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Sample records for primula obconica hance

  1. Hance_WFSR flasher locations

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This entry contains two files. The first file, Hance_WFSR Flasher locations.xlxs, contains information describing the location of installed landmark 'flashers' consisting of 2 square aluminum metal tags. Each tag was inscribed with a number to aid field personnel in the identification of landmark location within the West Fork Smith River watershed in southern coastal Oregon. These landmarks were used to calculate stream distances between points in the watershed, including distances between tagging locations and detection events for tagged fish. A second file, named Hance_fish_detection_data1.xlxs contains information on the detection of tagged fish within the West Fork Smith River stream network. The file includes both the location where the fish were tagged and where they were subsequently detected. Together with the information in the WFSR flasher location dataset, these data allow estimation of the minimum distances and directions moved by juvenile coho salmon during the fall transition period.A map locator is provided in Figure 1 in the accompanying manuscript: Dalton J. Hance, Lisa M. Ganio, Kelly M. Burnett & Joseph L. Ebersole (2016) Basin-Scale Variation in the Spatial Pattern of Fall Movement of Juvenile Coho Salmon in the West Fork Smith River, Oregon, Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 145:5, 1018-1034, DOI: 10.1080/00028487.2016.1194892This dataset is associated with the following publication:Hance, D.J., L.M. Ganio, K.M. Burnett, an

  2. Comparative phytochemical and morphological analyses of three Italian Primula species.

    PubMed

    Fico, Gelsomina; Rodondi, Graziella; Flamini, Guido; Passarella, Daniele; Tomé, Franca

    2007-06-01

    The taxonomy of alpine Primula species has long been in dispute because of high morphologic variability and several hybridisations. In Primula species, the trichome height and the colour of hair-tips are usually indicated as diacritic characters, but in our experience this is not adequate. The present study, focused on Primula auricula, Primula daonensis and Primula hirsuta, therefore proposes the use of other morphologic trichome parameters (size and dimensional ratio of stalk, neck and gland head). Phytochemical investigations about the flavonoid composition (epicuticular and vacuolar) of leaves, as taxonomic markers, have also been performed. We report the isolation and identification of two new flavonol glycosides, isorhamnetin 3-O-(2,6-di-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside) (1) and kaempferol 3-O-(2-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-6-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside) (2) and of eight known flavonoids. Size and dimensional ratio of the three trichome elements (stalk, neck and glandular head) are typical for each species analysed. The flavonoid profile well characterise the entities under study. Three different profiles have been obtained with both vacuolar and epicuticular flavonoids. The morphologic and phytochemical markers proposed in this work seem to be parameters which significatively discriminate the species under study.

  3. Antimicrobial and cytotoxicity activities of the medicinal plant Primula macrophylla.

    PubMed

    Najmus-Saqib, Qazi; Alam, Fiaz; Ahmad, Mansoor

    2009-06-01

    Primula macrophylla (Primulaceae) is reported as to be useful in asthma, restlessness, insomnia and fish poisoning. Antifungal and toxic activities of crude extract, fractions and a pure isolated compound exhibited statistically significant activities. Excellent antifungal activity was found in the crude extract, benzene and ethyl acetate fractions against T. longifusis and against M. canis with different MIC values. Antileishmanial activity (IC(50) = 50ug/mL) was observed as compared to standard drug Amphotericin B, and cytotoxic activity (LD(50) = 47.919microg/mL) was also found in the chloroform fraction. While pure compound 2-phenylchromone (Flavone) isolated from the chloroform fraction showed good activity (IC(50) = 25microg/mL) against Leishmania and cytotoxicity (LD(50) = 2.0116 microg/mL) in Brine Shrimp experiments. From antileishmanial and cytotoxic activity it can be concluded that 2-phenylchromone is the major compound responsible for these activities.

  4. [Vectorial angle method for studying on GC fingerprint of naphtha in Alpinia officinarum Hance].

    PubMed

    Feng, Yi-Fan; Zhou, Xuan; Guo, Xiao-Ling

    2006-01-01

    To establish GC quality analysis and GC fingerprint spectrum of naphtha in Alpinia officinarum Hance. The naphtha in Alpinia officinarum Hance was extracted and analyzed by GC to establish the fingerprint spectrum. The results were analyzed by similarity grade calculate method to compare the fingerprint difference of Alpinia officinarum Hance. The GC fingerprint spectrum of Alpinia officinarum Hance were established. It consisted of 11 peaks. The GC spectrum results were analyzed by similarity grade calculate method which can divide Alpinia officinarum Hance into various habitats. The fingerprint spectrum can be used to distinguish Alpinia officinarum Hance and to evaluate its quality.

  5. Antimitotic activity of saponin fractions and extracts from RX. primulae, RX. saponariae and Sem. Hippocastani.

    PubMed

    Oświecimska, M; Sendra, J; Janeczko, Z

    1975-01-01

    The strongest biological activity in the Allium test was shown by Rx. Primulae. The inhibition of the linear growth of the onion roots affected with the extract from 0-2 g of Rx Primulae in 100 ml of water (W0-2) and with the 0-05% solution (S0-05) of the saponin fraction after 24 hrs was about 70% of the blanc halves. The inhibition of mitose affected with W0-2 and S0-05 was 90% and 80% respectively.

  6. Genetic architecture and evolution of the S locus supergene in Primula vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinhong; Cocker, Jonathan M; Wright, Jonathan; Webster, Margaret A; McMullan, Mark; Dyer, Sarah; Swarbreck, David; Caccamo, Mario; Oosterhout, Cock van; Gilmartin, Philip M

    2016-12-02

    Darwin's studies on heterostyly in Primula described two floral morphs, pin and thrum, with reciprocal anther and stigma heights that promote insect-mediated cross-pollination. This key innovation evolved independently in several angiosperm families. Subsequent studies on heterostyly in Primula contributed to the foundation of modern genetic theory and the neo-Darwinian synthesis. The established genetic model for Primula heterostyly involves a diallelic S locus comprising several genes, with rare recombination events that result in self-fertile homostyle flowers with anthers and stigma at the same height. Here we reveal the S locus supergene as a tightly linked cluster of thrum-specific genes that are absent in pins. We show that thrums are hemizygous not heterozygous for the S locus, which suggests that homostyles do not arise by recombination between S locus haplotypes as previously proposed. Duplication of a floral homeotic gene 51.7 million years (Myr) ago, followed by its neofunctionalization, created the current S locus assemblage which led to floral heteromorphy in Primula. Our findings provide new insights into the structure, function and evolution of this archetypal supergene.

  7. Disruption of the distylous syndrome in Primula veris

    PubMed Central

    Brys, Rein; Jacquemyn, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Distyly is a floral polymorphism characterized by the presence of two discrete morphs with reciprocal positioning of anthers and stigmas in flowers on different plants within the same population. Although reciprocal herkogamy and associated floral traits are generally thought to be discrete and strict polymorphisms, little is known about variation in floral traits related to the distylous syndrome within and among populations of a single species. In this study, variation in floral morphology and reciprocal positioning of the sexual organs in the distylous Primula veris (cowslip) is quantified. Methods Data were collected in ten populations occurring in two contrasting habitat types (grasslands and forests), and for each population the average level of reciprocity was assessed, the strength of the self-incompatibility system was determined, and seed production under natural conditions was quantified. Results In grassland populations, flowers showed clear distyly with low and symmetric reciprocity indices at both the lower and upper level. In forests, P. veris produced larger flowers that showed strong deviations in stigma–anther separation, especially in the L-morph. This deviation was mainly driven by variation in stigma height, resulting in high and asymmetric reciprocity indices and the occurrence of several short-styled homostylous plants. Self-incompatibility was, however, strict in both habitats, and morph ratios did not differ significantly from isoplethy. The observed shift in reciprocity in forest populations was associated with a significant reduction in seed production in the L-morph. Conclusions The results indicate that populations of P. veris show habitat-specific variation in flower morphology. Deviations from perfect reciprocal positioning of stigmas and anthers also translate into reduced seed production, suggesting that small changes in sexual organ reciprocity can have far-reaching ecological and evolutionary implications

  8. DNA Barcoding Evaluation and Its Taxonomic Implications in the Species-Rich Genus Primula L. in China

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Hai-Fei; Liu, Yun-Jiao; Xie, Xiu-Feng; Zhang, Cai-Yun; Hu, Chi-Ming; Hao, Gang; Ge, Xue-Jun

    2015-01-01

    The genus Primula is extremely diverse in the east Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains (HHM) in China as a result of rapid radiation. In order to overcome the difficulty of morphological classification of this genus, we surveyed three plastid regions (rbcL, matK, and trnH-psbA) and two nuclear markers (ITS and ITS2) from 227 accessions representing 66 Primula species across 18 sections, to assess their discriminatory power as barcodes. We found that ITS alone or combined with plastid regions showed the best discrimination across different infrageneric ranks and at species level. We suggest rbcL + matK + ITS as the first choice at present to barcode Primula plants. Although the present barcoding combination performed poorly in many closely related species of Primula, it still provided many new insights into current Primula taxonomy, such as the underlying presence of cryptic species, and several potential improper taxonomic treatments. DNA barcoding is one useful technique in the integrative taxonomy of the genus Primula, but it still requires further efforts to improve its effectiveness in some taxonomically challenging groups. PMID:25875620

  9. Characterization of polymorphic microsatellite markers for Primula sikkimensis (Primulaceae) using a 454 sequencing approach1

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chang-Han; Liu, Yun-Jiao; Zhang, Cai-Yun; Yan, Hai-Fei; Ge, Xue-Jun; Hao, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Microsatellite markers from Primula sikkimensis (Primulaceae) were developed for testing deep lineage divergence and speciation events. Methods and Results: A total of 3112 microsatellites were identified from 61,755 unique reads though 454 pyrosequencing technology. Twenty-nine microsatellite loci were selected for PCR amplification and polymorphic analyses. Among the 29 tested markers, 17 microsatellite loci were further used for genotyping in three wild P. sikkimensis populations. The number of alleles varied from one to eight, and the observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.111 to 1.000. Ten simple sequence repeat loci could be successfully cross-amplified in two Primula species. The transferability values were 76.5% in P. florindae and 58.8% in P. alpicola, respectively. Conclusions: These microsatellite markers will be valuable for testing the hypothesis of lineage divergence, genetic introgression, and cryptic speciation events between P. sikkimensis and its closely related taxa. PMID:27437171

  10. Morphological and Molecular Phylogenetic Data Reveal a New Species of Primula (Primulaceae) from Hunan, China

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xun-Lin; Hu, Chi-Ming; Hao, Gang

    2016-01-01

    A new species of Primulaceae, Primula undulifolia, is described from the hilly area of Hunan province in south-central China. Its morphology and distributional range suggest that it is allied to P. kwangtungensis, both adapted to subtropical climate, having contiguous distribution and similar habitat, growing on shady and moist cliffs. Petioles, scapes and pedicels of them are densely covered with rusty multicellular hairs, but the new species can be easily distinguished by its smaller flowers and narrowly oblong leaves with undulate margins. Molecular phylogenetic analysis based on four DNA markers (ITS, matK, trnL-F and rps16) confirmed the new species as an independent lineage and constitutes a main clade together with P. kwangtungensis, P. kweichouensis, P. wangii and P. hunanensis of Primula sect. Carolinella. PMID:27579832

  11. New cytotoxic diarylheptanoids from the rhizomes of Alpinia officinarum Hance.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dan; Liu, Yan-Wen; Guan, Fu-Qin; Liang, Jing-Yu

    2014-07-01

    Two new dimeric diarylheptanoids, named Alpinin C (1) and D (2), a new natural product of diarylheptanoid (3) along with three known diarylheptanoids (4-6) were isolated from the rhizomes of Alpinia officinarum Hance. Their structures were elucidated based on extensive spectroscopic analyses (1D and 2D NMR, HRTOFMS, IR). The isolated compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxicity against human tumor cell lines HepG2, MCF-7, T98G and B16-F10. Compound 1 showed selective cytotoxicity against cell lines of MCF-7 and T98G, while compound 6 showed significant cytotoxicity to the all tested tumor cell lines with IC50 in the range from 8.46 to 22.68 μmol/L. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Farinose flavonoids are associated with high freezing tolerance in fairy primrose (Primula malacoides) plants.

    PubMed

    Isshiki, Ryutaro; Galis, Ivan; Tanakamaru, Shigemi

    2014-02-01

    The deposition of surface (farinose) flavonoids on aerial parts of some Primula species is a well-documented but poorly understood phenomenon. Here, we show that flavonoid deposition on the leaves and winter buds may contribute strongly to preventing freezing damage in these plants. The ice nucleation temperature of fairy primrose (Primula malacoides) leaves covered with natural flavone was approximately 6 °C lower compared to those that had their flavone artificially removed. Additionally, farinose flavonoids on the leaves reduced subsequent electrolyte leakage (EL) from the cells exposed to freezing temperatures. Interestingly, exogenous application of flavone at 4 mg/g fresh weight to P. malacoides leaves, which had the original flavone mechanically removed, restored freezing tolerance, and diminished EL from the cells to pretreatment values. Our results suggest that farinose flavonoids may function as mediators of freezing tolerance in P. malacoides, and exogenous application of flavone could be used to reduce freezing damage during sudden but predictable frost events in other plant species. © 2013 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  13. Oakleaf: an S locus-linked mutation of Primula vulgaris that affects leaf and flower development.

    PubMed

    Cocker, Jonathan M; Webster, Margaret A; Li, Jinhong; Wright, Jonathan; Kaithakottil, Gemy; Swarbreck, David; Gilmartin, Philip M

    2015-10-01

    In Primula vulgaris outcrossing is promoted through reciprocal herkogamy with insect-mediated cross-pollination between pin and thrum form flowers. Development of heteromorphic flowers is coordinated by genes at the S locus. To underpin construction of a genetic map facilitating isolation of these S locus genes, we have characterised Oakleaf, a novel S locus-linked mutant phenotype. We combine phenotypic observation of flower and leaf development, with classical genetic analysis and next-generation sequencing to address the molecular basis of Oakleaf. Oakleaf is a dominant mutation that affects both leaf and flower development; plants produce distinctive lobed leaves, with occasional ectopic meristems on the veins. This phenotype is reminiscent of overexpression of Class I KNOX-homeodomain transcription factors. We describe the structure and expression of all eight P. vulgaris PvKNOX genes in both wild-type and Oakleaf plants, and present comparative transcriptome analysis of leaves and flowers from Oakleaf and wild-type plants. Oakleaf provides a new phenotypic marker for genetic analysis of the Primula S locus. We show that none of the Class I PvKNOX genes are strongly upregulated in Oakleaf leaves and flowers, and identify cohorts of 507 upregulated and 314 downregulated genes in the Oakleaf mutant.

  14. Comparative Metabolite Profiling of Triterpenoid Saponins and Flavonoids in Flower Color Mutations of Primula veris L.

    PubMed

    Apel, Lysanne; Kammerer, Dietmar R; Stintzing, Florian C; Spring, Otmar

    2017-01-13

    Primula veris L. is an important medicinal plant with documented use for the treatment of gout, headache and migraine reaching back to the Middle Ages. Triterpenoid saponins from roots and flowers are used in up-to-date phytotherapeutic treatment of bronchitis and colds due to their expectorant and secretolytic effects. In addition to the wild type plants with yellow petals, a red variant and an intermediate orange form of Primula veris L. have recently been found in a natural habitat. The secondary metabolite profiles of roots, leaves and flowers of these rare variants were investigated and compared with the wild type metabolome. Two flavonoids, six flavonoid glycosides, four novel methylated flavonoid glycosides, five anthocyanins and three triterpenoid saponins were identified in alcoholic extracts from the petals, leaves and roots of the three variants by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-diode array detection (DAD)/mass spectrometry (MS(n)) analyses. Anthocyanins were detected in the petals of the red and orange variety, but not in the wild type. No other effects on the metabolite profiles of the three varieties have been observed. The possibility is discussed that a regulatory step of the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway may have been affected by mutation thus triggering color polymorphism in the petals.

  15. Comparative Metabolite Profiling of Triterpenoid Saponins and Flavonoids in Flower Color Mutations of Primula veris L.

    PubMed Central

    Apel, Lysanne; Kammerer, Dietmar R.; Stintzing, Florian C.; Spring, Otmar

    2017-01-01

    Primula veris L. is an important medicinal plant with documented use for the treatment of gout, headache and migraine reaching back to the Middle Ages. Triterpenoid saponins from roots and flowers are used in up-to-date phytotherapeutic treatment of bronchitis and colds due to their expectorant and secretolytic effects. In addition to the wild type plants with yellow petals, a red variant and an intermediate orange form of Primula veris L. have recently been found in a natural habitat. The secondary metabolite profiles of roots, leaves and flowers of these rare variants were investigated and compared with the wild type metabolome. Two flavonoids, six flavonoid glycosides, four novel methylated flavonoid glycosides, five anthocyanins and three triterpenoid saponins were identified in alcoholic extracts from the petals, leaves and roots of the three variants by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-diode array detection (DAD)/mass spectrometry (MSn) analyses. Anthocyanins were detected in the petals of the red and orange variety, but not in the wild type. No other effects on the metabolite profiles of the three varieties have been observed. The possibility is discussed that a regulatory step of the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway may have been affected by mutation thus triggering color polymorphism in the petals. PMID:28098796

  16. Transcriptomic Analysis of Cadmium Stress Response in the Heavy Metal Hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii Hance

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaoe; Liu, Jian-Xiang

    2013-01-01

    The Sedum alfredii Hance hyperaccumulating ecotype (HE) has the ability to hyperaccumulate cadmium (Cd), as well as zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb) in above-ground tissues. Although many physiological studies have been conducted with these plants, the molecular mechanisms underlying their hyper-tolerance to heavy metals are largely unknown. Here we report on the generation of 9.4 gigabases of adaptor-trimmed raw sequences and the assembly of 57,162 transcript contigs in S. alfredii Hance (HE) shoots by the combination of Roche 454 and Illumina/Solexa deep sequencing technologies. We also have functionally annotated the transcriptome and analyzed the transcriptome changes upon Cd hyperaccumulation in S. alfredii Hance (HE) shoots. There are 110 contigs and 123 contigs that were up-regulated (Fold Change ≧2.0) and down-regulated (Fold Change ≦0.5) by chronic Cd treatment in S. alfredii Hance (HE) at q-value cutoff of 0.005, respectively. Quantitative RT-PCR was employed to compare gene expression patterns between S. alfredii Hance (HE) and non-hyperaccumulating ecotype (NHE). Our results demonstrated that several genes involved in cell wall modification, metal translocation and remobilization were more induced or constitutively expressed at higher levels in HE shoots than that in NHE shoots in response to Cd exposure. Together, our study provides large-scale expressed sequence information and genome-wide transcriptome profiling of Cd responses in S. alfredii Hance (HE) shoots. PMID:23755133

  17. Integrating species distribution models (SDMs) and phylogeography for two species of Alpine Primula

    PubMed Central

    Schorr, G; Holstein, N; Pearman, P B; Guisan, A; Kadereit, J W

    2012-01-01

    The major intention of the present study was to investigate whether an approach combining the use of niche-based palaeodistribution modeling and phylo-geography would support or modify hypotheses about the Quaternary distributional history derived from phylogeographic methods alone. Our study system comprised two closely related species of Alpine Primula. We used species distribution models based on the extant distribution of the species and last glacial maximum (LGM) climate models to predict the distribution of the two species during the LGM. Phylogeographic data were generated using amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs). In Primula hirsuta, models of past distribution and phylogeographic data are partly congruent and support the hypothesis of widespread nunatak survival in the Central Alps. Species distribution models (SDMs) allowed us to differentiate between alpine regions that harbor potential nunatak areas and regions that have been colonized from other areas. SDMs revealed that diversity is a good indicator for nunataks, while rarity is a good indicator for peripheral relict populations that were not source for the recolonization of the inner Alps. In P. daonensis, palaeo-distribution models and phylogeographic data are incongruent. Besides the uncertainty inherent to this type of modeling approach (e.g., relatively coarse 1-km grain size), disagreement of models and data may partly be caused by shifts of ecological niche in both species. Nevertheless, we demonstrate that the combination of palaeo-distribution modeling with phylogeographical approaches provides a more differentiated picture of the distributional history of species and partly supports (P. hirsuta) and partly modifies (P. daonensis and P. hirsuta) hypotheses of Quaternary distributional history. Some of the refugial area indicated by palaeodistribution models could not have been identified with phylogeographic data. PMID:22833799

  18. Integrating species distribution models (SDMs) and phylogeography for two species of Alpine Primula.

    PubMed

    Schorr, G; Holstein, N; Pearman, P B; Guisan, A; Kadereit, J W

    2012-06-01

    The major intention of the present study was to investigate whether an approach combining the use of niche-based palaeodistribution modeling and phylo-geography would support or modify hypotheses about the Quaternary distributional history derived from phylogeographic methods alone. Our study system comprised two closely related species of Alpine Primula. We used species distribution models based on the extant distribution of the species and last glacial maximum (LGM) climate models to predict the distribution of the two species during the LGM. Phylogeographic data were generated using amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs). In Primula hirsuta, models of past distribution and phylogeographic data are partly congruent and support the hypothesis of widespread nunatak survival in the Central Alps. Species distribution models (SDMs) allowed us to differentiate between alpine regions that harbor potential nunatak areas and regions that have been colonized from other areas. SDMs revealed that diversity is a good indicator for nunataks, while rarity is a good indicator for peripheral relict populations that were not source for the recolonization of the inner Alps. In P. daonensis, palaeo-distribution models and phylogeographic data are incongruent. Besides the uncertainty inherent to this type of modeling approach (e.g., relatively coarse 1-km grain size), disagreement of models and data may partly be caused by shifts of ecological niche in both species. Nevertheless, we demonstrate that the combination of palaeo-distribution modeling with phylogeographical approaches provides a more differentiated picture of the distributional history of species and partly supports (P. hirsuta) and partly modifies (P. daonensis and P. hirsuta) hypotheses of Quaternary distributional history. Some of the refugial area indicated by palaeodistribution models could not have been identified with phylogeographic data.

  19. Floral heteromorphy in Primula vulgaris: progress towards isolation and characterization of the S locus

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jinhong; Webster, Margaret A.; Smith, Matthew C.; Gilmartin, Philip M.

    2011-01-01

    Background The common primrose, Primula vulgaris, along with many other species of the Primulaceae, exhibits floral heteromorphy in which different individuals develop one of two possible forms of flower, known as pin and thrum. Both flower types are hermaphrodite and exhibit reciprocal positions of male and female reproductive structures, which together with a sporophytic incompatibility system, prevent self-pollination and promote out-crossing. The development of the two different forms of flower is controlled by a co-adapted linkage group of genes known as the S locus. Scope Here progress towards identification and characterization of these genes is described to provide a molecular genetic explanation of the different floral characteristics that define heterostyly in Primula as observed and described by Charles Darwin. Previous work to identify and characterize developmental mutations linked to the P. vulgaris S locus, together with the isolation of S locus-linked genes and polymorphic DNA sequences markers, is summarized. The development of tools are described which will facilitate isolation and characterization of the S locus and its environs, including the creation of two expressed sequence tag libraries from pin and thrum flowers, as well as the construction and screening of two bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries containing thrum genomic DNA. Screening of these libraries with four S locus-linked sequences has enabled us to assemble four BAC contigs representing over 40 individual overlapping BAC clones which represent over 2·2 Mb of S locus-linked genomic sequence. PCR-based approaches for identification of the allelic origin of these BACs are described as well as identification of an additional 14 S locus-linked genes within BAC-end sequences. Conclusions On-going work to assemble the four S locus-linked contigs into one contiguous sequence spanning the S locus is outlined in preparation for sequence analysis and characterization of the genes

  20. Forest succession and population viability of grassland plants: long repayment of extinction debt in Primula veris.

    PubMed

    Lehtilä, Kari; Dahlgren, Johan P; Garcia, Maria Begoña; Leimu, Roosa; Syrjänen, Kimmo; Ehrlén, Johan

    2016-05-01

    Time lags in responses of organisms to deteriorating environmental conditions delay population declines and extinctions. We examined how local processes at the population level contribute to extinction debt, and how cycles of habitat deterioration and recovery may delay extinction. We carried out a demographic analysis of the fate of the grassland perennial Primula veris after the cessation of grassland management, where we used either a unidirectional succession model for forest habitat or a rotation model with a period of forest growth followed by a clear-cut and a new successional cycle. The simulations indicated that P. veris populations may have an extinction time of decades to centuries after a detrimental management change. A survey of the current incidence and abundance of P. veris in sites with different histories of afforestation confirmed the simulation results of low extinction rates. P. veris had reduced incidence and abundance only at sites with at least 100 years of forest cover. Time to extinction in simulations was dependent on the duration of the periods with favourable and unfavourable conditions after management cessation, and the population sizes and growth rates in these periods. Our results thus suggest that the ability of a species to survive is a complex function of disturbance regimes, rates of successional change, and the demographic response to environmental changes. Detailed demographic studies over entire successional cycles are therefore essential to identify the environmental conditions that enable long-term persistence and to design management for species experiencing extinction debts.

  1. Initial determination of DNA polymorphism of some Primula veris L. populations from Kosovo and Austria.

    PubMed

    Berisha, Naim; Millaku, Fadil; Gashi, Bekim; Krasniqi, Elez; Novak, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Primula veris L. (Primulaceae) is a long lived perennial and well known pharmaceutical plant, widely collected for these reasons in almost all SE Europe and particularly in Kosovo. The aim of the study is to determine molecular polymorphism of cowslip (P. veris L.) populations from Kosovo. DNA extracted from leaves were  investigated in details for presence of polymorphism. RAPD analyses were conducted using 20 different short primers. Genomic DNA amplification profiles were analyzed and processed using data labelling. Comparison between cowslip populations in genetic composition revealed that samples from Bogaj were too distinct on their own. Molecular variation was observed to be more within populations (73 %) as compared to among populations (27 %). On the other hand, genetic distance of populations revealed that the highest genetic distance is between Leqinat and Maja e Madhe. Mean values of expected heterozygosity were highest in Bogaj population, while lowest in Maja e Madhe population. The obtained results indicated that Bogaj population are more polymorphic. From the obtained data it can be concluded that RAPD markers provided a useful technique to study genetic diversity in P. veris L. populations. This technology allows identification and assessment of the genetic similarities and differences among plant populations.

  2. The relationship between reproductive success and demographic structure in remnant populations of Primula veris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brys, Rein; Jacquemyn, Hans; Endels, Patrick; Hermy, Martin; De Blust, Geert

    2003-12-01

    Plants often suffer reductions in fecundity due to fragmentation, degradation and destruction of populations and their sites. Whether this decrease in seed production has population-level consequences is generally unknown. Here, we aimed to determine the current status of remnant populations in the perennial herb Primula veris in Belgium. Furthermore, we investigated the effects of reduced population size and morph bias on reproductive success and explored if changes in demographic structure could be associated with population fecundity. We studied 69 populations that differed in population size from three to nearly 1500 flowering plants. Three different population types could be distinguished: (a) "dynamic" populations, characterized by high densities of 1 year old juveniles, (b) "normal" populations with adult age-stages prevailing, but still a considerable number of juveniles, and (c) "regressive" populations, in which only flowering adults dominate and rejuvenation hardly occurs. The three population types differed with respect to population size and morph frequency. Dynamic populations were significantly larger and showed a weaker morph bias compared to the intermediate normal and the small regressive populations. Reproductive success, studied the previous year in 26 populations, decreased significantly with decreasing population size and was significantly associated with the demographic structure of the populations. Coefficients of variation for the proportion of flowers setting fruit, the number of seeds per fruit and the total number of seeds per plant decreased significantly with increasing population size. Hence, the observed variability in seed set may be one of the causal factors affecting the observed types of population demographic structure.

  3. Primula auriculata Extracts Exert Cytotoxic and Apoptotic Effects against HT-29 Human Colon Adenocarcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Behzad, Sahar; Ebrahim, Karim; Mosaddegh, Mahmoud; Haeri, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Primula auriculata (Tootia) is one of the most important local medicinal plants in Hamedan district, Iran. To investigate cytotoxicity and apoptosis induction of crude methanolic extract and different fraction of it, we compared several methods on HT-29 human colon Adenocarcinoma cells. Cancer cell proliferation was measured by 3-(4, 5‑dimethylthiazolyl)2, 5‑diphenyl‑tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and apoptosis induction was analyzed by fluorescence microscopy (acridin orange/ethidium bromide, annexin V/propidium iodide staining, TUNEL assay and Caspase-3 activity assay). Crude methanolic extract (CM) inhibited the growth of malignant cells in a dose-dependent manner. Among solvent fractions, the dichloromethane fraction (CF) was found to be the most toxic compared to other fractions. With double staining methods, high percentage of 40 µg/mL of (CM) and (CF) treated cells exhibited typical characteristics of apoptotic cells. Apoptosis induction was also revealed by apoptotic fragmentation of nuclear DNA and activation of caspas-3 in treated cells. These findings indicate that crude methanolic extract and dichloromethan fraction of P.auriculata induced apoptosis and inhibited proliferation in colon cancer cells and could be used as a source for new lead structures in drug design to combat colon cancer. PMID:27610172

  4. Polyploid evolution and Pleistocene glacial cycles: A case study from the alpine primrose Primula marginata (Primulaceae)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Recent studies highlighted the role of Pleistocene climatic cycles in polyploid speciation and of southern Alpine refugia as reservoirs of diversity during glacial maxima. The polyploid Primula marginata, endemic to the southwestern Alps, includes both hexaploid and dodecaploid cytotypes that show no ecological or morphological differences. We used flow cytometry to determine variation and geographic distribution of cytotypes within and between populations and analyses of chloroplast (cp) and nuclear ribosomal (nr) DNA sequences from the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) region to infer the evolutionary history of the two cytotypes and the auto- vs. allopolyploid origin of dodecaploid populations. Results We did not detect any intermediate cytotypes or variation of ploidy levels within populations. Hexaploids occur in the western and dodecaploids in the eastern part of the distributional range, respectively. The cpDNA and nrDNA topologies are in conflict, for the former supports shared ancestry between P. marginata and P. latifolia, while the latter implies common origins between at least some ITS clones of P. marginata and P. allionii. Conclusions Our results suggest an initial episode of chloroplast capture involving ancestral lineages of P. latifolia and P. marginata, followed by polyploidization between P. marginata-like and P. allionii-like lineages in a southern refugium of the Maritime Alps. The higher proportion of ITS polymorphisms in dodecaploid than in hexaploid accessions of P. marginata and higher total nucleotide diversity of ITS clones in dodecaploid vs. hexaploid individuals sequences are congruent with the allopolyploid hypothesis of dodecaploid origin. PMID:22530870

  5. Reproducing under a warming climate: long winter flowering and extended flower longevity in the only Mediterranean and maritime Primula.

    PubMed

    Aronne, G; Buonanno, M; De Micco, V

    2015-03-01

    Under the pressure of global warming, general expectations of species migration and evolution of adaptive traits should always be confirmed with species-specific studies. Within this framework, some species can be used as study systems to predict possible consequences of global warming also on other relatives. Unlike its mountain congeneric, Primula palinuri Petagn. has endured all the climatic fluctuations since the Pleistocene, while surviving on Mediterranean coastal cliffs. The aim of this work was to investigate the possible evolution of reproductive biological and ecological traits in P. palinuri adaptation to a warmer environment. Data showed that flowering starts in mid-winter; single flowers remain open for over a month, changing from pendulous to erect. The number of insects visiting flowers of P. palinuri increases during the flowering season, and pollination reduces flower longevity. Overall, the best pollen performances, in terms of viability and germinability, occur at winter temperatures, while pollinator activity prolongs flowering until spring. Moreover, extended longevity of single flowers optimises reproductive success. Both phenotypic plasticity and selective processes might have occurred in P. palinuri. However, we found that reproductive traits of the only Mediterranean Primula remain more associated with cold mountain habitats than warm coastal cliffs. Given the rapid trend of climate warming, migration and new adaptive processes in P. palinuri are unlikely. Response to past climate warming of P. palinuri provides useful indications for future scenarios in other Primula species. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  6. Demographic stochasticity in small remnant populations of the declining distylous plant Primula veris

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kery, M.; Matthies, D.; Schmid, B.

    2003-01-01

    We studied ecological consequences of distyly for the declining perennial plant Primula veris in the Swiss Jura. Distyly favours cross-fertilization and avoids inbreeding, but may lead to pollen limitation and reduced reproduction if morph frequencies deviate from 50 %. Disassortative mating is promoted by the reciprocal position of stigmas and anthers in the two morphs (pin and thrum) and by intramorph incompatibility and should result in equal frequencies of morphs at equilibrium. However, deviations could arise because of demographic stochasticity, the lower intra-morph incompatibility of the pin morph, and niche differentiation between morphs. Demographic stochasticity should result in symmetric deviations from an even morph frequency among populations and in increased deviations with decreasing population size. If crosses between pins occurred, these would only generate pins, and this could result in a pin-bias of morph frequencies in general and in small populations in particular. If the morphs have different niches, morph frequencies should be related to environmental factors, morphs might be spatially segregated, and morphological differences between morphs would be expected. We tested these hypotheses in the declining distylous P. veris. We studied morph frequencies in relation to environmental conditions and population size, spatial segregation in field populations, morphological differences between morphs, and growth responses to nutrient addition. Morph frequencies in 76 populations with 1 - 80000 flowering plants fluctuated symmetrically about 50 %. Deviations from 50 % were much larger in small populations, and sixof the smallest populations had lost one morph altogether. In contrast, morph frequencies were neither related to population size nor to 17 measures of environmental conditions. We found no spatial segregation or morphological differences in the field or in the common garden. The results suggest that demographic stochasticity caused

  7. QTL analysis of heterostyly in Primula sieboldii and its application for morph identification in wild populations

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Yasuko; Ueno, Saneyoshi; Honjo, Masanori; Kitamoto, Naoko; Nagai, Mihoko; Washitani, Izumi; Tsumura, Yoshihiko; Yasui, Yasuo; Ohsawa, Ryo

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Primula sieboldii is a perennial clonal herb that is distributed around the Sea of Japan and is endangered in Japan. Its breeding system is characterized by heteromorphic self-incompatibility, and the morph ratio within a population is very important for reproductive success. The aims of this study were to construct a linkage map, map the S locus as a qualitative trait and quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for floral morphological traits related to heterostyly, and predict the morph type in wild populations by using molecular markers for devising a conservation strategy. Methods A linkage map was constructed with 126 markers. The QTLs for four floral traits and the S locus were mapped. Using the genotypes of loci that were located near both the S locus and the QTLs with large effects, morphs of 59 wild genets were predicted. Key Results The linkage map consisted of 14 linkage groups (LGs). The S locus was mapped to LG 7. Major QTLs for stigma and anther heights were detected in the same region as the S locus. These QTLs exhibited high logarithm of the odds scores and explained a high percentage of the phenotypic variance (>85 %). By analysing these two traits within each morph, additional QTLs for each trait were detected. Using the four loci linked to the S locus, the morphs of 43 genets in three wild populations could be predicted. Conclusions This is the first report of a linkage map and QTL analysis for floral morphology related to heterostyly in P. sieboldii. Floral morphologies related to heterostyly are controlled by the S locus in LG 7 and by several QTLs in other LGs. Additionally, this study showed that molecular markers are effective tools for investigating morph ratios in a population containing the non-flowering individuals or during the non-flowering seasons. PMID:21693668

  8. Ability of Bumblebees to Discriminate Differences in the Shape of Artificial Flowers of Primula sieboldii (Primulaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Yoshioka, Yosuke; Ohashi, Kazuharu; Konuma, Akihiro; Iwata, Hiroyoshi; Ohsawa, Ryo; Ninomiya, Seishi

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Flower shapes are important visual cues for pollinators. However, the ability of pollinators to discriminate between flower shapes under natural conditions is poorly understood. This study focused on the diversity of flower shape in Primula sieboldii and investigated the ability of bumblebees to discriminate between flowers by combining computer graphics with a traditional behavioural experiment. Methods Elliptic Fourier descriptors described shapes by transforming coordinate information for the contours into coefficients, and principal components analysis summarized these coefficients. Using these methods, artificial flowers were created based on the natural diversity of petal shape in P. sieboldii. Dual-choice tests were then performed to investigate the ability of the bumblebees to detect differences in the aspect ratio of petals and the depth of their head notch. Key Results The insects showed no significant ability to detect differences in the aspect ratio of the petals under natural conditions unless the morphological distance increased to an unrealistic level. These results suggest the existence of a perception threshold for distances in this parameter. The bumblebees showed a significant preference for narrow petals even after training using flowers with wide petals. The bumblebees showed a significant ability to discriminate based on the depth of the petal head notch after training using artificial flowers with a deep head notch. However, they showed no discrimination in tests with training using extreme distances between flowers in this parameter. Conclusions A new type of behavioural experiment was demonstrated using real variation in flower corolla shape in P. sieboldii. If the range in aspect ratios of petals expands much further, bumblebees may learn to exhibit selective behaviour. However, because discrimination by bumblebees under natural conditions was low, there may be no strong selective behaviour based on innate or learned

  9. Integration of genetic and physical maps of the Primula vulgaris S locus and localization by chromosome in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinhong; Webster, Margaret A; Wright, Jonathan; Cocker, Jonathan M; Smith, Matthew C; Badakshi, Farah; Heslop-Harrison, Pat; Gilmartin, Philip M

    2015-10-01

    Heteromorphic flower development in Primula is controlled by the S locus. The S locus genes, which control anther position, pistil length and pollen size in pin and thrum flowers, have not yet been characterized. We have integrated S-linked genes, marker sequences and mutant phenotypes to create a map of the P. vulgaris S locus region that will facilitate the identification of key S locus genes. We have generated, sequenced and annotated BAC sequences spanning the S locus, and identified its chromosomal location. We have employed a combination of classical genetics and three-point crosses with molecular genetic analysis of recombinants to generate the map. We have characterized this region by Illumina sequencing and bioinformatic analysis, together with chromosome in situ hybridization. We present an integrated genetic and physical map across the P. vulgaris S locus flanked by phenotypic and DNA sequence markers. BAC contigs encompass a 1.5-Mb genomic region with 1 Mb of sequence containing 82 S-linked genes anchored to overlapping BACs. The S locus is located close to the centromere of the largest metacentric chromosome pair. These data will facilitate the identification of the genes that orchestrate heterostyly in Primula and enable evolutionary analyses of the S locus.

  10. Role of sulfur assimilation pathway in cadmium hyperaccumulation by Sedum alfredii Hance.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jun; Shohag, M J I; Yang, Xiaoe; Tian, Shengke; Zhang, Yibin; Feng, Ying; He, Zhenli

    2014-02-01

    Sedum alfredii Hance is a promising cadmium (Cd) hyperaccumulating plant recently identified in China. However, the physiological and molecular mechanisms underlying Cd accumulation, which differentiate hyperaccumulating ecotype (HE) from non-hyperaccumulating ecotype (NHE) has not been elucidated yet. A hydroponic experiment was conducted to investigate the role of sulfur assimilation pathway in Cd hyperaccumulation by the S. alfredii Hance, by analyzing gene expression pattern in sulfur assimilation pathway and the concentration of some sulfur containing compounds. The results show that, sulfur assimilation pathway was affected by Cd differently in HE and NHE S. alfredii Hance. The gene expression pattern of sulfur assimilation pathway was regulated differently in HE and NHE plants, especially the nicotianamine synthase (NAS). NAS transcript levels in root of HE was 141-fold higher than NHE, while in shoots of HE only 0.31-fold higher than NHE. In HE roots, NAS expression level was maximum 3171-fold higher than shoots, while in NHE plants roots NAS expression level was maximum 45.3-fold higher than shoots. In HE plant roots, sulfur, cysteine and methionine concentrations increased 30%, 46% and 835% respectively, by Cd treatment, but in NHE plants roots, sulfur concentration increased less than 1%, cysteine and methionine concentrations decreased 78.5% and 13.3% respectively, by Cd. Cd exposure increased glutathione levels by 142% in HE but less than 10% in NHE plant roots. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Presence of fatty acid synthase inhibitors in the rhizome of Alpinia officinarum hance.

    PubMed

    Li, Bing-Hui; Tian, Wei-Xi

    2003-08-01

    The galangal (the rhizome of Alpinia officinarum, Hance) is popular in Asia as a traditional herbal medicine. The present study reports that the galangal extract (GE) can potently inhibit fatty-acid synthase (FAS, E.C.2.3.1.85). The inhibition consists of both reversible inhibition with an IC50 value of 1.73 microg dried GE/ml, and biphasic slow-binding inactivation. Subsequently the reversible inhibition and slow-binding inactivation to FAS were further studied. The inhibition of FAS by galangin, quercetin and kaempferol, which are the main flavonoids existing in the galangal, showed that quercetin and kaempferol had potent reversible inhibitory activity, but all three flavonoids had no obvious slow-binding inactivation. Analysis of the kinetic results led to the conclusion that the inhibitory mechanism of GE is totally different from that of some other previously reported inhibitors of FAS, such as cerulenin, EGCG (epigallocatechin gallate) and C75.

  12. Chemical composition of the stem bark and leaves of Ficus pandurata Hance.

    PubMed

    Ramadan, M A; Ahmad, A S; Nafady, A M; Mansour, A I

    2009-01-01

    A new compound, 3-O-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl-4-hydroxybenzoic acid (13), in addition to 16 newly reported compounds: alpha-amyrin acetate (1), beta-amyrone (2), 3beta-acetoxy-20-taraxasten-22-one (3), alpha-amyrin (4), ceryl alcohol (5), stigmasterol (6), beta-sitosterol (7), 2alpha,3alpha-dihydroxy-lup-20(29)-en-28-oate (8), ursolic acid (9), beta-sitosterol-3-O-glucosoide (10), protocatechuic acid (11), betulinic acid (12), quercetin (14), quercetin-3-O-beta-D-glucoside (15), kampferol-3-O-beta-neohesperidoside (16) and rutin (17) were isolated from the stem bark and leaves of Ficus pandurata (Hance) cultivated in Egypt. Identification of these compounds has been established by physical, chemical and spectral data (UV, IR, MS, (1)H- and (13)C-NMR), as well as comparison with authentic samples.

  13. Morph-specific differences in reproductive success in the distylous Primula veris in a context of habitat fragmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Rossum, Fabienne; De Sousa, Sara Campos; Triest, Ludwig

    2006-11-01

    Heterostylous self-incompatible plant species are particularly sensitive to habitat fragmentation and to disruption of pollination processes because of the need of intermorph cross-pollination for producing seeds. Heterostyly is characterized by sexual polymorphism through the occurrence of two (distyly) or three (tristyly) morph types that differ in floral traits (style length and anther position). We examined whether the long-styled (pin) and short-styled (thrum) morph types show differences in reproductive components and responses to habitat fragmentation in the distylous, self-incompatible perennial herb Primula veris. We documented reproductive components for pin and thrum individuals and their relationships with population size, plant density and morph ratio (pin frequency), in nine populations from Flanders (northern Belgium) located in fragmented habitats of the intensively used agricultural landscape. Seed abortion increased in small populations as a result of inbreeding depression. Fruit set increased with plant density. Seed set was positively related to pin proportion. Seed set was higher for pin than thrum in small populations, but lower in large populations. Two hypotheses can be considered to explain these morph-specific differences: a pollen transfer asymmetry, and a reproductive advantage for the partially self-compatible pin morph. Morph types appear to respond differently to habitat fragmentation constraints. A floral morph type showing partial self-compatibility may be favored in populations under pollination failure, because it can increase reproductive success and mating opportunities through intramorph crosses.

  14. Reconsideration for conservation units of wild Primula sieboldii in Japan based on adaptive diversity and molecular genetic diversity.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Yasuko; Honjo, Masanori; Kitamoto, Naoko; Ohsawa, Ryo

    2009-08-01

    Primula sieboldii E. Morren is a perennial clonal herb that is widely distributed in Japan, but in danger of extinction in the wild. In a previous study, we revealed the genetic diversity of the species using chloroplast and nuclear DNA and used this information to define conservation units. However, we lacked information on adaptive genetic diversity, which is important for long-term survival and, thus, for the definition of conservation units. In order to identify adaptive traits that showed adaptive differentiation among populations, we studied the genetic variation in six quantitative traits within and among populations for 3 years in a common garden using 110 genets from five natural populations from three regions of Japan. The number of days to bud initiation was adaptive quantitative trait for which the degree of genetic differentiation among populations (QST) was considerably larger than that in eight microsatellite markers (FST). The relationship between this trait and environmental factors revealed that the number of days to bud initiation was negatively correlated, with the mean temperature during the growing period at each habitat. This suggests that adaptive differentiation in the delay before bud initiation was caused by selective pressure resulting from temperature differences among habitats. Our results suggest that based on adaptive diversity and neutral genetic diversity, the Saitama population represents a new conservation unit.

  15. Complete plastid genome sequence of Primula sinensis (Primulaceae): structure comparison, sequence variation and evidence for accD transfer to nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tong-Jian; Zhang, Cai-Yun; Yan, Hai-Fei; Zhang, Lu

    2016-01-01

    Species-rich genus Primula L. is a typical plant group with which to understand genetic variance between species in different levels of relationships. Chloroplast genome sequences are used to be the information resource for quantifying this difference and reconstructing evolutionary history. In this study, we reported the complete chloroplast genome sequence of Primula sinensis and compared it with other related species. This genome of chloroplast showed a typical circular quadripartite structure with 150,859 bp in sequence length consisting of 37.2% GC base. Two inverted repeated regions (25,535 bp) were separated by a large single-copy region (82,064 bp) and a small single-copy region (17,725 bp). The genome consists of 112 genes, including 78 protein-coding genes, 30 tRNA genes and four rRNA genes. Among them, seven coding genes, seven tRNA genes and four rRNA genes have two copies due to their locations in the IR regions. The accD and infA genes lacking intact open reading frames (ORF) were identified as pseudogenes. SSR and sequence variation analyses were also performed on the plastome of Primula sinensis, comparing with another available plastome of P. poissonii. The four most variable regions, rpl36–rps8, rps16–trnQ, trnH–psbA and ndhC–trnV, were identified. Phylogenetic relationship estimates using three sub-datasets extracted from a matrix of 57 protein-coding gene sequences showed the identical result that was consistent with previous studies. A transcript found from P. sinensis transcriptome showed a high similarity to plastid accD functional region and was identified as a putative plastid transit peptide at the N-terminal region. The result strongly suggested that plastid accD has been functionally transferred to the nucleus in P. sinensis. PMID:27375965

  16. Phylogeny and biogeography of Primula sect. Armerina: implications for plant evolution under climate change and the uplift of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.

    PubMed

    Ren, Guangpeng; Conti, Elena; Salamin, Nicolas

    2015-08-16

    The historical orogenesis and associated climatic changes of mountain areas have been suggested to partly account for the occurrence of high levels of biodiversity and endemism. However, their effects on dispersal, differentiation and evolution of many groups of plants are still unknown. In this study, we examined the detailed diversification history of Primula sect. Armerina, and used biogeographic analysis and macro-evolutionary modeling to investigate a series of different questions concerning the evolution of the geographical and ecological distribution of the species in this section. We sequenced five chloroplast and one nuclear genes for species of Primula sect. Armerina. Neither chloroplast nor nuclear trees support the monophyly of the section. The major incongruences between the two trees occur among closely related species and may be explained by hybridization. Our dating analyses based on the chloroplast dataset suggest that this section began to diverge from its relatives around 3.55 million years ago, largely coinciding with the last major uplift of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP). Biogeographic analysis supports the origin of the section in the Himalayan Mountains and dispersal from the Himalayas to Northeastern QTP, Western QTP and Hengduan Mountains. Furthermore, evolutionary models of ecological niches show that the two P. fasciculata clades have significantly different climatic niche optima and rates of niche evolution, indicating niche evolution under climatic changes and further providing evidence for explaining their biogeographic patterns. Our results support the hypothesis that geologic and climatic events play important roles in driving biological diversification of organisms in the QTP area. The Pliocene uplift of the QTP and following climatic changes most likely promoted both the inter- and intraspecific divergence of Primula sect. Armerina. This study also illustrates how niche evolution under climatic changes influences biogeographic

  17. [Effects of Different Kinds of Organic Materials on Soil Heavy Metal Phytoremediation Efficiency by Sedum alfredii Hance].

    PubMed

    Yao, Gui-hua; Xu, Hai-zhou; Zhu, Lin-gang; Ma, Jia-wei; Liu, Dan; Ye, Zheng-qian

    2015-11-01

    In this study, a pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of clean organic materials i. e., biogas residue (BR), mushroom residue (MR), and bamboo shell (BS) on phytoextraction remediation of two heavy metal contaminated soils (collected from Wenzhou and Fuyang, which referred to "Wenzhou soil" and "Fuyang soil", respectively.) using a cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii Hance. The results indicated that the effects of organic materials on availabilities of soil heavy metals were different due to different kinds of heavy metals, organic materials, and the application rates of the organic materials. Addition with 5% BR showed the greatest activation to copper (Cu), Zn in Wenzhou soil, and in Fuyang soil 1% BS had the highest activation for Cu, Zn, lead ( Ph) and Cd. Growth of shoot biomass of Sedum alfredii Hance increased with the addition rate of organic materials, and the plant dry weights were increased by 23.7%-93.0%. In Wenzhou soil, only 1% BS treatment had the best effect on Cd uptake and accumulation in shoots of Sedum alfredii Hance, increased by 22.6%, while other treatments were inferior to the control. For Zn, MR treatments were inferior to the control, while other treafments were superior to the control, of which 5% BR, 1% BS and 5% BS exceeded the control by 39. 6%, 32.6% and 23.8%, respectively. In Fuyang soil, for Cd, the treatment effects of 5% BS, 1% BR and 5% BR were the greatest, of which Cd accumulation in shoots exceeded the control by 12.9%, 12.8% and 6.2%, respectively, while Cd accumulations in shoots in all other treatments were less than that of control. For Zn, the treatments of adding organic materials promoted Zn accumulation in shoots of Sedum alfredii Hance, and the best treatments were as follows: 5% BS. 5% BR and 5% MR, exceeded the control by 38.4%, 25.7% and 22.4%, respectively.

  18. A new sesquiterpene lactone glucoside with inhibitory effect on K562 cells from Ixeris sonchifolia (Bge) Hance.

    PubMed

    He, W-F; Xu, B-B; Pan, J-C; Lu, J-C; Song, S-J; Xu, S-X

    2006-09-01

    A new minor sesquiterpene lactone glucoside, ixerin ZA (1), together with 16 known compounds, were isolated from the whole plants of Ixeris sonchifolia (Bge) Hance. The structure of 1 was elucidated as 1(10),3,11(13)-guaiatriene-12,6-olide-2-one-3-O-[6'-(p-metheoxyphenylacetyl)]-beta-glucopyranoside on the basis of spectroscopic and chemical evidence. Compound 1 exhibited an inhibitory effect on K562 cells.

  19. Transcriptome Comparison Reveals the Adaptive Evolution of Two Contrasting Ecotypes of Zn/Cd Hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii Hance

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qianying; Shohag, M. J. I.; Feng, Ying; He, Zhenli; Yang, Xiaoe

    2017-01-01

    Hyperaccumulating ecotype (HE) and non-hyperaccumulating ecotype (NHE) of Sedum alfredii Hance belong to the same species but exhibit contrasting characteristics regarding hyperaccumulation and hypertolerance to cadmium and zinc. The Illumina Hiseq 2500 platform was employed to sequence HE and NHE to study the genetic evolution of this contrasting trait. Greater than 90 million clean reads were obtained and 118,479/228,051 unigenes of HE/NHE were annotated based on seven existing databases. We identified 149,668/319,830 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 12,691/14,428 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) of HE/NHE. We used a branch-site model to identify 18 divergent orthologous genes and 57 conserved orthologous genes of S. alfredii Hance. The divergent orthologous genes were mainly involved in the transcription and translation processes, protein metabolism process, calcium (Ca2+) pathway, stress response process and signal transduction process. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to use RNA-seq to compare the genetic evolution of hyperaccumulating and non-hyperaccumulating plants from the same species. In addition, this study made the sole concrete for further studies on molecular markers and divergent orthologous genes to depict the evolution process and formation of the hyperaccumulation and hypertolerance traits in S. alfredii Hance. PMID:28439276

  20. Characteristics of leaf photosynthesis and simulated individual carbon budget in Primula nutans under contrasting light and temperature conditions.

    PubMed

    Shen, Haihua; Tang, Yanhong; Muraoka, Hiroyuki; Washitani, Izumi

    2008-03-01

    Primula nutans Georgi is widely distributed in hummock-and-hollow wetlands on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. To assess the ecophysiology of this species in responding to microenvironments, we examined the photosynthetic characteristics and individual carbon gain of plants growing in different microsites from a hummock-and-hollow wetland on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and under laboratory conditions. Plants from wetland hummock microsites showed significantly higher light-saturated photosynthetic CO(2) uptake (A (max)) than those from microsites in hollows at a controlled temperature of 15 degrees C in leaf chamber. Leaf dark respiration rate (R) was only significantly higher in plants from hummocks than hollows at the measuring temperature of 35 degrees C. Optimum temperature for A (max) was 15 degrees C for all plants in the field despite different microsites. In plants growing under laboratory conditions differing in light and temperature, both A (max) and R were significantly higher under higher growth light (photosynthetic photon flux density, PPFD: 800 or 400 micromol m(-2) s(-1)) than low light of 90 micromol m(-2) s(-1). No statistically significant differences in A (max) and R existed in plants differing in growing temperatures. Estimates derived from the photosynthetic parameters of field plants, and microsite environmental measures including PPFD, air temperature and soil temperature showed that the optimum mean daily temperature for net daily carbon gain was around 10 degrees C and the net daily carbon gain was largely limited under lower daily total PPFD. These results suggest that the differences in A (max) and R in P. nutans are strongly affected by growing light regimes but not by temperature regimes.

  1. Analysis of the essential oils of Alpiniae Officinarum Hance in different extraction methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Y.; Lin, L. J.; Huang, X. B.; Li, J. H.

    2017-09-01

    It was developed for the analysis of the essential oils of Alpiniae Officinarum Hance extracted by steam distillation (SD), ultrasonic assisted solvent extraction (UAE) and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) via gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) combined with retention index (RI) method. There were multiple volatile components of the oils extracted by the three above-mention methods respectively identified; meanwhile, each one was quantified by area normalization method. The results indicated that the content of 1,8-Cineole, the index constituent, by SD was similar as SFE, and higher than UAE. Although UAE was less time consuming and consumed less energy, the oil quality was poorer due to the use of organic solvents was hard to degrade. In addition, some constituents could be obtained by SFE but could not by SD. In conclusion, essential oil of different extraction methods from the same batch of materials had been proved broadly similarly, however, there were some differences in composition and component ratio. Therefore, development and utilization of different extraction methods must be selected according to the functional requirements of products.

  2. Zinc adsorption and desorption characteristics in root cell wall involving zinc hyperaccumulation in Sedum alfredii Hance.

    PubMed

    Li, Ting-qiang; Yang, Xiao-e; Meng, Fan-hua; Lu, Ling-li

    2007-02-01

    Radiotracer techniques were employed to characterize (65)Zn adsorption and desorption in root-cell-wall of hyperaccumulating ecotype (HE) and non-hyperaccumulating ecotype (NHE) species of Sedum alfredii Hance. The results indicated that at the end of a 30 min short time radioisotope loading period, comparable amounts of (65)Zn were accumulated in the roots of the two ecotypes Sedum alfredii, whereas 2.1-fold more (65)Zn remains in NHE root after 45-min desorption. At the end of 60 min uptake period, no difference of (65)Zn accumulation was observed in undesorbed root-cell-wall of Sedum alfredii. However, 3.0-fold more (65)Zn accumulated in desorbed root-cell-wall of NHE. Zn(2+) binding in root-cell-wall preparations of NHE was greater than that in HE under high Zn(2+) concentration. All these results suggested that root-cell-wall of the two ecotypes Sedum alfredii had the same ability to adsorb Zn(2+), whereas the desorption characteristics were different, and with most of (65)Zn binding on root of HE being available for loading into the xylem, as a result, more (65)Zn was translocated to the shoot.

  3. Antioxidant potential of n-butanol fraction from extract of Jasminum mesnyi Hance leaves.

    PubMed

    Borar, Sakshi; Punia, Priyanka; Kalia, A N

    2011-01-01

    Methanolic extract of Jasminum mesnyi Hance leaves having antidiabetic activity was subjected to fractionation to obtain antioxidant and antihyperglycemic rich fraction. Different concentrations of ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions were subjected to antioxidant assay by DPPH method, nitric oxide scavenging activity and reducing power assay. The fractions showed dose dependent free radical scavenging property in all the models. IC50 values for ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions were 153.45 +/- 6.65 and 6.22 +/- 0.25 microg/ml, respectively, as compared to L-ascorbic acid and rutin (as standards; IC50 values 6.54 +/- 0.24 and 5.43 +/- 0.21 microg/ml, respectively) in DPPH model. In nitric oxide scavenging activity, IC50 values were 141.54 +/- 9.95 microg/ml, 35.12 +/- 1.58 microg/ml, 21.06 +/- 0.95 microg/ml and 29.93 +/- 0.32 microg/ml for ethyl acetate, n-butanol fractions, L-ascorbic acid and rutin, respectively. n-Butanol fraction showed a good reducing potential and better free radical scavenging activity as compared to ethyl acetate fraction. Potent antioxidant n-butanol fraction showed better oral glucose tolerance test (antihyperglycemic) at par with metformin (standard drug), n-Butanol fraction contained secoiridoid glycosides which might be responsible for both antioxidant and antihyperglycemic activity.

  4. A nonpathogenic Fusarium oxysporum strain enhances phytoextraction of heavy metals by the hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii Hance.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xincheng; Lin, Li; Chen, Mingyue; Zhu, Zhiqiang; Yang, Weidong; Chen, Bao; Yang, Xiaoe; An, Qianli

    2012-08-30

    Low biomass and shallow root systems limit the application of heavy metal phytoextraction by hyperaccumulators. Plant growth-promoting microbes may enhance hyperaccumulators'phytoextraction. A heavy metal-resistant fungus belonged to the Fusarium oxysporum complex was isolated from the Zn/Cd co-hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii Hance grown in a Pb/Zn mined area. This Fusarium fungus was not pathogenic to plants but promoted host growth. Hydroponic experiments showed that 500 μM Zn(2+) or 50 μM Cd(2+) combined with the fungus increased root length, branches, and surface areas, enhanced nutrient uptake and chlorophyll synthesis, leading to more vigorous hyperaccumulators with greater root systems. Soil experiments showed that the fungus increased root and shoot biomass and S. alfredii-mediated heavy metal availabilities, uptake, translocation or concentrations, and thus increased phytoextraction of Zn (144% and 44%), Cd (139% and 55%), Pb (84% and 85%) and Cu (63% and 77%) from the original Pb/Zn mined soil and a multi-metal contaminated paddy soil. Together, the nonpathogenic Fusarium fungus was able to increase S. alfredii root systems and function, metal availability and accumulation, plant biomass, and thus phytoextraction efficiency. This study showed a great application potential for culturable indigenous fungi other than symbiotic mycorrhizas to enhance the phytoextraction by hyperaccumulators.

  5. Ultrastructural changes, zinc hyperaccumulation and its relation with antioxidants in two ecotypes of Sedum alfredii Hance.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xiao Fen; Yang, Xiao E; Islam, Ejazul; Liu, Dan; Mahmood, Qaisar; Li, Hong; Li, Junying

    2008-11-01

    Zn phytotoxicity and its possible detoxifying responses in two ecotypes of Sedum alfredii Hance, i.e. hyperaccumulating ecotype (HE) and non-hyperaccumulating ecotype (NHE) were investigated. HE grew better with high Zn concentrations of 29.11gkg(-1) DW in shoots when exposed to 500microM Zn2+. Toxicity symptoms caused by Zn in root cells of both ecotypes mainly included plasmolysis, disruption of plasma membranes and increased cell vacuolation. At high supplied Zn concentration, chloroplasts suffered from structural disorganization in both ecotypes. Zn-induced hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and superoxide radical (O(2)-) productions in leaves were determined by a histochemical method, which revealed that Zn stress may have involved NADPH oxidase, protein phosphatases and intracellular Ca2+ to activate the reactive oxygen species production. Inhibition of glutathione synthesis may have led to increased H2O2 and O(2)- accumulations in leaves of HE. In response to higher Zn concentrations, ascorbic acid significantly increased in both ecotypes and levels of glutathione increased in both leaves and roots of HE and in roots of NHE without any change in the leaves of NHE. The enzymatic activities like those of superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1), catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX, EC 1.11.1.7), ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR, EC 1.8.5.1), and glutathione reductase (GR, EC 1.6.4.2) in leaves of HE were all enhanced at supplied Zn concentration of 500microM, which may account for its better growth.

  6. Extraction and isolation of the salidroside-type metabolite from zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii Hance*

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Yan; Peng, Hong-yun; Li, Xia; Zhang, Meng-xi; Gao, Ling-ling; Yang, Xiao-e

    2012-01-01

    The active metabolite in the post-harvested biomass of zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii Hance from phytoextraction is of great interest in China. The current study demonstrates that a salidroside-type metabolite can be yielded from the Zn/Cd hyperaccumulator S. alfredii biomass by means of sonication/ethanol extraction and macroporous resin column (AB-8 type) isolation. The concentrations of Zn and Cd in the salidroside-type metabolite were below the limitation of the national standards. PMID:23024051

  7. Methanol Extract of Artemisia apiacea Hance Attenuates the Expression of Inflammatory Mediators via NF-κB Inactivation

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Ji Choul; Park, Sang Mi; Hwangbo, Min; Byun, Sung Hui; Ku, Sae Kwang; Kim, Young Woo; Jee, Seon Young

    2013-01-01

    Artemisia apiacea Hance is one of the most widely used herbs for the treatment of malaria, jaundice, and dyspeptic complaint in oriental medicine. This study investigated the effects of methanol extracts of A. apiacea Hance (MEAH) on the induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and proinflammatory mediators by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in Raw264.7 macrophage cells and also evaluated the in vivo effect of MEAH on carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats. MEAH treatment in Raw264.7 cells significantly decreased LPS-inducible nitric oxide production and the expression of iNOS in a concentration-dependent manner, while MEAH (up to 100 μg/mL) had no cytotoxic activity. Results from immunoblot analyses and ELISA revealed that MEAH significantly inhibited the expression of cyclooxygenase-2, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and interleukin-6 in LPS-activated cells. As a plausible molecular mechanism, increased degradation and phosphorylation of inhibitory-κBα and nuclear factor-κB accumulation in the nucleus by LPS were partly blocked by MEAH treatment. Finally, MEAH treatment decreased the carrageenan-induced formation of paw edema and infiltration of inflammatory cells in rats. These results demonstrate that MEAH has an anti-inflammatory therapeutic potential that may result from the inhibition of nuclear factor-κB activation, subsequently decreasing the expression of proinflammatory mediators. PMID:24250718

  8. Conservation and possible reintroduction of an endangered plant based on an analysis of community ecology: a case study of Primulina tabacum Hance in China

    Treesearch

    Hai Ren; Qianmei Zhang; Zhengfeng Wang; Qinfeng Guo; June Wang; Nan Liu; Kaiming. Liang

    2010-01-01

    The distribution of the rare and endangered perennial herb Primulina tabacum Hance is restricted to eight karst caves in southern China. To conserve P. tabacum and to evaluate possible reintroduction, we studied its historical distribution and conducted field surveys of both its biotic and physical environment. We used detrended...

  9. Functional Characterization of a Gene in Sedum alfredii Hance Resembling Rubber Elongation Factor Endowed with Functions Associated with Cadmium Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Mingying; Qiu, Wenming; He, Xuelian; Zheng, Liu; Song, Xixi; Han, Xiaojiao; Jiang, Jing; Qiao, Guirong; Sang, Jian; Liu, Mingqing; Zhuo, Renying

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium is a major toxic heavy-metal pollutant considering their bioaccumulation potential and persistence in the environment. The hyperaccumulating ecotype of Sedum alfredii Hance is a Zn/Cd co-hyperaccumulator inhabiting in a region of China with soils rich in Pb/Zn. Investigations into the underlying molecular regulatory mechanisms of Cd tolerance are of substantial interest. Here, library screening for genes related to cadmium tolerance identified a gene resembling the rubber elongation factor gene designated as SaREFl. The heterologous expression of SaREFl rescued the growth of a transformed Cd-sensitive strain (ycf1). Furthermore, SaREFl-expressing Arabidopsis plants were more tolerant to cadmium stress compared with wild type by measuring parameters of root length, fresh weight and physiological indexes. When under four different heavy metal treatments, we found that SaREFl responded most strongly to Cd and the root was the plant organ most sensitive to this heavy metal. Yeast two-hybrid screening of SaREFl as a bait led to the identification of five possible interacting targets in Sedum alfredii Hance. Among them, a gene annotated as prenylated Rab acceptor 1 (PRA1) domain protein was detected with a high frequency. Moreover, subcellular localization of SaREF1-GFP fusion protein revealed some patchy spots in cytosol suggesting potential association with organelles for its cellular functions. Our findings would further enrich the connotation of REF-like genes and provide theoretical assistance for the application in breeding heavy metal-tolerant plants. PMID:27446189

  10. Occurrence of morphological and anatomical adaptive traits in young and adult plants of the rare Mediterranean cliff species Primula palinuri Petagna.

    PubMed

    De Micco, Veronica; Aronne, Giovanna

    2012-01-01

    Cliffs worldwide are known to be reservoirs of relict biodiversity. Despite the presence of harsh abiotic conditions, large endemic floras live in such environments. Primula palinuri Petagna is a rare endemic plant species, surviving on cliff sites along a few kilometres of the Tyrrhenian coast in southern Italy. This species is declared at risk of extinction due to human impact on the coastal areas in question. Population surveys have shown that most of the plants are old individuals, while seedlings and plants at early stages of development are rare. We followed the growth of P. palinuri plants from seed germination to the adult phase and analysed the morphoanatomical traits of plants at all stages of development. Our results showed that the pressure of cliff environmental factors has been selected for seasonal habitus and structural adaptive traits in this species. The main morphoanatomical modifications are suberized cell layers and accumulation of phenolic compounds in cell structures. These features are strictly related to regulation of water uptake and storage as well as defence from predation. However, we found them well established only in adult plants and not in juvenile individuals. These findings contribute to explain the rare recruitment of the present relict populations, identifying some of the biological traits which result in species vulnerability.

  11. Analysis of late stage flower development in Primula vulgaris reveals novel differences in cell morphology and temporal aspects of floral heteromorphy.

    PubMed

    Webster, Margaret A; Gilmartin, Philip M

    2006-01-01

    Heterostyly in Primula is characterized by the development of long-styled pin and short-styled thrum flowers, with anthers midway down the corolla tube in pin flowers, and at its mouth in thrum flowers. Other differences include pollen size and stigmatic papillae length. Several linked genes at the S locus control these differences. In this study we have analyzed pin and thrum flowers through the temporal development of heteromorphy.These studies indicate that the S locus linked genes that orchestrate heteromorphic flower development act in coordination, but with different temporal and spatial dynamics. Style length is differentiated by longer style cells in pin than thrum. However, our studies on cell shape and size within the corolla tube show that a different mechanism mediates the dissimilar elevation of anthers between pin and thrum types. These studies have also revealed that upper corolla tube cells in thrum flowers are wider than those in pin flowers. This results in a larger corolla tube mouth in thrum flowers and represents a new and previously undocumented heteromorphic variation between pin and thrum flowers.

  12. Occurrence of Morphological and Anatomical Adaptive Traits in Young and Adult Plants of the Rare Mediterranean Cliff Species Primula palinuri Petagna

    PubMed Central

    De Micco, Veronica; Aronne, Giovanna

    2012-01-01

    Cliffs worldwide are known to be reservoirs of relict biodiversity. Despite the presence of harsh abiotic conditions, large endemic floras live in such environments. Primula palinuri Petagna is a rare endemic plant species, surviving on cliff sites along a few kilometres of the Tyrrhenian coast in southern Italy. This species is declared at risk of extinction due to human impact on the coastal areas in question. Population surveys have shown that most of the plants are old individuals, while seedlings and plants at early stages of development are rare. We followed the growth of P. palinuri plants from seed germination to the adult phase and analysed the morphoanatomical traits of plants at all stages of development. Our results showed that the pressure of cliff environmental factors has been selected for seasonal habitus and structural adaptive traits in this species. The main morphoanatomical modifications are suberized cell layers and accumulation of phenolic compounds in cell structures. These features are strictly related to regulation of water uptake and storage as well as defence from predation. However, we found them well established only in adult plants and not in juvenile individuals. These findings contribute to explain the rare recruitment of the present relict populations, identifying some of the biological traits which result in species vulnerability. PMID:22666127

  13. Enhanced expression of SaHMA3 plays critical roles in Cd hyperaccumulation and hypertolerance in Cd hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii Hance.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Min; Shohag, Md Jahidul Islam; Tian, Shengke; Song, Haiyan; Feng, Ying; Yang, Xiaoe

    2016-03-01

    The enhanced expression of a P 1B -type ATPase gene ( SaHMA3 ) is essential for Cd hyperaccumulation and hypertolerance in Sedum alfredii Hance. A functional understanding of the mechanism through which hyperaccumulator plants accumulate and tolerate extremely toxic metals is a prerequisite for the development of novel strategies for improving phytoremediation using engineered plants or natural hyperaccumulators as well as biofortification and food crop safety. Most hyperaccumulator species, however, are small and slow-growing, and their potential for large-scale decontamination of polluted soils is limited. Sedum alfredii Hance, the only one metal hyperaccumulator from the Crassulaceae family, is an ideal candidate for gaining a functional understanding of the intra-family hyperaccumulation mechanisms as well as their potential applications. In the present study, we isolated and functionally characterized a P1B-type ATPase gene (SaHMA3) from S. alfredii Hance. SaHMA3 alleles from a hyperaccumulating ecotype (HE) and non-hyperaccumulating ecotype (NHE) were constitutively expressed in both shoot and root and encoded tonoplast-localized proteins, but showed differences in transport substrate specificity and expression level. SaHMA3 h from the HE plant was a Cd transporter. In contrast, SaHMA3n from NHE plants was able to transport both Zn and Cd. SaHMA3 showed a significantly higher constitutive expression level in HE plants than in NHE plants. Furthermore, the expression level of SaHMA3 in the shoots of HE plants was considerably higher than in the roots. Overexpression of SaHMA3h in tobacco plants significantly enhanced Cd tolerance and accumulation and greatly increased the root sequestration of Cd. In summary, our data suggested that SaHMA3 plays critical roles in Cd hyperaccumulation and hypertolerance in Cd hyperaccumulator S. alfredii Hance.

  14. The role of bacteria in the heavy metals removal and growth of Sedum alfredii Hance in an aqueous medium.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Jibing; He, Zhenli; Liu, Dan; Mahmood, Qaisar; Yang, Xiaoe

    2008-01-01

    This study was the first attempt to examine the possible role of the naturally occurring rhizospheric bacteria in heavy metal removal by Sedum alfredii Hance, a terrestrial Zn/Cd hyperaccumuluator, from Zn, Cd, Cu and Pb contaminated water using antibiotic ampicillin. Moreover, the toxicity symptom in plants under heavy metal stress expressed as total chlorophyll, chlorophyll a and b content, growth inhibition, root length, and N, P contents were studied, and the possible relationship among them were also discussed. These results indicate that rhizospheric bacteria may play an important role in the uptake of N and P by S. alfredii, and consequently result in the increase of Chlorophyll content in the leaves and plant biomass due to improved photosynthesis. At the same time, root length significantly decreased under the treatment with ampicillin, which suggested that rhizospheric bacteria appeared to protect the roots against heavy metal toxicity. The Pb, Zn, Cu and Cd concentrations in the roots, stems and leaves of S. alfredii were much higher than those exposed to ampicillin. Accordingly, metal concentrations in the contaminated water without ampicillin treatment were lower than those treated with ampicillin. These results suggest that the rhizospheric bacteria may be useful in plant tolerance to heavy metal toxicity, and also accelerate the metal removal from contaminated water.

  15. Comparative Proteomic Analysis Reveals the Effects of Exogenous Calcium against Acid Rain Stress in Liquidambar formosana Hance Leaves.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wen-Jun; Wu, Qian; Liu, Xiang; Shen, Zhi-Jun; Chen, Juan; Liu, Ting-Wu; Chen, Juan; Zhu, Chun-Quan; Wu, Fei-Hua; Chen, Lin; Wei, Jia; Qiu, Xiao-Yun; Shen, Guo-Xin; Zheng, Hai-Lei

    2016-01-04

    Acid rain (AR) impacts forest health by leaching calcium (Ca) away from soils and plants. Ca is an essential element and participates in various plant physiological responses. In the present study, the protective role of exogenous Ca in alleviating AR stress in Liquidambar formosana Hance at the physiological and proteomic levels was examined. Our results showed that low Ca condition resulted in the chlorophyll content and photosynthesis decreasing significantly in L. formosana leaves; however, these effects could be reversed by high Ca supplementation. Further proteomic analyses successfully identified 81 differentially expressed proteins in AR-treated L. formosana under different Ca levels. In particular, some of the proteins are involved in primary metabolism, photosynthesis, energy production, antioxidant defense, transcription, and translation. Moreover, quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) results indicated that low Ca significantly increased the expression level of the investigated Ca-related genes, which can be reversed by high Ca supplementation under AR stress. Further, Western blotting analysis revealed that exogenous Ca supply reduced AR damage by elevating the expression of proteins involved in the Calvin cycle, reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging system. These findings allowed us to better understand how woody plants respond to AR stress at various Ca levels and the protective role of exogenous Ca against AR stress in forest tree species.

  16. [Isolation and purification of diarylheptanoids from Alpinia officinarum Hance by high-speed counter-current chromatography].

    PubMed

    Ye, Qiongxian; Tan, Xiong; Zhu, Longping; Zhao, Zhimin; Yang, Depo; Yin, Sheng; Wang, Dongmei

    2012-03-01

    Three diarylheptanoids were isolated and purified from Alpinia officinarum Hance by high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC). A two-phase solvent system composed of hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (2: 3: 1.75: 1, v/v/v/v) was used. The lower phase was used as the stationary phase. From 122.20 mg petroleum ether extract of A. officinarum, 5R-hydroxy-7-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl )-1-phenyl-3-heptanone (7.37 mg), 7-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1-phenyl-4E-en-3-heptanone (9.11 mg) and 1,7-diphenyl-4E-en-3-heptanone (15.44 mg) with purities over 93% were obtained within 140 min in one-step separation by HSCCC under the conditions of a flow rate of 1.5 mL/min and 858 r/min. The obtained compounds were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography to provide their purities, and their structures were confirmed by using mass spectrometry, 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) and 13C-NMR. The established HSCCC method is relatively simple, fast and suitable for the isolation and purification of diarylheptanoids from A. officinarum.

  17. Biochar and Glomus caledonium Influence Cd Accumulation of Upland Kangkong (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk.) Intercropped with Alfred Stonecrop (Sedum alfredii Hance)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Junli; Wu, Fuyong; Wu, Shengchun; Lam, Cheung Lung; Lin, Xiangui; Wong, Ming Hung

    2014-04-01

    Both biochar application and mycorrhizal inoculation have been proposed to improve plant growth and alter bioaccumulation of toxic metals. A greenhouse pot trial was conducted to investigate growth and Cd accumulation of upland kangkong (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk.) intercropped with Alfred stonecrop (Sedum alfredii Hance) in a Cd-contaminated soil inoculated with Glomus caledonium and/or applied with biochar. Compared with the monocultural control, intercropping with stonecrop (IS) decreased kangkong Cd acquisition via rhizosphere competition, and also decreased kangkong yield. Gc inoculation (+M) accelerated growth and Cd acquisition of stonecrop, and hence resulted in further decreases in kangkong Cd acquisition. Regardless of IS and +M, biochar addition (+B) increased kangkong yield via elevating soil available P, and decreased soil Cd phytoavailability and kangkong Cd concentration via increasing soil pH. Compared with the control, the treatment of IS + M + B had a substantially higher kangkong yield (+25.5%) with a lower Cd concentration (-62.7%). Gc generated additive effects on soil alkalinization and Cd stabilization to biochar, causing lower DTPA-extractable (phytoavailable) Cd concentrations and post-harvest transfer risks.

  18. Biochar and Glomus caledonium influence Cd accumulation of upland kangkong (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk.) intercropped with Alfred stonecrop (Sedum alfredii Hance).

    PubMed

    Hu, Junli; Wu, Fuyong; Wu, Shengchun; Lam, Cheung Lung; Lin, Xiangui; Wong, Ming Hung

    2014-04-14

    Both biochar application and mycorrhizal inoculation have been proposed to improve plant growth and alter bioaccumulation of toxic metals. A greenhouse pot trial was conducted to investigate growth and Cd accumulation of upland kangkong (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk.) intercropped with Alfred stonecrop (Sedum alfredii Hance) in a Cd-contaminated soil inoculated with Glomus caledonium and/or applied with biochar. Compared with the monocultural control, intercropping with stonecrop (IS) decreased kangkong Cd acquisition via rhizosphere competition, and also decreased kangkong yield. Gc inoculation (+M) accelerated growth and Cd acquisition of stonecrop, and hence resulted in further decreases in kangkong Cd acquisition. Regardless of IS and +M, biochar addition (+B) increased kangkong yield via elevating soil available P, and decreased soil Cd phytoavailability and kangkong Cd concentration via increasing soil pH. Compared with the control, the treatment of IS + M + B had a substantially higher kangkong yield (+25.5%) with a lower Cd concentration (-62.7%). Gc generated additive effects on soil alkalinization and Cd stabilization to biochar, causing lower DTPA-extractable (phytoavailable) Cd concentrations and post-harvest transfer risks.

  19. Biochar and Glomus caledonium Influence Cd Accumulation of Upland Kangkong (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk.) Intercropped with Alfred Stonecrop (Sedum alfredii Hance)

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Junli; Wu, Fuyong; Wu, Shengchun; Lam, Cheung Lung; Lin, Xiangui; Wong, Ming Hung

    2014-01-01

    Both biochar application and mycorrhizal inoculation have been proposed to improve plant growth and alter bioaccumulation of toxic metals. A greenhouse pot trial was conducted to investigate growth and Cd accumulation of upland kangkong (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk.) intercropped with Alfred stonecrop (Sedum alfredii Hance) in a Cd-contaminated soil inoculated with Glomus caledonium and/or applied with biochar. Compared with the monocultural control, intercropping with stonecrop (IS) decreased kangkong Cd acquisition via rhizosphere competition, and also decreased kangkong yield. Gc inoculation (+M) accelerated growth and Cd acquisition of stonecrop, and hence resulted in further decreases in kangkong Cd acquisition. Regardless of IS and +M, biochar addition (+B) increased kangkong yield via elevating soil available P, and decreased soil Cd phytoavailability and kangkong Cd concentration via increasing soil pH. Compared with the control, the treatment of IS + M + B had a substantially higher kangkong yield (+25.5%) with a lower Cd concentration (−62.7%). Gc generated additive effects on soil alkalinization and Cd stabilization to biochar, causing lower DTPA-extractable (phytoavailable) Cd concentrations and post-harvest transfer risks. PMID:24728157

  20. The inhibitory effect of Zingiber corallinum Hance essential oil on drug-resistant bacteria and evaluation of its acute toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ce; Zhou, Lin-Lin; Wang, Hai-Yan; Huang, Su-Na; Liu, Qing; Hu, Shi-Lin; Li, Ting-Rong; Chen, Yan-Bing; Jiang, Jian-Xin

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background The excessive and irregular use of antibiotics could result in the generation and diffusion of drug-resistant bacteria. The aim of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of Zingiber corallinum Hance essential oil (ZCHO) on drug-resistant bacteria, especially on drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. Material/Methods Susceptibility testing was used to evaluate the effect of ZCHO on growth inhibition of drug-resistant bacteria by paper disk method. Mice orally administered with ZCHO were used to observe acute toxicity and to determine median lethal dose (LD50) of ZCHO. Broth dilution method was used to determine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of ZCHO on drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. Results ZCHO exhibited an obvious inhibitory effect not only on gram-negative drug-resistant bacteria including Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae and Acinetobacter baumannii, but also on gram-positive drug-resistant bacteria including Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus haemolyticus. The ZCHO containing 79% terpinen-4-ol revealed better bacteriostatic effect than ZCHO with 34% terpinen-4-ol. The LD50 of ZCHO was 1790.427 mg/kg. The MIC and MBC of ZCHO on drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii were 1457.81 mg/L. Conclusions ZCHO has obvious bacteriostasis and bactericidal effects, especially against drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. Therefore, ZCHO is a promising natural bioactive component with antibacterial effect and satisfactory safety due to its low toxicity. PMID:21525802

  1. The S locus-linked Primula homeotic mutant sepaloid shows characteristics of a B-function mutant but does not result from mutation in a B-function gene.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinhong; Webster, Margaret; Dudas, Brigitta; Cook, Holly; Manfield, Iain; Davies, Brendan; Gilmartin, Philip M

    2008-10-01

    Floral homeotic and flower development mutants of Primula, including double, Hose in Hose, Jack in the Green and Split Perianth, have been cultivated since the late 1500s as ornamental plants but until recently have attracted limited scientific attention. Here we describe the characterization of a new mutant phenotype, sepaloid, that produces flowers comprising only sepals and carpels. The sepaloid mutation is recessive, and is linked to the S locus that controls floral heteromorphy. The phenotype shows developmental variability, with flowers containing three whorls of sepals surrounding fertile carpels, two whorls of sepals with a diminished third whorl of sepals surrounding a fourth whorl of carpels, or three whorls of sepals surrounding abnormal carpels. In some respects, these phenotypes resemble the Arabidopsis and Antirrhinum homeotic B-function mutants apetala3/deficiens (ap3/def) and pistillata/globosa (pi/glo). We have isolated the Primula vulgaris B-function genes PvDEFICIENS (PvDEF) and PvGLOBOSA (PvGLO), expression of both of which is affected in the sepaloid mutant. PvGLO, like sepaloid, is linked to the S locus, whereas PvDEF is not. However, our analyses reveal that sepaloid and PvGLO represent different genes. We conclude that SEPALOID is an S-linked independent regulator of floral organ identity genes including PvDEF and PvGLO.

  2. Reversing β-lactam antibiotic resistance of Staphylococcus aureus with galangin from Alpinia officinarum Hance and synergism with ceftazidime.

    PubMed

    Eumkeb, Griangsak; Sakdarat, Santi; Siriwong, Supatcharee

    2010-12-15

    The purpose of this investigation was to extract and identify the bioactive phytochemicals from smaller galanga (Alpinia officinarum Hance). The antibacterial, synergy effects and primary mechanism of action of galangin and ceftazidime against S. aureus DMST 20651 are also investigated by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), checkerboard, killing curve determinations, enzyme assay and electronmicroscopy method. The rhizomes chloroform extract of this plant showed that these compounds were galangin, kaempferide and kaempferide-3-O-β-D-glucoside, which had not been previously reported in this species. Synergistic FIC indices were observed in the combination of test flavonoids (galangin, quercetin and baicalein) and all selected β-lactams (methicillin, ampicillin, amoxicillin, cloxacillin, penicillin G and ceftazidime) (FIC index, <0.02-0.11). The combination of ceftazidime at 5 μg/ml and 5 μg/ml of test flavonoids (galangin, quercetin and baicalein) exhibited synergistic effect by reduced the cfu/ml of this strain to 1×10(3) over 6 and throughout 24 h. Galangin showed marked inhibitory activity against penicillinase and β-lactamase. Electronmicroscopy clearly showed that the combination of galangin and ceftazidime caused damage to the ultrastructures of the cells of this strain. It was concluded that galangin, quercetin and baicalein exhibited the potential to reverse bacterial resistance to β-lactam antibiotics against penicillin-resistant S. aureus (PRSA). This may involve three mechanisms of action that galangin inhibit protein synthesis and effect on PBP 2a, interact with penicillinase and cause cytoplasmic membrane damage. These findings lead us to develop a new generation of phytopharmaceuticals that may use galangin, quercetin and baicalein in combination with ceftazidime to treat PRSA that currently almost untreatable microorganism. The anti-PRSA activity and mode of action of galangin is reported for the first time. These in vitro results have to

  3. Differential generation of hydrogen peroxide upon exposure to zinc and cadmium in the hyperaccumulating plant specie (Sedum alfredii Hance)*

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Yue-en; Zhang, Min; Tian, Sheng-ke; Lu, Ling-li; Yang, Xiao-e

    2008-01-01

    Sedum alfredii Hance has been identified as zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) co-hyperaccumulator. In this paper the relationships of Zn or Cd hyperaccumulation to the generation and the role of H2O2 in Sedum alfredii H. were examined. The results show that Zn and Cd contents in the shoots of Sedum alfredii H. treated with 1000 μmol/L Zn2+ and/or 200 μmol/L Cd2+ increased linearly within 15 d. Contents of total S, glutathione (GSH) and H2O2 in shoots also increased within 15 d, and then decreased. Total S and GSH contents in shoots were higher under Cd2+ treatment than under Zn2+ treatment. However, reverse trends of H2O2 content in shoots were obtained, in which much higher H2O2 content was observed in Zn2+-treated shoots than in Cd2+-treated shoots. Similarly, the microscopic imaging of H2O2 accumulation in leaves using H2O2 probe technique showed that much higher H2O2 accumulation was observed in the Zn2+-treated leaf than in the Cd2+-treated one. These results suggest that there are different responses in the generation of H2O2 upon exposure to Zn2+ and Cd2+ for the hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii H. And this is the first report that the generation of H2O2 may play an important role in Zn hyperaccumulation in the leaves. Our results also imply that GSH may play an important role in the detoxification of dissociated Zn/Cd and the generation of H2O2. PMID:18357627

  4. Zinc, cadmium and lead accumulation and characteristics of rhizosphere microbial population associated with hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii Hance under natural conditions.

    PubMed

    Long, Xin-Xian; Zhang, Yu-Gang; Jun, Dai; Zhou, Qixing

    2009-04-01

    A field survey was conducted to study the characteristics of zinc, cadmium, and lead accumulation and rhizosphere microbial population associated with hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii Hance growing natively on an old lead/zinc mining site. We found significant hyperaccumulation of zinc and cadmium in field samples of S. alfredii, with maximal shoot concentrations of 9.10-19.61 g kg(-1) zinc and 0.12-1.23 g kg(-1) cadmium, shoot/root ratios ranging from 1.75 to 3.19 (average 2.54) for zinc, 3.36 to 4.43 (average 3.85) for cadmium, shoot bioaccumulation factors of zinc and cadmium being 1.46-4.84 and 7.35-17.41, respectively. While most of lead was retained in roots, thus indicating exclusion as a tolerance strategy for lead. Compared to the non-rhizosphere soil, organic matter and total nitrogen and phosphorus content, CEC and water extractable zinc, cadmium, and lead concentration were significantly higher, but pH was smaller in rhizosphere soil. The rhizosphere soil of S. alfredii harbored a wide variety of microorganism. In general, significantly higher numbers of culturable bacteria, actinomycetes, and fungi were found in the rhizosphere compared to bulk soil, confirming the stimulatory effect of the S. alfredii rhizosphere on microbial growth and proliferation. Analyses of BIOLOG data also showed that the growth of S. alfredii resulted in observable changes in BIOLOG metabolic profiles, utilization ability of different carbon substrates of microbial communities in the rhizosphere soil were also higher than the non-rhizosphere, confirming a functional effect of the rhizosphere of S. alfredii on bacterial population.

  5. Differential generation of hydrogen peroxide upon exposure to zinc and cadmium in the hyperaccumulating plant species (Sedum alfredii Hance).

    PubMed

    Chao, Yue-en; Zhang, Min; Tian, Sheng-ke; Lu, Ling-li; Yang, Xiao-e

    2008-03-01

    Sedum alfredii Hance has been identified as zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) co-hyperaccumulator. In this paper the relationships of Zn or Cd hyperaccumulation to the generation and the role of H2O2 in Sedum alfredii H. were examined. The results show that Zn and Cd contents in the shoots of Sedum alfredii H. treated with 1000 micromol/L Zn2+ and/or 200 micromol/L Cd2+ increased linearly within 15 d. Contents of total S, glutathione (GSH) and H2O2 in shoots also increased within 15 d, and then decreased. Total S and GSH contents in shoots were higher under Cd2+ treatment than under Zn2+ treatment. However, reverse trends of H2O2 content in shoots were obtained, in which much higher H2O2 content was observed in Zn2+-treated shoots than in Cd2+-treated shoots. Similarly, the microscopic imaging of H2O2 accumulation in leaves using H2O2 probe technique showed that much higher H2O2 accumulation was observed in the Zn2+-treated leaf than in the Cd2+-treated one. These results suggest that there are different responses in the generation of H2O2 upon exposure to Zn2+ and Cd2+ for the hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii H. And this is the first report that the generation of H2O2 may play an important role in Zn hyperaccumulation in the leaves. Our results also imply that GSH may play an important role in the detoxification of dissociated Zn/Cd and the generation of H2O2.

  6. Zinc compartmentation in root, transport into xylem, and absorption into leaf cells in the hyperaccumulating species of Sedum alfredii Hance.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaoe; Li, Tingqiang; Yang, Juncheng; He, Zhenli; Lu, Lingli; Meng, Fanhua

    2006-06-01

    Sedum alfredii Hance can accumulate Zn in shoots over 2%. Leaf and stem Zn concentrations of the hyperaccumulating ecotype (HE) were 24- and 28-fold higher, respectively, than those of the nonhyperaccumulating ecotype (NHE), whereas 1.4-fold more Zn was accumulated in the roots of the NHE. Approximately 2.7-fold more Zn was stored in the root vacuoles of the NHE, and thus became unavailable for loading into the xylem and subsequent translocation to shoot. Long-term efflux of absorbed 65Zn indicated that 65Zn activity was 6.8-fold higher in shoots but 3.7-fold lower in roots of the HE. At lower Zn levels (10 and 100 microM), there were no significant differences in 65Zn uptake by leaf sections and intact leaf protoplasts between the two ecotypes except that 1.5-fold more 65Zn was accumulated in leaf sections of the HE than in those of the NHE after exposure to 100 microM for 48 h. At 1,000 microM Zn, however, approximately 2.1-fold more Zn was taken up by the HE leaf sections and 1.5-fold more 65Zn taken up by the HE protoplasts as compared to the NHE at exposure times >16 h and >10 min, respectively. Treatments with carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) or ruptured protoplasts strongly inhibited 65Zn uptake into leaf protoplasts for both ecotypes. Citric acid and Val concentrations in leaves and stems significantly increased for the HE, but decreased or had minimal changes for the NHE in response to raised Zn levels. These results indicate that altered Zn transport across tonoplast in the root and stimulated Zn uptake in the leaf cells are the major mechanisms involved in the strong Zn hyperaccumulation observed in S. alfredii H.

  7. Root responses and metal accumulation in two contrasting ecotypes of Sedum alfredii Hance under lead and zinc toxic stress.

    PubMed

    Li, Ting-Qiang; Yang, Xiao-E; Jin, Xiao-Fen; He, Zhen-Li; Stoffella, Peter-J; Hu, Qing-Hua

    2005-01-01

    Sedum alfredii Hance has been reported to be a Zn-hyperaccumulator plant species. In this study, root morphological and physiological response of the hyperaccumulating ecotype of S. alfredii H. (HE) from the mined area and the non-hyperaccumulating ecotype of S. alfredii H. (NHE) from the agricultural area to supplied levels of Zn and Pb were investigated. The results showed that Zn concentrations in the leaves and the stems of the HE were 34 and 41 times higher, whereas lead concentrations were 1.9 and 2.4 times greater, respectively, than those of the NHE when grown at 1224 microM Zn and/or 200 microM Pb. At combined supply of 1224 microM Zn with 200 microM Pb, however, zinc concentrations in the stems and leaves of the, HE decreased, while lead concentrations in the stems increased significantly, as compared with those of single metal treatment. Lead uptake of the HE was enhanced by Zn addition. Root activity of the HE decreased by Pb treatment in the first two days, but recovered afterward and close to the control at day 10 of the treatment. However, root activity of the NHE decreased by each metal treatment, and was not recovered with the advance of treatment time. Root length, root surface area, and root volumes increased obviously due to Zn and/or Pb/Zn combined treatments for the HE, but significantly decreased due to Pb, Zn, or Pb/Zn combined treatment for the NHE. Zinc and Pb concentrations in both ecotypes of S. alfredii H. were positively correlated with root length, root surface area, and root volumes. Root exudates of the HE, especially treated with Zn, increased the extractability of Pb and Zn from the mined soil. At the Zn supply level of 1224microM, the extractability of root exudates on soil Pb was 3-12 times greater for the HE than for the NHE. These results imply that the tolerance and hyperaccumulation of the hyperaccumulating ecotype of S. alfredii H. to Zn and Pb appear to be closely related to its high adaptation of root growth, morphology

  8. Novel linear and step-gradient counter-current chromatography for bio-guided isolation and purification of cytotoxic podophyllotoxins from Dysosma versipellis (Hance).

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhi; Liu, Xiaoman; Wang, Kuiwu; Cao, Xiaoji; Wu, Shihua

    2013-03-01

    Dysosma versipellis (Hance) is a famous traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of snakebite, weakness, condyloma accuminata, lymphadenopathy, and tumors for thousands of years. In this work, four podophyllotoxin-like lignans including 4'-demethylpodophyllotoxin (1), α-peltatin (2), podophyllotoxin (3), β-peltatin (4) as major cytotoxic principles of D. versipellis were successfully isolated and purified by several novel linear and step gradient counter-current chromatography methods using the systems of hexane/ethyl acetate/methanol/water (4:6:3:7 and 4:6:4:6, v/v/v/v). Compared with isocratic elution, linear and step-gradient elution can provide better resolution and save more time for the separation of photophyllotoxin and its congeners. Their cytotoxicities were further evaluated and their structures were validated by high-resolution electrospray TOF MS and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra. All components showed potent anticancer activity against human hepatoma cells HepG2.

  9. Microemulsion Electrokinetic Chromatography in Combination with Chemometric Methods to Evaluate the Holistic Quality Consistency and Predict the Antioxidant Activity of Ixeris sonchifolia (Bunge) Hance Injection

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lanping; Xie, Xiuman; Zhang, Jing; Sun, Guoxiang

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography (MEEKC) fingerprints combined with quantification were successfully developed to monitor the holistic quality consistency of Ixeris sonchifolia (Bge.) Hance Injection (ISHI). ISHI is a Chinese traditional patent medicine used for its anti-inflammatory and hemostatic effects. The effects of five crucial experimental variables on MEEKC were optimized by the central composite design. Under the optimized conditions, the MEEKC fingerprints of 28 ISHIs were developed. Quantitative determination of seven marker compounds was employed simultaneously, then 28 batches of samples from two manufacturers were clearly divided into two clusters by the principal component analysis. In fingerprint assessments, a systematic quantitative fingerprint method was established for the holistic quality consistency evaluation of ISHI from qualitative and quantitative perspectives, by which the qualities of 28 samples were well differentiated. In addition, the fingerprint—efficacy relationship between the fingerprints and the antioxidant activities was established utilizing orthogonal projection to latent structures, which provided important medicinal efficacy information for quality control. The present study offered a powerful and holistic approach to evaluating the quality consistency of herbal medicines and their preparations. PMID:27336298

  10. Enhanced Cd extraction of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) by plant growth-promoting bacteria isolated from Cd hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii Hance.

    PubMed

    Pan, Fengshan; Meng, Qian; Luo, Sha; Shen, Jing; Chen, Bao; Khan, Kiran Yasmin; Japenga, Jan; Ma, Xiaoxiao; Yang, Xiaoe; Feng, Ying

    2017-03-04

    Four plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) were used as study materials, among them two heavy metal-tolerant rhizosphere strains SrN1 (Arthrobacter sp.) and SrN9 (Bacillus altitudinis) were isolated from rhizosphere soil, while two endophytic strains SaN1 (Bacillus megaterium) and SaMR12 (Sphingomonas) were identified from roots of the cadmium (Cd)/zinc (Zn) hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii Hance. A pot experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of these PGPB on plant growth and Cd accumulation of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) plants grown on aged Cd-spiked soil. The results showed that the four PGPB significantly boosted oilseed rape shoot biomass production, improved soil and plant analyzer development (SPAD) value, enhanced Cd uptake of plant and Cd translocation to the leaves. By fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and green fluorescent protein (GFP), we demonstrated the studied S. alfredii endophytic bacterium SaMR12 were able to colonize successfully in the B. napus roots. However, all four PGPB could increase seed Cd accumulation. Due to its potential to enhance Cd uptake by the plant and to restrict Cd accumulation in the seeds, SaMR12 was selected as the most promising microbial partner of B. napus when setting up a plant-microbe fortified remediation system.

  11. Holistic Evaluation of Quality Consistency of Ixeris sonchifolia (Bunge) Hance Injectables by Quantitative Fingerprinting in Combination with Antioxidant Activity and Chemometric Methods

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lanping; Sun, Guoxiang; Guo, Yong; Hou, Zhifei; Chen, Shuai

    2016-01-01

    A widely used herbal medicine, Ixeris sonchifolia (Bge.) Hance Injectable (ISHI) was investigated for quality consistency. Characteristic fingerprints of 23 batches of the ISHI samples were generated at five wavelengths and evaluated by the systematic quantitative fingerprint method (SQFM) as well as simultaneous analysis of the content of seven marker compounds. Chemometric methods, i.e., support vector machine (SVM) and principal component analysis (PCA) were performed to assist in fingerprint evaluation of the ISHI samples. Qualitative classification of the ISHI samples by SVM was consistent with PCA, and in agreement with the quantitative evaluation by SQFM. In addition, the antioxidant activities of the ISHI samples were determined by both the off-line and on-line DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryldrazyl) radical scavenging assays. A fingerprint–efficacy relationship linking the chemical components and in vitro antioxidant activity was established and validated using the partial least squares (PLS) and orthogonal projection to latent structures (OPLS) models; and the online DPPH assay further revealed those components that had position contribution to the total antioxidant activity. Therefore, the combined use of the chemometric methods, quantitative fingerprint evaluation by SQFM, and multiple marker compound analysis in conjunction with the assay of antioxidant activity provides a powerful and holistic approach to evaluate quality consistency of herbal medicines and their preparations. PMID:26872364

  12. Antimicrobial effect by extracts of rhizome of Alpinia officinarum Hance may relate to its inhibition of beta-ketoacyl-ACP reductase.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hui; Wu, Dan; Tian, Wei-Xi; Ma, Xiao-Feng; Wu, Xiao-Dong

    2008-06-01

    Inhibitory effects on bacterial growth showed that 40% ethanol extract of galangal (rhizome of Alpinia officinarum Hance) can inhibit Staphylococcus aureus, alpha-Hemolytic streptococcus, beta-Hemolytic streptococcus and Streptococcus pneumoniae. beta-ketoacyl-ACP reductase (FabG, EC.1.1.1.100) is a key enzyme in type II fatty acid synthase system in bacteria and catalyzes beta-ketoacyl-ACP reduction. The galangal extracts inhibited FabG with an IC(50) value of only 4.47 +/- 0.10 microg/mL and is more potent than other previously published inhibitors. Kinetics studies showed that the inhibition consisted of both reversible and irreversible inhibition. The extracts of galangal inhibit FabG in a competitive pattern against NADPH. So far, no inhibitor has been reported to exhibit irreversible inhibition of FabG, whereas the galangal ethanol extract can inhibit FabG irreversibly. The irreversible inhibition presented two phases. It is probable that the galangal extract inhibit FabG, thereby displaying antibacterial ability.

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging of the central nervous system in children with a new nonionic gadolinium contrast agent--gadoteridol injection (ProHance).

    PubMed Central

    Byrd, S. E.; Darling, C. F.; Wilczynski, M. A.

    1993-01-01

    This article reports the results of clinical testing in pediatric patients of a new contrast agent, gadoteridol injection (ProHance), developed by Squibb Diagnostic as a nonionic gadolinium agent for use in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Thirteen children (four girls and nine boys) ranging in age from 10 to 18 years were enrolled in the study. The children had MR studies of the brain and/or spine with T1-weighted, T2-weighted, and postgadoteridol injection T1-weighted sequences. Five children had primary brain or spine neoplasms, three children had metastatic disease to the central nervous system, one child had a recurrent brain neoplasm and spinal canal metastasis, one child had an arteriovenous malformation, and two children were normal on the MRI studies. No minor or major reactions to gadoteridol injection developed in the 13 patients. Gadoteridol injection provided excellent delineation and enhancement of the arteriovenous malformation and all of the primary and secondary neoplasms of the central nervous system except for one case of a grade 1 glioma of the midbrain. Gadoteridol injection is a safe and excellent contrast agent for use in MRI. Images Figures 1-5 Figures 6-10 PMID:8496990

  14. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi play a role in protecting roots of Sophora viciifolia Hance. from Pb damage associated with increased phytochelatin synthase gene expression.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhouying; Ban, Yihui; Li, Zhen; Chen, Hui; Yang, Ren; Tang, Ming

    2014-11-01

    Understanding the influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi on the expressions of the dominant plant-related genes under heavy metal (HM) stress is important for developing strategies to reclaim polluted sites. In this study, we cloned full-length cDNAs of phytochelatin synthase gene (PCS1) and Actin of Sophora viciifolia Hance., a predominant plant in Qiandongshan lead and zinc mine, by rapid amplification of cDNA ends. Consequently, we studied the response of SvPCS1 to Funneliformis mosseae inoculation under lead stress (0, 50, and 200 μM Pb(NO3)2) at different durations (1, 3, and 7 days) using quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain-reaction (qRT-PCR) technique. The Pb concentrations and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters were also measured to assay Pb toxicity to Sophora viciifolia. We found that Pb concentrations in roots increased with increasing Pb application and the durations; the F v /F m , F v /F o , qP, and Y(II) decreased; NPQ rose with increasing Pb concentrations; mycorrhizal symbiosis alleviated the Pb toxicity to plants; and SvPCS1 was constitutively expressed in the roots. It was also found that F. mosseae inoculation could promote the expression of SvPCS1 with the concentration ≤ 200 μM at the exposure time shorter than 7 days.

  15. Integrated Process for Production of Galangal Acetate, the "Wasabi-Like" Spicy Compound, and Analysis of Essential Oils of Rhizoma Alpinia officinarum (Hance) Farw.

    PubMed

    Lin, Li-Yun; Shen, Kun-Hung; Yeh, Xiang-Yü; Huang, Bou-Yü; Wang, Hui-Er; Chen, Kuan-Chou; Peng, Robert Y

    2016-06-01

    Rhizoma Alpinia officinarum (Hance) Farw, Zingiberaceae (AO), a ginger family herb exhibiting stimulant and a carminative bioactivity, is widely used in European and Asian countries as spicy condiment and medicinal uses. Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) is the main pungent taste of native Wasabi (Wasabia japonica). The cytotoxicity of AITC has been implicated in thymus, adrenals, and white blood cells. Considering food safety, apparently a safer substitute for wasabi is worthy commercialized. Previously, we found AO crude paste to be rather feasible for use as a "Wasabi-substitute" in fresh meat and cold salads. A process linking cold ethyl acetate (EtAc) extraction with silica gel adsorption and reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) (mobile phase, 75% methanol) was used to isolate galangal acetate, the Wasabi-like taste constituent. AO contained abundant galangal acetate (3.84 ± 0.07%) compared to A. galangal (0.57 ± 0.16%), and as already confirmed by thin layer chromatography (TLC), gas chromatography (GC)/mass spectrometry (MS)/MS and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (NMR), galangal acetate was particularly thermally labile. The steam distilled essential oil (SDEO) of AO (0.14% on wet basis) contained 80 compounds (number of component, %): monoterpene hydrocarbon (21, 13.83%); oxygenated monoterpene (17, 27.08%); sesquiterpene hydrocarbon (20, 31.03%), and oxygenated sesquiterpene (20, 21.85%), respectively. However, no spicy wasabi-like constituent remained in SDEO. Alternatively, n-hexane, EtAc, and methanol extracts of AO all showed potent DPPH- and superoxide anion-scavenging activity. Conclusively, SDEO although contains 80 volatiles, galangal acetate is absent due to thermal instability. Galangal acetate exhibits pleasant "Wasabi-like taste" for which we have successively developed an integrated process for mass production.

  16. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi induced differential Cd and P phytoavailability via intercropping of upland kangkong (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk.) with Alfred stonecrop (Sedum alfredii Hance): post-harvest study.

    PubMed

    Hu, Junli; Li, Jintian; Wu, Fuyong; Wu, Shengchun; Ye, Zhihong; Lin, Xiangui; Wong, Ming Hung

    2013-12-01

    A post-harvest experiment was conducted further to our previous greenhouse pot study on upland kangkong (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk.) and Alfred stonecrop (Sedum alfredii Hance) intercropping system in Cd-contaminated soil inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. Previously, four treatments were established in the intercropping experiment, including monoculture of kangkong (control), intercropping with stonecrop (IS), and IS plus inoculation with Glomus caledonium (IS+Gc) or Glomus versiforme (IS+Gv). Both kangkong and stonecrop plants were harvested after growing for 8 weeks. Then, the tested soils were reclaimed for growing post-harvest kangkong for 6 weeks. In the post-harvest experiment, there were no significant differences between the IS and control treatments, except for a significantly decreased (p<0.05) soil available P concentration with IS treatment. Compared with IS, both IS+Gc and IS+Gv significantly decreased (p<0.05) soil DTPA-extractable (phytoavailable) Cd concentrations, but not total Cd, by elevating soil pH, causing significantly lower (p<0.05) Cd concentrations in both the root and shoot of kangkong. In addition, both Gc and Gv significantly increased (p<0.05) soil acid phosphatase activities and available P concentrations and hence resulted in significantly higher (p<0.05) plant P acquisitions. However, only Gv significantly increased (p<0.05) kangkong yield, while Gc only significantly elevated (p<0.05) the shoot P concentration. It suggested that AM fungi have played key roles in Cd stabilization and P mobilization in the intercropping system, and such positive responses seemed to be sustainable and valuable in post-harvest soils.

  17. The effects of endophytic bacterium SaMR12 on Sedum alfredii Hance metal ion uptake and the expression of three transporter family genes after cadmium exposure.

    PubMed

    Pan, Fengshan; Luo, Sha; Shen, Jing; Wang, Qiong; Ye, Jiayuan; Meng, Qian; Wu, Yingjie; Chen, Bao; Cao, Xuerui; Yang, Xiaoe; Feng, Ying

    2017-02-23

    A hydroponic experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of an endophytic bacterium SaMR12 on Sedum alfredii Hance metal ion accumulation, chlorophyll concentration, and the expression of three metal transporter families, zinc-regulated transporters, iron-regulated transporter-like protein (ZIP); natural resistance-associated macrophage protein; and heavy metal ATPase (HMA) at different Cd treatment levels. The results showed that at relatively low Cd conditions (≤25 μM), SaMR12 demonstrated a 19.5-27.5% increase in Fe, a 46.7-90.7% increase in Zn, and a 7.9-43.7% increase in Cu content in the shoot and elevated expression of SaIRT1, SaZIP3, SaHMA2, and SaNramp3 in the shoot and SaZIP1, SaHMA2, SaNramp1, and SaNramp3 in the root. At high Cd conditions (100 and 400 μM), SaMR12 demonstrated a 16.4-18.5% increase in leaf chlorophyll concentration, a 18.9-23.2% increase in Fe, and a 15.4-17.5% increase in Mg content in the shoot and elevated expression of SaZIP3, SaNramp6, SaHMA2, and SaHMA3 in the shoot and SaZIP3, SaNarmp1, SaNarmp3, and SaNarmp6 in the root. These results indicated that SaMR12 can elevate essential metal ion uptake and regulate the expression of transport genes to promote plant growth and enhance Cd tolerance and uptake to improve Cd accumulation up to 118-130%.

  18. Antihyperlipidemic bioactivity of Alpinia officinarum (Hance) Farw Zingiberaceae can be attributed to the coexistance of curcumin, polyphenolics, dietary fibers and phytosterols.

    PubMed

    Lin, Li-Yun; Peng, Chiung-Chi; Yeh, Xian-Yü; Huang, Bor-Yü; Wang, Hui-Er; Chen, Kuan-Chou; Peng, Robert Y

    2015-05-01

    Rhizoma A. officinarum (Hance) Farw, synonymously is called rhizoma galangae or smaller galangal (hereafter abbreviated as AO). Numerous studies reported that AO possesses anti-inflammatory, anticancer, chemoprotective, antibacterial, antifungal and diuretic properties. To understand whether AO exhibits antihyperlipidemic bioactivity and what is the mechanism of action, we performed chemical and animal studies using hamsters (age: 4 weeks, body weight: 45 ± 4 g). The grouping of the animals was as follows: control, high fat (HF) diet, HF + AO2%, HF + AO4%, HF + AO6%, HF + AO8% and HF + AO10%. AO contained curcumin 5.67 mg g(-1) (on wet basis), crude fiber 1.3% ± 0.0%, soluble diet fiber 92 ± 2 mg g(-1), insoluble diet fiber 502 ± 5 mg g(-1), and phytosterols 63.9 ± 1.6 mg/100 g. Its methanolic extract consisted of high polyphenolics 4927.8 ± 101.1 mgGAE/100 g and flavonoids 593.2 ± 22.2 mgQE/100 g. The enlarged organs, including liver, kidney, and spleen, which were elicited by HF were completely alleviated by AO supplement diets. Levels of serum cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-C, HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C ratio for the control originally were 138 ± 6, 98 ± 4, 40 ± 5, 168 ± 7 mg dL(-1) and 0.24, which were elevated by HF to 319 ± 12, 223 ± 13, 108 ± 11, 194 ± 6 mg dL(-1) and 0.05, and alleviated completely by HF + AO8% and HF + AO10%. In vitro, AO extracts showed potent DPPH free radical-scavenging and superoxide anion scavenging capabilities. In vivo, AO (at dose ≥8%) dose-dependently alleviated levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase, GSH, and MDA to 117 ± 6.9 U mL(-1), 32.9 ± 3.7 U mL(-1), 7.0 ± 1.7 μmol mL(-1) and 1.8 ± 0.4 nmol L(-1), respectively, exhibiting the remarkable antioxidative and antihyperlipidemic effects of AO. Conclusively, we are the first to report the occurrence of curcumin in rhizoma A. officinarum. Curcumin synergistically elicits promising anti-dyslipidemic bioactivity with coexisting total polyphenolics, dietary fibers

  19. Antiproliferative Effects of Methanolic Extracts of Cryptocarya concinna Hance Roots on Oral Cancer Ca9-22 and CAL 27 Cell Lines Involving Apoptosis, ROS Induction, and Mitochondrial Depolarization

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hsun-Shuo; Chen, Ih-Sheng; Chang, Hsueh-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Cryptocarya-derived natural products were reported to have several biological effects such as the antiproliferation of some cancers. The possible antioral cancer effect of Cryptocarya-derived substances was little addressed as yet. In this study, we firstly used the methanolic extracts of C. concinna Hance roots (MECCrt) to evaluate its potential function in antioral cancer bioactivity. We found that MECCrt significantly reduced cell viability of two oral cancer Ca9-22 and CAL 27 cell lines in dose-responsive manners (P < 0.01). The percentages of sub-G1 phase and annexin V-positive of MECCrt-treated Ca9-22 and CAL 27 cell lines significantly accumulated (P < 0.01) in a dose-responsive manner as evidenced by flow cytometry. These apoptotic effects were associated with the findings that intracellular ROS generation was induced in MECCrt-treated Ca9-22 and CAL 27 cell lines in dose-responsive and time-dependent manners (P < 0.01). In a dose-responsive manner, MECCrt also significantly reduced the mitochondrial membrane potential in these two cell lines (P < 0.01–0.05). In conclusion, we demonstrated that MECCrt may have antiproliferative potential against oral cancer cells involving apoptosis, ROS generation, and mitochondria membrane depolarization. PMID:25379520

  20. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi enhance both absorption and stabilization of Cd by Alfred stonecrop (Sedum alfredii Hance) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) in a Cd-contaminated acidic soil.

    PubMed

    Hu, Junli; Wu, Shengchun; Wu, Fuyong; Leung, Ho Man; Lin, Xiangui; Wong, Ming Hung

    2013-10-01

    A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to compare the phytoextraction efficiencies of Cd by hyper-accumulating Alfred stonecrop (Sedum alfredii Hance) and fast-growing perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) from a Cd-contaminated (1.6 mg kg(-1)) acidic soil, and their responses to the inoculations of two arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal strains, Glomus caledonium 90036 (Gc) and Glomus mosseae M47V (Gm). Ryegrass and stonecrop were harvested after growing for 9 and 27 wk, respectively. Without AM fungal inoculation, the weekly Cd extraction by stonecrop (8.0 μg pot(-1)) was 4.3 times higher than that by ryegrass (1.5 μg pot(-1)). Both Gc and Gm significantly increased (P < 0.05) root mycorrhizal colonization rates, soil acid phosphatase activities, and available P concentrations, and thereby plant P absorptions (except for Gm-inoculated ryegrass), shoot biomasses, and Cd absorptions (except for Gm-inoculated stonecrop), while only Gc-inoculated stonecrop significantly accelerated (P < 0.05) the phytoextraction efficiency of Cd by 78%. In addition, both Gc and Gm significantly decreased (P < 0.05) phytoavailable Cd concentrations by 21-38% via elevating soil pH. The results suggested the potential application of hyper-accumulating Alfred stonecrop associated with AM fungi (notably Gc) for both extraction and stabilization of Cd in the in situ treatment of Cd-contaminated acidic soil. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method for the simultaneous quantitation of five components of Ixeris sonchifoliain (Bge.) Hance in rat plasma and its application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Yin, Lei; Shi, Meiyun; Sun, Yantong; Sun, Xiaocheng; Meng, Huan; Fawcett, J Paul; Yang, Yan; Gu, Jingkai

    2013-07-15

    A rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method for the simultaneous quantitation of five major active ingredients of Ixeris sonchifolia (Bge.) Hance in rat plasma has been developed and validated. After liquid-liquid extraction of 50μL plasma with ethyl acetate, analytes and internal standard (I.S.), astilbin, were chromatographed on a Zorbax SB-C18 column (150mm×4.6mm, 5μm) using acetonitrile - 10mM ammonium acetate (60:40, v/v, pH 5.6) as mobile phase. The five analytes: chicoric acid, luteolin 7-O-β-d-glucuronide, luteolin 7-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, luteolin 7-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-d-glucopyranoside, apigenin 7-O-β-d-glucuronide and I.S., were detected by negative ion electrospray ionization followed by multiple reaction monitoring of the ions with m/z 473.0→311.0, 461.0→285.0, 447.0→285.0, 609.1→285.0, 445.1→269.0 and 449.1→150.9, respectively. The method was linear for all analytes in the concentration range 10-3000ng/mL with intra- and inter-day precision (as relative standard deviation) ≤8.99% and accuracy (as relative error) ≤4.00%. The limits of detection (LOD) were 5, 1, 5, 5, 2ng/mL for chicoric acid, luteolin 7-O-β-d-glucuronide, luteolin 7-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, luteolin 7-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-d-glucopyranoside, apigenin 7-O-β-d-glucuronide, respectively. The method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of the five analytes in rat after a single intravenous dose of Kudiezi Injection.

  2. A combination strategy for extraction and isolation of multi-component natural products by systematic two-phase solvent extraction-(13)C nuclear magnetic resonance pattern recognition and following conical counter-current chromatography separation: Podophyllotoxins and flavonoids from Dysosma versipellis (Hance) as examples.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhi; Wu, Youqian; Wu, Shihua

    2016-01-29

    Despite of substantial developments of extraction and separation techniques, isolation of natural products from natural resources is still a challenging task. In this work, an efficient strategy for extraction and isolation of multi-component natural products has been successfully developed by combination of systematic two-phase liquid-liquid extraction-(13)C NMR pattern recognition and following conical counter-current chromatography separation. A small-scale crude sample was first distributed into 9 systematic hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (HEMWat) two-phase solvent systems for determination of the optimum extraction solvents and partition coefficients of the prominent components. Then, the optimized solvent systems were used in succession to enrich the hydrophilic and lipophilic components from the large-scale crude sample. At last, the enriched components samples were further purified by a new conical counter-current chromatography (CCC). Due to the use of (13)C NMR pattern recognition, the kinds and structures of major components in the solvent extracts could be predicted. Therefore, the method could collect simultaneously the partition coefficients and the structural information of components in the selected two-phase solvents. As an example, a cytotoxic extract of podophyllotoxins and flavonoids from Dysosma versipellis (Hance) was selected. After the systematic HEMWat system solvent extraction and (13)C NMR pattern recognition analyses, the crude extract of D. versipellis was first degreased by the upper phase of HEMWat system (9:1:9:1, v/v), and then distributed in the two phases of the system of HEMWat (2:8:2:8, v/v) to obtain the hydrophilic lower phase extract and lipophilic upper phase extract, respectively. These extracts were further separated by conical CCC with the HEMWat systems (1:9:1:9 and 4:6:4:6, v/v). As results, total 17 cytotoxic compounds were isolated and identified. In general, whole results suggested that the strategy was very

  3. Lysimachia christinae Hance regresses preestablished cholesterol gallstone in mice.

    PubMed

    Deng, Jun; Ren, Menglin; Dai, Xiaoqiong; Qu, Dahai; Yang, Maoxia; Zhang, Tan; Jiang, Bowen

    2015-05-26

    Whole herb of Lysimachia christinae has long been used as a remedy for cholelithiasis extensively in China. This study was aimed to validate the effect of L. christinae on eliminating preestablished cholesterol gallstone (CGS) in model animals. Acute toxicity of aqueous extract of L. christinae (LCAE) was estimated in male C57BL/6 mice, so was the efficiency of LCAE on preformed CGS induced by lithogenic diet. The effects of LCAE were also examined on bile secretion rate, the lipid profiles of bile and serum, body weight, main visceral organ indexes, and histomorphology of main visceral organs. Single dose of LCAE did not lead to death and changes on body weight gain, main visceral organ indexes, histomorphology of main visceral organs, and blood hemogram and biochemical indexes, even at dose of 50g material/kg body weight. Preestablished CGSs were almost entirely eliminated after administration of LCAE for 2wk at high dose or for 4wk at low dose. LCAE promoted bile secretion and lowered cholesterol levels in either cystic bile or hepatic bile. LCAE also decreased serum cholesterol content, especially LDL-C content, tremendously, reduced the levels of serum HDL-C, phospholipid, and triglycerine a little, and lowered body weight and liver index significantly. After medication of LCAE for 8wk , neither visceral indexes nor histomorphology of heart, kidney, and spleen were influenced, but fatty degeneration of liver induced by high fat and high cholesterol diet was reverted. L. christinae can be considered as non-toxic. It showed prominent efficiency of eliminating preexisted CGS in mice and indicated a hypolipidaemic effect. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Moss is a key nurse plant for reintroduction of the endangered herb, Primulina tabacum Hance.

    Treesearch

    Hai Ren; Guohua Ma; Qianmei Zhang; Qinfeng Guo; Jun Wang; Zhengfeng Wang

    2010-01-01

    The rare and endangered plant Primulina tabacum is a calciphilous perennial herb found only at the entrances of a small number of karst cave drainages in southern China. In a conservation effort, we identified potentially suitable habitats and reintroduced P. tabacum plantlets (propagated in vitro) to one historical and two new cave entrances. The transplanted...

  5. Investigation of the ototoxicity of gadoteridol (ProHance) and gadodiamide (Omniscan) in mice.

    PubMed

    Nonoyama, Hiroshi; Tanigawa, Tohru; Shibata, Rei; Tanaka, Hirokazu; Katahira, Nobuyuki; Horibe, Yuichiro; Takemura, Keiji; Murotani, Kenta; Ozeki, Norio; Ueda, Hiromi

    2016-11-01

    In the mouse, when a tympanic perforation is present, gadoteridol does not seem to cause ototoxicity. Gadodiamide may cause mild ototoxicity other than toxicity to the outer hair cells of the cochlea. Endolymphatic hydrops have been visualized through intra-tympanic injection of gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) and three-dimensional fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (3-D FLAIR) magnetic resonance imaging. However, reports on the safety of GBCAs are limited. This study aimed to assess ototoxicity of gadoteridol and gadodiamide. In a prospective, randomized, controlled trial, myringotomies in the left ear were performed in 20 male C57 BL/6 mice. After testing the baseline auditory brainstem response (ABR) (range = 8-32 kHz), the test solution (gadoteridol, gadodiamide, saline, or cisplatin) was injected into the left ear. ABR testing was repeated 14 days after test solution application. In morphological experiments, images of post-mortem surface preparations were assessed for cochlear hair cell status. At 14 days following gadoteridol application, there was no significant change in ABR thresholds at 8, 16, or 32 kHz. Gadodiamide application caused a significant change in the ABR threshold at 8 kHz. Apparent cochlear hair cell loss was not observed in the surface preparation after gadoteridol or gadodiamide application.

  6. Isolates of Alpinia officinarum Hance as COX-2 inhibitors: Evidence from anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and molecular docking studies.

    PubMed

    Honmore, Varsha S; Kandhare, Amit D; Kadam, Parag P; Khedkar, Vijay M; Sarkar, Dhiman; Bodhankar, Subhash L; Zanwar, Anand A; Rojatkar, Supada R; Natu, Arun D

    2016-04-01

    Inflammation triggered by oxidative stress can cause various ailments, such as cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, diabetes etc. In the last few years, there has been a renewed interest in studying the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory action of plant constituents such as flavonoids and diarylheptanoids. To evaluate the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory activity and the total phenolic content of isolated compounds from Alpinia officinarum rhizomes. Furthermore, molecular docking was performed to study the binding mode of these compounds into the active site of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). A. officinarum rhizomes were extracted by maceration, using methanol. This extract was further fractionated by partitioning with hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate and these fractions on further purification resulted in isolation of five pure compounds. Characterization was carried out by using (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and MS. They were further evaluated for antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity using carrageenan-induced paw edema model in rats. Molecular docking study was performed using Glide module integrated in Schrodinger molecular modeling software. The compounds were identified as 1,7-diphenylhept-4-en-3-one (1), 5-hydroxy-1,7-diphenyl-3-heptanone (2), 3,5,7-trihydroxyflavone (Galangin, 3), 3,5,7-trihydroxy-4'-methoxyflavone (Kaempferide, 4) and 5-hydroxy-7-(4″-hydroxy-3″-methoxyphenyl)-1-phenyl-3-heptanone (5). The compound-3 and compound-5 (10mg/kg) showed significant (p<0.001) antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential. Moreover, total phenolic content was detected as 72.96 mg and 51.18 mg gallic acid equivalent respectively. All the five isolates were found to be good binders with COX-2 (average docking score -9.03). Galangin and 5-hydroxy-7-(4″-hydroxy-3″-methoxyphenyl)-1-phenyl-3-heptanone exhibited anti-inflammatory and in-vitro antioxidant activity which may be due to presence of phenolic content in it. The molecular docking study revealed that these compounds have affinity towards COX-2 active site which can further be explored as selective COX-2 inhibitors. The results obtained in this work justify the use of A. officinarum in the treatment of inflammatory disorders like rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The effect of EDDS addition on the phytoextraction efficiency from Pb contaminated soil by Sedum alfredii Hance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Wang, Ying; Mahmood, Qaisar; Islam, Ejazul; Jin, Xiaofen; Li, Tingqiang; Yang, Xiaoe; Liu, Dan

    2009-08-30

    Present study reports the results of three pot experiments, conducted to investigate the chelate-assisted phytoextraction of Pb contaminated soils. The optimum phytoextraction was observed when 2.5mM ethylene diamine disuccinic acid (EDDS) was added in single dosage for 14 days to low Pb soil (treated with 400 mg kg(-1)soil). On the contrary, for high Pb soil (treated with 1200 mg kg(-1)soil), 5mM EDDS concentration in single dosage for 10 days produced better results. Post-harvest effects of EDDS on the concentrations of available Pb and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) were significantly higher as compared with check (CK i.e. without EDDS addition), and consequently decreased with the passage of time. Our results suggested that chelate-assisted phytoextraction was more suitable for slightly contaminated soils.

  8. Effect of long-term stress of high Pb/Zn levels on genomic variation of Sedum alfredii Hance.

    PubMed

    Chao, Y E; Feng, Y; Yang, X E; Liu, D

    2008-11-01

    In this study, the heavy metal contents were detected in plants of Sedum alfredii and soils from Pb/Zn mined area and non-mined area, and a dendrogram was generated by using RAPD methods based on the hyperaccumulating ecotype (HE), the non-hyperaccumulating ecotype (NHE) and other species of Sedum. The results showed that the available Pb of the Pb/Zn mined soil was 77-fold higher, and available Zn and Cd were 10-fold and 16-fold higher in the mined soil than in the non-mined soil, respectively. The dendrogram showed that the HE S. alfredii was the nearest relative to NHE S. alfredii. However, genomic variation of two ecotypes was still notable, indicating that heavy metal stress had great impacts on the genetic diversity and plant evolution, and HE may be a mutant from the NHE. Ten RAPD bands were observed only in the HE as compared with other species of Sedum. The character of Zn/Cd hyperaccumulation in HE appeared to be related to SH-containing compounds and resist osmotic stress, and also many unknown genes.

  9. [Effects of exogenous Ca2+ on the growth and Zn accumulation of two Sedum alfredii Hance ecotypes].

    PubMed

    Huang, Hua-gang; Li, Ting-xuan; Zhang, Xi-zhou; Tian, Sheng-ke; Yang, Xiao-e

    2008-04-01

    A hydroponic study was conducted to investigate the biomass, root morphology, and zinc (Zn), calcium (Ca) and sulfur (S) contents of two Sedum alfredii ecotypes under effects of different concentration calcium (Ca2+) addition. The results showed that with increasing exogenous Ca2+ concentration, the dry mass of the two S. alfredii ecotypes increased, and the shoot dry mass of hyperaccumulation ecotype increased significantly (P <0.05). The root length and root surface area of hyperaccumulation ecotype increased with increasing exogenous Ca2+ concentration, while those of non-hyperaccumulation ecotype were in adverse. The Zn accumulation in the root, stem and leaf of hyperaccumulation ecotype was increased with increasing exogenous Ca2+ concentration though the differences among Ca2+ treatments were not significant (P >0.05), while the Zn accumulation in the shoot of non-hyperaccumulation ecotype was significantly low (P <0.05). The Ca accumulation in the root, stem and leaf of non-hyperaccumulation ecotype had a significant positive correlation with the concentration of exogenous Ca2+ (P <0.05), so as the S accumulation in the root of hyperaccumulation ecotype (P <0.01). Exogenous Ca2+ promoted the Zn absorption and accumulation of hyperaccumulation ecotype, while inhibited the Zn accumulation of non-hyperaccumulation ecotype. Appropriate concentration of exogenous Ca2+ could promote the growth of hyperaccumulation ecotype S. alfredii, and improve its ability of accumulating more zinc.

  10. Moderate Genetic Diversity and Genetic Differentiation in the Relict Tree Liquidambar formosana Hance Revealed by Genic Simple Sequence Repeat Markers

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Rongxi; Lin, Furong; Huang, Ping; Zheng, Yongqi

    2016-01-01

    Chinese sweetgum (Liquidambar formosana) is a relatively fast-growing ecological pioneer species. It is widely used for multiple purposes. To assess the genetic diversity and genetic differentiation of the species, genic SSR markers were mined from transcriptome data for subsequent analysis of the genetic diversity and population structure of natural populations. A total of 10645 potential genic SSR loci were identified in 80482 unigenes. The average frequency was one SSR per 5.12 kb, and the dinucleotide unit was the most abundant motif. A total of 67 alleles were found, with a mean of 6.091 alleles per locus and a mean polymorphism information content of 0.390. Moreover, the species exhibited a relatively moderate level of genetic diversity (He = 0.399), with the highest was found in population XY (He = 0.469). At the regional level, the southwestern region displayed the highest genetic diversity (He = 0.435) and the largest number of private alleles (n = 5), which indicated that the Southwestern region may be the diversity hot spot of L. formosana. The AMOVA results showed that variation within populations (94.02%) was significantly higher than among populations (5.98%), which was in agreement with the coefficient of genetic differentiation (Fst = 0.076). According to the UPGMA analysis and principal coordinate analysis and confirmed by the assignment test, 25 populations could be divided into three groups, and there were different degrees of introgression among populations. No correlation was found between genetic distance and geographic distance (P > 0.05). These results provided further evidence that geographic isolation was not the primary factor leading to the moderate genetic differentiation of L. formosana. As most of the genetic diversity of L. formosana exists among individuals within a population, individual plant selection would be an effective way to use natural variation in genetic improvement programs. This would be helpful to not only protect the genetic resources but also attain effective management and exploit genetic resources. PMID:27708661

  11. Moderate Genetic Diversity and Genetic Differentiation in the Relict Tree Liquidambar formosana Hance Revealed by Genic Simple Sequence Repeat Markers.

    PubMed

    Sun, Rongxi; Lin, Furong; Huang, Ping; Zheng, Yongqi

    2016-01-01

    Chinese sweetgum (Liquidambar formosana) is a relatively fast-growing ecological pioneer species. It is widely used for multiple purposes. To assess the genetic diversity and genetic differentiation of the species, genic SSR markers were mined from transcriptome data for subsequent analysis of the genetic diversity and population structure of natural populations. A total of 10645 potential genic SSR loci were identified in 80482 unigenes. The average frequency was one SSR per 5.12 kb, and the dinucleotide unit was the most abundant motif. A total of 67 alleles were found, with a mean of 6.091 alleles per locus and a mean polymorphism information content of 0.390. Moreover, the species exhibited a relatively moderate level of genetic diversity (He = 0.399), with the highest was found in population XY (He = 0.469). At the regional level, the southwestern region displayed the highest genetic diversity (He = 0.435) and the largest number of private alleles (n = 5), which indicated that the Southwestern region may be the diversity hot spot of L. formosana. The AMOVA results showed that variation within populations (94.02%) was significantly higher than among populations (5.98%), which was in agreement with the coefficient of genetic differentiation (Fst = 0.076). According to the UPGMA analysis and principal coordinate analysis and confirmed by the assignment test, 25 populations could be divided into three groups, and there were different degrees of introgression among populations. No correlation was found between genetic distance and geographic distance (P > 0.05). These results provided further evidence that geographic isolation was not the primary factor leading to the moderate genetic differentiation of L. formosana. As most of the genetic diversity of L. formosana exists among individuals within a population, individual plant selection would be an effective way to use natural variation in genetic improvement programs. This would be helpful to not only protect the genetic resources but also attain effective management and exploit genetic resources.

  12. Antiproliferative activities of lesser galangal (Alpinia officinarum Hance Jam1), turmeric (Curcuma longa L.), and ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) against acute monocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Omoregie, Samson N; Omoruyi, Felix O; Wright, Vincent F; Jones, Lemore; Zimba, Paul V

    2013-07-01

    Acute monocytic leukemia (AML M5 or AMoL) is one of the several types of leukemia that are still awaiting cures. The use of chemotherapy for cancer management can be harmful to normal cells in the vicinity of the target leukemia cells. This study assessed the potency of the extracts from lesser galangal, turmeric, and ginger against AML M5 to use the suitable fractions in neutraceuticals. Aqueous and organic solvent extracts from the leaves and rhizomes of lesser galangal and turmeric, and from the rhizomes only of ginger were examined for their antiproliferative activities against THP-1 AMoL cells in vitro. Lesser galangal leaf extracts in organic solvents of methanol, chloroform, and dichloromethane maintained distinctive antiproliferative activities over a 48-h period. The turmeric leaf and rhizome extracts and ginger rhizome extracts in methanol also showed distinctive anticancer activities. The lesser galangal leaf methanol extract was subsequently separated into 13, and then 18 fractions using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Fractions 9 and 16, respectively, showed the greatest antiproliferative activities. These results indicate that the use of plant extracts might be a safer approach to finding a lasting cure for AMoL. Further investigations will be required to establish the discriminatory tolerance of normal cells to these extracts, and to identify the compounds in these extracts that possess the antiproliferative activities.

  13. Field crops (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk. and Brassica chinensis L.) for phytoremediation of cadmium and nitrate co-contaminated soils via rotation with Sedum alfredii Hance.

    PubMed

    Tang, Lin; Luo, Weijun; Chen, Weikang; He, Zhenli; Gurajala, Hanumanth Kumar; Hamid, Yasir; Deng, Meihua; Yang, Xiaoe

    2017-07-01

    Phytoremediation coupled with crop rotation (PCC) is a feasible strategy for remediation of contaminated soil without interrupting crop production. The objective of this study was to develop a PCC technology system for greenhouse fields co-contaminated with Cd and nitrate using hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii. In this system, endophytic bacterium M002 inoculation, CO2 fertilization, and fermentation residue were continuously applied to improve the growth of S. alfredii, and low-accumulator Ipomoea aquatica and low-accumulator Brassica chinensis were rotated under reasonable water management. These comprehensive management practices were shown to increase S. alfredii biomass and Cd uptake and reduce Cd and nitrate concentration in I. aquatica and B. chinensis. This crop rotating system could remove 56.5% total Cd, 62.3% DTPA extractable Cd, and 65.4% nitrate, respectively, from the co-contaminated soil in 2 years of phytoremediation, and is an effective way of remediating moderately co-contaminated soil by Cd and nitrate.

  14. Asteroid Lightcurves from the Preston Gott Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Maurice

    2012-04-01

    Results of analysis of CCD photometry observations obtained at the Preston Gott Observatory of asteroids 970 Primula, 3015 Candy, 3751 Kiang, 6746 Zagar, 7750 McEwen, 10046 Creighton, and 19251 Totziens are presented.

  15. Sequence variability between Plantago asiatica mosaic virus isolates

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Plantago asiatica mosaic virus (PlAMV) was described four decades ago from the weedy species Plantago asiatica in the Russian Far East, but has also been reported from lilies (Lilium spp.) and primrose (Primula seiboldii) in Japan. More recently PlAMV has been reported in the Netherlands and elsewhe...

  16. Molecular aspects of allergic contact dermatitis to plants. Recent progress in phytodermatochemistry.

    PubMed

    Benezra, C; Ducombs, G

    1987-01-01

    A classification of plants based on the chemical structures of their skin sensitizers is presented. A whole range of chemical structures of contact sensitizers exists in plants containing sesquiterpene lactones (Compositae, Frullania, Lauraceae etc.), tulipalin (Tulipa, Alstroemeria etc.), quinones (Primula and tropical woods), long chain phenols (Anacardiaceae, Ginkgoaceae) and miscellaneous structures such as aldehydes, ketones, terpene hydrocarbons etc. Knowledge of allergens in various plants allows prediction of cross-reactivity.

  17. Presence versus absence of CYP734A50 underlies the style-length dimorphism in primroses

    PubMed Central

    Huu, Cuong Nguyen; Kappel, Christian; Keller, Barbara; Sicard, Adrien; Takebayashi, Yumiko; Breuninger, Holger; Nowak, Michael D; Bäurle, Isabel; Himmelbach, Axel; Burkart, Michael; Ebbing-Lohaus, Thomas; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Altschmied, Lothar; Conti, Elena; Lenhard, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Heterostyly is a wide-spread floral adaptation to promote outbreeding, yet its genetic basis and evolutionary origin remain poorly understood. In Primula (primroses), heterostyly is controlled by the S-locus supergene that determines the reciprocal arrangement of reproductive organs and incompatibility between the two morphs. However, the identities of the component genes remain unknown. Here, we identify the Primula CYP734A50 gene, encoding a putative brassinosteroid-degrading enzyme, as the G locus that determines the style-length dimorphism. CYP734A50 is only present on the short-styled S-morph haplotype, it is specifically expressed in S-morph styles, and its loss or inactivation leads to long styles. The gene arose by a duplication specific to the Primulaceae lineage and shows an accelerated rate of molecular evolution. Thus, our results provide a mechanistic explanation for the Primula style-length dimorphism and begin to shed light on the evolution of the S-locus as a prime model for a complex plant supergene. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17956.001 PMID:27596932

  18. Expansion of mass-flowering crops leads to transient pollinator dilution and reduced wild plant pollination.

    PubMed

    Holzschuh, Andrea; Dormann, Carsten F; Tscharntke, Teja; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf

    2011-11-22

    Agricultural land use results in direct biodiversity decline through loss of natural habitat, but may also cause indirect cross-habitat effects on conservation areas. We conducted three landscape-scale field studies on 67 sites to test the hypothesis that mass flowering of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) results in a transient dilution of bees in crop fields, and in increased competition between crop plants and grassland plants for pollinators. Abundances of bumble-bees, which are the main pollinators of the grassland plant Primula veris, but also pollinate oilseed rape (OSR), decreased with increasing amount of OSR. This landscape-scale dilution affected bumble-bee abundances strongly in OSR fields and marginally in grasslands, where bumble-bee abundances were generally low at the time of Primula flowering. Seed set of Primula veris, which flowers during OSR bloom, was reduced by 20 per cent when the amount of OSR within 1 km radius increased from 0 to 15 per cent. Hence, the current expansion of bee-attractive biofuel crops results in transient dilution of crop pollinators, which means an increased competition for pollinators between crops and wild plants. In conclusion, mass-flowering crops potentially threaten fitness of concurrently flowering wild plants in conservation areas, despite the fact that, in the long run, mass-flowering crops can enhance abundances of generalist pollinators and their pollination service.

  19. Real-Time Communication and Coordination in Embedded Sensor Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-07-01

    en- hance the RTS/CTS handshaking mechanism, the details of which can be found in [48] and [49]. Some other variations are MACAW [16], MACA/PR [88...IEEE J. Select. Areas Commun., vol. 13, pp. 1383–1395, Oct. 1995. [16] V. Bharghavan, A. Demers, S. Shenker, and L. Zhang, “ MACAW : A media access

  20. Molecular Identification Key for Cultivars and Lines of Cornus florida and C. kousa Based on Microsatellite Loci

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Flowering dogwood (Cornus florida L.) and kousa dogwood (C. kousa Hance.) are popular ornamental species commonly used in the horticultural industry. Both trees are valued for their beautiful floral display and four season appeal. Species specific microsatellite (SSRs: simple sequence repeats) loci ...

  1. Army Sustainment. Volume 42, Issue 5, September-October 2010

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-01

    Production ...stirred discussion, always resulting in productive cross- talk that kept us all synchcronized. Establishing these key relationships early in my...provide en hanced authority to acquire products and services produced in the Central and South Asian States that support mili- tary and

  2. How can radio frequency identification technology impact nursing practice?

    PubMed

    Billingsley, Luanne; Wyld, David

    2014-12-01

    Radio frequency identification (RFID) technology can save nurses time, improve quality of care, en hance patient and staff safety, and decrease costs. However, without a better understanding of these systems and their benefits to patients and hospitals, nurses may be slower to recommend, implement, or adopt RFID technology into practice.

  3. Decentralized Impatient Pharmacy Service Study: Chief of Pharmacy Survey.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-04-01

    information. Moreover, the Service may coordinate drug therapy seminars for physicians and nurses , pharmacy newsletters, drug reviews, and inservice ...between physicians, nurses and pharmacists may be en- hanced through decentralized unit dose programs, thus enabling the pharmacist closer contact with...physicians and nurses and greater clinical experience. i ii ~ .- ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Our appreciation is expressed to Mrs. Cookie Gonzales for her support in

  4. Mechanical Unloading Impairs Keratinocyte Migration and Angiogenesis During Cutaneous Wound Healing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    Research, Fort Sam Houston, Texas; and 4Center for Wound Healing and Tissue Regeneration, College of Dentistry , University of Illinois at Chicago...exhibited significant hypotension and bradycardia, en- hanced vasoconstriction , and vascular resistance (35, 58), in- dicating that variations in...enhances cerebral artery vasoconstriction and vascular resistance through endothelial nitric oxide mechanism. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 288

  5. Drug Prevention, Rehabilitation, Interdiction, and Law Enforcement (Corpus Christi, TX). Hearing before the Select Committee on Narcotics Abuse and Control. House of Representatives, Ninety-Eighth Congress, First Session (December 12 and 13, 1983).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Narcotics Abuse and Control.

    This document provides transcripts of two consecutive days of Congressional hearings on narcotics abuse and control. Opening statements from Representatives Benjamin A. Gilman, Kent Hance, and Solomon P. Ortiz are presented. Testimony and prepared statements of 61 counselors and administrators in the field of substance abuse, public officials, law…

  6. Specifications for Construction of Channel and Jetty System Murrells Inlet Navigation Project Murrells Inlet, South Carolina.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-06-14

    TOTAL DEPTH OF HOLE 10.2 W. E. HANC K, GEOLOGIST CLASSIFICATION OF MATERIALS % CORE BOX OR REMARKSELEVATION DEPTH LEGEND (D~rt= R ECOV - SAMPLE (Drjiline...SGAUEO NPCO 6. TOTAL DEPTH OF HOLE b.3 W. E. HANCOCK, GEOLOGIST GED CLASSIFICATION OF MATERIALS R CORE Box ORt REMARKSELVON -Tp LEGN I ECOV . SAMPLE

  7. Diterpenoids from Salvia prionitis.

    PubMed

    Lin, L Z; Wang, X M; Huang, X L; Huang, Y; Yang, B J

    1988-10-01

    Seven diterpenoids, 3-ketosapriparaquinone ( 1), salvilenone, 3-hydroxysalvilenone ( 2), arucadiol, royleanone, sugiol, and ferruginol were isolated from the root of SALVIA PRIONITIS Hance (Labiatae); Compounds 1 and 2 are new natural products. The structure of 1 was established through the interpretation of spectral data.

  8. Dynamic Testing: Toward a Multiple Exciter Test

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-01

    en- hanced environmental testing. The combination of higher-per- formance vehicles generating more severe vibration environ - ments and the use of...critical vibration testing element. The field vibration environment may be described as the simultaneous vibration in three translational and three...high uncontrolled harmonic dis- tortions associated with the drive mechanisms. While they provided a rudimentary vibration environment , the

  9. Sequencing the genomic regions flanking S-linked PvGLO sequences confirms the presence of two GLO loci, one of which lies adjacent to the style-length determinant gene CYP734A50.

    PubMed

    Burrows, Benjamin A; McCubbin, Andrew G

    2017-03-01

    Primula vulgaris contains two GLOBOSA loci, one located adjacent to the style length determinant gene CYP734A50 which lies within the S -locus. Using a combination of BAC walking and PacBio sequencing, we have sequenced two substantial genomic contigs in and around the S-locus of Primula vulgaris. Using these data, we were able to demonstrate that two alleles of PvGlo (P) as well as PvGlo (T) can be present in the genome of a single plant, providing empirical evidence that these two forms of the MADS-box gene GLOBOSA are separate loci and not allelic as previously reported. We propose they should be renamed PvGLO1 and PvGLO2. BAC contigs extending from each GLOBOSA locus were identified and fully sequenced. No homologous genes were found between the contigs other than the GLOBOSA genes themselves, consistent with their identity as separate loci. Exons of the recently identified style-length determinant gene CYP734A50 were identified on one end of the contig containing PvGLO2 and these genes are adjacent in the genome, suggesting that PvGLO2 lies either within or at least very close to the S-locus. Current evidence suggests that both CYP734A50 and GLO2 are specific to the S-morph mating type and are hemizygous rather than heterozygous in the Primula genome. This finding contrasts classical models of the HSI locus, which propose that components of the S-locus are allelic, suggesting that these models may need to be reconsidered.

  10. Complete sequence of a cryptic virus from hemp (Cannabis sativa).

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Angelika; Matoušek, Jaroslav; Steger, Gerhard; Schubert, Jörg

    2012-02-01

    Hemp (Cannabis sativa) was found to be a useful propagation host for hop latent virus, a carlavirus. However, when virus preparations were analysed by electron microscopy, along with the expected filamentous particles, spherical particles with a diameter of around 34 nm were found. RNA from virus preparations was purified, and cDNA was prepared and cloned. Sequence information was used to search databases, and the greatest similarity was found with Primula malacoides virus 1, a putative new member of the genus Partitivirus. The full sequences of RNA 1 and RNA 2 of this new hemp cryptic virus were obtained.

  11. [The incidence of occupationally-induced allergic skin diseases in a large flower market].

    PubMed

    Hausen, B M; Oestmann, G

    1988-01-01

    150 questionnaires as well as epicutaneous tests in 56 individuals from a total of 675 persons cultivating and selling ornamental plants at the largest German flower market revealed that half of those investigated were suffering from allergic contact dermatitis. The leading plant species with sensitizing properties was found to be the chrysanthemum, followed by tulips and Alstroemeria cultivars. Allergic reactions to daffodils and primulas were rarely observed. Most of the reactions obtained with other Compositae species such as arnica, marguerite, sunflower, tansy and yarrow must be interpreted as cross-reactions due to the fact that cross-reactivity predominates within the sesquiterpene lactone constituents of the various Compositae species.

  12. 7-O-Methylated anthocyanidin glycosides from Catharanthus roseus.

    PubMed

    Toki, Kenjiro; Saito, Norio; Irie, Yuki; Tatsuzawa, Fumi; Shigihara, Atsushi; Honda, Toshio

    2008-03-01

    Anthocyanins were isolated from orange-red flowers of Catharanthus roseus cv 'Equator Deep Apricot', and identified as rosinidin 3-O-[6-O-(alpha-rhamnopyranosyl)-beta-galactopyranoside] (1), and also 7-O-methylcyanidin 3-O-[6-O-(alpha-rhamnopyranosyl)-beta-galactopyranoside] (2) by chemical and spectroscopic methods. Pigment 1 was found to be a major anthocyanin in the flowers of this cultivar. By contrast, the distribution of rosinidin glycosides is very limited in plants, and reported only in the flowers of Primula. Pigment 2 was found in smaller concentrations, but its aglycone, 7-O-methylcyanidin, has been reported only once before, from the fruit of mango.

  13. The expansion of Phytophthora clade 8b: three new species associated with winter grown vegetable crops.

    PubMed

    Bertier, L; Brouwer, H; de Cock, A W A M; Cooke, D E L; Olsson, C H B; Höfte, M

    2013-12-01

    Despite its association with important agricultural crops, Phytophthora clade 8b is a poorly studied group of species. The clade currently consists of three officially described species (Phytophthora porri, P. brassicae and P. primulae) that are host-specific pathogens of leek, cabbages and Primula spp., respectively. However, over the past few decades, several other clade 8b-like Phytophthoras have been found on a variety of different host plants that were all grown at low temperatures in winter seasons. In this study, a collection of 30 of these isolates was subjected to a phylogenetic study using two loci (the rDNA ITS region and the mitochondrial cox1 gene). This analysis revealed a clear clustering of isolates according to their host plants. To verify whether these isolates belong to separate species, a detailed morphological study was conducted. On the basis of genetic and morphological differences and host specificity, we now present the official description of three new species in clade 8b: Phytophthora cichorii sp. nov., P. dauci sp. nov. and P. lactucae sp. nov. Two other groups of isolates (Phytophthora taxon castitis and Phytophthora taxon parsley) might also represent new species but the data available at this time are insufficient for an official description. This brings Phytophthora clade 8b to a group of six species that are all host-specific, slow-growing and specifically infect herbaceous crops at low temperatures.

  14. AFRRI Annual Research Reports, Fiscal Year 1992

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    damage in Anno GH, Baum SJ, Withers HR, Young RW the guinea pig hippocampal slice. Free Radical (1989) Symptomology of acute radiation ef- Biology and...phosphorothioate WR-3689 en- mimics. Free Radical Biology and Medicine hances survival of irradiated mice. In: Jacobs 9s 1:38 MM (ed) Vitamins and minerals...Eicosanoids and Other Bioac- reperfusion. Free Radical Biology and Medi- tive Lipids in Cancer. Inflammation. and Radi- cine 9s 1: 109, 5th Biennial

  15. New isoprenylated flavones and stilbene derivative from Artocarpus hypargyreus.

    PubMed

    Yu, Mei-Hua; Zhao, Ting; Yan, Gui-Rui; Yang, Hong-Xun; Wang, He-Yao; Hou, Ai-Jun

    2012-02-01

    Three new isoprenylated flavones, hypargyflavones A-C (1-3, resp.), and one novel stilbene derivative, hypargystilbene A (4), together with seven known compounds, 5-11, were isolated from the stems of Artocarpus hypargyreus Hance. The structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. Hypargyflavone A (1), cudraflavone C (8), brosimone I (10), and norartocarpin (11) showed inhibitory effects on pancreatic lipase. Copyright © 2012 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  16. Aggregation of Conditional Absorbing Markov Chains.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-01

    Ekfke -, Q n (1scfIc 𔃻k) kft~kQk Hance e’ - Ekfoo4locn] The existence of the inverse will be shown in and . - (f N1k )- EfkNlkRk the next theorem...Coming Roberts, Stephen S., "Superpower Naval Crisis Management In Resource irs ," 3 pp., Aug 1981 (Published In the iashilngton the Medlterranean," 35

  17. Intercalated Graphite Fiber Conductor.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    Lightweight electrical conductors were developed from graphitic fibers inter- calated with highly electrophilic intercalants. Conductance increases of...intercalated with highly electrophilic molecules ("intercalants") to en- hance their electrical conductivity. Evaluation of the elec- trical resistance of two...corrosion resistant to fluorine containing chemicals. Since the moisture permeability of the TFE is much less than that of the FEP, attempts were made to

  18. High Frontier, The Journal for Space & Missile Professionals. Volume 3, Number 1, November 2006.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    precise optics, software, amplifiers, receivers, payload and antenna deployments, and solar array movements. Years of subsystem and system testing...Astronauts will one day explore Mars, the planet in our solar system most like Earth. (NASA artist’s concept...capabilities enabled by Atlas en- hance the Nation’s ability to secure peace, protect national security, lead exploration of the solar system and beyond

  19. Germany and NATO

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    over three years.- GU F .R 𔃾ANN IN N-A] Soldiers of the new West German armv fail to draw even a passing glance from a mother with a baby carriage as...Flexible livrnles. Ianw𔃿 F., 20, 21 res; porne ; M&asivc Bern,-s P~ropos~al, 14. 20, 21 retalfiation ,n~ hanc NAI 0 strategy, 84-l Callaghan, Mimis. 1 69

  20. Electromagnetic-Pulse Handbook for Electric Power Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-02-04

    Showing Lightning Arresters, Potheads, and Entrance Conduit ............ ................... 30 1-5 Ground-Based Distribution Transformers: Primary Side ...and Distribution Potheads ...... ..................... ... 31 1-6 Ground-Based Distribution Transformers: Secondary Side and Service-Entrance...ARIRESTERS, POTHEADS, AND ENTrHANCE CONDUIT 30 Figre -5 ROU D-BsED DISRIB TIO TR NSFRMES’PRIMARY SD .31 A view of the secondary side of the

  1. Antibacterial activity of essential oils from palmarosa, evening primrose, lavender and tuberose.

    PubMed

    Lodhia, M H; Bhatt, K R; Thaker, V S

    2009-03-01

    Essential oils extracted from flower petals of palmarosa (Cymbopogon martini), evening primrose (Primula rosea), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and tuberose (Polianthus tuberosa) were tested for their antibacterial activities against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Different concentrations of each essential oil ranging from 10-100% were tested. Both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria were found susceptible to the studied flower essential oils. With increase in concentration of essential oil, increase in zone of inhibition was observed thus dose-dependent response was clear for each essential oil. Essential oil extracted from Cymbopogon martini showed the highest activity against both gram positive and gram negative bacteria among the tested essential oils.

  2. Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils from Palmarosa, Evening Primrose, Lavender and Tuberose

    PubMed Central

    Lodhia, M. H.; Bhatt, K. R.; Thaker, V. S.

    2009-01-01

    Essential oils extracted from flower petals of palmarosa (Cymbopogon martini), evening primrose (Primula rosea), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and tuberose (Polianthus tuberosa) were tested for their antibacterial activities against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Different concentrations of each essential oil ranging from 10-100% were tested. Both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria were found susceptible to the studied flower essential oils. With increase in concentration of essential oil, increase in zone of inhibition was observed thus dose-dependent response was clear for each essential oil. Essential oil extracted from Cymbopogon martini showed the highest activity against both gram positive and gram negative bacteria among the tested essential oils. PMID:20336210

  3. Laser Weapon System (LAWS) Adjunct to the Close-In Weapon System (CIWS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    hance their signature to existing IR guided missiles. Note that this is NOT “conventional” semiactive -la- ser (SAL) guidance —the LaWS is not a coded...36 Directed Energy Past, Present, and Future Laser Weapon System (LaWS) Adjunct to the Close-In Weapon System (CIWS) By Robin Staton and Robert...2012 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2012 to 00-00-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Laser Weapon System (LAWS) Adjunct to the Close-In Weapon

  4. Podoverine A--a novel microtubule destabilizing natural product from the Podophyllum species.

    PubMed

    Tran, Tuyen Thi Ngoc; Gerding-Reimers, Claas; Schölermann, Beate; Stanitzki, Bettina; Henkel, Thomas; Waldmann, Herbert; Ziegler, Slava

    2014-09-15

    Natural products represent compound classes with high chemical and structural diversity and various biological activities. Libraries based on natural products are valuable starting point in the search for novel biologically active substances. Here we report on the identification of the natural product podoverine A from the plant Podophyllum versipelle Hance as a novel tubulin-acting agent. A natural product compound collection was subjected to a high-content screen that monitors changes in cytoskeleton and DNA and podoverine A was identified as inhibitor of mitosis. This natural product causes mitotic arrest and inhibits microtubule polymerization in vitro and in cells by targeting the vinca binding site on tubulin.

  5. Thin Film Models of SMSI (Show Strong Metal-Support Interactions) Catalysts: Pt on Oxidized Titanium.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-10-17

    on single cyrstal SrTiO and for Ni/TiO 34 3 systems. (4 ) Our work is in good agreement with Huizinga (2 6 ) who finds no differences in reduced and...oxidized Pt/T102 powder systems by XPS. Huizinga suggests that the conclusions drawn in the Pt/SrTiO, and Ni/TiO2 work mentioned above are the result of...14. Belton, J.M. White and E.L. Hance, Chemn. Phys. Lett., 90,261(1982). 25. J.A. Horsely, J. Amer. Chemn. Soc., 110,2870(1979). 26. T. Huizinga

  6. Photochemical Formation of Mononuclear Bis and Tris Ethylene Complexes from Irradiation of Iron Pentacarbonyl or Triruthenium Dodecarcarbonyl: Species Involved in Catalytic Alkene Isomerization.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-09

    6(alkene)2 5 are in fact mononuclear Fe(CO)3(alkene)2 complexes, consistent with a report by Fleckner, Grevels , and Hess. 7 Other important...and turnover rates of -600 mnn-1 at 293K. These results are in qualitative agreement with the report by Grevels and coworkers 7 in which Fe(CO) 3 (n2...Hance, R.L.; Daniels, L.M. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1981, 103, 2129. *7. Fleckner, H.; Grevels , F.-W.; Hess, D. J. Am. Chew. Soc., 1984, 106, 2027. 8

  7. Use of KLV to combine metadata, camera sync, and data acquisition into a single video record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hightower, Paul

    2015-05-01

    SMPTE has designed in significant data spaces in each frame that may be used to store time stamps and other time sensitive data. There are metadata spaces in both the analog equivalent of the horizontal blanking referred to as the Horizontal Ancillary (HANC) space and in the analog equivalent of the vertical interval blanking lines referred to as the Vertical Ancillary (VANC) space. The HANC space is very crowded with many data types including information about frame rate and format, 16 channels of audio sound bites, copyright controls, billing information and more than 2,000 more elements. The VANC space is relatively unused by cinema and broadcasters which makes it a prime target for use in test, surveillance and other specialized applications. Taking advantage of the SMPTE structures, one can design and implement custom data gathering and recording systems while maintaining full interoperability with standard equipment. The VANC data space can be used to capture image relevant data and can be used to overcome transport latency and diminished image quality introduced by the use of compression.

  8. Three-dimensional multiphase time-resolved low-dose contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography using TWIST on a 32-channel coil at 3 T: a quantitative and qualitative comparison of a conventional gadolinium chelate with a high-relaxivity agent.

    PubMed

    Giesel, Frederik L; Runge, Val; Kirchin, Miles; Mehndiratta, Amit; Gerigk, Lars; Corell, Body; von Gall, Carl; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Essig, Marco

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate low-dose contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA) at high temporal and spatial resolution for imaging of abdominal vascular structures. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (TWIST [time-resolved angiography with interleaved stochastic trajectories]) was performed in 8 male New Zealand white rabbits at 3 T using a prototype 32-channel coil. Gadoteridol (Gd-HP-DO3A, ProHance; Bracco Imaging SpA, Milan, Italy) and the high-relaxivity agent gadobenate dimeglumine (Gd-BOPTA, MultiHance; Bracco Imaging SpA), each at a dose of 0.04 mmol/kg body weight, were used in an intraindividual comparison. Quantitative analysis of contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) was performed in regions of interest placed in the aorta and the adjacent tissues. The image quality in the aorta, external iliac artery, and vena cava was categorized by 2 independent blinded readers from excellent (1) to poor (3). A significantly (P < 0.001) higher CNR was obtained with gadobenate dimeglumine. The improved CNR led to a better delineation of the external iliac arteries. Qualitative rating showed the image quality to be excellent for gadobenate dimeglumine and adequate for gadoteridol. Time-resolved CE-MRA performed at 3 T with a 32-channel volume coil can be improved using the high-relaxivity agent gadobenate dimeglumine, which increases quality and quantity of vessel enhancement.

  9. Enhanced healing of rat calvarial critical size defect with selenium-doped lamellar biocomposites.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanhua; Lv, Peng; Ma, Zhe; Zhang, Jingcheng

    2013-10-01

    A 3D porous lamellar selenium-containing nano-hydroxyapatite (SeHAN)/chitosan (CS) biocomposite was synthesized. The selenium-containing hydroxyapatite (HA) grains of 150~200 nm in length and 20~30 nm in width were observed by dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy. A combination of X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and SEM indicated that HA particles were uniformly dispersed in chitosan matrix and there was a chemical interaction between chitosan and HA. Then, a standard critical size calvarial bone defect was created in Wistar rats. In group 1, no implant was made in the defect. In groups 2 and 3, HA nanoparticles (HAN)/CS biocomposite and SeHAN/CS biocomposite were implanted into the defect, respectively. After 4 weeks, the histological assessment clearly exhibited no significant changes, only found some living cells anchored in the periphery of the implants. After 8 and 12 weeks, most newly formed osteoid tissue was found in the SeHAN/CS implant group. Additionally, the newly formed osteoid tissue, both at the edge and in the center of implants, was bioactive and neovascularized. Microfocus computerized tomography measurements also confirmed the much better quality of the newly formed bone tissue in SeHAN/CS implant group than that in HAN/CS implant group (p < 0.01). Collectively, the SeHAN/CS biocomposite, as a bioactive bone grafting substitute, significantly enhanced the repair of bone defect.

  10. The measure and mismeasure of reciprocity in heterostylous flowers.

    PubMed

    Armbruster, W Scott; Bolstad, Geir H; Hansen, Thomas F; Keller, Barbara; Conti, Elena; Pélabon, Christophe

    2017-07-01

    The goal of biological measurement is to capture underlying biological phenomena in numerical form. The reciprocity index applied to heterostylous flowers is meant to measure the degree of correspondence between fertile parts of opposite sex on complementary (inter-compatible) morphs, reflecting the correspondence of locations of pollen placement on, and stigma contact with, pollinators. Pollen of typical heterostylous flowers can achieve unimpeded fertilization only on opposite-morph flowers. Thus, the implicit goal of this measurement is to assess the likelihood of 'legitimate' pollinations between compatible morphs, and hence reproductive fitness. Previous reciprocity metrics fall short of this goal on both empirical and theoretical grounds. We propose a new measure of reciprocity based on theory that relates floral morphology to reproductive fitness. This method establishes a scale based on adaptive inaccuracy, a measure of the fitness cost of the deviation of phenotypes in a population from the optimal phenotype. Inaccuracy allows the estimation of independent contributions of maladaptive bias (mean departure from optimum) and imprecision (within-population variance) to the phenotypic mismatch (inaccuracy) of heterostylous morphs on a common scale. We illustrate this measure using data from three species of Primula (Primulaceae). © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  11. Cytotoxic Activity of Some Medicinal Plants from Hamedan District of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Behzad, Sahar; Pirani, Atefeh; Mosaddegh, Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    Medicinal plants have been investigated for possible anti-cancer effects. The aim of the present study was to examine the cytotoxic activity of several medicinal plants on different tumor cell lines. 11 selected plant species which have been used in folkloric prescriptions were collected from different sites of Hamedan district of Iran. The methanolic extracts of the plants were prepared and their cytotoxic effects on four human cancer cell lines (A549, human lung adenocarcinoma; MCF7, human breast adenocarcinoma; HepG2, hepatocellular carcinoma and HT-29, human colon carcinoma) and one normal cell line (MDBK, bovine kidney) were examined using the MTT assay. Three of these were exhibited antiproliferative activity against one or more of the cell lines. The extract from Primula auriculata demonstrated the highest cytotoxicity with IC50 of 25.79, 35.79 and 43.34 μg.mL−1 against MCF7, HepG2 and HT- 29 cells, respectively. For some of the plants, their traditional use was correlated with the cytotoxic results, whereas for others the results may support the non-cytotoxicity of species used traditionally as natural remedies. The cytotoxic species could be considered as potential of anticancer compounds. PMID:24711847

  12. Evolutionary diversifications of plants on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Jun; Zhang, Jian-Qiang; Nie, Ze-Long; Zhong, Yang; Sun, Hang

    2014-01-01

    The Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) is the highest and one of the most extensive plateaus in the world. Phylogenetic, phylogeographic, and ecological studies support plant diversifications on the QTP through multiple mechanisms such as allopatric speciation via geographic isolation, climatic oscillations and divergences, pollinator-mediated isolation, diploid hybridization and introgression, and allopolyploidy. These mechanisms have driven spectacular radiations and/or species diversifications in various groups of plants such as Pedicularis L., Saussurea DC., Rhododendron L., Primula L., Meconopsis Vig., Rhodiola L., and many lineages of gymnosperms. Nevertheless, much work is needed toward understanding the evolutionary mechanisms of plant diversifications on the QTP. Well-sampled biogeographic analyses of the QTP plants in the broad framework of the Northern Hemisphere as well as the Southern Hemisphere are still relatively few and should be encouraged in the next decade. This paper reviews recent evidence from phylogenetic and biogeographic studies in plants, in the context of rapid radiations, mechanisms of species diversifications on the QTP, and the biogeographic significance of the QTP in the broader context of both the Northern and Southern Hemisphere biogeography. Integrative multidimensional analyses of phylogeny, morphological innovations, geography, ecology, development, species interactions and diversifications, and geology are needed and should shed insights into the patterns of evolutionary assembly and radiations in this fascinating region. PMID:24575120

  13. Factors affecting floral herbivory in a limestone grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breadmore, Karen N.; Kirk, William D. J.

    1998-12-01

    The amount of herbivore damage to the petals of 41 species of herbaceous plant was surveyed from April to September in a limestone grassland in central England. Damage was recorded as the percentage of the petal area removed. Most damage was caused by invertebrates, particularly slugs. The amount of invertebrate damage differed significantly between plant species and with time of year. The mean damage across all species was only 2 %, ranging from an average of 0 % in Galium sterneri to 8 % in Primula vulgaris. In most species, less than a quarter of flowers received any damage, so those that were damaged were often severely affected. Species flowering early or late in the season received more damage, possibly because of greater slug activity. Hypotheses to explain the inter-specific variation in the amount of herbivory were examined by testing for correlations with a range of plant variables. No correlations with flower-stem length, flower-stem thickness or the longevity of flowers were apparent. The amount of petal damage correlated strongly with flower size and petal thickness. This appeared to result from the prevalence of large-flowered species early and late in the season rather than from a preference for flower size and petal thickness per se. The evolutionary significance of floral herbivory is discussed.

  14. Morph-specific selection on floral traits in a polymorphic plant.

    PubMed

    Vanhoenacker, Didrik; Toräng, P; Agren, J; Ehrlén, J

    2010-06-01

    Correlations between phenotypic traits are common in many organisms, but the relative importance of nonadaptive mechanisms and selection for the evolution and maintenance of such correlations are poorly understood. In polymorphic species, morphs may evolve quantitative differences in additional characters as a result of morph-specific selection. The perennial rosette herb Primula farinosa is polymorphic for scape length. The short-scaped morph is less damaged by grazers and seed predators but is more strongly pollen limited than the long-scaped morph. We examined whether morph-specific differences in biotic interactions are associated with differences in selection on two other traits affecting floral display (number of flowers and petal size) and on one trait likely to affect pollination efficiency (corolla tube width) in three P. farinosa populations. Differences in selection between morphs were detected in one population. In this population, selection for more flowers and larger petals was stronger in the short-scaped than in the long-scaped morph, and although there was selection for narrower corolla tubes in the short-scaped morph, no statistically significant selection on corolla tube width could be detected in the long-scaped morph. In the study populations, the short-scaped morph produced more and larger flowers and wider corolla tubes. Current morph-specific selection was thus only partly consistent with trait differences between morphs. The results provide evidence of morph-specific selection on traits associated with floral display and pollination efficiency, respectively.

  15. Asymmetrical disassortative pollination in a distylous primrose: the complementary roles of bumblebee nectar robbers and syrphid flies

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xing-Fu; Jiang, Xian-Feng; Li, Li; Zhang, Zhi-Qiang; Li, Qing-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Heterostyly is a floral polymorphism characterized by reciprocal herkogamy maintained through high levels of mating between morphs, serviced by appropriate pollinators. We studied how differential efficiency and abundance of distinct pollinators affect plant female reproduction in self- and intra-morph incompatible distylous Primula secundiflora. Bumblebees and syrphid flies were found to be the most abundant floral visitors. Bumblebees frequently exhibited nectar-robbing behavior. Because the robbing holes were always situated between the high- and low-level organs on both morphs, nectar-robbing bumblebees only pollinated S-styled flowers. L-styled flowers set four times as many seeds as did S-styled flowers after being visited by pollen-collecting syrphid flies. The natural female fecundity and the magnitude of pollen limitation varied between the morphs within populations because of the mosaic distribution of nectar-robbing bumblebees and syrphid flies. L-styled flowers and S-styled flowers set the same number of seeds after supplemental hand pollination, indicating equivalent female reproductive potential. We suggest that bumblebee nectar robbers and syrphid flies play an important role in sustaining the floral dimorphism of heterostyly in P. secundiflora because of their complementary roles in the pollination system. PMID:25579323

  16. Planctonic Foraminifera of Lower Cretaceous interval of Essaouira basin (Morocco)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourgeoini, Yamina

    2014-05-01

    The studied area is on the west of Morocco in the High moroccan western Atlas. It is limited by Amizmiz and the Essaouira city. Lower Cretaceous - Barremian, Aptian and Albian- of Essaouira basin show tickness and variable lithology from east to west basin. The Barremian is caracterised by clays and calcareous, Aptian and Albian are caracterised by several typical marls and carbonates. The Albian is homogeneous in all the basin. Only Barremian sommit Aptian are very rich on planctonic Foraminifera, the base of this level is poor on planctonic Foraminifera. The Albian present several bentic Foraminifera like Pleurostomella. Biostratigraphy and micropalaentology study, essentially, based on planctonic Foraminifera can listing 24 species indicating 13 biozones in this area. The Barremian interval is composed of three biozones : - Hedbergella sigali biozone indicating the Early Barremian. - Hedbergella similis biozone, Globigerinneloïdes gottisi and Globigerinelloïdes duboisi are incated the Upper Barremian. The Aptian is recognised by six biozones : - Early Aptian interval is caracterised by the Schackoina cabri, Globigerinelloïdes ferreolensis, Globigerinelloïdes algerianus, Hedbergella gorbachikae and Hedbergela trochoïdea biozones. - Upper Aptian is recognised by Ticinella bejaouensis and base of Hedbergella planispira biozones. The Albian is caracterised by three biozones : - Hedbergella planispira biozone of Lower Albian. - Ticinella primula and Biticinella breggiensis biozones who caracterised the Upper Albian. Planomalina buxtorfi is also present but smal size. This study was followed by Pr. Saloua Gargouri Razgallah ( FS- Tunis- Tunisia)

  17. Taxonomic review of the Palaearctic species of the Cheilosia caerulescens-group (Diptera, Syrphidae)

    PubMed Central

    Ståhls, Gunilla; Barkalov, Anatolij V.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The Palaearctic species of the Cheilosia caerulescens group (Diptera: Syrphidae) are revised in this work. The species group belongs to the genus Cheilosia subgenus Taeniocheilosia Oldenberg. One new species is described from north Caucasus, Cheilosia (Taeniocheilosia) circassica sp. n. Cheilosia primulae Hering is established as a junior synonym of Cheilosia laeviventris Loew. Four lectotype designations are made. The species of the Cheilosia caerulescens group are redescribed and illustrated, and a table of diagnostic characters and an identification key to species are provided. MtDNA COI barcodes were generated for several specimens of C. (T.) caerulescens Meigen and other Cheilosia (Taeniocheilosia) and Cheilosia s. str. taxa. Parsimony and maximum likelihood analyses did not place the morphologically similar C. hercyniae Loew in the C. caerulescens group but among other Cheilosia (Taeniocheilosia) taxa. The following eight taxa are included in the Cheilosia (T.) caerulescens group of species: Cheilosia armeniaca Stackelberg, 1960, C. caerulescens caerulescens (Meigen, 1822), C. caerulescens calculosa Skufjin, 1977, C. circassica sp. n., C. herculana Brădescu, 1982, C. kerteszi Szilády, 1938, C. laeviventris Loew, 1857, and C. venosa Loew, 1857. PMID:28769614

  18. Induction of steroidal hydroxylase activity by plant defence compounds in the filamentous fungus Cochliobolus lunatus

    PubMed

    Vitas; Smith; Plavec; Kesselmeier; Pajic; Ferlan; Zigon; Kelly; Komel

    1999-02-01

    We investigated the hypothesis that the endogenous role of the commercially important inducible steroid hydroxylase cytochrome P450s of fungi was in defense against plant toxophores/secondary metabolites. Two plant defense compounds, the aglycones tomatidine and solanidine, the steroidal glycoalkaloid alpha-tomatine and the triterpene saponin beta-escin were tested as inducers of 11beta/14alpha-steroid hydroxylase in the filamentous fungus Cochliobolus lunatus. The extracts of saponins from the roots of Primula veris and green oat leaves were also tested as inducers of 11beta/14alpha-hydroxylation activity in progesterone biotransformation with the same fungus. Induction of steroid hydroxylase and inhibition of activity in some cases support our hypothesis that their endogenous function is in biochemical defence against secondary metabolites. 4-Pregnene-3,11,20-trione was added as a substrate for biotransformation with C. lunatus. We isolated from culture broth 14alpha-hydroxy-4-pregnene-3,11,20-trione, and the hitherto unreported compounds, 7alpha,14alpha-dihydroxy-4-pregnene-3,11,20-trione and 7alpha-hydroxy-pregna-4,8(14)-diene-3,11,20-trione.

  19. Planktonic foraminiferal zonation in the Cretaceous Yezo Group, Central Hokkaido, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishi, Hiroshi; Takashima, Reishi; Hatsugai, Takayuki; Saito, Tsunemasa; Moriya, Kazuyoshi; Ennyu, Atsuhito; Sakai, Toshiaki

    2003-06-01

    The mudstone of the Yezo Group exposed in Central Hokkaido yields abundant microfossils of calcareous nannofossils, foraminifers, radiolarians and dinoflagellates. Benthic foraminifers consisting of both agglutinated and calcareous species occur abundantly and consistently throughout the sequence, while specimens of planktonic foraminifers are generally fewer than benthics in all samples. We recognized the following 13 planktonic foraminiferal zones assigned to the late Aptian to early Campanian in the Oyubari and Haboro-Kotanbetsu areas; (1) Globigerinelloides spp., (2) Ticinella primula, (3) Biticinella breggiensis, (4) Rotalipora subicinensis- Rotalipora ticinensis, (5) Rotalipora appenninica, (6) Rotalipora globotruncanoides, (7) Rotalipora cushmani (8), Whiteinella archaeocretacea (9) Helvetoglobotruncana helvetica, (10) Marginotruncana pseudolinneiana, (11) Marginotruncana sinuosa, (12) Contusotruncana fornicata, (13) Globotruncana arca. The Globigerinelloides spp. to H. helvetica Zones (late Aptian to early Turonian) can be correlated with standard zones in the Tethyan regions, whereas the assemblages from the M. pseudolinneiana to G. arca zones lack tropical zonal markers of Dicarinella concavata, D. asymetrica and Globotruncanita elevata in many studied sections. The scarcity or lack of tropical zonal species during the late Turonian to early Campanian suggests that the Oyubari and Haboro-Kotanbetsu regions in Hokkaido were located in the Transitional to Boreal biogeographical provinces.

  20. [Occupational allergy caused by ornamental plants].

    PubMed

    Swierczyńiska-Machura, Dominika; Krakowiak, Anna; Pałczyński, Cezary

    2006-01-01

    The problem of allergy to decorative plants is still poorly known. Reports on occupational allergy to flowers are scarce and usually concern gardeners, greenhouse workers and florists. The handling, smelling and caring of flowers may cause rhinoconjunctivitis, asthma, urticaria and also contact dermatitis. Plants of the Compositae family that includes many different species have been frequently described. Chrysanthemum flowers, the strongest sensitizer among ornamental Compositae plants, especially contribute to the development of contact dermatitis. Allergy to Liliaceae, mostly to tulips, hyacinths, lilies and crocuses has quite often been reported as well as sensitization to rose pollen in rose planters. Occupational sensitization to flowers of other families, among which spathe flowers, primulas, weeping fig or Stephanotis floribunda should be mentioned, is less frequent. Exposure to ornamental flowers is common in the general population. Persons occupationally involved in cultivation of flowers and who demonstrate allergic symptoms are often forced to change their jobs. Candidates to these occupations with diagnosed atopy should be informed about the risk of developing allergy to flowers, which could make them unable to perform the job.

  1. A novel diarylheptanoid-bearing sesquiterpene moiety from the rhizomes of Alpinia officinarum.

    PubMed

    Wei, Na; Zhou, Zhonglin; Wei, Qing; Wang, Yong; Jiang, Jun; Zhang, Junqing; Wu, Lixiang; Dai, Shuiping; Li, Youbin

    2016-10-01

    A new diarylheptanoid analogue-bearing sesquiterpene moiety, named Alpinisin A, was isolated from the rhizomes of Alpinia officinarum Hance. The new structure was determined by various spectroscopic techniques (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR), (13)C-attached proton test ((13)C-APT), heteronuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC), heteronuclear multiple bond correlation (HMBC), (1)H-(1)H correlation spectroscopy ((1)H-(1)HCOSY), nuclear overhauser effect spectroscopy (NOESY) and high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HR-ESI-MS). The compound was tested for cytotoxic activity in vitro against human tumour cell lines (gastric carcinoma cell -7901 (SGC-7901), Michigan Cancer Foundation-7 (MCF-7) and Caski), which showed significant inhibitory effects with IC50 levels of 11.42, 15.14 and 14.78 μM, respectively. The novel chemical structure characterised with a diarylheptanoid linked to a chain-like sesquiterpenoid should be highlighted.

  2. On Channel Sharing in Discrete-Time, Multi-Access Broadcast Communications,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    Where- 1(Z) 4 A a fpt (0) z1 (3.1-3) Gil (w) V Zi~ t (0, Q1 1* t (0.0) 132 7 .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . And At t t t t a (zw) 4G (z’w).+G,* (Z) +Ga... Gil (z,w) ,A 1 (,z~w) GIG (z) ,A"’ (Z,w) Gŕ (w) * m(zXw) GU This equation in the four unknowns G11(z,w), GIO(z). (3"’(w) and GOO, contains all the...881 Halphern J. Functions Elliptiques. Gauthier Villars , Paris, 1888. * [HANC 58 Hancock H. Lectures on the Theory of Elliptic Functions. Dover

  3. Two new phenylpropanoids and one new sesquiterpenoid from the bioactive fraction of Sambucus williamsii.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Hui-Hui; Dai, Yi; Wong, Man-Sau; Yao, Xin-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Two new phenylpropanoids, samwirin (1) and samwiphenol (2), and a new sesquiterpenoid, 2β,4β,10α-trihydroxy-1αH,5βH-guaia-6-ene (3), together with six known compounds were isolated from the bioactive fraction of Sambucus williamsii Hance. Their structures including the absolute configurations were characterized on the basis of extensive 1D, 2D-NMR, MS, and CD spectral data. In vitro proliferation effects of all compounds on osteoblast-like UMR 106 cells were examined. Compounds 1, 4-9 significantly promoted cell proliferation. Compounds 5, 6, and 8 increased osteoblastic cell numbers separately by 24.3%, 25.2%, and 29.1% at 10(-10) M, 10(-10) M, and 10(-8) M, respectively.

  4. A new lignan glucoside from the whole plants of Salvia scapiformis.

    PubMed

    Lai, Yongji; Ding, Shuiping; Qian, Huiqin; Zhang, Jinwen; Xue, Yongbo; Luo, Zengwei; Yao, Guangmin; Zhang, Yonghui

    2013-09-13

    Phytochemical investigation of the whole plants of Salvia scapiformis Hance afforded eight compounds, including one new lignan, (+)-8α-hydroxypinoresinol-8-O-[6''-O-(4'''-hydroxybenzoyl)]-β-d-glucopyranoside (1), four known lignans, (+)-8α-hydroxy-pinoresinol-8-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (2), (+)-8α-hydroxypinoresinol (3), (+)-pinoresinol (4), and (+)-medioresinol (5), and three known triterpenoids, ursolic acid (6), 4-epi-niga-ichigoside F1 (7), and niga-ichigoside F1 (8). Their structures were determined on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses and comparison with spectroscopic data in the literature. The absolute configuration of the new compound 1 was determined by chemical transformation and GC analysis.

  5. A Review on the Pharmacological Activities and Phytochemicals of Alpinia officinarum (Galangal) Extracts Derived from Bioassay-Guided Fractionation and Isolation

    PubMed Central

    Basri, Aida Maryam; Taha, Hussein; Ahmad, Norhayati

    2017-01-01

    The rhizomes of Alpinia officinarum Hance have been used conventionally for the treatment of various ailments, triggering a wide interest from the scientific research community on this ethnomedicinal plant. This review summarizes the phytochemical and pharmacological properties of the extracts and fractions from A. officinarum, a plant species of the Zingiberaceae family. Different parts of the plant – leaves, roots, rhizomes, and aerial parts – have been extracted in various solvents – methanol, ethanol, ethyl acetate, hexane, dichloromethane, aqueous, chloroform, and petroleum ether, using various techniques – Soxhlet extraction, maceration, ultrasonication, and soaking, whereas fractionation of the plant extracts involves the solvent–solvent partition method. The extracts, fractions, and isolated compounds have been studied for their biological activities – antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antiproliferative, inhibition of enzymes, as well as the inhibition of nitric oxide production. More findings on A. officinarum are certainly important to further develop potential bioactive drug compounds. PMID:28503054

  6. A Review on the Pharmacological Activities and Phytochemicals of Alpinia officinarum (Galangal) Extracts Derived from Bioassay-Guided Fractionation and Isolation.

    PubMed

    Basri, Aida Maryam; Taha, Hussein; Ahmad, Norhayati

    2017-01-01

    The rhizomes of Alpinia officinarum Hance have been used conventionally for the treatment of various ailments, triggering a wide interest from the scientific research community on this ethnomedicinal plant. This review summarizes the phytochemical and pharmacological properties of the extracts and fractions from A. officinarum, a plant species of the Zingiberaceae family. Different parts of the plant - leaves, roots, rhizomes, and aerial parts - have been extracted in various solvents - methanol, ethanol, ethyl acetate, hexane, dichloromethane, aqueous, chloroform, and petroleum ether, using various techniques - Soxhlet extraction, maceration, ultrasonication, and soaking, whereas fractionation of the plant extracts involves the solvent-solvent partition method. The extracts, fractions, and isolated compounds have been studied for their biological activities - antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antiproliferative, inhibition of enzymes, as well as the inhibition of nitric oxide production. More findings on A. officinarum are certainly important to further develop potential bioactive drug compounds.

  7. Bioactive spirostane glycosides from Tacca plantaginea.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhen-Hua; Yan, Huan; Si, Yong-Ai; Ni, Wei; Chen, Yu; He, Li; Liu, Hai-Yang

    2016-02-01

    Eight new spirostane glycosides, taccaosides E-L (2-7, 11, and 14), along with 7 known spirostane glycosides were isolated from the extract of the whole plants of Tacca plantaginea (Hance) Drenth. Their structures were established on the basis of physical data, spectroscopic analysis (MS, 1D and 2D NMR), and chemical methods. The cytotoxicities of the isolates were evaluated in vitro against two human cancer cell lines (HEK293 and HepG2). The results showed that compound 1 had the strongest cytotoxic activity with IC50 values of 1.7 μM and 1.2 μM against the two cancer cell lines, respectively. Furthermore, the spirostane glycosides with 17α-hydroxyl group at their aglycones (10, 12, and 15) were tested for the induced platelet aggregation activity.

  8. Scapiformolactones A-I: germacrane sesquiterpenoids with an unusual Δ3-15,6-lactone moiety from Salvia scapiformis.

    PubMed

    Lai, Yongji; Xue, Yongbo; Zhang, Mengke; Zhang, Jinwen; Tang, Wei; Liu, Junjun; Lei, Liang; Yan, Juming; Luo, Zengwei; Zuo, Jianping; Li, Yan; Yao, Guangmin; Zhang, Yonghui

    2013-12-01

    Nine germacrane sesquiterpenoids with an unusual Δ(3)-15,6-lactone moiety, scapiformolactones A-I (1-9), and one known seco-germacrane sesquiterpenoid, 3,7,11-trimethyldodeca-l,6,9-triene-3,11-diol (10), were isolated from whole plants of Salvia scapiformis Hance. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including HR-ESIMS, IR, UV, NMR, and CD, as well as by quantum mechanical calculations and chemical transformations. Structures of compounds 1-3 were also confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Six germacrane 6,15-diol derivatives (11-16) were obtained by chemical transformation. Compounds 1-9 and 11-16 were evaluated for their in vitro immunomodulatory effects on T and B cells, as well as their in vitro cytotoxicity against five human cancer cell lines, HL-60, SMMC-7721, A-549, MCF-7, and SW480.

  9. Comparison of fluorographic methods for detecting radioactivity in polyacrylamide gels or on nitrocellulose filters

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, P.L.

    1985-06-01

    The commercial fluorographic enhancers, En3Hance or Amplify, were not as efficient as 2,5-diphenyloxazole (PPO) for detecting radioactively labeled proteins in polyacrylamide gels or on nitrocellulose filters. For most of the X-ray films tested, optimal preexposure was essential to obtain maximum sensitivity in fluorography or indirect autoradiography using intensifying screens. The best results were obtained with nitrocellulose by saturating the filters with PPO. The minimum levels of /sup 35/S//sup 14/C that could be detected on filters by autoradiography or fluorography in a 24-h exposure were 4 X 10(2) or 1 X 10(2) dpm cm-2 respectively. For /sup 3/H these levels were, respectively, 20 X 10(3) or 0.5 X 10(3) dpm cm-2.

  10. Water-Soluble Lipophilic MR Contrast Agents for Cell Membrane Labeling

    PubMed Central

    Carney, Christiane E.; MacRenaris, Keith W.; Meade, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    Long-term cell tracking with MR imaging necessitates the development of contrast agents that both label and are retained by cells. One promising strategy for long-term cell labeling is the development of lipophilic Gd(III)-based contrast agents that anchor into the cell membrane. We have previously reported the efficacy of monomeric and multimeric lipophilic agents and showed that the monomeric agents have improved labeling and contrast enhancement of cell populations. Here, we report on the synthesis, characterization, and in vitro testing of a series of monomeric lipophilic contrast agents with varied alkyl chain compositions. We show that these agents disperse in water, localize to the cell membrane, and label HeLa and MCF7 cells effectively. Additionally, these agents have up to 10-fold improved retention in cells compared to clinically available ProHance®. PMID:26215869

  11. Enzyme Design From the Bottom Up: An Active Nickel Electrocatalyst with a Structured Peptide Outer Coordination Sphere

    SciTech Connect

    Reback, Matthew L.; Buchko, Garry W.; Kier, Brandon L.; Ginovska-Pangovska, Bojana; Xiong, Yijia; Lense, Sheri; Hou, Jianbo; Roberts, John A.; Sorensen, Christina M.; Raugei, Simone; Squier, Thomas C.; Shaw, Wendy J.

    2014-02-03

    Functional, peptide-containing metal complexes with a well-defined peptide structure have the potential to enhance molecular catalysts via an enzyme-like outer coordination sphere. Here, we report the synthesis and characterization of an active, peptide-based metal complex built upon the well characterized hydrogen production catalyst, Ni(PPh2NPh)2. The incorporated peptide maintains its B-hairpin structure when appended to the metal core, and the electrocatalytic activity of the peptide-based metal complex (~100,000 s-1) is fully retained. The combination of an active molecular catalyst with a structured peptide outer coordination sphere provides a scaffold that permits the incorporation of features of an enzyme-like outer-coordination sphere necessary to create molecular electrocatalysts with en-hanced functionality.

  12. Current Status on Cholangiocarcinoma and Gallbladder Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ebata, Tomoki; Ercolani, Giorgio; Alvaro, Domenico; Ribero, Dario; Di Tommaso, Luca; Valle, Juan W.

    2016-01-01

    Background Cholangiocarcinomas (CC) as well as gallbladder cancers are relatively rare and intractable diseases. Clinical, pathological, and epidemiological studies on these tumors have been under investigation. The current status and/or topics on biliary tract cancers have been reported in the East West Association of Liver Tumor (EWALT), held in Milano, Italy in 2015. Summary All the authors, herein, specifcally reported the current status and leading-edge findings on biliary tract cancers as the following sequence: epidemiology of CC, surgical therapy for intrahepatic CC, surgical therapy for perihilar CC, surgical therapy for gallblad der cancer, chemotherapy for biliary tract cancers, and new histological features in CC. Key Message The present review article will update the knowledge on biliary tract cancers, en hancing the quality of daily clinical practice. However, many features about these cancers remain unknown; further studies are required to establish disease-specific optimal treatment strategies. PMID:27995089

  13. Effects of calcium on seed germination, seedling growth and photosynthesis of six forest tree species under simulated acid rain.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ting-Wu; Wu, Fei-Hua; Wang, Wen-Hua; Chen, Juan; Li, Zhen-Ji; Dong, Xue-Jun; Patton, Janet; Pei, Zhen-Ming; Zheng, Hai-Lei

    2011-04-01

    We selected six tree species, Pinus massoniana Lamb., Cryptomeria fortunei Hooibr. ex Otto et Dietr., Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook., Liquidambar formosana Hance, Pinus armandii Franch. and Castanopsis chinensis Hance, which are widely distributed as dominant species in the forest of southern China where acid deposition is becoming more and more serious in recent years. We investigated the effects and potential interactions between simulated acid rain (SiAR) and three calcium (Ca) levels on seed germination, radicle length, seedling growth, chlorophyll content, photosynthesis and Ca content in leaves of these six species. We found that the six species showed different responses to SiAR and different Ca levels. Pinus armandii and C. chinensis were very tolerant to SiAR, whereas the others were more sensitive. The results of significant SiAR × Ca interactions on different physiological parameters of the six species demonstrate that additional Ca had a dramatic rescue effect on the seed germination and seedling growth for the sensitive species under SiAR. Altogether, we conclude that the negative effects of SiAR on seed germination, seedling growth and photosynthesis of the four sensitive species could be ameliorated by Ca addition. In contrast, the physiological processes of the two tolerant species were much less affected by both SiAR and Ca treatments. This conclusion implies that the degree of forest decline caused by long-term acid deposition may be attributed not only to the sensitivity of tree species to acid deposition, but also to the Ca level in the soil.

  14. Decrease of sexual organ reciprocity between heterostylous primrose species, with possible functional and evolutionary implications.

    PubMed

    Keller, Barbara; de Vos, Jurriaan M; Conti, Elena

    2012-11-01

    Heterostyly is a floral polymorphism that has fascinated evolutionary biologists since Darwin's seminal studies on primroses. The main morphological characteristic of heterostyly is the reciprocal placement of anthers and stigmas in two distinct (distyly) floral morphs. Variation in the degree of intermorph sexual reciprocity is relatively common and known to affect patterns of pollen transfer within species. However, the partitioning of sexual organ reciprocity within and between closely related species remains unknown. This study aimed at testing whether intermorph sexual reciprocity differs within vs. between primrose species that hybridize in nature and whether the positions of sexual organs are correlated with other floral traits. Six floral traits were measured in both floral morphs of 15 allopatric populations of Primula elatior, P. veris and P. vulgaris, and anther-stigma reciprocity was estimated within and between species. A combination of univariate and multivariate approaches was used to test whether positions of reproductive organs were less reciprocal between than within species, to assess correlations between sexual organ positions and other corolla traits, and to quantify differences between morphs and species. The three species were morphologically well differentiated in most floral traits, except that P. veris and P. vulgaris did not differ significantly in sexual organ positions. Overall, lower interspecific than intraspecific sexual organ reciprocity was detected. This decrease was marked between P. elatior and P. vulgaris, intermediate and variable between P. elatior and P. veris, but negligible between P. veris and P. vulgaris. Differences in anther and stigma heights between the analysed primrose species were of the same magnitude or larger than intraspecific differences that altered pollen flow within other heterostylous systems. Therefore, it is possible to suggest that considerable reductions of sexual organ reciprocity between species may

  15. Impact of grazing management with large herbivores on forest ground flora and bramble understorey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Uytvanck, Jan; Hoffmann, Maurice

    2009-07-01

    We investigated whether grazing management with large herbivores is appropriate to reduce expanding bramble ( Rubus sp.) in an ancient forest in Flanders (N. Belgium). We further studied interaction effects of four years (all year-round) grazing and Rubus cover on the presence, cover, and flowering of five forest ground flora species (unpalatable: Anemone nemorosa and Primula elatior; palatable: Hyacinthoides non-scripta, Vinca minor and Hedera helix). We collected data on eight transects and in 412 plots in adjacent grazed and ungrazed forest and used baseline datasets of 1996 and 2002 in the same area (i.e. before grazing). In a field experiment, we simulated grazing (by clipping) and trampling (by pressing a weight) in eight homogeneous A. nemorosa vegetation stands. Large Rubus thickets had a clear negative impact on cover and flowering of A. nemorosa due to competition for light. Four years of cattle grazing reduced bramble cover by more than 50%, but then the limiting factor for A. nemorosa cover and flowering shifted to trampling damage. We also found lower cover and flowering of H. non-scripta in grazed plots, as a consequence of direct grazing. The evergreen species V. minor and H. helix totally disappeared from the grazed forest. Simulated once-only effects of grazing and trampling had a small and short term negative impact on cover of A. nemorosa, but flowering was strongly reduced. Grazing reduced biomass with 25-30% in the following years. Year-round grazing with large herbivores is an appropriate measure for bramble control in forests, but negative effects on ground flora are possible if grazing pressure is high. A low or moderate grazing pressure (<0.25 animal units ha -1 y -1) should be maintained in landscape mosaics with grassland and forest; or intermittent periods of non-grazing should be provided to maintain forest ground flora diversity.

  16. Effects of stand age on the demography of a temperate forest herb in post-agricultural forests.

    PubMed

    Jacquemyn, Hans; Brys, Rein

    2008-12-01

    Changes in land use have been shown to have profound effects on forest plant community structure and diversity. Dispersal limitation has been invoked as a major factor hampering colonization of forest plant species, while seed-sowing experiments and performance observations have provided some evidence for recruitment limitation determining forest plant distribution in post-agricultural forests. However, most of these studies were relatively short-term, and very few studies have investigated long-term growth rates of populations occurring in recent and ancient forests. In this study, matrix models using demographic data collected for four consecutive years were used to study the effect of forest age on population dynamics of the temperate forest herb Primula elatior. A life table response experiment (LTRE) and elasticity analysis were used to analyze the effect of forest age on population growth rate (lambda) and to decompose the effect of forest age on lambda into contributions from each matrix element. Population growth increased logarithmically with increasing forest age. Bootstrap analyses showed that populations located in very recent forests (< 50-years-old) had growth rates that were significantly < 1, whereas populations located in forests > 150-years-old had growth rates that were significantly > 1. Summed elasticities for individual growth significantly decreased with increasing forest age, whereas summed elasticities for survival and fertility significantly increased with increasing forest age. The LTRE analysis showed that the increase in lambda with increasing forest age was mainly due to increased seedling and juvenile growth and increased juvenile and adult survival. Our results indicate that past agricultural land use has long-lasting effects on the demography of forest herbs and may provide an additional mechanistic explanation for the poor colonization capacity of many forest herbs in post-agricultural forests.

  17. Fluorescent dye particles as pollen analogues for measuring pollen dispersal in an insect-pollinated forest herb.

    PubMed

    Van Rossum, Fabienne; Stiers, Iris; Van Geert, Anja; Triest, Ludwig; Hardy, Olivier J

    2011-03-01

    In flowering plants, pollen dispersal is often the major contributing component to gene flow, hence a key parameter in conservation genetics and population biology. A cost-effective method to assess pollen dispersal consists of monitoring the dispersal of fluorescent dyes used as pollen analogues. However, few comparisons between dye dispersal and realized pollen dispersal have been performed to validate the method. We investigated pollen dispersal in two small populations of the insect-pollinated herb Primula elatior from urban forest fragments using direct (paternity analyses based on microsatellite DNA markers) and indirect (fluorescent dyes) methods. We compared these methods using two approaches, testing for the difference between the distance distributions of observed dispersal events and estimating parameters of a dispersal model, and related these results to dye dispersal patterns in three large populations. Dye and realized (based on paternity inference) pollen dispersal showed exponential decay distributions, with 74.2-94.8% of the depositions occurring at <50 m and a few longer distance dispersal events (up to 151 m). No significant difference in curve shape was found between dye and realized pollen dispersal distributions. The best-fitting parameters characterizing the dye dispersal model were consistent with those obtained for realized pollen dispersal. Hence, the fluorescent dye method may be considered as reliable to infer realized pollen dispersal for forest herbs such as P. elatior. However, our simulations reveal that large sample sizes are needed to detect moderate differences between dye and realized pollen dispersal patterns because the estimation of dispersal parameters suffers low precision.

  18. Plant species introduced by foreigners according to folk tradition in Norway and some other European countries: xenophobic tales or not?

    PubMed

    Alm, Torbjørn

    2015-10-05

    In their quest to understand and interpret nature, people have frequently sought religious or divine origins for plant species and their characteristics. Less often, historical events or persons are involved. This study comprises eleven cases of the latter kind, all claiming that plant species have been introduced by foreigners or at least from foreign lands. Based on literature data and a few cases recorded during my own ethnobotanical field work, eleven European examples of pseudo-historical plant origins are presented here, including Cakile maritima, Cicuta virosa, Lathyrus japonicus, Leymus arenarius, Primula vulgaris, and Scopolia carniolica in Norway, Heracleum mantegazzianum and/or H. persicum in Denmark, Phoenix dactylifera and P. theophrastii in Greece, and Jacobaea vulgaris in Scotland. The only common trait in these stories is that foreigner or at least foreign lands are claimed as sources of the plant species. In most cases, the "historical" explanations given in folk tradition are demonstrably at odds with reality. In those cases that involve poisonous or potentially harmful species (Cicuta virosa, Heracleum mantegazzianum and/or H. persicum, Jacobaea vulgaris), or the "useless" Phoenix theophrastii, with its inedible fruits, the stories may be interpreted as xenophobic, blaming foreigners for introducing dangerous or worthless species. The remaining examples merely suggest a search for exotic and seemingly rational, if erroneous, origins for plant species and stands that people considered strange and unusual. The spreading vectors assumed in folk tradition are correct and well documented, e.g. ship cargos (including goods and packing materials), which are responsible for introducing ballast plants and other anthropochores, and wartime activities, introducing a broad range of species (polemochores). They do not, however, apply to the species included in this study, which are either indigenous plants or introduced ornamentals. The foreigners appearing

  19. Decrease of sexual organ reciprocity between heterostylous primrose species, with possible functional and evolutionary implications

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Barbara; de Vos, Jurriaan M.; Conti, Elena

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Heterostyly is a floral polymorphism that has fascinated evolutionary biologists since Darwin's seminal studies on primroses. The main morphological characteristic of heterostyly is the reciprocal placement of anthers and stigmas in two distinct (distyly) floral morphs. Variation in the degree of intermorph sexual reciprocity is relatively common and known to affect patterns of pollen transfer within species. However, the partitioning of sexual organ reciprocity within and between closely related species remains unknown. This study aimed at testing whether intermorph sexual reciprocity differs within vs. between primrose species that hybridize in nature and whether the positions of sexual organs are correlated with other floral traits. Methods Six floral traits were measured in both floral morphs of 15 allopatric populations of Primula elatior, P. veris and P. vulgaris, and anther–stigma reciprocity was estimated within and between species. A combination of univariate and multivariate approaches was used to test whether positions of reproductive organs were less reciprocal between than within species, to assess correlations between sexual organ positions and other corolla traits, and to quantify differences between morphs and species. Key Results The three species were morphologically well differentiated in most floral traits, except that P. veris and P. vulgaris did not differ significantly in sexual organ positions. Overall, lower interspecific than intraspecific sexual organ reciprocity was detected. This decrease was marked between P. elatior and P. vulgaris, intermediate and variable between P. elatior and P. veris, but negligible between P. veris and P. vulgaris. Conclusions Differences in anther and stigma heights between the analysed primrose species were of the same magnitude or larger than intraspecific differences that altered pollen flow within other heterostylous systems. Therefore, it is possible to suggest that considerable

  20. [Allergic contact dermatitis caused by plants].

    PubMed

    Fernández de Corres, L; Corrales, J L; Muñoz, D; Leanizbarrutia, I

    1984-01-01

    The proliferation of house and garden plants, some of them highly sensitizing, produced by the general improvement of the standard of living, is causing an increase in the number of cases of contact dermatitis from plants with both irritative and allergic mechanisms. During the past 12 years, we have studied 43 cases of allergic eczema caused by plant contact as primary sensitization which supposes 2.4% of the patients with allergic contact dermatitis attended in our Services. The majority of patients were women (65%) as opposed to 35% men while the ages varied from 12 to 70 years with an average of 44.5. Below the age of 25 there were only 3 cases (6.9%) 12, 18 and 20 years respectively. In the clinical study, as well as the profession, secondary activities and hobbies were also evaluated. Through localization of lesions, an attempt was made to determine how the patient came in to contact with the different plants. The diagnosis was confirmed by the use of epicutaneous tests, as recommended by the ICDRG (3). Some plants in a natural state were used but etheral extracts were preferred. In cases of photo-dermatitis, photo-patch-tests were carried out using standard photo-sensitizers and suspected plants. The plants found to be responsible were: Allium (garlic) in 11 cases, Frullania in 8, Primula (primrose) in 8. Compositae (composites) in 6, Pinus (pine) in 3, Umbelliferae (umbellifers) in 3, Philodendron (philodendron) in 1, Pelagonium (pelargonium) in 1, Citrus (citrus) in 1 and Chlorophora (iroko) in 1. The frequency of reactions to garlic and primrose is particularly interesting and their characteristics will be the object of a later study.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Chromosomal rearrangements maintain a polymorphic supergene controlling butterfly mimicry

    PubMed Central

    Joron, Mathieu; Frezal, Lise; Jones, Robert T.; Chamberlain, Nicola L.; Lee, Siu F.; Haag, Christoph R.; Whibley, Annabel; Becuwe, Michel; Baxter, Simon W.; Ferguson, Laura; Wilkinson, Paul A.; Salazar, Camilo; Davidson, Claire; Clark, Richard; Quail, Michael A.; Beasley, Helen; Glithero, Rebecca; Lloyd, Christine; Sims, Sarah; Jones, Matthew C.; Rogers, Jane; Jiggins, Chris D.; ffrench-Constant, Richard H.

    2013-01-01

    Supergenes are tight clusters of loci that facilitate the co-segregation of adaptive variation, providing integrated control of complex adaptive phenotypes1. Polymorphic supergenes, in which specific combinations of traits are maintained within a single population, were first described for ‘pin’ and ‘thrum’ floral types in Primula1 and Fagopyrum2, but classic examples are also found in insect mimicry3–5 and snail morphology6. Understanding the evolutionary mechanisms that generate these co-adapted gene sets, as well as the mode of limiting the production of unfit recombinant forms, remains a substantial challenge7–10. Here we show that individual wing-pattern morphs in the polymorphic mimetic butterfly Heliconius numata are associated with different genomic rearrangements at the supergene locus P. These rearrangements tighten the genetic linkage between at least two colour-pattern loci that are known to recombine in closely related species9–11, with complete suppression of recombination being observed in experimental crosses across a 400-kilobase interval containing at least 18 genes. In natural populations, notable patterns of linkage disequilibrium (LD) are observed across the entire P region. The resulting divergent haplotype clades and inversion breakpoints are found in complete association with wing-pattern morphs. Our results indicate that allelic combinations at known wing-patterning loci have become locked together in a polymorphic rearrangement at the Plocus, forming a supergene that acts as a simple switch between complex adaptive phenotypes found in sympatry. These findings highlight how genomic rearrangements can have a central role in the coexistence of adaptive phenotypes involving several genes acting in concert, by locally limiting recombination and gene flow. PMID:21841803

  2. Plasticity in response to phosphorus and light availability in four forest herbs.

    PubMed

    Baeten, Lander; Vanhellemont, Margot; De Frenne, Pieter; De Schrijver, An; Hermy, Martin; Verheyen, Kris

    2010-08-01

    The differential ability of forest herbs to colonize secondary forests on former agricultural land is generally attributed to different rates of dispersal. After propagule arrival, however, establishing individuals still have to cope with abiotic soil legacies from former agricultural land use. We focused on the plastic responses of forest herbs to increased phosphorus availability, as phosphorus is commonly found to be persistently bioavailable in post-agricultural forest soils. In a pot experiment performed under field conditions, we applied three P levels to four forest herbs with contrasting colonization capacities: Anemone nemorosa, Primula elatior, Circaea lutetiana and Geum urbanum. To test interactions with light availability, half of the replicas were covered with shade cloths. After two growing seasons, we measured aboveground P uptake as well as vegetative and regenerative performance. We hypothesized that fast-colonizing species respond the most opportunistically to increased P availability, and that a low light availability can mask the effects of P on performance. All species showed a significant increase in P uptake in the aboveground biomass. The addition of P had a positive effect on the vegetative performances of two of the species, although this was unrelated to their colonization capacities. The regenerative performance was affected by light availability (not by P addition) and was related to the species' phenology. Forest herbs can obviously benefit from the increased availability of P in post-agricultural forests, but not all species respond in the same way. Such differential patterns of plasticity may be important in community dynamics, as they affect the interactions among species.

  3. Nature's patchwork: How water sources and soil salinity determine the distribution and structure of halophytic plant communities in arid environments of the Eastern Pamir

    PubMed Central

    Mętrak, Monika; Chachulski, Łukasz; Navruzshoev, Dovutsho; Pawlikowski, Paweł; Rojan, Elżbieta; Sulwiński, Marcin; Suska-Malawska, Małgorzata

    2017-01-01

    The eastern part of the Pamir Mountains, located in Central Asia, is characterized by great climatic continentality and aridity. Wetlands developed in this hostile region are restricted to spring areas, terraces of shallow lakes or floodplains along rivers, and provide diversified ecosystem services e.g. as water reservoirs, refugia for rare species and pastures for domestic cattle. These ecosystems are particularly susceptible to climate changes, that in the Pamir Mountains result in increased temperatures, intense permafrost/glacial melt and alterations of precipitation patterns. Climatic changes affect pasture management in the mountains, causing overutilization of sites located at lower elevations. Thus, both climate and man-induced disturbances may violate the existing ecological equilibrium in high-mountain wetlands of the Eastern Pamir, posing a serious risk to their biodiversity and to food security of the local population. In this context, we sought to assess how environmental drivers (with special focus on soil features and potential water sources) shape the distribution and diversity of halophytic plant communities developed in valleys in the Eastern Pamir. This task was completed by means of a vegetation survey and comprehensive analyses of habitat conditions. The lake terraces and floodplains studied were covered by a repetitive mosaic of plant communities determined by differences in soil moisture and salinity. On lower, wetter sites, this patchwork was formed by Blysmus rufus dominated salt marshes, saline small sedge meadows and saline meadows with Kobresia royleana and Primula pamirica; and on drier, elevated sites, by endemic grasslands with Hordeum brevisubulatum and Puccinellia species and patches of xerohalophytic vegetation. Continuous instability of water sources and summer droughts occurring in the Pamir Mountains may lead to significant structural and functional transformations of described wetland ecosystems. Species more tolerant to

  4. Nature's patchwork: How water sources and soil salinity determine the distribution and structure of halophytic plant communities in arid environments of the Eastern Pamir.

    PubMed

    Mętrak, Monika; Chachulski, Łukasz; Navruzshoev, Dovutsho; Pawlikowski, Paweł; Rojan, Elżbieta; Sulwiński, Marcin; Suska-Malawska, Małgorzata

    2017-01-01

    The eastern part of the Pamir Mountains, located in Central Asia, is characterized by great climatic continentality and aridity. Wetlands developed in this hostile region are restricted to spring areas, terraces of shallow lakes or floodplains along rivers, and provide diversified ecosystem services e.g. as water reservoirs, refugia for rare species and pastures for domestic cattle. These ecosystems are particularly susceptible to climate changes, that in the Pamir Mountains result in increased temperatures, intense permafrost/glacial melt and alterations of precipitation patterns. Climatic changes affect pasture management in the mountains, causing overutilization of sites located at lower elevations. Thus, both climate and man-induced disturbances may violate the existing ecological equilibrium in high-mountain wetlands of the Eastern Pamir, posing a serious risk to their biodiversity and to food security of the local population. In this context, we sought to assess how environmental drivers (with special focus on soil features and potential water sources) shape the distribution and diversity of halophytic plant communities developed in valleys in the Eastern Pamir. This task was completed by means of a vegetation survey and comprehensive analyses of habitat conditions. The lake terraces and floodplains studied were covered by a repetitive mosaic of plant communities determined by differences in soil moisture and salinity. On lower, wetter sites, this patchwork was formed by Blysmus rufus dominated salt marshes, saline small sedge meadows and saline meadows with Kobresia royleana and Primula pamirica; and on drier, elevated sites, by endemic grasslands with Hordeum brevisubulatum and Puccinellia species and patches of xerohalophytic vegetation. Continuous instability of water sources and summer droughts occurring in the Pamir Mountains may lead to significant structural and functional transformations of described wetland ecosystems. Species more tolerant to

  5. A new dimeric diarylheptanoid from the rhizomes of Alpinia officinarum.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dan; Qu, Wei; Zhao, Ling; Guan, Fu-Qin; Liang, Jing-Yu

    2014-02-01

    To study the chemical constituents of the rhizomes of Alpinia officinarum Hance. Compounds were isolated by repeated column chromatography, and their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectral analysis. The cytotoxic activities of these compounds were evaluated with the T98G and B16F10 cell lines by the MTT assay. A dimeric diarylheptanoid, named alpinin B (1), along with three known diarylheptanoids were obtained, and their structures were identified as alpinin B (1), 1, 7-diphenyl-3,5-heptanedione (2), (4E)-1, 7-diphenylhept-4-en-3-one (3) and (4E)-7- (4-hydroxyphenyl)-1-phenylhept-4-en-3-one (4). Compound 1 is a new dimeric diarylheptanoid. The biosynthetic pathway of 1 was speculated to originate from a Michael reaction between compounds 2 and 3. Compound 3 showed cytotoxicity against the human glioblastoma T98G cell line with IC50 of 27 μmol·L(-1). Copyright © 2014 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The Effects of Different Purifying Methods on the Chemical Properties, in Vitro Anti-Tumor and Immunomodulatory Activities of Abrus cantoniensis Polysaccharide Fractions

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shaowei; Fu, Xiong; Brennan, Margaret A.; Brennan, Charles S.; Chun, Chen

    2016-01-01

    Abrus cantoniensis (Hance) is a popular Chinese vegetable consumed as a beverage, soup or folk medicine. To fully exploit the potential of the polysaccharide in Abrus cantoniensis, nine polysaccharide fractions of Abrus cantoniensis were isolated and purified (AP-AOH30-1, AP-AOH30-2, AP-AOH80-1, AP-AOH80-2, AP-ACl-1, AP-ACl-2, AP-ACl-3, AP-H and AP-L). Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and gas chromatography (GC) were used to characterize these Abrus polysaccharides fractions (APF). In vitro anti-tumor and immunomodulatory activities were also investigated and compared using the rank-sum ratio (RSR) method. Results demonstrated significant differences in the structure and bioactivities among APF, which were associated to the process used for their purification. Among the APF, AP-ACl-3 yield was 613.5 mg/kg of product and consisted of rhamnose (9.8%), arabinose (8.9%), fructose (3.0%), galactose (9.9%), glucose (4.3%), galacturonic acid (3.0%) and glucuronic acid (61.1%) with a molecular weight of 4.4 × 104 Da. Furthermore, AP-ACl-3 exhibited considerable bioactivities significantly preventing the migration of MCF-7 cells and stimulating lymphocyte proliferation along with nitric oxide (NO) production of peritoneal macrophages. AP-ACl-3 could be explored as a novel potential anti-tumor and immunomodulatory agent. PMID:27058538

  7. Phytoremediation potential of transplanted bare-root seedlings of trees for lead/zinc and copper mine tailings.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiang; Chen, Yi-Tai; Wang, Shu-Feng; Pan, Hong-Wei; Sun, Hai-Jing; Liu, Cai-Xia; Liu, Jian-Feng; Jiang, Ze-Ping

    2016-11-01

    Selecting plant species that can overcome unfavorable conditions and increase the recovery of degraded mined lands remains a challenge. A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using transplanted tree seedlings for the phytoremediation of lead/zinc and copper mine tailings. One-year-old bare-root of woody species (Rhus chinensis Mill, Quercus acutissima Carruth, Liquidambar formosana Hance, Vitex trifolia Linn. var. simplicifolia Cham, Lespedeza cuneata and Amorpha fruticosa Linn) were transplanted into pots with mine tailings and tested as potential metal-tolerant plants. Seedling survival, plant growth, root trait, nutrient uptake, and metal accumulation and translocation were assessed. The six species grew in both tailings and showed different tolerance level. A. fruticosa was highly tolerant of Zn, Pb and Cu, and grew normally in both tailings. Metal concentrations were higher in the roots than in the shoots of the six species. All of the species had low bioconcentration and translocation factor values. However, R. chinensis and L. formosana had significantly higher translocation factor values for Pb (0.88) and Zn (1.78) than the other species. The nitrogen-fixing species, A. fruticosa, had the highest tolerance and biomass production, implying that it has great potential in the phytoremediation of tailing areas in southern China.

  8. Galangin induces apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma cells through the caspase 8/t-Bid mitochondrial pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hai-Tao; Wu, Jun; Wen, Min; Su, Li-Juan; Luo, Hui

    2012-01-01

    This study has investigated whether galangin, a flavonol derived from Alpinia officinarum Hance and used as food additives in southern China, induces apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HCCs) by activation of the caspase-8 and Bid pathway. The apoptosis of HCCs was evaluated by in situ uptake of propidium iodide and Hoechst 33258. Protein expressions were detected by Western blotting. Caspase-8 activity was measured using colorimetric method. To confirm the galangin-induced apoptotic pathway, inhibition of caspase-8 activity by Z-IETD-FMK, knockdown of Bid expression with siRNA, and overexpression of Bcl-2 in cells were carried out, respectively. The results show that galangin has significantly induced apoptosis in HCC lines. The caspase-8 is activated, and the cleavage of Bid results in the increase in tBid. The galangin-induced apoptosis is attenuated by Z-IETD-FMK, Bid siRNA, and Bcl-2 overexpression, respectively. However, Bcl-2 fails to suppress caspase-8 activation and the cleavage of Bid. This study has demonstrated that galangin induces apoptosis in HCCs by activating caspase 8/t-Bid mitochondrial pathway. Although Bcl-2 overexpression attenuates galangin-mediated apoptosis of HCCs, it is not mediated by the inhibition of tBid generation and caspase-8 activation.

  9. Galangin inhibits tumor growth and metastasis of B16F10 melanoma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenjing; Tang, Bo; Huang, Qilai; Hua, Zichun

    2013-01-01

    Galangin, an active flavonoid extracted from the root of the Alpinia officinarum Hance, showed a cytotoxic effect on several cancer cell lines in vitro. However, there is no information available concerning its antimetastatic effect. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK), a cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase, is involved in many aspects of cellular processes such as proliferation, adhesion, and invasion. Studies have shown that FAK is a promising target for therapeutic intervention in melanoma. In the present study, proliferation of B16F10 cells was suppressed when exposed to various doses of galangin. Inhibition on proliferation by galangin was also detected by clonogenic survival assay. The capabilities of cell adhesion, cell spreading, and cell motility were impaired by galangin, reinforced by F-actin rearrangement. Molecular data showed that both FAK mRNA level and protein level were reduced dose-dependently. Additionally, galangin reduced phosphorylation of FAK (Tyr397) protein. Transient transfection reporter assays showed that galangin suppressed the transcription of FAK gene, indicating FAK expression is a candidate target of galangin. The antimetastatic function of galangin is further supported by the fact that it could inhibit the formation of tumor colonies in the lung tissue on C57BL/6J mouse lung metastatic model using B16F10 melanoma cells. Immunochemical analyses showed that galangin decreased FAK expression in vivo. These data add to our new understanding that galangin can inhibit B16F10 melanoma metastasis both in vivo and in vitro, and that FAK is a valid therapeutic target against melanoma.

  10. Synergistic anti-cancer effects of galangin and berberine through apoptosis induction and proliferation inhibition in oesophageal carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Ren, Kewei; Zhang, Wenzhe; Wu, Gang; Ren, Jianzhuang; Lu, Huibin; Li, Zongming; Han, Xinwei

    2016-12-01

    Galangin is an active pharmacological ingredient from propolis and Alpinia officinarum Hance, and has been reported to have anti-cancer and antioxidative properties. Berberine, a major component of Berberis vulgaris extract, exhibits potent anti-cancer activities through distinct molecular mechanisms. However, the anticancer effect of galangin in combination with berberine is still unknown. In the present study, we demonstrated that the combination of galangin with berberine synergistically resulted in cell growth inhibition, apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase with the increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in oesophageal carcinoma cells. Pretreatment with ROS scavenger promoted the apoptosis dramatically induced by co-treatment with galangin and berberine. Treatment with galangin and berberine alone caused the decreased expressions of Wnt3a and β-catenin. Interestingly, combination of galangin with berberine could further suppress Wnt3a and β-catenin expression and induce apoptosis in cancer cells. Additionally, in nude mice with xenograft tumors, the combinational treatment of galangin and berberine significantly inhibited the tumor growth without obvious toxicity. Overall, galangin in combination with berberine presented outstanding synergistic anticancer role in vitro and in vivo, indicating that the beneficial combination of galangin and berberine might provide a promising treatment for patients with oesophageal carcinoma.

  11. Galangin inhibits proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma cells by inducing endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Su, Lijuan; Chen, Xiaoyi; Wu, Jun; Lin, Biyun; Zhang, Haitao; Lan, Liubo; Luo, Hui

    2013-12-01

    Prolonged endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress may activate apoptotic pathways in cancer cells. It is suggested that ER stress has the potential of enhancing tumor death in cancer therapy. Galangin, a flavonol derived from Alpinia officinarum Hance, has been shown to suppress the proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HCC). The aim of this study was to determine whether galangin was able to induce ER stress in HepG2, Hep3B and PLC/PRF/5 cells. The proliferation of HCC was tested by MTT method. Intracellular Ca(2+) levels were measured with Fluo3-AM.The proteins levels of GRP94, GRP78 and CHOP were detected by Western blot. To further understand the anti-HCC mechanism of galangin, mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) were detected. The results showed that galangin treatment induced ER stress was evidenced by increased protein levels of GRP94, GRP78 and CHOP, as well as increased free cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration. ER stress inhibitor 4-PBA and CHOP siRNA blocked significantly galangin-induced ER in all three cell lines. Further experiments showed that MAPKs involved in ER stress induced by galangin. In summary, galangin is identified as a stimulator of ER stress to suppress the proliferation of HCC, and may be used as a potential anti-cancer agent.

  12. Wnt/β-catenin coupled with HIF-1α/VEGF signaling pathways involved in galangin neurovascular unit protection from focal cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chuanhong; Chen, Jianxin; Chen, Chang; Wang, Wei; Wen, Limei; Gao, Kuo; Chen, Xiuping; Xiong, Sihuai; Zhao, Huihui; Li, Shaojing

    2015-11-05

    Microenvironmental regulation has become a promising strategy for complex disease treatment. The neurovascular unit (NVU), as the key structural basis to maintain an optimal brain microenvironment, has emerged as a new paradigm to understand the pathology of stroke. In this study, we investigated the effects of galangin, a natural flavonoid isolated from the rhizome of Alpina officinarum Hance, on NVU microenvironment improvement and associated signal pathways in rats impaired by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Galangin ameliorated neurological scores, cerebral infarct volume and cerebral edema and reduced the concentration of Evans blue (EB) in brain tissue. NVU ultrastructural changes were also improved by galangin. RT-PCR and western blot revealed that galangin protected NVUs through the Wnt/β-catenin pathway coupled with HIF-1α and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). VEGF and β-catenin could be the key nodes of these two coupled pathways. In conclusion, Galangin might function as an anti-ischemic stroke drug by improving the microenvironment of NVUs.

  13. Galangin, a flavonol derived from Rhizoma Alpiniae Officinarum, inhibits acetylcholinesterase activity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ava J Y; Xie, Heidi Q; Choi, Roy C Y; Zheng, Ken Y Z; Bi, Cathy W C; Xu, Sherry L; Dong, Tina T X; Tsim, Karl W K

    2010-09-06

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors are widely used for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Several AChE inhibitors, e.g. rivastigmine, galantamine and huperzine are originating from plants, suggesting that herbs could potentially serve as sources for novel AChE inhibitors. Here, we searched potential AChE inhibitors from flavonoids, a group of naturally occurring compounds in plants or traditional Chinese medicines (TCM). Twenty-one flavonoids, covered different subclasses, were tested for their potential function in inhibiting AChE activity from the brain in vitro. Among all the tested flavonoids, galangin, a flavonol isolated from Rhizoma Alpiniae Officinarum, the rhizomes of Alpiniae officinarum (Hance.) showed an inhibitory effect on AChE activity with the highest inhibition by over 55% and an IC(50) of 120 microM and an enzyme-flavonoid inhibition constant (K(i)) of 74 microM. The results suggest that flavonoids could be potential candidates for further development of new drugs against AD.

  14. Galangin inhibits growth of human head and neck squamous carcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Liping; Luo, Qingqiong; Bi, Jianjun; Ding, Jieying; Ge, Shengfang; Chen, Fuxiang

    2014-12-05

    Galangin, an active flavonoid component extracted from the propolis and root of Alpinia officinarum Hance, has anti-tumor activity, but the mechanisms by which galangin affects various cancers, including human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) remain unclear. In this study, we demonstrated for the first time that galangin suppressed the growth of HNSCC in vivo. With the cell culture system, galangin inhibited the proliferation and colony formation of HNSCC cells in a dose-dependent manner. Galangin induced significant cell cycle arrest of the tumor cells at the G0/G1 phase, which was accompanied by reduced AKT phosphorylation and mammalian target of rapamycin and S6 kinase activation. Decreased expression of cyclin D1, cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)4, CDK6 and phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein was observed in galangin-treated HNSCC cells. In addition, galangin induced apoptosis of HNSCC cells, downregulating antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL and upregulating proapoptotic protein Bax and cleaved caspase 3. Immunohistochemical analysis showed a dose-dependent reduction in cyclin-D1-positive cancer cells and an increase in TUNEL-positive cancer cells in galangin-administrated mouse tumor sections. Therefore, galangin may be a novel therapeutic option in human HNSCC treatment.

  15. Mechanism and inhibitory effect of galangin and its flavonoid mixture from Alpinia officinarum on mushroom tyrosinase and B16 murine melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yan-Hua; Lin-Tao; Wang, Zheng-Tao; Wei, Dong-Zhi; Xiang, Hai-Bo

    2007-08-01

    The whitening effects of the flavonoid constituents of Alpinia officinarum Hance were investigated on melanin biosynthesis in B 16 mouse melanoma cells, tyrosinase inhibition and UV absorption. The melanin content was reduced to 1.276 microg /10(5) cell for flavonoid mixture and 1.161 microg /10(5) cell for galangin while the melanin control was 1.632 microg/10(5) cell. Both flavonoid mixture and galangin reduced melanin production with an inhibition of 21.81% and 28.86% at a concentration of 26.5 microg/mL and 29 microg/mL (107.4 microM), respectively. Tyrosinase inhibition by the flavonoid mixture and galangin were higher at lower concentrations and galangin showed competitive inhibition at a concentration less than 21.23 microg/mL which was soluble. In addition, the flavonoid mixture and galangin showed a broad absorption band at 270 approximately 290 nm related to the UV-B area. These observations suggest that galangin may be a whitening agent and a promising candidate for prevention of skin cancer. This is the first full scale report on the evaluation of the whitening effect of galangin.

  16. Galangin induces B16F10 melanoma cell apoptosis via mitochondrial pathway and sustained activation of p38 MAPK.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenjing; Lan, Yan; Huang, Qilai; Hua, Zichun

    2013-05-01

    Galangin, an active flavonoid present at high concentration in Alpinia officinarum Hance and propolis, shows cytotoxicity towards several cancer cell lines, including melanoma. However, the specific cellular targets of galangin-induced cytotoxicity in melanoma are still unknown. Here, we investigated the effects of galangin in B16F10 melanoma cells and explored the possible molecular mechanisms. Galangin significantly decreased cell viability of B16F10 cells, and also induced cell apoptosis shown by Hoechst 33342 staining and Annexin V-PI double staining flow cytometric assay. Furthermore, upon galangin treatment, disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential was observed by JC-1 staining. Western blotting analysis indicated that galangin activated apoptosis signaling cascades by cleavage of procaspase-9, procaspase-3 and PARP in B16F10 cells. Moreover, galangin significantly induced activation of phosphor-p38 MAPK in a time and dose dependent manner. SB203580, an inhibitor of p38, partially attenuated galangin-induced apoptosis in B16F10 cells. Taken together, this work suggests that galangin has the potential to be a promising agent for melanoma treatment and may be further evaluated as a chemotherapeutic agent.

  17. Protective effect of galangin in Concanavalin A-induced hepatitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Luo, Qingqiong; Zhu, Liping; Ding, Jieying; Zhuang, Xing; Xu, Lili; Chen, Fuxiang

    2015-01-01

    Galangin is an active pharmacological ingredient from propolis and Alpinia officinarum Hance, and has been reported to have anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties. The present study aims to reveal the effect of galangin on Concanavalin A (ConA)-induced hepatitis (CIH), a well-established animal model of immune-mediated liver injury, and to clarify the related mechanism. C57BL/6 mice were pretreated with galangin followed by ConA challenge. Results indicated that galangin inhibited ConA-induced liver damage. Mice pretreated with galangin showed more reduction of liver damage when compared with control mice pretreated with vehicle solution. In galangin-pretreated mice with induced CIH, increases in serum levels of several inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α, interferon-γ, and interleukin-12 were dramatically attenuated, and chemokines and adhesion molecules like interferon inducible protein-10, macrophage inflammatory protein-1α, and inter-cellular adhesion molecule-1 messenger RNA expressions in liver were decreased. Moreover, CIH mice pretreated with galangin showed less leukocyte infiltration and T-cell activation in the liver. Further, the mechanism of the anti-inflammatory effects of galangin may be attributed to its modulation of crucial inflammatory signaling pathways, including nuclear factor kappa B and interferon-gamma/signal transducer and activator of transcription 1. Collectively, these findings suggest the preventive and therapeutic potential of galangin in immune-mediated liver injury in vivo.

  18. Interaction between U and Th on their uptake, distribution, and toxicity in V S. alfredii based on the phytoremediation of U and Th.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhenling; Tang, Siqun; Zhang, Lu; Ma, Lijian; Ding, Songdong; Du, Liang; Zhang, Dong; Jin, Yongdong; Wang, Ruibing; Huang, Chao; Xia, Chuanqin

    2017-01-01

    Variant Sedum alfredii Hance (V S. alfredii) could simultaneously take up U and Th from water with the highest concentrations recorded as 1.84 × 10(4) and 6.72 × 10(3) mg/kg in the roots, respectively. Th stimulated U uptake by V S. alfredii roots at Th10 (10 μM of Th), however, the opposite was observed at Th100 (100 μM of Th). A similar result was found in the effect of U on the uptake of Th by V S. alfredii. Subcellular fractionation studies of V S. alfredii indicated that U and Th were mainly stored in cell wall fraction, and much less was found in organelle and soluble fractions. Chemical form examination results showed that water-soluble U and Th were the predominant chemical forms in this plant. Addition of the other radionuclide in aqueous solutions altered the concentration and percentage of U or Th in cell wall fraction and in water-soluble form, resulting in the change of the uptake capacity of U or Th by V S. alfredii roots. Comparing with single U or Th treatment, the plant cells revealed more swollen chloroplasts and enhanced thickening in cell walls under the U100 + Th100 treatment, as observed by TEM. Those results collectively displayed that V S. alfredii may be utilized as a potential plant to simultaneously remove U and Th from aqueous solutions (rhizofiltration).

  19. Synopsis of Nekemias Raf., a segregate genus from Ampelopsis Michx. (Vitaceae) disjunct between eastern/southeastern Asia and eastern North America, with ten new combinations

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Jun; Boggan, John; Nie, Ze-Long

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The genus Nekemias (Vitaceae) was first recognized by Rafinesque in 1838. It has been treated as a synonym of Ampelopsis Michx. Recent phylogenetic studies suggest that Ampelopsis as traditionally delimited is paraphyletic. To maintain the monophyly of each of the genera of Vitaceae, we herein segregate the Ampelopsis sect. Leeaceifoliae lineage from Ampelopsis and recognize these taxa in Nekemias Raf., which has a disjunct distribution in eastern to southeastern Asia and eastern North America. Nomenclatural changes are made for nine species and one variety: Nekemias arborea (L.) J. Wen & Boggan, Nekemias cantoniensis (Hook. & Arn.) J. Wen & Z.L. Nie, Nekemias celebica (Suess.) J. Wen & Boggan, Nekemias chaffanjonii (H. Lév. & Van.) J. Wen & Z.L. Nie, Nekemias gongshanensis (C.L. Li) J. Wen & Z.L. Nie, Nekemias grossedentata (Hand.-Mazz.) J. Wen & Z.L. Nie, Nekemias hypoglauca (Hance) J. Wen & Z.L. Nie, Nekemias megalophylla (Diels & Gilg) J. Wen & Z.L. Nie, Nekemias megalophylla var. jiangxiensis (W.T. Wang) J. Wen & Z.L. Nie, and Nekemias rubifolia (Wall.) J. Wen & Z.L. Nie. A taxonomic key is provided for the genus to facilitate identification. PMID:25383008

  20. Galangin inhibits proliferation of HepG2 cells by activating AMPK via increasing the AMP/TAN ratio in a LKB1-independent manner.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haitao; Li, Ning; Wu, Jun; Su, Lijuan; Chen, Xiaoyi; Lin, Biyun; Luo, Hui

    2013-10-15

    Galangin, a flavonol derived from Alpinia officinarum Hance and used as food additives in southern China, induces apoptosis and autophagy to suppress the proliferation of HepG2 cells. In this study, we demonstrated that galangin induced autophagy by increasing the ratio of AMP/TAN in HepG2 cells. It stimulated the phosphorylation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and LKB1, but inhibited the phosphorylation of AKT and mTOR. Inhibition of AMPK activation suppressed the dephosphorylation of mTOR to block galangin-induced autophagy. AMPK activation by galangin appeared to be independent of the LKB1 signaling pathway because the down-regulation of LKB1 by its siRNA failed to affect galangin-induced autophagy. Collectively, the findings demonstrated a novel mechanism of how galangin induces autophagy via activating AMPK in a LKB1- independent manner. The induction of autophagy can thus reflect the anti-proliferation effect of galangin in HCC cells.

  1. Enhanced Hydrate Nucleation Near the Limit of Stability.

    PubMed

    Jimenez-Angeles, Felipe; Firoozabadi, Abbas

    2015-03-30

    Clathrate hydrates are crystalline structures composed of small guest molecules trapped into cages formed by hydrogen-bonded water molecules. In hydrate nucleation, water and the guest molecules may stay in a metastable fluid mixture for a long period. Metastability is broken if the concentration of the guest is above certain limit. We perform molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of supersaturated water-propane solutions close to the limit of stability. We show that hydrate nucleation can be very fast in a very narrow range of composition at moderate temperatures. Propane density fluctuations near the fluid-fluid demixing are coupled with crystallization producing en- hanced nucleation rates. This is the first report of propane-hydrate nucleation by MD simulations. We observe motifs of the crystalline structure II in line with experiments and new hydrate cages not reported in the literature. Our study relates nucleation to the fluid-fluid spinodal decomposition and demonstration that the enhanced nucleation phenomenon is more general than short range attractive interactions as suggested in nucleation of proteins.

  2. Isolation, Characterization, and Insecticidal Activity of an Endophyte of Drunken Horse Grass, Achnatherum inebrians

    PubMed Central

    Shi, YingWu; Zhang, Xuebing; Lou, Kai

    2013-01-01

    Endophytic microorganisms reside within plant tissues and have often been found to promote plant growth. In this study, endophytic microorganisms were isolated from the roots, stems, leaves, and seeds of healthy drunken horse grass, Achnatherum inebrians (Hance) Keng (Poales: Poaceae), through the use of a grinding separation method and identified by a dual approach of morphological and physiological observation and 16S rRNA gene-based (for bacteria) and internal transcribed sequence-based (for fungi) molecular identification. The endophytes were then inoculated into liquid media for fermentation, and their crude extracts were employed for insecticidal activity tests using slide disc immersion and nebulization methods. A total of 89 bacteria species, which were classified into eight genera, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Actinomyces, Corynebacterium, Acinetobacter, Sphingomonas, Paenibacillus, and Phyllobacterium, and two fungi, Claviceps and Chaetomium, were isolated. Of these species, isolates Streptomyces albus (Rossi-Doria) Waksman and Henrici (Actinomycetales: Streptomycetaceae) (GA) and Claviceps purpurea (Fr.) Tul. (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) (PF-2) were shown to produce mortality rates of more than 90% in the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae), after first and second screenings. The isolates PF-2 and GA associated with A. inebrians had significant insecticidal activities towards A. gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and may provide a new biological resource for exploring a new microbial insecticide. PMID:24784492

  3. Immediate Adverse Reactions to Gadolinium-Based MR Contrast Media: A Retrospective Analysis on 10,608 Examinations

    PubMed Central

    Fusco, Roberta; dell'Aprovitola, Nicoletta; Catalano, Orlando; Filice, Salvatore; Schiavone, Vincenzo; Izzo, Francesco; Cuomo, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose. Contrast media (CM) for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may determine the development of acute adverse reactions. Objective was to retrospectively assess the frequency and severity of adverse reactions associated with gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) injection in patients who underwent MRI. Material and Methods. At our center 10608 MRI examinations with CM were performed using five different GBCAs: Gd-BOPTA (MultiHance), Gd-DTPA (Magnevist), Gd-EOBDTPA (Primovist), Gd-DOTA (Dotarem), and Gd-BTDO3A (Gadovist). Results. 32 acute adverse reactions occurred, accounting for 0.3% of all administration. Twelve reactions were associated with Gd-DOTA injection (0.11%), 9 with Gd-BOPTA injection (0.08%), 6 with Gd-BTDO3A (0.056%), 3 with Gd-EOB-DTPA (0.028%), and 2 with Gd-DTPA (0.018%). Twenty-four reactions (75.0%) were mild, four (12.5%) moderate, and four (12.5%) severe. The most severe reactions were seen associated with use of Gd-BOPTA, with 3 severe reactions in 32 total reactions. Conclusion. Acute adverse reactions are generally rare with the overall adverse reaction rate of 0.3%. The most common adverse reactions were not severe, consisting in skin rash and hives. PMID:27652261

  4. Immediate Adverse Reactions to Gadolinium-Based MR Contrast Media: A Retrospective Analysis on 10,608 Examinations.

    PubMed

    Granata, Vincenza; Cascella, Marco; Fusco, Roberta; dell'Aprovitola, Nicoletta; Catalano, Orlando; Filice, Salvatore; Schiavone, Vincenzo; Izzo, Francesco; Cuomo, Arturo; Petrillo, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose. Contrast media (CM) for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may determine the development of acute adverse reactions. Objective was to retrospectively assess the frequency and severity of adverse reactions associated with gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) injection in patients who underwent MRI. Material and Methods. At our center 10608 MRI examinations with CM were performed using five different GBCAs: Gd-BOPTA (MultiHance), Gd-DTPA (Magnevist), Gd-EOBDTPA (Primovist), Gd-DOTA (Dotarem), and Gd-BTDO3A (Gadovist). Results. 32 acute adverse reactions occurred, accounting for 0.3% of all administration. Twelve reactions were associated with Gd-DOTA injection (0.11%), 9 with Gd-BOPTA injection (0.08%), 6 with Gd-BTDO3A (0.056%), 3 with Gd-EOB-DTPA (0.028%), and 2 with Gd-DTPA (0.018%). Twenty-four reactions (75.0%) were mild, four (12.5%) moderate, and four (12.5%) severe. The most severe reactions were seen associated with use of Gd-BOPTA, with 3 severe reactions in 32 total reactions. Conclusion. Acute adverse reactions are generally rare with the overall adverse reaction rate of 0.3%. The most common adverse reactions were not severe, consisting in skin rash and hives.

  5. Inhibitory Activities of Phenolic Compounds Isolated from Adina rubella Leaves Against 5α-Reductase Associated with Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jun; Heo, Jun Hyeok; Hwang, Yoon Jeong; Le, Thi Tam; Lee, Min Won

    2016-07-07

    Adina rubella Hance (AR), a plant native to Korea, has been used as traditional medicine for dysentery, eczema, intoxication, and external hemorrhages. Previous phytochemical studies of AR have reported several components, including terpenoids, phenolics, and alkaloids. The current study evaluated the anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities and 5α-reductase inhibition of isolated compounds of AR leaves to find a potential therapeutic agent for benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH). Repeated chromatographic isolation of an 80% acetone extract of AR leaves yielded seven phenolic compounds: caffeic acid (1), chlorogenic acid (2), methyl chlorogenate (3), quercetin-3-rutinoside (4), kaempferol-3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-d-glucopyranoside (5), hyperoside (6), and grandifloroside (7). Compound 7 is a novel compound in AR. Caffeoyl derivatives 1-3 and 7 showed good anti-oxidative activities. In particular, caffeic acid (1) and grandifloroside (7) showed potent anti-inflammatory activities, and 7 also exhibited potent inhibitory activity against TNF-α and 5α-reductase. Our results show that the extract and grandifloroside (7) from leaves of AR might be developed as a source of potent anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory agents and therapeutic agent for BPH.

  6. Anti-Melanogenic Activities of Heracleum moellendorffii via ERK1/2-Mediated MITF Downregulation

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Md Badrul; Seo, Bum-Ju; Zhao, Peijun; Lee, Sang-Han

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the anti-melanogenic effects of Heracleum moellendorffii Hance extract (HmHe) and the mechanisms through which it inhibits melanogenesis in melan-a cells were investigated. Mushroom tyrosinase (TYR) activity and melanin content as well as cellular tyrosinase activity were measured in the cells. mRNA and protein expression of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), tyrosinase (TYR), TYR-related protein-1 (TYRP-1) and -2 were also examined. The results demonstrate that treatment with HmHe significantly inhibits mushroom tyrosinase activity. Furthermore, HmHe also markedly inhibits melanin production and intracellular tyrosinase activity. By suppressing the expression of TYR, TYRP-1, TYRP-2, and MITF, HmHe treatment antagonized melanin production in melan-a cells. Additionally, HmHe interfered with the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2, with reversal of HmHe-induced melanogenesis inhibition after treatment with specific inhibitor U0126. In summary, HmHe can be said to stimulate ERK1/2 phosphorylation and subsequent degradation of MITF, resulting in suppression of melanogenic enzymes and melanin production, possibly due to the presence of polyphenolic compounds. PMID:27827938

  7. Synopsis of Nekemias Raf., a segregate genus from Ampelopsis Michx. (Vitaceae) disjunct between eastern/southeastern Asia and eastern North America, with ten new combinations.

    PubMed

    Wen, Jun; Boggan, John; Nie, Ze-Long

    2014-01-01

    The genus Nekemias (Vitaceae) was first recognized by Rafinesque in 1838. It has been treated as a synonym of Ampelopsis Michx. Recent phylogenetic studies suggest that Ampelopsis as traditionally delimited is paraphyletic. To maintain the monophyly of each of the genera of Vitaceae, we herein segregate the Ampelopsissect.Leeaceifoliae lineage from Ampelopsis and recognize these taxa in Nekemias Raf., which has a disjunct distribution in eastern to southeastern Asia and eastern North America. Nomenclatural changes are made for nine species and one variety: Nekemiasarborea (L.) J. Wen & Boggan, Nekemiascantoniensis (Hook. & Arn.) J. Wen & Z.L. Nie, Nekemiascelebica (Suess.) J. Wen & Boggan, Nekemiaschaffanjonii (H. Lév. & Van.) J. Wen & Z.L. Nie, Nekemiasgongshanensis (C.L. Li) J. Wen & Z.L. Nie, Nekemiasgrossedentata (Hand.-Mazz.) J. Wen & Z.L. Nie, Nekemiashypoglauca (Hance) J. Wen & Z.L. Nie, Nekemiasmegalophylla (Diels & Gilg) J. Wen & Z.L. Nie, Nekemiasmegalophyllavar.jiangxiensis (W.T. Wang) J. Wen & Z.L. Nie, and Nekemiasrubifolia (Wall.) J. Wen & Z.L. Nie. A taxonomic key is provided for the genus to facilitate identification.

  8. 3D interactive augmented reality-enhanced digital learning systems for mobile devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Kai-Ten; Tseng, Po-Hsuan; Chiu, Pei-Shuan; Yang, Jia-Lin; Chiu, Chun-Jie

    2013-03-01

    With enhanced processing capability of mobile platforms, augmented reality (AR) has been considered a promising technology for achieving enhanced user experiences (UX). Augmented reality is to impose virtual information, e.g., videos and images, onto a live-view digital display. UX on real-world environment via the display can be e ectively enhanced with the adoption of interactive AR technology. Enhancement on UX can be bene cial for digital learning systems. There are existing research works based on AR targeting for the design of e-learning systems. However, none of these work focuses on providing three-dimensional (3-D) object modeling for en- hanced UX based on interactive AR techniques. In this paper, the 3-D interactive augmented reality-enhanced learning (IARL) systems will be proposed to provide enhanced UX for digital learning. The proposed IARL systems consist of two major components, including the markerless pattern recognition (MPR) for 3-D models and velocity-based object tracking (VOT) algorithms. Realistic implementation of proposed IARL system is conducted on Android-based mobile platforms. UX on digital learning can be greatly improved with the adoption of proposed IARL systems.

  9. Genetic diversity of the endangered Chinese endemic herb Primulina tabacum (Gesneriaceae) revealed by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP).

    PubMed

    Ni, Xiaowei; Huang, Yelin; Wu, Lin; Zhou, Renchao; Deng, Shulin; Wu, Darong; Wang, Bosun; Su, Guohua; Tang, Tian; Shi, Suhua

    2006-05-01

    Primulina tabacum Hance, is a critically endangered perennial endemic to limestone area in South China. Genetic variability within and among four extant populations of this species was assessed using AFLP markers. We expected a low genetic diversity level of this narrowly distributed species, but our results revealed that a high level of genetic diversity remains, both at population level (55.5% of markers polymorphic, H (E) = 0.220, I (S) = 0.321), and at species level (P = 85.6% of markers polymorphic, H (E) = 0.339, I (S) = 0.495), probably resulting from its refugial history and/or breeding system. High levels of genetic differentiation among populations was apparent based on Nei's genetic diversity analysis (G (st)=0.350). The restricted gene flow between populations is a potential reason for the high genetic differentiation. The population genetic diversity of P. tabacum revealed here has clear implications for conservation and management. To maintain present levels of genetic diversity, in situ conservation of all populations is necessary.

  10. Effect of elevated CO2 concentration on photosynthetic characteristics of hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii under cadmium stress.

    PubMed

    Li, Tingqiang; Tao, Qi; Di, Zhenzhen; Lu, Fan; Yang, Xiaoe

    2015-07-01

    The combined effects of elevated CO2 and cadmium (Cd) on photosynthetic rate, chlorophyll fluorescence and Cd accumulation in hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii Hance were investigated to predict plant growth under Cd stress with rising atmospheric CO2 concentration. Both pot and hydroponic experiments were conducted and the plants were grown under ambient (350 µL L(-1)) or elevated (800 µL L(-1)) CO2 . Elevated CO2 significantly (P < 0.05) increased Pn (105%-149%), Pnmax (38.8%-63.0%) and AQY (20.0%-34.8%) of S. alfredii in all the Cd treatments, but reduced chlorophyll concentration, dark respiration and photorespiration. After 10 days growth in medium with 50 µM Cd under elevated CO2 , PSII activities were significantly enhanced (P < 0.05) with Pm, Fv/Fm, Φ(II) and qP increased by 66.1%, 7.5%, 19.5% and 16.4%, respectively, as compared with ambient-grown plants. Total Cd uptake in shoot of S. alfredii grown under elevated CO2 was increased by 44.1%-48.5%, which was positively correlated with the increase in Pn. These results indicate that elevated CO2 promoted the growth of S. alfredii due to increased photosynthetic carbon uptake rate and photosynthetic light-use efficiency, and showed great potential to improve the phytoextraction of Cd by S. alfredii. © 2014 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  11. Age-stage, two-sex life table of Brontispa longissima (Gestro) (Coleoptera: Hispidae) feeding on four palm plant varieties.

    PubMed

    Jin, Tao; Lin, Yu-Ying; Jin, Qi-An; Wen, Hai-Bo; Peng, Zheng-Qiang

    2012-10-01

    The life history of Brontispa longissima (Gestro) (Coleoptera: Hispidae), reared under laboratory conditions on leaves of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.), royal palm [Roystonea regia (Kunth) O.F.Cook], bottle palm [Hyophorbe lagenicaulis (L. Bailey) H.E.Moore], and fishtail palm (Caryota ochlandra Hance) was analyzed using age-stage, two-sex life table. Means and standard errors of population growth parameters were calculated using the jackknife method. Moreover, survival rate and fecundity data were applied to project the population for revealing the different stage structure. The mean intrinsic rates of population growth when reared on each respective leaf type were 0.032, 0.031, 0.019, and 0.044. Individuals reared on C. nucifera achieved the highest net reproduction rate at 114.5 offspring per female. The mean generation times of B. longissima ranged from 93.2 d (reared on C. ochlandrai) to 161.5 d (reared on H. lagenicaulis). Projections from survival rate and fecundity data indicated that B. longissima populations can row considerably faster on C. ochlandra than on the other three host plants. The results validate the two-stage life history approach taken, providing an essential tool for developing and testing future control strategies.

  12. Synthesis and relaxivity studies of a DOTA-based nanomolecular chelator assembly supported by an icosahedral closo-B₁₂²⁻ core for MRI: a click chemistry approach.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Lalit N; Ma, Lixin; Kueffer, Peter J; Jalisatgi, Satish S; Hawthorne, M Frederick

    2013-07-29

    An icosahedral closo-B₁₂²⁻ scaffold based nano-sized assembly capable of carrying a high payload of Gd³⁺-chelates in a sterically crowded configuration is developed by employing the azide-alkyne click reaction. The twelve copies of DO3A-t-Bu-ester ligands were covalently attached to an icosahedral closo-B₁₂²⁻ core via suitable linkers through click reaction. This nanomolecular structure supporting a high payload of Gd³⁺-chelate is a new member of the closomer MRI contrast agents that we are currently developing in our laboratory. The per Gd ion relaxivity (r₁) of the newly synthesized MRI contrast agent was obtained in PBS, 2% tween/PBS and bovine calf serum using a 7 Tesla micro MRI instrument and was found to be slightly higher (r₁ = 4.7 in PBS at 25 °C) compared to the clinically used MRI contrast agents Omniscan (r₁ = 4.2 in PBS at 25 °C) and ProHance (r₁ = 3.1 in PBS at 25 °C).

  13. Phytochelatin synthesis plays a similar role in shoots of the cadmium hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii as in non-resistant plants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhong-Chun; Chen, Bo-Xia; Qiu, Bao-Sheng

    2010-08-01

    Phytochelatin (PC) synthesis is considered necessary for Cd tolerance in non-resistant plants, but roles for PCs in hyper-accumulating species are currently unknown. In the present study, the relationship between PC synthesis and Cd accumulation was investigated in the Cd hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii Hance. PCs were most abundant in leaves followed by stems, but hardly detected by the reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in roots. Both PC synthesis and Cd accumulation were time-dependent and a linear correlation between the two was established with about 1:15 PCs : Cd stoichiometry in leaves. PCs were found in the elution fractions, which were responsible for Cd peaks in the anion exchange chromatograph assay. About 5% of the total Cd was detected in these elution fractions as PCs were found. Most Cd was observed in the cell wall and intercellular space of leaf vascular cells. These results suggest that PCs do not detoxify Cd in roots of S. alfredii. However, like in non-resistant plants, PCs might act as the major intracellular Cd detoxification mechanism in shoots of S. alfredii.

  14. Composition Analysis and Inhibitory Effect of Sterculia lychnophora against Biofilm Formation by Streptococcus mutans

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yang; Park, Bok-Im; Hwang, Eun-Hee; You, Yong-Ouk

    2016-01-01

    Pangdahai is a traditional Chinese drug, specifically described in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia as the seeds of Sterculia lychnophora Hance. Here, we separated S. lychnophora husk and kernel, analyzed the nutrient contents, and investigated the inhibitory effects of S. lychnophora ethanol extracts on cariogenic properties of Streptococcus mutans, important bacteria in dental caries and plaque formation. Ethanol extracts of S. lychnophora showed dose-dependent antibacterial activity against S. mutans with significant inhibition at concentrations higher than 0.01 mg/mL compared with the control group (p < 0.05). Furthermore, biofilm formation was decreased by S. lychnophora at concentrations > 0.03 mg/mL, while bacterial viability was decreased dose-dependently at high concentrations (0.04, 0.08, 0.16, and 0.32 mg/mL). Preliminary phytochemical analysis of the ethanol extract revealed a strong presence of alkaloid, phenolics, glycosides, and peptides while the presence of steroids, terpenoids, flavonoids, and organic acids was low. The S. lychnophora husk had higher moisture and ash content than the kernel, while the protein and fat content of the husk were lower (p < 0.05) than those of the kernel. These results indicate that S. lychnophora may have antibacterial effects against S. mutans, which are likely related to the alkaloid, phenolics, glycosides, and peptides, the major components of S. lychnophora. PMID:27190540

  15. Isolation, characterization, and insecticidal activity of an endophyte of drunken horse grass, Achnatherum inebrians.

    PubMed

    Shi, YingWu; Zhang, Xuebing; Lou, Kai

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Endophytic microorganisms reside within plant tissues and have often been found to promote plant growth. In this study, endophytic microorganisms were isolated from the roots, stems, leaves, and seeds of healthy drunken horse grass, Achnatherum inebrians (Hance) Keng (Poales: Poaceae), through the use of a grinding separation method and identified by a dual approach of morphological and physiological observation and 16S rRNA gene-based (for bacteria) and internal transcribed sequence-based (for fungi) molecular identification. The endophytes were then inoculated into liquid media for fermentation, and their crude extracts were employed for insecticidal activity tests using slide disc immersion and nebulization methods. A total of 89 bacteria species, which were classified into eight genera, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Actinomyces, Corynebacterium, Acinetobacter, Sphingomonas, Paenibacillus, and Phyllobacterium, and two fungi, Claviceps and Chaetomium, were isolated. Of these species, isolates Streptomyces albus (Rossi-Doria) Waksman and Henrici (Actinomycetales: Streptomycetaceae) (GA) and Claviceps purpurea (Fr.) Tul. (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) (PF-2) were shown to produce mortality rates of more than 90% in the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae), after first and second screenings. The isolates PF-2 and GA associated with A. inebrians had significant insecticidal activities towards A. gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and may provide a new biological resource for exploring a new microbial insecticide.

  16. Weekly variability of precipitation induced by anthropogenic aerosols: A case study in Korea in summer 2004.

    SciTech Connect

    Bae, Soo Ya; Jeong, Jaein I.; Park, R.; Lim, Kyo-Sun; Hong, Song-You

    2016-01-06

    We examine the effect of anthropogenic aerosols on the weekly variability of precipitation in Korea in summer 2004 by using Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) and Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) models. We con-duct two WRF simulations including a baseline simulation with empirically based cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) number concentrations and a sensitivity simulation with our implementation to account for the effect of aerosols on CCN number concentrations. The first simulation underestimates observed precipitation amounts, particularly in northeastern coastal areas of Korea, whereas the latter shows higher precipitation amounts that are in better agree-ment with the observations. In addition, the sensitivity model with the aerosol effects reproduces the observed weekly variability, particularly for precipitation frequency with a high R at 0.85, showing 20% increase of precipita-tion events during the weekend than those during weekdays. We find that the aerosol effect results in higher CCN number concentrations during the weekdays and a three-fold increase of the cloud water mixing ratio through en-hanced condensation. As a result, the amount of warm rain is generally suppressed because of the low auto-conversion process from cloud water to rain water under high aerosol conditions. The inefficient conversion, how-ever, leads to higher vertical development of clouds in the mid-atmosphere with stronger updrafts in the sensitivity model, which increases by 21% cold-phase hydrometeors including ice, snow, and graupel relative to the baseline model and ultimately results in higher precipitation amounts in summer.

  17. Bioconversion of Pinoresinol into Matairesinol by Use of Recombinant Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Han-Jung; Wei, Zhi-Yu; Lu, Pei-Chun; Huang, Pung-Ling

    2014-01-01

    Lignans, a class of dimeric phenylpropanoid derivative found in plants, such as whole grains and sesame and flax seeds, have anticancer activity and can act as phytoestrogens. The lignans secoisolariciresinol and matairesinol can be converted in the mammalian proximal colon into enterolactone and enterodiol, respectively, which reduce the risk of breast and colon cancer. To establish an efficient bioconversion system to generate matairesinol from pinoresinol, the genes encoding pinoresinol-lariciresinol reductase (PLR) and secoisolariciresinol dehydrogenase (SDH) were cloned from Podophyllum pleianthum Hance, an endangered herb in Taiwan, and the recombinant proteins, rPLR and rSDH, were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. The two genes, termed plr-PpH and sdh-PpH, were also linked to form two bifunctional fusion genes, plr-sdh and sdh-plr, which were also expressed in E. coli and purified. Bioconversion in vitro at 22°C for 60 min showed that the conversion efficiency of fusion protein PLR-SDH was higher than that of the mixture of rPLR and rSDH. The percent conversion of (+)-pinoresinol to matairesinol was 49.8% using PLR-SDH and only 17.7% using a mixture of rPLR and rSDH. However, conversion of (+)-pinoresinol by fusion protein SDH-PLR stopped at the intermediate product, secoisolariciresinol. In vivo, (+)-pinoresinol was completely converted to matairesinol by living recombinant E. coli expressing PLR-SDH without addition of cofactors. PMID:24561584

  18. Bioconversion of pinoresinol into matairesinol by use of recombinant Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Han-Jung; Wei, Zhi-Yu; Lu, Pei-Chun; Huang, Pung-Ling; Lee, Kung-Ta

    2014-05-01

    Lignans, a class of dimeric phenylpropanoid derivative found in plants, such as whole grains and sesame and flax seeds, have anticancer activity and can act as phytoestrogens. The lignans secoisolariciresinol and matairesinol can be converted in the mammalian proximal colon into enterolactone and enterodiol, respectively, which reduce the risk of breast and colon cancer. To establish an efficient bioconversion system to generate matairesinol from pinoresinol, the genes encoding pinoresinol-lariciresinol reductase (PLR) and secoisolariciresinol dehydrogenase (SDH) were cloned from Podophyllum pleianthum Hance, an endangered herb in Taiwan, and the recombinant proteins, rPLR and rSDH, were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. The two genes, termed plr-PpH and sdh-PpH, were also linked to form two bifunctional fusion genes, plr-sdh and sdh-plr, which were also expressed in E. coli and purified. Bioconversion in vitro at 22°C for 60 min showed that the conversion efficiency of fusion protein PLR-SDH was higher than that of the mixture of rPLR and rSDH. The percent conversion of (+)-pinoresinol to matairesinol was 49.8% using PLR-SDH and only 17.7% using a mixture of rPLR and rSDH. However, conversion of (+)-pinoresinol by fusion protein SDH-PLR stopped at the intermediate product, secoisolariciresinol. In vivo, (+)-pinoresinol was completely converted to matairesinol by living recombinant E. coli expressing PLR-SDH without addition of cofactors.

  19. A New Bithiophene from the Root of Echinops grijsii.

    PubMed

    Chang, Fang-Pin; Chen, Chien-Chih; Huang, Hui-Chi; Wang, Sheng-Yang; Chen, Jih-Jung; Yang, Chang-Syun; Ou, Chung-Yi; Wu, Jin-Bin; Huang, Guan-Jhong; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung

    2015-12-01

    A new bithiophene, 5-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-1-butyny)-2,2'-bithiophene (1), and sixteen known thiophenes: 2-(3,4-dihydroxybut-1-ynyl)-5-(penta-1,3-diynyl)thiophene (2), α-terthienyl (3), 5-(3,4-dihydroxybut-1-ynyl)-2,2'-bithiophene (4), 5-acetyl-2,2'-bithiophene (5), 5-formyl-2,2'-bithiophene (6), methyl 2,2'-bithiophene-5-carboxylate (7), 5-(but-3-en-1-ynyl)-2,2'-bithiophene (8), 5-(4-isovaleroyloxybut-1-ynyl)-2,2'-bithiophene (9), cardopatine (10), isocardopatine (11), 5-(3-hydroxy-4-isovaleroyloxybut-1-ynyl)-2,2'-bithiophene (12), 5-(3-hydroxymethyl-3-isovaleroyloxyprop-1-ynyl)-2,2'-bithiophene (13), 5-(4-hydroxy-1-butynyl)-2,2'-bithiophene (14), 5-(4-acetoxy-1-butynl)-2,2'-bithiophene (15), 2,2'-bithiophene-5-carboxylic acid (16) and 2-(4-hydroxybut-1-ynyl)-5-(penta-1,3-diynyl)thiophene (17) were isolated from the roots of Echinops grjisii Hance. Among them, compounds 6, 7 and 16 were isolated from a natural source for the first time. Compounds 2, 4 and 14 exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity against nitrite of LPS-stimulated production in the RAW 264.7 cell line.

  20. Superparamagnetic iron oxide-enhanced liver MRI with SHU 555 A (RESOVIST): New protocol infusion to improve arterial phase evaluation--a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Grazioli, Luigi; Bondioni, Maria Pia; Romanini, Laura; Frittoli, Barbara; Gambarini, Sebastiana; Donato, Francesco; Santoro, Lucia; Colagrande, Stefano

    2009-03-01

    To compare the arterial enhancement of hypervascular hepatic lesions by T1-weighted 3D-GRE (gradient-recalled echo) fat-sat sequence after slow (0.5 mL/sec) and fast (2 mL/sec) RESOVIST infusion. We prospectively enrolled 71 patients with hypervascular hepatic lesions to undergo dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination with RESOVIST. A total of 92 benign and malignant lesions, 44 of which histologically confirmed, were examined. Three blinded and independent readers visually assessed the arterial enhancement using a score from 0 (none) to 3 (maximum), the latter score comparable to that achievable by MultiHance administration. Out of the 92 hypervascular lesions, 41, 31, and 20 nodules were examined using the slow, fast, and both protocols, respectively. Relevant enhancement (scores 2-3) was found in 42% vs. 14.5% of cases for slow and fast protocols, respectively. Intraindividual comparison evaluation confirmed the better results obtained by slow than fast protocol (25% vs. 10%), with statistically relevant difference in distribution of scores (P=0.0004). The slow protocol showed values between 0 and 3 with an arithmetic mean of 1.1; the fast one, on the other hand, showed values between 0 and 2 with an arithmetic mean of 0.66. Slow infusion improves arterial enhancement after RESOVIST administration. Copyright (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. The Effects of Different Purifying Methods on the Chemical Properties, in Vitro Anti-Tumor and Immunomodulatory Activities of Abrus cantoniensis Polysaccharide Fractions.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shaowei; Fu, Xiong; Brennan, Margaret A; Brennan, Charles S; Chun, Chen

    2016-04-06

    Abrus cantoniensis (Hance) is a popular Chinese vegetable consumed as a beverage, soup or folk medicine. To fully exploit the potential of the polysaccharide in Abrus cantoniensis, nine polysaccharide fractions of Abrus cantoniensis were isolated and purified (AP-AOH30-1, AP-AOH30-2, AP-AOH80-1, AP-AOH80-2, AP-ACl-1, AP-ACl-2, AP-ACl-3, AP-H and AP-L). Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and gas chromatography (GC) were used to characterize these Abrus polysaccharides fractions (APF). In vitro anti-tumor and immunomodulatory activities were also investigated and compared using the rank-sum ratio (RSR) method. Results demonstrated significant differences in the structure and bioactivities among APF, which were associated to the process used for their purification. Among the APF, AP-ACl-3 yield was 613.5 mg/kg of product and consisted of rhamnose (9.8%), arabinose (8.9%), fructose (3.0%), galactose (9.9%), glucose (4.3%), galacturonic acid (3.0%) and glucuronic acid (61.1%) with a molecular weight of 4.4 × 10⁴ Da. Furthermore, AP-ACl-3 exhibited considerable bioactivities significantly preventing the migration of MCF-7 cells and stimulating lymphocyte proliferation along with nitric oxide (NO) production of peritoneal macrophages. AP-ACl-3 could be explored as a novel potential anti-tumor and immunomodulatory agent.

  2. A new diarylheptanoid from Alpinia officinarum promotes the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuguang; Zhang, Xiaopo; Wang, Yong; Chen, Feng; Li, Youbin; Li, Yonghui; Tan, Yinfeng; Gong, Jingwen; Zhong, Xia; Li, Hailong; Zhang, Junqing

    2017-05-25

    A new diarylheptanoid, namely trans-(4R,5S)-epoxy-1,7-diphenyl-3-heptanone (1), and a new natural product, 7-(4″-hydroxy-3″-methoxyphenyl)-1-phenyl-hepta-4E,6E-dien-3-one (2), were obtained from the aqueous extract of Alpinia officinarum Hance, together with three other diarylheptanoids, 5-hydroxy-1,7-diphenyl-3-heptanone (3), 1,7-diphenyl-4E-en-3-heptanone (4) and 5-methoxy-1,7-diphenyl-3-heptanone (5). The structures were characterised mainly by analysing their physical data including IR, NMR and HRMS. This study highlights that the 4,5-epoxy moiety in 1 is rarely seen in diarylheptanoids. In addition, the five isolates were tested for their differentiation activity of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. The results showed that these compounds could dose-dependently promote adipocyte differentiation without cytotoxicity (IC50 > 100 μM).

  3. [Cardiodoron® bei Patienten mit Schlafstörungen - Ergebnisse einer prospektiven Beobachtungsstudie].

    PubMed

    Rother, Claudia; Schnelle, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Hintergrund: Schlafstörungen gehören zu den häufigsten gesundheitlichen Problemen der heutigen Zeit. Stress und die dadurch bedingte innere Anspannung sowie eine unrhythmische Lebensführung z.B. durch Schichtarbeit sind bekannte auslösende Faktoren. Weniger bekannt ist, dass auch funktionelle Herz-Kreislauf-Beschwerden zu Störungen des Schlafs führen können und dass deren Behandlung zu einer Verbesserung der Schlafqualität beiträgt. Ganzheitlich betrachtet geht es daher um die Wiederherstellung einer gesunden Rhythmik, insbesondere des Herz-/Atem- sowie des Schlaf-Wach-Rhythmus, die Cardiodoron®, eine Heilpflanzenkomposition aus Primula veris, Hyoscyamus niger und Onopordum acanthium, unterstützt. Patienten und Methoden: Mittels einer prospektiven, multizentrischen Beobachtungsstudie sollte ermittelt werden, wie sich funktionelle Herz-Kreislauf-Beschwerden und/oder Schlafstörungen unter der Behandlung mit Cardiodoron® (Dilution) über 3-6 Monate entwickeln. Im Zeitraum von September 2009 bis März 2012 dokumentierten 92 Ärzte 501 Patienten, von denen 380 über Schlafstörungen klagten und deren Daten in dieser Publikation näher betrachtet werden. Nach einer Aufnahmeuntersuchung erfolgte nach 90 Tagen eine Abschlussuntersuchung und bei Fortführung der Therapie nach nochmals 90 Tagen eine Follow-up-Untersuchung. Neben 30 ärztlicherseits bewerteten Symptomen beurteilten die Patienten ihr Befinden mittels Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) nach Buysse und der Beschwerden-Liste nach von Zerssen (B-L und B-L'). Ergebnisse: Unter der Cardiodoron®-Therapie gingen bei guter Verträglichkeit sowohl die Ausprägung der Schlafstörungen (um 65% von 2,0 auf 0,7 Punkte) als auch die erfassten 30 Symptome (um 59% von 24,3 auf 9,9 Punkte) deutlich zurück (p < 0,01). Weiterhin reduzierten sich der PSQI und der Gesamtwert der Beschwerden-Liste signifikant (p < 0,0001) um 60% bzw. 56% (von 12,2 auf 4,8 bzw. von 25,6 auf 11,4 Punkte). Schlussfolgerungen: Bei

  4. Unidirectional hybridization and reproductive barriers between two heterostylous primrose species in north-west Yunnan, China

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yongpeng; Xie, Weijia; Tian, Xiaoling; Sun, Weibang; Wu, Zhikun; Milne, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Heteromorphy in flowers has a profound effect on breeding patterns within a species, but little is known about how it affects reproductive barriers between species. The heterostylous genus Primula is very diverse in the Himalaya region, but hybrids there have been little researched. This study examines in detail a natural hybrid zone between P. beesiana and P. bulleyana. Methods Chloroplast sequencing, AFLP (amplified fragment length polymorphism) markers and morphological comparisons were employed to characterize putative hybrids in the field, using synthetic F1s from hand pollination as controls. Pollinator visits to parent species and hybrids were observed in the field. Hand pollinations were conducted to compare pollen tube growth, seed production and seed viability for crosses involving different morphs, species and directions of crossing. Key Results Molecular data revealed all hybrid derivatives examined to be backcrosses of first or later generations towards P. bulleyana: all had the chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) of this species. Some individuals had morphological traits suggesting they were hybrids, but they were genetically similar to P. bulleyana; they might have been advanced generation backcrosses. Viable F1s could not be produced with P. bulleyana pollen on P. beesiana females, irrespective of the flower morphs used. Within-morph crosses for each species had very low (<10 %) seed viability, whereas crosses between pin P. bulleyana (female) and pin P. beesiana had a higher seed viability of 30 %. Thus genetic incompatibility mechanisms back up mechanical barriers to within-morph crosses in each species, but are not the same between the two species. The two species share their main pollinators, and pollinators were observed to fly between P. bulleyana and hybrids, suggesting that pollinator behaviour may not be an important isolating factor. Conclusions Hybridization is strongly asymmetric, with P. bulleyana the only possible mother and

  5. Concerning the preliminary results of space experiment with the seeds of rare plants (on the boad of BION-M No.1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorelov, Yury; Kurganskaya, Lubov; Ilyin, Vyacheslav; Ruzaeva, Irina; Rozno, Svetlana; Kavelenova, Ludmila

    species of Samara region (Сlematis integrifolia L.; Aster alpinus L.; Dianthus andrzejowskianus Kulcz.; Linum perenne L.; Polemonium caeruleum L.; Primula macrocalyx Bunge; Iris pumila L.; Lilium martagon L.; Pulsatilla patens (L.) Mill., 8 from 9 are the plants of Samara Region Reed book) were packed into 3 marked plastic test tubes (Ø12/75, 4 ml). After the landing of “Bion-M” the seeds were sown on the experimental plot in the Botanical garden of Samara State University (25 July 2013). The sow time was near to the time of seeds ripening when they can fall on the ground in natural ecosystems. The abundant rains in the beginning of August 2013 made the beneficial conditions for sprouting and the first seedlings we found 10-15 days after sowing. The ground germination parameters varied from 3 to 78% for 6 different species (Сlematis integrifolia L. 3%; Dianthus andrzejowskianus Kulcz. 8%; Pulsatilla patens (L.) Mill 15%; .Linum perenne L. 67%; Polemonium caeruleum L. 75%; Iris pumila L. 78%), whereas 3 species did not sprout for that time (Lilium martagon L.; Aster alpinus L.; Primula macrocalyx Bunge). The most native flora species normally have no synchronic seed germination and many seeds each year are added in soil seed bank. Many ripe seeds are in dormancy that must be removed passing by autumn-winter period. That is a possible reason of seedlings absence in 3 of our species. We can mention the increase of ground germination parameters (comparing with their common germination levels) for Linum perenne L. and Iris pumila L. as a positive (stimulating) effect of space flight factors complex. These seeds normally never demonstrate germination on the level of 70-80%. Also we found the increase of plants diversity on their initial stage of development. Some more developed and big specimens appeared among the seedlings, what more clearly demonstrated Linum perenne L. and Iris pumila L.. Maybe such heterogeneity is connected with different seed mass and size what

  6. Fungal Endophytes of Alpinia officinarum Rhizomes: Insights on Diversity and Variation across Growth Years, Growth Sites, and the Inner Active Chemical Concentration

    PubMed Central

    Shubin, Li; Juan, Huang; RenChao, Zhou; ShiRu, Xu; YuanXiao, Jin

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, the terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) technique, combined with the use of a clone library, was applied to assess the baseline diversity of fungal endophyte communities associated with rhizomes of Alpinia officinarum Hance, a medicinal plant with a long history of use. A total of 46 distinct T-RFLP fragment peaks were detected using HhaI or MspI mono-digestion-targeted, amplified fungal rDNA ITS sequences from A. officinarum rhizomes. Cloning and sequencing of representative sequences resulted in the detection of members of 10 fungal genera: Pestalotiopsis, Sebacina, Penicillium, Marasmius, Fusarium, Exserohilum, Mycoleptodiscus, Colletotrichum, Meyerozyma, and Scopulariopsis. The T-RFLP profiles revealed an influence of growth year of the host plant on fungal endophyte communities in rhizomes of this plant species; whereas, the geographic location where A. officinarum was grown contributed to only limited variation in the fungal endophyte communities of the host tissue. Furthermore, non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) analysis across all of the rhizome samples showed that the fungal endophyte community assemblages in the rhizome samples could be grouped according to the presence of two types of active indicator chemicals: total volatile oils and galangin. Our present results, for the first time, address a diverse fungal endophyte community is able to internally colonize the rhizome tissue of A. officinarum. The diversity of the fungal endophytes found in the A. officinarum rhizome appeared to be closely correlated with the accumulation of active chemicals in the host plant tissue. The present study also provides the first systematic overview of the fungal endophyte communities in plant rhizome tissue using a culture-independent method. PMID:25536070

  7. [Continuous remediation of heavy metal contaminated soil by co-cropping system enhanced with chelator].

    PubMed

    Wei, Ze-Bin; Guo, Xiao-Fang; Wu, Qi-Tang; Long, Xin-Xian

    2014-11-01

    In order to elucidate the continuous effectiveness of co-cropping system coupling with chelator enhancement in remediating heavy metal contaminated soils and its environmental risk towards underground water, soil lysimeter (0.9 m x 0.9 m x 0.9 m) experiments were conducted using a paddy soil affected by Pb and Zn mining in Lechang district of Guangdong Province, 7 successive crops were conducted for about 2.5 years. The treatments included mono-crop of Sedum alfredii Hance (Zn and Cd hyperaccumulator), mono-crop of corn (Zea mays, cv. Yunshi-5, a low-accumulating cultivar), co-crop of S. alfredii and corn, and co-crop + MC (Mixture of Chelators, comprised of citric acid, monosodium glutamate waste liquid, EDTA and KCI with molar ratio of 10: 1:2:3 at the concentration of 5 mmol x kg(-1) soil). The changes of heavy metal concentrations in plants, soil and underground water were monitored. Results showed that the co-cropping system was suitable only in spring-summer seasons and significantly increased Zn and Cd phytoextraction. In autumn-winter seasons, the growth of S. alfredii and its phytoextraction of Zn and Cd were reduced by co-cropping and MC application. In total, the mono-crops of S. alfredii recorded a highest phytoextraction of Zn and Cd. However, the greatest reduction of soil Zn, Cd and Pb was observed with the co-crop + MC treatment, the reduction rates were 28%, 50%, and 22%, respectively, relative to the initial soil metal content. The reduction of this treatment was mainly attributed to the downwards leaching of metals to the subsoil caused by MC application. The continuous monitoring of leachates during 2. 5 year's experiment also revealed that the addition of MC increased heavy metal concentrations in the leaching water, but they did not significantly exceed the III grade limits of the underground water standard of China.

  8. By improving regional cortical blood flow, attenuating mitochondrial dysfunction and sequential apoptosis galangin acts as a potential neuroprotective agent after acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Li, Shaojing; Wu, Chuanhong; Zhu, Li; Gao, Jian; Fang, Jing; Li, Defeng; Fu, Meihong; Liang, Rixin; Wang, Lan; Cheng, Ming; Yang, Hongjun

    2012-11-09

    Ischemic stroke is a devastating disease with a complex pathophysiology. Galangin is a natural flavonoid isolated from the rhizome of Alpina officinarum Hance, which has been widely used as an antioxidant agent. However, its effects against ischemic stroke have not been reported and its related neuroprotective mechanism has not really been explored. In this study, neurological behavior, cerebral infarct volumes and the improvement of the regional cortical blood flow (rCBF) were used to evaluate the therapeutic effect of galangin in rats impaired by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)-induced focal cerebral ischemia. Furthermore, the determination of mitochondrial function and Western blot of apoptosis-related proteins were performed to interpret the neuroprotective mechanism of galangin. The results showed that galangin alleviated the neurologic impairments, reduced cerebral infarct at 24 h after MCAO and exerted a protective effect on the mitochondria with decreased production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS). These effects were consistent with improvements in the membrane potential level (Dym), membrane fluidity, and degree of mitochondrial swelling in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, galangin significantly improved the reduced rCBF after MCAO. Western blot analysis revealed that galangin also inhibited apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner concomitant with the up-regulation of Bcl-2 expression, down-regulation of Bax expression and the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, a reduction in cytochrome c release from the mitochondria to the cytosol, the reduced expression of activated caspase-3 and the cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). All these data in this study demonstrated that galangin might have therapeutic potential for ischemic stroke and play its protective role through the improvement in rCBF, mitochondrial protection and inhibiting caspase-dependent mitochondrial cell death pathway for the first time.

  9. Subcutaneous trastuzumab: a review of its use in HER2-positive breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Sanford, Mark

    2014-03-01

    Trastuzumab (Herceptin®) is a humanized IgG1 monoclonal antibody that is an efficacious treatment for HER2-positive breast and gastric cancers. Subcutaneous trastuzumab is a new formulation approved in the European Union for use in patients with early or metastatic breast cancer. In the randomized, open-label, multinational HannaH (enHANced treatment with NeoAdjuvant Herceptin) study of neoadjuvant/adjuvant trastuzumab in patients with early HER2-positive breast cancer, the pharmacokinetics of neoadjuvant subcutaneous trastuzumab were similar to those after intravenous administration, meeting the noninferiority criterion for mean predose trough concentrations, as assessed prior to surgery (primary pharmacokinetic endpoint). Trastuzumab blood concentrations throughout the dosing interval remained above those considered necessary for anticancer activity. In this study, the pathologic complete response rates (primary efficacy endpoint) were 45.4 and 40.7 % in the subcutaneous and intravenous administration groups, respectively, meeting a study noninferiority criterion. In the randomized, open-label, crossover, multinational PrefHer study of neoadjuvant/adjuvant or adjuvant trastuzumab in early HER2-positive breast cancer, subcutaneous administration of trastuzumab was preferred over intravenous administration by >85 % of patients, most commonly because it was time saving and induced less pain and discomfort. In the HannaH study, the tolerability profile of subcutaneous trastuzumab was similar to that of intravenous trastuzumab, except that the rate of serious adverse events was 21 % (vs. 12 % with intravenous administration), partly because of more infections with subcutaneous administration. Whether this finding is of any clinical significance should emerge from ongoing studies. On the evidence, subcutaneous trastuzumab is an effective and generally well-tolerated treatment option that is preferred by patients over intravenous administration.

  10. Occurrence of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) and biotic factors affecting its immature stages in the Russian Far East.

    PubMed

    Duan, Jian J; Yurchenko, Galina; Fuester, Roger

    2012-04-01

    Field surveys were conducted from 2008 to 2011 in the Khabarovsk and Vladivostok regions of Russia to investigate the occurrence of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, and mortality factors affecting its immature stages. We found emerald ash borer infesting both introduced North American green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall) and native oriental ashes (F. mandshurica Rupr. and F. rhynchophylla Hance) in both regions. Emerald ash borer densities (larvae/m(2) of phloem area) were markedly higher on green ash (11.3-76.7 in the Khabarovsk area and 77-245 in the Vladivostok area) than on artificially stressed Manchurian ash (2.2) or Oriental ash (10-59). Mortality of emerald ash borer larvae caused by different biotic factors (woodpecker predation, host plant resistance and/or undetermined diseases, and parasitism) varied with date, site, and ash species. In general, predation of emerald ash borer larvae by woodpeckers was low. While low rates (3-27%) of emerald ash borer larval mortality were caused by undetermined biotic factors on green ash between 2009 and 2011, higher rates (26-95%) of emerald ash borer larval mortality were caused by putative plant resistance in Oriental ash species in both regions. Little (<1%) parasitism of emerald ash borer larvae was observed in Khabarovsk; however, three hymenopteran parasitoids (Spathius sp., Atanycolus nigriventris Vojnovskaja-Krieger, and Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang) were observed attacking third - fourth instars of emerald ash borer in the Vladivostok area, parasitizing 0-8.3% of emerald ash borer larvae infesting Oriental ash trees and 7.3-62.7% of those on green ash trees (primarily by Spathius sp.) in two of the three study sites. Relevance of these findings to the classical biological control of emerald ash borer in newly invaded regions is discussed.

  11. The Endophytic Bacterium, Sphingomonas SaMR12, Improves the Potential for Zinc Phytoremediation by Its Host, Sedum alfredii

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xincheng; Pan, Fengshan; Yang, Xiaoe; Feng, Ying

    2014-01-01

    The endophytic bacterium, Sphingomonas SaMR12, isolated from Sedum alfredii Hance, appears to increase plant biomass and zinc-extraction from contaminated soil; however, the mechanism by which this occurs is not clear. Here, the ability of SaMR12 to promote zinc extraction and its effects on root morphology and exudation were examined in hydroponics. Zinc treatment increased shoot biomass by 30 to 45%, and by a further 10 to 19% when combined with SaMR12 inoculation. Zinc treatment also increased zinc accumulation modestly and this too was enhanced with SaMR12. Both biomass and zinc levels increased in a dose-dependent manner with significant effects seen at 50 µM zinc and apparent saturation at 500 µM. Zinc and the endophyte also increased levels of auxin but not at 50 µM and zinc increased levels of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide but mainly at 500 µM. As for root morphology, SaMR12 increased root branching, the number of root tips, and surface area. Zinc and SaMR12 also increased the exudation of oxalic acid. For most assays the effects of the endophyte and zinc were additive, with the notable exception of SaMR12 strongly reducing the production of reactive oxygen species at 500 µM zinc. Taken together, these results suggest that the promotion of growth and zinc uptake by exposure to zinc and to SaMR12 are independent of reactive oxygen and do not involve increases in auxin. PMID:25198772

  12. [Effect of co-planting of Sedum alfredii and Zea mays on Zn-contaminated sewage sludge].

    PubMed

    Hei, Liang; Wu, Qi-Tang; Long, Xin-Xian; Hu, Yue-Ming

    2007-04-01

    The sewage sludge produced in Guangzhou and other cities contains heavy metals such as Zn which exceeds the national standard for agricultural use and should be taken into consideration. A phyto-treatment system consisted of metal hyperaccumulator Sedum afredii Hance and low-accumulating corn was exploited to phytoextract metals from sludge, in order to reduce heavy metals in sludge and meanwhile to stabilize the sludge and gain innocuous agricultural products. The two plants were co-cropped directly on the sludge plots, the plant biomass and metal uptake were determined as well as the changes of the treated sludge. A pot experiment was conducted to study the interaction mechanisms between the two plant roots. The results of the experiment in plots showed that the efficiency of the phyto-extraction of Zn/Cd by S. alfredii was significantly improved by co-planting and Zn content in S. alfredii reached 9 910 mgx kg(-1), 1.5 folds of that in the mono-crop. Meanwhile the produced corn grain was conformed to the national standards for foods or feeds concerning heavy metals and the treated sludge was biologically stabilized. The results from the pot experiment studying the interaction mechanisms showed that corn roots, separated from S. alfredii with a mesh barrier, decreased pH in the sludge solution, increased DOC and resulted in higher Zn/Cd concentration than that of S. alfredii mono-crop, which caused more Zn/Cd transported to the S. alfredii side and then enhanced the uptake of the heavy metals by the hyperaccumulator.

  13. MR angiography of the carotid arteries and intracranial circulation: advantage of a high relaxivity contrast agent.

    PubMed

    Anzalone, Nicoletta; Scotti, Roberta; Iadanza, Antonella

    2006-04-01

    Several studies have shown the usefulness of contrast-enhanced MR angiography (CE-MRA) for imaging the supraortic vessels, and, as a consequence, it has rapidly become a routine imaging modality. The main advantage over unenhanced techniques is the possibility to acquire larger volumes, allowing demonstration of the carotid artery from its origin to the intracranial portion. Most published studies on CE-MRA of the carotid arteries have been performed with standard Gd-based chelates whose T1 relaxivity values are similar. Recently new gadolinium chelates such as gadobenate dimeglumine (Gd-BOP-TA, MultiHance; Bracco Imaging, Milan, Italy) have been developed which have markedly higher intravascular T1 relaxivity values. When administered at an equivalent dose to that of a standard agent, these newer contrast agents produce significantly greater intravascular signal enhancement. The availability of an appropriate high-relaxivity contrast agent might also help to overcome some of the intrinsic technical problems (e. g. those related to flow) that affect time-of-flight (TOF) and phase contrast (PC) MR angiography of the intracranial vasculature. To avoid the problem of superimposition of veins, ultrafast gradient echo MRA techniques with very short TR and TE have been developed. Although the precise sequence parameters vary between manufacturers, they are basically similar. The choice between performing a time-resolved or high spatial resolution CE-MRA examination depends upon the precise clinical application. The most common applications include the study of cerebral aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations, dural arteriovenous fistulas and dural venous diseases.

  14. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) serum basal levels is not affected by power training in mobility-limited older adults - A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Hvid, L G; Nielsen, M K F; Simonsen, C; Andersen, M; Caserotti, P

    2017-04-06

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a potential important factor involved in neuroplasticity, and may be a mediator for eliciting adaptations in neuromuscular function and physical function in older individuals following physical training. As power training taxes the neural system to a very high extent, it may be particularly effective in terms of eliciting increases in systemic BDNF levels. We examined the effects of 12weeks of power training on mature BDNF (mBDNF) and total BDNF (tBDNF) in mobility-limited older adults from the Healthy Ageing Network of Competence (HANC) study. We included 47 older men and women: n=22 in the training group (TG: progressive high intensity power training, 2 sessions per week; age 82.7±5.4years, 55% women) and n=25 in the control group (CG: no interventions; age 82.2±4.5years, 76% women). Following overnight fasting, basal serum levels of mBDNF and tBDNF were assessed (human ELISA kits) at baseline and post-intervention. At baseline, mBDNF and tBDNF levels were comparable in the two groups, TG and CG. Post-intervention, no significant within-group or between-group changes were observed in mBDNF or tBDNF. Moreover, when divided into responder tertiles based upon changes in mBDNF and tBDNF (i.e. decliners, maintainers, improvers), respectively, comparable findings were observed for TG and CG. Altogether, basal systemic levels of serum mBDNF and tBDNF are not affected in mobility-limited older adults following 12-weeks of power training, and do not appear to be a major mechanistic factor mediating neuroplasticity in mobility-limited older adults.

  15. Peptide targeted tripod macrocyclic Gd(III) chelates for cancer molecular MRI.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhuxian; Wu, Xueming; Kresak, Adam; Griswold, Mark; Lu, Zheng-Rong

    2013-10-01

    Rational design and develop of targeted contrast agents binding to cancer-related proteins will achieve more accurate cancer diagnosis and prognosis by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. CREKA is a tumor-homing pentapeptide (Cys-Arg-Glu-Lys-Ala) specifically homes to fibrin-fibronectin complexes abundantly expressed in tumor microenvironment. In this study, we developed and evaluated a CREKA peptide targeted multiplexed Gd-MR probe (CREKA-Tris-Gd(DOTA)3) for MR imaging of breast tumors. CREKA and azide bearing Gd(III) was attached to a maleimide-functional trialkyne scaffold via thiol-maleimide and azide-alkyne click chemistry, respectively. CREKA-Tris-Gd(DOTA)3 has a well-defined structure with a molecular weight of 2914 Da. The T1 relaxivity of CREKA-Tris-Gd(DOTA)3 is 8.06 mM(-1) s(-1) per Gd (24.18 mM(-1) s(-1) per molecule) at room temperature and 3 T. Fluorescence imaging showed high binding specificity of CREKA to a 4T1 breast tumor model in mice while it was not found for the scrambled CREKA (CERAK). The CREKA peptide-targeted contrast agent resulted in greater contrast enhancement than the corresponding CERAK agent and the commercialized contrast agent ProHance(®) in tumor at a dose of 0.1 mmol Gd/kg in female athymic mice bearing 4T1 breast carcinoma xenograft. This small molecular contrast agent was easily excreted from body after imaging indicated low toxicity. The targeted MRI contrast agent has a potential for specific cancer molecular imaging with MRI.

  16. The effects of galangin on a mouse model of vitiligo induced by hydroquinone.

    PubMed

    Huo, Shi-Xia; Liu, Xin-Ming; Ge, Chun-Hui; Gao, Li; Peng, Xiao-Ming; Zhao, Ping-Ping; Yan, Ming

    2014-10-01

    Galangin, the main active component of Alpinia officinarum Hance, was tested in a mouse model of vitiligo induced in C57BL/6 mice by the topical application of 2 mL of 2.5% hydroquinone daily to shaved areas (2 × 2 cm) of dorsal skin for 60 days. Thirty days after the final application of hydroquinone, galangin (0.425, and 4.25 mg/kg) was administered orally for 30 days. The hair colour darkened when it grew back after treatment, and histological analysis showed that the number of melanin-containing hair follicles had increased after treatment with all doses of galangin groups and 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP, the positive control) compared with the untreated vitiligo group (p < 0.05). The number of skin basal layer melanocytes and melanin-containing epidermal cells had also increased significantly with the application of 4.25 mg/kg of galangin. The concentration of tyrosinase (TYR) in serum was found to have increased, whereas the content of malondialdehyde and the activity of cholinesterase had decreased after treatment with all doses of galangin and 8-MOP, compared with control (p < 0.05). The expression of TYR protein in treated areas of skin also increased with the application of 4.25 mg/kg galangin and 8-MOP. In conclusion, the results showed that galangin was able to improve vitiligo induced by hydroquinone in mice, with the activity related to concentrations of TYR, expression of TYR protein, activity of malondialdehyde and content of cholinesterase. Galangin may therefore be a potential candidate for the treatment of vitiligo, subject to further investigation.

  17. Integration of small RNAs, degradome and transcriptome sequencing in hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii uncovers a complex regulatory network and provides insights into cadmium phytoremediation.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiaojiao; Yin, Hengfu; Song, Xixi; Zhang, Yunxing; Liu, Mingying; Sang, Jiang; Jiang, Jing; Li, Jihong; Zhuo, Renying

    2016-06-01

    The hyperaccumulating ecotype of Sedum alfredii Hance is a cadmium (Cd)/zinc/lead co-hyperaccumulating species of Crassulaceae. It is a promising phytoremediation candidate accumulating substantial heavy metal ions without obvious signs of poisoning. However, few studies have focused on the regulatory roles of miRNAs and their targets in the hyperaccumulating ecotype of S. alfredii. Here, we combined analyses of the transcriptomics, sRNAs and the degradome to generate a comprehensive resource focused on identifying key regulatory miRNA-target circuits under Cd stress. A total of 87 721 unigenes and 356 miRNAs were identified by deep sequencing, and 79 miRNAs were differentially expressed under Cd stress. Furthermore, 754 target genes of 194 miRNAs were validated by degradome sequencing. A gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis of differential miRNA targets revealed that auxin, redox-related secondary metabolism and metal transport pathways responded to Cd stress. An integrated analysis uncovered 39 pairs of miRNA targets that displayed negatively correlated expression profiles. Ten miRNA-target pairs also exhibited negative correlations according to a real-time quantitative PCR analysis. Moreover, a coexpression regulatory network was constructed based on profiles of differentially expressed genes. Two hub genes, ARF4 (auxin response factor 4) and AAP3 (amino acid permease 3), which might play central roles in the regulation of Cd-responsive genes, were uncovered. These results suggest that comprehensive analyses of the transcriptomics, sRNAs and the degradome provided a useful platform for investigating Cd hyperaccumulation in S. alfredii, and may provide new insights into the genetic engineering of phytoremediation.

  18. 3-d Circulation In The PalamÓs Canyon: Observations and Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascual, A.; Jordi, A.; Marcos, M.; Ruiz, S.; Basterretxea, G.; Gomis, D.; Emelianov, M.; Martín, J.; Font, J.; Tintoré, J.; Palanques, A.

    Along the northeast Spanish coast the Northern current interacts with abrupt canyon topography. Previous studies in the region have shown some evidences of flow modi- fications (in terms of meanders, eddies, shelf-slope exchanges) that are likely related to the presence of the canyons. Moreover, these canyons are known to be areas of en- hanced biological production compared to the surrounding shelf. However, the physi- cal mechanisms governing this increased activity are poorly understood since most of the existing samplings are too coarse for an accurate inference of dynamical variables. In this work we present results from an intensive field study (CAÑONES II) in the Palamós Canyon, which took place between 24 and 31 May 2001. An area of 80x70 km2 was covered by CTD stations separated 4 km just over the canyon (a subdomain of 25x40 km2) and 8 km elsewhere. The data were interpolated onto a regular grid and the quasi-geostrophic 3D circulation was computed. The horizontal geostrophic velocity is in good agreement with ADCP and current-meter observations. Down- welling occurs in the upstream wall of the canyon whereas vertical upward velocities of up to 50 m/day are obtained in the canyon axis. The relative importance of strati- fication and relative vorticity in the Rossby-Ertel potential vorticity is also examined along selected isopycnals, in order to understand the physical mechanisms governing the observed circulation. Particle trajectories were also computed from the 3D velocity field (assumed to be stationary) with the aim to understand the possible implications of these physical features on the marine ecosystem. All the inferred circulation features have been compared with numerical simulations obtained from a primitive equation coastal ocean model initialized with the in situ observed data.

  19. A Radio-genomics Approach for Identifying High Risk Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancers on DCE-MRI: Preliminary Results in Predicting OncotypeDX Risk Scores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Tao; Bloch, B. Nicolas; Plecha, Donna; Thompson, Cheryi L.; Gilmore, Hannah; Jaffe, Carl; Harris, Lyndsay; Madabhushi, Anant

    2016-02-01

    To identify computer extracted imaging features for estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancers on dynamic contrast en-hanced (DCE)-MRI that are correlated with the low and high OncotypeDX risk categories. We collected 96 ER-positivebreast lesions with low (<18, N = 55) and high (>30, N = 41) OncotypeDX recurrence scores. Each lesion was quantitatively charac-terize via 6 shape features, 3 pharmacokinetics, 4 enhancement kinetics, 4 intensity kinetics, 148 textural kinetics, 5 dynamic histogram of oriented gradient (DHoG), and 6 dynamic local binary pattern (DLBP) features. The extracted features were evaluated by a linear discriminant analysis (LDA) classifier in terms of their ability to distinguish low and high OncotypeDX risk categories. Classification performance was evaluated by area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (Az). The DHoG and DLBP achieved Az values of 0.84 and 0.80, respectively. The 6 top features identified via feature selection were subsequently combined with the LDA classifier to yield an Az of 0.87. The correlation analysis showed that DHoG (ρ = 0.85, P < 0.001) and DLBP (ρ = 0.83, P < 0.01) were significantly associated with the low and high risk classifications from the OncotypeDX assay. Our results indicated that computer extracted texture features of DCE-MRI were highly correlated with the high and low OncotypeDX risk categories for ER-positive cancers.

  20. Atmospheric Trace Species at Grand Canyon and Canyonlands National Parks: Preliminary Field Measurements From the Western States Visibility Assessment Program, July/August 2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, R. S.; Popp, C. J.; Wingenter, O.; Huang, S.

    2001-12-01

    In the western United States there is a growing concern about the increasing impairment of visibility in and around National Parks, National Monuments, wilderness areas, and other scenic attractions. Quantifying trace species associated with energy production and consumption is critical in understanding regional visibility impairment and modeling how present and future energy use patterns may influence visibility. The Western States Visibility Assessment Program (WSVAP) of the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology (NMT) was established to provide visibility assessment and associated trace species data to regional, state, and local policy makers, industry representatives, and other interested parties. The program's origins are found in prior DOE-sponsored research implemented by the Center for Applied Research in connection with the Grand Canyon Visibility Commission. As a part of this program, a three-week field campaign was initiated in July and August of 2001 to monitor a suite of atmospheric traces species at the Hance site within Grand Canyon National Park in northcentral Arizona and at the Island in the Sky District within Canyonlands National Park in southeast Utah. Gaseous trace species monitored at each site included oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, non-methane hydrocarbons, and low molecular weight aldehydes, ketones and organic acids. Additionally, total suspended particulate and PM2.5 samples were also collected, both of which are to be subsequently analyzed for speciated composition. Corresponding data simultaneously collected at or near the sampling sites by Park Service and other personnel included visibility quantification, ozone, meteorological parameters, separate speciated PM2.5 data (IMPROVE), and acidic species deposition (CASNET). The presentation will include initial analysis of the collected data and a brief discussion of future measurements, as well as planned modeling exercises.

  1. Effects of Experimental Nitrogen and Phosphorus Addition on Litter Decomposition in an Old-Growth Tropical Forest

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hao; Dong, Shaofeng; Liu, Lei; Ma, Chuan; Zhang, Tao; Zhu, Xiaomin; Mo, Jiangming

    2013-01-01

    The responses of litter decomposition to nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) additions were examined in an old-growth tropical forest in southern China to test the following hypotheses: (1) N addition would decrease litter decomposition; (2) P addition would increase litter decomposition, and (3) P addition would mitigate the inhibitive effect of N addition. Two kinds of leaf litter, Schima superba Chardn. & Champ. (S.S.) and Castanopsis chinensis Hance (C.C.), were studied using the litterbag technique. Four treatments were conducted at the following levels: control, N-addition (150 kg N ha−1 yr−1), P-addition (150 kg P ha−1 yr−1) and NP-addition (150 kg N ha−1 yr−1 plus 150 kg P ha−1 yr−1). While N addition significantly decreased the decomposition of both litters, P addition significantly inhibited decomposition of C.C., but did not affect the decomposition of S.S. The negative effect of N addition on litter decomposition might be related to the high N-saturation in this old-growth tropical forest; however, the negative effect of P addition might be due to the suppression of “microbial P mining”. Significant interaction between N and P addition was found on litter decomposition, which was reflected by the less negative effect in NP-addition plots than those in N-addition plots. Our results suggest that P addition may also have negative effect on litter decomposition and that P addition would mitigate the negative effect of N deposition on litter decomposition in tropical forests. PMID:24391895

  2. Effects of experimental nitrogen and phosphorus addition on litter decomposition in an old-growth tropical forest.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hao; Dong, Shaofeng; Liu, Lei; Ma, Chuan; Zhang, Tao; Zhu, Xiaomin; Mo, Jiangming

    2013-01-01

    The responses of litter decomposition to nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) additions were examined in an old-growth tropical forest in southern China to test the following hypotheses: (1) N addition would decrease litter decomposition; (2) P addition would increase litter decomposition, and (3) P addition would mitigate the inhibitive effect of N addition. Two kinds of leaf litter, Schima superba Chardn. & Champ. (S.S.) and Castanopsis chinensis Hance (C.C.), were studied using the litterbag technique. Four treatments were conducted at the following levels: control, N-addition (150 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1)), P-addition (150 kg P ha(-1) yr(-1)) and NP-addition (150 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1) plus 150 kg P ha(-1) yr(-1)). While N addition significantly decreased the decomposition of both litters, P addition significantly inhibited decomposition of C.C., but did not affect the decomposition of S.S. The negative effect of N addition on litter decomposition might be related to the high N-saturation in this old-growth tropical forest; however, the negative effect of P addition might be due to the suppression of "microbial P mining". Significant interaction between N and P addition was found on litter decomposition, which was reflected by the less negative effect in NP-addition plots than those in N-addition plots. Our results suggest that P addition may also have negative effect on litter decomposition and that P addition would mitigate the negative effect of N deposition on litter decomposition in tropical forests.

  3. Effect of wood hardness and secondary compounds on feeding preference of Odontotermes formosanus (Isoptera: Termitidae).

    PubMed

    Kasseney, Boris Dodji; Deng, Tianfu; Mo, Jianchu

    2011-06-01

    Odontotermes formosanus (Shiraki) (Isoptera: Termitidae) is one of the most destructive plant pests in China, which control relies mainly on baits strategies. Baits made from the wood of eight different tree species were used to study the feeding preference of this termite, and conversely wood protection strategies of the tree species. Three bait types were used to identify wood protection strategies: solid wood (physical and chemical protection), crude flour (chemical protection) made from ground wood, and extracted flour (no protection) made by extracting crude flour with ethanol and toluene. Feeding preference was influenced by wood species and bait type. For solid wood, Magnolia denudata Desr (75%) and Elaeocarpus glabripetalus Merr (41%) were most preferred; for crude flour, E. glabripetalus (97%) and Quercus variabilis Blume (92%) were most preferred; and for extracted flour, there were no significant differences between wood species, demonstrating the influence of chemical defense. The greatest contrast between bait types was for Platanus orientalis L, the least preferred as solid wood and crude flour, suggesting that chemical defense compounds are particularly important in this species. Solid wood consumption was inversely correlated with wood density. Extracted flour consumption was positively correlated with glucose concentration. There was no direct effect of holocellulose and other components tested. O. formosanus preferred to fed on soft wood with low chemical protection (M. denudata); conversely trees protected their wood either physically [e.g., E. glabripetalus, Q. variabilis, Cinnamomum camphora (L.) Presl, and Ligustrum lucidum Aiton] or chemically (Populus bonati Levl) or a combination of both strategies (Liquidamba formosana Hance and P. orientalis).

  4. Improved plant growth and Zn accumulation in grains of rice (Oryza sativa L.) by inoculation of endophytic microbes isolated from a Zn Hyperaccumulator, Sedum alfredii H.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuyan; Yang, Xiaoe; Zhang, Xincheng; Dong, Lanxue; Zhang, Jie; Wei, Yanyan; Feng, Ying; Lu, Lingli

    2014-02-26

    This study is to investigate the possibility of zinc (Zn) biofortification in the grains of rice (Oryza sativa L.) by inoculation of endophytic strains isolated from a Zn hyperaccumulator, Sedum alfredii Hance. Five endophytic strains, Burkholderia sp. SaZR4, Burkholderia sp. SaMR10, Sphingomonas sp. SaMR12, Variovorax sp. SaNR1, and Enterobacter sp. SaCS20, isolated from S. alfredii, were inoculated in the roots of Japonica rice Nipponbare under hydroponic condition. Fluorescence images showed that endophytic strains successfully colonized rice roots after 72 h. Improved root morphology and plant growth of rice was observed after inoculation with endophytic strains especially SaMR12 and SaCS20. Under hydroponic conditions, endophytic inoculation with SaMR12 and SaCS20 increased Zn concentration by 44.4% and 51.1% in shoots, and by 73.6% and 83.4% in roots, respectively. Under soil conditions, endophytic inoculation with SaMR12 and SaCS20 resulted in an increase of grain yields and elevated Zn concentrations by 20.3% and 21.9% in brown rice and by 13.7% and 11.2% in polished rice, respectively. After inoculation of SaMR12 and SaCS20, rhizosphere soils of rice plants contained higher concentration of DTPA-Zn by 10.4% and 20.6%, respectively. In situ micro-X-ray fluorescence mapping of Zn confirmed the elevated Zn content in the rhizosphere zone of rice treated with SaMR12 as compared with the control. The above results suggested that endophytic microbes isolated from S. alfredii could successfully colonize rice roots, resulting in improved root morphology and plant growth, increased Zn bioavailability in rhizosphere soils, and elevated grain yields and Zn densities in grains.

  5. 5-Methoxyl Aesculetin Abrogates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation by Suppressing MAPK and AP-1 Pathways in RAW 264.7 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Lei; Li, Xueqin; Wu, Haifeng; Long, Wei; Jiang, Xiaojian; Shen, Ting; Qiang, Qian; Si, Chuanling; Wang, Xinfeng; Jiang, Yunyao; Hu, Weicheng

    2016-01-01

    For the first time, a pale amorphous coumarin derivative, 5-methoxyl aesculetin (MOA), was isolated from the dried bark of Fraxinus rhynchophylla Hance (Oleaceae). MOA modulates cytokine expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated RAW 264.7 macrophages, but the precise mechanisms are still not fully understood. We determined the effects of MOA on the production of inflammatory mediators and pro-inflammatory cytokines in the LPS-induced inflammatory responses of RAW 264.7 macrophages. MOA significantly inhibited the LPS-induced production of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6, and interleukin-1β. It also effectively attenuated inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, and TNF-α mRNA expression and significantly decreased the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species. It inhibited phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2), thus blocking nuclear translocation of activation protein (AP)-1. In a molecular docking study, MOA was shown to target the binding site of ERK via the formation of three hydrogen bonds with two residues of the kinase, which is sufficient for the inhibition of ERK. These results suggest that the anti-inflammatory effects of MOA in RAW 264.7 macrophages derive from its ability to block both the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and one of their downstream transcription factors, activator protein-1 (AP-1). Our observations support the need for further research into MOA as a promising therapeutic agent in inflammatory diseases. PMID:26938526

  6. Objective evaluation of acute adverse events and image quality of gadolinium-based contrast agents (gadobutrol and gadobenate dimeglumine) by blinded evaluation. Pilot study.

    PubMed

    Semelka, Richard C; Hernandes, Mateus de A; Stallings, Clifton G; Castillo, Mauricio

    2013-01-01

    The purpose was to objectively evaluate a recently FDA-approved gadolinium-based contrast agent (GBCA) in comparison to our standard GBCA for acute adverse events and image quality by blinded evaluation. Evaluation was made of a recently FDA-approved GBCA, gadobutrol (Gadavist; Bayer), in comparison to our standard GBCA, gadobenate dimeglumine (MultiHance; Bracco), in an IRB- and HIPAA-compliant study. Both the imaging technologist and patient were not aware of the brand of the GBCA used. A total of 59 magnetic resonance studies were evaluated (59 patients, 31 men, 28 women, age range of 5-85 years, mean age of 52 years). Twenty-nine studies were performed with gadobutrol (22 abdominal and 7 brain studies), and 30 studies were performed with gadobenate dimeglumine (22 abdominal and 8 brain studies). Assessment was made of acute adverse events focusing on objective observations of vomiting, hives, and moderate and severe reactions. Adequacy of enhancement was rated as poor, fair and good by one of two experienced radiologists who were blinded to the type of agent evaluated. No patient experienced acute adverse events with either agent. The target minor adverse events of vomiting or hives, and moderate and severe reactions were not observed in any patient. Adequacy of enhancement was rated as good for both agents in all patients. Objective, blinded evaluation is feasible and readily performable for the evaluation of GBCAs. This proof-of-concept study showed that both GBCAs evaluated exhibited consistent good image quality and no noteworthy adverse events. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. [(68) Ga]-HP-DO3A-nitroimidazole: a promising agent for PET detection of tumor hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yunkou; Hao, Guiyang; Ramezani, Saleh; Saha, Debabrata; Zhao, Dawen; Sun, Xiankai; Sherry, A Dean

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study is to evaluate a new (68) Ga-based imaging agent for detecting tumor hypoxia using positron emission tomography (PET). The new hypoxia targeting agent reported here, [(68) Ga]-HP-DO3A-nitroimidazole ([(68) Ga]-HP-DO3A-NI), was constructed by linking a nitroimidazole moiety with the macrocyclic ligand component of ProHance®, HP-DO3A. The hypoxia targeting capability of this agent was evaluated in A549 lung cancer cells in vitro and in SCID mice bearing subcutaneous A549 tumor xenografts. The cellular uptake assays showed that significantly more [(68) Ga]-HP-DO3A-NI accumulates in hypoxic tumor cells at 30, 60 and 120 min than in the same cells exposed to 21% O2 . The agent also accumulated in hypoxic tumors in vivo to give a tumor/muscle ratio (T/M) of 5.0 ± 1.2 (n = 3) as measured by PET at 2 h post-injection (p.i.). This was further confirmed by ex vivo biodistribution data. In addition, [(68) Ga]-HP-DO3A-NI displayed very favorable pharmacokinetic properties, as it was cleared largely through the kidneys with little to no accumulation in liver, heart or lung (%ID/g < 0.5%) at 2 h p.i. The specificity of the agent for hypoxic tissues was further validated in a comparative study with a control compound, [(68) Ga]-HP-DO3A, which lacks the nitroimidazole moiety, and by PET imaging of tumor-bearing mice breathing air versus 100% O2 . Given the commercial availability of cGMP (68) Ge/(68) Ga generators and the ease of (68) Ga labeling, the new agent could potentially be widely applied for imaging tumor hypoxia prior to radiation therapy.

  8. The Lindi Formation (upper Albian-Coniacian) and Tanzania Drilling Project Sites 36-40 (Lower Cretaceous to Paleogene): Lithostratigraphy, biostratigraphy and chemostratigraphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez Berrocoso, Álvaro; Huber, Brian T.; MacLeod, Kenneth G.; Petrizzo, Maria Rose; Lees, Jacqueline A.; Wendler, Ines; Coxall, Helen; Mweneinda, Amina K.; Falzoni, Francesca; Birch, Heather; Haynes, Shannon J.; Bown, Paul R.; Robinson, Stuart A.; Singano, Joyce M.

    2015-01-01

    ), monotonous calcareous claystones from the lower to upper Maastrichtian (planktonic foraminifera Pseudoguembelina palpebra to Abathomphalus mayaroensis Zones and nannofossils zones UC19 to UC20aTP) that were separated by a hiatus and/or a faulted contact from overlying brecciated carbonates of the Selandian (middle Paleocene: PF Zone P3 and nannofossil zone NP5). The lower portion of TDP Sites 40A and 40B recovered sandstones and conglomerates barren of microfossils. Their overlying parts were assigned to incomplete sections of the nannofossil zones NC6A to NC8 (uppermost Barremian to lower Albian). Benthic foraminiferal assemblages allowed the Barremian to lower Aptian to be identified in TDP Sites 40A and 40B, while the upper Aptian to middle Albian (Hedbergella trocoidea to Ticinella primula Zones) were assigned using planktonic foraminifera. Cores recovered at TDP 39 (Coniacian-Santonian) and at TDP Sites 40A and 40B (Barremian-middle Albian) represent the first time that these two intervals have been continuously cored and publicly documented in Tanzania. Bulk sediment isotope records generated for the new sites show lower δ18Ocarb values in the Turonian and Santonian (∼-3.5‰ to -5‰) than in the Maastrichtian (∼-3‰), a situation consistent with extreme global warmth in the older intervals and cooling toward the end of the Cretaceous. Also, similar to Turonian sites from previous TDP expeditions, a negative δ13Corg excursion was detected across the W. archaeocretacea-H. helvetica boundary of TDP Site 36 (close to, but above, the Cenomanian-Turonian boundary). This excursion probably responded to local processes in the region, but it is unknown whether they were related to the recovery phase from Ocean Anoxic Event 2.

  9. Structure and interactions in biomaterials based on membrane-biopolymer self-assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koltover, Ilya

    have established that DNA complexes with cationic lipid (DOTAP) and a neutral lipid (DOPC) have a compact multilayer liquid crystalline structure ( L ca ) with DNA intercalated between the lipid bilayers in a periodic 2D smectic phase. Furthermore, a different 2D columnar phase of complexes was found in mixtures with a transfectionen-hancing lipid DOPE. This structure ( HcII ) derived from synchrotron x-ray diffraction consists of DNA coated by cationic lipid monolayers and arranged on a two-dimensional hexagonal lattice. Optical microscopy revealed that the L ca complexes bind stably to anionic vesicles (models of cellular membranes), whereas the more transfectant HcII complexes are unstable, rapidly fusing and releasing DNA upon adhering to anionic vesicles.

  10. Intraoperative Intracerebral MRI-Guided Navigation for Accurate Targeting in Nonhuman Primates

    PubMed Central

    Emborg, Marina E.; Joers, Valerie; Fisher, Ronald; Brunner, Kevin; Carter, Victoria; Ross, Chris; Raghavan, Raghu; Brady, Martin; Raschke, James; Kubota, Ken; Alexander, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    During in vivo intracerebral infusions, the ability to perform accurate targeting towards a 3D-specific point allows control of the anatomical variable and identification of the effects of variations in other factors. Intraoperative MRI navigation systems are currently being used in the clinic, yet their use in nonhuman primates and MRI monitoring of intracerebral infusions has not been reported. In this study rhesus monkeys were placed in a MRI-compatible stereotaxic frame. T1 MRIs in the three planes were obtained in a 3.0T GE scanner to identify the target and plan the trajectory to ventral postcommisural putamen. A craniotomy was performed under sterile surgical conditions at the trajectory entry point. A modified MRI-compatible trajectory guide base (Medtronic Inc.) was secured above the cranial opening and the alignment stem applied. Scans were taken to define the position of the alignment stem. When the projection of the catheter in the three planes matched the desired trajectory to the target, the base was locked in position. A catheter replaced the alignment stem and was slowly introduced to the final target structure. Additional scans were performed to confirm trajectory and during the infusion of a solution of gadoteridol (ProHance, Bracco Diagnostics; 2 mM/L) and bromophenol blue (0.16 mg/ml) in saline. Monitoring of the pressure in the infusion lines was performed using pressure monitoring and infusion pump controller system (Engineering Resources Group Inc.) in combination with a MRI-compatible infusion pump (Harvard). MRI during infusion confirmed successful targeting and matched postmortem visualization of bromophenol blue. Assessment of the accuracy of the targeting revealed an overall 3D mean ± SD distance error of 1.2 ± 0.6 mm and angular distance error of 0.9 ± 0.5 mm. Our results in nonhuman primates confirm the accuracy of intraoperative MRI intracerebral navigation combined with an adaptable, pivot point-based targeting system and

  11. In vitro vasorelaxation mechanisms of Isoapiole extracted from Lemonfragrant Angelica Root on rat thoracic aorta.

    PubMed

    Yin, Shanshan; Zhang, Shuangwei; Tong, Guoyong; Deng, Lihong; Liang, Tuliang; Zhang, Jun

    2016-07-21

    Lemonfragrant Angelica (Ostericum citriodorum (Hance) C. Q. Yuan & Shan) is a traditional Chinese herb for treatment of angina pectoris, stomach pain and abdominal pain. However, its active components and mechanisms of action were not well understood. In this study, we investigated whether the isoapiole extracted from Lemonfragrant Angelica Root (LAR) could directly stimulate the production of nitric oxide (NO) in vascular endothelial cells (VECs) and lead to the vascular relaxation Vascular activity experiments were performed in aortic rings isolated from Wistar rats using standard muscle bath procedures. Isoapiole was added with different concentrations (0.75, 2.5, 5μg/mL), and vessel relaxation of rat aortic rings pre-contracted with norepinephrine (NE) or potassium chloride was recorded. NO release from aortic rings exposed to isoapiole (5μg/mL) was measured by Griess method. The endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression in primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) incubated with isoapiole was determined using Western blot and microplate reader assay. Classical receptor antagonists, channel and enzymatic inhibitors were used to check the mechanisms involved. Isoapiole (0.75, 2.5, 5μg/mL) inhibited norepinephrine-induced contraction in endothelium-intact rat aortic rings. However, a very weak relaxation of aortic rings was obtained in endothelium-denuded preparations. Isoapiole (0.75, 2.5, 5μg/mL) did not have vascular relaxative effect on neither endothelium-intact nor endothelium-denuded aortas pre-contracted with KCl (60mmol/L). The vasorelaxation effect of isoapiole on rat aortic rings was attenuated by the eNOS inhibitor, N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME). This result suggested that suggested that the isoapiole action was at least partially mediated by promoting eNOS expression. It was further found that isoapiole (5μg/mL) increased NO production in isolated rat thoracic aorta rings. Isoapiole increased eNOS expression

  12. Gadoxate disodium: gadolinium EOB DTPA, gadoxetic acid, Gd-EOB-DTPA.

    PubMed

    2004-01-01

    Gadoxate disodium [gadolinium EOB DTPA, Gd-EOB-DTPA, gadoxetic acid, Eovist injection, Primovist] is a hydrophilic paramagnetic contrast agent being developed by Schering AG for hepatobiliary magnetic resonance imaging. In April 2004, gadoxate disodium (Primovist) was approved in Sweden, the reference member state for the EU registration. Following the Swedish approval, Schering will initiate a mutual recognition procedure for the EU with approvals expected in most countries during 2004. Gadoxate disodium is in phase III clinical trials in the US and has completed phase III studies in Japan. Submissions for approval in Japan and other Asian countries are planned for 2004. Schering AG plans to launch Eovist in Japan in 2005. Schering AG acquired a worldwide, royalty-bearing licence to EPIX Medical's patents covering liver-enhancing agents such as Eovist injection. These included a European patent (222886) and the US patents (4,899,755 and 4,888,008) that EPIX Medical exclusively licensed from the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH). The MGH patents, a part of EPIX's extensive intellectual property, also covered albumin-targeted agents such as MS 325 (AngioMARK). Schering AG formally withdrew from the opposition proceedings against EPIX's EU patent 222886 following its acquisition of EPIX's intellectual property. These EU and US patents were also non-exclusively licensed by EPIX Medical to Bracco in September 2001. Apart from covering Eovist (Schering AG), the EU patent also covered gadobenate dimeglumine (MultiHance Bracco). Following the licensing agreement, Bracco withdrew its opposition to the patents in Europe and Japan, and both EPIX Medical and Bracco settled their European patent dispute. In its 2002 Annual Report, Schering predicted that Eovist has the potential to reach peak sales of euro50 million, three years after launch--at the time, launch in Europe was anticipated in 2004, followed by launch in Japan in 2005. This is down from earlier predictions

  13. The Benefits of High Relaxivity for Brain Tumor Imaging: Results of a Multicenter Intraindividual Crossover Comparison of Gadobenate Dimeglumine with Gadoterate Meglumine (The BENEFIT Study).

    PubMed

    Vaneckova, M; Herman, M; Smith, M P; Mechl, M; Maravilla, K R; Weichet, J; Spampinato, M V; Žižka, J; Wippold, F J; Baima, J J; Babbel, R; Bültmann, E; Huang, R Y; Buhk, J-H; Bonafé, A; Colosimo, C; Lui, S; Kirchin, M A; Shen, N; Pirovano, G; Spinazzi, A

    2015-09-01

    Gadobenate dimeglumine (MultiHance) has higher r1 relaxivity than gadoterate meglumine (Dotarem) which may permit the use of lower doses for MR imaging applications. Our aim was to compare 0.1- and 0.05-mmol/kg body weight gadobenate with 0.1-mmol/kg body weight gadoterate for MR imaging assessment of brain tumors. We performed crossover, intraindividual comparison of 0.1-mmol/kg gadobenate with 0.1-mmol/kg gadoterate (Arm 1) and 0.05-mmol/kg gadobenate with 0.1-mmol/kg gadoterate (Arm 2). Adult patients with suspected or known brain tumors were randomized to Arm 1 (70 patients) or Arm 2 (107 patients) and underwent 2 identical examinations at 1.5 T. The agents were injected in randomized-sequence order, and the 2 examinations were separated by 2-14 days. MR imaging scanners, imaging sequences (T1-weighted spin-echo and T1-weighted high-resolution gradient-echo), and acquisition timing were identical for the 2 examinations. Three blinded readers evaluated images for diagnostic information (degree of definition of lesion extent, lesion border delineation, visualization of lesion internal morphology, contrast enhancement) and quantitatively for percentage lesion enhancement and lesion-to-background ratio. Safety assessments were performed. In Arm 1, a highly significant superiority (P < .002) of 0.1-mmol/kg gadobenate was demonstrated by all readers for all end points. In Arm 2, no significant differences (P > .1) were observed for any reader and any end point, with the exception of percentage enhancement for reader 2 (P < .05) in favor of 0.05-mmol/kg gadobenate. Study agent-related adverse events were reported by 2/169 (1.2%) patients after gadobenate and by 5/175 (2.9%) patients after gadoterate. Significantly superior morphologic information and contrast enhancement are demonstrated on brain MR imaging with 0.1-mmol/kg gadobenate compared with 0.1-mmol/kg gadoterate. No meaningful differences were recorded between 0.05-mmol/kg gadobenate and 0.1-mmol

  14. Critical Questions Regarding Gadolinium Deposition in the Brain and Body After Injections of the Gadolinium-Based Contrast Agents, Safety, and Clinical Recommendations in Consideration of the EMA's Pharmacovigilance and Risk Assessment Committee Recommendation for Suspension of the Marketing Authorizations for 4 Linear Agents.

    PubMed

    Runge, Val M

    2017-06-01

    For magnetic resonance, the established class of intravenous contrast media is the gadolinium-based contrast agents. In the 3 decades since initial approval, these have proven in general to be very safe for human administration. However, in 2006, a devastating late adverse reaction to administration of the less stable gadolinium-based contrast agents was identified, nephrogenic systemic fibrosis. The result of actions taken by the European Medicines Agency and the US Food and Drug Administration, stratifying the agents by risk and contraindicating specific agents in severe renal dysfunction, has led to no new cases being identified in North America or Europe. Subsequently, in 2014, long-term deposition in the brain of gadolinium was first shown, after administration of 2 nonionic linear chelates, gadodiamide, and gadopentetate dimeglumine. This has led to an intense focus on the question of in vivo distribution, possible dechelation, and subsequent deposition of gadolinium, together with substantial clarification of the phenomenon as well as stratification of the agents on this basis. This review focuses on 8 critical questions regarding gadolinium deposition in the brain and body, with the answers and discussion therein important for future regulatory decisions and clinical practice. It is now clear that dechelation of gadolinium occurs in vivo with the linear agents and is responsible for this phenomenon, with key experts in the field recommending, except where there is no suitable alternative, a shift in clinical practice from the linear to macrocyclic agents. In addition, on March 10, 2017, the Pharmacovigilance and Risk Assessment Committee of the European Medicines Agency recommended suspension of the marketing authorization for 4 linear gadolinium contrast agents-specifically Omniscan, Optimark, Magnevist, and MultiHance (gadodiamide, gadoversetamide, gadopentetate dimeglumine, and gadobenate dimeglumine)-for intravenous injection. Cited in the report was

  15. Growth factor controls on the distribution and carbon isotope composition of n-alkanes in leaf wax

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, C.; Xie, S.; Huang, X.

    2012-12-01

    Cuticular wax plays pivotal physiological and ecological roles in the interactions between plants and the environments in which they grow. Plant-derived long-chain alkanes are more resistant to decay than other biochemical polymers. n-Alkane distributions (Carbon Preference Index (CPI) values and Average Chain Length (ACL) values) and carbon isotopic values are used widely in palaeoenvironmental reconstruction. However, there is little information available on how growth stages of the plant might influence the abundance of n-alkanes in the natural environment. In this study, we analyzed n-alkane distributions and carbon isotope data from two tree species (Cinnamomum camphora (L.) Presl. and Liquidambar formosana Hance) collected monthly from 2009 to 2011 in Nanwang Shan, Wuhan, Hubei Province. CPI values for n-alkanes from C. camphora remained stable in autumn and winter but fluctuated dramatically during spring and autumn each year. Positive correlations between CPI values and the relative content of (C27+C29) were observed in both sun and shade leaves of C. camphora from April to July. In L. formosana, CPI values decreased gradually from April to December. A similar trend was observed in all three years suggesting that growth stages rather than temperature or relative humidity affected the CPI values on a seasonal timescale. In the samples of L. formosana ACL values were negatively correlated with CPI values in the growing season (from April to July) and positively correlated with CPI values in the other seasons. The δ13C values of C29 and C31 n-alkanes displayed more negative carbon isotopic values in autumn and winter compared with leaves sampled at the start of the growing season from both trees. The δ13C values of C29 and C31 n-alkanes of L. formosana decreased from April to December. These results demonstrate the importance of elucidating the growing factors that influence the distribution and δ13C values of alkanes in modern leaves prior to using CPI

  16. Simultaneous measurements of capillary filtration and diffusion capacities during graded infusions of noradrenaline (NA) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) into the rat hindquarter vascular bed.

    PubMed

    Rippe, B; Folkow, B

    1980-07-01

    The relationships between capillary diffusion capacity (PS) for Cr-EDTA respective capillary filtration capacity (CFC) and vascular resistance during graded intraarterial infusions of NA and 5-HT into the artificially constant flow perfused rat hindquarter vascular bed were investigated. During maximal vasodilatation PS for Cr-EDTA was some 5.5--5.7 ml/min x 100 g, CFC some 0.04 ml/min x mmHg x 100 g, while vascular resistance was 2.8 mmHg x ml-1 x min x 100 g (PRU100) and isogravimetric capillary pressure 12.8 mmHg on an average. Setting out from maximal vasodilatation, increasing doses of NA and 5-HT produced graded reductions in capillary surface area as reflected by progressive decreases in both PS for Cr-EDTA and CFC. These changes occurred simultaneously with progressive increases in both pre- and postcapillary resistances, causing elevations in both arterial and capillary hydrostatic pressures and hance in capillary fluid filtration at constant flow. Capillary hydrostatic pressure increased maximally to 45 mmHg (calculated for NA) and vascular resistance to some 21 mmHg x ml-1 x min x 100 g on an average. PS for Cr-EDTA decreased maximally to some 0.7--1 ml/min x 100 g for both NA and 5-HT and furthermore, the relationships between PS for Cr-EDTA and PRU100 for NA respective 5-HT were almost identical. This was taken to indicate that capillary surface area for nutritional exchange is affected similarly by both drugs. However, the CFU-PRU100 relationship was shifted towards some 30--50% higher CFC values for 5-HT than for NA at almost every level of vasoconstriction. This might suggest that 5-HT besides reducing capillary surface area also induced moderate increases in capillary permeability though increases in number and/or radius of large pores (gaps) (cf. Rippe, Kamiya & Folkow 1978). Even during NA-induced vasoconstriction, when virtually no changes in capillary permeability occurred, PS for Cr-EDTA was reduced to a relatively greater extent than CFC, the

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging in a spinal abscess model. Preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Runge, V M; Williams, N M; Lee, C; Timoney, J F

    1998-04-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) scan technique and lesion detectability were evaluated using a newly developed spinal abscess model in the New Zealand White rabbit. To create the lesion, an epidural needle was inserted under fluoroscopic guidance in the lumbar region and advanced to penetrate the ligamentum flavum. Next, polyethylene tubing was fed through the needle into the epidural space. A mixed suspension of Staphylococcus aureus (Cowan I) and blue polystyrene microspheres then was injected. Lesions were evaluated by MR imaging in four animals at multiple time points (3, 6, and 9 days). Imaging was performed at 1.5 tesla using a surface coil. Precontrast T2-and T1-weighted scans were first obtained. The T1-weighted scans were acquired both with and without fat saturation, and were repeated after intravenous contrast administration. The contrast agent used was gadoteridol (gadolinium HP-DO3A or ProHance) at a dose of 0.3 mmol/kg. On prospective film review, postcontrast scans proved superior for lesion detection. A spinal abscess could be identified postcontrast in all cases, irrespective of the use of fat saturation. The next best imaging technique for lesion detection was the T2-weighted scan, with 5 of 8 lesions noted thereon. Visualization of lesion margins proved to be a primary factor in prospective lesion identification. Region of interest image analysis demonstrated the postcontrast scans to be superior to all precontrast scan techniques for conspicuity of the interface between the abscess and the compressed spinal cord, with these results statistically significant. The lesions were characterized histologically by infiltrates of heterophils into the meninges and outer spinal cord with accompanying mild hemorrhage, fibrin exudation, and bacterial colonies. The lesions in three animals were confirmed to be in the epidural space, with the lesion in one animal in the subdural space. The current animal model was developed to study spine infection and, specifically

  18. First-pass and high-resolution steady-state magnetic resonance angiography of the peripheral arteries with gadobenate dimeglumine: an assessment of feasibility and diagnostic performance.

    PubMed

    Anzidei, Michele; Napoli, Alessandro; Zaccagna, Fulvio; Cavallo Marincola, Beatrice; Zini, Chiara; Kirchin, Miles A; Catalano, Carlo; Passariello, Roberto

    2011-05-01

    To assess the feasibility of combined first-pass (FP) and steady-state (SS) contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) of the peripheral arteries with gadobenate dimeglumine (MultiHance) and to evaluate diagnostic performance relative to digital subtraction angiography (DSA). A total of 35 patients with symptomatic peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) underwent FP MRA (repetition time [TR]/echo time [TE]/flip angle [FA]/acquisition time [TA] = 3.5/1.2/30°/14s) at 1.5T after intravenous injection of 10 mL of gadobenate dimeglumine. Thereafter, SS imaging of the calf (TR/TE/FA/TA = 7.5/2.3/20°/40-130s) and femoropopliteal (TR/TE/FA/TA = 7.5/2.3/18°/130-240s) regions was performed after a second injection of 5 mL of gadobenate dimeglumine. All patients underwent conventional DSA. Three readers reviewed separate FP and FP+SS MRA datasets for image quality and presence/absence of clinically relevant PAOD. A fourth independent observer evaluated DSA images. The diagnostic performance (sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values) achieved with each dataset was determined and compared. Inter-reader agreement was assessed using kappa statistics. The image quality of 134 of 140 vascular regions was optimal or adequate on SS MRA. Inter-reader agreement was good to very good for assessments of FP (κ = 0.725) and combined FP+SS images (κ = 0.866). SS images improved diagnostic confidence in 34 (48.6%) femoropoliteal and 46 (65.7%) crural regions and altered final diagnosis in 8 (11.4%) and 10 (14.3%) regions, respectively. Global diagnostic accuracy increased from 92.9% on FP images to 95.9% on FP+SS images, with significant (P = 0.0384) improvement in the crural region. SS MRA of the peripheral arteries is feasible with gadobenate dimeglumine and potentially improves diagnostic performance in patients with symptomatic PAOD.

  19. Induction of necrosis and DNA fragmentation during hypothermic preservation of hepatocytes in UW, HTK, and Celsior solutions.

    PubMed

    Abrahamse, Salomon L; van Runnard Heimel, Pieter; Hartman, Robin J; Chamuleau, Rob A F M; van Gulik, Thomas M

    2003-01-01

    Donor cells can be preserved in University of Wisconsin (UW), histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate (HTK), or Celsior solution. However, differences in efficacy and mode of action in preventing hypothermia-induced cell injury have not been unequivocally clarified. Therefore, we investigated and compared necrotic and apoptotic cell death of freshly isolated primary porcine hepatocytes after hypothermic preservation in UW, HTK, and Celsior solutions and subsequent normothermic culturing. Hepatocytes were isolated from porcine livers, divided in fractions, and hypothermically (4 degrees C) stored in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), UW, HTK, or Celsior solution. Cell necrosis and apoptosis were assessed after 24- and 48-h hypothermic storage and after 24-h normothermic culturing following the hypothermic preservation periods. Necrosis was assessed by trypan blue exclusion, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, and mitochondrial 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) reduction. Apoptosis was assessed by the induction of histone-associated DNA fragments and cellular caspase-3 activity. Trypan blue exclusion, LDH release, and MTT reduction of hypothermically preserved hepatocytes showed a decrease in cell viability of more than 50% during the first 24 h of hypothermic preservation. Cell viability was further decreased after 48-h preservation. DNA fragmentation was slightly enhanced in hepatocytes after preservation in all solutions, but caspase-3 activity was not significantly increased in these cells. Normothermic culturing of hypothermically preserved cells further decreased cell viability as assessed by LDH release and MTT reduction. Normothermic culturing of hypothermically preserved hepatocytes induced DNA fragmentation, but caspase-3 activity was not hanced in these cells. Trypan blue exclusion, LDH leakage, and MTT reduction demonstrated the highest cell viability after storage in Celsior, and DNA fragmentation was the lowest in cells that

  20. New ursane triterpenoids from Ficus pandurata and their binding affinity for human cannabinoid and opioid receptors.

    PubMed

    Khedr, Amgad I M; Ibrahim, Sabrin R M; Mohamed, Gamal A; Ahmed, Hany E A; Ahmad, Amany S; Ramadan, Mahmoud A; El-Baky, Atef E Abd; Yamada, Koji; Ross, Samir A

    2016-07-01

    Phytochemical investigation of Ficus pandurata Hance (Moraceae) fruits has led to the isolation of two new triterpenoids, ficupanduratin A [1β-hydroxy-3β-acetoxy-11α-methoxy-urs-12-ene] (11) and ficupanduratin B [21α-hydroxy-3β-acetoxy-11α-methoxy-urs-12-ene] (17), along with 20 known compounds: α-amyrin acetate (1), α-amyrin (2), 3β-acetoxy-20-taraxasten-22-one (3), 3β-acetoxy-11α-methoxy-olean-12-ene (4), 3β-acetoxy-11α-methoxy-12-ursene (5), 11-oxo-α-amyrin acetate (6), 11-oxo-β-amyrin acetate (7), palmitic acid (8), stigmast-4,22-diene-3,6-dione (9), stigmast-4-ene-3,6-dione (10), stigmasterol (12), β-sitosterol (13), stigmast-22-ene-3,6-dione (14), stigmastane-3,6-dione (15), 3β,21β-dihydroxy-11α-methoxy-olean-12-ene (16), 3β-hydroxy-11α-methoxyurs-12-ene (18), 6-hydroxystigmast-4,22-diene-3-one (19), 6-hydroxystigmast-4-ene-3-one (20), 11α,21α-dihydroxy-3β-acetoxy-urs-12-ene (21), and β-sitosterol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (22). Compound 21 is reported for the first time from a natural source. The structures of the 20 compounds were elucidated on the basis of IR, 1D ((1)H and (13)C), 2D ((1)H-(1)H COSY, HSQC, HMBC and NOESY) NMR and MS spectroscopic data, in addition to comparison with literature data. The isolated compounds were evaluated for their anti-microbial, anti-malarial, anti-leishmanial, and cytotoxic activities. In addition, their radioligand displacement affinity on opioid and cannabinoid receptors was assessed. Compounds 4, 11, and 15 exhibited good affinity towards the CB2 receptor, with displacement values of 69.7, 62.5 and 86.5 %, respectively. Furthermore, the binding mode of the active compounds in the active site of the CB2 cannabinoid receptors was investigated through molecular modelling.

  1. Theoretical and Computational Study of Forced-Convection Heat Transfer at Supercritical Pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Jianguo

    In the simulation of turbulent fluid flow and heat transfer at supercritical pressures, substantial difficulties have been encountered in the modeling of turbulence and bounda-ry layer. This is due to significant fluid property variations with respect to the local temperature and pressure, especially in the near-wall region of a heated wall, where large temperature differences occur. The classical turbulence models available in literature were typically developed for constant-property fluids, where an empirical wall function in the high-Re k-epsilon model, and a damping function in the low-Re k-epsilon model were derived based on the constant-property data to solve the boundary layer. As it can be found in the existing literature, large differences have been observed between the experimental and numerical simulation results of the heat transfer coefficient predictions in the en-hanced and deteriorated heat transfer situations for supercritical fluids. In this thesis, a novel near-wall treatment method is proposed to treat large property variations in the thermal and velocity sub-layers. In the near-wall region, the supercritical fluids can be considered thermal-conductive and viscous forces dominated. The thick-ness of the viscous sub-layer (VSL) and the conduction sub-layer (CSL) can be related to the wall shear stress and local Prandtl number information by using computational CFD models, such as that implemented in the NPHASE-CMFD code. The fluids' bulk and wall temperature information has been obtained from the literature review of experi-mental measurements. The wall temperature and heat transfer coefficient calculated from the k-epsilon model with the proposed wall treatment method have been found to be in good agreement with experimental data for both heat transfer enhancement and deterioration cases for two most widely used fluids: CO2 and water. The proposed model has been applied in the reactor-scale thermal-hydraulic analysis of different flow path

  2. High Signal Intensity in Globus Pallidus and Dentate Nucleus on Unenhanced T1-weighted MR Images: Evaluation of Two Linear Gadolinium-based Contrast Agents.

    PubMed

    Ramalho, Joana; Castillo, Mauricio; AlObaidy, Mamdoh; Nunes, Renato H; Ramalho, Miguel; Dale, Brian M; Semelka, Richard C

    2015-09-01

    To determine if a correlation exists between the number of previous enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging examinations and high signal intensity in the globus pallidus (GP) and dentate nucleus (DN) in patients who received gadodiamide (Omniscan), a linear nonionic gadolinium-based contrast agent, and in those who received gadobenate dimeglumine (MultiHance), a linear ionic contrast agent. Institutional review board approval was obtained for this single-center retrospective study, with waiver of informed consent. The study population included 69 patients divided into two groups: Group 1 included patients who underwent gadodiamide-enhanced MR imaging, and group 2 included patients who underwent gadobenate dimeglumine-enhanced MR imaging. Two radiologists conducted a quantitative analysis of unenhanced T1-weighted images by using region of interest measurements. The GP-to-thalamus (TH) signal intensity ratio, DN-to-middle cerebellar peduncle (MCP) signal intensity ratio and relative percentage change (Rchange) between the first and last examinations for each patient were calculated. Relation between the signal intensity ratios and Rchange and the number of enhanced MR imaging examinations was analyzed by using a generalized additive model. Inter- and intraobserver agreement was evaluated with the Lin concordance correlation coefficient test. Group 1 included 23 patients (19 female), with a mean of 5.0 doses ± 2.4 (standard deviation) (range, 3-11 doses) administered. Group 2 included 46 patients (24 female) with a mean of 4.6 doses ± 2.2 (range, 3-11 doses) administered. The interval between the first and last examination was 1500.1 days ± 780.2 (range, 98-3097 days) for group 1 and 1086.2 days ± 582.9 (range, 94-2633) for group 2. All patients had normal liver and renal function. Gadodiamide showed a significant increase in DN:MCP and GP:TH (P < .001 for both) and in Rchange (P = .001 for GP:TH, P < .001 for DN:MCP). In group 2, there was no significant

  3. Palaeointensity and palaeodirection determinations of Paleoproterozoic dykes in the Kaapvaal Craton (South Africa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcherbakova, V. V.; Lubnina, N. V.; Shcherbakov, V. P.; Zhidkov, G. V.

    2012-04-01

    of NRM(T) and TRM(T) was used too. Reliable palaeointensity determinations were obtained on only the site N28 of the age 1.85 Ga (Olsson et al., 2010). The rocks from this site demonstrated extremely stable magnetic properties to heating, their Curie points are closed to Tc of the magnetite. The thermodemagnetization curves NRM(T) and TRM(T) are very similar and the positions of check-points on the Arai-Nagata diagrams are close to the initial pTRM values. Seven samples (12 sister cubes) showed very similar intensities of paleofield Hanc lying in the interval 15-23 μT, with the mean VDM = 2.85 Am^2. This result agrees with the widespread opinion that the field in the Paleoproterozoic was considerably less than the modern magnetic field.

  4. The deegree framework - Spatial Data Infrastructure solution for end-users and developers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiehle, Christian; Poth, Andreas

    2010-05-01

    client software, desktop and web environments. A focus lies on different client solutions for specific standards like the Web Pro­cessing Service and the Web Coordinate Transformation Service. On the other hand, complex geoportal solutions comprised of multiple standards and en­hanced by components for user management, security and map client function­ality show the demanding requirements of real world solutions. The XPlan-GML-standard as defined by the German spatial planing authorities is a good ex­ample of how complex real-world requirements can get. XPlan-GML is intended to provide a framework for digital spatial planning documents and requires complex Geography Markup Language (GML) features along with Symbology Encoding (SE), Filter Encoding (FE), Web Map Services (WMS), Web Feature Services (WFS). This complex in­frastructure should be used by urban and spatial planners and therefore re­quires a user-friendly graphical interface hiding the complexity of the underly­ing infrastructure. Based on challenges faced within customer projects, the importance of easy to use software components is focused. SDI solution should be build upon ISO/OGC-standards, but more important, should be user-friendly and support the users in spatial data management and analysis.

  5. Preliminary report on the ground-water resources of the Klamath River basin, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newcomb, Reuben Clair; Hart, D.H.

    1958-01-01

    includes two main grabens, the Klamath and the Langell, which were downthrown approximately 50 and 1,000 feet, respectively. The average annual precipitation varies with the altitude, the higher parts of the Cascade Range getting more than 60 inches, and the semiarid valley plains receive as little as 13 inches in some places. Most precipitation occurs in the winter. The principal tributaries, Williamson and Sprague Rivers, rise near the higher parts of the eastern rim of the basin, flow through narrow valley plains to the western part, and discharge into Upper Klamath Lake. Wood River and associated creeks also empty into Upper Klamath Lake after draining southward along along the eastern foot of the Cascade Range. The Klamath River receives the outflow from Upper Klamath Lake, via Link River and Lake Ewauna, and flows southwestward through Keno Gap and hance through a youthful canyon, to its lower valley in California. The ground water occurs largely in an unconfined, or water-table, condition, though areas of local confinement are present. The regional water table is graded to a base level about equal to that of the major drainage on the valley plains. The slop of the water table, where water is confined, or the piezometric surface is downstream at about the same grade as that of the surface drainage in each of the larger valleys, and ground-water divides occur between the upper parts of adjacent major valleys. The principal water-bearing units are the lower lava rocks and upper lava rocks of the volcanic rocks of high Cascades, the pumice of Quaternary age, and the alluvium. In places layers of coarse fragmental material in the Yonna formation (Newcomb, 1958) also transmit water. The water-bearing units, especially the breccia layers of the lava rocks and the pumice, yield large amounts of water to wells and provide natural discharge outlets for the ground water. The spring outflows to the Williamson and Wood Rivers-Crooked Creek drainage, mea