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Sample records for primula obconica hance

  1. Primula latifolia Lapeyr. and Primula vulgaris Hudson flavonoids.

    PubMed

    Colombo, Paola S; Flamini, Guido; Fico, Gelsomina

    2014-01-01

    Three flavonoids were isolated from the leaf MeOH extracts of Primula latifolia Lapeyr. and Primula vulgaris Hudson collected from Italian Alps: rutin (1) and kaempferol 3-neohesperidoside (2) from P. latifolia, and kaempferol 3-β-O-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 2) gentiobioside (3) from P. vulgaris. The structures were assigned on the basis of their (1)H and (13)C NMR data, including those derived from 2D NMR, as well as on HPLC-MS results. This article is the first to report on P. vulgaris tissue flavonoids after Harborne's study in 1968 and the first work ever on these compounds from P. latifolia.

  2. Orphan flavonoids and dihydrochalcones from Primula exudates.

    PubMed

    Bhutia, Tshering Doma; Valant-Vetschera, Karin M; Brecker, Lothar

    2013-08-01

    Two orphan flavonoids containing an oxepin structure in ring A and named as Primcortusin (1) and 3'-OH-Primcortusin (2) were isolated from leaf exudates of Primula cortusoides, while P. glutinosa exudates yielded two dihydrochalcone derivatives (3,4). These novel structures have not been detected in other species of Primula so far. Chemical structures were elucidated by 2D NMR and mas spectrometry. The nature of compounds 1 and 2 is discussed, and ideas about their possible origin and that of unsubstituted flavone and other irregular substituted Primula flavones are presented.

  3. Production of interspecific hybrid plants in Primula.

    PubMed

    Kato, Juntaro; Mii, Masahiro

    2006-01-01

    The methods of production of inter-specific hybrids in Primula are categorized into four steps: (1) emasculation, (2) pollination, (3) rescue culture of immature embryo, and (4) confiration of hybridity and ploidy level of the regenerated plants. Although most of the Primula pecies have a heteromorphic self-incompatibility system, an emasculation step is usually needed to avoid self-pollination since self-incompatibility is not always complete. At the resue culture step, addition of plant hormones (e.g., auxin, cytokinin, and gibberellin) to the culture medium is proved to be effective. The hybridity of the plants is efficiently confirmed at seedling stage by DNA analysis in addition to the comparison of morphological characters. The analysis of relative DNA contents by flow cytometry is easy and rapid technique to confirm hybridity and to estimate ploidy level and genomic combination.

  4. On the origins of observations of heterostyly in Primula.

    PubMed

    Gilmartin, Philip M

    2015-10-01

    In 1862, Charles Darwin published his landmark study on the different forms of flower in Primula; he coined the term distyly and subsequently expanded his studies to other species, including those with tristyly. Darwin is widely recognized as the first to study pin and thrum flowers in Primula, and to provide an explanation for the functional significance of the two floral morphs. Our laboratory is pursuing the genes that underpin floral heteromorphy in Primula, work influenced by Darwin's observations. One day, while appreciating a print of Primula vulgaris from William Curtis' Flora Londinensis, I was struck by the fact that I was looking at images of dimorphic Primula flowers captured in a late-1700s copper-plate engraving that predated Darwin's observations by over 70 yr. This realization triggered a journey into archives of botanical texts, herbals and florilegia from the 16(th) to 19(th) Centuries, and correspondence archives, in search of earlier documents that could have influenced Darwin and the origins of an idea. Darwin was not the first to observe floral heteromorphy in Primula, but he was the first to realize the significance of the two floral morphs. Darwin's insight and exposition of purpose have underpinned all consequent work on the subject.

  5. Phylogenetic analysis of Primula section Primula reveals rampant non-monophyly among morphologically distinct species.

    PubMed

    Schmidt-Lebuhn, Alexander N; de Vos, Jurriaan M; Keller, Barbara; Conti, Elena

    2012-10-01

    The type section of Primula (Primulaceae), here considered to include seven species, is phylogenetically quite isolated in its genus. Although its species are popular ornamentals, traditional medicinal plants and model organisms for the study of heterostyly, the section has not yet been studied from a phylogenetic or evolutionary perspective. Using phylogenetic analysis of nuclear ITS and plastid data from all species and subspecies, we find that widespread Primula elatior is genetically heterogeneous and non-monophyletic to most if not all of the other ingroup taxa. The Genealogical Sorting Index (GSI) indicates that the assumption of all currently accepted species being independent lineages is consistent with the data. It is possible that P. elatior in its current circumscription may represents the disjointed remnant of an ancestral species from which the other recognized species diverged. However, based on available data, the alternative possibility of introgression explaining the non-monophyly of this species cannot be excluded. Species trees show P. elatior and P. veris as sister species. Primula vulgaris and P. juliae are closely related, while, in contrast to previous assumptions, P. renifolia does not appear to be a close relative of P. megaseifolia. With the section's isolation from the rest of the genus and very short internal branches, our dataset also presents a case study of the confounding effects of different branch length priors on the Bayesian estimation of resulting branch length estimates. Experimental runs using different priors confirm the problem of resulting estimates varying by orders of magnitude, while topology and relative branch lengths seem unaffected.

  6. Striking Diversification of Exudate Profiles in Selected Primula Lineages.

    PubMed

    Elser, David; Gilli, Christian; Brecker, Lothar; Valant-Vetschera, Karin M

    2016-05-01

    In continuation of previous studies on glandular exudates of Primula, we analyzed eleven so far unstudied species and several populations for exudate composition. Unsubstituted flavone and unusually substituted flavones, normally predominant in Primula exudates, were not detected in all of the analyzed samples. Instead, some species exhibited regular substituted flavonoids, and in some cases, no flavonoids could be detected at all. The detection of a diterpene (1) in P. minima exudates is new to Primula. On basis of MS and NMR, 1 was structurally characterized as ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid. Comparative profiling of exudates as performed by HPLC and TLC against authentic markers indicated further the presence of the benzoquinone primin and derivatives in some exudates. Thus, exudates of newly studied species contrast markedly with those analyzed so far. The significance of observed exudate diversification is discussed in view of the phylogeny of derived lineages in European alpine regions. PMID:27319123

  7. Striking Diversification of Exudate Profiles in Selected Primula Lineages.

    PubMed

    Elser, David; Gilli, Christian; Brecker, Lothar; Valant-Vetschera, Karin M

    2016-05-01

    In continuation of previous studies on glandular exudates of Primula, we analyzed eleven so far unstudied species and several populations for exudate composition. Unsubstituted flavone and unusually substituted flavones, normally predominant in Primula exudates, were not detected in all of the analyzed samples. Instead, some species exhibited regular substituted flavonoids, and in some cases, no flavonoids could be detected at all. The detection of a diterpene (1) in P. minima exudates is new to Primula. On basis of MS and NMR, 1 was structurally characterized as ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid. Comparative profiling of exudates as performed by HPLC and TLC against authentic markers indicated further the presence of the benzoquinone primin and derivatives in some exudates. Thus, exudates of newly studied species contrast markedly with those analyzed so far. The significance of observed exudate diversification is discussed in view of the phylogeny of derived lineages in European alpine regions.

  8. Diversification of exudate flavonoid profiles in further Primula spp.

    PubMed

    Bhutia, Tshering Doma; Valant-Vetschera, Karin M

    2012-05-01

    In continuation of previous work, exudate flavonoid profiles of 22 new accessions of the genus Primula L. aligned to different subgenera were studied for the first time. Profiling was done by comparative TLC and UV-HPLC against authentic marker compounds. Most of the studied species accumulated the typical Primula flavonoids, comprising derivatives of unsubstituted flavone, of 5,8- or 5,6-hydroxyflavones including partly highly oxygenated flavones, together with 2,2'-diOH-chalcone in their exudate. The profile of P. edelbergii belonging to subgen. Sphondylia differed largely from the majority of Primula species studied so far, showing accumulation tendencies similar to those observed earlier for the closely related genus Dionysia. The phylogenetic significance of this diversification is shortly addressed.

  9. Farinose alpine Primula species: phytochemical and morphological investigations.

    PubMed

    Colombo, Paola S; Flamini, Guido; Christodoulou, Michael S; Rodondi, Graziella; Vitalini, Sara; Passarella, Daniele; Fico, Gelsomina

    2014-02-01

    This work investigated the epicuticular and tissue flavonoids, the volatiles and the glandular trichome structure of the leaves of four species of Primula L. that grow in the Italian Eastern Alps. Primula albenensis Banfi and Ferlinghetti, P. auricula L., P. farinosa L., P. halleri Gmelin produce farinose exudates that are deposited on the leaf surface as filamentous crystalloids. In addition to compounds already known, a new flavone, the 3,5-dihydroxyflavone, was isolated from the acetone extract of leaf farinas and three new flavonol glycosides, 3'-O-(β-galactopyranosyl)-2'-hydroxyflavone, isorhamnetin 3-O-α-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-[α-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6)]-O-β-galactopyranoside, quercetin 3-O-α-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-[α-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6)]-O-β-galactopyranoside, were isolated from the MeOH extract of the leaves. All the structures were elucidated on the basis of their (1)H and (13)C NMR data and 2D NMR techniques, as well as on HPLC-MS. The leaf-volatiles emitted by these Primula species were mainly sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, with the exception of P. albenensis, which produced almost exclusively a non-terpene derivative; P. halleri flowers were also examined and the volatiles emitted by the flower parts (corolla and calyx) were compared with the corresponding leaves.

  10. Flavonoids in selected Primula spp.: bridging micromorphology with chemodiversity.

    PubMed

    Bhutia, Tshering Doma; Valant-Vetschera, Karin M; Adlassnig, Wolfram; Brecker, Lothar

    2012-11-01

    A combined study was carried out on the micromorphology and chemistry of glandular trichomes with focus on Primula vialii and P. vulgaris, respectively. Epifluorescence microscopy was applied to study the auto-fluorescent properties of flavonoids and their localization in glandular trichomes. Both species differed in the morphology of the glandular trichomes and in the exudate flavonoid composition. Leaf glands from P. vialii and from some species of subgen. Primula exhibited uniform glandular fluorescence, but notable differentiation was observed within a single leaf of P. vulgaris. Our observations indicate that exudate flavonoids are not transported from the tissue to the glandular hairs. Conversely, only the newly isolated glycoside 1 (kaempferol 3-O-(2"'-rhamnosyl)-robinobioside) was obtained from leaf tissue of P. vialii after removal of the exudate. Its structure was confirmed by NMR and mass spectrometry. This glycoside was not detected in tissue extracts of P. vulgaris after similar treatment. The observed chemical diversity is discussed, with focus on possible correlation with glandular structures and tissue differentiation in Primula, and also against other studied species. Aspects of biosynthesis in relation to tissue-specific flavonoid diversification are shortly addressed.

  11. Phytochemicals and potential health effects of Sambucus williamsii Hance (Jiegumu).

    PubMed

    Xiao, Hui-Hui; Zhang, Yan; Cooper, Raymond; Yao, Xin-Sheng; Wong, Man-Sau

    2016-01-01

    Sambucus williamsii Hance (Jiegumu) is traditionally used in Chinese medicine to treat bone and joint diseases. The major phytochemicals in S. williamsii are lignans, terpenoids, and phenolic acids, together with trace amounts of essential oils, minerals, amino acids, and natural pigments. In this review, a database search for studies published from 1990 to November 2015 was conducted using PubMed, the China Academic Journals Full-Text Database, and Google Scholar with the keywords "Sambucus williamsii Hance", "Sambucus williamsii", "Sambucus williamsii + clinic", "Sambucus williamsii + biology", "Sambucus williamsii + chemicals", and "Jiegumu", which covered chemical studies, cell culture studies, animal experiments, and clinical studies. This article reviewed the compounds isolated from S. williamsii that may reduce the risk of cancer, and exert antifungal, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, bone fracture healing, and antiosteoporotic effects. PMID:27478495

  12. Phytochemicals and potential health effects of Sambucus williamsii Hance (Jiegumu).

    PubMed

    Xiao, Hui-Hui; Zhang, Yan; Cooper, Raymond; Yao, Xin-Sheng; Wong, Man-Sau

    2016-01-01

    Sambucus williamsii Hance (Jiegumu) is traditionally used in Chinese medicine to treat bone and joint diseases. The major phytochemicals in S. williamsii are lignans, terpenoids, and phenolic acids, together with trace amounts of essential oils, minerals, amino acids, and natural pigments. In this review, a database search for studies published from 1990 to November 2015 was conducted using PubMed, the China Academic Journals Full-Text Database, and Google Scholar with the keywords "Sambucus williamsii Hance", "Sambucus williamsii", "Sambucus williamsii + clinic", "Sambucus williamsii + biology", "Sambucus williamsii + chemicals", and "Jiegumu", which covered chemical studies, cell culture studies, animal experiments, and clinical studies. This article reviewed the compounds isolated from S. williamsii that may reduce the risk of cancer, and exert antifungal, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, bone fracture healing, and antiosteoporotic effects.

  13. Molecular characterization of DNA sequences from the Primula vulgaris S-locus.

    PubMed

    Manfield, Iain W; Pavlov, Vassily K; Li, Jinhong; Cook, Holly E; Hummel, Florian; Gilmartin, Philip M

    2005-04-01

    Primula species provide possibly the best known examples of heteromorphic flower development and this breeding system has attracted considerable attention, including that of Charles Darwin. However, despite considerable recent advances in molecular genetics, nothing is known about the molecular basis of floral heteromorphy. The first molecular marker for the Primula S-locus is reported here. This DNA sequence was identified by random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR, further defined as a sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker, and subsequently shown to correspond to a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) that is linked to the thrum allele of the Primula S-locus. The sequence of 8.8 kb of genomic DNA encompassing this thrum-specific RFLP is presented. Analysis of this DNA reveals a highly repetitive sequence structure similar to that found at the S-locus in other species; it also contains sequences similar to elements of a Gypsy-like retrotransposon. The identification of a specific DNA sequence associated with the thrum allele of the Primula S-locus provides the first molecular probe with which to investigate the molecular basis of heteromorphic flower development in Primula.

  14. Sequence capture using RAD probes clarifies phylogenetic relationships and species boundaries in Primula sect. Auricula.

    PubMed

    Boucher, F C; Casazza, G; Szövényi, P; Conti, E

    2016-11-01

    Species-rich evolutionary radiations are a common feature of mountain floras worldwide. However, the frequent lack of phylogenetic resolution in species-rich alpine plant groups hampers progress towards clarifying the causes of diversification in mountains. In this study, we use the largest plant group endemic to the European Alpine system, Primula sect. Auricula, as a model system. We employ a newly developed next-generation-sequencing protocol, involving sequence capture with RAD probes, and map reads to the reference genome of Primula veris to obtain DNA matrices with thousands of SNPs. We use these data-rich matrices to infer phylogenetic relationships in Primula sect. Auricula and examine species delimitations in two taxonomically difficult subgroups: the clades formed by the close relatives of P. auricula and P. pedemontana, respectively. Our molecular dataset enables us to resolve most phylogenetic relationships in the group with strong support, and in particular to infer four well-supported clades within sect. Auricula. Our results support existing species delimitations for P. auricula, P. lutea, and P. subpyrenaica, while they suggest that the group formed by P. pedemontana and close relatives might need taxonomic revision. Finally, we discuss preliminary implications of these findings on the biogeographic history of Primula sect. Auricula.

  15. Primula spectabilis Tratt. aerial parts: morphology, volatile compounds and flavonoids.

    PubMed

    Vitalini, Sara; Flamini, Guido; Valaguzza, Aurora; Rodondi, Graziella; Iriti, Marcello; Fico, Gelsomina

    2011-08-01

    The vacuolar and epicuticular flavonoids and the volatiles of the leaves and parts of flower of P. spectabilis Tratt., an endemic species in the Italian Oriental Alps, were investigated. From a MeOH extract of the leaves two flavone glycosides, 8-C-β-glucopyranosylluteolin 7-O-α-arabinofuranoside (1) and 6-C-α-arabinofuranosylapigenin (2) were isolated, in addition to a flavone and three flavonols already known from species of Primula. From an EtOH extract of leaf exudates, 7,3',4'-tri-O-methylquercetin was obtained. The structures were elucidated on the basis of their 1D ¹H- and ¹³C NMR data and 2D NMR techniques, as well as of HPLC-MS. The volatiles emitted by the leaves were mainly constituted by non-terpene derivatives, followed by comparable proportions of hemiterpens, oxygenated monoterpenes and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. In flowers, monoterpene hydrocarbons were the most represented chemical class followed by non-terpene derivatives. Different proportions of compounds were found when individual parts of flowers were examined separately; calyx produced a greater proportion (approx. 49.5%) of non-terpenes as its volatile metabolites. P. spectabilis has glandular trichomes in the hyaline margins of the epidermal depressions, distributed on the adaxial leaf blade. Glandular hairs were also present on the corolla. Correlations of phytochemical data with the morphological features of leaf, flower and glandular hair are discussed, and a hypothesis is proposed on the ecological roles of the flavonoids and volatile compounds on the general fitness of the species and cross-pollination strategies.

  16. DNA barcoding evaluation and its taxonomic implications in the species-rich genus Primula L. in China.

    PubMed

    Yan, Hai-Fei; Liu, Yun-Jiao; Xie, Xiu-Feng; Zhang, Cai-Yun; Hu, Chi-Ming; Hao, Gang; Ge, Xue-Jun

    2015-01-01

    The genus Primula is extremely diverse in the east Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains (HHM) in China as a result of rapid radiation. In order to overcome the difficulty of morphological classification of this genus, we surveyed three plastid regions (rbcL, matK, and trnH-psbA) and two nuclear markers (ITS and ITS2) from 227 accessions representing 66 Primula species across 18 sections, to assess their discriminatory power as barcodes. We found that ITS alone or combined with plastid regions showed the best discrimination across different infrageneric ranks and at species level. We suggest rbcL + matK + ITS as the first choice at present to barcode Primula plants. Although the present barcoding combination performed poorly in many closely related species of Primula, it still provided many new insights into current Primula taxonomy, such as the underlying presence of cryptic species, and several potential improper taxonomic treatments. DNA barcoding is one useful technique in the integrative taxonomy of the genus Primula, but it still requires further efforts to improve its effectiveness in some taxonomically challenging groups.

  17. DNA Barcoding Evaluation and Its Taxonomic Implications in the Species-Rich Genus Primula L. in China

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Hai-Fei; Liu, Yun-Jiao; Xie, Xiu-Feng; Zhang, Cai-Yun; Hu, Chi-Ming; Hao, Gang; Ge, Xue-Jun

    2015-01-01

    The genus Primula is extremely diverse in the east Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains (HHM) in China as a result of rapid radiation. In order to overcome the difficulty of morphological classification of this genus, we surveyed three plastid regions (rbcL, matK, and trnH-psbA) and two nuclear markers (ITS and ITS2) from 227 accessions representing 66 Primula species across 18 sections, to assess their discriminatory power as barcodes. We found that ITS alone or combined with plastid regions showed the best discrimination across different infrageneric ranks and at species level. We suggest rbcL + matK + ITS as the first choice at present to barcode Primula plants. Although the present barcoding combination performed poorly in many closely related species of Primula, it still provided many new insights into current Primula taxonomy, such as the underlying presence of cryptic species, and several potential improper taxonomic treatments. DNA barcoding is one useful technique in the integrative taxonomy of the genus Primula, but it still requires further efforts to improve its effectiveness in some taxonomically challenging groups. PMID:25875620

  18. DNA barcoding evaluation and its taxonomic implications in the species-rich genus Primula L. in China.

    PubMed

    Yan, Hai-Fei; Liu, Yun-Jiao; Xie, Xiu-Feng; Zhang, Cai-Yun; Hu, Chi-Ming; Hao, Gang; Ge, Xue-Jun

    2015-01-01

    The genus Primula is extremely diverse in the east Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains (HHM) in China as a result of rapid radiation. In order to overcome the difficulty of morphological classification of this genus, we surveyed three plastid regions (rbcL, matK, and trnH-psbA) and two nuclear markers (ITS and ITS2) from 227 accessions representing 66 Primula species across 18 sections, to assess their discriminatory power as barcodes. We found that ITS alone or combined with plastid regions showed the best discrimination across different infrageneric ranks and at species level. We suggest rbcL + matK + ITS as the first choice at present to barcode Primula plants. Although the present barcoding combination performed poorly in many closely related species of Primula, it still provided many new insights into current Primula taxonomy, such as the underlying presence of cryptic species, and several potential improper taxonomic treatments. DNA barcoding is one useful technique in the integrative taxonomy of the genus Primula, but it still requires further efforts to improve its effectiveness in some taxonomically challenging groups. PMID:25875620

  19. Two new diterpenes from the seeds of Caesalpinia minax Hance.

    PubMed

    Lian, Lian; Li, Xiao-Bin; Yuan, Jiu-Zhi; Cheng, Li; Wu, Zhao-Hua; Gao, Hui-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Molecules with diterpene skeletons often possess valuable medicinal properties. Two new diterpenes 1α,6α,7β-triacetoxy-5α-hydroxy-14β-ethyl-O-vouacapane (1) and 2α-acetoxy-14,15-cyclopimara-7β,16-diol (2) were isolated from the seeds of Caesalpinia minax Hance. Their structures were established on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses, including HR-ESI-MS, UV, IR, 1D, and 2D NMR (HSQC, HMBC, NOESY) methods. The stereochemical structure of 1 was confirmed via the circular dichroism spectrum and calculated ECD experiment. The inhibitory activity of nitric oxide production of RAW264.7 macrophages stimulated by lipopolysaccharide of compounds 1 and 2 was evaluated, and compound 1 was found to show significant inhibitory effect.

  20. New cytotoxic diarylheptanoids from the rhizomes of Alpinia officinarum Hance.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dan; Liu, Yan-Wen; Guan, Fu-Qin; Liang, Jing-Yu

    2014-07-01

    Two new dimeric diarylheptanoids, named Alpinin C (1) and D (2), a new natural product of diarylheptanoid (3) along with three known diarylheptanoids (4-6) were isolated from the rhizomes of Alpinia officinarum Hance. Their structures were elucidated based on extensive spectroscopic analyses (1D and 2D NMR, HRTOFMS, IR). The isolated compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxicity against human tumor cell lines HepG2, MCF-7, T98G and B16-F10. Compound 1 showed selective cytotoxicity against cell lines of MCF-7 and T98G, while compound 6 showed significant cytotoxicity to the all tested tumor cell lines with IC50 in the range from 8.46 to 22.68 μmol/L.

  1. Characterization of polymorphic microsatellite markers for Primula sikkimensis (Primulaceae) using a 454 sequencing approach1

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chang-Han; Liu, Yun-Jiao; Zhang, Cai-Yun; Yan, Hai-Fei; Ge, Xue-Jun; Hao, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Microsatellite markers from Primula sikkimensis (Primulaceae) were developed for testing deep lineage divergence and speciation events. Methods and Results: A total of 3112 microsatellites were identified from 61,755 unique reads though 454 pyrosequencing technology. Twenty-nine microsatellite loci were selected for PCR amplification and polymorphic analyses. Among the 29 tested markers, 17 microsatellite loci were further used for genotyping in three wild P. sikkimensis populations. The number of alleles varied from one to eight, and the observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.111 to 1.000. Ten simple sequence repeat loci could be successfully cross-amplified in two Primula species. The transferability values were 76.5% in P. florindae and 58.8% in P. alpicola, respectively. Conclusions: These microsatellite markers will be valuable for testing the hypothesis of lineage divergence, genetic introgression, and cryptic speciation events between P. sikkimensis and its closely related taxa. PMID:27437171

  2. Morphological and Molecular Phylogenetic Data Reveal a New Species of Primula (Primulaceae) from Hunan, China

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xun-Lin; Hu, Chi-Ming; Hao, Gang

    2016-01-01

    A new species of Primulaceae, Primula undulifolia, is described from the hilly area of Hunan province in south-central China. Its morphology and distributional range suggest that it is allied to P. kwangtungensis, both adapted to subtropical climate, having contiguous distribution and similar habitat, growing on shady and moist cliffs. Petioles, scapes and pedicels of them are densely covered with rusty multicellular hairs, but the new species can be easily distinguished by its smaller flowers and narrowly oblong leaves with undulate margins. Molecular phylogenetic analysis based on four DNA markers (ITS, matK, trnL-F and rps16) confirmed the new species as an independent lineage and constitutes a main clade together with P. kwangtungensis, P. kweichouensis, P. wangii and P. hunanensis of Primula sect. Carolinella. PMID:27579832

  3. Morphological and Molecular Phylogenetic Data Reveal a New Species of Primula (Primulaceae) from Hunan, China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yuan; Yu, Xun-Lin; Hu, Chi-Ming; Hao, Gang

    2016-01-01

    A new species of Primulaceae, Primula undulifolia, is described from the hilly area of Hunan province in south-central China. Its morphology and distributional range suggest that it is allied to P. kwangtungensis, both adapted to subtropical climate, having contiguous distribution and similar habitat, growing on shady and moist cliffs. Petioles, scapes and pedicels of them are densely covered with rusty multicellular hairs, but the new species can be easily distinguished by its smaller flowers and narrowly oblong leaves with undulate margins. Molecular phylogenetic analysis based on four DNA markers (ITS, matK, trnL-F and rps16) confirmed the new species as an independent lineage and constitutes a main clade together with P. kwangtungensis, P. kweichouensis, P. wangii and P. hunanensis of Primula sect. Carolinella.

  4. Morphological and Molecular Phylogenetic Data Reveal a New Species of Primula (Primulaceae) from Hunan, China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yuan; Yu, Xun-Lin; Hu, Chi-Ming; Hao, Gang

    2016-01-01

    A new species of Primulaceae, Primula undulifolia, is described from the hilly area of Hunan province in south-central China. Its morphology and distributional range suggest that it is allied to P. kwangtungensis, both adapted to subtropical climate, having contiguous distribution and similar habitat, growing on shady and moist cliffs. Petioles, scapes and pedicels of them are densely covered with rusty multicellular hairs, but the new species can be easily distinguished by its smaller flowers and narrowly oblong leaves with undulate margins. Molecular phylogenetic analysis based on four DNA markers (ITS, matK, trnL-F and rps16) confirmed the new species as an independent lineage and constitutes a main clade together with P. kwangtungensis, P. kweichouensis, P. wangii and P. hunanensis of Primula sect. Carolinella. PMID:27579832

  5. Transcriptomic Analysis of Cadmium Stress Response in the Heavy Metal Hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii Hance

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaoe; Liu, Jian-Xiang

    2013-01-01

    The Sedum alfredii Hance hyperaccumulating ecotype (HE) has the ability to hyperaccumulate cadmium (Cd), as well as zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb) in above-ground tissues. Although many physiological studies have been conducted with these plants, the molecular mechanisms underlying their hyper-tolerance to heavy metals are largely unknown. Here we report on the generation of 9.4 gigabases of adaptor-trimmed raw sequences and the assembly of 57,162 transcript contigs in S. alfredii Hance (HE) shoots by the combination of Roche 454 and Illumina/Solexa deep sequencing technologies. We also have functionally annotated the transcriptome and analyzed the transcriptome changes upon Cd hyperaccumulation in S. alfredii Hance (HE) shoots. There are 110 contigs and 123 contigs that were up-regulated (Fold Change ≧2.0) and down-regulated (Fold Change ≦0.5) by chronic Cd treatment in S. alfredii Hance (HE) at q-value cutoff of 0.005, respectively. Quantitative RT-PCR was employed to compare gene expression patterns between S. alfredii Hance (HE) and non-hyperaccumulating ecotype (NHE). Our results demonstrated that several genes involved in cell wall modification, metal translocation and remobilization were more induced or constitutively expressed at higher levels in HE shoots than that in NHE shoots in response to Cd exposure. Together, our study provides large-scale expressed sequence information and genome-wide transcriptome profiling of Cd responses in S. alfredii Hance (HE) shoots. PMID:23755133

  6. Transcriptomic analysis of cadmium stress response in the heavy metal hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii Hance.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jun; Sun, Ling; Yang, Xiaoe; Liu, Jian-Xiang

    2014-01-01

    The Sedum alfredii Hance hyperaccumulating ecotype (HE) has the ability to hyperaccumulate cadmium (Cd), as well as zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb) in above-ground tissues. Although many physiological studies have been conducted with these plants, the molecular mechanisms underlying their hyper-tolerance to heavy metals are largely unknown. Here we report on the generation of 9.4 gigabases of adaptor-trimmed raw sequences and the assembly of 57,162 transcript contigs in S. alfredii Hance (HE) shoots by the combination of Roche 454 and Illumina/Solexa deep sequencing technologies. We also have functionally annotated the transcriptome and analyzed the transcriptome changes upon Cd hyperaccumulation in S. alfredii Hance (HE) shoots. There are 110 contigs and 123 contigs that were up-regulated (Fold Change ≥ 2.0) and down-regulated (Fold Change Hance (HE) at q-value cutoff of 0.005, respectively. Quantitative RT-PCR was employed to compare gene expression patterns between S. alfredii Hance (HE) and non-hyperaccumulating ecotype (NHE). Our results demonstrated that several genes involved in cell wall modification, metal translocation and remobilization were more induced or constitutively expressed at higher levels in HE shoots than that in NHE shoots in response to Cd exposure. Together, our study provides large-scale expressed sequence information and genome-wide transcriptome profiling of Cd responses in S. alfredii Hance (HE) shoots. PMID:23755133

  7. A comparison of early floral ontogeny in wild-type and floral homeotic mutant phenotypes of Primula.

    PubMed

    Webster, Margaret A; Gilmartin, Philip A M

    2003-04-01

    Primula flowers are heteromorphic with individual plants producing either pin-form or thrum-form flowers. We have used scanning electron microscopy to observe early development of wild-type flowers of primrose (Primula vulgaris), cowslip (P. veris), and the polyanthus hybrid (P. x tommasinii x P. vulgaris). Floral ontogeny in Primula is different from that observed in the well-studied models Antirrhinum majus and Arabidopsis thaliana and our studies reveal morphological landmark events that define the sequence of early floral development in Primula into specific stages. Pin-form and thrum-form flowers are indistinguishable during early development with differentiation of the two floral morphs occurring beyond the differentiation of floral organs. Early ontogeny of flowers with homeotic mutant phenotypes was also studied to determine the timing of developmental reprogramming in these mutants. Phenotypes studied included Hose in Hose and Jack in the Green that develop petaloid sepals and leafy sepals, respectively, and Jackanapes plants that carry both these dominant mutations. Recessive double and semi- double flowers that produce additional whorls of petals and/or stamens in place of carpels were also studied. We describe a previously undocumented recessive Primula mutant phenotype, sepaloid, that produces sepals in place of petals and stamens, and a new non-homeotic, dominant mutant phenotype Split Perianth, in which sepals and petals fail to fuse to form the typical calyx and corolla structures. The molecular basis of these mutant phenotypes in relation to the ABC model is discussed.

  8. Oakleaf: an S locus-linked mutation of Primula vulgaris that affects leaf and flower development.

    PubMed

    Cocker, Jonathan M; Webster, Margaret A; Li, Jinhong; Wright, Jonathan; Kaithakottil, Gemy; Swarbreck, David; Gilmartin, Philip M

    2015-10-01

    In Primula vulgaris outcrossing is promoted through reciprocal herkogamy with insect-mediated cross-pollination between pin and thrum form flowers. Development of heteromorphic flowers is coordinated by genes at the S locus. To underpin construction of a genetic map facilitating isolation of these S locus genes, we have characterised Oakleaf, a novel S locus-linked mutant phenotype. We combine phenotypic observation of flower and leaf development, with classical genetic analysis and next-generation sequencing to address the molecular basis of Oakleaf. Oakleaf is a dominant mutation that affects both leaf and flower development; plants produce distinctive lobed leaves, with occasional ectopic meristems on the veins. This phenotype is reminiscent of overexpression of Class I KNOX-homeodomain transcription factors. We describe the structure and expression of all eight P. vulgaris PvKNOX genes in both wild-type and Oakleaf plants, and present comparative transcriptome analysis of leaves and flowers from Oakleaf and wild-type plants. Oakleaf provides a new phenotypic marker for genetic analysis of the Primula S locus. We show that none of the Class I PvKNOX genes are strongly upregulated in Oakleaf leaves and flowers, and identify cohorts of 507 upregulated and 314 downregulated genes in the Oakleaf mutant.

  9. Farinose flavonoids are associated with high freezing tolerance in fairy primrose (Primula malacoides) plants.

    PubMed

    Isshiki, Ryutaro; Galis, Ivan; Tanakamaru, Shigemi

    2014-02-01

    The deposition of surface (farinose) flavonoids on aerial parts of some Primula species is a well-documented but poorly understood phenomenon. Here, we show that flavonoid deposition on the leaves and winter buds may contribute strongly to preventing freezing damage in these plants. The ice nucleation temperature of fairy primrose (Primula malacoides) leaves covered with natural flavone was approximately 6 °C lower compared to those that had their flavone artificially removed. Additionally, farinose flavonoids on the leaves reduced subsequent electrolyte leakage (EL) from the cells exposed to freezing temperatures. Interestingly, exogenous application of flavone at 4 mg/g fresh weight to P. malacoides leaves, which had the original flavone mechanically removed, restored freezing tolerance, and diminished EL from the cells to pretreatment values. Our results suggest that farinose flavonoids may function as mediators of freezing tolerance in P. malacoides, and exogenous application of flavone could be used to reduce freezing damage during sudden but predictable frost events in other plant species. PMID:24325406

  10. Characterization of Novel Microsatellite Loci for Primula poissonii (Primulaceae) Using High-Throughput Sequencing Technology.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yun-Jiao; Zhang, Cai-Yun; Hao, Gang; Ge, Xue-Jun; Yan, Hai-Fei

    2016-05-09

    Primula poissonii (Primulaceae) is a perennial herb, widely distributed in the Hengduan Mountain region of Southwest China. In this study, Roche 454 pyrosequencing was used to isolate microsatellite markers. A total of 4528 unique sequences were identified from 68,070 unique reads. Of these, eighty-seven microsatellite loci were screened for utility using two criteria: successful PCR amplification and variation of these loci within three wild P. poissonii populations. Twenty loci were successfully amplified and exhibited polymorphic alleles. The number of observed alleles ranged from 1 to 9 with an average of 3.5. The observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.087 to 1.000 and from 0.124 to 0.828, respectively. Among these SSR loci, only the P69 locus could not be cross-amplified successfully in two closely related species P. wilsonii and P. anisodora. The microsatellite loci developed in this study will be useful for studying genetic diversity and speciation events between P. poissonii and closely related Primula species.

  11. Farinose flavonoids are associated with high freezing tolerance in fairy primrose (Primula malacoides) plants.

    PubMed

    Isshiki, Ryutaro; Galis, Ivan; Tanakamaru, Shigemi

    2014-02-01

    The deposition of surface (farinose) flavonoids on aerial parts of some Primula species is a well-documented but poorly understood phenomenon. Here, we show that flavonoid deposition on the leaves and winter buds may contribute strongly to preventing freezing damage in these plants. The ice nucleation temperature of fairy primrose (Primula malacoides) leaves covered with natural flavone was approximately 6 °C lower compared to those that had their flavone artificially removed. Additionally, farinose flavonoids on the leaves reduced subsequent electrolyte leakage (EL) from the cells exposed to freezing temperatures. Interestingly, exogenous application of flavone at 4 mg/g fresh weight to P. malacoides leaves, which had the original flavone mechanically removed, restored freezing tolerance, and diminished EL from the cells to pretreatment values. Our results suggest that farinose flavonoids may function as mediators of freezing tolerance in P. malacoides, and exogenous application of flavone could be used to reduce freezing damage during sudden but predictable frost events in other plant species.

  12. New flavonol glycosides from the leaves and flowers of Primula sieboidii.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Nana; Ohsawa, Ryo; Kitajima, Junichi; Iwashina, Tsukasa

    2015-03-01

    Three flavonol glycosides were isolated from the leaves of Primula sieboldii. They were identified as quercetin 3-O-β-[xylopyranosyl-(1-->2)-β- glucopyranosyl-(1-->6)-β-glucopyranoside] (1), kaempferol 3-O-β-[glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)-β-glucopyranosyl-(1-->6)-β-glucopyranoside] (2) and kaempferol 3- O-β-[xylopyranosyl-(1-->2)-β-glucopyranosyl-(1-->6)-β-glucopyranoside] (3). Their chemical structures were determined by UV, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy, LC-MS and acid hydrolysis. Compounds 1 and 3 are found in nature for the first time. They were also detected in the flowers, together with two anthocyanins, malvidin 3,5-di-O-glucoside and a minor petunidin dihexoside.

  13. Integrating species distribution models (SDMs) and phylogeography for two species of Alpine Primula.

    PubMed

    Schorr, G; Holstein, N; Pearman, P B; Guisan, A; Kadereit, J W

    2012-06-01

    The major intention of the present study was to investigate whether an approach combining the use of niche-based palaeodistribution modeling and phylo-geography would support or modify hypotheses about the Quaternary distributional history derived from phylogeographic methods alone. Our study system comprised two closely related species of Alpine Primula. We used species distribution models based on the extant distribution of the species and last glacial maximum (LGM) climate models to predict the distribution of the two species during the LGM. Phylogeographic data were generated using amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs). In Primula hirsuta, models of past distribution and phylogeographic data are partly congruent and support the hypothesis of widespread nunatak survival in the Central Alps. Species distribution models (SDMs) allowed us to differentiate between alpine regions that harbor potential nunatak areas and regions that have been colonized from other areas. SDMs revealed that diversity is a good indicator for nunataks, while rarity is a good indicator for peripheral relict populations that were not source for the recolonization of the inner Alps. In P. daonensis, palaeo-distribution models and phylogeographic data are incongruent. Besides the uncertainty inherent to this type of modeling approach (e.g., relatively coarse 1-km grain size), disagreement of models and data may partly be caused by shifts of ecological niche in both species. Nevertheless, we demonstrate that the combination of palaeo-distribution modeling with phylogeographical approaches provides a more differentiated picture of the distributional history of species and partly supports (P. hirsuta) and partly modifies (P. daonensis and P. hirsuta) hypotheses of Quaternary distributional history. Some of the refugial area indicated by palaeodistribution models could not have been identified with phylogeographic data. PMID:22833799

  14. Integrating species distribution models (SDMs) and phylogeography for two species of Alpine Primula.

    PubMed

    Schorr, G; Holstein, N; Pearman, P B; Guisan, A; Kadereit, J W

    2012-06-01

    The major intention of the present study was to investigate whether an approach combining the use of niche-based palaeodistribution modeling and phylo-geography would support or modify hypotheses about the Quaternary distributional history derived from phylogeographic methods alone. Our study system comprised two closely related species of Alpine Primula. We used species distribution models based on the extant distribution of the species and last glacial maximum (LGM) climate models to predict the distribution of the two species during the LGM. Phylogeographic data were generated using amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs). In Primula hirsuta, models of past distribution and phylogeographic data are partly congruent and support the hypothesis of widespread nunatak survival in the Central Alps. Species distribution models (SDMs) allowed us to differentiate between alpine regions that harbor potential nunatak areas and regions that have been colonized from other areas. SDMs revealed that diversity is a good indicator for nunataks, while rarity is a good indicator for peripheral relict populations that were not source for the recolonization of the inner Alps. In P. daonensis, palaeo-distribution models and phylogeographic data are incongruent. Besides the uncertainty inherent to this type of modeling approach (e.g., relatively coarse 1-km grain size), disagreement of models and data may partly be caused by shifts of ecological niche in both species. Nevertheless, we demonstrate that the combination of palaeo-distribution modeling with phylogeographical approaches provides a more differentiated picture of the distributional history of species and partly supports (P. hirsuta) and partly modifies (P. daonensis and P. hirsuta) hypotheses of Quaternary distributional history. Some of the refugial area indicated by palaeodistribution models could not have been identified with phylogeographic data.

  15. Integrating species distribution models (SDMs) and phylogeography for two species of Alpine Primula

    PubMed Central

    Schorr, G; Holstein, N; Pearman, P B; Guisan, A; Kadereit, J W

    2012-01-01

    The major intention of the present study was to investigate whether an approach combining the use of niche-based palaeodistribution modeling and phylo-geography would support or modify hypotheses about the Quaternary distributional history derived from phylogeographic methods alone. Our study system comprised two closely related species of Alpine Primula. We used species distribution models based on the extant distribution of the species and last glacial maximum (LGM) climate models to predict the distribution of the two species during the LGM. Phylogeographic data were generated using amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs). In Primula hirsuta, models of past distribution and phylogeographic data are partly congruent and support the hypothesis of widespread nunatak survival in the Central Alps. Species distribution models (SDMs) allowed us to differentiate between alpine regions that harbor potential nunatak areas and regions that have been colonized from other areas. SDMs revealed that diversity is a good indicator for nunataks, while rarity is a good indicator for peripheral relict populations that were not source for the recolonization of the inner Alps. In P. daonensis, palaeo-distribution models and phylogeographic data are incongruent. Besides the uncertainty inherent to this type of modeling approach (e.g., relatively coarse 1-km grain size), disagreement of models and data may partly be caused by shifts of ecological niche in both species. Nevertheless, we demonstrate that the combination of palaeo-distribution modeling with phylogeographical approaches provides a more differentiated picture of the distributional history of species and partly supports (P. hirsuta) and partly modifies (P. daonensis and P. hirsuta) hypotheses of Quaternary distributional history. Some of the refugial area indicated by palaeodistribution models could not have been identified with phylogeographic data. PMID:22833799

  16. Reproducing under a warming climate: long winter flowering and extended flower longevity in the only Mediterranean and maritime Primula.

    PubMed

    Aronne, G; Buonanno, M; De Micco, V

    2015-03-01

    Under the pressure of global warming, general expectations of species migration and evolution of adaptive traits should always be confirmed with species-specific studies. Within this framework, some species can be used as study systems to predict possible consequences of global warming also on other relatives. Unlike its mountain congeneric, Primula palinuri Petagn. has endured all the climatic fluctuations since the Pleistocene, while surviving on Mediterranean coastal cliffs. The aim of this work was to investigate the possible evolution of reproductive biological and ecological traits in P. palinuri adaptation to a warmer environment. Data showed that flowering starts in mid-winter; single flowers remain open for over a month, changing from pendulous to erect. The number of insects visiting flowers of P. palinuri increases during the flowering season, and pollination reduces flower longevity. Overall, the best pollen performances, in terms of viability and germinability, occur at winter temperatures, while pollinator activity prolongs flowering until spring. Moreover, extended longevity of single flowers optimises reproductive success. Both phenotypic plasticity and selective processes might have occurred in P. palinuri. However, we found that reproductive traits of the only Mediterranean Primula remain more associated with cold mountain habitats than warm coastal cliffs. Given the rapid trend of climate warming, migration and new adaptive processes in P. palinuri are unlikely. Response to past climate warming of P. palinuri provides useful indications for future scenarios in other Primula species.

  17. Forest succession and population viability of grassland plants: long repayment of extinction debt in Primula veris.

    PubMed

    Lehtilä, Kari; Dahlgren, Johan P; Garcia, Maria Begoña; Leimu, Roosa; Syrjänen, Kimmo; Ehrlén, Johan

    2016-05-01

    Time lags in responses of organisms to deteriorating environmental conditions delay population declines and extinctions. We examined how local processes at the population level contribute to extinction debt, and how cycles of habitat deterioration and recovery may delay extinction. We carried out a demographic analysis of the fate of the grassland perennial Primula veris after the cessation of grassland management, where we used either a unidirectional succession model for forest habitat or a rotation model with a period of forest growth followed by a clear-cut and a new successional cycle. The simulations indicated that P. veris populations may have an extinction time of decades to centuries after a detrimental management change. A survey of the current incidence and abundance of P. veris in sites with different histories of afforestation confirmed the simulation results of low extinction rates. P. veris had reduced incidence and abundance only at sites with at least 100 years of forest cover. Time to extinction in simulations was dependent on the duration of the periods with favourable and unfavourable conditions after management cessation, and the population sizes and growth rates in these periods. Our results thus suggest that the ability of a species to survive is a complex function of disturbance regimes, rates of successional change, and the demographic response to environmental changes. Detailed demographic studies over entire successional cycles are therefore essential to identify the environmental conditions that enable long-term persistence and to design management for species experiencing extinction debts.

  18. Primula auriculata Extracts Exert Cytotoxic and Apoptotic Effects against HT-29 Human Colon Adenocarcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Behzad, Sahar; Ebrahim, Karim; Mosaddegh, Mahmoud; Haeri, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Primula auriculata (Tootia) is one of the most important local medicinal plants in Hamedan district, Iran. To investigate cytotoxicity and apoptosis induction of crude methanolic extract and different fraction of it, we compared several methods on HT-29 human colon Adenocarcinoma cells. Cancer cell proliferation was measured by 3-(4, 5‑dimethylthiazolyl)2, 5‑diphenyl‑tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and apoptosis induction was analyzed by fluorescence microscopy (acridin orange/ethidium bromide, annexin V/propidium iodide staining, TUNEL assay and Caspase-3 activity assay). Crude methanolic extract (CM) inhibited the growth of malignant cells in a dose-dependent manner. Among solvent fractions, the dichloromethane fraction (CF) was found to be the most toxic compared to other fractions. With double staining methods, high percentage of 40 µg/mL of (CM) and (CF) treated cells exhibited typical characteristics of apoptotic cells. Apoptosis induction was also revealed by apoptotic fragmentation of nuclear DNA and activation of caspas-3 in treated cells. These findings indicate that crude methanolic extract and dichloromethan fraction of P.auriculata induced apoptosis and inhibited proliferation in colon cancer cells and could be used as a source for new lead structures in drug design to combat colon cancer. PMID:27610172

  19. Nectar robbers pollinate flowers with sexual organs hidden within corollas in distylous Primula secundiflora (Primulaceae).

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xing-Fu; Wan, Jin-Peng; Li, Qing-Jun

    2010-12-23

    Nectar robbers are thought rarely to pollinate flowers, especially those with sexual organs hidden within corollas. In this study, we examined whether robbers pollinate flowers of distylous Primula secundiflora. Distylous plants have two floral morphs. Pin flowers have long styles and short stamens, and thrum flowers have short styles and long stamens. Flowers of P. secundiflora were commonly robbed by bumble-bees, and robbing holes were always situated between high and low sexual organs for both floral morphs. We observed that pollen grains of pin flowers were removed while thrum flowers received fresh pollen grains immediately after flowers were robbed. We manipulated flowers so that only nectar robbers could visit them. This resulted in 98 per cent of thrum flowers and 6 per cent of pin flowers setting fruit, and seed number per thrum fruit was also significantly higher than per pin fruit. Our findings suggest that nectar robbers transfer pollen from pin flowers to thrum flowers effectively, and consequently increase male fitness of the pin morph and female fitness of the thrum morph. Such asymmetrical pollen flow caused by nectar robbers may act as an important selective agent in floral fitness and evolution of distyly.

  20. Phytochemical attributes of endemic endangered primrose (Primula heterochroma Stapf.) accessions grown in Iran.

    PubMed

    Noroozisharaf, Alireza; Samizadeh Lahiji, Habibollah; Hatamzadeh, Abdollah; Bakhshi, Davood

    2015-10-01

    Primula heterochroma is indigenous to Caspian coast forests in the north of Iran. Total phenols, total flavnoids, total carotenoids and antioxidant capacity of 50 P. heterochroma accessions were investigated. The highest total phenol (1272.31 mg GA equivalent/100 g fresh weight) and total flavonoids (615 mg catechin/100 g fresh weight) were observed in G5 accession from Saravan. The highest antioxidant activity was observed in G14 accession (73.03 %) from Kacha, followed by G2 accession (69.75 %) and G5 accession (66.84 %) from Saravan. The results of HPLC analysis showed that quercetin-3-glucoside was the major phenolic compound widely found in these accessions followed by chlorogenic acid. There was a linear relationship between the antioxidant capacities and the total phenols and total flavonoid. Inversely, there was no statistically significant correlation between total carotenoid and antioxidant activity. Based on the path coefficient analysis, the maximum direct effect on antioxidant was observed in total phenols (0.908). In addition, the cluster analysis based on Euclidean distance with Unweighted pair-group method using arithmetic average (UPGMA) method separated the accessions into four main groups. Our results supported that Iranian wild primrose accessions possess valuable antioxidant properties for therapeutic and potential medicinal use.

  1. Primula auriculata Extracts Exert Cytotoxic and Apoptotic Effects against HT-29 Human Colon Adenocarcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Behzad, Sahar; Ebrahim, Karim; Mosaddegh, Mahmoud; Haeri, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Primula auriculata (Tootia) is one of the most important local medicinal plants in Hamedan district, Iran. To investigate cytotoxicity and apoptosis induction of crude methanolic extract and different fraction of it, we compared several methods on HT-29 human colon Adenocarcinoma cells. Cancer cell proliferation was measured by 3-(4, 5‑dimethylthiazolyl)2, 5‑diphenyl‑tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and apoptosis induction was analyzed by fluorescence microscopy (acridin orange/ethidium bromide, annexin V/propidium iodide staining, TUNEL assay and Caspase-3 activity assay). Crude methanolic extract (CM) inhibited the growth of malignant cells in a dose-dependent manner. Among solvent fractions, the dichloromethane fraction (CF) was found to be the most toxic compared to other fractions. With double staining methods, high percentage of 40 µg/mL of (CM) and (CF) treated cells exhibited typical characteristics of apoptotic cells. Apoptosis induction was also revealed by apoptotic fragmentation of nuclear DNA and activation of caspas-3 in treated cells. These findings indicate that crude methanolic extract and dichloromethan fraction of P.auriculata induced apoptosis and inhibited proliferation in colon cancer cells and could be used as a source for new lead structures in drug design to combat colon cancer.

  2. Initial determination of DNA polymorphism of some Primula veris L. populations from Kosovo and Austria.

    PubMed

    Berisha, Naim; Millaku, Fadil; Gashi, Bekim; Krasniqi, Elez; Novak, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Primula veris L. (Primulaceae) is a long lived perennial and well known pharmaceutical plant, widely collected for these reasons in almost all SE Europe and particularly in Kosovo. The aim of the study is to determine molecular polymorphism of cowslip (P. veris L.) populations from Kosovo. DNA extracted from leaves were  investigated in details for presence of polymorphism. RAPD analyses were conducted using 20 different short primers. Genomic DNA amplification profiles were analyzed and processed using data labelling. Comparison between cowslip populations in genetic composition revealed that samples from Bogaj were too distinct on their own. Molecular variation was observed to be more within populations (73 %) as compared to among populations (27 %). On the other hand, genetic distance of populations revealed that the highest genetic distance is between Leqinat and Maja e Madhe. Mean values of expected heterozygosity were highest in Bogaj population, while lowest in Maja e Madhe population. The obtained results indicated that Bogaj population are more polymorphic. From the obtained data it can be concluded that RAPD markers provided a useful technique to study genetic diversity in P. veris L. populations. This technology allows identification and assessment of the genetic similarities and differences among plant populations.

  3. Polyploid evolution and Pleistocene glacial cycles: A case study from the alpine primrose Primula marginata (Primulaceae)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Recent studies highlighted the role of Pleistocene climatic cycles in polyploid speciation and of southern Alpine refugia as reservoirs of diversity during glacial maxima. The polyploid Primula marginata, endemic to the southwestern Alps, includes both hexaploid and dodecaploid cytotypes that show no ecological or morphological differences. We used flow cytometry to determine variation and geographic distribution of cytotypes within and between populations and analyses of chloroplast (cp) and nuclear ribosomal (nr) DNA sequences from the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) region to infer the evolutionary history of the two cytotypes and the auto- vs. allopolyploid origin of dodecaploid populations. Results We did not detect any intermediate cytotypes or variation of ploidy levels within populations. Hexaploids occur in the western and dodecaploids in the eastern part of the distributional range, respectively. The cpDNA and nrDNA topologies are in conflict, for the former supports shared ancestry between P. marginata and P. latifolia, while the latter implies common origins between at least some ITS clones of P. marginata and P. allionii. Conclusions Our results suggest an initial episode of chloroplast capture involving ancestral lineages of P. latifolia and P. marginata, followed by polyploidization between P. marginata-like and P. allionii-like lineages in a southern refugium of the Maritime Alps. The higher proportion of ITS polymorphisms in dodecaploid than in hexaploid accessions of P. marginata and higher total nucleotide diversity of ITS clones in dodecaploid vs. hexaploid individuals sequences are congruent with the allopolyploid hypothesis of dodecaploid origin. PMID:22530870

  4. Initial determination of DNA polymorphism of some Primula veris L. populations from Kosovo and Austria.

    PubMed

    Berisha, Naim; Millaku, Fadil; Gashi, Bekim; Krasniqi, Elez; Novak, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Primula veris L. (Primulaceae) is a long lived perennial and well known pharmaceutical plant, widely collected for these reasons in almost all SE Europe and particularly in Kosovo. The aim of the study is to determine molecular polymorphism of cowslip (P. veris L.) populations from Kosovo. DNA extracted from leaves were  investigated in details for presence of polymorphism. RAPD analyses were conducted using 20 different short primers. Genomic DNA amplification profiles were analyzed and processed using data labelling. Comparison between cowslip populations in genetic composition revealed that samples from Bogaj were too distinct on their own. Molecular variation was observed to be more within populations (73 %) as compared to among populations (27 %). On the other hand, genetic distance of populations revealed that the highest genetic distance is between Leqinat and Maja e Madhe. Mean values of expected heterozygosity were highest in Bogaj population, while lowest in Maja e Madhe population. The obtained results indicated that Bogaj population are more polymorphic. From the obtained data it can be concluded that RAPD markers provided a useful technique to study genetic diversity in P. veris L. populations. This technology allows identification and assessment of the genetic similarities and differences among plant populations. PMID:25650329

  5. Primula auriculata Extracts Exert Cytotoxic and Apoptotic Effects against HT-29 Human Colon Adenocarcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Behzad, Sahar; Ebrahim, Karim; Mosaddegh, Mahmoud; Haeri, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Primula auriculata (Tootia) is one of the most important local medicinal plants in Hamedan district, Iran. To investigate cytotoxicity and apoptosis induction of crude methanolic extract and different fraction of it, we compared several methods on HT-29 human colon Adenocarcinoma cells. Cancer cell proliferation was measured by 3-(4, 5‑dimethylthiazolyl)2, 5‑diphenyl‑tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and apoptosis induction was analyzed by fluorescence microscopy (acridin orange/ethidium bromide, annexin V/propidium iodide staining, TUNEL assay and Caspase-3 activity assay). Crude methanolic extract (CM) inhibited the growth of malignant cells in a dose-dependent manner. Among solvent fractions, the dichloromethane fraction (CF) was found to be the most toxic compared to other fractions. With double staining methods, high percentage of 40 µg/mL of (CM) and (CF) treated cells exhibited typical characteristics of apoptotic cells. Apoptosis induction was also revealed by apoptotic fragmentation of nuclear DNA and activation of caspas-3 in treated cells. These findings indicate that crude methanolic extract and dichloromethan fraction of P.auriculata induced apoptosis and inhibited proliferation in colon cancer cells and could be used as a source for new lead structures in drug design to combat colon cancer. PMID:27610172

  6. Primula auriculata Extracts Exert Cytotoxic and Apoptotic Effects against HT-29 Human Colon Adenocarcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Behzad, Sahar; Ebrahim, Karim; Mosaddegh, Mahmoud; Haeri, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Primula auriculata (Tootia) is one of the most important local medicinal plants in Hamedan district, Iran. To investigate cytotoxicity and apoptosis induction of crude methanolic extract and different fraction of it, we compared several methods on HT-29 human colon Adenocarcinoma cells. Cancer cell proliferation was measured by 3-(4, 5‑dimethylthiazolyl)2, 5‑diphenyl‑tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and apoptosis induction was analyzed by fluorescence microscopy (acridin orange/ethidium bromide, annexin V/propidium iodide staining, TUNEL assay and Caspase-3 activity assay). Crude methanolic extract (CM) inhibited the growth of malignant cells in a dose-dependent manner. Among solvent fractions, the dichloromethane fraction (CF) was found to be the most toxic compared to other fractions. With double staining methods, high percentage of 40 µg/mL of (CM) and (CF) treated cells exhibited typical characteristics of apoptotic cells. Apoptosis induction was also revealed by apoptotic fragmentation of nuclear DNA and activation of caspas-3 in treated cells. These findings indicate that crude methanolic extract and dichloromethan fraction of P.auriculata induced apoptosis and inhibited proliferation in colon cancer cells and could be used as a source for new lead structures in drug design to combat colon cancer.

  7. Response of ATP sulfurylase and serine acetyltransferase towards cadmium in hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii Hance*

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Wei-dong; Liang, Jun; Yang, Xiao-e; Chao, Yue-en; Feng, Ying

    2009-01-01

    We studied the responses of the activities of adenosine-triphosphate (ATP) sulfurylase (ATPS) and serine acetyltransferase (SAT) to cadmium (Cd) levels and treatment time in hyperaccumulating ecotype (HE) Sedum alfredii Hance, as compared with its non-hyperaccumulating ecotype (NHE). The results show that plant growth was inhibited in NHE but promoted in HE when exposed to high Cd level. Cd concentrations in leaves and shoots rapidly increased in HE rather than in NHE, and they became much higher in HE than in NHE along with increasing treatment time and Cd supply levels. ATPS activity was higher in HE than in NHE in all Cd treatments, and increased with increasing Cd supply levels in both HE and NHE when exposed to Cd treatment within 8 h. However, a marked difference of ATPS activity between HE and NHE was found with Cd treatment for 168 h, where ATPS activity increased in HE but decreased in NHE. Similarly, SAT activity was higher in HE than in NHE at all Cd treatments, but was more sensitive in NHE than in HE. Both ATPS and SAT activities in NHE leaves tended to decrease with increasing treatment time after 8 h at all Cd levels. The results reveal the different responses in sulfur assimilation enzymes and Cd accumulation between HE and NHE. With increasing Cd stress, the activities of sulfur assimilation enzymes (ATPS and SAT) were induced in HE, which may contribute to Cd accumulation in the hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii Hance. PMID:19353742

  8. Response of ATP sulfurylase and serine acetyltransferase towards cadmium in hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii Hance.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wei-dong; Liang, Jun; Yang, Xiao-e; Chao, Yue-en; Feng, Ying

    2009-04-01

    We studied the responses of the activities of adenosine-triphosphate (ATP) sulfurylase (ATPS) and serine acetyltransferase (SAT) to cadmium (Cd) levels and treatment time in hyperaccumulating ecotype (HE) Sedum alfredii Hance, as compared with its non-hyperaccumulating ecotype (NHE). The results show that plant growth was inhibited in NHE but promoted in HE when exposed to high Cd level. Cd concentrations in leaves and shoots rapidly increased in HE rather than in NHE, and they became much higher in HE than in NHE along with increasing treatment time and Cd supply levels. ATPS activity was higher in HE than in NHE in all Cd treatments, and increased with increasing Cd supply levels in both HE and NHE when exposed to Cd treatment within 8 h. However, a marked difference of ATPS activity between HE and NHE was found with Cd treatment for 168 h, where ATPS activity increased in HE but decreased in NHE. Similarly, SAT activity was higher in HE than in NHE at all Cd treatments, but was more sensitive in NHE than in HE. Both ATPS and SAT activities in NHE leaves tended to decrease with increasing treatment time after 8 h at all Cd levels. The results reveal the different responses in sulfur assimilation enzymes and Cd accumulation between HE and NHE. With increasing Cd stress, the activities of sulfur assimilation enzymes (ATPS and SAT) were induced in HE, which may contribute to Cd accumulation in the hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii Hance. PMID:19353742

  9. [Enhanced Phytoextraction of Heavy Metals from Contaminated Soils Using Sedum alfredii Hance with Biodegradable Chelate GLDA].

    PubMed

    Wei, Ze-bin; Chen, Xiao-hong; Wu, Qi-tang; Tan, Meng

    2015-05-01

    Chemically enhanced phytoextraction by hyperaccumulator has been proposed as an effective approach to remove heavy metals from contaminated soil. Pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of application of the biodegradable chelate GLDA (L glutamic acid N,N-diacetic acid) at different doses or the combination of GLDA with EDTA (ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid) or CIT (citric acid) on the uptake of Cd, Zn and Pb by Sedum alfredii Hance (a Zn and Cd hyperaccumulator). Experimental results showed that GLDA addition to soil significantly increased the concentrations of Cd and Zn in Sedum alfredii Hance and its Cd and Zn phytoextraction compared to the control. Additionally, GLDA at 2.5 mmol · kg(-1) resulted in the highest phytoextraction, being 2.5 and 2.6 folds of the control for Cd and Zn, respectively. However, the combined application of GLDA + EDTA (1:1) and GLDA + CIT (1 :1 and 1:3) at a total dose of 5 mmol · kg(-1) did not increase the phytoextraction of Zn and Cd, compared to the GLDA only treatment. Therefore, the biodegradable chelate GLDA could be regarded as a good chelate candidate for the phytoextraction of heavy metals of heavy metals from contaminated soils, particularly for Cd and Zn contaminated soils.

  10. Ability of Bumblebees to Discriminate Differences in the Shape of Artificial Flowers of Primula sieboldii (Primulaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Yoshioka, Yosuke; Ohashi, Kazuharu; Konuma, Akihiro; Iwata, Hiroyoshi; Ohsawa, Ryo; Ninomiya, Seishi

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Flower shapes are important visual cues for pollinators. However, the ability of pollinators to discriminate between flower shapes under natural conditions is poorly understood. This study focused on the diversity of flower shape in Primula sieboldii and investigated the ability of bumblebees to discriminate between flowers by combining computer graphics with a traditional behavioural experiment. Methods Elliptic Fourier descriptors described shapes by transforming coordinate information for the contours into coefficients, and principal components analysis summarized these coefficients. Using these methods, artificial flowers were created based on the natural diversity of petal shape in P. sieboldii. Dual-choice tests were then performed to investigate the ability of the bumblebees to detect differences in the aspect ratio of petals and the depth of their head notch. Key Results The insects showed no significant ability to detect differences in the aspect ratio of the petals under natural conditions unless the morphological distance increased to an unrealistic level. These results suggest the existence of a perception threshold for distances in this parameter. The bumblebees showed a significant preference for narrow petals even after training using flowers with wide petals. The bumblebees showed a significant ability to discriminate based on the depth of the petal head notch after training using artificial flowers with a deep head notch. However, they showed no discrimination in tests with training using extreme distances between flowers in this parameter. Conclusions A new type of behavioural experiment was demonstrated using real variation in flower corolla shape in P. sieboldii. If the range in aspect ratios of petals expands much further, bumblebees may learn to exhibit selective behaviour. However, because discrimination by bumblebees under natural conditions was low, there may be no strong selective behaviour based on innate or learned

  11. Demographic stochasticity in small remnant populations of the declining distylous plant Primula veris

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kery, M.; Matthies, D.; Schmid, B.

    2003-01-01

    We studied ecological consequences of distyly for the declining perennial plant Primula veris in the Swiss Jura. Distyly favours cross-fertilization and avoids inbreeding, but may lead to pollen limitation and reduced reproduction if morph frequencies deviate from 50 %. Disassortative mating is promoted by the reciprocal position of stigmas and anthers in the two morphs (pin and thrum) and by intramorph incompatibility and should result in equal frequencies of morphs at equilibrium. However, deviations could arise because of demographic stochasticity, the lower intra-morph incompatibility of the pin morph, and niche differentiation between morphs. Demographic stochasticity should result in symmetric deviations from an even morph frequency among populations and in increased deviations with decreasing population size. If crosses between pins occurred, these would only generate pins, and this could result in a pin-bias of morph frequencies in general and in small populations in particular. If the morphs have different niches, morph frequencies should be related to environmental factors, morphs might be spatially segregated, and morphological differences between morphs would be expected. We tested these hypotheses in the declining distylous P. veris. We studied morph frequencies in relation to environmental conditions and population size, spatial segregation in field populations, morphological differences between morphs, and growth responses to nutrient addition. Morph frequencies in 76 populations with 1 - 80000 flowering plants fluctuated symmetrically about 50 %. Deviations from 50 % were much larger in small populations, and sixof the smallest populations had lost one morph altogether. In contrast, morph frequencies were neither related to population size nor to 17 measures of environmental conditions. We found no spatial segregation or morphological differences in the field or in the common garden. The results suggest that demographic stochasticity caused

  12. Integration of genetic and physical maps of the Primula vulgaris S locus and localization by chromosome in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinhong; Webster, Margaret A; Wright, Jonathan; Cocker, Jonathan M; Smith, Matthew C; Badakshi, Farah; Heslop-Harrison, Pat; Gilmartin, Philip M

    2015-10-01

    Heteromorphic flower development in Primula is controlled by the S locus. The S locus genes, which control anther position, pistil length and pollen size in pin and thrum flowers, have not yet been characterized. We have integrated S-linked genes, marker sequences and mutant phenotypes to create a map of the P. vulgaris S locus region that will facilitate the identification of key S locus genes. We have generated, sequenced and annotated BAC sequences spanning the S locus, and identified its chromosomal location. We have employed a combination of classical genetics and three-point crosses with molecular genetic analysis of recombinants to generate the map. We have characterized this region by Illumina sequencing and bioinformatic analysis, together with chromosome in situ hybridization. We present an integrated genetic and physical map across the P. vulgaris S locus flanked by phenotypic and DNA sequence markers. BAC contigs encompass a 1.5-Mb genomic region with 1 Mb of sequence containing 82 S-linked genes anchored to overlapping BACs. The S locus is located close to the centromere of the largest metacentric chromosome pair. These data will facilitate the identification of the genes that orchestrate heterostyly in Primula and enable evolutionary analyses of the S locus.

  13. A compound containing substituted indole ligand from a hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii Hance under Zn exposure.

    PubMed

    Xing, Yan; Peng, Hongyun; Gao, Lingling; Luo, Ancheng; Yang, Xiaoe

    2013-01-01

    Sedum alfredii Hance is a fast-growing and high-biomass zinc (Zn) hyperaccumulator native to China. A compound containing substituted indole ligand was isolated from this Zn hyperaccumulator plants by sonication/ethanol extraction, macroporous resin column as well as preparative HPLC (P-HPLC). Hydroponic experiment showed that the concentrations of both Zn and the compound containing substituted indole ligand were remarkably increased in stems and leaves of both hyperaccumulator and non-hyperaccumulator as Zn rising from 0.5 to 50 micromol L(-1), with much more in the stems of hyperaccumulator than non-hyperaccumulator. At 50 micromol L(-1) Zn, hyperaccumulator grew normally but its non-hyperaccumulator suffered from strongly Zn-induced toxicity. This suggested that there was a positive correlation between the compound containing substituted indole ligand and Zn concentration in shoots of hyperaccumulator S. alfredii.

  14. Validated determination of primulasaponins in primula root by a high-performance-thin-layer-chromatography densitometric approach.

    PubMed

    Coran, Silvia A; Mulas, Stefano

    2012-11-01

    A novel HPTLC-densitometric method was developed for separation and quantitation of primulasaponin I and II in different matrices. HPTLC silica gel 60 F254(S), 20 cm × 10 cm, plates with ethyl acetate:water:formic acid (5:1:1 v/v) as the mobile phase were used. Densitometric determinations were performed in reflectance mode at 540 nm after derivatization with vanillin reagent. The method was validated giving rise to a dependable and high throughput procedure well suited to routine applications. Primulasaponins were quantified in the range of 150-450 ng with RSD of repeatability and intermediate precision between 0.8 and 1.4% and accuracy within the acceptance limits. The method was tested on commercial herbal medicinal preparations claiming to contain primula root extract.

  15. Interaction of different extracts of Primula heterochroma Stapf. with red blood cell membrane lipids and proteins: antioxidant and antihemolytic effects.

    PubMed

    Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad; Nabavi, Seyed Fazel; Setzer, William N; Alinezhad, Heshmatollah; Zare, Mahboobeh; Naqinezhad, Alireza

    2012-12-01

    In recent years, considerable attention has been paid to plants as potent natural drugs for their ameliorative roles against free-radical-mediated oxidative stress. Therefore, their interactions with cell membrane lipids and proteins, which generally serve as primary targets of lipid peroxidation, are of much interest. In the current investigation, in vitro and ex vivo studies are performed in order to estimate possible effects of different extracts of Primula heterochroma Stapf. on red blood cell membranes of rat erythrocytes using colorimetric methods. The results indicate that binding of the extracts to lipids and proteins of red blood cell membranes both significantly inhibits lipid peroxidation, and also increases red blood cell integrity against hemolysis. Moreover, a polyphenol extract, in particular, demonstrates notable antihemolytic activity in hydrogen peroxide-induced hemolysis model (IC(50) = 199.49 ± 9.1 μg ml(-1)).

  16. [Effects of Different Kinds of Organic Materials on Soil Heavy Metal Phytoremediation Efficiency by Sedum alfredii Hance].

    PubMed

    Yao, Gui-hua; Xu, Hai-zhou; Zhu, Lin-gang; Ma, Jia-wei; Liu, Dan; Ye, Zheng-qian

    2015-11-01

    In this study, a pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of clean organic materials i. e., biogas residue (BR), mushroom residue (MR), and bamboo shell (BS) on phytoextraction remediation of two heavy metal contaminated soils (collected from Wenzhou and Fuyang, which referred to "Wenzhou soil" and "Fuyang soil", respectively.) using a cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii Hance. The results indicated that the effects of organic materials on availabilities of soil heavy metals were different due to different kinds of heavy metals, organic materials, and the application rates of the organic materials. Addition with 5% BR showed the greatest activation to copper (Cu), Zn in Wenzhou soil, and in Fuyang soil 1% BS had the highest activation for Cu, Zn, lead ( Ph) and Cd. Growth of shoot biomass of Sedum alfredii Hance increased with the addition rate of organic materials, and the plant dry weights were increased by 23.7%-93.0%. In Wenzhou soil, only 1% BS treatment had the best effect on Cd uptake and accumulation in shoots of Sedum alfredii Hance, increased by 22.6%, while other treatments were inferior to the control. For Zn, MR treatments were inferior to the control, while other treafments were superior to the control, of which 5% BR, 1% BS and 5% BS exceeded the control by 39. 6%, 32.6% and 23.8%, respectively. In Fuyang soil, for Cd, the treatment effects of 5% BS, 1% BR and 5% BR were the greatest, of which Cd accumulation in shoots exceeded the control by 12.9%, 12.8% and 6.2%, respectively, while Cd accumulations in shoots in all other treatments were less than that of control. For Zn, the treatments of adding organic materials promoted Zn accumulation in shoots of Sedum alfredii Hance, and the best treatments were as follows: 5% BS. 5% BR and 5% MR, exceeded the control by 38.4%, 25.7% and 22.4%, respectively.

  17. Extraction and isolation of the salidroside-type metabolite from zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii Hance.

    PubMed

    Xing, Yan; Peng, Hong-yun; Li, Xia; Zhang, Meng-xi; Gao, Ling-ling; Yang, Xiao-e

    2012-10-01

    The active metabolite in the post-harvested biomass of zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii Hance from phytoextraction is of great interest in China. The current study demonstrates that a salidroside-type metabolite can be yielded from the Zn/Cd hyperaccumulator S. alfredii biomass by means of sonication/ethanol extraction and macroporous resin column (AB-8 type) isolation. The concentrations of Zn and Cd in the salidroside-type metabolite were below the limitation of the national standards. PMID:23024051

  18. Extraction and isolation of the salidroside-type metabolite from zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii Hance*

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Yan; Peng, Hong-yun; Li, Xia; Zhang, Meng-xi; Gao, Ling-ling; Yang, Xiao-e

    2012-01-01

    The active metabolite in the post-harvested biomass of zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii Hance from phytoextraction is of great interest in China. The current study demonstrates that a salidroside-type metabolite can be yielded from the Zn/Cd hyperaccumulator S. alfredii biomass by means of sonication/ethanol extraction and macroporous resin column (AB-8 type) isolation. The concentrations of Zn and Cd in the salidroside-type metabolite were below the limitation of the national standards. PMID:23024051

  19. [Effects of Different Kinds of Organic Materials on Soil Heavy Metal Phytoremediation Efficiency by Sedum alfredii Hance].

    PubMed

    Yao, Gui-hua; Xu, Hai-zhou; Zhu, Lin-gang; Ma, Jia-wei; Liu, Dan; Ye, Zheng-qian

    2015-11-01

    In this study, a pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of clean organic materials i. e., biogas residue (BR), mushroom residue (MR), and bamboo shell (BS) on phytoextraction remediation of two heavy metal contaminated soils (collected from Wenzhou and Fuyang, which referred to "Wenzhou soil" and "Fuyang soil", respectively.) using a cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii Hance. The results indicated that the effects of organic materials on availabilities of soil heavy metals were different due to different kinds of heavy metals, organic materials, and the application rates of the organic materials. Addition with 5% BR showed the greatest activation to copper (Cu), Zn in Wenzhou soil, and in Fuyang soil 1% BS had the highest activation for Cu, Zn, lead ( Ph) and Cd. Growth of shoot biomass of Sedum alfredii Hance increased with the addition rate of organic materials, and the plant dry weights were increased by 23.7%-93.0%. In Wenzhou soil, only 1% BS treatment had the best effect on Cd uptake and accumulation in shoots of Sedum alfredii Hance, increased by 22.6%, while other treatments were inferior to the control. For Zn, MR treatments were inferior to the control, while other treafments were superior to the control, of which 5% BR, 1% BS and 5% BS exceeded the control by 39. 6%, 32.6% and 23.8%, respectively. In Fuyang soil, for Cd, the treatment effects of 5% BS, 1% BR and 5% BR were the greatest, of which Cd accumulation in shoots exceeded the control by 12.9%, 12.8% and 6.2%, respectively, while Cd accumulations in shoots in all other treatments were less than that of control. For Zn, the treatments of adding organic materials promoted Zn accumulation in shoots of Sedum alfredii Hance, and the best treatments were as follows: 5% BS. 5% BR and 5% MR, exceeded the control by 38.4%, 25.7% and 22.4%, respectively. PMID:26911018

  20. Morph-specific differences in reproductive success in the distylous Primula veris in a context of habitat fragmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Rossum, Fabienne; De Sousa, Sara Campos; Triest, Ludwig

    2006-11-01

    Heterostylous self-incompatible plant species are particularly sensitive to habitat fragmentation and to disruption of pollination processes because of the need of intermorph cross-pollination for producing seeds. Heterostyly is characterized by sexual polymorphism through the occurrence of two (distyly) or three (tristyly) morph types that differ in floral traits (style length and anther position). We examined whether the long-styled (pin) and short-styled (thrum) morph types show differences in reproductive components and responses to habitat fragmentation in the distylous, self-incompatible perennial herb Primula veris. We documented reproductive components for pin and thrum individuals and their relationships with population size, plant density and morph ratio (pin frequency), in nine populations from Flanders (northern Belgium) located in fragmented habitats of the intensively used agricultural landscape. Seed abortion increased in small populations as a result of inbreeding depression. Fruit set increased with plant density. Seed set was positively related to pin proportion. Seed set was higher for pin than thrum in small populations, but lower in large populations. Two hypotheses can be considered to explain these morph-specific differences: a pollen transfer asymmetry, and a reproductive advantage for the partially self-compatible pin morph. Morph types appear to respond differently to habitat fragmentation constraints. A floral morph type showing partial self-compatibility may be favored in populations under pollination failure, because it can increase reproductive success and mating opportunities through intramorph crosses.

  1. Complete plastid genome sequence of Primula sinensis (Primulaceae): structure comparison, sequence variation and evidence for accD transfer to nucleus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tong-Jian; Zhang, Cai-Yun; Yan, Hai-Fei; Zhang, Lu; Ge, Xue-Jun; Hao, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Species-rich genus Primula L. is a typical plant group with which to understand genetic variance between species in different levels of relationships. Chloroplast genome sequences are used to be the information resource for quantifying this difference and reconstructing evolutionary history. In this study, we reported the complete chloroplast genome sequence of Primula sinensis and compared it with other related species. This genome of chloroplast showed a typical circular quadripartite structure with 150,859 bp in sequence length consisting of 37.2% GC base. Two inverted repeated regions (25,535 bp) were separated by a large single-copy region (82,064 bp) and a small single-copy region (17,725 bp). The genome consists of 112 genes, including 78 protein-coding genes, 30 tRNA genes and four rRNA genes. Among them, seven coding genes, seven tRNA genes and four rRNA genes have two copies due to their locations in the IR regions. The accD and infA genes lacking intact open reading frames (ORF) were identified as pseudogenes. SSR and sequence variation analyses were also performed on the plastome of Primula sinensis, comparing with another available plastome of P. poissonii. The four most variable regions, rpl36-rps8, rps16-trnQ, trnH-psbA and ndhC-trnV, were identified. Phylogenetic relationship estimates using three sub-datasets extracted from a matrix of 57 protein-coding gene sequences showed the identical result that was consistent with previous studies. A transcript found from P. sinensis transcriptome showed a high similarity to plastid accD functional region and was identified as a putative plastid transit peptide at the N-terminal region. The result strongly suggested that plastid accD has been functionally transferred to the nucleus in P. sinensis.

  2. Complete plastid genome sequence of Primula sinensis (Primulaceae): structure comparison, sequence variation and evidence for accD transfer to nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tong-Jian; Zhang, Cai-Yun; Yan, Hai-Fei; Zhang, Lu

    2016-01-01

    Species-rich genus Primula L. is a typical plant group with which to understand genetic variance between species in different levels of relationships. Chloroplast genome sequences are used to be the information resource for quantifying this difference and reconstructing evolutionary history. In this study, we reported the complete chloroplast genome sequence of Primula sinensis and compared it with other related species. This genome of chloroplast showed a typical circular quadripartite structure with 150,859 bp in sequence length consisting of 37.2% GC base. Two inverted repeated regions (25,535 bp) were separated by a large single-copy region (82,064 bp) and a small single-copy region (17,725 bp). The genome consists of 112 genes, including 78 protein-coding genes, 30 tRNA genes and four rRNA genes. Among them, seven coding genes, seven tRNA genes and four rRNA genes have two copies due to their locations in the IR regions. The accD and infA genes lacking intact open reading frames (ORF) were identified as pseudogenes. SSR and sequence variation analyses were also performed on the plastome of Primula sinensis, comparing with another available plastome of P. poissonii. The four most variable regions, rpl36–rps8, rps16–trnQ, trnH–psbA and ndhC–trnV, were identified. Phylogenetic relationship estimates using three sub-datasets extracted from a matrix of 57 protein-coding gene sequences showed the identical result that was consistent with previous studies. A transcript found from P. sinensis transcriptome showed a high similarity to plastid accD functional region and was identified as a putative plastid transit peptide at the N-terminal region. The result strongly suggested that plastid accD has been functionally transferred to the nucleus in P. sinensis. PMID:27375965

  3. Hose in Hose, an S locus-linked mutant of Primula vulgaris, is caused by an unstable mutation at the Globosa locus.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinhong; Dudas, Brigitta; Webster, Margaret A; Cook, Holly E; Davies, Brendan H; Gilmartin, Philip M

    2010-03-23

    Hose in Hose mutants of primrose and cowslip have been cultivated since the early 17th century and show dominant homeotic conversion of sepals to petals. The phenotype shows variable penetrance and expressivity and is linked to the S locus, which controls floral heteromorphy in Primula species. Here we demonstrate that the homeotic conversion of sepals to petals in Hose in Hose is associated with up-regulation of both Primula B-function MADS box genes PvDef and PvGlo in the first floral whorl. We have defined a restriction fragment length polymorphism associated with PvGlo that cosegregates with the Hose in Hose phenotype and have also identified and characterized a retrotransposon insertion in the PvGlo promoter which is associated with the up-regulated expression of PvGlo. Excision of this retrotransposon, associated with epigenetic changes at the locus, causes reversion toward normal calyces and restores wild-type flower development. These data define the molecular basis of the Hose in Hose mutation and provide an explanation for its long-documented phenotypic instability.

  4. Functional Characterization of a Gene in Sedum alfredii Hance Resembling Rubber Elongation Factor Endowed with Functions Associated with Cadmium Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mingying; Qiu, Wenming; He, Xuelian; Zheng, Liu; Song, Xixi; Han, Xiaojiao; Jiang, Jing; Qiao, Guirong; Sang, Jian; Liu, Mingqing; Zhuo, Renying

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium is a major toxic heavy-metal pollutant considering their bioaccumulation potential and persistence in the environment. The hyperaccumulating ecotype of Sedum alfredii Hance is a Zn/Cd co-hyperaccumulator inhabiting in a region of China with soils rich in Pb/Zn. Investigations into the underlying molecular regulatory mechanisms of Cd tolerance are of substantial interest. Here, library screening for genes related to cadmium tolerance identified a gene resembling the rubber elongation factor gene designated as SaREFl. The heterologous expression of SaREFl rescued the growth of a transformed Cd-sensitive strain (ycf1). Furthermore, SaREFl-expressing Arabidopsis plants were more tolerant to cadmium stress compared with wild type by measuring parameters of root length, fresh weight and physiological indexes. When under four different heavy metal treatments, we found that SaREFl responded most strongly to Cd and the root was the plant organ most sensitive to this heavy metal. Yeast two-hybrid screening of SaREFl as a bait led to the identification of five possible interacting targets in Sedum alfredii Hance. Among them, a gene annotated as prenylated Rab acceptor 1 (PRA1) domain protein was detected with a high frequency. Moreover, subcellular localization of SaREF1-GFP fusion protein revealed some patchy spots in cytosol suggesting potential association with organelles for its cellular functions. Our findings would further enrich the connotation of REF-like genes and provide theoretical assistance for the application in breeding heavy metal-tolerant plants. PMID:27446189

  5. Functional Characterization of a Gene in Sedum alfredii Hance Resembling Rubber Elongation Factor Endowed with Functions Associated with Cadmium Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Mingying; Qiu, Wenming; He, Xuelian; Zheng, Liu; Song, Xixi; Han, Xiaojiao; Jiang, Jing; Qiao, Guirong; Sang, Jian; Liu, Mingqing; Zhuo, Renying

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium is a major toxic heavy-metal pollutant considering their bioaccumulation potential and persistence in the environment. The hyperaccumulating ecotype of Sedum alfredii Hance is a Zn/Cd co-hyperaccumulator inhabiting in a region of China with soils rich in Pb/Zn. Investigations into the underlying molecular regulatory mechanisms of Cd tolerance are of substantial interest. Here, library screening for genes related to cadmium tolerance identified a gene resembling the rubber elongation factor gene designated as SaREFl. The heterologous expression of SaREFl rescued the growth of a transformed Cd-sensitive strain (ycf1). Furthermore, SaREFl-expressing Arabidopsis plants were more tolerant to cadmium stress compared with wild type by measuring parameters of root length, fresh weight and physiological indexes. When under four different heavy metal treatments, we found that SaREFl responded most strongly to Cd and the root was the plant organ most sensitive to this heavy metal. Yeast two-hybrid screening of SaREFl as a bait led to the identification of five possible interacting targets in Sedum alfredii Hance. Among them, a gene annotated as prenylated Rab acceptor 1 (PRA1) domain protein was detected with a high frequency. Moreover, subcellular localization of SaREF1-GFP fusion protein revealed some patchy spots in cytosol suggesting potential association with organelles for its cellular functions. Our findings would further enrich the connotation of REF-like genes and provide theoretical assistance for the application in breeding heavy metal-tolerant plants. PMID:27446189

  6. Effects of cadmium on ultrastructure and antioxidative defense system in hyperaccumulator and non-hyperaccumulator ecotypes of Sedum alfredii Hance.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xiaofen; Yang, Xiaoe; Islam, Ejazul; Liu, Dan; Mahmood, Qaisar

    2008-08-15

    Plant growth, ultrastructural and antioxidant adaptations and glutathione biosynthesis in Cd-hyperaccumulating ecotype Sedum alfredii Hance (HE) countering high Cd environment were investigated and compared with its non Cd-hyperaccumulating ecotype (NHE). Cadmium exposure resulted in significant ultrastructural changes in root meristem and leaf mesophyll cells of S. alfredii, but damage was more pronounced in NHE even when Cd concentrations were one-tenth of those applied to HE. Cadmium stress damaged chloroplasts causing imbalanced lamellae formation coupled with early leaf senescence. Histochemical results revealed that glutathione (GSH) biosynthesis inhibition led to overproduction of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and superoxide radical (O(2)(*-)) in HE but not in NHE. Differences were noted in both HE and NHE for catalase (CAT), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities under various Cd stress levels. No relationship was found between antioxidative defense capacity including activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), CAT, GPX, APX and GR as well as ascorbic acid (AsA) contents and Cd tolerance in the two ecotypes of S. alfredii. The GSH biosynthesis induction in root and shoot exposed to elevated Cd conditions may be involved in Cd tolerance and hyperaccumulation in HE of S. alfredii H. PMID:18242844

  7. Comparative Proteomic Analysis Reveals the Effects of Exogenous Calcium against Acid Rain Stress in Liquidambar formosana Hance Leaves.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wen-Jun; Wu, Qian; Liu, Xiang; Shen, Zhi-Jun; Chen, Juan; Liu, Ting-Wu; Chen, Juan; Zhu, Chun-Quan; Wu, Fei-Hua; Chen, Lin; Wei, Jia; Qiu, Xiao-Yun; Shen, Guo-Xin; Zheng, Hai-Lei

    2016-01-01

    Acid rain (AR) impacts forest health by leaching calcium (Ca) away from soils and plants. Ca is an essential element and participates in various plant physiological responses. In the present study, the protective role of exogenous Ca in alleviating AR stress in Liquidambar formosana Hance at the physiological and proteomic levels was examined. Our results showed that low Ca condition resulted in the chlorophyll content and photosynthesis decreasing significantly in L. formosana leaves; however, these effects could be reversed by high Ca supplementation. Further proteomic analyses successfully identified 81 differentially expressed proteins in AR-treated L. formosana under different Ca levels. In particular, some of the proteins are involved in primary metabolism, photosynthesis, energy production, antioxidant defense, transcription, and translation. Moreover, quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) results indicated that low Ca significantly increased the expression level of the investigated Ca-related genes, which can be reversed by high Ca supplementation under AR stress. Further, Western blotting analysis revealed that exogenous Ca supply reduced AR damage by elevating the expression of proteins involved in the Calvin cycle, reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging system. These findings allowed us to better understand how woody plants respond to AR stress at various Ca levels and the protective role of exogenous Ca against AR stress in forest tree species. PMID:26616104

  8. Comparative Proteomic Analysis Reveals the Effects of Exogenous Calcium against Acid Rain Stress in Liquidambar formosana Hance Leaves.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wen-Jun; Wu, Qian; Liu, Xiang; Shen, Zhi-Jun; Chen, Juan; Liu, Ting-Wu; Chen, Juan; Zhu, Chun-Quan; Wu, Fei-Hua; Chen, Lin; Wei, Jia; Qiu, Xiao-Yun; Shen, Guo-Xin; Zheng, Hai-Lei

    2016-01-01

    Acid rain (AR) impacts forest health by leaching calcium (Ca) away from soils and plants. Ca is an essential element and participates in various plant physiological responses. In the present study, the protective role of exogenous Ca in alleviating AR stress in Liquidambar formosana Hance at the physiological and proteomic levels was examined. Our results showed that low Ca condition resulted in the chlorophyll content and photosynthesis decreasing significantly in L. formosana leaves; however, these effects could be reversed by high Ca supplementation. Further proteomic analyses successfully identified 81 differentially expressed proteins in AR-treated L. formosana under different Ca levels. In particular, some of the proteins are involved in primary metabolism, photosynthesis, energy production, antioxidant defense, transcription, and translation. Moreover, quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) results indicated that low Ca significantly increased the expression level of the investigated Ca-related genes, which can be reversed by high Ca supplementation under AR stress. Further, Western blotting analysis revealed that exogenous Ca supply reduced AR damage by elevating the expression of proteins involved in the Calvin cycle, reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging system. These findings allowed us to better understand how woody plants respond to AR stress at various Ca levels and the protective role of exogenous Ca against AR stress in forest tree species.

  9. Biochar and Glomus caledonium Influence Cd Accumulation of Upland Kangkong (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk.) Intercropped with Alfred Stonecrop (Sedum alfredii Hance)

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Junli; Wu, Fuyong; Wu, Shengchun; Lam, Cheung Lung; Lin, Xiangui; Wong, Ming Hung

    2014-01-01

    Both biochar application and mycorrhizal inoculation have been proposed to improve plant growth and alter bioaccumulation of toxic metals. A greenhouse pot trial was conducted to investigate growth and Cd accumulation of upland kangkong (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk.) intercropped with Alfred stonecrop (Sedum alfredii Hance) in a Cd-contaminated soil inoculated with Glomus caledonium and/or applied with biochar. Compared with the monocultural control, intercropping with stonecrop (IS) decreased kangkong Cd acquisition via rhizosphere competition, and also decreased kangkong yield. Gc inoculation (+M) accelerated growth and Cd acquisition of stonecrop, and hence resulted in further decreases in kangkong Cd acquisition. Regardless of IS and +M, biochar addition (+B) increased kangkong yield via elevating soil available P, and decreased soil Cd phytoavailability and kangkong Cd concentration via increasing soil pH. Compared with the control, the treatment of IS + M + B had a substantially higher kangkong yield (+25.5%) with a lower Cd concentration (−62.7%). Gc generated additive effects on soil alkalinization and Cd stabilization to biochar, causing lower DTPA-extractable (phytoavailable) Cd concentrations and post-harvest transfer risks. PMID:24728157

  10. [Effects of dissolved organic matter derived from hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii Hance rhizosphere on Zn adsorption and desorption in soil].

    PubMed

    Li, Ting-qiang; Zhu, En; Yang, Xiao-e; Shentu, Jia-li

    2008-04-01

    The study with pot experiment and simulation test showed that after planted hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii Hance on mining soil, the water soluble Zn and NH4OAc extractable Zn in rhizosphere were decreased obviously, while the available Zn in non-rhizosphere had less change. The pH value of rhizosphere soil was decreased by 0. 3 units, whereas the organic matter and dissolved organic matter (DOM) contents were increased by 13.6% and 20.9%, respectively, compared with the soil without S. alfredii. The effects of DOM from S. alfredii rhizosphere on Zn absorption and desorption varied with the kinds of test soils. After the addition of rhizosphere DOM, the maximal absorption capacity (Xm) of mining soil, quaternary red clay soil, and fluavio-marine yellow loamy soil was reduced by 17.8%, 21.9% and 27.7%, respectively, whereas the addition of non-rhizosphere DOM had no effects on Zn absorption. The Zn desorption in the three soils, especially in fluavio-marine yellow loamy soil, was promoted by the addition of rhizosphere DOM. It was indicated that the DOM from S. alfredii rhizosphere could reduce the maximal absorption capacity and accelerate the desorption of adsorbed Zn, and thus, increase the Zn mobility and bioavailability.

  11. Biochar and Glomus caledonium Influence Cd Accumulation of Upland Kangkong (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk.) Intercropped with Alfred Stonecrop (Sedum alfredii Hance)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Junli; Wu, Fuyong; Wu, Shengchun; Lam, Cheung Lung; Lin, Xiangui; Wong, Ming Hung

    2014-04-01

    Both biochar application and mycorrhizal inoculation have been proposed to improve plant growth and alter bioaccumulation of toxic metals. A greenhouse pot trial was conducted to investigate growth and Cd accumulation of upland kangkong (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk.) intercropped with Alfred stonecrop (Sedum alfredii Hance) in a Cd-contaminated soil inoculated with Glomus caledonium and/or applied with biochar. Compared with the monocultural control, intercropping with stonecrop (IS) decreased kangkong Cd acquisition via rhizosphere competition, and also decreased kangkong yield. Gc inoculation (+M) accelerated growth and Cd acquisition of stonecrop, and hence resulted in further decreases in kangkong Cd acquisition. Regardless of IS and +M, biochar addition (+B) increased kangkong yield via elevating soil available P, and decreased soil Cd phytoavailability and kangkong Cd concentration via increasing soil pH. Compared with the control, the treatment of IS + M + B had a substantially higher kangkong yield (+25.5%) with a lower Cd concentration (-62.7%). Gc generated additive effects on soil alkalinization and Cd stabilization to biochar, causing lower DTPA-extractable (phytoavailable) Cd concentrations and post-harvest transfer risks.

  12. Endophytic bacterium Sphingomonas SaMR12 promotes cadmium accumulation by increasing glutathione biosynthesis in Sedum alfredii Hance.

    PubMed

    Pan, Fengshan; Meng, Qian; Wang, Qiong; Luo, Sha; Chen, Bao; Khan, Kiran Yasmin; Yang, Xiaoe; Feng, Ying

    2016-07-01

    A hydroponic experiment was conducted to verify the effects of inoculation with endophytic bacteria Sphingomonas SaMR12 on root growth, cadmium (Cd) uptake, reactive oxygen species (ROS), antioxidases, glutathione (GSH) and the related gene expression of Sedum alfredii Hance under different levels of Cd such as 0, 10, 25, 100 and 400 μM. The results showed that inoculation of SaMR12 improved Cd accumulation and upregulated glutathione synthase (GS) expression, but slightly reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration and alleviated Cd-induced damage in roots. However it didn't alter the activities of antioxidant enzymes. When Cd concentration exceeded 25 μM, SaMR12 increased the concentration of GSH and the expression level of GSH1. At high Cd treatment levels (100 and 400 μM), SaMR12 significantly reduced H2O2 concentration and enhanced expression level of 1-Cys peroxiredoxin PER1 and ATPS genes. These results indicate that although SaMR12 has no significant effects on antioxidases activities, it reduces H2O2 concentration by enhancing GSH concentration and relevant genes expression, and subsequently improves Cd tolerance and accumulation. PMID:27065458

  13. Zinc, cadmium and lead accumulation and characteristics of rhizosphere microbial population associated with hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii Hance under natural conditions.

    PubMed

    Long, Xin-Xian; Zhang, Yu-Gang; Jun, Dai; Zhou, Qixing

    2009-04-01

    A field survey was conducted to study the characteristics of zinc, cadmium, and lead accumulation and rhizosphere microbial population associated with hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii Hance growing natively on an old lead/zinc mining site. We found significant hyperaccumulation of zinc and cadmium in field samples of S. alfredii, with maximal shoot concentrations of 9.10-19.61 g kg(-1) zinc and 0.12-1.23 g kg(-1) cadmium, shoot/root ratios ranging from 1.75 to 3.19 (average 2.54) for zinc, 3.36 to 4.43 (average 3.85) for cadmium, shoot bioaccumulation factors of zinc and cadmium being 1.46-4.84 and 7.35-17.41, respectively. While most of lead was retained in roots, thus indicating exclusion as a tolerance strategy for lead. Compared to the non-rhizosphere soil, organic matter and total nitrogen and phosphorus content, CEC and water extractable zinc, cadmium, and lead concentration were significantly higher, but pH was smaller in rhizosphere soil. The rhizosphere soil of S. alfredii harbored a wide variety of microorganism. In general, significantly higher numbers of culturable bacteria, actinomycetes, and fungi were found in the rhizosphere compared to bulk soil, confirming the stimulatory effect of the S. alfredii rhizosphere on microbial growth and proliferation. Analyses of BIOLOG data also showed that the growth of S. alfredii resulted in observable changes in BIOLOG metabolic profiles, utilization ability of different carbon substrates of microbial communities in the rhizosphere soil were also higher than the non-rhizosphere, confirming a functional effect of the rhizosphere of S. alfredii on bacterial population. PMID:19183820

  14. Metal accumulation and arbuscular mycorrhizal status in metallicolous and nonmetallicolous populations of Pteris vittata L. and Sedum alfredii Hance.

    PubMed

    Wu, F Y; Ye, Z H; Wu, S C; Wong, M H

    2007-11-01

    Although Pteris vittata L. and Sedum alfredii Hance have been identified as an As hyperaccumulator and a Zn/Cd hyperaccumulator, respectively, for a few years, variations in metal accumulation among populations and their arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) status have not been fully explored. Six populations of P. vittata and four populations of S. alfredii from southeast China were investigated. Up to 1,373 As, 680 Pb, 376 Zn, 4.8 Cd, 169 Cu mg kg(-1) in fronds of P. vittata and 358 As, 2,290 Pb, 23,403 Zn, 708 Cd, 342 Cu mg kg(-1 )in shoots of S. alfredii were detected. Constitutive properties of As and Zn hyperaccumulation in metallicolous populations of P. vittata and S. alfredii, respectively, were confirmed. However, Cd hyperaccumulation in S. alfredii varied among populations. The two hyperaccumulators varied in efficiency in taking up other heavy metals. Different metal tolerance strategies adopted by the two hyperaccumulators varied among plant species and metal species. Low to moderate levels of AM colonization in P. vittata (4.2-12.8%) and S. alfredii (8.5-45.8%) were observed at uncontaminated and metal-contaminated sites. The relationship between metal concentrations and AM colonization in the two hyperacumulators was also examined. The abundance of AM fungal spores ranged from 16 to 190 spores per 25 g soil. Glomus microaggregatum, Glomus mosseae, Glomus brohultii and Glomus geosporum were the most common species associated with both P. vittata and S. alfredii. To our knowledge, this is the first report of AM fungal status in rhizosphere of P. vittata and S. alfredii.

  15. Differential generation of hydrogen peroxide upon exposure to zinc and cadmium in the hyperaccumulating plant specie (Sedum alfredii Hance)*

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Yue-en; Zhang, Min; Tian, Sheng-ke; Lu, Ling-li; Yang, Xiao-e

    2008-01-01

    Sedum alfredii Hance has been identified as zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) co-hyperaccumulator. In this paper the relationships of Zn or Cd hyperaccumulation to the generation and the role of H2O2 in Sedum alfredii H. were examined. The results show that Zn and Cd contents in the shoots of Sedum alfredii H. treated with 1000 μmol/L Zn2+ and/or 200 μmol/L Cd2+ increased linearly within 15 d. Contents of total S, glutathione (GSH) and H2O2 in shoots also increased within 15 d, and then decreased. Total S and GSH contents in shoots were higher under Cd2+ treatment than under Zn2+ treatment. However, reverse trends of H2O2 content in shoots were obtained, in which much higher H2O2 content was observed in Zn2+-treated shoots than in Cd2+-treated shoots. Similarly, the microscopic imaging of H2O2 accumulation in leaves using H2O2 probe technique showed that much higher H2O2 accumulation was observed in the Zn2+-treated leaf than in the Cd2+-treated one. These results suggest that there are different responses in the generation of H2O2 upon exposure to Zn2+ and Cd2+ for the hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii H. And this is the first report that the generation of H2O2 may play an important role in Zn hyperaccumulation in the leaves. Our results also imply that GSH may play an important role in the detoxification of dissociated Zn/Cd and the generation of H2O2. PMID:18357627

  16. Occurrence of morphological and anatomical adaptive traits in young and adult plants of the rare Mediterranean cliff species Primula palinuri Petagna.

    PubMed

    De Micco, Veronica; Aronne, Giovanna

    2012-01-01

    Cliffs worldwide are known to be reservoirs of relict biodiversity. Despite the presence of harsh abiotic conditions, large endemic floras live in such environments. Primula palinuri Petagna is a rare endemic plant species, surviving on cliff sites along a few kilometres of the Tyrrhenian coast in southern Italy. This species is declared at risk of extinction due to human impact on the coastal areas in question. Population surveys have shown that most of the plants are old individuals, while seedlings and plants at early stages of development are rare. We followed the growth of P. palinuri plants from seed germination to the adult phase and analysed the morphoanatomical traits of plants at all stages of development. Our results showed that the pressure of cliff environmental factors has been selected for seasonal habitus and structural adaptive traits in this species. The main morphoanatomical modifications are suberized cell layers and accumulation of phenolic compounds in cell structures. These features are strictly related to regulation of water uptake and storage as well as defence from predation. However, we found them well established only in adult plants and not in juvenile individuals. These findings contribute to explain the rare recruitment of the present relict populations, identifying some of the biological traits which result in species vulnerability. PMID:22666127

  17. Occurrence of morphological and anatomical adaptive traits in young and adult plants of the rare Mediterranean cliff species Primula palinuri Petagna.

    PubMed

    De Micco, Veronica; Aronne, Giovanna

    2012-01-01

    Cliffs worldwide are known to be reservoirs of relict biodiversity. Despite the presence of harsh abiotic conditions, large endemic floras live in such environments. Primula palinuri Petagna is a rare endemic plant species, surviving on cliff sites along a few kilometres of the Tyrrhenian coast in southern Italy. This species is declared at risk of extinction due to human impact on the coastal areas in question. Population surveys have shown that most of the plants are old individuals, while seedlings and plants at early stages of development are rare. We followed the growth of P. palinuri plants from seed germination to the adult phase and analysed the morphoanatomical traits of plants at all stages of development. Our results showed that the pressure of cliff environmental factors has been selected for seasonal habitus and structural adaptive traits in this species. The main morphoanatomical modifications are suberized cell layers and accumulation of phenolic compounds in cell structures. These features are strictly related to regulation of water uptake and storage as well as defence from predation. However, we found them well established only in adult plants and not in juvenile individuals. These findings contribute to explain the rare recruitment of the present relict populations, identifying some of the biological traits which result in species vulnerability.

  18. Novel linear and step-gradient counter-current chromatography for bio-guided isolation and purification of cytotoxic podophyllotoxins from Dysosma versipellis (Hance).

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhi; Liu, Xiaoman; Wang, Kuiwu; Cao, Xiaoji; Wu, Shihua

    2013-03-01

    Dysosma versipellis (Hance) is a famous traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of snakebite, weakness, condyloma accuminata, lymphadenopathy, and tumors for thousands of years. In this work, four podophyllotoxin-like lignans including 4'-demethylpodophyllotoxin (1), α-peltatin (2), podophyllotoxin (3), β-peltatin (4) as major cytotoxic principles of D. versipellis were successfully isolated and purified by several novel linear and step gradient counter-current chromatography methods using the systems of hexane/ethyl acetate/methanol/water (4:6:3:7 and 4:6:4:6, v/v/v/v). Compared with isocratic elution, linear and step-gradient elution can provide better resolution and save more time for the separation of photophyllotoxin and its congeners. Their cytotoxicities were further evaluated and their structures were validated by high-resolution electrospray TOF MS and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra. All components showed potent anticancer activity against human hepatoma cells HepG2.

  19. Holistic Evaluation of Quality Consistency of Ixeris sonchifolia (Bunge) Hance Injectables by Quantitative Fingerprinting in Combination with Antioxidant Activity and Chemometric Methods

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lanping; Sun, Guoxiang; Guo, Yong; Hou, Zhifei; Chen, Shuai

    2016-01-01

    A widely used herbal medicine, Ixeris sonchifolia (Bge.) Hance Injectable (ISHI) was investigated for quality consistency. Characteristic fingerprints of 23 batches of the ISHI samples were generated at five wavelengths and evaluated by the systematic quantitative fingerprint method (SQFM) as well as simultaneous analysis of the content of seven marker compounds. Chemometric methods, i.e., support vector machine (SVM) and principal component analysis (PCA) were performed to assist in fingerprint evaluation of the ISHI samples. Qualitative classification of the ISHI samples by SVM was consistent with PCA, and in agreement with the quantitative evaluation by SQFM. In addition, the antioxidant activities of the ISHI samples were determined by both the off-line and on-line DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryldrazyl) radical scavenging assays. A fingerprint–efficacy relationship linking the chemical components and in vitro antioxidant activity was established and validated using the partial least squares (PLS) and orthogonal projection to latent structures (OPLS) models; and the online DPPH assay further revealed those components that had position contribution to the total antioxidant activity. Therefore, the combined use of the chemometric methods, quantitative fingerprint evaluation by SQFM, and multiple marker compound analysis in conjunction with the assay of antioxidant activity provides a powerful and holistic approach to evaluate quality consistency of herbal medicines and their preparations. PMID:26872364

  20. Microemulsion Electrokinetic Chromatography in Combination with Chemometric Methods to Evaluate the Holistic Quality Consistency and Predict the Antioxidant Activity of Ixeris sonchifolia (Bunge) Hance Injection

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lanping; Xie, Xiuman; Zhang, Jing; Sun, Guoxiang

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography (MEEKC) fingerprints combined with quantification were successfully developed to monitor the holistic quality consistency of Ixeris sonchifolia (Bge.) Hance Injection (ISHI). ISHI is a Chinese traditional patent medicine used for its anti-inflammatory and hemostatic effects. The effects of five crucial experimental variables on MEEKC were optimized by the central composite design. Under the optimized conditions, the MEEKC fingerprints of 28 ISHIs were developed. Quantitative determination of seven marker compounds was employed simultaneously, then 28 batches of samples from two manufacturers were clearly divided into two clusters by the principal component analysis. In fingerprint assessments, a systematic quantitative fingerprint method was established for the holistic quality consistency evaluation of ISHI from qualitative and quantitative perspectives, by which the qualities of 28 samples were well differentiated. In addition, the fingerprint—efficacy relationship between the fingerprints and the antioxidant activities was established utilizing orthogonal projection to latent structures, which provided important medicinal efficacy information for quality control. The present study offered a powerful and holistic approach to evaluating the quality consistency of herbal medicines and their preparations. PMID:27336298

  1. Microemulsion Electrokinetic Chromatography in Combination with Chemometric Methods to Evaluate the Holistic Quality Consistency and Predict the Antioxidant Activity of Ixeris sonchifolia (Bunge) Hance Injection.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lanping; Xie, Xiuman; Zhang, Jing; Sun, Guoxiang

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography (MEEKC) fingerprints combined with quantification were successfully developed to monitor the holistic quality consistency of Ixeris sonchifolia (Bge.) Hance Injection (ISHI). ISHI is a Chinese traditional patent medicine used for its anti-inflammatory and hemostatic effects. The effects of five crucial experimental variables on MEEKC were optimized by the central composite design. Under the optimized conditions, the MEEKC fingerprints of 28 ISHIs were developed. Quantitative determination of seven marker compounds was employed simultaneously, then 28 batches of samples from two manufacturers were clearly divided into two clusters by the principal component analysis. In fingerprint assessments, a systematic quantitative fingerprint method was established for the holistic quality consistency evaluation of ISHI from qualitative and quantitative perspectives, by which the qualities of 28 samples were well differentiated. In addition, the fingerprint-efficacy relationship between the fingerprints and the antioxidant activities was established utilizing orthogonal projection to latent structures, which provided important medicinal efficacy information for quality control. The present study offered a powerful and holistic approach to evaluating the quality consistency of herbal medicines and their preparations.

  2. Microemulsion Electrokinetic Chromatography in Combination with Chemometric Methods to Evaluate the Holistic Quality Consistency and Predict the Antioxidant Activity of Ixeris sonchifolia (Bunge) Hance Injection.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lanping; Xie, Xiuman; Zhang, Jing; Sun, Guoxiang

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography (MEEKC) fingerprints combined with quantification were successfully developed to monitor the holistic quality consistency of Ixeris sonchifolia (Bge.) Hance Injection (ISHI). ISHI is a Chinese traditional patent medicine used for its anti-inflammatory and hemostatic effects. The effects of five crucial experimental variables on MEEKC were optimized by the central composite design. Under the optimized conditions, the MEEKC fingerprints of 28 ISHIs were developed. Quantitative determination of seven marker compounds was employed simultaneously, then 28 batches of samples from two manufacturers were clearly divided into two clusters by the principal component analysis. In fingerprint assessments, a systematic quantitative fingerprint method was established for the holistic quality consistency evaluation of ISHI from qualitative and quantitative perspectives, by which the qualities of 28 samples were well differentiated. In addition, the fingerprint-efficacy relationship between the fingerprints and the antioxidant activities was established utilizing orthogonal projection to latent structures, which provided important medicinal efficacy information for quality control. The present study offered a powerful and holistic approach to evaluating the quality consistency of herbal medicines and their preparations. PMID:27336298

  3. Integrated Process for Production of Galangal Acetate, the "Wasabi-Like" Spicy Compound, and Analysis of Essential Oils of Rhizoma Alpinia officinarum (Hance) Farw.

    PubMed

    Lin, Li-Yun; Shen, Kun-Hung; Yeh, Xiang-Yü; Huang, Bou-Yü; Wang, Hui-Er; Chen, Kuan-Chou; Peng, Robert Y

    2016-06-01

    Rhizoma Alpinia officinarum (Hance) Farw, Zingiberaceae (AO), a ginger family herb exhibiting stimulant and a carminative bioactivity, is widely used in European and Asian countries as spicy condiment and medicinal uses. Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) is the main pungent taste of native Wasabi (Wasabia japonica). The cytotoxicity of AITC has been implicated in thymus, adrenals, and white blood cells. Considering food safety, apparently a safer substitute for wasabi is worthy commercialized. Previously, we found AO crude paste to be rather feasible for use as a "Wasabi-substitute" in fresh meat and cold salads. A process linking cold ethyl acetate (EtAc) extraction with silica gel adsorption and reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) (mobile phase, 75% methanol) was used to isolate galangal acetate, the Wasabi-like taste constituent. AO contained abundant galangal acetate (3.84 ± 0.07%) compared to A. galangal (0.57 ± 0.16%), and as already confirmed by thin layer chromatography (TLC), gas chromatography (GC)/mass spectrometry (MS)/MS and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (NMR), galangal acetate was particularly thermally labile. The steam distilled essential oil (SDEO) of AO (0.14% on wet basis) contained 80 compounds (number of component, %): monoterpene hydrocarbon (21, 13.83%); oxygenated monoterpene (17, 27.08%); sesquiterpene hydrocarbon (20, 31.03%), and oxygenated sesquiterpene (20, 21.85%), respectively. However, no spicy wasabi-like constituent remained in SDEO. Alternatively, n-hexane, EtAc, and methanol extracts of AO all showed potent DPPH- and superoxide anion-scavenging activity. Conclusively, SDEO although contains 80 volatiles, galangal acetate is absent due to thermal instability. Galangal acetate exhibits pleasant "Wasabi-like taste" for which we have successively developed an integrated process for mass production. PMID:27166764

  4. Antihyperlipidemic bioactivity of Alpinia officinarum (Hance) Farw Zingiberaceae can be attributed to the coexistance of curcumin, polyphenolics, dietary fibers and phytosterols.

    PubMed

    Lin, Li-Yun; Peng, Chiung-Chi; Yeh, Xian-Yü; Huang, Bor-Yü; Wang, Hui-Er; Chen, Kuan-Chou; Peng, Robert Y

    2015-05-01

    Rhizoma A. officinarum (Hance) Farw, synonymously is called rhizoma galangae or smaller galangal (hereafter abbreviated as AO). Numerous studies reported that AO possesses anti-inflammatory, anticancer, chemoprotective, antibacterial, antifungal and diuretic properties. To understand whether AO exhibits antihyperlipidemic bioactivity and what is the mechanism of action, we performed chemical and animal studies using hamsters (age: 4 weeks, body weight: 45 ± 4 g). The grouping of the animals was as follows: control, high fat (HF) diet, HF + AO2%, HF + AO4%, HF + AO6%, HF + AO8% and HF + AO10%. AO contained curcumin 5.67 mg g(-1) (on wet basis), crude fiber 1.3% ± 0.0%, soluble diet fiber 92 ± 2 mg g(-1), insoluble diet fiber 502 ± 5 mg g(-1), and phytosterols 63.9 ± 1.6 mg/100 g. Its methanolic extract consisted of high polyphenolics 4927.8 ± 101.1 mgGAE/100 g and flavonoids 593.2 ± 22.2 mgQE/100 g. The enlarged organs, including liver, kidney, and spleen, which were elicited by HF were completely alleviated by AO supplement diets. Levels of serum cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-C, HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C ratio for the control originally were 138 ± 6, 98 ± 4, 40 ± 5, 168 ± 7 mg dL(-1) and 0.24, which were elevated by HF to 319 ± 12, 223 ± 13, 108 ± 11, 194 ± 6 mg dL(-1) and 0.05, and alleviated completely by HF + AO8% and HF + AO10%. In vitro, AO extracts showed potent DPPH free radical-scavenging and superoxide anion scavenging capabilities. In vivo, AO (at dose ≥8%) dose-dependently alleviated levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase, GSH, and MDA to 117 ± 6.9 U mL(-1), 32.9 ± 3.7 U mL(-1), 7.0 ± 1.7 μmol mL(-1) and 1.8 ± 0.4 nmol L(-1), respectively, exhibiting the remarkable antioxidative and antihyperlipidemic effects of AO. Conclusively, we are the first to report the occurrence of curcumin in rhizoma A. officinarum. Curcumin synergistically elicits promising anti-dyslipidemic bioactivity with coexisting total polyphenolics, dietary fibers

  5. Antimicrobial properties of three liverworts in axenic culture: Blasia pusilla, Pallavicinia lyellii and Radula obconica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many liverworts can deter the growth of pathogenic agents such as fungi and bacteria. It has been generally assumed that the chemicals liverworts produce in their oil bodies are responsible for this activity. However, few studies have isolated and identified the specific compounds that are biologi...

  6. Antiproliferative Effects of Methanolic Extracts of Cryptocarya concinna Hance Roots on Oral Cancer Ca9-22 and CAL 27 Cell Lines Involving Apoptosis, ROS Induction, and Mitochondrial Depolarization

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hsun-Shuo; Chen, Ih-Sheng; Chang, Hsueh-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Cryptocarya-derived natural products were reported to have several biological effects such as the antiproliferation of some cancers. The possible antioral cancer effect of Cryptocarya-derived substances was little addressed as yet. In this study, we firstly used the methanolic extracts of C. concinna Hance roots (MECCrt) to evaluate its potential function in antioral cancer bioactivity. We found that MECCrt significantly reduced cell viability of two oral cancer Ca9-22 and CAL 27 cell lines in dose-responsive manners (P < 0.01). The percentages of sub-G1 phase and annexin V-positive of MECCrt-treated Ca9-22 and CAL 27 cell lines significantly accumulated (P < 0.01) in a dose-responsive manner as evidenced by flow cytometry. These apoptotic effects were associated with the findings that intracellular ROS generation was induced in MECCrt-treated Ca9-22 and CAL 27 cell lines in dose-responsive and time-dependent manners (P < 0.01). In a dose-responsive manner, MECCrt also significantly reduced the mitochondrial membrane potential in these two cell lines (P < 0.01–0.05). In conclusion, we demonstrated that MECCrt may have antiproliferative potential against oral cancer cells involving apoptosis, ROS generation, and mitochondria membrane depolarization. PMID:25379520

  7. A combination strategy for extraction and isolation of multi-component natural products by systematic two-phase solvent extraction-(13)C nuclear magnetic resonance pattern recognition and following conical counter-current chromatography separation: Podophyllotoxins and flavonoids from Dysosma versipellis (Hance) as examples.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhi; Wu, Youqian; Wu, Shihua

    2016-01-29

    Despite of substantial developments of extraction and separation techniques, isolation of natural products from natural resources is still a challenging task. In this work, an efficient strategy for extraction and isolation of multi-component natural products has been successfully developed by combination of systematic two-phase liquid-liquid extraction-(13)C NMR pattern recognition and following conical counter-current chromatography separation. A small-scale crude sample was first distributed into 9 systematic hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (HEMWat) two-phase solvent systems for determination of the optimum extraction solvents and partition coefficients of the prominent components. Then, the optimized solvent systems were used in succession to enrich the hydrophilic and lipophilic components from the large-scale crude sample. At last, the enriched components samples were further purified by a new conical counter-current chromatography (CCC). Due to the use of (13)C NMR pattern recognition, the kinds and structures of major components in the solvent extracts could be predicted. Therefore, the method could collect simultaneously the partition coefficients and the structural information of components in the selected two-phase solvents. As an example, a cytotoxic extract of podophyllotoxins and flavonoids from Dysosma versipellis (Hance) was selected. After the systematic HEMWat system solvent extraction and (13)C NMR pattern recognition analyses, the crude extract of D. versipellis was first degreased by the upper phase of HEMWat system (9:1:9:1, v/v), and then distributed in the two phases of the system of HEMWat (2:8:2:8, v/v) to obtain the hydrophilic lower phase extract and lipophilic upper phase extract, respectively. These extracts were further separated by conical CCC with the HEMWat systems (1:9:1:9 and 4:6:4:6, v/v). As results, total 17 cytotoxic compounds were isolated and identified. In general, whole results suggested that the strategy was very

  8. A combination strategy for extraction and isolation of multi-component natural products by systematic two-phase solvent extraction-(13)C nuclear magnetic resonance pattern recognition and following conical counter-current chromatography separation: Podophyllotoxins and flavonoids from Dysosma versipellis (Hance) as examples.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhi; Wu, Youqian; Wu, Shihua

    2016-01-29

    Despite of substantial developments of extraction and separation techniques, isolation of natural products from natural resources is still a challenging task. In this work, an efficient strategy for extraction and isolation of multi-component natural products has been successfully developed by combination of systematic two-phase liquid-liquid extraction-(13)C NMR pattern recognition and following conical counter-current chromatography separation. A small-scale crude sample was first distributed into 9 systematic hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (HEMWat) two-phase solvent systems for determination of the optimum extraction solvents and partition coefficients of the prominent components. Then, the optimized solvent systems were used in succession to enrich the hydrophilic and lipophilic components from the large-scale crude sample. At last, the enriched components samples were further purified by a new conical counter-current chromatography (CCC). Due to the use of (13)C NMR pattern recognition, the kinds and structures of major components in the solvent extracts could be predicted. Therefore, the method could collect simultaneously the partition coefficients and the structural information of components in the selected two-phase solvents. As an example, a cytotoxic extract of podophyllotoxins and flavonoids from Dysosma versipellis (Hance) was selected. After the systematic HEMWat system solvent extraction and (13)C NMR pattern recognition analyses, the crude extract of D. versipellis was first degreased by the upper phase of HEMWat system (9:1:9:1, v/v), and then distributed in the two phases of the system of HEMWat (2:8:2:8, v/v) to obtain the hydrophilic lower phase extract and lipophilic upper phase extract, respectively. These extracts were further separated by conical CCC with the HEMWat systems (1:9:1:9 and 4:6:4:6, v/v). As results, total 17 cytotoxic compounds were isolated and identified. In general, whole results suggested that the strategy was very

  9. Pollination ecology in the narrow endemic winter-flowering Primula allionii (Primulaceae).

    PubMed

    Minuto, Luigi; Guerrina, Maria; Roccotiello, Enrica; Roccatagliata, Nicolò; Mariotti, Mauro Giorgio; Casazza, Gabriele

    2014-01-01

    Reduction of pollen flow can affect plant abundance and population viability and cause selection on plant mating system and floral traits. Little is known on the effect of this phenomenon in species naturally restricted to small and isolated habitats, that may have developed strategies to cope with long-term isolation and small population size. We investigated the pollination ecology of the endemic distylous winter-flowering P. allionii to verify the possible limitation of female fitness due to reduced pollinator visits. We recorded a higher production of pollen grains in long-styled morph, and a higher seed set in short-styled morph. The high intra-morph variability of sexual organ position may explain the hybridization phenomena allowing and easier intra-morph pollination. The fruit set is constant, although its winter-flowering period might decrease pollen transfer. Nevertheless, the lower competition for pollinators with neighbouring plants and the long-lasting anthesis may offset its reproductive success. Even if our results show no evidence of imminent threats, changes in plant-pollinator interactions might increase inbreeding, resulting in an increased extinction risk.

  10. Development of eight polymorphic microsatellites for a Zn/Cd hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii Hance (Crassulaceae).

    PubMed

    Huang, Hui-Run; Shu, Wen-Sheng; Mao, Zhi-Bin; Ge, Xue-Jun

    2008-09-01

    Sedum alfredii is a Zn/Cd hyperaccumulator distributed in East Asia. A total of eight polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed. These loci were screened in 25 individuals from one heavy metal-tolerant population and one nontolerant population, respectively. The average allele number of these markers was 5.25 per locus, ranging from two to nine. Population-specific alleles were found at each locus. The observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.000 to 0.640 and from 0.451 to 0.819. Significant deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was detected at both the species and the population level. No significant linkage disequilibrium was detected at population level. PMID:21585968

  11. Moderate Genetic Diversity and Genetic Differentiation in the Relict Tree Liquidambar formosana Hance Revealed by Genic Simple Sequence Repeat Markers

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Rongxi; Lin, Furong; Huang, Ping; Zheng, Yongqi

    2016-01-01

    Chinese sweetgum (Liquidambar formosana) is a relatively fast-growing ecological pioneer species. It is widely used for multiple purposes. To assess the genetic diversity and genetic differentiation of the species, genic SSR markers were mined from transcriptome data for subsequent analysis of the genetic diversity and population structure of natural populations. A total of 10645 potential genic SSR loci were identified in 80482 unigenes. The average frequency was one SSR per 5.12 kb, and the dinucleotide unit was the most abundant motif. A total of 67 alleles were found, with a mean of 6.091 alleles per locus and a mean polymorphism information content of 0.390. Moreover, the species exhibited a relatively moderate level of genetic diversity (He = 0.399), with the highest was found in population XY (He = 0.469). At the regional level, the southwestern region displayed the highest genetic diversity (He = 0.435) and the largest number of private alleles (n = 5), which indicated that the Southwestern region may be the diversity hot spot of L. formosana. The AMOVA results showed that variation within populations (94.02%) was significantly higher than among populations (5.98%), which was in agreement with the coefficient of genetic differentiation (Fst = 0.076). According to the UPGMA analysis and principal coordinate analysis and confirmed by the assignment test, 25 populations could be divided into three groups, and there were different degrees of introgression among populations. No correlation was found between genetic distance and geographic distance (P > 0.05). These results provided further evidence that geographic isolation was not the primary factor leading to the moderate genetic differentiation of L. formosana. As most of the genetic diversity of L. formosana exists among individuals within a population, individual plant selection would be an effective way to use natural variation in genetic improvement programs. This would be helpful to not only protect the genetic resources but also attain effective management and exploit genetic resources. PMID:27708661

  12. Antiproliferative activities of lesser galangal (Alpinia officinarum Hance Jam1), turmeric (Curcuma longa L.), and ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) against acute monocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Omoregie, Samson N; Omoruyi, Felix O; Wright, Vincent F; Jones, Lemore; Zimba, Paul V

    2013-07-01

    Acute monocytic leukemia (AML M5 or AMoL) is one of the several types of leukemia that are still awaiting cures. The use of chemotherapy for cancer management can be harmful to normal cells in the vicinity of the target leukemia cells. This study assessed the potency of the extracts from lesser galangal, turmeric, and ginger against AML M5 to use the suitable fractions in neutraceuticals. Aqueous and organic solvent extracts from the leaves and rhizomes of lesser galangal and turmeric, and from the rhizomes only of ginger were examined for their antiproliferative activities against THP-1 AMoL cells in vitro. Lesser galangal leaf extracts in organic solvents of methanol, chloroform, and dichloromethane maintained distinctive antiproliferative activities over a 48-h period. The turmeric leaf and rhizome extracts and ginger rhizome extracts in methanol also showed distinctive anticancer activities. The lesser galangal leaf methanol extract was subsequently separated into 13, and then 18 fractions using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Fractions 9 and 16, respectively, showed the greatest antiproliferative activities. These results indicate that the use of plant extracts might be a safer approach to finding a lasting cure for AMoL. Further investigations will be required to establish the discriminatory tolerance of normal cells to these extracts, and to identify the compounds in these extracts that possess the antiproliferative activities.

  13. Asteroid Lightcurves from the Preston Gott Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Maurice

    2012-04-01

    Results of analysis of CCD photometry observations obtained at the Preston Gott Observatory of asteroids 970 Primula, 3015 Candy, 3751 Kiang, 6746 Zagar, 7750 McEwen, 10046 Creighton, and 19251 Totziens are presented.

  14. Comparative study of the physicochemical properties of six clinical low molecular weight gadolinium contrast agents.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Sophie; Elst, Luce Vander; Muller, Robert N

    2006-01-01

    This paper compares the physicochemical properties of six low molecular weight clinical complexes of gadolinium studied under identical experimental conditions. Magnevist, Dotarem, Omniscan, ProHance, MultiHance and Gadovist were investigated by oxygen-17 relaxometry at different temperatures and by proton relaxometry at various magnetic fields, temperatures and media [pure water, zinc(II)-containing aqueous solutions and HSA-containing solutions]. Osmolality, viscosity and stability versus transmetallation by zinc(II) ions were added for a more comprehensive description. The relaxivities of the clinical formulations as measured in water are similar in the imaging magnetic field region, with a slightly better performance for MultiHance. This can be explained by a shorter distance between the hydrogen nuclei of the water molecule bound to the Gd(3+) ion and this paramagnetic centre. In contrast to the open-chain complexes, all macrocyclic systems (Dotarem, ProHance and Gadovist) are insensitive to transmetallation by zinc ions. The stability of the open-chain complexes with respect to transmetallation depends on the chemical structure of the ligand, with a better stability for MultiHance. The presence of human serum albumin has no significant effect on the proton relaxivity of Magnevist, Dotarem, Omniscan, ProHance and Gadovist but markedly increases the relaxivity of MultiHance because of a non-covalent interaction with the protein. As a result, the relaxivity of MultiHance in HSA-containing media of fixed concentration decreases with increasing concentration of the contrast agent.

  15. Expansion of mass-flowering crops leads to transient pollinator dilution and reduced wild plant pollination.

    PubMed

    Holzschuh, Andrea; Dormann, Carsten F; Tscharntke, Teja; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf

    2011-11-22

    Agricultural land use results in direct biodiversity decline through loss of natural habitat, but may also cause indirect cross-habitat effects on conservation areas. We conducted three landscape-scale field studies on 67 sites to test the hypothesis that mass flowering of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) results in a transient dilution of bees in crop fields, and in increased competition between crop plants and grassland plants for pollinators. Abundances of bumble-bees, which are the main pollinators of the grassland plant Primula veris, but also pollinate oilseed rape (OSR), decreased with increasing amount of OSR. This landscape-scale dilution affected bumble-bee abundances strongly in OSR fields and marginally in grasslands, where bumble-bee abundances were generally low at the time of Primula flowering. Seed set of Primula veris, which flowers during OSR bloom, was reduced by 20 per cent when the amount of OSR within 1 km radius increased from 0 to 15 per cent. Hence, the current expansion of bee-attractive biofuel crops results in transient dilution of crop pollinators, which means an increased competition for pollinators between crops and wild plants. In conclusion, mass-flowering crops potentially threaten fitness of concurrently flowering wild plants in conservation areas, despite the fact that, in the long run, mass-flowering crops can enhance abundances of generalist pollinators and their pollination service.

  16. Expansion of mass-flowering crops leads to transient pollinator dilution and reduced wild plant pollination

    PubMed Central

    Holzschuh, Andrea; Dormann, Carsten F.; Tscharntke, Teja; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf

    2011-01-01

    Agricultural land use results in direct biodiversity decline through loss of natural habitat, but may also cause indirect cross-habitat effects on conservation areas. We conducted three landscape-scale field studies on 67 sites to test the hypothesis that mass flowering of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) results in a transient dilution of bees in crop fields, and in increased competition between crop plants and grassland plants for pollinators. Abundances of bumble-bees, which are the main pollinators of the grassland plant Primula veris, but also pollinate oilseed rape (OSR), decreased with increasing amount of OSR. This landscape-scale dilution affected bumble-bee abundances strongly in OSR fields and marginally in grasslands, where bumble-bee abundances were generally low at the time of Primula flowering. Seed set of Primula veris, which flowers during OSR bloom, was reduced by 20 per cent when the amount of OSR within 1 km radius increased from 0 to 15 per cent. Hence, the current expansion of bee-attractive biofuel crops results in transient dilution of crop pollinators, which means an increased competition for pollinators between crops and wild plants. In conclusion, mass-flowering crops potentially threaten fitness of concurrently flowering wild plants in conservation areas, despite the fact that, in the long run, mass-flowering crops can enhance abundances of generalist pollinators and their pollination service. PMID:21471115

  17. Presence versus absence of CYP734A50 underlies the style-length dimorphism in primroses

    PubMed Central

    Huu, Cuong Nguyen; Kappel, Christian; Keller, Barbara; Sicard, Adrien; Takebayashi, Yumiko; Breuninger, Holger; Nowak, Michael D; Bäurle, Isabel; Himmelbach, Axel; Burkart, Michael; Ebbing-Lohaus, Thomas; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Altschmied, Lothar; Conti, Elena; Lenhard, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Heterostyly is a wide-spread floral adaptation to promote outbreeding, yet its genetic basis and evolutionary origin remain poorly understood. In Primula (primroses), heterostyly is controlled by the S-locus supergene that determines the reciprocal arrangement of reproductive organs and incompatibility between the two morphs. However, the identities of the component genes remain unknown. Here, we identify the Primula CYP734A50 gene, encoding a putative brassinosteroid-degrading enzyme, as the G locus that determines the style-length dimorphism. CYP734A50 is only present on the short-styled S-morph haplotype, it is specifically expressed in S-morph styles, and its loss or inactivation leads to long styles. The gene arose by a duplication specific to the Primulaceae lineage and shows an accelerated rate of molecular evolution. Thus, our results provide a mechanistic explanation for the Primula style-length dimorphism and begin to shed light on the evolution of the S-locus as a prime model for a complex plant supergene. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17956.001 PMID:27596932

  18. Presence versus absence of CYP734A50 underlies the style-length dimorphism in primroses.

    PubMed

    Huu, Cuong Nguyen; Kappel, Christian; Keller, Barbara; Sicard, Adrien; Takebayashi, Yumiko; Breuninger, Holger; Nowak, Michael D; Bäurle, Isabel; Himmelbach, Axel; Burkart, Michael; Ebbing-Lohaus, Thomas; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Altschmied, Lothar; Conti, Elena; Lenhard, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Heterostyly is a wide-spread floral adaptation to promote outbreeding, yet its genetic basis and evolutionary origin remain poorly understood. In Primula (primroses), heterostyly is controlled by the S-locus supergene that determines the reciprocal arrangement of reproductive organs and incompatibility between the two morphs. However, the identities of the component genes remain unknown. Here, we identify the Primula CYP734A50 gene, encoding a putative brassinosteroid-degrading enzyme, as the G locus that determines the style-length dimorphism. CYP734A50 is only present on the short-styled S-morph haplotype, it is specifically expressed in S-morph styles, and its loss or inactivation leads to long styles. The gene arose by a duplication specific to the Primulaceae lineage and shows an accelerated rate of molecular evolution. Thus, our results provide a mechanistic explanation for the Primula style-length dimorphism and begin to shed light on the evolution of the S-locus as a prime model for a complex plant supergene. PMID:27596932

  19. Expansion of mass-flowering crops leads to transient pollinator dilution and reduced wild plant pollination.

    PubMed

    Holzschuh, Andrea; Dormann, Carsten F; Tscharntke, Teja; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf

    2011-11-22

    Agricultural land use results in direct biodiversity decline through loss of natural habitat, but may also cause indirect cross-habitat effects on conservation areas. We conducted three landscape-scale field studies on 67 sites to test the hypothesis that mass flowering of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) results in a transient dilution of bees in crop fields, and in increased competition between crop plants and grassland plants for pollinators. Abundances of bumble-bees, which are the main pollinators of the grassland plant Primula veris, but also pollinate oilseed rape (OSR), decreased with increasing amount of OSR. This landscape-scale dilution affected bumble-bee abundances strongly in OSR fields and marginally in grasslands, where bumble-bee abundances were generally low at the time of Primula flowering. Seed set of Primula veris, which flowers during OSR bloom, was reduced by 20 per cent when the amount of OSR within 1 km radius increased from 0 to 15 per cent. Hence, the current expansion of bee-attractive biofuel crops results in transient dilution of crop pollinators, which means an increased competition for pollinators between crops and wild plants. In conclusion, mass-flowering crops potentially threaten fitness of concurrently flowering wild plants in conservation areas, despite the fact that, in the long run, mass-flowering crops can enhance abundances of generalist pollinators and their pollination service. PMID:21471115

  20. New isoprenylated flavones and stilbene derivative from Artocarpus hypargyreus.

    PubMed

    Yu, Mei-Hua; Zhao, Ting; Yan, Gui-Rui; Yang, Hong-Xun; Wang, He-Yao; Hou, Ai-Jun

    2012-02-01

    Three new isoprenylated flavones, hypargyflavones A-C (1-3, resp.), and one novel stilbene derivative, hypargystilbene A (4), together with seven known compounds, 5-11, were isolated from the stems of Artocarpus hypargyreus Hance. The structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. Hypargyflavone A (1), cudraflavone C (8), brosimone I (10), and norartocarpin (11) showed inhibitory effects on pancreatic lipase.

  1. How can radio frequency identification technology impact nursing practice?

    PubMed

    Billingsley, Luanne; Wyld, David

    2014-12-01

    Radio frequency identification (RFID) technology can save nurses time, improve quality of care, en hance patient and staff safety, and decrease costs. However, without a better understanding of these systems and their benefits to patients and hospitals, nurses may be slower to recommend, implement, or adopt RFID technology into practice.

  2. Complete sequence of a cryptic virus from hemp (Cannabis sativa).

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Angelika; Matoušek, Jaroslav; Steger, Gerhard; Schubert, Jörg

    2012-02-01

    Hemp (Cannabis sativa) was found to be a useful propagation host for hop latent virus, a carlavirus. However, when virus preparations were analysed by electron microscopy, along with the expected filamentous particles, spherical particles with a diameter of around 34 nm were found. RNA from virus preparations was purified, and cDNA was prepared and cloned. Sequence information was used to search databases, and the greatest similarity was found with Primula malacoides virus 1, a putative new member of the genus Partitivirus. The full sequences of RNA 1 and RNA 2 of this new hemp cryptic virus were obtained.

  3. [Mechanism of the contraceptive action of the triterpene glycosides from the rock jasmine Androsace septentrionalis L].

    PubMed

    Mats, M N; Savchenko, O N

    1986-01-01

    The sum of triterpene glycosides of Androsace septentrionalis L. (a plant of genus Primula) was shown to change the concentrations of lutropin and follitropin in the hypophysis and plasma and the ratio of these hormones in the blood plasma in the active phase of the cycle. This leads to the change of the ovarian hormonal activity in the direction of predominance of the estrogenic action and an increase of the uterine contractile activity that can be of certain significance in manifestation of the contraceptive effect.

  4. The expansion of Phytophthora clade 8b: three new species associated with winter grown vegetable crops.

    PubMed

    Bertier, L; Brouwer, H; de Cock, A W A M; Cooke, D E L; Olsson, C H B; Höfte, M

    2013-12-01

    Despite its association with important agricultural crops, Phytophthora clade 8b is a poorly studied group of species. The clade currently consists of three officially described species (Phytophthora porri, P. brassicae and P. primulae) that are host-specific pathogens of leek, cabbages and Primula spp., respectively. However, over the past few decades, several other clade 8b-like Phytophthoras have been found on a variety of different host plants that were all grown at low temperatures in winter seasons. In this study, a collection of 30 of these isolates was subjected to a phylogenetic study using two loci (the rDNA ITS region and the mitochondrial cox1 gene). This analysis revealed a clear clustering of isolates according to their host plants. To verify whether these isolates belong to separate species, a detailed morphological study was conducted. On the basis of genetic and morphological differences and host specificity, we now present the official description of three new species in clade 8b: Phytophthora cichorii sp. nov., P. dauci sp. nov. and P. lactucae sp. nov. Two other groups of isolates (Phytophthora taxon castitis and Phytophthora taxon parsley) might also represent new species but the data available at this time are insufficient for an official description. This brings Phytophthora clade 8b to a group of six species that are all host-specific, slow-growing and specifically infect herbaceous crops at low temperatures.

  5. Quaternary diversification in European alpine plants: pattern and process.

    PubMed Central

    Kadereit, Joachim W; Griebeler, Eva Maria; Comes, Hans Peter

    2004-01-01

    Molecular clock approaches applied previously to European alpine plants suggest that Primula sect. Auricula, Gentiana sect. Ciminalis and Soldanella diversified at the beginning of the Quaternary or well within this period, whereas Globularia had already started diversifying in the (Late-)Tertiary. In the first part of this paper we present evidence that, in contrast to Globularia and Soldanella, the branching patterns of the molecular internal transcribed spacer phylogenies of both Primula and Gentiana are incompatible with a constant-rates birth-death model. In both of these last two taxa, speciation probably decreased through Quaternary times, perhaps because of some niche-filling process and/or a decrease in specific range size. In the second part, we apply nonlinear regression analyses to the lineage-through-time plots of P. sect. Auricula to test a range of capacity-dependent models of diversification, and the effect of Quaternary climatic oscillations on diversification and extinction. At least for one major clade of sect. Auricula there is firm evidence that both diversification and extinction are a function of temperature. Intriguingly, temperature appears to be correlated positively with extinction, but negatively with diversification. This suggests that diversification did not take place, as previously assumed, in geographical isolation in high-altitude interglacial refugia, but rather at low altitudes in geographically isolated glacial refugia. PMID:15101582

  6. [Herbalogical textual research of Wuyi].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hai-liang; Zhang, Rui-xian

    2015-11-01

    Wuyi is one of the Chinese medicine recorded in Shennong's Herbal Classic and many other herbal books during the long history period. Up to now, Wuyi is still an important medicine used for insecticidal and removing food retention. Recent researches indicated that Wuyi also had the function of anti-malaria and treating herpetic simplex keratitis. Therefore, Wuyi had notable value on clinic and development of new medicine. The herbalogical textual research on Wuyi was conducted through investigation of the literature of materia medica during the long historical period from Han Dynasty. It was demonstrated by this work that the original plants of Wuyi include Ulmus macrocarpa Hance and Hemiptelea davidii (Hance) Planch, in which, U. macrocarpa was the quality specie. U. pumila was the false specie which cause confusing. The medicine Wuyi was the processed product made from the nutlet of the plants through fermentation with other additive agents. PMID:27097433

  7. [Herbalogical textual research of Wuyi].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hai-liang; Zhang, Rui-xian

    2015-11-01

    Wuyi is one of the Chinese medicine recorded in Shennong's Herbal Classic and many other herbal books during the long history period. Up to now, Wuyi is still an important medicine used for insecticidal and removing food retention. Recent researches indicated that Wuyi also had the function of anti-malaria and treating herpetic simplex keratitis. Therefore, Wuyi had notable value on clinic and development of new medicine. The herbalogical textual research on Wuyi was conducted through investigation of the literature of materia medica during the long historical period from Han Dynasty. It was demonstrated by this work that the original plants of Wuyi include Ulmus macrocarpa Hance and Hemiptelea davidii (Hance) Planch, in which, U. macrocarpa was the quality specie. U. pumila was the false specie which cause confusing. The medicine Wuyi was the processed product made from the nutlet of the plants through fermentation with other additive agents.

  8. Novel polyprenylated phloroglucinols from Hypericum sampsonii.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jih-Jung; Chen, Hong-Jhang; Lin, Yun-Lian

    2014-01-01

    Hypericum sampsonii Hance (Clusiaceae) is a folk medicine used in Taiwan to treat blood stasis, relieve swelling, and as an anti-hepatitis drug. Two new polyprenylated phloroglucinol derivatives, hypersampsone R (1) and hypersampsone S (2), and a known prenylated benzophenone, hyperibone K (3) were isolated from the aerial parts of H. sampsonii. Their structures were determined by extensive 1D and 2D NMR, and MS spectral analyses. PMID:25460308

  9. Production of interspecific hybrids in ornamental plants.

    PubMed

    Kato, Juntaro; Mii, Masahiro

    2012-01-01

    In breeding of ornamental plants, interspecific hybridization and polyploidization have successfully been used to produce novel cultivars with blended traits of both parents and to introgress useful traits of one species to another. Embryo rescue techniques and molecular cytogenetic methods have successfully been used to produce and characterize interspecific hybrids in various genera. In this paper, recent advances in interspecific hybridization are described based on the results obtained in Primula, Cosmos, and Kalanchoe with special references to the use of embryo culture techniques for rescuing the abortive hybrid embryos. The methods for production and characterization of interspecific hybrids are categorized into three steps, i.e., (1) pollination, (2) rescue culture of immature embryo, and (3) confirmation of hybridity and ploidy level of the plants obtained. For interspecific crosses, emasculation step is usually needed to avoid self-pollination even in the genera with self-incompatibility system, such as Primula and Cosmos, since self-incompatibility is not always complete. Since interspecific crosses are usually hindered by various cross-incompatibility mechanisms, successful production of interspecific hybrids could be achieved only from limited crosses among those using many cultivars/strains of both parents, suggesting the importance of the selection of the compatible genotypes. Unilateral cross incompatibility is commonly observed in interspecific cross combinations, so reciprocal crosses should be conducted as an indispensable step. At the rescue culture step, addition of plant hormones, e.g., auxin cytokinin and gibberellin, to the culture medium at the appropriate concentrations is proved to be effective and necessary. The hybridity of the plants is efficiently confirmed at the seedling stage by DNA analysis in addition to the observation of morphological characters. The analysis of relative DNA contents by flow cytometry is an easy and rapid means

  10. Production of interspecific hybrids in ornamental plants.

    PubMed

    Kato, Juntaro; Mii, Masahiro

    2012-01-01

    In breeding of ornamental plants, interspecific hybridization and polyploidization have successfully been used to produce novel cultivars with blended traits of both parents and to introgress useful traits of one species to another. Embryo rescue techniques and molecular cytogenetic methods have successfully been used to produce and characterize interspecific hybrids in various genera. In this paper, recent advances in interspecific hybridization are described based on the results obtained in Primula, Cosmos, and Kalanchoe with special references to the use of embryo culture techniques for rescuing the abortive hybrid embryos. The methods for production and characterization of interspecific hybrids are categorized into three steps, i.e., (1) pollination, (2) rescue culture of immature embryo, and (3) confirmation of hybridity and ploidy level of the plants obtained. For interspecific crosses, emasculation step is usually needed to avoid self-pollination even in the genera with self-incompatibility system, such as Primula and Cosmos, since self-incompatibility is not always complete. Since interspecific crosses are usually hindered by various cross-incompatibility mechanisms, successful production of interspecific hybrids could be achieved only from limited crosses among those using many cultivars/strains of both parents, suggesting the importance of the selection of the compatible genotypes. Unilateral cross incompatibility is commonly observed in interspecific cross combinations, so reciprocal crosses should be conducted as an indispensable step. At the rescue culture step, addition of plant hormones, e.g., auxin cytokinin and gibberellin, to the culture medium at the appropriate concentrations is proved to be effective and necessary. The hybridity of the plants is efficiently confirmed at the seedling stage by DNA analysis in addition to the observation of morphological characters. The analysis of relative DNA contents by flow cytometry is an easy and rapid means

  11. [Study on secondary metabolites of endophytic fungi Penicillium dangeardii].

    PubMed

    Lv, Hai-ning; Ding, Guang-zhi; Liu, Yun-bao; Qu, Jing

    2015-05-01

    Endophytic fungi Penicillium dangeardii, isolated from Lysidice rhodostegia Hance root, was fermented and the secondary metabolites were studied. By means of Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography, ODS column chromatography and PHPLC over the fermented culture, 5 compounds were isolated. By using ESI-MS and NMR, the structures of the compounds were determined as N-[9-(β- D-ribofuranosyl)-9H-purin-6-yl]-L-aspartic acid (1), 3-caffeoylquinic acid (2), 4-caffeoylquinic acid (3), and 5-caffeoylquinic acid (4), 3-hydroxy-benzoic acid-4-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (5).

  12. Podoverine A--a novel microtubule destabilizing natural product from the Podophyllum species.

    PubMed

    Tran, Tuyen Thi Ngoc; Gerding-Reimers, Claas; Schölermann, Beate; Stanitzki, Bettina; Henkel, Thomas; Waldmann, Herbert; Ziegler, Slava

    2014-09-15

    Natural products represent compound classes with high chemical and structural diversity and various biological activities. Libraries based on natural products are valuable starting point in the search for novel biologically active substances. Here we report on the identification of the natural product podoverine A from the plant Podophyllum versipelle Hance as a novel tubulin-acting agent. A natural product compound collection was subjected to a high-content screen that monitors changes in cytoskeleton and DNA and podoverine A was identified as inhibitor of mitosis. This natural product causes mitotic arrest and inhibits microtubule polymerization in vitro and in cells by targeting the vinca binding site on tubulin.

  13. Chemical constituents of essential oils from the leaves and stem barks of four Vietnamese species of Fissistigma (Annonaceae).

    PubMed

    Thang, Tran D; Luu, Hoang V; Dung, Vo C; Tuan, Nguyen N; Hung, Nguyen H; Dai, Do N; Ogunwande, Isiaka A

    2014-01-01

    Chemical profiles of essential oils from four Fissistigma species: Fissistigma bracteolatum Chatt., Fissistigma villosissimum Merr., Fissistigma latifolium (Dunal) Merr. and Fissistigma glaucescens (Hance) Merr. were analysed by gas chromatography-flame ionisation detector and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Fissistigma essential oils consist mainly of sesquiterpenes (48.7-83.8%), monoterpenes (3.2-30.9%) and fatty acids (0.5-33.4%). Data on the essential oil composition of F. villosissimum, F. latifolium and F. glaucescens are reported for the first time.

  14. Use of KLV to combine metadata, camera sync, and data acquisition into a single video record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hightower, Paul

    2015-05-01

    SMPTE has designed in significant data spaces in each frame that may be used to store time stamps and other time sensitive data. There are metadata spaces in both the analog equivalent of the horizontal blanking referred to as the Horizontal Ancillary (HANC) space and in the analog equivalent of the vertical interval blanking lines referred to as the Vertical Ancillary (VANC) space. The HANC space is very crowded with many data types including information about frame rate and format, 16 channels of audio sound bites, copyright controls, billing information and more than 2,000 more elements. The VANC space is relatively unused by cinema and broadcasters which makes it a prime target for use in test, surveillance and other specialized applications. Taking advantage of the SMPTE structures, one can design and implement custom data gathering and recording systems while maintaining full interoperability with standard equipment. The VANC data space can be used to capture image relevant data and can be used to overcome transport latency and diminished image quality introduced by the use of compression.

  15. Searching for health beneficial n-3 and n-6 fatty acids in plant seeds.

    PubMed

    Kuhnt, Katrin; Degen, Christian; Jaudszus, Anke; Jahreis, Gerhard

    2012-02-01

    Various plant seeds have received little attention in fatty acid research. Seeds from 30 species mainly of Boraginaceae and Primulaceae were analysed in order to identify potential new sources of the n-3 PUFA α-linolenic acid (ALA) and stearidonic acid (SDA) and of the n-6 PUFA γ-linolenic acid (GLA). The fatty acid distribution differed enormously between genera of the same family. Echium species (Boraginaceae) contained the highest amount of total n-3 PUFA (47.1%), predominantly ALA (36.6%) and SDA (10.5%) combined with high GLA (10.2%). Further species of Boraginaceae rich in both SDA and GLA were Omphalodes linifolia (8.4, 17.2%, resp.), Cerinthe minor (7.5, 9.9%, resp.) and Buglossoides purpureocaerulea (6.1, 16.6%, resp.). Alkanna species belonging to Boraginaceae had comparable amounts of ALA (37.3%) and GLA (11.4%) like Echium but lower SDA contents (3.7%). Different genera of Primulaceae (Dodecatheon and Primula) had varying ALA (14.8, 28.8%, resp.) and GLA portions (4.1, 1.5%, resp.), but similar amounts of SDA (4.9, 4.5%, resp.). Cannabis sativa cultivars (Cannabaceae) were rich in linoleic acid (57.1%), but poor in SDA and GLA (0.8, 2.7%, resp.). In conclusion, several of the presented plant seeds contain considerable amounts of n-3 PUFA and GLA, which could be relevant for nutritional purposes due to their biological function as precursors for eicosanoid synthesis. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: N-3 PUFA are important for human health and nutrition. Unfortunately, due to the increasing world population, overfishing of the seas and generally low amounts of n-3 PUFA in major oil crops, there is a demand for new sources of n-3 PUFA. One approach involves searching for potential vegetable sources of n-3 PUFA; especially those rich in ALA and SDA. The conversion of ALA to SDA in humans is dependent on the rate-limiting Δ6-desaturation. Plant-derived SDA is therefore a promising precursor regarding the endogenous synthesis of n-3 long-chain PUFA in humans. The

  16. Hydrocarbon footprints as a record of bumblebee flower visitation.

    PubMed

    Witjes, Sebastian; Eltz, Thomas

    2009-11-01

    Bumblebees leave traces of cuticular hydrocarbons on flowers they visit, with the amount deposited being positively related to the number of visits. We asked whether such footprint hydrocarbons are retained on flowers for sufficiently long periods of time so as to reflect bee visitation in pollination studies. In laboratory experiments, flower corollae (Primula veris, Digitalis grandiflora) visited by Bombus terrestris workers retained bee-derived nonacosenes (C(29)H(58)) in near-unchanged quantities for 24 hours, both at 15 and 25 degrees C. Additionally, synthetic (Z)-9-tricosene applied to flower corollae of the deadnettle Lamium maculatum was retained for 48 hours in an unchanged quantity. In a field survey, the amount of footprint alkenes on flowers of comfrey (Symphytum officinale) plants was positively correlated with the number of bumblebee visits that those plants had received during the day. Together, these data suggest that flowers retain a long-term quantitative record of bumblebee visitation. The analysis of petal extracts by gas chromatography could provide a cheap and reliable way of quantifying bumblebee visits in landscape scale studies of pollination. PMID:20013038

  17. Disentangling reticulate evolution in an arctic-alpine polyploid complex.

    PubMed

    Guggisberg, Alessia; Mansion, Guilhem; Conti, Elena

    2009-02-01

    Although polyploidy plays a fundamental role in plant evolution, the elucidation of polyploid origins is fraught with methodological challenges. For example, allopolyploid species may confound phylogenetic reconstruction because commonly used methods are designed to trace divergent, rather than reticulate patterns. Recently developed techniques of phylogenetic network estimation allow for a more effective identification of incongruence among trees. However, incongruence can also be caused by incomplete lineage sorting, paralogy, concerted evolution, and recombination. Thus, initial hypotheses of hybridization need to be examined via additional sources of evidence, including the partitioning of infraspecific genetic polymorphisms, morphological characteristics, chromosome numbers, crossing experiments, and distributional patterns. Primula sect. Aleuritia subsect. Aleuritia (Aleuritia) represents an ideal case study to examine reticulation because specific hypotheses have been derived from morphology, karyology, interfertility, and distribution to explain the observed variation of ploidy levels, ranging from diploidy to 14-ploidy. Sequences from 5 chloroplast and 1 nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA) markers were analyzed to generate the respective phylogenies and consensus networks. Furthermore, extensive cloning of the nrDNA marker allowed for the identification of shared nucleotides at polymorphic sites, investigation of infraspecific genetic polymorphisms via principal coordinate analyses PCoAs, and detection of recombination between putative progenitor sequences. The results suggest that most surveyed polyploids originated via hybridization and that 2 taxonomic species formed recurrently from different progenitors, findings that are congruent with the expectations of speciation via secondary contact. Overall, the study highlights the importance of using multiple experimental and analytical approaches to disentangle complex patterns of reticulation.

  18. Cytotoxic Activity of Some Medicinal Plants from Hamedan District of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Behzad, Sahar; Pirani, Atefeh; Mosaddegh, Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    Medicinal plants have been investigated for possible anti-cancer effects. The aim of the present study was to examine the cytotoxic activity of several medicinal plants on different tumor cell lines. 11 selected plant species which have been used in folkloric prescriptions were collected from different sites of Hamedan district of Iran. The methanolic extracts of the plants were prepared and their cytotoxic effects on four human cancer cell lines (A549, human lung adenocarcinoma; MCF7, human breast adenocarcinoma; HepG2, hepatocellular carcinoma and HT-29, human colon carcinoma) and one normal cell line (MDBK, bovine kidney) were examined using the MTT assay. Three of these were exhibited antiproliferative activity against one or more of the cell lines. The extract from Primula auriculata demonstrated the highest cytotoxicity with IC50 of 25.79, 35.79 and 43.34 μg.mL−1 against MCF7, HepG2 and HT- 29 cells, respectively. For some of the plants, their traditional use was correlated with the cytotoxic results, whereas for others the results may support the non-cytotoxicity of species used traditionally as natural remedies. The cytotoxic species could be considered as potential of anticancer compounds. PMID:24711847

  19. Asymmetrical disassortative pollination in a distylous primrose: the complementary roles of bumblebee nectar robbers and syrphid flies.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xing-Fu; Jiang, Xian-Feng; Li, Li; Zhang, Zhi-Qiang; Li, Qing-Jun

    2015-01-12

    Heterostyly is a floral polymorphism characterized by reciprocal herkogamy maintained through high levels of mating between morphs, serviced by appropriate pollinators. We studied how differential efficiency and abundance of distinct pollinators affect plant female reproduction in self- and intra-morph incompatible distylous Primula secundiflora. Bumblebees and syrphid flies were found to be the most abundant floral visitors. Bumblebees frequently exhibited nectar-robbing behavior. Because the robbing holes were always situated between the high- and low-level organs on both morphs, nectar-robbing bumblebees only pollinated S-styled flowers. L-styled flowers set four times as many seeds as did S-styled flowers after being visited by pollen-collecting syrphid flies. The natural female fecundity and the magnitude of pollen limitation varied between the morphs within populations because of the mosaic distribution of nectar-robbing bumblebees and syrphid flies. L-styled flowers and S-styled flowers set the same number of seeds after supplemental hand pollination, indicating equivalent female reproductive potential. We suggest that bumblebee nectar robbers and syrphid flies play an important role in sustaining the floral dimorphism of heterostyly in P. secundiflora because of their complementary roles in the pollination system.

  20. Evolutionary diversifications of plants on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Jun; Zhang, Jian-Qiang; Nie, Ze-Long; Zhong, Yang; Sun, Hang

    2014-01-01

    The Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) is the highest and one of the most extensive plateaus in the world. Phylogenetic, phylogeographic, and ecological studies support plant diversifications on the QTP through multiple mechanisms such as allopatric speciation via geographic isolation, climatic oscillations and divergences, pollinator-mediated isolation, diploid hybridization and introgression, and allopolyploidy. These mechanisms have driven spectacular radiations and/or species diversifications in various groups of plants such as Pedicularis L., Saussurea DC., Rhododendron L., Primula L., Meconopsis Vig., Rhodiola L., and many lineages of gymnosperms. Nevertheless, much work is needed toward understanding the evolutionary mechanisms of plant diversifications on the QTP. Well-sampled biogeographic analyses of the QTP plants in the broad framework of the Northern Hemisphere as well as the Southern Hemisphere are still relatively few and should be encouraged in the next decade. This paper reviews recent evidence from phylogenetic and biogeographic studies in plants, in the context of rapid radiations, mechanisms of species diversifications on the QTP, and the biogeographic significance of the QTP in the broader context of both the Northern and Southern Hemisphere biogeography. Integrative multidimensional analyses of phylogeny, morphological innovations, geography, ecology, development, species interactions and diversifications, and geology are needed and should shed insights into the patterns of evolutionary assembly and radiations in this fascinating region. PMID:24575120

  1. RP-HPLC method using one marker for quantification of four podophyllum lignans in medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ningwei; An, Qiong; Li, Ning; Dong, Yuming

    2014-07-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic method using a single standard has been established for the quantitative analysis of four podophyllum lignans in Dysosma versipellis (Hance) M. Cheng and Podophyllum emodi Wall. Var. chinesis Sprague. The method involved the quantitative analysis of multiple components by a single marker. The chromatographic method was validated for linearity and range, limit of detection and qualification, precision, stability, reproducibility and robustness. Relative correcting factors were calculated and examined by five concentrations of four podophyllum lignans, two high-performance liquid chromatographic systems and three chromatographic columns. The method was applied to analyze 10 batches of samples. The quantitative results were compared with the results by an external standard method through intra-class coefficient, which indicated that the established method was reliable for the determination of the four podophyllum lignans in the two medicinal plants.

  2. Collinearly improved JIMWLK evolution in Langevin form

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatta, Yoshitaka; Iancu, Edmond

    2016-08-01

    The high-energy evolution of Wilson line operators, which at leading order is described by the Balitsky-JIMWLK equations, receives large radiative corrections en-hanced by single and double collinear logarithms at next-to-leading order and beyond. We propose a method for resumming such logarithmic corrections to all orders, at the level of the Langevin formulation of the JIMWLK equation. The ensuing, collinearly-improved Langevin equation features generalized Wilson line operators, which depend not only upon rapidity (the logarithm of the longitudinal momentum), but also upon the transverse size of the color neutral projectile to which the Wilson lines belong. This additional scale dependence is built up during the evolution, via the condition that the successive emissions of soft gluons be ordered in time. The presence of this transverse scale in the Langevin equation furthermore allows for the resummation of the one-loop running coupling corrections.

  3. Detection of phytochelatins in the hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii exposed to cadmium and lead.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhongchun; Gao, Xiang; Qiu, Baosheng

    2008-02-01

    Phytochelatins (PCs) are known to play an essential role in the heavy metal detoxification of some higher plants and fungi by chelating heavy metals. However, three recent papers reported that no PCs could be detected in the hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii Hance upon cadmium, lead or zinc treatment, respectively. In this paper, PC synthesis was assayed again in the mine population of S. alfredii with the help of reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), HPLC-mass spectrometry, and HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry. Our data showed that PC formation could be induced in the leaf, stem and root tissues of S. alfredii upon exposure to 400 microM cadmium, and only in the stem and root when exposed to 700 microM lead. However, no PCs were found in any part of S. alfredii when it was subjected to exposure to 1600 microM zinc. PMID:18023461

  4. Detection of phytochelatins in the hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii exposed to cadmium and lead.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhongchun; Gao, Xiang; Qiu, Baosheng

    2008-02-01

    Phytochelatins (PCs) are known to play an essential role in the heavy metal detoxification of some higher plants and fungi by chelating heavy metals. However, three recent papers reported that no PCs could be detected in the hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii Hance upon cadmium, lead or zinc treatment, respectively. In this paper, PC synthesis was assayed again in the mine population of S. alfredii with the help of reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), HPLC-mass spectrometry, and HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry. Our data showed that PC formation could be induced in the leaf, stem and root tissues of S. alfredii upon exposure to 400 microM cadmium, and only in the stem and root when exposed to 700 microM lead. However, no PCs were found in any part of S. alfredii when it was subjected to exposure to 1600 microM zinc.

  5. Enzyme Design From the Bottom Up: An Active Nickel Electrocatalyst with a Structured Peptide Outer Coordination Sphere

    SciTech Connect

    Reback, Matthew L.; Buchko, Garry W.; Kier, Brandon L.; Ginovska-Pangovska, Bojana; Xiong, Yijia; Lense, Sheri; Hou, Jianbo; Roberts, John A.; Sorensen, Christina M.; Raugei, Simone; Squier, Thomas C.; Shaw, Wendy J.

    2014-02-03

    Functional, peptide-containing metal complexes with a well-defined peptide structure have the potential to enhance molecular catalysts via an enzyme-like outer coordination sphere. Here, we report the synthesis and characterization of an active, peptide-based metal complex built upon the well characterized hydrogen production catalyst, Ni(PPh2NPh)2. The incorporated peptide maintains its B-hairpin structure when appended to the metal core, and the electrocatalytic activity of the peptide-based metal complex (~100,000 s-1) is fully retained. The combination of an active molecular catalyst with a structured peptide outer coordination sphere provides a scaffold that permits the incorporation of features of an enzyme-like outer-coordination sphere necessary to create molecular electrocatalysts with en-hanced functionality.

  6. Effects of calcium on seed germination, seedling growth and photosynthesis of six forest tree species under simulated acid rain.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ting-Wu; Wu, Fei-Hua; Wang, Wen-Hua; Chen, Juan; Li, Zhen-Ji; Dong, Xue-Jun; Patton, Janet; Pei, Zhen-Ming; Zheng, Hai-Lei

    2011-04-01

    We selected six tree species, Pinus massoniana Lamb., Cryptomeria fortunei Hooibr. ex Otto et Dietr., Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook., Liquidambar formosana Hance, Pinus armandii Franch. and Castanopsis chinensis Hance, which are widely distributed as dominant species in the forest of southern China where acid deposition is becoming more and more serious in recent years. We investigated the effects and potential interactions between simulated acid rain (SiAR) and three calcium (Ca) levels on seed germination, radicle length, seedling growth, chlorophyll content, photosynthesis and Ca content in leaves of these six species. We found that the six species showed different responses to SiAR and different Ca levels. Pinus armandii and C. chinensis were very tolerant to SiAR, whereas the others were more sensitive. The results of significant SiAR × Ca interactions on different physiological parameters of the six species demonstrate that additional Ca had a dramatic rescue effect on the seed germination and seedling growth for the sensitive species under SiAR. Altogether, we conclude that the negative effects of SiAR on seed germination, seedling growth and photosynthesis of the four sensitive species could be ameliorated by Ca addition. In contrast, the physiological processes of the two tolerant species were much less affected by both SiAR and Ca treatments. This conclusion implies that the degree of forest decline caused by long-term acid deposition may be attributed not only to the sensitivity of tree species to acid deposition, but also to the Ca level in the soil.

  7. Renal safety of intravenous gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in patients awaiting liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, Katherine M; Parikh, Mehul R; Runge, Thomas M; Perez, Sebastian D; Sakaria, Sonali S; Subramanian, Ram M

    2015-11-01

    Renal dysfunction in cirrhosis carries a high morbidity and mortality. Given the potential risk of contrast-induced nephropathy associated with iodinated intravenous contrast used in computed tomography (CT), alternate contrast modalities for abdominal imaging in liver transplant candidates need to be examined. The purpose of this study was to examine the renal safety of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with gadolinium in patients awaiting liver transplantation. The study involved a retrospective analysis of 352 patients of abdominal MRI with low-dose gadobenate dimeglumine (MultiHance) (0.05 mmol/kg) in patients with cirrhosis and without renal replacement therapy at a single center during the period from 2007 to 2013. For each case, serum creatinine before and within a few days after the MRI were compared. In addition, the patients were analyzed for the development of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF), a reported complication of gadolinium in chronic kidney disease. The pre-MRI serum creatinine values ranged from 0.36 to 4.86 mg/dL, with 70 patients (20%) having values ≥ 1.5 mg/dL. A comparison of the pre- and post-MRI serum creatinine values did not demonstrate a clinically significant difference (mean change = 0.017 mg/dL; P = 0.38), including those patients with a pre-MRI serum creatinine ≥ 1.5 mg/dL. In addition, no cases of NSF were noted. In conclusion, our findings suggest that MRI with low-dose gadobenate dimeglumine (MultiHance) is a nonnephrotoxic imaging modality in liver transplant candidates, and its use can be cautiously expanded to liver transplant candidates with concomitant renal insufficiency.

  8. Effects of calcium on seed germination, seedling growth and photosynthesis of six forest tree species under simulated acid rain.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ting-Wu; Wu, Fei-Hua; Wang, Wen-Hua; Chen, Juan; Li, Zhen-Ji; Dong, Xue-Jun; Patton, Janet; Pei, Zhen-Ming; Zheng, Hai-Lei

    2011-04-01

    We selected six tree species, Pinus massoniana Lamb., Cryptomeria fortunei Hooibr. ex Otto et Dietr., Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook., Liquidambar formosana Hance, Pinus armandii Franch. and Castanopsis chinensis Hance, which are widely distributed as dominant species in the forest of southern China where acid deposition is becoming more and more serious in recent years. We investigated the effects and potential interactions between simulated acid rain (SiAR) and three calcium (Ca) levels on seed germination, radicle length, seedling growth, chlorophyll content, photosynthesis and Ca content in leaves of these six species. We found that the six species showed different responses to SiAR and different Ca levels. Pinus armandii and C. chinensis were very tolerant to SiAR, whereas the others were more sensitive. The results of significant SiAR × Ca interactions on different physiological parameters of the six species demonstrate that additional Ca had a dramatic rescue effect on the seed germination and seedling growth for the sensitive species under SiAR. Altogether, we conclude that the negative effects of SiAR on seed germination, seedling growth and photosynthesis of the four sensitive species could be ameliorated by Ca addition. In contrast, the physiological processes of the two tolerant species were much less affected by both SiAR and Ca treatments. This conclusion implies that the degree of forest decline caused by long-term acid deposition may be attributed not only to the sensitivity of tree species to acid deposition, but also to the Ca level in the soil. PMID:21470980

  9. Both morph- and species-dependent asymmetries affect reproductive barriers between heterostylous species.

    PubMed

    Keller, Barbara; de Vos, Jurriaan M; Schmidt-Lebuhn, Alexander N; Thomson, James D; Conti, Elena

    2016-09-01

    The interaction between floral traits and reproductive isolation is crucial to explaining the extraordinary diversity of angiosperms. Heterostyly, a complex floral polymorphism that optimizes outcrossing, evolved repeatedly and has been shown to accelerate diversification in primroses, yet its potential influence on isolating mechanisms remains unexplored. Furthermore, the relative contribution of pre- versus postmating barriers to reproductive isolation is still debated. No experimental study has yet evaluated the possible effects of heterostyly on pre- and postmating reproductive mechanisms. We quantify multiple reproductive barriers between the heterostylous Primula elatior (oxlip) and P. vulgaris (primrose), which readily hybridize when co-occurring, and test whether traits of heterostyly contribute to reproductive barriers in unique ways. We find that premating isolation is key for both species, while postmating isolation is considerable only for P. vulgaris; ecogeographic isolation is crucial for both species, while phenological, seed developmental, and hybrid sterility barriers are also important in P. vulgaris, implicating sympatrically higher gene flow into P. elatior. We document for the first time that, in addition to the aforementioned species-dependent asymmetries, morph-dependent asymmetries affect reproductive barriers between heterostylous species. Indeed, the interspecific decrease of reciprocity between high sexual organs of complementary floral morphs limits interspecific pollen transfer from anthers of short-styled flowers to stigmas of long-styled flowers, while higher reciprocity between low sexual organs favors introgression over isolation from anthers of long-styled flowers to stigmas of short-styled flowers. Finally, intramorph incompatibility persists across species boundaries, but is weakened in long-styled flowers of P. elatior, opening a possible backdoor to gene flow through intramorph pollen transfer between species. Therefore

  10. Profiles in genetics: George Wells Beadle and the origins of the gene-enzyme concept.

    PubMed

    Dronamraju, K R

    1991-01-01

    Beadle's success in establishing biochemical genetics on a firm foundation was due to a combination of several circumstances. These include the following: 1. Apt timing of his work, which Garrod's work clearly lacked, was important. Geneticists were receptive to his ideas and conclusions. As Beadle (1967, 1974) himself acknowledged, much ground was prepared earlier by Garrod and Haldane, who discussed gene action in terms of biochemical reactions, although it was largely ignored. The physiology of gene action was discussed and speculated on to a great extent in the preceding years by Bridges, Goldschmidt, Muller, and Wright. 2. Beadle's selection of Neurospora was most appropriate. It was a haploid organism (with no complications of dominance and recessivity) that could be grown and manipulated easily for isolating mutants to study their segregation and recombination within a short time. Its cytogenetics and the method of growing on chemically defined media were already worked out. It was devoid of the long generation time and more complex sex cycle (among other problems) that complicated the biochemical study of higher plants (e.g., Primula), which Haldane and Scott-Moncrieff had attempted earlier. 3. Beadle's striking ability to shift from one organism to another--from corn to Drosophila to Neurospora--must be acknowledged. He saw the limitations of existing methods and had the courage and skill to move on to more successful methods: from conventional breeding to tissue transplants to microbiological techniques. 4. Beadle's own curiosity about the biochemical nature of gene action and his good fortune in having had such outstanding teachers as Emerson, as well as his ability to collaborate with Ephrussi and Tatum, contributed largely to his success. PMID:1795095

  11. Impact of grazing management with large herbivores on forest ground flora and bramble understorey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Uytvanck, Jan; Hoffmann, Maurice

    2009-07-01

    We investigated whether grazing management with large herbivores is appropriate to reduce expanding bramble ( Rubus sp.) in an ancient forest in Flanders (N. Belgium). We further studied interaction effects of four years (all year-round) grazing and Rubus cover on the presence, cover, and flowering of five forest ground flora species (unpalatable: Anemone nemorosa and Primula elatior; palatable: Hyacinthoides non-scripta, Vinca minor and Hedera helix). We collected data on eight transects and in 412 plots in adjacent grazed and ungrazed forest and used baseline datasets of 1996 and 2002 in the same area (i.e. before grazing). In a field experiment, we simulated grazing (by clipping) and trampling (by pressing a weight) in eight homogeneous A. nemorosa vegetation stands. Large Rubus thickets had a clear negative impact on cover and flowering of A. nemorosa due to competition for light. Four years of cattle grazing reduced bramble cover by more than 50%, but then the limiting factor for A. nemorosa cover and flowering shifted to trampling damage. We also found lower cover and flowering of H. non-scripta in grazed plots, as a consequence of direct grazing. The evergreen species V. minor and H. helix totally disappeared from the grazed forest. Simulated once-only effects of grazing and trampling had a small and short term negative impact on cover of A. nemorosa, but flowering was strongly reduced. Grazing reduced biomass with 25-30% in the following years. Year-round grazing with large herbivores is an appropriate measure for bramble control in forests, but negative effects on ground flora are possible if grazing pressure is high. A low or moderate grazing pressure (<0.25 animal units ha -1 y -1) should be maintained in landscape mosaics with grassland and forest; or intermittent periods of non-grazing should be provided to maintain forest ground flora diversity.

  12. Both morph- and species-dependent asymmetries affect reproductive barriers between heterostylous species.

    PubMed

    Keller, Barbara; de Vos, Jurriaan M; Schmidt-Lebuhn, Alexander N; Thomson, James D; Conti, Elena

    2016-09-01

    The interaction between floral traits and reproductive isolation is crucial to explaining the extraordinary diversity of angiosperms. Heterostyly, a complex floral polymorphism that optimizes outcrossing, evolved repeatedly and has been shown to accelerate diversification in primroses, yet its potential influence on isolating mechanisms remains unexplored. Furthermore, the relative contribution of pre- versus postmating barriers to reproductive isolation is still debated. No experimental study has yet evaluated the possible effects of heterostyly on pre- and postmating reproductive mechanisms. We quantify multiple reproductive barriers between the heterostylous Primula elatior (oxlip) and P. vulgaris (primrose), which readily hybridize when co-occurring, and test whether traits of heterostyly contribute to reproductive barriers in unique ways. We find that premating isolation is key for both species, while postmating isolation is considerable only for P. vulgaris; ecogeographic isolation is crucial for both species, while phenological, seed developmental, and hybrid sterility barriers are also important in P. vulgaris, implicating sympatrically higher gene flow into P. elatior. We document for the first time that, in addition to the aforementioned species-dependent asymmetries, morph-dependent asymmetries affect reproductive barriers between heterostylous species. Indeed, the interspecific decrease of reciprocity between high sexual organs of complementary floral morphs limits interspecific pollen transfer from anthers of short-styled flowers to stigmas of long-styled flowers, while higher reciprocity between low sexual organs favors introgression over isolation from anthers of long-styled flowers to stigmas of short-styled flowers. Finally, intramorph incompatibility persists across species boundaries, but is weakened in long-styled flowers of P. elatior, opening a possible backdoor to gene flow through intramorph pollen transfer between species. Therefore

  13. Effect of elevated CO2 concentration on photosynthetic characteristics of hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii under cadmium stress.

    PubMed

    Li, Tingqiang; Tao, Qi; Di, Zhenzhen; Lu, Fan; Yang, Xiaoe

    2015-07-01

    The combined effects of elevated CO2 and cadmium (Cd) on photosynthetic rate, chlorophyll fluorescence and Cd accumulation in hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii Hance were investigated to predict plant growth under Cd stress with rising atmospheric CO2 concentration. Both pot and hydroponic experiments were conducted and the plants were grown under ambient (350 µL L(-1)) or elevated (800 µL L(-1)) CO2 . Elevated CO2 significantly (P < 0.05) increased Pn (105%-149%), Pnmax (38.8%-63.0%) and AQY (20.0%-34.8%) of S. alfredii in all the Cd treatments, but reduced chlorophyll concentration, dark respiration and photorespiration. After 10 days growth in medium with 50 µM Cd under elevated CO2 , PSII activities were significantly enhanced (P < 0.05) with Pm, Fv/Fm, Φ(II) and qP increased by 66.1%, 7.5%, 19.5% and 16.4%, respectively, as compared with ambient-grown plants. Total Cd uptake in shoot of S. alfredii grown under elevated CO2 was increased by 44.1%-48.5%, which was positively correlated with the increase in Pn. These results indicate that elevated CO2 promoted the growth of S. alfredii due to increased photosynthetic carbon uptake rate and photosynthetic light-use efficiency, and showed great potential to improve the phytoextraction of Cd by S. alfredii. PMID:25370532

  14. Reactive oxygen species metabolism during the cadmium hyperaccumulation of a new hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii (Crassulaceae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhong-chun; Qiu, Bao-Sheng

    2007-01-01

    Sedum alfredii Hance, a newly discovered hyperaccumulator, could serve as a good material for phytoremediation of Cd polluted sites. Malondialdehyde (MDA), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidases (catalase (CAT); superoxide dismutase (SOD); peroxidase (POD)) in the leaf were determined when S. alfredii was treated for 15 d with various CdCl2 concentrations ranging from 0 to 800 micromol/L. The results showed that the production rate of 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein (DCF), which is an indicator of ROS level, reached up to the maximum at 400 micromol/L CdCl2 and then declined with the increase of CdCl2 concentration, while MDA accumulation tended to increase. CAT activity was significantly inhibited at all tested CdCl2 concentrations and SOD activity was sharply suppressed at 800 micromol/L CdCl2. However, the enhancement of POD activity was observed when CdCl2 concentration was higher than 400 micromol/L. In addition, its activity increased when treated with 600 micromol/L CdCl2 for more than 5 d. When sodium benzoate, a free radical scavenger, was added, S. alfredii was a little more sensitive to Cd toxicity than that exposed to Cd alone, and the Cd accumulation tended to decline with the increase of sodium benzoate concentration. It came to the conclusions that POD played an important role during Cd hyperaccumulation, and the accumulation of ROS induced by Cd treatment might be involved in Cd hyperaccumulation. PMID:18232224

  15. Bioconversion of pinoresinol into matairesinol by use of recombinant Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Han-Jung; Wei, Zhi-Yu; Lu, Pei-Chun; Huang, Pung-Ling; Lee, Kung-Ta

    2014-05-01

    Lignans, a class of dimeric phenylpropanoid derivative found in plants, such as whole grains and sesame and flax seeds, have anticancer activity and can act as phytoestrogens. The lignans secoisolariciresinol and matairesinol can be converted in the mammalian proximal colon into enterolactone and enterodiol, respectively, which reduce the risk of breast and colon cancer. To establish an efficient bioconversion system to generate matairesinol from pinoresinol, the genes encoding pinoresinol-lariciresinol reductase (PLR) and secoisolariciresinol dehydrogenase (SDH) were cloned from Podophyllum pleianthum Hance, an endangered herb in Taiwan, and the recombinant proteins, rPLR and rSDH, were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. The two genes, termed plr-PpH and sdh-PpH, were also linked to form two bifunctional fusion genes, plr-sdh and sdh-plr, which were also expressed in E. coli and purified. Bioconversion in vitro at 22°C for 60 min showed that the conversion efficiency of fusion protein PLR-SDH was higher than that of the mixture of rPLR and rSDH. The percent conversion of (+)-pinoresinol to matairesinol was 49.8% using PLR-SDH and only 17.7% using a mixture of rPLR and rSDH. However, conversion of (+)-pinoresinol by fusion protein SDH-PLR stopped at the intermediate product, secoisolariciresinol. In vivo, (+)-pinoresinol was completely converted to matairesinol by living recombinant E. coli expressing PLR-SDH without addition of cofactors. PMID:24561584

  16. Inhibitory Activities of Phenolic Compounds Isolated from Adina rubella Leaves Against 5α-Reductase Associated with Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jun; Heo, Jun Hyeok; Hwang, Yoon Jeong; Le, Thi Tam; Lee, Min Won

    2016-01-01

    Adina rubella Hance (AR), a plant native to Korea, has been used as traditional medicine for dysentery, eczema, intoxication, and external hemorrhages. Previous phytochemical studies of AR have reported several components, including terpenoids, phenolics, and alkaloids. The current study evaluated the anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities and 5α-reductase inhibition of isolated compounds of AR leaves to find a potential therapeutic agent for benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH). Repeated chromatographic isolation of an 80% acetone extract of AR leaves yielded seven phenolic compounds: caffeic acid (1), chlorogenic acid (2), methyl chlorogenate (3), quercetin-3-rutinoside (4), kaempferol-3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-d-glucopyranoside (5), hyperoside (6), and grandifloroside (7). Compound 7 is a novel compound in AR. Caffeoyl derivatives 1-3 and 7 showed good anti-oxidative activities. In particular, caffeic acid (1) and grandifloroside (7) showed potent anti-inflammatory activities, and 7 also exhibited potent inhibitory activity against TNF-α and 5α-reductase. Our results show that the extract and grandifloroside (7) from leaves of AR might be developed as a source of potent anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory agents and therapeutic agent for BPH. PMID:27399661

  17. Composition Analysis and Inhibitory Effect of Sterculia lychnophora against Biofilm Formation by Streptococcus mutans.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Park, Bok-Im; Hwang, Eun-Hee; You, Yong-Ouk

    2016-01-01

    Pangdahai is a traditional Chinese drug, specifically described in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia as the seeds of Sterculia lychnophora Hance. Here, we separated S. lychnophora husk and kernel, analyzed the nutrient contents, and investigated the inhibitory effects of S. lychnophora ethanol extracts on cariogenic properties of Streptococcus mutans, important bacteria in dental caries and plaque formation. Ethanol extracts of S. lychnophora showed dose-dependent antibacterial activity against S. mutans with significant inhibition at concentrations higher than 0.01 mg/mL compared with the control group (p < 0.05). Furthermore, biofilm formation was decreased by S. lychnophora at concentrations > 0.03 mg/mL, while bacterial viability was decreased dose-dependently at high concentrations (0.04, 0.08, 0.16, and 0.32 mg/mL). Preliminary phytochemical analysis of the ethanol extract revealed a strong presence of alkaloid, phenolics, glycosides, and peptides while the presence of steroids, terpenoids, flavonoids, and organic acids was low. The S. lychnophora husk had higher moisture and ash content than the kernel, while the protein and fat content of the husk were lower (p < 0.05) than those of the kernel. These results indicate that S. lychnophora may have antibacterial effects against S. mutans, which are likely related to the alkaloid, phenolics, glycosides, and peptides, the major components of S. lychnophora. PMID:27190540

  18. Immediate Adverse Reactions to Gadolinium-Based MR Contrast Media: A Retrospective Analysis on 10,608 Examinations

    PubMed Central

    Fusco, Roberta; dell'Aprovitola, Nicoletta; Catalano, Orlando; Filice, Salvatore; Schiavone, Vincenzo; Izzo, Francesco; Cuomo, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose. Contrast media (CM) for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may determine the development of acute adverse reactions. Objective was to retrospectively assess the frequency and severity of adverse reactions associated with gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) injection in patients who underwent MRI. Material and Methods. At our center 10608 MRI examinations with CM were performed using five different GBCAs: Gd-BOPTA (MultiHance), Gd-DTPA (Magnevist), Gd-EOBDTPA (Primovist), Gd-DOTA (Dotarem), and Gd-BTDO3A (Gadovist). Results. 32 acute adverse reactions occurred, accounting for 0.3% of all administration. Twelve reactions were associated with Gd-DOTA injection (0.11%), 9 with Gd-BOPTA injection (0.08%), 6 with Gd-BTDO3A (0.056%), 3 with Gd-EOB-DTPA (0.028%), and 2 with Gd-DTPA (0.018%). Twenty-four reactions (75.0%) were mild, four (12.5%) moderate, and four (12.5%) severe. The most severe reactions were seen associated with use of Gd-BOPTA, with 3 severe reactions in 32 total reactions. Conclusion. Acute adverse reactions are generally rare with the overall adverse reaction rate of 0.3%. The most common adverse reactions were not severe, consisting in skin rash and hives.

  19. 3D interactive augmented reality-enhanced digital learning systems for mobile devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Kai-Ten; Tseng, Po-Hsuan; Chiu, Pei-Shuan; Yang, Jia-Lin; Chiu, Chun-Jie

    2013-03-01

    With enhanced processing capability of mobile platforms, augmented reality (AR) has been considered a promising technology for achieving enhanced user experiences (UX). Augmented reality is to impose virtual information, e.g., videos and images, onto a live-view digital display. UX on real-world environment via the display can be e ectively enhanced with the adoption of interactive AR technology. Enhancement on UX can be bene cial for digital learning systems. There are existing research works based on AR targeting for the design of e-learning systems. However, none of these work focuses on providing three-dimensional (3-D) object modeling for en- hanced UX based on interactive AR techniques. In this paper, the 3-D interactive augmented reality-enhanced learning (IARL) systems will be proposed to provide enhanced UX for digital learning. The proposed IARL systems consist of two major components, including the markerless pattern recognition (MPR) for 3-D models and velocity-based object tracking (VOT) algorithms. Realistic implementation of proposed IARL system is conducted on Android-based mobile platforms. UX on digital learning can be greatly improved with the adoption of proposed IARL systems.

  20. Phytochelatin synthesis plays a similar role in shoots of the cadmium hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii as in non-resistant plants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhong-Chun; Chen, Bo-Xia; Qiu, Bao-Sheng

    2010-08-01

    Phytochelatin (PC) synthesis is considered necessary for Cd tolerance in non-resistant plants, but roles for PCs in hyper-accumulating species are currently unknown. In the present study, the relationship between PC synthesis and Cd accumulation was investigated in the Cd hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii Hance. PCs were most abundant in leaves followed by stems, but hardly detected by the reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in roots. Both PC synthesis and Cd accumulation were time-dependent and a linear correlation between the two was established with about 1:15 PCs : Cd stoichiometry in leaves. PCs were found in the elution fractions, which were responsible for Cd peaks in the anion exchange chromatograph assay. About 5% of the total Cd was detected in these elution fractions as PCs were found. Most Cd was observed in the cell wall and intercellular space of leaf vascular cells. These results suggest that PCs do not detoxify Cd in roots of S. alfredii. However, like in non-resistant plants, PCs might act as the major intracellular Cd detoxification mechanism in shoots of S. alfredii. PMID:20233337

  1. The Effects of Different Purifying Methods on the Chemical Properties, in Vitro Anti-Tumor and Immunomodulatory Activities of Abrus cantoniensis Polysaccharide Fractions

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shaowei; Fu, Xiong; Brennan, Margaret A.; Brennan, Charles S.; Chun, Chen

    2016-01-01

    Abrus cantoniensis (Hance) is a popular Chinese vegetable consumed as a beverage, soup or folk medicine. To fully exploit the potential of the polysaccharide in Abrus cantoniensis, nine polysaccharide fractions of Abrus cantoniensis were isolated and purified (AP-AOH30-1, AP-AOH30-2, AP-AOH80-1, AP-AOH80-2, AP-ACl-1, AP-ACl-2, AP-ACl-3, AP-H and AP-L). Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and gas chromatography (GC) were used to characterize these Abrus polysaccharides fractions (APF). In vitro anti-tumor and immunomodulatory activities were also investigated and compared using the rank-sum ratio (RSR) method. Results demonstrated significant differences in the structure and bioactivities among APF, which were associated to the process used for their purification. Among the APF, AP-ACl-3 yield was 613.5 mg/kg of product and consisted of rhamnose (9.8%), arabinose (8.9%), fructose (3.0%), galactose (9.9%), glucose (4.3%), galacturonic acid (3.0%) and glucuronic acid (61.1%) with a molecular weight of 4.4 × 104 Da. Furthermore, AP-ACl-3 exhibited considerable bioactivities significantly preventing the migration of MCF-7 cells and stimulating lymphocyte proliferation along with nitric oxide (NO) production of peritoneal macrophages. AP-ACl-3 could be explored as a novel potential anti-tumor and immunomodulatory agent. PMID:27058538

  2. Isolation, Characterization, and Insecticidal Activity of an Endophyte of Drunken Horse Grass, Achnatherum inebrians

    PubMed Central

    Shi, YingWu; Zhang, Xuebing; Lou, Kai

    2013-01-01

    Endophytic microorganisms reside within plant tissues and have often been found to promote plant growth. In this study, endophytic microorganisms were isolated from the roots, stems, leaves, and seeds of healthy drunken horse grass, Achnatherum inebrians (Hance) Keng (Poales: Poaceae), through the use of a grinding separation method and identified by a dual approach of morphological and physiological observation and 16S rRNA gene-based (for bacteria) and internal transcribed sequence-based (for fungi) molecular identification. The endophytes were then inoculated into liquid media for fermentation, and their crude extracts were employed for insecticidal activity tests using slide disc immersion and nebulization methods. A total of 89 bacteria species, which were classified into eight genera, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Actinomyces, Corynebacterium, Acinetobacter, Sphingomonas, Paenibacillus, and Phyllobacterium, and two fungi, Claviceps and Chaetomium, were isolated. Of these species, isolates Streptomyces albus (Rossi-Doria) Waksman and Henrici (Actinomycetales: Streptomycetaceae) (GA) and Claviceps purpurea (Fr.) Tul. (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) (PF-2) were shown to produce mortality rates of more than 90% in the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae), after first and second screenings. The isolates PF-2 and GA associated with A. inebrians had significant insecticidal activities towards A. gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and may provide a new biological resource for exploring a new microbial insecticide. PMID:24784492

  3. Immediate Adverse Reactions to Gadolinium-Based MR Contrast Media: A Retrospective Analysis on 10,608 Examinations.

    PubMed

    Granata, Vincenza; Cascella, Marco; Fusco, Roberta; dell'Aprovitola, Nicoletta; Catalano, Orlando; Filice, Salvatore; Schiavone, Vincenzo; Izzo, Francesco; Cuomo, Arturo; Petrillo, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose. Contrast media (CM) for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may determine the development of acute adverse reactions. Objective was to retrospectively assess the frequency and severity of adverse reactions associated with gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) injection in patients who underwent MRI. Material and Methods. At our center 10608 MRI examinations with CM were performed using five different GBCAs: Gd-BOPTA (MultiHance), Gd-DTPA (Magnevist), Gd-EOBDTPA (Primovist), Gd-DOTA (Dotarem), and Gd-BTDO3A (Gadovist). Results. 32 acute adverse reactions occurred, accounting for 0.3% of all administration. Twelve reactions were associated with Gd-DOTA injection (0.11%), 9 with Gd-BOPTA injection (0.08%), 6 with Gd-BTDO3A (0.056%), 3 with Gd-EOB-DTPA (0.028%), and 2 with Gd-DTPA (0.018%). Twenty-four reactions (75.0%) were mild, four (12.5%) moderate, and four (12.5%) severe. The most severe reactions were seen associated with use of Gd-BOPTA, with 3 severe reactions in 32 total reactions. Conclusion. Acute adverse reactions are generally rare with the overall adverse reaction rate of 0.3%. The most common adverse reactions were not severe, consisting in skin rash and hives. PMID:27652261

  4. Age-stage, two-sex life table of Brontispa longissima (Gestro) (Coleoptera: Hispidae) feeding on four palm plant varieties.

    PubMed

    Jin, Tao; Lin, Yu-Ying; Jin, Qi-An; Wen, Hai-Bo; Peng, Zheng-Qiang

    2012-10-01

    The life history of Brontispa longissima (Gestro) (Coleoptera: Hispidae), reared under laboratory conditions on leaves of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.), royal palm [Roystonea regia (Kunth) O.F.Cook], bottle palm [Hyophorbe lagenicaulis (L. Bailey) H.E.Moore], and fishtail palm (Caryota ochlandra Hance) was analyzed using age-stage, two-sex life table. Means and standard errors of population growth parameters were calculated using the jackknife method. Moreover, survival rate and fecundity data were applied to project the population for revealing the different stage structure. The mean intrinsic rates of population growth when reared on each respective leaf type were 0.032, 0.031, 0.019, and 0.044. Individuals reared on C. nucifera achieved the highest net reproduction rate at 114.5 offspring per female. The mean generation times of B. longissima ranged from 93.2 d (reared on C. ochlandrai) to 161.5 d (reared on H. lagenicaulis). Projections from survival rate and fecundity data indicated that B. longissima populations can row considerably faster on C. ochlandra than on the other three host plants. The results validate the two-stage life history approach taken, providing an essential tool for developing and testing future control strategies. PMID:23068179

  5. Research supporting potential modification of the NASA specification for dry heat microbial reduction of spacecraft hardware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spry, James A.; Beaudet, Robert; Schubert, Wayne

    Dry heat microbial reduction (DHMR) is the primary method currently used to reduce the microbial load of spacecraft and component parts to comply with planetary protection re-quirements. However, manufacturing processes often involve heating flight hardware to high temperatures for purposes other than planetary protection DHMR. At present, the specifica-tion in NASA document NPR8020.12, describing the process lethality on B. atrophaeus (ATCC 9372) bacterial spores, does not allow for additional planetary protection bioburden reduction credit for processing outside a narrow temperature, time and humidity window. Our results from a comprehensive multi-year laboratory research effort have generated en-hanced data sets on four aspects of the current specification: time and temperature effects in combination, the effect that humidity has on spore lethality, and the lethality for spores with exceptionally high thermal resistance (so called "hardies"). This paper describes potential modifications to the specification, based on the data set gener-ated in the referenced studies. The proposed modifications are intended to broaden the scope of the current specification while still maintaining confidence in a conservative interpretation of the lethality of the DHMR process on microorganisms.

  6. Composition Analysis and Inhibitory Effect of Sterculia lychnophora against Biofilm Formation by Streptococcus mutans

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yang; Park, Bok-Im; Hwang, Eun-Hee; You, Yong-Ouk

    2016-01-01

    Pangdahai is a traditional Chinese drug, specifically described in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia as the seeds of Sterculia lychnophora Hance. Here, we separated S. lychnophora husk and kernel, analyzed the nutrient contents, and investigated the inhibitory effects of S. lychnophora ethanol extracts on cariogenic properties of Streptococcus mutans, important bacteria in dental caries and plaque formation. Ethanol extracts of S. lychnophora showed dose-dependent antibacterial activity against S. mutans with significant inhibition at concentrations higher than 0.01 mg/mL compared with the control group (p < 0.05). Furthermore, biofilm formation was decreased by S. lychnophora at concentrations > 0.03 mg/mL, while bacterial viability was decreased dose-dependently at high concentrations (0.04, 0.08, 0.16, and 0.32 mg/mL). Preliminary phytochemical analysis of the ethanol extract revealed a strong presence of alkaloid, phenolics, glycosides, and peptides while the presence of steroids, terpenoids, flavonoids, and organic acids was low. The S. lychnophora husk had higher moisture and ash content than the kernel, while the protein and fat content of the husk were lower (p < 0.05) than those of the kernel. These results indicate that S. lychnophora may have antibacterial effects against S. mutans, which are likely related to the alkaloid, phenolics, glycosides, and peptides, the major components of S. lychnophora. PMID:27190540

  7. Phytoremediation potential of transplanted bare-root seedlings of trees for lead/zinc and copper mine tailings.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiang; Chen, Yi-Tai; Wang, Shu-Feng; Pan, Hong-Wei; Sun, Hai-Jing; Liu, Cai-Xia; Liu, Jian-Feng; Jiang, Ze-Ping

    2016-11-01

    Selecting plant species that can overcome unfavorable conditions and increase the recovery of degraded mined lands remains a challenge. A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using transplanted tree seedlings for the phytoremediation of lead/zinc and copper mine tailings. One-year-old bare-root of woody species (Rhus chinensis Mill, Quercus acutissima Carruth, Liquidambar formosana Hance, Vitex trifolia Linn. var. simplicifolia Cham, Lespedeza cuneata and Amorpha fruticosa Linn) were transplanted into pots with mine tailings and tested as potential metal-tolerant plants. Seedling survival, plant growth, root trait, nutrient uptake, and metal accumulation and translocation were assessed. The six species grew in both tailings and showed different tolerance level. A. fruticosa was highly tolerant of Zn, Pb and Cu, and grew normally in both tailings. Metal concentrations were higher in the roots than in the shoots of the six species. All of the species had low bioconcentration and translocation factor values. However, R. chinensis and L. formosana had significantly higher translocation factor values for Pb (0.88) and Zn (1.78) than the other species. The nitrogen-fixing species, A. fruticosa, had the highest tolerance and biomass production, implying that it has great potential in the phytoremediation of tailing areas in southern China. PMID:27216539

  8. A review of the most economically important poisonous plants to the livestock industry on temperate grasslands of China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Mengli; Gao, Xinlei; Wang, Jing; He, Xiaolei; Han, Bing

    2013-01-01

    The majority of the literature on poisonous plant species in China is published in Chinese and not available to the majority of interested researchers and grassland managers in other countries. Therefore, a review of the Chinese literature was conducted to summarize the occurrence of poisonous plant species on temperate grasslands in China. We reviewed the literature to obtain general information on poisonous species but focus on locoweeds (Astragalus and Oxytropis spp.), drunken horse grass [Achnatherum inebrians (Hance) Keng ex Tzvelev] and langdu (Stellera chamaejasme L.) for information on their toxins, distribution and ecology, control methods and alternate uses. Of the almost 1300 poisonous species found on grasslands in China, these species are responsible for an estimated 80% of all livestock losses. This includes loss of performance as well as mortality. The locoweeds are a complex made up of Oxytropis and Astragalus species. The toxic principle in this complex, as well as in drunken horse grass, is the result of an endophyte fungus whereas in langdu it is produced by the plant. All these species are native to the grasslands, which suggest they have been a problem ever since herding began. Over that period of at least several millennia, herders would have learned and adapted to the presence of poisonous species. Strategies were developed and therapies employed to allow the animals to cope before and after poisoning. Nevertheless, grazing management could still be refined that would allow the use of the toxic legumes, while preventing poisonous symptoms, as has been tested elsewhere.

  9. Preliminary screening of 44 plant extracts for anti-tyrosinase and antioxidant activities.

    PubMed

    Ya, Wang; Chun-Meng, Zhao; Tao, Guo; Yi-Lin, Zhu; Ping, Zhao

    2015-09-01

    In order to find new tyrosinase inhibitors and antioxidant materials, we investigated 44 plants, which were evaluated for the anti-tyrosinase and antioxidant activities. The mushroom tyrosinase inhibition assay and 2, 2-Diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay were conducted to evaluate these activities. Among all tested plant extracts, Morus alba L. (positive control), Rhodiola crenulata (Hook. f. et Thoms.) H. Ohba, Momordica charantia L., Cuminum cyminum L. et al. exhibit higher tyrosinase inhibition. Rhodiola crenulata (Hook. f. et Thoms.) H. Ohba, Rosa rugosa Thunb. and Eugenia caryophyllata Thunb. perform the highest antioxidant activity, similar to vitamin C (the positive control). A low positive correlation is found in the DPPH radical scavenging and tyrosinase inhibition assay. Considering these factors, the extracts of Rhodiola crenulata (Hook. f. et Thoms.) H. Ohba, Alpinia officinarum Hance and Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim. exhibit high anti-tyrosinase and antioxidant activities and could be used in the cosmetic industry. Further studies are warranted to characterize the compounds responsible for the anti-tyrosinase and antioxidant properties of these plant extracts. PMID:26408894

  10. The Effects of Different Purifying Methods on the Chemical Properties, in Vitro Anti-Tumor and Immunomodulatory Activities of Abrus cantoniensis Polysaccharide Fractions.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shaowei; Fu, Xiong; Brennan, Margaret A; Brennan, Charles S; Chun, Chen

    2016-01-01

    Abrus cantoniensis (Hance) is a popular Chinese vegetable consumed as a beverage, soup or folk medicine. To fully exploit the potential of the polysaccharide in Abrus cantoniensis, nine polysaccharide fractions of Abrus cantoniensis were isolated and purified (AP-AOH30-1, AP-AOH30-2, AP-AOH80-1, AP-AOH80-2, AP-ACl-1, AP-ACl-2, AP-ACl-3, AP-H and AP-L). Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and gas chromatography (GC) were used to characterize these Abrus polysaccharides fractions (APF). In vitro anti-tumor and immunomodulatory activities were also investigated and compared using the rank-sum ratio (RSR) method. Results demonstrated significant differences in the structure and bioactivities among APF, which were associated to the process used for their purification. Among the APF, AP-ACl-3 yield was 613.5 mg/kg of product and consisted of rhamnose (9.8%), arabinose (8.9%), fructose (3.0%), galactose (9.9%), glucose (4.3%), galacturonic acid (3.0%) and glucuronic acid (61.1%) with a molecular weight of 4.4 × 10⁴ Da. Furthermore, AP-ACl-3 exhibited considerable bioactivities significantly preventing the migration of MCF-7 cells and stimulating lymphocyte proliferation along with nitric oxide (NO) production of peritoneal macrophages. AP-ACl-3 could be explored as a novel potential anti-tumor and immunomodulatory agent. PMID:27058538

  11. Bioconversion of pinoresinol into matairesinol by use of recombinant Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Han-Jung; Wei, Zhi-Yu; Lu, Pei-Chun; Huang, Pung-Ling; Lee, Kung-Ta

    2014-05-01

    Lignans, a class of dimeric phenylpropanoid derivative found in plants, such as whole grains and sesame and flax seeds, have anticancer activity and can act as phytoestrogens. The lignans secoisolariciresinol and matairesinol can be converted in the mammalian proximal colon into enterolactone and enterodiol, respectively, which reduce the risk of breast and colon cancer. To establish an efficient bioconversion system to generate matairesinol from pinoresinol, the genes encoding pinoresinol-lariciresinol reductase (PLR) and secoisolariciresinol dehydrogenase (SDH) were cloned from Podophyllum pleianthum Hance, an endangered herb in Taiwan, and the recombinant proteins, rPLR and rSDH, were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. The two genes, termed plr-PpH and sdh-PpH, were also linked to form two bifunctional fusion genes, plr-sdh and sdh-plr, which were also expressed in E. coli and purified. Bioconversion in vitro at 22°C for 60 min showed that the conversion efficiency of fusion protein PLR-SDH was higher than that of the mixture of rPLR and rSDH. The percent conversion of (+)-pinoresinol to matairesinol was 49.8% using PLR-SDH and only 17.7% using a mixture of rPLR and rSDH. However, conversion of (+)-pinoresinol by fusion protein SDH-PLR stopped at the intermediate product, secoisolariciresinol. In vivo, (+)-pinoresinol was completely converted to matairesinol by living recombinant E. coli expressing PLR-SDH without addition of cofactors.

  12. Wnt/β-catenin coupled with HIF-1α/VEGF signaling pathways involved in galangin neurovascular unit protection from focal cerebral ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chuanhong; Chen, Jianxin; Chen, Chang; Wang, Wei; Wen, Limei; Gao, Kuo; Chen, Xiuping; Xiong, Sihuai; Zhao, Huihui; Li, Shaojing

    2015-01-01

    Microenvironmental regulation has become a promising strategy for complex disease treatment. The neurovascular unit (NVU), as the key structural basis to maintain an optimal brain microenvironment, has emerged as a new paradigm to understand the pathology of stroke. In this study, we investigated the effects of galangin, a natural flavonoid isolated from the rhizome of Alpina officinarum Hance, on NVU microenvironment improvement and associated signal pathways in rats impaired by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Galangin ameliorated neurological scores, cerebral infarct volume and cerebral edema and reduced the concentration of Evans blue (EB) in brain tissue. NVU ultrastructural changes were also improved by galangin. RT-PCR and western blot revealed that galangin protected NVUs through the Wnt/β-catenin pathway coupled with HIF-1α and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). VEGF and β-catenin could be the key nodes of these two coupled pathways. In conclusion, Galangin might function as an anti-ischemic stroke drug by improving the microenvironment of NVUs. PMID:26537366

  13. Transcriptome analysis of a subtropical deciduous tree: autumn leaf senescence gene expression profile of Formosan gum.

    PubMed

    Wen, Chi-Hsiang; Lin, Shih-Shun; Chu, Fang-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Autumn leaf senescence is a spectacular natural phenomenon; however, the regulation networks controlling autumnal colors and the leaf senescence program remain largely unelucidated. Whether regulation of leaf senescence is similar in subtropical deciduous plants and temperate deciduous plants is also unknown. In this study, the gene expression of a subtropical deciduous tree, Formosan gum (Liquidambar formosana Hance), was profiled. The transcriptomes of April leaves (green leaves, 'G') and December leaves (red leaves, 'R') were investigated by next-generation gene sequencing. Out of 58,402 de novo assembled contigs, 32,637 were annotated as putative genes. Furthermore, the L. formosana-specific microarray designed based on total contigs was used to extend the observation period throughout the growing seasons of 2011-2013. Network analysis from the gene expression profile focused on the genes up-regulated when autumn leaf senescence occurred. LfWRKY70, LfWRKY75, LfWRKY65, LfNAC1, LfSPL14, LfNAC100 and LfMYB113 were shown to be key regulators of leaf senescnece, and the genes regulated by LfWRKY75, LfNAC1 and LfMYB113 are candidates to link chlorophyll degradation and anthocyanin biosynthesis to senescence. In summary, the gene expression profiles over the entire year of the developing leaf from subtropical deciduous trees were used for in silico analysis and the putative gene regulation in autumn coloration and leaf senescence is discussed in this study.

  14. Essential oils from five species of Annonaceae from Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Thang, Tran D; Dai, Do N; Hoi, Tran M; Ogunwande, Isiaka A

    2013-02-01

    The essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from the leaves of five species of Annonaceace grown in Vietnam were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The main constituents of Artabotrys hongkongensis Hance were the sesquiterpenes spathulenol (13.1%), beta-caryophyllene (6.6%), gamma-elemene (6.3%) and delta-cadinene (6.3%). beta-Caryophyllene (12.1%), bicycloelemene (11.2%) and bicyclogermacrene (11.6%) were the predominant components of the oil of Melodorum fruticosum Lour, whereas the oil of Polyalthia longifolia var. pendula Hort was comprised mainly of beta-caryophyllene (30.0%), alpha-zingiberene (21.7%), aromadendrene (15.2%) and beta-selinene (9.1%). The main constituents of Fissistigma maclurei Merr. were germacrene D (26.1%), alpha-terpinene (8.2%), spathulenol (10.0%), and bicyclogermacrene (6.6%), while alpha-santalene (14.3%), beta-caryophyllene (6.3%), terpinen-4-ol (6.3%), caryophyllene oxide (5.7%), trans-alpha-bergamotene (5.3%) and allo-ocimene (5.3%) were identified in significant quantity from Fissistigma rufinerve (Hook.f. & Thomson) Merr.

  15. Immediate Adverse Reactions to Gadolinium-Based MR Contrast Media: A Retrospective Analysis on 10,608 Examinations

    PubMed Central

    Fusco, Roberta; dell'Aprovitola, Nicoletta; Catalano, Orlando; Filice, Salvatore; Schiavone, Vincenzo; Izzo, Francesco; Cuomo, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose. Contrast media (CM) for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may determine the development of acute adverse reactions. Objective was to retrospectively assess the frequency and severity of adverse reactions associated with gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) injection in patients who underwent MRI. Material and Methods. At our center 10608 MRI examinations with CM were performed using five different GBCAs: Gd-BOPTA (MultiHance), Gd-DTPA (Magnevist), Gd-EOBDTPA (Primovist), Gd-DOTA (Dotarem), and Gd-BTDO3A (Gadovist). Results. 32 acute adverse reactions occurred, accounting for 0.3% of all administration. Twelve reactions were associated with Gd-DOTA injection (0.11%), 9 with Gd-BOPTA injection (0.08%), 6 with Gd-BTDO3A (0.056%), 3 with Gd-EOB-DTPA (0.028%), and 2 with Gd-DTPA (0.018%). Twenty-four reactions (75.0%) were mild, four (12.5%) moderate, and four (12.5%) severe. The most severe reactions were seen associated with use of Gd-BOPTA, with 3 severe reactions in 32 total reactions. Conclusion. Acute adverse reactions are generally rare with the overall adverse reaction rate of 0.3%. The most common adverse reactions were not severe, consisting in skin rash and hives. PMID:27652261

  16. Unidirectional hybridization and reproductive barriers between two heterostylous primrose species in north-west Yunnan, China

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yongpeng; Xie, Weijia; Tian, Xiaoling; Sun, Weibang; Wu, Zhikun; Milne, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Heteromorphy in flowers has a profound effect on breeding patterns within a species, but little is known about how it affects reproductive barriers between species. The heterostylous genus Primula is very diverse in the Himalaya region, but hybrids there have been little researched. This study examines in detail a natural hybrid zone between P. beesiana and P. bulleyana. Methods Chloroplast sequencing, AFLP (amplified fragment length polymorphism) markers and morphological comparisons were employed to characterize putative hybrids in the field, using synthetic F1s from hand pollination as controls. Pollinator visits to parent species and hybrids were observed in the field. Hand pollinations were conducted to compare pollen tube growth, seed production and seed viability for crosses involving different morphs, species and directions of crossing. Key Results Molecular data revealed all hybrid derivatives examined to be backcrosses of first or later generations towards P. bulleyana: all had the chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) of this species. Some individuals had morphological traits suggesting they were hybrids, but they were genetically similar to P. bulleyana; they might have been advanced generation backcrosses. Viable F1s could not be produced with P. bulleyana pollen on P. beesiana females, irrespective of the flower morphs used. Within-morph crosses for each species had very low (<10 %) seed viability, whereas crosses between pin P. bulleyana (female) and pin P. beesiana had a higher seed viability of 30 %. Thus genetic incompatibility mechanisms back up mechanical barriers to within-morph crosses in each species, but are not the same between the two species. The two species share their main pollinators, and pollinators were observed to fly between P. bulleyana and hybrids, suggesting that pollinator behaviour may not be an important isolating factor. Conclusions Hybridization is strongly asymmetric, with P. bulleyana the only possible mother and

  17. Concerning the preliminary results of space experiment with the seeds of rare plants (on the boad of BION-M No.1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorelov, Yury; Kurganskaya, Lubov; Ilyin, Vyacheslav; Ruzaeva, Irina; Rozno, Svetlana; Kavelenova, Ludmila

    species of Samara region (Сlematis integrifolia L.; Aster alpinus L.; Dianthus andrzejowskianus Kulcz.; Linum perenne L.; Polemonium caeruleum L.; Primula macrocalyx Bunge; Iris pumila L.; Lilium martagon L.; Pulsatilla patens (L.) Mill., 8 from 9 are the plants of Samara Region Reed book) were packed into 3 marked plastic test tubes (Ø12/75, 4 ml). After the landing of “Bion-M” the seeds were sown on the experimental plot in the Botanical garden of Samara State University (25 July 2013). The sow time was near to the time of seeds ripening when they can fall on the ground in natural ecosystems. The abundant rains in the beginning of August 2013 made the beneficial conditions for sprouting and the first seedlings we found 10-15 days after sowing. The ground germination parameters varied from 3 to 78% for 6 different species (Сlematis integrifolia L. 3%; Dianthus andrzejowskianus Kulcz. 8%; Pulsatilla patens (L.) Mill 15%; .Linum perenne L. 67%; Polemonium caeruleum L. 75%; Iris pumila L. 78%), whereas 3 species did not sprout for that time (Lilium martagon L.; Aster alpinus L.; Primula macrocalyx Bunge). The most native flora species normally have no synchronic seed germination and many seeds each year are added in soil seed bank. Many ripe seeds are in dormancy that must be removed passing by autumn-winter period. That is a possible reason of seedlings absence in 3 of our species. We can mention the increase of ground germination parameters (comparing with their common germination levels) for Linum perenne L. and Iris pumila L. as a positive (stimulating) effect of space flight factors complex. These seeds normally never demonstrate germination on the level of 70-80%. Also we found the increase of plants diversity on their initial stage of development. Some more developed and big specimens appeared among the seedlings, what more clearly demonstrated Linum perenne L. and Iris pumila L.. Maybe such heterogeneity is connected with different seed mass and size what

  18. Integration of small RNAs, degradome and transcriptome sequencing in hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii uncovers a complex regulatory network and provides insights into cadmium phytoremediation.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiaojiao; Yin, Hengfu; Song, Xixi; Zhang, Yunxing; Liu, Mingying; Sang, Jiang; Jiang, Jing; Li, Jihong; Zhuo, Renying

    2016-06-01

    The hyperaccumulating ecotype of Sedum alfredii Hance is a cadmium (Cd)/zinc/lead co-hyperaccumulating species of Crassulaceae. It is a promising phytoremediation candidate accumulating substantial heavy metal ions without obvious signs of poisoning. However, few studies have focused on the regulatory roles of miRNAs and their targets in the hyperaccumulating ecotype of S. alfredii. Here, we combined analyses of the transcriptomics, sRNAs and the degradome to generate a comprehensive resource focused on identifying key regulatory miRNA-target circuits under Cd stress. A total of 87 721 unigenes and 356 miRNAs were identified by deep sequencing, and 79 miRNAs were differentially expressed under Cd stress. Furthermore, 754 target genes of 194 miRNAs were validated by degradome sequencing. A gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis of differential miRNA targets revealed that auxin, redox-related secondary metabolism and metal transport pathways responded to Cd stress. An integrated analysis uncovered 39 pairs of miRNA targets that displayed negatively correlated expression profiles. Ten miRNA-target pairs also exhibited negative correlations according to a real-time quantitative PCR analysis. Moreover, a coexpression regulatory network was constructed based on profiles of differentially expressed genes. Two hub genes, ARF4 (auxin response factor 4) and AAP3 (amino acid permease 3), which might play central roles in the regulation of Cd-responsive genes, were uncovered. These results suggest that comprehensive analyses of the transcriptomics, sRNAs and the degradome provided a useful platform for investigating Cd hyperaccumulation in S. alfredii, and may provide new insights into the genetic engineering of phytoremediation. PMID:26801211

  19. Peptide targeted tripod macrocyclic Gd(III) chelates for cancer molecular MRI.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhuxian; Wu, Xueming; Kresak, Adam; Griswold, Mark; Lu, Zheng-Rong

    2013-10-01

    Rational design and develop of targeted contrast agents binding to cancer-related proteins will achieve more accurate cancer diagnosis and prognosis by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. CREKA is a tumor-homing pentapeptide (Cys-Arg-Glu-Lys-Ala) specifically homes to fibrin-fibronectin complexes abundantly expressed in tumor microenvironment. In this study, we developed and evaluated a CREKA peptide targeted multiplexed Gd-MR probe (CREKA-Tris-Gd(DOTA)3) for MR imaging of breast tumors. CREKA and azide bearing Gd(III) was attached to a maleimide-functional trialkyne scaffold via thiol-maleimide and azide-alkyne click chemistry, respectively. CREKA-Tris-Gd(DOTA)3 has a well-defined structure with a molecular weight of 2914 Da. The T1 relaxivity of CREKA-Tris-Gd(DOTA)3 is 8.06 mM(-1) s(-1) per Gd (24.18 mM(-1) s(-1) per molecule) at room temperature and 3 T. Fluorescence imaging showed high binding specificity of CREKA to a 4T1 breast tumor model in mice while it was not found for the scrambled CREKA (CERAK). The CREKA peptide-targeted contrast agent resulted in greater contrast enhancement than the corresponding CERAK agent and the commercialized contrast agent ProHance(®) in tumor at a dose of 0.1 mmol Gd/kg in female athymic mice bearing 4T1 breast carcinoma xenograft. This small molecular contrast agent was easily excreted from body after imaging indicated low toxicity. The targeted MRI contrast agent has a potential for specific cancer molecular imaging with MRI.

  20. Litsea Species as Potential Antiviral Plant Sources.

    PubMed

    Guan, Yifu; Wang, Dongying; Tan, Ghee T; Van Hung, Nguyen; Cuong, Nguyen Manh; Pezzuto, John M; Fong, Harry H S; Soejarto, Djaja Doel; Zhang, Hongjie

    2016-01-01

    Litsea verticillata Hance (Lauraceae), a Chinese medicine used to treat swelling caused by injury or by snake bites, was the first plant identified by our National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded International Cooperative Biodiversity Group (ICBG) project to exhibit anti-HIV activities. From this plant, we discovered a class of 8 novel litseane compounds, prototypic sesquiterpenes, all of which demonstrated anti-HIV activities. In subsequent studies, 26 additional compounds of different structural types were identified. During our continuing investigation of this plant species, we identified two new litseanes, litseaverticillols L and M, and a new sesquiterpene butenolide, litseasesquibutenolide. Litseaverticillols L and M were found to inhibit HIV-1 replication, with an IC[Formula: see text] value of 49.6[Formula: see text][Formula: see text]M. To further determine the antiviral properties of this plant, several relatively abundant isolates, including a litseane compound, two eudesmane sesquiterpenes and three lignans, were evaluated against an additional 21 viral targets. Lignans 8 and 9 were shown to be active against the Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV), with EC[Formula: see text] values of 22.0[Formula: see text][Formula: see text]M ([Formula: see text]) and 16.2[Formula: see text][Formula: see text]M ([Formula: see text]), respectively. Since many antiviral compounds have been discovered in L. verticillata, we further prepared 38 plant extracts made from the different plant parts of 9 additional Litsea species. These extracts were evaluated for their anti-HIV and cytotoxic activities, and four of the extracts, which ranged across three different species, displayed 97-100% inhibitory effects against HIV replication without showing cytotoxicity to a panel of human cell lines at a concentration of 20 μg/mL. PMID:27080941

  1. The Endophytic Bacterium, Sphingomonas SaMR12, Improves the Potential for Zinc Phytoremediation by Its Host, Sedum alfredii

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xincheng; Pan, Fengshan; Yang, Xiaoe; Feng, Ying

    2014-01-01

    The endophytic bacterium, Sphingomonas SaMR12, isolated from Sedum alfredii Hance, appears to increase plant biomass and zinc-extraction from contaminated soil; however, the mechanism by which this occurs is not clear. Here, the ability of SaMR12 to promote zinc extraction and its effects on root morphology and exudation were examined in hydroponics. Zinc treatment increased shoot biomass by 30 to 45%, and by a further 10 to 19% when combined with SaMR12 inoculation. Zinc treatment also increased zinc accumulation modestly and this too was enhanced with SaMR12. Both biomass and zinc levels increased in a dose-dependent manner with significant effects seen at 50 µM zinc and apparent saturation at 500 µM. Zinc and the endophyte also increased levels of auxin but not at 50 µM and zinc increased levels of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide but mainly at 500 µM. As for root morphology, SaMR12 increased root branching, the number of root tips, and surface area. Zinc and SaMR12 also increased the exudation of oxalic acid. For most assays the effects of the endophyte and zinc were additive, with the notable exception of SaMR12 strongly reducing the production of reactive oxygen species at 500 µM zinc. Taken together, these results suggest that the promotion of growth and zinc uptake by exposure to zinc and to SaMR12 are independent of reactive oxygen and do not involve increases in auxin. PMID:25198772

  2. Improved plant growth and Zn accumulation in grains of rice (Oryza sativa L.) by inoculation of endophytic microbes isolated from a Zn Hyperaccumulator, Sedum alfredii H.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuyan; Yang, Xiaoe; Zhang, Xincheng; Dong, Lanxue; Zhang, Jie; Wei, Yanyan; Feng, Ying; Lu, Lingli

    2014-02-26

    This study is to investigate the possibility of zinc (Zn) biofortification in the grains of rice (Oryza sativa L.) by inoculation of endophytic strains isolated from a Zn hyperaccumulator, Sedum alfredii Hance. Five endophytic strains, Burkholderia sp. SaZR4, Burkholderia sp. SaMR10, Sphingomonas sp. SaMR12, Variovorax sp. SaNR1, and Enterobacter sp. SaCS20, isolated from S. alfredii, were inoculated in the roots of Japonica rice Nipponbare under hydroponic condition. Fluorescence images showed that endophytic strains successfully colonized rice roots after 72 h. Improved root morphology and plant growth of rice was observed after inoculation with endophytic strains especially SaMR12 and SaCS20. Under hydroponic conditions, endophytic inoculation with SaMR12 and SaCS20 increased Zn concentration by 44.4% and 51.1% in shoots, and by 73.6% and 83.4% in roots, respectively. Under soil conditions, endophytic inoculation with SaMR12 and SaCS20 resulted in an increase of grain yields and elevated Zn concentrations by 20.3% and 21.9% in brown rice and by 13.7% and 11.2% in polished rice, respectively. After inoculation of SaMR12 and SaCS20, rhizosphere soils of rice plants contained higher concentration of DTPA-Zn by 10.4% and 20.6%, respectively. In situ micro-X-ray fluorescence mapping of Zn confirmed the elevated Zn content in the rhizosphere zone of rice treated with SaMR12 as compared with the control. The above results suggested that endophytic microbes isolated from S. alfredii could successfully colonize rice roots, resulting in improved root morphology and plant growth, increased Zn bioavailability in rhizosphere soils, and elevated grain yields and Zn densities in grains.

  3. The effects of galangin on a mouse model of vitiligo induced by hydroquinone.

    PubMed

    Huo, Shi-Xia; Liu, Xin-Ming; Ge, Chun-Hui; Gao, Li; Peng, Xiao-Ming; Zhao, Ping-Ping; Yan, Ming

    2014-10-01

    Galangin, the main active component of Alpinia officinarum Hance, was tested in a mouse model of vitiligo induced in C57BL/6 mice by the topical application of 2 mL of 2.5% hydroquinone daily to shaved areas (2 × 2 cm) of dorsal skin for 60 days. Thirty days after the final application of hydroquinone, galangin (0.425, and 4.25 mg/kg) was administered orally for 30 days. The hair colour darkened when it grew back after treatment, and histological analysis showed that the number of melanin-containing hair follicles had increased after treatment with all doses of galangin groups and 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP, the positive control) compared with the untreated vitiligo group (p < 0.05). The number of skin basal layer melanocytes and melanin-containing epidermal cells had also increased significantly with the application of 4.25 mg/kg of galangin. The concentration of tyrosinase (TYR) in serum was found to have increased, whereas the content of malondialdehyde and the activity of cholinesterase had decreased after treatment with all doses of galangin and 8-MOP, compared with control (p < 0.05). The expression of TYR protein in treated areas of skin also increased with the application of 4.25 mg/kg galangin and 8-MOP. In conclusion, the results showed that galangin was able to improve vitiligo induced by hydroquinone in mice, with the activity related to concentrations of TYR, expression of TYR protein, activity of malondialdehyde and content of cholinesterase. Galangin may therefore be a potential candidate for the treatment of vitiligo, subject to further investigation.

  4. 5-Methoxyl Aesculetin Abrogates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation by Suppressing MAPK and AP-1 Pathways in RAW 264.7 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Lei; Li, Xueqin; Wu, Haifeng; Long, Wei; Jiang, Xiaojian; Shen, Ting; Qiang, Qian; Si, Chuanling; Wang, Xinfeng; Jiang, Yunyao; Hu, Weicheng

    2016-01-01

    For the first time, a pale amorphous coumarin derivative, 5-methoxyl aesculetin (MOA), was isolated from the dried bark of Fraxinus rhynchophylla Hance (Oleaceae). MOA modulates cytokine expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated RAW 264.7 macrophages, but the precise mechanisms are still not fully understood. We determined the effects of MOA on the production of inflammatory mediators and pro-inflammatory cytokines in the LPS-induced inflammatory responses of RAW 264.7 macrophages. MOA significantly inhibited the LPS-induced production of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6, and interleukin-1β. It also effectively attenuated inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, and TNF-α mRNA expression and significantly decreased the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species. It inhibited phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2), thus blocking nuclear translocation of activation protein (AP)-1. In a molecular docking study, MOA was shown to target the binding site of ERK via the formation of three hydrogen bonds with two residues of the kinase, which is sufficient for the inhibition of ERK. These results suggest that the anti-inflammatory effects of MOA in RAW 264.7 macrophages derive from its ability to block both the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and one of their downstream transcription factors, activator protein-1 (AP-1). Our observations support the need for further research into MOA as a promising therapeutic agent in inflammatory diseases. PMID:26938526

  5. Anti-protozoal efficacy of medicinal herb extracts against Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum.

    PubMed

    Youn, H J; Lakritz, J; Kim, D Y; Rottinghaus, G E; Marsh, A E

    2003-08-29

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether alcohol extracts of herbs (Sophora flavescens Aiton, Sinomenium acutum (Thunb.) Rehder and E.H. Wilson, Pulsatilla koreana (Yabe ex Nakai) Nakai ex T. Mori, Ulmus macrocarpa Hance and Torilis japonica (Houtt.) DC.) from South Korea, possess in vitro anti-protozoal activity against cultures of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum. These herbs have been used as human anti-parasitics in Asian countries for many years. Alcohol extracts of these herbs were serially diluted to final concentrations ranging from 625 to 19.5 ng/ml in media and added to wells containing either T. gondii or N. caninum tachyzoites in equine dermal (ED) cells. Parasite growth inhibition was measured using 3H-uracil incorporation as compared to untreated controls. T. japonica inhibited T. gondii proliferation by 99.3, 95.5, 73.0 and 54.0% in the range from 156 to 19.5 ng/ml, and S. flavescens inhibited T. gondii proliferation by 98.7, 83.0 and 27.2% in the range from 156 to 39 ng/ml. T. japonica inhibited N. caninum proliferation by 97.8, 97.9, 85.3 and 46.4% in the range from 156 to 19.5 ng/ml. S. flavescens inhibited N. caninum proliferation by 98.6, 97.0, 69.5 and 14.0% in the range from 156 to 19.5 ng/ml. Toxicity to host cells was noted when concentrations of T. japonica and S. flavescens exceeded 625 ng/ml. The herb extracts from S. acutum, Pulsatilla koreana, and U. macrocarpa also showed toxicity at higher levels but did not achieve the same inhibition effects at the lower concentrations against T. gondii and N. caninum as T. japonica and S. flavescens. PMID:14519322

  6. Fungal Endophytes of Alpinia officinarum Rhizomes: Insights on Diversity and Variation across Growth Years, Growth Sites, and the Inner Active Chemical Concentration

    PubMed Central

    Shubin, Li; Juan, Huang; RenChao, Zhou; ShiRu, Xu; YuanXiao, Jin

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, the terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) technique, combined with the use of a clone library, was applied to assess the baseline diversity of fungal endophyte communities associated with rhizomes of Alpinia officinarum Hance, a medicinal plant with a long history of use. A total of 46 distinct T-RFLP fragment peaks were detected using HhaI or MspI mono-digestion-targeted, amplified fungal rDNA ITS sequences from A. officinarum rhizomes. Cloning and sequencing of representative sequences resulted in the detection of members of 10 fungal genera: Pestalotiopsis, Sebacina, Penicillium, Marasmius, Fusarium, Exserohilum, Mycoleptodiscus, Colletotrichum, Meyerozyma, and Scopulariopsis. The T-RFLP profiles revealed an influence of growth year of the host plant on fungal endophyte communities in rhizomes of this plant species; whereas, the geographic location where A. officinarum was grown contributed to only limited variation in the fungal endophyte communities of the host tissue. Furthermore, non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) analysis across all of the rhizome samples showed that the fungal endophyte community assemblages in the rhizome samples could be grouped according to the presence of two types of active indicator chemicals: total volatile oils and galangin. Our present results, for the first time, address a diverse fungal endophyte community is able to internally colonize the rhizome tissue of A. officinarum. The diversity of the fungal endophytes found in the A. officinarum rhizome appeared to be closely correlated with the accumulation of active chemicals in the host plant tissue. The present study also provides the first systematic overview of the fungal endophyte communities in plant rhizome tissue using a culture-independent method. PMID:25536070

  7. Occurrence of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) and biotic factors affecting its immature stages in the Russian Far East.

    PubMed

    Duan, Jian J; Yurchenko, Galina; Fuester, Roger

    2012-04-01

    Field surveys were conducted from 2008 to 2011 in the Khabarovsk and Vladivostok regions of Russia to investigate the occurrence of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, and mortality factors affecting its immature stages. We found emerald ash borer infesting both introduced North American green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall) and native oriental ashes (F. mandshurica Rupr. and F. rhynchophylla Hance) in both regions. Emerald ash borer densities (larvae/m(2) of phloem area) were markedly higher on green ash (11.3-76.7 in the Khabarovsk area and 77-245 in the Vladivostok area) than on artificially stressed Manchurian ash (2.2) or Oriental ash (10-59). Mortality of emerald ash borer larvae caused by different biotic factors (woodpecker predation, host plant resistance and/or undetermined diseases, and parasitism) varied with date, site, and ash species. In general, predation of emerald ash borer larvae by woodpeckers was low. While low rates (3-27%) of emerald ash borer larval mortality were caused by undetermined biotic factors on green ash between 2009 and 2011, higher rates (26-95%) of emerald ash borer larval mortality were caused by putative plant resistance in Oriental ash species in both regions. Little (<1%) parasitism of emerald ash borer larvae was observed in Khabarovsk; however, three hymenopteran parasitoids (Spathius sp., Atanycolus nigriventris Vojnovskaja-Krieger, and Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang) were observed attacking third - fourth instars of emerald ash borer in the Vladivostok area, parasitizing 0-8.3% of emerald ash borer larvae infesting Oriental ash trees and 7.3-62.7% of those on green ash trees (primarily by Spathius sp.) in two of the three study sites. Relevance of these findings to the classical biological control of emerald ash borer in newly invaded regions is discussed.

  8. Fungal endophytes of Alpinia officinarum rhizomes: insights on diversity and variation across growth years, growth sites, and the inner active chemical concentration.

    PubMed

    Shubin, Li; Juan, Huang; RenChao, Zhou; ShiRu, Xu; YuanXiao, Jin

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, the terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) technique, combined with the use of a clone library, was applied to assess the baseline diversity of fungal endophyte communities associated with rhizomes of Alpinia officinarum Hance, a medicinal plant with a long history of use. A total of 46 distinct T-RFLP fragment peaks were detected using HhaI or MspI mono-digestion-targeted, amplified fungal rDNA ITS sequences from A. officinarum rhizomes. Cloning and sequencing of representative sequences resulted in the detection of members of 10 fungal genera: Pestalotiopsis, Sebacina, Penicillium, Marasmius, Fusarium, Exserohilum, Mycoleptodiscus, Colletotrichum, Meyerozyma, and Scopulariopsis. The T-RFLP profiles revealed an influence of growth year of the host plant on fungal endophyte communities in rhizomes of this plant species; whereas, the geographic location where A. officinarum was grown contributed to only limited variation in the fungal endophyte communities of the host tissue. Furthermore, non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) analysis across all of the rhizome samples showed that the fungal endophyte community assemblages in the rhizome samples could be grouped according to the presence of two types of active indicator chemicals: total volatile oils and galangin. Our present results, for the first time, address a diverse fungal endophyte community is able to internally colonize the rhizome tissue of A. officinarum. The diversity of the fungal endophytes found in the A. officinarum rhizome appeared to be closely correlated with the accumulation of active chemicals in the host plant tissue. The present study also provides the first systematic overview of the fungal endophyte communities in plant rhizome tissue using a culture-independent method.

  9. Improved plant growth and Zn accumulation in grains of rice (Oryza sativa L.) by inoculation of endophytic microbes isolated from a Zn Hyperaccumulator, Sedum alfredii H.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuyan; Yang, Xiaoe; Zhang, Xincheng; Dong, Lanxue; Zhang, Jie; Wei, Yanyan; Feng, Ying; Lu, Lingli

    2014-02-26

    This study is to investigate the possibility of zinc (Zn) biofortification in the grains of rice (Oryza sativa L.) by inoculation of endophytic strains isolated from a Zn hyperaccumulator, Sedum alfredii Hance. Five endophytic strains, Burkholderia sp. SaZR4, Burkholderia sp. SaMR10, Sphingomonas sp. SaMR12, Variovorax sp. SaNR1, and Enterobacter sp. SaCS20, isolated from S. alfredii, were inoculated in the roots of Japonica rice Nipponbare under hydroponic condition. Fluorescence images showed that endophytic strains successfully colonized rice roots after 72 h. Improved root morphology and plant growth of rice was observed after inoculation with endophytic strains especially SaMR12 and SaCS20. Under hydroponic conditions, endophytic inoculation with SaMR12 and SaCS20 increased Zn concentration by 44.4% and 51.1% in shoots, and by 73.6% and 83.4% in roots, respectively. Under soil conditions, endophytic inoculation with SaMR12 and SaCS20 resulted in an increase of grain yields and elevated Zn concentrations by 20.3% and 21.9% in brown rice and by 13.7% and 11.2% in polished rice, respectively. After inoculation of SaMR12 and SaCS20, rhizosphere soils of rice plants contained higher concentration of DTPA-Zn by 10.4% and 20.6%, respectively. In situ micro-X-ray fluorescence mapping of Zn confirmed the elevated Zn content in the rhizosphere zone of rice treated with SaMR12 as compared with the control. The above results suggested that endophytic microbes isolated from S. alfredii could successfully colonize rice roots, resulting in improved root morphology and plant growth, increased Zn bioavailability in rhizosphere soils, and elevated grain yields and Zn densities in grains. PMID:24447030

  10. [Continuous remediation of heavy metal contaminated soil by co-cropping system enhanced with chelator].

    PubMed

    Wei, Ze-Bin; Guo, Xiao-Fang; Wu, Qi-Tang; Long, Xin-Xian

    2014-11-01

    In order to elucidate the continuous effectiveness of co-cropping system coupling with chelator enhancement in remediating heavy metal contaminated soils and its environmental risk towards underground water, soil lysimeter (0.9 m x 0.9 m x 0.9 m) experiments were conducted using a paddy soil affected by Pb and Zn mining in Lechang district of Guangdong Province, 7 successive crops were conducted for about 2.5 years. The treatments included mono-crop of Sedum alfredii Hance (Zn and Cd hyperaccumulator), mono-crop of corn (Zea mays, cv. Yunshi-5, a low-accumulating cultivar), co-crop of S. alfredii and corn, and co-crop + MC (Mixture of Chelators, comprised of citric acid, monosodium glutamate waste liquid, EDTA and KCI with molar ratio of 10: 1:2:3 at the concentration of 5 mmol x kg(-1) soil). The changes of heavy metal concentrations in plants, soil and underground water were monitored. Results showed that the co-cropping system was suitable only in spring-summer seasons and significantly increased Zn and Cd phytoextraction. In autumn-winter seasons, the growth of S. alfredii and its phytoextraction of Zn and Cd were reduced by co-cropping and MC application. In total, the mono-crops of S. alfredii recorded a highest phytoextraction of Zn and Cd. However, the greatest reduction of soil Zn, Cd and Pb was observed with the co-crop + MC treatment, the reduction rates were 28%, 50%, and 22%, respectively, relative to the initial soil metal content. The reduction of this treatment was mainly attributed to the downwards leaching of metals to the subsoil caused by MC application. The continuous monitoring of leachates during 2. 5 year's experiment also revealed that the addition of MC increased heavy metal concentrations in the leaching water, but they did not significantly exceed the III grade limits of the underground water standard of China.

  11. The Lindi Formation (upper Albian-Coniacian) and Tanzania Drilling Project Sites 36-40 (Lower Cretaceous to Paleogene): Lithostratigraphy, biostratigraphy and chemostratigraphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez Berrocoso, Álvaro; Huber, Brian T.; MacLeod, Kenneth G.; Petrizzo, Maria Rose; Lees, Jacqueline A.; Wendler, Ines; Coxall, Helen; Mweneinda, Amina K.; Falzoni, Francesca; Birch, Heather; Haynes, Shannon J.; Bown, Paul R.; Robinson, Stuart A.; Singano, Joyce M.

    2015-01-01

    ), monotonous calcareous claystones from the lower to upper Maastrichtian (planktonic foraminifera Pseudoguembelina palpebra to Abathomphalus mayaroensis Zones and nannofossils zones UC19 to UC20aTP) that were separated by a hiatus and/or a faulted contact from overlying brecciated carbonates of the Selandian (middle Paleocene: PF Zone P3 and nannofossil zone NP5). The lower portion of TDP Sites 40A and 40B recovered sandstones and conglomerates barren of microfossils. Their overlying parts were assigned to incomplete sections of the nannofossil zones NC6A to NC8 (uppermost Barremian to lower Albian). Benthic foraminiferal assemblages allowed the Barremian to lower Aptian to be identified in TDP Sites 40A and 40B, while the upper Aptian to middle Albian (Hedbergella trocoidea to Ticinella primula Zones) were assigned using planktonic foraminifera. Cores recovered at TDP 39 (Coniacian-Santonian) and at TDP Sites 40A and 40B (Barremian-middle Albian) represent the first time that these two intervals have been continuously cored and publicly documented in Tanzania. Bulk sediment isotope records generated for the new sites show lower δ18Ocarb values in the Turonian and Santonian (∼-3.5‰ to -5‰) than in the Maastrichtian (∼-3‰), a situation consistent with extreme global warmth in the older intervals and cooling toward the end of the Cretaceous. Also, similar to Turonian sites from previous TDP expeditions, a negative δ13Corg excursion was detected across the W. archaeocretacea-H. helvetica boundary of TDP Site 36 (close to, but above, the Cenomanian-Turonian boundary). This excursion probably responded to local processes in the region, but it is unknown whether they were related to the recovery phase from Ocean Anoxic Event 2.

  12. Lower Cretaceous Puez key-section in the Dolomites - towards the mid-Cretaceous super-greenhouse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukeneder, A.; Halásová, E.; Rehákova, D.; Józsa, Š.; Soták, J.; Kroh, A.; Jovane, L.; Florindo, F.; Sprovieri, M.; Giorgioni, M.; Lukeneder, S.

    2012-04-01

    dtirol' in Bozen, Southern Tyrol. Producing major results with a broad impact requires using tools such as facies analysis supported by lithological, sedimentological and chemical characteristics, isotope and magnetic properties as well as fossil record (ammonites, belemnites, brachiopods, echinoids, planktonic foraminiferas, radiolarians, nannofossils, calcareous dinoflagellates, calpionellids). Foraminiferal study provides the zonal subdivision of the Puez section from Valanginian - Hauterivian gorbachikellids and praehedbergelids (Hedbergella semielongata Zone), Barremo-Aptian praehedbergelids (Blesusciana kuznetzove Zone), Aptian hedbergellids of occulta - aptiana - praetrocoidea group, Early Late Aptian pseudo-planispiral foraminifera (Praehedbergella luterbacheri and Globigerinelloides ferreolensis Zones), important marker species of Hedbergella trocoidea and Paraticinella bejaaouaensis for the Late Aptian zone, Early Albian microperforate hedbergellids (Hedbergella planispira Zone), Mid Albian ticinellids (Ticinella primula Zone), advanced ticinellids like Ticinella roberti etc. (Biticinella breggiensis Zone), Latest Albian rotalliporids (Rotalipora appeninica Zone) up to Early Cenonanian appearance of Thalmanninella (Rotalipora) globotruncanoides. Results of this integrated study will be used for both, the precise biostratigraphy of the sequence studied as well as for the paleoenvironmental reconstruction. Lukeneder A. 2012. New biostratigraphic data on an Upper Hauterivian-Upper Barremian ammonite assemblage from the Dolomites (Southern Alps, Italy). Cretaceous Research. doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2011.11.002 Lukeneder A. 2011. The Biancone and Rosso Ammonitico facies of the northern Trento Plateau (Dolomites, Southern Alps; Italy). Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museum Wien, Serie A, 112, 9-33. Lukeneder A. 2010. Lithostratigraphic definition and stratotype for the Puez Formation: formalisation of the Lower Cretaceous in the Dolomites (S. Tyrol, Italy). Austrian Journals

  13. Theoretical and Computational Study of Forced-Convection Heat Transfer at Supercritical Pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Jianguo

    In the simulation of turbulent fluid flow and heat transfer at supercritical pressures, substantial difficulties have been encountered in the modeling of turbulence and bounda-ry layer. This is due to significant fluid property variations with respect to the local temperature and pressure, especially in the near-wall region of a heated wall, where large temperature differences occur. The classical turbulence models available in literature were typically developed for constant-property fluids, where an empirical wall function in the high-Re k-epsilon model, and a damping function in the low-Re k-epsilon model were derived based on the constant-property data to solve the boundary layer. As it can be found in the existing literature, large differences have been observed between the experimental and numerical simulation results of the heat transfer coefficient predictions in the en-hanced and deteriorated heat transfer situations for supercritical fluids. In this thesis, a novel near-wall treatment method is proposed to treat large property variations in the thermal and velocity sub-layers. In the near-wall region, the supercritical fluids can be considered thermal-conductive and viscous forces dominated. The thick-ness of the viscous sub-layer (VSL) and the conduction sub-layer (CSL) can be related to the wall shear stress and local Prandtl number information by using computational CFD models, such as that implemented in the NPHASE-CMFD code. The fluids' bulk and wall temperature information has been obtained from the literature review of experi-mental measurements. The wall temperature and heat transfer coefficient calculated from the k-epsilon model with the proposed wall treatment method have been found to be in good agreement with experimental data for both heat transfer enhancement and deterioration cases for two most widely used fluids: CO2 and water. The proposed model has been applied in the reactor-scale thermal-hydraulic analysis of different flow path

  14. Growth factor controls on the distribution and carbon isotope composition of n-alkanes in leaf wax

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, C.; Xie, S.; Huang, X.

    2012-12-01

    Cuticular wax plays pivotal physiological and ecological roles in the interactions between plants and the environments in which they grow. Plant-derived long-chain alkanes are more resistant to decay than other biochemical polymers. n-Alkane distributions (Carbon Preference Index (CPI) values and Average Chain Length (ACL) values) and carbon isotopic values are used widely in palaeoenvironmental reconstruction. However, there is little information available on how growth stages of the plant might influence the abundance of n-alkanes in the natural environment. In this study, we analyzed n-alkane distributions and carbon isotope data from two tree species (Cinnamomum camphora (L.) Presl. and Liquidambar formosana Hance) collected monthly from 2009 to 2011 in Nanwang Shan, Wuhan, Hubei Province. CPI values for n-alkanes from C. camphora remained stable in autumn and winter but fluctuated dramatically during spring and autumn each year. Positive correlations between CPI values and the relative content of (C27+C29) were observed in both sun and shade leaves of C. camphora from April to July. In L. formosana, CPI values decreased gradually from April to December. A similar trend was observed in all three years suggesting that growth stages rather than temperature or relative humidity affected the CPI values on a seasonal timescale. In the samples of L. formosana ACL values were negatively correlated with CPI values in the growing season (from April to July) and positively correlated with CPI values in the other seasons. The δ13C values of C29 and C31 n-alkanes displayed more negative carbon isotopic values in autumn and winter compared with leaves sampled at the start of the growing season from both trees. The δ13C values of C29 and C31 n-alkanes of L. formosana decreased from April to December. These results demonstrate the importance of elucidating the growing factors that influence the distribution and δ13C values of alkanes in modern leaves prior to using CPI

  15. Isolation of a large thaumatin-like antifungal protein from seeds of the Kweilin chestnut Castanopsis chinensis.

    PubMed

    Chu, K T; Ng, T B

    2003-02-01

    A protein with an N-terminal sequence showing a much lesser extent of homology than French bean and kiwi fruit thaumatin-like proteins (TLPs) to other TLPs, and possessing a molecular mass of 30 kDa which is considerably higher than those of previously reported TLPs, has been purified from the seeds of the chestnut Castanopsis chinensis Hance. The protein was unadsorbed on DEAE-cellulose in 10 mM Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.3), and adsorbed on Affi-gel blue gel in the same buffer, on CM-cellulose in 10 mM ammonium acetate buffer (pH 4.5), and on Mono S in 20 mM ammonium acetate buffer (pH 5.5). A highly purified protein preparation was obtained after fractionation on the first three chromatographic media. Castanopsis TLP appeared as a single band (30 kDa) in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and as a single peak (30 kDa) in gel filtration on Superdex 75 by fast protein liquid chromatography. The TLP exerted antifungal activity against Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium oxysporum, Mycosphaerella arachidicola, and Physalospora piricola, with an IC(50) of 0.5 microM against F. oxysporum. Castanopsis TLP was more potent than French bean and kiwi fruit TLPs in its antifungal activity toward F. oxysporum and M. arachidicola. The antifungal activity of Castanopsis TLP remained essentially unaltered after incubation at 40 degrees C for 10 min, was reduced after incubation at 60 degrees C, and disappeared after treatment at 80 degrees C. The antifungal activity underwent a decline after treatment with trypsin (enzyme:substrate ratio 1:100) at 37 degrees C for 1h but some activity remained. Castanopsis TLP exhibited a much more potent inhibitory activity on HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (IC(50) = 1.6 microM) than kiwi fruit TLP (IC(50) > or = 27 microM). Castanopsis TLP was obtained with a yield of 20 mg from 1 kg chestnut seeds.

  16. New ursane triterpenoids from Ficus pandurata and their binding affinity for human cannabinoid and opioid receptors.

    PubMed

    Khedr, Amgad I M; Ibrahim, Sabrin R M; Mohamed, Gamal A; Ahmed, Hany E A; Ahmad, Amany S; Ramadan, Mahmoud A; El-Baky, Atef E Abd; Yamada, Koji; Ross, Samir A

    2016-07-01

    Phytochemical investigation of Ficus pandurata Hance (Moraceae) fruits has led to the isolation of two new triterpenoids, ficupanduratin A [1β-hydroxy-3β-acetoxy-11α-methoxy-urs-12-ene] (11) and ficupanduratin B [21α-hydroxy-3β-acetoxy-11α-methoxy-urs-12-ene] (17), along with 20 known compounds: α-amyrin acetate (1), α-amyrin (2), 3β-acetoxy-20-taraxasten-22-one (3), 3β-acetoxy-11α-methoxy-olean-12-ene (4), 3β-acetoxy-11α-methoxy-12-ursene (5), 11-oxo-α-amyrin acetate (6), 11-oxo-β-amyrin acetate (7), palmitic acid (8), stigmast-4,22-diene-3,6-dione (9), stigmast-4-ene-3,6-dione (10), stigmasterol (12), β-sitosterol (13), stigmast-22-ene-3,6-dione (14), stigmastane-3,6-dione (15), 3β,21β-dihydroxy-11α-methoxy-olean-12-ene (16), 3β-hydroxy-11α-methoxyurs-12-ene (18), 6-hydroxystigmast-4,22-diene-3-one (19), 6-hydroxystigmast-4-ene-3-one (20), 11α,21α-dihydroxy-3β-acetoxy-urs-12-ene (21), and β-sitosterol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (22). Compound 21 is reported for the first time from a natural source. The structures of the 20 compounds were elucidated on the basis of IR, 1D ((1)H and (13)C), 2D ((1)H-(1)H COSY, HSQC, HMBC and NOESY) NMR and MS spectroscopic data, in addition to comparison with literature data. The isolated compounds were evaluated for their anti-microbial, anti-malarial, anti-leishmanial, and cytotoxic activities. In addition, their radioligand displacement affinity on opioid and cannabinoid receptors was assessed. Compounds 4, 11, and 15 exhibited good affinity towards the CB2 receptor, with displacement values of 69.7, 62.5 and 86.5 %, respectively. Furthermore, the binding mode of the active compounds in the active site of the CB2 cannabinoid receptors was investigated through molecular modelling. PMID:27350550

  17. The deegree framework - Spatial Data Infrastructure solution for end-users and developers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiehle, Christian; Poth, Andreas

    2010-05-01

    client software, desktop and web environments. A focus lies on different client solutions for specific standards like the Web Pro­cessing Service and the Web Coordinate Transformation Service. On the other hand, complex geoportal solutions comprised of multiple standards and en­hanced by components for user management, security and map client function­ality show the demanding requirements of real world solutions. The XPlan-GML-standard as defined by the German spatial planing authorities is a good ex­ample of how complex real-world requirements can get. XPlan-GML is intended to provide a framework for digital spatial planning documents and requires complex Geography Markup Language (GML) features along with Symbology Encoding (SE), Filter Encoding (FE), Web Map Services (WMS), Web Feature Services (WFS). This complex in­frastructure should be used by urban and spatial planners and therefore re­quires a user-friendly graphical interface hiding the complexity of the underly­ing infrastructure. Based on challenges faced within customer projects, the importance of easy to use software components is focused. SDI solution should be build upon ISO/OGC-standards, but more important, should be user-friendly and support the users in spatial data management and analysis.

  18. Palaeointensity and palaeodirection determinations of Paleoproterozoic dykes in the Kaapvaal Craton (South Africa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcherbakova, V. V.; Lubnina, N. V.; Shcherbakov, V. P.; Zhidkov, G. V.

    2012-04-01

    of NRM(T) and TRM(T) was used too. Reliable palaeointensity determinations were obtained on only the site N28 of the age 1.85 Ga (Olsson et al., 2010). The rocks from this site demonstrated extremely stable magnetic properties to heating, their Curie points are closed to Tc of the magnetite. The thermodemagnetization curves NRM(T) and TRM(T) are very similar and the positions of check-points on the Arai-Nagata diagrams are close to the initial pTRM values. Seven samples (12 sister cubes) showed very similar intensities of paleofield Hanc lying in the interval 15-23 μT, with the mean VDM = 2.85 Am^2. This result agrees with the widespread opinion that the field in the Paleoproterozoic was considerably less than the modern magnetic field.

  19. Preliminary report on the ground-water resources of the Klamath River basin, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newcomb, Reuben Clair; Hart, D.H.

    1958-01-01

    includes two main grabens, the Klamath and the Langell, which were downthrown approximately 50 and 1,000 feet, respectively. The average annual precipitation varies with the altitude, the higher parts of the Cascade Range getting more than 60 inches, and the semiarid valley plains receive as little as 13 inches in some places. Most precipitation occurs in the winter. The principal tributaries, Williamson and Sprague Rivers, rise near the higher parts of the eastern rim of the basin, flow through narrow valley plains to the western part, and discharge into Upper Klamath Lake. Wood River and associated creeks also empty into Upper Klamath Lake after draining southward along along the eastern foot of the Cascade Range. The Klamath River receives the outflow from Upper Klamath Lake, via Link River and Lake Ewauna, and flows southwestward through Keno Gap and hance through a youthful canyon, to its lower valley in California. The ground water occurs largely in an unconfined, or water-table, condition, though areas of local confinement are present. The regional water table is graded to a base level about equal to that of the major drainage on the valley plains. The slop of the water table, where water is confined, or the piezometric surface is downstream at about the same grade as that of the surface drainage in each of the larger valleys, and ground-water divides occur between the upper parts of adjacent major valleys. The principal water-bearing units are the lower lava rocks and upper lava rocks of the volcanic rocks of high Cascades, the pumice of Quaternary age, and the alluvium. In places layers of coarse fragmental material in the Yonna formation (Newcomb, 1958) also transmit water. The water-bearing units, especially the breccia layers of the lava rocks and the pumice, yield large amounts of water to wells and provide natural discharge outlets for the ground water. The spring outflows to the Williamson and Wood Rivers-Crooked Creek drainage, mea