Science.gov

Sample records for principal types of roads

  1. Pavement macrotexture estimation using principal component analysis of tire/road noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yiying; McDaniel, J. Gregory; Wang, Ming L.

    2014-04-01

    An investigation on the prediction of macrotexture Mean Texture Depth (MTD) of pavement from a moving vehicle is conducted. The MTD was predicted by using the tire/road noise measured from a microphone mounted underneath a moving vehicle. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is used to filter noise from microphone data prioer to estimating its energy over an optimally selected bandwidth. Energy obtained using this method is named PCA energy, hence the developed method for MTD estimation is termed as PCA Energy Method. The acoustic energy is assumed to have positive linear correlation with MTD of pavement. Moreover, PCA was used to differentiate important information about the road surface from noisy data while vehicle is moving, yielding a set of principal component vectors representing the conditions of each road section. This principal component vector was used to compute the PCA energy that is to be used for MTD prediction. The frequency band most relative to pavement macrotexture was determined to be 140 to 700 Hz through theoretical and statistical research. Then, a MTD prediction model was built based on a Taylor series expansion with two variables, PCA energy and the driving speed of the vehicle. The model parameters were obtained from an engineered track (interstate highway) with known MTD, and then applied to urban roads for the feasibility test. The accuracy of the model is 83.61% for the engineered track, which is 10% higher than the previous energy-based methods without PCA treatment. Moreover, applicability of the model is increased by the extended MTD prediction range between 0.2 and 3 mm compared to that of the engineered track having 0.4 to 1.5 mm. In addition, the MTD could be predicted every 7.8 meters and with good repeatability in the urban road test, which proves the feasibility of the proposed approach. Therefore, the PCA Energy Method is a reliable, efficient, and cost effective way to predict MTD for engineering applications as an important

  2. 40 CFR 14.12 - Principal types of unallowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Principal types of unallowable claims. 14.12 Section 14.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL EMPLOYEE PERSONAL PROPERTY CLAIMS § 14.12 Principal types of unallowable claims. Claims that ordinarily will not be...

  3. 40 CFR 14.12 - Principal types of unallowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Principal types of unallowable claims. 14.12 Section 14.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL EMPLOYEE PERSONAL PROPERTY CLAIMS § 14.12 Principal types of unallowable claims. Claims that ordinarily will not be...

  4. 20 CFR 362.10 - Principal types of claims allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Principal types of claims allowable. 362.10 Section 362.10 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD INTERNAL ADMINISTRATION, POLICY AND PROCEDURES EMPLOYEES' PERSONAL PROPERTY CLAIMS § 362.10 Principal types of claims allowable. (a) In general...

  5. 20 CFR 362.10 - Principal types of claims allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Principal types of claims allowable. 362.10 Section 362.10 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD INTERNAL ADMINISTRATION, POLICY AND PROCEDURES EMPLOYEES' PERSONAL PROPERTY CLAIMS § 362.10 Principal types of claims allowable. (a) In general...

  6. Consequences of road traffic accidents for different types of road user.

    PubMed

    Mayou, Richard; Bryant, Bridget

    2003-03-01

    The study aimed to describe the immediate and later physical, social and psychological consequences of a road traffic accident for vehicle occupants, motorcyclists, cyclists and pedestrians amongst consecutive hospital attenders at an Accident and Emergency Department. Physical and accident details were collated from hospital records. Subjects completed questionnaires at hospital attendance, 3 months, 1 and 3 years. There were 1148 respondents from 1441 consecutive attenders over a 1-year period. The main outcome measures were self-report physical status, standard measures of post-traumatic stress disorder, mood, travel anxiety and health status at 3 months, 1 and 3 years. There were marked differences in injury pattern and immediate reaction between road user groups. Pedestrians and motorcyclists suffer the most severe injuries and report more continuing medical problems and greater resource use, especially in the first 3 months. There were few differences in psychological or social outcomes at any stage of follow-up. Despite differences between the road user groups in their injuries, immediate reactions and treatment, there were few longer-term differences. A third of all groups described chronic adverse consequences which were principally psychological, social and legal.

  7. 21. VALVES, GAUGES, AND SEVERAL TYPES OF LIGHTING ALONG ROAD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. VALVES, GAUGES, AND SEVERAL TYPES OF LIGHTING ALONG ROAD AT SOUTH REAR OF TEST STAND 1-A. RP1 TANK FARM IN MIDDLE DISTANCE. Looking northeast. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  8. PAH contents in road dust on principal roads collected nationwide in Japan and their influential factors.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Noriatsu; Akagi, Yuma; Kindaichi, Tomonori; Ohashi, Akiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Fifty-four road dust samples were collected from principal roads (n = 37) and residential roads (n = 17) nationwide in Japan from March 2010 to November 2012. Sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and ignition loss (IL) were determined. The total PAH contents ranged from 62 to 6,325 ng g(-1) with a geometric mean of 484 ng g(-1). The IL ranged from 0.8 to 17% with a mean of 6%. The PAH contents were correlated with the IL contents, and the IL contents were dependent on the population density. From the PAH pattern analysis, the PAHs from road dust are considered to be mainly from diesel emissions.

  9. Principal cell types of sleep-wake regulatory circuits.

    PubMed

    Jones, Barbara E

    2017-06-01

    Electrophysiological recordings indicate that neurons which discharge maximally in association with distinct sleep-wake states are distributed through the brain, albeit in differing proportions. As studied using juxtacellular recording and labeling within the basal forebrain, four functional principal cell types are distinguished as: wake/paradoxical sleep (W/PS)-, slow wave sleep (SWS)-, W- and PS-max active. They are each comprised by both GABA and glutamate neurons, in addition to acetylcholine neurons belonging to the W/PS group. By their discharge profiles and interactions, the GABA and glutamate neurons of different groups are proposed to have the capacity to generate sleep-wake states with associated EEG and EMG activities, though to also be importantly regulated by neuromodulatory systems, each of which belong to one functional cell group. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Yearly average performance of the principal solar collector types

    SciTech Connect

    Rabl, A.

    1981-01-01

    The results of hour-by-hour simulations for 26 meteorological stations are used to derive universal correlations for the yearly total energy that can be delivered by the principal solar collector types: flat plate, evacuated tubes, CPC, single- and dual-axis tracking collectors, and central receiver. The correlations are first- and second-order polynomials in yearly average insolation, latitude, and threshold (= heat loss/optical efficiency). With these correlations, the yearly collectible energy can be found by multiplying the coordinates of a single graph by the collector parameters, which reproduces the results of hour-by-hour simulations with an accuracy (rms error) of 2% for flat plates and 2% to 4% for concentrators. This method can be applied to collectors that operate year-around in such a way that no collected energy is discarded, including photovoltaic systems, solar-augmented industrial process heat systems, and solar thermal power systems. The method is also recommended for rating collectors of different type or manufacturer by yearly average performance, evaluating the effects of collector degradation, the benefits of collector cleaning, and the gains from collector improvements (due to enhanced optical efficiency or decreased heat loss per absorber surface). For most of these applications, the method is accurate enough to replace a system simulation.

  11. Paving the way for invasive species: road type and the spread of common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia).

    PubMed

    Joly, Martin; Bertrand, Pascale; Gbangou, Roland Y; White, Marie-Catherine; Dubé, Jean; Lavoie, Claude

    2011-09-01

    Roads function as prime habitats and corridors for invasive plant species. Yet despite the diversity of road types, there is little research on the influence of these types on the spread of invaders. Common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia), a plant producing large amounts of allergenic pollen, was selected as a species model for examining the impact of road type on the spread of invasive plants. We examined this relationship in an agricultural region of Quebec, Canada. We mapped plant distribution along different road types, and constructed a model of species presence. Common ragweed was found in almost all sampling sites located along regional (97%) and local paved (81%) roads. However, verges of unpaved local roads were rarely (13%) colonized by the plant. A model (53% of variance explained), constructed with only four variables (paved regional roads, paved local roads, recently mown road verges, forest cover), correctly predicted (success rate: 89%) the spatial distribution of common ragweed. Results support the hypothesis that attributes associated with paved roads strongly favour the spread of an opportunistic invasive plant species. Specifically, larger verges and greater disturbance associated with higher traffic volume create propitious conditions for common ragweed. To date, emphasis has been placed on controlling the plant in agricultural fields, even though roadsides are probably a much larger seed source. Strategies for controlling the weed along roads have only focused on major highways, even though the considerable populations along local roads also contribute to the production of pollen. Management prioritizations developed to control common ragweed are thus questionable.

  12. Paving the Way for Invasive Species: Road Type and the Spread of Common Ragweed ( Ambrosia artemisiifolia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joly, Martin; Bertrand, Pascale; Gbangou, Roland Y.; White, Marie-Catherine; Dubé, Jean; Lavoie, Claude

    2011-09-01

    Roads function as prime habitats and corridors for invasive plant species. Yet despite the diversity of road types, there is little research on the influence of these types on the spread of invaders. Common ragweed ( Ambrosia artemisiifolia), a plant producing large amounts of allergenic pollen, was selected as a species model for examining the impact of road type on the spread of invasive plants. We examined this relationship in an agricultural region of Quebec, Canada. We mapped plant distribution along different road types, and constructed a model of species presence. Common ragweed was found in almost all sampling sites located along regional (97%) and local paved (81%) roads. However, verges of unpaved local roads were rarely (13%) colonized by the plant. A model (53% of variance explained), constructed with only four variables (paved regional roads, paved local roads, recently mown road verges, forest cover), correctly predicted (success rate: 89%) the spatial distribution of common ragweed. Results support the hypothesis that attributes associated with paved roads strongly favour the spread of an opportunistic invasive plant species. Specifically, larger verges and greater disturbance associated with higher traffic volume create propitious conditions for common ragweed. To date, emphasis has been placed on controlling the plant in agricultural fields, even though roadsides are probably a much larger seed source. Strategies for controlling the weed along roads have only focused on major highways, even though the considerable populations along local roads also contribute to the production of pollen. Management prioritizations developed to control common ragweed are thus questionable.

  13. Epidemiologic study of road traffic injuries by road user type characteristics and road environment in Iran: a community-based approach.

    PubMed

    Hatamabadi, Hamidreza; Vafaee, Reza; Hadadi, Mashyaneh; Abdalvand, Ali; Esnaashari, Hamidreza; Soori, Hamid

    2012-01-01

    Crash injuries in traffic accidents are affected by a variety of factors. In this study we analyzed road user type information based on different contributing factors. Data from all of the road traffic victims on a road extending from the east of the city of Tehran to Mazandaran province were included prospectively over a one-year period (May 2008 to May 2009). Data collected included the crash time, patient's age and sex, road user category, helmet or seat belt use, anatomical site of injury, Injury Severity Score (ISS), and mortality. Prevalence and cross-tabulations were included in the analysis. There were 433 patients, of whom 345 were hospitalized and 33 died either before or after arriving at the hospital. Sixty-nine percent of injured patients were vehicle occupants. Mean and median of ISS were higher for pedestrians, who accounted for 49 percent of the deaths. Head injury was the most common injury and injury to upper and lower extremities was the most common cause of admission. A significant difference in lower extremity injuries between vehicle occupants and nonoccupants was found. Sex and age group did not have a significant effect on mortality. Mortality was significantly higher in pedestrians (P < .001) when data were analyzed based on road user type. Because pedestrians are the most vulnerable road users, stricter legislation and law enforcement should be used to protect them. Greater protection can also be reached by holding effective public awareness campaigns on how to use different roads safely. On the other hand, because rear seat passengers are at the same risk for road traffic injuries as front seat passengers, employment of newer laws and preventive measures targeting this group of occupants can prevent many road traffic injuries (RTIs).

  14. A Bumpy Road: Principal as Technology Leader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gosmire, Doreen; Grady, Marilyn L.

    2007-01-01

    Technology expenditures and usage in schools have risen by nearly 300 percent during the last three decades. Few principals claim to be technology experts, but most aspire to design a map that leads their schools to success with educational technology. The key to success on the journey is not to know everything, but to ask the right questions.…

  15. 20 CFR 362.11 - Principal types of claims not allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Principal types of claims not allowable. 362.11 Section 362.11 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD INTERNAL ADMINISTRATION, POLICY AND PROCEDURES EMPLOYEES' PERSONAL PROPERTY CLAIMS § 362.11 Principal types of claims not allowable. (a) Claims...

  16. 20 CFR 362.11 - Principal types of claims not allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Principal types of claims not allowable. 362.11 Section 362.11 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD INTERNAL ADMINISTRATION, POLICY AND PROCEDURES EMPLOYEES' PERSONAL PROPERTY CLAIMS § 362.11 Principal types of claims not allowable. (a) Claims...

  17. 40 CFR 14.11 - Principal types of allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) In a marine, rail, aircraft, or other common disaster or natural disaster such as a fire, flood, or... an emergency situation, to a natural disaster such as fire, flood, hurricane, or to a man-made... performance of duty, such as in connection with an emergency situation, a civil disturbance, common or...

  18. 40 CFR 14.11 - Principal types of allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) In a marine, rail, aircraft, or other common disaster or natural disaster such as a fire, flood, or... an emergency situation, to a natural disaster such as fire, flood, hurricane, or to a man-made... performance of duty, such as in connection with an emergency situation, a civil disturbance, common or...

  19. 40 CFR 14.11 - Principal types of allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) In a marine, rail, aircraft, or other common disaster or natural disaster such as a fire, flood, or... an emergency situation, to a natural disaster such as fire, flood, hurricane, or to a man-made... performance of duty, such as in connection with an emergency situation, a civil disturbance, common or...

  20. 40 CFR 14.11 - Principal types of allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) In a marine, rail, aircraft, or other common disaster or natural disaster such as a fire, flood, or... an emergency situation, to a natural disaster such as fire, flood, hurricane, or to a man-made... performance of duty, such as in connection with an emergency situation, a civil disturbance, common or...

  1. 40 CFR 14.11 - Principal types of allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) In a marine, rail, aircraft, or other common disaster or natural disaster such as a fire, flood, or... an emergency situation, to a natural disaster such as fire, flood, hurricane, or to a man-made... performance of duty, such as in connection with an emergency situation, a civil disturbance, common or...

  2. The Decisions of Elementary School Principals: A Test of Ideal Type Methodology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greer, John T.

    Interviews with 25 Georgia elementary school principals provided data that could be used to test an application of Max Weber's ideal type methodology to decision-making. Alfred Schuetz's model of the rational act, based on one of Weber's ideal types, was analyzed and translated into describable acts and behaviors. Interview procedures were…

  3. The Decisions of Elementary School Principals: A Test of Ideal Type Methodology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greer, John T.

    Interviews with 25 Georgia elementary school principals provided data that could be used to test an application of Max Weber's ideal type methodology to decision-making. Alfred Schuetz's model of the rational act, based on one of Weber's ideal types, was analyzed and translated into describable acts and behaviors. Interview procedures were…

  4. Road crash fatality rates in France: a comparison of road user types, taking account of travel practices.

    PubMed

    Bouaoun, Liacine; Haddak, Mohamed Mouloud; Amoros, Emmanuelle

    2015-02-01

    Travel practices are changing: bicycle and motorized two-wheeler (MTW) use are rising in some of France's large cities. These are cheaper modes of transport and therefore attractive at a time of economic crisis, but they also allow their users to avoid traffic congestion. At the same time, active transport modes such as walking and cycling are encouraged because they are beneficial to health and reduce pollution. It is therefore important to find out more about the road crash risks of the different modes of transport. To do this, we need to take account of the number of individuals who use each, and, even better, their travel levels. We estimated the exposure-based fatality rates for road traffic crashes in France, on the basis of the ratio between the number of fatalities and exposure to road accident risk. Fatality data were obtained from the French national police database of road traffic casualties in the period 2007-2008. Exposure data was estimated from the latest national household travel survey (ENTD) which was conducted from April 2007 to April 2008. Three quantities of travel were computed for each mode of transport: (1) the number of trips, (2) the distance traveled and (3) the time spent traveling. Annual fatality rates were assessed by road user type, age and sex. The overall annual fatality rates were 6.3 per 100 million trips, 5.8 per billion kilometers traveled and 0.20 per million hours spent traveling. The fatality rates differed according to road user type, age and sex. The risk of being killed was 20 to 32 times higher for motorized two-wheeler users than for car occupants. For cyclists, the risk of being killed, both on the basis of time spent traveling and the number of trips was about 1.5 times higher than for car occupants. Risk for pedestrians compared to car occupants was similar according to time spent traveling, lower according to the number of trips and higher according to the distance traveled. People from the 17-20 and 21-29 age

  5. Evaluation of road approaches to four different types of stream crossings in the Virginia Piedmont

    Treesearch

    Matthew B. Carroll; W. Michael Aust; C. Andrew Dolloff; Robert M. Shaffer

    2013-01-01

    Erosion potential was estimated for road approaches during 4 phases of a timber harvesting scheduled for 23 stream crossings in the Virginia Piedmont. The objectives of this study were to: (1) examine four different types of stream crossing structures (steel bridges, pole bridges, standard culverts, and reenforced fords) in order to determine if the type of stream...

  6. Looks Like 10 Miles of Bad Road: Cheating, Gaming, Mistrust, and an Interim Principal in an Urban Texas High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMatthews, David E.

    2014-01-01

    High-stakes accountability policies have brought about significant change in schools, but have also triggered instances of cheating and gaming at school and district levels. This undisguised case study involves the El Paso Independent School District, one of its high schools, and a popular principal accused of cheating. This context provides the…

  7. Looks Like 10 Miles of Bad Road: Cheating, Gaming, Mistrust, and an Interim Principal in an Urban Texas High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMatthews, David E.

    2014-01-01

    High-stakes accountability policies have brought about significant change in schools, but have also triggered instances of cheating and gaming at school and district levels. This undisguised case study involves the El Paso Independent School District, one of its high schools, and a popular principal accused of cheating. This context provides the…

  8. Resolvability of regional density structure and the road to direct density inversion - a principal-component approach to resolution analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Płonka, Agnieszka; Fichtner, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    Lateral density variations are the source of mass transport in the Earth at all scales, acting as drivers of convective motion. However, the density structure of the Earth remains largely unknown since classic seismic observables and gravity provide only weak constraints with strong trade-offs. Current density models are therefore often based on velocity scaling, making strong assumptions on the origin of structural heterogeneities, which may not necessarily be correct. Our goal is to assess if 3D density structure may be resolvable with emerging full-waveform inversion techniques. We have previously quantified the impact of regional-scale crustal density structure on seismic waveforms with the conclusion that reasonably sized density variations within the crust can leave a strong imprint on both travel times and amplitudes, and, while this can produce significant biases in velocity and Q estimates, the seismic waveform inversion for density may become feasible. In this study we perform principal component analyses of sensitivity kernels for P velocity, S velocity, and density. This is intended to establish the extent to which these kernels are linearly independent, i.e. the extent to which the different parameters may be constrained independently. We apply the method to data from 81 events around the Iberian Penninsula, registered in total by 492 stations. The objective is to find a principal kernel which would maximize the sensitivity to density, potentially allowing for as independent as possible density resolution. We find that surface (mosty Rayleigh) waves have significant sensitivity to density, and that the trade-off with velocity is negligible. We also show the preliminary results of the inversion.

  9. Effects of road type during transport on lamb welfare and meat quality in dry hot climates.

    PubMed

    Miranda-de la Lama, Genaro C; Monge, Paula; Villarroel, Morris; Olleta, Jose Luis; García-Belenguer, Sylvia; María, Gustavo A

    2011-06-01

    This study determined whether transporting lambs on paved (PR) or unpaved roads (UR) for 3 h had an effect on plasma stress indicators (cortisol, lactate, glucose, creatine kinase [CK], red blood cells, white blood cells, hematocrit, and neutrophil/lymphocyte [N/L] ratio) and instrumental meat quality (pH24, bruising score, water holding capacity [WHC], color, and texture). A total of 48 Rasa Aragonesa male lambs were used that were approximately 100 days old (12.5 kg ± 1.64, carcass weight). The results suggest that transport on unpaved roads had a significant influence on physiological and hematological stress parameters. Road type had a significant effect on all variables, except for white and red blood cells, and hematocrit levels. The UR lambs had significantly higher (at least p ≤ 0.01) cortisol, lactate, glucose, and CK levels and a higher N/L ratio than PR lambs. Meat from UR lambs had some dark-cutting characteristics, with a darker color, higher ultimate pH, and higher tenderness values than PR. In conclusion, lambs transported on unpaved roads had a more intense stress response and poorer meat quality than lambs transported on paved roads. An effort to improve the logistics associated with route planning is necessary to prevent welfare problems during transport to slaughter.

  10. Circulation types related to lightning activity over Catalonia and the Principality of Andorra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pineda, N.; Esteban, P.; Trapero, L.; Soler, X.; Beck, C.

    In the present study, we use a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to characterize the surface 6-h circulation types related to substantial lightning activity over the Catalonia area (north-eastern Iberia) and the Principality of Andorra (eastern Pyrenees) from January 2003 to December 2007. The gridded data used for classification of the circulation types is the NCEP Final Analyses of the Global Tropospheric Analyses at 1° resolution over the region 35°N-48°N by 5°W-8°E. Lightning information was collected by the SAFIR lightning detection system operated by the Meteorological Service of Catalonia (SMC), which covers the region studied. We determined nine circulation types on the basis of the S-mode orthogonal rotated Principal Component Analysis. The “extreme scores” principle was used previous to the assignation of all cases, to obtain the number of final types and their centroids. The distinct differences identified in the resulting mean Sea Level Pressure (SLP) fields enabled us to group the types into three main patterns, taking into account their scale/dynamical origin. The first group of types shows the different distribution of the centres of action at synoptic scale associated with the occurrence of lightning. The second group is connected to mesoscale dynamics, mainly induced by the relief of the Pyrenees. The third group shows types with low gradient SLP patterns in which the lightning activity is a consequence of thermal dynamics (coastal and mountain breezes). Apart from reinforcing the consistency of the groups obtained, analysis of the resulting classification improves our understanding of the geographical distribution and genesis factors of thunderstorm activity in the study area, and provides complementary information for supporting weather forecasting. Thus, the catalogue obtained will provide advances in different climatological and meteorological applications, such as nowcasting products or detection of climate change trends.

  11. Experimental determination of optimum gutter brush parameters and road sweeping criteria for different types of waste.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Wahab, Magd M; Wang, Chong; Vanegas-Useche, Libardo V; Parker, Graham A

    2011-06-01

    The removal ability of gutter brushes for road sweeping for various debris types and different sweeping parameters is studied through experimental tests. The brushing test rig used comprises two commercial gutter brushes, a concrete test bed, and an asphalt test road with a gutter of 0.25 cm width and 10° slope. The brush-surface contact area is determined by sweeping sand on the concrete test bed. Sweeping problems are identified and discussed, and sweeping criteria for the different debris types are suggested. Also, optimum sweeping parameters are proposed for each debris type. In addition, debris removal mechanisms are discussed and analysed. The results indicate that for large heavy debris such as stones and gravel, it is not difficult to achieve large removal forces, because the steel bristles are relatively stiff. Conversely, high removal forces are not needed for particles of millimetre or micron sizes, but bristle curvature has to be appropriate to remove particles from road concavities. Finally, it is found that mud, especially dry mud on a rough surface, is the hardest debris to sweep, requiring a brush with a large tilt angle and a very large penetration to produce large removal forces.

  12. The influence of age, seat belt, time of day, and type of vehicles on road accidents in Kerman, Iran.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Ghorbanali

    2009-04-01

    Traffic accidents are one of the main external causes of morbidity and mortality in various parts of the world, including Kerman, a city that has experienced rapid growth in the number of cars in the last 5 years. The objective of this article was to identify the influence of age, belt use, time of day, and type of vehicle road accidents of southeastern Iran. This study used data obtained from Kerman police force reports on incidents of road traffic accidents (RTAs). We analyzed the police reports of total road accidents that occurred from 2005 to 2007. The involvement in fatal and non-fatal accidents was determined for females than among males. The analysis of the data indicated that the female drivers have a much better road safety record than male drivers, especially with regards to their involvement in severe traffic accidents. Forty-nine percent of accidents involve passenger cars, which is higher than other type of vehicles. Female drivers were found to be generally safer drivers than their male counterparts; male drivers who did not use seat belts had a higher involvement rate in road traffic accidents. Time of day analyses suggested that the problems of accidents in darkness are not a matter of visibility but a consequence of the way drivers use the roads at night. A number of recommended measures for the improvement of road safety in southeastern Iran are suggested.

  13. Quantitative determination of mineral types and abundances from reflectance spectra using principal components analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, M. O.; Adams, J. B.; Johnson, P. E.

    1985-01-01

    A procedure was developed for analyzing remote reflectance spectra, including multispectral images, that quantifies parameters such as types of mineral mixtures, the abundances of mixed minerals, and particle sizes. Principal components analysis reduced the spectral dimensionality and allowed testing the uniqueness and validity of spectral mixing models. By analyzing variations in the overall spectral reflectance curves, the type of spectral mixture was identified, mineral abundances quantified and the effects of particle size identified. The results demonstrate an advantage in classification accuracy over classical forms of analysis that ignore effects of particle-size or mineral-mixture systematics on spectra. The approach is applicable to remote sensing data of planetary surfaces for quantitative determinations of mineral abundances.

  14. The Evaluation of the Error Term in Some Gauss-Type Formulae for the Approximation of Cauchy Principal Value Integrals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, H. V.

    2008-01-01

    A method is derived for the numerical evaluation of the error term arising in some Gauss-type formulae modified so as to approximate Cauchy Principal Value integrals. The method uses Chebyshev polynomials of the first kind. (Contains 1 table.)

  15. The Evaluation of the Error Term in Some Gauss-Type Formulae for the Approximation of Cauchy Principal Value Integrals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, H. V.

    2008-01-01

    A method is derived for the numerical evaluation of the error term arising in some Gauss-type formulae modified so as to approximate Cauchy Principal Value integrals. The method uses Chebyshev polynomials of the first kind. (Contains 1 table.)

  16. Dynamic simulation of road vehicle door window regulator mechanism of cross arm type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miklos, I. Zs; Miklos, C.; Alic, C.

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents issues related to the dynamic simulation of a motor-drive operating mechanism of cross arm type, for the manipulation of road vehicle door windows, using Autodesk Inventor Professional software. The dynamic simulation of the mechanism involves a 3D modelling, kinematic coupling, drive motion parameters and external loads, as well as the graphically view of the kinematic and kinetostatic results for the various elements and kinematic couplings of the mechanism, under real operating conditions. Also, based on the results, the analysis of the mechanism components has been carried out using the finite element method.

  17. Principal Turnover: Are There Different Types of Principals Who Move from or Leave Their Schools? A Latent Class Analysis of the 2007-2008 Schools and Staffing Survey and the 2008-2009 Principal Follow-Up Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyce, Jared; Bowers, Alex J.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the extent to which there is a typology of principals who depart from their schools in the U.S. using the 2007-2008 Schools and Staffing Survey and the 2008-2009 Principal Follow-up Survey. Prior principal retention research has focused on identifying factors that predict principal turnover; however,…

  18. Principal Turnover: Are There Different Types of Principals Who Move from or Leave Their Schools? A Latent Class Analysis of the 2007-2008 Schools and Staffing Survey and the 2008-2009 Principal Follow-Up Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyce, Jared; Bowers, Alex J.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the extent to which there is a typology of principals who depart from their schools in the U.S. using the 2007-2008 Schools and Staffing Survey and the 2008-2009 Principal Follow-up Survey. Prior principal retention research has focused on identifying factors that predict principal turnover; however,…

  19. Effects of "Like Type" Sex Pairings between Applicants-Principals and Type of Focal Position Considered at the Screening Stage of the Selection Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, I. Phillip

    2005-01-01

    This study addresses the screening decisions for a national random sample of high school principals as viewed from the attraction-similarity theory of interpersonal perceptions. Independent variables are the sex of principals, sex of applicants, and the type of focal positions sought by hypothetical job applicants (teacher or counselor). Dependent…

  20. Principal Experiences of Succession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Farla Gay

    2015-01-01

    This multiple case study explored the experiences of school principals and the usefulness of Peters' (2011) succession planning model. Ten purposefully selected principals from varying grade levels were interviewed; none reported a formal succession plan, and all had been assistant principals. The study concluded the assistant principal position…

  1. Principal Experiences of Succession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Farla Gay

    2015-01-01

    This multiple case study explored the experiences of school principals and the usefulness of Peters' (2011) succession planning model. Ten purposefully selected principals from varying grade levels were interviewed; none reported a formal succession plan, and all had been assistant principals. The study concluded the assistant principal position…

  2. Parsimonious Description of Glucose Variability in Type 2 Diabetes by Sparse Principal Component Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fabris, Chiara; Facchinetti, Andrea; Fico, Giuseppe; Sambo, Francesco; Arredondo, Maria Teresa; Cobelli, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Background: Abnormal glucose variability (GV) is a risk factor for diabetes complications, and tens of indices for its quantification from continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) time series have been proposed. However, the information carried by these indices is redundant, and a parsimonious description of GV can be obtained through sparse principal component analysis (SPCA). We have recently shown that a set of 10 metrics selected by SPCA is able to describe more than 60% of the variance of 25 GV indicators in type 1 diabetes (T1D). Here, we want to extend the application of SPCA to type 2 diabetes (T2D). Methods: A data set of CGM time series collected in 13 T2D subjects was considered. The 25 GV indices considered for T1D were evaluated. SPCA was used to select a subset of indices able to describe the majority of the original variance. Results: A subset of 10 indicators was selected and allowed to describe 83% of the variance of the original pool of 25 indices. Four metrics sufficient to describe 67% of the original variance turned out to be shared by the parsimonious sets of indices in T1D and T2D. Conclusions: Starting from a pool of 25 indices assessed from CGM time series in T2D subjects, reduced subsets of metrics virtually providing the same information content can be determined by SPCA. The fact that these indices also appear in the parsimonious description of GV in T1D may indicate that they could be particularly informative of GV in diabetes, regardless of the specific type of disease. PMID:26232371

  3. Principal Preparedness: Superintendent Perceptions of New Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cray, Martha; Weiler, Spencer C.

    2011-01-01

    National advocacy groups have undertaken significant efforts to define the performance capacities needed by principals to lead schools in this era of continuous improvement and accountability. There has been little articulation between the core skills essential to new principals and the leadership capacities of experienced peers. This study…

  4. Principal Preparedness: Superintendent Perceptions of New Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cray, Martha; Weiler, Spencer C.

    2011-01-01

    National advocacy groups have undertaken significant efforts to define the performance capacities needed by principals to lead schools in this era of continuous improvement and accountability. There has been little articulation between the core skills essential to new principals and the leadership capacities of experienced peers. This study…

  5. An Ideal "Type"?--The Characteristics of Effective School Principals as Perceived by Aspiring Principals Both from within Education and Those from an Alternate Career Path

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Alex; Burton, Neil

    2005-01-01

    Kerry and Murdoch (1993), analysing the essential characteristics of leaders and school principals, raised two key questions: (1) What kind of leadership will schools require to help them face the next ten years?; and (2) How equipped are managers in school to provide that leadership? Traditionally, aspiring school principals emerge from the…

  6. Pediatric "off-road vehicle" trauma: determinants of injury severity and type.

    PubMed

    Sandler, Gideon; Soundappan, Soundappan Sv; Manglick, Maria P; Fahy, Fiona E; Ross, Frank; Lam, Lawrence; Cass, Danny

    2012-12-01

    This study aimed to describe the determinants of the severity and type of injuries sustained by children hurt in off-road vehicle (ORV) accidents. This was a retrospective clinical study for which data were obtained from the trauma database at the Children's Hospital at Westmead covering the 10-year period between January 1, 1998, and December 31, 2007. Data points collected included age, sex, Injury Severity Score (ISS), body region injured, type of vehicle, accident setting, mechanism of injury, estimated speed, position of the rider, use of a helmet and/or protective clothing, and hospital length of stay. The study end points were determinants of injury severity and type. Statistical analysis of the collected data was done with the standard statistical software package, SPSS. A total of 288 children (242 male [84%] and 46 female [16%] patients) presented for ORV-related trauma. Helmets significantly diminished the chance of sustaining a head injury occasioning a skull fracture. Jumping was associated with increased ISS and a higher chance of sustaining an abdominal and/or thoracic injury. Older children were more likely to sustain pelvic and spinal injures, be injured while traveling at high speed, and be injured while going over a jump. Mean ISS was significantly lower if trauma was sustained while riding a mini motorcyle in any setting and any ORV at home. Further research (prospective, federal, and multi-institutional) is needed with a view to optimizing training schedules, rules, regulations, and licensing requirements for pediatric ORV riders.

  7. Verification of road databases using multiple road models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziems, Marcel; Rottensteiner, Franz; Heipke, Christian

    2017-08-01

    In this paper a new approach for automatic road database verification based on remote sensing images is presented. In contrast to existing methods, the applicability of the new approach is not restricted to specific road types, context areas or geographic regions. This is achieved by combining several state-of-the-art road detection and road verification approaches that work well under different circumstances. Each one serves as an independent module representing a unique road model and a specific processing strategy. All modules provide independent solutions for the verification problem of each road object stored in the database in form of two probability distributions, the first one for the state of a database object (correct or incorrect), and a second one for the state of the underlying road model (applicable or not applicable). In accordance with the Dempster-Shafer Theory, both distributions are mapped to a new state space comprising the classes correct, incorrect and unknown. Statistical reasoning is applied to obtain the optimal state of a road object. A comparison with state-of-the-art road detection approaches using benchmark datasets shows that in general the proposed approach provides results with larger completeness. Additional experiments reveal that based on the proposed method a highly reliable semi-automatic approach for road data base verification can be designed.

  8. Qualities of Effective Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stronge, James H.; Richard, Holly B.; Catano, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    You know how important principals are in advancing student achievement and school success, but it's not been exactly clear which components of the principal's job are the highest priority... until now. Following on the results-based approach from the ASCD best-seller "Qualities of Effective Teachers", James Stronge and his coauthors…

  9. Qualities of Effective Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stronge, James H.; Richard, Holly B.; Catano, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    You know how important principals are in advancing student achievement and school success, but it's not been exactly clear which components of the principal's job are the highest priority... until now. Following on the results-based approach from the ASCD best-seller "Qualities of Effective Teachers", James Stronge and his coauthors…

  10. Impact of Angiotensin Type 1A Receptors in Principal Cells of the Collecting Duct on Blood Pressure and Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Chen, Daian; Stegbauer, Johannes; Sparks, Matthew A; Kohan, Donald; Griffiths, Robert; Herrera, Marcela; Gurley, Susan B; Coffman, Thomas M

    2016-06-01

    The main actions of the renin-angiotensin system to control blood pressure (BP) are mediated by the angiotensin type 1 receptors (AT1Rs). The major murine AT1R isoform, AT1AR, is expressed throughout the nephron, including the collecting duct in both principal and intercalated cells. Principal cells play the major role in sodium and water reabsorption. Although aldosterone is considered to be the dominant regulator of sodium reabsorption by principal cells, recent studies suggest a role for direct actions of AT1R. To specifically examine the contributions of AT1AR in principal cells to BP regulation and the development of hypertension in vivo, we generated inbred 129/SvEv mice with deletion of AT1AR from principal cells (PCKO). At baseline, we found that BPs measured by radiotelemetry were similar between PCKOs and controls. During 1-week of low-salt diet (<0.02% NaCl), BPs fell significantly (P<0.05) and to a similar extent in both groups. On a high-salt (6% NaCl) diet, BP increased but was not different between groups. During the initial phase of angiotensin II-dependent hypertension, there was a modest but significant attenuation of hypertension in PCKOs (163±6 mm Hg) compared with controls (178±2 mm Hg; P<0.05) that was associated with enhanced natriuresis and decreased alpha epithelial sodium channel activation in the medulla of PCKOs. However, from day 9 onward, BPs were indistinguishable between groups. Although effects of AT1AR on baseline BP and adaptation to changes in dietary salt are negligible, our studies suggest that direct actions of AT1AR contribute to the initiation of hypertension and epithelial sodium channel activation. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. Serotonin Regulates the Firing of Principal Cells of the Subiculum by Inhibiting a T-type Ca2+ Current

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Anders V.; Jensen, Camilla S.; Crépel, Valérie; Falkerslev, Mathias; Perrier, Jean-François

    2017-01-01

    The subiculum is the main output of the hippocampal formation. A high proportion of its principal neurons fire action potentials in bursts triggered by the activation of low threshold calcium currents. This firing pattern promotes synaptic release and regulates spike-timing-dependent plasticity. The subiculum receives a high density of fibers originating from the raphe nuclei, suggesting that serotonin (5-HT) modulates subicular neurons. Here we investigated if and how 5-HT modulates the firing pattern of bursting neurons. By combining electrophysiological analysis with pharmacology, optogenetics and calcium imaging, we demonstrate that 5-HT2C receptors reduce bursting activity by inhibiting a low-threshold calcium current mediated by T-type Ca2+ channels in principal cells of the subiculum. In addition, we show that the activation of this novel pathway decreases bursting activity and the occurrence of epileptiform discharges induced in in vitro models for temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). PMID:28326015

  12. Logging residues in principal forest types of the Northern Rocky Mountains

    Treesearch

    Robert E. Benson; Joyce A. Schlieter

    1980-01-01

    An estimated 466 million ft 3 of forest residue material (nonmerchantable, 3 inches diameter and larger) is generated annually in the Northern Rocky Mountains (Montana, Idaho, Wyoming). Extensive studies of residues in the major forest types show a considerable portion is suited for various products. The lodgepole pine type has the greatest potential for increased...

  13. The theory of adjustment applied in road data collecting and optimum designing of road

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Lianbi; Kang, Chuanli

    2006-10-01

    In the investigation of China present road state and optimum designing of road, the linear data collection and computing of relevant parameters are very important. Though the methods of collecting data are feasible, but the methods of computing design parameters of road are lacking. This paper discusses that the theory of condition adjustment applies in road data collecting and optimum designing of road. The method goes as follows: after the road line types, mileages, curvatures of two endpoints of the road have been known, considering the constraint conditions on the distances between road and buildings on both sides of the road, we adjust all parameters of line type using the theory of Condition adjustment so that they satisfy a series of objective requirements while considering the condition that the curvatures of road should be continuous. This method has proved its availability by Visual C++ programming finally.

  14. Discrimination of land-use types in a catchment by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and principal component analysis.

    PubMed

    Melquiades, F L; Andreoni, L F S; Thomaz, E L

    2013-07-01

    Differences in composition and chemical elemental concentration are important information for soil samples classification. The objective of this study is to present a direct methodology, that is non-destructive and without complex sample preparation, in order to discriminate different land-use types and soil degradation, employing energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and multivariate analysis. Sample classification results from principal component analysis, utilizing spectral data and elemental concentration values demonstrate that the methodology is efficient to discriminate different land-use types. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. 16 CFR 500.21 - Type size in relationship to the area of the principal display panel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... principal display panel. 500.21 Section 500.21 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES... relationship to the area of the principal display panel. (a) The statement of net quantity of contents shall be... display panel of the package or commodity and shall be uniform for all packages or commodities...

  16. Principal component analysis of cerebellar shape on MRI separates SCA types 2 and 6 into two archetypal modes of degeneration.

    PubMed

    Jung, Brian C; Choi, Soo I; Du, Annie X; Cuzzocreo, Jennifer L; Geng, Zhuo Z; Ying, Howard S; Perlman, Susan L; Toga, Arthur W; Prince, Jerry L; Ying, Sarah H

    2012-12-01

    Although "cerebellar ataxia" is often used in reference to a disease process, presumably there are different underlying pathogenetic mechanisms for different subtypes. Indeed, spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) types 2 and 6 demonstrate complementary phenotypes, thus predicting a different anatomic pattern of degeneration. Here, we show that an unsupervised classification method, based on principal component analysis (PCA) of cerebellar shape characteristics, can be used to separate SCA2 and SCA6 into two classes, which may represent disease-specific archetypes. Patients with SCA2 (n=11) and SCA6 (n=7) were compared against controls (n=15) using PCA to classify cerebellar anatomic shape characteristics. Within the first three principal components, SCA2 and SCA6 differed from controls and from each other. In a secondary analysis, we studied five additional subjects and found that these patients were consistent with the previously defined archetypal clusters of clinical and anatomical characteristics. Secondary analysis of five subjects with related diagnoses showed that disease groups that were clinically and pathophysiologically similar also shared similar anatomic characteristics. Specifically, Archetype #1 consisted of SCA3 (n=1) and SCA2, suggesting that cerebellar syndromes accompanied by atrophy of the pons may be associated with a characteristic pattern of cerebellar neurodegeneration. In comparison, Archetype #2 was comprised of disease groups with pure cerebellar atrophy (episodic ataxia type 2 (n=1), idiopathic late-onset cerebellar ataxias (n=3), and SCA6). This suggests that cerebellar shape analysis could aid in discriminating between different pathologies. Our findings further suggest that magnetic resonance imaging is a promising imaging biomarker that could aid in the diagnosis and therapeutic management in patients with cerebellar syndromes.

  17. Predicting ground contact events for a continuum of gait types: An application of targeted machine learning using principal component analysis.

    PubMed

    Osis, Sean T; Hettinga, Blayne A; Ferber, Reed

    2016-05-01

    An ongoing challenge in the application of gait analysis to clinical settings is the standardized detection of temporal events, with unobtrusive and cost-effective equipment, for a wide range of gait types. The purpose of the current study was to investigate a targeted machine learning approach for the prediction of timing for foot strike (or initial contact) and toe-off, using only kinematics for walking, forefoot running, and heel-toe running. Data were categorized by gait type and split into a training set (∼30%) and a validation set (∼70%). A principal component analysis was performed, and separate linear models were trained and validated for foot strike and toe-off, using ground reaction force data as a gold-standard for event timing. Results indicate the model predicted both foot strike and toe-off timing to within 20ms of the gold-standard for more than 95% of cases in walking and running gaits. The machine learning approach continues to provide robust timing predictions for clinical use, and may offer a flexible methodology to handle new events and gait types. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Configuration of Appalachian logging roads

    Treesearch

    John E. Baumgras; John E. Baumgras

    1971-01-01

    The configuration - the curvature and grade - of logging roads in southern Appalachia is seldom severe, according to a recent Forest Service study. To improve the efficiency of logging roads, we must first define the characteristics of these roads; and in this report we provide a quantitative description of the configuration of over 200 miles of logging roads.

  19. Intersection delay estimation from floating car data via principal curves: a case study on Beijing's road network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiliang; Lu, Feng; Zhang, Hengcai; Qiu, Peiyuan

    2013-06-01

    It is a pressing task to estimate the real-time travel time on road networks reliably in big cities, even though floating car data has been widely used to reflect the real traffic. Currently floating car data are mainly used to estimate the real-time traffic conditions on road segments, and has done little for turn delay estimation. However, turn delays on road intersections contribute significantly to the overall travel time on road networks in modern cities. In this paper, we present a technical framework to calculate the turn delays on road networks with float car data. First, the original floating car data collected with GPS equipped taxies was cleaned and matched to a street map with a distributed system based on Hadoop and MongoDB. Secondly, the refined trajectory data set was distributed among 96 time intervals (from 0: 00 to 23: 59). All of the intersections where the trajectories passed were connected with the trajectory segments, and constituted an experiment sample, while the intersections on arterial streets were specially selected to form another experiment sample. Thirdly, a principal curve-based algorithm was presented to estimate the turn delays at the given intersections. The algorithm argued is not only statistically fitted the real traffic conditions, but also is insensitive to data sparseness and missing data problems, which currently are almost inevitable with the widely used floating car data collecting technology. We adopted the floating car data collected from March to June in Beijing city in 2011, which contains more than 2.6 million trajectories generated from about 20000 GPS-equipped taxicabs and accounts for about 600 GB in data volume. The result shows the principal curve based algorithm we presented takes precedence over traditional methods, such as mean and median based approaches, and holds a higher estimation accuracy (about 10%-15% higher in RMSE), as well as reflecting the changing trend of traffic congestion. With the estimation

  20. 14. VIEW OF NORTHSOUTH ROAD WHICH PARALLELS ROAD TO HATCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. VIEW OF NORTH-SOUTH ROAD WHICH PARALLELS ROAD TO HATCH ADIT (FEATURE B-28). NOTE MODERN 'LAY DOWN' FENCE ON ROAD. ROAD LIES TO THE WEST OF THE HATCH ADIT AND PHOTOGRAPH IS VIEW TO THE SOUTH. (OCTOBER, 1995) - Nevada Lucky Tiger Mill & Mine, East slope of Buckskin Mountain, Paradise Valley, Humboldt County, NV

  1. Handbook of road safety research

    SciTech Connect

    Grime, G.

    1987-01-01

    This book describes the road safety, accident investigation or vehicle and highway design. This book also discusses the nature and cause of road accidents. It discusses the following contents: Forward; Preface; The main features of the accident situation in Great Britain; The interacting roles of road environment, vehicle and road user in accidents; Roads - features which may be related to accidents; Movements of vehicles and road users before accidents; What happens to vehicles during and after accidents; Injuries to road users; The potential for savings in accidents involving injury; General remarks on accident investigation; Appendices References.

  2. Added fructose: a principal driver of type 2 diabetes mellitus and its consequences.

    PubMed

    DiNicolantonio, James J; O'Keefe, James H; Lucan, Sean C

    2015-03-01

    Data from animal experiments and human studies implicate added sugars (eg, sucrose and high-fructose corn syrup) in the development of diabetes mellitus and related metabolic derangements that raise cardiovascular (CV) risk. Added fructose in particular (eg, as a constituent of added sucrose or as the main component of high-fructose sweeteners) may pose the greatest problem for incident diabetes, diabetes-related metabolic abnormalities, and CV risk. Conversely, whole foods that contain fructose (eg, fruits and vegetables) pose no problem for health and are likely protective against diabetes and adverse CV outcomes. Several dietary guidelines appropriately recommend consuming whole foods over foods with added sugars, but some (eg, recommendations from the American Diabetes Association) do not recommend restricting fructose-containing added sugars to any specific level. Other guidelines (such as from the Institute of Medicine) allow up to 25% of calories as fructose-containing added sugars. Intake of added fructose at such high levels would undoubtedly worsen rates of diabetes and its complications. There is no need for added fructose or any added sugars in the diet; reducing intake to 5% of total calories (the level now suggested by the World Health Organization) has been shown to improve glucose tolerance in humans and decrease the prevalence of diabetes and the metabolic derangements that often precede and accompany it. Reducing the intake of added sugars could translate to reduced diabetes-related morbidity and premature mortality for populations.

  3. 20 CFR 362.11 - Principal types of claims not allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., possessed or transported in violation of law or regulation; (5) The personal property was brought into Board... (unless allowable under § 362.10); (4) Intangible property, such as bank books, checks, notes, stock... pursuant to contract; (9) Loss or damage to any vehicle used for transportation or in...

  4. 20 CFR 362.11 - Principal types of claims not allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., possessed or transported in violation of law or regulation; (5) The personal property was brought into Board... (unless allowable under § 362.10); (4) Intangible property, such as bank books, checks, notes, stock... pursuant to contract; (9) Loss or damage to any vehicle used for transportation or in...

  5. 20 CFR 362.11 - Principal types of claims not allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., possessed or transported in violation of law or regulation; (5) The personal property was brought into Board... (unless allowable under § 362.10); (4) Intangible property, such as bank books, checks, notes, stock... pursuant to contract; (9) Loss or damage to any vehicle used for transportation or in...

  6. Principal Component Analysis Reveals Age-Related and Muscle-Type-Related Differences in Protein Carbonyl Profiles of Muscle Mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Juan; Navratil, Marian; Thompson, LaDora V.; Arriaga, Edgar A.

    2011-01-01

    Carbonyl-modified proteins are considered markers of oxidative damage caused by oxidative stress, aging, and disease. Here we use a previously developed capillary electrophoretic method for detecting femtomole (10−15 mole) carbonyl levels in mitochondrial proteins that are size separated and profiled. For protein labeling, carbonyls were tagged with Alexa 488 hydrazine and amine groups in proteins with 3-(2-furoyl)quinoline-2-carboxaldehyde. Total mitochondrial protein carbonyl levels were statistically higher in fast- than in slow-twitch muscle of young Fischer 344 rats, and statistically higher in old than in young slow-twitch muscle. Even when some statistical comparisons of the total protein carbonyl levels would not reveal differences, principal component analysis (PCA) classified the carbonyl profiles into four distinct sample groups of different age and muscle types. In addition, PCA was used to predict that most age-related or muscle-type-related changes in carbonyl levels occur in proteins with a molecular weight between 9.8 and 11.7 kD. PMID:19126840

  7. 18. TYPE F, BUILDING #516732 PEARSON ROAD, INTERIOR, THIRD FLOOR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. TYPE F, BUILDING #516-732 PEARSON ROAD, INTERIOR, THIRD FLOOR, BEDROOM, NORTHWEST VIEW. - Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Brick Officers' Quarters, Types E & F, Area A, Dayton, Montgomery County, OH

  8. Effective elements of cognitive behaviour therapy for psychosis: results of a novel type of subgroup analysis based on principal stratification

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, G.; Fowler, D.; Rollinson, R.; Freeman, D.; Kuipers, E.; Smith, B.; Steel, C.; Onwumere, J.; Jolley, S.; Garety, P.; Bebbington, P.

    2012-01-01

    Background Meta-analyses show that cognitive behaviour therapy for psychosis (CBT-P) improves distressing positive symptoms. However, it is a complex intervention involving a range of techniques. No previous study has assessed the delivery of the different elements of treatment and their effect on outcome. Our aim was to assess the differential effect of type of treatment delivered on the effectiveness of CBT-P, using novel statistical methodology. Method The Psychological Prevention of Relapse in Psychosis (PRP) trial was a multi-centre randomized controlled trial (RCT) that compared CBT-P with treatment as usual (TAU). Therapy was manualized, and detailed evaluations of therapy delivery and client engagement were made. Follow-up assessments were made at 12 and 24 months. In a planned analysis, we applied principal stratification (involving structural equation modelling with finite mixtures) to estimate intention-to-treat (ITT) effects for subgroups of participants, defined by qualitative and quantitative differences in receipt of therapy, while maintaining the constraints of randomization. Results Consistent delivery of full therapy, including specific cognitive and behavioural techniques, was associated with clinically and statistically significant increases in months in remission, and decreases in psychotic and affective symptoms. Delivery of partial therapy involving engagement and assessment was not effective. Conclusions Our analyses suggest that CBT-P is of significant benefit on multiple outcomes to patients able to engage in the full range of therapy procedures. The novel statistical methods illustrated in this report have general application to the evaluation of heterogeneity in the effects of treatment. PMID:21939591

  9. Principal Preferences and the Uneven Distribution of Principals across Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loeb, Susanna; Kalogrides, Demetra; Horng, Eileen Lai

    2010-01-01

    The authors use longitudinal data from one large school district to investigate the distribution of principals across schools. They find that schools serving many low-income, non-White, and low-achieving students have principals who have less experience and less education and who attended less selective colleges. This distribution of principals is…

  10. The Future of Principal Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clifford, Matthew; Ross, Steven

    2012-01-01

    The need to improve the quality of principal evaluation systems is long overdue. Although states and districts generally require principal evaluations, research and experience tell that many state and district evaluations do not reflect current standards and practices for principals, and that evaluation is not systematically administered. When…

  11. Ranking of causes lead to road accidents using a new linguistic variable in interval type-2 fuzzy entropy weight of a decision making method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamri, Nurnadiah; Abdullah, Lazim

    2014-07-01

    A linguistic data is a variable whose value is naturally language phase in dealing with too complex situation to be described properly in conventional quantitative expressions. However, all the past researchers on linguistic variables used positive fuzzy numbers in expressing meaning of symbolic word. It seems that positive and negative numbers were never put concurrently in defining linguistic variables. Accordingly, we intend to construct a new positive and negative linguistic variable in interval type-2 fuzzy entropy weight for interval type-2 fuzzy TOPSIS (IT2 FTOPSIS). This paper uses a new linguistic variable in interval type-2 fuzzy entropy weight to capture the problems on reducing number of road accidents due to all the previously mentioned methods had no discussion about ranking of factors associated with road accidents. Specifically the objective of this paper is to establish rankings of the selected factors associated with road accidents using a new positive and negative linguistic variable and interval type-2 fuzzy entropy weight in interval type-2 fuzzy TOPSIS. This new method is hoped can produce an optimal preference ranking of alternatives in accordance with a set of criterion wise ranking in selection of causes that lead to road accidents. The proposed method produces actionable results that laid the decision-making process. Besides, it does not require a complicated computation procedure and will be beneficial to decision analysis.

  12. Detection of road boundary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sowers, James P.; Mehrotra, Rajiv

    1988-01-01

    Several researchers have proposed and implemented various systems pertaining to the development of autonomous land vehicles (ALVs). One fundamental problem associated with the navigation of an ALV is the ability to efficiently extract the boundaries of the pathway that need to be navigated. In this paper a method is presented that will determine the road boundaries in one pass using a limited search area in the input image. The method employs the statistical information regarding the gray levels present in the images along with geometrical constraints concerning the road. Some examples are given to demonstrate the efficacy of the method.

  13. Variable Constraints on the Principal Immunodominant Domain of the Transmembrane Glycoprotein of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Merat, Rastine; Raoul, Herve; Leste-Lasserre, Thierry; Sonigo, Pierre; Pancino, Gianfranco

    1999-01-01

    Lentiviruses have in their transmembrane glycoprotein (TM) a highly immunogenic structure referred to as the principal immunodominant domain (PID). The PID forms a loop of 5 to 7 amino acids between two conserved cysteines. Previous studies showed that envelope (Env) glycoprotein functions of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) could be retained after extensive mutation of the PID loop sequence, in spite of its high conservation. In order to compare Env function in different lentiviruses, either random mutations were introduced in the PID loop sequence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) or the entire HIV-1 PID loop was replaced by the corresponding PID loop of FIV or simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). In the macrophage-tropic HIV-1 ADA Env, mutations impaired the processing of the gp160 Env precursor, thereby abolishing viral infectivity. However, 6 of the 108 random Env mutants that were screened retained the capacity to induce cell membrane fusion. The SIV and FIV sequences and five random mutations were then introduced in the context of T-cell-line-adapted HIV-1 LAI which, although phenotypically distant from HIV-1 ADA, has an identical PID loop sequence. In contrast to the situation for HIV-1 ADA mutants, the cleavage of the Env precursor was unaffected in most HIV-1 LAI mutants. Such mutations, however, resulted in increased shedding of the gp120 surface glycoprotein (SU) from the gp41 TM. The HIV-1 LAI Env mutants showed high fusogenic efficiency. Three Env mutants retained the capacity to mediate virus entry in target cells, although less efficiently than the wild-type Env, and allowed the reconstitution of infectious molecular clones. These results indicated that in HIV-1, like FIV, the conserved PID sequence can be changed without impairing Env function. However, functional constraints on the PID of HIV-1 vary depending on the structural context of Env, presumably in relation to the role of the PID in the interaction of the SU and TM subunits

  14. Classification of road surface profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Rouillard, V.; Bruscella, B.; Sek, M.

    2000-02-01

    This paper introduces a universal classification methodology for discretely sampled sealed bituminous road profile data for the study of shock and vibrations related to the road transportation process. Data representative of a wide variety of Victorian (Australia) road profiles were used to develop a universal classification methodology with special attention to their non-Gaussian and nonstationary properties. This resulted in the design of computer software to automatically detect and extract transient events from the road spatial acceleration data as well as to identify segments of the constant RMS level enabling transients to be analyzed separately from the underlying road process. Nine universal classification parameters are introduced to describe road profile spatial acceleration based on the statistical characteristics of the transient amplitude and stationary RMS segments. Results from this study are aimed at the areas of road transport simulation as well as road surface characterization.

  15. Comparison of thermal comfort performance of two different types of road vehicle climate control systems.

    PubMed

    Quanten, S; Van Brecht, A; Berckmans, D

    2007-03-01

    The performance of climate control systems in vehicles becomes more and more important, especially against the background of the important relationship between compartment climate and driver mental condition and, thus, traffic safety. The performance of two different types of climate control systems, an un-air-conditioned heating/cooling device (VW) and an air-conditioning climate control unit (BMW), is compared using modern and practical evaluation techniques quantifying both the dynamic 3-D temperature distribution and the local air refreshment rate. Both systems suffer from considerable temperature gradients: temperature gradients in the U-AC (VW) car up to 8-9 degrees C are encountered, while the AC (BMW) delivers clear improvement resulting in temperature gradients of 5-6 degrees C. The experiments clearly demonstrate the effect of the presence of even a single passenger on the thermal regime, increasing the existing thermal discrepancies in the compartment with 15% independent of ventilation rate. Furthermore, in terms of air refreshment rates in the vehicle compartment, an air-conditioning unit halves the air refreshment time at all positions in the vehicle cabin, delivering a significant improvement in terms of human comfort. Similarly, extra air inlets in the back compartment of a car deliver progress in terms of cabin refreshment rate (93 s down to 50 s).

  16. From Exponential to Polynomial-Time Security Typing via Principal Types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, Sebastian; Sands, David

    Hunt and Sands (POPL'06) studied a flow sensitive type (FST) system for multi-level security, parametric in the choice of lattice of security levels. Choosing the powerset of program variables as the security lattice yields a system which was shown to be equivalent to Amtoft and Banerjee's Hoare-style independence logic (SAS'04). Moreover, using the powerset lattice, it was shown how to derive a principal type from which all other types (for all choices of lattice) can be simply derived.Both of these earlier works gave "algorithmic" formulations of the type system/program logic, but both algorithms are of exponential complexity due to the iterative typing of While loops. Later work by Hunt and Sands (ESOP'08) adapted the FST system to provide an erasure type system which determines whether some input is correctly erased at a designated time. This type system is inherently exponential, requiring a double typing of the erasure-labelled input command. In this paper we start by developing the FST work in two key ways: (1) We specialise the FST system to a form which only derives principal types; the resulting type system has a simple algorithmic reading, yielding principal security types in polynomial time. (2) We show how the FST system can be simply extended to check for various degrees of termination sensitivity (the original FST system is completely termination insensitive, while the erasure type system is fully termination sensitive). We go on to demonstrate the power of these techniques by combining them to develop a type system which is shown to correctly implement erasure typing in polynomial time. Principality is used in an essential way to reduce type derivation size from exponential to linear.

  17. Automatic Construction of Hierarchical Road Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Weiping

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes an automated method of constructing a hierarchical road network given a single dataset, without the presence of thematic attributes. The method is based on a pattern graph which maintains nodes and paths as junctions and through-traffic roads. The hierarchy is formed incrementally in a top-down fashion for highways, ramps, and major roads directly connected to ramps; and bottom-up for the rest of major and minor roads. Through reasoning and analysis, ramps are identified as unique characteristics for recognizing and assembling high speed roads. The method makes distinctions on the types of ramps by articulating their connection patterns with highways. Major and minor roads will be identified by both quantitative and qualitative analysis of spatial properties and by discovering neighbourhood patterns revealed in the data. The result of the method would enrich data description and support comprehensive queries on sorted exit or entry points on highways and their related roads. The enrichment on road network data is important to a high successful rate of feature matching for road networks and to geospatial data integration.

  18. How Effective Is the Principal? Discrepancy between New Zealand Teachers' and Principals' Perceptions of Principal Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinnema, Claire E. L.; Robinson, Viviane M. J.; Ludlow, Larry; Pope, Denyse

    2015-01-01

    Multi-source evaluation of school principals is likely to become increasingly common in education contexts as the evidence accumulates about the relationship between principal effectiveness and student achievement. The purpose of this study was to examine (1) the magnitude and direction of discrepancy between how principals and their teachers…

  19. Type A behavior pattern, risky driving behaviors, and serious road traffic accidents: a prospective study of the GAZEL cohort.

    PubMed

    Nabi, Hermann; Consoli, Silla M; Chastang, Jean-François; Chiron, Mireille; Lafont, Sylviane; Lagarde, Emmanuel

    2005-05-01

    The type A behavior pattern (TABP), characterized by impatience, time urgency, and hostility, was originally developed in relation to coronary heart disease. Since 1986, there has been a debate on whether the TABP is also associated with risky driving behaviors leading to increased risks in road traffic accidents (RTAs). The authors examined prospectively the relation among risky driving behaviors, serious RTAs, and the TABP in a cohort of 20,000 French employees of Electricité de France-Gaz de France who were aged 39-54 years in 1993. A total of 11,965 participants were included in this study. The TABP was assessed in 1993 using the French version of the Bortner Rating Scale. Driving behaviors and serious RTAs were recorded in 2001. Sociodemographic and alcohol consumption data were available from the cohort's annual follow-up. The impact of the TABP on the risk of serious RTAs was assessed using the Cox proportional hazards regression model with time-dependent covariates. After adjustment for potential confounders, the risk for serious RTAs increased proportionally with TABP scores: hazard ratios were 1.29 (95% confidence interval: 1.03, 1.63) for intermediate-level scores and 1.48 (95% confidence interval: 1.16, 1.90) for high-level scores relative to low TABP scores. The authors concluded that type A drivers had an increased risk of RTAs. Implications of this finding for traffic safety are discussed.

  20. Does particulate matter along roadsides interfere with plant reproduction? A comparison of effects of different road types on Cichorium intybus pollen deposition and germination.

    PubMed

    Jaconis, Susan Y; Culley, Theresa M; Meier, Alexandra M

    2017-03-01

    The roadside habitat can be challenging for plants, which must maintain normal biological processes despite an influx of airborne pollutants. While the effects of many gases on plants have been quantified, the impacts of particulate pollutants have been relatively less studied. This is especially true of field experiments where particle dispersion may be influenced by meteorology and roadway use. We examined chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) along roadsides in the Cincinnati, Ohio metropolitan area to assess particulate influence on plant pollination through stigmatic clogging. We compared flowers collected from plants situated along interstates, U.S. highways, state highways, and county roads as these different road-types vary in motor vehicle usage and thus should have varying levels of particulate deposition on flowers. We examined floral stigmas for total particulates, total pollen, and percentage of pollen tube germination to determine whether particulates may interfere with early reproductive processes. Our results suggest that there was minimal variation of particulate matter found on chicory stigmas among road-types. Furthermore, the deposition of particulates on stigmas based on road-type did not show a strong link to variation in pollen deposition and pollen germination. There was also no significant relationship between total particulate levels and pollen germination rates across all road types. Future studies should investigate other plant species that may be more sensitive to roadside pollution, such as economically important crops. Locations in which vehicle use is increasing and where pollutants are not regulated strictly should also be examined as the effects of airborne particulates in early plant reproduction would be expected to be more substantial in these areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Status of Programs for Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickerson, Neal C.

    1972-01-01

    Claiming that there's an aura of dissatisfaction with the present pre- and inservice programs for principals, the writer reports his findings about existing programs and suggested improvements. (Editor)

  2. Status of Programs for Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickerson, Neal C.

    1972-01-01

    Claiming that there's an aura of dissatisfaction with the present pre- and inservice programs for principals, the writer reports his findings about existing programs and suggested improvements. (Editor)

  3. Simulator of Road Tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danišovič, Peter; Schlosser, František; Šrámek, Juraj; Rázga, Martin

    2015-05-01

    A Tunnel Traffic & Operation Simulator is a device of the Centre of Transport Research at the University of Žilina. The Simulator allows managing technological equipment of virtual two-tube highway tunnel, which is interconnected with simulation of vehicle traffic in tunnel. Changes of the traffic-operation states and other equipment are reflecting at the simulated traffic, as well as simulations of various emergency events in traffic initiate changes in tunnel detecting and measuring devices. It is thus possible to simulate emergency states, which can be affected by various faults of technology as well as by climatic conditions. The solutions can be found in irreplaceable experiences of Slovak road tunnel operators, changes of trafficoperation states, visualizations of operator technological display screens, technological devices labelling in order to increase operational safety of road tunnels.

  4. School Principals' Sources of Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Arland Early

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine what sources of professional knowledge are available to principals in 1 rural East Tennessee school district. Qualitative research methods were applied to gain an understanding of what sources of knowledge are used by school principals in 1 rural East Tennessee school district and the barriers they face…

  5. Analysis of principal nested spheres.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sungkyu; Dryden, Ian L; Marron, J S

    2012-09-01

    A general framework for a novel non-geodesic decomposition of high-dimensional spheres or high-dimensional shape spaces for planar landmarks is discussed. The decomposition, principal nested spheres, leads to a sequence of submanifolds with decreasing intrinsic dimensions, which can be interpreted as an analogue of principal component analysis. In a number of real datasets, an apparent one-dimensional mode of variation curving through more than one geodesic component is captured in the one-dimensional component of principal nested spheres. While analysis of principal nested spheres provides an intuitive and flexible decomposition of the high-dimensional sphere, an interesting special case of the analysis results in finding principal geodesics, similar to those from previous approaches to manifold principal component analysis. An adaptation of our method to Kendall's shape space is discussed, and a computational algorithm for fitting principal nested spheres is proposed. The result provides a coordinate system to visualize the data structure and an intuitive summary of principal modes of variation, as exemplified by several datasets.

  6. Analysis of principal nested spheres

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Sungkyu; Dryden, Ian L.; Marron, J. S.

    2012-01-01

    Summary A general framework for a novel non-geodesic decomposition of high-dimensional spheres or high-dimensional shape spaces for planar landmarks is discussed. The decomposition, principal nested spheres, leads to a sequence of submanifolds with decreasing intrinsic dimensions, which can be interpreted as an analogue of principal component analysis. In a number of real datasets, an apparent one-dimensional mode of variation curving through more than one geodesic component is captured in the one-dimensional component of principal nested spheres. While analysis of principal nested spheres provides an intuitive and flexible decomposition of the high-dimensional sphere, an interesting special case of the analysis results in finding principal geodesics, similar to those from previous approaches to manifold principal component analysis. An adaptation of our method to Kendall’s shape space is discussed, and a computational algorithm for fitting principal nested spheres is proposed. The result provides a coordinate system to visualize the data structure and an intuitive summary of principal modes of variation, as exemplified by several datasets. PMID:23843669

  7. The Principal: Gatekeeper of Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Sandra C.

    The role of the principal as the key decision-maker, problem-solver, and agent of change at the school site is discussed in this paper. A review of the recent literature indicates the major ways in which this role may be enhanced to bring about school effectiveness. The first section discusses the skills necessary to be a principal in today's…

  8. Principals' Management Behavior, Personality Types and Physiological Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Bruce S.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Data from portable heart-rate monitors and work diaries were used to relate Mintzberg's "nature of managerial work" to physiological stress in small number of working principals over three complete work days. Principals found to be working under extreme stress for long hours, and certain activities were more stressful than others.…

  9. Principal Preparation Programs: Perceptions of High School Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Styron, Ronald A., Jr.; LeMire, Steven D.

    2009-01-01

    There has been an abundance of research documenting perceived deficiencies in traditional principal preparation programs, but little field data have been collected. As such, the authors of this study sought to assess the satisfaction of practitioners, high school principals, with their preparation programs. Questionnaires were received from 374…

  10. Principals' Perceptions of Successful Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childers, Gary L.

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this qualitative multiple case study were to determine the catalysts and pathways that caused principals to move from managers to effective leaders. Data were collected through a series of interviews with 4 principals who were selected through a purposeful sampling procedure. The interviews were audio recorded, transcribed, and…

  11. Selecting among three-mode principal component models of different types and complexities: a numerical convex hull based method.

    PubMed

    Ceulemans, Eva; Kiers, Henk A L

    2006-05-01

    Several three-mode principal component models can be considered for the modelling of three-way, three-mode data, including the Candecomp/Parafac, Tucker3, Tucker2, and Tucker1 models. The following question then may be raised: given a specific data set, which of these models should be selected, and at what complexity (i.e. with how many components)? We address this question by proposing a numerical model selection heuristic based on a convex hull. Simulation results show that this heuristic performs almost perfectly, except for Tucker3 data arrays with at least one small mode and a relatively large amount of error.

  12. Innovation Management Perceptions of Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakir, Asli Agiroglu

    2016-01-01

    This study is aimed to determine the perceptions of principals about innovation management and to investigate whether there is a significant difference in this perception according to various parameters. In the study, descriptive research model is used and universe is consisted from principals who participated in "Acquiring Formation Course…

  13. A Comparison of Bird Detection Rates Derived from On-Road vs. Off-Road Point Counts in Northern Montana

    Treesearch

    Richard L. Hutto; Sallie J. Hejl; Jeffrey F. Kelly; Sandra M. Pletschet

    1995-01-01

    We conducted a series of 275 paired (on- and off-road) point counts within 4 distinct vegetation cover types in northwestern Montana. Roadside counts generated a bird list that was essentially the same as the list generated from off-road counts within the same vegetation cover type. Species that were restricted to either on- or off-road counts were rare, suggesting...

  14. Elementary Principals' and Teachers' Perceptions of Their Principals' Supervisory Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vickers, Bettye Hamill; Sistrunk, Walter E.

    To influence teaching in a way that enhances and improves student learning is the school principal's responsibility. Because perceptions are more important than actual behavior, it is essential for principals to know if their perception of their supervisory actions is in agreement with the way their teachers perceive the same supervisory…

  15. Principals' Leadership Network. Focusing on the Image of the Principal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newby, Cheryl Riggins; Hayden, Hal

    2004-01-01

    A recent study by The National Association of Elementary School Principals (NAESP), Principals in the Public: Engaging Community Support (2000) found that communication, marketing, public affairs and public relations and engagement activities are now given more time and importance than ever before. According to the study, public support builds…

  16. Aerodynamics of road vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Hucho, W.H.

    1987-01-01

    This introduction to aerodynamic aspects of motor vehicle design will be of use both to vehicle designers and students of automobile engineering. Content covers vehicle systems, ventilation and aerodynamic design to reduce drag and increase stability of cars, commercial vehicles and PSVs. Topics considered include automobile aerodynamics; some fundamentals of fluid mechanics; performance of cars and light vans; aerodynamic drag of passenger cars; driving stability in sidewinds; operation, safety and comfort; high-performance vehicle aerodynamics; commercial vehicles; engine cooling systems; heating, ventilation and air conditioning of motor vehicles; wind tunnels for automobile aerodynamics; measuring and testing techniques; and numerical methods for computation of flow around road vehicles.

  17. Profile of a Successful Principal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Thais

    1985-01-01

    Dick Curland, principal of Valley View Elementary School in Portland, Connecticut, enhances his effectiveness by maintaining high visibility, communicating clearly and frequently with others, supporting his staff, and developing positive personal contact with individual students. (PGD)

  18. Conceptual design and analysis of roads and road construction machinery for initial lunar base operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sines, Jeffrey L.; Banks, Joel; Efatpenah, Keyanoush

    1990-01-01

    Recent developments have made it possible for scientists and engineers to consider returning to the Moon to build a manned lunar base. The base can be used to conduct scientific research, develop new space technology, and utilize the natural resources of the Moon. Areas of the base will be separated, connected by a system of roads that reduce the power requirements of vehicles traveling on them. Feasible road types for the lunar surface were analyzed and a road construction system was designed for initial lunar base operations. A model was also constructed to show the system configuration and key operating features. The alternate designs for the lunar road construction system were developed in four stages: analyze and select a road type; determine operations and machinery needed to produce the road; develop machinery configurations; and develop alternates for several machine components. A compacted lunar soil road was selected for initial lunar base operations. The only machinery required to produce this road were a grader and a compactor. The road construction system consists of a main drive unit which is used for propulsion, a detachable grader assembly, and a towed compactor.

  19. Conceptual design and analysis of roads and road construction machinery for initial lunar base operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sines, Jeffrey L.; Banks, Joel; Efatpenah, Keyanoush

    1990-06-01

    Recent developments have made it possible for scientists and engineers to consider returning to the Moon to build a manned lunar base. The base can be used to conduct scientific research, develop new space technology, and utilize the natural resources of the Moon. Areas of the base will be separated, connected by a system of roads that reduce the power requirements of vehicles traveling on them. Feasible road types for the lunar surface were analyzed and a road construction system was designed for initial lunar base operations. A model was also constructed to show the system configuration and key operating features. The alternate designs for the lunar road construction system were developed in four stages: analyze and select a road type; determine operations and machinery needed to produce the road; develop machinery configurations; and develop alternates for several machine components. A compacted lunar soil road was selected for initial lunar base operations. The only machinery required to produce this road were a grader and a compactor. The road construction system consists of a main drive unit which is used for propulsion, a detachable grader assembly, and a towed compactor.

  20. Not All Roads Lead to Rome--Comparing Different Types of Motivational Regulation Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwinger, Malte; Steinmayr, Ricarda; Spinath, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    The self-regulation of motivation represents a key feature of self-regulated learning. Recent studies have documented that students use a variety of strategies to sustain their learning motivation and that most of these strategies have positive effects. However, less is known about how students integrate the various motivational strategies into an…

  1. Data structure characterization of miltispectral data using principal component and principal factor analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jae K.; Mausel, Paul W.; Lulla, Kamlesh P.

    1989-01-01

    Both principal component analysis (PCA) and principal factor analysis (PFA) were used to analyze an experimental multispectral data structure in terms of common and unique variance. Only the common variance of the multispectral data was associated with the principal factor, while higher-order principal components were associated with both common and unique variance. The unique variance was found to represent small spectral variations within each cover type as well as noise vectors, and was most abundant in the lower-order principal components. The lower-order principal components can be useful in research designed to discriminate minor physical variations within features, and to highlight localized change when using multitemporal-multispectral data. Conversely, PFA of the multispectral data provided an insight into a great potential for discriminating basic land-cover types by excluding the unique variance which was related to the noise and minor spectral variations.

  2. A Matter of Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Geoffrey H.

    2009-01-01

    Scott McLeod says the great sin in the way professional development is provided in this country is one of omission. On his blog, McLeod, an associate professor in the Department of Educational Leadership and Policy Studies at Iowa State University and the coordinator of the department's Educational Administration Program, writes, "Most of our…

  3. A Matter of Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Geoffrey H.

    2009-01-01

    Scott McLeod says the great sin in the way professional development is provided in this country is one of omission. On his blog, McLeod, an associate professor in the Department of Educational Leadership and Policy Studies at Iowa State University and the coordinator of the department's Educational Administration Program, writes, "Most of our…

  4. Principals of hemodynamic monitoring.

    PubMed

    Polanco, Patricio M; Pinsky, Michael R

    2007-01-01

    Hemodynamic monitoring is the cornerstone of patient management in the intensive care unit. However, to be used effectively its applications and limitations need to be defined and its values applied within the context of proven therapeutic approaches. Review of the physiological basis for monitoring and a review of the literature on its utility in altering patient outcomes. Most forms of monitoring are used to prevent cardiovascular deterioration or restore cardiovascular wellness. However, little data support the generalized use of aggressive resuscitation protocols in all but the most acutely ill prior to the onset of organ injury. Outcomes improve with aggressive resuscitation in some patients presenting with early severe sepsis and in postoperative high-risk surgical patients. Monitoring should be targeted to meet the specific needs of the patient and should not be applied in a broad fashion and whenever possible it should be used as part of a treatment protocol of proven efficacy.

  5. Characteristics of Excellent Principals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batsis, Thomas M.

    Recent business and education publications have stressed the excellence concept and the pivotal role of the executive. While effective business leaders are thought to possess certain characteristics, no consensus exists concerning educational leaders' roles. Although instructional leadership has received most attention in education literature,…

  6. [Emission characteristics of paved roads fugitive dust in Beijing].

    PubMed

    Fan, Shou-bin; Tian, Gang; Li, Gang; Shao, Xia

    2007-10-01

    Based on sampling and laboratory analyzing silt loading of 82 city roads and 56 suburb paved roads in Beijing, we using AP-42 emission factor model studied emission characteristics of paved road fugitive dust, and analyzed two methods to determine silt loading of different roads. The results show that silt loading of expressway, major arterial, minor arterial and collectors in city areas is 0.17, 0.34, 1.48, 2.60 g/m2 respectively, and silt loading of national road, province road, county road, village road and municipal road in the suburbs areas is 0.18, 0.56, 1.58, 3.10, 1.58 g/m2 respectively. In the city areas, using the relationship of silt loading and traffic volume,and in the suburbs areas, using the average value of different type roads to determine the silt loading are better. Silt loading and emission factor are negatively correlated with traffic volume, but the emission strength is increased with the increase of traffic volume. Emission strength of different type roads was also studied. In the city areas, emission strength of major arterial is strongest and the value is 130.2 kg/(km x d), and in the suburbs areas, emission strength of national road is strongest and the value is 43.8 kg/(km x d).

  7. Road profile estimation of city roads using DTPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qi; McDaniel, J. Gregory; Sun, Nian X.; Wang, Ming L.

    2013-04-01

    This work presents a non-destructive and non-contact acoustic sensing approach for measuring road profile of road and bridge deck with vehicles running at normal speed without stopping traffic. This approach uses an instantaneous and real-time dynamic tire pressure sensor (DTPS) that can measure dynamic response of the tire-road interaction and increases the efficiency of currently used road profile measuring systems with vehicle body-mounted profilers and axle-mounted accelerometers. In this work, a prototype of real-time DTPS system has been developed and demonstrated on a testing van at speeds from 5 to 80 miles per hour (mph). A data analysis algorithm has been developed to remove axle dynamic motions from the measured DTPS data and to find the transfer function between dynamic tire pressure change and the road profile. Field test has been performed to estimate road profiles. The road profile resolution is approximately 5 to 10 cm in width and sensitivity is 0. 3 cm for the height road surface features at driving speeds of 5 to 80 mph.

  8. ROLE CONFLICTS OF SCHOOL PRINCIPALS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GROSS, NEAL; AND OTHERS

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY WAS TO ISOLATE THE ROLE CONFLICTS TO WHICH SCHOOL PRINCIPALS ARE EXPOSED, THE METHODS USED TO RESOLVE THEM, AND THE FREQUENCY WITH WHICH THEY OCCUR. THE SOCIAL MATRIX OF ROLE CONFLICT IS BASED ON DIFFERING EXPECTATIONS OF COGNITIVE BEHAVIOR INTERPRETATIONS. THUS, WHEN PARENTS, STUDENTS, TEACHERS, OTHER ADMINISTRATORS, AND…

  9. Impacts of road deicing salts on the early-life growth and development of a stream salmonid: Salt type matters.

    PubMed

    Hintz, William D; Relyea, Rick A

    2017-04-01

    The use of road deicing salts in regions that experience cold winters is increasing the salinity of freshwater ecosystems, which threatens freshwater resources. Yet, the impacts of environmentally relevant road salt concentrations on freshwater organisms are not well understood, particularly in stream ecosystems where salinization is most severe. We tested the impacts of deicing salts-sodium chloride (NaCl), magnesium chloride (MgCl2), and calcium chloride (CaCl2)-on the growth and development of newly hatched rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). We exposed rainbow trout to a wide range of environmentally relevant chloride concentrations (25, 230, 860, 1500, and 3000 mg Cl(-) L(-1)) over an ecologically relevant time period (25 d). We found that the deicing salts studied had distinct effects. MgCl2 did not affect rainbow trout growth at any concentration. NaCl had no effects at the lowest three concentrations, but rainbow trout length was reduced by 9% and mass by 27% at 3000 mg Cl(-) L(-1). CaCl2 affected rainbow trout growth at 860 mg Cl(-) L(-1) (5% reduced length; 16% reduced mass) and these effects became larger at higher concentrations (11% reduced length; 31% reduced mass). None of the deicing salts affected rainbow trout development. At sub-lethal and environmentally relevant concentrations, our results do not support the paradigm that MgCl2 is the most toxic deicing salt to fish, perhaps due to hydration effects on the Mg(2+) cation. Our results do suggest different pathways for lethal and sub-lethal effects of road salts. Scaled to the population level, the reduced growth caused by NaCl and CaCl2 at critical early-life stages has the potential to negatively affect salmonid recruitment and population dynamics. Our findings have implications for environmental policy and management strategies that aim to reduce the impacts of salinization on freshwater organisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Assessing impacts of roads: application of a standard assessment protocol

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duniway, Michael C.; Herrick, Jeffrey E.

    2013-01-01

    Adaptive management of road networks depends on timely data that accurately reflect the impacts those systems are having on ecosystem processes and associated services. In the absence of reliable data, land managers are left with little more than observations and perceptions to support management decisions of road-associated disturbances. Roads can negatively impact the soil, hydrologic, plant, and animal processes on which virtually all ecosystem services depend. The Interpreting Indicators of Rangeland Health (IIRH) protocol is a qualitative method that has been demonstrated to be effective in characterizing impacts of roads. The goal of this study were to develop, describe, and test an approach for using IIRH to systematically evaluate road impacts across large, diverse arid and semiarid landscapes. We developed a stratified random sampling approach to plot selection based on ecological potential, road inventory data, and image interpretation of road impacts. The test application on a semiarid landscape in southern New Mexico, United States, demonstrates that the approach developed is sensitive to road impacts across a broad range of ecological sites but that not all the types of stratification were useful. Ecological site and road inventory strata accounted for significant variability in the functioning of ecological processes but stratification based on apparent impact did not. Analysis of the repeatability of IIRH applied to road plots indicates that the method is repeatable but consensus evaluations based on multiple observers should be used to minimize risk of bias. Landscape-scale analysis of impacts by roads of contrasting designs (maintained dirt or gravel roads vs. non- or infrequently maintained roads) suggests that future travel management plans for the study area should consider concentrating traffic on fewer roads that are well designed and maintained. Application of the approach by land managers will likely provide important insights into

  11. The Principal's Role in Promoting Teachers' Extra-Role Behaviors: Some Insights from Road-Safety Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oplatka, Izhar

    2013-01-01

    The current study aimed to understand the principal's role in promoting or inhibiting the appearance of teacher organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB) in safety education. Based on semistructured interviews with 30 teachers and 10 principals working in the Israeli State Education System, it was found that the principal influences teacher OCB…

  12. The Principal's Role in Promoting Teachers' Extra-Role Behaviors: Some Insights from Road-Safety Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oplatka, Izhar

    2013-01-01

    The current study aimed to understand the principal's role in promoting or inhibiting the appearance of teacher organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB) in safety education. Based on semistructured interviews with 30 teachers and 10 principals working in the Israeli State Education System, it was found that the principal influences teacher OCB…

  13. Road electric generation system with use of solar power

    SciTech Connect

    Meiarashi, S.; Ohara, Toshimasa

    1997-09-01

    The temperature of road pavement surface becomes more than 70 C because of the solar power in summer. The characteristics of asphalt pavement on heat transfer and the relatively huge occupation with urban area have caused the heat-island phenomena. The phenomena increase the temperature and the energy consumption for conditioners. Road administrators have to keep the road pavement surface out of freezing in winter. For the purpose, the use of dusting powder becomes popular in recent days. However, the negative influence of the huge amount of the powder could not be ignored, for instance, corrosion of steel bridge and cars, water pollution, and soil pollution. Another way is a road heating system. The enormous electric energy consumption prevents the system from becoming popular. The authors have devised the new system that generates electric power and works as a road heating system. The authors call the system as ``Road Electric Generation System (REGS).`` The basic principal of the electric generation and road heating is Seebeck and Pertier effect, respectively. In this paper, the authors have calculated the electric power generated by the system, road surface temperature after introducing the system, and the heat radiation from the road surface.

  14. 4. General view of road with grey birch trees looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. General view of road with grey birch trees looking E. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Heintooga Round Bottom Road & Balsam Mountain Road, Between Blue Ridge Parkway & Big Cove Road, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  15. Perceived density of road maps.

    PubMed

    Schwartz-Chassidim, Hadas; Meyer, Joachim; Parmet, Yisrael; Rogatka, Efrat; Amzaleg, Ohad

    2014-11-01

    Maps should be designed so that users can comprehend and use the information. Display decisions, such as choosing the scale at which an area is shown, depend on properties of the displayed information such as the perceived density (PD) of the information. Taking a psychophysical approach we suggest that the PD of information in a road map is related to the scale and properties of the mapped area. 54 participants rated the PD of 60 maps from different regions. We provide a simple model that predicts the PD of electronic road map displays, using the logarithm of the number of roads, the logarithm of the number of junctions and the length of the shown roads. The PD model was cross-validated using a different set of 60 maps (n = 44). The model can be used for automatically adjusting display scales and for evaluating map designs, considering the required PD to perform a map-related task.

  16. Observations of Novae From ROAD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hambsch, F.-J.

    2014-12-01

    The author discusses observations of galactic novae and some extragalactic supernovae from his remote observatory ROAD (Remote Observatory Atacama Desert) he commenced in August 2011 with Nova Lupi 2011 (PR Lup). The observed novae are mainly chosen according to AAVSO Alert Notices and AAVSO Special Notices as published on their website. Examples of dense observations of different novae are presented. The focus goes to the different behaviors of their light curves. It also demonstrates the capability of the remote observatory ROAD.

  17. A neutralizing epitope of human papillomavirus type 11 is principally described by a continuous set of residues which overlap a distinct linear, surface-exposed epitope.

    PubMed Central

    Ludmerer, S W; Benincasa, D; Mark, G E; Christensen, N D

    1997-01-01

    A panel of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) which neutralize human papillomavirus type 11 (HPV11) in the athymic mouse xenograph neutralization assay and bind HPV11 virus-like particles (VLPs) has been described. We recently presented evidence that the Gly131-Tyr132 residues of the major capsid protein L1 confer type 11-specific binding. However, residues distally located on the primary L1 sequence also were shown to affect binding. This poses the question whether the epitope is principally centered in the region of Gly131-Tyr132 or, alternatively, is comprised of diversely located residues which come into proximity only upon proper assembly. We analyzed the result of numerous substitutions located between Tyr123 and Val142 of the HPV11 L1 sequence. We show that substitutions at five positions result in loss of binding for one or more of these MAbs by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay which measures antibody binding to VLPs. We demonstrate that binding of these MAbs is redirected to HPV16 VLPs which harbor eight type 11-like substitutions within the homologous region. Three of these substitutions did not affect binding when individually substituted in HPV11 but yet were still required to transfer binding to substituted HPV16 VLPs. The results demonstrate that the epitope for this class of neutralizing MAbs, although conformational and requiring VLP assembly for presentation, principally lies along a 20-residue stretch of the L1 major capsid protein. This targets the region for evaluation of the possibility of receptor binding and suggests possibilities for the design of peptide inhibitors of virus infectivity. PMID:9094659

  18. The Dilemma of Mountain Roads

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mountain roads and trails are proliferating throughout developing Southeast Asia with severe but largely unrecognized long-term consequences related to effects of landslides and surface erosion on communities and downstream resources.

  19. The Dilemma of Mountain Roads

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mountain roads and trails are proliferating throughout developing Southeast Asia with severe but largely unrecognized long-term consequences related to effects of landslides and surface erosion on communities and downstream resources.

  20. The contribution of on-road studies of road user behaviour to improving road safety.

    PubMed

    Lenné, Michael G

    2013-09-01

    For over 40 years transport safety researchers have been using methods of vehicle instrumentation to gain greater insights into the factors that contribute to road user crash risk and the associated crash factors. In the previous decade in particular the widespread availability of lower cost and more advanced methods of vehicle instrumentation and recording technologies are supporting the increasing number of on-road research studies worldwide. The design of these studies ranges from multi-method studies using instrumented test vehicles and defined driving routes, to field operational tests, through to much larger and more naturalistic studies. It is timely to assess the utility of these methods for studying the influences of driver characteristics and states, the design and operation of the road system, and the influences of in-vehicle technologies on behaviour and safety for various road user groups. This special issue considers the extent to which on-road studies using vehicle instrumentation have been used to advance knowledge across these areas of road safety research. The papers included in this issue illustrate how research using instrumented test vehicles continues to generate new knowledge, and how the larger scale United States and European naturalistic and field operational test studies are providing a wealth of data about road user behaviour in real traffic. This is balanced with a number of studies that present methodological developments in data collection and analysis methods that, while promising, need further validation. The use of on-road methods to accurately describe the behaviours occurring in everyday real-world conditions, to quantify risks for safety critical events, and an improved understanding of the factors that contribute to risk, clearly has huge potential to promote further road trauma reductions.

  1. The Need for Principal Renewal: The Promise of Sustaining Principals through Principal-to-Principal Reflective Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drago-Severson, Eleanor

    2012-01-01

    Background/Context: Given the challenging complexity of the modern principalship--including high-stakes testing, standards-based reform, increased accountability, and severe budget cuts--practitioners and scholars emphasize the urgency of supporting principals' stress-relief and renewal. Purpose/Objective/Research Question/Focus of Study: This…

  2. [Prevention of road accidents in the road haulage field].

    PubMed

    Rosso, G L; Zanelli, R; Corino, P; Bruno, S

    2007-01-01

    Every year many traffic accidents with fatal outcomes occur in our Country. According to the recent indications of the European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, the Piedmont region has financed the plan: Prevention of road accidents in the road haulage field. The aims of the plan are to stimulate transport companies to the target of road safety and to improve and enforce sanitary surveillance, in order to improve the safety on road haulage and to prevent traffic injuries. the plan foresees, over a period of two years, a few encounters with all the interested parties (companies, police forces, labour unions etc). During those encounters we have to give a questionnaire for evaluating the companies' knowledge about the problem and we have to choose a common plan with the aim of improving road safety. The Piedmont regional plan recalls the need to increase the attention to numerous and diversified hazards for safety on road haulage. It also imposes the choice of measures that include: risk assessment, health education, technical and environmental prevention, sanitary surveillance and clinical interventions (diagnosis and rehabilitation of occupational accidents).

  3. The Changing Role of the School Principal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    2014-01-01

    The role of the school principal has changed much in the recent intervening years. He/she was formerly thought of as a manager and management of the local school. Today the principal is seen as the leader of curriculum improvement. School principals must believe in pupils being able to achieve optimally in school and in life. Principals must…

  4. Leading Change: Principals' Stories of School Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Susan, Ed.

    This little book contains eight stories of school reform and leadership by eight public-school principals. Each principal leads a school that is a member of the Coalition of Essential Schools. The principals' stories are highly personal, often focusing more on the individual principal than on the reforms they brought about. Nevertheless, through…

  5. The Skills of Exemplary Principals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, John E.

    1990-01-01

    NASSP's Assessment Center Project has identified 12 key skills for successful principals: problem analysis, judgment, organizational ability, decisiveness, leadership, sensitivity, stress tolerance, oral communication, written communication, wide-ranging interests, personal motivation, and educational values. Effective principals succeed by…

  6. Physiological profiles of elite off-road and road cyclists.

    PubMed

    Wilber, R L; Zawadzki, K M; Kearney, J T; Shannon, M P; Disalvo, D

    1997-08-01

    There are minimal scientific data describing international caliber off-road cyclists (mountain bikers), particularly as they compare physiologically with international caliber road cyclists. Elite female (N = 10) and male (N = 10) athletes representing the United States National Off-Road Bicycle Association (NORBA) Cross-Country Team were compared with elite female (N = 10) and male (N = 10) athletes representing the United States Cycling Federation (USCF) National Road Team. Submaximal and maximal exercise responses were evaluated during the "championship" phase of the training year when athletes were in peak condition. All physiological tests were conducted at 1860 m. Among the female athletes, physiological responses at lactate threshold (LT) and during maximal exercise (MAX) were similar between NORBA and USCF cyclists with two exceptions: 1) USCF cyclists demonstrated a significantly greater (P < 0.05) absolute (16%) and relative (10%) maximal aerobic power, and 2) MAX heart rate was significantly higher (P < 0.05) for the USCF athletes (6%). Among the male athletes, physiological responses at LT and MAX were similar between NORBA and USCF cyclists with two exceptions: 1) USCF cyclists produced significantly greater (P < 0.05) absolute (18%) and relative (16%) power at LT, and 2) USCF cyclists produced significantly greater (P < 0.05) absolute (12%) and relative (10%) power at MAX. These data suggest that, in general, elite off-road cyclists possess physiological profiles that are similar to elite road cyclists.

  7. Where the Rubber Meets the Road: A Principal's Perspective on the Schoolwide Enrichment Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Nora

    2010-01-01

    This article provides a principal's perspective on how the Schoolwide Enrichment Model (SEM) has the power to change a school in amazing ways! The faculty and staff, the parents, and the students will perform beyond expectation when embarking on the SEM's enriched approach to learning and teaching. The model will become the catalyst for producing…

  8. Traffic mortality and the role of minor roads.

    PubMed

    van Langevelde, Frank; van Dooremalen, Coby; Jaarsma, Catharinus F

    2009-01-01

    Roads have large impacts on wildlife, as they form one of the principal causes of mortality, and disturbance and fragmentation of habitat. These impacts are mainly studied and mitigated on major roads. It is, however, a widespread misconception that most animals are killed on major roads. In this paper, we argue that minor roads have a larger impact on wildlife with respect to habitat destruction, noise load and traffic mortality. We use data on traffic related deaths in badgers (Meles meles) in The Netherlands to illustrate that traffic mortality is higher on minor roads. We ask for a more extensive investigation of the environmental impacts of minor roads. Moreover, we argue that the success of mitigation on roads drastically increases when both major and minor roads are integrated in the planning of traffic flows. Therefore, we propose a strategy based on the concept of a "traffic-calmed area". Traffic-calmed areas create opportunities for wildlife by decreasing limitations for animal movement. We ask for further studies to estimate what size traffic-calmed areas should be to maintain minimum viable animal populations.

  9. [Impacts of road network on forest landscape pattern in Great Xing' an Mountains of Northeast China].

    PubMed

    Li, Yue-Hui; Wu, Zhi-Feng; Chen, Hong-Wei; Li, Na-Na; Hu, Yuan-Man; Chang, Yu

    2012-08-01

    By characterizing the composition of road network in the Huzhong Forestry Bureau in Great Xing' an Mountains, Northeast China, we investigated the effects of road networks on landscape pattern by quantifying 1989 landscape pattern for each of the 17 forestry farms on maps with and without roads by principal component analysis (PCA). The results showed that road networks, including the main and secondary timber-transport roads, were distributed evenly among the observed 17 forestry farms with a density of 2.3 m x hm(-2) and spread along the river networks throughout each farm. The emergence of roads significantly altered the landscape pattern at the landscape level in each farm, which was characterized by landscape fragmentation involving a decline in patch area and an increase in patch number and distance among patches. Furthermore, no significant correlation was found between fragmentation and road density. The road network had more impact on fragmentation than on aggregation at the landscape level.

  10. Road traffic injury on rural roads in Tanzania: measuring the effectiveness of a road safety program.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Karen; Jinadasa, Deepani; Maegga, Bertha; Guerrero, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are a major public health burden, especially in low- and middle-income countries. There is limited data on RTIs in low-volume, rural African settings. This study attempted to survey all individuals living in households within 200 m of two low-volume rural roads in Tanzania and to collect data on RTIs. Local communities and users of the Bago to Talawanda road (intervention site) and Kikaro to Mihuga road (control site) were targeted and received an intensive program of road safety measures tailored using the crash characteristics of the baseline sample. Demographic data on all household members were collected, and those individuals who suffered an RTI in the previous 3 months had comprehensive information collected about the crash characteristics and the socioeconomic impact. The follow-up data collection occurred nine months after the baseline data were collected. The majority of crashes that caused an RTI involved a motorcycle (71%) and the majority of victims were male (82%) with an average age of 27. Injuries to the legs (55%) were most common and the average length of time away from normal activity was 27 (±33) days. RTI incidence at the intervention site increased during the course of the study (incidence before vs. incidence after) and was unchanged in the community control (incidence before vs. incidence after). The incidence of RTIs in the low-volume rural setting is unacceptably high and most commonly associated with motorcycles. The change in incidence is unreliable due to logistic restraints of the project and more research is needed to quantify the impact of various RTI prevention strategies in this setting. This study provides insight into road traffic injuries on low-volume rural roads, areas where very little research has been captured. Additionally, it provides a replicable study design for those interested in collecting similar data on low-volume rural roads.

  11. 16 CFR 500.21 - Type size in relationship to the area of the principal display panel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... bottoms of cans, and shoulders and necks of bottles and jars. This area shall be: (1) In the case of a... commodity times the circumference; and (3) In the case of any otherwise shaped container or commodity,...

  12. 2. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF WHITE ROCK ROAD, VIEW OF PROJECT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF WHITE ROCK ROAD, VIEW OF PROJECT AREA LOOKING TOWARD ELEVATED INTERSECTION OF LATROBE ROAD; VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Placerville Road, White Rock Road between Clarksville & White Rock, El Dorado Hills, El Dorado County, CA

  13. 1. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF WHITE ROCK ROAD, VIEW OF PROJECT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF WHITE ROCK ROAD, VIEW OF PROJECT AREA WITH INTERSECTION OF LATROBE ROAD SEEN IN UPPER LEFT; VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Placerville Road, White Rock Road between Clarksville & White Rock, El Dorado Hills, El Dorado County, CA

  14. 16 CFR 500.21 - Type size in relationship to the area of the principal display panel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... panel side, the product of the height times the width of that side; (2) In the case of a cylindrical or... commodity times the circumference; and (3) In the case of any otherwise shaped container or commodity, 40... panel of which has an area of 5 square inches or (32.2 cm 2) less. (2) Not less than 1/8 inch (3.1 mm...

  15. [Principals of high frequency surgery].

    PubMed

    Bergler, W F; Hörmann, K; Hammerschmitt, N; Huber, K

    2004-10-01

    Electrosurgical instruments are routinely and daily applied at a variety of indications in Otorhinolaryngology. They can be used for cutting, coagulation and devitalisation. All have in common that the high frequency energy is transported into the tissue via an instrument and by this causes a thermal change. Depending on the duration and characteristic of the electricity a vaporisation of the tissue is effected through coagulation, devitalisation and carbonisation. The knowledge of the effects on the tissue by the choice of the different instrument parameters and application systems is essential for an ingenious therapeutically indication. In principal the following application methods for electrosurgery by modulation of the high frequency parameters are distinguished: the monopolar and the bipolar coagulation and devitalisation and the monopolar and the bipolar cutting. This article deals with the physical basis, the effects in the tissue as well as the single application methods of the high frequency surgery.

  16. 16 CFR 500.21 - Type size in relationship to the area of the principal display panel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... display panel of the package or commodity and shall be uniform for all packages or commodities of...) When fractions are used, each component shall meet one-half the minimum height standards. (g) The...

  17. 16 CFR 500.21 - Type size in relationship to the area of the principal display panel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... shall not exceed a differential of 3 units to 1 unit (no more than 3 times as high as it is wide). (f... upper and lower case or all lowercase letters are used in SI metric symbols, it is the uppercase “L...

  18. Source diagnostics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban road runoff, dust, rain and canopy throughfall.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Shucai; Wan, Chao; Yue, Dapan; Ye, Youbin; Wang, Xuejun

    2008-06-01

    Diagnostic ratios and multivariate analysis were utilized to apportion polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) sources for road runoff, road dust, rain and canopy throughfall based on samples collected in an urban area of Beijing, China. Three sampling sites representing vehicle lane, bicycle lane and branch road were selected. For road runoff and road dust, vehicular emission and coal combustion were identified as major sources, and the source contributions varied among the sampling sites. For rain, three principal components were apportioned representing coal/oil combustion (54%), vehicular emission (34%) and coking (12%). For canopy throughfall, vehicular emission (56%), coal combustion (30%) and oil combustion (14%) were identified as major sources. Overall, the PAH's source for road runoff mainly reflected that for road dust. Despite site-specific sources, the findings at the study area provided a general picture of PAHs sources for the road runoff system in urban area of Beijing.

  19. Dust emission by off-road driving: Experiments on 17 arid soil types, Nevada, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goossens, Dirk; Buck, Brenda

    2009-06-01

    Field experiments were conducted in Nellis Dunes Recreational Area (Clark County, Nevada, USA) to investigate emission of dust produced by off-road driving. Experiments were carried out with three types of vehicles: 4-wheelers (quads), dirt bikes (motorcycles) and dune buggies, on 17 soil types characteristic for a desert environment. Tests were done at various driving speeds, and emissions were measured for a large number of grain size fractions. This paper reports the results for two size fractions of emissions: PM10 (particles < 10 μm) and PM60 (particles < 60 μm). The latter was considered in this study to be sufficiently representative of the total suspendable fraction (TSP). Off-road driving was found to be a significant source of dust. However, the amounts varied greatly with the type of soil and the characteristics of the top layer. Models predicting emission of dust by off-road driving should thus consider a number of soil parameters and not just one key parameter. Vehicle type and driving speed are additional parameters that affect emission. In general, 4-wheelers produce more dust than dune buggies, and dune buggies, more than dirt bikes. Higher speeds also result in higher emissions. Dust emitted by off-road driving is less coarse than the parent sediment on the road surface. Off-road driving thus results in a progressive coarsening of the top layer. Exceptions to this are silty surfaces with no, or almost no, vegetation. For such surfaces no substantial differences were observed between the grain size distribution of road dust and emitted dust. Typical emission values for off-road driving on dry desert soils are: for sandy areas, 30-40 g km - 1 (PM10) and 150-250 g km - 1 (TSP); for silty areas, 100-200 g km - 1 (PM10) and 600-2000 g km - 1 (TSP); for drainages, 30-40 g km - 1 (PM10) and 100-400 g km - 1 (TSP); and for mixed terrain, 60-100 g km - 1 (PM10) and 300-800 g km - 1 (TSP). These values are for the types of vehicles tested in this study and

  20. Nonlinear principal component analysis of climate data

    SciTech Connect

    Boyle, J.; Sengupta, S.

    1995-06-01

    This paper presents the details of the nonlinear principal component analysis of climate data. Topic discussed include: connection with principal component analysis; network architecture; analysis of the standard routine (PRINC); and results.

  1. Responsibilities of Today's Principal: Implications for Principal Preparation Programs and Principal Certification Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Jeremy M.

    2012-01-01

    Historically, principals served as disciplinarians and the teachers' boss. Under current federal legislation, principals now must accept the responsibility to manage personnel, funds, and strategic planning. Today's principals also must accept responsibilities associated with being their schools' instructional leaders. As instructional leaders,…

  2. Female Traditional Principals and Co-Principals: Experiences of Role Conflict and Job Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckman, Ellen Wexler; Kelber, Sheryl Talcott

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a secondary analysis of survey data focusing on role conflict and job satisfaction of 102 female principals. Data were collected from 51 female traditional principals and 51 female co-principals. By examining the traditional and co-principal leadership models as experienced by female principals, this paper addresses the impact…

  3. Perceptions of Isolation among High School Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Molly P.; Mallory, Barbara J.

    2008-01-01

    This study addressed the perceptions of isolation among high school principals in Georgia. The data collection process, in which interviews were conducted, provided insight into the lived experiences of 10 principals. One of the findings was that high school principals were relieved, in a sense, to discuss their perceptions of the…

  4. The Changing Role of the Secondary Principal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Rebecca H.; Cunningham, Michael L.; Childress, Ronald

    2003-01-01

    This article discusses the current role of the principal, how the role has changed, and how it should change. It also suggests that the principal shortage is an unintended consequence of these changes. In a national study, practitioners identified 45 descriptors of the principal's role. The analysis of the descriptors revealed four themes: role…

  5. Principal Perceptions of New Teacher Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepherd, Dan; Devers, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    Relatively little research has been conducted on the professional satisfaction of principals with recently hired beginning teachers. This study surveyed principals to learn their perspectives on these new teachers in relation to National Board Standards. Data were gathered using an online survey of 423 principals throughout the state of Indiana…

  6. Analyzing the Leadership Behavior of School Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulach, Clete; Boothe, Diane; Pickett, Winston

    2006-01-01

    The authors describe various methods of measuring a principal's leadership behavior. They have developed a new survey instrument that can be used to analyze the leadership behavior/style of a principal. The instrument consists of 49 positive and negative behaviors that measure how a principal interacts with staff in the following five leadership…

  7. Effects of road lighting on motorways.

    PubMed

    Wanvik, Per Ole

    2009-06-01

    The study has three objectives. The first is to investigate how the effect of road lighting on motorway accidents varies with different weather and road surface conditions. The second is to evaluate the future benefit of road lighting as a safety measure on motorways. The third is to evaluate the need for further research in the field of motorway lighting. This article presents a cross-sectional study of the effects of road lighting on motorways mainly in The Netherlands. The main source of data is a Dutch database of accidents covering the period 1987-2006, but British and Swedish data are also used. The effect of road lighting on motorways is found to be greater in The Netherlands than in Great Britain or Sweden. Reasons for this are not known. Effects are found to vary according to background characteristics and are lesser during precipitation than during fine weather and on wet road surfaces than on dry surfaces. No effect of road lighting is found during fog. Collision with light poles constitutes a large number of accidents on lit motorways and reduces the safety effect of road lighting. The effect of road lighting on injury accidents during darkness is found to be very high (-49%) on Dutch motorways. However, the effect seems to vary between countries. Collisions with light poles reduce the effect of road lighting. Road lighting will probably be an effective safety measures on motorways for many years. In the long term, however, the benefit of road lighting will probably be reduced along with the implementation of new vehicle and road technology. Modern technology permits a continuous adaptation of luminance levels to optimize the effect of road lighting on safety while at the same time minimizing energy consumption. However, more detailed knowledge concerning the effects of road lighting at different lighting levels is needed in order to use this technology effectively. Alternative or additional measures like LED guide lights and light road surfaces also

  8. Perception of road accident causes.

    PubMed

    Vanlaar, Ward; Yannis, George

    2006-01-01

    A theoretical two-dimensional model on prevalence and risk was developed. The objective of this study was to validate this model empirically to answer three questions: How do European drivers perceive the importance of several causes of road accidents? Are there important differences in perceptions between member states? Do these perceptions reflect the real significance of road accident causes? Data were collected from 23 countries, based on representative national samples of at least 1000 respondents each (n=24,372). Face-to-face interviews with fully licensed, active car drivers were conducted using a questionnaire containing closed answer questions. Respondents were asked to rate 15 causes of road accidents, each using a six-point ordinal scale. The answers were analyzed by calculating Kendall's tau for each pair of items to form lower triangle similarity matrices per country and for Europe as a whole. These matrices were then used as the input files for an individual difference scaling to draw a perceptual map of the 15 items involved. The hypothesized model on risk and prevalence fits the data well and enabled us to answer the three questions of concern. The subject space of the model showed that there are no relevant differences between the 23 countries. The group space of the model comprises four quadrants, each containing several items (high perceived risk/low perceived prevalence items; high perceived risk/high perceived prevalence items; low perceived risk/high perceived prevalence items and low perceived risk/low perceived prevalence items). Finally, perceptions of the items driving under the influence of alcohol, drugs and medicines and driving using a handheld or hands-free mobile phone are discussed with regard to their real significance in causing road accidents. To conclude, individual difference scaling offers some promising possibilities to study drivers' perception of road accident causes.

  9. 6. ELEVATED, OBLIQUE VIEW OF INTERSECTION INFRASTRUCTURE AT LATROBE ROAD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. ELEVATED, OBLIQUE VIEW OF INTERSECTION INFRASTRUCTURE AT LATROBE ROAD AND WHITE ROCK ROAD; VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Placerville Road, White Rock Road between Clarksville & White Rock, El Dorado Hills, El Dorado County, CA

  10. Behavioral responses of wolves to roads: scale-dependent ambivalence.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Barbara; Nelson, Lindsey; Wabakken, Petter; Sand, Håkan; Liberg, Olof

    2014-11-01

    Throughout their recent recovery in several industrialized countries, large carnivores have had to cope with a changed landscape dominated by human infrastructure. Population growth depends on the ability of individuals to adapt to these changes by making use of new habitat features and at the same time to avoid increased risks of mortality associated with human infrastructure. We analyzed the summer movements of 19 GPS-collared resident wolves (Canis lupus L.) from 14 territories in Scandinavia in relation to roads. We used resource and step selection functions, including >12000 field-checked GPS-positions and 315 kill sites. Wolves displayed ambivalent responses to roads depending on the spatial scale, road type, time of day, behavioral state, and reproductive status. At the site scale (approximately 0.1 km(2)), they selected for roads when traveling, nearly doubling their travel speed. Breeding wolves moved the fastest. At the patch scale (10 km(2)), house density rather than road density was a significant negative predictor of wolf patch selection. At the home range scale (approximately 1000 km(2)), breeding wolves increased gravel road use with increasing road availability, although at a lower rate than expected. Wolves have adapted to use roads for ease of travel, but at the same time developed a cryptic behavior to avoid human encounters. This behavioral plasticity may have been important in allowing the successful recovery of wolf populations in industrialized countries. However, we emphasize the role of roads as a potential cause of increased human-caused mortality.

  11. Behavioral responses of wolves to roads: scale-dependent ambivalence

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Lindsey; Wabakken, Petter; Sand, Håkan; Liberg, Olof

    2014-01-01

    Throughout their recent recovery in several industrialized countries, large carnivores have had to cope with a changed landscape dominated by human infrastructure. Population growth depends on the ability of individuals to adapt to these changes by making use of new habitat features and at the same time to avoid increased risks of mortality associated with human infrastructure. We analyzed the summer movements of 19 GPS-collared resident wolves (Canis lupus L.) from 14 territories in Scandinavia in relation to roads. We used resource and step selection functions, including >12000 field-checked GPS-positions and 315 kill sites. Wolves displayed ambivalent responses to roads depending on the spatial scale, road type, time of day, behavioral state, and reproductive status. At the site scale (approximately 0.1 km2), they selected for roads when traveling, nearly doubling their travel speed. Breeding wolves moved the fastest. At the patch scale (10 km2), house density rather than road density was a significant negative predictor of wolf patch selection. At the home range scale (approximately 1000 km2), breeding wolves increased gravel road use with increasing road availability, although at a lower rate than expected. Wolves have adapted to use roads for ease of travel, but at the same time developed a cryptic behavior to avoid human encounters. This behavioral plasticity may have been important in allowing the successful recovery of wolf populations in industrialized countries. However, we emphasize the role of roads as a potential cause of increased human-caused mortality. PMID:25419085

  12. Benefits and impacts of road removal

    Treesearch

    T. A. Switalski; J. A. Bissonette; T. H. Deluca; C. H. Luce; M. A. Madej

    2004-01-01

    Road removal is being used to mitigate the physical and ecological impacts of roads and to restore both public and private lands. Although many federal and state agencies and private landowners have created protocols for road removal and priorities for restoration, research has not kept pace with the rate of removal. Some research has been conducted on hydrologic and...

  13. A refreshing account of principal stratification.

    PubMed

    Mealli, Fabrizia; Mattei, Alessandra

    2012-01-01

    Pearl (2011) invites researchers to contribute to a discussion on the logic and utility of principal stratification in causal inference, raising some thought-provoking questions. In our commentary, we discuss the role of principal stratification in causal inference, describing why we view the principal stratification framework as useful for addressing causal inference problems where causal estimands are defined in terms of intermediate outcomes. We focus on mediation analysis and principal stratification analysis, showing that they generally involve different causal estimands and answer different questions. We argue that even when principal stratification may not answer the causal questions of primary interest, it can be a preliminary analysis of the data to assess the plausibility of identifying assumptions. We also discuss the use of principal stratification to address issues of surrogate outcomes. Our discussion stresses that a principal stratification analysis should account for all the principal strata and evaluate the distributions of potential outcomes in each of the principal strata. To this end, we view a Bayesian analysis particularly suited for drawing inference on principal strata membership and principal strata effects.

  14. EFFECT OF VEHICLE CHARACTERISTICS ON UNPAVED ROAD DUST EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents PM10 fugitive dust emission factors for a range of vehicles types and examines the influence of vehicle and wake characteristics on the strength of emissions from an unpaved road.

  15. EFFECT OF VEHICLE CHARACTERISTICS ON UNPAVED ROAD DUST EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents PM10 fugitive dust emission factors for a range of vehicles types and examines the influence of vehicle and wake characteristics on the strength of emissions from an unpaved road.

  16. Impact of road network on the structure of a multifunctional forest landscape unit in southern Turkey.

    PubMed

    Eker, Mehmet; Coban, Huseyin Oguz

    2010-01-01

    Forest roads have many kinds of direct and indirect effects such as physical, ecological, and socio-economic effects in landscape scale. In this study the relationship between forest road network and the structure of a multifunctionally planned forest landscape, in the south of Turkey was examined. The aim of the study was to determine whether or not the correlation between road network and landscape structure across a gradient of road density categorical road/no road approach and landscape pattern data from the managed forest landscapes existed. It was concerned with three type polygons that were forest functioning patches, compartments, and stand patches and were associated with higher road density or existing of road network. To quantify the case, it was analyzed whether the spatial structure of forest patches adjacent to roads differs from the spatial structure of forest patches away from roads. GIS was used to integrate quantitative indices of landscape structure. There was little negatively significant relationship between road density and patch area/size, patch perimeter and shape index of patton index (PI) and no correlation with patch number and Fractal Dimension (FD). The forest road network modified spatial pattern of patch shape through PI values. The road network increased the number of patch and decreased mean patch size. The existence of road network was more effective than topography index appearing of PI and FD in the roaded areas. It was indicated to potential reverse impacts of road network on spatial structure of forest compartments in terms of shape index (FD). Highest proportions of harvestable forest areas fall into roaded areas. The results define that road networks are effective on the spatial structure of forest landscape. The forest road network of study area has all probable ecological impacts of forest roads mentioned in context.

  17. Identifying Critical Road Geometry Parameters Affecting Crash Rate and Crash Type

    PubMed Central

    Othman, Sarbaz; Thomson, Robert; Lannér, Gunnar

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this traffic safety investigation was to find critical road parameters affecting crash rate (CR). The study was based on crash and road maintenance data from Western Sweden. More than 3000 crashes, reported from 2000 to 2005 on median-separated roads, were collected and combined with road geometric and surface data. The statistical analysis showed variations in CR when road elements changed confirming that road characteristics affect CR. The findings indicated that large radii right-turn curves were more dangerous than left curves, in particular, during lane changing manoeuvres. However sharper curves are more dangerous in both left and right curves. Moreover, motorway carriageways with no or limited shoulders have the highest CR when compared to other carriageway widths, while one lane carriageway sections on 2+1 roads were the safest. Road surface results showed that both wheel rut depth and road roughness have negative impacts on traffic safety. PMID:20184841

  18. Analysis of loss of time value during road maintenance project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudarsana, Dewa Ketut; Sanjaya, Putu Ari

    2017-06-01

    Lane closure is frequently performed in the execution of the road maintenance project. It has a negative impact on road users such as the loss of vehicle operating costs and the loss of time value. Nevertheless, analysis on loss of time value in Indonesia has not been carried out. The parameter of time value for the road users was the minimum wage city/region approach. Vehicle speed of pre-construction was obtained by observation, while the speed during the road maintenance project was predicted by the speed of the pre-construction by multiplying it with the speed adjustment factor. In the case of execution of the National road maintenance project in the two-lane two-way urban and interurban road types in the fiscal year of 2015 in Bali province, the loss of time value was at the average of IDR 12,789,000/day/link road. The relationship of traffic volume and loss of time value of the road users was obtained by a logarithm model.

  19. 2. VIEW OF SWITCHBACKS IN FORESTA ROAD (OLD DAVIS CUTOFF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF SWITCHBACKS IN FORESTA ROAD (OLD DAVIS CUT-OFF ROAD). NOTE FORESTA ROAD BRIDGE IN LOWER LEFT. ROAD CURVE HIDDEN IN TREES AT CENTER. NOTE ROAD CUT AT LEFT. LOOKING SSW. GIS: N-37"40'47.4"/W-119"47'22.2 - Foresta Road, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  20. Lateral/basolateral amygdala serotonin type-2 receptors modulate operant self-administration of a sweetened ethanol solution via inhibition of principal neuron activity

    PubMed Central

    McCool, Brian A.; Christian, Daniel T.; Fetzer, Jonathan A.; Chappell, Ann M.

    2014-01-01

    The lateral/basolateral amygdala (BLA) forms an integral part of the neural circuitry controlling innate anxiety and learned fear. More recently, BLA dependent modulation of self-administration behaviors suggests a much broader role in the regulation of reward evaluation. To test this, we employed a self-administration paradigm that procedurally segregates “seeking” (exemplified as lever-press behaviors) from consumption (drinking) directed at a sweetened ethanol solution. Microinjection of the nonselective serotonin type-2 receptor agonist, alpha-methyl-5-hydroxytryptamine (α-m5HT) into the BLA reduced lever pressing behaviors in a dose-dependent fashion. This was associated with a significant reduction in the number of response-bouts expressed during non-reinforced sessions without altering the size of a bout or the rate of responding. Conversely, intra-BLA α-m5HT only modestly effected consumption-related behaviors; the highest dose reduced the total time spent consuming a sweetened ethanol solution but did not inhibit the total number of licks, number of lick bouts, or amount of solution consumed during a session. In vitro neurophysiological characterization of BLA synaptic responses showed that α-m5HT significantly reduced extracellular field potentials. This was blocked by the 5-HT2A/C antagonist ketanserin suggesting that 5-HT2-like receptors mediate the behavioral effect of α-m5HT. During whole-cell patch current-clamp recordings, we subsequently found that α-m5HT increased action potential threshold and hyperpolarized the resting membrane potential of BLA pyramidal neurons. Together, our findings show that the activation of BLA 5-HT2A/C receptors inhibits behaviors related to reward-seeking by suppressing BLA principal neuron activity. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that the BLA modulates reward-related behaviors and provides specific insight into BLA contributions during operant self-administration of a sweetened ethanol solution

  1. Co-Principals: Characteristics of Dual Leadership Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckman, Ellen Wexler

    2006-01-01

    A co-principal leadership model has been suggested as one way to address the shortage of qualified educational leaders for our schools and the increased demands on those leaders. The purpose of this study is to describe co-principals in terms of their personal and professional characteristics; the types of leadership models implemented in the…

  2. New optimization strategies of pavement maintenance: A case study for national road network in Indonesia using integrated road management system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamdi, Hadiwardoyo, Sigit P.; Correia, A. Gomes; Pereira, Paulo

    2017-06-01

    A road network requires timely maintenance to keep the road surface in good condition onward better services to improve accessibility and mobility. Strategies and maintenance techniques must be chosen in order to maximize road service level through cost-effective interventions. This approach requires an updated database, which the road network in Indonesia is supported by a manual and visual survey, also using NAASRA profiler. Furthermore, in this paper, the deterministic model of deterioration was used. This optimization model uses life cycle cost analysis (LCCA), applied in an integrated manner, using IRI indicator, and allows determining the priority of treatment, type of treatment and its relation to the cost. The purpose of this paper was focussed on the aspects of road maintenance management, i.e., maintenance optimization models for different levels of traffic and various initial of road distress conditions on the national road network in Indonesia. The implementation of Integrated Road Management System (IRMS) can provide a solution to the problem of cost constraints in the maintenance of the national road network. The results from this study found that as the lowest as agency cost, it will affect the increasing of user cost. With the achievement of the target plan scenario Pl000 with initial value IRI 2, it was found that the routine management throughout the year and in early reconstruction and periodic maintenance with a 30 mm thick overlay, will simultaneously provide a higher net benefit value and has the lowest total cost of transportation.

  3. 3. View of collapsed structure (type A) next to type ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. View of collapsed structure (type A) next to type B structure, facing east-northeast - Nevada Test Site, Japanese Village, Area 4, Yucca Flat, 4-04 Road near Rainier Mesa Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  4. The "homogamy" of road rage revisited.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Lynne D; Indermaur, David W

    2008-01-01

    The principle of homogamy, the tendency for victims and offenders to share behavioral and demographic characteristics, has been applied to various forms of violent crime. This article explores how this principle relates to types of "road rage" using a survey of 1208 Australian drivers. Two-thirds of drivers who perpetrated violent forms of road rage also reported being victims of the same crime, providing support for the homogamy thesis. Perpetrators were predominantly young males with low socioeconomic status who lacked the ability to control their temper. Perpetrator-victims were more likely than other victims to have a history of driving violations and higher levels of general aggression and report more frequent aggressive driving behaviors. The implications for theories of violence are discussed.

  5. Road safety and road traffic accidents in Saudi Arabia. A systematic review of existing evidence.

    PubMed

    Mansuri, Farah A; Al-Zalabani, Abdulmohsen H; Zalat, Marwa M; Qabshawi, Reem I

    2015-04-01

    To identify the changing trends and crucial preventive approaches to road traffic accidents (RTAs) adopted in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) over the last 2.5 decades, and to analyze aspects previously overlooked. This systematic review was based on evidence of RTAs in KSA. All articles published during the last 25 years on road traffic accident in KSA were analyzed. This study was carried out from December 2013 to May 2014 in the Department of Family and Community Medicine, Taibah University, Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah, KSA. Road traffic accidents accounted for 83.4% of all trauma admissions in 1984-1989, and no such overall trend was studied thereafter. The most frequently injured body regions as reported in the latest studies were head and neck, followed by upper and lower extremities, which was found to be opposite to that of the studies reported earlier. Hospital data showed an 8% non-significant increase in road accident mortalities in contrast to police records of a 27% significant reduction during the years 2005-2010. Excessive speeding was the most common cause reported in all recent and past studies. Disparity was common in the type of reporting of RTAs, outcome measures, and possible causes over a period of 2.5 decade. All research exclusively looked into the drivers' faults. A sentinel surveillance of road crashes should be kept in place in the secondary and tertiary care hospitals for all regions of KSA.

  6. Determination of road dust loadings and chemical characteristics using resuspension.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianhua; Wang, Wei; Liu, Hongjie; Ren, Lihong

    2012-03-01

    The contribution of fugitive dust from traffic to air pollution can no longer be ignored in China. In order to obtain the road dust loadings and to understand the chemical characteristics of PM(10) and PM(2.5) from typical road dust, different paved roads in eight districts of Beijing were selected for dust collection during the four seasons of 2005. Ninety-eight samples from 28 roads were obtained. The samples were resuspended using equipment assembled to simulate the rising process of road dust caused by the wind or wheels in order to obtain the PM(10) and PM(2.5) filter samples. The average road dust loading was 3.82 g m(-2), with the highest of 24.22 g m(-2) being in Hutongs in the rural-urban continuum during winter. The road dust loadings on higher-grade roads were lower than those on lower-grade roads. Attention should be paid to the pollution in the rural-urban continuum areas. The sums of element abundances measured were 16.17% and 18.50% for PM(10) and PM(2.5) in road dust. The average abundances of OC and EC in PM(10) and PM(2.5) in road dust were 11.52%, 2.01% and 12.50%, 2.06%, respectively. The abundance of elements, water-soluble ions, and OC, EC in PM(10) and PM(2.5) resuspended from road dust did not change greatly with seasons and road types. The soil dust, construction dust, dust emitted from burning coal, vehicle exhaust, and deposition of particles in the air were the main sources of road dust in Beijing. Affected by the application of snow-melting agents in Beijing during winter, the amount of Cl( - ) and Na( + ) was much higher during that time than in the other seasons. This will have a certain influence on roads, bridges, vegetations, and groundwater.

  7. NCA Principals' Perception of their Principalship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanavage, John A.

    1972-01-01

    In general, NCA secondary principals perceive their fundamental role to be that of educational leadership, with management, crisis resolution, and even general administration being quite subordinate functions. (Author)

  8. Factors and motives of unsafe behaviors of road users.

    PubMed

    Boudrifa, H; Bouhafs, A; Touil, M; Tabtroukia, F

    2012-01-01

    A questionnaire to measure factors and motives of unsafe behaviors of road users was constructed. This study tool was applied on a final sample of 5586 drivers in twelve out of forty eight districts in Algeria. The aim of the present study was to sort out the different factors and motives that make road users opt for the unsafe behaviors. The latter were determined mainly on the results of a previous study carried out on a final sample of 7058 drivers in twelve out of forty eight districts in Algeria in order to find the most frequent and dangerous unsafe behaviors of road users. The main unsafe and dangerous behaviors were then used in the present study. Friedman ranking means test was applied to rank the factors and motives selected under each unsafe behavior of road users. The whole results were summarised in seven axes of factors and motives causing: dangerous manoeuvrings by drivers, aggressive behaviors by drivers, negligence and ignorance of maintenance principals by drivers, lack of responsibility and engagement by drivers, cyclists and motorcyclists and their companions, as well as pedestrians and workers of road maintenance. The results are discussed in view of the previous studies and many recommendations have been made.

  9. A review of models relevant to road safety.

    PubMed

    Hughes, B P; Newstead, S; Anund, A; Shu, C C; Falkmer, T

    2015-01-01

    It is estimated that more than 1.2 million people die worldwide as a result of road traffic crashes and some 50 million are injured per annum. At present some Western countries' road safety strategies and countermeasures claim to have developed into 'Safe Systems' models to address the effects of road related crashes. Well-constructed models encourage effective strategies to improve road safety. This review aimed to identify and summarise concise descriptions, or 'models' of safety. The review covers information from a wide variety of fields and contexts including transport, occupational safety, food industry, education, construction and health. The information from 2620 candidate references were selected and summarised in 121 examples of different types of model and contents. The language of safety models and systems was found to be inconsistent. Each model provided additional information regarding style, purpose, complexity and diversity. In total, seven types of models were identified. The categorisation of models was done on a high level with a variation of details in each group and without a complete, simple and rational description. The models identified in this review are likely to be adaptable to road safety and some of them have previously been used. None of systems theory, safety management systems, the risk management approach, or safety culture was commonly or thoroughly applied to road safety. It is concluded that these approaches have the potential to reduce road trauma.

  10. The Daily Practices of Successful Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Barbara L.; Grady, Marilyn L.

    2011-01-01

    While many books outline the attributes of successful school leaders, few describe how those traits manifest in daily practice. "The Daily Practices of Successful Principals" goes beyond the outward picture of excellence and provides a compendium of daily practices used by successful principals in various settings. Written by former administrators…

  11. Evaluation Priorities of Students, Teachers, and Principals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevo, David; Stufflebeam, Daniel L.

    The main purposes of this study were to identify the evaluation needs of students, teachers, and principals, and to develop recommendations for an evaluation system within the school building. Students, teachers, and principals were surveyed to depict the availability and importance of eight different categories of evaluative information derived…

  12. Superintendents' Perceptions of the Principal Shortage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pijanowski, John C.; Hewitt, Paul M.; Brady, Kevin P.

    2009-01-01

    The research literature on the principal shortage is inconsistent regarding the actual scope of the shortage and a clear articulation of factors contributing to the successful recruitment and retention of today's school leaders. Often, critical data related to the principal shortage are ignored, including the number of younger principals…

  13. The Daily Practices of Successful Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Barbara L.; Grady, Marilyn L.

    2011-01-01

    While many books outline the attributes of successful school leaders, few describe how those traits manifest in daily practice. "The Daily Practices of Successful Principals" goes beyond the outward picture of excellence and provides a compendium of daily practices used by successful principals in various settings. Written by former administrators…

  14. Career Paths of Female Elementary Assistant Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baier, Hope C.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to explore the worklife experiences and personal issues of female elementary assistant principals and examine the influence of these factors on their intent to remain in their position or leave. The worklife experiences and perceptions of female elementary assistant principals were categorized as institutional or…

  15. An Examination of Principal Job Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pengilly, Michelle M.

    2010-01-01

    As education continues to succumb to deficits in budgets and increasingly high levels of student performance to meet the federal and state mandates, the quest to sustain and retain successful principals is imperative. The National Association of School Boards (1999) portrays effective principals as "linchpins" of school improvement and…

  16. Management Philosophies of Primary School Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tas, Said

    2011-01-01

    The study aimed to determine the management philosophies of primary school principals. Stratification method of sampling was used in the study. The study sample consisted of 33 school principals and 132 teachers serving at primary education schools in Isparta in the academic year 2008-2009. The "Manager Philosophy Scale" developed by Tanriogen and…

  17. Perceived Educational Values of Omani School Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Ani, Wajeha Thabit; Al-Harthi, Aisha Salim

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative study investigated the perceived educational values of Omani school principals. Data were collected using a semi-structured interview form which focused on the core values of school administration as perceived by a sample of 44 school principals; a focus group interview was also held. Data were analysed using Nvivo software. The…

  18. Perceived Educational Values of Omani School Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Ani, Wajeha Thabit; Al-Harthi, Aisha Salim

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative study investigated the perceived educational values of Omani school principals. Data were collected using a semi-structured interview form which focused on the core values of school administration as perceived by a sample of 44 school principals; a focus group interview was also held. Data were analysed using Nvivo software. The…

  19. Performance analysis of robust road sign identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Nursabillilah M.; Mustafah, Y. M.; Rashid, N. K. A. M.

    2013-12-01

    This study describes performance analysis of a robust system for road sign identification that incorporated two stages of different algorithms. The proposed algorithms consist of HSV color filtering and PCA techniques respectively in detection and recognition stages. The proposed algorithms are able to detect the three standard types of colored images namely Red, Yellow and Blue. The hypothesis of the study is that road sign images can be used to detect and identify signs that are involved with the existence of occlusions and rotational changes. PCA is known as feature extraction technique that reduces dimensional size. The sign image can be easily recognized and identified by the PCA method as is has been used in many application areas. Based on the experimental result, it shows that the HSV is robust in road sign detection with minimum of 88% and 77% successful rate for non-partial and partial occlusions images. For successful recognition rates using PCA can be achieved in the range of 94-98%. The occurrences of all classes are recognized successfully is between 5% and 10% level of occlusions.

  20. Speciation distribution and mass balance of copper and zinc in urban rain, sediments, and road runoff.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Xiaojun; Fu, Dafang; Li, He

    2012-11-01

    Heavy metal pollution in road runoff had caused widespread concern since the last century. However, there are little references on metal speciation in multiple environmental media (e.g., rain, road sediments, and road runoff). Our research targeted the investigation of metal speciation in rain, road sediments, and runoff; the analysis of speciation variation and mass balance of metals among rain, road sediments, and runoff; the selection of main factors by principal component analysis (PCA); and the establishment of equation to evaluate the impact of rain and road sediments to metals in road runoff. Sequential extraction procedure contains five steps for the chemical fractionation of metals. Flame atomic absorption spectrometry (Shimadzu, AA-6800) was used to determine metal speciation concentration, as well as the total and dissolved fractions. The dissolved fractions for both Cu and Zn were dominant in rain. The speciation distribution of Zn was different from that of Cu in road sediments, while speciation distribution of Zn is similar to that of Cu in runoff. The bound to carbonates for both Cu and Zn in road sediments were prone to be dissolved by rain. The levels of Cu and Zn in runoff were not obviously influenced by rain, but significantly influenced by road sediments. The masses for both Cu and Zn among rain, road sediments, and road runoff approximately meet the mass balance equation for all rainfall patterns. Five principal factors were selected for metal regression equation based on PCA, including rainfall, average rainfall intensity, antecedent dry periods, total suspended particles, and temperature. The established regression equations could be used to predict the effect of road runoff on receiving environments.

  1. Legal Aspects of the Principal's Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gluckman, Ivan B.

    Principals still are not differentiated from teachers under the law of many states, even though their duties and responsibilities differ. This situation has begun to change as a result of court action by principals at the state level, which is discussed in this paper. Although administrative tenure is rare, it presents special problems when…

  2. Effective Principals: Knowledge, Talent, Spirit of Inquiry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Carol

    1983-01-01

    To explore the principal's role as instructional leader in school improvement strategies, this research brief focuses on characteristics of effective schools, a profile of effective principals, and a discussion with Dr. Steven Bossert, Associate Laboratory Director for Research and Development at Far West Laboratory in San Francisco, California,…

  3. The Principal and the Issue of Negligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Permuth, Steve

    1998-01-01

    Individuals wishing to establish a legal negligence claim against a principal must first present evidence of recognizable duty (adequate supervision); breach of duty; proximate cause; and injury. Wise principals schedule periodic meetings to review safety measures, focus on vulnerable areas, designate an emergency stand-in, review equipment and…

  4. Investigating Roles of Online School Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quilici, Sarah B.; Joki, Russell

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the instructional leadership skills required from online principals, as defined by one state's (Idaho) adaptation of the Interstate School Leaders Licensure Consortium (ISLLC) standards (1996) as a requirement for professional certification. Specifically, this qualitative study examined six sets of paired online principals and…

  5. The Principal and the Issue of Negligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Permuth, Steve

    1998-01-01

    Individuals wishing to establish a legal negligence claim against a principal must first present evidence of recognizable duty (adequate supervision); breach of duty; proximate cause; and injury. Wise principals schedule periodic meetings to review safety measures, focus on vulnerable areas, designate an emergency stand-in, review equipment and…

  6. Professional Development: Perceptions of Benefits for Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaik Hourani, Rida; Stringer, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Schools in Abu Dhabi are going through change and reform. Abu Dhabi Education Council (ADEC) has initiated professional development for principals to facilitate change and school improvement. This paper explores principals' perception on the benefits of professional development received in light of managing school change and reforms.…

  7. Professional Development: Perceptions of Benefits for Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaik Hourani, Rida; Stringer, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Schools in Abu Dhabi are going through change and reform. Abu Dhabi Education Council (ADEC) has initiated professional development for principals to facilitate change and school improvement. This paper explores principals' perception on the benefits of professional development received in light of managing school change and reforms.…

  8. Sound recordings of road maintenance equipment on the Lincoln National Forest, New Mexico

    Treesearch

    D. K. Delaney; T. G. Grubb

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to record, characterize, and quantify road maintenance activity in Mexican spotted owl (Strix occidentalis lucida) habitat to gauge potential sound level exposure for owls during road maintenance activities. We measured sound levels from three different types of road maintenance equipment (rock crusherlloader,...

  9. Revising the Role of Principal Supervisor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saltzman, Amy

    2016-01-01

    In Washington, D.C., and Tulsa, Okla., districts whose efforts are supported by the Wallace Foundation, principal supervisors concentrate on bolstering their principals' work to improve instruction, as opposed to focusing on the managerial or operational aspects of running a school. Supervisors oversee fewer schools, which enables them to provide…

  10. Geographical Distribution of Principals in Israeli Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lebental, Dana M.

    2015-01-01

    This quantitative investigation focuses on women high school principals at Jewish secular schools throughout Israel. Despite challenges, Israeli women have succeeded in obtaining over half of the principal positions at Jewish secular high schools, but the degree to which there is equal gender access to leadership roles in the school system remains…

  11. Exploring Principals' Perceptions of Supervised Agricultural Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rayfield, John; Wilson, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the perceptions of principals at high schools with agricultural education programs in regard to Supervised Agricultural Experience (SAE). There is evidence that suggests that high school principals' attitudes may both directly and indirectly affect factors that influence school climate and student achievement. In this study,…

  12. Revising the Role of Principal Supervisor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saltzman, Amy

    2016-01-01

    In Washington, D.C., and Tulsa, Okla., districts whose efforts are supported by the Wallace Foundation, principal supervisors concentrate on bolstering their principals' work to improve instruction, as opposed to focusing on the managerial or operational aspects of running a school. Supervisors oversee fewer schools, which enables them to provide…

  13. New Principals' Perspectives of Their Multifaceted Roles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentilucci, James L.; Denti, Lou; Guaglianone, Curtis L.

    2013-01-01

    This study utilizes Symbolic Interactionism to explore perspectives of neophyte principals. Findings explain how these perspectives are modified through complex interactions throughout the school year, and they also suggest preparation programs can help new principals most effectively by teaching "soft" skills such as active listening…

  14. Elementary school principals' perceptions of childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Price, J H; Desmond, S M; Stelzer, C M

    1987-11-01

    This survey assessed school principals' perceptions regarding childhood obesity and the schools' role in dealing with the problem. A randomly selected group of 300 school principals was obtained from the National Association of Elementary School Principals; 227 (76%) administrators returned the questionnaire. Fifty-one percent of the principals believed normal weight was important to child health. Although 35% believed schools were not doing enough to alleviate childhood obesity, responses suggested principals oppose schools becoming obesity treatment centers. They do not believe teachers or parents would support such programs. They perceived the school's role to be educational and referral in nature. However, they supported elimination of "junk food" machines (71%) and provision of low calorie lunches (60%). They believed school nurses play the most important role in treating childhood obesity at school.

  15. The Road of Mentorship.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Kelly J; Patt, Debra A; Prabhu, Roshan S

    2017-01-01

    Mentorship can be the cornerstone of professional development and career satisfaction. There is literature to support that mentorship not only improves job satisfaction, but also improves productivity, facilitates personal growth, and can rekindle our passion while lessening the risk of compassion fatigue. Mentorship is a developmental relationship that changes as the relationship evolves. There are two broad categories of mentorship: traditional and transformational. There are four subtypes within each of those areas: formal, informal, spot, or peer. Mentorship is critical to the professional development of junior colleagues. Good mentorship is guiding and steering younger partners and other colleagues toward paths of success. As a mentor, one should be looking for opportunities for formal professional development and engagement of mentees. Self-motivation is the hallmark of the successful mentee. The mentee should be able to set his or her own goals, strive to actively seek feedback, ask questions, and keep an accurate record of progress. Although the onus is on the mentee to reach out, mentorship has bidirectional value directly related to the efforts of both parties. There are many benefits to mentorship, such as the promotion of learning, personal development, improved job satisfaction, and improved job performance. Barriers exist, including the rapidly changing landscape of oncology, time constraints, lack of self-awareness, and generational differences. Through a career, mentoring needs will change, as will mentors.

  16. BOOK REVIEW OF "ECOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF ROADS"

    EPA Science Inventory

    Throughout the world, roads have become a permanent part of our environment. The ecological effects of roads and traffic are as consequential as other topical issues such as losses in biological diversity and damage by exotic and invasive species. However, this issue has usuall...

  17. BOOK REVIEW OF "ECOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF ROADS"

    EPA Science Inventory

    Throughout the world, roads have become a permanent part of our environment. The ecological effects of roads and traffic are as consequential as other topical issues such as losses in biological diversity and damage by exotic and invasive species. However, this issue has usuall...

  18. Ring Roads of Resources

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    Nation-Building Agency,‖ Government Executive, 3 May 2004. 77 Hamblet , William. ―PDD 56 and Complex Contingency Operations,‖ Joint Forces Quarterly...51-58. Haass, Richard N. “The Use and Abuse of Military Force,” Brookings Policy Brief Series, 10 February 2010. 21 Hamblet , William P. “PDD

  19. Relationship between Principals' Sense of Achievement and Teachers' Perceptions of Their Principals' Leadership Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siddiqi, Javaid Edward

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the relationship between principals' sense of achievement and teachers' perceptions of their principals' leadership behaviors. This was determined by examining job satisfaction of principals and leadership style using the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ) and the School District's Climate Survey.…

  20. Relationship between Principals' Sense of Achievement and Teachers' Perceptions of Their Principals' Leadership Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siddiqi, Javaid Edward

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the relationship between principals' sense of achievement and teachers' perceptions of their principals' leadership behaviors. This was determined by examining job satisfaction of principals and leadership style using the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ) and the School District's Climate Survey.…

  1. The Use of Theatre Tours in Road Safety Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powney, Janet; And Others

    The Scottish Road Safety Campaign and the Road Safety Council of Wales have made a large investment in theater tours as a method of providing road safety education. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a road safety message delivered by a theater group, Road Safety Officers (RSOs), or, teachers for pupils in upper secondary classes.…

  2. 7. OBLIQUE VIEW OF CULVERT UNDER LATROBE ROAD WEST OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. OBLIQUE VIEW OF CULVERT UNDER LATROBE ROAD WEST OF THE WHITE ROCK RD. INTERSECTION; VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Placerville Road, White Rock Road between Clarksville & White Rock, El Dorado Hills, El Dorado County, CA

  3. Aspiring Principals' Perception of the Challenges of Beginning Principals and the Support That They Need

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Pak Tee

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an exploratory research project about the perception of aspiring principals regarding the challenges of beginning principals and the support that they need. These aspiring principals are participants on the Leaders in Education Programme (LEP) in Singapore. According to the research findings, the LEP participants…

  4. Aspiring Principals' Perception of the Challenges of Beginning Principals and the Support That They Need

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Pak Tee

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an exploratory research project about the perception of aspiring principals regarding the challenges of beginning principals and the support that they need. These aspiring principals are participants on the Leaders in Education Programme (LEP) in Singapore. According to the research findings, the LEP participants…

  5. [Medical coverage of a road bicycle race].

    PubMed

    Reifferscheid, Florian; Stuhr, Markus; Harding, Ulf; Schüler, Christine; Thoms, Jürgen; Püschel, Klaus; Kappus, Stefan

    2010-07-01

    Major sport events require adequate expertise and experience concerning medical coverage and support. Medical and ambulance services need to cover both participants and spectators. Likewise, residents at the venue need to be provided for. Concepts have to include the possibility of major incidents related to the event. Using the example of the Hamburg Cyclassics, a road bicycle race and major event for professional and amateur cyclists, this article describes the medical coverage, number of patients, types of injuries and emergencies. Objectives regarding the planning of future events and essential medical coverage are consequently discussed. (c) Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart-New York.

  6. Principal uranium deposits of the world

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Byers, Virginia P.

    1978-01-01

    The geology of the principal world uranium deposits that have identified uranium reserves and production, as described in published literature, is summarized briefly, including such features as type of deposit, host rock and age of host roc, age of mineralization, depositional environment, and mineralogy. The deposits are located on four maps with the deposit grouped according to age of host rocks?Precambrian, Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic?and further subdivided into types of deposits and size categories. Types of deposits are penecordant sandstone, quartz-pebble conglomerate, vein and vein-type, marine black shale, phosphate deposits, coaly carbonaceous rocks, and pegmatic and alaskitic rocks. The economically most significant deposits of uranium known in 1975 are in quartz-pebble conglomerates and sandstones, which together represented about 75 percent of the world?s total production. The largest deposits occur in quartz-pebble conglomerate at the Elliot Lake-Blind River area, Canada (average grade 0.12 percent U3O8), and at the Witwatersrand basin area in the Republic of South Africa (average grade 0.025 percent U3O8), where uranium is produced principally as a byproduct or coproduct of gold mining; and in medium-grained sandstones in the Colorado Plateau, USA (average grade 0.2 percent U3O8). Other economically significant concentrations are vein, pegmatite or contact metamorphic types, containing smaller but relatively high-grade tonnages and representing about 20 percent of the world?s total production. At Vastergotland (Billingen) and Narke in Sweden, uranium has been recovered on a pilot-plant basis from black shale deposits having an uncommonly high grade for black shale of 0.03 percent U3O8. ?Recoverable reserves? in the near future (40 year period, lifetime of nuclear plants) is on the order of 50,000 metric tons U. Over 50 percent of the world?s total uranium reserves is located on or near the trend of the iron deposits in the Precambrian iron

  7. Toll road crashes of commercial and passenger motor vehicles.

    PubMed

    Braver, Elisa R; Solomon, Mark G; Preusser, David F

    2002-05-01

    Revenue-collection data from toll roads allow for accurate estimates of miles driven by vehicle type and, when combined with crash data, valid estimates of crash involvements per mile driven. Data on vehicle-miles traveled and collisions were obtained from toll road authorities in Florida. Kansas, and New York. In addition, state crash files and published vehicle-miles of travel were obtained for toll roads in Illinois. Indiana, Ohio, and Pennsylvania. Large commercial motor vehicles were significantly underinvolved in single-vehicle crashes on all state toll roads. In five states, commercial motor vehicles were significantly overinvolved in multiple-vehicle crashes relative to passenger vehicles; the exceptions were Kansas, where they had significantly lower multiple-vehicle involvement rates, and Indiana. where there were no significant differences in multiple-vehicle involvements by vehicle type. The risk of commercial motor vehicle involvement in multiple-vehicle crashes resulting in deaths or serious injuries was double that of passenger vehicles in the two states (Ohio and Pennsylvania) that identified serious injuries. Whether crash rates, on toll roads of commercial motor vehicles are higher or lower than those of passenger vehicles appears to depend on the type of crash, specific toll road. and traffic density.

  8. Demonstrating a correlation between the maturity of road safety practices and road safety incidents.

    PubMed

    Amador, Luis; Willis, Christopher Joseph

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to demonstrate a correlation between the maturity of a country's road safety practices and road safety incidents. Firstly, data on a number of road injuries and fatalities for 129 countries were extracted from the United Nations Global Status on Road Safety database. These data were subdivided according to road safety incident and accident causation factors and normalized based on vehicular fleet (per 1000 vehicles) and road network (per meter of paved road). Secondly, a road safety maturity model was developed based on an adaptation of the concept of process maturity modeling. The maturity of countries with respect to 10 road safety practices was determined through the identification of indicators recorded in the United Nations Global Status of Road Safety Database. Plots of normalized road safety performance of the 129 countries against their maturity scores for each road safety practice as well as an aggregation of the road safety practices were developed. An analysis of variance was done to determine the extent of the correlation between the road safety maturity of the countries and their performance. In addition, a full Bayesian analysis was done to confirm the correlation of each of the road safety practices with injuries and fatalities. Regression analysis for fatalities, injuries, and combined accidents identified maturity with respect to road safety practices associated with speed limits and use of alternative modes as being the most significant predictors of traffic fatalities. A full Bayesian regression confirms that there is a correlation between the maturity of road safety practices and road safety incidents. Road safety practices associated with enforcement of speed limits and promotion of alternative modes are the most significant road safety practices toward which mature countries have concentrated their efforts, resulting in a lower frequency of fatalities, injury rates, and property damage accidents. The authors

  9. Effect on road traffic injuries of criminalizing road traffic offences: a time–series study

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, Katherine; Santamariña-Rubio, Elena; Borrell, Carme

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine the effect of criminalizing some traffic behaviours, after the reform of the Spanish penal code in 2007, on the number of drivers involved in injury collisions and of people injured in traffic collisions in Spain. Methods This study followed an interrupted times–series design in which the number of drivers involved in injury collisions and of people injured in traffic collisions in Spain before and after the criminalization of offences were compared. The data on road traffic injuries in 2000–2009 were obtained from the road traffic collision database of the General Traffic Directorate. The dependent variables were stratified by sex, age, injury severity, type of road user, road type and time of collision. Quasi-Poisson regression models were fitted with adjustments for time trend, seasonality, previous interventions and national fuel consumption. Findings The overall number of male drivers involved in injury collisions dropped (relative risk, RR: 0.93; 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.89–0.97) after the reform of the penal code, but among women no change was observed (RR: 0.99; 95% CI: 0.95–1.03). In addition, 13 891 men (P < 0.01) were prevented from being injured. Larger reductions were observed among young male drivers and among male motorcycle or moped riders than among the drivers of other vehicles. Conclusion The findings suggest that criminalizing certain traffic behaviours can improve road safety by reducing both the number of drivers involved in injury collisions and the number of people injured in such collisions. PMID:21673858

  10. Permeability of roads to movement of scrubland lizards and small mammals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brehme, Cheryl S.; Tracey, Jeff A.; McClenaghan, Leroy R.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2013-01-01

    A primary objective of road ecology is to understand and predict how roads affect connectivity of wildlife populations. Road avoidance behavior can fragment populations, whereas lack of road avoidance can result in high mortality due to wildlife-vehicle collisions. Many small animal species focus their activities to particular microhabitats within their larger habitat. We sought to assess how different types of roads affect the movement of small vertebrates and to explore whether responses to roads may be predictable on the basis of animal life history or microhabitat preferences preferences. We tracked the movements of fluorescently marked animals at 24 sites distributed among 3 road types: low-use dirt, low-use secondary paved, and rural 2-lane highway. Most data we collected were on the San Diego pocket mouse (Chaetodipus fallax), cactus mouse (Peromyscus eremicus), western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis), orange-throated whiptail (Aspidoscelis hyperythra), Dulzura kangaroo rat (Dipodomys simulans) (dirt, secondary paved), and deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus) (highway only). San Diego pocket mice and cactus mice moved onto dirt roads but not onto a low-use paved road of similar width or onto the highway, indicating they avoidpaved road substrate. Both lizard species moved onto the dirt and secondary paved roads but avoided the rural 2-lane rural highway, indicating they may avoid noise, vibration, or visual disturbance from a steady flow of traffic. Kangaroo rats did not avoid the dirt or secondary paved roads. Overall, dirt and secondary roads were more permeable to species that prefer to forage or bask in open areas of their habitat, rather than under the cover of rocks or shrubs. However, all study species avoided the rural 2-lane highway. Our results suggest that microhabitat use preferences and road substrate help predict species responses to low-use roads,but roads with heavy traffic may deter movement of a much wider range of small animal

  11. Permeability of roads to movement of scrubland lizards and small mammals.

    PubMed

    Brehme, Cheryl S; Tracey, Jeff A; McClenaghan, Leroy R; Fisher, Robert N

    2013-08-01

    A primary objective of road ecology is to understand and predict how roads affect connectivity of wildlife populations. Road avoidance behavior can fragment populations, whereas lack of road avoidance can result in high mortality due to wildlife-vehicle collisions. Many small animal species focus their activities to particular microhabitats within their larger habitat. We sought to assess how different types of roads affect the movement of small vertebrates and to explore whether responses to roads may be predictable on the basis of animal life history or microhabitat preferences preferences. We tracked the movements of fluorescently marked animals at 24 sites distributed among 3 road types: low-use dirt, low-use secondary paved, and rural 2-lane highway. Most data we collected were on the San Diego pocket mouse (Chaetodipus fallax), cactus mouse (Peromyscus eremicus), western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis), orange-throated whiptail (Aspidoscelis hyperythra), Dulzura kangaroo rat (Dipodomys simulans) (dirt, secondary paved), and deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus) (highway only). San Diego pocket mice and cactus mice moved onto dirt roads but not onto a low-use paved road of similar width or onto the highway, indicating they avoid paved road substrate. Both lizard species moved onto the dirt and secondary paved roads but avoided the rural 2-lane rural highway, indicating they may avoid noise, vibration, or visual disturbance from a steady flow of traffic. Kangaroo rats did not avoid the dirt or secondary paved roads. Overall, dirt and secondary roads were more permeable to species that prefer to forage or bask in open areas of their habitat, rather than under the cover of rocks or shrubs. However, all study species avoided the rural 2-lane highway. Our results suggest that microhabitat use preferences and road substrate help predict species responses to low-use roads, but roads with heavy traffic may deter movement of a much wider range of small animal

  12. Automatic Road Network Map Update for the City of Dubai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marti, Paula; Al Hammadi, Omran; Napiorkowska, Milena; Constantini, Fabiano; Callejas, Alberto; Smith, Garin; Petit, David

    2016-08-01

    Dubai is a modern city which is growing at a fast pace, constantly changing and developing. The application presented in this paper is part of the "Smart Application for Feature extraction & 3D modelling using high resolution satellite Imagery (SAFIY)" project, whose main aim is to develop satellite data applications to help the government in Dubai to get up-to-date information on features such as water bodies, vegetation areas, buildings and roads. In this paper we present an application to automatically update the road network map for the city of Dubai using very high resolution satellite imagery, Deimos-2 and DubaiSat-2 at 0.75 cm resolution. Deimos-2 and DubaiSat-2 have been recently included as third party contributors to the Copernicus constellation.The algorithms implemented use unsupervised and supervised classification techniques to extract the road pixels. Special road objects such as roundabouts or bridges are also detected using algorithms based on feature descriptors, designed to match the specific characteristics of those objects. Finally, the system identifies the changes in roads and objects from the current road network map in order to update the map. The city of Dubai is 4,114 km and has many different types of neighbourhoods from suburbs to very densely populated areas. Overall, we propose a novel end to end system that automatically updates a road network map and allows a user to manually correct them so that the final resulting map is usable.

  13. Regional analysis of the effect of paved roads on sodium and chloride in lakes.

    PubMed

    Kelting, Daniel L; Laxson, Corey L; Yerger, Elizabeth C

    2012-05-15

    Salinization of surface water from sodium chloride (road salt) applied to paved roads is a widely recognized environmental concern in the northern hemisphere, yet practical information to improve winter road management to reduce the environmental impacts of this deicer is lacking. The purpose of our study was to provide such information by developing baseline concentrations for sodium and chloride for lakes in watersheds without paved roads, and then determining the relationship between these ions and density, type, and proximity of paved roads to shoreline. We used average summer (June-September) sodium and chloride data for 138 lakes combined in a watershed based analysis of paved road networks in the Adirondack Park of New York, U.S.A. The watersheds used in our study represented a broad range in paved road density and type, 56 of which had no paved roads. Median lake sodium and chloride concentrations in these 56 watersheds averaged 0.55 and 0.24 mg/L, respectively. In contrast, the median sodium and chloride concentrations for the 82 lakes in watersheds with paved roads were 3.60 and 7.22 mg/L, respectively. Paved road density (lane-km/km(2)) was positively correlated with sodium and chloride concentrations, but only state roads were significantly correlated with sodium and chloride while local roads were not. State road density alone explained 84 percent of the variation in both ions. We also successfully modeled the relationship between road proximity to shoreline and sodium and chloride concentrations in lakes, which allowed us to identify sections of road that contributed more to explaining the variation in sodium and chloride in lakes. This model and our approach could be used as part of larger efforts to identify environmentally sensitive areas where alternative winter road management treatments should be applied. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Why Do Principals Change Schools? A Multivariate Analysis of Principal Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papa, Frank, Jr.

    2007-01-01

    This study uses multivariate analysis of a large panel dataset to examine the determinants of principal retention (and, thus, the determinants of attracting a principal away from her current position). The empirical model incorporates measures of a principal's traits and of the organizational structure, culture, and situational context within a…

  15. Wildland road removal: research needs

    Treesearch

    T. Adam Switalski; John A. Bissonette; Tom H. Deluca; Charles H. Luce; Mary Ann Madej

    2003-01-01

    Wildland road removal is a common practice across the U.S. and in some parts of Canada. The main types of road removal include ripping, stream crossing restoration, and full recontour. Road removal creates a short-term disturbance that may temporarily increase sediment loss. However, research and long-term monitoring have shown that road removal both reduces erosion...

  16. The Online Vehicle Type Classifier Design for Road-Side Radar Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jou, Yow-Jen; Chen, Yu-Kuang

    2009-08-01

    This study presents an online vehicle type classifier for road-side radar detectors in multi-lane environments. An automatic learning framework which composes a parametric statistic model and algorithms is introduced. The parameters of an online vehicle type classifier are trained with vehicles passing in front of detectors. The online vehicle type classifier tries to identify the vehicle type in real time. The road-side radar detector is developed based on frequency-modulation continuous-wave (FMCW) radar with the carrier frequency at X-band. Vehicles are classified into two major categories, large and small. The classification based on (i) average energy maximum and (ii) average energy variance, that are extracted from the frequency-domain signatures caused by passed vehicles. A two-dimension Gaussian Mixed Model (denoted as GMM) is employed to develop the learning model. Expectation maximization (denoted EM) algorithm is implemented to obtain the parameters of GMM. Numerical examples are demonstrated with real-world experiments. In the field tests, the automatic framework delivers an accuracy of minimum 88%, even with extremes scenarios (including (i) small samples and (ii) large sample size difference of different vehicle types). The examples show satisfying results of the proposed online vehicle type classifier.

  17. On the road: workable solutions to the problems of roads and highways

    Treesearch

    Mary M. Rowland

    2004-01-01

    Fourteen authors, ranging from transportation specialists to ecologists, have collaborated to write this very useful compendium describing the newly minted discipline of "road ecology." The authors state that road ecology "uses the science of ecology and landscape ecology to explore, understand, and address the interactions of roads and vehicles with...

  18. What Is a "Good" Principal? Perspectives of Aspiring Principals in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Pak Tee

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of an exploratory research project that examines what aspiring principals in Singapore think a good principal is, based on a framework of personal, interpersonal, and organizational dimensions of school leadership. According to the findings, a good principal has a moral purpose centered on personal values, a humble…

  19. What Is a "Good" Principal? Perspectives of Aspiring Principals in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Pak Tee

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of an exploratory research project that examines what aspiring principals in Singapore think a good principal is, based on a framework of personal, interpersonal, and organizational dimensions of school leadership. According to the findings, a good principal has a moral purpose centered on personal values, a humble…

  20. Development status of the cryotechnical principal stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heloret, Jean-Yves; Eury, Serge; Rivol, G.

    1991-12-01

    The development status of the Ariane 5 launch vehicle cryotechnical principal stage is reported. The stage principally comprises a commonly based cryotechnic tank arranged front skirt, an arranged engine mount, and the Vulcain engine. The first firing tests of the front part of the stage with engine are planned for the beginning of 1993, and those for the complete stage mid 1993. The qualification should be announced at the beginning of 1995 for an inaugural Ariane 5 flight fixed for 1 Apr. 1995.

  1. The Impact of Principal Movement and School Achievement on Principal Salaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tran, Henry; Buckman, David G.

    2017-01-01

    This study examines whether principals' movements and school achievement are associated with their salaries. Predictors of principal salaries were examined using three years of panel data. Results from a fixed-effects regression analysis suggest that principals who moved to school leadership positions in other districts leveraged higher salaries…

  2. Principal Selection Decisions Made by Teachers: The Influence of Principal Candidate Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, Paul A.; Jaeger, Mary Grace

    2004-01-01

    Public school teachers (N = 189) role-played as members of school councils making principal selection decisions by rating simulated candidates for principal vacancies. The independent variables were principal candidate job experience, candidate person characteristics, and teacher school level. The dependent variable was teacher rating of the job…

  3. Principals and Blogs: In What Ways Does Blogging Support the Practices of School Principals?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engebritson, Reggie Marie

    2011-01-01

    This study paper explores the factors that motivate school principals to blog and the effectiveness of those blogs in terms of instructional and technology leadership. Participants were school principals who blog and were sent a web-based survey. Fifty responded. Results indicate that principals blog to communicate to others, including parents,…

  4. Staying Connected on the Road: A Comparison of Different Types of Smart Phone Use in a Driving Simulator.

    PubMed

    McNabb, Jaimie; Gray, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Previous research on smart phone use while driving has primarily focused on phone calls and texting. Drivers are now increasingly using their phone for other activities during driving, in particular social media, which have different cognitive demands. The present study compared the effects of four different smart phone tasks on car-following performance in a driving simulator. Phone tasks were chosen that vary across two factors: interaction medium (text vs image) and task pacing (self-paced vs experimenter-paced) and were as follows: Text messaging with the experimenter (text/other-paced), reading Facebook posts (text/self-paced), exchanging photos with the experimenter via Snapchat (image, experimenter-paced), and viewing updates on Instagram (image, experimenter-paced). Drivers also performed a driving only baseline. Brake reaction times (BRTs) were significantly greater in the text-based conditions (Mean = 1.16 s) as compared to both the image-based conditions (Mean = 0.92 s) and the baseline (0.88 s). There was no significant difference between BRTs in the image-based and baseline conditions and there was no significant effect of task-pacing. Similar results were obtained for Time Headway variability. These results are consistent with the picture superiority effect found in memory research and suggest that image-based interfaces could provide safer ways to "stay connected" while driving than text-based interfaces.

  5. Staying Connected on the Road: A Comparison of Different Types of Smart Phone Use in a Driving Simulator

    PubMed Central

    McNabb, Jaimie; Gray, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Previous research on smart phone use while driving has primarily focused on phone calls and texting. Drivers are now increasingly using their phone for other activities during driving, in particular social media, which have different cognitive demands. The present study compared the effects of four different smart phone tasks on car-following performance in a driving simulator. Phone tasks were chosen that vary across two factors: interaction medium (text vs image) and task pacing (self-paced vs experimenter-paced) and were as follows: Text messaging with the experimenter (text/other-paced), reading Facebook posts (text/self-paced), exchanging photos with the experimenter via Snapchat (image, experimenter -paced), and viewing updates on Instagram (image, experimenter -paced). Drivers also performed a driving only baseline. Brake reaction times (BRTs) were significantly greater in the text-based conditions (Mean = 1.16 s) as compared to both the image-based conditions (Mean = 0.92 s) and the baseline (0.88 s). There was no significant difference between BRTs in the image-based and baseline conditions and there was no significant effect of task-pacing. Similar results were obtained for Time Headway variability. These results are consistent with the picture superiority effect found in memory research and suggest that image-based interfaces could provide safer ways to “stay connected” while driving than text-based interfaces. PMID:26886099

  6. Roads influence movement and home ranges of a fragmentation-sensitive carnivore, the bobcat, in an urban landscape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poessel, Sharon A; Boydston, Erin E.; Lyren, Lisa M.; Fisher, Robert N.; Burdett, Christopher L.; Alonso, Robert S.; Crooks, Kevin R.

    2014-01-01

    Roads in urbanized areas can impact carnivore populations by constraining their movements and increasing mortality. Bobcats (Lynx rufus) are felids capable of living in urban environments, but are sensitive to habitat fragmentation and, thus, useful indicators of landscape connectivity; in particular, bobcat habitat selection, movement, and mortality may be affected by roads. We analyzed movement patterns of 52 bobcats in southern California in three study sites and investigated: (1) how bobcats responded to two types of roads within their home ranges; (2) how they placed their home ranges with respect to roads within the study area; and (3) whether male and female bobcats differed in their behavioral responses to roads. Within home ranges, primary and secondary roads did not influence movements, but bobcats more frequently crossed secondary roads when road densities were higher within their home ranges, thus increasing mortality risk. However, road densities within each study site were several times higher than road densities within home ranges, suggesting bobcats selected against roaded areas in home-range placement. Male home ranges bordering roads were smaller than home ranges for other males, but male home ranges containing roads were larger than those without roads. Male bobcats also were more likely to cross roads than females, potentially reflecting larger male home range sizes. Our results suggest roads have important impacts on urban bobcats, with stronger effects on males than females, and continued efforts to mitigate the effects of roads on carnivores and other fragmentation-sensitive species would help promote connectivity conservation in urban systems.

  7. 4. View of Building 802 from the access road, facing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. View of Building 802 from the access road, facing northwest. - Naval Air Station Fallon, 100-man Fallout Shelter, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  8. Reduction of soil erosion on forest roads

    Treesearch

    Edward R. Burroughs; John G. King

    1989-01-01

    Presents the expected reduction in surface erosion from selected treatments applied to forest road traveledways, cutslopes, fillslopes, and ditches. Estimated erosion reduction is expressed as functions of ground cover, slope gradient, and soil properties whenever possible. A procedure is provided to select rock riprap size for protection of the road ditch.

  9. Attitudes of Principals Toward Participatory Managerial Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wendel, Frederick C.

    1977-01-01

    In order to identify more precisely the extent to which building principals adhere to participatory managerial practices, a study was conducted to assess their attitudes toward selected policies of participatory managerial practices. (Author)

  10. Distribution of heavy metals in road dust along an urban-rural gradient in Massachusetts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apeagyei, Eric; Bank, Michael S.; Spengler, John D.

    2011-04-01

    Human exposures to particulate matter emitted from on-road motor vehicles include complex mixtures of metals from tires, brakes, parts wear and resuspended road dust. The aim of this study was to assess road dust for metals associated with motor vehicle traffic, particularly those metals coming from brake and tire wears. We hypothesized that the road dust would show significant difference in both composition and concentration by traffic type, road class and by location. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyses of 115 parked car tires showed Zn and Ca were likely associated with tire wear dust. XRF results of three used brake pads indicated high concentrations of Fe, Ti, Cu, Ba, Mo and Zr. To assess heavy metal exposures associated with tires and brake wear adjacent to roads of varying traffic and functional classes, 85 samples of road dust were collected from road surfaces adjacent to the curb and analyzed by XRF. Median concentrations for Fe, Ca and K were greater than Ti (1619 ppm), with concentration ratios of Fe: Ca: K: Ti [16:5:3:1]. Cumulative frequency distribution graphs showed distribution of Fe, Ba, Cu, and Mo were similar regardless of road traffic rating. However, Zn, Ti, and Zr varied significantly ( p < 0.05) with traffic ratings of roadways (heavy > moderate > low traffic). Fe, Ba, Cu, and Mo also had similar distributions regardless of road class while composition of Zn, Ti, and Zr varied significantly across road class ( p < 0.05) (Major roads > Minor roads > highway). In comparing urban road dust to rural road dust, we observed Fe, Ca, K, and Ti were significantly greater in urban road dust ( p < 0.05). In urban road dust the Fe: Ca: K: Ti relationship with median Ti of 2216 ppm was 12: 6: 3.5: 1. These results indicate that roadway dust may be important sources of metals for runoff water and localized resuspended particulate matter.

  11. Preparing Principals as Instructional Leaders: Perceptions of University Faculty, Expert Principals, and Expert Teacher Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor Backor, Karen; Gordon, Stephen P.

    2015-01-01

    Although research has established links between the principal's instructional leadership and student achievement, there is considerable concern in the literature concerning the capacity of principal preparation programs to prepare instructional leaders. This study interviewed educational leadership faculty as well as expert principals and teacher…

  12. Forest roads: a synthesis of scientific information.

    Treesearch

    Hermann Gucinski; Michael J. Furniss; Robert R. Ziemer; Martha H. Brookes

    2001-01-01

    Effects of roads in forested ecosystems span direct physical and ecological ones (such as geomorphic and hydrologic effects), indirect and landscape level ones (such as effects on aquatic habitat, terrestrial vertebrates, and biodiversity conservation), and socioeconomic ones (such as passive-use value, economic effects on development and range management). Road...

  13. Forest roads: A synthesis of scientific information

    Treesearch

    Hermann Gucinski; Michael J. Furniss; Robert R. Ziemer; Martha H. Brookes

    2001-01-01

    Effects of roads in forested ecosystems span direct physical and ecological ones (such as geomorphic and hydrologic effects), indirect and landscape level ones (such as effects on aquatic habitat, terrestrial vertebrates, and biodiversity conservation), and socioeconomic ones (such as passive-use value, economic effects on development and range management). Road...

  14. 28. Stream view of revetment wall on Newfound Gap Road ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Stream view of revetment wall on Newfound Gap Road looking S. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Newfound Gap Road, Between Gatlinburg, TN & Cherokee, NC, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  15. An overview of non-road equipment emissions in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fan; Li, Zhen; Zhang, Kaishan; Di, Baofeng; Hu, Baomei

    2016-05-01

    As the vehicle population has dramatically increased in China in the past two decades, vehicle emissions have become one of the major sources to air pollution across the entire country, especially for the metropolitan cities such as Beijing and Shanghai. Most of the non-road equipment are diesel-fueled and have been proved to be a key source for NOx and PM emissions, contributing significantly to the formation of haze/smog. Therefore, an accurate estimation of emission inventory from non-road equipment is essential for air quality improvement policy making, which mainly depends on the data availability of equipment population, activity, and emissions factor. Compared to on-road vehicles, less studies regarding emissions characterization have been conducted and investigated for non-road mobile sources in China. Thus, in order to identify the data gaps and future research needs, the objective of this study is to review the current status of research in non-road mobile emissions. Five types of non-road equipment were addressed in this study, including agricultural equipment, industrial equipment, river/ocean-going vessels, locomotives, and commercial airplanes, with a focus on the former two. The equipment are further classified mainly based on national standards and data availability to account for fuel type, job duties and others. This investigation has found that the research regarding emissions from non-road equipment is still at its early stage and there is a huge data gap for both activity and emissions factors. For most of the study, data used for emission inventory estimation were based on either literature with similar equipment or as-developed emissions models such as NONROAD or CORPERT. The representativeness of these data to the localities was not much discussed in those studies, which might have weakened the accuracy of the estimated emission inventory. For future study, real-world in-use measurements of activities and emissions for the non-road equipment

  16. Pollutant characteristics of road deposited sediments collected by road sweeping.

    PubMed

    Kim, Do-Gun; Kim, Hyun-Seop; Kang, Hee-Man; Ko, Seok-Oh

    2016-01-01

    Road deposited sediments (RDS) swept from highways in South Korea were characterized to quantitatively evaluate the reduction in non-point source pollutants by sweeping. The swept RDS consisted primarily of sand (63 μm to 2 mm) particles (80.34 ± 8.33% of total weight) highly contaminated by organics, nutrients and heavy metals. The average concentrations of total organic carbon (TOC), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), volatile solids (VS), total nitrogen (T-N), and total phosphorus (T-P) were 20.17 ± 9.13, 1.04 ± 0.62, 39.92 ± 16.55, 1.99 ± 0.96, and 0.54 ± 0.19 g kg(-1) (±one standard deviation), respectively, for 63 μm to 2 mm RDS. The concentrations of the pollutants were high for RDS smaller than 63 μm, but most of the mass was associated with the 63 μm to 2 mm RDS. The results suggest that the pollutants associated with RDS swept from highways originated mainly from engine wear, exhaust emissions, and tire wear. These results were different from the RDS on roads in residential and commercial areas, where natural particles and brake wear contribute significantly to RDS. In addition, the reductions in TOC, BOD, VS, T-N, T-P, Cu, Pb, Zn, Fe, and As based on the swept RDS measurements were calculated to be 3,355.3, 175.1, 6,621.4, 323.0, 88.3, 30.3, 13.7, 1.0, 303.4, 11,198.7, and 0.4 g km(-1), respectively.

  17. Principal Areas of Insect Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Carroll M.

    1973-01-01

    Research for insect control has been quite complex. However, recent knowledge of using insect hormones against them has opened new vistas for producing insecticides which may be harmless to human population. Current areas of insect research are outlined. (PS)

  18. General principals of management: education.

    PubMed

    Musto, Patricia K

    2003-12-01

    Asthma education is an essential part of the treatment of this disease. Health care professionals must establish a partnership with the patient with asthma and the patient's family to devise a plan of care with which the patient voluntarily will comply. The partnership with the patient begins at the first encounter and continues throughout the therapeutic relationship. Each member of the health care team can be instrumental in reinforcing the crucial information the patient must know to be an informed participant in his or her care. Nursing professionals are in a particularly advantageous position to foster this partnership because of their patient-focused outlook and the quality of time spent with patients. When the partnership is based on mutual trust and cooperation, the clinician can direct asthma care that is consistent with current expert guidelines. Educational interventions should be meaningful to the patient, learner centered to incorporate the patient's needs, and sensitive to the patient's cultural influences. The patient and his or her significant social and family support should be actively involved. The clinician should be alert to the patient's readiness to learn and tailor the message to suit the setting in which it is delivered. The patient should receive information that allows his or her participation in goal setting for treatment. Essentials to be included are the significance of the diagnosis, basics about inflammation as the primary cause of symptoms, the difference between controllers and relievers, how to use the medications and monitoring devices, how to reach the provider, and the need for continuous ongoing interaction with the clinician. Goals set in the partnership are objectified in the asthma action plan or guided self-management plan. The success of the treatment can be assessed from the patient's improved asthma control and reduced reliance on emergency treatment. Every health care provider is a potential wealth of patient education

  19. Principal Reduction Act of 2012

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Waters, Maxine [D-CA-35

    2012-01-31

    House - 02/09/2012 Referred to the Subcommittee on Capital Markets and Government Sponsored Enterprises. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  20. Principal Reduction Act of 2012

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Waters, Maxine [D-CA-35

    2012-01-31

    02/09/2012 Referred to the Subcommittee on Capital Markets and Government Sponsored Enterprises. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  1. Principal Reduction Act of 2012

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Waters, Maxine [D-CA-35

    2012-01-31

    02/09/2012 Referred to the Subcommittee on Capital Markets and Government Sponsored Enterprises. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  2. The implications of the relative risk for road mortality on road safety programmes in Qatar.

    PubMed

    Consunji, Rafael J; Peralta, Ruben R; Al-Thani, Hassan; Latifi, Rifat

    2015-04-01

    The epidemiology of road deaths and in particular the relative risk for road mortality (RRRM) in Qatar has not been fully defined. This study will analyse and compare the proportionate mortality and age-specific death rates from road traffic injuries (RTIs) and make recommendations for targeted injury prevention programmes for road safety in Qatar. Data from the Qatar Statistics Authority (QSA), for the year 2010, was collected and analysed. All deaths classified as 'ICD-10 (V89) Motor- or Nonmotor-Vehicle, Accident Type of Vehicle Unspecified' were included. There were 247 RTI related deaths in Qatar in 2010. An overall death rate was computed at 14.4 deaths per 100 000 population. The RRRM varied over 10 times among different populations with Qatari males (QM) having an increased RRRM from 10 years of age, those aged 20-29 years had the highest RRRM of 10.2. The lowest RRRM was for Qatari females who did not have a single reported road fatality in 2010. Populations with a significantly elevated RRRM (ie, RRRM>1.0) were non-Qatari men older than 50 years and Qatari males from the age of 10 onward. Proven and definite programmes must be implemented to reduce these unnecessary deaths among the populations at the highest risk. Multidisciplinary approaches must be implemented and their efficacy evaluated. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. Determination of the principal g-values of Type I or highly-anisotropic low spin (HALS) ferriheme centers in frozen solutions.

    PubMed

    Astashkin, Andrei V; Walker, F Ann

    2013-06-01

    Continuous wave (CW) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy of highly-anisotropic low spin (HALS) ferric heme centers in frozen solutions is not a very informative approach because usually only one feature is reliably observed in the spectra, that at the maximal principal g-value of, typically, 3.3-3.79. The other two EPR turning points are severely broadened by g-strain and are not easily observed in the first-derivative CW EPR spectra. In this work, we have explored the potential of alternative EPR techniques, the electron spin echo (ESE) field sweep and electron spin transient nutation (TN), for obtaining information about the g-tensors of such systems, using as an example a typical HALS ferric heme center, [Fe(III)((15)N-coproporphyrin)(CN)2]. The analysis of the experimental g-tensor of [Fe(III)((15)N-coproporphyrin)(CN)2](-) has shown that the widths of the underlying energy distributions for this HALS center are comparable to those found for the rhombic bis-imidazole complex. The greater effect on the g-value distributions for HALS centers is determined by near degeneracy of two of the three lower-energy d-orbitals, d(yz) and d(xz), which contain the unpaired electron. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Determination of the Principal g-Values of Type I or Highly-Anisotropic Low Spin (HALS) Ferriheme Centers in Frozen Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Astashkin, Andrei V.; Walker, F. Ann

    2013-01-01

    Continuous wave (CW) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy of highly-anisotropic low spin (HALS) ferric heme centers in frozen solutions is not a very informative approach because usually only one feature is reliably observed in the spectra, that at the maximal principal g-value of, typically, 3.3 - 3.79. The other two EPR turning points are severely broadened by g-strain and are not easily observed in the first-derivative CW EPR spectra. In this work, we have explored the potential of alternative EPR techniques, the electron spin echo (ESE) field sweep and electron spin transient nutation (TN), for obtaining information about the g-tensors of such systems, using as an example a typical HALS ferric heme center, [FeIII(15N-coproporphyrin)(CN)2]−. The analysis of the experimental g-tensor of [FeIII(15N-coproporphyrin)(CN)2]− has shown that the widths of the underlying energy distributions for this HALS center are comparable to those found for the rhombic bis-imidazole complex. The greater effect on the g-value distributions for HALS centers is determined by near degeneracy of two of the three lower-energy d-orbitals, dyz and dxz, which contain the unpaired electron. PMID:23562666

  5. Wildlife friendly roads: the impacts of roads on wildlife in urban areas and potential remedies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Riley, Seth P D; Brown, Justin L.; Sikich, Jeff A.; Schoonmaker, Catherine M.; Boydston, Erin E.

    2014-01-01

    Roads are one of the most important factors affecting the ability of wildlife to live and move within an urban area. Roads physically replace wildlife habitat and often reduce habitat quality nearby, fragment the remaining habitat, and cause increased mortality through vehicle collisions. Much ecological research on roads has focused on whether animals are successfully crossing roads, or if the road is a barrier to wildlife movement, gene flow, or functional connectivity. Roads can alter survival and reproduction for wildlife, even among species such as birds that cross roads easily. Here we examine the suite of potential impacts of roads on wildlife, but we focus particularly on urban settings. We report on studies, both in the literature and from our own experience, that have addressed wildlife and roads in urban landscapes. Although road ecology is a growing field of study, relatively little of this research, and relatively few mitigation projects, have been done in urban landscapes. We also draw from the available science on road impacts in rural areas when urban case studies have not fully addressed key topics.

  6. Analysis of the contribution of the road traffic industry to the PM2.5 emission for different land-use types.

    PubMed

    Xu, Peng; Wang, Wei; Ji, Jiawei; Yao, Shunyu

    2014-01-01

    Road dust and vehicle exhaust are the main sources of air pollution in cities, especially in recent years with the quantity of vehicles and transportation construction continuously soaring; the hazy weather has been a dominant urban pollution form which is widely concerned by the Chinese society. By establishing a relationship model between traffic and land use, then applying analytic hierarchy process on the data from air quality monitoring station, this paper concludes the influence of different traffic behavior on air pollution which provides support to abate urban air pollution caused by traffic reasons through taking measures to control traffic.

  7. Analysis of the Contribution of the Road Traffic Industry to the PM2.5 Emission for Different Land-Use Types

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Peng; Wang, Wei; Ji, Jiawei; Yao, Shunyu

    2014-01-01

    Road dust and vehicle exhaust are the main sources of air pollution in cities, especially in recent years with the quantity of vehicles and transportation construction continuously soaring; the hazy weather has been a dominant urban pollution form which is widely concerned by the Chinese society. By establishing a relationship model between traffic and land use, then applying analytic hierarchy process on the data from air quality monitoring station, this paper concludes the influence of different traffic behavior on air pollution which provides support to abate urban air pollution caused by traffic reasons through taking measures to control traffic. PMID:25530754

  8. A Tannakian approach to dimensional reduction of principal bundles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Álvarez-Cónsul, Luis; Biswas, Indranil; García-Prada, Oscar

    2017-08-01

    Let P be a parabolic subgroup of a connected simply connected complex semisimple Lie group G. Given a compact Kähler manifold X, the dimensional reduction of G-equivariant holomorphic vector bundles over X × G / P was carried out in Álvarez-Cónsul and García-Prada (2003). This raises the question of dimensional reduction of holomorphic principal bundles over X × G / P. The method of Álvarez-Cónsul and García-Prada (2003) is special to vector bundles; it does not generalize to principal bundles. In this paper, we adapt to equivariant principal bundles the Tannakian approach of Nori, to describe the dimensional reduction of G-equivariant principal bundles over X × G / P, and to establish a Hitchin-Kobayashi type correspondence. In order to be able to apply the Tannakian theory, we need to assume that X is a complex projective manifold.

  9. Regional analysis of road mortality in Europe.

    PubMed

    Eksler, V; Lassarre, S; Thomas, I

    2008-09-01

    Road accidents are the tenth leading cause of premature death worldwide and, based on current trends, are likely to become the third leading cause of disability-adjusted life years lost by 2020. Road mortality varies in time and space both between countries and also between regions within the same country. Identifying and understanding the background of regional differences may lead to better understanding of the sources of road accidents, and enable the application of more effective road safety policies. A Bayesian ecological regression model based on a unified generalized linear mixed model framework is introduced. Population density and country (affiliation) were used as covariates and were fitted into the model at the four levels of spatial aggregation known as 'nomenclature of statistical territorial units (NUTS) regional classification'. Population density has a significant influence on road mortality. For all countries together, the elasticity estimate is -0.32, meaning that a 10% increase in population density is linked to a 3.2% decrease in road fatalities. A multi-level model defined at the NUTS-3 level, taking into account the NUTS-2 aggregation, enables infraregional variances in road mortality to be taken into account and produces the most reliable estimates of the model parameters. Variation in the Bayes relative risk (the mortality ratio 'standardized' by population density and country effect) is highest at the NUTS-3 level, but is lower at country level and NUTS-2 level, which suggests that other important underlying factors are responsible for the variations in road mortality between regions. Mapping the Bayes relative risk enables the identification of regions that should be targeted by national and regional policies. Last but not least, a new ranking of European countries according to their road mortality risk, adjusted for population density, is presented.

  10. Statistical classification of road pavements using near field vehicle rolling noise measurements.

    PubMed

    Paulo, Joel Preto; Coelho, J L Bento; Figueiredo, Mário A T

    2010-10-01

    Low noise surfaces have been increasingly considered as a viable and cost-effective alternative to acoustical barriers. However, road planners and administrators frequently lack information on the correlation between the type of road surface and the resulting noise emission profile. To address this problem, a method to identify and classify different types of road pavements was developed, whereby near field road noise is analyzed using statistical learning methods. The vehicle rolling sound signal near the tires and close to the road surface was acquired by two microphones in a special arrangement which implements the Close-Proximity method. A set of features, characterizing the properties of the road pavement, was extracted from the corresponding sound profiles. A feature selection method was used to automatically select those that are most relevant in predicting the type of pavement, while reducing the computational cost. A set of different types of road pavement segments were tested and the performance of the classifier was evaluated. Results of pavement classification performed during a road journey are presented on a map, together with geographical data. This procedure leads to a considerable improvement in the quality of road pavement noise data, thereby increasing the accuracy of road traffic noise prediction models.

  11. Vectorization of Road Data Extracted from Aerial and Uav Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulatov, Dimitri; Häufel, Gisela; Pohl, Melanie

    2016-06-01

    Road databases are essential instances of urban infrastructure. Therefore, automatic road detection from sensor data has been an important research activity during many decades. Given aerial images in a sufficient resolution, dense 3D reconstruction can be performed. Starting at a classification result of road pixels from combined elevation and optical data, we present in this paper a fivestep procedure for creating vectorized road networks. These main steps of the algorithm are: preprocessing, thinning, polygonization, filtering, and generalization. In particular, for the generalization step, which represents the principal area of innovation, two strategies are presented. The first strategy corresponds to a modification of the Douglas-Peucker-algorithm in order to reduce the number of vertices while the second strategy allows a smoother representation of street windings by Bezir curves, which results in reduction - to a decimal power - of the total curvature defined for the dataset. We tested our approach on three datasets with different complexity. The quantitative assessment of the results was performed by means of shapefiles from OpenStreetMap data. For a threshold of 6 m, completeness and correctness values of up to 85% were achieved.

  12. New dimensions of interneuronal specialization unmasked by principal cell heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Krook-Magnuson, Esther; Varga, Csaba; Lee, Sang-Hun; Soltesz, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    While the diversity of neocortical and hippocampal GABAergic interneurons is recognized in terms of their anatomical, molecular, and functional properties, principal cells are usually assumed to constitute homogenous populations. However, even within a single layer, subpopulations of principal cells can often be differentiated by their distinct long-range projection targets. Such subpopulations of principal cells can have different local connection properties and excitatory inputs, forming subnetworks that may serve as separate information-processing channels. Interestingly, as reviewed here, recent evidence has revealed specific instances where interneuron cell types selectively innervated distinct subpopulations of principal cells, targeting only those with particular long-distance projection targets. This organization represents a novel form of interneuron specialization, providing interneurons with the potential to selectively regulate specific information-processing streams. PMID:22119146

  13. Road soil retention of Pb leached from MSWI bottom ash.

    PubMed

    Bouvet, M; François, D; Schwartz, C

    2007-01-01

    Municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) bottom ash may be used as a road construction material; it potentially contains however a sizable quantity of heavy metals, which under the effect of rainfall infiltration through the road structure can be leached out from the material and infiltrate into the underlying soil. An eco-compatibility assessment of MSWI bottom ash reuse in road construction applications necessitates examining the solubility and retention of heavy metals in road soils. This study is dedicated to Pb transfer, sorption and desorption (NEN 7341 standard test) within various soils. These experiments yield results relative to the interaction between road soils and an MSWI bottom ash leachate representative of a "fresh" product, with a high leaching potential. For the soils investigated, the sorption of lead varies between 90% and 99%. For an extraction at pH 7, Pb release is very low (<2%) for all soils, while at pH 4 leaching varies between 4% and 47%. This work shows that Pb may be fixed by some types of road soil in mostly stable forms.

  14. 3. VIEW OF WHITE ROCK ROAD FROM THE INTERSECTION OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF WHITE ROCK ROAD FROM THE INTERSECTION OF HIDDEN RIVER WAY (LEFT FOREGROUND) TOWARD ELEVATED INTERSECTION WITH LATROBE ROAD (AT RIGHT HORIZON); VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Placerville Road, White Rock Road between Clarksville & White Rock, El Dorado Hills, El Dorado County, CA

  15. Principal Component Analysis of Brown Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleary, Colleen; Rodriguez, David

    2017-01-01

    Principal component analysis is a technique for reducing variables and emphasizing patterns in a data set. In this study, the data set consisted of the attributes of 174 brown dwarfs. The PCA was performed on several photometric measurements in near-infrared wavelengths and colors in order to determine if these variables showed a correlation with the physical parameters. This research resulted in two separate models that predict luminosity and temperature. The application of principal component analysis on the near-infrared photometric measurements and colors of brown dwarfs, along with models, provides alternate methods for predicting the luminosity and temperature of brown dwarfs using only photometric measurements.

  16. Principal Efficacy: An Investigation of School Principals' Sense of Efficacy and Indicators of School Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovell, Charles Wayne

    2009-01-01

    At the individual school level, the responsibility for demonstrating school effectiveness lies on the shoulders of the building administrator. In fact, "it is widely accepted that good principals are the cornerstones of good schools and that, without a principal's leadership efforts to raise student achievement, schools cannot succeed"…

  17. Design of Road Pavement Using Recycled Aggregate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remišová, Eva; Decký, Martin; Mikolaš, Milan; Hájek, Matej; Kovalčík, Luboš; Mečár, Martin

    2016-10-01

    The presented article gives special attention to codified clauses of the road construction law, the relevant clauses of the standards and technical regulations to design and control the quality of recycled aggregate constructions. The article also presents the authors’ suggestions to design of earth constructions and pavements of roads according to the Slovak technical standards, technical regulations and objectively determined results of research and development of road infrastructure. The article presents a comparison of the mechanical characteristics measurements of the structural layers of road pavements built from the recycled and natural aggregate. It also presents correlation functions of results obtained from in situ and in laboratory CBR (Californian Bearing Ratio) measuring, representing the world's most widely used control method of bearing capacity of mentioned construction layers.

  18. THE ROLE BEHAVIOR OF SCHOOL PRINCIPALS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GROSS, NEAL; AND OTHERS

    THE EFFECTS AND DETERMINANTS OF THREE ROLE BEHAVIOR ASPECTS OF SCHOOL PRINCIPALS WERE STUDIED, AS FOLLOWS--(1) CLOSENESS OF TEACHER SUPERVISION, (2) SUPPORT OF INNOVATION, AND (3) INVOLVEMENT OF PARENTS IN SCHOOL AFFAIRS. SPECIFICALLY, THE EFFECTS AND DETERMINANTS TO BE EXAMINED WERE THE ORGANIZATIONAL EFFECTS OF ROLE BEHAVIOR IN TERMS OF TEACHER…

  19. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Traditional and Alternative Principal Preparation Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pannell, Summer; Peltier-Glaze, Bernnell M.; Haynes, Ingrid; Davis, Delilah; Skelton, Carrie

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to determine the effectiveness on increasing student achievement of principals trained in a traditional principal preparation program and those trained in an alternate route principal preparation program within the same Mississippi university. Sixty-six Mississippi principals and assistant principals participated in the study. Of…

  20. Surveillance of road crash injuries in Cambodia: an evaluation of the Cambodia Road Crash and Victim Information System (RCVIS).

    PubMed

    Parker, Erin M; Ear, Chariya; Roehler, Douglas R; Sann, Socheata; Sem, Panhavuth; Ballesteros, Michael F

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, 1.24 million deaths and 20-50 million road crash injuries occur annually, with a disproportionate burden on low- and middle-income countries. Facing continued growth in motorized vehicles, Cambodia has begun to address road safety, including the creation of a nationwide road crash surveillance system, the Road Crash and Victim Information System (RCVIS). This study evaluates the RCVIS to understand whether road crash injuries are being monitored efficiently and effectively and to identify areas for improvement. We used the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's "Guidelines for Evaluating Public Health Surveillance Systems" (CDC 2001) as an evaluation framework. To assess system attributes, we conducted in-person interviews with Cambodian road safety stakeholders, including representatives from the Ministries of Health and Interior, and reviewed RCVIS annual reports and system operation documents. Characteristics assessed include usefulness, flexibility, acceptability, sensitivity, representativeness, data quality, and timeliness. The Cambodian government uses RCVIS data extensively for road safety planning purposes. RCVIS participation varies by type of data source, with 100 percent of police districts and 65 percent of hospitals reporting in 2010. Representativeness over time is a limitation-between 2007 and 2008, the number of reporting hospitals decreased from 65 to 42. From 2007 to 2010, the number of nonfatal injuries reported to RCVIS decreased by 35 percent, despite rapid growth in vehicle registrations. The system is timely, with annual reports disseminated within 10 months to more than 250 stakeholders. The RCVIS provides a strong foundation for the surveillance of road crash injuries and fatalities in Cambodia. Differences in participation by data source and reduced hospital participation over time affect data representativeness and may indicate issues with acceptability. Recommendations include working with hospitals to standardize

  1. Surveillance of Road Crash Injuries in Cambodia: An Evaluation of the Cambodia Road Crash and Victim Information System (RCVIS)

    PubMed Central

    PARKER, ERIN M.; EAR, CHARIYA; ROEHLER, DOUGLAS R.; SANN, SOCHEATA; SEM, PANHAVUTH; BALLESTEROS, MICHAEL F.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Worldwide, 1.24 million deaths and 20–50 million road crash injuries occur annually, with a disproportionate burden on low- and middle-income countries. Facing continued growth in motorized vehicles, Cambodia has begun to address road safety, including the creation of a nationwide road crash surveillance system, the Road Crash and Victim Information System (RCVIS). This study evaluates the RCVIS to understand whether road crash injuries are being monitored efficiently and effectively and to identify areas for improvement. Methods We used the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s “Guidelines for Evaluating Public Health Surveillance Systems” (CDC 2001) as an evaluation framework. To assess system attributes, we conducted in-person interviews with Cambodian road safety stakeholders, including representatives from the Ministries of Health and Interior, and reviewed RCVIS annual reports and system operation documents. Characteristics assessed include usefulness, flexibility, acceptability, sensitivity, representativeness, data quality, and timeliness. Results The Cambodian government uses RCVIS data extensively for road safety planning purposes. RCVIS participation varies by type of data source, with 100 percent of police districts and 65 percent of hospitals reporting in 2010. Representativeness over time is a limitation—between 2007 and 2008, the number of reporting hospitals decreased from 65 to 42. From 2007 to 2010, the number of nonfatal injuries reported to RCVIS decreased by 35 percent, despite rapid growth in vehicle registrations. The system is timely, with annual reports disseminated within 10 months to more than 250 stakeholders. Conclusion The RCVIS provides a strong foundation for the surveillance of road crash injuries and fatalities in Cambodia. Differences in participation by data source and reduced hospital participation over time affect data representativeness and may indicate issues with acceptability. Recommendations

  2. 36 CFR 254.33 - Road rights-of-way.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Road rights-of-way. 254.33... ADJUSTMENTS Conveyance of Small Tracts § 254.33 Road rights-of-way. (a) Reserved or acquired road right-of-way... by lands not owned by the United States. (b) Forest Service officials shall consider public road...

  3. Differences in Surface Water Quality Draining Four Road Surface Types in the Southern Appalachians

    Treesearch

    Barton D. Clinton; James M. Vose

    2003-01-01

    Improved and unimproved roads can be the primary source of stream sediment in forested watersheds. We assessed differences in production of total suspended solids (TSS; ppm) from four road sulfate conditions in a Southern Appalachian watershed: (1) a 2-yr-old paved surface (P), (2) an improved gravel sulfate with controlled drainage and routine maintenance (RG), (3) an...

  4. The Evolution and Training of School Principals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellicer, Leonard O.; And Others

    Beginning with an historical description of the development of the principalship, this monograph gives a comprehensive analysis of both current and evolving training programs for principals. Given particular attention are field-based training programs and administrative internships, particulary the National Association of Secondary School…

  5. Elementary Principals' Perceptions of Institutional Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landahl, Matthew P.

    2012-01-01

    The study explored the different kinds of instructional structures used in elementary schools in Virginia and why they were used according to principals. The findings and implications of this study are important to the field of school leadership and instructional structures. No study in the past has provided a rich description of how and why…

  6. Studies Explore Secrets of Principals' Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2009-01-01

    Although principals have long been seen as important to the success of schools, a new set of working papers from some prominent education researchers aims to promote a better understanding of the extent to which school leaders matter and why. For instance, one study of the 345,000-student Miami-Dade County, Florida, school system finds that the…

  7. Thinking Styles of Teachers, Principals, and Inspectors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastug, Özlem Yesim Özbek; Çelik, Bünyamin

    2014-01-01

    Much of current studies focus on the investigation of the thinking styles of students and teachers. However, exploring school administrators' and inpectors' thinking styles is also critical for increasing students' achievement at school. For that purpose, this study was performed to determine the thinking styles of teachers, principals, and…

  8. Thinking Styles of Teachers, Principals, and Inspectors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastug, Özlem Yesim Özbek; Çelik, Bünyamin

    2014-01-01

    Much of current studies focus on the investigation of the thinking styles of students and teachers. However, exploring school administrators' and inpectors' thinking styles is also critical for increasing students' achievement at school. For that purpose, this study was performed to determine the thinking styles of teachers, principals, and…

  9. 5 CFR 930.107 - Waiver of road test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Waiver of road test. 930.107 Section 930....107 Waiver of road test. Under the following conditions, OPM or an agency head or his or her designated representative may waive the road test: (a) OPM waives the road test requirement for operators of...

  10. 5 CFR 930.107 - Waiver of road test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Waiver of road test. 930.107 Section 930....107 Waiver of road test. Under the following conditions, OPM or an agency head or his or her designated representative may waive the road test: (a) OPM waives the road test requirement for operators of...

  11. 5 CFR 930.107 - Waiver of road test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Waiver of road test. 930.107 Section 930....107 Waiver of road test. Under the following conditions, OPM or an agency head or his or her designated representative may waive the road test: (a) OPM waives the road test requirement for operators of...

  12. 5 CFR 930.107 - Waiver of road test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Waiver of road test. 930.107 Section 930....107 Waiver of road test. Under the following conditions, OPM or an agency head or his or her designated representative may waive the road test: (a) OPM waives the road test requirement for operators of...

  13. 5 CFR 930.107 - Waiver of road test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Waiver of road test. 930.107 Section 930....107 Waiver of road test. Under the following conditions, OPM or an agency head or his or her designated representative may waive the road test: (a) OPM waives the road test requirement for operators of...

  14. Can Principals Promote Teacher Development as Evaluators? A Case Study of Principals' Views and Experiences.

    PubMed

    Kraft, Matthew A; Gilmour, Allison

    2016-12-01

    New teacher evaluation systems have expanded the role of principals as instructional leaders, but little is known about principals' ability to promote teacher development through the evaluation process. We conducted a case study of principals' perspectives on evaluation and their experiences implementing observation and feedback cycles to better understand whether principals feel as though they are able to promote teacher development as evaluators. We conducted interviews with a stratified random sample of 24 principals in an urban district that recently implemented major reforms to its teacher evaluation system. We analyzed these interviews by drafting thematic summaries, coding interview transcripts, creating data-analytic matrices, and writing analytic memos. We found that the evaluation reforms provided a common framework and language that helped facilitate principals' feedback conversations with teachers. However, we also found that tasking principals with primary responsibility for conducting evaluations resulted in a variety of unintended consequences which undercut the quality of evaluation feedback they provided. We analyze five broad solutions to these challenges: strategically targeting evaluations, reducing operational responsibilities, providing principal training, hiring instructional coaches, and developing peer evaluation systems. The quality of feedback teachers receive through the evaluation process depends critically on the time and training evaluators have to provide individualized and actionable feedback. Districts that task principals with primary responsibility for conducting observation and feedback cycles must attend to the many implementation challenges associated with this approach in order for next-generation evaluation systems to successfully promote teacher development.

  15. Principals' Sensemaking and Enactment of Teacher Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigby, Jessica G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to look across six first-year principals to investigate their engagement with and sensemaking of specific messages of instructional leadership around teacher evaluation. Design/methodology/approach: This research project, a cross-case study, was carried out using in-depth qualitative observations and…

  16. Elementary Teachers' Perceptions of Elementary Principals' Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fridenvalds, Kriss R.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examined the beliefs of elementary teachers to determine if their perceptions of effective principal leadership align to transformational leadership theory vis-a-vis the Educational Leadership Policy Standards (ELPS). A phenomenological, single-case study approach was utilized by means of a mixed-methodological, Web-based survey,…

  17. Principals' Sensemaking and Enactment of Teacher Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigby, Jessica G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to look across six first-year principals to investigate their engagement with and sensemaking of specific messages of instructional leadership around teacher evaluation. Design/methodology/approach: This research project, a cross-case study, was carried out using in-depth qualitative observations and…

  18. View of New Big Oak Flat Road seen from Old ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of New Big Oak Flat Road seen from Old Wawona Road near location of photograph HAER CA-148-17. Note road cuts, alignment, and tunnels. Devils Dance Floor at left distance. Looking northwest - Big Oak Flat Road, Between Big Oak Flat Entrance & Merced River, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  19. 9. VIEW OF WHITE ROCK ROAD INDICATING CULVERT LOCATION (SEE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW OF WHITE ROCK ROAD INDICATING CULVERT LOCATION (SEE ROAD ANGLE POINT ON RIGHT) WITH LATROBE RD, INTERSECTION IN DISTANCE (LEFT OF CENTER); VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Placerville Road, White Rock Road between Clarksville & White Rock, El Dorado Hills, El Dorado County, CA

  20. Principal Pressure in the Middle of Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derrington, Mary Lynne; Larsen, Donald E.

    2012-01-01

    When a new superintendent is hired, Tom Thompson, middle school principal, is squeezed between complying with the demands of the district and cultivating a positive culture in his school. He wrestles with the stress of facing tough leadership choices that take a toll on his physical and mental health. Tom realizes that a career-ending move might…

  1. Assessment of School Principals' Reassignment Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sezgin-Nartgün, Senay; Ekinci, Serkan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify administrators' views related to the assessment of school principals' reassignment in educational organizations. The study utilized qualitative research design and the study group composed of 8 school administrators selected via simple sampling who were employed in the Bolu central district in 2014-2015 academic year.…

  2. Vocational Education in the Principality of Liechtenstein.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nigsch, Josef; Gunz, Dieter; Jenny, Christoph; Jehle, Karl

    This booklet provides an overview of vocational education (VE) in the principality of Liechtenstein. The following are among the topics discussed: Liechtenstein's government, sovereignty, history, and foreign policy; Liechtenstein's VE system (history, underlying principles, policy, structure, economic framework, legal basis, organization and…

  3. 10. VIEW OF ALIGNMENT FOR COULTERVILLE ROAD AND MERCED RIVER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. VIEW OF ALIGNMENT FOR COULTERVILLE ROAD AND MERCED RIVER CANYON. NOTE ROAD CUT FOR NEW BIG OAK FLAT ROAD AT CENTER DISTANCE. LOOKING N. GIS: N-37 42 45.5 / W-119 43 24.7 - Coulterville Road, Between Foresta & All-Weather Highway, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  4. 6. OLD AND NEW TIOGA ROAD. NOTE REMNANTS OF OLD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. OLD AND NEW TIOGA ROAD. NOTE REMNANTS OF OLD ROAD ON LEFT. NOTE ROAD CUT ON CANYON WALL IN CENTER REAR. LOOKING NNE. GIS: N-37 56 19.5 / W-119 13 53.3 - Tioga Road, Between Crane Flat & Tioga Pass, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  5. Psychosemantics of Management Strategy Notions by Comprehensive School Principals and Vice Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saparnis, Gintaras; Saparniene, Diana

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the research is to reveal the psychosemantics of the opinion of school principals and vice principals on the issues of the development of school management. Methodology: From the methodological point of view the research is based on the teaching of the empirical social research about qualitative and quantitative research…

  6. Inhalation of road dust by human subjects.

    PubMed

    Takishima, T; Nakamura, M; Sasaki, M; Miyano, M; Yamaya, M; Sasaki, H

    1987-11-01

    We measured pneumomagnetic field strength (PMFS) in 42 healthy control subjects living in districts of Northern Japan with low levels of road dust pollution and in 39 healthy subjects living in areas with high levels of road dust pollution. Suspended road dust produced by studded tires increases from 30 micrograms/m3 during the summer season to levels as high as 400 micrograms/m3 during the snow season in the downtown areas of Sendai, Japan. Road dust retained in the lungs, containing 3% iron, was magnetized from the surface of the chest wall, and PMFS was measured. Three to 5 sequential PMFS measurements were made in each subject in March and October of 1984 and 1985, and in March 1986. The PMFS in control subjects in March 1984 was 37 +/- 14 pico-Tesla (mean +/- SD) and did not significantly differ from the PMFS in October 1984 or that in March 1985. In March 1984, the PMFS of the subjects in highly polluted areas was 95 +/- 100 pico-Tesla (mean +/- SD) and was significantly higher than that of control subjects (p less than 0.01) and subsequently decreased in March 1985 and in March 1986, corresponding to a decrease in suspended road dust brought about by a campaign to eliminate the use of studded tires. Our findings suggest that some road dust caused by studded tires is retained in the lungs.

  7. The impact of roads on the demography of grizzly bears in Alberta.

    PubMed

    Boulanger, John; Stenhouse, Gordon B

    2014-01-01

    One of the principal factors that have reduced grizzly bear populations has been the creation of human access into grizzly bear habitat by roads built for resource extraction. Past studies have documented mortality and distributional changes of bears relative to roads but none have attempted to estimate the direct demographic impact of roads in terms of both survival rates, reproductive rates, and the interaction of reproductive state of female bears with survival rate. We applied a combination of survival and reproductive models to estimate demographic parameters for threatened grizzly bear populations in Alberta. Instead of attempting to estimate mean trend we explored factors which caused biological and spatial variation in population trend. We found that sex and age class survival was related to road density with subadult bears being most vulnerable to road-based mortality. A multi-state reproduction model found that females accompanied by cubs of the year and/or yearling cubs had lower survival rates compared to females with two year olds or no cubs. A demographic model found strong spatial gradients in population trend based upon road density. Threshold road densities needed to ensure population stability were estimated to further refine targets for population recovery of grizzly bears in Alberta. Models that considered lowered survival of females with dependant offspring resulted in lower road density thresholds to ensure stable bear populations. Our results demonstrate likely spatial variation in population trend and provide an example how demographic analysis can be used to refine and direct conservation measures for threatened species.

  8. Teachers' Perceptions of Principals' ICT Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Ann-Louise

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on the leadership used by the principal in a collaborative ICT project. The case study chosen was a school project conducted within the NCCE project (Nordic Cross Country Education). The EU funded project ran for three years in grades 5-9 in Sweden, Denmark and Norway. The goal of the project was to develop cross-border…

  9. Principal component analysis of phenolic acid spectra

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Phenolic acids are common plant metabolites that exhibit bioactive properties and have applications in functional food and animal feed formulations. The ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR) spectra of four closely related phenolic acid structures were evaluated by principal component analysis (PCA) to...

  10. Road safety risks in young people attending general practice: A cross-sectional study of road risks and associated health risks.

    PubMed

    Martin, Jennifer; Kauer, Sylvia D; Sanci, Lena

    2016-09-01

    Young people have a large burden of death and disease from risky road behaviours. Guidelines recommend injury prevention and harm minimisation counselling; however, little is known about road risks in youth attending primary care. The aim of this study was to examine the type of road risks and associated behaviours in young people attending general practice. A cross-sectional analysis was undertaken on health risk survey data from a sample of 901 patients, aged 14-24 years, attending 40 Victorian general practices in a stratified cluster randomised trial. Frequently occurring road risks included travelling with people under the influence of alcohol or drugs (55%), speeding (43%) and mobile phone use (40%). These behaviours were strongly associated with other health risks, including use of tobacco, alcohol and illicit drugs, and unprotected sex. High proportions of youth attending general practice engage in road risks, making this a potential setting to discuss road risks along with broader health risk prevention activities.

  11. The Micropolitics of School Principals' Decision Making in Nigeria: Principals' Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olayiwola, Shina; Alabi, Kingsley

    2015-01-01

    This study depicted a micropolitical analysis of school principals' decision making as regards the influence of formal and informal groups on school administrative processes from the point of view of principals. It was based on descriptive survey study of all 24 public secondary schools within Ile-Ife community, Osun State, Nigeria, out of which a…

  12. Triangulating Principal Effectiveness: How Perspectives of Parents, Teachers, and Assistant Principals Identify the Central Importance of Managerial Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grissom, Jason A.; Loeb, Susanna

    2011-01-01

    While the importance of effective principals is undisputed, few studies have identified specific skills that principals need to promote school success. This study draws on unique data combining survey responses from principals, assistant principals, teachers, and parents with rich administrative data to determine which principal skills correlate…

  13. Triangulating Principal Effectiveness: How Perspectives of Parents, Teachers, and Assistant Principals Identify the Central Importance of Managerial Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grissom, Jason A.; Loeb, Susanna

    2011-01-01

    While the importance of effective principals is undisputed, few studies have identified specific skills that principals need to promote school success. This study draws on unique data combining survey responses from principals, assistant principals, teachers, and parents with rich administrative data to determine which principal skills correlate…

  14. Improving Conditions for Principal Effectiveness: Policy Implications of Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manasse, A. Lorri

    1985-01-01

    Reviews research on principals' behavior and research differentiating between more and less effective principals. Traces potential policy implications in the areas of program implementation, principal selection, preservice and inservice training, and district level organization and management. (RH)

  15. Does Restructuring Make a Difference for the Principal? Role Conceptions of Principals in Restructuring Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talbot, Danny; Crow, Gary M.

    Researchers who have focused on issues of interpersonal communication in organizations have concluded that it is an essential component of organizational life. This paper presents findings of a study that examined the role conceptions of principals in the Centenial Schools Program (CSP) and those of principals in non-CSP schools. Communicator…

  16. The Deputy Principal Instructional Leadership Role and Professional Learning: Perceptions of Secondary Principals, Deputies and Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leaf, Ann; Odhiambo, George

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on a study examining the perceptions of secondary principals, deputies and teachers, of deputy principal (DP) instructional leadership (IL), as well as deputies' professional learning (PL) needs. Framed within an interpretivist approach, the specific objectives of this study were: to explore the…

  17. Health burden of serious road injuries in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Weijermars, W; Bos, N; Stipdonk, H

    2016-11-16

    The consequences of injuries in terms of disabilities and health burden are relevant for policy making. This article provides an overview of the current knowledge on this topic and discusses the health burden of serious road injuries in The Netherlands. The overview of current knowledge on disabilities following a road crash is based on a literature review. The health burden of serious road injuries is quantified in terms of years lived with disability (YLD), by combining incidence data from the Dutch hospital discharge register with information about temporary and lifelong disability. Literature shows that road traffic injuries can have a major impact on victims' physical and psychological well-being and functioning. Reported proportions of people with disability vary between 11 and 80% depending on the type of casualties, time elapsed since the crash, and the health impacts considered. Together, all casualties involving serious injuries in The Netherlands in 2009 account for about 38,000 YLD, compared to 25,000 years of life lost (YLL) of fatalities. Ninety percent of the burden of injury is due to lifelong consequences that are experienced by 20% of all those seriously injured in road accidents. Lower leg injuries and head injuries represent a high share in the total burden of injury as have cyclists that are injured in a crash without a motorized vehicle. Pedestrians and powered 2-wheeler users show the highest burden of injury per casualty. Given their major impacts and contribution to health burden, road policy making should also be aimed at reducing the number of serious road injuries and limiting the resulting health impacts.

  18. Perceptions of the Role of the School Principal in Teacher Professional Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gimbel, Phyllis A.; Lopes, Lisa; Greer, Elizabeth Nolan

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate teacher and principal perceptions of the role of the principal in fostering teachers' professional growth. A Likert-type questionnaire was used to explore the ways 476 teachers and 135 principals see themselves as being supported in their professional growth. New and veteran teachers and principals…

  19. Principal Self-Efficacy, Teacher Perceptions of Principal Performance, and Teacher Job Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Molly Lynn

    2016-01-01

    In public schools, the principal's role is of paramount importance in influencing teachers to excel and to keep their job satisfaction high. The self-efficacy of leaders is an important characteristic of leadership, but this issue has not been extensively explored in school principals. Using internet-based questionnaires, this study obtained…

  20. The Daily Lives of Principals: Twenty-One Principals in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Deborah Lynn

    2010-01-01

    This is a qualitative dissertation study about the daily work lives of 21 school principals from 10 states across the nation. The study tells the story of the principals' work lives by featuring their voices. Since the inception of No Child Left Behind (NCLB), the principalship has become a position with increased responsibilities and restricted…

  1. Principal Self-Efficacy, Teacher Perceptions of Principal Performance, and Teacher Job Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Molly Lynn

    2016-01-01

    In public schools, the principal's role is of paramount importance in influencing teachers to excel and to keep their job satisfaction high. The self-efficacy of leaders is an important characteristic of leadership, but this issue has not been extensively explored in school principals. Using internet-based questionnaires, this study obtained…

  2. Leading Schools through a Generational Lens: Perceptions of Principals' Change Leadership Disaggregated by Principal Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhn, Matthew Scott

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive quantitative study was to investigate possible differences in school leadership within a change process, as perceived by teachers. Grouped by generation, this study investigated principals' perceptions of change order and that of their teachers, as well as how their teachers perceived their principal's leadership…

  3. What Do We Expect of School Principals? Congruence between Principal Evaluation and Performance Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catano, Nancy; Stronge, James H.

    2007-01-01

    This study used both quantitative and qualitative methods of content analysis to examine principal evaluation instruments and state and professional standards for principals in school districts located in a mid-Atlantic state in the USA. The purposes of this study were to (a) determine the degrees of emphasis that are placed upon leadership and…

  4. Systematic Development of Intelligent Systems for Public Road Transport.

    PubMed

    García, Carmelo R; Quesada-Arencibia, Alexis; Cristóbal, Teresa; Padrón, Gabino; Alayón, Francisco

    2016-07-16

    This paper presents an architecture model for the development of intelligent systems for public passenger transport by road. The main objective of our proposal is to provide a framework for the systematic development and deployment of telematics systems to improve various aspects of this type of transport, such as efficiency, accessibility and safety. The architecture model presented herein is based on international standards on intelligent transport system architectures, ubiquitous computing and service-oriented architecture for distributed systems. To illustrate the utility of the model, we also present a use case of a monitoring system for stops on a public passenger road transport network.

  5. Systematic Development of Intelligent Systems for Public Road Transport

    PubMed Central

    García, Carmelo R.; Quesada-Arencibia, Alexis; Cristóbal, Teresa; Padrón, Gabino; Alayón, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an architecture model for the development of intelligent systems for public passenger transport by road. The main objective of our proposal is to provide a framework for the systematic development and deployment of telematics systems to improve various aspects of this type of transport, such as efficiency, accessibility and safety. The architecture model presented herein is based on international standards on intelligent transport system architectures, ubiquitous computing and service-oriented architecture for distributed systems. To illustrate the utility of the model, we also present a use case of a monitoring system for stops on a public passenger road transport network. PMID:27438836

  6. Iranian road traffic injury project: assessment of road traffic injuries in Iran in 2012.

    PubMed

    Khorshidi, Ali; Ainy, Elaheh; Soori, Hamid; Sabbagh, Mohammad Mahdi

    2016-05-01

    To assess the status of road traffic injuries in Iran. The retrospective study was conducted in Iran and comprised all reported traffic accidents from March 2011 to March 2012 that were recorded in the national traffic accident database. The information collected included demographic data specific to road traffic accidents and injuries. The data was summarised and presented using frequencies and percentages. There were a total of 452192 road traffic accidents with 252246 victims in the one-year period. The highest number of accidents, 110348(47%), involved individuals in the 15-30 year age group. Among the gender-identified injured, 206171(78.4%) were male and 56639 (21.6%) were female. Besides, 298750(73.2%) accidents took place between 6am and 6pm. In terms of location, the province of Semnan had the highest rates of injury and death (913 per 100000 and 41per 100000, respectively), while the lowest rate of injury was in Alborz (131 per 100000) and lowest rate of death was in Tehran (5 per 100000). The majority of accidents 301516(66.7%) occurred on inner city roads. Although the total number of victims in inner city roads (180893) was higher than outer the city roads (2.2:1), the number of deaths (8615) on outer roads was higher (3:1). Road traffic injuries placed a heavy burden on the Iranian population, especially on young men. Comprehensive strategies and policies must be implemented for effective prevention of road accidents in Iran.

  7. Teaching the Silk Road: A Journey of Pedagogical Discovery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrea, A. J.; Mierse, William

    2002-01-01

    Describes a course for first-year college students that focuses on the Silk Road. Discusses the problems that occurs in such a course, types of resources used, basic strategies and tactics taken, and the focus on mapmaking in the beginning of the course. Includes an annotated bibliography. (CMK)

  8. Teaching the Silk Road: A Journey of Pedagogical Discovery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrea, A. J.; Mierse, William

    2002-01-01

    Describes a course for first-year college students that focuses on the Silk Road. Discusses the problems that occurs in such a course, types of resources used, basic strategies and tactics taken, and the focus on mapmaking in the beginning of the course. Includes an annotated bibliography. (CMK)

  9. STUDY ON GEO-CODING OF ROAD EVENTS USING ROAD NAMES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minami, Yoshitaka; Sekimoto, Yoshihide; Nakajo, Satoru; Sibasaki, Ryosuke

    Recently, services with geospatial information have expanding rapidly. In case of road map, it has become increasingly important to represent various information such as stores, road works, traffic controls, accidents and positions of cars and people, because of the popularization of a vehicle and pedestrian navigation system. However, in Japan, coordinates that identify position from Japanese address is not on a road but on city block. So it is very important to identify the position on the road that various information indicates. Then, in this study, the geocoding technology was examined to specify the position on the road for the improvement and the upgrade of the convenience of service that used geospatial information. The method that used the location information and route information was invented about the identifying position on the road. Data targeted related information on road events in the process where the road structure was changed. In addition, the method at this identifying position was applied to information related to the road, the ratio of the accuracy and each accuracy was calculated, and application to service was examined.

  10. Estimation of Road Friction Coefficient in Different Road Conditions Based on Vehicle Braking Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, You-Qun; Li, Hai-Qing; Lin, Fen; Wang, Jian; Ji, Xue-Wu

    2017-07-01

    The accurate estimation of road friction coefficient in the active safety control system has become increasingly prominent. Most previous studies on road friction estimation have only used vehicle longitudinal or lateral dynamics and often ignored the load transfer, which tends to cause inaccurate of the actual road friction coefficient. A novel method considering load transfer of front and rear axles is proposed to estimate road friction coefficient based on braking dynamic model of two-wheeled vehicle. Sliding mode control technique is used to build the ideal braking torque controller, which control target is to control the actual wheel slip ratio of front and rear wheels tracking the ideal wheel slip ratio. In order to eliminate the chattering problem of the sliding mode controller, integral switching surface is used to design the sliding mode surface. A second order linear extended state observer is designed to observe road friction coefficient based on wheel speed and braking torque of front and rear wheels. The proposed road friction coefficient estimation schemes are evaluated by simulation in ADAMS/Car. The results show that the estimated values can well agree with the actual values in different road conditions. The observer can estimate road friction coefficient exactly in real-time and resist external disturbance. The proposed research provides a novel method to estimate road friction coefficient with strong robustness and more accurate.

  11. Classification of Uxo by Principal Dipole Polarizability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kappler, K. N.

    2010-12-01

    Data acquired by multiple-Transmitter, multiple-receiver time-domain electromagnetic devices show great potential for determining the geometric and compositional information relating to near surface conductive targets. Here is presented an analysis of data from one such system; the Berkeley Unexploded-ordnance Discriminator (BUD) system. BUD data are succinctly reduced by processing the multi-static data matrices to obtain magnetic dipole polarizability matrices for data from each time gate. When viewed over all time gates, the projections of the data onto the principal polar axes yield so-called polarizability curves. These curves are especially well suited to discriminating between subsurface conductivity anomalies which correspond to objects of rotational symmetry and irregularly shaped objects. The curves have previously been successfully employed as library elements in a pattern recognition scheme aimed at discriminating harmless scrap metal from dangerous intact unexploded ordnance. However, previous polarizability-curve matching methods have only been applied at field sites which are known a priori to be contaminated by a single type of ordnance, and furthermore, the particular ordnance present in the subsurface was known to be large. Thus signal amplitude was a key element in the discrimination process. The work presented here applies feature-based pattern classification techniques to BUD field data where more than 20 categories of object are present. Data soundings from a calibration grid at the Yuma, AZ proving ground are used in a cross validation study to calibrate the pattern recognition method. The resultant method is then applied to a Blind Test Grid. Results indicate that when lone UXO are present and SNR is reasonably high, Polarizability Curve Matching successfully discriminates UXO from scrap metal when a broad range of objects are present.

  12. Impact of road traffic accidents on the elderly.

    PubMed

    Etehad, H; Yousefzadeh-Chabok, Sh; Davoudi-Kiakalaye, A; Moghadam Dehnadi, A; Hemati, H; Mohtasham-Amiri, Z

    2015-01-01

    Older adults are a vulnerable road user group with high mortality and morbidity in road crash. The aim of this study was to show pattern of road traffic injuries in this special aging group. In a cross sectional study, pre-hospital emergency system reports, hospital and police records of all motor vehicle collisions injured above 60 years old who were admitted to Pour-Sina hospital from April 2011 to March 2012 were studied. Demographic data, characteristic of road traffic incidents and in-hospital medical profiles were derived. Data were analyzed with SPSS ver. 18. Differences between demographic and injuries situation were calculated by chi square test. A p-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. One thousand three-hundred six old injured were admitted during study period that this amount accounted for 8.7% of total road accident injured. Mean age of them was 70.9 ± 6.7 years. Most of them were male (74.7%). 40.5% were pedestrians, 22.1% were car occupants and 19.1% were motorcyclists.76.7% had multiple trauma. Head and neck were the most prevalent regions of injured. Total in-hospital mortality rate was 10.1% that was higher in old elderly pedestrians and motorcyclists in comparison to young elderly (16.1% vs. 7.9%) and other type of victims (ρ<0.000). One thousand three-hundred six old injured were admitted during study period that this amount accounted for 8.7% of total road accident injured. Mean age of them was 70.9 ± 6.7 years. Most of them were male (74.7%). 40.5% were pedestrians, 22.1% were car occupants and 19.1% were motorcyclists.76.7% had multiple trauma. Head and neck were the most prevalent regions of injured. Total in-hospital mortality rate was 10.1% that was higher in old elderly pedestrians and motorcyclists in comparison to young elderly (16.1% vs. 7.9%) and other type of victims (ρ<0.000). High mortality rate of road traffic injuries in this group especially in pedestrians should be taken into consideration and strategies

  13. Statewide Data on Supply and Demand of Principals after Policy Changes to Principal Preparation in Illinois

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haller, Alicia; Hunt, Erika

    2016-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that principals have a powerful impact on school improvement and student learning. Principals play a vital role in recruiting, developing, and retaining effective teachers; creating a school-wide culture of learning; and implementing a continuous improvement plan aimed at increasing student achievement. Leithwood, Louis,…

  14. Principal Preferences and the Unequal Distribution of Principals across Schools. Working Paper 36

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horng, Eileen; Kalogrides, Demetra; Loeb, Susanna

    2009-01-01

    In this study the authors use longitudinal data from one large school district--Miami-Dade County Public Schools, to investigate the distribution of principals across schools. The authors find schools serving many low-income, non-white, and low-achieving students have principals with less experience, less education, and who attended less selective…

  15. African-American Principals in the Midwest: Voices of the Sojourner Principal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David Byron

    2012-01-01

    In an era of accountability and high standards for public schools, some African American principals decided to work in predominantly white schools. Their experiences were challenging because they were racial newcomers in schools with students different from their own race. In this case study, 12 African-American principals and assistant principals…

  16. Model Contract of Employment for Principals, Assistant Principals. Administrative Information Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Benjamin; Hersey, Paul W.

    This publication presents a model employment contract intended to assist school administrators in developing or modifying appropriate contract language to protect the status of school principals and assistant principals. Although the model was developed specifically for secondary school administrators, it would be equally appropriate for…

  17. Determination and validation of principal gene products

    PubMed Central

    Tress, Michael L.; Wesselink, Jan-Jaap; Frankish, Adam; López, Gonzalo; Goldman, Nick; Löytynoja, Ari; Massingham, Tim; Pardi, Fabio; Whelan, Simon; Harrow, Jennifer; Valencia, Alfonso

    2009-01-01

    Motivation Alternative splicing has the potential to generate a wide range of protein isoforms. For many computational applications and for experimental research, it is important to be able to concentrate on the isoform that retains the core biological function. For many genes this is far from clear. Results We have combined five methods into a pipeline that allows us to detect the principal variant for a gene. Most of the methods were based on conservation between species, at the level of both gene and protein. The five methods used were the conservation of exonic structure, the detection of non-neutral evolution, the conservation of functional residues, the existence of a known protein structure and the abundance of vertebrate orthologues. The pipeline was able to determine a principal isoform for 83% of a set of well-annotated genes with multiple variants. PMID:18006548

  18. On-the-road performance tests of electric test vehicle for correlation with road load simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Dustin, M.O.; Slavik, R.J.

    1982-08-01

    A special purpose dynamometer (Road Load Simulator) is being used at NASA Lewis Research Center to test and evaluate electric vehicle propulsion systems developed under DOE's Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program. To improve correlation between system tests on the Road Load Simulator and on the road, similar performance tests are being conducted using the same vehicle. The results of track tests on the Lewis electric propulsion system test vehicle are described in this report. The tests include range at constant speeds and over SAE J227a driving cycles, maximum accelerations, maximum gradability, and tire rolling resistance determination. Road power requirements and energy consumption were also determined from coast-down tests.

  19. On the road performance tests of electric test vehicle for correlation with road load simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dustin, M. O.; Slavik, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    A dynamometer (road load simulator) is used to test and evaluate electric vehicle propulsion systems. To improve correlation between system tests on the road load simulator and on the road, similar performance tests are conducted using the same vehicle. The results of track tests on the electric propulsion system test vehicle are described. The tests include range at constant speeds and over SAE J227a driving cycles, maximum accelerations, maximum gradability, and tire rolling resistance determination. Road power requirements and energy consumption were also determined from coast down tests.

  20. Car-following model of multispecies systems of road traffic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Anthony D.; Woods, Andrew W.

    1997-03-01

    A speed-adjustment car-following model is extended to systems of traffic where there is a variety of vehicle response times and speed-headway relationships. This is proposed as a model of the interactions between cars and trucks on single-lane roads where there is no overtaking, and some of its properties are derived. First, we make a distinction between temporal stability on a circular road and spatial stability on a straight road and go on to derive criteria for linear stability in each case. The propagation and dispersion of a linear disturbance wave is studied, and we also compare the nonlinear evolution of both single- and multiple-species systems on circuitous and straight roads. When the speed-headway relationship of all vehicles is given by the nonlinear law proposed by Bando et al. [Phys. Rev. E 51, 2 (1995)], we find that for models of car-truck systems, as for systems consisting of one type of vehicle only, there is a range of equilibrium headways for which the system is linearly unstable. The size of this range increases with the proportion of the more unreactive vehicle type, trucks, in the population of vehicles. Computer simulations verify the analytical results and show the nonlinear development of disturbances when the system is linearly unstable. It is demonstrated that slow vehicles in a platoon moving at close to their top speed can damp nonlinear congestion waves.

  1. Road networks as collections of minimum cost paths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wegner, Jan Dirk; Montoya-Zegarra, Javier Alexander; Schindler, Konrad

    2015-10-01

    We present a probabilistic representation of network structures in images. Our target application is the extraction of urban roads from aerial images. Roads appear as thin, elongated, partially curved structures forming a loopy graph, and this complex layout requires a prior that goes beyond standard smoothness and co-occurrence assumptions. In the proposed model the network is represented as a union of 1D paths connecting distant (super-)pixels. A large set of putative candidate paths is constructed in such a way that they include the true network as much as possible, by searching for minimum cost paths in the foreground (road) likelihood. Selecting the optimal subset of candidate paths is posed as MAP inference in a higher-order conditional random field. Each path forms a higher-order clique with a type of clique potential, which attracts the member nodes of cliques with high cumulative road evidence to the foreground label. That formulation induces a robust PN -Potts model, for which a global MAP solution can be found efficiently with graph cuts. Experiments with two road data sets show that the proposed model significantly improves per-pixel accuracies as well as the overall topological network quality with respect to several baselines.

  2. Principal component analysis of International Ultraviolet Explorer galaxy spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Formiggini, Liliana; Brosch, Noah

    2004-05-01

    We analyse the UV spectral energy distribution of a sample of normal galaxies listed in the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) Newly Extracted Spectra (INES) Guide No. 2 - Normal Galaxies using a principal component analysis. The sample consists of the IUE short-wavelength (SW) spectra of the central regions of 118 galaxies, where the IUE aperture included more than 1 per cent of the galaxy size. The principal components are associated with the main components observed in the ultraviolet (UV) spectra of galaxies. The first component, accounting for the largest source of diversity, may be associated with the UV continuum emission. The second component represents the UV contribution of an underlying evolved stellar population. The third component is sensitive to the amount of activity in the central regions of galaxies and measures the strength of star-formation events. In all the samples analysed here, the principal component representative of star-forming activity accounts for a significant percentage of the variance. The fractional contribution to the spectral energy distribution (SED) by the evolved stars and by the young population are similar. Projecting the SEDs on to their eigenspectra, we find that none of the coefficients of the principal components can outline an internal correlation or can correlate with the optical morphological types. In a subsample of 43 galaxies, consisting of almost only compact and BCD galaxies, the third principal component defines a sequence related to the degree of starburst activity of the galaxy.

  3. The effect of road tunnel environment on car following behaviour.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Jian Sheng; Wong, Yiik Diew

    2014-09-01

    In order to overcome urban space constraints, underground road systems are becoming popular options for cities. Existing literature suggests that accident rates in road tunnels are lower than those in open roads. However, there is a lack of understanding in how the road tunnel environment affects inter-vehicle interactions. In this study, car following data are obtained from traffic video footages of open and tunnel expressways in Singapore. A total of 15,325 car following headways (with car as the follower) are analysed and significant factors affecting headways are found to be speed, and lane. Significant effect of leading vehicle type is only found for tunnel expressway. Headways are generally longer in the tunnel environment. Assessment of collision time measures and safety margins also reveal safer car following behaviour and lower rear-end collision risks in the tunnel expressway. The results are discussed from a behavioural perspective. Overall, the findings show that road tunnels are superior in terms of safety but at reduced traffic capacity .

  4. Can Student Test Scores Provide Useful Measures of School Principals' Performance? NCEE 2016-002

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiang, Hanley; McCullough, Moira; Lipscomb, Stephen; Gill, Brian

    2016-01-01

    States and districts need ways of measuring principal performance that correctly identify effective principals. Unfortunately, existing research offers little guidance to policymakers on which types of performance measures provide valid information about principals' contributions to student achievement. States have therefore had to develop…

  5. A Mixed Methods Study Exploring the Realities and Perceptions of Principal Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bingham, Donald P.

    2013-01-01

    Principals play a critical role in how a school performs and what type of culture it will have. However, most principal evaluation relies heavily on practices and beliefs grounded in 20th century educational paradigms or adheres to outdated behavioral checklists. This mixed methods study explores the current realities of principal evaluation in…

  6. Road safety from the perspective of driver gender and age as related to the injury crash frequency and road scenario.

    PubMed

    Russo, Francesca; Biancardo, Salvatore Antonio; Dell'Acqua, Gianluca

    2014-01-01

    /age/number drivers) all together when the crash occurred, as provided by related police reports. The validation procedure succeeded. It emerged that males and females are involved in crashes of varying degrees of frequency, depending on the driving scenario that presents itself and the gender of the other drivers involved in the crash. Several different dangerous scenarios were identified: only female drivers on a dry road surface in daylight on tangent segments increased the risk for head-on/side collisions; only male drivers on a wet road surface in daylight on circular curves increased the risk for single-vehicle crashes; and crashes involving both female and male drivers on a dry road surface in daylight on a circular curve increased the risk for head-on/side collisions. According to the current study, based on the network approach for the allocation of economic resources and planning of road safety strategies, calibration of injury crash rate prediction models for specific target collision type is important because of the range of harms that are caused by different collision types. From these studies it is apparent that the age and gender of drivers considered together further refines how those factors contribute to crashes. Countermeasures (structural road interventions and/or safety awareness campaigns) can be planned to reduce the highest rate of injury crash for each gender and road scenario: the awareness campaigns cannot be generalized or vague but must be organized by age and gender, because this study shows that crash dynamics alter as these factors change, with consideration for the varying psychological traits of the driver groups. Before-and-after safety evaluations can be used to check the safety benefits of improvements carried out on the roadways, within budget constraints for improvement or safety compliance investments for future operation. Supplemental materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Traffic Injury Prevention to

  7. Road manslaughter—or just the cost of progress?

    PubMed Central

    Mooren, L; Grzebieta, R

    2009-01-01

    Much to the frustration of road safety researchers, practitioners, and advocates, road deaths and injuries have not been widely accepted as a major public health threat. Currently, road trauma is one of the biggest killers and causes of serious and disabling injuries in the world. Although there has been considerable research on the causes of road injury and ways of mitigating the problem, there is still reluctance to systematically and sufficiently do what can be done to reduce this problem globally. This paper takes a historical review of the road trauma problem and responses to it. In examining developments in road transport and road injury, it is clear that the main impediment to reducing road deaths and injury has been a misguided preference of economic advancement over public health risk management. It is misguided because road trauma has impeded and does still impede the capacity of economies to develop. The challenge for societies now is to look at this false dichotomy—that of road development and motorisation versus road safety—and begin to make the right choices in favour of human society advancement through the development and management of safe road-traffic systems. A new ‘Safe Systems’ approach is emerging in Australia and spreading globally as a guiding principle for road safety. The evolution of this approach is traced and illustrated in this article. The need for finding ways to engender a stronger global political commitment to road safety is demonstrated. PMID:22460394

  8. Effects of roads on survival of San Clemente Island foxes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snow, N.P.; Andelt, W.F.; Stanley, T.R.; Resnik, J.R.; Munson, L.

    2012-01-01

    Roads generate a variety of influences on wildlife populations; however, little is known about the effects of roads on endemic wildlife on islands. Specifically, road-kills of island foxes (Urocyon littoralis) on San Clemente Island (SCI), Channel Islands, California, USA are a concern for resource managers. To determine the effects of roads on island foxes, we radiocollared foxes using a 3-tiered sampling design to represent the entire population in the study area, a sub-population near roads, and a sub-population away from roads on SCI. We examined annual survival rates using nest-survival models, causes of mortalities, and movements for each sample. We found the population had high annual survival (0.90), although survival declined with use of road habitat, particularly for intermediate-aged foxes. Foxes living near roads suffered lower annual survival (0.76), resulting from high frequencies of road-kills (7 of 11 mortalities). Foxes living away from roads had the highest annual survival (0.97). Road-kill was the most prominent cause of mortality detected on SCI, which we estimated as killing 3-8% of the population in the study area annually. Based on movements, we were unable to detect any responses by foxes that minimized their risks from roads. The probabilities of road-kills increased with use of the road habitat, volume of traffic, and decreasing road sinuosity. We recommend that managers should attempt to reduce road-kills by deterring or excluding foxes from entering roads, and attempting to modify behaviors of motorists to be vigilant for foxes. ?? 2011 The Wildlife Society.

  9. What is the potential of trauma registry data to be used for road traffic injury surveillance and informing road safety policy?

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Rebecca; Williamson, Ann; Curtis, Kate

    2011-10-01

    Information from hospital trauma registries is increasingly being used to support injury surveillance efforts. This research examines the potential of using trauma registry data for road traffic injury surveillance for different types of road users in terms of both the information collected and how representative trauma data are compared to two population-based road traffic injury data collections. The three data collections were assessed against recommended variables to be collected for injury surveillance purposes and the representativeness of the distribution of road traffic-related injury data from the trauma registry was compared to hospital admission and road traffic authority data collections. Data from the trauma registry was largely not representative of the distribution of age groups or activities compared to the two population-based collections, but was representative for gender for some road user groups to at least one population-based data collection. Trauma data could be used to supplement information from population-based data collections to inform road safety efforts. Road safety policy makers should be aware of the potential and the limitations of using trauma registry data for road traffic injury surveillance. Copyright © 2011 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A Program Evaluation of a Leadership Academy for School Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Kristi E.

    2014-01-01

    This program evaluation focused on mid-range outcomes of a leadership academy for school principals. The mixed-methods evaluation included interviews, principals' instructional observation database, and teacher surveys. The Principal Academy program was designed to build principals' knowledge of high-yield instructional strategies (Hattie, 2009),…

  11. Principal Hiring Practices: Toward a Reduction of Uncertainty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Richard W.; Schroeder, Mark P.

    2010-01-01

    Principals aim to hire outstanding teachers. But how do they do this? How do they reduce the large number of applicants to a workable number? What process do principals use to hire and to what extent does variation exist among hiring practices? This article investigates the current hiring practices of K-12 principals. Principals were examined on…

  12. Redefining the Role of the Principal. The Informed Educator Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shellard, Elizabeth

    The position of school principal has become complex and pressure packed. The job always has required skills and leadership, but now principals must be strong instructional leaders as well. This research roundup examines the changing role of the school principal and discusses how principals can operate effectively as both managers and instructional…

  13. Victims of road rage: a qualitative study of the experiences of motorists and vulnerable road users.

    PubMed

    Cavacuiti, Christopher; Ala-Leppilampi, Kari Juhani; Mann, Robert E; Govoni, Richard; Stoduto, Gina; Smart, Reginald; Locke, Jennifer Ann

    2013-01-01

    To gain an in-depth understanding of road rage incidents from the victims' perspectives. The data consisted of 30- to 60-min in-depth semistructured phone interviews with 29 self-identified victims of road rage. Twenty of the participants were in a motor vehicle, whereas 9 were pedestrians/cyclists. A qualitative Grounded Theory approach was used to inductively code and analyze the transcripts. Victims reported a correlation between their vulnerability and the perceived intensity/severity of the road rage incidents. The most vulnerable victims (pedestrians and cyclists) were the least likely to view road rage incidents as a random event and the most likely to feel that they were specifically targeted. Road rage incidents tended to evolve more rapidly when there was a greater real or perceived power imbalance between the victims and perpetrators. The most vulnerable victims were the most likely to have long-term physical and mental health consequences from the incident, and to significantly modify their behavior after the incident. Our analysis suggests that issues of victim vulnerability play a major role in determining the intensity, severity, and psychological consequences of road rage incidents. This seems particularly true for the most vulnerable of road users, such as pedestrians and cyclists.

  14. Monitoring and assessing global impacts of roads and off-road vehicle traffic

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rapid increases in the number of vehicles, urban sprawl, exurban development and infrastructure development for energy and water have led to dramatic increases in both the size and extent of the global road network. Anecdotal evidence suggests that off-road vehicle traffic has also increased in many...

  15. Grading Principals: Administrator Evaluations Come of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, John A.; Pimentel, Susan

    1996-01-01

    The Charlotte-Mecklenburg (North Carolina) Public Schools have replaced checklists with a result-based, profit-sharing administrator evaluation system that rewards educational excellence and provides principals with needed assistance or support. Effective principals enjoy substantial autonomy; marginal principals receive massive central-office…

  16. An experimental evaluation of potential scavenger effects on snake road mortality detections

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hubbard, Kaylan A.; Chalfoun, Anna D.

    2012-01-01

    As road networks expand and collisions between vehicles and wildlife become more common, accurately quantifying mortality rates for the taxa that are most impacted will be critical. Snakes are especially vulnerable to collisions with vehicles because of their physiology and behavior. Reptile road mortality is typically quantified using driving or walking surveys; however, scavengers can rapidly remove carcasses from the road and cause underestimation of mortality. Our objective was to determine the effect that scavengers might have had on our ability to accurately detect reptile road mortality during over 150 h and 4,000 km of driving surveys through arid shrublands in southwest Wyoming, which resulted in only two observations of mortality. We developed unique simulated snake carcasses out of Burbot (Lota lota), a locally invasive fish species, and examined removal rates across three different road types at three study sites. Carcass size was not a significant predictor of time of removal, and carcass removal was comparable during the daytime and nighttime hours. However, removal of simulated carcasses was higher on paved roads than unpaved or two-track roads at all study sites, with an average of 75% of the carcasses missing within 60 h compared to 34% and 31%, respectively. Scavengers may therefore negatively impact the ability of researchers to accurately detect herpetofaunal road mortality, especially for paved roads where road mortality is likely the most prevalent.

  17. The use of screening effects in modelling route-based daytime road surface temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yumei; Almkvist, Esben; Lindberg, Fredrik; Bogren, Jörgen; Gustavsson, Torbjörn

    2016-07-01

    Winter road maintenance is essential for road safety. Accurate predictions of the road surface temperature (RST) and conditions can enhance the efficiency of winter road maintenance. Screening effects, which encompass shading effects and the influence of the sky-view factor ( ψ s ), influence RST distributions because they affect road surface radiation fluxes. In this work, light detection and ranging (Lidar) data are used to derive shadow patterns and ψ s values, and the resulting shadow patterns are used to model route-based RST distributions along two stretches of road in Sweden. The shading patterns and road surface radiation fluxes calculated from the Lidar data generally agreed well with measured RST values. Variation in land use types and the angle between the road direction and solar azimuth may introduce uncertainties, and accounting for these factors may improve the results obtained in certain cases. A simple shading model that only accounts for the direct radiation at the instant of measurement is often sufficient to provide reasonably accurate RST estimates. However, in certain cases, such as those involving measurements close to sunset, it is important to consider the radiation accumulated over several hours. The inclusion of ψ s improves the model performance even more in such cases. Overall, RST models based on the accumulated direct shortwave radiation offered an optimal balance of simplicity and accuracy. General radiation models were built for country road and highway environments, explaining up to 70 and 65 %, respectively, of the observed variation in RST along the corresponding stretches of road.

  18. 25 CFR 265.3 - Roads prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Roads prohibited. 265.3 Section 265.3 Indians BUREAU OF... ON INDIAN RESERVATIONS § 265.3 Roads prohibited. (a) Within the boundaries of this officially... highways, roads, truck trails, work roads, and all other types of ways constructed to make possible the...

  19. 25 CFR 265.3 - Roads prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Roads prohibited. 265.3 Section 265.3 Indians BUREAU OF... ON INDIAN RESERVATIONS § 265.3 Roads prohibited. (a) Within the boundaries of this officially... highways, roads, truck trails, work roads, and all other types of ways constructed to make possible the...

  20. Development and Validation of a Principal Implementation Practices Measure: The Principal Implementation Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Nettles, Stephen M.; Petscher, Yaacov

    2015-01-01

    Measurement of principal implementation behaviors has proved difficult to researchers in educational leadership due to a lack of consensus on the operational definitions of leadership constructs. The Principal Implementation Questionnaire (PIQ) was developed and validated with the intention of providing clarity in the assessment of principal leadership behaviors in the implementation of effective reading programs. Constructs were operationally defined within the context of the population of interest, with subsequent item writing centered around the constructs. A resulting calibration sample of principals from Florida Reading First schools was used to test the hypothesized measurement model to determine how well the items were described by the proposed factors. Results from LISREL analyses revealed a well-fitted model, based on numerous fit indices. PMID:26366043

  1. 28. ROAD VIEW OF HIGHWAY 267 SOUTH OF GRAPEVINE ENTRANCE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. ROAD VIEW OF HIGHWAY 267 SOUTH OF GRAPEVINE ENTRANCE STATION. NOTE ENTRANCE STATION IN DISTANCE. LOOKING NW. (SAME AS CA-300-7.) - Death Valley National Park Roads, Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  2. Commentary: Status of road safety in Asia.

    PubMed

    Wismans, Jac; Skogsmo, Ingrid; Nilsson-Ehle, Anna; Lie, Anders; Thynell, Marie; Lindberg, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this article is to assess the status of road safety in Asia and present accident and injury prevention strategies based on global road safety improvement experiences and discuss the way forward by indicating opportunities and countermeasures that could be implemented to achieve a new level of safety in Asia. This study provides a review and analyses of data in the literature, including from the World Health Organization (WHO) and World Bank, and a review of lessons learned from best practices in high-income countries. In addition, an estimation of costs due to road transport injuries in Asia and review of future trends in road transport is provided. Data on the global and Asian road safety problem and status of prevention strategies in Asia as well as recommendations for future actions are discussed. The total number of deaths due to road accidents in the 24 Asian countries, encompassing 56% of the total world population, is 750,000 per year (statistics 2010). The total number of injuries is more than 50 million, of which 12% are hospital admissions. The loss to the economy in the 24 Asian countries is estimated to around US$800 billion or 3.6% of the gross domestic product (GDP). This article clearly shows that road safety is causing large problems and high costs in Asia, with an enormous impact on the well-being of people, economy, and productivity. In many Asian low- and middle-income countries, the yearly number of fatalities and injuries is increasing. Vulnerable road users (pedestrians, cyclists, and motorcyclists combined) are particularly at risk. Road safety in Asia should be given rightful attention, including taking powerful, effective actions. This review stresses the need for reliable accident data, because there is considerable underreporting in the official statistics. Reliable accident data are imperative to determine evidence-based intervention strategies and monitor the success of these interventions and analyses. On the other

  3. Control of road trauma epidemic in Australia.

    PubMed Central

    McDermott, F.

    1978-01-01

    This lecture discusses initiatives taken by the Road Trauma Committee of the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons to reduce fatality and injury on Australian roads. In 1970 the Road Trauma Committee and the communications media initiated a national campaign in support of legislation for the compulsory wearing of seat belts. Public ignorance and Parliamentary inertia were countered. Victoria became the first State in the Western world to introduce this legislation. All other Australian States followed. Significant and marked reductions in fatality and injury were achieved and have been maintained. Recognising alcohol as the single most important cause of serious road crashes and injuries in Australia, the committee advocated legislation for compulsory blood alcohol tests on all adult road crash casualties. In 1973-74 legislation was enacted in South Australia and Victoria and in 1976 in Queensland. Results show that more than one-quarter of driver casualties have alcohol concentrations above the legal limit of 0.05 g%. Half of these exceed 0.15 g%. On the other hand less than 3% of the general driving population exceed the legal limit. Further advocacy led in 1976 to the enactment of random roadside breath-test legislation in Victoria. The majority of Australian convicted drinking drivers have alcohol-related social problems. A quarter incur reconvictions. The conventional penal approach has failed. At present the Road Trauma Committee is campaigning for compulsory medical assessment of convicted drinking drivers. Reissue of a driving licence would be dependent upon evidence of re-education and/or rehabilitation. Pilot re-education programmes have been shown to lessen recidivism markedly. Prevention of drink-driving behaviour is the major strategy. The tactics entail deterence, improved secondary-school and driver education, and the implementation of a national policy for control of alcohol abuse. PMID:718071

  4. Influence of tyre-road contact model on vehicle vibration response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Múčka, Peter; Gagnon, Louis

    2015-09-01

    The influence of the tyre-road contact model on the simulated vertical vibration response was analysed. Three contact models were compared: tyre-road point contact model, moving averaged profile and tyre-enveloping model. In total, 1600 real asphalt concrete and Portland cement concrete longitudinal road profiles were processed. The linear planar model of automobile with 12 degrees of freedom (DOF) was used. Five vibration responses as the measures of ride comfort, ride safety and dynamic load of cargo were investigated. The results were calculated as a function of vibration response, vehicle velocity, road quality and road surface type. The marked differences in the dynamic tyre forces and the negligible differences in the ride comfort quantities were observed among the tyre-road contact models. The seat acceleration response for three contact models and 331 DOF multibody model of the truck semi-trailer was compared with the measured response for a known profile of test section.

  5. Assessment of rockfall risk along roads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budetta, P.

    2004-03-01

    This paper contains a method for the analysis of rockfall risk along roads and motorways. The method is derived from the Rockfall Hazard Rating System (RHRS) developed by Pierson et al. (1990) at the Oregon State Highway Division. The RHRS provides a rational way to make informed decisions on where and how to spend construction funds. Exponential scoring functions are used to represent the increases, respectively, in hazard and in vulnerability that are reflected in the nine categories forming the classification. The resulting total score contains the essential elements regarding the evaluation of the degree of the exposition to the risk along roads. In the modified method, the ratings for the categories "ditch effectiveness", "geologic characteristic", "volume of rockfall/block size", "climate and water circulation" and "rockfall history" have been rendered more easy and objective. The main modifications regard the introduction of Slope Mass Rating by Romana (1985, 1988, 1991) improving the estimate of the geologic characteristics, of the volume of the potentially unstable blocks and the underground water circulation. Other modifications regard the scoring for the categories "decision sight distance" and "road geometry". For these categories, the Italian National Council's standards (Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche - CNR) have been used (CNR, 1980). The method must be applied in both the traffic directions because the percentage of reduction in the decision sight distance greatly affects the results. An application of the modified method to a 2km long section of the Sorrentine road (no 145) in Southern Italy was developed. A high traffic intensity affects the entire section of the road and rockfalls periodically cause casualties, as well as a large amount of damage and traffic interruptions. The method was applied to seven cross sections of slopes adjacent to the Sorrentine road. For these slopes, the analysis shows that the risk is unacceptable and it should

  6. The Use of Principal Components for Creating Improved Imagery for Geometric Control Point Selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imhoff, M. L.

    1982-01-01

    A directed principal component (PC) analysis and its transformation was applied to 7-channel thematic mapper simulator (TMS) data and 4-channel LANDSAT multispectral scanner system (MSS) data collected over the city of Lancaster, Pennsylvania, to create improved imagery for geometric control point selection for image to image registration. Nineteen temporally stable geometric control points, such as road interactions and bridges, were selected for a 236 sq km area. The control points were visible on both the TMS and MSS imagery. On the first attempt the corresponding image control points were selected on both data sets without using the principal components transformation. Many of the road intersection locations were visible but the actual road crossings could not be distinguished. As a result, mensuration errors using raw data exceeded the equivalent of two (79 x 79 m) pixels. The application of a guided principal components transformation yielded TMS and MSS single band images showing improved detail in the scene's urban and residential infrastructure. The PC transformed data sets were then utilized for the reselection of geometric control points. By shown greater detail, control points on both the TMS and MSS imagery could be located with greater precision using the PC transformed data.

  7. Physiological demands of off-road vehicle riding.

    PubMed

    Burr, Jamie F; Jamnik, Veronica K; Shaw, Jim A; Gledhill, Norman

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the physiological demands of recreational off-road vehicle riding under typical riding conditions using habitual recreational off-road vehicle riders (n = 128). Comparisons of the physical demands of off-road vehicle riding were made between vehicle types (all-terrain vehicle (ATV) and off-road motorcycle (ORM)) to the demands of common recreational activities. Habitual riders (ATV = 56, ORM = 72) performed strength assessments before and after a representative trail ride (48 +/- 24.2 min), and ambulatory oxygen consumption was measured during one lap (24.2 +/- 11.8 min) of the ride. The mean VO2 requirement (mL x kg(-1) x min(-1)) while riding an off-road vehicle was 12.1 +/- 4.9 for ATV and 21.3 +/- 7.1 for ORM (P = 0.002), which is comparable to the VO2 required of many common recreational activities. Temporal analysis of activity intensity revealed approximately 14% of an ATV ride and 38% of an ORM ride are within the intensity range (940% VO2 reserve) required to achieve changes in aerobic fitness. Riding on a representative course also led to muscular fatigue, particularly in the upper body. On the basis of the measured metabolic demands, evidence of muscular strength requirements, and the associated caloric expenditures with off-road vehicle riding, this alternative form of activity conforms to the recommended physical activity guidelines and can be effective for achieving beneficial changes in health and fitness.

  8. The principal components of response strength.

    PubMed Central

    Killeen, P R; Hall, S S

    2001-01-01

    As Skinner (1938) described it, response strength is the "state of the reflex with respect to all its static properties" (p. 15), which include response rate, latency, probability, and persistence. The relations of those measures to one another was analyzed by probabilistically reinforcing, satiating, and extinguishing pigeons' key pecking in a trials paradigm. Reinforcement was scheduled according to variable-interval, variable-ratio, and fixed-interval contingencies. Principal components analysis permitted description in terms of a single latent variable, strength, and this was validated with confirmatory factor analyses. Overall response rate was an excellent predictor of this state variable. PMID:11394483

  9. The principal components of response strength.

    PubMed

    Killeen, P R; Hall, S S

    2001-03-01

    As Skinner (1938) described it, response strength is the "state of the reflex with respect to all its static properties" (p. 15), which include response rate, latency, probability, and persistence. The relations of those measures to one another was analyzed by probabilistically reinforcing, satiating, and extinguishing pigeons' key pecking in a trials paradigm. Reinforcement was scheduled according to variable-interval, variable-ratio, and fixed-interval contingencies. Principal components analysis permitted description in terms of a single latent variable, strength, and this was validated with confirmatory factor analyses. Overall response rate was an excellent predictor of this state variable.

  10. Nonlinear principal component analysis of climate data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monahan, Adam Hugh

    2000-11-01

    A nonlinear generalisation of Principal Component Analysis (PCA), denoted Nonlinear Principal Component Analysis (NLPCA), is introduced and applied to the analysis of climate data. It is found empirically that NLPCA partitions variance in the same fashion as does PCA. An important distinction is drawn between a modal P-dimensional NLPCA analysis, in which the approximation is the sum of P nonlinear functions of one variable, and a nonmodal analysis, in which the P-dimensional NLPCA approximation is determined as a nonlinear non- additive function of P variables. Nonlinear Principal Component Analysis is first applied to a data set sampled from the Lorenz attractor. The 1D and 2D NLPCA approximations explain 76% and 99.5% of the total variance, respectively, in contrast to 60% and 95% explained by the 1D and 2D PCA approximations. When applied to a data set consisting of monthly-averaged tropical Pacific Ocean sea surface temperatures (SST), the modal 1D NLPCA approximation describes average variability associated with the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon, as does the 1D PCA approximation. The NLPCA approximation, however, characterises the asymmetry in spatial pattern of SST anomalies between average warm and cold events in a manner that the PCA approximation cannot. The second NLPCA mode of SST is found to characterise differences in ENSO variability between individual events, and in particular is consistent with the celebrated 1977 ``regime shift''. A 2D nonmodal NLPCA approximation is determined, the interpretation of which is complicated by the fact that a secondary feature extraction problem has to be carried out. It is found that this approximation contains much the same information as that provided by the modal analysis. A modal NLPC analysis of tropical Indo-Pacific sea level pressure (SLP) finds that the first mode describes average ENSO variability in this field, and also characterises an asymmetry in SLP fields between average warm and

  11. Erosion and sediment delivery following removal of forest roads

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madej, Mary Ann

    2001-01-01

    Erosion control treatments were applied to abandoned logging roads in California, with the goal of reducing road-related sediment input to streams and restoring natural hydrologic patterns on the landscape. Treatment of stream crossings involved excavating culverts and associated road fill and reshaping streambanks. A variety of techniques were applied to road benches, which included decompacting the road surface, placing unstable road fill in more stable locations, and re-establishing natural surface drainage patterns. Following treatment and a 12-year recurrence-interval storm, some road reaches and excavated stream crossings showed evidence of mass movement failures, gullying, bank erosion and channel incision. Post-treatment erosion from excavated stream crossings was related to two variables: a surrogate for stream power (drainage area × channel gradient) and the volume of fill excavated from the channel. Post-treatment erosion on road reaches was related to four explanatory variables: method of treatment, hillslope position (upper, mid-slope or lower), date of treatment, and an interaction term (hillslope position × method of treatment). Sediment delivery from treated roads in upper, middle and lower hillslope positions was 10, 135 and 550 m3 of sediment per kilometre of treated roads, respectively. In contrast, inventories of almost 500 km of forest roads in adjacent catchments indicate that untreated roads produced 1500 to 4700 m3 of sediment per kilometre of road length. Erosion from 300 km of treated roads contributed less than 2 per cent of the total sediment load of Redwood Creek during the period 1978 to 1998. Although road removal treatments do not completely eliminate erosion associated with forest roads, they do substantially reduce sediment yields from abandoned logging roads.

  12. A GIS-based Matched Case-control Study of Road Characteristics in Farm Vehicle Crashes.

    PubMed

    Ranapurwala, Shabbar I; Mello, Elizabeth R; Ramirez, Marizen R

    2016-11-01

    Farm vehicle-related crashes (crashes) are hazardous for farm and non-farm vehicle users; however, most studies examine risk factors of injury given a crash, and shed little light on risk factors of crashes. We evaluated the association of road sinuosity and gradient with crashes in nine Midwestern States from 2005 to 2010. We collected crash data from the state departments of transportation, and road segment data from the Environmental Sciences Research Institute. We measured gradient and sinuosity of road segments using ArcGIS. A road segment with a crash was defined as a case (n = 6,848), and that without a crash was defined as a control. Controls were matched to cases by ZIP code, road type, and length in 1:1 (controls = 6,808) matching scheme. In addition, a 1:many control matched scheme was employed such that all road segments adjacent to the case would serve as controls (n = 24,390). We computed odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using multivariable conditional logistic regression. The adjusted OR of a crash on a road segment with 6%-10% gradient was 0.60 (95% CI: 0.49, 0.75) as compared with a leveled (<1% gradient) road segment. Compared with a straight (<1% sinuosity) road segment, the adjusted OR of a crash on a road segment with 6%-10% sinuosity was 0.38 (95% CI: 0.29, 0.52). Roads with increased gradient and sinuosity had fewer farm crashes. These associations may be due to cautious driving behaviors on curvy or steep roads and road side signage alerting drivers of impending curve or grade.

  13. Principal symbol of Euler-Lagrange operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatibene, L.; Garruto, S.

    2016-07-01

    We shall introduce the principal symbol for quite a general class of (quasi linear) Euler-Lagrange operators and use them to characterise well-posed initial value problems in gauge covariant field theories. We shall clarify how constraints can arise in covariant Lagrangian theories by extending the standard treatment in GR and without resorting to Hamiltonian formalism. Finally as an example of application, we sketch a quantisation procedure based on what is done in LQG by framing it in a more general context which applies to general gauge covariant field theories.

  14. 7. VIEW OF WEAPONS DELIVERY ROAD CULVERT OF LOWER DIAGONAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW OF WEAPONS DELIVERY ROAD CULVERT OF LOWER DIAGONAL NO. 1 DRAIN, LOOKING 522 EAST OF NORTH. - Truckee-Carson Irrigation District, Lower Diagonal No. 1 Drain, Bounded by West Gate Road & Weapons Delivery Road, Naval Air Station Fallon, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  15. 6. VIEW OF WEST GATE ROAD CULVERT OF LOWER DIAGONAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF WEST GATE ROAD CULVERT OF LOWER DIAGONAL NO. 1 DRAIN, LOOKING 2502 EAST OF NORTH. - Truckee-Carson Irrigation District, Lower Diagonal No. 1 Drain, Bounded by West Gate Road & Weapons Delivery Road, Naval Air Station Fallon, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  16. 5. VIEW OF WEST GATE ROAD CULVERT OF LOWER DIAGONAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF WEST GATE ROAD CULVERT OF LOWER DIAGONAL NO. 1 DRAIN, LOOKING 323' EAST OF NORTH. - Truckee-Carson Irrigation District, Lower Diagonal No. 1 Drain, Bounded by West Gate Road & Weapons Delivery Road, Naval Air Station Fallon, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  17. Habitat or matrix: which is more relevant to predict road-kill of vertebrates?

    PubMed

    Bueno, C; Sousa, C O M; Freitas, S R

    2015-11-01

    We believe that in tropics we need a community approach to evaluate road impacts on wildlife, and thus, suggest mitigation measures for groups of species instead a focal-species approach. Understanding which landscape characteristics indicate road-kill events may also provide models that can be applied in other regions. We intend to evaluate if habitat or matrix is more relevant to predict road-kill events for a group of species. Our hypothesis is: more permeable matrix is the most relevant factor to explain road-kill events. To test this hypothesis, we chose vertebrates as the studied assemblage and a highway crossing in an Atlantic Forest region in southeastern Brazil as the study site. Logistic regression models were designed using presence/absence of road-kill events as dependent variables and landscape characteristics as independent variables, which were selected by Akaike's Information Criterion. We considered a set of candidate models containing four types of simple regression models: Habitat effect model; Matrix types effect models; Highway effect model; and, Reference models (intercept and buffer distance). Almost three hundred road-kills and 70 species were recorded. River proximity and herbaceous vegetation cover, both matrix effect models, were associated to most road-killed vertebrate groups. Matrix was more relevant than habitat to predict road-kill of vertebrates. The association between river proximity and road-kill indicates that rivers may be a preferential route for most species. We discuss multi-species mitigation measures and implications to movement ecology and conservation strategies.

  18. The impacts of road and walking trails upon adjacent vegetation: effects of road building materials on species composition in a nutrient poor environment.

    PubMed

    Müllerová, Jana; Vítková, Michaela; Vítek, Ondřej

    2011-09-01

    Roads represent an important landscape element affecting both biotic and abiotic components. Alteration of soil properties along roads (addition of nutrients) is assumed to have a great impact on vegetation structure especially in nutrient poor ecosystems. Existing studies focus mainly on road dust. In our study we assessed the overall effects of roads upon adjacent alpine tundra vegetation and soils in Krkonoše Mts, Czech Republic. Our aims were to (1) reconstruct the road-related changes using aerial data and GPS mapping to study colonization of roadside plant species; (2) assess the road effects on physical-chemical soil properties and vegetation composition along transects; and (3) propose conservation measures to stop further damage. Changes were reconstructed from historical multispectral aerial photography (1986 to 1997), measured by GPS device (1997, 2004), and accompanied by detailed soil (1998, 2000 and 2001) and vegetation (2000 and 2004) surveys along transects. Along alkaline roads, fast and profound shifts in physical-chemical soil properties (pH increased from 3.9 up to 7.6, base saturation from 9-30% up to 100%), and species composition were recorded. The roadside vegetation doubled in area during the studied decade. Stress-tolerant tundra species were replaced by meso- to nitrophilous species and species preferring man-made habitats. The intensity of changes depended significantly on the type of road material and the position relative to the road (slope position, distance from the road). Our findings support the assumption that alkaline gravel is the main cause of changes along roads in the area, and indicate the leading role of water transport in the soil and consequent vegetation alteration. To prevent the further damage we recommended replacement of alkaline gravel by granite, even though expensive and technically complicated. Based on our recommendations, the National Park authorities started to reconstruct the trails, although recovery is

  19. Road traffic injuries in the People's Republic of China, 1951-2008.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xujun; Xiang, Huiyun; Jing, Ruiwei; Tu, Zhibin

    2011-12-01

    Road traffic injuries (RTIs) have become the leading cause of injury deaths in China. This article analyzed the trends in all crashes, nonfatal injuries, and fatalities from road traffic crashes from 1951 to 2008 and compared the crash frequency, crash severity, and crash patterns by provinces, types of road, and injured road users. Road traffic crash data were obtained from the Bureau of Traffic Management at the Ministry of Public Security and National Bureau of Statistics of China. Descriptive statistical analyses were conducted. Over the past 5 decades, road traffic injuries have increased substantially in China. From 1951 to 2008, the total number of road traffic crashes, nonfatal injuries, and fatalities increased by 43-fold, 58-fold, and 85-fold, respectively. Linear regression suggested a significant decline of 30.1 percent (95% confidence interval [CI]: 24.8-35.3) in the mortality rate per 100,000 people during the period 2002 to 2008. From 2004 to 2008, road traffic crash mortality rate per 100,000 people varied greatly in China from the lowest of 3.0 in Henan in 2008 to the highest of 21.7 in Xizang in 2004. RTIs in China disproportionally affected the following populations: males, persons 21 to 50 years of age, pedestrians, and motorcyclists/bicyclists. Adults aged more than 65 years accounted for approximately 10 percent of total road traffic deaths. Road types and RTIs severity were closely related; highways were associated with greater mortality rates. Road traffic injuries have become a burgeoning public health problem in China. Programs need to be developed to prevent nonfatal injuries and fatalities caused by road traffic crashes in this emerging country.

  20. Measurement and dimension of road fatality in Brunei.

    PubMed

    Haque, Mohammed Ohidul

    2011-03-01

    In this article, we have investigated the pattern of road fatality in Brunei. It is seen from this analysis that road fatality in Brunei was one of the highest in the world in the early 1990s, but has been significantly reduced over the years, and is now one of the lowest in the world. Preliminary investigation shows that young male drivers are responsible for most road fatalities in Brunei. We have also fitted a linear regression model and found that road fatality is significantly positively related to people aged 18-24 years and new registered vehicles, both of which are expected to grow with the growth of population and economic development. Hence, road fatality in Brunei is also expected to grow unless additional effective road safety countermeasures are introduced and implemented to reduce road toll. Negative coefficient is observed for trend variable, indicating the reduction of road fatality due to the combined effects of improvements of vehicle safety, road design, medical facilities and road safety awareness among road user groups. However, short-term road fatality analysis based on monthly data indicates that the coefficient of the trend variable is positive, implying that in recent months road fatalities are increasing in Brunei, which is supported by media reports. We have compared Brunei's road fatality data with Australia, Singapore and Malaysia and found that Brunei's road fatality rate is lower than Singapore and Malaysia, but higher than Australia. This indicates that there are still opportunities to reduce road fatalities in Brunei if additional effective road safety strategies are implemented like in Australia without interfering in the economic and social development of Brunei.

  1. Using mobile laser scanning data for automated extraction of road markings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Haiyan; Li, Jonathan; Yu, Yongtao; Wang, Cheng; Chapman, Michael; Yang, Bisheng

    2014-01-01

    A mobile laser scanning (MLS) system allows direct collection of accurate 3D point information in unprecedented detail at highway speeds and at less than traditional survey costs, which serves the fast growing demands of transportation-related road surveying including road surface geometry and road environment. As one type of road feature in traffic management systems, road markings on paved roadways have important functions in providing guidance and information to drivers and pedestrians. This paper presents a stepwise procedure to recognize road markings from MLS point clouds. To improve computational efficiency, we first propose a curb-based method for road surface extraction. This method first partitions the raw MLS data into a set of profiles according to vehicle trajectory data, and then extracts small height jumps caused by curbs in the profiles via slope and elevation-difference thresholds. Next, points belonging to the extracted road surface are interpolated into a geo-referenced intensity image using an extended inverse-distance-weighted (IDW) approach. Finally, we dynamically segment the geo-referenced intensity image into road-marking candidates with multiple thresholds that correspond to different ranges determined by point-density appropriate normality. A morphological closing operation with a linear structuring element is finally used to refine the road-marking candidates by removing noise and improving completeness. This road-marking extraction algorithm is comprehensively discussed in the analysis of parameter sensitivity and overall performance. An experimental study performed on a set of road markings with ground-truth shows that the proposed algorithm provides a promising solution to the road-marking extraction from MLS data.

  2. View north from USFS Road 300; portal of Fowler Lode ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View north from USFS Road 300; portal of Fowler Lode Adit - Steamboat Mine, Southeast slope of Steamboat Mountain, west of the junction of Forest Service Roads 1000300 and 1000365, Jacksonville, Jackson County, OR

  3. Principal nonlinear dynamical modes of climate variability

    PubMed Central

    Mukhin, Dmitry; Gavrilov, Andrey; Feigin, Alexander; Loskutov, Evgeny; Kurths, Juergen

    2015-01-01

    We suggest a new nonlinear expansion of space-distributed observational time series. The expansion allows constructing principal nonlinear manifolds holding essential part of observed variability. It yields low-dimensional hidden time series interpreted as internal modes driving observed multivariate dynamics as well as their mapping to a geographic grid. Bayesian optimality is used for selecting relevant structure of nonlinear transformation, including both the number of principal modes and degree of nonlinearity. Furthermore, the optimal characteristic time scale of the reconstructed modes is also found. The technique is applied to monthly sea surface temperature (SST) time series having a duration of 33 years and covering the globe. Three dominant nonlinear modes were extracted from the time series: the first efficiently separates the annual cycle, the second is responsible for ENSO variability, and combinations of the second and the third modes explain substantial parts of Pacific and Atlantic dynamics. A relation of the obtained modes to decadal natural climate variability including current hiatus in global warming is exhibited and discussed. PMID:26489769

  4. 76. VIEW OF SECOND WEAPONS STORAGE AREA ALONG SERVICE ROAD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    76. VIEW OF SECOND WEAPONS STORAGE AREA ALONG SERVICE ROAD SHOWING BUILDINGS 338-333 LOOKING NORTHWEST. - Loring Air Force Base, Weapons Storage Area, Northeastern corner of base at northern end of Maine Road, Limestone, Aroostook County, ME

  5. 1. TUCKERTON WIRELESS, RADIO ROAD, PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF CONCRETE FOUNDATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. TUCKERTON WIRELESS, RADIO ROAD, PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF CONCRETE FOUNDATION OF RADIO STANTION WITH WIRELESS BUILDING AND SMOKESTACK IN BACKGROUND, LOOKING NORTH - Town of Tuckerton, U.S. Highway 9 & County Road 539, Tuckerton, Ocean County, NJ

  6. 1. View north along old section of New Bridge Road, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. View north along old section of New Bridge Road, western estate wall and Temple of Love to right - A. I. Du Pont Estate, Junction of State Route 141 & Rockland Road, Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

  7. 4. APPROACH OF CARRS MILL ROAD TO THE SOUTH PORTAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. APPROACH OF CARRS MILL ROAD TO THE SOUTH PORTAL OF THE MITCHELLS MILL BRIDGE; VIEW TO NORTH. - Mitchell's Mill Bridge, Spanning Winter's Run on Carrs Mill Road, west of Bel Air, Bel Air, Harford County, MD

  8. ESTATE ROAD WITH LONGLEAF PINE AND WIREGRASS HABITAT, NORTH OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ESTATE ROAD WITH LONGLEAF PINE AND WIREGRASS HABITAT, NORTH OF NURSERY ROAD AND WEST OF HIGHWAY 87, FACING SOUTHEAST - Overhills, Fort Bragg Military Reservation, Approximately 15 miles NW of Fayetteville, Overhills, Harnett County, NC

  9. 8. VIEW OF THE FAN HOUSE FROM THE MINE ROAD, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF THE FAN HOUSE FROM THE MINE ROAD, LOOKING NORTHWEST. - Tower Hill No. 2 Mine, Approximately 0.47 mile Southwest of intersection of Stone Church Road & Township Route 561, Hibbs, Fayette County, PA

  10. Along Middle Fork Road toward North Fork of the Crazy ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Along Middle Fork Road toward North Fork of the Crazy Woman Creek Bridge, view to west - North Fork of Crazy Woman Creek Bridge, Spanning North Fork of Crazy Woman Creek at Middle Fork Road, Buffalo, Johnson County, WY

  11. 6. View northeast, junction of SR 141 and Rockland Road, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. View northeast, junction of SR 141 and Rockland Road, western estate wall and tree lines to right - A. I. Du Pont Estate, Junction of State Route 141 & Rockland Road, Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

  12. 8. Vidw southwest, junction of SR 141 and Rockland Road, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Vidw southwest, junction of SR 141 and Rockland Road, northern estate wall and tree lines to left - A. I. Du Pont Estate, Junction of State Route 141 & Rockland Road, Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

  13. 13. View of historic district looking northeast, with road to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. View of historic district looking northeast, with road to left and Ogeechee River in background - Richmond Hill Plantation, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  14. 22. View of historic district looking northeast; road in foreground ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. View of historic district looking northeast; road in foreground and Ogeechee River in background - Richmond Hill Plantation, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  15. 8. JAMESTOWN ISLAND LOOP ROAD, VIEW TO NORTHEAST OF WINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. JAMESTOWN ISLAND LOOP ROAD, VIEW TO NORTHEAST OF WINE MAKING SIGN (STOP 5). NOTE WICKET MADE OF VINES IN FOREGROUND. - Jamestown Island Loop Road, Jamestown Island, Jamestown, James City County, VA

  16. 20. AVENUE OF THE GIANTS, OLD HIGHWAY 101, ROAD VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. AVENUE OF THE GIANTS, OLD HIGHWAY 101, ROAD VIEW .5 MILE NORTH OF MIRANDA. HUMBOLDT COUNTY, CALIFORNIA. LOOKING NW. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  17. 69. AVENUE OF THE GIANTS, OLD HIGHWAY 101, ROAD VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    69. AVENUE OF THE GIANTS, OLD HIGHWAY 101, ROAD VIEW 1.5 MILES NORTH OF MIRANDA. HUMBOLDT COUNTY, CALIFORNIA. LOOKING N. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  18. 68. AVENUE OF THE GIANTS, OLD HIGHWAY 101, ROAD VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    68. AVENUE OF THE GIANTS, OLD HIGHWAY 101, ROAD VIEW .5 MILE NORTH OF MIRANDA. HUMBOLDT COUNTY, CALIFORNIA. LOOKING NW. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  19. 21. AVENUE OF THE GIANTS, OLD HIGHWAY 101, ROAD VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. AVENUE OF THE GIANTS, OLD HIGHWAY 101, ROAD VIEW 1.5 MILES NORTH OF MIRANDA. HUMBOLDT COUNTY, CALIFORNIA. LOOKING N. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  20. OVERVIEW OF GOLD HILL MILL, ROAD, AND WARM SPRINGS CAMP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW OF GOLD HILL MILL, ROAD, AND WARM SPRINGS CAMP BUILDINGS, LOOKING SOUTH SOUTHEAST. THE FUNCTION OF THE FLAT AREA AT CENTER RIGHT IS UNKNOWN. - Gold Hill Mill, Warm Spring Canyon Road, Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  1. Distributed road assessment system

    DOEpatents

    Beer, N. Reginald; Paglieroni, David W

    2014-03-25

    A system that detects damage on or below the surface of a paved structure or pavement is provided. A distributed road assessment system includes road assessment pods and a road assessment server. Each road assessment pod includes a ground-penetrating radar antenna array and a detection system that detects road damage from the return signals as the vehicle on which the pod is mounted travels down a road. Each road assessment pod transmits to the road assessment server occurrence information describing each occurrence of road damage that is newly detected on a current scan of a road. The road assessment server maintains a road damage database of occurrence information describing the previously detected occurrences of road damage. After the road assessment server receives occurrence information for newly detected occurrences of road damage for a portion of a road, the road assessment server determines which newly detected occurrences correspond to which previously detected occurrences of road damage.

  2. Principal component analysis of synthetic galaxy spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ronen, Shai; Aragon-Salamanca, Alfonso; Lahav, Ofer

    1999-02-01

    We analyse synthetic galaxy spectra from the evolutionary models of Bruzual & Charlot and Fioc & Rocca-Volmerange using the method of principal component analysis (PCA). We explore synthetic spectra with different ages, star formation histories and metallicities, and identify the principal components (PCs) of variance in the spectra resulting from these different model parameters. The PCA provides a more objective and informative alternative to diagnostics by individual spectral lines. We discuss how the PCs can be used to estimate the input model parameters, and explore the impact of dust and noise in this inverse problem. We also discuss how changing the sampling of the ages and other model parameters affects the resulting PCs. Our first two synthetic PCs agree with a similar analysis on observed spectra obtained by Kennicutt and the 2dF redshift survey. We conclude that with a good enough signal-to-noise ratio (S/N> > 10) it is possible to derive age, star formation history and metallicity from observed galaxy spectra using PCA.

  3. Automated analysis of timber access road alternatives.

    Treesearch

    Doyle. Burke

    1974-01-01

    The evaluation of timber access road alternatives is one of the primary tasks in timber harvest planning and design. During the planning stages, it is also one of the most difficult to accomplish quantitatively because a basis for comparison is related to such values as grade, length, horizontal and vertical curvature, and volumes of excavation and embankment. Within...

  4. Behavior of road accidents: Structural time series approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junus, Noor Wahida Md; Ismail, Mohd Tahir; Arsad, Zainudin

    2014-12-01

    Road accidents become a major issue in contributing to the increasing number of deaths. Few researchers suggest that road accidents occur due to road structure and road condition. The road structure and condition may differ according to the area and volume of traffic of the location. Therefore, this paper attempts to look up the behavior of the road accidents in four main regions in Peninsular Malaysia by employing a structural time series (STS) approach. STS offers the possibility of modelling the unobserved component such as trends and seasonal component and it is allowed to vary over time. The results found that the number of road accidents is described by a different model. Perhaps, the results imply that the government, especially a policy maker should consider to implement a different approach in ways to overcome the increasing number of road accidents.

  5. Relative Effects of Road Risk, Habitat Suitability, and Connectivity on Wildlife Roadkills: The Case of Tawny Owls (Strix aluco)

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Sara M.; Lourenço, Rui; Mira, António; Beja, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite its importance for reducing wildlife-vehicle collisions, there is still incomplete understanding of factors responsible for high road mortality. In particular, few empirical studies examined the idea that spatial variation in roadkills is influenced by a complex interplay between road-related factors, and species-specific habitat quality and landscape connectivity. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study we addressed this issue, using a 7-year dataset of tawny owl (Strix aluco) roadkills recorded along 37 km of road in southern Portugal. We used a multi-species roadkill index as a surrogate of intrinsic road risk, and we used a Maxent distribution model to estimate habitat suitability. Landscape connectivity was estimated from least-cost paths between tawny owl territories, using habitat suitability as a resistance surface. We defined 10 alternative scenarios to compute connectivity, based on variation in potential movement patterns according to territory quality and dispersal distance thresholds. Hierarchical partitioning of a regression model indicated that independent variation in tawny owl roadkills was explained primarily by the roadkill index (70.5%) and, to a much lesser extent, by landscape connectivity (26.2%), while habitat suitability had minor effects (3.3%). Analysis of connectivity scenarios suggested that owl roadkills were primarily related to short range movements (<5 km) between high quality territories. Tawny owl roadkills were spatially autocorrelated, but the introduction of spatial filters in the regression model did not change the type and relative contribution of environmental variables. Conclusions Overall, results suggest that road-related factors may have a dominant influence on roadkill patterns, particularly in areas like ours where habitat quality and landscape connectivity are globally high for the study species. Nevertheless, the study supported the view that functional connectivity should be incorporated

  6. 7. Bridge over Happy Hollow Road on unopened section of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Bridge over Happy Hollow Road on unopened section of Foothills Parkway looking ENE. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Foothills Parkway, From Chilowee to Walland & from Cosby to I-40, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  7. 8. Underside of bridge over Happy Hollow Road showing concrete ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Underside of bridge over Happy Hollow Road showing concrete piers looking SSW. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Foothills Parkway, From Chilowee to Walland & from Cosby to I-40, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  8. VIEW OF MILL FROM KEKAHA ROAD, WITH SUGAR BIN, CANE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF MILL FROM KEKAHA ROAD, WITH SUGAR BIN, CANE CLEANING PLANT AND CRUSHING MILL TO THE FORE. VIEW FROM THE EAST - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

  9. Contextual view of Building 477 along Reeves Road, view facing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view of Building 477 along Reeves Road, view facing east - U.S. Marine Corps Base Hawaii, Kaneohe Bay, Golf Course Equipment & Repair Shop, Reeves & Moffett Roads, Kaneohe, Honolulu County, HI

  10. View of Old Big Oak Flat Road in Talus Slope. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Old Big Oak Flat Road in Talus Slope. Bridal Veil Falls at center distance. Looking east - Big Oak Flat Road, Between Big Oak Flat Entrance & Merced River, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  11. CLOSE UP VIEW OF MILL FROM KEKAHA ROAD, WITH UNLOADER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CLOSE UP VIEW OF MILL FROM KEKAHA ROAD, WITH UNLOADER AND CRUSHING MILL WING IN THE FOREGROUND. VIEW FROM THE NORTHEAST - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

  12. 12. WORLD'S FAMOUS TREE HOUSE AND ROAD VIEW. SOUTH OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. WORLD'S FAMOUS TREE HOUSE AND ROAD VIEW. SOUTH OF PIERCY, HUMBOLDT COUNTY, CALIFORNIA. LOOKING SW. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  13. 10. View along graveyard road to the west, valley of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. View along graveyard road to the west, valley of Ewing's attack, stockade redan is visible in distance to the middle and left. - Vicksburg National Military Park Roads & Bridges, Vicksburg, Warren County, MS

  14. 12. HALEMAUMAUUWEKAHUNA ROAD AT SOUTHWEST RIM OF KILAUEA CRATER, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. HALEMAUMAU-UWEKAHUNA ROAD AT SOUTHWEST RIM OF KILAUEA CRATER, SHOWING HEAVY FILL AND ROCK BANK. LOOKING EAST. FROM SUPERINTENDENT'S MONTHLY REPORT, JANUARY 1934. - Mauna Loa Road, Volcano, Hawaii County, HI

  15. OVERALL VIEW OF MILL YARD FROM HALEKO ROAD. QUONSET WAREHOUSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERALL VIEW OF MILL YARD FROM HALEKO ROAD. QUONSET WAREHOUSE IN LEFT FOREGROUND, BOILING HOUSE IN MIDDLE, WAREHOUSE AND ELECTRIC SHOP TO THE RIGHT. VIEW FROM SOUTHWEST - Lihue Plantation Company, Sugar Mill Building, Haleko Road, Lihue, Kauai County, HI

  16. Quantitative determination of phenolic compounds by UHPLC-UV-MS and use of principal component analysis to differentiate chemo-types of chamomile/chrysanthemum flowerheads

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A new rapid UHPLC-UV-QTOF/MS method has been developed for the simultaneous analysis of nine phenolic compounds [cis-GMCA, chlorogenic acid, trans-GMCA, quercetagetin-7-O-ß-D-glucopyranoside, luteolin-7-O-ß-D-glucoside, apigenin-7-O- ß-Dglucoside, chamaemeloside, apigenin 7-O-(6"-O-acetyl-ß-D-glucop...

  17. Regulation of Traffic Lights at Road Junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutolo, Alfredo; Manzo, Rosanna; Rarità, Luigi

    2009-08-01

    In this work, we aim to investigate the effects of traffic lights regulation at road junctions, modelled by a fluid dynamic approach. Numerical simulations prove that it is possible to plan some optimization strategies for green and red phases for networks consisting of more nodes.

  18. 36 CFR 254.33 - Road rights-of-way.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Road rights-of-way. 254.33 Section 254.33 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LANDOWNERSHIP ADJUSTMENTS Conveyance of Small Tracts § 254.33 Road rights-of-way. (a) Reserved or acquired road right-of-way...

  19. 36 CFR 254.33 - Road rights-of-way.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Road rights-of-way. 254.33 Section 254.33 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LANDOWNERSHIP ADJUSTMENTS Conveyance of Small Tracts § 254.33 Road rights-of-way. (a) Reserved or acquired road right-of-way...

  20. 36 CFR 254.33 - Road rights-of-way.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Road rights-of-way. 254.33 Section 254.33 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LANDOWNERSHIP ADJUSTMENTS Conveyance of Small Tracts § 254.33 Road rights-of-way. (a) Reserved or acquired road right-of-way...

  1. 36 CFR 254.33 - Road rights-of-way.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Road rights-of-way. 254.33 Section 254.33 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LANDOWNERSHIP ADJUSTMENTS Conveyance of Small Tracts § 254.33 Road rights-of-way. (a) Reserved or acquired road right-of-way...

  2. Principals' Perceptions of the Importance of Technology in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waxman, Hersh C.; Boriack, Anna Witt; Lee, Yuan-Hsuan; MacNeil, Angus

    2013-01-01

    A sample of 311 principals from a large metropolitan area in the southwest region of the U. S. responded to a questionnaire that addressed public school principals' perceptions related to the major functions of technology in their schools. Principals reported that the major functions of technology were: (a) communication, (b) instruction, (c) data…

  3. Safety effects of low-cost engineering measures. An observational study in a Portuguese multilane road.

    PubMed

    Vieira Gomes, Sandra; Cardoso, João Lourenço

    2012-09-01

    Single carriageway multilane roads are not, in general, a very safe type of road, mainly because of the high number of seriously injured victims in head-on collisions, when compared with dual carriageway multilane roads, with a median barrier. In this paper the results of a study on the effect of the application of several low cost engineering measures, aimed at road infrastructure correction and road safety improvement on a multilane road (EN6), are presented. The study was developed by the National Laboratory of Civil Engineering (LNEC) for the Portuguese Road Administration and involved a comparison of selected aspects of motorized traffic behaviour (traffic volumes and speeds) measured in several sections of EN6, as well as monitoring of road safety developments in the same road. The applied low cost engineering measures allowed a reduction of 10% in the expected annual number of personal injury accidents and a 70% decrease in the expected annual number of head-on collisions; the expected annual frequency of accidents involving killed and seriously injured persons was reduced by 26%. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Ensemble forecasts of road surface temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokol, Zbyněk; Bližňák, Vojtěch; Sedlák, Pavel; Zacharov, Petr; Pešice, Petr; Škuthan, Miroslav

    2017-05-01

    This paper describes a new ensemble technique for road surface temperature (RST) forecasting using an energy balance and heat conduction model. Compared to currently used deterministic forecasts, the proposed technique allows the estimation of forecast uncertainty and probabilistic forecasts. The ensemble technique is applied to the METRo-CZ model and stems from error covariance analyses of the forecasted air temperature and humidity 2 m above the ground, wind speed at 10 m and total cloud cover N in octas by the numerical weather prediction (NWP) model. N is used to estimate the shortwave and longwave radiation fluxes. These variables are used to calculate the boundary conditions in the METRo-CZ model. We found that the variable N is crucial for generating the ensembles. Nevertheless, the ensemble spread is too small and underestimates the uncertainty in the RST forecast. One of the reasons is not considering errors in the rain and snow forecast by the NWP model when generating ensembles. Technical issues, such as incorrect sky view factors and the current state of road surface conditions also contribute to errors. Although the ensemble technique underestimates the uncertainty in the RST forecasts, it provides additional information to road authorities who provide winter road maintenance.

  5. Principals' Perceptions of School Public Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Robert C.; Chan, Tak Cheung; Patterson, Judith

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate school principals' perceptions on school public relations in five areas: community demographics, parental involvement, internal and external communications, school council issues, and community resources. Findings indicated that principals' concerns were as follows: rapid population growth, change of…

  6. Principals' Perceptions of School Public Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Robert C.; Chan, Tak Cheung; Patterson, Judith

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate school principals' perceptions on school public relations in five areas: community demographics, parental involvement, internal and external communications, school council issues, and community resources. Findings indicated that principals' concerns were as follows: rapid population growth, change of…

  7. 13. VIEW OF THE ROAD ABOVE THE DRYLAID ROCK WALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW OF THE ROAD ABOVE THE DRY-LAID ROCK WALL (TY-3177-12 ON THE KINGS CANYON ROAD WHERE THE ROAD WILL BE GRADED AND BLADED. LOCATED AT MILEPOST 1.83 (ACCORDING TO THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITE RECORD FOR SITE TY-3177). PHOTO IS TAKEN FROM THE NORTHERN END OF THE FEATURE, FACING DUE WEST (2700). - Kings Canyon Road, Carson City, Carson City, NV

  8. Principal Component Analysis of Thermographic Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winfree, William P.; Cramer, K. Elliott; Zalameda, Joseph N.; Howell, Patricia A.; Burke, Eric R.

    2015-01-01

    Principal Component Analysis (PCA) has been shown effective for reducing thermographic NDE data. While a reliable technique for enhancing the visibility of defects in thermal data, PCA can be computationally intense and time consuming when applied to the large data sets typical in thermography. Additionally, PCA can experience problems when very large defects are present (defects that dominate the field-of-view), since the calculation of the eigenvectors is now governed by the presence of the defect, not the "good" material. To increase the processing speed and to minimize the negative effects of large defects, an alternative method of PCA is being pursued where a fixed set of eigenvectors, generated from an analytic model of the thermal response of the material under examination, is used to process the thermal data from composite materials. This method has been applied for characterization of flaws.

  9. Simulating the effects of forest roads on watershed hydrology

    SciTech Connect

    Wigmosta, Mark S.; Perkins, William A.

    2001-12-01

    The Distributed Hydrology-Soil-Vegetation Model (DHSVM) was enhanced to represent the interception and redirection of surface and subsurface flow by road cuts and stream channels. Two channel networks are imposed in vector form on the DHSVM grid: one representing roads, the other representing streams. Impacts of the road network on channel flows are modeled explicitly; road location and geometry, along with soil moisture, determine the timing and volume of intercepted water, while road drainage characteristics and culvert placement determine the flow path and travel time to the channel system. The active road drainage/channel network may expand and contract as grid cell water tables rise and fall below their channel beds. The model was applied to a 10-km2 experimental watershed to study the influence of road network design on streamflow characteristics. It was demonstrated that even where the road network produces minor changes in streamflow at the basin outlet, subsurface flow interception by roads could alter significantly streamflow in tributary channels. The impact of the road network on channel flows was shown to vary during a storm based on the road design, storm characteristics, topography, local geology, and soil moisture conditions. The impact occurs earlier in a storm when the road network diverts flow into the drainage rather than out of it. When flows are redirected into a channel, the road contributing area quickly increases the current total contributing area for the channel, causing a proportional increase in discharge. If the road design allows some water to pass under the road, there may be only minor impacts early in the storm with increasing impact as watertables rise and subsurface flow begins to be intercepted. When flows are redirected out of the natural drainage the impact is not felt until the channel contributing area extends upslope to the road system.

  10. Simulating the effects of forest roads on watershed hydrology

    SciTech Connect

    Wigmosta, Mark S.; Perkins, William A.

    2001-12-01

    The Distributed Hydrology-Soil-Vegetation Model (DHSVM) was enhanced to represent the interception and redirection of surface and subsurface flow by road cuts and stream channels. Two channel networks are imposed in vector form on the DHSVM grid: one representing roads, the other representing streams. Impacts of the road network on channel flows are modeled explicitly; road location and geometry, along with soil moisture, determine the timing and volume of intercepted water, while road drainage characteristics and culvert placement determine the flow path and travel time to the channel system. The active road drainage/channel network may expand and contract as grid cell water tables rise and fall below their channel beds. The model was applied to a 10-km2 experimental watershed to study the influence of road network design on streamflow characteristics. It was demonstrated that even where the road network produces minor changes in streamflow at the basin outlet, subsurface flow interception by roads could alter significantly streamflow in tributary channels. The impact of the road network on channel flows was shown to vary during a storm based on the road design, storm characteristics, topography, local geology, and soil moisture conditions. The impact occurs earlier in a storm when the road network diverts flow into the drainage rather than out of it. When flows are redirected into a channel, the road contributing area quickly increases the current total contributing area for the channel, causing a proportional increase in discharge. If the road design allows some water to pass under the road, there may be only minor impacts early in the storm with increasing impact as watertables rise and subsurface flow begins to be intercepted. When flows are redirected out of the natural drainage the impact is not felt until the channel contributing area extends upslope to the road system.

  11. View of blind curve along National Old Trails Road, about ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of blind curve along National Old Trails Road, about 1,000 feet from top, facing north. - La Bajada Historic Trails and Roads, Approximately 1 mile East/Northeast of intersection of State Highway 16 and Indian Service Road 841, La Bajada, Santa Fe County, NM

  12. Determining the range of acceptable forest road erosion

    Treesearch

    Johnny M. III Grace

    2008-01-01

    In recent years there has been increased awareness and societal pressure concerning environmental impacts and aesthetics of forest operations such as road management. Forest roads continue to be attributed to account for the majority of erosion from forestlands. Previous research over the past 70 years has presented many questions concerning the impact of roads on...

  13. 49 CFR 391.33 - Equivalent of road test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Equivalent of road test. 391.33 Section 391.33... AND LONGER COMBINATION VEHICLE (LCV) DRIVER INSTRUCTORS Tests § 391.33 Equivalent of road test. (a) In place of, and as equivalent to, the road test required by § 391.31, a person who seeks to drive a...

  14. 49 CFR 391.33 - Equivalent of road test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Equivalent of road test. 391.33 Section 391.33... AND LONGER COMBINATION VEHICLE (LCV) DRIVER INSTRUCTORS Tests § 391.33 Equivalent of road test. (a) In place of, and as equivalent to, the road test required by § 391.31, a person who seeks to drive a...

  15. 49 CFR 391.33 - Equivalent of road test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equivalent of road test. 391.33 Section 391.33... AND LONGER COMBINATION VEHICLE (LCV) DRIVER INSTRUCTORS Tests § 391.33 Equivalent of road test. (a) In place of, and as equivalent to, the road test required by § 391.31, a person who seeks to drive a...

  16. 49 CFR 391.33 - Equivalent of road test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Equivalent of road test. 391.33 Section 391.33... AND LONGER COMBINATION VEHICLE (LCV) DRIVER INSTRUCTORS Tests § 391.33 Equivalent of road test. (a) In place of, and as equivalent to, the road test required by § 391.31, a person who seeks to drive a...

  17. Application of WEPP to a Southern Appalachian Forest road

    Treesearch

    Johnny M. Grace

    2005-01-01

    Forest roads can be major sources of sediment and soil erosion from southern Appalachian Mountain watersheds. Sediments from forest roads are a concern due to their potential delivery to stream systems resulting in degradation of water quality. Prediction of sediment yields from forest road components can provide valuable information in planning, locating, and...

  18. California School Principals' Perceptions of the Effects of Proposition 227

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basurto, Imelda; Wise, Donald; Unruh, Ronald

    2006-01-01

    Few studies provide insight into how California principals perceive Proposition 227 and its impact on bilingual education. The findings of a survey distributed to 100 randomly selected California principals with bilingual programs, indicate the law passed by California voters has not changed the perceptions of California principals towards…

  19. Effects of Structural Complexity of School Principals in California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Jonathan P.

    1993-01-01

    A survey of California principals compared time allocation of principals assigned to a single school site versus multiple school sites. Multiple site principals spent more time traveling, visiting schools, and attending board meetings. Compares results with a similar study in Maine. (LP)

  20. Principal components analysis of Jupiter VIMS spectra

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bellucci, G.; Formisano, V.; D'Aversa, E.; Brown, R.H.; Baines, K.H.; Bibring, J.-P.; Buratti, B.J.; Capaccioni, F.; Cerroni, P.; Clark, R.N.; Coradini, A.; Cruikshank, D.P.; Drossart, P.; Jaumann, R.; Langevin, Y.; Matson, D.L.; McCord, T.B.; Mennella, V.; Nelson, R.M.; Nicholson, P.D.; Sicardy, B.; Sotin, Christophe; Chamberlain, M.C.; Hansen, G.; Hibbits, K.; Showalter, M.; Filacchione, G.

    2004-01-01

    During Cassini - Jupiter flyby occurred in December 2000, Visual-Infrared mapping spectrometer (VIMS) instrument took several image cubes of Jupiter at different phase angles and distances. We have analysed the spectral images acquired by the VIMS visual channel by means of a principal component analysis technique (PCA). The original data set consists of 96 spectral images in the 0.35-1.05 ??m wavelength range. The product of the analysis are new PC bands, which contain all the spectral variance of the original data. These new components have been used to produce a map of Jupiter made of seven coherent spectral classes. The map confirms previously published work done on the Great Red Spot by using NIMS data. Some other new findings, presently under investigation, are presented. ?? 2004 Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

  1. Enhancement of road delineation can reduce safety.

    PubMed

    Sharfi, Tal; Shinar, David

    2014-06-01

    New in-vehicle technologies often outpace the scientific support for their value. In lieu of valid and consistent scientific support, common wisdom is used, as in the assumption that enhanced roadway delineation improves driving safety. To evaluate the effects of a Visibility Enhancement System that selectively improves lane markers' visibility on driving safety. A simulation experiment assessed the effects of an in-car lane Visibility Enhancement System (VES) that highlights the edges of the road ahead on driver's behavior and overall safety, under normal and reduced visibility conditions. Thirty drivers drove in a fix-based simulator through a winding rural road, while attempting to avoid un-enhanced and unexpected obstacles that appeared on the driving lane from time to time. The simulated VES highlighted the road edges up to a distance of 90 m with two alternative configurations: two continuous red lines or a series of red crosses. The effects of the two VES configurations on performance were measured during night and fog driving. Performance measures included speed, lane keeping behavior, eye scanning pattern, reaction time (RT) and collisions with the un-enhanced unexpected obstacles. Subjective measures included confidence and stress. With the VES, drivers were more confident, less stressed, and drove faster, but had almost twice as many collisions with the unexpected obstacles. Also, steering/braking RT to the obstacles was longer with the VES than without it by nearly 44 msec. The results are consistent with Lebowitz's theory (1977). While the VES enhanced spatial orientation, it fooled the drivers into assuming that the visibility of obstacles on the road was also improved, and thus actually reduced safety. When visibility is an issue in nighttime crashes, the site-specific crashes should be investigated, in cases of collision with objects-on-the-road, improved delineation should be ruled out. Copyright © 2014 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd

  2. 7. ALIGNMENT OF ABANDONED COULTERVILLE ROAD IN FORESTA AT FALLEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. ALIGNMENT OF ABANDONED COULTERVILLE ROAD IN FORESTA AT FALLEN TREE IN CENTER REAR. FOREGROUND MARKS TURN OF NEW ROAD FROM FORESTA TO HIGHWAY 120. LOOKING E. GIS: N-37 42 16.6 / W-119 44 00.3 - Coulterville Road, Between Foresta & All-Weather Highway, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  3. 36 CFR 261.15 - Use of vehicles off roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of vehicles off roads... PROHIBITIONS General Prohibitions § 261.15 Use of vehicles off roads. It is prohibited to operate any vehicle off National Forest System, State or County roads: (a) Without a valid license as required by State...

  4. 36 CFR 223.37 - Revegetation of temporary roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... roads. 223.37 Section 223.37 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... PRODUCTS Timber Sale Contracts Contract Conditions and Provisions § 223.37 Revegetation of temporary roads... products shall require the purchaser to treat temporary roads constructed or used thereunder so as to...

  5. 36 CFR 261.15 - Use of vehicles off roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Use of vehicles off roads... PROHIBITIONS General Prohibitions § 261.15 Use of vehicles off roads. It is prohibited to operate any vehicle off National Forest System, State or County roads: (a) Without a valid license as required by State...

  6. 36 CFR 223.37 - Revegetation of temporary roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... roads. 223.37 Section 223.37 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... PRODUCTS Timber Sale Contracts Contract Conditions and Provisions § 223.37 Revegetation of temporary roads... products shall require the purchaser to treat temporary roads constructed or used thereunder so as to...

  7. 36 CFR 223.37 - Revegetation of temporary roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... roads. 223.37 Section 223.37 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... PRODUCTS Timber Sale Contracts Contract Conditions and Provisions § 223.37 Revegetation of temporary roads... products shall require the purchaser to treat temporary roads constructed or used thereunder so as to...

  8. 36 CFR 261.15 - Use of vehicles off roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Use of vehicles off roads... PROHIBITIONS General Prohibitions § 261.15 Use of vehicles off roads. It is prohibited to operate any vehicle off National Forest System, State or County roads: (a) Without a valid license as required by State...

  9. 36 CFR 261.15 - Use of vehicles off roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Use of vehicles off roads... PROHIBITIONS General Prohibitions § 261.15 Use of vehicles off roads. It is prohibited to operate any vehicle off National Forest System, State or County roads: (a) Without a valid license as required by State...

  10. 36 CFR 223.37 - Revegetation of temporary roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... roads. 223.37 Section 223.37 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... PRODUCTS Timber Sale Contracts Contract Conditions and Provisions § 223.37 Revegetation of temporary roads... products shall require the purchaser to treat temporary roads constructed or used thereunder so as to...

  11. 36 CFR 261.15 - Use of vehicles off roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Use of vehicles off roads... PROHIBITIONS General Prohibitions § 261.15 Use of vehicles off roads. It is prohibited to operate any vehicle off National Forest System, State or County roads: (a) Without a valid license as required by State...

  12. Over-the-road testing of radioactive materials packagings

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, R. E.; Gwinn, K. W.

    1991-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has an ongoing program to characterize the environments encountered during normal surface transport of radioactive materials. This effort consists of obtaining experimental data from both road simulator and over-the-road tests and of analyzing the dam to obtain numerical models to simulate those environments. These data and models have been used to define the design basis for resistance to shock and vibration and the requirements for tiedowns of truck-transported radioactive materials. This work is in conjunction with the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standards development for radioactive materials transport. This paper summarizes the data from a series of over-the-road tests performed with Chem-Nuclear Systems, Inc. equipment near Barnwell, South Carolina. The data include packaging responses to driving over various road types as well as measurements of packaging and trailer responses to hard braking and turning events. The data also include the responses of both flexible and rigid tiedown systems. The results indicate that the tiedown forces for these tests were less than 0.06 g based on packaging weight.

  13. Principal component analysis of shear strain effects.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hao; Varghese, Tomy

    2009-05-01

    Shear stresses are always present during quasi-static strain imaging, since tissue slippage occurs along the lateral and elevational directions during an axial deformation. Shear stress components along the axial deformation axes add to the axial deformation while perpendicular components introduce both lateral and elevational rigid motion and deformation artifacts into the estimated axial and lateral strain tensor images. A clear understanding of these artifacts introduced into the normal and shear strain tensor images with shear deformations is essential. In addition, signal processing techniques for improved depiction of the strain distribution is required. In this paper, we evaluate the impact of artifacts introduced due to lateral shear deformations on the normal strain tensors estimated by varying the lateral shear angle during an axial deformation. Shear strains are quantified using the lateral shear angle during the applied deformation. Simulation and experimental validation using uniformly elastic and single inclusion phantoms were performed. Variations in the elastographic signal-to-noise and contrast-to-noise ratios for axial deformations ranging from 0% to 5%, and for lateral deformations ranging from 0 to 5 degrees were evaluated. Our results demonstrate that the first and second principal component strain images provide higher signal-to-noise ratios of 20 dB with simulations and 10 dB under experimental conditions and contrast-to-noise ratio levels that are at least 20 dB higher when compared to the axial and lateral strain tensor images, when only lateral shear deformations are applied. For small axial deformations, the lateral shear deformations significantly reduces strain image quality, however the first principal component provides about a 1-2dB improvement over the axial strain tensor image. Lateral shear deformations also significantly increase the noise level in the axial and lateral strain tensor images with larger axial deformations

  14. Comparison of road traffic emission models in Madrid (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borge, Rafael; de Miguel, Isabel; de la Paz, David; Lumbreras, Julio; Pérez, Javier; Rodríguez, Encarnación

    2012-12-01

    Many cities in Europe have difficulties to meet the air quality standards set by the European legislation, most particularly the annual mean Limit Value for NO2. Road transport is often the main source of air pollution in urban areas and therefore, there is an increasing need to estimate current and future traffic emissions as accurately as possible. As a consequence, a number of specific emission models and emission factors databases have been developed recently. They present important methodological differences and may result in largely diverging emission figures and thus may lead to alternative policy recommendations. This study compares two approaches to estimate road traffic emissions in Madrid (Spain): the COmputer Programme to calculate Emissions from Road Transport (COPERT4 v.8.1) and the Handbook Emission Factors for Road Transport (HBEFA v.3.1), representative of the 'average-speed' and 'traffic situation' model types respectively. The input information (e.g. fleet composition, vehicle kilometres travelled, traffic intensity, road type, etc.) was provided by the traffic model developed by the Madrid City Council along with observations from field campaigns. Hourly emissions were computed for nearly 15 000 road segments distributed in 9 management areas covering the Madrid city and surroundings. Total annual NOX emissions predicted by HBEFA were a 21% higher than those of COPERT. The discrepancies for NO2 were lower (13%) since resulting average NO2/NOX ratios are lower for HBEFA. The larger differences are related to diesel vehicle emissions under "stop & go" traffic conditions, very common in distributor/secondary roads of the Madrid metropolitan area.In order to understand the representativeness of these results, the resulting emissions were integrated in an urban scale inventory used to drive mesoscale air quality simulations with the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modelling system (1 km2 resolution). Modelled NO2 concentrations were compared

  15. 3. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF OVERSEERS COTTAGE AT 110 CORINTH ROAD. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF OVERSEERS COTTAGE AT 110 CORINTH ROAD. NOTE ORIGINAL WOOD SIDING, PORCH POSTS, AND STEPS. ORIGINALLY THIS HOUSE SAT ON BRICK PIERS WITH WOOD LATTICE BETWEEN. THE FOUNDATION HAS NOW BEEN INFILLED WITH BRICK. - 110 Corinth Road (House), 110 Corinth Road, Hogansville, Troup County, GA

  16. 6. VIEW OF COULTERVILLE ROAD AT BIG MEADOW IN FORESTA. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF COULTERVILLE ROAD AT BIG MEADOW IN FORESTA. INTERSECTION WITH DAVIS CUT-OFF ROAD AT LEFT. LOOKING W. GIS: N-37 42 09.3 / W-119 44 59.8 - Coulterville Road, Between Foresta & All-Weather Highway, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  17. 5. VIEW OF THE LOCATION FOR A PROPOSED SPUR ROAD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF THE LOCATION FOR A PROPOSED SPUR ROAD FROM KINGS CANYON ROAD TO THE PROPOSED HELICOPTER LANDING SITE #11. LOCATED AT MILEPOST 0.55, FACING NORTH 53ø EAST (53 ). - Kings Canyon Road, Carson City, Carson City, NV

  18. Designation of principal water-supply aquifers in Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adolphson, D.G.; Ruhl, J.F.; Wolf, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    The State's ground water generally contains less than 1,000 milligrams per liter of dissolved solids, except in the extreme southwest, northeast, and western areas. Mineralized water is present at depth throughout the State. Freshwater extends to depths of about 1,000 feet in the center of the Hollandale embayment and in the Twin Cities basin. Six principal water-quality types are present in the .aquifers. Calcium magnesium bicarbonate type water, the most common, is generally present throughout the upper part of the ground-water system.

  19. A Preliminary Examination of the Impact of a Structured Principal Network on Principal Burnout

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillery, Denise Artus

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which participation in a formal network has on a principal's personal perception of burnout as measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory for Educators (MBI-E). The MBI-E consists of 22 questions with responses indicated on a 7 point Likert scale ranging from 0-6. It measures three constructs of emotional…

  20. A Preliminary Examination of the Impact of a Structured Principal Network on Principal Burnout

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillery, Denise Artus

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which participation in a formal network has on a principal's personal perception of burnout as measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory for Educators (MBI-E). The MBI-E consists of 22 questions with responses indicated on a 7 point Likert scale ranging from 0-6. It measures three constructs of emotional…

  1. Cost of skid roads for arch logging in West Virginia

    Treesearch

    George R., Jr. Trimble; Carl R. Barr

    1960-01-01

    In the mountain hardwood country of the northern Appalachians, tree-length skidding with tractor and arch has proved to be economical logging. One essential part of this type of logging is that tree-length logs are winched to the skid roads: tractor and arch do not run around through the woods. Winching distance is commonly 200 to 300 feet; and occasionally an extra...

  2. Extraction of principal components from biosignals by neural net.

    PubMed

    Krajca, V; Principe, J C; Petránek, S

    1999-01-01

    This contribution gives the information on a useful application of principal component analysis (PCA) in the field of electroencephalogram (EEG) and laser-Doppler signal processing. The principal components are estimated by a neural network (NN) approach.

  3. Motor vehicle and pedestrian collisions: burden of severe injury on major versus neighborhood roads.

    PubMed

    Rothman, Linda; Slater, Morgan; Meaney, Christopher; Howard, Andrew

    2010-02-01

    To determine whether the severity of injuries sustained by pedestrians involved in motor vehicle collisions varies by road type and age. All police-reported pedestrian motor vehicle collisions in the city of Toronto, Canada, between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2005, were analyzed. Geographic Information Systems software was used to determine whether the collisions occurred on major or neighborhood roads. Age-specific estimates of the burden of pedestrian collisions are presented. Odds ratios and 95 percent confidence intervals were calculated to examine age-specific relationships between injury severity and road type. A second analysis comparing the distribution of severe injury location between age groups was also performed. The majority of collisions involved adults (68%), although elderly pedestrians were overrepresented in fatal collisions (49%). Severe and fatal collisions involving working-age and elderly adult pedestrians were more likely on major roads. Odds of severe injury occurring on a major road were 1.36 (95% CI: 1.17-1.57) times higher for adults ages 18 to 64, and 1.55 (95% CI: 1.22-1.99) times higher for elderly aged 65+. By contrast, severe injuries among children were more common on neighborhood roads, with odds of severe injury on a major road of 0.64 (95% CI: 0.37-1.1) for children aged 5 to 9. Among children under 9, 64-67 percent of hospitalized or fatal injuries occurred on neighborhood roads, a marked difference from the distribution of such injuries in adults or the elderly, for whom only 29-30 percent of hospitalized or fatal injuries occurred on neighborhood roads (chi-square = 52.6, p < or =.001). Targeting interventions toward the adult pedestrian burden on major roads alone will not make child pedestrians safer. Pedestrian interventions specific to children and focused on neighborhood roads must be considered in urban centers like Toronto.

  4. Patterns and Composition of Road-Killed Wildlife in Northwest Argentina.

    PubMed

    Cuyckens, Griet An Erica; Mochi, Lucía Sol; Vallejos, María; Perovic, Pablo Gastón; Biganzoli, Fernando

    2016-11-01

    Roads have important effects on wildlife, such as natural habitat fragmentation and degradation and direct killing of fauna, which leads to reductions in wildlife population size. We focused on a principal road in Northwest Argentina to test for the effect of seasonality and landscape features on the composition of road-killed wildlife. We conducted regularly scheduled road trips during the dry and wet seasons. We recorded the presence or absence of a vegetation curtain or hedge along the road. We measured land use by remote sensing in a 500 m buffer along the road. We compared the abundance of animals killed between seasons (dry and wet) for different taxonomic groups (mammals, birds and reptiles) and for different origins (domestic and native). We built linear mixed models to test the effect of landscape features on the abundance of killed animals. Two hundred and ninety-three individuals were killed, belonging to 35 species; 75.8 % were native and 24.2 % domestic species. The majority of animals killed were mid-sized mammals. More animals were killed during the dry season. The most important factors to explain the wildlife road-killing were the season and the proportion of agricultural landscape. The composition of the killed animals changed with the season. The proportion of agricultural landscape incremented the number of killed birds and mammals during both seasons, without affecting reptiles. The ratio of wild to domestic animals killed was dependent on the season. This study sets a precedent as the first in road ecology in Northwest Argentina and should be taken into account for road planning and regulation.

  5. Patterns and Composition of Road-Killed Wildlife in Northwest Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuyckens, Griet An Erica; Mochi, Lucía Sol; Vallejos, María; Perovic, Pablo Gastón; Biganzoli, Fernando

    2016-11-01

    Roads have important effects on wildlife, such as natural habitat fragmentation and degradation and direct killing of fauna, which leads to reductions in wildlife population size. We focused on a principal road in Northwest Argentina to test for the effect of seasonality and landscape features on the composition of road-killed wildlife. We conducted regularly scheduled road trips during the dry and wet seasons. We recorded the presence or absence of a vegetation curtain or hedge along the road. We measured land use by remote sensing in a 500 m buffer along the road. We compared the abundance of animals killed between seasons (dry and wet) for different taxonomic groups (mammals, birds and reptiles) and for different origins (domestic and native). We built linear mixed models to test the effect of landscape features on the abundance of killed animals. Two hundred and ninety-three individuals were killed, belonging to 35 species; 75.8 % were native and 24.2 % domestic species. The majority of animals killed were mid-sized mammals. More animals were killed during the dry season. The most important factors to explain the wildlife road-killing were the season and the proportion of agricultural landscape. The composition of the killed animals changed with the season. The proportion of agricultural landscape incremented the number of killed birds and mammals during both seasons, without affecting reptiles. The ratio of wild to domestic animals killed was dependent on the season. This study sets a precedent as the first in road ecology in Northwest Argentina and should be taken into account for road planning and regulation.

  6. Principal Leadership for Special Education: Perceptions of Principals and Directors of Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Angela Bost

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions of public school leaders about principal leadership for special education in ten leadership categories: understanding law and policy, using data to improve teacher performance, using data to improve student performance, creating an inclusive culture, collaborating with families,…

  7. A suite of tools for monitoring and assessing impacts of road networks and off-road vehicle activity on rangelands

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Despite increasing amounts of transportation related activities on rangelands globally, few tools exist for assessing and monitoring impacts of roads, road networks and off-road vehicle traffic. This is in part due to an historical emphasis on grazing issues in rangelands and the complexity of monit...

  8. The Essence of the Principal Internship: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Shawnta M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a phenomenological investigation of principals' experience as they reflect on the essence of the administration internship, an integral part of school administration preparation programs. Five principals, all within the initial year or two of their first public school principal job, revealed the essence of their internship…

  9. Road Environments: Impact of Metals on Human Health in Heavily Congested Cities of Poland

    PubMed Central

    Adamiec, Ewa

    2017-01-01

    Road dust as a by-product of exhaust and non-exhaust emissions can be a major cause of systemic oxidative stress and multiple disorders. Substantial amounts of road dust are repeatedly resuspended, in particular at traffic lights and junctions where more braking is involved, causing potential threat to pedestrians, especially children. In order to determine the degree of contamination in the heavily traffic-congested cities of Poland, a total of 148 samples of road dust (RD), sludge from storm drains (SL) and roadside soil (RS) were collected. Sixteen metals were analysed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) in all samples. Chemical evaluation followed by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) revealed that road environments have been severely contaminated with traffic-related elements. Concentration of copper in all road-environment samples is even higher, exceeding even up to 15 times its average concentrations established for the surrounding soils. Non-carcinogenic health risk assessment revealed that the hazard index (HI) for children in all road-environment samples exceeds the safe level of 1. Therefore, greater attention should be paid to potential health risks caused by the ingestion of traffic-related particles during outdoor activities. PMID:28661464

  10. Road Environments: Impact of Metals on Human Health in Heavily Congested Cities of Poland.

    PubMed

    Adamiec, Ewa

    2017-06-29

    Road dust as a by-product of exhaust and non-exhaust emissions can be a major cause of systemic oxidative stress and multiple disorders. Substantial amounts of road dust are repeatedly resuspended, in particular at traffic lights and junctions where more braking is involved, causing potential threat to pedestrians, especially children. In order to determine the degree of contamination in the heavily traffic-congested cities of Poland, a total of 148 samples of road dust (RD), sludge from storm drains (SL) and roadside soil (RS) were collected. Sixteen metals were analysed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) in all samples. Chemical evaluation followed by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) revealed that road environments have been severely contaminated with traffic-related elements. Concentration of copper in all road-environment samples is even higher, exceeding even up to 15 times its average concentrations established for the surrounding soils. Non-carcinogenic health risk assessment revealed that the hazard index (HI) for children in all road-environment samples exceeds the safe level of 1. Therefore, greater attention should be paid to potential health risks caused by the ingestion of traffic-related particles during outdoor activities.

  11. Road-network-Based spatial allocation of on-road mobile source emissions in the Pearl River Delta region, China, and comparisons with population-based approach.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Junyu; Che, Wenwei; Wang, Xuemei; Louie, Peter; Zhong, Liuju

    2009-12-01

    Gridded air pollutant emission inventories are prerequisites for using air quality models to assess air pollution control strategies and predict air quality. A precise gridded emission inventory will help improve the accuracy of air quality simulation. Mobile source emissions are one of the major contributors to volatile organic compound (VOC) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) pollutants, the precursors of ozone formation. However, because of the complexity of road networks and variations in traffic flows at different road types and locations, spatial allocation of emissions from mobile sources into grid cells is challenging. This paper proposes a new methodological framework, named as "the road-network-based approach," for spatially allocating regional mobile source emission inventories. The new approach utilizes the Geographic Information System (GIS)-based road network information and road-types-based traffic flow data to provide spatial surrogates for allocating Pearl River Delta (PRD) regional mobile source emission inventories. The results show that the new approach provides reasonable spatial distributions of mobile source emissions, and the distributions are in good agreement with PRD regional on-road emission line sources. Comparisons between using the population-based and the new road-network-based approaches are made. The air quality modeling results indicate that the new approach can obviously improve model predictions with increasing accuracy in mobile source emission allocations. Means of choosing appropriate approaches for spatially allocating regional mobile source emissions are discussed.

  12. Novice School Principals' Sense of Ultimate Responsibility: Problems of Practice in Transitioning to the Principal's Office

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spillane, James P.; Lee, Linda C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the problems of practice experienced by novice school principals as they transition into their new occupation, focusing in particular on the first 3 months on the job--a critical transition period according to the literature. Research Methods/Approach: This theory-building, mixed-methods, longitudinal study examines a…

  13. Novice School Principals' Sense of Ultimate Responsibility: Problems of Practice in Transitioning to the Principal's Office

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spillane, James P.; Lee, Linda C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the problems of practice experienced by novice school principals as they transition into their new occupation, focusing in particular on the first 3 months on the job--a critical transition period according to the literature. Research Methods/Approach: This theory-building, mixed-methods, longitudinal study examines a…

  14. Factorial and Item-Level Invariance of a Principal Perspectives Survey: German and U.S. Principals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chuang; Hancock, Dawson R; Muller, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the factorial and item-level invariance of a survey of principals' job satisfaction and perspectives about reasons and barriers to becoming a principal with a sample of US principals and another sample of German principals. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and differential item functioning (DIF) analysis were employed at the test and item level, respectively. A single group CFA was conducted first, and the model was found to fit the data collected. The factorial invariance between the German and the US principals was tested through three steps: (a) configural invariance; (b) measurement invariance; and (c) structural invariance. The results suggest that the survey is a viable measure of principals' job satisfaction and perspectives about reasons and barriers to becoming a principal because principals from two different cultures shared a similar pattern on all three constructs. The DIF analysis further revealed that 22 out of the 28 items functioned similarly between German and US principals.

  15. 38 CFR 19.4 - Principal functions of the Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Principal functions of the Board. 19.4 Section 19.4 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS....4 Principal functions of the Board. The principal functions of the Board are to make determinations...

  16. 46 CFR Sec. 5 - Disbursements at principal office of agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disbursements at principal office of agent. Sec. 5... principal office of agent. All expenses directly applicable to the activities, maintenance and business of... which the invoices were paid; when paid other than by check of the agent at his principal office...

  17. A Discrepancy in Teachers and Principals Perceptions of Educational Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ifat, Linder; Eyal, Weissblueth

    2017-01-01

    The current study was set to examine the role of school principals in Israel in the professional development process of their teachers following the implementation of a new professional reform. 159 teachers and 13 principals responded to a questionnaire designed to collect data concerning the involvement of principals in initiatives developed by…

  18. 46 CFR Sec. 5 - Disbursements at principal office of agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Disbursements at principal office of agent. Sec. 5... principal office of agent. All expenses directly applicable to the activities, maintenance and business of... which the invoices were paid; when paid other than by check of the agent at his principal office...

  19. 38 CFR 19.4 - Principal functions of the Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Principal functions of the Board. 19.4 Section 19.4 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS....4 Principal functions of the Board. The principal functions of the Board are to make determinations...

  20. Aerobic Physical Activity and the Leadership of Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiser, Kari

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore if there was a connection between regular aerobic physical activity and the stress and energy levels of principals as they reported it. To begin the research, the current aerobic physical activity level of principals was discovered. Additionally, the energy and stress levels of the principals who do engage…

  1. Aerobic Physical Activity and the Leadership of Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiser, Kari

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore if there was a connection between regular aerobic physical activity and the stress and energy levels of principals as they reported it. To begin the research, the current aerobic physical activity level of principals was discovered. Additionally, the energy and stress levels of the principals who do engage…

  2. A tool to analyze environmental impacts of roads on forest watersheds

    Treesearch

    Ajay Prasad

    2007-01-01

    The construction and use of forest roads can have impacts on geomorphic processes and erosion patterns in forested basins. Analyzing these impacts will help forest managers to effectively manage road and road drainage system and hence minimize the negative impacts of forest roads. To manage forest roads effectively the USDA Forest Service (USFS) has developed a road...

  3. Road surveillance using a team of small UAVs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kingston, Derek

    2009-05-01

    Monitoring roads is an important task for missions such as base security. This paper describes a road monitoring system composed of a team of small UAVs equipped with gimballed cameras. Given a fine description of the target road, algorithms for waypoint approximation, sensor steering, and UAV spacing are developed to allow N UAVs to survey stretches of road for activity. By automating the route generation and road tracking, human operators are freed to study the sensor returns from the vehicles to detect anomalous behavior. The spacing algorithm is robust to retasking and insertion/deletion of UAVs. Hardware results are presented that demonstrate the applicability of the solution.

  4. An epidemiological approach to mass casualty incidents in the Principality of Asturias (Spain).

    PubMed

    Castro Delgado, Rafael; Naves Gómez, Cecilia; Cuartas Álvarez, Tatiana; Arcos González, Pedro

    2016-02-24

    Mass Casualty Incidents (MCI) have been rarely studied from epidemiological approaches. The objective of this study is to establish the epidemiological profile of MCI in the autonomous region of the Principality of Asturias (Spain) and analyse ambulance deployment and severity of patients. This is a population-based prospective study run in 2014. Inclusion criteria for MCI is "every incident with four or more people affected that requires ambulance mobilisation". Thirty-nine MCI have been identified in Asturias in 2014. Thirty-one (79%) were road traffic accidents, three (7.5%) fires and five (12.8%) other types. Twenty-one incidents (56.7%) had four patients, and only three of them (8%) had seven or more patients. An average of 2.41 ambulances per incident were deployed (standard error = 0.18). Most of the patients per incident were minor injured patients (mean = 4; standard error = 0.2), and 0,26 were severe patients (standard error = 0.08). There was a positive significant correlation (p < 0.01) between the total number of patients and the total number of ambulances deployed and between the total number of patients and Advanced Life Support (ALS) ambulances deployed (p < 0.001). The total number of non-ALS ambulances was not related with the total number of patients. Population based research in MCI is essential to define MCI profile. Quantitative definition of MCI, adapted to resources, avoid selection bias and present a more accurate profile of MCI. As espected, road traffic accidents are the most frequent MCI in our region. This aspect is essential to plan training and response to MCI. Analysis of total response to MCI shows that for almost an hour, we should plan extra resources for daily emergencies. This data is an important issue to bear in mind when planning MCI response. The fact that most patients are classified as minor injured and more advanced life support units than needed are deployed shows that analysis of resources

  5. Paranoia: Perceptions of Public School Principals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmon, Daniel A.

    1980-01-01

    Examines forces which are undermining the principal's leadership role and ability to effectively administer the school: teachers and unions; the competency movement; political and community interest groups; and media pundits. (SJL)

  6. PLS Road surface temperature forecast for susceptibility of ice occurrence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchetti, Mario; Khalifa, Abderrhamen; Bues, Michel

    2014-05-01

    Winter maintenance relies on many operational tools consisting in monitoring atmospheric and pavement physical parameters. Among them, road weather information systems (RWIS) and thermal mapping are mostly used by service in charge of managing infrastructure networks. The Data from RWIS and thermal mapping are considered as inputs for forecasting physical numerical models, commonly in place since the 80s. These numerical models do need an accurate description of the infrastructure, such as pavement layers and sub-layers, along with many meteorological parameters, such as air temperature and global and infrared radiation. The description is sometimes partially known, and meteorological data is only monitored on specific spot. On the other hand, thermal mapping is now an easy, reliable and cost effective way to monitor road surface temperature (RST), and many meteorological parameters all along routes of infrastructure networks, including with a whole fleet of vehicles in the specific cases of roads, or airports. The technique uses infrared thermometry to measure RST and an atmospheric probes for air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and global radiation, both at a high resolution interval, to identify sections of the road network prone to ice occurrence. However, measurements are time-consuming, and the data from thermal mapping is one input among others to establish the forecast. The idea was to build a reliable forecast on the sole data from thermal mapping. Previous work has established the interest to use principal component analysis (PCA) on the basis of a reduced number of thermal fingerprints. The work presented here is a focus on the use of partial least-square regression (PLS) to build a RST forecast with air temperature measurements. Roads with various environments, weather conditions (clear, cloudy mainly) and seasons were monitored over several months to generate an appropriate number of samples. The study was conducted to determine the minimum

  7. On the Fallibility of Principal Components in Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raykov, Tenko; Marcoulides, George A.; Li, Tenglong

    2017-01-01

    The measurement error in principal components extracted from a set of fallible measures is discussed and evaluated. It is shown that as long as one or more measures in a given set of observed variables contains error of measurement, so also does any principal component obtained from the set. The error variance in any principal component is shown…

  8. 24 CFR 206.211 - Annual determination of principal residence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Annual determination of principal... determination of principal residence. At least once during each calendar year, the mortgagee shall determine whether or not the property is the principal residence of at least one mortgagor. The mortgagee shall...

  9. 28 CFR 5.208 - Disclosure of foreign principals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disclosure of foreign principals. 5.208... AGENTS REGISTRATION ACT OF 1938, AS AMENDED § 5.208 Disclosure of foreign principals. A registrant who represents more than one foreign principal is required to list in the statements he files under the Act only...

  10. 24 CFR 206.211 - Annual determination of principal residence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Annual determination of principal... determination of principal residence. At least once during each calendar year, the mortgagee shall determine whether or not the property is the principal residence of at least one mortgagor. The mortgagee shall...

  11. 28 CFR 5.208 - Disclosure of foreign principals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Disclosure of foreign principals. 5.208... AGENTS REGISTRATION ACT OF 1938, AS AMENDED § 5.208 Disclosure of foreign principals. A registrant who represents more than one foreign principal is required to list in the statements he files under the Act only...

  12. On the Fallibility of Principal Components in Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raykov, Tenko; Marcoulides, George A.; Li, Tenglong

    2017-01-01

    The measurement error in principal components extracted from a set of fallible measures is discussed and evaluated. It is shown that as long as one or more measures in a given set of observed variables contains error of measurement, so also does any principal component obtained from the set. The error variance in any principal component is shown…

  13. Principals' Experiences of Being Evaluated: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parylo, Oksana; Zepeda, Sally J.; Bengtson, Ed

    2012-01-01

    This phenomenological study sought to understand principals' lived experiences of being evaluated with reliance on the principles of developmental supervision and adult learning theory. Analysis of interview data from 16 principals revealed 3 major constructs in principal evaluation: evaluation is a complex, constantly changing system; principal…

  14. Principals' Perceptions of Their Role in Curriculum Implementation. Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minsky, Elaine; And Others

    This study, initiated by the Scarborough (Ontario) Board of Education, examines principals' perceptions of their role in curriculum implementation, the difficulties inherent in this role and the support systems available to assist principals, and the leadership component of the principals' role in curriculum implementation. Interviews, based on a…

  15. Professional Development Perspectives of Principals in Australia and Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamage, David T.; Ueyama, Takeyuki

    2004-01-01

    Irrespective of how the roles, tasks, and responsibilities of principals have evolved due to educational change and reform, the school principal still holds the key to achieving school effectiveness. Over the last few decades, extensive studies have been conducted on the role of the school principal. Most scholars, researchers, and school…

  16. Professional Development Perspectives of Principals in Australia and Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamage, David T.; Ueyama, Takeyuki

    2004-01-01

    Irrespective of how the roles, tasks, and responsibilities of principals have evolved due to educational change and reform, the school principal still holds the key to achieving school effectiveness. Over the last few decades, extensive studies have been conducted on the role of the school principal. Most scholars, researchers, and school…

  17. Middle School Certification: A Comparison of Teachers' and Principals' Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thistle, Maureen; O'Connor, James E.

    Findings of a study that examined the attitudes of middle level teachers and principals toward middle-school certification are presented in this paper. Questionnaires were sent to 82 teachers and principals of all 46 public schools serving sixth-, seventh-, and eighth-grade students in Kern County, California. Twenty-four principals and 48…

  18. In the Midst of Comprehensive School Reform: Principals' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Good, Thomas L.

    2008-01-01

    Background/Context: The role of the principal, and especially the role of the principal in promoting school reform to increase student achievement, is a topic with a long and evolving history. Principals are believed to play a critical role in school reform because they have the potential to impact all aspects of school policy, from time allocated…

  19. The Employment Styles of School Principals Recruiting Beginning Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broadley, G.; Broadley, K. M.

    2004-01-01

    In New Zealand, school principals (headteachers), sometimes with a sub-committee of the school board of trustees, interview and hire their own teachers. This research examined whether school principals exhibit different styles in recruiting beginning teachers. A small group of principals was interviewed and items reflecting their views were then…

  20. In the Midst of Comprehensive School Reform: Principals' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Good, Thomas L.

    2008-01-01

    Background/Context: The role of the principal, and especially the role of the principal in promoting school reform to increase student achievement, is a topic with a long and evolving history. Principals are believed to play a critical role in school reform because they have the potential to impact all aspects of school policy, from time allocated…

  1. A Study on the Influence of Speed on Road Roughness Sensing: The SmartRoadSense Case †

    PubMed Central

    Alessandroni, Giacomo; Carini, Alberto; Lattanzi, Emanuele; Freschi, Valerio; Bogliolo, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    SmartRoadSense is a crowdsensing project aimed at monitoring the conditions of the road surface. Using the sensors of a smartphone, SmartRoadSense monitors the vertical accelerations inside a vehicle traveling the road and extracts a roughness index conveying information about the road conditions. The roughness index and the smartphone GPS data are periodically sent to a central server where they are processed, associated with the specific road, and aggregated with data measured by other smartphones. This paper studies how the smartphone vertical accelerations and the roughness index are related to the vehicle speed. It is shown that the dependence can be locally approximated with a gamma (power) law. Extensive experimental results using data extracted from SmartRoadSense database confirm the gamma law relationship between the roughness index and the vehicle speed. The gamma law is then used for improving the SmartRoadSense data aggregation accounting for the effect of vehicle speed. PMID:28178224

  2. A Study on the Influence of Speed on Road Roughness Sensing: The SmartRoadSense Case.

    PubMed

    Alessandroni, Giacomo; Carini, Alberto; Lattanzi, Emanuele; Freschi, Valerio; Bogliolo, Alessandro

    2017-02-07

    SmartRoadSense is a crowdsensing project aimed at monitoring the conditions of the road surface. Using the sensors of a smartphone, SmartRoadSense monitors the vertical accelerations inside a vehicle traveling the road and extracts a roughness index conveying information about the road conditions. The roughness index and the smartphone GPS data are periodically sent to a central server where they are processed, associated with the specific road, and aggregated with data measured by other smartphones. This paper studies how the smartphone vertical accelerations and the roughness index are related to the vehicle speed. It is shown that the dependence can be locally approximated with a gamma (power) law. Extensive experimental results using data extracted from SmartRoadSense database confirm the gamma law relationship between the roughness index and the vehicle speed. The gamma law is then used for improving the SmartRoadSense data aggregation accounting for the effect of vehicle speed.

  3. Principal Holistic Judgments and High-Stakes Evaluations of Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Derek C.; Dadey, Nathan

    2017-01-01

    Results from a sample of 1,013 Georgia principals who rated 12,617 teachers are used to compare holistic and analytic principal judgments with indicators of student growth central to the state's teacher evaluation system. Holistic principal judgments were compared to mean student growth percentiles (MGPs) and analytic judgments from a formal…

  4. 13 CFR 115.13 - Eligibility of Principal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Eligibility of Principal. 115.13... Provisions for All Surety Bond Guarantees § 115.13 Eligibility of Principal. (a) General eligibility. In order to be eligible for a bond guaranteed by SBA, the Principal must comply with the following...

  5. Principal Selection: A National Study of Selection Criteria and Procedures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Brandon

    2016-01-01

    Despite empirical evidence correlating the role of the principal with student achievement, researchers have seldom scrutinized principal selection methods over the past 60 years. This mixed methods study investigated the processes by which school principals are selected. A national sample of top-level school district administrators was used to…

  6. Is School Value Added Indicative of Principal Quality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiang, Hanley; Lipscomb, Stephen; Gill, Brian

    2016-01-01

    States across the country are developing systems for evaluating school principals on the basis of student achievement growth. A common approach is to hold principals accountable for the value added of their schools--that is, schools' contributions to student achievement growth. In theory, school value added can reflect not only principals'…

  7. Is School Value Added Indicative of Principal Quality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiang, Hanley; Lipscomb, Stephen; Gill, Brian

    2016-01-01

    States across the country are developing systems for evaluating school principals on the basis of student achievement growth. A common approach is to hold principals accountable for the value added of their schools--that is, schools' contributions to student achievement growth. In theory, school value added can reflect not only principals'…

  8. The Work of Chicago Public Schools' Principals. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoelinga, Sara Ray

    2008-01-01

    This report examines the roles and perceptions of Chicago Public Schools' principals, drawing upon Consortium surveys and principal interviews. Consortium Senior Analyst Sara Ray Stoelinga is the lead author of this report. She was assisted by Holly Hart and David Schalliol. Key findings in the research reveal that principal turnover is a pressing…

  9. Principals' Attitudes toward the Inclusion of Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stith, Angelnet L.

    2013-01-01

    The quantitative correlation study investigated 50 Virginia's elementary principals' attitudes toward the inclusion of students with disabilities and principals' training, experience, placement decision, and state assessment decision in special education. The data was collected using the modified version of Principal and Inclusion Survey tool.…

  10. The Development of Assistant Principals: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oleszewski, Ashley; Shoho, Alan; Barnett, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this review is to add to the discussion of assistant principals (APs), a position that has been under-represented in the professional literature. Design/methodology/approach: An extensive search was undertaken on assistant principals, vice principals, and deputy head teachers from various sources, including journals,…

  11. The Development of Assistant Principals: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oleszewski, Ashley; Shoho, Alan; Barnett, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this review is to add to the discussion of assistant principals (APs), a position that has been under-represented in the professional literature. Design/methodology/approach: An extensive search was undertaken on assistant principals, vice principals, and deputy head teachers from various sources, including journals,…

  12. The Impact of Principals in Sustaining Middle School Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hipp, Kristine A.

    1997-01-01

    Notes survey of teachers and principals in 10 middle schools to determine the relationship between principals' leadership behavior and teachers' sense of efficacy. Identifies 11 principal behaviors that reinforce teacher efficacy, including inspiring group purpose, encouraging innovation, fostering teamwork, managing student behavior, and…

  13. Principal Selection: A National Study of Selection Criteria and Procedures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Brandon

    2016-01-01

    Despite empirical evidence correlating the role of the principal with student achievement, researchers have seldom scrutinized principal selection methods over the past 60 years. This mixed methods study investigated the processes by which school principals are selected. A national sample of top-level school district administrators was used to…

  14. Meet the Promise of Content Standards: The Principal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killion, Joellen

    2012-01-01

    Successful principals shape the culture of schools, set clear expectations, and share leadership with others to create productive learning environments for students and staff. For nearly a decade, The Wallace Foundation has coordinated studies of principal effectiveness and has concluded that principals are second only to teachers as the most…

  15. Principals' Perceptions of Professional Development for Instructional Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrillo, Jose Ernesto

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, school principals across the United States have been entrusted with the responsibility to conduct the daily affairs of managing schools. However, with the ever increasing demands of accountability for increased student achievement, the principals' roles and responsibilities are continuously evolving. Principals are being challenged…

  16. Principals and Superintendents: Perceptions of Involvement in the Budgeting Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaCost, Barbara Y.; Grady, Marilyn L.

    1994-01-01

    Summarizes study comparing superintendents' and principals' expectations concerning principals' involvement in making budget decisions at school site. Respondents differed significantly regarding degree of principal involvement in salary decisions about noncertificated staff, purchase of texts and library books, and decisions affecting building…

  17. Experimental analysis of the structure-borne tyre/road noise due to road discontinuities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kindt, P.; Berckmans, D.; De Coninck, F.; Sas, P.; Desmet, W.

    2009-11-01

    Tyre/road noise has become the major source of traffic noise in urban regions. Although tyre/road noise has been studied for decades, little can be found in the literature about the noise resulting from crossing road discontinuities such as expansion joints, railway crossings, and potholes. Both vehicle interior and exterior noise can reach significant peak levels as a result of crossing such a pavement discontinuity. This paper presents an experimental analysis of the generating phenomena of structure borne tyre/road noise due to a road discontinuity. Both exterior and interior tyre/road noise are considered. The influence of driving speed, cleat dimension, inflation pressure, tyre temperature and preload onto the noise generating phenomena is investigated. A novel test setup was designed and built at the K.U. Leuven Noise and Vibration Engineering Laboratory in order to measure the structural and acoustic response of a tyre rolling over a cleat. The vehicle interior noise is analysed by means of a test circuit cleat test.

  18. The Relationship between Principal Personality Type and Elementary School Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberson, Tamara Suzanne

    2010-01-01

    Providing effective administrative leadership that has a positive impact on student achievement often is problematic for school principals. Research suggests that collaboration and shared decision making are functions of effective leadership, and according to the premises of effective school instructional leadership, leadership should change with…

  19. Principals and After-School Programs: A Survey of PreK-8 Principals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    Changing dynamics of the American family is putting pressure on public schools to provide after-school programs (ASPs). These programs can help children learn positive social skills and receive help with academic subjects in safe, caring, and enjoyable environments. This report provides analysis of a survey of 800 public school principals that was…

  20. Evaluation of safety ratings of roads based on frontal crashes with known crash pulse and injury outcome.

    PubMed

    Stigson, H

    2009-06-01

    The objective in this study, using data from crashed cars fitted with on-board crash pulse recorders, was to present differences in average crash severity, distribution of crash severity, and injury outcomes, based on an independent safety rating of roads, also taking road type and speed limit into consideration. Furthermore, the objective was to evaluate differences in injury risk, based on the distribution of crash severity. The investigation included both frontal two-vehicle crashes and single-vehicle crashes with known injury outcome. In total, 209 real-world crashes involving cars fitted with crash pulse recorders were included. For all crashes, average mean acceleration and change of velocity of the vehicle acceleration pulse were measured and calculated. All crash spots were classified according to an independent road safety rating program (European Road Assessment Programme Road Protection Score), where the safety quality of roads is rated in relation to posted speed limits. The crash severity and injury outcome in crashes that occurred on roads with good safety ratings were compared with crashes on roads with poor safety ratings. The data were also divided into subcategories according to posted speed limit and road type, to evaluate whether there was a difference in crash severity and injury outcome within the categories. In total, crash severity was statistically significantly lower in crashes occurring on roads with good safety ratings than in crashes occurring on roads with poor safety ratings. It was found that crash severity and injury risk were lower on roads with good safety ratings with a speed limit of above 90 km/h compared with roads with poor safety ratings, irrespective of speed limit. On the other hand, crash severity was higher on roads with good safety ratings with speed limit of 70 km/h than on roads with poor safety ratings with the same speed limit. Though it was found that a higher speed limit resulted in higher crash severity on roads