TT)r(GGGG)]n was processive, suggesting that the chimeric product remained associated with the enzyme both at the active site and at a second, previously characterized, template-independent product binding site. As predicted by this finding, RNA-containing oligonucleotides served as primers for elongation. More than 3 nt of RNA at a primer 3' end decreased the quantity of product synthesis but increased the affinity of the primer for telomerase. Thus, RNA-containing primers were effective as competitive inhibitors of DNA primer elongation by telomerase. These results support the possible evolutionary origin of telomerase as an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase.

  6. An Evaluation Primer Workbook: Practical Exercises for Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Arlene; Kosecoff, Jacqueline

    This workbook, which accompanies An Evaluation Primer (TM 007 500) consists of 19 practical exercises for applying evaluation skills to hypothetical educational programs. Each chapter corresponds to a chapter in the primer, with answers keyed accordingly. Intended to provide an introduction to evaluation, the exercises include: identifying the…

  7. The Fluid Reading Primer: Animated Decoding Support for Emergent Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zellweger, Polle T.; Mackinlay, Jock D.

    A prototype application called the Fluid Reading Primer was developed to help emergent readers with the process of decoding written words into their spoken forms. The Fluid Reading Primer is part of a larger research project called Fluid Documents, which is exploring the use of interactive animation of typography to show additional information in…

  8. A Primer for the NEWBASIC/CATALYST System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwyer, Thomas A.; And Others

    Assuming no previous experience with computers, this primer is designed to help students, teachers, scientists, and other scholars to learn how to use the NEWBASIC/CATALYST system (NBS). The primer contains nine sections: (1) instructions for establishing contact with the computer (logging on); (2) examples and problems to lead the student through…

  9. Primer of Business Terms and Phrases Related to Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Sherman, Ed.

    Although appropriate for all librarians, this primer is aimed at beginning librarians and students pursuing library science degrees, and covers 150 terms used in most libraries. The purpose of the primer is to encourage its readers to analyze their use of the defined business terms and to expose them to new and applicable terminology. The work…

  10. PolyMarker: A fast polyploid primer design pipeline.

    PubMed

    Ramirez-Gonzalez, Ricardo H; Uauy, Cristobal; Caccamo, Mario

    2015-06-15

    The design of genetic markers is of particular relevance in crop breeding programs. Despite many economically important crops being polyploid organisms, the current primer design tools are tailored for diploid species. Bread wheat, for instance, is a hexaploid comprising of three related genomes and the performance of genetic markers is diminished if the primers are not genome specific. PolyMarker is a pipeline that generates SNP markers by selecting candidate primers for a specified genome using local alignments and standard primer design tools to test the viability of the primers. A command line tool and a web interface are available to the community. PolyMarker is available as a ruby BioGem: bio-polyploid-tools. Web interface: http://polymarker.tgac.ac.uk. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  11. Uncoupling primer and releaser responses to pheromone in honey bees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grozinger, Christina M.; Fischer, Patrick; Hampton, Jacob E.

    2007-05-01

    Pheromones produce dramatic behavioral and physiological responses in a wide variety of species. Releaser pheromones elicit rapid responses within seconds or minutes, while primer pheromones produce long-term changes which may take days to manifest. Honeybee queen mandibular pheromone (QMP) elicits multiple distinct behavioral and physiological responses in worker bees, as both a releaser and primer, and thus produces responses on vastly different time scales. In this study, we demonstrate that releaser and primer responses to QMP can be uncoupled. First, treatment with the juvenile hormone analog methoprene leaves a releaser response (attraction to QMP) intact, but modulates QMP’s primer effects on sucrose responsiveness. Secondly, two components of QMP (9-ODA and 9-HDA) do not elicit a releaser response (attraction) but are as effective as QMP at modulating a primer response, downregulation of foraging-related brain gene expression. These results suggest that different responses to a single pheromone may be produced via distinct pathways.

  12. Isolation and characterization of Staphylococcus aureus strains from a Paso del Norte dairy.

    PubMed

    Matyi, S A; Dupre, J M; Johnson, W L; Hoyt, P R; White, D G; Brody, T; Odenwald, W F; Gustafson, J E

    2013-06-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine if methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains could be identified in the milk of dairy cattle in a Paso del Norte region dairy of the United States. Using physiological and PCR-based identification schemes, a total of 40 Staph. aureus strains were isolated from 29 raw milk samples of 133 total samples analyzed. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis after digestion with the SmaI enzyme revealed that the 40 confirmed strains were represented by 5 pulsed-field types, which each contained 3 or more strains. Of 7 hospital strains isolated from cows undergoing antibiotic therapy, 3 demonstrated resistance to 3 or more antimicrobial classes and displayed similar pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns. A secondary purpose of this study was to elucidate the evolutionary relationships of strains isolated in this study to genomically characterized Staph. aureus strains. Therefore, Roche 454 GS (Roche Diagnostics Corp., Dallas, TX) pyrosequencing was used to produce draft genome sequences of an MRSA raw milk isolate (H29) and a methicillin-susceptible Staph. aureus (PB32). Analysis using the BLASTn database (http://blast.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/) demonstrated that the H29 draft genome was highly homologous to the human MRSA strain JH1, yet the β-lactamase plasmid carried by H29 was different from that carried by JH1. Genomic analysis of H29 also clearly explained the multidrug resistance phenotype of this raw milk isolate. Analysis of the PB32 draft genome (using BLASTn) demonstrated that this raw milk isolate was most related to human MRSA strain 04-02981. Although PB32 is not a MRSA, the PB32 draft genome did reveal the presence of a unique staphylococcal cassette mec (SCCmec) remnant. In addition, the PB32 draft genome revealed the presence of a novel bovine staphylococcal pathogenicity island, SaPIbovPB32. This study demonstrates the presence of clones closely related to human and (or) bovine Staph. aureus strains

  13. DNA sequencing technology, walking with modular primers. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ulanovsky, L.

    1996-12-31

    The success of the Human Genome Project depends on the development of adequate technology for rapid and inexpensive DNA sequencing, which will also benefit biomedical research in general. The authors are working on DNA technologies that eliminate primer synthesis, the main bottleneck in sequencing by primer walking. They have developed modular primers that are assembled from three 5-mer, 6-mer or 7-mer modules selected from a presynthesized library of as few as 1,000 oligonucleotides ({double_bond}4, {double_bond}5, {double_bond}7). The three modules anneal contiguously at the selected template site and prime there uniquely, even though each is not unique for the most part when used alone. This technique is expected to speed up primer walking 30 to 50 fold, and reduce the sequencing cost by a factor of 5 to 15. Time and expensive will be saved on primer synthesis itself and even more so due to closed-loop automation of primer walking, made possible by the instant availability of primers. Apart from saving time and cost, closed-loop automation would also minimize the errors and complications associated with human intervention between the walks. The author has also developed two additional approaches to primer-library based sequencing. One involves a branched structure of modular primers which has a distinctly different mechanism of achieving priming specificity. The other introduces the concept of ``Differential Extension with Nucleotide Subsets`` as an approach increasing priming specificity, priming strength and allowing cycle sequencing. These approaches are expected to be more robust than the original version of the modular primer technique.

  14. Moisture insensitive primer: A myth or truth

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Chandresh; Maurya, Rajkumar; Jain, Upendra; Gupta, Ankur; Garg, Jayshree

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the mean shear bond strength (SBS) of moisture insensitive primer (MIP) used for orthodontic bonding in the presence and absence of saliva. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 human noncarious maxillary premolars with sound buccal surfaces, recently extracted were collected in two groups of each 30. Maxillary premolar brackets were bonded to the teeth using light cure (Transbond XT, 3M Unitek, Monrovia, CA, USA) and MIP (Transbond MIP 3M Unitek, Monrovia, CA, USA,) in the presence and absence of saliva. Operators’ saliva was used during the bonding under moist condition. After debonding, all the specimens were examined under a stereomicroscope (×40 magnification) for adhesive remnant using adhesive remnant index (ARI). The SBS tests were done using Instron universal testing machine at cross-head speed of 1 mm/min, force passing parallel to the buccal surface using custom rod and registered in Newtons later converted into Megapascals. Results: Light cure and MIP (Transbond MIP and Transbond XT, 3M Unitek, Monrovia, CA, USA) in the absence of saliva showed higher mean SBS than the presence of saliva. Group I (light cure and MIP) in the absence of saliva showed mean SBS of 9.65 ± 0.90 Mpa. Group II (light cure and MIP) with the presence of saliva showed mean SBS of 9.03 ± 1.14 Mpa. The difference between both the groups was statistically significant, as confirmed by paired t-test (P < 0.05). In-Group I, ARI scores showed that more than half of the adhesive was left over the tooth surface, and Group II showed that there was no or insignificant amount of adhesive left over the tooth surface. Chi-square test revealed significant difference in debonding characteristics among the test groups of ARI (P < 0.05). Failure occurred mainly in resin– bracket base and resin – adhesive interfaces (χ² = 10.04, df = 3, P = 0.031). Conclusion: Moisture insensitive primer is effective in the presence/absence of moisture and has shown SBS value of more

  15. Transforming practices: a primer on action research.

    PubMed

    Acosta, Sandra; Goltz, Heather Honoré

    2014-07-01

    Action research (AR) is a powerful tool for health education and promotion practitioners who want to focus on improving the quality of their programs and services. In this Tool, we describe the characteristics and controversial aspects of AR, differentiate between traditional and action research, present the benefits of applying AR methods/techniques for investigating problems related to professional practice, and offer a four-phase methodological framework for conducting AR studies. Unlike traditional research, AR is a methodology that links theory, research, and practice; advances new knowledge and understandings via iterative action cycles; employs frontline health practitioners as researchers; and promotes collaborative practitioner-community partnerships. Egalitarian in its approach, AR offers an "insider's perspective" centered on context-specific problems and issues related to health promotion. AR falls into two categories: large-scale community-based research and small-scale practice-based research. Each cycle of the AR framework includes four phases: (a) preplanning/needs assessment, (b) planning/study organization, (c) action and observation/study implementation, and (d) reflection and planning/data analysis and interpretation. Using the AR primer in this Tool has the potential to empower health education/promotion practitioners, encourage collaborative partnerships, enhance practitioners' knowledge base, and promote social change. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.

  16. Primer on electricity futures and other derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Stoft, S.; Belden, T.; Goldman, C.; Pickle, S.

    1998-01-01

    Increased competition in bulk power and retail electricity markets is likely to lower electricity prices, but will also result in greater price volatility as the industry moves away from administratively determined, cost-based rates and encourages market-driven prices. Price volatility introduces new risks for generators, consumers, and marketers. Electricity futures and other derivatives can help each of these market participants manage, or hedge, price risks in a competitive electricity market. Futures contracts are legally binding and negotiable contracts that call for the future delivery of a commodity. In most cases, physical delivery does not take place, and the futures contract is closed by buying or selling a futures contract on or near the delivery date. Other electric rate derivatives include options, price swaps, basis swaps, and forward contracts. This report is intended as a primer for public utility commissioners and their staff on futures and other financial instruments used to manage price risks. The report also explores some of the difficult choices facing regulators as they attempt to develop policies in this area.

  17. Antifungal susceptibility testing: a primer for clinicians.

    PubMed

    Kuper, Kristi M; Coyle, Elizabeth A; Wanger, Audrey

    2012-12-01

    Antifungal susceptibility testing is not as commonly performed as antibacterial susceptibility testing. The methodology for detecting antifungal resistance is newer and requires different testing supplies that may not be readily available in a clinical laboratory setting. Breakpoints for molds are lacking. Yeast breakpoints are available for most antifungals but are continually updated based on epidemiologic surveillance. Reliable and reproducible antifungal susceptibility testing methods, as well as more research on the role of susceptibility testing in patient care, are necessary in order to provide the clinician with information that can be translated into positive clinical outcomes at the bedside. There are nuances with current testing methods that, if unrecognized, could lead to misinterpretation of results and inappropriate antifungal selection. Clinicians who have an understanding of qualitative and quantitative methods, automated susceptibility testing systems, and other commercial tests can successfully engage this knowledge to improve antifungal use and patient outcomes. This primer describes the common antifungal susceptibility tests used in the clinical microbiology laboratory and reviews literature related to the impact of appropriate drug selection, timing, fungal resistance mechanisms, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics on clinical outcomes. Both conventional and modern testing methods are discussed. © 2012 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  18. Utilizing geophysical methods for asessment and characterization of canal seepage in El Paso's lower valley irrigation delivery systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cegon, Amanda Brooke

    El Paso County Water Improvement District No. 1 (EPCWID No.1) delivers the Rio Grande water for agricultural production and urban uses through numerous networked irrigation canals. Of the nearly 86 billion gallons of water released annually for irrigation uses in Texas, billions are lost due to evaporation and seepage in unlined canals with 56 million gallons of the billions are lost in Franklin Canal annually due to improper lining and sediment variation of the canals. To characterize seepage patterns and identify areas of high seepage, Electrical Resistivity, Ground Truthing via soil sample analysis were used along three, half-mile long sectioned canals during irrigation and non-irrigation seasons. The data lines acquired were processed in EARTHIMAGER 2D to create 2D vertical resistivity inversion profiles to locate potential areas of high seepage/high resistivity. The research results will help El Paso County Water Improvement District No. 1 to develop management strategies to conserve water and improve the delivery efficiency systems which leads to economic growth in the Rio Grande Basin.

  19. El Paso Electric Company Diablo Substation to the US-Mexico border 115kV transmission line project. Final Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    This Environmental Assessment documents the analysis of alternative corridors for development and operation of a proposed 115 kilovolt transmission line using private lands and transporting power to the US-Mexico international border. The project will require (1) an amendment to El Paso Electric Company`s existing export authorization to transfer power across this border, and (2) a Presidential Permit for construction of the transmission line. The project would be located in Dona Ana county in southern New Mexico, approximately five miles west of El Paso, Texas. The alternative corridors, specific locations within those corridors, and structure types are identified and analyzed in the environmental studies.

  20. PD5: a general purpose library for primer design software.

    PubMed

    Riley, Michael C; Aubrey, Wayne; Young, Michael; Clare, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    Complex PCR applications for large genome-scale projects require fast, reliable and often highly sophisticated primer design software applications. Presently, such applications use pipelining methods to utilise many third party applications and this involves file parsing, interfacing and data conversion, which is slow and prone to error. A fully integrated suite of software tools for primer design would considerably improve the development time, the processing speed, and the reliability of bespoke primer design software applications. The PD5 software library is an open-source collection of classes and utilities, providing a complete collection of software building blocks for primer design and analysis. It is written in object-oriented C(++) with an emphasis on classes suitable for efficient and rapid development of bespoke primer design programs. The modular design of the software library simplifies the development of specific applications and also integration with existing third party software where necessary. We demonstrate several applications created using this software library that have already proved to be effective, but we view the project as a dynamic environment for building primer design software and it is open for future development by the bioinformatics community. Therefore, the PD5 software library is published under the terms of the GNU General Public License, which guarantee access to source-code and allow redistribution and modification. The PD5 software library is downloadable from Google Code and the accompanying Wiki includes instructions and examples: http://code.google.com/p/primer-design.

  1. Plastid primers for angiosperm phylogenetics and phylogeography1

    PubMed Central

    Prince, Linda M.

    2015-01-01

    Premise of the study: PCR primers are available for virtually every region of the plastid genome. Selection of which primer pairs to use is second only to selection of the genic region. This is particularly true for research at the species/population interface. Methods: Primer pairs for 130 regions of the chloroplast genome were evaluated in 12 species distributed across the angiosperms. Likelihood of amplification success was inferred based upon number and location of mismatches to target sequence. Intraspecific sequence variability was evaluated under three different criteria in four species. Results: Many published primer pairs should work across all taxa sampled, with the exception of failure due to genomic reorganization events. Universal barcoding primers were the least likely to work (65% success). The list of most variable regions for use within species has little in common with the lists identified in prior studies. Discussion: Published primer sequences should amplify a diversity of flowering plant DNAs, even those designed for specific taxonomic groups. “Universal” primers may have extremely limited utility. There was little consistency in likelihood of amplification success for any given publication across lineages or within lineage across publications. PMID:26082876

  2. PD5: A General Purpose Library for Primer Design Software

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Michael C.; Aubrey, Wayne; Young, Michael; Clare, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    Background Complex PCR applications for large genome-scale projects require fast, reliable and often highly sophisticated primer design software applications. Presently, such applications use pipelining methods to utilise many third party applications and this involves file parsing, interfacing and data conversion, which is slow and prone to error. A fully integrated suite of software tools for primer design would considerably improve the development time, the processing speed, and the reliability of bespoke primer design software applications. Results The PD5 software library is an open-source collection of classes and utilities, providing a complete collection of software building blocks for primer design and analysis. It is written in object-oriented C++ with an emphasis on classes suitable for efficient and rapid development of bespoke primer design programs. The modular design of the software library simplifies the development of specific applications and also integration with existing third party software where necessary. We demonstrate several applications created using this software library that have already proved to be effective, but we view the project as a dynamic environment for building primer design software and it is open for future development by the bioinformatics community. Therefore, the PD5 software library is published under the terms of the GNU General Public License, which guarantee access to source-code and allow redistribution and modification. Conclusions The PD5 software library is downloadable from Google Code and the accompanying Wiki includes instructions and examples: http://code.google.com/p/primer-design PMID:24278254

  3. Shear bond strength comparison of moisture-insensitive primer and self-etching primer

    PubMed Central

    Goswami, Arunima; Mitali, Borah; Roy, BK

    2014-01-01

    Context: The detrimental effect of moisture on orthodontic bonding has long been known. Hydrophilic bonding materials have been introduced suggesting the possibility of obtaining successful orthodontic bonding to a moisture contaminated enamel surface. Aims: This study has been performed with an aim to compare the in vitro shear bond strength (SBS) and debonding characteristic of moisture-insensitive primer (MIP) (Transbond MIP) (3M Unitek, South Peck Road, Monrovia, California, USA) and self-etching primer (SEP) (Transbond Plus SEP) (3M Unitek, South Peck Road, Monrovia, California, USA) in combination with a color changing adhesive system (Transbond Plus Color Change) (3M Unitek, South Peck Road, Monrovia, California, USA) under both dry and contaminated condition. Settings and Design: Randomized controlled clinical study. Subjects and Methods: One hundred and twenty freshly extracted teeth for the purpose of orthodontic treatment were collected. Teeth were randomly assigned into four groups, each consisting of 30 specimen and stainless steel brackets were bonded using each primer-adhesive combination under different enamel conditions, that is, dry and enamel contaminated with natural saliva. SBS and adhesive remnant index were calculated for each group. Results: Analysis of variance of SBS for both MIP and SEP under dry and contaminated condition showed no statistical significance (P = 0.5). Chi-square test showed significant difference in debonding characteristics among the test groups (P < 0.001). All the groups showed typical debonding characteristics of separation either at the bracket-adhesive interface or within the adhesive itself. Conclusions: Moisture contamination did not affect the SBS and adhesive remaining on tooth for both MIP and SEP. PMID:25143933

  4. A physicists guide to The Los Alamos Primer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, B. Cameron

    2016-11-01

    In April 1943, a group of scientists at the newly established Los Alamos Laboratory were given a series of lectures by Robert Serber on what was then known of the physics and engineering issues involved in developing fission bombs. Serber’s lectures were recorded in a 24 page report titled The Los Alamos Primer, which was subsequently declassified and published in book form. This paper describes the background to the Primer and analyzes the physics contained in its 22 sections. The motivation for this paper is to provide a firm foundation of the background and contents of the Primer for physicists interested in the Manhattan Project and nuclear weapons.

  5. PCR Amplicon Prediction from Multiplex Degenerate Primer and Probe Sets

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, S. N.

    2013-08-08

    Assessing primer specificity and predicting both desired and off-target amplification products is an essential step for robust PCR assay design. Code is described to predict potential polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplicons in a large sequence database such as NCBI nt from either singleplex or a large multiplexed set of primers, allowing degenerate primer and probe bases, with target mismatch annotates amplicons with gene information automatically downloaded from NCBI, and optionally it can predict whether there are also TaqMan/Luminex probe matches within predicted amplicons.

  6. Hydrogeological characterization of a bank filtration experiment site at the Rio Grande, El Paso, Texas, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langford, R.; Schulze-Makuch, D.; Pillai, S.; Abdel-Fattah, A.; Widmer, K.

    2003-04-01

    An experiment site was constructed along an artificial channel of the Rio Grande in El Paso, Texas. The experiment was funded by the EPA and is designed to measure the effectiveness of bank filtration in an arid environment. Regionally, the experiment is important because of the hundreds of thousands of people drinking water from shallow wells drilled in close proximity to septic systems. A pumping well was drilled 17 meters from the stream bank and screened from 3.5 to 8 m depth. A cruciform array of observation wells with several multilevel completions allows detection of downstream and vertical movement of water as well as flow from the stream to the well. All of the wells were continuously cored during drilling. Analysis of the cores reveals that the site consists of two stacked channels filled with sand deposited from the meandering Rio Grande. A grid of ground-penetrating radar lines provided three-dimensional coverage between wells and showed bedding to 6.5 m depth. Constant head hydraulic conductivities show that the aquifer consists of two more permeable units separated by the less permeable upper fill of the lower channel complex, with vertical hydraulic conductivities of (1x10-6 to 2x10-6 m/s?). The intervals above and below this interval have the highest vertical conductivities (up to 3.5x10-5 m/s). A multiple pumping and tracer test was conducted using the cruciform array of the field site that consisted of a pumping well, 16 observation wells, and a stream sampling point. The average hydraulic conductivity of the geological media at the field site was about 2 x 10-3 m/s based on pumping test analysis. However, the type curve responses revealed significant heterogeneity of hydraulic conductivity throughout the field site. For the tracer test, bromide and microspheres were used as tracers. Microspheres were used to mimic the behavior of Giardia and Cryptosporidium. The tracers (bromide and microspheres of different sizes and colors) were injected in one

  7. Quantitative PCR measurements of the effects of introducing inosines into primers provides guidelines for improved degenerate primer design.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Linda; Gibbs, Mark J; Rodoni, Brendan C

    2008-11-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is used to detect groups of viruses with the use of group-specific degenerate primers. Inosine residues are sometimes used in the primers to match variable positions within the complementary target sequences, but there is little data on their effects on cDNA synthesis and amplification. A quantitative reverse-transcription PCR was used to measure the rate of amplification with primers containing inosine residues substituted at different positions and in increasing numbers. Experiments were conducted using standard quantities of cloned DNA copied from Potato virus Y genomic RNA and RNA (cRNA) transcribed from the cloned DNA. Single inosine residues had no affect on the amplification rate in the forward primer, except at one position close to the 3' terminus. Conversely, single inosine residues significantly reduced the amplification rate when placed at three out of four positions in the reverse primer. Four or five inosine substitutions could be tolerated with some decline in rates, but amplification often failed from cRNA templates with primers containing larger numbers of inosines. Greater declines in the rate of amplification were observed with RNA templates, suggesting that reverse transcription suffers more than PCR amplification when inosine is included in the reverse primer.

  8. Design factors that influence PCR amplification success of cross-species primers among 1147 mammalian primer pairs

    PubMed Central

    Housley, Donna JE; Zalewski, Zachary A; Beckett, Stephanie E; Venta, Patrick J

    2006-01-01

    Background Cross-species primers have been used with moderate success to address a variety of questions concerning genome structure, evolution, and gene function. However, the factors affecting their success have never been adequately addressed, particularly with respect to producing a consistent method to achieve high throughput. Using 1,147 mammalian cross-species primer pairs (1089 not previously reported), we tested several factors to determine their influence on the probability that a given target will amplify in a given species under a single amplification condition. These factors included: number of mismatches between the two species (the index species) used to identify conserved regions to which the primers were designed, GC-content of the gene and amplified region, CpG dinucleotides in the primer region, degree of encoded protein conservation, length of the primers, and the degree of evolutionary distance between the target species and the two index species. Results The amplification success rate for the cross-species primers was significantly influenced by the number of mismatches between the two index species (6–8% decrease per mismatch in a primer pair), the GC-content within the amplified region (for the dog, GC ≥ 50%, 56.9% amplified; GC<50%, 74.2% amplified), the degree of protein conservation (R2 = 0.14) and the relatedness of the target species to the index species. For the dog, 598 products of 930 primer pairs (64.3%) (excluding primers in which dog was an index species) were sequenced and shown to be the expected product, with an additional three percent producing the incorrect sequence. When hamster DNA was used with the single amplification condition in a microtiter plate-based format, 510 of 1087 primer pairs (46.9%) produced amplified products. The primer pairs are spaced at an average distance of 2.3 Mb in the human genome and may be used to produce up to several hundred thousand bp of species-specific sequence. Conclusion The most

  9. Design factors that influence PCR amplification success of cross-species primers among 1147 mammalian primer pairs.

    PubMed

    Housley, Donna J E; Zalewski, Zachary A; Beckett, Stephanie E; Venta, Patrick J

    2006-10-09

    Cross-species primers have been used with moderate success to address a variety of questions concerning genome structure, evolution, and gene function. However, the factors affecting their success have never been adequately addressed, particularly with respect to producing a consistent method to achieve high throughput. Using 1,147 mammalian cross-species primer pairs (1089 not previously reported), we tested several factors to determine their influence on the probability that a given target will amplify in a given species under a single amplification condition. These factors included: number of mismatches between the two species (the index species) used to identify conserved regions to which the primers were designed, GC-content of the gene and amplified region, CpG dinucleotides in the primer region, degree of encoded protein conservation, length of the primers, and the degree of evolutionary distance between the target species and the two index species. The amplification success rate for the cross-species primers was significantly influenced by the number of mismatches between the two index species (6-8% decrease per mismatch in a primer pair), the GC-content within the amplified region (for the dog, GC > or = 50%, 56.9% amplified; GC<50%, 74.2% amplified), the degree of protein conservation (R2 = 0.14) and the relatedness of the target species to the index species. For the dog, 598 products of 930 primer pairs (64.3%) (excluding primers in which dog was an index species) were sequenced and shown to be the expected product, with an additional three percent producing the incorrect sequence. When hamster DNA was used with the single amplification condition in a microtiter plate-based format, 510 of 1087 primer pairs (46.9%) produced amplified products. The primer pairs are spaced at an average distance of 2.3 Mb in the human genome and may be used to produce up to several hundred thousand bp of species-specific sequence. The most important factors influencing the

  10. Microsatellite primers for the Pacific Northwest conifer Callitropsis nootkatensis (Cupressaceae)

    Treesearch

    Tar N. Jennings; Brian J. Knaus; Katherine Alderman; Paul E. Hennon; David V. D’Amore; Richard. Cronn

    2013-01-01

    Microsatellite primers were developed for Nootka cypress ( Callitropsis nootkatensis ) to provide quantitative measures for gene conservation that can assist in guiding management decisions for a species experiencing climate-induced decline.

  11. DPPrimer – A Degenerate PCR Primer Design Tool

    PubMed Central

    Gahoi, Shachi; Arya, L; Anil, Rai; Marla, ss

    2013-01-01

    Designed degenerate primers unlike conventional primers are superior in matching and amplification of large number of genes, from related gene families. DPPrimer tool was designed to predict primers for PCR amplification of homologous gene from related or diverse plant species. The key features of this tool include platform independence and user friendliness in primer design. Embedded features such as search for functional domains, similarity score selection and phylogebetic tree further enhance the user friendliness of DPPrimer tool. Performance of DPPrimer tool was evaluated by successful PCR amplification of ADP-glucose phosphorylase genes from wheat, barley and rice. Availability DPPrimer is freely accessible at http://202.141.12.147/DGEN_tool/index.html PMID:24307773

  12. BTSC VAPOR INSTRUSION PRIMER "VAPOR INTRUSION CONSIDERATION FOR REDEVELOPMENT"

    EPA Science Inventory

    This primer is designed for brownfields stakeholders concerned about vapor intrusion, including property owners, real estate developers, and contractors performing environmental site investigations. It provides an overview of the vapor intrusion issue and how it can impact the ap...

  13. Best Development Practices: A Primer for Smart Growth

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Best Development Practices: A Primer for Smart Growth lists specific practices to achieve development principles that mix land uses, support transportation options, protect natural systems, and provide housing choices.

  14. MultiPLX: automatic grouping and evaluation of PCR primers.

    PubMed

    Kaplinski, Lauris; Remm, Maido

    2007-01-01

    In this chapter, we describe MultiPLX-a tool for automatic grouping of PCR primers for multiplexed PCR. Both generic working principle and step-by-step practical procedures with examples are presented. MultiPLX performs grouping by calculating many important interaction levels between the different primer pairs and then distributes primer pairs to groups, so that the strength of unwanted interactions is kept below user-defined compatibility level. In addition, it can be used to select optimal primer pairs for multiplexing from list of candidates. MultiPLX can be downloaded from http://bioinfo.ut.ee/download/. Graphical Web-based interface to most functions of MultiPLX is available at http://bioinfo.ut.ee/multiplx/.

  15. MultiPLX: automatic grouping and evaluation of PCR primers.

    PubMed

    Kaplinski, Lauris; Remm, Maido

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter we describe MultiPLX-a tool for automatic grouping of PCR primers for multiplexed PCR. Both generic working principle and step-by-step practical procedures with examples are presented. MultiPLX performs grouping by calculating many important interaction levels between the different primer pairs and then distributes primer pairs to groups so that the strength of unwanted interactions is kept below user-defined compatibility level. In addition it can be used to select optimal primer pairs for multiplexing from list of candidates. MultiPLX can be downloaded from http://bioinfo.ut.ee/?page_id=167. Graphical web-based interface to most functions of MultiPLX is available at http://bioinfo.ut.ee/multiplx/.

  16. 20. BUILDINGS 243247. PRIMER DRYHOUSES. HEATING LAYOUT. October 16, 1917 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. BUILDINGS 243-247. PRIMER DRYHOUSES. HEATING LAYOUT. October 16, 1917 - Frankford Arsenal, Building Nos. 242-246A, South side Craig Road between Eakin & Walbach Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  17. 13. BUILDING 239. ARTILLERY PRIMER SHOP. ADDITIONS AND ALTERATIONS. FIRST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. BUILDING 239. ARTILLERY PRIMER SHOP. ADDITIONS AND ALTERATIONS. FIRST FLOOR PLAN AND ELEVATIONS. May 12, 1920. - Frankford Arsenal, Building Nos. 239-239A, Southeast corner of Clay Street & Cray Road, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  18. 19. BUILDINGS 243247. PRIMER DRYHOUSES. BUILDING LAYOUT. February 16, 1917 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. BUILDINGS 243-247. PRIMER DRYHOUSES. BUILDING LAYOUT. February 16, 1917 - Frankford Arsenal, Building Nos. 242-246A, South side Craig Road between Eakin & Walbach Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  19. 18. BUILDING 243247. PRIMER DRYHOUSES. GENERAL LAYOUT. February 16, 1917 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. BUILDING 243-247. PRIMER DRYHOUSES. GENERAL LAYOUT. February 16, 1917 - Frankford Arsenal, Building Nos. 242-246A, South side Craig Road between Eakin & Walbach Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  20. BTSC VAPOR INSTRUSION PRIMER "VAPOR INTRUSION CONSIDERATION FOR REDEVELOPMENT"

    EPA Science Inventory

    This primer is designed for brownfields stakeholders concerned about vapor intrusion, including property owners, real estate developers, and contractors performing environmental site investigations. It provides an overview of the vapor intrusion issue and how it can impact the ap...

  1. USER-derived cloning methods and their primer design.

    PubMed

    Salomonsen, Bo; Mortensen, Uffe H; Halkier, Barbara A

    2014-01-01

    Uracil excision-based cloning through USER™ (Uracil-Specific Excision Reagent) is an efficient ligase-free cloning technique that comprises USER cloning, USER fusion, and USER cassette-free (UCF) USER fusion. These USER-derived cloning techniques enable seamless assembly of multiple DNA fragments in one construct. Though governed by a few simple rules primer design for USER-based fusion of PCR fragments can prove time-consuming for inexperienced users. The Primer Help for USER (PHUSER) software is an easy-to-use primer design tool for USER-based methods. In this chapter, we present a PHUSER software protocol for designing primers for USER-derived cloning techniques.

  2. A Primer of Easy Pieces: Teaching through Typical Narrative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldman, Peter

    1982-01-01

    A "Form Primer," developed for and used in an introductory architectural design course at Princeton University, is explained and illustrated. The concept holds that architecture is made up of a typology of pieces that are composed into a whole. (MSE)

  3. New primers for DNA barcoding of digeneans and cestodes (Platyhelminthes).

    PubMed

    Van Steenkiste, Niels; Locke, Sean A; Castelin, Magalie; Marcogliese, David J; Abbott, Cathryn L

    2015-07-01

    Digeneans and cestodes are species-rich taxa and can seriously impact human health, fisheries, aqua- and agriculture, and wildlife conservation and management. DNA barcoding using the COI Folmer region could be applied for species detection and identification, but both 'universal' and taxon-specific COI primers fail to amplify in many flatworm taxa. We found that high levels of nucleotide variation at priming sites made it unrealistic to design primers targeting all flatworms. We developed new degenerate primers that enabled acquisition of the COI barcode region from 100% of specimens tested (n = 46), representing 23 families of digeneans and 6 orders of cestodes. This high success rate represents an improvement over existing methods. Primers and methods provided here are critical pieces towards redressing the current paucity of COI barcodes for these taxa in public databases. © 2014 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada Molecular Ecology Resources © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Cerium Levels in Fine and Coarse Airborne Particulate Matter in El Paso, Texas—A Geospatial and Temporal Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaya, M. A.; Ziwu, E.; Clague, J. W.; Pingitore, N. E., Jr.

    2016-12-01

    Known for use as mischmetal in metallurgical processing and as an industrial polishing vehicle, cerium dioxide (CeO2) or ceria is increasingly important in the global nanotechnology sector as a catalyst and diesel fuel additive. Investigations of the release, fate, and environmental and human health effects of CeO2 nanoparticles released into the air are particularly evident in Europe, where nano-ceria is used as a mileage extender and soot particle emission inhibitor in diesel fuel. Here we present an extensive (>2500 samples) data set of Ce analyses in air samples collected over 1-week continuous periods at 8 sites in El Paso, TX, USA at various times during the years 2006-2009. Nano-ceria was not approved for on-road vehicle use during this time frame, so these data establish a local baseline for potential diesel-associated emissions should approval be granted for nano-ceria use in the future. Dichotomous collectors provided simultaneous separate samples of the PMfine (<2.5 µm) and PMcoarse(2.5 - 10 µm) fractions. For all sites, more Ce was measured (by XRF) in the PMcoarse than in the PMfine, with typical Ce concentrations of 2 ng m-3 for the coarse and 1 ng m-3 for the fine. Following the general observation that coarse PM is of geologic origin and fine is anthropogenic, it appears that the majority of atmospheric Ce in El Paso is of natural origin. Further supporting this view, there was no consistent trend for higher airborne Ce values at sampling stations in the urban core, where vehicular or industrial releases would be greater relative to more rural sites. No seasonal trend was obvious in the multi-year data set, as might be expected for anthropogenic releases trapped by winter inversions. Note, however, that the dry desert and windy conditions in El Paso produce unusually high levels of ambient coarse PM. Although we have not yet identified the compounds of airborne Ce, our findings indirectly suggest that anthropogenic nano-ceria is not the dominant

  5. Simulated ground-water flow in the Hueco Bolson, an alluvial-basin aquifer system near El Paso, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heywood, Charles E.; Yager, Richard M.

    2003-01-01

    The neighboring cities of El Paso, Texas, and Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico, have historically relied on ground-water withdrawals from the Hueco Bolson, an alluvial-aquifer system, to supply water to their growing populations. By 1996, ground-water drawdown exceeded 60 meters in some areas under Ciudad Juarez and El Paso. A simulation of steady-state and transient ground-water flow in the Hueco Bolson in westernmost Texas, south-central New Mexico, and northern Chihuahua, Mexico, was developed using MODFLOW-96. The model is needed by El Paso Water Utilities to evaluate strategies for obtaining the most beneficial use of the Hueco Bolson aquifer system. The transient simulation represents a period of 100 years beginning in 1903 and ending in 2002. The period 1903 through 1968 was represented with 66 annual stress periods, and the period 1969 through 2002 was represented with 408 monthly stress periods. The ground-water flow model was calibrated using MODFLOWP and UCODE. Parameter values representing aquifer properties and boundary conditions were adjusted through nonlinear regression in a transient-state simulation with 96 annual time steps to produce a model that approximated (1) 4,352 water levels measured in 292 wells from 1912 to 1995, (2) three seepage-loss rates from a reach of the Rio Grande during periods from 1979 to 1981, (3) three seepage-loss rates from a reach of the Franklin Canal during periods from 1990 to 1992, and (4) 24 seepage rates into irrigation drains from 1961 to 1983. Once a calibrated model was obtained with MODFLOWP and UCODE, the optimal parameter set was used to create an equivalent MODFLOW-96 simulation with monthly temporal discretization to improve computations of seepage from the Rio Grande and to define the flow field for a chloride-transport simulation. Model boundary conditions were modified at appropriate times during the simulation to represent changes in well pumpage, drainage of agricultural fields, and channel

  6. Speciation of Lead in Airborne Particulate Matter in El Paso, TX, by X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pingitore, N. E.; Clague, J.; Amaya, M. A.; Olvera, H. A.

    2007-12-01

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy indicates that lead humate is the dominant species of lead in airborne particulate matter in El Paso, Texas. Lead humate is a stable complex of Pb with the humus component of soil, and is the major Pb species that we found in El Paso soils. Because Pb-contaminated soil is the only significant source of lead humate, re-entrainment of such soil likely provides most of the lead found in particulate matter in the local atmosphere. Elimination of leaded gasoline dramatically decreased lead in particulate matter in the US over the last three decades. Consequently, there was a significant decrease in blood lead levels. Nonetheless, because Pb is such a potent neurotoxin for children, further reductions in airborne lead levels are being called for. Our result can inform this regulatory debate. We examined a total of 20 TSP (Total Suspended Particulate) samples collected at 3 stations in various seasons in 1999 and 2005. Low lead concentrations in the particulate matter and intimately associated filter medium compromised data quality. Six samples proved suitable for standard EXAFS analysis, and XANES analysis was possible with all 20. Comparisons of the XANES and EXAFS of our air samples indicated homogeneity of speciation with regard to geography, season, and year. The XANES and EXAFS spectra were a close match to those of both a lead humate standard and a typical El Paso soil sample with an elevated lead level. X-Ray absorption spectroscopy experiments were conducted at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory on beam lines 7-3, 10-2, and 11-2. Spectra were collected at the Pb L-III absorption edge in fluorescence mode using a 13-element or a 30-element Ge solid-state detector. This publication was made possible by grant numbers 1RO1-ES11367 and 1 S11 ES013339-01A1 from the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), NIH. Its contents are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the

  7. PCR Primers for identification of high sucrose Saccharum genotypes.

    PubMed

    Vinayak, Vandana; Dhawan, Ashok K; Gupta, V K

    2010-01-01

    The progeny of a cross between high sucrose sugarcane clone S. officinarum 'Gungera' and a low sucrose clone S. spontaneum 'SES 603' resulted in interspecific hybrids that were named as ISH-1 to ISH-29 and graded on the basis of sucrose content. Hybrids ISH-1, ISH-5, ISH-17 and ISH-23 were selected as very high sucrose (65 to 100 mg/g tissue) genotypes, whereas ISH-10, ISH-11, ISH-12 and ISH-25 were very low sucrose (2 to 25 mg/g tissue) genotypes. DNA from leaves of both the parent clones, as also the progeny hybrids, was amplified using selected primers, in order to identify markers for sucrose content. Ten specific primers were examined: primers 'A' and 'B' that detect polymorphism in promoter region of sucrose synthase-2 gene; primers AI, SS and SPS that were designed on the basis of nucleotide sequences of genes for acid invertase, sucrose synthase and sucrose phosphate synthase enzymes, respectively and primers MSSCIR43, MSSCIRI, SMC226CG, SMC1039CG and SCB07 selected for relation to sucrose accumulation process. DNA products specific to low or high sucrose clones were identified. Primer 'A' and AI amplified DNA products of size 230 and 500 bp, respectively only in high sucrose genotypes ('Gungera', ISH-1, ISH-5, ISH-17 and ISH-23), while primer SMC226CG generated a DNA product of size 920 bp only in low sucrose genotypes ('SES 603', ISH-10, ISH-11, ISH-12 and ISH-25). Ten random decamer primers were also examined, but their products did not show relationship to sucrose content of genotypes.

  8. PrecisePrimer: an easy-to-use web server for designing PCR primers for DNA library cloning and DNA shuffling.

    PubMed

    Pauthenier, Cyrille; Faulon, Jean-Loup

    2014-07-01

    PrecisePrimer is a web-based primer design software made to assist experimentalists in any repetitive primer design task such as preparing, cloning and shuffling DNA libraries. Unlike other popular primer design tools, it is conceived to generate primer libraries with popular PCR polymerase buffers proposed as pre-set options. PrecisePrimer is also meant to design primers in batches, such as for DNA libraries creation of DNA shuffling experiments and to have the simplest interface possible. It integrates the most up-to-date melting temperature algorithms validated with experimental data, and cross validated with other computational tools. We generated a library of primers for the extraction and cloning of 61 genes from yeast DNA genomic extract using default parameters. All primer pairs efficiently amplified their target without any optimization of the PCR conditions. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  9. PrecisePrimer: an easy-to-use web server for designing PCR primers for DNA library cloning and DNA shuffling

    PubMed Central

    Pauthenier, Cyrille; Faulon, Jean-Loup

    2014-01-01

    PrecisePrimer is a web-based primer design software made to assist experimentalists in any repetitive primer design task such as preparing, cloning and shuffling DNA libraries. Unlike other popular primer design tools, it is conceived to generate primer libraries with popular PCR polymerase buffers proposed as pre-set options. PrecisePrimer is also meant to design primers in batches, such as for DNA libraries creation of DNA shuffling experiments and to have the simplest interface possible. It integrates the most up-to-date melting temperature algorithms validated with experimental data, and cross validated with other computational tools. We generated a library of primers for the extraction and cloning of 61 genes from yeast DNA genomic extract using default parameters. All primer pairs efficiently amplified their target without any optimization of the PCR conditions. PMID:24829457

  10. Simple sequence repeat marker loci discovery using SSR primer.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Andrew J; Love, Christopher G; Batley, Jacqueline; Barker, Gary; Edwards, David

    2004-06-12

    Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) have become important molecular markers for a broad range of applications, such as genome mapping and characterization, phenotype mapping, marker assisted selection of crop plants and a range of molecular ecology and diversity studies. With the increase in the availability of DNA sequence information, an automated process to identify and design PCR primers for amplification of SSR loci would be a useful tool in plant breeding programs. We report an application that integrates SPUTNIK, an SSR repeat finder, with Primer3, a PCR primer design program, into one pipeline tool, SSR Primer. On submission of multiple FASTA formatted sequences, the script screens each sequence for SSRs using SPUTNIK. The results are parsed to Primer3 for locus-specific primer design. The script makes use of a Web-based interface, enabling remote use. This program has been written in PERL and is freely available for non-commercial users by request from the authors. The Web-based version may be accessed at http://hornbill.cspp.latrobe.edu.au/

  11. Universal PCR primers for detection of phytopathogenic Agrobacterium strains.

    PubMed Central

    Haas, J H; Moore, L W; Ream, W; Manulis, S

    1995-01-01

    Two PCR primer pairs, based on the virD2 and ipt genes, detected a wide variety of pathogenic Agrobacterium strains. The endonuclease domain of VirD2 protein, which cleaves transferred DNA (T-DNA) border sequences, is highly conserved; primer oligonucleotides specific for the endonuclease portion of virD2 detected all pathogenic strains of Agrobacterium tested. PCR primers corresponding to conserved sequences in ipt, the T-DNA-borne cytokinin synthesis gene, detected only Agrobacterium tumefaciens and distinguished it from Agrobacterium rhizogenes. The virD2 and ipt primer pairs did not interfere with each other when included in the same PCR amplification, and this permitted simultaneous detection of both genes in a single reaction. One nonpathogenic Agrobacterium radiobacter strain contained virD2 but not ipt; we speculate that this strain arose from a pathogenic progenitor through a deletion in the T-DNA. The virD2 primer pair appears to be universal for all pathogenic Agrobacterium species; used together, the primer sets reported here should allow unambiguous identification of Ti plasmid DNA in bacteria isolated from soil and plants. PMID:7487020

  12. Polymerization behavior of Klenow fragment and Taq DNA polymerase in short primer extension reactions.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guojie; Guan, Yifu

    2010-10-01

    DNA polymerases amplify DNA fragments through primer extension reactions. However, polymerization behavior of short primers in the primer extension process has not been systematically explored. In this study, we examined the minimal primer length required for primer extension, and the effect of primer length, mismatches and other conditions on DNA polymerization using a non-radioactive method. Under the condition we conducted, the shortest primers polymerized by Klenow fragment (KF) and Taq DNA polymerase in our experiments were respectively heptamer and octamer. The extension efficiency was also affected by the up-stream overhanging structure of the primer-template complex. We hypothesized a simple model to interpret these observations based on the polymerase structures. Furthermore, it was found that the longer the primer, the more efficient is the primer extension. These polymerization behavior of short primers lay foundation about DNA polymerization mechanism and development of novel nucleic acid detection assays.

  13. Chicano Studies Bibliography: A Guide to the Resources of the Library at the University of Texas at El Paso. Supplement to 3rd Edition, 1974-75.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marquez, Benjamin, Ed.

    Compiled to facilitate research in the field of Chicano Studies, this bibliography cites approximately 197 books and periodical articles published between 1937 and 1974. This bibliography is intended as a guide to select items which are part of the Chicano Materials Collection at the University of Texas at El Paso. Arranged alphabetically by the…

  14. Nutrition Knowledge Predicts Eating Behavior of All Food Groups "except" Fruits and Vegetables among Adults in the Paso del Norte Region: Que Sabrosa Vida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Shreela V.; Gernand, Alison D.; Day, R. Sue

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association between nutrition knowledge and eating behavior in a predominantly Mexican American population on the Texas-Mexico border. Design: Cross-sectional using data from the baseline survey of the Que Sabrosa Vida community nutrition initiative. Setting: El Paso and surrounding counties in Texas. Participants: Data…

  15. Nutrition Knowledge Predicts Eating Behavior of All Food Groups "except" Fruits and Vegetables among Adults in the Paso del Norte Region: Que Sabrosa Vida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Shreela V.; Gernand, Alison D.; Day, R. Sue

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association between nutrition knowledge and eating behavior in a predominantly Mexican American population on the Texas-Mexico border. Design: Cross-sectional using data from the baseline survey of the Que Sabrosa Vida community nutrition initiative. Setting: El Paso and surrounding counties in Texas. Participants: Data…

  16. ADVERSE IMPACT OF HOME DAMPNESS AND LENGTH OF RESIDENCE ON ATOPY AND LUNG FUNCTION AMONG CHILDREN IN EL PASO, TEXAS, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The El Paso Children's Health Study examined ambient exposures to motor vehicle emissions and their effect on the prevalence of allergy and asthma among children living in a major United States-Mexico border city. In the spring of 2001, the parents of all fourth and fifth grad...

  17. ADVERSE IMPACT OF HOME DAMPNESS AND LENGTH OF RESIDENCE ON ATOPY AND LUNG FUNCTION AMONG CHILDREN IN EL PASO, TEXAS, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The El Paso Children's Health Study examined ambient exposures to motor vehicle emissions and their effect on the prevalence of allergy and asthma among children living in a major United States-Mexico border city. In the spring of 2001, the parents of all fourth and fifth grad...

  18. Geophysical survey, Paso Robles geothermal area, California, part of the resource assessment of low- and moderate-temperature geothermal resource areas in California

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, R.H.; Chase, G.W.; Youngs, L.G.

    1980-11-10

    Some general background information concerning the geology and geothermal occurrences in the Southern Coast Ranges is included, as well as the more detailed information dealing with the Paso Robles area proper. Results for two geophysical methods that have been used in the area: the ground magnetic and gravity surveys, are discussed and interpreted.

  19. Organic petrology of Paleocene Marcelina Formation coals, Paso Diablo mine, western Venezuela: Tectonic controls on coal type

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hackley, P.C.; Martinez, M.

    2007-01-01

    About 7??Mt of high volatile bituminous coal are produced annually from the four coal zones of the Upper Paleocene Marcelina Formation at the Paso Diablo open-pit mine of western Venezuela. As part of an ongoing coal quality study, we have characterized twenty-two coal channel samples from the mine using organic petrology techniques. Samples also were analyzed for proximate-ultimate parameters, forms of sulfur, free swelling index, ash fusion temperatures, and calorific value. Six of the samples represent incremental benches across the 12-13??m thick No. 4 bed, the stratigraphically lowest mined coal, which is also mined at the 10??km distant Mina Norte open-pit. Organic content of the No. 4 bed indicates an upward increase of woody vegetation and/or greater preservation of organic material throughout the life of the original mire(s). An upward increase in telovitrinite and corresponding decrease in detrovitrinite and inertinite illustrate this trend. In contrast, stratigraphically higher coal groups generally exhibit a 'dulling upward' trend. The generally high inertinite content, and low ash yield and sulfur content, suggest that the Paso Diablo coals were deposited in rain-fed raised mires, protected from clastic input and subjected to frequent oxidation and/or moisture stress. However, the two thinnest coal beds (both 0.7??m thick) are each characterized by lower inertinite and higher telovitrinite content relative to the rest of Paso Diablo coal beds, indicative of less well-established raised mire environments prior to drowning. Foreland basin Paleocene coals of western Venezuela, including the Paso Diablo deposit and time-correlative coal deposits of the Ta??chira and Me??rida Andes, are characterized by high inertinite and consistently lower ash and sulfur relative to Eocene and younger coals of the area. We interpret these age-delimited coal quality characteristics to be due to water availability as a function of the tectonic control of subsidence rate. It

  20. Seepage investigation on the Rio Grande from below Caballo Reservoir, New Mexico, to El Paso, Texas, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gunn, Mark A.; Roark, D. Michael

    2014-01-01

    A seepage investigation was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the New Mexico Interstate Stream Commission, along an approximately 106-mile reach of the Rio Grande from below Caballo Reservoir, New Mexico, to El Paso, Texas, during June 26–28, 2012, to determine gain or loss of streamflow due to seepage to or from the river channel. Discharge measurements were made during the irrigation season at high flow including 5 sites along the Rio Grande, 5 diversions, and 63 inflows. The net gain or loss of flow in the river channel was computed for four reaches within the 106-mile reach of the Rio Grande. The normalized percentage difference was computed for each reach to determine the difference between discharge measured at upstream and downstream sites, and the normalized percentage uncertainty was computed to determine if a computed gain or loss exceeded cumulative uncertainty associated with measurement of discharge.

  1. Residential exposure to air toxics is linked to lower grade point averages among school children in El Paso, Texas, USA

    PubMed Central

    Clark-Reyna, Stephanie E.; Grineski, Sara E.; Collins, Timothy W.

    2015-01-01

    Children in low-income neighborhoods tend to be disproportionately exposed to environmental toxicants. This is cause for concern because exposure to environmental toxicants negatively affect health, which can impair academic success. To date, it is unknown if associations between air toxics and academic performance found in previous school-level studies persist when studying individual children. In pairing the National Air Toxics Assessment (NATA) risk estimates for respiratory and diesel particulate matter risk disaggregated by source, with individual-level data collected through a mail survey, this paper examines the effects of exposure to residential environmental toxics on academic performance for individual children for the first time and adjusts for school-level effects using generalized estimating equations. We find that higher levels of residential air toxics, especially those from non-road mobile sources, are statistically significantly associated with lower grade point averages among fourth and fifth grade school children in El Paso (Texas, USA). PMID:27034529

  2. Implementation of InTeGrate Modules into Introductory Courses in the El Paso Higher Education Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doser, D. I.; Villalobos, J. I.; Henry, I. E.

    2014-12-01

    InTeGrate (Interdisciplinary Teaching about Earth for a Sustainable Future) has developed teaching modules that focus on Earth sustainability and Earth-centered societal issues. We have begun to implement modules on climate change, earth materials and freshwater into introductory geology and environmental science courses taught at the University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP), El Paso Community College (EPCC) and local early college high schools (ECHS) for classes of 20 to 220 students. Our eventual goal is to insure students taking introductory classes at any institution will be exposed to comparable content and be similarly prepared for advanced courses. Our initial results suggest that the modules' use of case studies and analysis of authentic data sets are very appealing to our student body (over 70% Hispanic). Since many students do not speak English at home, they were challenged by vocabulary presented in some modules. Modules containing glossaries and extensive background material (such as concept maps and annotated figures) proved very helpful to these students. The use of pre-activity quizzes insured that the students had mastered basic concepts needed for in-class activities. Modifications required to teach these modules in larger classes included condensing materials and reducing the amount of color figures to save paper and printer costs, streamlining dissemination/collection of in-class group assignments, and adapting assignments such as jigsaws and gallery walks to the confines of a large lecture hall with fixed seating. Student reflections indicated students were able to make connections to societal issues and retain these ideas through the end of the courses.

  3. Carbonyl compounds, hydrocarbons and priority pollutants in the southwestern USA. II. The El Paso - Ciudad Juarez transborder airshed

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.S.; Popp, C.J.; Dixon, R.W.

    1996-12-31

    The combined airshed of El Paso, Texas (USA) and Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua (Mexico) presents a unique situation where autonomous governmental rules and regulations, economic situations, and cultural differences impact the common air quality of two different countries. Effective mitigation can only be achieved upon sufficient understanding of current atmospheric photochemistry. Atmospheric concentrations and seasonal and diurnal behavior of routinely monitored criteria pollutants and a wide range of reactive organic compounds have been quantified at separate sampling locations in each of the two cities during field studies in January and July of 1995. During the measurement campaigns, no exceedances of US ambient air quality standards were observed for any criteria pollutants. Similar concentrations were observed at both sites for both periods, with the exception of NO{sub x} compounds, which occurred at more elevated levels (>200 ppb) in Juarez during winter late evening periods. As expected summer O{sub 3} values were greater than winter values ({approx}33 ppb and {approx}14 ppb, respectively). Analysis of ambient non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC) showed biogenic species, such as isoprene, {alpha}-pinene, {beta}-pinene, likely play a relatively minor role in local photochemistry, being detected infrequently and at low mixing ratios ({approx}0.2 ppb). NMHCs were dominated by species typically of anthropogenic origin. Concentrations of all carbonyls were higher in the summer than in the winter, in some cases by a factor of 10 or more. Acetone, an anthropogenic marker, was similar in concentration to formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. Carbonyl concentrations were considerably higher in Juarez in summer than in El Paso, while concentrations were similar in the winter. The wintertime similarities are likely due to the presence of temperature inversions and a more constant air masses over both cities. PAN and PPN levels were similar to those reported for other urban areas.

  4. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated activity of particulate organic matter from the Paso del Norte airshed along the U.S.-Mexico border.

    PubMed Central

    Arrieta, Daniel E; Ontiveros, Cynthia C; Li, Wen-Whai; Garcia, Jose H; Denison, Michael S; McDonald, Jacob D; Burchiel, Scott W; Washburn, Barbara Shayne

    2003-01-01

    In this study, we determined the biologic activity of dichloromethane-extracted particulate matter < 10 micro m in aerodynamic diameter (PM10) obtained from filters at three sites in the Paso del Norte airshed, which includes El Paso, Texas, USA; Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico, and Sunland Park, New Mexico, USA. The extracts were rich in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and had significant biologic activity, measured using two in vitro assay systems: ethoxyresorufin-(O-deethylase (EROD) induction and the aryl hydrocarbon-receptor luciferase reporter system. In most cases, both EROD (5.25 pmol/min/mg protein) and luciferase activities (994 relative light units/mg) were highest in extracts from the Advance site located in an industrial neighborhood in Juarez. These values represented 58% and 55%, respectively, of induction associated with 1 micro M ss-naphthoflavone exposures. In contrast, little activity was observed at the Northeast Clinic site in El Paso, the reference site. In most cases, luciferase and EROD activity from extracts collected from the Tillman Health Center site, situated in downtown El Paso, fell between those observed at the other two sites. Overall, a statistically significant correlation existed between PM10 and EROD and luciferase activities. Chemical analysis of extracts collected from the Advance site demonstrated that concentrations of most PAHs were higher than those reported in most other metropolitan areas in the United States. Calculations made with these data suggest a cancer risk of 5-12 cases per 100,000 people. This risk estimate, as well as comparisons with the work of other investigators, raises concern regarding the potential for adverse health effects to the residents of this airshed. Further work is needed to understand the sources, exposure, and effects of PM10 and particulate organic material in the Paso del Norte airshed. PMID:12896850

  5. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated activity of particulate organic matter from the Paso del Norte airshed along the U.S.-Mexico border.

    PubMed

    Arrieta, Daniel E; Ontiveros, Cynthia C; Li, Wen-Whai; Garcia, Jose H; Denison, Michael S; McDonald, Jacob D; Burchiel, Scott W; Washburn, Barbara Shayne

    2003-08-01

    In this study, we determined the biologic activity of dichloromethane-extracted particulate matter < 10 micro m in aerodynamic diameter (PM10) obtained from filters at three sites in the Paso del Norte airshed, which includes El Paso, Texas, USA; Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico, and Sunland Park, New Mexico, USA. The extracts were rich in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and had significant biologic activity, measured using two in vitro assay systems: ethoxyresorufin-(O-deethylase (EROD) induction and the aryl hydrocarbon-receptor luciferase reporter system. In most cases, both EROD (5.25 pmol/min/mg protein) and luciferase activities (994 relative light units/mg) were highest in extracts from the Advance site located in an industrial neighborhood in Juarez. These values represented 58% and 55%, respectively, of induction associated with 1 micro M ss-naphthoflavone exposures. In contrast, little activity was observed at the Northeast Clinic site in El Paso, the reference site. In most cases, luciferase and EROD activity from extracts collected from the Tillman Health Center site, situated in downtown El Paso, fell between those observed at the other two sites. Overall, a statistically significant correlation existed between PM10 and EROD and luciferase activities. Chemical analysis of extracts collected from the Advance site demonstrated that concentrations of most PAHs were higher than those reported in most other metropolitan areas in the United States. Calculations made with these data suggest a cancer risk of 5-12 cases per 100,000 people. This risk estimate, as well as comparisons with the work of other investigators, raises concern regarding the potential for adverse health effects to the residents of this airshed. Further work is needed to understand the sources, exposure, and effects of PM10 and particulate organic material in the Paso del Norte airshed.

  6. TSUNAMI Primer: A Primer for Sensitivity/Uncertainty Calculations with SCALE

    SciTech Connect

    Rearden, Bradley T; Mueller, Don; Bowman, Stephen M; Busch, Robert D.; Emerson, Scott

    2009-01-01

    This primer presents examples in the application of the SCALE/TSUNAMI tools to generate k{sub eff} sensitivity data for one- and three-dimensional models using TSUNAMI-1D and -3D and to examine uncertainties in the computed k{sub eff} values due to uncertainties in the cross-section data used in their calculation. The proper use of unit cell data and need for confirming the appropriate selection of input parameters through direct perturbations are described. The uses of sensitivity and uncertainty data to identify and rank potential sources of computational bias in an application system and TSUNAMI tools for assessment of system similarity using sensitivity and uncertainty criteria are demonstrated. Uses of these criteria in trending analyses to assess computational biases, bias uncertainties, and gap analyses are also described. Additionally, an application of the data adjustment tool TSURFER is provided, including identification of specific details of sources of computational bias.

  7. MPD: multiplex primer design for next-generation targeted sequencing.

    PubMed

    Wingo, Thomas S; Kotlar, Alex; Cutler, David J

    2017-01-05

    Targeted resequencing offers a cost-effective alternative to whole-genome and whole-exome sequencing when investigating regions known to be associated with a trait or disease. There are a number of approaches to targeted resequencing, including microfluidic PCR amplification, which may be enhanced by multiplex PCR. Currently, there is no open-source software that can design next-generation multiplex PCR experiments that ensures primers are unique at a genome-level and efficiently pools compatible primers. We present MPD, a software package that automates the design of multiplex PCR primers for next-generation sequencing. The core of MPD is implemented in C for speed and uses a hashed genome to ensure primer uniqueness, avoids placing primers over sites of known variation, and efficiently pools compatible primers. A JavaScript web application ( http://multiplexprimer.io ) utilizing the MPD Perl package provides a convenient platform for users to make designs. Using a realistic set of genes identified by genome-wide association studies (GWAS), we achieve 90% coverage of all exonic regions using stringent design criteria. Using the first 47 primer pools for wet-lab validation, we sequenced ~25Kb at 99.7% completeness with a mean coverage of 300X among 313 samples simultaneously and identified 224 variants. The number and nature of variants we observe are consistent with high quality sequencing. MPD can successfully design multiplex PCR experiments suitable for next-generation sequencing, and simplifies retooling targeted resequencing pipelines to focus on new targets as new genetic evidence emerges.

  8. PCR Primers for Metazoan Mitochondrial 12S Ribosomal DNA Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Machida, Ryuji J.; Kweskin, Matthew; Knowlton, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Background Assessment of the biodiversity of communities of small organisms is most readily done using PCR-based analysis of environmental samples consisting of mixtures of individuals. Known as metagenetics, this approach has transformed understanding of microbial communities and is beginning to be applied to metazoans as well. Unlike microbial studies, where analysis of the 16S ribosomal DNA sequence is standard, the best gene for metazoan metagenetics is less clear. In this study we designed a set of PCR primers for the mitochondrial 12S ribosomal DNA sequence based on 64 complete mitochondrial genomes and then tested their efficacy. Methodology/Principal Findings A total of the 64 complete mitochondrial genome sequences representing all metazoan classes available in GenBank were downloaded using the NCBI Taxonomy Browser. Alignment of sequences was performed for the excised mitochondrial 12S ribosomal DNA sequences, and conserved regions were identified for all 64 mitochondrial genomes. These regions were used to design a primer pair that flanks a more variable region in the gene. Then all of the complete metazoan mitochondrial genomes available in NCBI's Organelle Genome Resources database were used to determine the percentage of taxa that would likely be amplified using these primers. Results suggest that these primers will amplify target sequences for many metazoans. Conclusions/Significance Newly designed 12S ribosomal DNA primers have considerable potential for metazoan metagenetic analysis because of their ability to amplify sequences from many metazoans. PMID:22536450

  9. Initialization of Formation Flying Using Primer Vector Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mailhe, Laurie; Schiff, Conrad; Folta, David

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we extend primer vector analysis to formation flying. Optimization of the classical rendezvous or free-time transfer problem between two orbits using primer vector theory has been extensively studied for one spacecraft. However, an increasing number of missions are now considering flying a set of spacecraft in close formation. Missions such as the Magnetospheric MultiScale (MMS) and Leonardo-BRDF (Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function) need to determine strategies to transfer each spacecraft from the common launch orbit to their respective operational orbit. In addition, all the spacecraft must synchronize their states so that they achieve the same desired formation geometry over each orbit. This periodicity requirement imposes constraints on the boundary conditions that can be used for the primer vector algorithm. In this work we explore the impact of the periodicity requirement in optimizing each spacecraft transfer trajectory using primer vector theory. We first present our adaptation of primer vector theory to formation flying. Using this method, we then compute the AV budget for each spacecraft subject to different formation endpoint constraints.

  10. Rapid and simple method of qPCR primer design.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Brenda; Basu, Chhandak

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is a powerful tool for analysis and quantification of gene expression. It is advantageous compared to traditional gel-based method of PCR, as gene expression can be visualized "real-time" using a computer. In qPCR, a reporter dye system is used which intercalates with DNA's region of interest and detects DNA amplification. Some of the popular reporter systems used in qPCR are the following: Molecular Beacon(®), SYBR Green(®), and Taqman(®). However, success of qPCR depends on the optimal primers used. Some of the considerations for primer design are the following: GC content, primer self-dimer, or secondary structure formation. Freely available software could be used for ideal qPCR primer design. Here we have shown how to use some freely available web-based software programs (such as Primerquest(®), Unafold(®), and Beacon designer(®)) to design qPCR primers.

  11. Primer design for PCR reactions in forensic biology.

    PubMed

    Elkins, Kelly M

    2015-01-01

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a popular method to copy DNA in vitro. Its invention revolutionized fields ranging from clinical medicine to anthropology, molecular biology, and forensic biology. The method employs one of many available heat-stable DNA polymerases in a reaction that is repeated many times in situ. The DNA polymerase reads a template DNA strand and using the components of the reaction mix, catalyzes the addition of free 2'-deoxynucleotide triphosphate nitrogenous bases to short segment of DNA that forms a complement with the template via Watson-Crick base pairing. This short segment of DNA is referred to as a PCR primer and it is essential to the success of the reaction. The most widely used application of PCR in forensic labs is the amplification of short tandem repeat (STR) loci used in DNA typing. The STRs are routinely evaluated in concert with 16 or more reactions, a multiplex, run in one test tube simultaneously. In a multiplex, it is essential that the primers work specifically and accurately on the intended reactions without hindering the other reactions. The primers, which are very specific, also can be used to probe single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a DNA sequence of interest by single base extension. Primers are often designed using one of many available automated software packages. Here the process of manually designing PCR primers for forensic biology using no-cost software is described.

  12. MCMC-ODPR: primer design optimization using Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling.

    PubMed

    Kitchen, James L; Moore, Jonathan D; Palmer, Sarah A; Allaby, Robin G

    2012-11-05

    Next generation sequencing technologies often require numerous primer designs that require good target coverage that can be financially costly. We aimed to develop a system that would implement primer reuse to design degenerate primers that could be designed around SNPs, thus find the fewest necessary primers and the lowest cost whilst maintaining an acceptable coverage and provide a cost effective solution. We have implemented Metropolis-Hastings Markov Chain Monte Carlo for optimizing primer reuse. We call it the Markov Chain Monte Carlo Optimized Degenerate Primer Reuse (MCMC-ODPR) algorithm. After repeating the program 1020 times to assess the variance, an average of 17.14% fewer primers were found to be necessary using MCMC-ODPR for an equivalent coverage without implementing primer reuse. The algorithm was able to reuse primers up to five times. We compared MCMC-ODPR with single sequence primer design programs Primer3 and Primer-BLAST and achieved a lower primer cost per amplicon base covered of 0.21 and 0.19 and 0.18 primer nucleotides on three separate gene sequences, respectively. With multiple sequences, MCMC-ODPR achieved a lower cost per base covered of 0.19 than programs BatchPrimer3 and PAMPS, which achieved 0.25 and 0.64 primer nucleotides, respectively. MCMC-ODPR is a useful tool for designing primers at various melting temperatures at good target coverage. By combining degeneracy with optimal primer reuse the user may increase coverage of sequences amplified by the designed primers at significantly lower costs. Our analyses showed that overall MCMC-ODPR outperformed the other primer-design programs in our study in terms of cost per covered base.

  13. MCMC-ODPR: Primer design optimization using Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Next generation sequencing technologies often require numerous primer designs that require good target coverage that can be financially costly. We aimed to develop a system that would implement primer reuse to design degenerate primers that could be designed around SNPs, thus find the fewest necessary primers and the lowest cost whilst maintaining an acceptable coverage and provide a cost effective solution. We have implemented Metropolis-Hastings Markov Chain Monte Carlo for optimizing primer reuse. We call it the Markov Chain Monte Carlo Optimized Degenerate Primer Reuse (MCMC-ODPR) algorithm. Results After repeating the program 1020 times to assess the variance, an average of 17.14% fewer primers were found to be necessary using MCMC-ODPR for an equivalent coverage without implementing primer reuse. The algorithm was able to reuse primers up to five times. We compared MCMC-ODPR with single sequence primer design programs Primer3 and Primer-BLAST and achieved a lower primer cost per amplicon base covered of 0.21 and 0.19 and 0.18 primer nucleotides on three separate gene sequences, respectively. With multiple sequences, MCMC-ODPR achieved a lower cost per base covered of 0.19 than programs BatchPrimer3 and PAMPS, which achieved 0.25 and 0.64 primer nucleotides, respectively. Conclusions MCMC-ODPR is a useful tool for designing primers at various melting temperatures at good target coverage. By combining degeneracy with optimal primer reuse the user may increase coverage of sequences amplified by the designed primers at significantly lower costs. Our analyses showed that overall MCMC-ODPR outperformed the other primer-design programs in our study in terms of cost per covered base. PMID:23126469

  14. PrimerSNP: a web tool for whole-genome selection of allele-specific and common primers of phylogenetically-related bacterial genomic sequences

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Jiqiang; Lin, Hong; Van Deynze, Allen; Doddapaneni, Harshavardhan; Francis, Martha; Lemos, Eliana Gertrudes Macedo; Civerolo, Edwin L

    2008-01-01

    Background The increasing number of genomic sequences of bacteria makes it possible to select unique SNPs of a particular strain/species at the whole genome level and thus design specific primers based on the SNPs. The high similarity of genomic sequences among phylogenetically-related bacteria requires the identification of the few loci in the genome that can serve as unique markers for strain differentiation. PrimerSNP attempts to identify reliable strain-specific markers, on which specific primers are designed for pathogen detection purpose. Results PrimerSNP is an online tool to design primers based on strain specific SNPs for multiple strains/species of microorganisms at the whole genome level. The allele-specific primers could distinguish query sequences of one strain from other homologous sequences by standard PCR reaction. Additionally, PrimerSNP provides a feature for designing common primers that can amplify all the homologous sequences of multiple strains/species of microorganisms. PrimerSNP is freely available at . Conclusion PrimerSNP is a high-throughput specific primer generation tool for the differentiation of phylogenetically-related strains/species. Experimental validation showed that this software had a successful prediction rate of 80.4 – 100% for strain specific primer design. PMID:18937861

  15. ConservedPrimers 2.0: A high-throughput pipeline for comparative genome referenced intron-flanking PCR primer design and its application in wheat SNP discovery

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In some genomic applications it is necessary to design large numbers of PCR primers in exons flanking one or several introns on the basis of orthologous gene sequences in related species. The primer pairs designed by this target gene approach are called "intron-flanking primers" or because they ar...

  16. PREJUICIO Y DISTANCIA SOCIAL HACIA PERSONAS HOMOSEXUALES POR PARTE DE JÓVENES UNIVERSITARIOS

    PubMed Central

    Fernández Rodríguez, María del C.; Squiabro, José Calderón

    2014-01-01

    Se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal con el propósito de explorar actitudes de rechazo y distancia social hacia las personas gays y lesbianas (GL) en 565 universitarios. Se utilizó una escala para medir Prejuicio y otra escala para medir Distancia Social. Los participantes reflejaron niveles moderados de prejuicio y distancia social (DS) hacia las personas gays y lesbianas. Los varones (M=104.5, DT= 27.47) mostraron significativamente más prejuicio que las mujeres (M=98.8, DT= 23.41). Los hombres (M=22.7, DT= 7.00) mostraron significativamente mayor DS que las mujeres (M=21.1, DT= 5.41). Las personas que asisten con regularidad a la iglesia mostraron más prejuicio y DS que los que no asisten. Se analiza importancia de incluir el tema de la diversidad sexual a través del currículo para desmontar prejuicios hacia la comunidad homosexual. PMID:25606066

  17. KENO-VI Primer: A Primer for Criticality Calculations with SCALE/KENO-VI Using GeeWiz

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, Stephen M

    2008-09-01

    The SCALE (Standardized Computer Analyses for Licensing Evaluation) computer software system developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is widely used and accepted around the world for criticality safety analyses. The well-known KENO-VI three-dimensional Monte Carlo criticality computer code is one of the primary criticality safety analysis tools in SCALE. The KENO-VI primer is designed to help a new user understand and use the SCALE/KENO-VI Monte Carlo code for nuclear criticality safety analyses. It assumes that the user has a college education in a technical field. There is no assumption of familiarity with Monte Carlo codes in general or with SCALE/KENO-VI in particular. The primer is designed to teach by example, with each example illustrating two or three features of SCALE/KENO-VI that are useful in criticality analyses. The primer is based on SCALE 6, which includes the Graphically Enhanced Editing Wizard (GeeWiz) Windows user interface. Each example uses GeeWiz to provide the framework for preparing input data and viewing output results. Starting with a Quickstart section, the primer gives an overview of the basic requirements for SCALE/KENO-VI input and allows the user to quickly run a simple criticality problem with SCALE/KENO-VI. The sections that follow Quickstart include a list of basic objectives at the beginning that identifies the goal of the section and the individual SCALE/KENO-VI features that are covered in detail in the sample problems in that section. Upon completion of the primer, a new user should be comfortable using GeeWiz to set up criticality problems in SCALE/KENO-VI. The primer provides a starting point for the criticality safety analyst who uses SCALE/KENO-VI. Complete descriptions are provided in the SCALE/KENO-VI manual. Although the primer is self-contained, it is intended as a companion volume to the SCALE/KENO-VI documentation. (The SCALE manual is provided on the SCALE installation DVD.) The primer provides specific examples of

  18. New cyt b gene universal primer set for forensic analysis.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Oceja, A; Gamarra, D; Borragan, S; Jiménez-Moreno, S; de Pancorbo, M M

    2016-07-01

    Analysis of mitochondrial DNA, and in particular the cytochrome b gene (cyt b), has become an essential tool for species identification in routine forensic practice. In cases of degraded samples, where the DNA is fractionated, universal primers that are highly efficient for the amplification of the target region are necessary. Therefore, in the present study a new universal cyt b primer set with high species identification capabilities, even in samples with highly degraded DNA, has been developed. In order to achieve this objective, the primers were designed following the alignment of complete sequences of the cyt b from 751 species from the Class of Mammalia listed in GenBank. A highly variable region of 148bp flanked by highly conserved sequences was chosen for placing the primers. The effectiveness of the new pair of primers was examined in 63 animal species belonging to 38 Families from 14 Orders and 5 Classes (Mammalia, Aves, Reptilia, Actinopterygii, and Malacostraca). Species determination was possible in all cases, which shows that the fragment analyzed provided a high capability for species identification. Furthermore, to ensure the efficiency of the 148bp fragment, the intraspecific variability was analyzed by calculating the concordance between individuals with the BLAST tool from the NCBI (National Center for Biotechnological Information). The intraspecific concordance levels were superior to 97% in all species. Likewise, the phylogenetic information from the selected fragment was confirmed by obtaining the phylogenetic tree from the sequences of the species analyzed. Evidence of the high power of phylogenetic discrimination of the analyzed fragment of the cyt b was obtained, as 93.75% of the species were grouped within their corresponding Orders. Finally, the analysis of 40 degraded samples with small-size DNA fragments showed that the new pair of primers permits identifying the species, even when the DNA is highly degraded as it is very common in

  19. A High Temperature Hermetic Primer and a Variable Spring Tester

    SciTech Connect

    Begeal, D.R.

    1994-05-01

    Percussion primers are used at Sandia to ignite energetic components such as pyrotechnic actuators and thermal batteries. This report describes a High Temperature Hermetic Primer (HTHP) that was developed to replace a previous G16 Percussion Primer Subassembly (Gl6PPS). The ignition mix in these primers is the same as in the discontinued Remington 44G16 (KC1O{sub 3}, SbS{sub 3}, and Ca{sub 2}Si). The HTHP has nearly the same sensitivity as the 44G16 and a significantly lower sensitivity than the G16PPS. In parallel with the HTHP development, we also designed a Variable Spring Tester (VST) to determine percussion primer ignition sensitivity with firing pins that have the same mass as those used in field applications. The tester is capable of accelerating firing pins over a velocity range of 100 to 600 inches per second for pins weighing up to 6 grams. The desired impulse can be preselected with an accuracy of better than {plus_minus}1%. The actual impulse is measured on every shot. The VST was characterized using the WW42Cl primer, as well as with the G16PPS and the HTHP. Compared to data from conventional ball drop testers, we found that ignition sensitivities were lower and there was less scatter in the sensitivity data. Our experiments indicate that ignition sensitivity is not strictly energy dependent, but also depends on the rate of deposition, or firing pin velocity in this case. Development results for the HTHP and Variable Spring Tester are discussed and design details are shown.

  20. Teaching Thermal Hydraulics & Numerical Methods: An Introductory Control Volume Primer

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, D.S.

    2004-10-03

    This paper covers the basics of the implementation of the control volume method in the context of the Homogeneous Equilibrium Model (HEM)(T/H) code using the conservation equations of mass, momentum, and energy. This primer uses the advection equation as a template. The discussion will cover the basic equations of the control volume portion of the course in the primer, which includes the advection equation, numerical methods, along with the implementation of the various equations via FORTRAN into computer programs and the final result for a three equation HEM code and its validation.

  1. Primers role in plastering systems on concrete surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, H. B.

    2015-01-01

    A drastic reduction in time frames between the manufacturing process of concrete units and the rendering phase (including prior priming) does not allow the concrete to dry well. This fact is also underlined by changes in concrete technology (denser concrete and denser concrete surfaces). The tests showed that the reduction of drying time (storage time) had a significant influence on the bonding properties of gypsum plaster on concrete surfaces. In such cases it is absolutely necessary to use an appropriate primer no matter what the processing temperature (2 °C to 20 °C) might be. In this publication the varying primer quality is shown.

  2. Novel nuclear intron-spanning primers for Arecaceae evolutionary biology.

    PubMed

    Bacon, Christine D; Feltus, F Alex; Paterson, Andrew H; Bailey, C Donovan

    2008-01-01

    In this study, 96 nuclear 'conserved intron-scanning primers' were screened across subfamilies the Arecaceae (palms) for potential use in research focused on palm evolutionary biology. Primers were evaluated based on their ability to amplify single polymerase chain reaction products in Arecaceae, the clarity of sequencing reads, and the interspecific variability observed. Ultimately, the results suggest that: (i) seven of the loci are likely to be suitable when comparing non-Arecaceae outgroups and Arecaceae ingroups; (ii) seven loci may be of use when comparing subfamilies of Arecaceae; and (iii) four of the loci may be of use when comparing closely related genera.

  3. Selective and universal primers for trematode barcoding in freshwater snails.

    PubMed

    Routtu, J; Grunberg, D; Izhar, R; Dagan, Y; Guttel, Y; Ucko, M; Ben-Ami, F

    2014-07-01

    Trematodes are significant pathogens of high medical, veterinary, and environmental importance. They are hard to isolate from their intermediate hosts, and their early life stages are difficult to identify morphologically. Therefore, primers were developed for trematodes to create a species barcoding system and allow selective PCR amplification in mixed samples. The specific oligonucleotide primer was universal for trematodes that infected several freshwater snail species in Israel. The diagnostic tool is based on the 18S rDNA gene. In contrast to morphological identification, trematode barcoding is rapid as it is based on a sequence of only 800 bp, and it classifies species accurately due to high polymorphism between conserved areas.

  4. Palynofacial analysis in alkaline soils and paleoenvironmental implications: The Paso Otero 5 archaeological site (Necochea district, Buenos Aires province, Argentina)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grill, S.; Borromei, A.; Martínez, G.; Gutierrez, M. A.; Cornou, M. E.; Olivera, D.

    2007-06-01

    The combination of palynofacial and sedimentological analyses constitutes a valuable method for paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic reconstructions, especially when fossil pollen information is scarce or absent. This methodology elucidates a late Pleistocene/Holocene sequence at the Paso Otero 5 archaeological site in the middle basin of the Quequén Grande River, Necochea district, Buenos Aires province, Argentina. Although the main factor responsible for the destruction of pollen grains is pH, biochemical and chemical oxidation and mechanical damage contribute to the deterioration as well. The site sequence indicates that extremely arid climatic conditions without vegetation cover prevailed during the late Pleistocene (˜12,000 14C yr BP), after which the climate changed to semiarid conditions associated with a disturbed environment due to strong eolian activity (Palynofacies 1 and 2; pre-10,400 14C yr BP). During the Pleistocene/Holocene transition (Palynofacies 3 and 4; ˜10,400-9400 14C yr BP), loamy facies associated with paleosoils reflected stable conditions and temporary ponds (spring deposits). Similar conditions occurred near the end of early Holocene (Palynofacies 5-9; ˜9400-6600 14C yr BP), whereas sandy and silty facies are associated with the flood margins of streams or rivers in the middle and late Holocene (Palynofacies 10-14; 6600-2500 14C yr BP). The top of the sequence (Palynofacies 15 and 16) consists of alluvium sediments and reflects locally humid conditions and modern vegetation with anthropic influence. One of the earliest Pampean sites with evidence of humans (10,450-10,200 14C yr BP), Paso Otero 5, provides a variety of megafauna bone specimens associated with ``fish-tail" projectile points, a lithic artifact diagnostic of early human occupations in South America. The site contains a complete stratigraphic record from the late Pleistocene to the present. The evidence presented herein supports the hypothesis that human colonization, at

  5. ConservedPrimers 2.0: a high-throughput pipeline for comparative genome referenced intron-flanking PCR primer design and its application in wheat SNP discovery.

    PubMed

    You, Frank M; Huo, Naxin; Gu, Yong Q; Lazo, Gerard R; Dvorak, Jan; Anderson, Olin D

    2009-10-13

    In some genomic applications it is necessary to design large numbers of PCR primers in exons flanking one or several introns on the basis of orthologous gene sequences in related species. The primer pairs designed by this target gene approach are called "intron-flanking primers" or because they are located in exonic sequences which are usually conserved between related species, "conserved primers". They are useful for large-scale single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) discovery and marker development, especially in species, such as wheat, for which a large number of ESTs are available but for which genome sequences and intron/exon boundaries are not available. To date, no suitable high-throughput tool is available for this purpose. We have developed, the ConservedPrimers 2.0 pipeline, for designing intron-flanking primers for large-scale SNP discovery and marker development, and demonstrated its utility in wheat. This tool uses non-redundant wheat EST sequences, such as wheat contigs and singleton ESTs, and related genomic sequences, such as those of rice, as inputs. It aligns the ESTs to the genomic sequences to identify unique colinear exon blocks and predicts intron lengths. Intron-flanking primers are then designed based on the intron/exon information using the Primer3 core program or BatchPrimer3. Finally, a tab-delimited file containing intron-flanking primer pair sequences and their primer properties is generated for primer ordering and their PCR applications. Using this tool, 1,922 bin-mapped wheat ESTs (31.8% of the 6,045 in total) were found to have unique colinear exon blocks suitable for primer design and 1,821 primer pairs were designed from these single- or low-copy genes for PCR amplification and SNP discovery. With these primers and subsequently designed genome-specific primers, a total of 1,527 loci were found to contain one or more genome-specific SNPs. The ConservedPrimers 2.0 pipeline for designing intron-flanking primers was developed and its

  6. Changes in Rous Sarcoma Virus RNA Secondary Structure near the Primer Binding Site upon tRNATrp Primer Annealing

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Shannon; Leis, Jonathan

    1999-01-01

    Predicted secondary-structure elements encompassing the primer binding site in the 5′ untranslated region of Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) RNA play an integral role in multiple viral replications steps including reverse transcription, DNA integration, and RNA packaging (A. Aiyar, D. Cobrinik, Z. Ge, H. J. Kung, and J. Leis, J. Virol. 66:2464–2472, 1992; D. Cobrinik, A. Aiyar, Z. Ge, M. Katzman, H. Huang, and J. Leis, J. Virol. 65:3864–3872, 1991; J. T. Miller, Z. Ge, S. Morris, K. Das, and J. Leis, J. Virol. 71:7648–7656, 1997). These elements include the U5-Leader stem, U5-IR stem-loop, and U5-TΨC interaction region. Limited digestion of the 5′ untranslated region of wild-type and mutant RSV RNAs with structure- and/or sequence-specific RNases detects the presence of the U5-Leader stem and the U5-IR stem-loop. When a tRNATrp primer is annealed to wild-type RNAs in vitro, limited nuclease mapping indicates that the U5-IR stem becomes partially unwound. This is not observed when mutant RNAs with altered U5-IR stem-loop structures are substituted for wild-type RNAs. The U5-Leader stem also becomes destabilized when the tRNA primer is annealed to either wild-type or mutant RNA fragments. Nuclease mapping studies of tRNATrp, as well as the viral RNA, indicate that the U5-TΨC helix does form in vitro upon primer annealing. Collectively, these data suggest that the various structural elements near the RSV primer binding site undergo significant changes during the process of primer annealing. PMID:10400722

  7. Complementation of a primer binding site-impaired murine leukemia virus-derived retroviral vector by a genetically engineered tRNA-like primer.

    PubMed Central

    Lund, A H; Duch, M; Lovmand, J; Jørgensen, P; Pedersen, F S

    1997-01-01

    Reverse transcription of retroviral genomes is primed by a tRNA annealed to an 18-nucleotide primer binding site. Here, we present a primer complementation system to study molecular interaction of the replication machinery with the primer and primer binding site in vivo. Introduction of eight base substitutions into the primer binding site of a murine leukemia virus-based vector allowed efficient RNA encapsidation but resulted in severely reduced vector replication capacity. Replication was restored upon complementation with a synthetic gene designed to encode a complementary tRNA-like primer, but not with a noncomplementary tRNA-like molecule. The engineered primer was shown to be involved in both the initiation of first-strand synthesis and second-strand transfer. These results provide an in vivo demonstration that the retroviral replication machinery may recognize sequence complementarity rather than actual primer binding site and 3' primer sequences. Use of mutated primer binding site vectors replicating via engineered primers may add additional control features to retroviral gene transfer technology. PMID:8995641

  8. Allele dropout caused by a non-primer-site SNV affecting PCR amplification--a call for next-generation primer design algorithm.

    PubMed

    Lam, Ching-wan; Mak, Chloe Miu

    2013-06-05

    PCR-based technology is indispensable for genetic diagnosis. On the other hand, allele dropout is one significant cause of genotyping errors. Most allele dropout mechanisms are related to annealing failure caused by single nucleotide variant (SNV) situated inside the primer sequences. Here, we demonstrate a novel allele dropout mechanism caused by a non-primer-binding-site SNV. We demonstrate that the apparent homozygosity of NM_000137.1(FAH):c.1035_1037del was caused by allele dropout. The non-primer-binding-site SNV causes a strong secondary hairpin structure formation of the PCR products and leads to amplification failure. SNV check of the primer sequences per se during primer design is not adequate to avoid allele dropout. The next-generation primer design software should analyze the secondary structure of primers and template sequence taking SNV in both sequences into account in order to avoid genotyping errors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Final Environmental Assessment for Proposed Colorado Springs Airport/El Paso County School District 11 Property Acquisition and Future Development at Peterson Air Foce Base, Colorado

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-01

    deep at the installation. The soils of El Paso County change from west to east as the rock changes from older igneous granite varieties to younger...sedimentary rocks and recent deposits of unconsolidated, alluvial stream channels and colluvial slopes. The igneous rocks in the far west are...predominantly comprised of Cretaceous and Tertiary rocks . These include Pierre Shale, Fox Hills Sandstone, the Laramie Formation, and the Dawson Arkose

  10. The First Big Step. A Handbook for Parents Whose Child will Soon Enter School. (El Primer Paso Importante. Guia Para Los Padres Cuyos Hijos Comenzaran Pronto A Asistir A La Escuela.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Platt, Patricia F.

    These handbooks, available in English and Spanish, are meant as an aid for parents in getting their child ready for school. Topics discussed are: Who Is Your Child; Your Child Wonders; Growing Out (at home, in the outdoors, and visiting the school); Becoming Aware; Building Blocks; Building Skills at Home; The World of Books; The Happy Child (Your…

  11. Depth profiles and free volume in aircraft primer films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Horn, J. D.; Chen, H.; Jean, Y. C.; Zhang, W.; Jaworowski, M. R.

    2015-06-01

    Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) and associated techniques provide non-destructive methods to study the free volume inside polymeric materials, and to study material characteristics over a depth profile. Cast free films of organic- or aqueous-based, non-chromated aerospace primers, when cured for about one week, had very different water vapour transport (through-plane) behaviour. In addition, both types of primer films showed strong anisotropic behaviour in in-plane versus through-plane water vapour transport rates. We report the differences between the organic- and aqueous-based aircraft primer films samples and their surface depth profiles. In bulk PALS measurements, an aged, organic-based film exhibited typical lifetimes and intensities for a particulate-containing polymer film on both faces. In contrast, aqueous-based films exhibited face oriented-dependent differences. In all aqueous- based samples, the I3 value of the back of the sample was smaller. The primer film samples were also evaluated with mono-energetic positron beam techniques to generate depth profile information. The heterogeneity in the samples was verified by Doppler broadening of energy spectroscopy (DBES). A model for the differences in the faces of the films, and their layered structure is discussed.

  12. 5. LOOKING NORTH TOWARD BARRICADES AROUND BUILDING NO. 230, PRIMER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. LOOKING NORTH TOWARD BARRICADES AROUND BUILDING NO. 230, PRIMER AND DETONATOR LOADING BUILDING. BARRICADES DIRECT FORCE OF BLAST UPWARD IN THE EVENT OF AN EXPLOSION. - Picatinny Arsenal, 200 Area, Shell Component Loading, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  13. Children on Medication: A Primer for School Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadow, Kenneth D.

    Intended as a primer for school personnel, the book discusses children whose various disorders require them to be on medication, and describes the behavioral effects of these drugs along with their major side effects. Fundamental concepts in pharmacotherapy are reviewed, including dosage adjustment and side effects, and a brief introduction to the…

  14. Blood Donation and Transfusion: A Primer for Health Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felts, W. Michael; Glascoff, Mary A.

    1991-01-01

    Presents a primer for health educators about blood donation and transfusion, examining the nature of human blood, the background of blood transfusion, blood donation criteria, risks related to homologous blood transfusion, directed blood donation, potential alternatives to homologous transfusion, and resources for education on the subject. (SM)

  15. Improved primer for bonding polyurethane adhesives to metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Constanza, L. J.

    1969-01-01

    Primer ensures effective bonding integrity of polyurethane adhesives on metal surfaces at temperatures ranging from minus 423 degrees to plus 120 degrees F. It provides greater metal surface protection and bond strengths over this temperature range than could be attained with other adhesive systems.

  16. A Primer on Ways To Explore Item Bias.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cromwell, Susan

    This paper provides an introductory primer on methods for exploring item bias. The purposes of item bias analysis are to investigate whether test scores are affected by different sources of variance in the various subpopulations, and if different sources of variance are found, to determine if an unfair advantage exists. The review discusses three…

  17. Wash Primer Replacement Based on the Superprimer Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    wash primer on  CRS  under military primers  and a CARC topcoat ( creep  in mm)   Table 19. SST and CCT test results for AU­23 and modified versions as a...wash primer on  CRS   under epoxy primers and a CARC topcoat ( creep  in mm)   Table 20. SST and CCT test results for EPZ­0 and EPZ­1 on  CRS  under epoxy... alloys , that is completely devoid of  Cr (VI), HAPs, phosphoric acid  and has low VOC, without sacrificing corrosion protection  performance under

  18. Assessing the Nation's Literacy: A State Policy Primer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Governors' Association, Washington, DC.

    This primer is designed to provide a step-by-step guide for state policymakers and state agency officials interested in assessing the literacy skills of the people of their state. Chapter 1 describes the importance of assessing the literacy skills in each state. Literacy is discussed as an economic necessity, a requirement for a healthy democracy,…

  19. Factor Scores, Structure and Communality Coefficients: A Primer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odum, Mary

    2011-01-01

    (Purpose) The purpose of this paper is to present an easy-to-understand primer on three important concepts of factor analysis: Factor scores, structure coefficients, and communality coefficients. Given that statistical analyses are a part of a global general linear model (GLM), and utilize weights as an integral part of analyses (Thompson, 2006;…

  20. Controlling Air Pollution; A Primer on Stationary Source Control Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corman, Rena

    This companion document to "Air Pollution Primer" is written for the nonexpert in air pollution; however, it does assume a familiarity with air pollution problems. This work is oriented toward providing the reader with knowledge about current and proposed air quality legislation and knowledge about available technology to meet these standards for…

  1. Philosophical Foundations: A Primer for Adult Continuing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rampp, Lary C., Ed.; Guffey, J. Stephen, Ed.

    This document, which is intended as a primer for adult continuing education, contains 11 chapters examining the philosophical foundations of adult and continuing education. The chapter titles and authors are as follows: "Progressivism and Adult Continuing Education" (Michael Day); "Progressivism: An Anthology" (Andrea Reeve);…

  2. Deeper Learning: A Primer for State Legislators. ECS Education Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aragon, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    A growing number of schools across the country are working hard to provide a "deeper" learning experience for their students, and state legislators are being asked to create policies that support wide-scale implementation of 21st century learning practices. This primer is created for state policymakers seeking to modify instruction and…

  3. Sights, Sounds, Senses in Step with Reading. Primer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Mildred W.; Messerli, John H.

    This Title III bibliography presents books, films, filmstrips, and records that correlate with stories from primers. The list of books is prepared from the suggested lists of the Ginn, Houghton Mifflin, Lippincott, and Scott, Foresman reading series. The bibliography includes sections about animals, birthdays, cowboys, fantasy, helpers, holidays,…

  4. A Primer on Fresh Water: The Environmental Citizenship Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environment Canada, Ottawa (Ontario).

    Water is the lifeblood of the environment as no organisms can survive without it. This reference booklet is designed to help people make environmentally responsible decisions. The primer is targeted at the general public (grade 8 to post-secondary) to be used by educators, communities and organizations as well as individuals, as part of a learning…

  5. Exploding the Myths about DETC Accreditation: A Primer for Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Distance Education and Training Council, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Prospective distance education students are faced with a bewildering number of choices in selecting an institution that is best suited to achieving their educational goals. They also face a confusing forest of institutions' promotional claims of being the best or most respected school. This primer is intended to help the prospective student of an…

  6. The development, characterization and testing of magnesium-rich primers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battocchi, Dante

    Aluminum alloys are widely used in aircraft industry for their strength and light weight. Those alloys that are hardened by precipitation, especially the Copper-rich of the 2000 series, are prone to corrosion and are protected against it using chromate containing coatings. The primary component of these coating systems is Chromium 6+ (CrVI) that has been found to be very toxic in the environment and carcinogenic, toxic and mutagenic in humans. The Mg-rich primer development is the result of a successful multi-year project funded by the US Air-force with its objective the replacement of coatings based on CrVI with a class of coatings less toxic and with comparable protective performances. The Mg rich primer fulfilled the USAF requirements and it is currently undergoing commercial and military qualifications testing. The use of Mg as one of the active pigments in coatings allows the primer to protect the underlying Al sacrificially, not considered possible for this substrate until now. Mg is anodic to most of the other structural metals and when particulate Mg became available commercially, the concept of the primer was first developed by analogy to Zn-rich coatings for steel. When Mg and Al are in contact and immersed in a corrosive environment, magnesium corrodes preferentially and protects the aluminum.

  7. Blood Donation and Transfusion: A Primer for Health Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felts, W. Michael; Glascoff, Mary A.

    1991-01-01

    Presents a primer for health educators about blood donation and transfusion, examining the nature of human blood, the background of blood transfusion, blood donation criteria, risks related to homologous blood transfusion, directed blood donation, potential alternatives to homologous transfusion, and resources for education on the subject. (SM)

  8. STITCHER 2.0: primer design for overlapping PCR applications

    PubMed Central

    O’Halloran, Damien M.; Uriagereka-Herburger, Isabel; Bode, Katrin

    2017-01-01

    Overlapping polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a common technique used by researchers in very diverse fields that enables the user to ‘stitch’ individual pieces of DNA together. Previously, we have reported a web based tool called STITCHER that provides a platform for researchers to automate the design of primers for overlapping PCR applications. Here we present STITCHER 2.0, which represents a substantial update to STITCHER. STITCHER 2.0 is a newly designed web tool that automates the design of primers for overlapping PCR. Unlike STITCHER, STITCHER 2.0 considers diverse algorithmic parameters, and returns multiple result files that include a facility for the user to draw their own primers as well as comprehensive visual guides to the user’s input, output, and designed primers. These result files provide greater control and insight during experimental design and troubleshooting. STITCHER 2.0 is freely available to all users without signup or login requirements and can be accessed at the following webpage: www.ohalloranlab.net/STITCHER2.html. PMID:28358011

  9. STITCHER 2.0: primer design for overlapping PCR applications.

    PubMed

    O'Halloran, Damien M; Uriagereka-Herburger, Isabel; Bode, Katrin

    2017-03-30

    Overlapping polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a common technique used by researchers in very diverse fields that enables the user to 'stitch' individual pieces of DNA together. Previously, we have reported a web based tool called STITCHER that provides a platform for researchers to automate the design of primers for overlapping PCR applications. Here we present STITCHER 2.0, which represents a substantial update to STITCHER. STITCHER 2.0 is a newly designed web tool that automates the design of primers for overlapping PCR. Unlike STITCHER, STITCHER 2.0 considers diverse algorithmic parameters, and returns multiple result files that include a facility for the user to draw their own primers as well as comprehensive visual guides to the user's input, output, and designed primers. These result files provide greater control and insight during experimental design and troubleshooting. STITCHER 2.0 is freely available to all users without signup or login requirements and can be accessed at the following webpage: www.ohalloranlab.net/STITCHER2.html.

  10. A Primer on Individualized Education Programs for Handicapped Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Scottie, Ed.

    Intended to be a practical guide for administrators, teachers, and parents on how to meet the individualized education program (IEP) requirements of Public Law 94-142, the primer provides 10 author contributed chapters to aid the reader in developing, implementing, and monitoring an IEP for every handicapped child. Chapters have the following…

  11. Racial Microaggressions: A Primer with Implications for Counseling Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houshmand, Sara; Spanierman, Lisa B.; De Stefano, Jack

    2017-01-01

    Given their societal toll and ubiquitous nature, counselors and other mental health professionals inevitably will encounter clients who have experienced racial microaggressions in their practice. In this primer, we examine key issues relative to racial microaggressions and their impact on the lives of members of racial and ethnic minority groups.…

  12. Method to amplify variable sequences without imposing primer sequences

    DOEpatents

    Bradbury, Andrew M.; Zeytun, Ahmet

    2006-11-14

    The present invention provides methods of amplifying target sequences without including regions flanking the target sequence in the amplified product or imposing amplification primer sequences on the amplified product. Also provided are methods of preparing a library from such amplified target sequences.

  13. A Primer on Economics for Financial Aid Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, Sandy

    This primer is intended to provide college financial aid professionals with a background in fundamental areas of economics. Its goal is to provide a stronger understanding of the key principles that shape need analysis systems. Part 1 presents basic economic concepts and discusses their application to college enrollment and student aid. These…

  14. Criticality calculations with MCNP{sup TM}: A primer

    SciTech Connect

    Mendius, P.W.; Harmon, C.D. II; Busch, R.D.; Briesmeister, J.F.; Forster, R.A.

    1994-08-01

    The purpose of this Primer is to assist the nuclear criticality safety analyst to perform computer calculations using the Monte Carlo code MCNP. Because of the closure of many experimental facilities, reliance on computer simulation is increasing. Often the analyst has little experience with specific codes available at his/her facility. This Primer helps the analyst understand and use the MCNP Monte Carlo code for nuclear criticality analyses. It assumes no knowledge of or particular experience with Monte Carlo codes in general or with MCNP in particular. The document begins with a Quickstart chapter that introduces the basic concepts of using MCNP. The following chapters expand on those ideas, presenting a range of problems from simple cylinders to 3-dimensional lattices for calculating keff confidence intervals. Input files and results for all problems are included. The Primer can be used alone, but its best use is in conjunction with the MCNP4A manual. After completing the Primer, a criticality analyst should be capable of performing and understanding a majority of the calculations that will arise in the field of nuclear criticality safety.

  15. Soil-borne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in El Paso, Texas: analysis of a potential problem in the United States/Mexico border region.

    PubMed

    De La Torre-Roche, Roberto J; Lee, Wen-Yee; Campos-Díaz, Sandra I

    2009-04-30

    Ultrasonic extraction followed by Stir Bar Sorptive Extraction (SBSE) and thermal desorption inline coupled with Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry (TD/GC/MS) was used to perform a comprehensive determination of soil-borne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in El Paso, Texas. The method provided good sensitivity and faster processing time for the analysis. The total PAHs in El Paso soil ranged from 0.1 to 2225.5 microg kg(-1). Although the majority of PAH concentrations did not exceed the soil screening levels regulated by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, the existence of PAHs in this ecosystem is ubiquitous. Naphthalene were found in 100% of the soil samples; while the heavy PAHs (five- and six-ring) were not often detected and mostly remained in closer proximity to industrial areas and major traffic points. The results ruled out the possibility of petroleum refining as the significant source of local soil-borne PAH contamination, but they suggested that the PAHs found in El Paso soil were closely linked to human activities and possible other industrial processes.

  16. A Smoke-Free Paso del Norte: Impact Over 10 Years on Smoking Prevalence Using the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Thom; Hernandez, Nora; Kelly, Michael; Law, Jon; Colwell, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the impact of a tobacco control initiative over 10 years on cessation and prevention. Methods. We examined 2000–2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System cases of a metropolitan statistical area (MSA) with systematic tobacco control efforts throughout the decade (El Paso, TX) and 2 comparison MSAs similar in size and population with less coordinated tobacco control efforts (Austin-Round Rock, TX and San Antonio, TX). Results. Yearly, El Paso exhibited a 6% increase in the prevalence of former smokers, a 6% decrease in prevalence of daily smokers, and a 7% decrease in the prevalence of established smoking (≥ 100 cigarettes per lifetime and currently smoking); we did not observe similar trends in the comparison MSAs. There was no change in the prevalence of nondaily smokers in any of the MSAs. Conclusions. The coordinated tobacco control activities in El Paso are related to cessation among daily smokers and prevention of established smoking at the population level but have not stimulated cessation among nondaily smokers. Comprehensive tobacco control should focus more on not only daily smokers but also nondaily smokers. PMID:22494000

  17. Analysis of behavioral risk factor surveillance system data to assess the health of Hispanic Americans with diabetes in El Paso County, Texas.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Nelda C; Bader, Julia

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine and describe the health of Hispanic Americans who live in El Paso County, Texas, along the US-Mexico border, particularly the multidimensional self-management practices of those with diabetes. This study also assesses Hispanic Americans with diabetes consistent with Healthy People 2010 diabetes goals and objectives. Data from the 2002 Paso del Norte Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System are used for analysis of behavioral health risk factors associated with diabetes among Hispanic Americans in El Paso County, Texas. One- and two-way frequency tables with logistic regression and tests for comparison of means are used for data analysis. The greatest numbers of Hispanic American residents are younger, with those diagnosed with diabetes aged 45 years and older and with lower level of education, lowest income level, and unable to work. The odds of having diabetes are 4 times greater with increasing age and 6 times greater with lower income level. The type of medical treatment is consistent with the frequency of various diabetes self-management behaviors to optimize health. Hispanic Americans are within the goal for several Healthy People 2010 targets for diabetes. Hispanic Americans along the US-Mexico border remain at risk for development of diabetes, although several self-management behavioral activities are recognized as important for prevention of diabetes to optimize quality of life.

  18. Soil-borne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in El Paso, Texas: Analysis of a potential problem in the United States/Mexico border region

    PubMed Central

    De La Torre-Roche, Roberto J.; Lee, Wen-Yee; Campos-Díaz, Sandra I.

    2009-01-01

    Ultrasonic extraction followed by Stir Bar Sorptive Extraction (SBSE) and thermal desorption inline coupled with Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry (TD/GC/MS)was used to perform a comprehensive determination of soil-borne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in El Paso, Texas. The method provided good sensitivity and faster processing time for the analysis. The total PAHs in El Paso soil ranged from 0.1 to 2225.5 µg kg−1. Although the majority of PAH concentrations did not exceed the soil screening levels regulated by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, the existence of PAHs in this ecosystem is ubiquitous. Naphthalene were found in 100% of the soil samples; while the heavy PAHs (five- and six-ring) were not often detected and mostly remained in closer proximity to industrial areas and major traffic points. The results ruled out the possibility of petroleum refining as the significant source of local soil-borne PAH contamination, but they suggested that the PAHs found in El Paso soil were closely linked to human activities and possible other industrial processes. PMID:18768257

  19. Retrieval of the single scattering albedo in the El Paso-Juarez Airshed using the TUV model and a UV-MFRSR radiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medina, Richard; Fitzgerald, Rosa M.; Min, Qilong

    2012-01-01

    A methodology to retrieve Single Scattering Albedo (SSA) values employing the ratio of Direct to Diffuse Irradiances (DDR) is used and applied to the El Paso-Juarez Airshed, a challenging region where air masses interact. The TUV model was used to obtain the calculated DDR irradiances, and the experimental irradiances were obtained from a UV-MFRSR instrument located in the city of El Paso, Texas. The wavelengths used were 332 nm and 368 nm. The retrieved SSA values at both 332 nm and 368 nm were higher in a lightly polluted day (0.66-0.81 at 332 nm, and 0.61 to 0.80 at 368 nm) than in a heavier polluted day (0.56-0.70 at 332 nm and 0.53-0.66 at 368 nm). A sensitivity study of the ground albedo and the asymmetry parameter was performed, which indicated that the variation of the asymmetry parameter is a secondary effect in the retrievals of SSA. In addition, the variation of SSA values during the day was also analyzed for the El Paso-Juarez Airshed and linked to the flow of air masses into the region using HYSPLIT trajectories. A presence of absorptive aerosols was observed during the late morning and the middle of the day. This methodology can be applied in any area, and is particularly useful for cities that experience episodes of high PM concentrations.

  20. Effectiveness of the Pasos Adelante chronic disease prevention and control program in a US-Mexico border community, 2005-2008.

    PubMed

    Staten, Lisa K; Cutshaw, Christina A; Davidson, Christopher; Reinschmidt, Kerstin; Stewart, Rosie; Roe, Denise J

    2012-01-01

    Pasos Adelante is a lifestyle intervention program facilitated by community health workers (promotores) targeting chronic disease prevention and control in Mexican Americans. Initial studies of Pasos Adelante indicated significant improvements in self-reported nutrition and physical activity. This study examined whether Pasos Adelante participants living in a US border community showed improvements in selected physiological measures after participating in the program and whether changes were maintained at 3-month follow-up. The program took place in 12-week sessions from January 2005 to May 2008 and included walking groups and education targeting nutrition and physical activity. Questionnaires, anthropometric measures, and laboratory tests were conducted at baseline (n = 305), conclusion of program (n = 254), and 3-month follow-up (n = 221). Participants demonstrated decreases in body mass index (P = .04), waist and hip circumference (P < .001), diastolic and systolic blood pressure (P < .001), and total cholesterol (P = .008) from baseline to program conclusion. No values worsened significantly between program conclusion and follow-up, except systolic blood pressure. Glucose levels improved between conclusion and follow-up (P = .01). These results support the initial findings of improvements in participants' self-reported physical activity and nutrition patterns through changes in objective measures. This evidence-based program demonstrates the potential for a promotores-facilitated chronic disease prevention and control program to improve physical health and targets both primary and secondary prevention in Hispanic communities and organizations.

  1. Applications of particle-tracking techniques to bank infiltration: a case study from El Paso, Texas, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Fattah, Ahmad; Langford, Richard; Schulze-Makuch, Dirk

    2008-08-01

    This paper presents results of a small scale study that utilized particle-tracking techniques to evaluate transport of river water through an alluvial aquifer in a bank infiltration testing site in El Paso, Texas, USA. The particle-tracking survey was used to better define filtration parameters. Several simulations were generated to allow visualization of the effects of well placement and pumping rate on flow paths, travel time, the size of the pumping influence zone, and proportion of river-derived water and groundwater mixing in the pumping well. Simulations indicate that migration of river water into the aquifer is generally slow. Most water does not arrive at the well by the end of an 18-day pumping period at 0.54 m3/min pumping rate for a well located 18 m from the river. Forty-four percent of the water pumped from the well was river water. The models provided important information needed to design appropriate sampling schedules for bank filtration practices and ensured meeting adequate soil-retention times. The pumping rate has more effect on river water travel time than the location of the pumping well from the river. The examples presented in this paper indicate that operating the pumping well at a doubled distance from the river increased the time required for the water to travel to the well, but did not greatly change the capture zone.

  2. An Aquifer Storage and Recovery system with reclaimed wastewater to preserve native groundwater resources in El Paso, Texas.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Zhuping

    2005-06-01

    The traditional concept of Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR) has been emphasized and extensively applied for water resources conservation in arid and semi-arid regions using groundwater systems as introduced in Pyne's book titled Groundwater Recharge and Wells. This paper extends the ASR concept to an integrated level in which either treated or untreated surface water or reclaimed wastewater is stored in a suitable aquifer through a system of spreading basins, infiltration galleries and recharge wells; and part or all of the stored water is recovered through production wells, dual function recharge wells, or by streams receiving increased discharge from the surrounding recharged aquifer as needed. In this paper, the author uses the El Paso Water Utilities (EPWU) ASR system for injection of reclaimed wastewater into the Hueco Bolson aquifer as an example to address challenges and resolutions faced during the design and operation of an ASR system under a new ASR system definition. This new ASR system concept consists of four subsystems: source water, storage space-aquifer, recharge facilities and recovery facilities. Even though facing challenges, this system has successfully recharged approximately 74.7 million cubic meters (19.7 billion gallons) of reclaimed wastewater into the Hueco Bolson aquifer through 10 recharge wells in the last 18 years. This ASR system has served dual purposes: reuse of reclaimed wastewater to preserve native groundwater, and restoration of groundwater by artificial recharge of reclaimed wastewater into the Hueco Bolson aquifer.

  3. Organic geochemical investigation and coal-bed methane characteristics of the Guasare coals (Paso Diablo mine, western Venezuela)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Quintero, K.; Martinez, M.; Hackley, P.; Marquez, G.; Garban, G.; Esteves, I.; Escobar, M.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work was to carry out a geochemical study of channel samples collected from six coal beds in the Marcelina Formation (Zulia State, western Venezuela) and to determine experimentally the gas content of the coals from the Paso Diablo mine. Organic geochemical analyses by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and isotopic analyses on-line in coalbed gas samples were performed. The results suggest that the Guasare coals were deposited in a continental environment under highly dysoxic and low salinity conditions. The non-detection of 18??(H)-oleanane does not preclude that the organic facies that gave rise to the coals were dominated by angiosperms. In addition, the presence of the sesquiterpenoid cadalene may indicate the subordinate contribution of gymnosperms (conifers) in the Paleocene Guasare mire. The average coalbed gas content obtained was 0.6 cm3/g. ??13C and D values indicate that thermogenic gas is prevalent in the studied coals. Copyright ?? Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  4. Utilizing Continuous Resistivity Profiling for Assessment and Characterization of Canal Seepage in El Paso's Lower Valley Irrigation Network System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, W. A.; Sheng, Z.

    2009-12-01

    Annually, billions of gallons of water are lost through seepage along sections of the irrigation network. To conserve water, El Paso County Water Improvement District has been assessing seepage losses and investigating measures for reducing such losses. Resistivity techniques were used to identify areas of high seepage and provide information on locations along canals that need to be structurally modified in an effort to curb water lost through seepage. Several half mile sections were selected along canals with varying seepage rates to conduct electric resistivity surveys in order generate soil profiles during the non-irrigation and irrigation seasons. Two different multiple channel resistivity meters (The“OhmMapper and the Super Sting R8”) were used, which both allow a vertical resistivity profile to be collected using a single current transmission. The results presented are preliminary and we believe that upon completion findings will serve multiple purposes. Firstly, a better understanding of seepage patterns, seepage rate and its spatial variation can be obtained. Secondly, our findings could be used to produce geological profiles associated with seepage areas which will enable the irrigation district to develop guidelines for improving delivery efficiency, especially during drought. And thirdly, our results will be transferable to other areas of the state and will have a positive impact on the environment and the overall quality of life.

  5. Comparison of two carbonate mound sequences in the Lower Ordovician El Paso Formation, west Texas and southern New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Clemons, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    The El Paso Formations consists of four members, in ascending order: Hitt Canyon, Jose McKelligon and Padre. Mounds in the McKelligon Member exposed in the southern Franklin Mountains were described by Toomey (1970). Most of these mounds are small but one large one is 5.8 m thick and about 13.7 m long in outcrop. The mound rock is chiefly bioclastic wackestone with minor packstone and boundstone. The varied fauna contains echinoderms, sponges and spicules, gastropods, trilobites, digitate algae, Nuia, Girvanella, Pulchrilamina, Calathium, and minor brachiopods and cephalopods. Intraclastic, bioclastic grainstone fills channels cut in the mounds. Similar, but smaller and less spectacular mounds occur in the McKelligon Member in the Florida, Big Hatchet, and Caballo Mountains, Lone Mountain, Cooke's Range, and elsewhere in southwestern New Mexico. A second type of mound is common in the upper part of the Hitt Canyon Member in the Cooke's Range, Red Hills, Caballo and Big Hatchet Mountains. These mounds also are typically small but one in the Red Hills is 13.7 m thick and about 30 m long in outcrop. The mound complex is about 75-80% SH-C and LLH-C stromatolite boundstone and bioclastic wackestone. The remaining 20-25% is bioclastic packstone and grainstone between the SH-C stromatolites and filling channels cut in the mound complex. The limited fauna contains small fragments of echinoderms, gastropods, trilobites, spicules, and Nuia.

  6. Metabolic syndrome associated with ischemic stroke among the Mexican Hispanic population in the El Paso/US-Mexico border region.

    PubMed

    Osborn, Michael F; Miller, Charles C; Badr, Ahmed; Zhang, Jun

    2014-07-01

    The Hispanic population carries a disproportionate burden of stroke compared with the non-Hispanic White population. Most studies have been conducted on Caribbean Hispanics, indicating a need to better understand the characteristics of stroke and its prevalence among the Hispanic populations of Mexican descent. In this report, data were collected in the El Paso/US-Mexico border region, where 82% of the population is Mexican Hispanic, through a retrospective study of ischemic stroke from 2005-2010. Odds ratios (ORs), 95% confidence intervals, logistic regression, and multivariate analysis of the ORs adjusted for other variables, were used to analyze the effects of various risk factors on ischemic stroke. The metabolic syndrome and its components, specifically hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia appeared to be strongly associated with ischemic stroke in the Mexican Hispanic population. Mexican Hispanic ischemic stroke patients were nearly 7 times more likely to have this syndrome, compared with Mexican Hispanic controls from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Likewise, the patients were nearly 40 times more likely to have hypertension and 11 times more likely to have diabetes. Efforts to prevent ischemic stroke and limit its impact in the Mexican Hispanic population should focus on controlling hypertension and diabetes.

  7. Comparison of three different primer sets for sexing birds.

    PubMed

    Çakmak, Emel; Akın Pekşen, Çiğdem; Bilgin, C Can

    2017-01-01

    Because many bird species are monomorphic or only sexually dimorphic in adult stages, it is difficult to determine their sexes, which may cause significant problems in population and conservation studies. DNA-based sexing relies on the chromodomain helicase DNA binding ( CHD) gene located on the W chromosome and its homolog on the Z chromosome, giving distinct banding patterns on agarose gel as a result of length differences in intronic regions within this gene. We used 3 specific primer sets, CHD1F/CHD1R, 2550F/2718R, and P2/P8, for sex determination of 230 samples from 77 avian species. We report here the records for 70 of those species analyzed using the CHD1F/CHD1R primer set, and 49 species using 2550F/2718R, and 46 species using P2/P8. CHD1F/CHD1R PCR products on agarose gel generally showed an apparent single band in males and 2 bands in females, but the products of 2550F/2718R (61%) and P2/P8 (42%) showed distinct banding patterns for separate bird orders. However, when PCR products of these last 2 primer pairs labeled with fluorescent dye were run in a capillary gel and detected using a DNA analyzer, P2/P8 gave 2 distinguishable peaks in females, whereas 2550F/2718R results remained the same. DNA sexing with any of those 3 primer sets can be used for all sexually monomorphic avian taxa although the primer sets should be compared before choosing the most efficient one for molecular sexing of the studied species.

  8. Criticality calculations with MCNP{trademark}: A primer

    SciTech Connect

    Harmon, C.D. II; Busch, R.D.; Briesmeister, J.F.; Forster, R.A.

    1994-06-06

    With the closure of many experimental facilities, the nuclear criticality safety analyst increasingly is required to rely on computer calculations to identify safe limits for the handling and storage of fissile materials. However, in many cases, the analyst has little experience with the specific codes available at his/her facility. This primer will help you, the analyst, understand and use the MCNP Monte Carlo code for nuclear criticality safety analyses. It assumes that you have a college education in a technical field. There is no assumption of familiarity with Monte Carlo codes in general or with MCNP in particular. Appendix A gives an introduction to Monte Carlo techniques. The primer is designed to teach by example, with each example illustrating two or three features of MCNP that are useful in criticality analyses. Beginning with a Quickstart chapter, the primer gives an overview of the basic requirements for MCNP input and allows you to run a simple criticality problem with MCNP. This chapter is not designed to explain either the input or the MCNP options in detail; but rather it introduces basic concepts that are further explained in following chapters. Each chapter begins with a list of basic objectives that identify the goal of the chapter, and a list of the individual MCNP features that are covered in detail in the unique chapter example problems. It is expected that on completion of the primer you will be comfortable using MCNP in criticality calculations and will be capable of handling 80 to 90 percent of the situations that normally arise in a facility. The primer provides a set of basic input files that you can selectively modify to fit the particular problem at hand.

  9. SeqState: primer design and sequence statistics for phylogenetic DNA datasets.

    PubMed

    Müller, Kai

    2005-01-01

    Choosing and designing primers based on available DNA sequence data and statistical contrasting of domains or structural features is a common routine among molecular biologists. Currently available, free software tools were found to lack desirable features related to these tasks. This was the motivation for developing a new program, SeqState. SeqState locates regions that remain to be sequenced in phylogenetic DNA datasets, evaluates user-provided primers and selects primers best suited to fill gaps in the sequences. If the primers provided by the user are unsuitable, new primers are designed. Primers can be loaded from a primer database, be supplied as part of the alignment or be entered manually. The position of internal primers is automatically localised in the loaded data file. Primers can be edited, and changes and new primers can be saved to the database. Primer sheets allow the user to view internal dimers, complements to a second primer, mismatches to all loaded sequences, and other primer characteristics. Calculation of various sequence statistics can be requested for the whole dataset or parts thereof (character sets), with standard errors estimated by bootstrapping. Insertion-deletion events can be evaluated statistically and encoded for subsequent phylogenetic analysis according to several published coding principles.

  10. primers4clades: a web server that uses phylogenetic trees to design lineage-specific PCR primers for metagenomic and diversity studies.

    PubMed

    Contreras-Moreira, Bruno; Sachman-Ruiz, Bernardo; Figueroa-Palacios, Iraís; Vinuesa, Pablo

    2009-07-01

    Primers4clades is an easy-to-use web server that implements a fully automatic PCR primer design pipeline for cross-species amplification of novel sequences from metagenomic DNA, or from uncharacterized organisms, belonging to user-specified phylogenetic clades or taxa. The server takes a set of non-aligned protein coding genes, with or without introns, aligns them and computes a neighbor-joining tree, which is displayed on screen for easy selection of species or sequence clusters to design lineage-specific PCR primers. Primers4clades implements an extended CODEHOP primer design strategy based on both DNA and protein multiple sequence alignments. It evaluates several thermodynamic properties of the oligonucleotide pairs, and computes the phylogenetic information content of the predicted amplicon sets from Shimodaira-Hasegawa-like branch support values of maximum likelihood phylogenies. A non-redundant set of primer formulations is returned, ranked according to their thermodynamic properties. An amplicon distribution map provides a convenient overview of the coverage of the target locus. Altogether these features greatly help the user in making an informed choice between alternative primer pair formulations. Primers4clades is available at two mirror sites: http://maya.ccg.unam.mx/primers4clades/and http://floresta.eead.csic.es/primers4clades/. Three demo data sets and a comprehensive documentation/tutorial page are provided for easy testing of the server's capabilities and interface.

  11. White primer permits a corrosion-resistant coating of minimum weight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albrecht, R. H.; Jensen, D. P.; Schnake, P.

    1966-01-01

    White primer for coating 2219 aluminum alloy supplies a base for a top coating of enamel. A formulation of pigments and vehicle results in a primer with high corrosion resistance and minimum film thickness.

  12. Generation of polymerase chain reaction-specific probes for library screening using single degenerate primers.

    PubMed

    Hommes, N G; Arp, D J; Sayavedra-Soto, L A

    1995-03-01

    Degenerate oligonucleotide primers were made to peptide sequences from hydroxylamine oxidoreductase (HAO) from Nitrosomonas europaea. The primers were used singly in PCR reactions to amplify portions of the gene for HAO from genomic DNA. Southern hybridizations using fragments amplified with each primer showed that they labeled the same genomic DNA fragments. The PCR-amplified fragments were successfully used to screen a gene library for clones containing the HAO gene. The method of isolating genes by PCR with single primers has general utility.

  13. Stability of the high-temperature G-16 primer composition

    SciTech Connect

    Durand, N.A.; Weinmaster, R.R.; Massis, T.A.; Fleming, W.

    1988-01-01

    The stability of the G-16 pyrotechnic primer mixture of antimony sulfide, calcium silicide, and potassium chlorate was studied at temperatures up to 200/sup 0/C in sealed and open environments. Data have shown that this mixture is stable in open environments at 200/sup 0/C for up to 48 hours. However, in sealed, limited volume environments, the mixture completely decomposes within 24 hours at 200/sup 0/C. In sealed environments, the mixture shows stability with copper present. Both functional testing and chemical analysis were used to evaluate the primer composition after temperature exposure. The degree of degradation of the mixture was determined from the concentration of final reaction products (sulfate and chloride ions), using ion chromatography. When copper was present, the intermediate reaction products were scavenged by the copper, and the degradation was reduced. The role of copper in the reaction was verified with differential scanning calorimetry and surface analysis. 3 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Microsatellite primer development for post oak, Quercus stellata (Fagaceae).

    PubMed

    Chatwin, Warren B; Carpenter, Kyrie K; Jimenez, Felix R; Elzinga, Dave B; Johnson, Leigh A; Maughan, Peter J

    2014-10-01

    The American Cross Timbers forest ecosystem runs from southeastern Kansas to Central Texas and is primarily composed of post oak (Quercus stellata). This old-growth forest currently occupies only about 2% of its ancestral range. To facilitate genetic research on this species, we developed microsatellite primers specific to post oak from reduced genomic libraries. • Two Q. stellata individuals, sampled from the northern and southern range of the post oak forest, were subject to genomic reduction and 454 pyrosequencing. Bioinformatic analysis identified putative microsatellites from which 12 polymorphic primer sets were screened on three populations. The number of alleles observed ranged from five to 20 across all populations, while observed and expected heterozygosity values ranged from 0.05 to 0.833 and 0.236 to 0.893, respectively, within individual populations. • We report the development of microsatellite markers, specific to post oak, to aid the study of genetic diversity and population structure of extant forest remnants.

  15. Microsatellite primers for the rare shrub Acacia adinophylla (Fabaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Nevill, Paul G.; Wardell-Johnson, Grant

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Microsatellite primers were developed for the rare shrub Acacia adinophylla (Fabaceae) to assess genetic diversity and its spatial structuring. Methods and Results: Shotgun sequencing on an Illumina MiSeq produced 6,372,575 reads. Using the QDD pipeline, we designed 60 primer pairs, which were screened using PCR. Seventeen loci were developed, of which 12 loci were identified that were polymorphic, amplified reliably, and could be consistently scored. These loci were then screened for variation in individuals from three populations. The number of alleles observed for these 12 loci ranged from three to 18 and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.13 to 0.85. Conclusions: These markers will enable the quantification of genetic impact of proposed mining activities on the short-range endemic Acacia adinophylla. PMID:27843728

  16. Guidelines - A Primer for Communicating Effectively with NABIR Stakeholders

    SciTech Connect

    A Harding; B Metting; C Word; G Bilyard; G Hund; J Amaya; J Weber; S Gajewski; S Underriner; T Peterson

    1998-12-10

    This primer is a tool to help prepare scientists for meetings with stakeholders. It was prepared for staff involved with the Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research (NABIR) program, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy. It discusses why some efforts in science communication may succeed while others fail, provides methods of approaching group interactions about science that may better orient expert participants, and summarizes experience drawn from observations of @oups interacting about topics in bioremediation or the NABIR program. The primer also provides briez usefid models for interacting with either expert or non-expert groups. Finally, it identifies topical areas that may help scientists prepare for public meetings, based on the developers' ongoing research in science communication in public forums.

  17. Recombination of polynucleotide sequences using random or defined primers

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Frances H.; Shao, Zhixin; Affholter, Joseph A.; Zhao, Huimin; Giver, Lorraine J.

    2001-01-01

    A method for in vitro mutagenesis and recombination of polynucleotide sequences based on polymerase-catalyzed extension of primer oligonucleotides is disclosed. The method involves priming template polynucleotide(s) with random-sequences or defined-sequence primers to generate a pool of short DNA fragments with a low level of point mutations. The DNA fragments are subjected to denaturization followed by annealing and further enzyme-catalyzed DNA polymerization. This procedure is repeated a sufficient number of times to produce full-length genes which comprise mutants of the original template polynucleotides. These genes can be further amplified by the polymerase chain reaction and cloned into a vector for expression of the encoded proteins.

  18. Recombination of polynucleotide sequences using random or defined primers

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Frances H.; Shao, Zhixin; Affholter, Joseph A.; Zhao, Huimin H; Giver, Lorraine J.

    2000-01-01

    A method for in vitro mutagenesis and recombination of polynucleotide sequences based on polymerase-catalyzed extension of primer oligonucleotides is disclosed. The method involves priming template polynucleotide(s) with random-sequences or defined-sequence primers to generate a pool of short DNA fragments with a low level of point mutations. The DNA fragments are subjected to denaturization followed by annealing and further enzyme-catalyzed DNA polymerization. This procedure is repeated a sufficient number of times to produce full-length genes which comprise mutants of the original template polynucleotides. These genes can be further amplified by the polymerase chain reaction and cloned into a vector for expression of the encoded proteins.

  19. Primer and interviews: molecular mechanisms of morphological evolution.

    PubMed

    Kiefer, Julie C

    2010-12-01

    The beauty of the developing embryo, and the awe that it inspires, lure many scientists into the field of developmental biology. What compels cells to divide, migrate, and morph into a being with a complex body plan? Evolutionary developmental biologists hold similar fascinations, with dynamics that take place on a grander timescale. How do phenotypic traits diverge over evolutionary time? This primer illustrates how a deep understanding of the basic principles that underlie developmental biology have changed how scientists think about the evolution of body form. The primer culminates in a conversation with David Stern, PhD, and Michael Shapiro, PhD, who discuss current topics in morphological evolution, why the field should be of interest to classic developmental biologists, and what lies ahead.

  20. Guidelines - A Primer for Communicating Effectively with NABIR Stakeholders

    SciTech Connect

    Bilyard, G.R.; Word, C.J.; Weber, J.R.; Harding, A.K.

    2000-09-27

    This primer is a tool to help prepare scientists for meetings with stakeholders. It was prepared for staff involved with the Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research (NABIR) program, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy. It discusses why some efforts in science communication may succeed while others fail, provides methods of approaching group interactions about science that may better orient expert participants, and summarizes experience drawn from observations of groups interacting about topics in bioremediation or the NABIR program. The primer also provides brief, useful models for interacting with either expert or non-expert groups. Finally, it identifies topical areas that may help scientists prepare for public meetings, based on the developers' ongoing research in science communication in public forums.