Science.gov

Sample records for principales sistemas antivirus

  1. Crispen's Five Antivirus Rules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crispen, Patrick Douglas

    2000-01-01

    Explains five rules to protect computers from viruses. Highlights include commercial antivirus software programs and the need to upgrade them periodically (every year to 18 months); updating virus definitions at least weekly; scanning attached files from email with antivirus software before opening them; Microsoft Word macro protection; and the…

  2. Crispen's Five Antivirus Rules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crispen, Patrick Douglas

    2000-01-01

    Provides rules for protecting computers from viruses, Trojan horses, or worms. Topics include purchasing commercial antivirus programs and keeping them updated; updating virus definitions weekly; precautions before opening attached files; macro virus protection in Microsoft Word; and precautions with executable files. (LRW)

  3. [Anti-virus research of triterpenoids in licorice].

    PubMed

    Pu, Jie-Ying; He, Li; Wu, Si-Yu; Zhang, Ping; Huang, Xi

    2013-11-01

    Licorice is a leguminous plant of glycyrrhiza. It is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine. Triterpenoid is one of the mainly active components of licorice. In recent years, the broad-spectrum antiviral activity of many triterpenoids in licorice was confirmed, and these findings have become a hot spot of antiviral immunity. The triterpenoids of licorice has the potential to become a novel broad-spectrum antiviral medicine and will be widely used in the clinical treatment. This review provided a summary of the recent anti-virus research progress on several triterpenoids in licorice, such as glycyrrhizic acid, glycyrrhizin, glycyrrhetinic acid and its derivatives. The antiviral roles of triterpenoids in licorice against herpes virus, HIV, hepatitis virus, SARS coronavirus and influenza virus were briefly summarized.

  4. Impact of anti-virus software on computer virus dynamical behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Mei; Li, Dandan; Han, Dun; Jia, Changsheng

    2014-11-01

    The impact of anti-virus software on the spreading of computer virus is investigated via developing a mathematical model in this paper. Considering the anti-virus software may not be effective, as it may be an outdated version, and then the computers may be infected with a reduced incidence rate. According to the method of next generation matrix, the basic reproduction number is derived. By introducing appropriate Lyapunov function and the Routh stability criterion, acquiring the stability conditions of the virus-free equilibrium and virus equilibrium. The effect of anti-virus software and disconnecting rate on the spreading of virus are also analyzed. When combined with the numerical results, a set of suggestions are put forward for eradicating virus effectively.

  5. Coping with Computer Viruses: General Discussion and Review of Symantec Anti-Virus for the Macintosh.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Primich, Tracy

    1992-01-01

    Discusses computer viruses that attack the Macintosh and describes Symantec AntiVirus for Macintosh (SAM), a commercial program designed to detect and eliminate viruses; sample screen displays are included. SAM is recommended for use in library settings as well as two public domain virus protection programs. (four references) (MES)

  6. Theoretical and experimental analysis of the impacts of removable storage media and antivirus software on viral spread

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Chenquan; Yang, Xiaofan

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, a new computer virus propagation model, which incorporates the effects of removable storage media and antivirus software, is proposed and analyzed. The global stability of the unique equilibrium of the model is independent of system parameters. Numerical simulations not only verify this result, but also illustrate the influences of removable storage media and antivirus software on viral spread. On this basis, some applicable measures for suppressing virus prevalence are suggested.

  7. Propagation Effect of a Virus Outbreak on a Network with Limited Anti-Virus Ability

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yonghong; Ren, Jianguo

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a new computer virus spreading model which takes into account the possibility of a virus outbreak on a network with limited anti-virus ability. Then, the model is investigated for the existence of equilibria and their stabilities are proved and illustrated. Moreover, it is found that these two factors are not only relative to the threshold value determining whether the virus becomes extinct or not, but that they are also relative to the virus epidemic levels. Theoretical and experimental results indicate that, in some ways, it would be practically possible to eradicate the virus or suppress its prevalence below a suitable level. Consequently, some suggestions are proposed that may help eradicate or suppress virus propagation over a real computer network. PMID:27788157

  8. Toward Automatic Discovery of Malware Signature for Anti-Virus Cloud Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Wei; Wu, Erik

    Security vendors are facing a serious problem of defeating the complexity of malwares. With the popularity and the variety of zero-day malware over the Internet, generating their signatures for detecting via anti-virus (AV) scan engines becomes an important reactive security function. However, AV security products consume much of the PC memory and resources due to their large signature files. AV cloud computing becomes a popular solution for this problem. In this paper, a novel Automatic Malware Signature Discovery System for AV cloud (AMSDS) is proposed to generate malware signatures from both static and dynamic aspects. Our experiments on millions-scale samples suggest that AMSDS outperforms most state-of-the-art automatic signature generation techniques of both industry and academia.

  9. Personal computer security: part 1. Firewalls, antivirus software, and Internet security suites.

    PubMed

    Caruso, Ronald D

    2003-01-01

    Personal computer (PC) security in the era of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA) involves two interrelated elements: safeguarding the basic computer system itself and protecting the information it contains and transmits, including personal files. HIPAA regulations have toughened the requirements for securing patient information, requiring every radiologist with such data to take further precautions. Security starts with physically securing the computer. Account passwords and a password-protected screen saver should also be set up. A modern antivirus program can easily be installed and configured. File scanning and updating of virus definitions are simple processes that can largely be automated and should be performed at least weekly. A software firewall is also essential for protection from outside intrusion, and an inexpensive hardware firewall can provide yet another layer of protection. An Internet security suite yields additional safety. Regular updating of the security features of installed programs is important. Obtaining a moderate degree of PC safety and security is somewhat inconvenient but is necessary and well worth the effort. PMID:12975519

  10. Personal computer security: part 1. Firewalls, antivirus software, and Internet security suites.

    PubMed

    Caruso, Ronald D

    2003-01-01

    Personal computer (PC) security in the era of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA) involves two interrelated elements: safeguarding the basic computer system itself and protecting the information it contains and transmits, including personal files. HIPAA regulations have toughened the requirements for securing patient information, requiring every radiologist with such data to take further precautions. Security starts with physically securing the computer. Account passwords and a password-protected screen saver should also be set up. A modern antivirus program can easily be installed and configured. File scanning and updating of virus definitions are simple processes that can largely be automated and should be performed at least weekly. A software firewall is also essential for protection from outside intrusion, and an inexpensive hardware firewall can provide yet another layer of protection. An Internet security suite yields additional safety. Regular updating of the security features of installed programs is important. Obtaining a moderate degree of PC safety and security is somewhat inconvenient but is necessary and well worth the effort.

  11. Anti-virus prophylaxis withdrawal may be feasible in liver transplant recipients whose serum HBeAg and HBV DNA are negative.

    PubMed

    Geng, Lei; Lin, Bing-Yi; Shen, Tian; Guo, Hua; Ye, Yu-Fu; Zheng, Shu-Sen

    2016-06-01

    Anti-virus prophylactic therapy may be not necessary for the prevention of hepatitis B virus (HBV) recurrence after HBV-related liver transplantation (LT). However, studies on completely stopping the hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG) and nucleos(t)ide analogs (NUC) after LT are few. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the safety of anti-virus prophylaxis withdrawal in liver recipients whose serum hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) and HBV DNA are negative. We analyzed 190 patients undergone LT for HBV-related liver disease from 2006 to 2012 and found that 10 patients completely stopped the HBIG and NUC due to poor compliance. These patients were liver biopsied and checked monthly with serum HBV markers, HBV DNA and liver function. Among the 10 patients, 9 did not show the signs of HBV recurrence after a mean follow-up of 51.6 months (range 20-73) after withdrawal of the HBIG and NUC. The average time from LT to the withdrawal of the anti-virus drug was 23.8 (13-42) months; one patient showed hepatitis B surface antigen-positive and detectable HBV DNA after stopping anti-virus drugs and this patient was successfully treated with entecavir. Our data suggested that complete withdrawal of anti-virus prophylaxis was safe and feasible for patients whose serum HBeAg and HBV DNA were negative at the time of LT.

  12. Preparation of an antitumor and antivirus agent: chemical modification of α-MMC and MAP30 from Momordica Charantia L. with covalent conjugation of polyethyelene glycol

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Yao; Liu, Shuangfeng; Li, Juan; Meng, Yanfa; Zhao, Xiaojun

    2012-01-01

    Background Alpha-momorcharin (α-MMC) and momordica anti-HIV protein (MAP30) derived from Momordica charantia L. have been confirmed to possess antitumor and antivirus activities due to their RNA-N-glycosidase activity. However, strong immunogenicity and short plasma half-life limit their clinical application. To solve this problem, the two proteins were modified with (mPEG)2-Lys-NHS (20 kDa). Methodology/principal findings In this article, a novel purification strategy for the two main type I ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs), α-MMC and MAP30, was successfully developed for laboratory-scale preparation. Using this dramatic method, 200 mg of α-MMC and about 120 mg of MAP30 was obtained in only one purification process from 200 g of Momordica charantia seeds. The homogeneity and some other properties of the two proteins were assessed by gradient SDS-PAGE, electrospray ionization quadruple mass spectrometry, and N-terminal sequence analysis as well as Western blot. Two polyethylene glycol (PEG)ylated proteins were synthesized and purified. Homogeneous mono-, di-, or tri-PEGylated proteins were characterized by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. The analysis of antitumor and antivirus activities indicated that the serial PEGylated RIPs preserved moderate activities on JAR choriocarcinoma cells and herpes simplex virus-1. Furthermore, both PEGylated proteins showed about 60%–70% antitumor and antivirus activities, and at the same time decreased 50%–70% immunogenicity when compared with their unmodified counterparts. Conclusion/significance α-MMC and MAP30 obtained from this novel purification strategy can meet the requirement of a large amount of samples for research. Their chemical modification can solve the problem of strong immunogenicity and meanwhile preserve moderate activities. All these findings suggest the potential application of PEGylated α-MMC and PEGylated MAP30 as antitumor and antivirus agents

  13. Anti-tumor and anti-virus activity of polysaccharides extracted from Sipunculus nudus(SNP) on Hepg2.2.15.

    PubMed

    Su, Jie; Jiang, Linlin; Wu, Jingna; Liu, Zhiyu; Wu, Yuping

    2016-06-01

    Many polysaccharides have biological activities and have been investigated for their antitumor effects. In this study, we investigated the anti-tumor activity and anti-virus activity of SNP-the water-soluble polysaccharides extracted from Sipunculus nudus on Hepg2.2.15. Flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that SNP induced dose-dependent cell apoptosis on Hepg2.2.15. Real-time PCR and Western Blot analysis showed that SNP down-regulated the synthesis of HBsAg, HBV-DNA and enhanced the expression of pro-apoptosis proteins TNF-α, caspase-3, and Bax, while decreasing the expression of the anti-apoptosis proteins survivin, Bcl-2, and VEGF. These results suggested that SNP suppressed cell viability of Hepg2.2.15 and that could be a novel anti-tumor and anti-HBV agent.

  14. Effect of various absorption enhancers based on tight junctions on the intestinal absorption of forsythoside A in Shuang-Huang-Lian, application to its antivirus activity

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Wei; Zhu, Xuan Xuan; Yin, Ai Ling; Cai, Bao Chang; Wang, Hai Dan; Di, Liuqing; Shan, Jin Jun

    2014-01-01

    Background: Forsythoside A (FTA), one of the main active ingredients in Shuang–Huang–Lian (SHL), possesses strong antibacterial, antioxidant and antiviral effects, and its pharmacological effects was higher than that of other ingredients, but the absolute bioavailability orally was approximately 0.72%, which was significantly low, influencing clinical efficacies of its oral preparations seriously. Materials and Methods: In vitro Caco-2 cell and in vivo pharmacokinetics study were simultaneously performed to investigate the effects of absorption enhancers based on tight junctions: sodium caprate and water-soluble chitosan on the intestinal absorption of FTA, and the eventual mucosal epithelial damage resulted from absorption enhancers was evaluated by MTT test and morphology observation, respectively. The pharmacological effects such as antivirus activity improvement by absorption enhancers were verified by MDCK damage inhibition rate after influenza virus propagation. Results: The observations from in vitro Caco-2 cell showed that the absorption of FTA in SHL could be improved by absorption enhancers. Meanwhile, the absorption enhancing effect of water-soluble chitosan may be almost saturable up to 0.0032% (w/v), and sodium caprate at concentrations up to 0.64 mg/mL was safe, but water-soluble chitosan at different concentrations was all safe for these cells. In pharmacokinetics study, water-soluble chitosan at dosage of 50 mg/kg improved the bioavailability of FTA in SHL to the greatest extent, and was safe for gastrointestine from morphological observation. Besides, treatment with SHL with water-soluble chitosan at dosage of 50 mg/kg prevented MDCK damage after influenza virus propagation better significantly than that of control. Conclusion: Water-soluble chitosan at dosage of 50 mg/kg might be safe and effective absorption enhancer for improving the bioavailability of FTA and the antivirus activity in vitro in SHL. PMID:24695554

  15. El Sistema's Open Secrets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Eric

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about Venezuela's national youth orchestra program called El Sistema whose attributes offer a direct challenge to traditional Western music practices. As U.S. classical music--and all "high arts"--struggle to find relevance to more than the small "arts club" percentage of the U.S. populace, El Sistema proposes…

  16. El sistema ESO 296-IG 11

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agüero, E. L.; Paolantonio, S.

    El objeto ESO 296-IG 11 que se presenta en forma de ``V'' y posee destacadas condensaciones a lo largo de cada una de sus dos ramas, las que son de igual extensión (~ 1'), es estudiado en base a material espectroscópico obtenido en el CASLEO. Así se establecen las principales características espectrales, las condiciones físicas y los mecanismos de excitación dominantes de las zonas más notables de su estructura, como así también la distribución de su extinción interna y la variación del grado de excitación de las mismas. Del análisis de las velocidades radiales se determina que se trata de dos galaxias de tipo disco que se están interpenetrando y que conforman un sistema triple junto con una galaxia de contorno elíptico y tamaño considerablemente menor (0.2') que se encuentra a ~ 1.3' del punto de intersección de las dos primeras, ubicada sobre la dirección que contiene a una de éstas y hacia la que se extienden unas débiles y largas prolongaciones de la otra.

  17. Knowledge Exchange with Sistema Scotland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allan, Julie; Moran, Nikki; Duffy, Celia; Loening, Gica

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on a knowledge exchange project, funded by the Scottish Funding Council and undertaken by a group of researchers from three higher education institutions in Scotland and the project partner, Sistema Scotland. This newly established charity is attempting to implement a major programme of social change, developed in Venezuela,…

  18. Thoughts on Seeing "El Sistema"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Eric

    2009-01-01

    The FESNOJIV (the Spanish acronym for the State Foundation for the National System of Youth and Children's Orchestras), more commonly known as "El Sistema," teaches 300,000 of Venezuela's poorest children in the nationwide music learning program. Many begin attending the "nucleo" as early as age two or three, and the vast majority continue well…

  19. Obstáculos a la adherencia y retención en los sistemas de salud público y privado según pacientes y personal de salud

    PubMed Central

    Arístegui, Inés; Dorigo, Analía; Bofill, Lina; Bordatto, Alejandra; Lucas, Mar; Cabanillas, Graciela Fernández; Sued, Omar; Cahn, Pedro; Cassetti, Isabel; Weiss, Stephen; Jones., Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Resumen Introducción el Programa Nacional de Sida garantiza el acceso universal a los antirretrovirales, aun así las personas que reciben medicamentos a través del sistema público no logran obtener una carga viral indetectable en la misma proporción que los pacientes del sistema privado. Este estudio cualitativo tiene como objeto identificar los factores asociados a la adherencia y retención en la cascada de atención de VIH de los sistemas de salud público y privado de Buenos Aires, según las percepciones de pacientes y del personal de salud. Métodos se registraron datos cualitativos de 12 entrevistas semi-estructuradas a informantes clave y 4 grupos focales de pacientes y personal de salud tanto del sistema público como privado. Se codificaron y analizaron temas predeterminados sobre adherencia, utilizando el software QRS Nvivo9® de análisis de datos cualitativos. Resultados pacientes y personal de salud de ambos sistemas coinciden en la importancia del estigma asociado al VIH, la relación médicopaciente, la comunicación entre ambos y la división de responsabilidades en relación al tratamiento como aspectos fundamentales para la adherencia y retención en la cascada de atención. Se observan diferencias entre los sistemas en la forma en que algunos de estos aspectos actúan. Las barreras estructurales se presentan como principales obstáculos del sistema público. Discusión se resalta la necesidad de intervenciones focalizadas en la díada médico-paciente que considere las particularidades de cada sistema de atención para facilitar el compromiso del paciente en la adherencia. PMID:26878024

  20. El Sistema and American Music Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesniak, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    The brainchild of Jose Antonio Abreu, El Sistema, a music education program for aspiring orchestra musicians launched in Venezuela for students of limited means and now spreading to other parts of the world, has become a subject of interest to music teachers and teacher educators in North America. This article examines a bit of the program's…

  1. Caos en sistemas clásico-cuánticos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dirani, L. D.; Núñez, J. A.

    Una de las formas de estudiar la existencia de caos en el comportamiento de un sistema clásico-cuántico, es truncando el espacio de Hilbert del sistema cuántico. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar como afecta dicho truncamiento en la dinámica del sistema. Para tal fin se propone un Hamiltoniano integrable, cuyos valores de expectación asociados a coordenadas y momentos cuánticos responden, por el teorema de Ehrenfest, a un sistema de dos osciladores clásicos con acoplamiento lineal.

  2. Evolución estelar en sistemas binarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Vito, M. A.; Benvenuto, O.

    Definición y clasificación de sistemas binarios; descripción del comportamiento del sistema frente a la variación de su masa; binarias de rayos X; transferencia de masa en sistemas binarios masivos aplicado al posible esclarecimiento del progenitor azul de la supernova SN 1987A; comentario acerca de la evolución de enanas blancas de helio de baja masa y su conexión con los sistemas binarios; reseña del trabajo de Kippenhahn y Weigert sobre el cual está basado el código evolutivo desarrollado en la FCAG por el Dr. Benvenuto y sobre el cual se trabajará para poder incluir la evolución de una estrella con pérdida de masa perteneciente a un sistema binario.

  3. Nuevos sistemas de frecuencia intermedia para el IAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olalde, J. C.; Perilli, D.; Larrarte, J. J.

    Se presenta el diagrama en bloques de los nuevos sistemas de Frecuencia Intermedia para los dos radiómetros instalados en el IAR. Entre las características más importantes del sistema podemos mencionar la posibilidad de conectar cualquiera de las dos antenas a los ``backend" disponibles: analizador espectral de alta resolución (META II) de 0,05 Hz, autocorrelador de 1008 canales y contínuo. Se incorporan al sistema nuevos sintetizadores de frecuencia implementados con PLL y la moderna técnica de síntesis digital directa. Por último, el conjunto del sistema es susceptible de ser configurado por las computadoras de adquisición de datos, supervisadas por otra, que entrega el estado de funcionamiento actual y evita la selección de configuraciones incorrectas por parte del usuario.

  4. Sistemas de cúmulos globulares extragalácticos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forte, J. C.

    Se describen las características de los sistemas de cúmulos globulares asociados a galaxias elípticas en una variedad de medios y, en particular, aquellas vinculadas con la distribución espacial, frecuencia específica y composición química. Esta discusión se hace dentro de un conjunto de esquemas orientados a explicar las primeras fases de la formación de las galaxias dominantes en cúmulos y del rol de los sistemas de cúmulos globulares en esos procesos.

  5. El problema de estabilidad de los sistemas Hamiltonianos multidimensionales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cincotta, P. M.

    Se revisarán los aspectos básicos del problema de estabilidad de sistemans Hamiltonianos N-dimensionales, haciendo especial énfasis en los posibles mecanismos que dan lugar a la aparición de ``caos": overlap de resonancias, difusión de Arnol'd y otros procesos difusivos alternativos. Se mencionarán los aspectos aún no resueltos sobre la estabilidad de los sistemas con N > 2. Finalmente, se discutirá cuáles de estos mecanismos podrían tener alguna relevancia en la dinámica de sistemas estelares y planetarios.

  6. Sistemas Correctores de Campo Para EL Telescopio Cassegrain IAC80

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galan, M. J.; Cobos, F. J.

    1987-05-01

    El proyecto de instrumentación de mayor importancia que ha tenido el Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias en los últimos afios ha sido el diseflo y construcción del te1escopio IAC8O. Este requería del esfuerzo con junto en mec´nica, óptica y electrónica, lo que facilitó la estructuración y el crecimiento de los respectivos grupos de trabajo, que posteriormente se integraron en departamentos En su origen (1977), el telescopio IAC80 fue concebido como un sistema clásico tipo Cassegrain, con una razón focal F/i 1.3 para el sistema Casse grain y una razón focal F/20 para el sistema Coudé. Posteriormente, aunque se mantuvo la filosofia de que el sistema básico fuera el F/11.3, se consideró conveniente el diseño de secundarios para razones focales F/16 y F/32, y se eliminó el de F/20. Sin embargo, dada la importancia relativa que un foco estrictamente fotográfico tiene en un telescopio moderno, diseñado básicamente para fotometría fotoeléctrica y con un campo util mínimamente de 40 minutos de arco, se decídió Ilevar a cabo el diseño de un secundario F/8 con un sistema corrector de campo, pero que estuviera formado únicamente por lentes con superficies esféricas para que asl su construcción fuera posible en España ó en México. La creciente utilización de detectores bidimensionales para fines de investigación astron6mica y la viabilidad de que en un futuro cercano éstos tengan un área sensible cada vez mayor, hicieron atractiva la idea de tener diseñado un sistema corrector de campo para el foco primario (F/3), con un campo útil mínimo de un grado, y también con la limitante de que sus componentes tuvieron sólamente supérficies esféricas. Ambos diseños de los sis-temas correctores de campo se llevaron a cabo, en gran medida, como parte de un proyecto de colaboración e intercambio en el área de diseño y evaluación de sistemas ópticos.

  7. The Story of Carora: The Origins of El Sistema

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Venezuela's youth symphony program, the Fundación Musical Simón Bolívar, commonly referred to as "El Sistema," combines musical achievement with learning important life skills through orchestral practice and performance. Although the history most commonly reported outside Venezuela is of the program's director, José Antonio Abreu,…

  8. El Sistema de Referencia Celeste convencional de la IAU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arias, E. F.

    La Unión Astronómica Internacional (IAU) recomendó la adopción de un nuevo sistema de referencia celeste baricéntrico cuyo plano fundamental y origen de ascensiones rectas estén próximos, respectivamente, al ecuador y equinoccio dinámicos J2000.0. El nuevo sistema de referencia estará materializado por las posiciones J2000.0 de radiofuentes extragalácticas determinadas con la técnica de interferometría de larga línea de base (VLBI). El Working Group on Reference Frames de la IAU (WGRF) decidió adoptar (Grasse, 1995) al sistema de referencia celeste extragaláctico del Servicio Internacional de la Rotación Terrestre (IERS) como futuro sistema de referencia celeste convencional bajo el nombre International Celestial Reference System (ICRS) y encomendó su mantenimiento futuro al IERS. El marco de referencia que materializará al ICRS contiene posiciones precisas J2000.0 de más de 600 radiofuentes extragalácticas. Las coordenadas fueron ajustadas en una única solución VLBI en la cual se incluyeron todas las observaciones realizadas hasta octubre de 1995 con la técnica de adquisición de datos VLBI Mark III. Para minimizar los errores sistemáticos que pueden afectar la calidad del marco de referencia se introdujeron mejoras sustanciales en la modelización y en la selección de datos. Un subconjunto de objetos del marco de referencia se utilizó para referir las posiciones estelares determinadas con el satélite astrométrico Hipparcos al ICRS.

  9. Resurrection Symphony: "El Sistema" as Ideology in Venezuela and Los Angeles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The explosive growth of Venezuela's "El Sistema" is rewriting the agenda of musical education in the West. Many commentators from the world of classical music react to the spectacle of dedicated young colonial musicians playing European masterworks as a kind of "miracle," accepting "Sistema" founder José Antonio…

  10. Lifting the Veil: A Realist Critique of Sistema's Upwardly Mobile Path

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Owen

    2016-01-01

    El Sistema sits somewhere between a social project and a classical music initiative. However, its promise of delivering upward mobility has not been sufficiently examined as a structural phenomenon which dovetails with critical policy issues in taxation, educational provision, human rights, and welfare. This article argues that Sistema-style…

  11. Hatching Plans: Pedagogy and Discourse within an El Sistema-Inspired Music Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobson, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    In this article, I draw on my experience as an instrumental tutor with a music program inspired by and explicitly linked to El Sistema, to explore new perspectives on Sistema-based pedagogy and management. Detailed ethnographic description of an orchestral session provides a first-hand account of the program's pedagogy, which I then contextualize…

  12. Estudio del sistema simbiótico AR Pavonis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quiroga, C.; Brandi, E.; Ferrer, O.; García, L.; Barbá, R.

    Se presenta un estudio espectroscópico y polarimétrico de la binaria eclipsante AR Pavonis a partir de observaciones obtenidas con el telescopio de 2.15 m. del CASLEO (San Juan). El estudio de la naturaleza del sistema se realizó a través del análisis de algunos espectros reunidos entre los años 1990 y 1995 y de datos polarimétricos correspondientes al intervalo 1995 y 1997. El análisis espectroscópico indica que AR Pav está compuesta por una gigante roja M3.7 y una componente caliente compacta, con una temperatura mayor a 90000 K y una luminosidad del orden de 500Lsolar. A lo largo del período orbital, las variaciones observadas en flujo y en velocidades radiales, reflejan que las emisiones permitidas se forman en una región que rodea la componente caliente. El estudio de la polarización lineal de AR Pav indica que además de una componente interestelar, existe una componente intrínseca del sistema que varía temporalmente y con la longitud de onda de la luz polarizada. El distinto comportamiento del grado de polarización y del ángulo de posición observado en fases diferentes, sugiere que distintos mecanismos pueden estar actuando, dependiendo de la región de scattering observado a lo largo de la línea de la visual.

  13. Things to Remember about El Sistema: A Response to "El Sistema--A Perspective for North American Music Educators" by Tricia Tunstall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesniak, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    Melissa Lesniak, the executive director of the Greater Miami Youth Symphony, discusses how much she enjoyed reading the responses to her "El Sistema" article and appreciates the opportunity for healthy dialogue and debate. In response, she states that there are many common goals and objectives across all music education programs that can…

  14. "The Feelings Have Come Home to Me." Examining Advertising Films on the Swedish Website of El Sistema

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuuse, Anna-Karin; Lindgren, Monica; Skåreus, Eva

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze how the music educational program of El Sistema Sweden is advertised and legitimized through moving images. The films are a major part of the information on the Swedish national website of El Sistema and are supposed to contribute to the picture that the organization and its founders wish to market. The use…

  15. Another Perspective: El Sistema--A Perspective for North American Music Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunstall, Tricia

    2013-01-01

    Herein, Tricia Tunstall presents a critique of the article by Melissa Lesniak published in the December 2012 "Music Educators Journal," and offers a new perspective on the Venezuelan youth orchestra program known as "El Sistema." The program, which began in Caracas thirty-eight years ago, is dedicated to changing the lives of…

  16. Five Encounters with "El Sistema" International: A Venezuelan Marvel Becomes a Global Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Eric; Tunstall, Tricia

    2014-01-01

    Genuine worldwide movements for social change are rare in human history. Even more rare is the phenomenon of a worldwide movement for social change through art, with teaching artists at the forefront. This article presents the evolution of such a movement now, in the global blossoming of "El Sistema," a program that seeks to change the…

  17. El Sistema de Formas en Colores for Teaching Grammar in Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nailon, James

    2010-01-01

    Sistema de formas en colores (SFC) is a symbols-based system for teaching Spanish grammatical structures and concepts within a communicative context in the elementary school. The (ACTFL) Standards for Foreign Language Learning: Preparing for the 21st Century states that, "While grammar and vocabulary are essential tools for communication, it is…

  18. Social Responsibility and Community Development: Lessons from the Sistema de Aprendizaje Tutorial in Honduras

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honeyman, Catherine A.

    2010-01-01

    This article extends understanding of the connections between education, social capital, and development through a mixed-methods case study of the Sistema de Aprendizaje Tutorial, or SAT, an innovative secondary-level education system. The quantitative dimension of the research used survey measures of social responsibility to compare 93 SAT…

  19. Improving Middle School Quality in Poor Countries: Evidence from the Honduran "Sistema De Aprendizaje Tutorial"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwan, Patrick J.; Murphy-Graham, Erin; Torres Irribarra, David; Aguilar, Claudia; Rápalo, Renán

    2015-01-01

    This article evaluates the impact and cost-effectiveness of offering an innovative middle school model--the Sistema de Aprendizaje Tutorial (SAT)--to Honduran villages instead of traditional middle schools. We identified a matched sample of villages with either type of school and collected baseline data among primary school graduates eligible to…

  20. Exploración del Sistema Solar -- Una mirada hacia el futuro

    NASA Video Gallery

    ¿Piensas que ya sabemos todo acerca de nuestro sistema solar? La realidad es que apenas hemos comenzado con lo que hay para conocer. Únete a la NASA, en el envío de misiones a los confines del sist...

  1. El Sistema as a Bourgeois Social Project: Class, Gender, and Victorian Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bull, Anna

    2016-01-01

    This article asks why classical music in the UK, which is consumed and practiced by the middle and upper classes, is being used as a social action program for working-class children in British music education schemes inspired by El Sistema. Through exploring the discourse of the social benefits of classical music in the late nineteenth century, a…

  2. Sistema Planeta-Satélite. Simulación orbital y potenciales gravitatorios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medina, C.; Carrillo, M.

    Se presenta un programa (desarrollado en Quick Basic 4.5) que simula, en tres dimensiones, el movimiento orbital de un satélite (o luna) alrededor de un planeta, al tiempo que calcula y grafica, en un plano, el potencial gravitatorio del sistema en función de la distancia al planeta. Para la simulación orbital, se emplea la matriz de transformación entre el sistema del planeta y el plano orbital. Para el cálculo y graficación del potencial se aplica un desarrollo en serie hasta el segundo orden, que da cuenta del efecto de achatamiento de los polos, en caso de que éste exista. Las longitudes de los ejes del planeta, la masa de éste y del satélite, sus tamaños aparentes, y los parámetros orbitales son introducidos por el usuario.

  3. Discos de acresção em sistemas Be-X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes de Oliveira, R.; Janot-Pacheco, E.

    2003-08-01

    Alguns fenômenos de outbursts em Be-X sugerem a existência, mesmo que temporária, de um disco de acresção quando da passagem do objeto compacto pelo periastro orbital. Neste trabalho avaliamos a possibilidade de formação do disco de acresção em sistemas Be+estrela de neutrons e Be+anã branca, e a influência da excentricidade orbital na ocorrência deste fenômeno. Utilizamos a expressão analítica para o momento angular específico da matéria constituinte de um meio em expansão lenta, como é o caso do disco circunstelar das estrelas Be, proposta por Wang(1981), sob a condição básica de que o raio de circularização deva ser maior do que o raio de Alfvén. Concluímos que existe um limite para o período orbital do sistema acima do qual não é possível a formação do disco de acresção, e que este valor aumenta para sistemas com excentricidade orbital maior.

  4. [Pharmacodynamic experiment of the antivirus effect of Houttuynia cordata injection on influenza virus in mice].

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang-zhou; Shi, Han; Shi, Yu-jing; Liu, Ying; Jin, Ya-hong; Gao, Ying-jie; Guo, Shan-shan; Cui, Xiao-lan

    2010-03-01

    It is to investigate the effect of two kinds of Houttuynia Cordata Injection on preventing and treating H1N1 influenza virus infection in mice. Pneumonia model was set up by intranasal infection of the normal and immunocompromised mice with influenza virus FM1 and PR8. The two injections were administered before and after the administration of virus, separately, and the lung index was observed. The results showed that the two preparations have obvious therapeutic effect on normal mice infected with influenza virus FM1 and PR8. And to FM1, the new injection's effect is better at small dosage. The results also showed that the two preparations have obvious prophylactic effect on immunodepressed mice infected with influenza virus FM1 and PR8. And to PR8, the old injection's effect is better at small dosage. Houttuynia Cordata Injection can improve the mice pneumonia caused by influenza virus H1N1 and decrease the lung index markedly. It has a remarkable preventive and therapeutic effect on H1N1 influenza virus in mice. PMID:21351520

  5. [Preparation of hepatic targeting antivirus agent NGA-ACV and its targeting property].

    PubMed

    Fan, J Z; Li, T L; Pang, Q J; Guan, C T; He, Y; Su, K Y

    1996-01-01

    Neoglycoalbumin (NGA), a special ligend of asialoglycoprotein receptor on the hepatocyte, was linked via a butanediacyl bridge to acyclovir to form a conjugate NGA-ACV. By using DTA (Differential thermoanalysis) and HPLC analysis, ACV was shown to be connected with NGA by covalent bonds and stable in blood. The radio-biodistribution of 131I-NGA-ACV with high drug density in vivo was carried out in mice. The maximum absorption of 131I-NGA-ACV in liver was 81.7 +/- 10.4% at 5 min. The radioimage of 131I-NGA-ACV with high or low drug density in rabbit showed no significant difference in liver targeting property. The competitive connection tests indicated that 131I-NGA-ACV was concentrated in liver through receptor mediated mechanism. A tentative test of antihepatitis B of NGA-ACV and ACV in vitro showed that the effective dose of the former was significantly lower than that of the latter.

  6. Instantánea de los cánceres de cerebro y del sistema nervioso central

    Cancer.gov

    Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre los cánceres de cerebro y del sistema nervioso central; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de estos tipos de cáncer.

  7. From the model of El Sistema in Venezuela to current applications: learning and integration through collective music education.

    PubMed

    Majno, Maria

    2012-04-01

    Over the last years, El Sistema--the Venezuelan project started in 1975 and now acknowledged worldwide as the most significant example of collective music education--has inspired a profusion of remarkable initiatives on all continents. From the original impulse by founder José Antonio Abreu, strong social principles of integration are combined with specific musical approaches to achieve individual empowerment as a large-scale alternative to endemic juvenile crime, counteracting the risk factors of social unease, serving as a stimulating example toward emancipation, and providing professional opportunities to the talented. Such a network, in turn, proves to be a powerful instrument of cultural progress: the tenets of "Sistema" become shared values able to foster development, reaching into issues of disability and rehabilitation. This paper presents continuities and contrasts in various ramifications of such a successful trend and outlines perspectives for further impact of this powerful transformational agent.

  8. Estudo e aplicação do código de desembaraçamento espectral - Korel - em sistemas triplos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, K. B. V.; Vaz, L. P. R.

    2003-08-01

    O código KOREL é uma ferramenta adicional eficiente para a determinação simultânea de parâmetros orbitais espectroscópicos para o desembaraço de espectros individuais de sistemas estelares com até cinco componentes. Estudos já realizados (Torres,KBV,2002, Dissertação de Mestrado DF-ICEx-UFMG) mostram as limitações, aplicabilidade e eficiência do código para sistemas com duas componentes. Apresentamos, neste trabalho, a continuação dos estudos para sistemas com três componentes (sistemas hierárquicos), utilizando espectros sintéticos "gabaritos" de estrelas individuais em órbitas cujos parâmetros são conhecidos "a priori". Geramos os espectros compostos e verificamos como o código reproduz os parâmetros orbitais e espectros individuais em diversas situações físicas. É apresentado, ainda, uma discussão da aplicabilidade do código em sistemas reais como RV Crateris (Machado,ACM,1997, Dissertação de Mestrado DF-ICEx-UFMG), um sistema triplo cujas componentes eclipsantes estão, provavelmente, ainda na fase pré-sequência principal.

  9. SAMO (Sistema de Apoyo Mechanizado a la Operacion): An operational aids computer system

    SciTech Connect

    Stormer, T.D.; Laflor, E.V.

    1989-01-01

    SAMO (Sistema de Apoyo Mechanizado a la Operacion) is a sensor-driven, computer-based, graphic display system designed by Westinghouse to aid the A. N. Asco operations staff during all modes of plant operations, including emergencies. The SAMO system is being implemented in the A. N. Asco plant in two phases that coincide with consecutive refueling outages for each of two nuclear units at the Asco site. Phase 1 of the SAMO system implements the following functions: (1) emergency operational aids, (2) postaccident monitoring, (3) plant graphics display, (4) high-speed transient analysis recording, (5) historical data collection, storage, and retrieval, (6) sequence of events, and (7) posttrip review. During phase 2 of the SAMO project, the current plant computer will be removed and the functions now performed by the plant computer will be performed by the SAMO system. In addition, the following functions will be implemented: (1) normal and simple transients operational aid, (2) plant information graphics; and (3) real-time radiological off-site dose calculation.

  10. Calibração do sistema imageador do telescópio MASCO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mejía, J.; D'Amico, F.; Villela, T.; Braga, J.

    2003-08-01

    O MASCO (MÁScara COdificada) é um telescópio imageador de raios-X e gama atualmente configurado para operar na faixa de 50 a 600 keV com uma resolução angular de 14 minutos de arco num campo de visada total circular de 23,5° de diâmetro. O MASCO está totalmente operacional e deverá ser lançado em um balão estratosférico no segundo semestre de 2003 para realizar observações durante ~20 horas a ~40 km de altitude. O telescópio utiliza uma máscara codificada de padrão uniformemente redundante modificado (MURA) de dimensões 19 ´ 19. Esse padrão pertence a uma subclasse de MURAs que apresenta anti-simetria de 90° e conseqüentemente permite a utilização da técnica de subtração de variações sistemáticas de ruído de fundo através de utilização da configuração anti-máscara, obtida com uma simples rotação da máscara. Neste trabalho apresentamos resultados de calibrações em laboratório que tiveram como objetivo testar o sistema imageador. Imagens de fontes radioativas foram obtidas com o telescópio em configuração de vôo, com a máscara girando. Serão discutidos os resultados desses testes e as técnicas desenvolvidas para eliminar ambigüidades de posição de fontes, otimização da relação sinal-ruído e observação de fontes fora do campo totalmente codificado. O sistema de máscara/antimáscara mostrou-se capaz de aumentar a relação sinal-ruído de ~60% para fontes intensas (100 s). Com a máscara girando, a técnica de reconstrução de imagens desenvolvida identificou a posição exata da fonte e não introduziu perda de sensibilidade. Imagens de uma fonte colocada a 8,3° - fora do campo totalmente codificado do telescópio -, mostraram uma diminuição de ~40% na relação sinal/ruído em relação ao centro do campo de visada, o que se deve à codificação incompleta pela máscara e à absorção parcial do fluxo pelos detectores de blindagem.

  11. Fundacao Sistema Estadual de Analise de Dados and the DOCPOP system.

    PubMed

    Altmann, A M; Packer, A L

    1983-04-01

    The Fundacao Sistema de Analise de Dados (SEADE) is a non-profit organization related to the Government of the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. It collects, organizes and processes data and information on population, education, health, finance, the economy, and agriculture. It conducts research to evaluate the status of social and economic variables and the effects of governmental action. It publishes a number of periodicals, provides reference services to the public, and operates 2 major computerized data bases. A 3rd computerized documentation system, SEADE/DOC, was created in 1982 for material relating to population matters. Between 1978 and 1981, about 600 population research projects and studies were developed by 14 Brazilian institutions which deal with teaching, research, and consultations in the area of population problems. (A list of these institutions is appended). The main objective of SEADE/DOCPOP is to solve the lack of up-to-date information on population in Brazil in computerized services. Other objectives are to improve the flow of population information among the different regions of Brazil, to participate in international population information systems, and to acquire technology and experience in the development and operation of the DOCPOP system in order to allow SEADE to extend the system to other fields. A description of the scope and volume of the documents to be included in SEADE/DOCPOP are contained in the article as well as a description of system design and development. The system should be in operation by July 1983; brief mention is made of future projects.

  12. Modelizacion, control e implementacion de un procesador energetico paralelo para aplicacion en sistemas multisalida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreres Sabater, Agustin

    Cualquier sistema electronico que incluya un procesado o tratamiento de la senal, y ademas, algun tipo de actuador mecanico generalmente necesita, como minimo, dos tensiones diferentes de alimentacion. Excluyendo los sistemas de alimentacion distribuida, la solucion tecnica mas utilizada para proporcionar dos o mas tensiones consiste en las fuentes de alimentacion multisalida. En una fuente de alimentacion multisalida los diferentes circuitos que conforman cada salida comparten un mismo transformador de potencia optimizando coste, masa, y volumen. Las ventajas obtenidas con este procedimiento tienen en su contra el efecto que sobre cada salida individual provocan las demas en su conjunto debido, principalmente, a los efectos de los elementos parasitos de los componentes. Un cambio de carga en una de las salidas produce un transitorio que es visto por todas las demas como un efecto de impedancia cruzada, y al final del transitorio, la tension de cada salida es diferente respecto a la que tenian antes del transitorio. Este ultimo resultado se conoce como regulacion cruzada. La disminucion de los efectos de la regulacion cruzada ha sido objeto de estudio durante los ultimos anos. El objetivo ha sido el desarrollo de distintas estrategias que permiten, desde disminuir los efectos de la regulacion cruzada hasta los niveles deseables, a eliminarla completamente. El resultado final suele suponer una penalizacion sobre el diseno del sistema directamente proporcional al grado de regulacion a conseguir en las distintas salidas. Entre las soluciones propuestas para eliminar la regulacion cruzada las tecnicas de post-regulacion se han consolidado como la opcion mas aceptada ya que, pueden aplicarse a cualquier convertidor y no suponen ninguna complejidad adicional a la hora de plantear el diseno. En esta Tesis Doctoral se abordara el estudio de la tecnica conocida como postregulacion mediante transformador controlado, que si bien se ha empleado en convertidores resonantes, su

  13. [Political challenges facing the consolidation of the Sistema Único de Saúde: a historical approach].

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Paulo Henrique de Almeida

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the circumstances in which Brazil’s sanitation reform was conceived and the Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) was constructed. A brief analysis is conducted of Brazil’s political transition to democracy, focusing on three political challenges facing the consolidation of SUS: its weak support base amongst workers, competition with the private sector, and the fragmentation of its administration caused by its municipalization. Finally, the changes in the scenario caused by the weakening of neoliberalism since the 2008 crisis, the reemergence of a multipolar political scenario internationally, and the financing conditions of the Brazilian State are described.

  14. Projeto do sistema anti-ressonante da fiação dos transdutores para o detector Mario Schenberg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, S. J.., Jr.; Melo, J. L.

    2003-08-01

    O detector de ondas gravitacionais Mario Schenberg está sendo projetado e construído pelo grupo Gráviton. Sua construção está ocorrendo no Laboratório de Estado Sólido e Baixas Temperaturas (LESBT) da Universidade de São Paulo, na cidade de São Paulo. Esse detector possui uma massa ressonante esférica de cobre-alumínio, com 65 cm de diâmetro, pesando aproximadamente 1150 Kg, suspensa por um sistema de isolamento vibracional, que se encontra em fase de testes preliminares. A real eficácia desse sistema, entretanto, só poderá ser comprovada quando o detector estiver aparelhado com, pelo menos, um transdutor eletromecânico de altíssima sensibilidade acoplado à massa ressonante. Neste momento, não só este sistema de isolamento vibracional será posto em teste, como o do projeto da fiação que transporta os sinais de microondas até os transdutores e destes para a pré-amplificação. Apesar dessa fiação ter sido projetada para não apresentar nenhum contato com a superfície esférica da antena, de maneira a não haver nenhuma transmissão de ruído vibracional do laboratório para esta, deve-se minimizar o ruído microfônico produzido nessa fiação por oscilações mecânicas, uma vez que ela não utiliza nenhum sistema de isolamento vibracional. Com o intuito de resolver este problema, projetamos uma estrutura, formada por pequenos cilindros conectados por barras, a qual não terá nenhuma ressonância mecânica na faixa de freqüências de interesse para detecção (3000 - 3400 Hz). Desta forma, as vibrações nessa faixa não serão amplificadas. O projeto foi feito usando iterativamente, de maneira a otimizar os resultados obtidos, o programa de elementos finitos Msc/Nastran. Através de simulações feitas neste programa, determinamos os parâmetros geométricos ideais a serem utilizados, os quais proporcionam a maior região espectral de interesse livre de ressonâncias.

  15. Securing PCs and Data in Libraries and Schools: A Handbook with Menuing, Anti-Virus, and Other Protective Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Allen C.

    This handbook is designed to help readers identify and eliminate security risks, with sound recommendations and library-tested security software. Chapter 1 "Managing Your Facilities and Assessing Your Risks" addresses fundamental management responsibilities including planning for a secure system, organizing computer-related information, assessing…

  16. Evaluation of Spirulina platensis extract as natural antivirus against foot and mouth disease virus strains (A, O, SAT2)

    PubMed Central

    Daoud, Hind M.; Soliman, Eman M.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This work was aimed to document the antiviral activates of Spirulina platensis extract against foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) different types to evaluate its replication in Baby Hamster Kidney (BHK) cell culture and in baby mice. Materials and Methods: Cytotoxicity assay studied for S. platensis extract on BHK cells to determine the non-toxic dose. The non-toxic dose of Spirulina extract was mixed with each type of FMDV (A, O, SAT2). Then 10-fold dilutions from each mixture were done. FMDV titer for each type of treated FMDV was calculated to evaluate the antiviral activity of the Spirulina extract against FMDV. Furthermore, old baby Swiss mice were inoculated with 0.1 ml intraperitonially from the mixture of FMDV different types and different concentration of Spirulina extracts. After 48 h post inoculation, all the baby mice examined to evaluate the antiviral action of Spirulina extract. Results: The result showed that the non-toxic doses of S. platensis (50 ug/ml) revealed 35.7%, 28.5%, and 31% reductions in FMDV titers Type O, A, and SAT2 on BHK cells, respectively. The same non-toxic dose gave 50% of the inhibitory concentration in baby mice without cytotoxic effect. Conclusion: This study confirmed the biological activity of the ethanol extract of S. platensis against FMDV Types O, A, and SAT2. From the results, S. platensis could be useful as antiviral lead to limitation of infection among animals during outbreaks but further studies need to evaluate the S. platensis on experimental or natural infected farm animals to establish the effective dose side affected period of treatment of S. platensis. PMID:27047027

  17. Transferências orbitais dentro do modelo quase bicircular no sistema Terra-Lua-Sol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corrêa, A. A.; de Almeida Prado, A. F. B.; Stuchi, T. J.; Beaugé, C.

    2003-08-01

    O problema quase bicircular planar consiste na determinação da dinâmica de um corpo, de massa desprezível, que se move sob o campo gravitacional de três corpos. No caso estudado, o quarto corpo é considerado um satélite artificial e os demais são a Terra, a Lua e o Sol, formando o sistema de três corpos. Este modelo permite a construção de uma hamiltoniana similar a do problema restrito de três corpos (PRTC), incluindo termos periódicos não autônomos, provenientes da presença do Sol, portanto pode ser entendido como uma perturbação ao PRTC. Suas órbitas periódicas aparecem isoladas e possuem o mesmo período solar. Os pontos de equilíbrio colineares possuem o mesmo caráter de estabilidade linear dos pontos lagrangianos (L1, L2 e L3) do PRTC, sendo do tipo sela x centro x centro, instável na direção x e estáveis nas direções y e z. As órbitas periódicas tridimensionais ao redor do ponto colinear é chamada órbita Halo. O objetivo deste trabalho é determinar órbitas de transferências de baixo consumo de combustível para um veículo espacial partindo de uma órbita de estacionamento ao redor da Terra em direção a uma órbita Halo do ponto L1, situado entre a Terra e Lua. Esta tarefa pode ser transformada no problema de valor de contorno: dado um ponto inicial na órbita de estacionamento, um ponto final na órbita halo e o tempo de transferência, deseja-se obter a trajetória que liga estes dois pontos e que minimize os incrementos de velocidade do veículo. Essas transferências são realizadas baseadas no método de Lambert e analisadas de modo a fornecer um baixo consumo. Posteriormente, é feita uma comparação de consumo com as órbitas de transferência equivalentes do PRTC.

  18. On efeito do achatamento nos pontos de equilíbrio e na dinâmica de sistemas coorbitais

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mourão, D. C.; Winter, O. C.; Yokoyama, T.

    2003-08-01

    Neste trabalho analisamos o efeito do achatamento do corpo principal nos pontos de equilíbrio lagrangianos e na configuração de órbitas girino-ferradura. Enfatizamos os sistemas coorbitais de satélites de Saturno, pois se encontram em relativa proximidade com o planeta, em que o efeito do achatamento se torna mais evidente. O estudo é dividido em três etapas independentes. Na primeira fase analisamos as equações de movimento do problema restrito de três corpos considerando o efeito do achatamento, e através do balanceamento de forças buscamos a nova configuração dos pontos de equilíbrio lagrangianos. Concluímos, nesta etapa, que os pontos de equilíbrio estáveis apresentam um pequeno deslocamento definido pelo parâmetro de achatamento, não podendo ser mais representados por triângulos eqüiláteros. Aplicamos este resultado aos satélites coorbitais de Tetis e Dione, encontrando as posições de equilíbrio levemente deslocadas em relação ao caso sem achatamento. Na segunda fase visamos o sistema Saturno-Jano-Epimeteu, que por se tratar de um sistema de massas comparáveis, optamos por desenvolver as equações de Yoder et al (Icarus 53, pág 431-443, 1983), que permitem determinar os pontos de equilíbrio e a amplitude de oscilação angular das órbitas girino-ferradura para o problema não-restrito de três corpos, porém, no nosso estudo consideramos o efeito do achatamento do corpo principal nestas equações. Encontramos que a distância angular entre satélites, quando em posição de equilíbrio estável, diminui quanto maior for o parâmetro de achatamento do corpo principal. Além disso, a órbita de transição girino-ferradura possui largura angular menor em relação ao caso sem achatamento. Por fim, realizamos integrações numéricas para os casos reais de coorbitais de Saturno comparando com os resultados analíticos. Nestas integrações simulamos diversas órbitas girino-ferradura com diferentes parâmetros de achatamento

  19. Resonances and Tides in Natural Satellites Systems. (Breton Title: Ressonâncias e Marés em Sistemas de Satélites Naturais.) Resonancias y Mareas en Sistemas de Satélites Naturales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callegari, Nelson, Jr.

    2006-12-01

    In this work we describe some aspects of the dynamics of the mean-motion resonances. Emphasis to the case of resonances between regular satellites of the giant planets will be given, even so some aspects of the physics of the resonances in extra-solar planetary systems are also briefly treated. The role of the resonances in satellites systems is discussed through examples, showing how certain resonances, and its relations with the tidal dissipation effects, can be the key of the explanation of some phenomena still not explained in the Solar System. Amongst some examples we highlight the problem of the resurfacing of Enceladus, the existence of active volcanoes in Io, and the possible existence of the subsurface ocean in Europe. This work has as objective the divulgation of some topics in Celestial Mechanics and Planetary Sciences for an undergraduate public in exact sciences, as Astronomy and Physics, and not their detailed description. Neste trabalho descrevemos alguns aspectos da dinâmica de ressonâncias de movimentos médios. Será dada ênfase maior ao caso de ressonâncias entre satélites regulares dos planetas gigantes, embora alguns aspectos da física das ressonâncias em sistemas planetários extra-solares também sejam discutidos brevemente. A importância do estudo de ressonâncias em sistemas de satélites é discutida mais detalhadamente através de exemplos, mostrando como certas ressonâncias e suas relações com efeitos de dissipação de maré podem ser a chave de parte da explicação de alguns fenômenos ainda não explicados no Sistema Solar. Dentre vários exemplos destacamos o problema da remodelagem da superfície do satélite Enceladus, a existência de vulcões ativos em Io, e a possível existência do oceano subterrâneo em Europa. Este trabalho tem como objetivo a divulgação de alguns tópicos de Mecânica Celeste e Planetologia para um público de nível de graduação em disciplinas na área de exatas, em especial Astronomia e F

  20. La distribución de objetos en el Cinturón de Kuiper y la posible existencia de un nuevo planeta en el Sistema Solar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunini, A.

    A pesar de que la capacidad observacional no lo limita, no se han descubierto objetos en el Cinturón de Kuiper más allá de las 50 AU. Recientemente, hemos propuesto que un embrión planetario originalmente formado en la región de Urano-Neptuno, y posteriormente migrado hacia distancias mayores a 50-60 AU, puede explicar este hecho. Presentamos simulaciones numéricas de acreción del Sistema Solar exterior que muestran cómo, naturalmente, podriamos esperar que un planeta de este tipo se encuentre actualmente en regiones distantes del sistema solar. Analizamos además la posibilidad de detectarlo con instrumentos actuales.

  1. The Development of Musical Skills of Underprivileged Children Over the Course of 1 Year: A Study in the Context of an El Sistema-Inspired Program.

    PubMed

    Ilari, Beatriz S; Keller, Patrick; Damasio, Hanna; Habibi, Assal

    2016-01-01

    Developmental research in music has typically centered on the study of single musical skills (e.g., singing, listening) and has been conducted with middle class children who learn music in schools and conservatories. Information on the musical development of children from different social strata, who are enrolled in community-based music programs, remains elusive. This study examined the development of musical skills in underprivileged children who were attending an El Sistema-inspired program in Los Angeles. We investigated how children, predominantly of Latino ethnicity, developed musically with respect to the following musical skills - pitch and rhythmic discrimination, pitch matching, singing a song from memory, and rhythmic entrainment - over the course of 1 year. Results suggested that participation in an El Sistema-inspired program affects children's musical development in distinct ways; with pitch perception and production skills developing faster than rhythmic skills. Furthermore, children from the same ethnic and social background, who did not participate in the El Sistema-inspired music program, showed a decline in singing and pitch discrimination skills over the course of 1 year. Taken together, these results are consistent with the idea of musical development as a complex, spiraling and recursive process that is influenced by several factors including type of musical training. Implications for future research are outlined.

  2. The Development of Musical Skills of Underprivileged Children Over the Course of 1 Year: A Study in the Context of an El Sistema-Inspired Program.

    PubMed

    Ilari, Beatriz S; Keller, Patrick; Damasio, Hanna; Habibi, Assal

    2016-01-01

    Developmental research in music has typically centered on the study of single musical skills (e.g., singing, listening) and has been conducted with middle class children who learn music in schools and conservatories. Information on the musical development of children from different social strata, who are enrolled in community-based music programs, remains elusive. This study examined the development of musical skills in underprivileged children who were attending an El Sistema-inspired program in Los Angeles. We investigated how children, predominantly of Latino ethnicity, developed musically with respect to the following musical skills - pitch and rhythmic discrimination, pitch matching, singing a song from memory, and rhythmic entrainment - over the course of 1 year. Results suggested that participation in an El Sistema-inspired program affects children's musical development in distinct ways; with pitch perception and production skills developing faster than rhythmic skills. Furthermore, children from the same ethnic and social background, who did not participate in the El Sistema-inspired music program, showed a decline in singing and pitch discrimination skills over the course of 1 year. Taken together, these results are consistent with the idea of musical development as a complex, spiraling and recursive process that is influenced by several factors including type of musical training. Implications for future research are outlined. PMID:26869964

  3. The Development of Musical Skills of Underprivileged Children Over the Course of 1 Year: A Study in the Context of an El Sistema-Inspired Program

    PubMed Central

    Ilari, Beatriz S.; Keller, Patrick; Damasio, Hanna; Habibi, Assal

    2016-01-01

    Developmental research in music has typically centered on the study of single musical skills (e.g., singing, listening) and has been conducted with middle class children who learn music in schools and conservatories. Information on the musical development of children from different social strata, who are enrolled in community-based music programs, remains elusive. This study examined the development of musical skills in underprivileged children who were attending an El Sistema-inspired program in Los Angeles. We investigated how children, predominantly of Latino ethnicity, developed musically with respect to the following musical skills – pitch and rhythmic discrimination, pitch matching, singing a song from memory, and rhythmic entrainment – over the course of 1 year. Results suggested that participation in an El Sistema-inspired program affects children’s musical development in distinct ways; with pitch perception and production skills developing faster than rhythmic skills. Furthermore, children from the same ethnic and social background, who did not participate in the El Sistema-inspired music program, showed a decline in singing and pitch discrimination skills over the course of 1 year. Taken together, these results are consistent with the idea of musical development as a complex, spiraling and recursive process that is influenced by several factors including type of musical training. Implications for future research are outlined. PMID:26869964

  4. Experiências internacionais da aplicação de sistemas de apoio à decisão clínica em gastroenterologia

    PubMed Central

    Tenório, Josceli Maria; Hummel, Anderson Diniz; Sdepanian, Vera Lucia; Pisa, Ivan Torres; de Fátima Marin, Heimar

    2015-01-01

    Objetivo Descrever as experiências recentes com a aplicação de sistemas de apoio à decisão clínica em gastroenterologia, de forma a estabelecer o nível de desenvolvimento, testes e vantagens conferidas à prática médica com a introdução desses softwares. Métodos Foi realizada busca nas bases de dados PubMed, LILACS e ISI Web of Knowledge, utilizando termos relacionados à sistemas de apoio à decisão e à gastroenterogia, incluindo artigos originais publicados no período entre 2005 e 2010. Foram recuperadas 104 publicações, na busca inicial e, após a aplicação dos critérios de inclusão e exclusão, foram eleitos nove estudos para leitura do texto completo. Resultados Os sistemas de apoio à decisão clínica apresentam grande multiplicidade de problemas clínicos e investigação de doenças. Em 89% dos casos, são descritos modelos experimentais para o desenvolvimento de sistemas de apoio à decisão clínica. A descrição dos resultados obtidos por técnicas de inteligência artificial em 78% das publicações. Em dois dos estudos foram realizadas comparações com o médico e em apenas uma publicação um estudo controlado foi descrito, mostrando evidências de melhorias na prática médica. Conclusão Os estudos mostram potenciais benefícios dos sistemas de apoio à decisão clínica à prática médica, porém, estudos controlados em ambiente real devem ser realizados para comprovar esta perspectiva. PMID:26491625

  5. A novel dendritic-cell-targeting DNA vaccine for hepatitis B induces T cell and humoral immune responses and potentiates the antivirus activity in HBV transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Yu, Debin; Liu, Hong; Shi, Shuai; Dong, Liwei; Wang, Hongge; Wu, Nuoting; Gao, Hui; Cheng, Zhaojun; Zheng, Qun; Cai, Jiaojiao; Zou, Libo; Zou, Zhihua

    2015-12-01

    Strategies for inducing an effective immune response following vaccination have focused on targeting antigens to dendritic cells (DCs) through the DC-specific surface molecule DEC-205. The immunogenicity and efficacy of DNA vaccination can also be enhanced by fusing the encoded antigen to single-chain antibodies directed against DEC-205. Here, we investigated this promising approach for its enhancement of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-specific cellular and humoral immune responses and its antiviral effects in HBV transgenic mice. A plasmid DNA vaccine encoding mouse DEC-205 single-chain fragment variable (mDEC-205-scFv) linked with the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was constructed. Vaccination with this fusion DNA vaccine in HBV transgenic mice induced robust antiviral T cell and antibody immunity against HBsAg. The levels of serum-circulating HBsAg and the HBV DNA copy number were downregulated by the induction of a higher HBsAg-specific response. Thus, in this study, we demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy of the novel mDEC-205-scFv-fused DNA vaccine in a mouse model of immune-tolerant, chronic HBV infection.

  6. [The history of the public health reform in Brazil and of the Sistema Único de Saúde: changes, continuities, and the current agenda].

    PubMed

    Menicucci, Telma Maria Gonçalves

    2014-01-01

    The paper offers a historical retrospective of Brazil's Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS), including its background and its legacy on its current design. It begins describing some of the system's structural problems, especially the co-existence of a public system alongside a private one. It identifies problems that have hampered a firmer solidification of SUS, while it also highlights the immense import of establishing a unified, universal system in a country the size of Brazil. The discussion includes the effects of the system, which has represented a major change in the field of social rights, introducing new actors, and internalizing the notion of health as a right. Lastly, recent developments that have put SUS on the public agenda are discussed.

  7. [Considerations on the Sistema Único de Saúde in the twenty-first century: an interview with Lígia Bahia].

    PubMed

    Bahia, Lígia; Cueto, Marcos; Benchimol, Jaime; Teixeira, Luiz Antonio; Cerqueira, Roberta C

    2014-01-01

    This interview with Lígia Bahia explores evaluations of the first 25 years of Brazil's Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) and analyzes the project's progress, impasses, and missteps. Bahia is critical of both tendencies currently found within SUS: the one that sees the system as aimed at equity and the other posing equality as its goal. She criticizes the ambivalence that various spheres of government have displayed in their decisions regarding large corporate groups and private health insurance plans, which conflict with the ideas of SUS. She evaluates the participation of doctors and other healthcare professionals in the system. Lastly, she analyzes the emergence of identity politics, which are missing from the public health reform project, whose emphasis was on equality.

  8. Cobertura de los sistemas de pensiones y factores asociados al acceso a una pensión de jubilación en México

    PubMed Central

    Murillo-López, Sandra; Venegas-Martínez, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Resumen Objetivos: obtener estimaciones de indicadores de cobertura de las pensiones por jubilación o retiro para la población mexicana de 65 y más años, y evaluar el impacto que tienen los sistemas de pensiones en las transiciones al retiro de los adultos en edades medias y avanzadas en México. Para ello se utilizan datos microeconómicos provenientes de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Envejecimiento. Mediante análisis econométrico se identifican los factores sociodemográficos, económicos, laborales e institucionales que están asociados al acceso a una pensión de jubilación, o bien, a la dependencia de otras fuentes de ingresos. Se encontró que, en México, las transiciones al retiro del mercado de trabajo en las etapas avanzadas del ciclo de vida son limitadas debido a las características eminentemente contributivas de los esquemas de pensiones, los cuales favorecen a la población con trayectorias laborales formales y más estables asociadas a: características de género, oportunidades educativas y posibilidades de inserción en el mercado laboral. PMID:27524936

  9. The Forum for Defence of the Brazilian Unified Health System (Sistema Único de Saúde) and its role in building community participation in the fight against the privatization of health.

    PubMed

    de Lara, Lutiane; Guareschi, Neuza Maria de Fátima

    2016-03-01

    Based on a Foucauldian framework, this article discusses the involvement of the Forum for Defence of the Sistema Único de Saúde in the fight against health care privatization. Community participation is a locus of experience that produces subjects implicated in the production of public health care. The locus of experience in this instance derives from the rejection of private elements that historically have been part of Brazilian public policies. It is an experience that produces workers and service users as agents able to defend the public system and endowed with instituting power.

  10. A critical view of the 'social reinsertion' concept and its implications for the practice of psychologists in the area of mental health in the Brazilian Unified Health System (Sistema Único de Saúde).

    PubMed

    Frazatto, Carina F; Sawaia, Bader B

    2016-03-01

    Improving psychological practice in mental health services in the Brazilian Unified Health System (Sistema Único de Saúde) requires a critical analysis of core concepts of the psychiatric reform, such as 'social reinsertion'. This analysis, oriented by the dialectics of exclusion/inclusion, showed that this concept is impregnated with the adaptation paradigm and asylum view which prevents its effective implantation. The results suggest it is necessary to include social aspects in the discussion of mental health, articulating it with networks of social work and recuperating the revolutionary aspects of the psychiatric reform, thus demarcating the political nature of professional practices.

  11. Correlação de longo alcance em sistemas binários de raios-x usando remoção de flutuações

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, M. G.; Moret, M. A.; Zebende, G. F.; Nogueira, E., Jr.

    2003-08-01

    Neste trabalho é proposta uma metodologia de analise de series temporais de fontes astrofísicas, baseada no método proposto por Peng et al. (1994) e Liu et al. (1999), o qual consiste na idéia de que uma série temporal correlacionada pode ser mapeada por um processo de busca de auto-similaridades em diversas escalas de tempo n. Removendo as eventuais tendências e integrando o sinal observado, é obtida uma medida do desvio médio quadrático das flutuações do sinal integrado F(n)~na, onde a representa o fator de escala associado com a auto-similaridade da correlação de longo alcance do sinal. Baseado nos valores obtidos de a, é possível distinguir entre os casos de sinais não-correlacionados, tipo ruído branco (a = 0,5), sinal anti-persistentes (a < 0,5) e sinal persistente (a > 0,5). Usando esta metodologia, foram analisadas 129 curvas de luz de sistemas binários de raios-X, provenientes do banco de dados públicos de observações feitas pelo instrumento All Sky Monitor, a bordo do satélite Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (ASM-RXTE). Foram identificadas a presença de a'0,5 em mais de 90% dos sistemas estudados, implicando em dizer que as flutuações de intensidade observadas apresentam correlação de auto-similaridade, sem entretanto, indícios de apresentarem uma escala de tempo característica das flutuações de intensidade. Sistemas onde são observadas erupções (flares), apresentam sistematicamente a > 0,5, característica esta, possivelmente associada com persistência das flutuações de densidade de disco ou taxa de acréscimo de massa. Os sistemas com curvas de luz onde nao são observadas as erupções apresentam uma distribuição normal centrada em a~0,62+/-0,10. Referências ¾ Peng, C.-K., Buldyrev, S.V., Havlin, S., Simons, M., Stanley, H.E., e Goldberg, A.L., Phys. Rev. E, (49), 1685 (1994). ¾ Liu, Y., Gopikrishnan, P., Cizeau, P., Meyer, M., Peng,C.-K., e Stanley, H.E., Phys. Rev. E, (60), 1390 (1999).

  12. Aspergilosis cervical con diseminación al sistema nervioso central. Presentación de un caso y revisión de bibliografía

    PubMed Central

    Vergara, Guillermo Enrique; Roura, Natalia; del Castillo, Marcelo; Mora, Andrea; Alcorta, Santiago Condomi; Mormandi, Rubén; Cervio, Andrés; Salvat, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: la Aspergilosis Invasiva (AI) del Sistema Nervioso Central (SNC) es infrecuente y ocurre generalmente en pacientes inmunocomprometidos. Puede presentarse con cuadros de meningitis, aneurismas micóticos, infartos o abscesos. Es una infección con pronóstico reservado y puede afectar el SNC de forma primaria o secundaria a partir de un foco que se disemina por vía hematógena. Presentamos el caso de un paciente con AI con invasión primaria a nivel óseo y diseminación posterior al cerebro. Caso clínico: Paciente masculino de 25 años con diagnóstico de leucemia linfática aguda en tratamiento quimioterápico que presentó neumonitis por metotrexate por lo que inicia tratamiento con corticoides. Posteriormente agregó cervicalgia y con el diagnóstico de osteomielitis cervical se realiza punción bajo tomografía computada (TC) sin aislarse gérmenes. Se colocó Halo Vest e inició tratamiento antibiótico empírico. Posteriormente presentó afasia de expresión secundaria a lesión frontal izquierda. Se realizó evacuación de absceso cerebral aislando A. fumigatus. El tratamiento antibiótico específico posterior permitió una buena respuesta clínica y radiológica. Conclusión: La presencia de lesiones en el SNC de pacientes inmunocomprometidos debe incluir a las micosis como diagnóstico diferencial. La evacuación quirúrgica permite llegar rápidamente al diagnóstico mejorando la respuesta posterior al tratamiento antibiótico. Para evaluar la respuesta terapéutica y posibles recaídas se debe realizar un seguimiento periódico clínico radiológico. Palabras clave: Aspergilosis cerebral; Aspergilosis cervical; Aspergilosis invasiva; Voriconazol. PMID:26600985

  13. NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunini, A.

    Se presenta una revisión de los conocimientos actuales sobre el proceso de acreción del sistema solar exterior. En base a nuevas y más realistas simulaciones numéricas, se analiza el impacto que tuvo dicho proceso en otras regiones del sistema solar tales como la nube de Oort, el cinturón de Kuiper y el sistema solar interior. Se presentan entonces, las principales limitaciones de los modelos numéricos actuales, los principales puntos aún oscuros en el problema, y algunos de los posibles caminos a seguir para mejorar nuestro conocimiento en el tema. Se discute a continuación la posible utilidad de este tipo de estudios para el diseño de estrategias de búsqueda de otros sistemas planetarios.

  14. Analisis del contenido curricular de los Documentos Normativos del Programa de Ciencias en el area de biologia para la escuela superior del sistema de educacion publica de Puerto Rico: 1993-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davila Montanez, Melissa

    Esta investigacion de naturaleza cualitativa se ocupo de realizar un analisis de contenido documental de los Documentos Normativos del Programa de Ciencias en el area de biologia de la escuela superior del sistema de educacion publica de Puerto Rico del periodo 1993-2012. Los documentos analizados fueron: Guia Curricular, 1995; Marco Curricular, 2003; Estandares de Excelencia, 1996, 2000 y Estandares de Contenido y Expectativas de Grado, 2007. Se indago si hubo cambios en significados en los Componentes Estructurales: Naturaleza de la ciencia, Paradigmas para la ensenanza de la ciencia, Funcion del curriculo formal, Mision de la ensenanza de la ciencia; Contenidos, destrezas y competencias, Estrategias de ensenanza y Evaluacion/Assessment del aprendizaje. El analisis sugiere que no hubo cambios sustanciales en los significados de los Componentes Estructurales. Los documentos estudiados muestran mayormente caracteristicas similares, aunque los documentos mas recientes eran mas descriptivos, explicativos y especificos.

  15. Poorer functionality is related to better quality of life response following the use of biological drugs: 6-month outcomes in a prospective cohort from the Public Health System (Sistema Único de Saúde), Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Junior, Haliton Alves; dos Santos, Jéssica Barreto; Acurcio, Francisco Assis; Almeida, Alessandra Maciel; Kakehasi, Adriana Maria; Alvares, Juliana; de Carvalho, Luis Fernando Duarte; Cherchiglia, Mariangela Leal

    2015-06-01

    We aim to analyze factors associated with the quality of life (QOL) response of individuals with rheumatic diseases treated by the Public Health System (Sistema Único de Saúde) with biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (bDMARDs). Data from 428 patients using bDMARDs were collected using a standardized form at baseline and 6 months after the onset of treatment. The average reduction of the scores on EuroQol-five dimension was 0.11 ± 0.18 6 months after the onset of treatment with bDMARDs, denoting significant improvement of the participants' QOL. All the investigated types of disease exhibited significant improvement at the 6-month assessment, without any difference among them (p = 0.965). The participants with baseline poorest functionality and best QOL exhibited the best QOL outcomes after 6 months of treatment. Our study showed that the use of biological drugs induced considerable improvement in the participants' QOL.

  16. How to Keep Your Campus Safe from Infection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Scott

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author explains how antivirus programs work. He also explains how performances of various antivirus programs vary from one to another. He also takes a look at 13 antivirus programs and explains which of these will keep computers protected. These programs include: (1) Sophos Anti-Virus Version 3.86.2; (2) McAfee VirusScan 9.0;…

  17. A Descriptive Case Study of a School-Wide Positive Behavior Support (PBS) System in Schools with Principal-Led Planning Teams and Coach-Led Planning Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWilliams, Ellen K.

    2011-01-01

    Managing disruptive behaviors in schools is a high-ranking concern in communities across the country (Rose & Gallup, 2006). Unfortunately, the practice of instituting tougher and more severe consequences for increased discipline problems has not resulted in a decrease of disruptive behavior (Lewis & Garrison-Harrell, 1999; Safran & Oswald, 2003;…

  18. Evolution insolite d'une plaie complexe de la voie biliaire principale post cholécystectomie cœlioscopique

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Hedfi; Hala, Bouhafa; Youssef, Elcadhi; Abdelhedi, Cherif; Karim, Sassi; Azza, Sridi; Adnen, Chouchene

    2016-01-01

    Depuis l'avènement de la chirurgie coelioscopique de la lithiase biliaire le nombre de plaies des voies biliaires a sensiblement augmenté dans la littérature en rapport avec la courbe d'apprentissage des opérateurs. Les plaies méconnues peuvent avoir des conséquences immédiates dramatiques et évoluer vers la péritonite biliaire. Ailleurs la réparation des fistules biliaires externes au stade de dilatation des voies biliaires nécessite une anastomose bilio digestive ou des résections hépatiques réglées. PMID:27279975

  19. Architecture for removable media USB-ARM

    SciTech Connect

    Shue, Craig A.; Lamb, Logan M.; Paul, Nathanael R.

    2015-07-14

    A storage device is coupled to a computing system comprising an operating system and application software. Access to the storage device is blocked by a kernel filter driver, except exclusive access is granted to a first anti-virus engine. The first anti-virus engine is directed to scan the storage device for malicious software and report results. Exclusive access may be granted to one or more other anti-virus engines and they may be directed to scan the storage device and report results. Approval of all or a portion of the information on the storage device is based on the results from the first anti-virus engine and the other anti-virus engines. The storage device is presented to the operating system and access is granted to the approved information. The operating system may be a Microsoft Windows operating system. The kernel filter driver and usage of anti-virus engines may be configurable by a user.

  20. Discos de polvo en sistemas exoplanetarios múltiples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobson, M.; Gómez, M.

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the spectral energy distributions of 486 stars hosting multiple exoplanetary systems, seeking infrared excesses that could indicate the presence of debris disks. These disks would be leftovers of the planetary formation process, and could be considered as analogues of the Solar System's asteroid or Kuiper belts. We estimate disk temperatures and radii for 79 systems with excesses in two or more filters. We find that 77 of the disks possess warm dust with a temperature in the range K, while 22 have cold dust with . Only one system has hot dust with K. 80 of the disks are within 10 au of the stars, and 35 at distances comparable to that of the asteroid belt; however, 96 are external to the planets.

  1. Un sistema protoestelar a bajas frecuencias en radio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peri, C. S.; Benaglia, P.; Martí, J.; Sánchez-Sutil, J. R.; Ishwara-Chandra, C. H.

    2016-08-01

    Stars form in the coolest and densest places of the Galaxy. Protostellar systems are very complex, have several components, produce a rich phenomenology and experiment very interesting physical processes to be studied. There exist a lot of similarities and differences between protostellar systems related to all the mass ranges. A common characteristic related to high--mass protostars is the detection of non--thermal synchrotron radio emission coming from the jets. One system that presents this kind of evidence is 165474247, called that way because of the infrared source on its center. This source has been observed and studied in several radio frequencies and modeled as possible generator of high-energy photons. We present radio maps of the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope, of 1 deg, at 610 MHz, never reported before, with a noise level of mJy. We detected the entire system of 165474247, center and lobes, and other sources in the region. We name some of them and their counterparts.

  2. Diversidad de Sistemas Planetarios en Discos de Baja Masa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ronco, M. P.; de Elía, G. C.

    The accretion process that allows the formation of terrestrial planets is strongly dependent on the mass distribution in the system and the presence of gas giant planets. Several studies suggest that planetary systems formed only by terrestrial planets are the most common in the Universe. In this work we study the diversity of planetary systems that could form around solar-type stars in low mass disks in absence of gas giants planets and search wich ones are targets of particular interest. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  3. El enfoque de sistemas en programas de seguridad cuarentenaria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a globalized world, the application of phytosanitary measures for quarantine by the producing countries is becoming more important as it facilitates access to key export markets for fruits and vegetables. Some of the problems currently encountered with quarantine treatments include, among others...

  4. La Función de Luminosidad de las poblaciones de cúmulos globulares alrededor de NGC 1399

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrov, P. G.; Forte, J. C.; Geisler, D.

    Mediante el empleo de una técnica especial para filtrar el pattern de fringing, se ha obtenido una función de luminosidad de los cúmulos globulares de NGC 1399 superando por ~ 1 mag el turn-over en la banda T1 del sistema de Washington. El análisis de los resultados de la fotometría multibanda (C, M, T1) permite determinar que las mitades mas brillantes de las funciones de luminosidad de las dos principales poblaciones de cúmulos globulares asociadas con esta galaxia son similares.

  5. [Santiago Ramón y Cajal and Ivan Petrovich Pavlov: does complementarity exist between their theories?].

    PubMed

    Rozo, Jairo A; Rodríguez-Moreno, Antonio

    2015-08-01

    Introduccion. Pocos autores han comparado la vida y obra de Cajal y Pavlov, y, cuando lo hacen, se refieren generalmente a su coincidencia en el XIV Congreso Internacional de Medicina que tuvo lugar en Madrid en 1903. Objetivo. Presentar los modelos teoricos de ambos autores para estudiar la posible complementariedad entre sus teorias. Desarrollo. Se presentan las principales caracteristicas de la teoria neuronal de Cajal, la teoria reticular que le antecedio, los principales resultados de las investigaciones de Cajal y las aportaciones que brindo al concepto de plasticidad. En cuanto a la teoria de los reflejos condicionales de Pavlov, se describen sus principales postulados, las leyes pavlovianas y la tipologia del sistema nervioso segun Pavlov. Conclusiones. Los niveles de organizacion en los que trabajan Cajal y Pavlov se pueden entender como complementarios si tenemos en cuenta la propuesta de Henry Wallon o las de marcos epistemologicos como la epistemologia estrategica, donde el avance de la ciencia se logra desde estrategias diferentes, pero complementarias, que ayudan a construir modelos teoricos mas fuertes.

  6. Drive-by-Downloads

    SciTech Connect

    Narvaez, Julia; Endicott-Popovsky, Barbara E.; Seifert, Christian; Aval, Chiraag U.; Frincke, Deborah A.

    2010-02-01

    Abstract: Drive-by-downloads are malware that push, and then execute, malicious code on a client system without the user's consent. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a discussion of the usefulness of antivirus software for detecting the installation of such malware, providing groundwork for future studies. Client honeypots collected drive-by malware which was then evaluated using common antivirus products. Initial analysis showed that most of such antivirus products identified less than 70% of these highly polymorphic malware programs. Also, it was observed that the antivirus products tested, even when successfully detecting this malware, often failed to classify it, leading to the conclusion that further work could involve not only developing new behavioral detection technologies, but also empirical studies that improve general understanding of these threats. Toward that end, one example of malicious code was analyzed behaviorally to provide insight into next steps for the future direction of this research.

  7. Resonancias en la región trans-neptuniana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallardo, T.; Ferraz-Mello, S.

    La expansión de la órbita del planeta Neptuno en la etapa de acreción del Sistema Solar exterior (Fernández e Ip 1984, 1996) parece ser un mecanismo eficiente para la captura de planetesimales en las resonancias exteriores con Neptuno (Malhotra 1995). Por otro lado, los estudios dinámicos realizados por varios autores indican que las resonancias son regiones de evolución estable, en contraste con el comportamiento caótico del resto de la región trans-neptuniana. Por estas razones, y si bien los datos observacionales son todavía muy limitados, se supone que los objetos descubiertos se encuentran en alguna de esas resonancias. En esta comunicación presentamos un estudio analítico y numérico de las principales resonancias exteriores con Neptuno.

  8. Evolución de planetas gigantes y posibilidades de su detección directa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunini, A.; Benvenuto, O. G.

    Desde la reciente detección de planetas gigantes orbitando estrellas cercanas de tipo solar por medio de efecto Doppler, uno de los principales problemas, en cuanto al estudio de los sistemas planetarios extrasolares, se refiere a la posibilidad de obtener evidencia directa de su existencia. Esto parece ser factible gracias a que en un futuro cercano entrarán en operación algunos telescopios especialmente adecuados a estos propósitos. Por tal motivo, hemos comenzado desde hace un tiempo un esfuerzo en cuanto al estudio de la evolución planetaria. A tales efectos hemos adaptado el código de evolución estelar de nuestro Observatorio al caso planetario. Las principales diferencias entre el caso estelar y el planetario se encuentran en la ecuación de estado. A tales fines hemos incluído la reciente ecuación de estado de Saumon, Chabrier y Van Horn, las opacidades radiativas de Guillot et al., procesos de quema de Deuterio, etc. También se ha considerado la posible existencia de fases de hielo y roca en el interior planetario. Por el momento hemos despreciado los efectos de la rotación planetaria. Con este código hemos computado la evolución de planetas con masas desde 10 hasta 0.3 masas de Júpiter. Utilizando nuestros resultados numéricos discutimos la detectabilidad de estos objetos en condiciones realistas.

  9. Inestabilidad radiativa en un disco de acreción en sistemas binarios interactuantes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Vito, M. A.; Benvenuto, O. G.; Horvath, J. E.

    2016-08-01

    Close binary systems are formed by a varied family of objects, in particular, the named redback systems, i.e. the donor star transfers material to the neutron star, putting it in an accretion disc surrounding this star. Later, this material falls on the neutron star. In the last years it was observed that some members of the redback family experienced transition from the state of low mass X-ray binary system to the pulsar state, and in the opposite way. The time scales associated with these transitions suggest that they are related to instabilities in the accretion disc. That fact motivates us to model the accretion disc around the neutron star in this kind of systems. We present our first results, associated with instabilities in the disc by irradiation of the neutron star.

  10. Efectos dinámicos de las resonancias orbitales en el Sistema Solar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallardo, T.

    2016-08-01

    We describe the different orbital resonances in the Solar System that primarily affect minor bodies and some satellites. We present an idea of how to study the two body and three body mean motion resonances, secular resonances and Kozai-Lidov mechanism and the conclusions that can be drawn from these studies. Weak resonances generate subtle periodic orbital variations and produce temporary concentrations of objects while strong resonances can generate large variations in eccentricity and inclination risking the orbital stability.

  11. Crecimiento adiabático de un agujero negro en el centro de un sistema estelar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrigoni, M.; Carpintero, D. D.

    We present preliminary results on the dynamical influence of an adiabatically grown central black hole upon its surroundings. Young (1980), in his pioneer work, found an r-3/2 density profile for the neighborhood of a black hole, a result not confirmed by observation. In this work, we extend Young's result to a more realistic case, namely an inhomogeneous galactic center, although keeping the spherical symmetry hypothesis, in order to verify whether the final density profile changes.

  12. Coexistencia e integracion de comunicaciones inalambricas en sistemas de transmision opticos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez Soler, Joaquin

    Current network and telecommunication systems are required to provide higher data rates in access networks to an increasing number of users. This fact is mainly due to the increase in the Internet traffic data, which is related with the higher demand of online videogames and software, the increased complexity in the content of web pages, the joint distribution of audio-visual and added-value online content, and the introduction of high-definition services and contents such as video on demand, as a result of a society increasingly more interconnected. In order to satisfy these higher data rates requirements, new techniques for the joint distribution of several wireless communication systems are proposed in this Thesis. The aim of these techniques is to facilitate the deployment of an integrated access network at the customer premises, enabling the integration of optical transmission over an optical access network and radio-frequency transmission in the same infrastructure. Two main wireless communication systems are considered in this Thesis, WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access) and UWB (Ultra-Wide Band) according to WiMedia Alliance recommendation. Comparing the bit rate and expected range, WiMAX and UWB are complementary radio technologies expected to coexist in a near future in integrated access networks. The optical access network considered in this Thesis can be regarded as a FTTH network (Fibre-to-the-Home). The wireless signals are natively transmitted over optical network, that is, without frequency upconversion and remodulation stages, over one or several optical carriers. This technology, which is known as Radio-over-Fibre (RoF), is well suited for integrated access networks. First, the requirements for the wireless convergence of services based on Multi-Band Orthogonal-Frequency Division-Multiplexing UWB (MB-OFDM UWB) and WiMAX 802.16e in Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPAN) are stated. The aim of this study is to provide relevant protection margins in order to ensure the coexistence between both technologies. The obtained protection margins are of great interest for the development of advanced interference mitigation techniques such as DAA (Detect-and-Avoid), in the framework of future cognitive radio technologies. In a second step, the wireless coexistence of MB-OFDM UWB and WiMAX technologies is analyzed from the point of view of access networks based on RoF systems. Two experimental field trials are here carried out. In the first one, the wireless convergence is evaluated in a multi-mode fibre RoF system, whereas in the second one, the RoF system is based on a standard single-mode fibre. These experimental results provide relevant fibre link transmission distances to enable the deployment of RoF networks. Moreover, a new optical transmission technique based on polarization division multiplexing is proposed and experimentally evaluated in order to ensure the wireless coexistence in RoF systems. Finally, the impact of the electro-optical Mach-Zehnder modulator is analyzed, since the dynamic range of this device limits the performance of the RoF system. Moreover, a new optical linearization technique for Mach-Zehnder modulators is proposed and evaluated in order to overcome this limitation.

  13. Investigacion Participativa y Gestion de Sistemas Educativos. (Participatory Research and the Management of Educational Systems).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valle, Victor M.

    Elements which, when put in harmony, might generate powerful tools for social change and educational development are (1) the ever present need of the educational systems to evaluate their performance; (2) the universal acceptance of the life-long education concept as a major guideline to design educational programs; (3) the trend toward a…

  14. Una guia a los padres acerca del sistema educacional = A Parent's Guide to Education. Spanish Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowch, Nancy

    A guide for Spanish-speaking parents of elementary and secondary school students in Nebraska provides in Spanish, and then in English, information concerning education in the state. Topics covered include: state policy concerning enrolling children in school, medical requirements for enrollment and attendance, the school curriculum requirements…

  15. Curso Introductorio sobre el Sistema DIALOG (Introductory Course on the DIALOG System).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Ketty

    As an introduction to the use of the DIALOG online retrieval service, this guide presents material that was developed during a fellowship at Carlos III University, School of Library Science and Documentation, Madrid (Spain) and that is based on a course on the same subject taught in English at Texas Women's University. Although the use of DIALOG…

  16. Sintesis y caracterizacion de portadores magneticos coloidales. Aplicaciones al diseno de sistemas de liberacion de farmacos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez Lopera, Salvador Angel

    2003-10-01

    The present work is mainly dedicated to the synthesis and characterization of composite colloidal particles with a magnetic core (magnetite) and a polymeric biodegradable material shell (poly(DL-lactide), PLA). The aim is to use them as drug carrier systems in the field of controlled (or modified) release. The appropriate synthesis conditions are analyzed for such purpose, starting with the synthesis of the magnetic nuclei, and continuing with that of microspheres of the polymer used later as shell material. The final step is the manufacture of the composite colloids. In order to have a good comparison, all the experiments of the work have been run in triplicate, that is, for the three individual materials (magnetic nuclei, PLA and composite particles magnetite/PLA) and all the discussions are presented by way of parallel study of the three colloidal systems. The following surface and bulk properties have been studied: shape and size of the particles, specific surface area, chemical composition. The magnetic behavior of the nuclei is characterized, as well as that of the composite particles, through measurement of the magnetic susceptibility and the hysteresis cycles. In addition, a study of the electrokinetic behavior of the systems as a function of pH---at constant ionic strength---has been complemented by an investigation of their surface thermodynamics to check the extent of coverage achieved. Very significant results were also obtained in the analysis of the stability of the suspensions. Since our final aim was the design of a drug carrier and controlled release system, we also present a series of preliminary results concerning the effect of the glucocorticoid betamethasone 21-phosphate sodium salt on the surface electrical properties of the three kinds of particles, observing clear differences between the behavior of magnetite particles and of composite or pure polymeric colloids. It is demonstrated that the polymer layer affects considerably the capacity of the colloid for adsorbing this drug and, probably, other drugs of interest in the treatment of those pathologies in which one needs an elevated local concentration of any therapeutic product but without adverse side effects, like those used in the chemotherapy of the solid tumors.

  17. Estudio de la Velocidad de Rotacion EN LOS Sistemas Estelares a Simetria Axial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanz, J.; Catala, M. A.

    1986-12-01

    This paper contains the calculation of the tangential component of the velocity for a model of galaxy with axial symmetry, non.stationary state and equatorial symmetry plane, from the postulates and fundamental equations of Chandrasekhar theory, that shows a shift of the maximum for different values of the Z coordinate and the 0 direction. Key words: STELLAR DYNAMICS - STELLAR SYSTEMS

  18. Distribución de planos orbitales de sistemas binarios en la Galaxia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weidmann, W. A.; Díaz, R. J.

    In this work we study the orientations of the orbital planes of visual binary stellar systems. This analysis was carried out on a certain region of the sky, where we found a peculiar distribution of the position angles of elongated planetary nebulae. The distribution of the orientations of binary systems towards the galactic center shows some non-random characteristics, although the number of objects studied is not enough to conclude about the relationship between orientations of the planetary nebulae and the population of visual binary stellar systems studied.

  19. órbitas espectroscópicas de dos sistemas binarios tempranos usando correlaciones cruzadas bidimensionales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, J. F.; Lapasset, E.

    We apply the two-dimensional cross-correlation technique TODCOR to derive spectroscopic orbits for the two B-type double-lined spectroscopic binaries HD 66066A and HD 315031, previously mentioned as blue straggler candidates of the open clusters NGC 2516 and NGC 6530, respectively. Reliable radial velocities for both components are measured even for orbital phases for which the separation between the spectral lines are about 0.5 times the quadratic sum of the full-width at half-maximum of the lines. Both binaries have circular orbits and the orbital periods are 1.67 and 1.38 days for HD 66066A and HD 315031, respectively. We calculate minimum masses with errors of 3-5% and obtain the projected radii from the line widths. We derive absolute stellar parameters which are consistent with the age and distance of the clusters. Both binary systems are formed by main-sequence stars and it is expected that they will experience mass-transfer between their components before the end of the core H-burning stage. HD 315031 is likely a triple system as suggested by the variation of the center-of-mass velocity.

  20. The Solar System/El Sistema Solar--A Fully Integrated Instructional Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Heukelem, Tom; Mercado, Maria de Jesus

    This lesson plan for the second grade uses information on the solar system to provide science education for limited-English-proficient (LEP) students in San Diego, California. The lesson has been developed to be taught in a bilingual class, a Spanish-language immersion class, or a two-way bilingual class. Lessons are arranged so that native…

  1. Sistemas binarios viuda negra: conectando sus orígenes con su estado final

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benvenuto, O. G.; De Vito, M. A.; Horvath, J. E.

    ``Black widow'' systems are located in a well determined region of the plane (where is the mass of the pulsar companion and is the orbital period of the system). An attempt has been made to understand which are the mechanisms that lead to companions of ``black widows'' to be located in this region; since standard binary evolution does not provide a satisfactory response. From our evolutionary calculations; we study the path performed in the plane by a binary system to reach the state of ``black widow''. We also discuss whether there is a connection between ``redbacks'' and ``black widows''. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  2. Sistemas Eolicos Pequenos para Generacion de Electricidad; Una guia para consumidores en los EE.UU.

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2007-09-01

    This Spanish version of the popular Small Wind Electric Systems: A U.S. Consumer's Guide provides consumers with information to help them determine whether a small wind electric system can provide all or a portion of the energy they need for their home or business based on their wind resource, energy needs, and economics. Topics include how to make a home more energy efficient, how to choose the correct turbine size, the parts of a wind electric system, how to determine whether enough wind resource exists, how to choose the best site for a turbine, how to connect a system to the utility grid, and whether it's possible to become independent of the utility grid using wind energy. In addition, the cover of the guide contains a list of contacts for more information.

  3. Sistemas Eolicos Pequenos para Generacion de Electricidad: Una guia para consumidores en Nuevo Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2007-09-01

    This Spanish version of the popular Small Wind Electric Systems: A New Mexico Consumer's Guide provides consumers with information to help them determine whether a small wind electric system can provide all or a portion of the energy they need for their home or business based on their wind resource, energy needs, and economics. Topics include how to make a home more energy efficient, how to choose the correct turbine size, the parts of a wind electric system, how to determine whether enough wind resource exists, how to choose the best site for a turbine, how to connect a system to the utility grid, and whether it's possible to become independent of the utility grid using wind energy. In addition, the cover of the guide contains a list of contacts for more information.

  4. [Distribution and taxonomy of Pyrgophorus platyrachis (Caenogastropoda: Hydrobiidae) in the Sistema de Maracaibo, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Nava, Mario; Severeyn, Héctor; Machado, Nakary

    2011-09-01

    The presence of a microgastropod identified as Potamopyrgus sp. was detected previously in the Maracaibo System; nevertheless, a detailed morphological analysis identified this snail in other genera. The objective of this work is to update the distribution and taxonomy of Pyrgophorus platyrachis in the Maracaibo System, Venezuela in samples obtained between 2001 and 2009. The presence of hundreds of individuals of P. platyrachis were observed in the estuary, indeed in the localities of the Gran Eneal lagoon (4 111 snails), Peonías lagoon (229 snails), Punta Capitán Chico (758 snails), San Francisco (2 517 snails), Curarire (240 snails), Apon River mouth (173 snails), Ojeda City (240 snails), Bachaquero (128 snails) and Tomoporo de Agua (385 snails). We performed a taxonomical analysis, and emphasized in ecological aspects, such as the distribution of the species and habitat features, as near vegetation and type of associated sediment. We found three morphotypes of the species, one smooth, another with spiral striations and the other with spines. Smooth morphotype was exclusive of the Gran Eneal lagoon, Peonías lagoon, Punta Capitan Chico and Apon River mouth localities, whereas the other two morphotypes were found together in the remaining localities. According to our detailed anatomical and taxonomical analysis we propose a synonymy between P. platyrachis and the other species described like Pyrgophorus parvulus and Pyrgophorus spinosus.

  5. Il sistema multiplo di Spica osservato dal Padre Giovanni Battista Audiffredi nel 1753

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigismondi, Costantino

    2005-06-01

    The multiplicity of Spica's system has been first observed in 1753 by the dominican father Giovanni Battista Audiffredi through a lunar occultation. Audiffredi noted that the emersion's duration from the bright lunar limb was not instantaneous. Nowadays Spica has five known components, four of them have been discovered by occultation. This observation is presented along with a general introduction of lunar occultations, Watts' profiles, Cassini regions and grazes.

  6. Contribución de la Estación San Juan SLR al Sistema Galileo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podestá, R.; Actis, E.; Alonso, E.; Pacheco, A.; González, A.; Han, Yanben; Wang, Tanqiang; Zhao, Limin; Liu, Chengzhi; Alacoria, J.; Peñaloza, L.; Brizuela, D.; Flores, M.

    The new San Juan Satellite Laser Ranging Station integrates, with number 7406, the International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS) network, being one of the few stations located in the southern hemisphere. It works shooting powerful laser pulses towards satellites at different heights, measuring the time of flight and calculating distances. With this technology we can perform high precision astronomical, geophysical and geodesic studies. Within the full constellation of satellites observed with ILRS, we track the two European pioneer satellites (Giove-A and B) of the future Global Positioning System Galileo, the European competitive response to the currently well established American GPS, of worldwide use. The GPS Galileo will be aimed mostly to civil usage, especially to aerial and terrestrial navigation. The Giove-A satellite was launched out to space on December 28, 2005 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome, on board of the Russian Soyuz rocket. Since mid 2006, 14 Laser Stations -San Juan station included- took part in a follow-up campaign of the Giove-A. Once the satellite orbital behavior was known, a second Giove-B orbiter was launched in April 2008. A constellation of 30 satellites will complete the Galileo system. Since Giove-A orbits the Earth at a height of 23916 kms, only shots from the best SLR world stations can reach it. San Juan station has tracked it, contributing to the study of its motion. As a new station, the San Juan Satellite Laser Ranging Telescope has become one of the best in the world, consequence of a decade of successful Chinese-Argentinean collaboration. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  7. Un gran proyecto en crisis: el estudio coordinado de la norma linguistica culta de las principales ciudades de Iberoamerica y de la peninsula Iberica (A Great Project in Crisis: the Coordinated Study of the Educated Linguistic Norm of the Principal Cities of Latin America and of the Iberian Peninsula)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Criado de Val, Manuel

    1975-01-01

    The controversy holding back the project is what approach should be used in data collecting, controlled interviews or spontaneous recordings. The author favors the latter. To be scientific, the analysis of the data should be psycholinguistic rather than stylistic. (Text is in Spanish.) (TL)

  8. [Neurological disorders and the blood-brain barrier. Strategies and limitations for drug delivery to the brain].

    PubMed

    Domínguez, Alazne; Álvarez, Antonia; Suárez-Merino, Blanca; Goñi-de-Cerio, Felipe

    2014-03-01

    Introduccion. La incidencia de enfermedades del sistema nervioso central (SNC) aumenta a causa del envejecimiento de la sociedad. Desgraciadamente, los tratamientos clasicos para tratarlas no resultan efectivos debido a la presencia de la barrera hematoencefalica. Objetivo. Abordar las propiedades de la barrera hematoencefalica que impiden el transporte de los farmacos al cerebro y las principales estrategias para tratar las afecciones neurologicas. Desarrollo. La barrera hematoencefalica esta compuesta principalmente por un endotelio vascular especializado y las celulas de la glia. Esta constituye una herramienta a disposicion del organismo para aislar al SNC del resto del cuerpo. Sin embargo, tambien supone un impedimento para que muchos farmacos alcancen su diana en el cerebro. Conclusiones. Para poder tratar las afecciones neurologicas, los farmacos deben ser capaces de alcanzar el cerebro. Los agentes terapeuticos pueden diseñarse para que sean capaces de atravesar esta barrera, o bien facilitar su entrada mediante el uso de sistemas de liberacion. Para evaluar la efectividad de los tratamientos dirigidos a enfermedades del SNC, se emplean los modelos animales de enfermedades neurologicas asi como modelos in vitro de barrera hematoencefalica.

  9. Universal Serial Bus Architecture for Removable Media (USB-ARM)

    2011-03-09

    USB-ARM creates operating system drivers which sit between removable media and the user and applications. The drivers isolate the media and submit the contents of the media to a virtual machine containing an entire scanning system. This scanning system may include traditional anti-virus, but also allows more detailed analysis of files, including dynamic run-time analysis, helping to prevent “zero-day” threats not already identified in anti-virus signatures. Once cleared, the media is presented to the operatingmore » system, at which point it becomes available to users and applications.« less

  10. Universal Serial Bus Architecture for Removable Media (USB-ARM)

    SciTech Connect

    2011-03-09

    USB-ARM creates operating system drivers which sit between removable media and the user and applications. The drivers isolate the media and submit the contents of the media to a virtual machine containing an entire scanning system. This scanning system may include traditional anti-virus, but also allows more detailed analysis of files, including dynamic run-time analysis, helping to prevent “zero-day” threats not already identified in anti-virus signatures. Once cleared, the media is presented to the operating system, at which point it becomes available to users and applications.

  11. Dietary patterns of young adolescents in urban areas of northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Morais, Célia Márcia Medeiros; Pinheiro, Liana Galvão Bacurau; Lima, Severina Carla Vieira Cunha; Lyra, Clelia Oliveira; de Sena Evangelista, Karine Cavalcanti Mauricio; Lima, Kenio Costa; Pedrosa, Lucia Fatima Campos

    2013-11-01

    Introducción: Estudios nacionales de evolución temporal encuentran que la tendencia del consumo alimentario se asocia con aumento de la prevalencia de las enfermedades crónicas. Objetivos: Caracterizar los hábitos alimentarios de los adolescentes en un área urbana del Noreste de Brasil, relacionándolos con los marcadores dietéticos saludables. Métodos: Estudio transversal con adolescentes (n=430) de las escuelas públicas de Natal-RN, Brasil. El consumo alimentario se evaluó mediante dos recordatorios 24h. La técnica de Análisis de Componentes Principales fue utilizada para derivar patrones dietéticos, de acuerdo con: alimentos en gramos (g), la energía en Kcal y la fibra en gramos, lo que resulta, respectivamente, en 3 componentes principales distintos: 7, 8 y 4 (varianza acumulada >70%; cargas factoriales >0,4). La asociación entre las variables independientes y los escores de los factores de todos los componentes obtenidos, se determinó por la razón de prevalencia (IC 95%). Resultados: Los patrones dietéticos fueron: el (1) Sistema Alimentario Tradicional puro representó el primero componente de los modelos; el (2) Sistema Alimentario Combinado y de riesgo reveló marcadores de alimentación no saludables, debido a la alta frecuencia de azucares refinados, grasas saturadas y sal; y el (3) Sistema Alimentario Modificado fue identificado en el modelo de las fibras, el patrón 1 de nuevo fue observado en este patrón. Las asociaciones observadas, en particular del patrón SATm, distinguen por sexo, edad y estado nutricional. Conclusiones: Los patrones dietéticos 1 y 3 se caracterizaron por la preservación de las prácticas regionales de alimentos, muy saludables, desde el punto de vista de la prevención de las enfermedades crónicas, mientras que el 2 representó alerta y riesgo para la salud. Los hallazgos pueden subvencionar Políticas de Atención a la Salud para infancia y adolescencia en carácter intersectorial.

  12. [Generation and functions of dreams].

    PubMed

    Medrano-Martínez, Pablo; Ramos-Platón, M José

    2014-10-16

    Introduccion. En la ultima decada han aumentado considerablemente las publicaciones sobre los ensueños, lo que refleja el interes de varios campos de la neurociencia por el tema. En este trabajo se revisan las principales teorias cientificas que han contribuido al conocimiento de como se producen y cual es su funcion. Desarrollo. Se expone la evolucion de su estudio cientifico, siguiendo el enfoque neurofisiologico y el neurocognitivo. El primero busca determinar los mecanismos neurobiologicos que los generan y las estructuras cerebrales implicadas; el segundo considera los ensueños un tipo de cognicion en interaccion con el de vigilia. Se examinan diversas hipotesis sobre la funcion de los ensueños, en particular las que les atribuyen un papel en la consolidacion de la memoria y la regulacion del estado emocional. Conclusiones. Aunque no se ha determinado con exactitud como se generan los ensueños, los datos neurobiologicos resaltan la importancia de los nucleos pontinos del tronco cerebral, diversos sistemas de memoria, el sistema limbico y el sistema de recompensa cerebral y diversas areas neocorticales. Los datos neurocognitivos subrayan la relacion entre el procesamiento cognitivo y emocional que ocurre durante la vigilia y durante el sueño, asi como la influencia del entorno en el contenido de los ensueños. Respecto a su funcion, cabe destacar su valor adaptativo, al contribuir al reprocesamiento de la informacion adquirida en vigilia y al control de las emociones. Esto sugiere que los ensueños participan en el desarrollo de las capacidades cognitivas.

  13. Science and Technology Resources on the Internet: Computer Security.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinkus, Jane F.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses issues related to computer security, including confidentiality, integrity, and authentication or availability; and presents a selected list of Web sites that cover the basic issues of computer security under subject headings that include ethics, privacy, kids, antivirus, policies, cryptography, operating system security, and biometrics.…

  14. Virus Alert: Ten Steps to Safe Computing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunter, Glenda A.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses computer viruses and explains how to detect them; discusses virus protection and the need to update antivirus software; and offers 10 safe computing tips, including scanning floppy disks and commercial software, how to safely download files from the Internet, avoiding pirated software copies, and backing up files. (LRW)

  15. 48 CFR 352.239-70 - Standard for security configurations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... operating system patch level and anti-virus software level. Note: FDCC is applicable to all computing... Contractor shall test applicable product versions with all relevant and current updates and patches installed... privileges. (e) The Contractor shall ensure hardware and software installation, operation,...

  16. 48 CFR 352.239-70 - Standard for security configurations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... operating system patch level and anti-virus software level. Note: FDCC is applicable to all computing... Contractor shall test applicable product versions with all relevant and current updates and patches installed... privileges. (e) The Contractor shall ensure hardware and software installation, operation,...

  17. 48 CFR 352.239-70 - Standard for security configurations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... operating system patch level and anti-virus software level. Note: FDCC is applicable to all computing... Contractor shall test applicable product versions with all relevant and current updates and patches installed... privileges. (e) The Contractor shall ensure hardware and software installation, operation,...

  18. 48 CFR 352.239-70 - Standard for security configurations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... operating system patch level and anti-virus software level. Note: FDCC is applicable to all computing... Contractor shall test applicable product versions with all relevant and current updates and patches installed... privileges. (e) The Contractor shall ensure hardware and software installation, operation,...

  19. 48 CFR 352.239-70 - Standard for security configurations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... operating system patch level and anti-virus software level. Note: FDCC is applicable to all computing... Contractor shall test applicable product versions with all relevant and current updates and patches installed... privileges. (e) The Contractor shall ensure hardware and software installation, operation,...

  20. Peace (of Mind) in Our Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panettieri, Joseph C.

    2007-01-01

    There's no silver bullet to information security; universities must continue to keep their antivirus, anti-spyware, firewall, and patch management systems in good working order. These days, the largest target for hackers appears to be university databases. Now, universities are searching for new solutions to safeguard those systems. This article…

  1. How Much Security Does Your Library Need?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banerjee, Kyle

    2003-01-01

    Explains how to keep library systems healthy and functioning by taking sensible security measures. Examines why hackers would target library systems and how library systems are compromised. Describes tools that can help, including: firewalls; antivirus software; alarms; network analysis tools; and encryption. Identifies several strategies for…

  2. How To: Protect against a Zero-Hour Attack

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Rob

    2005-01-01

    In the last year, a series of viruses and worms that caused damage across the Internet in record time has made very clear how vulnerable computer systems are. The MS Blaster, Slammer, Sasser, and Korgo.W worms have shown that signature-based antivirus software and traditional firewalls are not enough to protect networks. Everyone is worried about…

  3. Lock It Up! Computer Security.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wodarz, Nan

    1997-01-01

    The data contained on desktop computer systems and networks pose security issues for virtually every district. Sensitive information can be protected by educating users, altering the physical layout, using password protection, designating access levels, backing up data, reformatting floppy disks, using antivirus software, and installing encryption…

  4. The Computer Virus Threat and What You Can Do about It.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lateulere, John

    1992-01-01

    Discussion of computer viruses describes two types of viruses and how they work; suggests ways to prevent or minimize virus risk; and explains how to recognize a virus and limit damage once a virus attacks. A sidebar lists several antivirus software products. (two references) (NRP)

  5. Safe Computing: An Overview of Viruses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wodarz, Nan

    2001-01-01

    A computer virus is a program that replicates itself, in conjunction with an additional program that can harm a computer system. Common viruses include boot-sector, macro, companion, overwriting, and multipartite. Viruses can be fast, slow, stealthy, and polymorphic. Anti-virus products are described. (MLH)

  6. Computer Viruses: Pathology and Detection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, John R.; Lamon, William E.

    1992-01-01

    Explains how computer viruses were originally created, how a computer can become infected by a virus, how viruses operate, symptoms that indicate a computer is infected, how to detect and remove viruses, and how to prevent a reinfection. A sidebar lists eight antivirus resources. (four references) (LRW)

  7. Sistemas Eolicos Pequenos para Generacion de Electridad (Spanish version of Small Wind Electric Systems: A U.S. Consumer's Guide)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2005-07-01

    This Spanish version of the popular Small Wind Electric Systems: A U.S. Consumer's Guide provides consumers with information to help them determine whether a small wind electric system can provide all or a portion of the energy they need for their home or business based on their wind resource, energy needs, and economics. Topics include how to make a home more energy efficient, how to choose the correct turbine size, the parts of a wind electric system, how to determine whether enough wind resource exists, how to choose the best site for a turbine, how to connect a system to the utility grid, and whether it's possible to become independent of the utility grid using wind energy. In addition, the cover of the guide contains a list of contacts for more information.

  8. Region Emilia Romagna: Primary Health Care Integration/Regione Emilia-Romagna: l’integrazione nel sistema di Cure Primarie

    PubMed Central

    Basenghi, Maria

    2012-01-01

    The politics of Region Emilia-Romagna have been meant to improve social and health care integration through an architecture of local services coherent with this purpose, setting up a Department dedicated to Primary Care inside the Social and Health District. The territorial basis of the Local Health Units (LHU), the resident people, the sustained public spending, the employed human resources and the provided services all delineate the organization of the LHU. The purpose is to grant strong integration among local bodies and LHUs through a governance system (planning, management and administration) that makes a distinction between commissioning and supply. The Committenza (commissioning department), which reports to the Strategic Direction and the District, directs the offer in connection with the need analysis, whereas the Primary Care Department arranges activities and provides services by means of integrated networks which ensure continuity to the care. The main hub in the network is known as the Casa della Salute (House of Health), which works through structured practices, protocols and procedures. LHU professionals and freelancers under contract supply primary, in-home and nursing home care, plus specialist outpatient treatment. The Casa della Salute, whose size will depend on the context (large, medium and small), are reliable reference points for citizens, who can address to them in every moment of the day. On behalf of the Regione Emilia-Romagna, it is the Primary Care Observatory which registers the functions existing in the 42 Houses of Health and their organizational and structural characteristics. The analysis of the obtained data will increase enhance the Houses’ implementation.

  9. [Health reform and the creation of the Sistema Único de Saúde: notes on contexts and authors].

    PubMed

    Paiva, Carlos Henrique Assunção; Teixeira, Luiz Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Within the context of the return to democracy, the new constitution enacted in 1988 transformed health into an individual right and initiated the process of creating a public, universal and decentralized health system, profoundly altering the organization of public health in Brazil. This article discusses the main institutional, political and social aspects of this health reform, along with the changes, the continuities and the major initiatives, based on the literature published by the most widely read authors in this field of study. Without purporting to offer an exhaustive analysis, we discuss how the historiography written by authors who were also actors in the process assess its main features, along with the genesis of the process and the legacy of health reform in Brazil.

  10. Cuerpo de Paz Manual de Sistema de Programacion y Capacitacion (Peace Corps Programming and Training System Manual): T0063.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peace Corps, Washington, DC.

    This Spanish version of the Peace Corps Programming and Training System Manual is designed to help field staff members of the Peace Corps train volunteers. Its task descriptions, guidelines, examples, and definitions are intended to be practical and informative rather than restrictive. The manual is divided into six major sections: (1)…

  11. Exploración con GEMINI-GMOS del sistema de cúmulos globulares de NGC 5044

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faifer, F. R.; Cellone, S. A.; Smith Castelli, A. V.; Bassino, L. P.; Forte, J. C.

    We present preliminary results of the first photometric study of the globular cluster system associated to the elliptical galaxy NGC 5044, the dominant object in the homonymous group. These results are based on data recently (semester 2009A) obtained with the Multi Object Spectrograph GMOS at the Gemini South telescope. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  12. Exploring the Academic and Psychosocial Impact of El Sistema-Inspired Music Programs within Two Low Socio-Economic Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Margaret S.; McPherson, Gary E.; Faulkner, Robert; Davidson, Jane W.; Barrett, Margaret S.

    2016-01-01

    We sought to understand the potential for positive non-musical outcomes for economically and socially disadvantaged primary school students who are involved in instrumental music learning programs. Two schools with students experiencing generational poverty, current or first-generation immigrant or refugee status who were running El-Sistema…

  13. Influencia de diferentes ecuaciones de transformacion del sistema UBVal RGU en el estudio fotometrico de cumulos galacticos.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huestamendia Aparicio, G.

    Three-colour photometry of ten open clusters in the RGU system has been carried out. The calibration sequence has been defined using the Buser's transformation equations between the UBV and RGU systems, while in earlier works the Steinlin's formulae have been used. The results have been compared with those given in these works. Some differences have been found in G, G-R and U-G as a function of the spectral type and the interstellar absorption. They have a systematic character.

  14. La producción de cráteres en el Sistema de Satélites de Saturno

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanardi, M.; Di Sisto, R. P.

    The saturnian satellite system has been observed by the Cassini-Huygens mission, in particular the impact craters on them. These satellites present a diversity of surfaces which could help us to understand about their history. To study the production of craters on these satellites, we develop a theoretical model from previous simulations and we obtain the contribution of Centaur objects to the production of craters. We calculate the number of craters for a given size and the greatest crater produced by Centaur objects. This allowed us to compare our theoretical results with the observations by the Cassini-Huygens and determine the origin of craters as well as constrain the size distribution of Centaurs. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  15. Modelos autoconsistentes de sistemas estelares cuspidales y triaxiales con distribución de velocidades casi isotrópica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpintero, D. D.; Muzzio, J. C.; Navone, H. D.; Zorzi, A. F.

    It has been shown in many works that it is possible to build stable, self-consistent models of triaxial stellar systems, even with cusps, and containing high percentages of chaotic orbits. Since all these models have been obtained from cold collapses, their velocity distributions are strongly radial. Also, chaos was computed using either Lyapunov exponents or SALI. However, models obtained by adiabatic deformation of spherical systems, in which the velocity distribution is more isotropic, showed a very low level of chaos, though it must be noted that the method of detecting chaos used in this case, namely the variation of orbital frequencies, is less sensitive than the abovementioned methods. In this work, we present models obtained by adiabatic deformation, in which we compute the fraction of chaotic orbits using both Lyapunov exponents and variation of orbital frequencies. Our results show that the percentages of chaotic orbits is significant, though they are smaller than those obtained in models with strong radial velocity components. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  16. Life Support Systems. Environment Booklet 1. Teacher's Edition=Sistemas vitales. Libro del medio ambiente 1. Manual para El Maestro.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Univ., Los Angeles. National Dissemination and Assessment Center.

    The booklet is part of a grade 10-12 social studies series produced for bilingual education. The series consists of six major thematic modules, with four to five booklets in each. The interdisciplinary modules are based on major ideas and designed to help students understand some major human problems and make sound, responsive decisions to improve…

  17. Sistema Solar: de la observación de La Tierra a los planetas gigantes y sus lunas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigo, R.

    La fotoquímica tiene un papel principal en la composición de las atmósferas planetarias. Se examinan diferentes procesos fotoquímicos tanto para atmósferas oxidadas como reductoras, poniendo un especial énfasis en los ciclos químicos más importantes. En este sentido, se presentan diferentes ciclos químicos capaces de producir hidrocarbonos y nitrilos en atmósferas reductoras, así como aquellos capaces de mantener las proporciones de mezcla de las moléculas que contienen oxígeno, tales como CO2, O2 y H2O. También se analizan otros procesos importantes tales como la condensación y procesos de sputtering y de sublimación que han de tenerse en cuenta cuando se realizan modelos sobre la composición atmosférica.

  18. Alternancia entre el estado de emisión de Rayos-X y Pulsar en Sistemas Binarios Interactuantes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Vito, M. A.; Benvenuto, O. G.; Horvath, J. E.

    2015-08-01

    Redbacks belong to the family of binary systems in which one of the components is a pulsar. Recent observations show redbacks that have switched their state from pulsar - low mass companion (where the accretion of material over the pulsar has ceased) to low mass X-ray binary system (where emission is produced by the mass accretion on the pulsar), or inversely. The irradiation effect included in our models leads to cyclic mass transfer episodes, which allow close binary systems to switch between one state to other. We apply our results to the case of PSR J1723-2837, and discuss the need to include new ingredients in our code of binary evolution to describe the observed state transitions.

  19. Estudio fotométrico de sistemas binarios y multiples de cumulos estelares de la Nube Mayor de Magallanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palma, T.; Clariá, J. J.; Geisler, D.; Ahumada, A. V.

    We study 11 probable binary or multiple systems of star clusters (SCs) of the Large Magellanic Cloud. They are formed by 31 SCs; out of which 19 have been observed in the Washington system with the Cerro Tololo ``Victor Blanco'' 4m telescope. We confirm a high probability of physical reality for some of the studied binary or multiple system candidates. We also determine their probable formation epochs and show that some of them could not be genuine physical systems. In all cases we recommend to confirm the physical association of these SC systems by examining their heliocentric distances and relative radial velocities. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  20. PLANETALP338: Un nuevo código para la síntesis poblacional de sistemas planetarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ronco, M. P.; Guilera, O. M.; de Elía, G. C.

    2016-08-01

    In the last years, the observational progress allowed us to study and characterize exoplanets in different planetary systems. From a theoretical point of view, the population synthesis models allow us to link the diversity of planetary systems to the protoplanetary disks where they are formed. In this work, we present the main characteristics of a new code, named PlanetaLP338, able to calculate the formation of a planetary system and to describe the evolution of the embryos and planetesimals while the gas is still present in the protoplanetary disk. Our model incorporates the main physical phenomena for planetary formation such as type I and II migrations, gaseous accretion, water delivery in embryos and planetesimals, and mergers between embryos taking into account their respective atmospheres. A particular application of PlanetaLP338 is its automatization to generate population synthesis and to analize the different types of resulting planetary systems. The aim of this work is to explore the ranges of physical parameters that generate planetary systems analog to the Solar System in order to improve our knowledge about its formation.

  1. Estudio general de la region del Lago Titicaca evaluando en forma preliminar un sistema de analisis interactivo de imagenes multiespectrales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brockmann, C.E.; Carter, William D.

    1976-01-01

    ERTS-1 digital data in the form of computer compatible tapes provide the geoscientist with an unusual opportunity to test the maximum flexibility of the satellite system using interactive computers, such as the General Electric Image 100 System. Approximately 9 hours of computer and operator time were used to analyze the Lake Titicaca image, 1443-14073, acquired 9 October 1973. The total area of the lake and associate wetlands was calculated and found to be within 3 percent of previous measurements. The area was subdivided by reflectance characteristics employing cluster analysis of all 4 bands and later compared with density values of band 4. Reflectance variations may be attributed to surface roughness, water depth and bottom characteristics, turbidity, and floating matter. Wetland marsh vegetation, vegetation related to ground-water effluents, natural grasses, and farm crops were separated by cluster analysis. Sandstone, limestone, sand dunes, and several volcanic rock types were similarly separated and displayed by assigned colors and extended through the entire scene. Waste dumps of the Matilde Zinc Mine and smaller mine workings were tentatively identified by signature analysis. Histograms of reflectance values and map printouts were automatically obtained as a record of each of the principal themes. These themes were also stored on a work tape for later display and photographic record as well as to serve in training. The Image 100 System is rapid, extremely flexible and very useful to the investigator in identifying subtle features that may not be noticed by conventional image analysis. The entire scene, which covers 34,225 km2, was analyzed at a scale of 1:600,000, and portions at 1:98,000 and 1:25,000, during a 9-hour period at a rental cost of $250 per hour. Costs to the user can be reduced by restricting its uses to specific areas, objectives, and procedures, rather than undertaking a complete analysis of a total scene.

  2. GPS, punto de contacto entre la Astronomía y otras disciplinas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perdomo, R.

    En los primeros años de la pasada década, un grupo de Astrónomos de La Plata iniciaron trabajos de investigación en Geodesia Satelital. En esta presentación se propone repasar sus principales logros y situarlos en el contexto del desarrollo de la disciplina a nivel mundial. Por entonces las aplicaciones prácticas de la disciplina eran indirectas y solo evidentes para los especialistas. Los errores del Posicionamiento Satelital eran de varios metros y en posicionamiento relativo, del orden de medio metro. Estos resultados se lograban al cabo de varios días de medición continuada. En los años siguientes, el sistema GPS alcanzó su nivel operacional y produjo una revolución tanto en lo relacionado con los tiempos de medición como con las precisiones. El grupo de La Plata se desarrolló simultáneamente con GPS, lo que posibilitó su participación actual en diversos temas vigentes: aplicaciones de alta precisión para la materialización de sistemas terrestres de referencia, monitoreo de movimientos de la corteza, contribución con servicios internacionales para la determinación de movimientos tectónicos globales y regionales, monitoreo de la ionósfera a partir de la propagación de las señales, determinación de la ondulación del geoide a escala local, etc. También se generaron muchas aplicaciones prácticas algunas en tiempo real: navegación, apoyo a imágenes aéreas o satelitales, aplicaciones a la agricultura, catastro y ordenamiento territorial, apoyo a relevamientos geofísicos, etc.

  3. Determinacion de Caracteristicas Opticas del Telescopio OAN150

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galan, M. J.; Cobos, F. J.

    1987-05-01

    En el Observatorio de Calar Alto, en Almería, España, está ubicado un telescopio de 15O-cms de diámetro -construído por REOSC- perteneciente al Observatorio Astronómico Nacional, con sede en Madrid, España. La infraestructura técnica del OAN ha sido tradicionalmente débil y actualmente se está haciendo un esfuerzo por fortalecerla. Existe una información muy limitada del telescopio en general; de su óptica en particular se conocían los valores de los parámetros principales pero sin saber si éstos corresponden a valores teóricos ó de construcción. Por ello se consideró necesario iniciar una investigación para conocer en detalle los valores reales de las componentes ópticas del telescopio, obteniéndose algunos resultados de interés. El primario del telescopio OANl5O es aproximadamente F/3 y el siste ma en su conjunto es F/8.2, con su sistema corrector de campo. En términos generales, la imagen es satisfactoria en todo el campo y, sin sistema corrector, la imagen axial también es buena. En un futuro muy cercano se piensa diseñar instrumentación adicional para este telescopio. Conocer con mayor precisión sus características puede ser de gran utilidad para tal fin, pues se efectúan los cálculos considerando conjuntamente al telescopio y al instrumento.

  4. [Microorganisms responsible of nosocomial infections in the Mexican Social Security Institute].

    PubMed

    Arias-Flores, Rafael; Rosado-Quiab, Ulises; Vargas-Valerio, Alfredo; Grajales-Muñiz, Concepción

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: la prevención y el control de las infecciones nosocomiales requiere el conocimiento del tipo de microorganismo que es más frecuentemente aislado. En México se carece de una estadística nacional que identifique el principal microorganismo causante de infecciones nosocomiales. Métodos: se estudiaron todos los resultados positivos de los cultivos de las infecciones nosocomiales reportadas por el sistema de Vigilancia Epidemiológica Hospitalaria del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social durante el año 2013. Se reportaron los microorganismos más frecuentes y los de mayor relevancia epidemiológica. Resultados: se estudiaron 48 377 resultados de cultivos de infecciones nosocomiales; de estos, 13 207 (27.3 %) correspondieron a las 25 unidades médicas de alta especialidad y 35 170 (72.6 %) a las 197 unidades médicas de segundo nivel. El microorganismo más frecuentemente aislado fue la Escherichia coli con 8192 (16.9 %), seguido del grupo de los Staphylococcus coagulasa-negativos con 6771 (14 %) y la Pseudomonas aeruginosa 5275 (19.9 %). Se observaron diferencias ligeras entre los niveles de atención y entre los hospitales monotemáticos. Conclusiones: el presente estudio identifica a la Escherichia coli, a los Staphylococcus coagulasa-negativos y a la Pseudomonas aeruginosa como los principales microorganismos que se deben combatir.

  5. Incentivos para atraer y retener personal de salud de zonas rurales del Perú: un estudio cualitativo

    PubMed Central

    Huicho, Luis; Canseco, Francisco Díez; Lema, Claudia; Miranda, J. Jaime; Lescano, Andrés G.

    2014-01-01

    El objetivo fue identificar incentivos de atracción y retención en zonas rurales y distantes de Ayacucho, Perú. Fueron realizadas entrevistas en profundidad con 80 médicos, enfermeras, obstetras y técnicos (20 por grupo) de las zonas más pobres y con 11 funcionarios. No existen políticas sistemáticas de atracción y retención de personal de salud en Ayacucho. Los principales incentivos, en orden de importancia, fueron mejoras salariales, oportunidades de formación y capacitación, estabilidad laboral y nombramiento, mejoras en infraestructura y equipos, e incremento del personal. Se mencionaron también mejoras en la vivienda y alimentación, mayor cercanía con la familia y reconocimiento por el sistema de salud. Existen coincidencias y singularidades entre los distintos grupos sobre los incentivos clave para estimular el trabajo rural, que deben considerarse al diseñar políticas públicas. Las iniciativas del Estado deben comprender procesos rigurosos de monitoreo y evaluación, para asegurar que las mismas tengan el impacto deseado. PMID:22488318

  6. Is there an association of hepatitis B virus infection with minimal change disease of nephrotic syndrome? A clinical observational report.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Tian-Biao; Jiang, Zong-Pei

    2015-04-01

    The rate of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is high in the Chinese population, and the implications of HBV infection are widely recognized, and membranous nephropathy is the most common renal lesion to be associated with HBV infection. Minimal change disease (MCD) is one of the most important histopathological characteristics in patients with nephrotic syndrome. There is no any study to report that HBV infection is associated with the etiology of MCD. Herein, we report four MCD patients with HBV infection and speculate that there is an association of HBV infection with the pathological type of MCD. In this study, we also reported the treatment schedule for these four MCD patients, and found that the anti-virus alone and combination of anti-virus with immunosuppressive agent could obtain a benefit for MCD patients with HBV infection. However, a well-designed study should be performed to confirm this association.

  7. Segmenting and counting of wall-pasted cells based on gabor filter.

    PubMed

    Sun, Nongliang; Xu, Saicong; Cao, Maoyong; Li, Jing

    2005-01-01

    Correctly counting the live cells plays a great role in the ectogenetic anti-virus experiment. According to the irregular shape and arbitrary size of the wall pasted Hela cells overlapping each other, we propose a scheme to segment and count the cells using Gabor filter with different parameters and Morphological operation. Experiments reveal that filters with different parameters will lead to different results and a better segmentation will be achieved based on the characteristics of cells and optimal parameters. Large amount of experiment results show that this algorithm can successfully segment the cells and the accuracy arrives at 99.3%. This scheme based on image analysis and pattern recognition can overcome some disadvantages of traditional approaches, shortening anti-virus experimental period and reducing experimental cost. PMID:17282957

  8. Beyond Firewalls: Professional Certification Ensures Your Staff Will Understand Information Security in Its Proper Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svetcov, Eric

    2004-01-01

    When it comes to security, many people do not know what they do not know. Consider for example, an administrator who leaves her password taped under her keyboard, or a teacher who doesn't change his password (ever!) or can't be bothered to log out or lock the computer, all the firewalls and antivirus programs in the world will not protect a…

  9. Analysis of the maximum discharge of karst springs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonacci, Ognjen

    2001-07-01

    ) la dimension limitée du conduit karstique, (2) l'écoulement en charge, (3) le débordement dans un autre bassin, (4) le débordement du réseau s'écoulant vers la source principale par des sources temporaires dans le même bassin, (5) le stockage d'eau dans la zone surmontant l'aquifère karstique ou la zone épikarstique du bassin, et (6) des facteurs tels que le climat, le sol et le couvert végétal, l'altitude et la géologie du bassin d'alimentation. Le phénomène de capacité limitée du débit maximal des sources karstiques n'est pas pris en compte dans la modélisation des processus de précipitation-ruissellement, ce qui est probablement une des principales raisons de l'actuelle médiocre qualité de la modélisation hydrologique du karst. Resumen. Se presenta un análisis de las condiciones que limitan la descarga de algunos manantiales kársticos. Un elevado número de los manantiales estudiados muestra que, bajo condiciones de precipitación extremadamente intensa, hay un valor máximo para la descarga de los manantiales principales de la cuenca, independientemente del tamaño de ésta y del volumen de precipitación. La modelación de la descarga de manantiales kársticos no es fácil de generalizar y esquematizar debido a la existencia de numerosas características que son inherentes a los sistemas kársticos de flujo. A partir del estudio detallado de los datos publicados sobre cuatro manantiales kársticos, se identificó las posibles causas de la existencia de un caudal máximo de descarga: (1) el tamaño limitado del conducto kárstico, (2) el caudal surgente, (3) la descarga a otras cuencas, (4) el desbordamiento del sistema de flujo principal hacia manantiales intermitentes dentro de la misma cuenca, (5) el almacenamiento de agua en la zona superior del acuífero kárstico o zona epikárstica de la cuenca, y (6) factores tales como el clima, suelo y cubierta vegetal, y la altitud y geología de la zona de captación. La limitación de la

  10. [Assessment of the utilization of angiotensin receptor blockers in hypertension].

    PubMed

    Peña Cabia, S; Ricote Lobera, I; Santos Mena, B; Hidalgo Correas, F J; Climent Florez, B; García Díaz, B

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo: Evaluar en nuestra área de Salud el grado en que la utilización de antagonistas de los receptores de la angiotensina II (ARA-II) se ajusta a los criterios propuestos por la Comunidad Autónoma de Madrid (CAM) antes de la instauración del «Plan de Actuación de ARA-II». Estudiar las indicaciones para las que se prescriben e identificar aquellos factores que han podido influir en su prescripción. Métodos: Estudio de utilización de medicamentos del tipo indicación- prescripción, descriptivo y transversal, en el que se seleccionaron pacientes con hipertensión arterial y en tratamiento con ARA-II ingresados en un Hospital General Universitario durante un periodo de estudio de 3 meses. De acuerdo con las situaciones clínicas recogidas en el Documento de la CAM «Criterios para establecer el lugar en la terapéutica de los antagonistas de los receptores de la angiotensina II», se calculó el porcentaje de pacientes con «prescripción adecuada» y «prescripción no adecuada» de ARA-II y se analizó si la edad y el sexo tenían influencia en el tipo de prescripción o en las principales indicaciones para las que se prescribieron. Resultados: De los 153 pacientes que se incluyeron en el estudio, el 67,3% tuvieron una «prescripción no adecuada», el 47,6% de ellos por prescripción de ARA-II como primer fármaco antagonista del sistema renina angiotensina aldosterona y el 34,0% por mal control de la tensión arterial con inhibidores de la enzima convertidora de angiotensina (IECA). No se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas por edad o sexo en cuanto al tipo de prescripción o en las principales indicaciones para las que se prescribieron. Conclusiones: La adecuación a los criterios de uso del Documento de ARA-II se produjo en el 32,7% de los casos. Además, no se observó que factores como la edad y el sexo influyeran en el tipo de prescripción. Asimismo, se evidenciaron percep-

  11. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Joaquín Ortiz, Clara

    2016-06-03

    En la actualidad existe una alta variabilidad en la práctica clínica en nutrición que podría afectar al estado nutricional de los pacientes oncológicos. La implementación de guías de práctica clínica de adecuada calidad puede ayudarnos a disminuir esta variabilidad y minimizar los efectos deletéreos de la malnutrición en los pacientes oncológicos. Las guías suelen estar basadas en la evidencia, formulando las recomendaciones a partir de la mejor información disponible. No obstante, es importante tener en cuenta la calidad metodológica en la elaboración de las guías y valorar si existen conflictos de interés. Los principales problemas de las guías actuales suelen ser que existe limitada evidencia de alta calidad, y que las recomendaciones basadas exclusivamente en la evidencia pueden no ser útiles en la práctica clínica diaria, ya que no tienen en cuenta la aplicabilidad que es fundamental para su implementación. Por otro lado, las guías clínicas hasta la actualidad han sido inconsistentes en la forma de evaluar la calidad de la evidencia y el grado de recomendación. Como resultado, los usuarios se enfrentan al desafío de comprender los mensajes que los diferentes sistemas de grados de evidencia tratan de comunicar. En esta revisión se realiza un resumen de las recomendaciones de las principales guías clínicas sobre valoración y/o soporte nutricional en pacientes oncohematológicos desarrolladas en los últimos 10 años, incluyendo algunas guías de calidad de sociedades científicas que no son accesibles a través de las bases de datos comúnmente usadas como PubMed.

  12. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Joaquín Ortiz, Clara

    2016-01-01

    En la actualidad existe una alta variabilidad en la práctica clínica en nutrición que podría afectar al estado nutricional de los pacientes oncológicos. La implementación de guías de práctica clínica de adecuada calidad puede ayudarnos a disminuir esta variabilidad y minimizar los efectos deletéreos de la malnutrición en los pacientes oncológicos. Las guías suelen estar basadas en la evidencia, formulando las recomendaciones a partir de la mejor información disponible. No obstante, es importante tener en cuenta la calidad metodológica en la elaboración de las guías y valorar si existen conflictos de interés. Los principales problemas de las guías actuales suelen ser que existe limitada evidencia de alta calidad, y que las recomendaciones basadas exclusivamente en la evidencia pueden no ser útiles en la práctica clínica diaria, ya que no tienen en cuenta la aplicabilidad que es fundamental para su implementación. Por otro lado, las guías clínicas hasta la actualidad han sido inconsistentes en la forma de evaluar la calidad de la evidencia y el grado de recomendación. Como resultado, los usuarios se enfrentan al desafío de comprender los mensajes que los diferentes sistemas de grados de evidencia tratan de comunicar. En esta revisión se realiza un resumen de las recomendaciones de las principales guías clínicas sobre valoración y/o soporte nutricional en pacientes oncohematológicos desarrolladas en los últimos 10 años, incluyendo algunas guías de calidad de sociedades científicas que no son accesibles a través de las bases de datos comúnmente usadas como PubMed. PMID:27269218

  13. [Rethinking how health is promoted in the Colombian general health-related social security system (Sistema General de Seguridad Social en Salud)].

    PubMed

    Eslava-Castañeda, Juan C

    2006-12-01

    This article takes stock of how promoting health (PH) (promoción de la salud - PS) has been understood within an international setting and gives three meanings for promotion: as general policy orientation, as a set of actions and as a special dimension of sanitary work. Interest expressed in giving it a specific basis distinguishing it from prevention, transcending educational work, has emerged from the subtle differences established from such different ways of coming to terms with PH. After recognising the challenge posed by PH in the field of health, the text succinctly describes how discourse regarding PH has been introduced in Colombia and discusses how an attempt has been made to be more precise regarding its place in the general health-related social security system. Efforts currently being made in Colombia regarding making PH become a reality within the Colombian health system are then mentioned. PMID:17361582

  14. El humanismo y la educacion en diversos niveles del sistema educativo national (Humanism and Education at Different Levels of the National Education System).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consejo Nacional Tecnico de la Educacion (Mexico).

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of six studies of the different levels of education and the humanistic content of the teaching program at each level. On the preschool level, it is stated that kindergarten education in Mexico attempts to put the small child in contact with the world that surrounds him.…

  15. Work-related mental disorders and their inclusion in health policies in the Brazilian Unified Health System (Sistema Único de Saúde).

    PubMed

    Cocchiola-Silva, Rafaela A

    2016-03-01

    This study discusses the inclusion of mental disorders as work-related diseases in occupational health policies in Brazil. Mental disorders first appeared as a group of occupational diseases in 1999. Establishing mental disorders as occupational diseases was a result of the confluence of several factors: a broader notion of health, a positive shift in public perception regarding preconceived judgements relating to mental disorders and the improvement in the process that defines social security benefit entitlements due to the implementation of a new methodology in 2007.

  16. Predlog teza o razvoju i usavrsavanju sistema obrazovanja i vaspitanja u SFRJ (Proposals for the Development and Advancement of the System of Education in Yugoslavia).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Assembly of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Belgrade,

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of a draft setting out an education system for Yugoslavia to be considered by the Federal Assembly. The proposals are divided into six chapters: (1) current trends and developments in education; (2) socioeconomic foundations of educational development; (3) changes in the…

  17. El sistema fonologico del dialecto judeo-espanol de Bulgaria (The Phonological System of the Judeo-Spanish Dialect of Bulgaria)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanchev, Ivan V.

    1974-01-01

    The phonetics and phonological system of the Bulgarian Judeo-Spanish dialect is discussed, showing its similarities to and borrowings from modern Spanish and Bulgarian. Treatment of phonemes is analyzed in detail. (Text is in Spanish.) (CK)

  18. Osnovi polojenia na reformata v obrasovatelnata sistema na Narodna republika Bulgaria (Basic Provisions of the Reform of the Public Education System in the People's Republic of Bulgaria).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulgarian Communist Party, Sofia.

    This document is an English language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of the reform provisions of the Bulgarian education system as formulated by the Bulgarian Communist Party in 1969. These reforms include the following items: access to compulsory secondary education for all; enrollment of all six-year olds; teachers to be specialized from…

  19. [Rethinking how health is promoted in the Colombian general health-related social security system (Sistema General de Seguridad Social en Salud)].

    PubMed

    Eslava-Castañeda, Juan C

    2006-12-01

    This article takes stock of how promoting health (PH) (promoción de la salud - PS) has been understood within an international setting and gives three meanings for promotion: as general policy orientation, as a set of actions and as a special dimension of sanitary work. Interest expressed in giving it a specific basis distinguishing it from prevention, transcending educational work, has emerged from the subtle differences established from such different ways of coming to terms with PH. After recognising the challenge posed by PH in the field of health, the text succinctly describes how discourse regarding PH has been introduced in Colombia and discusses how an attempt has been made to be more precise regarding its place in the general health-related social security system. Efforts currently being made in Colombia regarding making PH become a reality within the Colombian health system are then mentioned.

  20. Aplicaciones del sistema GPS en la búsqueda de sitios para Interferometría Astronómica Milimétrica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meza, A.; Fernández, L.; Natali, P.; Moirano, J.; Brunini, C.

    The water vapor content of the atmosphere is the biggest restriction to the Millimeter and Sub-millimeter Astronomy. It also plays a crucial role in most of the atmospheric processes. Nowadays water vapor is one of the less characterized meteorological parameter. It is a highly variable atmospheric constituent and its presence is a limiting factor to the obtention of high angular resolutions in interferometric observations of astrophysical interest. Thus, the improved determination of the percentage of precipitable water vapor (PWV) is widely appreciated when performing a site testing for Millimeter Astronomy (MA). It is extensive the use of Water Vapor Radiometers (WVRs) for characterizing the PWV. Using its typical frequency the WVR monitors at 22 Ghz., but some of them had been specially designed for MA at 183 Ghz (M.C. Wiedner, Atmospheric Water Vapour and Astronomical Millimetre Interferometry, PhD Thesis, 1998). Another possibility for PWV determinations are the Radiosondes (RS). A RS is a nothing but a set of sensors and radio transmitters carried out by a balloon up to 30.000 mts. They register twice a day (at 0 UTC and 12 UTC) the values of temperature, humidity and atmospheric pressure as a function of the altitude. All the observations are immediately transmitted to a ground station. At the beginning of the '90s GPS started to be used as an approach to the remote sensing of atmospheric water vapor (Bevis et al, Geophys. Res., 97, 15787, 1992). The radio signal GPS is delayed by the atmosphere as it propagate from the satellites to the ground-receivers. The tropospheric delay is modeled as the add of two contributions: a ``dry" and a ``wet" delay. Each of them is calculated as the product of a zenith path delay by a mapping function depending on the elevation angle. An estimate of the zenith wet delay can be transformed into an estimate of the PWV (Bevis et al, 1992; Hogg et al., A&A, 95, 304, 1981). Any of the former techniques can determine the PWV with an accuracy better than 1 millimeter of PWV. In this work we use the GPS to estimate the PWV. The procedure followed here is having comparable precision and accuracy with respect to the classical techniques (Coster et al., GPS-96, 625, 1996).

  1. Distribuciones Espectrales de Energía de las compañeras visibles en sistemas binarios que albergan agujeros negros de masas estelares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cúneo, V. A.; Gómez, M. N.

    Stellar mass black holes are mainly detected in binary systems; where the compact object accretes material from its visible compa-nion. With the objective of characterizing visible companions; we analyse the Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs) of a sample of these objects; selected from a galactic stellar black holes catalogue built by the authors. Using the VOSA SED Analyzer; we obtained; from several catalogues; the fluxes to construct the SEDs. A black body for a single star was adjusted for every observed SED. The excesses found between these distributions are attributed to the presence of the compact object. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  2. Develando las propiedades del sistema inexplorado de cúmulos globulares de NGC 5044 a través de Gemini+GMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scalia, M. C.; Faifer, F.; Smith Castelli, A.; Forte, J. C.; Cellone, S.; Bassino, L.

    2016-08-01

    We present the first photometric characterization and determination of radial velocities of globular cluster (GC) candidates belonging to the system of the elliptical galaxy NGC5044. This rich system presents several thousand candidates and its bimodal color distribution is dominated by blue GCs. We have spectroscopically confirmed 27 members of the system, with an averaged radial velocity of 2833kms. One of the confirmed members is a strong candidate to be the first Ultra-Compact Dwarf discovered in NGC5044.

  3. Trazando el mapa genético de NGC 1316 a través de su sistema de cúmulos globulares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sesto, L. A.; Faifer, F. R.; Forte, J. C.

    2015-08-01

    The giant early-type galaxy NGC 1316 (Fornax A) is an intermediate-age merger remnant (-- yrs), in which an unusual pattern of dust, formed by large filaments and dark structures, demands special attention. This galaxy belongs to Fornax, one of the closest and most studied galaxy clusters of the southern hemisphere. The dust structures pose an interesting challenge for photometry in the central regions. Based on the idea that Globular Clusters systems (GCS) constitute genuine tracers of the formation and evolution of galaxies that contain them, we present a multicolor photometric study of globular clusters candidates (GC) associated with NGC 1316. We performed the reduction and analysis of a mosaic of gri images obtained with the Gemini Multi-object Spectrograph (GMOS) camera, mounted on the Gemini South telescope. These GMOS data were combined with BVIgz photometry from the HST Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) as well as with published Washington photometry, and used to define a multicolor grid. This grid will be used to attempt to identify the properties of the different subpopulations of CG present in NGC 1316.

  4. Sistemas de Documentacion e Informacion Educativa en Belgica, Paises Bajos y Francia (Educational Documentation and Information Systems in Belgium, Holland, and France).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossi Etchelouz, Nelly Yvis

    This booklet describes the working and organization of the information and documentation systems in Belgium, the Netherlands, and France. The discussion begins with a look at the Belgium educational system and how information services operate within that system. The central library, specialized services, and specialized information centers are all…

  5. Sistemas Eólicos Pequeños para Generación de Electricidad: Una guia para consumidores en Nuevo México

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2005-10-01

    This Spanish version of the popular Small Wind Electric Systems: A New Mexico Consumer's Guide provides consumers with information to help them determine whether a small wind electric system can provide all or a portion of the energy they need for their home or business based on their wind resource, energy needs, and economics. Topics include how to make a home more energy efficient, how to choose the correct turbine size, the parts of a wind electric system, how to determine whether enough wind resource exists, how to choose the best site for a turbine, how to connect a system to the utility grid, and whether it's possible to become independent of the utility grid using wind energy. In addition, the cover of the guide contains a list of contacts for more information.

  6. A Handbook for Title I Migrant Parent Advisory Councils: Understanding the System=Un Folleto Para los Concilios de Padres Titulo I Migrante: Entendiendo el Sistema.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arredondo, C.; And Others

    A bilingual handbook for Title I migrant Parent Advisory Councils (PACs) was designed to be used by administrators, teachers, consultants and parents in organizing and training PACs at local, district, and state levels. All information is duplicated in separate English and Spanish sections. The first part discusses the Texas migrant program,…

  7. Sistema de Transferencia de Archivos para Estudiantes Migrantes: Un Mejor Entendimiento para Padres. (Migrant Student Record Transfer System: A Better Understanding for Parents).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaramillo, Senaida I.

    When migrant children are enrolled in the Migrant Education Program, they are also enrolled in the Migrant Student Record Transfer System (MSRTS), a national system which accumulates educational and health information for each child on a computer located in Little Rock, Arkansas. The system affords teachers the opportunity to review the records,…

  8. Tracking and Treating Mobile Populations. The TB Net System. Migrant Clinicians Network Monograph Series. = El Sistema de Red para la TB.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Migrant Clinicians Network, Inc., Austin, TX.

    A comprehensive tracking and referral network that helps provide continuity of care for mobile populations with active tuberculosis (TB) or TB infection is considered essential for effective treatment of TB. However, the interstate referral system that exists between state health departments has been highly inefficient for serving migrant…

  9. Aplicación de la metodología Molecular de Orbitales de Defecto Cuántico (MQDO) al cálculo de intensidades vibrónicas y vidas medias de niveles vibracionales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    María Velasco Sanz, Ana

    Desde que se formuló, en 1996, la metodología Molecular de Orbitales de Defecto Cuántico (MQDO) [1], se han obtenido datos de calidad relativos a intensidades de bandas electrónicas que implican estados Rydberg para una gran variedad de sistemas moleculares [2]. Animados por los buenos resultados obtenidos, recientemente hemos abordado el estudio de transiciones vibrónicas, es decir aquellas que ocurren entre estados vibracionales que pertenecen a distintos estados Rydberg electrónicos. Como prototipo adecuado para nuestros propósitos hemos elegido la molécula de NO, importante en la química de la atmósfera, y para la cual existen en la bibliografía datos experimentales de calidad suficiente para contrastar la validez de nuestros resultados. En concreto, hemos calculado las fuerzas de oscilador y coeficientes de Einstein para transiciones electrónicas y vibrónicas de las principales bandas del NO, al igual que vidas medias radiativas de niveles vibracionales de dicha molécula. Las propiedades estudiadas son esenciales para la comprensión de los aspectos teóricos de los procesos físicos básicos relativos a la dispersión electrónica en moléculas heteronucleares con capas abiertas. Además, valores fiables de probabilidades de transición moleculares tienen importantes aplicaciones en Astrofísica, en la modelización de procesos fotodinámicos moleculares, etc., al igual que para evaluar más profundamente la validez de nuestra metodología teórica.

  10. [β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate as a dietary supplement (II): cell and molecular mechanism of action].

    PubMed

    Manjarrez-Montes-de-Oca, Rafael; Torres-Vaca, Mateo; González-Gallego, Javier; Alvear-Ordenes, Ildefonso

    2014-11-27

    Introducción: En los últimos años el -hidroxi--metilbutirato (HMB) ha sido foco de diversas investigaciones que le atribuyen un efecto sobre la disminución de la proteólisis muscular y un incremento de la masa muscular. Por tanto, se han realizado estudios centrados en los mecanismos celulares y moleculares responsables de dichos efectos. Objetivos: Los objetivos de la presente revisión son: conocer el metabolismo del HMB, así como su absorción y excreción; estudiar la posible toxicidad del HMB; e identificar los mecanismos celulares y moleculares de acción del HMB cuando se utiliza como suplemento nutricional. Métodos: Se utilizaron las bases de datos Web of Science, Pubmed y SportDiscus para realizar la búsqueda de artículos. Los resultados se dividieron en dos partes; en este artículo se presentan los resultados referentes a los mecanismos de acción del HMB. Resultados: No existen suficientes datos que apoyen que la ingesta de HMB incremente la síntesis de colesterol en el músculo. Es posible que existan efectos positivos en el metabolismo muscular a través de la vía mTOR y del sistema ubiquitin-proteasoma, aunque no se conoce su mecanismo de acción. Probablemente, el HMB eleva los niveles sanguíneos de hidroxibutirato y esto podría explicar sus principales efectos sobre la disminución de la proteólisis muscular. Conclusiones: De acuerdo a nuestros resultados, la posibilidad de justificar la acción del HMB a través de la vía del beta-hidroxibutirato abre una interesante línea de investigación para futuros estudios.

  11. Creation and design of a test for the Evaluation of Upper Limb Apraxia (EULA) based on a cognitive model: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Perez-Marmol, José Manuel; Lopez-Alcalde, Samuel; Carnero-Pardo, Cristóbal; Canadas-De la Fuente, Guillermo A; Peralta-Ramirez, M Isabel; Garcia-Rios, M Carmen

    2015-01-16

    Introduccion. La apraxia es un trastorno neurologico caracterizado por la dificultad en la ejecucion de habilidades gestuales aprendidas a pesar de tener preservados los sistemas motores y sensoriales, la coordinacion y la comprension, asi como de una adecuada colaboracion. Actualmente, existen pocas herramientas validadas que evaluen este sindrome de manera global. En el presente estudio, se ha creado y diseñado un test para la evaluacion de la apraxia de los miembros superiores (EULA), basado en modelos teoricos. Sujetos y metodos. Se selecciono una poblacion de 57 pacientes con quejas subjetivas de deterioro cognitivo y 39 personas sin quejas ni deterioro cognitivo, a las cuales se les administro el test EULA, entre otros tests. Se realizo un analisis factorial de componentes principales y un calculo tanto de la fiabilidad como de la validez de dicho instrumento. Resultados. El analisis factorial agrupo en nueve factores todos los items de la prueba, con una varianza total explicada del 69,91%. El test ha mostrado una alta fiabilidad, con un alfa de Cronbach de 0,929 y un coeficiente de Guttman de 0,870 con el metodo de las dos mitades. El test tambien mostro tener una adecuada validez de constructo, al existir correlacion significativa entre seis factores del test y dos subtests de apraxia. Conclusiones. El test EULA, surgido de las propuestas de evaluacion a nivel teorico desarrolladas por diferentes autores, muestra una puntuacion superior en personas sanas respecto a personas con manifestaciones subjetivas de deterioro cognitivo, ademas de tener una alta fiabilidad y validez de constructo.

  12. ADIPOQUINAS EN EL NIÑO SANO Y AFECTO DE OBESIDAD

    PubMed Central

    Martos-Moreno, G.A.; Kopchick, J.J.; Argente, y J.

    2015-01-01

    El incremento universal de la prevalencia de obesidad en niños y adolescentes durante las últimas décadas, junto con la evidencia creciente de que el establecimiento de obesidad en etapas precoces de la vida está asociado con un incremento de la prevalencia de comorbilidades y del riesgo de muerte prematura, con gran repercusión económica en los sistemas sanitarios de los países occidentales, ha impulsado la investigación en este área. Estos estudios han remarcado la importante actividad endocrina del tejido adiposo, ejercida por medio de la síntesis y secreción de un gran número de péptidos y citoquinas, denominados adipoquinas. En esta revisión se resume el estado actual de los conocimientos, así como los estudios más relevantes, en relación con la dinámica de secreción de las principales adipoquinas en niños, centrándose en el control de la homeostasis energética, regulación metabólica (fundamentalmente, metabolismo de los hidratos de carbono) e inflamación. Asímismo, se analizan las particularidades de la síntesis, secreción y acciones de las adipoquinas desde el nacimiento hasta la adolescencia, reseñando el efecto que, sobre ellas, ejerce la instauración de la obesidad. PMID:23228441

  13. [Quality healthcare and pharmaceutical care practice indicators to HIV+ patient].

    PubMed

    Martín Conde, Ma T; Monte Boquet, E; Morillo Verdugo, R

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo: Identificar y promover mejoras en la calidad de la atención sanitaria que reciben los pacientes VIH y SIDA en las Unidades Clínicas de los hospitales en nuestro país, incluyéndose y reforzando la perspectiva de Atención Farmacéutica (AF). Metodología: Para llevar a cabo el proyecto, durante el periodo Enero-Junio de 2012 se definieron las siguientes fases de trabajo. Primero, se realizó una revisión bibliográfica y lectura critica relacionada con la patología VIH-SIDA y criterios de calidad. A continuación, se llevó a cabo una fase de investigación cualitativa presencial con los expertos participantes. La primera se llevó a cabo mediante dos técnicas: el grupo nominal y una variante de grupos de discusión. La aplicación de las técnicas estuvo apoyada por un soporte informático que permitió la codificación y valoración jerarquizada de las propuestas mediante un sistema automatizado de votaciones. La última fase del proyecto consistió en una reunión presencial, donde se perfilaron los objetivos de la primera reunión y se puso en común todo el trabajo que los subgrupos de trabajo habían elaborado para consensuar los contenidos. De la primera selección de ideas, el equipo de investigación trabajó y priorizó aquellos elementos que describen y dan respuesta a los objetivos planteados. Concretamente, la correcta definición de los indicadores de calidad y de seguridad en el ámbito de la farmacia hospitalaria, elaborándose una ficha que describía cada aspecto a tener en cuenta para la posterior medición del indicador. Por último, se elaboró un plan de actuaciones para mejorar la práctica clínica, sintetizada según su nivel de prioridad. Resultados: A través de la metodología del proyecto, los expertos identificaron los criterios de calidad en el procedimiento de AF al paciente. Las principales barreras definidas fueron: presión asistencial, Sistemas de gestión de personal, Seguridad y desconocimiento de la

  14. IgG subclass responses to Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus infection and immunization suggest a dominant role for Th1 cells in susceptible mouse strains.

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, J D; Waltenbaugh, C; Miller, S D

    1992-01-01

    Inbred mouse strains differ in susceptibility to Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV)-induced demyelinating disease. A strong correlation between disease susceptibility and delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) has been previously demonstrated, but no strong correlation between disease susceptibility and total anti-TMEV ELISA titres was shown. Since both DTH and IgG2a antibody production are regulated by CD4+ Th1 cells, we investigated three strains of mice to determine whether antivirus IgG2a antibody levels, like DTH in previous studies, correlated with disease susceptibility. Susceptible SJL/J, intermediately susceptible C3H/HeJ, and resistant C57BL/6 mice were infected intracerebrally (i.c.) with the BeAn strain of TMEV and monitored for clinical signs of demyelination and for levels of TMEV-specific antibody of different IgG subclasses using a particle concentration fluorescence immunoassay (PCFIA). Resistant C57BL/6 mice were found to have significantly lower concentrations of total anti-TMEV antibody than susceptible SJL/J mice and intermediately susceptible C3H/HeJ mice show variable antibody responses. A predominance of anti-TMEV IgG2a (Th1 regulated) antibody was seen in susceptible and intermediately susceptible mice, whereas resistant mice displayed a predominant anti-TMEV IgG1 (Th2 regulated) response accompanied by a marked deficiency of IgG2a. In contrast, immunization of C57BL/6 mice with UV-inactivated TMEV in adjuvant revealed that this strain was not defective either in its ability to generate high levels of anti-TMEV antibody or in its ability to produce IgG2a antibody. These results suggest that the antivirus IgG subclass profile is dependent upon the immunization route, virus viability and/or the use of adjuvant and that the levels of antivirus subclasses may be predictive of disease susceptibility. PMID:1350571

  15. The origin of increased salinity in the Cambrian-Vendian aquifer system on the Kopli Peninsula, northern Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karro, Enn; Marandi, Andres; Vaikmäe, Rein

    , qui renferme des eaux souterraines salines dans sa partie supérieure altérée et fissurée, et est hydrauliquement connecté avec l'aquifère supérieur du Cambrien-Vendien, est la deuxième importante source d'ions. Le soubassement fracturé et le matériel argileux de l'altération, renferme l'eau souterraine de type Ca-Cl, caractérisée par un haut TDS (2-20 g/l). A cause de la mobilisation intensive de l'eau les échanges d'eau souterraine est sont accélérés et la zone d'influence des pompages augmentent. Les études chimiques et isotopiques indiquent une contribution croissante du drainage des eaux du soubassement cristallin. L'intrusion d'eaux salées de la mer dans le système aquifère n'est pas un phénomène évident. El origen del incremento en salinidad en un sistema de acuíferos Cámbrico-Vendiano en la Península Kopli, norte de Estonie Monitoreo a largo plazo de un sistema de acuíferos confinados, de edad Cámbrico-Vendiano, que se utiliza como fuente de abastecimiento industrial en la Península Kopli, al norte de Estonie, revela cambios notables en la composición química del agua subterránea. Un incremento de 1.5 a 3 veces en TDS y en concentraciones de iones mayores en agua subterránea explotada ha sido ocasionado por bombeo fuerte. Las fuentes principales de carga disuelta en el agua subterránea Cámbrico-Vendiano son la lixiviación de la roca encajonante y los procesos geoquímicos que ocurren en la zona saturada. Basamento cristalino subyacente, que aloja agua subterránea salada en la parte superior intemperizada y fisurada, y está conectado hidráulicamente con el sistema acuífero Cámbrico-Vendiano sobreyacente, es la segunda fuente importante de iones. El basamento fracturado y su corteza de intemperismo arcillosa alojan agua subterránea de tipo Ca-Cl la cual se caracteriza por valores altos de TDS (2-20 g/l). Debido a extracción intensiva se ha acelerado el intercambio de agua subterránea y se ha incrementado el área de

  16. Small-angle neutron scattering study of recombinant yeast-derived human hepatitis B virus surface antigen vaccine particle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, M.; Ito, Y.; Kameyama, K.; Imai, M.; Ishikawa, N.; Takagi, T.

    1995-02-01

    The overall and internal structure of recombinant yeast-derived human hepatitis B virus surface antigen vaccine particles was investigated by small-angle neutron scattering using the contrast variation method. The vaccine is a nearly spherical particle, and its contrast-matching point was determined to be at about 24% D 2O content, indicating that a large part of the vaccine particle is occupied by lipids and carbohydrates from the yeast. The Stuhrmann plot suggests that the surface antigens exist predominantly in the peripheral region of the particle, which is favorable to the induction of anti-virus antibodies.

  17. Stability and Hopf Bifurcation for a Delayed SLBRS Computer Virus Model

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Huizhong

    2014-01-01

    By incorporating the time delay due to the period that computers use antivirus software to clean the virus into the SLBRS model a delayed SLBRS computer virus model is proposed in this paper. The dynamical behaviors which include local stability and Hopf bifurcation are investigated by regarding the delay as bifurcating parameter. Specially, direction and stability of the Hopf bifurcation are derived by applying the normal form method and center manifold theory. Finally, an illustrative example is also presented to testify our analytical results. PMID:25202722

  18. [Research progress on alkaloids constituents from Zanthoxylum and their pharmacological activities].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Hai-mei; Qiu, Lu; Xie, Zhen-jian; Zou, Liang; Zheng, Jin; Fu, Qiang

    2015-12-01

    There are 250 species of Zanthoxylum (Rutaceae) in the world. This genus distributed in tropical and subtropical regions. Alkaloids are the major and representative ingredients in these plants including quinolines, isoquinolines, and amide alkaloids, with such biological activities as anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-virus, anti-platelet aggregation, anti-bacteria and anti- oxidant. These species have been used for a long time to treat toothache, urinary and venereal diseases, lumbago and rheumatism. This review summarizes the chemical constituents and pharmacological activities from the Z. sppplants, in an effort to the systematic research and application of the alkaloids of this genus.

  19. Evaluation of Tools for Protection of Interest against Hacking and Cracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahankhani, Hossein; Antonijevic, Branko; Walcott, Terry

    The internet considered a tool that effectively ensures communication globally has been hindered by hackers and crackers continuously. In so doing, a multitude of network facilitated tools such as firewalls, virtual private networks (VPN) and a variety of antivirus software packages has been enabled for dealing with such predicaments. However, more often than not these facilitated tools are marketed as perfect solutions to the ever culminating problems such as loss of data and privacy in networked and world wide intercommunications. We provide a forum for addressing these perceived problems in this paper.

  20. [Research progress on alkaloids constituents from Zanthoxylum and their pharmacological activities].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Hai-mei; Qiu, Lu; Xie, Zhen-jian; Zou, Liang; Zheng, Jin; Fu, Qiang

    2015-12-01

    There are 250 species of Zanthoxylum (Rutaceae) in the world. This genus distributed in tropical and subtropical regions. Alkaloids are the major and representative ingredients in these plants including quinolines, isoquinolines, and amide alkaloids, with such biological activities as anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-virus, anti-platelet aggregation, anti-bacteria and anti- oxidant. These species have been used for a long time to treat toothache, urinary and venereal diseases, lumbago and rheumatism. This review summarizes the chemical constituents and pharmacological activities from the Z. sppplants, in an effort to the systematic research and application of the alkaloids of this genus. PMID:27141666

  1. The DNA-binding and bioactivity of rare earth metal complexes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Li; Wang, Bochu; Tan, Jun; Zhu, Liancai

    2013-08-01

    Recently more and more attention is paid to the rare earth metal complexes, because the properties of the rare earth metals are similar to those of the transition metals such as the similar atomic and the ionic radius. A large number of rare metal complexes were synthesized, and their bioactivities were also studied. This review highlights recent researches on the interaction of some rare earth metal complexes with DNA, analyzes how the configuration of the complexes influences the binding affinity, and focuses on the pharmacological activities of the complexes, such as anticancer, antibacterial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-virus.

  2. Stability and Hopf bifurcation for a delayed SLBRS computer virus model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zizhen; Yang, Huizhong

    2014-01-01

    By incorporating the time delay due to the period that computers use antivirus software to clean the virus into the SLBRS model a delayed SLBRS computer virus model is proposed in this paper. The dynamical behaviors which include local stability and Hopf bifurcation are investigated by regarding the delay as bifurcating parameter. Specially, direction and stability of the Hopf bifurcation are derived by applying the normal form method and center manifold theory. Finally, an illustrative example is also presented to testify our analytical results.

  3. Design and Implementation of a Secure Modbus Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fovino, Igor Nai; Carcano, Andrea; Masera, Marcelo; Trombetta, Alberto

    The interconnectivity of modern and legacy supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems with corporate networks and the Internet has significantly increased the threats to critical infrastructure assets. Meanwhile, traditional IT security solutions such as firewalls, intrusion detection systems and antivirus software are relatively ineffective against attacks that specifically target vulnerabilities in SCADA protocols. This paper describes a secure version of the Modbus SCADA protocol that incorporates integrity, authentication, non-repudiation and anti-replay mechanisms. Experimental results using a power plant testbed indicate that the augmented protocol provides good security functionality without significant overhead.

  4. Malware distributed collection and pre-classification system using honeypot technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grégio, André R. A.; Oliveira, Isabela L.; Santos, Rafael D. C.; Cansian, Adriano M.; de Geus, Paulo L.

    2009-04-01

    Malware has become a major threat in the last years due to the ease of spread through the Internet. Malware detection has become difficult with the use of compression, polymorphic methods and techniques to detect and disable security software. Those and other obfuscation techniques pose a problem for detection and classification schemes that analyze malware behavior. In this paper we propose a distributed architecture to improve malware collection using different honeypot technologies to increase the variety of malware collected. We also present a daemon tool developed to grab malware distributed through spam and a pre-classification technique that uses antivirus technology to separate malware in generic classes.

  5. [Microbial antagonism in the therapy of infectious diseases].

    PubMed

    Ledermann, Walter

    2013-08-01

    The history of antibiotics begins with the first observations of Pasteur and Joubert about microbial antagonism at the end of the XIX century. Three types of antagonism were studied: bacterial killing by other bacteria, virus against bacteria and blockade of cellular receptors by bacterial filtrates. In the first type, the piocianase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the activity of Bacillus subtilis over Mycobacterium tuberculosis were the better examples; in the second, the French D'Herelle was a pioneer using bacteriophages against Shigella dysenteriae;and another French, Besredka, headed the third line with his "antivirus thérapie" on Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:24248116

  6. Phenylethanoid Glycosides: Research Advances in Their Phytochemistry, Pharmacological Activity and Pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Xue, Zhenzhen; Yang, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Phenylethanoid glycosides (PhGs) are widely distributed in traditional Chinese medicines as well as in other medicinal plants, and they were characterized by a phenethyl alcohol (C₆-C₂) moiety attached to a β-glucopyranose/β-allopyranose via a glycosidic bond. The outstanding activity of PhGs in diverse diseases proves their importance in medicinal chemistry research. This review summarizes new findings on PhGs over the past 10 years, concerning the new structures, their bioactivities, including neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antibacterial and antivirus, cytotoxic, immunomodulatory, and enzyme inhibitory effects, and pharmacokinetic properties.

  7. DEAH-RHA helicase•Znf cofactor systems in kinetoplastid RNA editing and evolutionarily distant RNA processes

    PubMed Central

    Cruz-Reyes, Jorge; Mooers, Blaine H.M.; Abu-Adas, Zakaria; Kumar, Vikas; Gulati, Shelly

    2016-01-01

    Multi-zinc finger proteins are an emerging class of cofactors in DEAH-RHA RNA helicases across highly divergent eukaryotic lineages. DEAH-RHA helicase•zinc finger cofactor partnerships predate the split of kinetoplastid protozoa, which include several human pathogens, from other eukaryotic lineages 100–400 Ma. Despite a long evolutionary history, the prototypical DEAH-RHA domains remain highly conserved. This short review focuses on a recently identified DEAH-RHA helicase•zinc finger cofactor system in kinetoplastid RNA editing, and its potential functional parallels with analogous systems in embryogenesis control in nematodes and antivirus protection in humans. PMID:27540585

  8. Analysis and Synthesis of Leaky-Wave Devices in Planar Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez Ros, Alejandro Javier

    estan determinadas por la constante de fase del modo "leaky" que es el que determina el angulo de apuntamiento y por la tasa de radiacion que es la que determina la intensidad de los campos radiados. De esta manera, controlando en amplitud y fase el modo "leaky" se puede obtener un control efectivo sobre el diagrama de radiacion del dispositivo. Ademas, con el objetivo de poder obtener de una manera mas eficiente las caracteristicas de propagacion de los modos de fuga "leaky" en funcion de los principales parametros geometricos de la estructura, se han desarrollado diversas herramientas de analisis modal basadas en la tecnica de resonancia transversa de la estructura. La capacidad para obtener un control simultaneo de la constante de propagacion compleja del modo "leaky", ha sido demostrada mediante el diseno y fabricacion de varios tipos de antena "leaky wave" (LWA) y de otros dispositivos como multiplexores y sistemas de enfoque en campo cercano. Para ello, se ha utilizado la tecnologia planar de guia de onda integrada en sustrato (susbstrate integrated waveguide, SIW). Esta recientemente desarrollada tecnologia, permite disenar dispositivos de microondas basados en tecnologia clasica de guia de ondas con sistemas de fabricacion estandar usados en tecnologia de circuitos impresos (printed circuit board, PCB). De esta forma, se pueden integrar en un mismo sustrato muchas de las diferentes partes que forman un sistema de comunicaciones, mejorando asi su robustez y compactibilidad, ademas de reducir el coste y de contar con menores perdidas que otras tecnologias planares como la microstrip.

  9. Como Lo Hago Yo: Mielomeningocele En Bolivia

    PubMed Central

    Dabdoub, Carlos F.; Dabdoub, Carlos B.; Villavicencio, Ramiro; Quevedo, Germán

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: Las malformaciones del tubo neural (MTN) representan la segunda causa más frecuente de anomalías congénitas, luego de las cardiopatías. En este grupo se destaca el mielomeningocele (MMC) por su mayor incidencia, y por ser la más incapacitante y la más compleja entre todas las demás malformaciones del sistema nervioso c`entral (SNC). En Bolivia, como en muchos países de Sudamérica, los bajos niveles socio-culturales y la debilidad en el sistema sanitario, hacen que su incidencia y su morbilidad, sean mayores que en las naciones más desarrolladas. Material y Métodos: Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo y descriptivo de 70 casos de MMC, atendidos por un equipo multidisciplinario en el Hospital Universitario Japonés (HUJ) de Santa Cruz de la Sierra, entre 2008-2011. De ellos, 60 fueron intervenidos quirúrgicamente. Resultados: Se realizaron controles prenatales sólo en 27 mujeres (38.6%), diagnosticándose una disrafia espinal en apenas dos casos (7.4%). La edad de ingreso del MMC en su mayoría fue después de las 24 horas (65.6%), predominando su localización en la región lumbosacra (64.3%). De ellos, 67.2% eran abiertos, presentando un 32.9% un daño neurológico motor parcial mientras que 47.1% tenían paraplejia por debajo de la lesión. De los 70 casos, tres (4.3%) no fueron intervenidos, por presentar defectos congénitos severos o estado general grave. Las principales complicaciones posoperatorias inmediatas fueron: dehiscencia de sutura y/o infección de la herida (16.6%), fístula de líquido cefalorraquídeo (LCR) (10%) e infección del SNC (11.7%). La mortalidad general y postoperatoria fue de 7.1% y 3.3%, respectivamente. Al mes de vida presentaban hidrocefalia un 80% de los pacientes operados, colocándose una derivación ventriculoperitoneal (DVP) de presión media. De 9 pacientes que tuvieron un acompanamiento de dos o más años, seis presentaron una médula anclada, que fueron intervenidas quirúrgicamente. Conclusi

  10. In vivo evaluation of the antiviral activity of Cajanus cajan on measles virus.

    PubMed

    Nwodo, U U; Ngene, A A; Iroegbu, C U; Onyedikachi, O A L; Chigor, V N; Okoh, A I

    2011-09-01

    Cajanus cajan, a tropical shrub, serves as source of food and traditional medicines. The evaluation of aqueous and ethanol extracts for activity against measles virus and toxicity to embryonated chicken eggs was carried out in this study. In vivo and in vitro assay techniques using embryonated chicken eggs and tissue culture (Hep-2 cell lines) as media for both virus cultivation and anti-virus assay showed that a hot-water extract yielded higher activity against measles virus. The hot-water extract of the stem yielded a Log(2) titre of 0.1 for the in vivo assay and an inhibition of cytopathic effect (CPE) in Hep-2 cells by 100% for the in vitro assay. At all concentrations of the extracts, there was a lowering of virus concentration (p = 0.05), indicated by hemagglutination (HA) titration, which is the advantage of HA titration over the tissue culture technique using CPE. This study validates embryonated chicken eggs as suitable media for anti-virus assay and the use of C. cajan in the treatment of some diseases of viral origin.

  11. Conjunctival Flap Covering Combined with Antiviral and Steroid Therapy for Severe Herpes Simplex Virus Necrotizing Stromal Keratitis

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Yanni; Li, Suxia; Wang, Ting; Tan, Yaohong; Shi, Weiyun

    2015-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) necrotizing stromal keratitis is a common type of herpetic stromal keratitis (HSK). Antiviral medication alone cannot control the disease, and corticosteroid eye drops may aggravate the ulcer and result in corneal perforation. Amniotic membrane transplantation effectively treats superficial corneal ulcer resulting from necrotizing stromal HSK. However, the efficacy of this approach seems to be limited for more serious cases. This study presented the clinical treatment of severe HSV necrotizing stromal keratitis (ulcer depth greater than half of the corneal stroma) by conjunctival flap covering surgery in 25 patients (25 eyes) combined with antivirus and corticosteroid treatment at Shandong Eye Hospital from January 2007 to December 2013. Clinical results showed that the mean best spectacle-corrected visual acuity improved from preoperative 20/333 to postoperative 20/40 (P < 0.05). All patients recovered ocular surface stabilization. There was recurrence in two eyes, which was cured with antiviral medication. Conjunctival flap covering combined with antivirus and corticosteroid treatment is effective in treating severe HSV necrotizing stromal keratitis. PMID:25785282

  12. Antiviral activity and mode of action of extracts from neem seed kernel against duck plague virus in vitro1.

    PubMed

    Xu, J; Song, X; Yin, Z Q; Cheng, A C; Jia, R Y; Deng, Y X; Ye, K C; Shi, C F; Lv, C; Zhang, W

    2012-11-01

    Four fractions obtained from alcohol extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica) seed kernel by column chromatography were investigated for antivirus activity against the duck plague virus (DPV) in vitro. Duck embryo fibroblasts (DEF) infected with DPV were treated with the neem seed kernel extracts, and the effect of antivirus was judged by 3-(4,5)-dimethylthiahiazo (-z-y1)-3,5-di-phenytetrazoliumromide colorimetric method assay and direct immunofluorescence assay. The mode of action was tested by the plaque reduction assay. The results showed that fractions 1 to 3 were inactive. The median inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of fraction 4 was 10.9 μg/mL and inhibited the virus protein expression in the direct immunofluorescence assay. In the plaque reduction assay, fraction 4 could significantly reduce the number of plaques compared with the negative control (P < 0.01) in all modes of action. This study indicated that the fourth fraction obtained from neem seed kernel could improve the viability of infected cells, and reduce the cytopathic effects caused by DPV and the amount of the virus protein expressed in virus-infected cells. The antiviral activity works in the whole process of virus infecting the normal cells. PMID:23091135

  13. Hydrochemical tracers in the middle Rio Grande Basin, USA: 1. Conceptualization of groundwater flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plummer, L. Niel; Bexfield, Laura M.; Anderholm, Scott K.; Sanford, Ward E.; Busenberg, Eurybiades

    zones hydro-chimiques reflète principalement la distribution moderne des charges hydrauliques mais est incohérente avec une dépression dans le niveau d'eau dans la partie centre-ouest du bassin, ce qui indique que cette dépression est un élément transitoire du système aquifère plutôt qu'un élément à long terme. Les âges radiocarbones ajustés aux réactions géochimiques et aux processus de mélange et d'évapotranspiration/dilution qui ont lieu dans l'aquifère sont presque identiques aux âges non ajustés et varient de la période moderne jusqu'à 30 ka. Les gradients d'âge établis à partir des nids de piézomètres s'étendent de 0.1 à 2 a cm-1 et suggèrent un taux de recharge d'environ 3 cm a-1 le long du front des montagnes à l'est et pour l'infiltration provenant du Rio Grande près d'Albuquerque. Il y a eu substantiellement moins de recharge le long du front des montagnes à l'est, au nord et au sud d'Albuquerque. Se utilizaron datos químicos e isotópicos de agua subterránea a lo largo de la cuenca central del río Grande, Nuevo México, EEUU, para identificar y mapear el flujo de agua subterránea de 12 fuentes de agua a la cuenca para evaluar edades por medio de radio carbon y para refinar el modelo conceptual del sistema acuífero del Grupo Santa Fé. Se puede establecer zonas hidrotérmicas que representan el flujo de agua subterránea a lo largo de miles a miles de decenas de años en grandes distancias a través del sistema acuífero principalmente siliclástico. Las ubicaciones de las zonas hidroquímicas mayormente reflejan la distribucion de la cabeza hidráulica pre-desarollo moderna pero son inconsistentes con una depresión en los niveles de agua pre-desarollo en la zona central oeste de la cuenca. Esto indica que esta depresión es un rasgo transitorio y no un rasgo de largo plazo del sistema acuífero. Las edades de radio carbon ajustadas para los procesos de reaciones geoquímicas, de mezclado y de evapotranspiraci

  14. The origin of increased salinity in the Cambrian-Vendian aquifer system on the Kopli Peninsula, northern Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karro, Enn; Marandi, Andres; Vaikmäe, Rein

    , qui renferme des eaux souterraines salines dans sa partie supérieure altérée et fissurée, et est hydrauliquement connecté avec l'aquifère supérieur du Cambrien-Vendien, est la deuxième importante source d'ions. Le soubassement fracturé et le matériel argileux de l'altération, renferme l'eau souterraine de type Ca-Cl, caractérisée par un haut TDS (2-20 g/l). A cause de la mobilisation intensive de l'eau les échanges d'eau souterraine est sont accélérés et la zone d'influence des pompages augmentent. Les études chimiques et isotopiques indiquent une contribution croissante du drainage des eaux du soubassement cristallin. L'intrusion d'eaux salées de la mer dans le système aquifère n'est pas un phénomène évident. El origen del incremento en salinidad en un sistema de acuíferos Cámbrico-Vendiano en la Península Kopli, norte de Estonie Monitoreo a largo plazo de un sistema de acuíferos confinados, de edad Cámbrico-Vendiano, que se utiliza como fuente de abastecimiento industrial en la Península Kopli, al norte de Estonie, revela cambios notables en la composición química del agua subterránea. Un incremento de 1.5 a 3 veces en TDS y en concentraciones de iones mayores en agua subterránea explotada ha sido ocasionado por bombeo fuerte. Las fuentes principales de carga disuelta en el agua subterránea Cámbrico-Vendiano son la lixiviación de la roca encajonante y los procesos geoquímicos que ocurren en la zona saturada. Basamento cristalino subyacente, que aloja agua subterránea salada en la parte superior intemperizada y fisurada, y está conectado hidráulicamente con el sistema acuífero Cámbrico-Vendiano sobreyacente, es la segunda fuente importante de iones. El basamento fracturado y su corteza de intemperismo arcillosa alojan agua subterránea de tipo Ca-Cl la cual se caracteriza por valores altos de TDS (2-20 g/l). Debido a extracción intensiva se ha acelerado el intercambio de agua subterránea y se ha incrementado el área de

  15. Memorias Conferencia Internacional IEEE Mexico 1971, Sobre Sistemas, Redes Y Computadoras. Volumen I and Volumen II. (Proceedings of International Conference of IEEE Concerning Systems, Networks, and Computers. Volume I and Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Concheiro, A. Alonso, Ed.; And Others

    The following papers in English from this international conference may be of particular interest to those in the field of education. T. Nakahara, A. Tsukamota, and M. Matsumoto describe a computer-aided design technique for an economical urban cable television system. W. D. Wasson and R. K. Chitkara outline a recognition scheme based on analysis…

  16. Investigacion educativa. El sistema escolar en sus diferentes niveles, factores que favorecen o frenan su eficacia y medidas de superacion (Educational Research. The Educational System at Different Levels; Factors Promoting or Hindering Its Efficiency; Possible Improvements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimenez Lozano, Blanca; And Others

    This document is an English-language abstract (Approximately 1,500 words) of a study on educational research in Mexico. Chapter one discusses the importance of educational research, in terms of its role both in scientific and technical development; it should use scientific methods so that it will have solid foundations. Chapter two is a survey of…

  17. Edades y metalicidades de cinco cúmulos estelares proyectados en dirección a la Nube Menor de Magallanes: implicaciones sobre los procesos de formación y evolución de estos sistemas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piatti, A. E.; Santos, J. F. C.; Clariá, J. J.; Bica, E.; Sarajedini, A.; Geisler, D.

    Washington photometry of the 5 star clusters Lindsay 32, Lindsay 38, Kron 28, Kron 44 and Lindsay 116 and their surrounding fields located towards the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) is presented for the first time. From the color-magnitude diagrams, cleaned from field stars contamination, the cluster and SMC field reddenings, ages and metallicities are determined. The ages - derived from the difference in the T1 magnitude betweem the giant clump and the Main Sequence turnoff point - vary between 2 and 6 Gyr, and the metallicities ([Fe/H]) between -1.65 and -1.10. Lindsay 116 is located closer to the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) than to the SMC and its fundamental parameters suggests a higher probability of belonging to the LMC. The results obtained in this work, combined with previous estimates of age and metallicity for other seven clusters, allow us to draw the following conclusions: (1) There does not exist an age-position relation in the SMC, but a age-metallicity one. (2) The chemical enrichment in the SMC has been very efficient during the last 5 Gyr. (3) The SMC clusters formation and evolution can be better represented by a bursting star formation process than by a continuum star formation mechanism.

  18. Self-Image Development: A Chicano Enfasis. Self-Programmed Counseling and Self-Programmed Control. Instructor's Guide = Desarrollo de la Imagen Propia: Enfasis en el Chicano. Sistema de Consejo y Control Auto-Programado. Manuel del Profesor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mireles, S. Raymond

    Self-Programmed Counseling, the instructor's guidance, and Self-Programmed Control (SPC), the student's response, was initially developed by Title III Project USTED (United Students and Teachers for Educational Development) for Mexican American students on academic probation to use on a non-credit, special group counseling basis. As part of a…

  19. Pautas para Organizar Una Actividad de Capacitacion: Un Seminario-Taller para el Desarrollo de Personal de Direccion de Sistemas Educativos (Guidelines to Organize a Training Activity: A Workshop for Management Development of Educational Systems).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valle, Victor M.

    Often personnel performing managerial functions within educational systems are educators with almost no training in management. This paper presents ideas on how to organize a training activity intended to develop management knowledge and skills among educational systems officials and to implement an organizational self-study on management…

  20. Instituto Nacional de Electrification, Guatemala Load Dispatch Center and Global Communications Center. Feasibility report (Instituto Nacional de Electrificacion, Guatemala Centro Nacional de Despacho de Carga y Sistema Global de Comunicaciones). Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-07-01

    The report presents the results of a feasibility study for the National Load Dispatch Center and Global Communications System Project in Guatemala. The project consists of a communication system which will provide Institute Nacional de Electrificacion (INDE) operations personnel direct voice access to all major power system facilities. In addition, a modern computer based load dispatch center has been configured on a secure and reliable basis to provide automatic generation control of all major interconnected generating plants within Guatemala.

  1. La Capacitacion de Docentes Como Prioridad de los Sistemas Educativos de America Latino y al Caribe (In-Service Teacher Training as a Priority of Latin American and Caribbean Educational Systems).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valle, Victor M.

    Whenever top-level officials in Latin American and Caribbean educational systems are approached, the topic of inservice teacher training is presented as a major priority. This paper outlines some ideas about the subject of inservice teacher training as a priority of educational systems in Latin American and Caribbean countries. The most frequent…

  2. "Buddy System": A Pedagogical Innovation to Promote Online Interaction (Sistema de amigos: una innovación pedagógica para fomentar la interacción en línea)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espitia Cruz, Martha Isabel; Kwinta, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Recent technological development has created new pedagogical practices in the EFL classroom to maximize the time for students to use the language by considering online tools. Whilst working in a pedagogical context with new technologies, some educators were concerned with how online interaction in EFL content-based classes could be effectively…

  3. Metric System Resource Units = Unidades de Trabajo del Sistema Metrico Decimal. K-12. Project C.A.M.B.I.O., Changing Attitudes towards Metrics for Bilingual Instruction & Operations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pulido, Josefina; Almendares, Simon

    Four resource units are included in this document. For each, general objectives on knowledge and concepts, skills, and attitudes are given; content is outlined; and some suggestions for initiating the unit are listed. The first unit, on measuring length, provides six lesson plans, to teach about the meter, the smaller units of the meter, units…

  4. Estudio de la interacción de mareas en sistemas exoplanetarios observados: Estimación de las probabilidades de captura en resonancias espín-órbita

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luna, S. H.; Melita, M. D.; Navone, H. D.

    2016-08-01

    This article is mainly concerned with the problem of determining the most likely rotation state of exoplanets HD 154088 b and HD 85512 b. To achieve this objective, Darwin-Kaula formalism is used in order to obtain expressions for the tidal torque. The triaxially caused torque of each planet is also considered. The description of the deformation is based on the Andrade rheology. Two methods are described for the estimation of the probability capture in the spin-orbit resonances , and ; these are the brute force method and the semi-analytic method. Due to the uncertainty in the values of the eccentricity, only the semi-analytic method was used to compute the probability of capture as a function of the eccentricity, covering its uncertainty range.

  5. Primera Reunion de la Comision Nacional de Analisis y Evaluacion del Sistema Educativo: Informe Final (The First Meeting of the National Committee for Analysis and Evaluation of the Educational System: Final Report).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministerio de Cultura y Educacion, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Centro National de Documentacion e Informacion Educativa.

    This document contains the legislation creating the National Committee for Analysis and Evaluation of the Educational System and the final report of that committee's first meeting. The report deals with each level from elementary to higher education. For each level it describes and considers curriculum, school buildings, human resources, current…

  6. Evolución de estrellas de Helio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panei, J. A.; Benvenuto, O. G.; Althaus, L. G.

    Podríamos identificar a las estrellas de helio con estrellas Wolf-Rayet (WR) que han perdido su envoltura rica en hidrógeno ya sea porque las mismas pertenecen a sistemas binarios o a través de fuertes vientos estelares. Las WR representan una etapa evolucionaria normal de las estrellas masivas, cuya pérdida de masa es >= 3 × 10-5Msolar/yr y la cual es sufrida por la estrella en un tiempo de escala mucho menor que el tiempo en que se produce la quema del He. Esto garantiza la ``homogeneidad'' de las estrellas de helio para nuestros modelos. Este tipo de estrellas serían posibles progenitores de SN tipo Ib y Ic. Aquí presentamos un estudio sobre la evolución de estrellas de helio a partir de la secuencia principal de helio, pasando por el flash de carbono, hasta agotarlo en la región central; como así también la dependencia con la variable masa y con la pérdida de la misma para distintos tipos de masas. Para tal fin hemos utilizado un código de evolución estelar completo que realiza todas las reacciones de Fowler en forma simultánea. También se han tenido en cuenta los procesos de mezcla convectiva, los principales mecanismos de emisión de neutrinos y los efectos de la pérdida de masa. Las opacidades utilizadas fueron las de Rogers & Iglesias (1992). Debido a la pérdida de masa en este tipo de estrellas, hemos encontrado que los perfiles convectivos, la composición química, las condiciones centrales de temperatura y presión, luminosidad y temperatura efectiva dependen en forma esencial de la velocidad de pérdida de masa adoptada, lo que tendría profundas implicaciones en la evolución posterior de estos objetos.

  7. Thanks to 70 years of Inter American Statistical cooperation, the world’s largest integrated census microdata dissemination site www.ipums.org/international

    PubMed Central

    McCAA, ROBERT

    2014-01-01

    Seventy years of Inter American Statistical cooperation, symbolized by the 70th anniversary of Estadística, made possible the construction of IPUMS-International, the world’s largest integrated census microdata dissemination site, www.ipums.org/international. Currently, the site offers access to 238 samples totaling over 540 million person records representing 74 countries. The Americas, which account for only about one-seventh of the world’s population, amount to over one-third (36%) of the person records in the IPUMS-International database. Likewise, 35% of the citations in the IPUMS-International bibliography are for studies focused on Latin America, with about half of these analyzing a single Latin American country. This article discusses salient features of the IPUMS integration methods and system. National Statistical Institutes that have not yet entrusted 2010 census microdata to the initiative are invited to do so. Researchers and teachers are invited to use the data freely in analysis and teaching. Setenta años de cooperación estadística inter-Americana, simbolizada por el 70 aniversario de la revista Estadística, han hecho posible la construcción de IPUMS-internacional, la base en línea de microdatos censales harmonizados más grande del mundo, www.ipums.org/international. Actualmente, IPUMS proporciona acceso a 238 muestras con más de 540 millones de registros individuales de 74 países. Las Américas, que albergan una séptima parte de la población mundial, representan más de un tercio (36%) de todos los registros individuales en la base de datos IPUMS-internacional. Asimismo, el 35% de todas las referencias en la bibliografía de IPUMS son de estudios realizados sobre América Latina, la mitad de éstas basadas en un sólo país de la región. Este artículo presenta las principales características del sistema de integración y difusión de datos de IPUMS. Los Institutos Nacionales de Estadísticas que todavía no ha entregado la muestra

  8. Evaluation of factors affecting plate waste of inpatients in different healthcare settings.

    PubMed

    Valero Díaz, Antonio; Caracuel García, Angel

    2013-01-01

    Introducción/objetivos: La satisfacción de los pacientes con el servicio de comidas continúa siendo uno de los principales retos dirigidos a la modernización de los sistemas de distribución de alimentos. En el presente estudio se evaluó el impacto del tipo de hospital, horario, categoría de alimento y tipo de menú sobre el desecho de comida producido en diferentes recintos hospitalarios espAÑOles. Métodos: El desecho de alimentos se midió a través de una escala semi-cuantitativa con 5 niveles para evaluar la aceptabilidad del alimento («nada en plato» «¼ en plato» «mitad en plato» «¾ en plato» y «todo en plato»). El estudio se llevó a cabo en dos periodos de tres meses cada uno durante 2010 y 2011. Una persona entrenada se encargó del pesaje de platos, los cuales se clasificaron en 726 servicios pertenecientes a 11 menús diferentes. En total, se sirvieron 31.392 platos a 7.868 pacientes. Como prueba estadística se utilizó un test estadístico no paramétrico de Kruskal-Wallis (p < 0,05). Resultados: Los menús se consumieron de forma satisfactoria ya que más del 50% de los platos se clasificaron dentro de la categoría «nada en plato». Con respecto a las categorías de alimento, un 26,78% de los platos servidos se correspondieron con sopas y purés, mientras que los platos de pasta, arroz y alimentos listos para el consumo fueron distribuidos en un 4-5% de los servicios. Los postres fueron los platos más consumidos, mientras que los vegetales hervidos fueron menos aceptados. Otros factores como el tipo de hospital influyeron sobre el desecho de alimentos (p < 0,05) aunque el horario de servicio de comidas no (p > 0,05). Conclusión: La inspección visual del desecho de alimentos puede ser útil a la hora de optimizar el tipo y calidad de los menús servidos. El tipo de menú y la categoría de alimento podrían tener una gran influencia sobre la aceptabilidad de los platos por los pacientes.

  9. Lekking behavior of Anastrepha Fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Segura, D.; Petit-Marty, N.; Cladera, J.; Sciurano, R.; Calcagno, G.; Gomez Cendra, P.; Vilardi, J.; Vera, T.; Allinghi, A.

    2007-03-15

    atraer a las hembras con el proposito de aparearse. Las hembras visitan el lek y eligen entre los machos para copular. La informacion acerca de los principales factores involucrados en la eleccion de la hembra y de la influencia del comportamiento de los machos en los leks en esta eleccion es escasa para A. fraterculus . Esta informacion es importante en el contexto de programas de control que incluyen la Tecnica del Insecto Esteril. En el presente estudio se evaluo el comportamiento sexual de machos de A. fraterculus dentro de los leks, y la asociacion de su comportamiento y de rasgos morfometricos con el exito copulatorio. El lugar preferido de agrupamiento de los machos fue evaluado en jaulas de campo con arboles en su interior y dividiendo el arbol en sectores de acuerdo a un sistema de tres dimensiones. Los machos fueron individualmente pesados, marcados y observados cada quince minutos. Luego de finalizado el ensayo se midieron los rasgos morfometricos. El mayor exito correspondio a machos agrupados en una region del arbol caracterizada por tener la mayor intensidad de luz en las dos primeras horas de la manana. Los resultados mostraron que la actividad de llamado con feromonas esta asociada con el exito copulatorio. Las copulas fueron mas frecuentes para machos que llamaron dentro del lek, indicando que la actividad de llamado con feromonas y la presencia dentro del lek son factores importantes en la obtencion de la copula. Los analisis morfometricos revelaron una asociacion positiva entre el exito copulatorio y el largo del ojo, y que algunas caracteristicas de la cara estan asociadas ademas con la duracion de la copula y la latencia. (author)

  10. Medicinal ethnobotany in Huacareta (Chuquisaca, Bolivia)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    used as a base for subsequent work related to traditional medicine and its contribution to allopathic medicine in San Pablo de Huacareta. Resumen Introducción El objetivo del presente estudio fue documentar los tipos de enfermedades tratadas mediante el uso de plantas medicinales, sus aplicaciones principales y también tener un reporte de las enfermedades mayormente atendidas en el Hospital de San Pablo de Huacareta (Chuquisaca, Bolivia). Métodos Se realizaron encuestas semiestructuradas a 10 informantes locales anotando los usos atribuidos a sus plantas medicinales, se agruparon las plantas por categorías de enfermedades tratadas en la medicina tradicional. Se obtuvieron reportes de casos tratados en el Hospital de Huacareta para poder relacionar el tratamiento de enfermedades recurrentes en la zona entre la medicina tradicional y la medicina occidental. Resultados Se reportaron 91 especies nativas y exóticas, además de un espécimen indeterminado exótico que intervienen en un total de 258 aplicaciones medicinales, las cuales son empleadas en un total de 13 categorías de enfermedades. Los desórdenes gastrointestinales (55%) son mayormente tratados mediante plantas medicinales, seguidas de las afecciones al sistema esqueleto-muscular (25%) y enfermedades dermatológicas (24%). La información del Hospital indica que las enfermedades más frecuentes son Infecciones Respiratorias Agudas (47%) y Enfermedades Diarreicas Agudas (37%). Los remedios vegetales se emplean en forma de infusiones y cocciones principalmente. Se emplean mayormente plantas nativas, también se introdujo en la farmacopea médica el uso de plantas exóticas al lugar. Conclusiones El tratamiento de trastornos gastrointestinales constituye el objetivo primordial de la etnobotánica médica de los habitantes de Huacareta, las enfermedades del sistema respiratorio, son mayormente tratadas en el Hospital. Observando los datos del libro de consultas del Hospital, se puede inferir que los des

  11. Deep PDF parsing to extract features for detecting embedded malware.

    SciTech Connect

    Munson, Miles Arthur; Cross, Jesse S.

    2011-09-01

    The number of PDF files with embedded malicious code has risen significantly in the past few years. This is due to the portability of the file format, the ways Adobe Reader recovers from corrupt PDF files, the addition of many multimedia and scripting extensions to the file format, and many format properties the malware author may use to disguise the presence of malware. Current research focuses on executable, MS Office, and HTML formats. In this paper, several features and properties of PDF Files are identified. Features are extracted using an instrumented open source PDF viewer. The feature descriptions of benign and malicious PDFs can be used to construct a machine learning model for detecting possible malware in future PDF files. The detection rate of PDF malware by current antivirus software is very low. A PDF file is easy to edit and manipulate because it is a text format, providing a low barrier to malware authors. Analyzing PDF files for malware is nonetheless difficult because of (a) the complexity of the formatting language, (b) the parsing idiosyncrasies in Adobe Reader, and (c) undocumented correction techniques employed in Adobe Reader. In May 2011, Esparza demonstrated that PDF malware could be hidden from 42 of 43 antivirus packages by combining multiple obfuscation techniques [4]. One reason current antivirus software fails is the ease of varying byte sequences in PDF malware, thereby rendering conventional signature-based virus detection useless. The compression and encryption functions produce sequences of bytes that are each functions of multiple input bytes. As a result, padding the malware payload with some whitespace before compression/encryption can change many of the bytes in the final payload. In this study we analyzed a corpus of 2591 benign and 87 malicious PDF files. While this corpus is admittedly small, it allowed us to test a system for collecting indicators of embedded PDF malware. We will call these indicators features throughout

  12. Une angiocholite secondaire à un thrombus tumoral d'une tumeur neuroendocrine primitive du foie

    PubMed Central

    Baba, Hicham; Allaoui, Mohamed; Elfahssi, Mohammed; Bounaim, Ahmed; Ali, Abdelmounaim Ait; Oukabli, Mohamed; Sair, Khalid; Zentar, Aziz

    2015-01-01

    Nous rapportons le cas exceptionnel d'une patiente de 54 ans prise en charge pour une angiocholite due à un thrombus tumoral, d'une tumeur neuroendocrine primitive (TNE Ive) du foie, dans la voie biliaire principale. PMID:26966504

  13. Hypocrellin B graft on activated carbon and photocatalytic oxidation of 2,3,5-trimethylphenol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei; Li, Ying; Zhang, Pei; Zhang, Jucheng; Min, Yong; Yi, Zhongzhou; Zhang, Canbang; Wu, Mingzhu; Chen, Rui

    2008-12-01

    Hypocrellin B, a photosensitizer isolated from Hypocrella Bambuase sacc in Yunnan province, has significant anti-tumor and anti-virus character. In this article, hypocrellin B, which was grafted on activated carbon, was used as photocatalysts to catalytic oxidize 2,3,5-trimethylphenol to 2,3,5-trimethylhydrobenzoquinone because of its high photons efficiency. This study realized nearly 100% selectivity for 2,3,5-trimethylhydrobenzoquinone under visible light irradiation (>400nm) at aerobic atmosphere. The photocatalytic oxidation process has been studied by different parameters like the pretreatment of activated carbon, synthetic mehtod of grafted hypocrellin, and photo-assisted oxidation catalysis of 2,3,5-trimethylphenol to 2,3,5-trimethylhdrobenzoquinone. Compared to the conventional methods, this process could be more eco-friendly.

  14. Design, synthesis, and molecular hybrids of caudatin and cinnamic acids as novel anti-hepatitis B virus agents.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Jun; Geng, Chang-An; Ma, Yun-Bao; Luo, Jie; Huang, Xiao-Yan; Chen, Hao; Zhou, Ning-Jia; Zhang, Xue-Mei; Chen, Ji-Jun

    2012-08-01

    Forty-six conjugated derivatives of caudatin with substituted cinnamic acids were synthesized, and their anti-hepatitis B virus (HBV) activity was evaluated in HepG 2.2.15 cells. Most of the derivatives exhibited potent anti-HBV activity, especially inhibiting the HBV DNA replication with the IC(50) values from 2.44 to 22.89 μΜ. Compound 18 showed significant activity against the secretion of HBsAg, HBeAg, and HBV DNA replication with IC(50) values of 5.52, 5.52, 2.44 μΜ, respectively, and had good safety (LD(50) > 1250 mg/kg) according to the acute toxicity study. Preliminary mechanism investigation suggested that compound 18 exerted antivirus effects via interfering HBV X promoter and enhancer I to influence HBV transcriptions.

  15. Global dynamics of a novel multi-group model for computer worms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Yong-Wang; Song, Yu-Rong; Jiang, Guo-Ping

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, we study worm dynamics in computer networks composed of many autonomous systems. A novel multi-group SIQR (susceptible-infected-quarantined-removed) model is proposed for computer worms by explicitly considering anti-virus measures and the network infrastructure. Then, the basic reproduction number of worm R0 is derived and the global dynamics of the model are established. It is shown that if R0 is less than or equal to 1, the disease-free equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable and the worm dies out eventually, whereas, if R0 is greater than 1, one unique endemic equilibrium exists and it is globally asymptotically stable, thus the worm persists in the network. Finally, numerical simulations are given to illustrate the theoretical results.

  16. SYNTHESIS, ANTI-HEPATITIS B AND C VIRUS ACTIVITY AND ANTITUMOR SCREENING OF NOVEL THIAZOLO[4,5-D]-PYRIMIDINE DERIVATIVES.

    PubMed

    Becan, Lilianna; Wójcicka, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The paper describes the synthesis, antivirus and antitumor evaluation of novel thiazolo[4,5-d]pyrim- idine derivatives. The target compounds 3a-h were synthesized by cyclocondensation of 4-amino-N'-(phenyl- methylidene)-3-phenyl-2-thioxo-2,3-dihydrothiazole-5-carbohydrazides 2a-d with aromatic aldehydes. The structures of new compounds were determined by IR, ¹H-NMR and elemental analysis. Thiazolopyrimidines 3a and 3d-h were screened by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases against various viruses. Four compounds 3e-h showed in vitro anti-HCV activity. One (3e) demonstrated significant activity against HBV and was submitted to an anti-HBV in vivo assay but had a low bioavailability. As a result of antitumor study, compound 3h was found to be most potent against leukemia SR. PMID:27008805

  17. Studying classical swine fever virus: making the best of a bad virus.

    PubMed

    Ji, Wei; Guo, Zhen; Ding, Nai-Zheng; He, Cheng-Qiang

    2015-02-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is a highly contagious and often fatal disease that affects domestic pigs and wild boars. Outbreak of CSF can cause heavy economic losses to the pig industry. The strategies to prevent, control and eradicate CSF disease are based on containing the disease through a systematic prophylactic vaccination policy and a non-vaccination stamping-out policy. The quest for prevention, control and eradication of CSF has moved research forward in academia and industry, and has produced noticeable advances in understanding fundamental aspects of the virus replication mechanisms, virulence, and led to the development of new vaccines. In this review we summarize recent progress in CSFV epidemiology, molecular features of the genome and proteome, the molecular basis of virulence, and the development of anti-virus technologies.

  18. Design of Cyber Attack Precursor Symptom Detection Algorithm through System Base Behavior Analysis and Memory Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Sungmo; Kim, Jong Hyun; Cagalaban, Giovanni; Lim, Ji-Hoon; Kim, Seoksoo

    More recently, botnet-based cyber attacks, including a spam mail or a DDos attack, have sharply increased, which poses a fatal threat to Internet services. At present, antivirus businesses make it top priority to detect malicious code in the shortest time possible (Lv.2), based on the graph showing a relation between spread of malicious code and time, which allows them to detect after malicious code occurs. Despite early detection, however, it is not possible to prevent malicious code from occurring. Thus, we have developed an algorithm that can detect precursor symptoms at Lv.1 to prevent a cyber attack using an evasion method of 'an executing environment aware attack' by analyzing system behaviors and monitoring memory.

  19. The effect of infected external computers on the spread of viruses: A compartment modeling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lu-Xing; Yang, Xiaofan

    2013-12-01

    Inevitably, there exist infected computers outside of the Internet. This paper aims to understand how infected external computers affect the spread of computer viruses. For that purpose, a new virus-antivirus spreading model, which takes into account the effect of infected/immune external computers, is established. A systematic study shows that, unlike most previous models, the proposed model admits no virus-free equilibrium and admits a globally asymptotically stable viral equilibrium. This result implies that it would be practically impossible to eradicate viruses on the Internet. As a result, inhibiting the virus prevalence to below an acceptable level would be the next best thing. A theoretical study reveals the effect of different parameters on the steady virus prevalence. On this basis, a number of suggestions are made so as to contain virus spreading.

  20. The Unknown Computer Viruses Detection Based on Similarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhongda; Nakaya, Naoshi; Koui, Yuuji

    New computer viruses are continually being generated and they cause damage all over the world. In general, current anti-virus software detects viruses by matching a pattern based on the signature; thus, unknown viruses without any signature cannot be detected. Although there are some static analysis technologies that do not depend on signatures, virus writers often use code obfuscation techniques, which make it difficult to execute a code analysis. As is generally known, unknown viruses and known viruses share a common feature. In this paper we propose a new static analysis technology that can circumvent code obfuscation to extract the common feature and detect unknown viruses based on similarity. The results of evaluation experiments demonstrated that this technique is able to detect unknown viruses without false positives.

  1. A study of malware detection on smart mobile devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Wei; Zhang, Hanlin; Xu, Guobin

    2013-05-01

    The growing in use of smart mobile devices for everyday applications has stimulated the spread of mobile malware, especially on popular mobile platforms. As a consequence, malware detection becomes ever more critical in sustaining the mobile market and providing a better user experience. In this paper, we review the existing malware and detection schemes. Using real-world malware samples with known signatures, we evaluate four popular commercial anti-virus tools and our data shows that these tools can achieve high detection accuracy. To deal with the new malware with unknown signatures, we study the anomaly based detection using decision tree algorithm. We evaluate the effectiveness of our detection scheme using malware and legitimate software samples. Our data shows that the detection scheme using decision tree can achieve a detection rate up to 90% and a false positive rate as low as 10%.

  2. Interaction of nanodiamonds materials with influenza viruses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, V. T.; Ivanova, M. V.; Spitsyn, B. V.; Garina, K. O.; Trushakova, S. V.; Manykin, A. A.; Korzhenevsky, A. P.; Burseva, E. I.

    2012-02-01

    The perspectives of the application of modern materials contained nanodiamonds (ND) are considered in this study. The interaction between detonation paniculate ND, soot and influenza A and B viruses, fragments of cDNA were analyzed at the normal conditions. It was shown that these sorbents can interact with the following viruses: reference epidemic strains of influenza A(H1N1), A(H1N1)v, A(H3N2) and B viruses circulated in the word in 2000-2010. The allantoises, concentrated viruses, cDNA can be absorbed by ND sorbents and getting removed from water solutions within 20 min. ND sorbents can be used for the preparation of antivirus filters for water solution and for future diagnostic systems in virology.

  3. The research progress of antitumorous effectiveness of Stichopus japonicus acid mucopolysaccharide in north of China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yun; Wang, Bao-Lei

    2009-03-01

    The sea cucumbers growing in the estuary of the Pohai of northern China are called Stichopus japonicus and are the orthodox holothurians in traditional Chinese medicine. There are multiple biological active ingredients in S. japonicus, and S. japonicus acid mucopolysaccharide (SJAMP) is one of the important ingredients. SJAMP has multiple pharmacologic actions, such as antitumor, immunologic regulation, anticoagulated blood, and antivirus. The research on antitumor has been carried out by way of animal experiments aiming at studying internal tumor-inhibiting effect of SJAMP, and the route of administration is usually peritoneal or intragastric. Additionally, sea cucumbers have been widely recognized and applied as medicated food or therapeutic prescriptions during and after the treatment of some tumors.

  4. A Study on Architecture of Malicious Code Blocking Scheme with White List in Smartphone Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kijeong; Tolentino, Randy S.; Park, Gil-Cheol; Kim, Yong-Tae

    Recently, the interest and demands for mobile communications are growing so fast because of the increasing prevalence of smartphones around the world. In addition, the existing feature phones were replaced by smartphones and it has widely improved while using the explosive growth of Internet users using smartphones, e-commerce enabled Internet banking transactions and the importance of protecting personal information. Therefore, the development of smartphones antivirus products was developed and launched in order to prevent malicious code or virus infection. In this paper, we proposed a new scheme to protect the smartphone from malicious codes and malicious applications that are element of security threats in mobile environment and to prevent information leakage from malicious code infection. The proposed scheme is based on the white list smartphone application which only allows installing authorized applications and to prevent the installation of malicious and untrusted mobile applications which can possibly infect the applications and programs of smartphones.

  5. Access Control of Web and Java Based Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tso, Kam S.; Pajevski, Michael J.; Johnson, Bryan

    2011-01-01

    Cyber security has gained national and international attention as a result of near continuous headlines from financial institutions, retail stores, government offices and universities reporting compromised systems and stolen data. Concerns continue to rise as threats of service interruption, and spreading of viruses become ever more prevalent and serious. Controlling access to application layer resources is a critical component in a layered security solution that includes encryption, firewalls, virtual private networks, antivirus, and intrusion detection. In this paper we discuss the development of an application-level access control solution, based on an open-source access manager augmented with custom software components, to provide protection to both Web-based and Java-based client and server applications.

  6. Lack of security of networked medical equipment in radiology.

    PubMed

    Moses, Vinu; Korah, Ipeson

    2015-02-01

    OBJECTIVE. There are few articles in the literature describing the security and safety aspects of networked medical equipment in radiology departments. Most radiologists are unaware of the security issues. We review the security of the networked medical equipment of a typical radiology department. MATERIALS AND METHODS. All networked medical equipment in a radiology department was scanned for vulnerabilities with a port scanner and a network vulnerability scanner, and the vulnerabilities were classified using the Common Vulnerability Scoring System. A network sniffer was used to capture and analyze traffic on the radiology network for exposure of confidential patient data. We reviewed the use of antivirus software and firewalls on the networked medical equipment. USB ports and CD and DVD drives in the networked medical equipment were tested to see whether they allowed unauthorized access. Implementation of the virtual private network (VPN) that vendors use to access the radiology network was reviewed. RESULTS. Most of the networked medical equipment in our radiology department used vulnerable software with open ports and services. Of the 144 items scanned, 64 (44%) had at least one critical vulnerability, and 119 (83%) had at least one high-risk vulnerability. Most equipment did not encrypt traffic and allowed capture of confidential patient data. Of the 144 items scanned, two (1%) used antivirus software and three (2%) had a firewall enabled. The USB ports were not secure on 49 of the 58 (84%) items with USB ports, and the CD or DVD drive was not secure on 17 of the 31 (55%) items with a CD or DVD drive. One of three vendors had an insecure implementation of VPN access. CONCLUSION. Radiologists and the medical industry need to urgently review and rectify the security issues in existing networked medical equipment. We hope that the results of our study and this article also raise awareness among radiologists about the security issues of networked medical equipment.

  7. Lack of security of networked medical equipment in radiology.

    PubMed

    Moses, Vinu; Korah, Ipeson

    2015-02-01

    OBJECTIVE. There are few articles in the literature describing the security and safety aspects of networked medical equipment in radiology departments. Most radiologists are unaware of the security issues. We review the security of the networked medical equipment of a typical radiology department. MATERIALS AND METHODS. All networked medical equipment in a radiology department was scanned for vulnerabilities with a port scanner and a network vulnerability scanner, and the vulnerabilities were classified using the Common Vulnerability Scoring System. A network sniffer was used to capture and analyze traffic on the radiology network for exposure of confidential patient data. We reviewed the use of antivirus software and firewalls on the networked medical equipment. USB ports and CD and DVD drives in the networked medical equipment were tested to see whether they allowed unauthorized access. Implementation of the virtual private network (VPN) that vendors use to access the radiology network was reviewed. RESULTS. Most of the networked medical equipment in our radiology department used vulnerable software with open ports and services. Of the 144 items scanned, 64 (44%) had at least one critical vulnerability, and 119 (83%) had at least one high-risk vulnerability. Most equipment did not encrypt traffic and allowed capture of confidential patient data. Of the 144 items scanned, two (1%) used antivirus software and three (2%) had a firewall enabled. The USB ports were not secure on 49 of the 58 (84%) items with USB ports, and the CD or DVD drive was not secure on 17 of the 31 (55%) items with a CD or DVD drive. One of three vendors had an insecure implementation of VPN access. CONCLUSION. Radiologists and the medical industry need to urgently review and rectify the security issues in existing networked medical equipment. We hope that the results of our study and this article also raise awareness among radiologists about the security issues of networked medical equipment

  8. Logistic model for determining factors associated with HIV infection among blood donor candidates at the Fundação HEMOPE

    PubMed Central

    Queiroz, Niedja Maristone Barreto; Sampaio, Divaldo de Almeida; Santos, Eufrázio de Souza; Bezerra, Ana Cristina de Souza

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine factors associated with HIV infection in blood donor candidates in Recife, Brazil. Methods A transversal study was performed of 106,203 blood donor candidates found eligible by the routine clinical screening process in the blood bank in Recife of the Fundação de Hematologia e Hemoterapia de Pernambuco (HEMOPE) in the period from January 1998 to November 2003. Additional indirect immune and western blot confirmation tests for HIV infection were performed and the candidates were classified as HIV positive or negative. The Chi-squared test and stepwise multiple logistic regression were conducted to examine any association between HIV infection and age, gender, place of residence, schooling, number of donations and serological tests for core hepatitis B antigen virus (anti-HBc), the hepatitis C antivirus (anti-HCV), human T-type antivirus lymph cells (anti-HTLV 1 and 2), serological tests for syphilis (VDRL) and the hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg). Results In the observed sample, 0.204% of blood donor candidates were found to be HIV positive. Among the studied variables, the age, education level, residency, donation type, and serologic status for anti-HBc and VDRL tests were found to be associated with HIV infection. Conclusions The younger, spontaneous donor candidates living in the Recife metropolitan area with a low level of education and positive for anti-HBc and VDRL have an higher risk of HIV infection than the other candidates. Data such as these are useful to understand the dynamics of infection and to guide healthcare policies. PMID:23049423

  9. Three-dimensional mathematical model to simulate groundwater flow in the lower Palar River basin, southern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senthilkumar, M.; Elango, L.

    principales en el río, además de numerosos pozos distribuidos por la zona. El modelo simula el flujo de las aguas subterráneas en una superficie de 392 km2 por medio de 70 filas, 40 columnas y 2 capas. El modelo ha sido empleado en condiciones transitorias, por medio de la aproximación en diferencias finitas de las ecuaciones diferenciales parciales en tres dimensiones del flujo en el acuífero durante el período 1991-2001. Se ha calibrado el modelo en condiciones permanentes y transitorias. El ajuste entre los niveles calculados y medidos es razonable. A partir de los resultados de la modelación, se ha obtenido que el sistema acuífero es estable con la tasa de bombeo utilizada, exceptuando unos pocos emplazamientos a lo largo de la costa, donde se ha dado lugar a fenómenos de intrusión marina en una distancia de 50-100 m. El modelo transitorio ha sido ejecutado hasta el año 2010 para predecir el flujo dinámico bajo diversos escenarios de sobreexplotación y de reducción de la recarga. Se produce una disminución en los niveles piezométricos de 0.6 a 0.8 m en la zona oriental, donde el sistema acuífero está sometido a una extracción adicional de 2 millones de galones por día en la estación principal de bombeo. Incluso con las extracciones actuales, los niveles piezométricos se sitúan bajo el nivel del mar durante las épocas secas. El modelo predice el comportamiento de este sistema acuífero bajo varias condiciones de presión hidrológica.

  10. Relation of streams, lakes, and wetlands to groundwater flow systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, Thomas C.

    hydrologiques associés aux eaux de surface elles-mêmes, tels que des niveaux d'eau de surface saisonnièrement hauts et l'évaporation et la transpiration de l'eau souterraine à la périphérie des eaux de surface, sont les causes essentielles de la dynamique complexe et saisonnière des nappes associées aux eaux de surface. Ces processus ont été mis en évidence sur des sites de recherche dans des formations glaciaires, dunaires, littorales, fluviales et de karst couvert. Resumen Los cuerpos de aguas superficiales son partes integrales de los sistemas de flujo subterráneo. El agua subterránea interactúa con la superficial en prácticamente todo tipo de paisajes, desde pequeños torrentes, lagos y humedales, hasta grandes valles fluviales y costas. Aunque se suele asumir que las áreas topográficamente elevadas son zonas de recarga de aguas subterráneas, mientras las áreas topográficamente más bajas lo son de descarga, esto es cierto básicamente para los sistemas de flujo regional. Al superponer los sistemas de flujo local, asociados a los cuerpos de agua superficial, a las condiciones regionales, resultan interacciones complejas, y esto ocurre independientemente de su posición topográfica. Los procesos hidrológicos asociados con los propios cuerpos de agua superficial, como los niveles superficiales máximos estacionales y la evapotranspiración de agua subterránea en los perímetros de cuerpos superficiales, son una de las principales causas de la complejidad y de las variaciones dinámicas de las interacciones entre aguas subterráneas y superficiales. Estos procesos se han documentado en distintas zonas investigadas, incluyendo depósitos glaciares, dunas, áreas costeras, karsts y terrazas fluviales.

  11. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Molina Recio, Guillermo; Moreno Rojas, Rafael; García Rodríguez, María; Vaquero Abellán, Manuel

    2016-02-16

    Introducción: un gran número de encuestas nutricionales en Perú han identificado la magnitud y la ubicación de los diferentes tipos de desnutrición, siendo la forma crónica la más prevalente. Sin embargo, aunque las tasas pueden considerarse alarmantes (aún más en las zonas rurales), sólo un trabajo contiene información sobre las características de la ingesta, usando recordatorios de 24 horas (R24). Es decir, se carece de otros sistemas de estudio centrados en conocer las características gastronómicas de sus regiones y la biodisponibilidad de los alimentos, con el fin de localizar el origen de esta situación en cada área y proponer soluciones verdaderamente eficaces y eficientes.Objetivo: determinar el valor nutricional de los platos principales consumidos por los residentes de un barrio pobre de la Amazonía Peruana, para identificar las causas de la pérdida de un estado nutricional saludable.Métodos: noventa y ocho participantes completaron tres R24. Basándonos en estos datos, se seleccionaron los 25 platos más comúnmente consumidos y evaluamos su composición nutricional. Tomamos nota de las recetas, pesos y medidas caseras. Además, se observó la preparación y cocción. La composición nutricional media de cada plato se calculó por 100 g utilizando el software Nutriplato 4.6. También se calcularon lasganancias o pérdidas derivadas de los tratamientos culinarios.Resultados: dentro de los platos basados en la leche, el de más alta densidad de energía es el mingado de arroz. En el grupo de los pescados, la mayor cantidad de energía es aportada por el pescado frito, mientras que en las recetas a base de carne, las más energéticas son el tallarín con pollo, la res asada y el cerdo frito. Como platos preparados, el juane tiene la más alta densidad de energía de todas las recetas. Dentro de las guarniciones, aquellas que utilizan los plátanos como el ingrediente principal, el plátano frito y el madurito, son las más energ

  12. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Molina Recio, Guillermo; Moreno Rojas, Rafael; García Rodríguez, María; Vaquero Abellán, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: un gran número de encuestas nutricionales en Perú han identificado la magnitud y la ubicación de los diferentes tipos de desnutrición, siendo la forma crónica la más prevalente. Sin embargo, aunque las tasas pueden considerarse alarmantes (aún más en las zonas rurales), sólo un trabajo contiene información sobre las características de la ingesta, usando recordatorios de 24 horas (R24). Es decir, se carece de otros sistemas de estudio centrados en conocer las características gastronómicas de sus regiones y la biodisponibilidad de los alimentos, con el fin de localizar el origen de esta situación en cada área y proponer soluciones verdaderamente eficaces y eficientes.Objetivo: determinar el valor nutricional de los platos principales consumidos por los residentes de un barrio pobre de la Amazonía Peruana, para identificar las causas de la pérdida de un estado nutricional saludable.Métodos: noventa y ocho participantes completaron tres R24. Basándonos en estos datos, se seleccionaron los 25 platos más comúnmente consumidos y evaluamos su composición nutricional. Tomamos nota de las recetas, pesos y medidas caseras. Además, se observó la preparación y cocción. La composición nutricional media de cada plato se calculó por 100 g utilizando el software Nutriplato 4.6. También se calcularon lasganancias o pérdidas derivadas de los tratamientos culinarios.Resultados: dentro de los platos basados en la leche, el de más alta densidad de energía es el mingado de arroz. En el grupo de los pescados, la mayor cantidad de energía es aportada por el pescado frito, mientras que en las recetas a base de carne, las más energéticas son el tallarín con pollo, la res asada y el cerdo frito. Como platos preparados, el juane tiene la más alta densidad de energía de todas las recetas. Dentro de las guarniciones, aquellas que utilizan los plátanos como el ingrediente principal, el plátano frito y el madurito, son las más energ

  13. Self-Programmed Counseling and Self-Programmed Control Manual. A Guide to Self-Image Development with Emphasis on the Chicano Student. Student's Guide = Manual de Sistema de Consejo Auto Programado y Control Auto Programado. Una Guia Para el Desarrollo de La Imagen Propia Con un Enfasis en el Estudiante Chicano.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mireles, S. Raymond

    Self-Programmed Counseling, the instructor's guidance, and Self-Programmed Control (SPC), the student's response, was initially developed by Title III Project USTED (United Students and Teachers for Educational Development) for Mexican American college students on academic probation to use on a non-credit, special group counseling basis. As part…

  14. Comparing Teaching Styles and Personality Types of EFL Instructors in the Public and Private Sectors (Una comparación de los estilos de enseñanza y los tipos de personalidad de profesores de inglés de los sistemas educativos estatal y privado)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz Larenas, Claudio H.; Rodriguez Moran, Andrea Victoria; Poblete Rivera, Karen Jocelyn

    2011-01-01

    This is an exploratory non-experimental research study whose main objective is to compare the teaching styles of a group of thirty teachers of English working in either public or private secondary education in Chile. In order to collect the required data, two instruments were administered to the participants: a teaching style inventory and a…

  15. Para Candidatos en Programas de Centros de Cuidado y Educacion Infantil con Ninos de Edad Pre-escolar: Asociado en Desarrollo Infantil Sistema de Evaluacion y Normas de Competencia CDA (Preschool Caregivers in Center-Based Programs: The Child Development Associate Assessment System and Competency Standards).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Early Childhood Professional Recognition, Washington, DC.

    This Spanish-language booklet outlines the requirements of the Child Development Associate (CDA) credential for preschool teachers or caregivers who work in center-based preschool day care programs. Part 1 provides an overview of the CDA credentialing system and the various options, settings, standards, and stages of the CDA assessment system.…

  16. Para Candidatos en Programas de Centros de Cuidado y Educacion Infantil con Bebes y "Toddlers": Asociado en Desarrollo Infantil Sistema de Evaluacion y Normas de Competencia CDA (Infant/Toddler Caregivers in Center-Based Programs: The Child Development Associate Assessment System and Competency Standards).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Early Childhood Professional Recognition, Washington, DC.

    This Spanish-language booklet outlines the requirements of the Child Development Associate (CDA) credential for caregivers working in center-based infant and toddler day care programs. Part 1 provides an overview of the CDA credentialing system and the various options, settings, standards, and stages of the CDA assessment system. Part 2 explains…

  17. Approaches to optimal aquifer management and intelligent control in a multiresolutional decision support system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orr, Shlomo; Meystel, Alexander M.

    2005-03-01

    Despite remarkable new developments in stochastic hydrology and adaptations of advanced methods from operations research, stochastic control, and artificial intelligence, solutions of complex real-world problems in hydrogeology have been quite limited. The main reason is the ultimate reliance on first-principle models that lead to complex, distributed-parameter partial differential equations (PDE) on a given scale. While the addition of uncertainty, and hence, stochasticity or randomness has increased insight and highlighted important relationships between uncertainty, reliability, risk, and their effect on the cost function, it has also (a) introduced additional complexity that results in prohibitive computer power even for just a single uncertain/random parameter; and (b) led to the recognition in our inability to assess the full uncertainty even when including all uncertain parameters. A paradigm shift is introduced: an adaptation of new methods of intelligent control that will relax the dependency on rigid, computer-intensive, stochastic PDE, and will shift the emphasis to a goal-oriented, flexible, adaptive, multiresolutional decision support system (MRDS) with strong unsupervised learning (oriented towards anticipation rather than prediction) and highly efficient optimization capability, which could provide the needed solutions of real-world aquifer management problems. The article highlights the links between past developments and future optimization/planning/control of hydrogeologic systems. Malgré de remarquables nouveaux développements en hydrologie stochastique ainsi que de remarquables adaptations de méthodes avancées pour les opérations de recherche, le contrôle stochastique, et l'intelligence artificielle, solutions pour les problèmes complexes en hydrogéologie sont restées assez limitées. La principale raison est l'ultime confiance en les modèles qui conduisent à des équations partielles complexes aux paramètres distribués (PDE) à une

  18. Geostatistical mapping of leakance in a regional aquitard, Oak Ridges Moraine area, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desbarats, A. J.; Hinton, M. J.; Logan, C. E.; Sharpe, D. R.

    2001-01-01

    'imperméable, dans le but d'évaluer l'importance relative des processus d'alimentation des aquifères inférieurs. À partir d'une vaste base de données constituée par les mesures faites dans les puits et contenant des informations à la fois certaines et incertaines, la méthode de simulation par indicateur séquentiel est utilisée pour créer des cartes d'épaisseur de l'imperméable et de probabilité d'existence des fenêtres. Ces cartes peuvent être utilisées pour mettre en évidence les aquifères de chenaux et pour identifier les zones potentielles de recharge des aquifères inférieurs. Les conductivités hydrauliques sont modélisées à partir de données clairsemées en supposant que leur gamme de corrélation est beaucoup plus faible que le pas de la grille. La drainance à l'échelle des blocs est obtenue par accroissement du niveau d'échelle des valeurs nodales basé sur les champs de conductivité simulée et des épaisseurs. À partir de l'hypothèse d'écoulement dans l'aquifère, l'accroissement d'échelle est réalisé en faisant une moyenne arithmétique spatiale. Des histogrammes et des cartes de drainance avec accroissement d'échelle montrent que les hétérogénéités associées aux fenêtres dans l'imperméable constituent l'effet le plus important dans l'organisation des écoulements souterrains régionaux. Resumen. El Till de Newmarket forma un acuitardo de extensión regional que separa dos sistemas acuíferos principales en la zona de Greater Toronto (Canadá). El till está horadado, y a veces completamente erosionado, por una red de canales rellenos de arena y grava. Estos constituyen acuíferos productivos y, localmente, conexiones de alta permeabilidad entre sistemas acuíferos. El goteo a través del till puede ser fundamental en ciertos lugares. Este estudio investiga la variabilidad espacial del goteo desde el acuitardo con el fin de establecer la importancia relativa de los procesos de recarga hacia los acuíferos inferiores. Se ha

  19. Medicinal ethnobotany in Huacareta (Chuquisaca, Bolivia)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    used as a base for subsequent work related to traditional medicine and its contribution to allopathic medicine in San Pablo de Huacareta. Resumen Introducción El objetivo del presente estudio fue documentar los tipos de enfermedades tratadas mediante el uso de plantas medicinales, sus aplicaciones principales y también tener un reporte de las enfermedades mayormente atendidas en el Hospital de San Pablo de Huacareta (Chuquisaca, Bolivia). Métodos Se realizaron encuestas semiestructuradas a 10 informantes locales anotando los usos atribuidos a sus plantas medicinales, se agruparon las plantas por categorías de enfermedades tratadas en la medicina tradicional. Se obtuvieron reportes de casos tratados en el Hospital de Huacareta para poder relacionar el tratamiento de enfermedades recurrentes en la zona entre la medicina tradicional y la medicina occidental. Resultados Se reportaron 91 especies nativas y exóticas, además de un espécimen indeterminado exótico que intervienen en un total de 258 aplicaciones medicinales, las cuales son empleadas en un total de 13 categorías de enfermedades. Los desórdenes gastrointestinales (55%) son mayormente tratados mediante plantas medicinales, seguidas de las afecciones al sistema esqueleto-muscular (25%) y enfermedades dermatológicas (24%). La información del Hospital indica que las enfermedades más frecuentes son Infecciones Respiratorias Agudas (47%) y Enfermedades Diarreicas Agudas (37%). Los remedios vegetales se emplean en forma de infusiones y cocciones principalmente. Se emplean mayormente plantas nativas, también se introdujo en la farmacopea médica el uso de plantas exóticas al lugar. Conclusiones El tratamiento de trastornos gastrointestinales constituye el objetivo primordial de la etnobotánica médica de los habitantes de Huacareta, las enfermedades del sistema respiratorio, son mayormente tratadas en el Hospital. Observando los datos del libro de consultas del Hospital, se puede inferir que los des

  20. Geostatistical mapping of leakance in a regional aquitard, Oak Ridges Moraine area, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desbarats, A. J.; Hinton, M. J.; Logan, C. E.; Sharpe, D. R.

    2001-01-01

    'imperméable, dans le but d'évaluer l'importance relative des processus d'alimentation des aquifères inférieurs. À partir d'une vaste base de données constituée par les mesures faites dans les puits et contenant des informations à la fois certaines et incertaines, la méthode de simulation par indicateur séquentiel est utilisée pour créer des cartes d'épaisseur de l'imperméable et de probabilité d'existence des fenêtres. Ces cartes peuvent être utilisées pour mettre en évidence les aquifères de chenaux et pour identifier les zones potentielles de recharge des aquifères inférieurs. Les conductivités hydrauliques sont modélisées à partir de données clairsemées en supposant que leur gamme de corrélation est beaucoup plus faible que le pas de la grille. La drainance à l'échelle des blocs est obtenue par accroissement du niveau d'échelle des valeurs nodales basé sur les champs de conductivité simulée et des épaisseurs. À partir de l'hypothèse d'écoulement dans l'aquifère, l'accroissement d'échelle est réalisé en faisant une moyenne arithmétique spatiale. Des histogrammes et des cartes de drainance avec accroissement d'échelle montrent que les hétérogénéités associées aux fenêtres dans l'imperméable constituent l'effet le plus important dans l'organisation des écoulements souterrains régionaux. Resumen. El Till de Newmarket forma un acuitardo de extensión regional que separa dos sistemas acuíferos principales en la zona de Greater Toronto (Canadá). El till está horadado, y a veces completamente erosionado, por una red de canales rellenos de arena y grava. Estos constituyen acuíferos productivos y, localmente, conexiones de alta permeabilidad entre sistemas acuíferos. El goteo a través del till puede ser fundamental en ciertos lugares. Este estudio investiga la variabilidad espacial del goteo desde el acuitardo con el fin de establecer la importancia relativa de los procesos de recarga hacia los acuíferos inferiores. Se ha

  1. [Evaluation of two closed-system drug transfer device in the antineoplastic drug elaboration process].

    PubMed

    Gómez-Álvarez, Sandra; Porta-Oltra, Begoña; Hernandez-Griso, Marta; Pérez-Labaña, Francisca; Climente-Martí, Mónica

    2016-01-01

    Objetivo: evaluar el impacto del uso de dos sistemas cerrados sobre el proceso de preparación de quimioterapia parenteral, con respecto al sistema estándar, en términos de contaminación local y ambiental, y tiempos de preparación. Método: estudio observacional prospectivo. Se compararon dos proveedores distintos de sistemas cerrados, Icu Medical® y Care Fusion®, frente al sistema estándar de preparación de quimioterapia parenteral. Quince enfermeros del Servicio de Farmacia elaboraron cada uno de ellos 5 preparaciones, una siguiendo el procedimiento estándar y cuatro usando los sistemas cerrados. Para evaluar la aparición de contaminación se elaboró una solución de fluoresceína al 0,5%. Se evaluaron dos tipos de contaminación: local (en tres puntos: sistema acoplado a vial, jeringa y envase final) y ambiental (guantes y mesa de trabajo), obteniéndose el porcentaje de preparaciones contaminadas en cada uno de ellos. Se registró el tiempo empleado por cada enfermero en cada una de las preparaciones. Resultados: se elaboraron 75 preparaciones. Se produjo una reducción global de la contaminación local para los SC Icu Medical® y Care Fusion® del 24% y 74%, respectivamente. En el sistema cerrado Care Fusion® la contaminación local fue significativamente menor que en el sistema estándar en vial, jeringa y envase final; mientras que en el sistema cerrado Icu Medical® solo fue significativamente menor en la conexión al vial. Se produjo un incremento significativo del tiempo de preparación con la utilización de sistemas cerrados de los entre 23,4 y 30,5 segundos. Conclusiones: ambos sistemas cerrados han mostrado un beneficio con respecto a la utilización del sistema estándar. Sin embargo, se han visto incrementados significativamente los tiempos de preparación con ambos sistemas.

  2. Reproduccion del ganado

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    La determination de prenez es una de las principales herramientas de manejo en el Ganado de came. Le habilidad de determiner prenez proporciona al productor un medio de tomar sus decsiones de seleccion y descartarte en momentos decisivos, enfocando los recursos de la operacion en reporductores confi...

  3. Comunicado de prensa del Informe Anual sobre el Estado del Cáncer 2015

    Cancer.gov

    Por primera vez, los investigadores han usado datos a nivel nacional para determinar la incidencia de los cuatro subtipos moleculares principales de cáncer de seno (mama) por edad, raza y grupo étnico, nivel de pobreza y varios otros factores. El informe

  4. Hidrógeno neutro en el Hemisferio Austral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morras, R.

    Se muestran los resultados de la distribución del HI en el cielo austral, obtenidos a partir de los datos de un relevamiento en la línea de 21 cm recientemente concluido en el IAR. Se discuten algunos de los principales problemas que pueden confrontarse con las observaciones de HI de nuestra Galaxia.

  5. Informe a la Nación de mortalidad por cáncer sigue bajando

    Cancer.gov

    El Informe Anual a la Nación sobre el Estado del Cáncer, de 1975 a 2009, indica que los índices generales de mortalidad por cáncer siguen bajando en los Estados Unidos en hombres y mujeres, entre todos los grupos raciales y étnicos principales y para todo

  6. Atlas del Genoma del Cáncer: Antecedentes

    Cancer.gov

    El Atlas del Genoma del Cáncer es una iniciativa de los Institutos Nacionales de la Salud (NIH) para crear mapas multidimensionales completos de los cambios genómicos clave en los tipos y subtipos principales de cáncer.

  7. Angel of human health: current research updates in toad medicine

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qian; Zhou, Xuanxuan; Zhang, Meng; Bi, Linlin; Miao, Shan; Cao, Wei; Xie, Yanhua; Sun, Jiyuan; Tang, Haifeng; Li, Ying; Miao, Qing; Wang, Siwang

    2015-01-01

    There are currently 34 genera and 410 species of toads in the world. The medicinal parts of toads mainly include their venom, skin, and clothing. The toad’s venom and skin possess the same chemical components, mainly the toad venom lactone class, and their pharmacological effects primarily include the maintenance of strong heart, antitumor, antivirus, anti-infection, and analgesic effects. So far, the produces from the medicinal raw materials of the toad are widely used clinically around the world, especially in China, Japan, and South Korea. About 50 varieties of medicines are used in the clinical treatment of various complicated diseases in China, such as “Liushen pills” which was popular in the whole world. Toads are mainly used in treating malignant tumors (e.g., liver cancer, gastric cancer, esophageal cancer, colon cancer, cervical cancer, among others), and some major diseases such as hepatitis B. Despite the therapeutic effects of toad-derived medicines on human health, there is insufficient research and development of toad-derived medicines by leading drug companies. In order to harness the beneficial effects of the resources of the toad species, it is the responsibility of global pharmaceutical researchers to develop and generate economically feasible toad-derived therapeutic products, while promoting maximum protection to the resources of the toad species. PMID:25755824

  8. Chilling temperature stimulates growth, gene over-expression and podophyllotoxin biosynthesis in Podophyllum hexandrum Royle.

    PubMed

    Yang, De Long; Sun, Ping; Li, Meng Fei

    2016-10-01

    Podophyllotoxin (PPT) and its derivatives, isolated from the rhizome of Podophyllum hexandrum Royle (P. hexandrum), are typically used in clinical settings for anti-cancer and anti-virus treatments. Empirical studies have verified that P. hexandrum had stronger tolerance to chilling, due to involving PPT accumulation in rhizome induced by cold stress. However, the cold-adaptive mechanism and its association with PPT accumulation at a molecular level in P. hexandrum are still limited. In this study, the morpho-physiological traits related to plant growth, PPT accumulation and key gene expressions controlling PPT biosynthesis were assessed by exposing P. hexandrum seedlings to different temperatures (4 °C and 10 °C as chilling stress and 22 °C as the control). The results showed that chilling significantly increased chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, and plant biomass, whereas it greatly decreased transpiration rates and intercellular CO2 concentration. Compared to the control, the chilling treatments under 4 °C and 10 °C conditions induced a 5.00- and 3.33-fold increase in PPT contents, respectively. The mRNA expressions of six key genes were also up-regulated by chilling stresses. The findings are useful in understanding the molecular basis of P. hexandrum response to chilling.

  9. Study on the anti-H1N1 virus effects of quercetin and oseltamivir and their mechanism related to TLR7 pathway.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen; Jiang, Zhen-You; Yu, Bin; Wu, Xian-Lin; Dai, Cong-Qi; Zhao, Chang-Lin; Ju, Da-Hong; Chen, Xiao-Yin

    2012-01-01

    The antivirus effect of quercetin and oseltamivir on the Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) signaling pathway was observed when dendritic cells and macrophages were infected with H1N1. Leukomonocytes were obtained from umbilical cord blood and harvested after stimulation by recombinant human Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor (rhGM-CSF) and recombinant human Interleukin 4 (rhIL-4). Virus-infected cell model was established by human bronchial epithelial cells (16HBE) infected with H1N1. After immunological cells and virus-infected cells were co-cultured, quercetin and oseltamivir were also added into the medium as a treatment intervention. Then the immunological cells were collected for Real Time PCR (RT-PCR) and Western blot to determine the expression levels of genes related to TLR7 pathway. Viral infection led to cell death and increased the gene expression levels of TLR7 signal pathway. Quercetin and oseltamivir increased cell viability and reduced the expression levels of TLR7 signal pathway.

  10. Gene I mutants of peanut chlorotic streak virus, a caulimovirus, replicate in plants but do not move from cell to cell.

    PubMed Central

    Ducasse, D A; Mushegian, A R; Shepherd, R J

    1995-01-01

    Gene I of peanut chlorotic streak virus (PCISV), a caulimovirus, is homologous to gene I of other caulimoviruses and may encode a protein for virus movement. To evaluate the function of gene I, several mutations were created in this gene of an infectious, partially redundant clone of PCISV. Constructs with an in-frame deletion and a single amino acid substitution in gene I were not infectious. To test for replication of these mutants in primarily infected cells, an immunosorbent PCR technique was devised. Virus particles formed by mutants in plants were recovered by binding to antivirus antibodies on a solid matrix and DNase treated to discriminate against residual inoculum, and DNA of trapped virions was subjected to PCR amplification. Gene I mutants were shown to direct formation of encapsidated DNA as revealed by a PCR product. Control gene V mutants (reverse transcriptase essential for replication) did not yield a PCR product. Quantitative PCR allowed estimation of the proportion of cells initially infected by gene I mutants and the amount of extractable virus per cell. It is concluded that PCISV gene I encodes a movement protein and that the immunoselection-PCR technique is useful in studying subliminal virus infection in plants. PMID:7543587

  11. Theiler's virus infection of beta 2-microglobulin-deficient mice.

    PubMed Central

    Fiette, L; Aubert, C; Brahic, M; Rossi, C P

    1993-01-01

    Theiler's virus, a murine picornavirus, persists in the central nervous systems of susceptible mice and induces a chronic demyelinating disease. Susceptibility or resistance to this disease is controlled in part by the H2-D locus of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). For this reason, it has been proposed that CD8+ class I-restricted cytotoxic T cells play a main role in the pathogenesis of this viral infection. We recently reported the existence of anti-virus CD8+ cytotoxic T cells in the course of Theiler's virus infection. In the present study, we examined the role of these effector cells in mice in which the beta 2-microglobulin gene had been disrupted. These mice fail to express class I MHC molecules and therefore lack CD8+ T cells. The mice are derived from a C57BL/6 x 129/Ola cross and are H-2b, a haplotype associated with resistance to Theiler's virus infection. beta 2-Microglobulin-deficient mice (beta 2m-/-mice) failed to clear the virus, developed demyelination, and, interestingly, did not succumb to early infection. These results demonstrate that CD8+ T cells are required to clear Theiler's virus infection. In contrast with a current hypothesis, they also demonstrate that CD8+ T cells are not major mediators of the demyelinating disease. Images PMID:8416386

  12. Chilling temperature stimulates growth, gene over-expression and podophyllotoxin biosynthesis in Podophyllum hexandrum Royle.

    PubMed

    Yang, De Long; Sun, Ping; Li, Meng Fei

    2016-10-01

    Podophyllotoxin (PPT) and its derivatives, isolated from the rhizome of Podophyllum hexandrum Royle (P. hexandrum), are typically used in clinical settings for anti-cancer and anti-virus treatments. Empirical studies have verified that P. hexandrum had stronger tolerance to chilling, due to involving PPT accumulation in rhizome induced by cold stress. However, the cold-adaptive mechanism and its association with PPT accumulation at a molecular level in P. hexandrum are still limited. In this study, the morpho-physiological traits related to plant growth, PPT accumulation and key gene expressions controlling PPT biosynthesis were assessed by exposing P. hexandrum seedlings to different temperatures (4 °C and 10 °C as chilling stress and 22 °C as the control). The results showed that chilling significantly increased chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, and plant biomass, whereas it greatly decreased transpiration rates and intercellular CO2 concentration. Compared to the control, the chilling treatments under 4 °C and 10 °C conditions induced a 5.00- and 3.33-fold increase in PPT contents, respectively. The mRNA expressions of six key genes were also up-regulated by chilling stresses. The findings are useful in understanding the molecular basis of P. hexandrum response to chilling. PMID:27314513

  13. SEPARATION AND PURIFICATION OF TWO MINOR COMPOUNDS FROM RADIX ISATIDIS BY INTEGRATIVE MPLC AND HSCCC WITH PREPARATIVE HPLC

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Zhenjie; Li, Bin; Liang, Yong; Su, Yaping; Ito, Yoichiro

    2014-01-01

    Radix isatidis has been widely used as a Chinese traditional medicine for its anti-virus and anticancer activities where the minor components may contribute to these beneficial pharmaceutical effects. In order to enrich the target minor compounds effectively and rapidly, extraction, medium-pressure liquid chromatography (MPLC), high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) and preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (pre-HPLC) were integratively used for separation and purification of two target minor compounds indole-3-acetonitrile-6-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (target 1) and clemastanin B (target 2) in the present study. Radix isatidis was dried, pulverized and extracted with 50% methanol at room temperature, then concentrated and subjected to pretreatment with D-101 macroporous resin chromatography and extraction by MPLC. The first target compound was separated by MPLC at the purity raised to 70–80%, but without the second minor compounds which were irreversibly adsorbed by C18 solid support. Therefore, the second target compound in the crude extract was directly separated by HSCCC at purity of 80–90%. Finally these refined samples were further separated by pre-HPLC to obtain a high purity at 98–99%. The chemical structure identification of each target compound was carried out by IR, ESI-MS and 1H NMR. PMID:25745338

  14. Micro flow cytometry utilizing a magnetic bead-based immunoassay for rapid virus detection.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sung-Yi; Lien, Kang-Yi; Huang, Kao-Jean; Lei, Huan-Yao; Lee, Gwo-Bin

    2008-12-01

    The current study presents a new miniature microfluidic flow cytometer integrated with several functional micro-devices capable of viral sample purification and detection by utilizing a magnetic bead-based immunoassay. The magnetic beads were conjugated with specific antibodies, which can recognize and capture target viruses. Another dye-labeled anti-virus antibody was then used to mark the bead-bound virus for the subsequent optical detection. Several essential components were integrated onto a single chip including a sample incubation module, a micro flow cytometry module and an optical detection module. The sample incubation module consisting of pneumatic micropumps and a membrane-type, active micromixer was used for purifying and enriching the target virus-bound magnetic beads with the aid of a permanent magnet. The micro flow cytometry module and the optical detection module were used to perform the functions of virus counting and collection. Experimental results showed that virus samples with a concentration of 10(3)PFU/ml can be automatically detected successfully by the developed system. In addition, the entire diagnosis procedure including sample incubation and virus detection took only about 40min. Consequently, the proposed micro flow cytometry may provide a powerful platform for rapid diagnosis and future biological applications.

  15. Dicer functions as an antiviral system against human adenoviruses via cleavage of adenovirus-encoded noncoding RNA.

    PubMed

    Machitani, Mitsuhiro; Sakurai, Fuminori; Wakabayashi, Keisaku; Tomita, Kyoko; Tachibana, Masashi; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    In various organisms, including nematodes and plants, RNA interference (RNAi) is a defense system against virus infection; however, it is unclear whether RNAi functions as an antivirus system in mammalian cells. Rather, a number of DNA viruses, including herpesviruses, utilize post-transcriptional silencing systems for their survival. Here we show that Dicer efficiently suppresses the replication of adenovirus (Ad) via cleavage of Ad-encoding small RNAs (VA-RNAs), which efficiently promote Ad replication via the inhibition of eIF2α phosphorylation, to viral microRNAs (mivaRNAs). The Dicer knockdown significantly increases the copy numbers of VA-RNAs, leading to the efficient inhibition of eIF2α phosphorylation and the subsequent promotion of Ad replication. Conversely, overexpression of Dicer significantly inhibits Ad replication. Transfection with mivaRNA does not affect eIF2α phosphorylation or Ad replication. These results indicate that Dicer-mediated processing of VA-RNAs leads to loss of activity of VA-RNAs for enhancement of Ad replication and that Dicer functions as a defence system against Ad in mammalian cells. PMID:27273616

  16. A novel metaheuristic for continuous optimization problems: Virus optimization algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Yun-Chia; Rodolfo Cuevas Juarez, Josue

    2016-01-01

    A novel metaheuristic for continuous optimization problems, named the virus optimization algorithm (VOA), is introduced and investigated. VOA is an iteratively population-based method that imitates the behaviour of viruses attacking a living cell. The number of viruses grows at each replication and is controlled by an immune system (a so-called 'antivirus') to prevent the explosive growth of the virus population. The viruses are divided into two classes (strong and common) to balance the exploitation and exploration effects. The performance of the VOA is validated through a set of eight benchmark functions, which are also subject to rotation and shifting effects to test its robustness. Extensive comparisons were conducted with over 40 well-known metaheuristic algorithms and their variations, such as artificial bee colony, artificial immune system, differential evolution, evolutionary programming, evolutionary strategy, genetic algorithm, harmony search, invasive weed optimization, memetic algorithm, particle swarm optimization and simulated annealing. The results showed that the VOA is a viable solution for continuous optimization.

  17. Saikosaponin-d Enhances the Anticancer Potency of TNF-α via Overcoming Its Undesirable Response of Activating NF-Kappa B Signalling in Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Vincent Kam Wai; Zhang, Molly Miao; Zhou, Hua; Lam, Kelly Yin Ching; Chan, Po Ling; Law, Carmen Ka Man; Yue, Patrick Ying Kit; Liu, Liang

    2013-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) was reported as anticancer therapy due to its cytotoxic effect against an array of tumor cells. However, its undesirable responses of TNF-α on activating NF-κB signaling and pro-metastatic property limit its clinical application in treating cancers. Therefore, sensitizing agents capable of overcoming this undesirable effect must be valuable for facilitating the usage of TNF-α-mediated apoptosis therapy for cancer patients. Previously, saikosaponin-d (Ssd), a triterpene saponin derived from the medicinal plant, Bupleurum falcatum L. (Umbelliferae), showed to exhibit a variety of pharmacological activities such as antiinflammation, antibacteria, antivirus and anticancer. Recently, we found that Ssd could inhibit the activated T lymphocytes via suppression of NF-κB, NF-AT and AP-1 signaling. Here, we showed that Ssd significantly potentiated TNF-α-mediated cell death in HeLa and HepG2 cancer cells via suppression of TNF-α-induced NF-κB activation and its target genes expression involving cancer cell proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis and survival. Also, Ssd revealed a significant potency of abolishing TNF-α-induced cancer cell invasion and angiogenesis in HUVECs while inducing apoptosis via enhancing the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential in HeLa cells. Collectively, these findings indicate that Ssd has a significant potential to be developed as a combined adjuvant remedy with TNF-α for cancer patients. PMID:23573150

  18. A virus spreading model for cognitive radio networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, L.; Yeung, K. H.; Wong, K. Y.

    2012-12-01

    Since cognitive radio (CR) networks could solve the spectrum scarcity problem, they have drawn much research in recent years. Artificial intelligence(AI) is introduced into CRs to learn from and adapt to their environment. Nonetheless, AI brings in a new kind of attacks specific to CR networks. The most powerful one is a self-propagating AI virus. And no spreading properties specific to this virus have been reported in the literature. To fill this research gap, we propose a virus spreading model of an AI virus by considering the characteristics of CR networks and the behavior of CR users. Several important observations are made from the simulation results based on the model. Firstly, the time taken to infect the whole network increases exponentially with the network size. Based on this result, CR network designers could calculate the optimal network size to slow down AI virus propagation rate. Secondly, the anti-virus performance of static networks to an AI virus is better than dynamic networks. Thirdly, if the CR devices with the highest degree are initially infected, the AI virus propagation rate will be increased substantially. Finally, it is also found that in the area with abundant spectrum resource, the AI virus propagation speed increases notably but the variability of the spectrum does not affect the propagation speed much.

  19. Intracellular self-assembly based multi-labeling of key viral components: Envelope, capsid and nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Wen, Li; Lin, Yi; Zhang, Zhi-Ling; Lu, Wen; Lv, Cheng; Chen, Zhi-Liang; Wang, Han-Zhong; Pang, Dai-Wen

    2016-08-01

    Envelope, capsid and nucleic acids are key viral components that are all involved in crucial events during virus infection. Thus simultaneous labeling of these key components is an indispensable prerequisite for monitoring comprehensive virus infection process and dissecting virus infection mechanism. Baculovirus was genetically tagged with biotin on its envelope protein GP64 and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) on its capsid protein VP39. Spodoptera frugiperda 9 (Sf9) cells were infected by the recombinant baculovirus and subsequently fed with streptavidin-conjugated quantum dots (SA-QDs) and cell-permeable nucleic acids dye SYTO 82. Just by genetic engineering and virus propagation, multi-labeling of envelope, capsid and nucleic acids was spontaneously accomplished during virus inherent self-assembly process, significantly simplifying the labeling process while maintaining virus infectivity. Intracellular dissociation and transportation of all the key viral components, which was barely reported previously, was real-time monitored based on the multi-labeling approach, offering opportunities for deeply understanding virus infection and developing anti-virus treatment.

  20. Effect of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) TLR9 overexpression on the expression of downstream interferon-associated immune factor mRNAs in epithelioma papulosum cyprini cells.

    PubMed

    Xinxian, Wei; Peng, Jia; Guixiang, Tong; Jinjin, Wang; Xiaocong, Zheng; Junqiang, He; Xianle, Yang; Hong, Liu

    2016-02-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a class of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that recognize pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and play an important role in the antiviral response. To determine the effect of common carp TLR9 (CcTLR9) overexpression on the expression of down-stream interferon associated immune factors in epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC) cells, may provide useful information for the further investigation on the anti-virus effect mediated by TLR9 in fish. In this study, we constructed an overexpression vector, pEGFP-N1-CcTLR9, by cloning the CcTLR9 gene and inserting it into an expression vector pEGFP-N1. Both plasmids DNA of pEGFP-N1 and pEGFP-N1-CcTLR9 were transfected into EPC cells, and the expression of IRF3, IRF7, ISG15, Mx1, PKR and Viperin mRNA at 0, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72h post-transfection were determined by real-time quantitative PCR (Q-PCR). Overexpression of the CcTLR9 gene in EPC cells upregulates the expression of IRF3, IRF7, ISG15, Mx1, PKR, and Viperin mRNA, and this was more significant for Viperin, ISG15, and IRF7, and least significant for PKR. Thus, fish TLR9 activates IRF7 signaling to induce I-IFN secretion and the subsequent upregulation of IFN-stimulated genes. PMID:26848048

  1. Hydrolysis is the dominating in vivo metabolism pathway for arctigenin: identification of novel metabolites of arctigenin by LC/MS/MS after oral administration in rats.

    PubMed

    Gao, Qiong; Zhang, Yufeng; Wo, Siukwan; Zuo, Zhong

    2013-04-01

    The phenylpropanoid dibenzylbutyrolactone lignan arctigenin, a key component found in Arctium lappa, or burdock, has been reported with a variety of therapeutic effects including anticancer, anti-inflammation, and antivirus effects. Using LC/MS/MS, three novel metabolites of arctigenin, namely, arctigenic acid, arctigenin-4-O'-glucuronide, and 4-O-demethylarctigenin were identified after oral administration of arctigenin in rats for the first time. Another potential metabolite of arctigenin, arctigenin-4'-O-sulfate, was identified in vitro but not in vivo. Structure of arctigenic acid, the major metabolite of arctigenin, was confirmed by 13C-NMR and 1H-NMR. Rapid hydrolysis in plasma was identified as the major metabolic pathway of arctigenin after its oral administration, with Vmax, Km, and Clint in rat plasma determined to be 2.21 ± 0.12 nmol/min/mg, 89.12 ± 9.44 µM, and 24.74 µL/min/mg, respectively. Paraoxonase 1 was further confirmed to be the enzyme responsible for arctigenin hydrolysis, with Vmax, Km, and Clint determined to be 55.39 ± 1.49 nmol/min/mg, 300.3 ± 10.86 µM, and 184.45 µL/min/mg, respectively.

  2. Herbal Mouthwash Containing Extracts of Baccharis dracunculifolia as Agent for the Control of Biofilm: Clinical Evaluation in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Mateus Freire; Tavares, Reisla Cristina; Sato, Sandra; do Nascimento, Glauce Crivelaro; Issa, João Paulo Mardegan

    2015-01-01

    Baccharis dracunculifolia DC (Asteraceae), popularly known as “alecrim-do-campo,” is largely distributed in South America, is shown to exhibit protective actions against gastric ulcers, has anti-inflammatory properties, and is hepatoprotective. Several essential oils obtained from Baccharis species possess biological activities, such as antimicrobial and antivirus activities. This randomized controlled trial evaluated the efficacy of B. dracunculifolia in the reduction of dental biofilm, comparing this natural product with other mouthwashes already known in the dental market. In measuring the time after use of mouthwash (t = 1), there was no difference between products (P = 0.602); that is, subjects in the study had a similar PI after the first use. After one week (t = 2), there was no difference between the four products evaluated (P = 0.674), so, all research individuals completed the study with a similar reduction in dental biofilm between themselves but it was different from initial state (Friedman test). It is possible to conclude that B. dracunculifolia had the same efficiency of the materials used to oral hygiene in reduction of dental plaque and, consequently, prevention of dental caries. Thus, we can consider B. dracunculifolia as a good candidate for new material to be implemented in dental care. PMID:25874255

  3. Herbal mouthwash containing extracts of Baccharis dracunculifolia as agent for the control of biofilm: clinical evaluation in humans.

    PubMed

    Pedrazzi, Vinícius; Leite, Mateus Freire; Tavares, Reisla Cristina; Sato, Sandra; do Nascimento, Glauce Crivelaro; Issa, João Paulo Mardegan

    2015-01-01

    Baccharis dracunculifolia DC (Asteraceae), popularly known as "alecrim-do-campo," is largely distributed in South America, is shown to exhibit protective actions against gastric ulcers, has anti-inflammatory properties, and is hepatoprotective. Several essential oils obtained from Baccharis species possess biological activities, such as antimicrobial and antivirus activities. This randomized controlled trial evaluated the efficacy of B. dracunculifolia in the reduction of dental biofilm, comparing this natural product with other mouthwashes already known in the dental market. In measuring the time after use of mouthwash (t = 1), there was no difference between products (P = 0.602); that is, subjects in the study had a similar PI after the first use. After one week (t = 2), there was no difference between the four products evaluated (P = 0.674), so, all research individuals completed the study with a similar reduction in dental biofilm between themselves but it was different from initial state (Friedman test). It is possible to conclude that B. dracunculifolia had the same efficiency of the materials used to oral hygiene in reduction of dental plaque and, consequently, prevention of dental caries. Thus, we can consider B. dracunculifolia as a good candidate for new material to be implemented in dental care.

  4. In vitro immunocompetence of two compounds isolated from Polygala tenuifolia and development of resistance against grass carp reovirus (GCRV) and Dactylogyrus intermedius in respective host.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiao-Bo; Liu, Guang-Lu; Zhu, Bin; Hao, Kai; Ling, Fei; Wang, Gao-Xue

    2014-12-01

    The present study was undertaken to isolate some compounds from methanol extract of Polygala tenuifolia and evaluate their immunostimulatory properties and antiviral activity using grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella kidney (CIK) cells and GCRV. By applying insecticidal bioassay-guided, chromatography techniques and successive recrystallization, two purified compounds were obtained. The changes of expression of selected immune genes (Mx1, IL-1β, TNFα, MyD88 and IgM) in C. idella kidney cell lines were evaluated after exposure to these isolated compounds. The results showed that compound 1 and 2 up-regulated to varying degrees of Mx1, IL-1β, TNFα, and MyD88 in C. idella kidney cells. WST-8 kit assay verified the two compounds has no toxic effects on CIK cell, and furthermore, have in vitro antivirus activity. Especially, that there is keeping 79% cell viability when exposure to compound 2 (100 mg L(-1)). According to in vivo insecticidal assays against Dactylogyrus intermedius, compound 2 exhibited higher efficacy than compound 1, which was found to be 87.2% effective at the concentrations of 5 mg L(-1) and safe to goldfish (Carassius auratus). Besides, the purified compounds were identified by spectral data as: (1) 1,5-Anhydro-D-glucitol and (2) 3,4,5-trimethoxy cinnamic acid. Overall, the results indicate that bath administration of these compounds modulates the immune related genes in C. idella kidney cells and to some extent, eliminate the virus and parasitic infections.

  5. Suppressive Effects of the Site 1 Protease (S1P) Inhibitor, PF-429242, on Dengue Virus Propagation.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Leo; Urata, Shuzo; Ulanday, Gianne Eduard L; Takamatsu, Yuki; Yasuda, Jiro; Morita, Kouichi; Hayasaka, Daisuke

    2016-02-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) infection causes one of the most widespread mosquito-borne diseases in the world. Despite the great need, effective vaccines and practical antiviral therapies are still under development. Intracellular lipid levels are regulated by sterol regulatory elements-binding proteins (SREBPs), which are activated by serine protease, site 1 protease (S1P). Small compound PF-429242 is known as a S1P inhibitor and the antivirus effects have been reported in some viruses. In this study, we examined the anti-DENV effects of PF-429242 using all four serotypes of DENV by several primate-derived cell lines. Moreover, emergence of drug-resistant DENV mutants was assessed by sequential passages with the drug. DENV dependency on intracellular lipids during their infection was also evaluated by adding extracellular lipids. The addition of PF-429242 showed suppression of viral propagation in all DENV serotypes. We showed that drug-resistant DENV mutants are unlikely to emerge after five times sequential passages through treatment with PF-429242. Although the levels of intracellular cholesterol and lipid droplets were reduced by PF-429242, viral propagations were not recovered by addition of exogenous cholesterol or fatty acids, indicating that the reduction of LD and cholesterol caused by PF-429242 treatment is not related to its mechanism of action against DENV propagation. Our results suggest that PF-429242 is a promising candidate for an anti-DENV agent. PMID:26875984

  6. A dual character of flavonoids in influenza A virus replication and spread through modulating cell-autonomous immunity by MAPK signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Dong, Wenjuan; Wei, Xiuli; Zhang, Fayun; Hao, Junfeng; Huang, Feng; Zhang, Chunling; Liang, Wei

    2014-11-28

    Flavonoids are well known as a large class of polyphenolic compounds, which have a variety of physiological activities, including anti-influenza virus activity. The influenza A/WSN/33 infected A549 cells have been used to screen anti-influenza virus drugs from natural flavonoid compounds library. Unexpectedly, some flavonoid compounds significantly inhibited virus replication, while the others dramatically promoted virus replication. In this study, we attempted to understand these differences between flavonoid compounds in their antivirus mechanisms. Hesperidin and kaempferol were chosen as representatives of both sides, each of which exhibited the opposite effects on influenza virus replication. Our investigation revealed that the opposite effects produced by hesperidin and kaempferol on influenza virus were due to inducing the opposite cell-autonomous immune responses by selectively modulating MAP kinase pathways: hesperidin up-regulated P38 and JNK expression and activation, thus resulting in the enhanced cell-autonomous immunity; while kaempferol dramatically down-regulated p38 and JNK expression and activation, thereby suppressing cell-autonomous immunity. In addition, hesperidin restricted RNPs export from nucleus by down-regulating ERK activation, but kaempferol promoted RNPs export by up-regulating ERK activation. Our findings demonstrate that a new generation of anti-influenza virus drugs could be developed based on selective modulation of MAP kinase pathways to stimulate cell-autonomous immunity.

  7. Kinetics of the in vitro antibody response to transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE) virus from pig mesenteric lymph node cells, using the ELISASPOT and ELISA tests.

    PubMed

    Berthon, P; Bernard, S; Salmon, H; Binns, R M

    1990-08-01

    A method is described for in vitro studies of viral humoral immune responses in the pig. After oral immunization with transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE) coronavirus, antibody production from primed mesenteric lymph node cells was revealed by an in vitro boost with viral antigen. For the latter the leukocytes were co-cultured with UV-inactivated virus using a variety of different methods of antigenic stimulation. Enumeration of specific antibody-secreting cells (ASC) and titration of secreted anti-virus antibodies were performed with ELISASPOT (using 3-amino 9-ethyl carbazole as the peroxidase chromogen) and ELISA tests respectively, according to the Ig isotype. The results showed a close relationship between ASC numbers and secreted antibody titres. The best in vitro antibody synthesis was observed when the sensitized cells were maintained in contact with virus during the whole culture period. Antibody responses were defined by a kinetic profile characterized by a narrow peak, with a maximum occurring after 4 and 6 days of culture and with the IgA response appearing earlier than the IgG. This methodology, which analyses specific antibody responses at the cellular level, may permit studies on the mechanisms of Ig isotype regulation. Extended to leukocytes from other organs of the immune system, it may also constitute an in vitro model to study antibody responses expressed in different lymphoid tissues of the pig.

  8. From Traditional Usage to Pharmacological Evidence: A Systematic Mini-Review of Spina Gleditsiae

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiao; Yin, Weiping

    2016-01-01

    Spina Gleditsiae is an important herb with various medicinal properties in traditional and folk medicinal systems of East Asian countries. In China through the centuries, it has been traditionally used as a source of drugs for anticancer, detoxication, detumescence, apocenosis, and antiparasites effects. Recently, an increasing number of studies have been reported regarding its chemical constituents and pharmacological activities. To further evidence the traditional use, phytochemicals, and pharmacological mechanisms of this herb, a systematic literature review was performed herein for Spina Gleditsiae. The review approach consisted of searching several web-based scientific databases including PubMed, Web of Science, and Elsevier using the keywords “Spina Gleditsiae”, “Zao Jiao Ci”, and “Gleditsia sinensis”. Based on the proposed criteria, 17 articles were evaluated in detail. According to the reviewed data, it is quite evident that Spina Gleditsiae contains a number of bioactive phytochemical components, which account for variety medicinal values including anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antiatherogenic, antimicrobial, antiallergic, and antivirus activities. The phytochemical and pharmacological studies reviewed herein strongly underpin a fundamental understanding of herbal Spina Gleditsiae and support its ongoing clinical uses in China. The further phytochemical evaluation, safety verification, and clinical trials are expected to progress Spina Gleditsiae-based development to finally transform the traditional TCM herb Spina Gleditsiae to the valuable authorized drug. PMID:27433183

  9. Lettuce chlorosis virus P23 Suppresses RNA Silencing and Induces Local Necrosis with Increased Severity at Raised Temperatures.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Kenji; Ng, James C K

    2016-06-01

    RNA silencing functions as an antivirus defense strategy in plants, one that plant viruses counter by producing viral suppressors of RNA silencing (VSRs). VSRs have been identified in three members of the genus Crinivirus but they do not all share identical suppression mechanisms. Here, we used Agrobacterium co-infiltration assays to investigate the suppressor activity of proteins encoded by Lettuce chlorosis virus (LCV). Of 7 LCV proteins (1b, P23, HSP70 homolog, P60, CP, CPm, and P27) tested for the suppression of silencing of green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression in wild-type Nicotiana benthamiana plants, only P23 suppressed the onset of local silencing. Small-interfering (si)RNA accumulation was reduced in leaves co-infiltrated with P23, suggesting that P23 inhibited the accumulation or enhanced the degradation of siRNA. P23 also inhibited the cell-to-cell and systemic movement of RNA silencing in GFP-expressing transgenic N. benthamiana plants. Expression of P23 via agroinfiltration of N. benthamiana leaves induced local necrosis that increased in severity at elevated temperatures, a novelty given that a direct temperature effect on necrosis severity has not been reported for the other crinivirus VSRs. These results further affirm the sophistication of crinivirus VSRs in mediating the evasion of host's antiviral defenses and in symptom modulation. PMID:26828232

  10. Phenylpropanoids as naturally occurring antioxidants: from plant defense to human health.

    PubMed

    Korkina, L G

    2007-04-15

    Phenylpropanoids (PPs) belong to the largest group of secondary metabolites produced by plants, mainly, in response to biotic or abiotic stresses such as infections, wounding, UV irradiation, exposure to ozone, pollutants, and other hostile environmental conditions. It is thought that the molecular basis for the protective action of phenylpropanoids in plants is their antioxidant and free radical scavenging properties. These numerous phenolic compounds are major biologically active components of human diet, spices, aromas, wines, beer, essential oils, propolis, and traditional medicine. Last few years, much interest has been attracted to natural and synthetic phenylpropanoids for medicinal use as antioxidant, UV screens, anticancer, anti-virus, anti-inflammatory, wound healing, and antibacterial agents. They are of great interest for cosmetic and perfume industries as active natural ingredients. In the present review, the metabolic pathways of phenylpropanoid biosynthesis in plants and the mechanism of phenylpropanoid-mediated plant defense are described. Learning from plants, free radical-driven, molecular and cellular processes modulated by phenylpropanoids in human cell cultures in vitro and in the in vivo animal models of tumors, inflammation, and cellular damage are also reviewed.

  11. Studies on acyclovir-dextran conjugate: synthesis and pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Tu, Jiasheng; Zhong, Sha; Li, Pengmei

    2004-01-01

    Acyclovir is an antivirus drug which has a good in vitro activity against hepatitis B virus. But because of the low solubility and low distribution in liver, the clinical application of acyclovir in hepatitis B was limited. To increase the solubility and the distribution in liver, acyclovir-dextran conjugate was synthesized by formation of Schiff's base. The solubility of obtained conjugate was 12 times greater than free acyclovir. Acyclovir will be slowly released from the obtained conjugate in pH 7.4 phosphate buffer solution (PBS) at 37 degrees C with a rate constant of 0.0035 hr(-1). Pharmacokinetic studies of acyclovir and acyclovir-dextran conjugate were conducted in mice by i.v. administration. Acyclovir concentrations in plasma, liver and kidney were determined by HPLC method. Relatively higher distribution of acyclovir in liver was observed when i.v. acyclovir-dextran conjugate as compared with i.v. free acyclovir. The results of pharmacokinetic studies indicated that acyclovir-dextran conjugate will be a good candidate to treat hepatitis B. PMID:15554220

  12. From Traditional Usage to Pharmacological Evidence: A Systematic Mini-Review of Spina Gleditsiae.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jiayu; Yang, Xiao; Yin, Weiping

    2016-01-01

    Spina Gleditsiae is an important herb with various medicinal properties in traditional and folk medicinal systems of East Asian countries. In China through the centuries, it has been traditionally used as a source of drugs for anticancer, detoxication, detumescence, apocenosis, and antiparasites effects. Recently, an increasing number of studies have been reported regarding its chemical constituents and pharmacological activities. To further evidence the traditional use, phytochemicals, and pharmacological mechanisms of this herb, a systematic literature review was performed herein for Spina Gleditsiae. The review approach consisted of searching several web-based scientific databases including PubMed, Web of Science, and Elsevier using the keywords "Spina Gleditsiae", "Zao Jiao Ci", and "Gleditsia sinensis". Based on the proposed criteria, 17 articles were evaluated in detail. According to the reviewed data, it is quite evident that Spina Gleditsiae contains a number of bioactive phytochemical components, which account for variety medicinal values including anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antiatherogenic, antimicrobial, antiallergic, and antivirus activities. The phytochemical and pharmacological studies reviewed herein strongly underpin a fundamental understanding of herbal Spina Gleditsiae and support its ongoing clinical uses in China. The further phytochemical evaluation, safety verification, and clinical trials are expected to progress Spina Gleditsiae-based development to finally transform the traditional TCM herb Spina Gleditsiae to the valuable authorized drug. PMID:27433183

  13. Attenuation of acute lung injury in mice by oxymatrine is associated with inhibition of phosphorylated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Xu, G L; Yao, L; Rao, S Y; Gong, Z N; Zhang, S Q; Yu, S Q

    2005-04-01

    Oxymatrine is one of the alkaloids extracted from Chinese herb Sophora japonica (Sophora flavescens Ait.) with activities of anti-inflammation, inhibiting immune reaction, antivirus, protecting hepatocytes and antihepatic fibrosis. However, the effect of oxymatrine on acute lung injury (ALI) has not been known yet. In this study, the effect of oxymatrine on ALI was investigated using an oleic acid-induced ALI mouse model. Morphological findings showed that the oleic acid group demonstrated a marked lung injury represented by prominent atelectasis, intraalveolar and interstitial patchy hemorrhage, edema, thickened alveolar septum, formation of hyaline membranes and the existence of inflammatory cells in alveolar spaces. While in the oxymatrine/dexamethasone group, these changes were less severe and in the vicinity of the control group. Furthermore, pretreatment with oxymatrine significantly alleviated oleic acid-induced lung injury accompanied by reduction of lung index and wet-to-dry weight ratio, decreases in serum TNF-alpha level and inhibition of phosphorylated p38 MAPK. These findings suggest that oxymatrine has a beneficial effect on acute lung injury induced by oleic acid in mice and may inhibit the production of proinflammatory cytokine, TNF-alpha, by means of the inhibition of p38 MAPK. PMID:15763380

  14. Attenuation of bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis by oxymatrine is associated with regulation of fibroblast proliferation and collagen production in primary culture.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaohong; Sun, Renshan; Hu, Jianming; Mo, Ziyao; Yang, Zifeng; Liao, Dongjiang; Zhong, Nanshan

    2008-09-01

    There is no satisfactory treatment for pulmonary fibrosis, which is characterized by altered control of proliferation of mesenchymal fibroblasts and extracellular matrix production. Oxymatrine is an alkaloid extracted from the Chinese herb Sophora japonica (Sophora flavescens Ait.) with capacities of anti-inflammation, inhibition of immune reaction, antivirus, protection against acute lung injury and antihepatic fibrosis. In this study, the effect of oxymatrine on pulmonary fibrosis was investigated using a bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis mouse model. The results showed that bleomycin challenge provoked severe pulmonary fibrosis with marked increase in hydroxyproline content of lung tissue and lung fibrosis fraction, which was prevented by oxymatrine in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, bleomycin injection resulted in a marked increase of myeloperoxidase activity and malondialdehyde level that was attenuated by oxymatrine. Administration of oxymatrine inhibited the proliferation of murine lung fibroblasts, arrested the cells at G(0)/G(1) phase and reduced the expression of cell cycle regulatory protein, cyclin D1 in vitro. Furthermore, the steady-state production of collagen and the expression of alpha1(I) pro-collagen and alpha2(I) pro-collagen mRNA in fibroblasts were inhibited by oxymatrine in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggested that oxymatrine may attenuate pulmonary fibrosis induced by bleomycin in mice, partly through inhibition of inflammatory response and lipid peroxidation in lung induced by bleomycin and reduction of fibroblast proliferation and collagen synthesis. PMID:18684219

  15. Avian leukosis virus subgroup J triggers caspase-1-mediated inflammatory response in chick livers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xue-lan; Shan, Wen-jie; Jia, Li-juan; Yang, Xu; Zhang, Jin-jing; Wu, Ya-rong; Xu, Fa-zhi; Li, Jin-nian

    2016-04-01

    Many pathogens trigger caspase-1-mediated innate immune responses. Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) causes serious immunosuppression and diverse tumors in chicks. The caspase-1 inflammasome mechanism of response to ALV-J invading remains unclear. Here we investigated the expression of caspase-1, the inflammasome adaptor NLRP3, IL-1β and IL-18 in response to ALV-J infection in the liver of chick. We found caspase-1 mRNA expression was elevated at 5 dpi and peaked at 7 dpi in ALV-J infected animals. Corresponding to this, the expressions of NLRP3 and proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18 were significantly increased at 5 or 7 dpi. In addition, caspase-1 protein expression and inflammatory cell infiltration were induced after virus infection. These results indicated that ALV-J infection could trigger the caspase-1- mediated inflammatory response in chicks. Thus, an understanding of the inflammatory responses can provide a better insight into the pathogenicity of ALV-J and a possible anti-virus target for ALV-J infection.

  16. Neutralizing activities of human immunoglobulin derived from donors in Japan against mosquito-borne flaviviruses, Japanese encephalitis virus, West Nile virus, and dengue virus

    PubMed Central

    Yunoki, Mikihiro; Kurosu, Takeshi; Koketsu, Ritsuko Kubota; Takahashi, Kazuo; Okuno, Yoshinobu; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), West Nile virus (WNV), and dengue virus (DenV) are causal agents of Japanese encephalitis, West Nile fever, and dengue fever, respectively. JEV is considered to be indigenized and widespread in Japan, whereas WNV and DenV are not indigenized in Japan. Globulin products seem to reflect the status of the donor population according to antivirus neutralization activity. However, the anti-JEV, -WNV, and -DenV neutralization activities of globulin products derived from donors in Japan have not been clarified. Furthermore, potential candidates for the development of an effective immunotherapeutic drug for encephalitis caused by JEV, WNV, or DenV have also not been identified. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the overall status of the donor population in Japan based on globulin products by evaluating anti-JEV, -WNV, and -DenV neutralizing activities of intravenous immunoglobulin. Overall, intravenous immunoglobulin products showed stable neutralizing activity against JEV but showed no or only weak activity against WNV or DenV. These results suggest that the epidemiological level against WNV and DenV in the donor population of Japan is still low, suggesting that these viruses are not yet indigenized. In addition, JEV vaccinations and/or infections in the donor population do not induce a cross-reactive antibody against WNV. PMID:27462140

  17. Silver nanoparticles in combination with acetic acid and zinc oxide quantum dots for antibacterial activities improvement-A comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedira, Sofiane; Ayachi, Ahmed Abdelhakim; Lakehal, Sihem; Fateh, Merouane; Achour, Slimane

    2014-08-01

    Due to their remarkable antibacterial/antivirus properties, silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) and zinc oxide quantum dots (ZnO Qds) have been widely used in the antimicrobial field. The mechanism of action of Ag NPs on bacteria was recently studied and it has been proven that Ag NPs exerts their antibacterial activities mainly by the released Ag+. In this work, Ag NPs and ZnO Qds were synthesized using polyol and hydrothermal method, respectively. It was demonstrated that Ag NPs can be oxidized easily in aqueous solution and the addition of acetic acid can increase the Ag+ release which improves the antibacterial activity of Ag NPs. A comparative study between bactericidal effect of Ag NPs/acetic acid and Ag NPs/ZnO Qds on Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia and Staphylococcus aureus was undertaken using agar diffusion method. The obtained colloids were characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy, Raman spectrometry, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM).

  18. Critical role of phospholipase A2 group IID in age-related susceptibility to severe acute respiratory syndrome–CoV infection

    PubMed Central

    Vijay, Rahul; Hua, Xiaoyang; Meyerholz, David K.; Miki, Yoshimi; Yamamoto, Kei; Gelb, Michael; Murakami, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress and chronic low-grade inflammation in the lungs are associated with aging and may contribute to age-related immune dysfunction. To maintain lung homeostasis, chronic inflammation is countered by enhanced expression of proresolving/antiinflammatory factors. Here, we show that age-dependent increases of one such factor in the lungs, a phospholipase A2 (PLA2) group IID (PLA2G2D) with antiinflammatory properties, contributed to worse outcomes in mice infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Strikingly, infection of mice lacking PLA2G2D expression (Pla2g2d−/− mice) converted a uniformly lethal infection to a nonlethal one (>80% survival), subsequent to development of enhanced respiratory DC migration to the draining lymph nodes, augmented antivirus T cell responses, and diminished lung damage. We also observed similar effects in influenza A virus–infected middle-aged Pla2g2d−/− mice. Furthermore, oxidative stress, probably via lipid peroxidation, was found to induce PLA2G2D expression in mice and in human monocyte–derived macrophages. Thus, our results suggest that directed inhibition of a single inducible phospholipase, PLA2G2D, in the lungs of older patients with severe respiratory infections is potentially an attractive therapeutic intervention to restore immune function. PMID:26392224

  19. Hydrolysis is the dominating in vivo metabolism pathway for arctigenin: identification of novel metabolites of arctigenin by LC/MS/MS after oral administration in rats.

    PubMed

    Gao, Qiong; Zhang, Yufeng; Wo, Siukwan; Zuo, Zhong

    2013-04-01

    The phenylpropanoid dibenzylbutyrolactone lignan arctigenin, a key component found in Arctium lappa, or burdock, has been reported with a variety of therapeutic effects including anticancer, anti-inflammation, and antivirus effects. Using LC/MS/MS, three novel metabolites of arctigenin, namely, arctigenic acid, arctigenin-4-O'-glucuronide, and 4-O-demethylarctigenin were identified after oral administration of arctigenin in rats for the first time. Another potential metabolite of arctigenin, arctigenin-4'-O-sulfate, was identified in vitro but not in vivo. Structure of arctigenic acid, the major metabolite of arctigenin, was confirmed by 13C-NMR and 1H-NMR. Rapid hydrolysis in plasma was identified as the major metabolic pathway of arctigenin after its oral administration, with Vmax, Km, and Clint in rat plasma determined to be 2.21 ± 0.12 nmol/min/mg, 89.12 ± 9.44 µM, and 24.74 µL/min/mg, respectively. Paraoxonase 1 was further confirmed to be the enzyme responsible for arctigenin hydrolysis, with Vmax, Km, and Clint determined to be 55.39 ± 1.49 nmol/min/mg, 300.3 ± 10.86 µM, and 184.45 µL/min/mg, respectively. PMID:23519790

  20. [The cytology mechanism of anti-parainfluenza virus infection of total flavone of Scutellaria barbata].

    PubMed

    Guo, Shan-Shan; Shi, Yu-Jing; Gao, Ying-Jie; Su, Dan; Cui, Xiao-Lan

    2009-12-01

    In order to research into the cytology mechanism of anti-virus action of total flavone of Scutellaria barbata (TFSB), the effects of TFSB on host cells membrane potential, Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity and membrane fluidity after parainfluenza virus type1 (PIV-1) infection were studied. The changes of membrane potential which was fluorescent labeled with DiBAC4(3) and its changes were measured by flow cytometer. Phosphorus determination method and spectrophotometry were used to measure the Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity of Hep-2 cells membrane after PIV-1 infection. Hep-2 cells membrane phospholipids were fluorescent labeled with NBD-C6-HPC and membrane fluidity was measured by confocal scanning laser microscope. The result demonstrated that post PIV-1 infection membrane potential decreased significantly and the membrane was in a state of hyperpolarization, Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity increased significantly and membrane fluidity decreased significantly. There was no apparent interfere effect of TFSB on the changes of membrane potential and Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity after PIV-1 infection, while membrane fluidity improved significantly. It was indicated that the cytology mechanism of PIV-1 infection might be related to membrane hyperpolarization, Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity increase and membrane fluidity decrease. TFSB can improve membrane fluidity and prevent the infection by protecting the cell membrane. But it is possible that the anti-PIV-1 mechanisms of TFSB had nothing to do with membrane potential and Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity. PMID:21351467

  1. Preparative isolation and purification of lignans from Justicia procumbens using high-speed counter-current chromatography in stepwise elution mode.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Peijuan; Luo, Qijun; Ding, Lijian; Fang, Fang; Yuan, Ye; Chen, Juanjuan; Zhang, Jinrong; Jin, Haixiao; He, Shan

    2015-04-20

    Lignans, which are recognized as main constituents in Justicia procumbens, have attracted considerable attention due to their pharmacological activities, including antitumor, anti-hepatitic, cytotoxic, anti-microbial, and anti-virus properties. Preparative high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) was successfully applied to the isolation and purification of four lignans (justicidin B (1), justicidin A (2), 6'-hydroxyjusticidin C (3) and lignan J1 (4)) from J. procumbens using stepwise elution with a pair of two-phase solvent systems composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water at (1.3:1:1.3:1, v/v) and (2.5:1:2.5:1, v/v). The preparative HSCCC separation was performed on 300 mg of crude sample yielding compounds 1 (19.7 mg), 2 (9.86 mg), 3 (11.26 mg), and 4 (2.54 mg) in a one-step separation, with purities over 95% as determined by HPLC. The structures of these compounds were identified by MS, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR. This is the first report on the application of HSCCC to the efficient separation of lignans from J. procumbens.

  2. Molecular cloning, recombinant expression, and antimicrobial activity of EC-hepcidin3, a new four-cysteine hepcidin isoform from Epinephelus coioides.

    PubMed

    Qu, HaiDong; Chen, Bei; Peng, Hui; Wang, KeJian

    2013-01-01

    Hepcidin, a cysteine-rich antimicrobial peptide, is widespread in fish and shows multiple activities, including antimicrobial, antivirus, and antitumor. Here, a new four-cysteine hepcidin isoform gene, EC-hepcidin3, was cloned from the marine-cultured orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides). The complete cDNA sequence consisted of 603 bases with an open reading frame (ORF) of 270 bases. The genomic DNA sequence was composed of two introns and three exons, and its 312-bp upstream region had multiple putative transcription factor binding sites. Soluble recombinant protein EC-proHep3 containing a His-tag at the C-terminus was obtained from expression plasmid pET-28a/EC-proHep3 in Escherichia coli Rosetta. It was purified by immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC), and it showed antibacterial activity in vitro. Kinetic studies indicated that recombinant EC-proHep3 has strong, rapid activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas stutzeri. The results indicate that EC-hepcidin3 might be an effective component in the innate immune system of groupers. PMID:23291752

  3. Status of hepatitis C virus vaccination: Recent update

    PubMed Central

    Abdelwahab, Kouka Saadeldin; Ahmed Said, Zeinab Nabil

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is still a major public health problem worldwide since its first identification in 1989. At the start, HCV infection was post-transfusion viral infection, particularly in developing countries. Recently, due to iv drug abuse, HCV infection became number one health problem in well-developed countries as well. Following acute HCV infection, the innate immune response is triggered in the form of activated coordinated interaction of NK cells, dendritic cells and interferon α. The acquired immune response is then developed in the form of the antibody-mediated immune response (ABIR) and the cell-mediated immune response (CMIR). Both are responsible for clearance of HCV infection in about 15% of infected patients. However, HCV has several mechanisms to evade these antivirus immune reactions. The current review gives an overview of HCV structure, immune response and viral evasion mechanisms. It also evaluates the available preventive and therapeutic vaccines that induce innate, ABIR, CMIR. Moreover, this review highlights the progress in recent HCV vaccination studies either in preclinical or clinical phases. The unsatisfactory identification of HCV infection by the current screening system and the limitations of currently available treatments, including the ineligibility of some chronic HCV patients to such antiviral agents, mandate the development of an effective HCV vaccine. PMID:26811632

  4. Associations of Toll-like receptor 7 and 8 Polymorphisms with Asthma and Asthma-related Phenotypes in a Chinese Han Population.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian; Qian, Fen-Hong; Yin, Xiao-Wei; Cao, Qi; Bai, Jian-Ling; Du, Qiang; Shi, Yi

    2015-12-01

    Toll-like receptor (TLR) 7 and 8 mediate anti-virus immunity and are of particular relevance to asthma. However, very little information about genetic association on TLR7/8 and asthma are available. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of polymorphisms in TLR7 and 8 on asthma risk and asthma-related phenotypes in a Chinese Han population. We enrolled 462 unrelated adult asthmatic patients and 398 healthy volunteers. The genotypes of tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in TLR7 and 8 genes were determined using multiplex SNaPshot SNP genotyping assay. We used case-control and case-only studies to assess any links with asthma and asthma-related phenotypes. There was no association between the variants in TLR7 and 8 and asthma susceptibility. However, our results revealed that the genetic variants in TLR7 and 8 were associated with asthma-related phenotypes, including eosinophil counts, serum immunoglobulin E levels, lung function, and asthma severity as well. Our study suggests that TLR7 and 8 polymorphisms may play a considerable role in the pathogenesis of asthma. It will help in better understanding the pathogenesis of asthma and development of more effective strategies for asthma prevention, prediction, and therapy.

  5. From Intrusion Detection to Self Protection

    SciTech Connect

    Frincke, Deb; Wespi, Andreas; Zamboni, Diego

    2007-04-11

    Modern computer systems have become so complex and interdependent that the traditional model of system defense, utilizing layers and including an intrusion detection system that provides alerts to a human who responds to them, is becoming unfeasible. Effective human-guided real-time responses are no longer a reasonable expectation for large scale systems--this is particularly troublesome because a failure to respond correctly and rapidly can have disastrous consequences. In an ideal world, our systems would automatically detect and respond to threats of all kinds, including but not limited to automated attacks, human-guided attacks, and the constant onslaught of unsolicited email (spam). Traditionally, these threats have been dealt with by separate communities--the anti-virus community, the intrusion-detection/firewall community, and the anti-spam community. Today however, we see an increasing need for integrating different technologies toward achieving a common goal. In this special issue, we surveyed the research community with the intent of identifying novel, multidisciplinary and integrated approaches to system defense that contribute towards development of true self-protecting and self-healing systems. The result is reflected in the articles we selected.

  6. Lactobacillus acidophilus L-92 Cells Activate Expression of Immunomodulatory Genes in THP-1 Cells

    PubMed Central

    YANAGIHARA, Sae; GOTO, Hiroaki; HIROTA, Tatsuhiko; FUKUDA, Shinji; OHNO, Hiroshi; YAMAMOTO, Naoyuki

    2014-01-01

    To understand the immunomodulatory effects of Lactobacillus acidophilus L-92 cells suggested from our previous study of in vivo anti-allergy and anti-virus effects, host immune responses in macrophage-like THP-1 cells after 4 h (the early phase) and 24 h (the late phase) of cocultivation with L-92 cells were investigated by transcriptome analysis. In the early phase of L-92 treatment, various transcription regulator genes, such as, NFkB1, NFkB2, JUN, HIVEP2 and RELB, and genes encoding chemokines and cytokines, such as CCL4, CXCL11, CCL3 and TNF, were upregulated. Two transmembrane receptor genes, TLR7 and ICAM1, were also upregulated in the early phase of treatment. In contrast, many transmembrane receptor genes, such as IL7R, CD80, CRLF2, CD86, CD5, HLA-DQA1, IL2RA, IL15RA and CSF2RA, and some cytokine genes, including IL6, IL23A and CCL22, were significantly upregulated in the late phase after L-92 exposure. Some genes encoding cytokines, such as IL1A, IL1B and IL8, and the enzyme IDO1 were upregulated at both the early and the late phases of treatment. These results suggest that probiotic L-92 might promote Th1 and regulatory T-cell responses by activation of the MAPK signaling pathway, followed by the NOD-like receptor signaling pathway in THP-1 cells. PMID:25379363

  7. Angel of human health: current research updates in toad medicine.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qian; Zhou, Xuanxuan; Zhang, Meng; Bi, Linlin; Miao, Shan; Cao, Wei; Xie, Yanhua; Sun, Jiyuan; Tang, Haifeng; Li, Ying; Miao, Qing; Wang, Siwang

    2015-01-01

    There are currently 34 genera and 410 species of toads in the world. The medicinal parts of toads mainly include their venom, skin, and clothing. The toad's venom and skin possess the same chemical components, mainly the toad venom lactone class, and their pharmacological effects primarily include the maintenance of strong heart, antitumor, antivirus, anti-infection, and analgesic effects. So far, the produces from the medicinal raw materials of the toad are widely used clinically around the world, especially in China, Japan, and South Korea. About 50 varieties of medicines are used in the clinical treatment of various complicated diseases in China, such as "Liushen pills" which was popular in the whole world. Toads are mainly used in treating malignant tumors (e.g., liver cancer, gastric cancer, esophageal cancer, colon cancer, cervical cancer, among others), and some major diseases such as hepatitis B. Despite the therapeutic effects of toad-derived medicines on human health, there is insufficient research and development of toad-derived medicines by leading drug companies. In order to harness the beneficial effects of the resources of the toad species, it is the responsibility of global pharmaceutical researchers to develop and generate economically feasible toad-derived therapeutic products, while promoting maximum protection to the resources of the toad species.

  8. Suppressive Effects of the Site 1 Protease (S1P) Inhibitor, PF-429242, on Dengue Virus Propagation

    PubMed Central

    Uchida, Leo; Urata, Shuzo; Ulanday, Gianne Eduard L.; Takamatsu, Yuki; Yasuda, Jiro; Morita, Kouichi; Hayasaka, Daisuke

    2016-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) infection causes one of the most widespread mosquito-borne diseases in the world. Despite the great need, effective vaccines and practical antiviral therapies are still under development. Intracellular lipid levels are regulated by sterol regulatory elements-binding proteins (SREBPs), which are activated by serine protease, site 1 protease (S1P). Small compound PF-429242 is known as a S1P inhibitor and the antivirus effects have been reported in some viruses. In this study, we examined the anti-DENV effects of PF-429242 using all four serotypes of DENV by several primate-derived cell lines. Moreover, emergence of drug-resistant DENV mutants was assessed by sequential passages with the drug. DENV dependency on intracellular lipids during their infection was also evaluated by adding extracellular lipids. The addition of PF-429242 showed suppression of viral propagation in all DENV serotypes. We showed that drug-resistant DENV mutants are unlikely to emerge after five times sequential passages through treatment with PF-429242. Although the levels of intracellular cholesterol and lipid droplets were reduced by PF-429242, viral propagations were not recovered by addition of exogenous cholesterol or fatty acids, indicating that the reduction of LD and cholesterol caused by PF-429242 treatment is not related to its mechanism of action against DENV propagation. Our results suggest that PF-429242 is a promising candidate for an anti-DENV agent. PMID:26875984

  9. Dicer functions as an antiviral system against human adenoviruses via cleavage of adenovirus-encoded noncoding RNA

    PubMed Central

    Machitani, Mitsuhiro; Sakurai, Fuminori; Wakabayashi, Keisaku; Tomita, Kyoko; Tachibana, Masashi; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    In various organisms, including nematodes and plants, RNA interference (RNAi) is a defense system against virus infection; however, it is unclear whether RNAi functions as an antivirus system in mammalian cells. Rather, a number of DNA viruses, including herpesviruses, utilize post-transcriptional silencing systems for their survival. Here we show that Dicer efficiently suppresses the replication of adenovirus (Ad) via cleavage of Ad-encoding small RNAs (VA-RNAs), which efficiently promote Ad replication via the inhibition of eIF2α phosphorylation, to viral microRNAs (mivaRNAs). The Dicer knockdown significantly increases the copy numbers of VA-RNAs, leading to the efficient inhibition of eIF2α phosphorylation and the subsequent promotion of Ad replication. Conversely, overexpression of Dicer significantly inhibits Ad replication. Transfection with mivaRNA does not affect eIF2α phosphorylation or Ad replication. These results indicate that Dicer-mediated processing of VA-RNAs leads to loss of activity of VA-RNAs for enhancement of Ad replication and that Dicer functions as a defence system against Ad in mammalian cells. PMID:27273616

  10. Regulation of virus-induced inflammatory response by Dunaliella salina alga extract in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hui-Wen; Chen, Yi-Chen; Liu, Cheng-Wei; Yang, Deng-Jye; Chen, Shih-Yin; Chang, Tien-Jye; Chang, Yuan-Yen

    2014-09-01

    Previous reports have suggested that many constituents within various algal samples are able to attenuate LPS-induced inflammatory effects. To date no report has been published on the regulation of virus-induced inflammatory response of Dunaliella salina carotenoid extract. In the present study, the anti-inflammatory effect of D. salina carotenoid extract on pseudorabies virus (PRV)-infected RAW 264.7 macrophages was investigated. We evaluated the anti-inflammatory effect of D. salina carotenoid extract on PRV-infected RAW 264.7 cells by measuring cell viability, cytotoxicity, production of inflammatory mediators such as NO, iNOS, COX-2, pro-inflammatory cytokines and anti-virus replication by plaque assay. We found down-regulation of the expression of the iNOS, COX-2 and pro-inflammatory genes IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and MCP-1 in a dose-dependent manner. Although there was no effect on viral replication, there were tendencies toward lower virus titer and tendencies toward higher cell survival. Most importantly, we found that inhibition of TLR9, PI3K and Akt phosphorylation plays a crucial role in the extract-mediated NF-κB regulation by modulating IKK-IκB signaling in PRV-infected RAW264.7 cells. These results indicate that D. salina carotenoid extracts inhibited inflammation by inhibition of NF-κB activation by TLR9 dependent via PI3K/Akt inactivation.

  11. Attenuation of vesicular stomatitis virus infection of brain using antiviral drugs and an adeno-associated virus-interferon vector

    PubMed Central

    Wollmann, Guido; Paglino, Justin C.; Maloney, Patrick R; Ahmadi, Sebastian A; van den Pol, Anthony N

    2015-01-01

    Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) shows promise as vaccine-vector and oncolytic virus. However, reports of neurotoxicity of VSV remain a concern. We compared 12 antiviral compounds to control infection of VSV-CT9-M51 and VSV-rp30 using murine and human brain cultures, and in vivo mouse models. Inhibition of replication, cytotoxicity and infectivity was strongest with ribavirin and IFN-α and to some extent with mycophenolic acid, chloroquine, and adenine 9-β-D-arabinofuranoside. To generate continuous IFN exposure, we made an adeno-associated virus vector expressing murine IFN; AAV-mIFN-β protected mouse brain cells from VSV, as did a combination of ribavirin and chloroquine. Intracranial AAV-mIFN-β protected the brain against VSV-CT9-M51. In SCID mice bearing human glioblastoma, AAV-mIFN-β moderately enhanced survival. VSV-CT9-M51 doubled median survival when administered after AAV-mIFN-β; some surviving mice showed complete tumor destruction. Together, these data suggest that AAV-IFN or IFN with ribavirin and chloroquine provide an optimal anti-virus combination against VSV in the brain. PMID:25462341

  12. Trichosanthin-induced autophagy in gastric cancer cell MKN-45 is dependent on reactive oxygen species (ROS) and NF-κB/p53 pathway.

    PubMed

    Wei, Bin; Huang, Qiaoying; Huang, Shunrong; Mai, Wei; Zhong, Xiaogang

    2016-06-01

    Trichosanthin (TCS), isolated from the root tuber of Trichosanthes kirilowii tubers in the Cucurbitaceae family, owns a great deal of biological and pharmacological activities including anti-virus and anti-tumor. TCS has been reported to induce cell apoptosis of a diversity of cancers, including cervical cancer, choriocarcinoma, and gastric cancer, etc. However, whether TCS would induce autophagy in gastric cancer cells was seldom investigated. In current study, human gastric cancer MKN-45 cell growth was significantly inhibited by TCS. The anti-proliferation effect of TCS was due to an increased autophagy, which was confirmed by monodansylcadervarine (MDC) staining, up-regulation of Autophagy protein 5 (Atg5), and conversion of LC3 I to LC3 II (autophagosome marker). In addition, TCS induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) in MKN-45 cells and ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine (NAC) significantly reversed TCS-induced autophagy. Furthermore, NF-κB/p53 pathway was activated during the process of autophagy induced by TCS and the ROS generation was mediated by it in MKN-45 cells. In vivo results showed that TCS exerted significantly anti-tumor effect on MKN-45 bearing mice. Considering the clinical usage of TCS on other human diseases, these research progresses provided a new insight into cancer research and new therapeutic avenues for patients with gastric cancer. PMID:27032906

  13. Neutralizing activities of human immunoglobulin derived from donors in Japan against mosquito-borne flaviviruses, Japanese encephalitis virus, West Nile virus, and dengue virus.

    PubMed

    Yunoki, Mikihiro; Kurosu, Takeshi; Koketsu, Ritsuko Kubota; Takahashi, Kazuo; Okuno, Yoshinobu; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), West Nile virus (WNV), and dengue virus (DenV) are causal agents of Japanese encephalitis, West Nile fever, and dengue fever, respectively. JEV is considered to be indigenized and widespread in Japan, whereas WNV and DenV are not indigenized in Japan. Globulin products seem to reflect the status of the donor population according to antivirus neutralization activity. However, the anti-JEV, -WNV, and -DenV neutralization activities of globulin products derived from donors in Japan have not been clarified. Furthermore, potential candidates for the development of an effective immunotherapeutic drug for encephalitis caused by JEV, WNV, or DenV have also not been identified. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the overall status of the donor population in Japan based on globulin products by evaluating anti-JEV, -WNV, and -DenV neutralizing activities of intravenous immunoglobulin. Overall, intravenous immunoglobulin products showed stable neutralizing activity against JEV but showed no or only weak activity against WNV or DenV. These results suggest that the epidemiological level against WNV and DenV in the donor population of Japan is still low, suggesting that these viruses are not yet indigenized. In addition, JEV vaccinations and/or infections in the donor population do not induce a cross-reactive antibody against WNV. PMID:27462140

  14. Ginseng Berry Extract Promotes Maturation of Mouse Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Cho, Si-Young; Xiang, Gao; Min, Kyung-Jin; Yu, Qing; Jin, Jun-O

    2015-01-01

    Ginseng extract has been shown to possess certain anti-virus, anti-tumor and immune-activating effects. However, the immunostimulatory effect of ginseng berry extract (GB) has been less well characterized. In this study, we investigated the effect of GB on the activation of mouse dendritic cells (DCs) in vitro and in vivo. GB treatment induced up-regulation of co-stimulatory molecules in bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs). Interestingly, GB induced a higher degree of co-stimulatory molecule up-regulation than ginseng root extract (GR) at the same concentrations. Moreover, in vivo administration of GB promoted up-regulation of CD86, MHC class I and MHC class II and production of IL-6, IL-12 and TNF-α in spleen DCs. GB also promoted the generation of Th1 and Tc1 cells. Furthermore, Toll like receptor 4 (TLR4) and myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88) signaling pathway were essential for DC activation induced by GB. In addition, GB strongly prompted the proliferation of ovalbumin (OVA)-specific CD4 and CD8 T cells. Finally, GB induced DC activation in tumor-bearing mice and the combination of OVA and GB treatment inhibited B16-OVA tumor cell growth in C57BL/6 mice. These results demonstrate that GB is a novel tumor therapeutic vaccine adjuvant by promoting DC and T cell activation. PMID:26090808

  15. Molecular cloning and characterization of a galectin-1 homolog in orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiuli; Wei, Jingguang; Xu, Meng; Yang, Min; Li, Pingfei; Wei, Shina; Huang, Youhua; Qin, Qiwei

    2016-07-01

    As a member of animal lectin family, galectin has the functions of pathogen recognition, anti-bacteria and anti-virus. In the present study, a galectin-1 homolog (EcGel-1) from grouper (Epinephelus coioides) was cloned and its possible role in fish immunity was analyzed. The full length cDNA of EcGel-1 is 504 bp, including a 408 bp open reading frame (ORF) which encodes 135 amino acids with a molecular mass of 15.19 kDa. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that EcGel-1 was constitutively expressed in all analyzed tissues of healthy grouper. The expression of EcGel-1 in the spleen of grouper was differentially up-regulated challenged with Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV), poly (I:C), and LPS. EcGel-1 was abundantly distributed in the cytoplasm in GS cells. Recombinant EcGel-1(rEcGel-1) protein can make chicken erythrocyte aggregation, and combine with gram negative bacteria and gram positive bacteria in the presence of 2-Mercaptoethanol (β-ME). Taken together, the results showed that EcGel-1 may be an important molecule involved in pathogen recognition and pathogen elimination in the innate immunity of grouper.

  16. Design, Synthesis and Structure-Activity Relationship Optimization of Lycorine Derivatives for HCV Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Duozhi; Cai, Jieyun; Cheng, Junjun; Jing, Chenxu; Yin, Junlin; Jiang, Jiandong; Peng, Zonggen; Hao, Xiaojiang

    2015-01-01

    Lycorine is reported to be a multifunctional compound. We previously showed that lycorine is an HCV inhibitor with strong activity. Further research on the antivirus mechanism indicated that lycorine does not affect the enzymes that are indispensable to HCV replication but suppresses the expression of Hsc70 in the host cell to limit HCV replication. However, due to the cytotoxicity and apoptosis induction of lycorine, lycorine is unsafe to be a anti-HCV agent for clinical application. As a result of increasing interest, its structure was optimized for the first time and a novel series of lycorine derivatives was synthesized, all of which lost their cytotoxicity to different degrees. Structure-activity analysis of these compounds revealed that disubstitution on the free hydroxyl groups at C1 and C2 and/or degradation of the benzodioxole group would markedly reduce the cytotoxicity. Furthermore, an α, β-unsaturated ketone would improve the HCV inhibitory activity of lycorine. The C3-C4 double bond is crucial to the anti-HCV activity because hydrogenation of this double bond clearly weakened HCV inhibition. PMID:26443922

  17. Suppressive Effects of the Site 1 Protease (S1P) Inhibitor, PF-429242, on Dengue Virus Propagation.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Leo; Urata, Shuzo; Ulanday, Gianne Eduard L; Takamatsu, Yuki; Yasuda, Jiro; Morita, Kouichi; Hayasaka, Daisuke

    2016-02-10

    Dengue virus (DENV) infection causes one of the most widespread mosquito-borne diseases in the world. Despite the great need, effective vaccines and practical antiviral therapies are still under development. Intracellular lipid levels are regulated by sterol regulatory elements-binding proteins (SREBPs), which are activated by serine protease, site 1 protease (S1P). Small compound PF-429242 is known as a S1P inhibitor and the antivirus effects have been reported in some viruses. In this study, we examined the anti-DENV effects of PF-429242 using all four serotypes of DENV by several primate-derived cell lines. Moreover, emergence of drug-resistant DENV mutants was assessed by sequential passages with the drug. DENV dependency on intracellular lipids during their infection was also evaluated by adding extracellular lipids. The addition of PF-429242 showed suppression of viral propagation in all DENV serotypes. We showed that drug-resistant DENV mutants are unlikely to emerge after five times sequential passages through treatment with PF-429242. Although the levels of intracellular cholesterol and lipid droplets were reduced by PF-429242, viral propagations were not recovered by addition of exogenous cholesterol or fatty acids, indicating that the reduction of LD and cholesterol caused by PF-429242 treatment is not related to its mechanism of action against DENV propagation. Our results suggest that PF-429242 is a promising candidate for an anti-DENV agent.

  18. Characterization and expression analysis of BCA2 gene in large yellow croaker, Larimichthys crocea.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dong Ling; Yu, Da Hui; Chen, Jian; Wang, Zhi Yong

    2015-10-01

    BCA2, as an E3 ubiquitin ligase, is an important anti-virus immune factor in mammals. Up to date, there are not any related reports on BCA2 protein in fishes yet. In the present investigation, BCA2 in large yellow croaker Larimichthys crocea (named as LcBCA2) was identified and characterized. The full-length cDNA of LcBCA2 was 1571 bp, including an ORF of 888 bp encoding a polypeptide of 295 amino acids. The putative LcBCA2 protein contained a RING-H2 motif at C terminal. The LcBCA2 transcripts were broadly distributed in all detected tissues, with high expression in muscle, moderate in blood, skin, heart, liver and spleen, weak in other tissue as indicated by qPCR analysis. Significant increases were observed in skin, gill and spleen after infection of Cryptocaryon irritans, and in spleen and head-kidney after inactivated Vibrio. parahaemolyticus, LPS and Poly I:C stimulations. Tissue localization by in-situ hybridization showed that LcBCA2 mainly expressed in the spleen of the fish in the test group. Our findings showed that LcBCA2 inclined to sharply increase in immune organs, especially in head-kidney after bacterial and viral stimulations, while in locations (skin and gill) of parasites infections, suggesting that BCA2 may play an important role in fish defense against bacteria, virus and parasites infections, but the immune mechanisms is are different.

  19. Phishing for suitable targets in the Netherlands: routine activity theory and phishing victimization.

    PubMed

    Leukfeldt, E Rutger

    2014-08-01

    This article investigates phishing victims, especially the increased or decreased risk of victimization, using data from a cybercrime victim survey in the Netherlands (n=10,316). Routine activity theory provides the theoretical perspective. According to routine activity theory, several factors influence the risk of victimization. A multivariate analysis was conducted to assess which factors actually lead to increased risk of victimization. The model included background and financial data of victims, their Internet activities, and the degree to which they were "digitally accessible" to an offender. The analysis showed that personal background and financial characteristics play no role in phishing victimization. Among eight Internet activities, only "targeted browsing" led to increased risk. As for accessibility, using popular operating systems and web browsers does not lead to greater risk, while having up-to-date antivirus software as a technically capable guardian has no effect. The analysis showed no one, clearly defined group has an increased chance of becoming a victim. Target hardening may help, but opportunities for prevention campaigns aimed at a specific target group or dangerous online activities are limited. Therefore, situational crime prevention will have to come from a different angle. Banks could play the role of capable guardian.

  20. Investigating weaknesses in Android certificate security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krych, Daniel E.; Lange-Maney, Stephen; McDaniel, Patrick; Glodek, William

    2015-05-01

    Android's application market relies on secure certificate generation to establish trust between applications and their users; yet, cryptography is often not a priority for application developers and many fail to take the necessary security precautions. Indeed, there is cause for concern: several recent high-profile studies have observed a pervasive lack of entropy on Web-systems leading to the factorization of private keys.1 Sufficient entropy, or randomness, is essential to generate secure key pairs and combat predictable key generation. In this paper, we analyze the security of Android certificates. We investigate the entropy present in 550,000 Android application certificates using the Quasilinear GCD finding algorithm.1 Our results show that while the lack of entropy does not appear to be as ubiquitous in the mobile markets as on Web-systems, there is substantial reuse of certificates only one third of the certificates in our dataset were unique. In other words, we find that organizations frequently reuse certificates for different applications. While such a practice is acceptable under Google's specifications for a single developer, we find that in some cases the same certificates are used for a myriad of developers, potentially compromising Android's intended trust relationships. Further, we observed duplicate certificates being used by both malicious and non-malicious applications. The top 3 repeated certificates present in our dataset accounted for a total of 11,438 separate APKs. Of these applications, 451, or roughly 4%, were identified as malicious by antivirus services.

  1. Endocrine System (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Meningitis Choosing Your Mood Prescription Drug Abuse Healthy School Lunch Planner How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? ... en español El sistema endocrino Ever dozed through chemistry class and wondered what chemistry had to do ...

  2. Progresos recientes en Astronomía de Rayos Gamma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero, G. E.

    Tras la exitosa misión del Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory durante los años 1990, la astronomía de rayos gamma ha entrado en una etapa de madurez, convirtiéndose en una de las principales herramientas para el estudio de procesos relativistas en el universo. En este reporte, presentaré una revisión de los principales tópicos abordados a través de estudios con rayos gamma en los últimos años, con particular énfasis en los intentos más recientes por establecer la naturaleza de las fuentes de rayos gamma no identificadas, detectadas por el instrumento EGRET.

  3. Urbanization and the groundwater budget, metropolitan Seoul area, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yoon-Young; Lee, Kang-Kun; Sung, Ig Hwan

    2001-07-01

    du métro et les pompages privés. Le bilan entre la recharge de la nappe et sa décharge est proche de l'équilibre. Cependant, les infiltrations d'eaux usées, les décharges abandonnées, les décharges d'ordures et les puits abandonnés portent atteinte à la qualité de l'eau souterraine et à la capacité de contrôler les flux de contaminants. Resumen. La ciudad de Seúl tiene más de 10 millones de habitantes en un área de 605 km2. Se bombea aguas subterráneas para abastecimiento urbano y para usos industriales, así como para el drenaje de instalaciones subterráneas y de solares en construcción. Aunque la mayor parte del agua de boca procede del río Han, los ciudadanos de Seúl están muy concienciados por la cantidad y calidad de las aguas subterráneas, ya que su explotación para uso de boca está experimentando un continuo incremento. El presente estudio identifica los factores que más afectan a la calidad de las aguas subterráneas en el área de Seúl y hace una estimación del balance de agua en el territorio urbano. Entre los factores principales que afectan al balance y a la calidad de las aguas subterráneas, se incluye el lixiviado de la red municipal de suministro y de la red de alcantarillado, la infiltración de agua de lluvia, las fluctuaciones del nivel del río Han, el sistema de bombeo del metro y los bombeos domésticos. El balance entre la recarga y la descarga en el acuífero está próximo al equilibrio. Sin embargo, la calidad de las aguas subterráneas y la capacidad de controlar los flujos de contaminación están amenazadas por la infiltración de aguas residuales, vertederos abandonados, depósitos de residuos y pozos abanadonados.

  4. A geochemical and geophysical approach to derive a conceptual circulation model of CO2-rich mineral waters: A case study of Vilarelho da Raia, northern Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, J. M.; Santos, Monteiro; Graça, R. C.; Castro, R.; Aires-Barros, L.; Mendes Victor, L. A.

    2001-11-01

    The Vilarelho da Raia-Chaves region, located in northern Portugal adjacent to the Spanish border, is characterized by both hot and cold CO2-rich mineral waters issuing from springs and drilled wells. The present paper updates the conceptual circulation model of the Vilarelho da Raia cold CO2-rich mineral waters. Vilarelho da Raia mineral waters, dominated by Na and HCO3 ions, have formed mainly by interaction with CO2 of deep-seated mantle origin. The δ18O, δ2H and 3H values indicate that these waters are the result of meteoric waters infiltrating into Larouco Mountain, NW of Vilarelho da Raia, circulating at shallow depths in granitic rocks and moving into Vilarelho da Raia area. The conceptual geochemical and geophysical circulation model indicates that the hot and cold CO2-rich mineral waters of Chaves (76 °C) and Vilarelho da Raia (17 °C) should be considered manifestations of similar but not the same geohydrological systems. Résumé. La région de Vilarelho da Raia - Chaves, située au Portugal près de la frontière Espagnole, est caractérisée par des eaux carbogazeuses, chaudes et froides, émergeant à des sources et dans des puits. Ce travail constitue une mise au point du modèle conceptuel de circulation des eaux minérales carbogazeuses froides de Vilarelho da Raia. Les eaux minérales de Vilarelho da Raia, dans lesquelles les ions Na and HCO3 sont dominants, résultent principalement d'interactions avec du CO2 d'origine mantellique. Les δ18O, les δ2H, et les teneurs en 3H indiquent que ces eaux proviennent de l'infiltration d'eaux météoriques dans le Mont Larouco au NW de Vilarelho da Raia, circulant à faible profondeur dans les granites en direction de la région de Vilarelho da Raia. Le modèle de circulation géochimique et géophysique conduit à penser que les eaux minérales carbogazeuses chaudes et froides de Chaves (76 °C) et de Vilarelho da Raia (17 °C) doivent être considérées comme des manifestations de systèmes hydrog

  5. [Discriminant analysis to predict the clinical diagnosis of primary immunodeficiencies: a preliminary report].

    PubMed

    Murata, Chiharu; Ramírez, Ana Belén; Ramírez, Guadalupe; Cruz, Alonso; Morales, José Luis; Lugo-Reyes, Saul Oswaldo

    2015-01-01

    cuatro enfermedades más prevalentes (agammaglobulinemia ligada al cromosoma X, enfermedad granulomatosa crónica, inmunodeficiencia común variable y ataxia-telangiectasia). Prácticamente en todos los casos el desempeño de la máquina fue superior al del experto humano en lo que respecta a la selección de los atributos más pertinentes para incorporar en los modelos. La predicción del diagnóstico con base en las ecuaciones construidas tuvo exactitud global de 83 a 94%, con sensibilidad de 60 a 100%, especificidad de 83 a 95% y coeficiente kappa de 0.37 a 0.76. Conclusiones: la selección de variables, en general, tiene plausibilidad clínica y tiene la ventaja práctica de utilizar solamente atributos clínicos, gérmenes encontrados y estudios de laboratorio de rutina (biometría hemática e inmunoglobulinas séricas). El desempeño del modelo como herramienta de predicción fue aceptable. Las principales limitaciones del estudio incluyen un tamaño de muestra limitado, lo que no permitió que realizáramos validación cruzada en la evaluación. Éste es solamente un primer paso en la construcción de un sistema de aprendizaje automático, con un abordaje más amplio que incluya una base de datos más grande y diferentes metodologías, para asistir el diagnóstico clínico de las inmunodeficiencias primarias.

  6. El Informe a la Nación sobre el Estado del Cáncer, 1975-2012

    Cancer.gov

    El Informe a la Nación sobre el Estado del Cáncer (1975-2012) indica que continuó la baja de tasas de mortalidad de todos los cánceres juntos, así como de la mayoría de los cánceres en hombres y mujeres de todos los grupos raciales y étnicos principales.

  7. El medio interestelar alrededor de estrellas Of: HD 108

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappa, C.; Testori, J. C.

    Hemos analizado la distribución del hidrógeno neutro interestelar en la vecindad de la estrella Of HD 108 en base a perfiles de la línea de 21 cm. Estos datos nos han permitido encontrar una probable burbuja interestelar asociada a la estrella. Comparamos estos resultados con la emisión en otros rangos espectrales y estimamos los principales parámetros físicos de la estructura.

  8. Comparison of the traditional pharmaceutical validation method versus an assisted pharmaceutical validation in hospitalized patients.

    PubMed

    García Marco, D; Hernández Sánchez, M V; Sanz Márquez, S; Pérez Encinas, M; Fernández-Shaw Toda, C; Jiménez Cerezo, M J; Ferrari Piquero, J M; Martínez Camacho, M

    2016-05-01

    Objetivo: Analizar las intervenciones farmacéuticas realizadas con el apoyo de un sistema automático de validación de tratamientos vs. el método tradicional sin apoyo informático. Metodos: El programa automatizado, ALTOMEDICAMENTOS ® version 0, cuenta con 925.052 celdas con información de aproximadamente 20.000 medicamentos, analizando dosis, vías de administración, días de tratamiento, dosificación en insuficiencia renal y hepática, control de interacciones, de medicamentos semejantes y de medicamentos por vía enteral. Durante ocho días distribuidos en cuatro hospitales diferentes (alta complejidad con más de 1.000 camas, intermedio de 400 camas, geriátrico y monográfico), los mismos pacientes y tratamientos se analizaron mediante los dos sistemas. Resultados: Se han analizado 3.490 pacientes diferentes con 42.155 tratamientos. Por el sistema tradicional se han realizado 238 intervenciones (0,56% intervenciones/posibles intervenciones) vs. 580 (1,38%) con el automatizado. Las intervenciones farmacéuticas muy significativas fueron 0,14 vs. 0,46%, las significativas 0,38 vs. 0,90%, las no significativas 0,05 vs. 0,01%. Las intervenciones fueron del 1,85% al utilizar los dos sistemas vs. 0.56% usando solo el sistema tradicional. El sistema tradicional detectó el 30,5% de las posibles intervenciones, sin embargo con el sistema automático se detectaron el 84% de dichas intervenciones. Conclusiones: La automatización multiplica entre 2,43 a 3,64 veces las intervenciones farmacéuticas. En base a los resultados de este estudio el sistema tradicional de validación debería ser modificado, apoyándose en sistemas automatizados. El programa automático funciona en diferentes hospitales.

  9. Evolution of microbes and viruses: a paradigm shift in evolutionary biology?

    PubMed

    Koonin, Eugene V; Wolf, Yuri I

    2012-01-01

    When Charles Darwin formulated the central principles of evolutionary biology in the Origin of Species in 1859 and the architects of the Modern Synthesis integrated these principles with population genetics almost a century later, the principal if not the sole objects of evolutionary biology were multicellular eukaryotes, primarily animals and plants. Before the advent of efficient gene sequencing, all attempts to extend evolutionary studies to bacteria have been futile. Sequencing of the rRNA genes in thousands of microbes allowed the construction of the three- domain "ribosomal Tree of Life" that was widely thought to have resolved the evolutionary relationships between the cellular life forms. However, subsequent massive sequencing of numerous, complete microbial genomes revealed novel evolutionary phenomena, the most fundamental of these being: (1) pervasive horizontal gene transfer (HGT), in large part mediated by viruses and plasmids, that shapes the genomes of archaea and bacteria and call for a radical revision (if not abandonment) of the Tree of Life concept, (2) Lamarckian-type inheritance that appears to be critical for antivirus defense and other forms of adaptation in prokaryotes, and (3) evolution of evolvability, i.e., dedicated mechanisms for evolution such as vehicles for HGT and stress-induced mutagenesis systems. In the non-cellular part of the microbial world, phylogenomics and metagenomics of viruses and related selfish genetic elements revealed enormous genetic and molecular diversity and extremely high abundance of viruses that come across as the dominant biological entities on earth. Furthermore, the perennial arms race between viruses and their hosts is one of the defining factors of evolution. Thus, microbial phylogenomics adds new dimensions to the fundamental picture of evolution even as the principle of descent with modification discovered by Darwin and the laws of population genetics remain at the core of evolutionary biology. PMID

  10. PC viruses: How do they do that

    SciTech Connect

    Pichnarczyk, K.

    1992-07-01

    The topic of PC Viruses has been an issue for a number of years now. They've been reported in every major newspaper, tabloids, television and radio. People from all fields get viruses: government, private sector businesses, home computers, schools, computer software suppliers. A definition is proposed to introduce the virus phenomenon. Virus authors come from a variety of communities. Motives and ideologies of authors are discussed, and examples of viruses are offered. Also mentioned is the growing number of viruses developed, isolated, and never distributed to the public at large, but kept within the antivirus research community. Virus examples are offered as well. Viruses are distributed not only through bulletin boards and shareware, but also from areas previously assumed to be safe, including the threat of receiving a virus through a standard in-house function, such as an in-house hardware maintenance shop. Three categories of viruses are presented: File Infecter viruses, Boot Sector Infecters, and the new category of Directory Entry Infecter virus. Also discussed are crossover viruses, that is, viruses which utilize a variety of techniques to ensure survival. An explanation of what is occurring within every stage of various viruses is given. Replication strategies common to all three types is noted, mainly the two different replication strategies of memory resident infecters and active selection infecters. A detailed definition, description and application of a stealth virus is presented. Detection strategies are discussed as each topic in this section is completed; a high level schemata of the operation of various virus detection programs ispresented. Since most eradication today is done using virus detection/eradication software, this paper attempts to reveal the techniques used by these packages.Included in the paper is the topic of manual eradication.

  11. PC viruses: How do they do that?

    SciTech Connect

    Pichnarczyk, K.

    1992-07-01

    The topic of PC Viruses has been an issue for a number of years now. They`ve been reported in every major newspaper, tabloids, television and radio. People from all fields get viruses: government, private sector businesses, home computers, schools, computer software suppliers. A definition is proposed to introduce the virus phenomenon. Virus authors come from a variety of communities. Motives and ideologies of authors are discussed, and examples of viruses are offered. Also mentioned is the growing number of viruses developed, isolated, and never distributed to the public at large, but kept within the antivirus research community. Virus examples are offered as well. Viruses are distributed not only through bulletin boards and shareware, but also from areas previously assumed to be safe, including the threat of receiving a virus through a standard in-house function, such as an in-house hardware maintenance shop. Three categories of viruses are presented: File Infecter viruses, Boot Sector Infecters, and the new category of Directory Entry Infecter virus. Also discussed are crossover viruses, that is, viruses which utilize a variety of techniques to ensure survival. An explanation of what is occurring within every stage of various viruses is given. Replication strategies common to all three types is noted, mainly the two different replication strategies of memory resident infecters and active selection infecters. A detailed definition, description and application of a stealth virus is presented. Detection strategies are discussed as each topic in this section is completed; a high level schemata of the operation of various virus detection programs ispresented. Since most eradication today is done using virus detection/eradication software, this paper attempts to reveal the techniques used by these packages.Included in the paper is the topic of manual eradication.

  12. Synthetic peptides.

    PubMed

    Francis, M J

    1996-01-01

    Efforts to produce more stable and defined vaccines have concentrated on studying, in detail, the immune response to many infectious diseases in order to identify the antigenic sites on the pathogens that are involved in stimulating protective immumty. Armed with this knowledge, it is possible to mimic such sites by producing short chains of amino acids (peptides) and to use these as the basis for novel vaccines. The earliest documented work on peptide immunization is actually for a plant virus, tobacco mosaic virus. In 1963, Anderer (1) demonstrated that rabbit antibodies to an isolated hexapeptide fragment from the virus-coat protein coupled to bovine serum albumm would neutralize the infectious vn-us in culture. Two years later, he used a synthetically produced copy of the same peptide to confirm this observation. This was pioneering work, and it was over 10 years before the next example of a peptide that elicited antivirus antibody appeared following work by Sela and his colleagues (2) on a virus, MS2 bacteriophage, which infects bacteria. The emergence of more accessible techniques for sequencing proteins in 1977, coupled with the ability to synthesize readily peptides already developed in 1963, heralded a decade of intensive research into experimental peptide vaccines. The first demonstration that peptides could elicit protective immunity in vivo, in addition to neutralizing activity in vitro, was obtained using a peptide from the VP1 coat protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) in 1982, with the guinea pig as a laboratory animal model (3, 4). PMID:21359696

  13. Pol II-directed short RNAs suppress the nuclear export of mRNA.

    PubMed

    Komarova, Tatiana V; Schwartz, Anton M; Frolova, Olga Y; Zvereva, Anna S; Gleba, Yuri Y; Citovsky, Vitaly; Dorokhov, Yuri L

    2010-12-01

    The synthesis and subsequent nuclear export of non-coding RNA (ncRNA) directed by RNA polymerase (Pol) II is very sensitive to abiotic and biotic external stimuli including pathogen challenges. To assess whether stress-induced ncRNAs may suppress the nuclear export of mRNA, we exploited the ability of Agrobacterium tumefaciens to co-deliver Pol I, II and III promoter-based vectors for the transcription of short (s) ncRNAs, GFP mRNA or genomic RNA of plant viruses (Tobacco mosaic virus, TMV; or Potato virus X, PVX) into the nucleus of Nicotiana benthamiana cells. We showed that, in contrast to Pol I- and Pol III-derived sncRNAs, all tested Pol II-derived sncRNAs (U6 RNA, tRNA or artificial RNAs) resulted in decreased expression of GFP and host mRNA. The level of this inhibitory effect depended on the non-coding transcript length and promoter strength. Short coding RNA (scRNA) can also compete with mRNA for nuclear export. We showed that scRNA, an artificial 117-nt short sequence encoding Elastin-Like peptide element tandems with FLAG sequence (ELF) and the 318-nt N. benthamiana antimicrobial peptide thionin (defensin) gene efficiently decreased GFP expression. The stress-induced export of Pol II-derived sncRNA and scRNA into the cytoplasm via the mRNA export pathway may block nucleocytoplasmic traffic including the export of mRNA responsible for antivirus protection. Consistent with this model, we observed that Pol II-derived sncRNAs as well as scRNA, thionin and ELF strongly enhanced the cytoplasmic reproduction of TMV and PVX RNA. PMID:20953971

  14. Evolution of microbes and viruses: a paradigm shift in evolutionary biology?

    PubMed Central

    Koonin, Eugene V.; Wolf, Yuri I.

    2012-01-01

    When Charles Darwin formulated the central principles of evolutionary biology in the Origin of Species in 1859 and the architects of the Modern Synthesis integrated these principles with population genetics almost a century later, the principal if not the sole objects of evolutionary biology were multicellular eukaryotes, primarily animals and plants. Before the advent of efficient gene sequencing, all attempts to extend evolutionary studies to bacteria have been futile. Sequencing of the rRNA genes in thousands of microbes allowed the construction of the three- domain “ribosomal Tree of Life” that was widely thought to have resolved the evolutionary relationships between the cellular life forms. However, subsequent massive sequencing of numerous, complete microbial genomes revealed novel evolutionary phenomena, the most fundamental of these being: (1) pervasive horizontal gene transfer (HGT), in large part mediated by viruses and plasmids, that shapes the genomes of archaea and bacteria and call for a radical revision (if not abandonment) of the Tree of Life concept, (2) Lamarckian-type inheritance that appears to be critical for antivirus defense and other forms of adaptation in prokaryotes, and (3) evolution of evolvability, i.e., dedicated mechanisms for evolution such as vehicles for HGT and stress-induced mutagenesis systems. In the non-cellular part of the microbial world, phylogenomics and metagenomics of viruses and related selfish genetic elements revealed enormous genetic and molecular diversity and extremely high abundance of viruses that come across as the dominant biological entities on earth. Furthermore, the perennial arms race between viruses and their hosts is one of the defining factors of evolution. Thus, microbial phylogenomics adds new dimensions to the fundamental picture of evolution even as the principle of descent with modification discovered by Darwin and the laws of population genetics remain at the core of evolutionary biology. PMID

  15. Evaluation of Camellia sinensis catechins as a swine antimicrobial feed additive that does not cause antibiotic resistance.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Akira; Kataoka, Shinichiro; Ishii, Yoshikazu; Terasaki, Toshiaki; Kiso, Masaaki; Okubo, Mitsuyuki; Yamaguchi, Keizo; Tateda, Kazuhiro

    2013-01-01

    Antimicrobial growth promoters (AGPs) have been banned and phased out because their use has been linked to the emergence and spread of antibiotic-resistant pathogens; however, the ban has had a marked impact on livestock production, and feed additive alternatives to AGPs are required. We focused on green tea leaves as potential alternatives to AGPs because they contain significant amounts of polyphenol catechins, which have antivirus and antimicrobial effects. We examined cross-resistance between epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), which is the most abundant catechin of green tea leaves, and commercially available antimicrobials in clinically problematic antimicrobial-resistant bacteria, and whether bacteria have the ability to acquire resistance by consecutive passage in sub-inhibitory concentrations of EGCG. EGCG did not display any cross-resistance with reference antimicrobials and the bacteria did not acquire EGCG resistance. Further, we examined the growth-promoting effects of dried green tea leaves on the breeding of a new Japanese breed, Tokyo-X pigs. While the mortality rates of the green tea leaf (GTL) and AGP groups were both 11.1% (one in nine piglets), the mortality rate was 50% for the control group with an additive-free diet (four in eight piglets). The rate of body weight increase in both the GTL and AGP groups was approximately the same. The growth-promoting effects of green tea leaves and AGPs were similar, and there was no possibility that the antimicrobial properties of catechins caused the same problem as AGPs. Thus, it can be concluded that green tea leaves are a safe feed additive alternative to AGPs.

  16. Bee Venom (Apis Mellifera) an Effective Potential Alternative to Gentamicin for Specific Bacteria Strains

    PubMed Central

    Zolfagharian, Hossein; Mohajeri, Mohammad; Babaie, Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Mellitine, a major component of bee venom (BV, Apis mellifera), is more active against gram positive than gram negative bacteria. Moreover, BV has been reported to have multiple effects, including antibacterial, antivirus, and anti-inflammation effects, in various types of cells. In addition, wasp venom has been reported to have antibacterial properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of BV against selected gram positive and gram negative bacterial strains of medical importance. Methods: This investigation was set up to evaluate the antibacterial activity of BV against six grams positive and gram negative bacteria, including Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157:H7, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Burkholderia mallei and Burkholderia pseudomallei. Three concentrations of crude BV and standard antibiotic (gentamicin) disks as positive controls were tested by using the disc diffusion method. Results: BV was found to have a significant antibacterial effect against E. coli, S. aureus, and Salmonella typhyimurium in all three concentrations tested. However, BV had no noticeable effect on other tested bacteria for any of the three doses tested. Conclusion: The results of the current study indicate that BV inhibits the growth and survival of bacterial strains and that BV can be used as a complementary antimicrobial agent against pathogenic bacteria. BV lacked the effective proteins necessary for it to exhibit antibacterial activity for some specific strains while being very effective against other specific strains. Thus, one may conclude, that Apis mellifera venom may have a specific mechanism that allows it to have an antibacterial effect on certain susceptible bacteria, but that mechanism is not well understood. PMID:27695631

  17. Evaluation of Camellia sinensis catechins as a swine antimicrobial feed additive that does not cause antibiotic resistance.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Akira; Kataoka, Shinichiro; Ishii, Yoshikazu; Terasaki, Toshiaki; Kiso, Masaaki; Okubo, Mitsuyuki; Yamaguchi, Keizo; Tateda, Kazuhiro

    2013-01-01

    Antimicrobial growth promoters (AGPs) have been banned and phased out because their use has been linked to the emergence and spread of antibiotic-resistant pathogens; however, the ban has had a marked impact on livestock production, and feed additive alternatives to AGPs are required. We focused on green tea leaves as potential alternatives to AGPs because they contain significant amounts of polyphenol catechins, which have antivirus and antimicrobial effects. We examined cross-resistance between epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), which is the most abundant catechin of green tea leaves, and commercially available antimicrobials in clinically problematic antimicrobial-resistant bacteria, and whether bacteria have the ability to acquire resistance by consecutive passage in sub-inhibitory concentrations of EGCG. EGCG did not display any cross-resistance with reference antimicrobials and the bacteria did not acquire EGCG resistance. Further, we examined the growth-promoting effects of dried green tea leaves on the breeding of a new Japanese breed, Tokyo-X pigs. While the mortality rates of the green tea leaf (GTL) and AGP groups were both 11.1% (one in nine piglets), the mortality rate was 50% for the control group with an additive-free diet (four in eight piglets). The rate of body weight increase in both the GTL and AGP groups was approximately the same. The growth-promoting effects of green tea leaves and AGPs were similar, and there was no possibility that the antimicrobial properties of catechins caused the same problem as AGPs. Thus, it can be concluded that green tea leaves are a safe feed additive alternative to AGPs. PMID:23138151

  18. Intracellular Reprogramming of Expression, Glycosylation, and Function of a Plant-Derived Antiviral Therapeutic Monoclonal Antibody

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyung-Jin; Kim, Young-Kwan; So, Yang-Kang; Ryu, Jae-Sung; Oh, Seung-Han; Han, Yeon-Soo; Ko, Kinarm; Choo, Young-Kug; Park, Sung-Joo; Brodzik, Robert; Lee, Kyoung-Ki; Oh, Doo-Byoung; Hwang, Kyung-A; Koprowski, Hilary; Lee, Yong Seong; Ko, Kisung

    2013-01-01

    Plant genetic engineering, which has led to the production of plant-derived monoclonal antibodies (mAbPs), provides a safe and economically effective alternative to conventional antibody expression methods. In this study, the expression levels and biological properties of the anti-rabies virus mAbP SO57 with or without an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-retention peptide signal (Lys-Asp-Glu-Leu; KDEL) in transgenic tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum) were analyzed. The expression levels of mAbP SO57 with KDEL (mAbPK) were significantly higher than those of mAbP SO57 without KDEL (mAbP) regardless of the transcription level. The Fc domains of both purified mAbP and mAbPK and hybridoma-derived mAb (mAbH) had similar levels of binding activity to the FcγRI receptor (CD64). The mAbPK had glycan profiles of both oligomannose (OM) type (91.7%) and Golgi type (8.3%), whereas the mAbP had mainly Golgi type glycans (96.8%) similar to those seen with mAbH. Confocal analysis showed that the mAbPK was co-localized to ER-tracker signal and cellular areas surrounding the nucleus indicating accumulation of the mAbP with KDEL in the ER. Both mAbP and mAbPK disappeared with similar trends to mAbH in BALB/c mice. In addition, mAbPK was as effective as mAbH at neutralizing the activity of the rabies virus CVS-11. These results suggest that the ER localization of the recombinant mAbP by KDEL reprograms OM glycosylation and enhances the production of the functional antivirus therapeutic antibody in the plant. PMID:23967055

  19. Respiratory Syncytial Virus Aggravates Renal Injury through Cytokines and Direct Renal Injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Songhui; Hu, Lijuan; Zhong, Lin; Guo, Yannan; Dong, Liqun; Jia, Ruizhen; Wang, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between renal injury and reinfection that is caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and to analyze the mechanism of renal injury. Rats were repeatedly infected with RSV on days 4, 8, 14, and 28, then sacrificed and examined on day 56 after the primary infection. Renal injury was examined by transmission electron microscopy and histopathology. The F protein of RSV was detected in the renal tissue by indirect immunofluorescence. Proteinuria and urinary glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), serum levels of albumin, urea nitrogen, and creatinine, secretion of cytokines, T lymphocyte population and subsets, and dendritic cell (DC) activation state were examined. The results showed that renal injury was more serious in the reinfection group than in the primary infection group. At a higher infection dose, 6 × 106 PFU, the renal injury was more severe, accompanied by higher levels of proteinuria and urinary GAGs excretion, and lower levels of serum albumin. Podocyte foot effacement was more extensive, and hyperplasia of mesangial cells and proliferation of mesangial matrix were observed. The maturation state of DCs was specific, compared with the primary infection. There was also a decrease in the ratio of CD4+ to CD8+ T lymphocytes, due to an increase in the percentage of CD8+ T lymphocytes and a decrease in the percentage of CD4+ T lymphocytes, and a dramatic increase in the levels of IL-6 and IL-17. In terms of the different reinfection times, the day 14 reinfection group yielded the most serious renal injury and the most significant change in immune function. RSV F protein was still expressed in the glomeruli 56 days after RSV infection. Altogether, these results reveal that RSV infection could aggravate renal injury, which might be due to direct renal injury caused by RSV and the inflammatory lesions caused by the anti-virus response induced by RSV. PMID:27747195

  20. Mutagenic and cytotoxic activities of Limonium globuliferum methanol extracts.

    PubMed

    Eren, Yasin

    2016-10-01

    Unmonitored use of plant extractions alone or in combination with drugs may cause important health problems and toxic effects. Limonium (Plumbaginaceae) plants are known as antibacterial, anticancer and antivirus agent. But it is possible that this genus may have toxic effects. This study evaluated the mutagenic and cytotoxic effects of Limonium globuliferum (Boiss. et Heldr.) O. Kuntze (Plumbaginaceae) acetone/methanol (2:1), and methanol extracts of root, stem, and leaf. Different parts of this species were used in order to compare the mutagenic and cytotoxic effects of these parts. Ames test was carried out with S. typhimurium TA98, and TA100 strains. Strains were incubated at 37 °C for 72 h. MDBK cell line was used in MTT test. 10,000, 1000, 100, 10, 1 and 0.1 µg/plate concentrations of plant extracts were used in Ames test. 50, 25, 12.5, 6.25 and 3.125 µg/ml concentrations of root, stem and leaf acetone/methanol (2:1) and methanol extracts were used in MTT test. Ames test results indicated that only methanol leaf extract (10,000 µg/plate) had mutagenic activity. L. globuliferum root methanol extracts (3.125 and 6.25 µg/ml) increased the proliferation rates. Root acetone/methanol (2:1) extracts were found highly cytotoxic in all treatments. The results indicated that leaf extracts had lower cytotoxic effects than root and stem extracts. High concentrations of L. globuliferum stem and leaf methanol extracts showed cytotoxic activity in all treatment periods while low concentrations of the stem methanol extracts increased the proliferation rates.

  1. Bee Venom (Apis Mellifera) an Effective Potential Alternative to Gentamicin for Specific Bacteria Strains

    PubMed Central

    Zolfagharian, Hossein; Mohajeri, Mohammad; Babaie, Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Mellitine, a major component of bee venom (BV, Apis mellifera), is more active against gram positive than gram negative bacteria. Moreover, BV has been reported to have multiple effects, including antibacterial, antivirus, and anti-inflammation effects, in various types of cells. In addition, wasp venom has been reported to have antibacterial properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of BV against selected gram positive and gram negative bacterial strains of medical importance. Methods: This investigation was set up to evaluate the antibacterial activity of BV against six grams positive and gram negative bacteria, including Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157:H7, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Burkholderia mallei and Burkholderia pseudomallei. Three concentrations of crude BV and standard antibiotic (gentamicin) disks as positive controls were tested by using the disc diffusion method. Results: BV was found to have a significant antibacterial effect against E. coli, S. aureus, and Salmonella typhyimurium in all three concentrations tested. However, BV had no noticeable effect on other tested bacteria for any of the three doses tested. Conclusion: The results of the current study indicate that BV inhibits the growth and survival of bacterial strains and that BV can be used as a complementary antimicrobial agent against pathogenic bacteria. BV lacked the effective proteins necessary for it to exhibit antibacterial activity for some specific strains while being very effective against other specific strains. Thus, one may conclude, that Apis mellifera venom may have a specific mechanism that allows it to have an antibacterial effect on certain susceptible bacteria, but that mechanism is not well understood.

  2. [Characterization of Serial Passage of 1b/2a Chimera Hepatitis C Virus Cell Culture System Carrying Envelope E1E2 Coding Gene from Hebei Strain of China].

    PubMed

    Lu, Sha; Zhang, Ling; Tao, Gesi; Cai, Min; Bao Lili; LI, Lian; Deng, Yao; Shen, Xiaoling; Tan, Wenjie

    2015-11-01

    To character a novel chimera(1b/2a) hepatitis C virus cell culture (HCVcc) system carrying envelope E1E2 coding gene from Hebei strain of China, chimera HCVcc (cHCVcc) was developed from Huh7.5-CD81 cells after transfection with in vitro transcribed full-length 1b/2a chimera RNA, which carrying envelope E1E2 coding gene from Hebei strain of China. Then the replication, expression and infectious titer of serial passage HCVcc were assessed by Real Time RT-PCR, indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and Western blotting (WB). In addition, chimeric envelope gene from HCVcc was sequenced after serial passage. We found that the number of HCV positive focus increased gradually in cell post-transfection with chimera HCVcc (1b/2a) RNA and reach a peak platform (80% to 90%) at 41 days post-transfection; the expression of HCV protein was also confirmed by WAB during serial passage. At meantime, HCV RNA copy number in the supernatant peaked at 10(4)-10(7) copies/mL and the highest infectious titer of this 1b/2a cHCVcc reinfection were tested as 10(4) ffu/mL. Sequence analysis indicated 6 of adaptive amino acid substitutes occur among chimeric envelope E1E2 during serial passages. We con:luded that a novel 1b/2a chimera HCVcc carrying envelope E1E2 coding gene from Hebei strain of China was developed and its infectious titer increased after serial passage of HCVcc. This novel cHCVcc will be an effective tool for further evaluation of anti-virus drugs and immune effects against the major genotype from Chinese.

  3. Binding and transepithelial transport of immunoglobulins by intestinal M cells: demonstration using monoclonal IgA antibodies against enteric viral proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Weltzin, R.; Lucia-Jandris, P.; Michetti, P.; Fields, B.N.; Kraehenbuhl, J.P.; Neutra, M.R.

    1989-05-01

    M cells of intestinal epithelia overlying lymphoid follicles endocytose luminal macromolecules and microorganisms and deliver them to underlying lymphoid tissue. The effect of luminal secretory IgA antibodies on adherence and transepithelial transport of antigens and microorganisms by M cells is unknown. We have studied the interaction of monoclonal IgA antibodies directed against specific enteric viruses, or the hapten trinitrophenyl (TNP), with M cells. To produce monospecific IgA antibodies against mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) and reovirus type 1, Peyer's patch cells from mucosally immunized mice were fused with myeloma cells, generating hybridomas that secreted virus-specific IgA antibodies in monomeric and polymeric forms. One of two anti-MMTV IgA antibodies specifically bound the viral surface glycoprotein gp52, and 3 of 10 antireovirus IgA antibodies immunoprecipitated sigma 3 and mu lc surface proteins. 35S-labeled IgA antibodies injected intravenously into rats were recovered in bile as higher molecular weight species, suggesting that secretory component had been added on passage through the liver. Radiolabeled or colloidal gold-conjugated mouse IgA was injected into mouse, rat, and rabbit intestinal loops containing Peyer's patches. Light microscopic autoradiography and EM showed that all IgA antibodies (antivirus or anti-TNP) bound to M cell luminal membranes and were transported in vesicles across M cells. IgA-gold binding was inhibited by excess unlabeled IgA, indicating that binding was specific. IgG-gold also adhered to M cells and excess unlabeled IgG inhibited IgA-gold binding; thus binding was not isotype-specific. Immune complexes consisting of monoclonal anti-TNP IgA and TNP-ferritin adhered selectively to M cell membranes, while TNP-ferritin alone did not.

  4. [Characterization of Serial Passage of 1b/2a Chimera Hepatitis C Virus Cell Culture System Carrying Envelope E1E2 Coding Gene from Hebei Strain of China].

    PubMed

    Lu, Sha; Zhang, Ling; Tao, Gesi; Cai, Min; Bao Lili; LI, Lian; Deng, Yao; Shen, Xiaoling; Tan, Wenjie

    2015-11-01

    To character a novel chimera(1b/2a) hepatitis C virus cell culture (HCVcc) system carrying envelope E1E2 coding gene from Hebei strain of China, chimera HCVcc (cHCVcc) was developed from Huh7.5-CD81 cells after transfection with in vitro transcribed full-length 1b/2a chimera RNA, which carrying envelope E1E2 coding gene from Hebei strain of China. Then the replication, expression and infectious titer of serial passage HCVcc were assessed by Real Time RT-PCR, indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and Western blotting (WB). In addition, chimeric envelope gene from HCVcc was sequenced after serial passage. We found that the number of HCV positive focus increased gradually in cell post-transfection with chimera HCVcc (1b/2a) RNA and reach a peak platform (80% to 90%) at 41 days post-transfection; the expression of HCV protein was also confirmed by WAB during serial passage. At meantime, HCV RNA copy number in the supernatant peaked at 10(4)-10(7) copies/mL and the highest infectious titer of this 1b/2a cHCVcc reinfection were tested as 10(4) ffu/mL. Sequence analysis indicated 6 of adaptive amino acid substitutes occur among chimeric envelope E1E2 during serial passages. We con:luded that a novel 1b/2a chimera HCVcc carrying envelope E1E2 coding gene from Hebei strain of China was developed and its infectious titer increased after serial passage of HCVcc. This novel cHCVcc will be an effective tool for further evaluation of anti-virus drugs and immune effects against the major genotype from Chinese. PMID:26951010

  5. An in vitro study of liposomal curcumin: stability, toxicity and biological activity in human lymphocytes and Epstein-Barr virus-transformed human B-cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Changguo; Johnston, Thomas D; Jeon, Hoonbae; Gedaly, Roberto; McHugh, Patrick P; Burke, Thomas G; Ranjan, Dinesh

    2009-01-21

    Curcumin is a multi-functional and pharmacologically safe natural agent. Used as a food additive for centuries, it also has anti-inflammatory, anti-virus and anti-tumor properties. We previously found that it is a potent inhibitor of cyclosporin A (CsA)-resistant T-cell co-stimulation pathway. It inhibits mitogen-stimulated lymphocyte proliferation, NFkappaB activation and IL-2 signaling. In spite of its safety and efficacy, the in vivo bioavailability of curcumin is poor, and this may be a major obstacle to its utility as a therapeutic agent. Liposomes are known to be excellent carriers for drug delivery. In this in vitro study, we report the effects of different liposome formulations on curcumin stability in phosphate buffered saline (PBS), human blood, plasma and culture medium RPMI-1640+10% FBS (pH 7.4, 37 degrees C). Liposomal curcumin had higher stability than free curcumin in PBS. Liposomal and free curcumin had similar stability in human blood, plasma and RPMI-1640+10% FBS. We looked at the toxicity of non-drug-containing liposomes on (3)H-thymidine incorporation by concanavalin A (Con A)-stimulated human lymphocytes, splenocytes and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-transformed human B-cell lymphoblastoid cell line (LCL). We found that dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and dimyristoylphosphatidylglycerol (DMPG) were toxic to the tested cells. However, addition of cholesterol to the lipids at DMPC:DMPG:cholesterol=7:1:8 (molar ratio) almost completely eliminated the lipid toxicity to these cells. Liposomal curcumin had similar or even stronger inhibitory effects on Con A-stimulated human lymphocyte, splenocyte and LCL proliferation. We conclude that liposomal curcumin may be useful for intravenous administration to improve the bioavailability and efficacy, facilitating in vivo studies that could ultimately lead to clinical application of curcumin.

  6. Rapid generation of a mouse model for Middle East respiratory syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jincun; Li, Kun; Wohlford-Lenane, Christine; Agnihothram, Sudhakar S.; Fett, Craig; Zhao, Jingxian; Gale, Michael J.; Baric, Ralph S.; Enjuanes, Luis; Gallagher, Tom; McCray, Paul B.; Perlman, Stanley

    2014-01-01

    In this era of continued emergence of zoonotic virus infections, the rapid development of rodent models represents a critical barrier to public health preparedness, including the testing of antivirus therapy and vaccines. The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) was recently identified as the causative agent of a severe pneumonia. Given the ability of coronavirus to rapidly adapt to new hosts, a major public health concern is that MERS-CoV will further adapt to replication in humans, triggering a pandemic. No small-animal model for this infection is currently available, but studies suggest that virus entry factors can confer virus susceptibility. Here, we show that mice were sensitized to MERS-CoV infection by prior transduction with adenoviral vectors expressing the human host-cell receptor dipeptidyl peptidase 4. Mice developed a pneumonia characterized by extensive inflammatory-cell infiltration with virus clearance occurring 6–8 d after infection. Clinical disease and histopathological changes were more severe in the absence of type-I IFN signaling whereas the T-cell response was required for virus clearance. Using these mice, we demonstrated the efficacy of a therapeutic intervention (poly I:C) and a potential vaccine [Venezuelan equine encephalitis replicon particles expressing MERS-CoV spike protein]. We also found little protective cross-reactivity between MERS-CoV and the severe acute respiratory syndrome-CoV. Our results demonstrate that this system will be useful for MERS-CoV studies and for the rapid development of relevant animal models for emerging respiratory viral infections. PMID:24599590

  7. Integration of Transcriptome, Proteome and Metabolism Data Reveals the Alkaloids Biosynthesis in Macleaya cordata and Macleaya microcarpa

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fuqing; Huang, Peng; Zhu, Pengcheng; Chen, Jinjun; Shi, Mingming; Guo, Fang; Cheng, Pi; Zeng, Jing; Liao, Yifang; Gong, Jing; Zhang, Hong-Mei; Wang, Depeng; Guo, An-Yuan; Xiong, Xingyao

    2013-01-01

    Background The Macleaya spp., including Macleaya cordata and Macleaya microcarpa, are traditional anti-virus, inflammation eliminating, and insecticide herb medicines for their isoquinoline alkaloids. They are also known as the basis of the popular natural animal food addictive in Europe. However, few studies especially at genomics level were conducted on them. Hence, we performed the Macleaya spp. transcriptome and integrated it with iTRAQ proteome analysis in order to identify potential genes involved in alkaloids biosynthesis. Methodology and Principal Findings We elaborately designed the transcriptome, proteome and metabolism profiling for 10 samples of both species to explore their alkaloids biosynthesis. From the transcriptome data, we obtained 69367 and 78255 unigenes for M. cordata and M. microcarpa, in which about two thirds of them were similar to sequences in public databases. By metabolism profiling, reverse patterns for alkaloids sanguinarine, chelerythrine, protopine, and allocryptopine were observed in different organs of two species. We characterized the expressions of enzymes in alkaloid biosynthesis pathways. We also identified more than 1000 proteins from iTRAQ proteome data. Our results strongly suggest that the root maybe the organ for major alkaloids biosynthesis of Macleaya spp. Except for biosynthesis, the alkaloids storage and transport were also important for their accumulation. The ultrastructure of laticifers by SEM helps us to prove the alkaloids maybe accumulated in the mature roots. Conclusions/Significance To our knowledge this is the first study to elucidate the genetic makeup of Macleaya spp. This work provides clues to the identification of the potential modulate genes involved in alkaloids biosynthesis in Macleaya spp., and sheds light on researches for non-model medicinal plants by integrating different high-throughput technologies. PMID:23326424

  8. Sangivamycin induces apoptosis by suppressing Erk signaling in primary effusion lymphoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wakao, Kazufumi; Watanabe, Tadashi; Takadama, Tadatoshi; Ui, Sadaharu; Shigemi, Zenpei; Kagawa, Hiroki; Higashi, Chizuka; Ohga, Rie; Taira, Takahiro; Fujimuro, Masahiro

    2014-02-07

    Highlights: • Sangivamycin induces the apoptosis of B cell lymphoma PEL cells. • Sangivamycin suppresses Erk signaling by inhibiting Erk phosphorylation in PEL cells. • The activation of Erk signaling is essential for PEL cell survival. • Sangivamycin induces the apoptosis of PEL cells without production of progeny virus. • Sangivamycin may serve as a novel drug for the treatment of PEL. - Abstract: Sangivamycin, a structural analog of adenosine and antibiotic exhibiting antitumor and antivirus activities, inhibits protein kinase C and the synthesis of both DNA and RNA. Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is an aggressive neoplasm caused by Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) in immunosuppressed patients and HIV-infected homosexual males. PEL cells are derived from post-germinal center B cells, and are infected with KSHV. Herein, we asked if sangivamycin might be useful to treat PEL. We found that sangivamycin killed PEL cells, and we explored the underlying mechanism. Sangivamycin treatment drastically decreased the viability of PEL cell lines compared to KSHV-uninfected B lymphoma cell lines. Sangivamycin induced the apoptosis of PEL cells by activating caspase-7 and -9. Further, sangivamycin suppressed the phosphorylation of Erk1/2 and Akt, thus inhibiting activation of the proteins. Inhibitors of Akt and MEK suppressed the proliferation of PEL cells compared to KSHV-uninfected cells. It is known that activation of Erk and Akt signaling inhibits apoptosis and promotes proliferation in PEL cells. Our data therefore suggest that sangivamycin induces apoptosis by inhibiting Erk and Akt signaling in such cells. We next investigated whether sangivamycin, in combination with an HSP90 inhibitor geldanamycin (GA) or valproate (valproic acid), potentiated the cytotoxic effects of the latter drugs on PEL cells. Compared to treatment with GA or valproate alone, the addition of sangivamycin enhanced cytotoxic activity. Our data thus indicate that

  9. Ascophyllan purified from Ascophyllum nodosum induces Th1 and Tc1 immune responses by promoting dendritic cell maturation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Du, Jiang-Yuan; Jiang, Zedong; Okimura, Takasi; Oda, Tatsuya; Yu, Qing; Jin, Jun-O

    2014-07-01

    Marine-derived sulfated polysaccharides have been shown to possess certain anti-virus, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory and anti-coagulant activities. However, the in vivo immunomodulatory effects of marine-derived pure compounds have been less well characterized. In this study, we investigated the effect of ascophyllan, a sulfated polysaccharide purified from Ascophyllum nodosum, on the maturation of mouse dendritic cells (DCs) in vitro and in vivo. Ascophyllan induced up-regulation of co-stimulatory molecules and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs). Moreover, in vivo administration of ascophyllan promotes up-regulation of CD40, CD80, CD86, MHC class I and MHC class II and production of IL-6, IL-12 and TNF-α in spleen cDCs. Interestingly, ascophyllan induced a higher degree of co-stimulatory molecule up-regulation and pro-inflammatory cytokine production than fucoidan, a marine-derived polysaccharide with well-defined effect for promoting DC maturation. Ascophyllan also promoted the generation of IFN-γ-producing Th1 and Tc1 cells in the presence of DCs in an IL-12-dependent manner. Finally, myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88) signaling pathway was essential for DC maturation induced by ascophyllan. Taken together, these results demonstrate that ascophyllan induces DC maturation, and consequently enhances Th1 and Tc1 responses in vivo. This knowledge could facilitate the development of novel therapeutic strategies to combat infectious diseases and cancer. PMID:25026264

  10. Inhibitory effects of neochamaejasmin B on P-glycoprotein in MDCK-hMDR1 cells and molecular docking of NCB binding in P-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Pan, Lanying; Hu, Haihong; Wang, Xiangjun; Yu, Lushan; Jiang, Huidi; Chen, Jianzhong; Lou, Yan; Zeng, Su

    2015-01-01

    Stellera chamaejasme L. (Thymelaeaceae) is widely distributed in Mongolia, Tibet and the northern parts of China. Its roots are commonly used as "Langdu", which is embodied in the Pharmacopoeia of the P.R. China (2010) as a toxic Traditional Chinese Medicine. It is claimed to have antivirus, antitumor and antibacterial properties in China and other Asian countries. Studies were carried out to characterize the inhibition of neochamaejasmin B (NCB) on P-glycoprotein (P-gp, ABCB1, MDR1). Rhodamine-123 (R-123) transport and accumulation studies were performed in MDCK-hMDR1 cells. ABCB1 (MDR1) mRNA gene expression and P-gp protein expression were analyzed. Binding selectivity studies based on molecular docking were explored. R-123 transport and accumulation studies in MDCK-hMDR1 cells indicated that NCB inhibited the P-gp-mediated efflux in a concentration-dependent manner. RT-PCR and Western blot demonstrated that the P-gp expression was suppressed by NCB. To investigate the inhibition type of NCB on P-gp, Ki and Ki' values were determined by double-reciprocal plots in R-123 accumulation studies. Since Ki was greater than Ki', the inhibition of NCB on P-gp was likely a mixed type of competitive and non-competitive inhibition. The results were confirmed by molecular docking in our current work. The docking data indicated that NCB had higher affinity to P-gp than to Lig1 ((S)-5,7-dihydroxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)chroman-4-one).

  11. Access Control of Web- and Java-Based Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tso, Kam S.; Pajevski, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Cybersecurity has become a great concern as threats of service interruption, unauthorized access, stealing and altering of information, and spreading of viruses have become more prevalent and serious. Application layer access control of applications is a critical component in the overall security solution that also includes encryption, firewalls, virtual private networks, antivirus, and intrusion detection. An access control solution, based on an open-source access manager augmented with custom software components, was developed to provide protection to both Web-based and Javabased client and server applications. The DISA Security Service (DISA-SS) provides common access control capabilities for AMMOS software applications through a set of application programming interfaces (APIs) and network- accessible security services for authentication, single sign-on, authorization checking, and authorization policy management. The OpenAM access management technology designed for Web applications can be extended to meet the needs of Java thick clients and stand alone servers that are commonly used in the JPL AMMOS environment. The DISA-SS reusable components have greatly reduced the effort for each AMMOS subsystem to develop its own access control strategy. The novelty of this work is that it leverages an open-source access management product that was designed for Webbased applications to provide access control for Java thick clients and Java standalone servers. Thick clients and standalone servers are still commonly used in businesses and government, especially for applications that require rich graphical user interfaces and high-performance visualization that cannot be met by thin clients running on Web browsers

  12. Induction of Nrf2-dependent Antioxidation and Protection Against Carbon Tetrachloride-induced Liver Damage by Andrographis Herba (穿心蓮chuān xīn lián) Ethanolic Extract

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Haw-Wen; Huang, Yu-Ju; Yao, Hsien-Tsung; Lii, Chong-Kuei

    2012-01-01

    Andrographis paniculata is a traditional Chinese herb and displays diverse biological activities including antioxidation, anti-tumorigenesis, anti-virus, and anti-atherogenesis. In this study, we investigated the up-regulation of ethanolic extract of A. paniculata (APE) on the antioxidant defense in rat livers and whether this enhancement protected against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver damage. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were orally administered (i.g.) 0, 0.75, or 2 g/kg/d APE for 5 d. At d 6, rats were sacrificed and liver tissues were removed. Some animals (n=8) were intraperitoneally injected CCl4 (1 mL/kg, 50% in olive oil) and blood was drawn 24 h after CCl4 treatment. The results showed that APE increased hepatic glutathione (GSH) content and superoxide dismutase, GSH peroxidase, and GSH S-transferase activities in a dose-dependent manner (p < 0.05). Results of immunoblotting and RT-PCR revealed that rats treated with APE had higher glutamate cysteine ligase catalytic and modifier subunits, heme oxygenase 1, superoxide dismutase 1, and GSH S-transferase Ya and Yb protein and mRNA expression than those of control rats. Moreover, APE increased Nrf2 nuclear translocation and Nrf2 binding to DNA in rat liver. In the presence of CCl4, APE decreased hepatic thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances production and plasma aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase activities. These results suggest that APE protection against CCl4 insult is attributed, at least in part, to its up-regulation of antioxidant defense in rat liver. PMID:24716135

  13. Avian influenza virus in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shelan; Sha, Jianping; Yu, Zhao; Hu, Yan; Chan, Ta-Chien; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Pan, Hao; Cheng, Wei; Mao, Shenghua; Zhang, Run Ju; Chen, Enfu

    2016-07-01

    The unprecedented epizootic of avian influenza viruses, such as H5N1, H5N6, H7N1 and H10N8, has continued to cause disease in humans in recent years. In 2013, another novel influenza A (H7N9) virus emerged in China, and 30% of those patients died. Pregnant women are particularly susceptible to avian influenza and are more likely to develop severe complications and to die, especially when infection occurs in the middle and late trimesters. Viremia is believed to occur infrequently, and thus vertical transmission induced by avian influenza appears to be rare. However, avian influenza increases the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes, including spontaneous abortion, preterm birth and fatal distress. This review summarises 39 cases of pregnant women and their fetuses from different countries dating back to 1997, including 11, 15 and 13 infections with H7N9, H5N1 and the 2009 pandemic influenza (H1N1), respectively. We analysed the epidemic features, following the geographical, population and pregnancy trimester distributions; underlying diseases; exposure history; medical timelines; human-to-human transmission; pathogenicity and vertical transmission; antivirus treatments; maternal severity and mortality and pregnancy outcome. The common experiences reported in different countries and areas suggest that early identification and treatment are imperative. In the future, vigilant virologic and epidemiologic surveillance systems should be developed to monitor avian influenza viruses during pregnancy. Furthermore, extensive study on the immune mechanisms should be conducted, as this will guide safe, rational immunomodulatory treatment among this high-risk population. Most importantly, we should develop a universal avian influenza virus vaccine to prevent outbreaks of the different subtypes. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27187752

  14. c-Jun N-terminal kinases 3 (JNK3) from orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides, inhibiting the replication of Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV) and SGIV-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Guo, Minglan; Wei, Jingguang; Zhou, Yongcan; Qin, Qiwei

    2016-12-01

    C-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs), a subgroup of serine-threonine protein kinases that activated by phosphorylation, are involve in physiological and pathophysiological processes. JNK3 is one of JNK proteins involved in JNK3 signaling transduction. In the present study, two JNK3 isoforms, Ec-JNK3 X1 and Ec-JNK3 X2, were cloned from orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides. Both Ec-JNK3 X1 and Ec-JNK3 X2 were mainly expressed in liver, gill, skin, brain and muscle of juvenile grouper. The relative expression of Ec-JNK3 X2 mRNA was much higher in muscle and gill than that of Ec-JNK3 X1. Isoform-specific immune response to challenges was revealed by the expression profiles in vivo. Immunofluorescence staining indicated that JNK3 was localized in the cytoplasm of grouper spleen (GS) cells and shown immune response to SGIV infection in vitro. Over-expressing Ec-JNK3 X1 and/or Ec-JNK3 X2 inhibited the SGIV infection and replication and the SGIV-induced apoptosis. To achieve the antiviral and anti-apoptosis activities, JNK3 promoted the activation of genes ISRE and type I IFN in the antiviral IFN signaling pathway, and inhibited the activation of transcription factors NF-κB and p53 relating to apoptosis, respectively. Ec-JNK3 X2 showed stronger activities in antivirus and anti-apoptosis than that of Ec-JNK3 X1. Our results not only define the characterization of JNK3 but also reveal new immune functions and the molecular mechanisms of JNK3 on iridoviruses infection and the virus-induced apoptosis. PMID:27422159

  15. Physiological role of alternative oxidase (from yeasts to plants).

    PubMed

    Rogov, A G; Zvyagilskaya, R A

    2015-04-01

    Mitochondria of all so far studied organisms, with the exception of Archaea, mammals, some yeasts, and protists, contain, along with the classical phosphorylating cytochrome pathway, a so-called cyanide-insensitive alternative oxidase (AOX) localized on the matrix side of the mitochondrial inner membrane, and electron transport through which is not coupled with ATP synthesis and energy accumulation. Mechanisms underlying plentiful functions of AOX in organisms at various levels of organization ranging from yeasts to plants are considered. First and foremost, AOX provides a chance of cell survival after inhibiting the terminal components of the main respiratory chain or losing the ability to synthesize these components. The vitally important role of AOX is obvious in thermogenesis of thermogenic plant organs where it becomes the only terminal oxidase with a very high activity, and the energy of substrate oxidation by this respiratory pathway is converted into heat, thus promoting evaporation of volatile substances attracting pollinating insects. AOX plays a fundamentally significant role in alleviating or preventing oxidative stress, thus ensuring the defense against a wide range of stresses and adverse environmental conditions, such as changes in temperature and light intensities, osmotic stress, drought, and attack by incompatible strains of bacterial pathogens, phytopathogens, or their elicitors. Participation of AOX in pathogen survival during its existence inside the host, in antivirus defense, as well as in metabolic rearrangements in plants during embryogenesis and cell differentiation is described. Examples are given to demonstrate that AOX might be an important tool to overcome the adverse aftereffects of restricted activity of the main respiratory chain in cells and whole animals.

  16. Physiological role of alternative oxidase (from yeasts to plants).

    PubMed

    Rogov, A G; Zvyagilskaya, R A

    2015-04-01

    Mitochondria of all so far studied organisms, with the exception of Archaea, mammals, some yeasts, and protists, contain, along with the classical phosphorylating cytochrome pathway, a so-called cyanide-insensitive alternative oxidase (AOX) localized on the matrix side of the mitochondrial inner membrane, and electron transport through which is not coupled with ATP synthesis and energy accumulation. Mechanisms underlying plentiful functions of AOX in organisms at various levels of organization ranging from yeasts to plants are considered. First and foremost, AOX provides a chance of cell survival after inhibiting the terminal components of the main respiratory chain or losing the ability to synthesize these components. The vitally important role of AOX is obvious in thermogenesis of thermogenic plant organs where it becomes the only terminal oxidase with a very high activity, and the energy of substrate oxidation by this respiratory pathway is converted into heat, thus promoting evaporation of volatile substances attracting pollinating insects. AOX plays a fundamentally significant role in alleviating or preventing oxidative stress, thus ensuring the defense against a wide range of stresses and adverse environmental conditions, such as changes in temperature and light intensities, osmotic stress, drought, and attack by incompatible strains of bacterial pathogens, phytopathogens, or their elicitors. Participation of AOX in pathogen survival during its existence inside the host, in antivirus defense, as well as in metabolic rearrangements in plants during embryogenesis and cell differentiation is described. Examples are given to demonstrate that AOX might be an important tool to overcome the adverse aftereffects of restricted activity of the main respiratory chain in cells and whole animals. PMID:25869356

  17. Zinc-mediated binding of a low-molecular-weight stabilizer of the host anti-viral factor apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like 3G.

    PubMed

    Radwan, Mohamed O; Sonoda, Sachiko; Ejima, Tomohiko; Tanaka, Ayumi; Koga, Ryoko; Okamoto, Yoshinari; Fujita, Mikako; Otsuka, Masami

    2016-09-15

    Apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like 3G (APOBEC3G, A3G), is a human anti-virus restriction protein which works deaminase-dependently and -independently. A3G is known to be ubiquitinated by HIV-1 viral infectivity factor (Vif) protein, leading to proteasomal degradation. A3G contains two zinc ions at the N-terminal domain and the C-terminal domain. Four lysine residues, K(297), K(301), K(303), and K(334), are known to be required for Vif-mediated A3G ubiquitination and degradation. Previously, we reported compound SN-1, a zinc chelator that increases steady-state expression level of A3G in the presence of Vif. In this study, we prepared Biotin-SN-1, a biotinylated derivative of SN-1, to study the SN-1-A3G interaction. A pull-down assay revealed that Biotin-SN-1 bound A3G. A zinc-abstraction experiment indicated that SN-1 binds to the zinc site of A3G. We carried out a SN-1-A3G docking study using molecular operating environment. The calculations revealed that SN-1 binds to the C-terminal domain through Zn(2+), H(216), P(247), C(288), and Y(315). Notably, SN-1-binding covers the H(257), E(259), C(288), and C(291) residues that participate in zinc-mediated deamination, and the ubiquitination regions of A3G. The binding of SN-1 presumably perturbs the secondary structure between C(288) and Y(315), leading to less efficient ubiquitination. PMID:27475536

  18. Evolution of microbes and viruses: a paradigm shift in evolutionary biology?

    PubMed

    Koonin, Eugene V; Wolf, Yuri I

    2012-01-01

    When Charles Darwin formulated the central principles of evolutionary biology in the Origin of Species in 1859 and the architects of the Modern Synthesis integrated these principles with population genetics almost a century later, the principal if not the sole objects of evolutionary biology were multicellular eukaryotes, primarily animals and plants. Before the advent of efficient gene sequencing, all attempts to extend evolutionary studies to bacteria have been futile. Sequencing of the rRNA genes in thousands of microbes allowed the construction of the three- domain "ribosomal Tree of Life" that was widely thought to have resolved the evolutionary relationships between the cellular life forms. However, subsequent massive sequencing of numerous, complete microbial genomes revealed novel evolutionary phenomena, the most fundamental of these being: (1) pervasive horizontal gene transfer (HGT), in large part mediated by viruses and plasmids, that shapes the genomes of archaea and bacteria and call for a radical revision (if not abandonment) of the Tree of Life concept, (2) Lamarckian-type inheritance that appears to be critical for antivirus defense and other forms of adaptation in prokaryotes, and (3) evolution of evolvability, i.e., dedicated mechanisms for evolution such as vehicles for HGT and stress-induced mutagenesis systems. In the non-cellular part of the microbial world, phylogenomics and metagenomics of viruses and related selfish genetic elements revealed enormous genetic and molecular diversity and extremely high abundance of viruses that come across as the dominant biological entities on earth. Furthermore, the perennial arms race between viruses and their hosts is one of the defining factors of evolution. Thus, microbial phylogenomics adds new dimensions to the fundamental picture of evolution even as the principle of descent with modification discovered by Darwin and the laws of population genetics remain at the core of evolutionary biology.

  19. c-Jun N-terminal kinases 3 (JNK3) from orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides, inhibiting the replication of Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV) and SGIV-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Guo, Minglan; Wei, Jingguang; Zhou, Yongcan; Qin, Qiwei

    2016-12-01

    C-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs), a subgroup of serine-threonine protein kinases that activated by phosphorylation, are involve in physiological and pathophysiological processes. JNK3 is one of JNK proteins involved in JNK3 signaling transduction. In the present study, two JNK3 isoforms, Ec-JNK3 X1 and Ec-JNK3 X2, were cloned from orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides. Both Ec-JNK3 X1 and Ec-JNK3 X2 were mainly expressed in liver, gill, skin, brain and muscle of juvenile grouper. The relative expression of Ec-JNK3 X2 mRNA was much higher in muscle and gill than that of Ec-JNK3 X1. Isoform-specific immune response to challenges was revealed by the expression profiles in vivo. Immunofluorescence staining indicated that JNK3 was localized in the cytoplasm of grouper spleen (GS) cells and shown immune response to SGIV infection in vitro. Over-expressing Ec-JNK3 X1 and/or Ec-JNK3 X2 inhibited the SGIV infection and replication and the SGIV-induced apoptosis. To achieve the antiviral and anti-apoptosis activities, JNK3 promoted the activation of genes ISRE and type I IFN in the antiviral IFN signaling pathway, and inhibited the activation of transcription factors NF-κB and p53 relating to apoptosis, respectively. Ec-JNK3 X2 showed stronger activities in antivirus and anti-apoptosis than that of Ec-JNK3 X1. Our results not only define the characterization of JNK3 but also reveal new immune functions and the molecular mechanisms of JNK3 on iridoviruses infection and the virus-induced apoptosis.

  20. Physicochemical characterization of silver nanoparticles synthesize using Aloe Vera (Aloe barbadensis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuponiyi, Abiola; Kassama, Lamin; Kukhtareva, Tatiana

    2014-08-01

    Production of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using different biological methods is gaining recognition due to their multiple applications. Although, several physical and chemical methods have been used for the synthesis and stabilizing of AgNPs, yet, a green chemistry method is preferable because it is cost effective and environmentally friendly. The synthesis was done using Aloe Vera (AV) extract because it has chemical compounds such as "Antrokinon" that are known for its antibacterial, antivirus and anticancer properties. We hypothesize that AV extract can produce a stable nanoparticles within the 100 nm range and be biologically active. The biological compounds were extracted from AV skin with water and ethanol which was used as the reduction agent for the synthesis of nanoparticles. The biological extract and AgNO3 were blended and heated to synthesize AgNPs. The reaction process was monitored using UV-Visible spectroscopy. Fourier Transfer Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used for the characterization of biological compounds and their substituent groups before and after the reaction process. Dynamic Light scattering (DLS) method was used to characterize particle size of AgNPs and their biomolecular stability. Results showed that biological compounds such as aliphatic amines, alkenes (=C-H), alkanes (C-H), alcohol (O-H) and unsaturated esters(C-O), which has an average particle size of 109 and 215.8 nm and polydispersity index of 0.451 and 0.375 for ethanol and water extract, respectively. According to TEM measurements the size of AgNPs are in the range 5-20 nm The results suggested that ethanol derived AgNPs contained higher yield of organic compounds, thus has better solubility power than water. Ag NPs can be used to control salmonella in poultry industry.

  1. Functional stability of 3D8 scFv, a nucleic acid-hydrolyzing single chain antibody, under different biochemical and physical conditions.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joungmin; Park, Hyunjoon; Kim, Minjae; Seo, Youngsil; Lee, Yeonjin; Byun, Sung June; Lee, Sukchan; Kwon, Myung-Hee

    2015-12-30

    3D8 single-chain Fv (scFv) is a catalytic nucleic acid antibody with anti-viral activity against a broad spectrum of viruses. Here we investigated the functional stability of 3D8 scFv to provide a basis for engineering a 3D8 scFv derivative and for developing stable formulations with improved stability and potential use as an anti-viral agent. The stability of 3D8 scFv was assessed by measuring its DNA-hydrolyzing activity under different biochemical and physical conditions using a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based method. In addition, the anti-influenza (H9N2) effect of 3D8 scFv was evaluated in A549 cells. 3D8 scFv was stable at 50°C for 6h at pH 7.2, for 3 days at pH 4-10 at 37°C and 30 days at pH 4-8 at 37°C. The stability was not affected by a reducing condition, freeze-thawing for up to 30 cycles, or lyophilization. Evaluation of the anti-virus effect showed that cells treated with 32-128 units of 3D8 scFv showed a 50% decrease in influenza replication compared to untreated cells. Based on its enzymatic stability in various biochemical and physical environments, 3D8 scFv holds good potential for development as an anti-viral therapeutic. PMID:26536531

  2. [Utility of a pneumatic system to transport erythrocyte concentrates: pilot study].

    PubMed

    Castillo-Torres, Noemí Patricia; Virgen-Díaz, Surid; León-Olvera, Daira L; Hernández-Pérez, Ana L; Calderón-Abbo, Moisés C

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: los sistemas de transporte de componentes eritrocitarios deben ser seguros y modernos. En este trabajo se analiza la seguridad de un sistema neumático como medio de transporte de concentrados eritrocitarios del servicio de transfusiones al servicio de la terapia posquirúrgica. MÉTODOS: se estudiaron las muestras piloto de 50 concentrados eritrocitarios, previa homogeneización del tubo con pinza rotatoria. Se obtuvieron 1.5 mL de la muestra antes de enviar el concentrado eritrocitario por el sistema neumático y 1.5 mL después de su llegada a su destino. Las muestras fueron colocadas en tubos de cristal para su análisis. También se analizaron la concentración de hemoglobina, el nivel de hematócrito y la concentración de potasio extracelular.

  3. Measurement and evaluation of national family planning programs.

    PubMed

    Mauldin, W P

    1967-03-01

    RESUMEN: En los últimos quince años diez paises han inaugurado programas nacionales de planeamiento familiar: India, Pakistán, Corea del Sur, Taiwan, Turquía, Malasia, Ceilán, Túez, la República Arabe Unida, y Marruecos. Otros paises, incluyendo Tailandia, Hong Kong, Singapur, Kenya, Barbados, Trinidad y los Estados Unidos, apoyan y/o estimulan actividades de planeamiento familiar. En la mayor parte de los casos la razón fundamental del programa ha sido que si la tasa de crecimiento poblacional disminuyera, aumentaría la tasa de crecimiento económico.Las metas de largo alcance, expresadas típicamente en términos de reducir las tasa.de de natalidad o de crecimiento, tienen su ejemplo en el propósito de Pakistán de reducir su tasa de crecimiento a 26 para 1970; el de Corea de reducir su tasa de natalidad a 20 para 1971; y el de India de reducir su tasa de natalidad a 25 para 1973.Los objectivos intermedios, que cubren diversos aspectos del pro grama, incluyen metas específicas para un determinado mes a año, considerando personal, la adquisición de anticonceptivos, y el número de usarios por método. Las metas específicas anuales de aceptantes de dispositivos intrauterinos (IUD), para Taiwán, Corea, Túnez, Pakistán e India, son comunes, tanto por la naturaleza del artefacto, como por la facilidad de medición de los que continúan utilizándolos. El programa de evaluación en Taiwán, que trata de medir por diversos medios los efectos inmediatos, mediatos y de largo plazo del programa de planeamiento familiar sirve de modelo. El propósito de la evaiuación de un programa de planeamiento familiar es contribuir a la efectividad y eficiencia del programa, midiendo y analizando su progreso. Las áreas a medir pueden ser clasificadas como- (1) conocimiento acerca de; (2) actitudes hacia; (3) práctica de control de natalidad; y (4) nivel de fecundidad.Un buen sistema de evaluación debería incluir: A. Un buen conjunto de estadísticas de servicio

  4. Measurement and evaluation of national family planning programs.

    PubMed

    Mauldin, W P

    1967-03-01

    RESUMEN: En los últimos quince años diez paises han inaugurado programas nacionales de planeamiento familiar: India, Pakistán, Corea del Sur, Taiwan, Turquía, Malasia, Ceilán, Túez, la República Arabe Unida, y Marruecos. Otros paises, incluyendo Tailandia, Hong Kong, Singapur, Kenya, Barbados, Trinidad y los Estados Unidos, apoyan y/o estimulan actividades de planeamiento familiar. En la mayor parte de los casos la razón fundamental del programa ha sido que si la tasa de crecimiento poblacional disminuyera, aumentaría la tasa de crecimiento económico.Las metas de largo alcance, expresadas típicamente en términos de reducir las tasa.de de natalidad o de crecimiento, tienen su ejemplo en el propósito de Pakistán de reducir su tasa de crecimiento a 26 para 1970; el de Corea de reducir su tasa de natalidad a 20 para 1971; y el de India de reducir su tasa de natalidad a 25 para 1973.Los objectivos intermedios, que cubren diversos aspectos del pro grama, incluyen metas específicas para un determinado mes a año, considerando personal, la adquisición de anticonceptivos, y el número de usarios por método. Las metas específicas anuales de aceptantes de dispositivos intrauterinos (IUD), para Taiwán, Corea, Túnez, Pakistán e India, son comunes, tanto por la naturaleza del artefacto, como por la facilidad de medición de los que continúan utilizándolos. El programa de evaluación en Taiwán, que trata de medir por diversos medios los efectos inmediatos, mediatos y de largo plazo del programa de planeamiento familiar sirve de modelo. El propósito de la evaiuación de un programa de planeamiento familiar es contribuir a la efectividad y eficiencia del programa, midiendo y analizando su progreso. Las áreas a medir pueden ser clasificadas como- (1) conocimiento acerca de; (2) actitudes hacia; (3) práctica de control de natalidad; y (4) nivel de fecundidad.Un buen sistema de evaluación debería incluir: A. Un buen conjunto de estadísticas de servicio

  5. SIB health psychology in Brazil: The challenges for working in public health settings.

    PubMed

    Spink, Mary-Jane P; Brigagão, Jacqueline M; Menegon, Vera M; Vicentin, Maria-Cristina G

    2016-03-01

    Considering the diversity of theoretical approaches and settings for psychological practice, this editorial provides a background for the articles that have been included in this special issue concerning health psychology in the context of the Brazilian Unified Health System (Sistema Unico de Saude). We addressed issues concerning the national curricular outline for undergraduate training in psychology and historical data on the social movements that led to the creation of the Sistema Unico de Saude and the Psychiatric Reform which created an important area for psychological work absorbing a considerable number of psychologists.

  6. Aplicación del Teorema de Nekhorochev para tiempos de estabilidad en Mecánica Celeste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miloni, O.; Núñez, J.; Brunini, A.

    En Mecánica Celeste, uno de los problemas centrales consiste en la determinación de los tiempos de estabilidad. El teorema de Nekhorochev proporciona un método para dicho estudio, para un sistema determinado por un hamiltoniano descripto en las variables acción-ángulo. El trabajo consiste en la acotación tanto del potencial perturbador y de la matriz hessiana del hamiltoniano integrable para determinar luego el tiempo de estabilidad de dicho sistema, donde por estabilidad se entiende la separación en norma infinito en el espacio de las acciones.

  7. Voting Systems for Environmental Decisions

    PubMed Central

    BURGMAN, MARK A; REGAN, HELEN M; MAGUIRE, LYNN A; COLYVAN, MARK; JUSTUS, JAMES; MARTIN, TARA G; ROTHLEY, KRIS

    2014-01-01

    Voting systems aggregate preferences efficiently and are often used for deciding conservation priorities. Desirable characteristics of voting systems include transitivity, completeness, and Pareto optimality, among others. Voting systems that are common and potentially useful for environmental decision making include simple majority, approval, and preferential voting. Unfortunately, no voting system can guarantee an outcome, while also satisfying a range of very reasonable performance criteria. Furthermore, voting methods may be manipulated by decision makers and strategic voters if they have knowledge of the voting patterns and alliances of others in the voting populations. The difficult properties of voting systems arise in routine decision making when there are multiple criteria and management alternatives. Because each method has flaws, we do not endorse one method. Instead, we urge organizers to be transparent about the properties of proposed voting systems and to offer participants the opportunity to approve the voting system as part of the ground rules for operation of a group. Sistemas de Votación para Decisiones Ambientales Resumen Los sistemas de votación agregan preferencias eficientemente y muy seguido se usan para decidir prioridades de conservación. Las características deseables de un sistema de votación incluyen la transitividad, lo completo que sean y la optimalidad de Pareto, entre otras. Los sistemas de votación que son comunes y potencialmente útiles para la toma de decisiones ambientales incluyen simple mayoría, aprobación y votación preferencial. Desafortunadamente, ningún sistema de votación puede garantizar un resultado y a la vez satisfacer un rango de criterios de desempeño muy razonable. Además, los métodos de votación pueden manipularse por los que toman las decisiones y votantes estratégicos si tienen el conocimiento de los patrones de votación y de las alianzas entre miembros dentro de las poblaciones votantes. Las

  8. Participatory groundwater management in Jordan: Development and analysis of options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chebaane, Mohamed; El-Naser, Hazim; Fitch, Jim; Hijazi, Amal; Jabbarin, Amer

    pour assister les décideurs, les propriétaires de puits et les autres acteurs pour atteindre progressivement un régime de prélèvement durable. Les aspects sociaux et économiques de chaque option et de chaque scénario ont été analysés et présentés aux acteurs, en même temps qu'un résumé des ramifications légales, institutionnelles et environnementales. En combinant une analyse scientifique à une approche participative du bassin d'Amman Zarqa, la gestion des eaux souterraines a été imaginée comme un prototype pouvant être utilisé pour la gestion d'autres bassins aquifères de Jordanie. Il peut également être utile à d'autres régions du monde qui sont concernées par des problèmes similaires de surexploitation des eaux souterraines. La sobreexplotación de las aguas subterráneas ha ido en aumento en Jordania, donde las demandas en competición han crecido frente a una escasez perenne de agua, situación que ha sido agravada por el estado de sequía de la última década. Este artículo presenta los hallazgos de un proyecto en el que se han desarrollado opciones de gestión para hacer frente a la sobreexplotación en uno de los principales sistemas acuíferos de Jordania: la cuenca de Ammán-Zarga. Se ha elaborado opciones para afrontar la situación mediante un enfoque participativo que incluye a personal del gobierno y a diversos grupos de interés de los sectores público y privado. En particular, se ha intentado involucrar a los regantes que se sirven de aguas subterráneas, quienes tienen más probabilidad de ser directamente afectados por los cambios requeridos para devolver el sistema a un balance equilibrado. A partir de la información obtenida en rápidas campañas de valoración, así como de encuentros con la comunidad y entrevistas con los expertos técnicos del gobierno, se ha identificado un amplio conjunto de opciones para su evaluación. Basándose en un análisis integrado de los aspectos hidrogeológicos, sociales y econ

  9. Costa Rica's SINEM: A Perspective from Postcolonial Institutional Ethnography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosabal-Coto, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    In this article I suggest that SINEM--the Costa Rican version of Venezuela's El Sistema--articulates a development discourse which legitimates neoliberal policies that govern the twenty-first-century international market, in which Costa Rica figures only as a subaltern. I contend that such articulation contributes to perpetuating notions and…

  10. Asteroides

    NASA Video Gallery

    Los asteroides son más que una roca metálica que orbita alrededor del sol. Al igual que la Tierra, es posible que Ceres, el asteroide más grande del sistema solar, tenga casquetes polares. Únete a ...

  11. Base Lunar Alpha

    NASA Video Gallery

    Tu misión: Recuperar los sistemas críticos cuando un meteoro daña los equipos de supervivencia de tu ambiente lunar. Parece una película de ciencia ficción, ¿verdad? En realidad, es el nuevo juego ...

  12. Two Decades of SIMCE: An Overview of the National Assessment System in Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meckes, Lorena; Carrasco, Rafael

    2010-01-01

    The Chilean national learning outcome assessment system (Sistema de Medicion de Calidad de la Educacion, SIMCE) has carried out census-based assessments since 1988 and publishes the results at both the national and school levels. During its 20 years of existence, SIMCE has experienced changes in its institutional framework, objectives,…

  13. Dinámica de planetas extrasolares resonantes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beauge, C.

    Actualmente se han detectado 117 planetas alrededor de estrellas de Secuencia Principal, incluyendo 12 sistemas planetarios, cada uno con dos o tres miembros. De estos últimos, ocho poseen planetas en órbitas próximas y sus perturbaciones gravitacionales se convierten en un factor fundamental para la estabilidad orbital del sistema. Todos se encuentran en configuraciones resonantes, desde la conmensurabilidad de movimientos 2/1 de Gliese 876, hasta la resonancia secular de Ups And. En esta presentación analizamos varios aspectos de la dinámica resonante de los planetas extrasolares, incluyendo la existencia de soluciones de equilibrio, construcción de modelos analógicos y métodos para la determinación de masas individuales. También discutimos por qué las resonancias son tan frecuentes en estos sistemas, comparado con nuestro propio Sistema Solar. Por último, intentamos relacionar estos modelos con la hipótesis de migración planetaria, buscando límites en su extensión y en los posibles mecanismos que le dieron origen.

  14. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 2001: Numbers 23-45.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Gene V., Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This document consists of articles 23-45 published in the electronic journal "Education Policy Analysis Archives" for the year 2001: (23) "La Participacion de las Minorias Nacionales dentro de Sistemas Educativas Pre-Modernos: El Caso de los Garifunas de Guatemala" (Carlos R. Ruano); (24) "'Alexander v. Sandoval': A Setback for Civil Rights"…

  15. Energia Renovable para Centros de Salud Rurales (Renewable Energy for Rural Health Clinics)

    SciTech Connect

    Jimenez, T.; Olson, K.

    1999-07-28

    Esta es la primera de una serie de guias de aplicaciones que el Programa de Energia de Villas de NREL esta comisionando para acoplar sistemas comerciales renovables con aplicaciones rurales, incluyendo agua, escuelas rurales y micro empresas. La guia esta complementada por las actividades de desarrollo del Programa de Energia de Villas de NREL, proyectos pilotos internacionales y programas de visitas profesionales.

  16. Agricultural Policy and Child Health in Rural Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Antoinette B.; Partridge, William L.

    1987-01-01

    Reports on the impact on malnutrition of Mexico's Sistema de Alementacion Mexicana (SAM) program, which tried to make the country self-sufficient in basic foods. Concludes that the food problem in Mexico is not so much one of production as it is a problem of distribution and consumption. (PS)

  17. Effect of the Parental Involvement Style Perceived by Elementary School Students at Home on Language and Mathematics Performance in Chilean Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gubbins, Verónica; Otero, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    The present study intends to measure the effect of the parental involvement style perceived by fourth-grade students on their Language and Mathematics performance. It uses data taken from a sample of 55,401 students evaluated by the National Education Quality Measurement System [Sistema Nacional de Medición de la Calidad de la Educación, SIMCE].…

  18. Guanophilic fungi in three caves of southwestern Puerto Rico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fifty species of guanophilic (bat guano-loving) fungi were isolated from field-collected samples within three caves in south-western Puerto Rico; most were mitosporic fungi (23 species). The caves studied were Cueva La Tuna (Cabo Rojo), Cueva de Malano (Sistema de Los Chorros, San Germán), and Cuev...

  19. Constructing a New Vision: Undoing Gender through Secondary Education in Honduras

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy-Graham, Erin

    2009-01-01

    This article presents results from a qualitative study on how the Honduran secondary education programme, "Sistema de Aprendizaje Tutorial" (SAT), attempts to "undo gender" (Deutsch 2007: 122) by encouraging students to rethink gender relations in their everyday lives in a way that reflects their increased consciousness of gender equality. My…

  20. Nuevas oportunidades de inmunoterapia dirigida

    Cancer.gov

    Un equipo de investigadores del NCI ha informado que varios tipos de cánceres gastrointestinales tienen mutaciones específicas al tumor que pueden ser reconocidas por el sistema inmunitario, lo que ofrece una posible oportunidad terapéutica para pacientes

  1. [The language area of the brain: a functional reassessment].

    PubMed

    Ardila, Alfredo; Bernal, Byron; Rosselli, Monica

    2016-02-01

    Introduccion. Hacia finales del siglo XIX y comienzos del siglo XX, y basandose en observaciones clinicas, se propuso que existe un 'area del lenguaje' en el cerebro que corresponde, en general, a la region perisilviana del hemisferio izquierdo. Tal idea ha continuado existiendo desde entonces. Objetivo. Partiendo de los estudios contemporaneos de imagenes cerebrales, reanalizar la localizacion y extension del area del lenguaje con relacion a las diferentes areas de Brodmann. Materiales y metodos. Utilizando la metodologia conocida como metaanalytic connectivity modeling, se revisan varios estudios metaanaliticos en los cuales se analizan las imagenes de resonancia magnetica funcional durante la realizacion de tareas linguisticas. Resultados. Se encontro que existen dos sistemas linguisticos diferentes en el cerebro: un sistema lexico/semantico, relacionado con el area de Wernicke, y que incluye un area de Wernicke central (reconocimiento de palabras) y un area de Wernicke extendida (asociaciones linguisticas); y un sistema gramatical, dependiente del complejo de Broca (produccion del lenguaje y gramatica), en el lobulo frontal, y que se extiende subcorticalmente. Se propone tambien que la insula desempeña un papel de coordinacion de estos dos sistemas linguisticos cerebrales. Conclusion. Los estudios contemporaneos de neuroimagen sugieren que el area del lenguaje en el cerebro es notoriamente mas amplia de lo que se supuso hace un siglo basandose en observaciones clinicas. Tal como se consideraba durante el siglo XIX, la insula parece desempeñar un papel critico en el lenguaje.

  2. Examining the benefits of learning based on an audience response system when confronting emergency situations.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Alemán, José Luis; García, Ana Belén Sánchez; Montesinos, María José López; Jiménez, Juan José López

    2014-05-01

    This article presents an empirical study on the effectiveness of the use of an audience response system called SIstema De Respuesta inmediata de la Audiencia on a nursing course. A total of 130 students of mixed gender, age, and computer experience and educational background on a third-year course in nursing administration and management participated in the study. The benefits of an audience response system as regards learning how to confront emergency situations were studied. The innovative aspect of the proposal is twofold: (1) the use of a smartphone to respond to the questions and (2) the analysis of the students' response time when confronting critical situations while managing nursing resources. A positive impact on the students' performance was revealed in their final assessments. Our findings show that SIstema De Respuesta inmediata de la Audiencia increases student participation and aids in identifying and correcting misconceptions. The students found SIstema De Respuesta inmediata de la Audiencia to be very motivating and wanted it to be used in additional lectures. Further research is required to study the effectiveness of SIstema De Respuesta inmediata de la Audiencia for it to be widely used in other disciplines. PMID:24633235

  3. The New System for Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Cathy Applefeld

    2012-01-01

    The most ambitious of music teachers seek not only to educate their students about notes and chords, but also to instill in them the transcendent joy of making music. That joy is abundant in Venezuela, where the El Sistema national music education program has been a boon to the country's cultural growth and has created a climate of positive social…

  4. [Study of death with secondary diagnosis of malnutrition in a third level hospital].

    PubMed

    Fernández Valdivia, Antonia; Lobo Támer, Gabriela; Martínez Cirre, Ma Carmen; Valero Aguilera, Beatriz; Peña Taveras, Manuel del Carmen; Rodríguez Rodríguez, José María; Martínez Tapias, Jesús; Pérez de la Cruz, Antonio Jesús

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: La desnutrición constituye uno de los principales problemas de Salud Pública, según datos de la OMS, es la primera causa de mortalidad, cuando la misma afecta al colectivo de los sujetos hospitalizados, toma entidad propia denominándose “desnutrición hospitalaria”. Objetivos: El objetivo general es cuantificar los diagnósticos principales de alta más frecuentes, que causan exitus, con el diagnóstico secundario de desnutrición. Métodos: Se trata de un estudio transversal y descriptivo, en el que se han incluido todas las altas hospitalarias del año 2011 y primer semestre de 2012, que han sido exitus y que tienen como diagnóstico secundario la desnutrición, siendo el total de 33. Se ha realizado un análisis estadístico descriptivo, efectuándose el test de Mann-Whitney para pruebas no paramétricas (p < 0,05). Resultados: Los diagnósticos principales más frecuentes entre las 33 altas analizadas son la sepsis (12,1%), metástasis hepáticas (9,1%), neumonía (6,1%), insuficiencia respiratoria aguda (6,1%) e insuficiencia renal aguda (6,1%). Conclusiones: Aunque el diagnóstico principal más frecuente es la sepsis, al agrupar los diagnósticos, el GRD más frecuente es de patología respiratoria, por lo que se ha de hacer codificación exhaustiva y de calidad para ajustar el peso relativo de los mismos a la realidad. Es fundamental especificar en la fuente de información clínica utilizada para la codificación, el grado de desnutrición, para obtener mayor especificidad en los datos.

  5. [Bibliometric analysis of Revista Médica del IMSS in the Scopus database for the period between 2005-2013].

    PubMed

    García-Gómez, Francisco; Ramírez-Méndez, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Objetivo: analizar la visibilidad de la Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (Rev Med Inst Mex Seguro Soc) en la base de datos Scopus y describir los principales indicadores bibliométricos cuantitativos de la producción científica publicados durante el periodo 2005-2013. Métodos: para el análisis se utilizó la base de datos Scopus y se limitó el periodo de búsqueda a los años 2005-2013. La estrategia de búsqueda se ejecutó en los campos específicos de Título de la Publicación (Source Title) con el término Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social y sus posibles variantes, asícomo el número ISSN de la revista. Para el análisis de los datos obtenidos se utilizaron las herramientas de Scopus y los programas Excel y Access. Resultados: se encontraron 864 trabajos publicados durante el periodo 2005-2013 que fueron incluidos en Scopus. Se identificaron los autores con mayor producción científica y mayor número de citas acumuladas a sus trabajos, asícomo las principales revistas que citan a la Rev Med Inst Mex Seguro Soc. Se describen las principales áreas temáticas, tipos de documentos y otros indicadores bibliométricos que caracterizan a la publicación. Conclusiones: el uso de Scopus brinda la posibilidad de analizar con una herramienta externa al IMSS la visibilidad de la producción científica publicada en la Revista Médica del IMSS, además de que contribuye a identificar el estado de la ciencia en México y de los países en vías desarrollo.

  6. Um estudo espectrofotométrico da variável cataclísmica V3885 Sgr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, F. M. A.; Diaz, M. P.

    2003-08-01

    Variáveis Cataclísmicas são sistemas binários cerrados compostos de uma anã vermelha que transfere matéria para uma anã branca, em sistemas não magnéticos ocorre a formação de um disco de acresção em torno da anã branca. V3885 Sgr é uma variável cataclísmica classificada como sendo do tipo nova-like. É apresentado um estudo espectrofotométrico de V3885 Sgr de alta resolução temporal feito na região do visível. A região observada é centrada em Ha e abrange também a linha de HeI 6678. O primeiro resultado obtido neste estudo é a determinação do período orbital a partir de medidas da velocidade radial da linha de Ha como sendo 0,20716071(22) dias, resolvendo inconsistências quanto a esse valor na literatura e definindo uma efeméride a longo prazo para o sistema. Com este período e as medidas de velocidade radial do perfil de linha de Ha foi construído um diagrama de massas, através do qual restringimos as massas das componentes estelares do sistema e limitamos a inclinação orbital do sistema. Foram construídos diagramas de Greenstein para as linhas de Ha e HeI, onde os espectros médios em cada intervalo de fase são representados lado a lado em escala de cinza, indicando a existência de uma emissão intensa proveniente da parte posterior do disco. A partir da tomografia Doppler obtivemos perfis de emissividade radial para o disco tanto para a linha de Ha como para HeI. Os resultados obtidos são comparados com os de outros sistemas estudados com a mesma técnica. Serão apresentados também resultados da tomografia de flickering para o sistema.

  7. Um supressor de fundo térmico para a câmara infravermelha CamIV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jablonski, F.; Laporte, R.

    2003-08-01

    O ângulo sólido subtendido pelos pixels na câmara infravermelha do NexGal (CamIV) que operamos no OPD/LNA contém contribuições provenientes do sistema de coleta de fluxo propriamente dito - sendo esta a parte que interessa para as medidas astronômicas - e contribuições da obstrução central, sistema de suporte do espelho secundário e região exterior à pupila de entrada do telescópio. Estas últimas contribuições são devi-das à emissão de corpo negro à temperatura ambiente e aumentam exponencialmente para comprimentos de onda maiores que 2 micra (banda K, no infravermelho próximo). Embora a resultante pode ser quantificada e subtraída dos sinais relevantes, sua variância se adiciona à variância do sinal, e pode ser facilmente a contribuição domi-nante para a incerteza final das medidas, tornando ineficiente o processo de extração de informação e degradando a sensibilidade da câmara. A maneira clássica de resolver esse problema em sistemas ópticos que operam no infravermelho, onde os efeitos da emissão térmica do ambiente são importantes, é restringir o ângulo sólido subtendido pelos pixels individuais exclusivamente aos raios provenientes do sistema óptico. Para tanto, projeta-se uma imagem real, bastante reduzida, da pupila de entrada do sistema óptico num anteparo que transmita para o sistema de imageamento só o que interessa, bloqueando as contribuições das bordas externas à pupila de entrada, obstrução central do telescópio e sistema de suporte. Como a projeção é realizada em ambiente criogênico, a contribuição térmica espúria é efetivamente eliminada. Nós optamos por um sistema do tipo Offner para implementar na prática esta função. Trata-se de um sistema baseado em espelhos esféricos, bastante compacto e ajustado por construção. A opção por espelhos do mesmo material que o sistema de suporte (Alumínio) minimiza a dilatação diferencial, crítica nesse tipo de aplicação. Apresentamos as solu

  8. Le syndrome de Budd-Chiari: une complication rare de la sarcoïdose hépatique (à propos d'un cas)

    PubMed Central

    Sghier, Ismael Ait; Billah, Nabil Moatassim

    2016-01-01

    L'atteinte hépatique au cours de la sarcoïdose est une localisation fréquente, habituellement asymptomatique. La cholestase anictérique et l'hypertension portale représentent ses principales complications. Le syndrome de Budd-Chiari est une complication peu connue qui demeure exceptionnelle. Nous rapportons un nouveau cas de syndrome de Budd-Chiari compliquant une sarcoïdose hépatique chez une jeune femme de 45 ans. PMID:27200114

  9. Formación y evolución de planetas gigantes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benvenuto, O. G.; Brunini, A.

    Presentamos el estado actual del trabajo que estamos realizando en el estudio de la formación de planetas gigantes. Detallamos los algoritmos numéricos necesarios para realizar este tipo de cálculo. Presentamos algunos resultados de la formación de objetos con masas de hasta una docena de veces la del planeta Júpiter, resaltando las principales caracteríticas. Finalmente detallamos los problemas que pensamos abordar en un futuro cercano en este tema de investigación.

  10. Velocidades radiales de estrellas gigantes rojas y blue stragglers en cúmulos abiertos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, J. F.; Lapasset, E.

    Se presentan mediciones de las estrellas más brillantes en los campos de los cúmulos abiertos NGC 6530, NGC 2516, NGC 3114, Cr 223 y NGC 2437. Mediante correlaciones cruzadas se obtiene la velocidad de unas 25 gigantes rojas con el objeto de derivar la velocidad media de cada asociación. En base a los espectros obtenidos de los blue stragglers se discuten sus principales características y su probabilidad de pertenencia. Finalmente, se presentan las observaciones para cinco nuevas binarias espectroscópicas detectadas.

  11. Educación no formal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tignanelli, H.

    Se comentan en esta comunicación, las principales contribuciones realizadas en el campo de la educación en astronomía en los niveles primario, secundario y terciario, como punto de partida para la discusión de la actual inserción de los contenidos astronómicos en los nuevos contenidos curriculares de la EGB - Educación General Básica- y Polimodal, de la Reforma Educativa. En particular, se discuten los alcances de la educación formal y no formal, su importancia para la capacitación de profesores y maestros, y perspectivas a futuro.

  12. Transcendental Meditation

    SciTech Connect

    2005-11-29

    K.Wallace, qui vient des Etats Unis, parle des effects physiologiques de la méditation transcendantale. Il a fait son bachelor en physique à l'Université de Los Angeles et son doctorat en physiologie aussi à Los Angeles, mais à l'Institut de Recherche sur le cerveau. Il travaille maintenat à Harvard Medical School ou il continue des recherches biochimiques et physiologiques sur l'application médicale de la méditation transcendantale. Il s'occupe principalement des maladies cardiaques et de hypertension artérielle.

  13. [Sentinel lymph node detection in breast cancer. Experience of the Institut Curie].

    PubMed

    Nos, C; Fréneaux, P; Clough, K B

    2000-05-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy is a recently developed, minimally invasive technique for staging the axilla in breast cancer. This new procedure of selective lymphadenectomy has been the subject of several studies, and a consensus of opinion is starting to form to define indications and methods of identification concerning the use of this technique. At the Institut Curie since 1996, we have been using the Patenté blue dye technique and from 1998 we have used the combination of blue dye and technetium labeled sulfur colloid. This article summarizes the principales aspect of this technique. PMID:10804363

  14. Transcendental Meditation

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    K.Wallace, qui vient des Etats Unis, parle des effects physiologiques de la méditation transcendantale. Il a fait son bachelor en physique à l'Université de Los Angeles et son doctorat en physiologie aussi à Los Angeles, mais à l'Institut de Recherche sur le cerveau. Il travaille maintenat à Harvard Medical School ou il continue des recherches biochimiques et physiologiques sur l'application médicale de la méditation transcendantale. Il s'occupe principalement des maladies cardiaques et de hypertension artérielle.

  15. Les rivières et les sources de la Plaine du Cul-de-Sac: extrait du rapport sur les eaux souterraines de la Plaine du Cul-de-Sac

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, George C.; Lemoine, Rémy C.

    1949-01-01

    Les principales rivières de la Plaine du Cul-de-Sac, la Rivière Grise ou Grande Rivière du Cul-de-Sac et la Rivière Blanche, prennent naissance sur le flanc Nord du Massif de la Selle à des altitudes de 1,300 à 1,800 mètres au dessus du niveau de la mer. Elles coulent à l’amont à travers des gorges profondes et sont éloignées de 9 Kms. dans la partie central de la bordure Sud de la plaine.

  16. [Sentinel lymph node detection in breast cancer. Experience of the Institut Curie].

    PubMed

    Nos, C; Fréneaux, P; Clough, K B

    2000-05-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy is a recently developed, minimally invasive technique for staging the axilla in breast cancer. This new procedure of selective lymphadenectomy has been the subject of several studies, and a consensus of opinion is starting to form to define indications and methods of identification concerning the use of this technique. At the Institut Curie since 1996, we have been using the Patenté blue dye technique and from 1998 we have used the combination of blue dye and technetium labeled sulfur colloid. This article summarizes the principales aspect of this technique.

  17. La para-osteo-arthropathie neurogene dans le syndrome de guillain barre: complication rare (à propos d'un cas et revue de la littérature)

    PubMed Central

    Abid, Hatim; El Idrissi, Mohamed; Shimi, Mohamed; El Ibrahimi, Abdelhalim; El Mrini, Abdelmajid

    2015-01-01

    Les para-ostéo-arthropathies neurogènes sont des complications classiques des affections neurologiques centrales, surtout dans les contextes traumatiques. Elles surviennent principalement au voisinage des grosses articulations. Leur physiopathologie exacte reste inconnue malgré de très nombreux travaux et cas rapportés. Il semble que leur survenue au décours d'affections neurologiques périphériques soit exceptionnelle. Nous présentons le cas d'une para-ostéo-arthropathie de hanche bilatérale compliquant un syndrome de Guillain-Barré. PMID:26161168

  18. L'Aventure du LHC

    SciTech Connect

    2010-06-11

    Cette présentation s’adressera principalement aux personnes qui ont construit le LHC. La construction du LHC fut longue et difficile. De nombreux problèmes sont apparus en cours de route. Tous ont été résolus grâce au dévouement et à l’engagement du personnel et des collaborateurs. Je reviendrai sur les coups durs et les réussites qui ont marqués ces 15 dernières années et je vous montrerai combien cette machine, le fruit de vos efforts, est extraordinaire.

  19. Preclinical pharmacology and toxicology study of Ad-hTERT-E1a-Apoptin, a novel dual cancer-specific oncolytic adenovirus

    SciTech Connect

    Qi, Yanxin; Guo, Huanhuan; Hu, Ningning; He, Dongyun; Zhang, Shi; Chu, Yunjie; Huang, Yubin; Li, Xiao; Sun, LiLi; Jin, Ningyi

    2014-10-15

    Clinical studies have demonstrated that conditionally replicating adenovirus is safe. We constructed an oncolytic adenovirus, Ad-hTERT-E1a-Apoptin, using a cancer-specific promoter (human telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter, hTERTp) and a cancer cell-selective apoptosis-inducing gene (Apoptin). Ad-hTERT-E1a-Apoptin was proven effective both in vitro and in vivo in our previous study. In this study, the preclinical safety profiles of Ad-hTERT-E1a-Apoptin in animal models were investigated. At doses of 5.0 × 10{sup 8}, 2.5 × 10{sup 9}, and 1.25 × 10{sup 10} viral particles (VP)/kg, Ad-hTERT-E1a-Apoptin had no adverse effects on mouse behavior, muscle cooperation, sedative effect, digestive system, and nervous systems, or on beagle cardiovascular and respiratory systems at 5.0 × 10{sup 8}, 2.5 × 10{sup 9}, and 1.25 × 10{sup 10} VP/kg doses. In acute toxicity tests in mice, the maximum tolerated dose > 5 × 10{sup 10} VP/kg. There was no inflammation or ulceration at the injection sites within two weeks. In repeat-dose toxicological studies, the no observable adverse effect levels of Ad-hTERT-E1a-Apoptin in rats (1.25 × 10{sup 10} VP/kg) and beagles (2.5 × 10{sup 9} VP/kg) were 62.5- and 12.5-fold of the proposed clinical dose, respectively. The anti-virus antibody was produced in animal sera. Bone marrow examination revealed no histopathological changes. Guinea pigs sensitized by three repeated intraperitoneal injections of 1.35 × 10{sup 10} VP/mL Ad-hTERT-E1a-Apoptin each and challenged by one intravenous injection of 1.67 × 10{sup 8} VP/kg Ad-hTERT-E1a-Apoptin did not exhibit any sign of systemic anaphylaxis. Our data from different animal models suggest that Ad-hTERT-E1a-Apoptin is a safe anti-tumor therapeutic agent. - Highlights: • We use the rodents and non-rodents animal models to evaluation Ad-hTERT-E1a-Apoptin. • Ad-hTERT-E1a-Apoptin is a safe anti-tumor therapeutic agent. • Demonstrate the safety and feasibility dose of injected Ad

  20. Network Penetration Testing and Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Brandon F.

    2013-01-01

    This paper will focus the on research and testing done on penetrating a network for security purposes. This research will provide the IT security office new methods of attacks across and against a company's network as well as introduce them to new platforms and software that can be used to better assist with protecting against such attacks. Throughout this paper testing and research has been done on two different Linux based operating systems, for attacking and compromising a Windows based host computer. Backtrack 5 and BlackBuntu (Linux based penetration testing operating systems) are two different "attacker'' computers that will attempt to plant viruses and or NASA USRP - Internship Final Report exploits on a host Windows 7 operating system, as well as try to retrieve information from the host. On each Linux OS (Backtrack 5 and BlackBuntu) there is penetration testing software which provides the necessary tools to create exploits that can compromise a windows system as well as other operating systems. This paper will focus on two main methods of deploying exploits 1 onto a host computer in order to retrieve information from a compromised system. One method of deployment for an exploit that was tested is known as a "social engineering" exploit. This type of method requires interaction from unsuspecting user. With this user interaction, a deployed exploit may allow a malicious user to gain access to the unsuspecting user's computer as well as the network that such computer is connected to. Due to more advance security setting and antivirus protection and detection, this method is easily identified and defended against. The second method of exploit deployment is the method mainly focused upon within this paper. This method required extensive research on the best way to compromise a security enabled protected network. Once a network has been compromised, then any and all devices connected to such network has the potential to be compromised as well. With a compromised

  1. Clonal analysis of a human antibody response. Quantitation of precursors of antibody-producing cells and generation and characterization of monoclonal IgM, IgG, and IgA to rabies virus

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    We quantitated and characterized the changes in the human B cell repertoire, at the clonal level, before and after immunization with rabies virus. Moreover, we generated 10 monoclonal cell lines producing IgM, IgG, and IgA antibodies to the virus. We found that in healthy subjects, not previously exposed to the virus, nearly 2% of the circulating B lymphocytes were committed to the production of antibodies that bound the virus. These B cells expressed the surface CD5 molecule. The antibodies they produced were polyreactive IgM that displayed a relatively low affinity for the virus components (Kd, 1.0- 2.4 x 10(-6) g/microliters). After immunization, different anti-virus (IgG and IgA) antibody-producing cells consistently appeared in the circulation and increased from less than 0.005% to greater than 10% of the total B cells committed to the production of IgG and IgA, respectively. Most of such B cells do not express CD5 and produce monoreactive antibodies of high affinity for rabies virus (Kd, 6.5 x 10(-9) to 1.2 x 10(-10) g/microliters). One of these IgG mAbs efficiently neutralized rabies virus in vitro and in vivo, as detailed elsewhere (Dietzschold, B., P. Casali, Y. Ueki, M. Gore, C. E. Rupprecht, A. L. Notkins, and H. Koprowski, manuscript submitted for publication). Hybridization experiments using probes specific for the different human V gene segment families revealed that cell precursors producing low affinity IgM binding to rabies virus utilized a restricted number of VH gene segments (i.e., only members of the VHIIIb subfamily), whereas cell precursors producing high affinity IgG and IgA to rabies virus utilized an assortment of different VH gene segments (i.e., members of the VHI, VHIII, VHIV, and VHVI families and VHIIIb subfamily). In conclusion, our studies show that EBV transformation in conjunction with limiting dilution technology and somatic cell hybridization techniques are useful methods for quantitating, at the B cell clonal level, the human

  2. Connecting to the Internet Securely; Protecting Home Networks CIAC-2324

    SciTech Connect

    Orvis, W J; Krystosek, P; Smith, J

    2002-11-27

    With more and more people working at home and connecting to company networks via the Internet, the risk to company networks to intrusion and theft of sensitive information is growing. Working from home has many positive advantages for both the home worker and the company they work for. However, as companies encourage people to work from home, they need to start considering the interaction of the employee's home network and the company network he connects to. This paper discusses problems and solutions related to protection of home computers from attacks on those computers via the network connection. It does not consider protection of those systems from people who have physical access to the computers nor does it consider company laptops taken on-the-road. Home networks are often targeted by intruders because they are plentiful and they are usually not well secured. While companies have departments of professionals to maintain and secure their networks, home networks are maintained by the employee who may be less knowledgeable about network security matters. The biggest problems with home networks are that: Home networks are not designed to be secure and may use technologies (wireless) that are not secure; The operating systems are not secured when they are installed; The operating systems and applications are not maintained (for security considerations) after they are installed; and The networks are often used for other activities that put them at risk for being compromised. Home networks that are going to be connected to company networks need to be cooperatively secured by the employee and the company so they do not open up the company network to intruders. Securing home networks involves many of the same operations as securing a company network: Patch and maintain systems; Securely configure systems; Eliminate unneeded services; Protect remote logins; Use good passwords; Use current antivirus software; and Moderate your Internet usage habits. Most of these items

  3. K-bZIP Mediated SUMO-2/3 Specific Modification on the KSHV Genome Negatively Regulates Lytic Gene Expression and Viral Reactivation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wan-Shan; Hsu, Hung-Wei; Campbell, Mel; Cheng, Chia-Yang; Chang, Pei-Ching

    2015-07-01

    of viral chromatin may function to counteract KSHV reactivation. As induction of herpesvirus reactivation may activate cellular antiviral regimes, our results suggest that development of viral SUMO E3 ligase specific inhibitors may be an avenue for anti-virus therapy. PMID:26197391

  4. Conformational preferences of a peptide corresponding to the major antigenic determinant of foot-and-mouth disease virus: implications for peptide-vaccine approaches.

    PubMed

    de Prat-Gay, G

    1997-05-15

    The conformational preferences in solution of a peptide corresponding to the GH loop of the VP1 capsid protein from the foot-and-mouth disease virus were examined by proton nuclear magnetic resonance and circular dichroism. The GH loop is the major antigenic determinant of the virus and participates in cell attachment through an integrin-like Arg-Gly-Asp sequence. The synthetic peptide, corresponding to residues Gly132 to Ser162 of the VP1 capsid protein of the serotype O, is largely disordered in aqueous solution as shown by the absence of long- and medium-range NOE contacts and by random-like chemical shifts values. Helical contents in aqueous solution were estimated to be less than 10%, as determined by extrapolation of trifluoroethanol titration from CD measurements, in good agreement with estimations from NMR experiments. In the presence of 40% trifluoroethanol an alpha-helix, flanked by two proline residues between Asn12 (Asn143 in the intact protein) and Leu28 (159), is induced. This contrasts with the 3(10) helix observed between residues Leu148 and Val155 in the crystal structure of the dithiothreitol-reduced virus, indicating that the cosolvent does not stabilize a residual, low-populated structure, similar to that in the intact virus. Several algorithms also fail to predict the structure found in the intact virus because these are based mainly on local sequence information. The lack of structure of the peptide in aqueous solution strongly suggests that the conformational determinants sufficient for the structure stabilization of this highly immunogenic antigen are mostly dictated by interactions of the loop with other regions of the virus structure, and do not arise from local amino acid sequence information. The ability of designed GH-VP1 peptides to neutralize anti-virus antibodies is likely to arise from antibody-induced conformation of the peptide and its application as peptide vaccines is not straightforward. Similarly, insertion of these peptides

  5. Establishment of Myotis myotis Cell Lines - Model for Investigation of Host-Pathogen Interaction in a Natural Host for Emerging Viruses

    PubMed Central

    He, Xiaocui; Korytář, Tomáš; Zhu, Yaqing; Pikula, Jiří; Bandouchova, Hana; Zukal, Jan; Köllner, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    Bats are found to be the natural reservoirs for many emerging viruses. In most cases, severe clinical signs caused by such virus infections are normally not seen in bats. This indicates differences in the virus-host interactions and underlines the necessity to develop natural host related models to study these phenomena. Due to the strict protection of European bat species, immortalized cell lines are the only alternative to investigate the innate anti-virus immune mechanisms. Here, we report about the establishment and functional characterization of Myotis myotis derived cell lines from different tissues: brain (MmBr), tonsil (MmTo), peritoneal cavity (MmPca), nasal epithelium (MmNep) and nervus olfactorius (MmNol) after immortalization by SV 40 large T antigen. The usefulness of these cell lines to study antiviral responses has been confirmed by analysis of their susceptibility to lyssavirus infection and the mRNA patterns of immune-relevant genes after poly I:C stimulation. Performed experiments indicated varying susceptibility to lyssavirus infection with MmBr being considerably less susceptible than the other cell lines. Further investigation demonstrated a strong activation of interferon mediated antiviral response in MmBr contributing to its resistance. The pattern recognition receptors: RIG-I and MDA5 were highly up-regulated during rabies virus infection in MmBr, suggesting their involvement in promotion of antiviral responses. The presence of CD14 and CD68 in MmBr suggested MmBr cells are microglia-like cells which play a key role in host defense against infections in the central nervous system (CNS). Thus the expression pattern of MmBr combined with the observed limitation of lyssavirus replication underpin a protective mechanism of the CNS controlling the lyssavirus infection. Overall, the established cell lines are important tools to analyze antiviral innate immunity in M. myotis against neurotropic virus infections and present a valuable tool for a

  6. Pseudo-chaotic oscillations in CRISPR-virus coevolution predicted by bifurcation analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The CRISPR-Cas systems of adaptive antivirus immunity are present in most archaea and many bacteria, and provide resistance to specific viruses or plasmids by inserting fragments of foreign DNA into the host genome and then utilizing transcripts of these spacers to inactivate the cognate foreign genome. The recent development of powerful genome engineering tools on the basis of CRISPR-Cas has sharply increased the interest in the diversity and evolution of these systems. Comparative genomic data indicate that during evolution of prokaryotes CRISPR-Cas loci are lost and acquired via horizontal gene transfer at high rates. Mathematical modeling and initial experimental studies of CRISPR-carrying microbes and viruses reveal complex coevolutionary dynamics. Results We performed a bifurcation analysis of models of coevolution of viruses and microbial host that possess CRISPR-Cas hereditary adaptive immunity systems. The analyzed Malthusian and logistic models display complex, and in particular, quasi-chaotic oscillation regimes that have not been previously observed experimentally or in agent-based models of the CRISPR-mediated immunity. The key factors for the appearance of the quasi-chaotic oscillations are the non-linear dependence of the host immunity on the virus load and the partitioning of the hosts into the immune and susceptible populations, so that the system consists of three components. Conclusions Bifurcation analysis of CRISPR-host coevolution model predicts complex regimes including quasi-chaotic oscillations. The quasi-chaotic regimes of virus-host coevolution are likely to be biologically relevant given the evolutionary instability of the CRISPR-Cas loci revealed by comparative genomics. The results of this analysis might have implications beyond the CRISPR-Cas systems, i.e. could describe the behavior of any adaptive immunity system with a heritable component, be it genetic or epigenetic. These predictions are experimentally testable

  7. [Characterization of M2 gene of H3N2 subtype swine influenza virus].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaodu; Chen, Peijun; Shen, Yang; Qiu, Yafeng; Deng, Xufang; Shi, Zixue; Peng, Lina; Luo, Jinyan; Liu, Chao; Ma, Zhiyong

    2010-01-01

    M2 protein of influenza A virus is encoded by a spliced mRNA derived from RNA segment 7 and plays an important role in influenza virus replication. It is also a target molecule of anti-virus drugs. We extracted the viral genome RNAs from MDCK cells infected with swine influenza A virus (SIV) H3N2 subtype and amplified the SIV M2 gene by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction using the isloated viral genome RNAs as template. The amplified cDNA was cloned into a prokaryotic expression vector pET-28a(+) (designated pET-28a(+)-M2) and a eukaryotic expression vector p3xFLAG-CMV-7.1 (designated p3xFLAG-CMV-7.1-M2), respectively. The resulted constructs were confirmed by restriction enzyme digestion and DNA sequencing analysis. We then transformed the plasmid pET-28a(+)-M2 into Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) strain and expressed it by adding 1 mmol/L of IPTG (isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside). The recombinant M2 protein was purified from the induced bacterial cells using Ni(2+) affinity chromatography. Wistar rats were immunized with the purified M2 protein for producing polyclonal antibodies specific for it. Western blotting analysis and immunofluorescence analysis showed that the produced antibodies were capable of reacting with M2 protein expressed in p3xFLAG-CMV-7.1-M2-transfected cells as well as that synthesized in SIV-infected cells. We also transfected plasmid p3xFLAG-CMV-7.1-M2 into Vero cells and analyzed its subcellular localization by immunofluorescence. The M2 protein expressed in the Vero cells was 20 kDa in size and dominantly localized in the cytoplasm, showing a similar distribution to that in SIV-infected cells. Western blotting analysis of SIV-infected cells suggested that M2 was a late phase protein, which was detectable 12 h post-infection, later than NS1, NP and M1 proteins. It would be a potential molecular indicator of late phases replication of virus. Our results would be useful for studying the biological function of M2 protein in SIV

  8. Binding and transepithelial transport of immunoglobulins by intestinal M cells: demonstration using monoclonal IgA antibodies against enteric viral proteins

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    M cells of intestinal epithelia overlying lymphoid follicles endocytose luminal macromolecules and microorganisms and deliver them to underlying lymphoid tissue. The effect of luminal secretory IgA antibodies on adherence and transepithelial transport of antigens and microorganisms by M cells is unknown. We have studied the interaction of monoclonal IgA antibodies directed against specific enteric viruses, or the hapten trinitrophenyl (TNP), with M cells. To produce monospecific IgA antibodies against mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) and reovirus type 1, Peyer's patch cells from mucosally immunized mice were fused with myeloma cells, generating hybridomas that secreted virus-specific IgA antibodies in monomeric and polymeric forms. One of two anti-MMTV IgA antibodies specifically bound the viral surface glycoprotein gp52, and 3 of 10 antireovirus IgA antibodies immunoprecipitated sigma 3 and mu lc surface proteins. 35S-labeled IgA antibodies injected intravenously into rats were recovered in bile as higher molecular weight species, suggesting that secretory component had been added on passage through the liver. Radiolabeled or colloidal gold-conjugated mouse IgA was injected into mouse, rat, and rabbit intestinal loops containing Peyer's patches. Light microscopic autoradiography and EM showed that all IgA antibodies (antivirus or anti-TNP) bound to M cell luminal membranes and were transported in vesicles across M cells. IgA-gold binding was inhibited by excess unlabeled IgA, indicating that binding was specific. IgG-gold also adhered to M cells and excess unlabeled IgG inhibited IgA-gold binding; thus binding was not isotype-specific. Immune complexes consisting of monoclonal anti-TNP IgA and TNP-ferritin adhered selectively to M cell membranes, while TNP-ferritin alone did not. These results suggest that selective adherence of luminal antibody to M cells may facilitate delivery of virus-antibody complexes to mucosal lymphoid tissue, enhancing subsequent

  9. K-bZIP Mediated SUMO-2/3 Specific Modification on the KSHV Genome Negatively Regulates Lytic Gene Expression and Viral Reactivation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wan-Shan; Hsu, Hung-Wei; Campbell, Mel; Cheng, Chia-Yang; Chang, Pei-Ching

    2015-07-01

    of viral chromatin may function to counteract KSHV reactivation. As induction of herpesvirus reactivation may activate cellular antiviral regimes, our results suggest that development of viral SUMO E3 ligase specific inhibitors may be an avenue for anti-virus therapy.

  10. [Lacosamide as an alternative in the treatment of post-surgery neuropathic pain in an allergic patient].

    PubMed

    Monge-Márquez, María Estefanía; Márquez-Rivas, Javier; Mayorga-Buiza, María José; Rivero-Garvía, Mónica

    2013-10-01

    Introduccion. El dolor neuropatico es una entidad que no se conoce bien. Afecta a un porcentaje significativo de la poblacion. Su principal problema radica en que puede llegar a ser una patologia bastante invalidante. El tratamiento principal se basa fundamentalmente en dos farmacos: gabapentina y pregabalina. Otros farmacos, como los antidepresivos, los opioides o los antagonistas de receptores de N-metil D-aspartato tambien pueden utilizarse en combinacion con los farmacos principales. A pesar de esto, el tratamiento es poco satisfactorio. Ademas, debe considerarse que pueden existir pacientes que presenten alergia a los dos farmacos principales. Caso clinico. Mujer de 36 años, afecta de dolor neuropatico secundario a una cirugia de neurinoma del plexo braquial, cuyo tratamiento con gabapentina o pregabalina no era posible por tener antecedentes personales de alergia. Sin embargo, el tratamiento con otro farmaco (lacosamida) resulto muy efectivo, al presentar muy buena respuesta. Conclusion. La lacosamida es un farmaco antiepileptico de tercera generacion, eficaz, seguro y con pocos efectos secundarios. Se ha considerado una buena opcion terapeutica para el tratamiento del dolor neuropatico en pacientes alergicos a la pregabalina.

  11. [Barriers and Facilitators in the Recruitment and Retention of Heterosexual Couples for Preventive Interventions.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Hernández, Alberto L; Perez-Jimenez, David

    2010-01-01

    El Reclutamiento y la Retención (R&R) de participantes es fundamental para el éxito de estudios y para el desarrollo de intervenciones preventivas. El R&R de participantes determina la validez y efectividad de estos programas. En este trabajo examinamos algunos de los factores que facilitan y dificultan el R&R en los proyectos preventivos y ofrecemos algunas alternativas para mejorar los índices de R&R. Realizamos dos estudios, en el primero administramos el Instrumento de Informatión, Motivatión y Conductas-Español (IIMC-E) a un grupo de 26 parejas heterosexuales (52 participantes). En el segundo, entrevistamos a 5 parejas VIH discordantes (10 participantes). Encontramos que el 75% de los/las participantes indicó que su trabajo era una de las principales barreras que dificultan la asistencia a las actividades. Otras barreras son las responsabilidades laborales y familiares. Encontramos que la principal barrera fue el miedo a la revelación del estado serlógico. Los principales facilitadores del R&R son la coordinación adecuada y el seguimiento telefónico ofrecido por parte del personal del proyecto. Concluimos que en el desarrollo e implantación de programas de prevención el investigador/a debe tomar en cuenta la adaptación de aspectos logísticos como la disponibilidad y las necesidades particulares de los/las participantes.

  12. Comprehensive quality evaluation of Chishao by HPLC.

    PubMed

    Zaiyou, Jian; Wenquan, Wang; Guifang, Xu; Li, Meng; Junling, Hou

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo: El propósito de este artículo es la evaluación cualitativa extensa de Chishao. Métodos: En el experimento de este trabajo, se establecen los espectros de identificación de Chishao en todas las localizaciones mediante RP-HPLC y el método del análisis de componentes principales con las áreas pico de RPHPLC. Resultados: La calidad de Chishao en el norte de China o del procedente de Paeonia lactiflora es mejor que la de otras localizaciones o procedente de P. obovata, P. mairei y P. anomala. Los resultados son congruentes con la impresión tradicional de la calidad de esta planta. Estos resultados indican que el análisis de los componentes principales (ACP) puede utilizarse como método eficaz y económico para evaluar la calidad de Chishao y podría aplicarse a otras plantas medicinales chinas. Conclusiones: Dada la complicada base de la eficacia de la Medicina tradicional china (MTC), un método como el ACP para diversos componentes químicos parece ser más adecuado para la evaluación de la calidad de la MTC en comparación con la determinación de un único o unos pocos agentes químicos.

  13. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Fort Casamartina, Eduard; Arribas Hortiguela, Lorena; Bleda Pérez, Carmen; Muñoz Sánchez, Carme; Peiro Martínez, Imma; Perayre Badía, María; Clopés Estela, Ana

    2016-06-03

    Durante la última década, el conocimiento de nuevos mecanismos implicados en el desarrollo del cáncer ha permitido el diseño de nuevos fármacos para su tratamiento y la mayor parte de ellos son fármacos que se administran por vía oral. Uno de los principales problemas de los pacientes oncohematológicos es la desnutrición, que suele tener causas multifactoriales (de la propia enfermedad, de los pacientes y de los diferentes tratamientos administrados). Para minimizar el impacto de la desnutrición es necesaria una intervención nutricional, ya sea adaptando la dieta o mediante la instauración de soporte nutricional artificial, en función de la gravedad de cada caso. En cualquier paciente que esté recibiendo un tratamiento oncológico hay que evaluar las posibles interacciones que pueden existir con el soporte nutricional instaurado, ya sea dieta oral, suplementación oral o nutrición enteral. Estas interacciones pueden disminuir la eficacia, aumentar la toxicidad de los tratamientos o producir déficits nutricionales. Se detallan las principales interacciones que se pueden producir, las interacciones entre los tratamientos oncológicos y el soporte nutricional.

  14. [Lung eosinophilic syndrome: clinical presentation and cases report].

    PubMed

    Egea, N; Merlo, A; Esponda, L; Cazaux, A; Cambursano, V H; Cortés, J R

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: El síndrome de eosinofilia pulmonar se caracteriza por un grupo de patologías que presentan afección clínico – radiológica pulmonar con eosinofilia periférica o en parénquima pulmonar en su evolución. Materiales y métodos: Se describen las características de presentaciones clínico-radiológicas y evolutivas de pacientes atendidos entre 2007 y 2010 en Hospital Rawson. Resultados: Sobre 8 casos, se observó mayor número de casos en mujeres. Los signos y síntomas principales fueron tos, disnea, fiebre y sibilancias. Los hallazgos radiológicos más prevalentes fueron patrón alveolar y alveolointersticial. En la TAC el más frecuente fue el patrón en vidrio esmerilado. La eosinofilia periférica presentó valores entre 550 y 10.000 cel/mm3. Los pacientes fueron abdordados inicialmente como neumonía adquirida en la comunidad en el 62% de los casos. Los diagnósticos principales realizados fueron neumonía eosinofílica aguda y crónica, ambas con respuesta a esteroides. Conclusiones: El síndrome de eosinofilias pulmonares comparte características clínico-radiológicas comunes con entidades de mayor prevalencia, particularmente NAC.

  15. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Fort Casamartina, Eduard; Arribas Hortiguela, Lorena; Bleda Pérez, Carmen; Muñoz Sánchez, Carme; Peiro Martínez, Imma; Perayre Badía, María; Clopés Estela, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Durante la última década, el conocimiento de nuevos mecanismos implicados en el desarrollo del cáncer ha permitido el diseño de nuevos fármacos para su tratamiento y la mayor parte de ellos son fármacos que se administran por vía oral. Uno de los principales problemas de los pacientes oncohematológicos es la desnutrición, que suele tener causas multifactoriales (de la propia enfermedad, de los pacientes y de los diferentes tratamientos administrados). Para minimizar el impacto de la desnutrición es necesaria una intervención nutricional, ya sea adaptando la dieta o mediante la instauración de soporte nutricional artificial, en función de la gravedad de cada caso. En cualquier paciente que esté recibiendo un tratamiento oncológico hay que evaluar las posibles interacciones que pueden existir con el soporte nutricional instaurado, ya sea dieta oral, suplementación oral o nutrición enteral. Estas interacciones pueden disminuir la eficacia, aumentar la toxicidad de los tratamientos o producir déficits nutricionales. Se detallan las principales interacciones que se pueden producir, las interacciones entre los tratamientos oncológicos y el soporte nutricional. PMID:27269219

  16. Modos de produccion cientifica: Culturas y metodologias de investigacion en la Universidad de Cadiz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez Ramos, Ana M.

    2004-12-01

    Este trabajo de investigacion supone un modelo teorico de caracter aplicado, que proporciona la oportunidad de evaluar la produccion cientifica de los investigadores. Se encuadra dentro de la tradiccion de la estadistica aplicada y la sociologia del conocimiento. Atiende especialmente a dos conjuntos de temas de interes, por una parte, las caracteristicas principales que determinan el nivel y tipo de produccion academica producida por las unidades de investigacion y por los propios investigadores; por otra, la utilizacion que se hace de los metodos y tecnicas de investigacion puesto que de ello tambien depende el modo de produccion cientifica. Los puntos novedosos de esta tesis son: la medicion cuantitativa del objeto de estudio, la suma de los productos y las condiciones externas a la produccion del conocimiento mas otros elementos internos como las caracteristicas de los investigadores y la metodologia utilizada para desarrollar sus trabajos; y, finalmente, el uso de las nuevas tecnologias. El aprovechamiento de los recursos estadisticos y las fuentes de informacion secundarias se complementan con el diseno propio de una encuesta donde se implementa las caracteristicas descritas en un capitulo anterior sobre los metodos cientificos mas idoneos descritos en los principales manuales y articulos cientificos desde distintas disciplinas de conocimiento. Dicha encuesta ha sido desarrollada como un programa propio y en base a los mas innovadores usos de la tecnologia en la metodologia de encuestas.

  17. [Validation of a method of dispensing nutritional supplements in a tertiary hospital].

    PubMed

    Oliva García, José Gregorio; Pereyra-García Castro, Francisca; Benítez Brito, Néstor; Herrera Rodríguez, Eva María; Suárez Llanos, José Pablo; García Bray, Bruno Francisco; Palacio Abizanda, José Enrique

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: Los suplementos nutricionales constituyen un pilar fundamental del tratamiento de la desnutrición hospitalaria, aunque su coste es elevado. Son precisos métodos que permitan una prescripción racional de los mismos. Objetivos: Analizar la validez de los criterios de dispensación de suplementos nutricionales (SN) utilizados en nuestro centro (empleando como referencia el sistema CONUT). Material y métodos: Se revisaron retrospectivamente los formularios de solicitud de SN remitidos por los distintos servicios durante 15 meses (abril/2010-junio/2011). Se analizaron las siguientes variables: servicio solicitante, patología, IMC, pérdida de peso reciente, disminución de la ingesta mayor del 50%, proteínas totales, albúmina, linfocitos, colesterol total y valoración del grado de desnutrición según sistema CONUT. Se comparó la validez de nuestros criterios de dispensación de SN con el sistema CONUT (empleando el coeficiente Kappa). Resultados: Se recibieron 524 solicitudes (34,9/mes). Patologías: infecciosa (31,1%), tumoral (26,1%), postquirúrgica (19%), otras (23,8%). Había pérdida de peso reciente en el 88,9% de los pacientes, y una disminución de la ingesta superior al 50% en el 83,4%. IMC: 24,8 ± 7,5 kg/m2. Parámetros analíticos: albúmina 2,6 ± 0,7 g/dl, proteínas totales 5,7 ± 2,4 g/dl, colesterol total 152 ± 172 mg/dl, linfocitos 1.561 ± 1.842/mm3. Valoración del grado de desnutrición según sistema CONUT: normal (12%), desnutrición leve (23,1%), moderada (41,6%), grave (23,3%). Cumplimiento de los requisitos de nuestro centro hospitalario para la dispensación de SN: ninguno (6,3%), uno (33,6%), dos (43,1%), los tres (17%). Se comparó el número de dichos requisitos con el grado de desnutrición (sistema CONUT), obteniéndose un índice de concordancia débil (Kappa = 0,207; p < 0,001). 156 pacientes (29,8% de las solicitudes) recibieron SN, a pesar de presentar grado de nutrición normal o desnutrición leve de

  18. Dinámica global en galaxias elípticas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, M. J.; Cincotta, P. M.; Giordano, C. M.

    Con el propósito de determinar propiedades dinámicas globales en sistemas triaxiales no integrables, utilizamos una nueva herramienta conocida como ``Mean Exponential Growth factor of Nearby Orbits'' (MEGNO), introducida por Cincotta y Simó (2000). Esta técnica no sólo resulta eficiente para investigar ambas componentes del espacio fase, regular y caótica, sino que también, provee una medida de la hiperbolicidad en el dominio caótico que coincide con la dada por el Lyapunov Characteristic Number (LCN). Previamente este método ha sido aplicado al estudio de modelos simples, y últimamente en el campo de la Mecánica Celeste, al estudio de sistemas planetarios extrasolares. En esta presentación, ilustraremos algunas de las propiedades más importantes del MEGNO, aplic& acute;andolo al potencial tridimensional de Stäckel perturbado.

  19. Sobre las soluciones acotadas del problema instantáneo de dos cuerpos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altavista, C.

    La demostración se basa en el hecho de que las integrales del problema de los N-cuerpos admiten componentes en el campo complejo según las raíces n-ésimas de la unidad. Definida la matriz unitaria correspondiente, la fórmula de Cayley permite transformar la matriz unitaria en una matriz hermitiana. Utilizando como parámetros los cosenos direccionales de un sistema de coordenadas orbitales referidos a un sistema de referencia fijo, puede construirse, utilizando el operador hermitiano antes definido, una forma cuadrática cuyas raíces mínima y máxima definen las cotas respectivas de los movimientos de los mencionados cosenos direccionales.

  20. Estructura espacial de las órbitas caóticas en un modelo autoconsistente de galaxia elíptica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muzzio, J. C.

    Hemos logrado construir modelos autoconsistentes de sistemas estelares utilizando una aproximación cuadrupolar para el potencial. Esto nos permite determinar órbitas y exponentes de Lyapunov de objetos que tienen posiciones y velocidades equivalentes a las que se obtienen de la funcón de distribución del sistema. La distribución espacial de las órbitas caóticas exhibe considerable estructura y, lo que es más importante aún, los valores de los exponentes de Lyapunov calculados sobre intervalos finitos de tiempo, muestran una fuerte correlación con el comportamiento de la órbita en esos mismos intervalos, por lo que permiten reconocer distintos subsistemas con diferentes distribuciones espaciales.

  1. Estabilidad de los modelos de Heggie y Ramamani

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muzzio, J. C.; Vergne, M. M.; Wachlin, F. C.; Carpintero, D. D.

    Los modelos de Heggie y Ramamani de satélites galácticos en órbitas circulares se basan en una teoría aproximada, por lo que es importante verificar su estabilidad mediante simulaciones numéricas. En esta forma, hemos logrado mostrar que son estables sobre intervalos de tiempo mucho mayores que los que lograron los propios autores de los modelos. Por otra parte, dado que hemos mostrado que el caos es significativo en estos modelos, son un sistema ideal para investigar si, pese a ello, se mantienen estacionarios. Nuestras simulaciones numéricas muestran que, pese al caos, la estacionariedad se mantiene sobre intervalos de centenares de tiempos de cruce del sistema, mucho mayores que los tiempos de Liapunov característicos de sus movimientos caóticos.

  2. Mecânica celeste.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Luca, N.; Ferraz-Mello, S.

    Contents: Os princípios da mec@OSC@@CCF@anica celeste. O problema de 2-corpos. O sistema de equações canônicas. A teoria das perturbações. O movimento de um satélite artifical. A teoria lunar e o movimento de outros satélites naturais. A teoria planetária. Procedimentos numéricos.

  3. Distribución en gran escala de los cúmulos globulares en Fornax

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrov, P. G.

    Para analizar los cúmulos globulares azules y rojos de NGC 1399 asociados con NGC 1399 en particular, o si los cúmulos azules representaban un sistema asociado con el cúmulo de Fornax en general, se obtuvieron imágenes CCD de gran formato con el telescopio de 4m del CTIO, en las bandas C y T1. Se describe el método empleado y lo encontrado.

  4. La distribución multimodal de cúmulos globulares en la galaxia NGC 1399

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forte, J. C.; Ostrov, P. G.

    Se presenta una discusión de las características del diagrama de dos colores para un muestreo de 400 cúmulos globulares asociados con NGC 1399. Los resultados indican la presencia de, por lo menos, tres familias de cúmulos. La naturaleza de una cuarta componente, muy azul, no es clara aunque podría tratarse de cúmulos ``sueltos" asociados con el sistema de Fornax.

  5. How Do Management Fees Affect Retirement Wealth under Mexico's Personal Retirement Accounts System?

    PubMed Central

    Aguila, Emma; Hurd, Michael D.; Rohwedder, Susann

    2014-01-01

    In 1997, Mexico transformed its pay-as-you-go social security system to a fully funded system with personal retirement accounts, including management fees. This article examines changes in retirement wealth resulting from this new system. It shows that management fees have drained a significant proportion of individuals' retirement wealth and have increased the number of persons claiming a government-subsidized minimum pension, particularly from the time the system was introduced in 1997 until adjustment to management fees in 2008. Since 2008, retirement wealth accumulation has been similar to that of the previous system. En 1997, México transformó su sistema de pensiones basado en cotizaciones individuales a uno de ahorro para el retiro que incluyen cuotas por la administración de las cuentas. El presente estudio examina los cambios en el monto de las pensiones como resultado de la introducción del nuevo sistema. Los resultados muestran que las cuotas de administración han drenado una proporción significativa del ahorro para el retiro de los individuos por lo que ha aumentado el número de personas que solicita la pensión mínima garantizada subsidiada por el gobierno desde que se introdujo el sistema en 1997 hasta que se hicieron ajustes en las cuotas de administración de los fondos de pensiones en 2008. A partir de 2008, la acumulación del ahorro para el retiro ha sido similar que la del sistema anterior. PMID:25601893

  6. Entropía de la información: una herramienta útil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cincotta, P.

    En este trabajo se presenta una muy breve introducción al concepto de Entropía de la Información y se muestran distintas aplicaciones de una misma técnica para estudiar problemas tan variados como la determinación de periodicidad en una serie de tiempo arbitraria o de estimar el grado de caoticidad de una trayectoria en un sistema dinámico de N grados de libertad.

  7. [Atrophy in the mucosa neighboring an intestinal-type gastric adenocarcinoma by comparing the Sydney vs. OLGA systems].

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Mendoza, Pablo; Hernández-Briseño, Liliana; Casarrubias-Ramírez, Moisés; Alvarado-Cabrero, Isabel; Ángeles-Garay, Ulises

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: el carcinoma gástrico ocasiona al año unas 700 000 muertes en el mundo. El objetivo de este artículo es evaluar la atrofia en la mucosa vecina al adenocarcinoma gástrico tipo intestinal comparando los sistemas Sídney y OLGA. Diferencias en el rendimiento diagnóstico impulsarían el empleo de alguno. Métodos: estudiamos 28 sujetos con adenocarcinoma gástrico tipo intestinal (Lauren), que comparamos con 32 casos sin neoplasia, ambos grupos con gastrectomía total. Dos patólogos evaluaron la atrofia en el epitelio de cuerpo y antro no neoplásico con los sistemas Sídney y OLGA. Se obtuvieron la media, mediana y distribución de frecuencias por escala de medición, así como la distribución de las variables del estudio. Se calculó la sensibilidad, especificidad y los valores predictivos para cáncer gástrico gracias a dicotomizar las escalas con resultado positivo y negativo para atrofia avanzada. Resultados: veinticuatro de 28 casos con adenocarcinoma gástrico tipo intestinal mostraron atrofia avanzada con OLGA con una sensibilidad y especificidad de 77 y 85 % respectivamente. Con el sistema Sídney, 4 de 28 mostraron atrofia avanzada con una sensibilidad y especificidad de 14 y 100 % respectivamente. Conclusiones: el sistema OLGA tiene elevada sensibilidad y especificidad (77 y 85 % respectivamente) para reconocer cambios preneoplásicos en la mucosa vecina al cáncer gástrico. Empero, OLGA no mostró atrofia avanzada en adenomas foveolares con displasia de alto grado, ni en adenocarcinomas en las porciones proximales del estómago.

  8. [Capacity analysis of health food choice by reference to consumers in two models of nutritional labeling; crossover study].

    PubMed

    Babio, Nancy; López, Leonor; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: El objetivo del presente estudio fue comparar dos modelos de etiquetado nutricional en la parte frontal del envase alimentario, en referencia a la capacidad de los consumidores de realizar elecciones alimentarias más cercanas a las recomendaciones nutricionales. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio aleatorizado cruzado en 32 adultos (18 a 65 años) de ambos sexos. Los participantes fueron aleatorizados a realizar dos condiciones experimentales utilizando el sistema semáforo nutricional (SSN) o el sistema monocromo (S-M), en las que debían escoger sus elecciones de alimentos dentro de un menú cerrado según la información del etiquetado nutricional. Para cada alimento, el participante tenía tres opciones con diferente composición nutricional. Se calculó el promedio de energía, grasa total y saturada, azúcar y sal a partir de las opciones elegidas por cada participante. Resultados: No se observaron diferencias significativas con respecto a sexo, edad, IMC ni nivel socioeconómico en función del orden de inicio de la condición experimental. Los sujetos tendieron a escoger una dieta con un menor, pero no significativo contenido en energía de 23,0 ± 67,5 kcal (P = 0,063) y un significativo menor contenido en azúcares de 3,5 ± 9,2 g; P < 0.001 y de 0,6 ± 1 g; P < 0,003 en sal. Conclusiones: En comparación con el sistema monocromo, el sistema del semáforo nutricional puede ayudar probablemente a realizar elecciones alimentarias con menor cantidad en azúcares y sal en una situación similar a la habitual de compra en la que existe una limitación de tiempo.

  9. [Validation of an adverse event reporting system in primary care].

    PubMed

    de Lourdes Rojas-Armadillo, María; Jiménez-Báez, María Valeria; Chávez-Hernández, María Margarita; González-Fondón, Araceli

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: la seguridad del paciente es un tema prioritario en los sistemas de salud por el gasto que genera, el desgaste institucional, la falta de credibilidad y la frustración del personal que comete los eventos adversos. No existe un instrumento estandarizado y sistemático para registrar, reportar y analizar los eventos adversos en unidades de atención primaria. El objetivo fue validar un sistema de vigilancia para el registro de eventos centinelas, adversos y cuasi fallas en atención primaria. Métodos: se revisaron sistemas de registro y notificación de eventos adversos en atención primaria. Asimismo, se diseñó una propuesta de instrumento para el registro en unidades de atención primaria en el Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social que integrara fallas en la estructura y en el proceso. Resultados: se le presentó el caso del formato VENCER-MF a 35 sujetos. El 100 % identificó una falla en el proceso de atención médica, 90 % registró un evento centinela, 85 % identificó el origen de este y el 75 % sugirió medidas para evitar la recurrencia de eventos adversos. Se obtuvo un alfa de Cronbach de 0.6, con una p = 0.03. Conclusión: el instrumento VENCER-MF tiene una consistencia buena para la identificación de eventos adversos.

  10. THE CALPHAD METHOD AND ITS ROLE IN MATERIAL AND PROCESS DEVELOPMENT.

    PubMed

    Kattner, Ursula R

    2016-01-01

    Projeto bem sucedido de materiais e processos de fabricação exige a disponibilidade de dados fiáveis materiais. Ligas comerciais geralmente contêm um grande número de elementos, e os dados necessários para a concepção de novos materiais e processos raramente estão disponíveis. O CALPHAD (cálculo da fase Diagramas) método permite o desenvolvimento de bases de dados termodinâmicos e de propriedade, que em conjunto com métodos de extrapolação das descrições de sistemas binários e ternários aos sistemas de ordem superior, permitir o cálculo de dados para sistemas de ordem superior. Os resultados obtidos a partir de cálculos CALPHAD foram mostrados para ser valiosa para a concepção de novos materiais. Esta revisão apresenta uma visão geral do método CALPHAD, ferramentas de software e bancos de dados e dá exemplos de sua aplicação.

  11. El nuevo panorama de la Dinámica Galáctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pivovaroff, Michael James

    En general, la tendencia imperante en Dinámica Galáctica ha sido considerar que los movimientos estelares son básicamente regulares y que el caos no tiene mayor relevancia en los sistemas estelares. Sin embargo, en el último lustro se vienen acumulando pruebas de la importancia del movimiento caótico en ciertos sistemas estelares que existen en la naturaleza. Por una parte, sobre todo el grupo de David Merritt, lo ha mostrado en los casos de galaxias elípticas con concentraciones centrales de materia; por otra parte, en nuestro propio grupo, lo hemos mostrado para el caso de los satélites galácticos. Las consecuencias de estos hallazgos son tanto de tipo técnico, por la necesidad de construir modelos que contengan órbitas caóticas, como astrofísico, por los efectos del caos sobre la estacionariedad y evolución de los sistemas estelares en los que se presenta.

  12. [Food-related lifestyles and eating habits inside and outside the home in the Metropolitan Region of Santiago, Chile].

    PubMed

    Schnettler, Berta; Peña, Juan Pablo; Mora, Marcos; Miranda, Horacio; Sepúlveda, José; Denegri, Marianela; Lobos, Germán

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo: Distinguir tipologías de consumidores en base a su estilo de vida en relación a la alimentación en las principales comunas de la Región Metropolitana de Santiago, Chile, y caracterizarlas según sus hábitos de consumo de alimentos dentro y fuera del hogar, características sociodemográficas y su nivel de satisfacción con su alimentación. Material y método: Se aplicó un cuestionario estructurado a una muestra de 951 personas en las principales comunas de la Región Metropolitana de Santiago (más de 100.000 habitantes). El instrumento de recogida de información incluyó una adaptación del cuestionario de estilos de vida en relación a la alimentación (FRL) y la escala SWFL (Satisfaction with Food-related Life). Se consultaron los hábitos de consumo de alimentos dentro y fuera del hogar y variables de clasificación sociodemográfica de los encuestados. Resultados: Mediante análisis cluster se distinguieron cinco tipologías con diferencias significativas en los cinco componentes obtenidos del FRL, con análisis factorial de componentes principales. Las tipologías presentaron distinto perfil de género, edad y nivel socioeconómico y difirieron en los puntajes obtenidos en la SWFL. Se diferenciaron en la frecuencia en que la persona almuerza, toma once y cena en su hogar. Respecto a las comidas fuera del hogar, las tipologías se distinguieron según la frecuencia de comidas en restaurantes, locales de comida rápida y en la compra de comida preparada. Conclusiones: Un estilo de vida en relación a la alimentación con baja implicación y disfrute de los alimentos se asocia con un mayor nivel socioeconómico y menor edad de las personas. Adicionalmente, se asocia con comportamientos alimentarios poco saludables y no beneficiosos para las personas, como una mayor frecuencia de comidas en restaurantes y de compra de comida preparada, junto a una menor frecuencia de comidas en el hogar, lo que estaría influyendo en un nivel inferior de

  13. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Perales-García, Aránzazu; Estévez-Martínez, Isabel; Urrialde, Rafael

    2016-07-12

    Introducción: la hidratación se define como el aporte de agua proveniente de alimentos y bebidas. Su estudio constituye desde hace unos años un área en sí misma dentro de la nutrición, que ha supuesto que en 2010 la European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) aprobara las recomendaciones de ingesta de agua; pero el estudio del estado de hidratación implica un elevado nivel metodológico que presenta ciertos desafíos. Objetivo: ofrecer una visión general de los principales problemas metodológicos en estudios sobre el estado de hidratación. Material y métodos: revisión de la bibliografía científica existente. Resultados: los principales problemas metodológicos presentes son: selección de la muestra (ámbito de investigación y diseño muestral), selección del método de evaluación del estado de hidratación (técnicas de dilución, impedancia bioeléctrica, indicadores plasmáticos y urinarios, cambios en la composición corporal, pérdidas de agua y síntomas clínicos), selección del método de valoración de la ingesta de agua (biomarcadores, cuestionarios, programas informáticos, uso de smartphones, registro 24 h, historia dietética y frecuencia de consumo de alimentos), así como sus principales fuentes dietéticas. Conclusiones: el estado de hidratación debe ser entendido como un modelo rutinario, de frecuencia diaria y variable en función de la edad, sexo, actividad física y condiciones ambientales; por todo ello es de especial importancia un correcto diseño metodológico capaz de recoger estos matices.

  14. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Perales-García, Aránzazu; Estévez-Martínez, Isabel; Urrialde, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: la hidratación se define como el aporte de agua proveniente de alimentos y bebidas. Su estudio constituye desde hace unos años un área en sí misma dentro de la nutrición, que ha supuesto que en 2010 la European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) aprobara las recomendaciones de ingesta de agua; pero el estudio del estado de hidratación implica un elevado nivel metodológico que presenta ciertos desafíos. Objetivo: ofrecer una visión general de los principales problemas metodológicos en estudios sobre el estado de hidratación. Material y métodos: revisión de la bibliografía científica existente. Resultados: los principales problemas metodológicos presentes son: selección de la muestra (ámbito de investigación y diseño muestral), selección del método de evaluación del estado de hidratación (técnicas de dilución, impedancia bioeléctrica, indicadores plasmáticos y urinarios, cambios en la composición corporal, pérdidas de agua y síntomas clínicos), selección del método de valoración de la ingesta de agua (biomarcadores, cuestionarios, programas informáticos, uso de smartphones, registro 24 h, historia dietética y frecuencia de consumo de alimentos), así como sus principales fuentes dietéticas. Conclusiones: el estado de hidratación debe ser entendido como un modelo rutinario, de frecuencia diaria y variable en función de la edad, sexo, actividad física y condiciones ambientales; por todo ello es de especial importancia un correcto diseño metodológico capaz de recoger estos matices. PMID:27571857

  15. [Analysis of the implementation of safety practices in the automated medication dispensing cabinets].

    PubMed

    Otero López, M J; Bermejo Vicedo, T; Moreno Gómez, A M; Aparicio Fernández, M A; Palomo Cobos, L

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo: Conocer el grado de implantación de las prácticas seguras recomendadas para el diseño y utilización de los sistemas automatizados de dispensación (SAD) de medicamentos en los hospitales españoles. Método: Estudio descriptivo que se basó en la cumplimentación voluntaria del “Cuestionario de autoevaluación de la seguridad de los sistemas automatizados de dispensación de medicamentos”, entre el 10-10-2012 y el 10-4-2013. El cuestionario contiene 93 puntos de evaluación agrupados en 14 procedimientos esenciales. Resultados: En los 36 hospitales participantes la puntuación media del cuestionario fue de 307,8 puntos (66,2% del valor máximo posible [LC 95%: 63,2-69,2]). Los valores porcentuales más bajos se obtuvieron de menor a mayor en los procedimientos esenciales 9, 12, 13, 8, 3, 4 y 11, referentes al establecimiento de directrices para las retiradas excepcionales de medicamentos (28,4%), formación a los profesionales (52%), gestión de riesgos (53%), definición de los procedimientos de retirada (55,3%), uso de SAD conectados a prescripción electrónica (60,9%), información que aparece en pantalla (61,8%) y eliminación de la devolución de medicamentos a los SAD (63,9%), respectivamente. Los hospitales que utilizaban SAD con conexión a prescripción electrónica como sistema principal de distribución presentaron un mayor grado de implantación de prácticas seguras que los que usaban SAD como sistema complementario. Conclusiones: La instalación de los SAD se ha acompañado de la implantación de varias prácticas seguras, pero existen numerosas áreas de riesgo en las que es necesario establecer prácticas de tipo técnico, organizativo y de monitorización del sistema para minimizar los errores con esta tecnología.

  16. [A comparison of two systems for hydration of children with diabetic ketoacidosis. a randomized controlled trial].

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Juan Pablo; Penazzi, Matias; Taborda, Macarena; Funes, Santiago; Villareal, Mauricio

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: El tratamiento de la cetoacidosis diabética (CAD) requiere controles horarios de glucemia que definen modificaciones en la administración de insulina y glucosa endovenosa. En cada cambio se prepara una nueva solución endovenosa, generando retrasos y, eventualmente, errores. El sistema de dos soluciones hidroelectrolíticas (idéntica composición electrolítica, una con glucosa y otra sin) en paralelo unidas en una vía común al paciente, permite cambios inmediatos en el flujo de glucosa, con la sola modificación de los goteos. Objetivo: Comparar el tiempo requerido para la estabilización de pacientes con CAD, utilizando dos sistemas de hidratación: tradicional (1 solución hidroelectrolítica) vs. alternativo (2 soluciones hidroelectrolíticas –“two bags”-). Métodos: Ensayo clínico controlado y aleatorizado que incluyó niños de 1 a 18 años, hospitalizados por CAD (glucemia >200 mg/dl, pH <7,3, bicarbonato <15 mmol/L, glucosuria y cetonuria). Luego de la hidratación inicial, los pacientes fueron aleatorizados a uno de 2 sistemas de hidratación (tradicional o alternativo), manteniéndolo hasta la estabilización del paciente (glucemia ≤250 mg/dl, pH ≥7,3, bicarbonato ≥15 mmol/L); el tiempo requerido en alcanzar la estabilización fue la variable de resultado. Resultados: Al incorporar 12 de los 32 sujetos previstos (6 en cada grupo¬) el Comité de Monitoreo de Seguridad efectuó análisis interino preestablecido, encontrando que el tiempo en alcanzar la estabilización fue significativamente menor con el sistema alternativo (9,8±1,16 horas vs. 13,3±2,8 horas; p=0,018). Debido a la magnitud del hallazgo, se consultó al Comité de Ética, decidiendo suspender el estudio. Conclusión: El sistema alternativo (“two-bags”) permitió alcanzar la estabilización del paciente con CAD en un tiempo significativamente menor.

  17. Relaciones entre el sueño y la adicción

    PubMed Central

    Cañellas, Francesca; de Lecea, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Resumen La interacción entre los trastornos del sueño y el abuso de sustancias es ya conocida, pero seguramente más compleja de lo que se pensaba. Existe tanto una relación positiva entre tener un trastorno por uso de substancias y sufrir un trastorno de sueño, como viceversa. Los efectos sobre el sueño dependen de la substancia utilizada, pero se ha demostrado que tanto durante su uso como en período de abstinencia los consumidores tienen diferentes problemas de sueño y fundamentalmente un sueño más fragmentado. Sabemos que hay que tener en cuenta los problemas de sueño para evitar recaídas en la adicción. Investigaciones recientes indican que el sistema hipocretinérgico definido por el neuropéptido hipocretina/orexina (Hcrt/ox), localizado en el hipotálamo lateral e implicado entre otros en la regulación del ciclo sueño-vigilia, jugaría un papel importante en las conductas adictivas. Diferentes estudios han demostrado interacciones entre el sistema hipocretinérgico, los circuitos de respuesta aguda al estrés y los sistemas de recompensa. También sabemos que la activación optogenética selectiva del sistema hipocretinérgico incrementa la probabilidad de la transición del sueño a la vigilia, y también es suficiente para iniciar un comportamiento compulsivo de recaída adictiva. La activación del sistema hipocretinérgico podría explicar la hipervigilia asociada al estrés y a la adicción. El mayor conocimiento de esta interacción permitiría entender mejor los mecanismos de la adicción y encontrar nuevas estrategias para el tratamiento de las adicciones. PMID:23241715

  18. Imagens do céu ontem e hoje - um multimídia interativo de astronomia e uma nova exposição no MAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caretta, C. A.; Lima, F. P.; Requeijo, F.; Vieira, G. G.; Alves, F.; Valente, M. E. A.; de Almeida, R.; de Garcia, G. C.; Quixadá, A. C.

    2003-08-01

    "Imagens do Céu Ontem e Hoje" é o título de uma nova exposição que está sendo inaugurada no Museu de Astronomia e Ciências Afins (MCT), que inclui experimentos interativos, maquetes, réplicas e 8 terminais de computador com um multimídia interativo sobre Astronomia para consulta dos visitantes. O multimídia apresenta um conteúdo bastante extenso, que engloba quase todos os temas em Astronomia, consistindo numa fonte de divulgação e pesquisa para um público que vai das crianças até estudantes universitários. O conteúdo está distribuído em mais de 500 páginas de texto divididas em 4 módulos: "O Universo", "Espectroscopia", "Telescópios" e "Observando o Céu". Cada módulo é subdividido em 5 seções, em média, cada uma iniciada por uma animação que ilustra os temas a serem abordados na seção. Ao final da animação, uma lista de temas é apresentada sob o título "Saiba Mais". Para exemplificar, o módulo "O Universo" contém as seguintes seções: "O Universo visto pelo homem", "Conhecendo o Sistema Solar", "Indo além do Sistema Solar", "Nossa Galáxia, a Via-Láctea" e "Indo mais além, a imensidão do Universo". A seção "Conhecendo o Sistema Solar", por sua vez, tem os seguintes temas: "A origem do Sistema Solar", "O Sol", "Os planetas", "Satélites, asteróides, cometas e outros bichos..." e "O Sistema Solar em números". Cada texto é repleto de imagens, quadros, desenhos, esquemas, etc, além de passatempos ao final de cada seção, incluindo jogos interativos, quadrinhos e curiosidades, que auxiliam o aprendizado de forma divertida. Apresentamos neste trabalho as idéias gerais que permearam a produção da exposição, e uma viagem pelo multimídia para exemplificar sua estrutura e conteúdo. O multimídia será posteriormente disponibilizado para o público externo pela página eletrônica do MAst e/ou por intermédio de uma publicação comercial.

  19. L'effet Casimir : théorie et expériences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambrecht, A.; Genet, C.; Intravaia, F.; Reynaud, S.

    2004-11-01

    L'existence de fluctuations irréductibles de champ dans le vide est une prédiction importante de la théorie quantique. Ces fluctuations ont de nombreuses conséquences observables comme l'effet Casimir, qui est maintenant mesuré avec une bonne précision et un bon accord avec la théorie, pourvu que celle-ci tienne compte des différences entre les expériences rélles et la situation idéale considérée par H.G.B. Casimir. Nous présenterons quelqu'unes des expériences récentes et discuterons les principales corrections à la force de Casimir liées à la situation expérimentale.

  20. [One autism, several autisms. Phenotypical variability in autism spectrum disorders].

    PubMed

    Hervas, A

    2016-01-01

    Introduccion. Los trastornos del espectro autista comprenden un grupo heterogeneo de trastornos que se inician en los primeros meses de la vida y que siguen una evolucion cronica. Su origen es biologico, con factores etiologicos complejos que implican diferentes mecanismos geneticos, epigeneticos y ambientales, que interactuan. Objetivo. Revisar los principales factores que varian la presentacion del autismo considerando la evidencia cientifica actual. Desarrollo. Aspectos relacionados con el desarrollo de sintomas, el sexo, la comorbilidad, la edad y la etiologia determinan la variabilidad en la presentacion clinica de los trastornos del espectro autista. Conclusiones. El autismo es altamente heterogeneo y se relaciona fenotipicamente, en parte, con una gran heterogeneidad etiologica, que comienza a descifrarse, pero que todavia permanece desconocida en gran parte. La investigacion etiologica, especialmente en el area de la genetica, permitira identificar diferentes subgrupos homogeneos con sus correspondientes fenotipos y abrir la posibilidad de alternativas terapeuticas futuras.

  1. L'Aventure du LHC

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Cette présentation s’adressera principalement aux personnes qui ont construit le LHC. La construction du LHC fut longue et difficile. De nombreux problèmes sont apparus en cours de route. Tous ont été résolus grâce au dévouement et à l’engagement du personnel et des collaborateurs. Je reviendrai sur les coups durs et les réussites qui ont marqués ces 15 dernières années et je vous montrerai combien cette machine, le fruit de vos efforts, est extraordinaire.

  2. Los grandes telescopios ópticos e infrarrojos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Espinosa, J. M.

    Recientemente se han puesto en funcionamiento telescopios de 8 y 10 metros de diámetro de su espejo primario que están significando un gran avance en las capacidades observacionales de la Astronomía moderna. Igualmente en nuestro país se está construyendo el Gran Telescopio de Canarias (GTC) que situará a la Astronomía española en la vanguardia de esta disciplina. En mi charla hablaré de las oportunidades observacionales que suponen estos grandes telescopios para la Astronomía moderna. Hablaré del GTC y del esfuerzo español por ser actores principales del desarrollo de la Astronomía moderna. Por último, mostraré brevemente los proyectos futuros de grandes telescopios que se están proponiendo a ambos lados del Atlántico.

  3. Estudio de la galaxia peculiar NGC 1487

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agüero, E. L.; Paolantonio, S.; Gunthardt, G.

    La galaxia peculiar NGC 1487, cuya morfología sugiere un evento de ``merging" o interacción próxima, es estudiada en base a material observacional espectroscópico y fotométrico obtenido en el CASLEO. Mediante técnicas espectrofotométricas standards se determinan las principales características espectrales, los mecanismos de excitación actuantes, las condiciones físicas y las velocidades radiales de las estructuras conspicuas de la galaxia. Por otra parte, usando imágenes directas en las bandas B, V, R e I, se obtienen distribuciones detalladas de los colores B-V, V-R y R-I y detalles de su morfología.

  4. [Nosocomial infections. Trends over a 12 year-period in a pediatric hospital].

    PubMed

    Zamudio-Lugo, Irma; Espinosa-Vital, Guadalupe Judith; Rodríguez-Sing, Roberta; Gómez-González, Claudia Josefina; Miranda-Novales, María Guadalupe

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: las infecciones nosocomiales constituyen uno de los principales problemas de salud en los hospitales, por ello, los programas de prevención y control deben ser evaluados con el impacto en las tasas de incidencia. El objetivo de esta investigación fue identificar la tendencia de las infecciones nosocomiales durante un periodo de 12 años en un hospital pediátrico de tercer nivel. MÉTODOS: se llevó a cabo un estudio de cohorte retrospectivo en el que se incluyeron todos los pacientes hospitalizados que presentaron infecciones nosocomiales. El análisis estadístico de los datos incluyó frecuencias simples, proporciones y densidad de incidencia por año, sitio de infección y letalidad.

  5. Les noyaux actifs de galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camenzind, Max; Boucher, A.

    Découverts il y a plus de 30 ans, les quasars et les radiogalaxies sont des galaxies particulières qui manifestent en leur centre une activité intense. Cet ouvrage se consacre aux principales questions de la physique des noyaux actifs en les illustrant par de récentes données. Y sont traités les domaines suivants: les noyaux des galaxies actives, la théorie des trous noirs en rotation et de leurs disques d'accrétion, l'origine des raies d'émission et les jets des galaxies actives. Fournissant une introduction génerale à la terminologie, cet ouvrage s'adresse aussi bien aux étudiants en astronomie qu'aux astrophysiciens.

  6. La matiere noire dans l'Univers.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamon, G.

    Parmi les mille questions que l'on peut se poser sur l'Univers, les plus fondamentales concernent son contenu : De quoi est faite la matière de l'Univers ? Est-ce que la matière de l'Univers est principalement constituée d'étoiles, ou bien de gaz interstellaire, de poussières interstellaires, de planètes, petits astéroïdes, ou de trous noirs ? Ou doit-on admettre que l'Univers est composé d'une autre forme de matière que l'on ne connaît pas, qui serait basée sur des particules élémentaires plus exotiques que les protons, neutrons et électrons qui constituent la matière ordinaire, dite baryonique?

  7. Catálogo de mapas de HI en Galaxias y análisis de los datos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín, M. C.

    Se presenta un catálogo de observaciones de HI en extenso en galaxias, publicadas en las principales revistas hasta 1993. Algunos de los mapas catalogados fueron analizados según simples modelos de distribución gausiana, con el objeto de conseguir un valor aproximado de la extensión real del gas. Así se ha encontrado que dicha extensión se relaciona con el tamaño óptico de la galaxia, y se ha obtenido una expresión numérica que permite estimar ``a priori" la dimensión de la componente gaseosa dentro de una galaxia, conociendo la emisión global del gas obtenida en una observación simple, y su dimensión óptica.

  8. Systeme Optique de Transformations de Coordonnees et Son Utilisation EN Reconnaissance de Formes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asselin, Daniel

    La foramtion optique des transformations de coordonnees (TC) polaire et log-polaire a un grand potentiel en reconnaissance invariante sous rotation et changement d'echelle en temps reel. Cependant, jusqu'ici, la faible qualite des transformations obtenues et le probleme d'enroulement ont empeche toute utilisation pratique. A l'aide d'hologrammes a facettes generes par ordinateur, nous etudierons donc la generation optique de TC de qualite en utilisant des facettes de tailles variables tandis que, en juxtaposant deux TC, nous reduirons de facon appreciable l'effet d'enroulement. Suite a ces ameliorations, nos experiences demontreront la possibilite d'une reconnaissance invariante en rotation et en echelle d'objets simples, seule l'etape de la classification etant supportee numeriquement. Nous etudierons egalement les effets, sur l'onde reconstruite, de la resolution limitee du modulateur supportant l'hologramme, les principales conclusions ayant ete experimentalement confirmees.

  9. Fenómenos solares que afectan la atmósfera terrestre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovira, M.

    Se describen los principales fenómenos solares como fulguraciones, prominencias eruptivas, viento solar y eyecciones de masa coronal (CME) que tienen consecuencias en la atmósfera terrestre. En algunos casos el material es eyectado a velocidades superiores a los 900 km/seg y tarda menos de 48 horas en llegar a la Tierra. En general, estos CME no son peligrosos ya que el campo magnético terrestre actúa como protector siendo un aislante efectivo. Si el viento solar es muy intenso puede comprimir la magnetósfera y producir una tormenta geomagnética. En casos extremos, puede interferir la transmisión de potencia eléctrica, perturbar los satélites y producir auroras polares.

  10. Que peut-on voir avec des neutrons? Une introduction pour des non spécialistes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweizer, J.

    2005-11-01

    Le neutron est une particule élémentaire qui a été découverte en 1932 par James Chadwick. Ses caractéristiques principales sont résumées dans le tableau I. Il a été utilisé pour la première fois par Clifford Shull en 1946 comme outil pour des expériences de diffusion. Cette technique s'est depuis constamment développée pour concerner tous les aspects de la matière condensée: physique, chimie, matériaux, biologie. Il s'agit d'un outil tout à fait exceptionnel car le neutron possède des propriétés uniques et particulièrement adaptées pour ces études.

  11. Une cause rare du choc septique chez le diabétique: la cystite emphysémateuse compliquée d'une rupture vésicale

    PubMed Central

    Shimi, Abdelkarim; Boumedian, Abderrahman; Elbakouri, Nabil; Derkaoui, Ali; Khatouf, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    La cystite emphysémateuse est une affection rare rencontrée principalement chez les patients diabétiques mal équilibrés. Elle se caractérise par la présence de l'air dans la paroi et/ou la lumière vesicale. La tomodensitométrie abdomino-pelvienne reste l'examen clé pour confirmer le diagnostic. Nous rapportons l'observation d'une patiente diabétique ayant présentée une cystite emphysémateuse favorisée par un diabète déséquilibré et compliquée d'une rupture vésicale intrapéritonéale avec évolution défavorable. PMID:26301019

  12. [Update on post-stroke depression: posing new challenges in patients with a minor stroke or transient ischaemic attack].

    PubMed

    Carnes-Vendrell, A; Deus-Yela, J; Molina-Seguin, J; Pifarre-Paredero, J; Purroy, F

    2016-05-16

    Introduccion. El ictus es una de las principales causas de discapacidad en la poblacion adulta. El desarrollo de sintomas depresivos es la complicacion afectiva mas frecuente. Hasta ahora, en la mayoria de los estudios sobre depresion postictus se ha excluido a los pacientes que han sufrido un ictus minor o un ataque isquemico transitorio (AIT), si bien es un subgrupo igualmente vulnerable a esta enfermedad. Objetivo. Revisar los estudios publicados de depresion postictus para dilucidar los aspectos que ya se han demostrado ampliamente y los que necesitan mayor evidencia. Desarrollo. La depresion postictus es frecuente tanto en los pacientes con ictus establecido como en los pacientes con ictus minor o AIT. Aunque existen discrepancias en la definicion utilizada, aproximadamente uno de cada tres pacientes desarrollara esta complicacion. Se han identificado factores de riesgo de depresion postictus con un amplio respaldo cientifico (sexo femenino, antecedentes de depresion u otros trastornos psiquiatricos, gravedad del ictus y afectacion funcional) y otros sin el (calidad de vida, deterioro cognitivo y biomarcadores de neuroimagen). Las principales limitaciones metodologicas halladas son la confusion entre depresion postictus y sintomatologia depresiva, la variabilidad en las escalas de evaluacion usadas y la variabilidad en el momento temporal de la evaluacion del estado de animo. Hasta ahora son muy pocos los estudios en el ictus minor o el AIT. Conclusiones. Se necesitan nuevos estudios con mejor diseño que ayuden a establecer el riesgo de depresion postictus a diferentes tiempos tras el ictus, el ictus minor o el AIT, y establecer la importancia de los factores descritos previamente.

  13. Barreras y Facilitadores en el Reclutamiento y la Retención de Parejas Heterosexuales en Intervenciones Preventivas en VIH/SIDA

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Hernández, Alberto L.; Perez-Jimenez, David

    2012-01-01

    Compendio El Reclutamiento y la Retención (R&R) de participantes es fundamental para el éxito de estudios y para el desarrollo de intervenciones preventivas. El R&R de participantes determina la validez y efectividad de estos programas. En este trabajo examinamos algunos de los factores que facilitan y dificultan el R&R en los proyectos preventivos y ofrecemos algunas alternativas para mejorar los índices de R&R. Realizamos dos estudios, en el primero administramos el Instrumento de Informatión, Motivatión y Conductas-Español (IIMC-E) a un grupo de 26 parejas heterosexuales (52 participantes). En el segundo, entrevistamos a 5 parejas VIH discordantes (10 participantes). Encontramos que el 75% de los/las participantes indicó que su trabajo era una de las principales barreras que dificultan la asistencia a las actividades. Otras barreras son las responsabilidades laborales y familiares. Encontramos que la principal barrera fue el miedo a la revelación del estado serlógico. Los principales facilitadores del R&R son la coordinación adecuada y el seguimiento telefónico ofrecido por parte del personal del proyecto. Concluimos que en el desarrollo e implantación de programas de prevención el investigador/a debe tomar en cuenta la adaptación de aspectos logísticos como la disponibilidad y las necesidades particulares de los/las participantes. PMID:23264700

  14. Efficient Aho-Corasick String Matching on Emerging Multicore Architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Tumeo, Antonino; Villa, Oreste; Secchi, Simone; Chavarría-Miranda, Daniel

    2013-12-12

    String matching algorithms are critical to several scientific fields. Beside text processing and databases, emerging applications such as DNA protein sequence analysis, data mining, information security software, antivirus, ma- chine learning, all exploit string matching algorithms [3]. All these applica- tions usually process large quantity of textual data, require high performance and/or predictable execution times. Among all the string matching algorithms, one of the most studied, especially for text processing and security applica- tions, is the Aho-Corasick algorithm. 1 2 Book title goes here Aho-Corasick is an exact, multi-pattern string matching algorithm which performs the search in a time linearly proportional to the length of the input text independently from pattern set size. However, depending on the imple- mentation, when the number of patterns increase, the memory occupation may raise drastically. In turn, this can lead to significant variability in the performance, due to the memory access times and the caching effects. This is a significant concern for many mission critical applications and modern high performance architectures. For example, security applications such as Network Intrusion Detection Systems (NIDS), must be able to scan network traffic against very large dictionaries in real time. Modern Ethernet links reach up to 10 Gbps, and malicious threats are already well over 1 million, and expo- nentially growing [28]. When performing the search, a NIDS should not slow down the network, or let network packets pass unchecked. Nevertheless, on the current state-of-the-art cache based processors, there may be a large per- formance variability when dealing with big dictionaries and inputs that have different frequencies of matching patterns. In particular, when few patterns are matched and they are all in the cache, the procedure is fast. Instead, when they are not in the cache, often because many patterns are matched and the caches are

  15. Identification and utility of innate immune system evasion mechanisms of ASFV.

    PubMed

    Correia, Sílvia; Ventura, Sónia; Parkhouse, Robert Michael

    2013-04-01

    The interferon (IFN) system is an early innate anti-virus host defense mechanism that takes place shortly after entry of the pathogen and long before the onset of adaptive immunity. Thus, African swine fever virus (ASFV), as an acute and persistent virus in pigs, is predicted to have evolved multiple genes for the manipulation and evasion of interferon. Although, ASFV is known to interfere with signaling pathways controlling the transcription of cytokines, surprisingly no individual virus gene manipulating the induction or impact of IFN has been described. Since an initial bioinformatics search of the ASFV genome failed to identify potential antagonists of the IFN response, our strategy was to functionally screen early expressed, "unassigned" ASFV genes without existing homologies, particularly from MGFs 360 and 530, in luciferase reporter assays for their inhibition of the induction and impact of IFN. Specifically, we used reporter plasmids containing the luciferase gene under the control of: (1) the IFN-β promoter, to screen for inhibition of induction of type I IFN stimulated by the addition of Poly(I:C); (2) the ISRE DNA elements, to screen for the inhibition of the impact of type I IFN; and (3) the GAS DNA elements to screen for the inhibition of the impact of type II IFN. Our initial experiments revealed six ASFV genes inhibiting one or more of the three luciferase assays. From these, we have selected a total of 3 genes for presentation. The ASFV A276R gene from MGF360 inhibited the induction of IFN-β via both the TLR3 and the cytosolic pathways, targeting IRF3, but not IRF7 or NF-κB. The ASFV A528R inhibited the induction of both NF-κB and IRF3 branches of the type I IFN induction signaling pathway and the impact of IFN response via both IFN type I and type II stimulation. The ASFV I329L gene is a functional viral TLR3 homologue inhibiting the induction of IFN at the level of TRIF. Thus, these genes reduce the IFN response by targeting different

  16. Dietary supplementation of probiotic Bacillus PC465 isolated from the gut of Fenneropenaeus chinensis improves the health status and resistance of Litopenaeus vannamei against white spot syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Chai, Peng-Cheng; Song, Xiao-Ling; Chen, Guo-Fu; Xu, Hua; Huang, Jie

    2016-07-01

    This study conducted a 30-day feeding trial and a subsequent 20-day anti-virus infection trial to determine the effects of probiotic Bacillus PC465 on the growth, health status, and disease resistance of Litopenaeus vannamei. Shrimp samples were fed with three practical diets prepared from shrimp feed containing varying probiotic doses [0 (control), 10(7), and 10(9) CFU g(-1)]. Probiotic supplementation significantly increased the weight gain and survival of L. vannamei (p < 0.05). The effect of 10(9) CFU g(-1) on the growth rate was higher than that of 10(7) CFU g(-1). Compared with those in the control group, the activities of digestive enzymes, such as amylase, protease, and lipase, in the shrimp mid-gut significantly increased in the probiotic-fed groups on days 15 and 30, except lipase on day 30. The influence of 10(9) CFU g(-1) on enzyme activities was also greater than that of 10(7) CFU g(-1). Scanning electron microscopy revealed folds and large ravines across the interior surface of the mid-gut, and the number of these folds and ravines increased significantly after the probiotic was administered. The probiotic treatment significantly (p < 0.05) enhanced the transcription of penaeidin 3a (Pen-3a), peroxinectin, C-type lectin 3 (Lec-3), and thioredoxin (Trx) in the hemocytes of L. vannamei. Likewise, probiotic treatment increased the transcription of hemocyanin in the hepatopancreas of L. vannamei. The probiotic treatment also significantly increased the transcription of prophenoloxidase (proPO) but decreased the transcription of crustin in hemocytes. By contrast, the same treatment failed to increase the transcription of Ras-related protein (Rab-6) in hemocytes. The number of species and biomass of Bacillus in the mid-gut were higher in the probiotic-fed group than in the control group. The total biomass of microbes was higher in the shrimp fed with 10(7) CFU g(-1) than in the shrimp fed with 10(9) CFU g(-1) and the control group on

  17. Dietary supplementation of probiotic Bacillus PC465 isolated from the gut of Fenneropenaeus chinensis improves the health status and resistance of Litopenaeus vannamei against white spot syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Chai, Peng-Cheng; Song, Xiao-Ling; Chen, Guo-Fu; Xu, Hua; Huang, Jie

    2016-07-01

    This study conducted a 30-day feeding trial and a subsequent 20-day anti-virus infection trial to determine the effects of probiotic Bacillus PC465 on the growth, health status, and disease resistance of Litopenaeus vannamei. Shrimp samples were fed with three practical diets prepared from shrimp feed containing varying probiotic doses [0 (control), 10(7), and 10(9) CFU g(-1)]. Probiotic supplementation significantly increased the weight gain and survival of L. vannamei (p < 0.05). The effect of 10(9) CFU g(-1) on the growth rate was higher than that of 10(7) CFU g(-1). Compared with those in the control group, the activities of digestive enzymes, such as amylase, protease, and lipase, in the shrimp mid-gut significantly increased in the probiotic-fed groups on days 15 and 30, except lipase on day 30. The influence of 10(9) CFU g(-1) on enzyme activities was also greater than that of 10(7) CFU g(-1). Scanning electron microscopy revealed folds and large ravines across the interior surface of the mid-gut, and the number of these folds and ravines increased significantly after the probiotic was administered. The probiotic treatment significantly (p < 0.05) enhanced the transcription of penaeidin 3a (Pen-3a), peroxinectin, C-type lectin 3 (Lec-3), and thioredoxin (Trx) in the hemocytes of L. vannamei. Likewise, probiotic treatment increased the transcription of hemocyanin in the hepatopancreas of L. vannamei. The probiotic treatment also significantly increased the transcription of prophenoloxidase (proPO) but decreased the transcription of crustin in hemocytes. By contrast, the same treatment failed to increase the transcription of Ras-related protein (Rab-6) in hemocytes. The number of species and biomass of Bacillus in the mid-gut were higher in the probiotic-fed group than in the control group. The total biomass of microbes was higher in the shrimp fed with 10(7) CFU g(-1) than in the shrimp fed with 10(9) CFU g(-1) and the control group on

  18. Comportamiento dinámico de asteroides en la región 23 < a < 26 UA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López García, F.

    Los Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs) pueden ser una fuente de origen de los cometas de corto período. Muchos de los KBOs observados parecen provenir, al igual que el sistema Pluton-Charonte, de órbitas resonantes con Neptuno. Los Centauros son objetos que dinámicamente provienen de órbitas inestables cuyo semieje mayor se encuentra entre las órbitas de Júpiter y Neptuno. Pudiera ser que estos cuerpos fueron expulsados desde la región del cinturón de Kuiper y se encuentran en un proceso de ``scattering" debido a los efectos gravitacionales de los planetas gigantes. Su tiempo de vida dinámico es de algunos millones de años. La evolución orbital de los objetos trans-Neptunianos nos permite conocer su comportamiento anterior, por eso, es importante su relación dinámica con la evolución orbital de Neptuno. El objeto de este trabajo es estudiar el comportamiento dinámico de partículas test que se encuentran entre las resonancias 3:2 con Neptuno y 2:3 con Urano, las cuales comprenden una región de 2 UA aproximadamente. Los primeros resultados indican que la mayoría de los objetos ficticios son eyectados hacia la parte externa del Sistema Solar, mientras que sólo una parte pequeña del total de objetos estudiados, aproximadamente un 7%, son eyectados hacia la parte interna del Sistema Solar, y en algunos casos sus órbitas pueden cruzar la órbita de los planetas terrestres.

  19. Teorí­as de primer y segundo orden sobre el potencial de ciertas figuras de equilibrio de cuerpos celestes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gumbau, Manuel Forner

    2010-11-01

    Uno de los problemas que aborda la Mecánica Celeste es la determinación de las figuras de equilibrio de los cuerpos celestes. Para investigar su solución mediante métodos directos, se precisa evaluar el potencial generado por su autogravitación, el generado por su fuerza centrí­fuga y el generado por la fuerza de atracción entre los cuerpos. Los métodos clásicos de Finlay y Kopal que afrontan estos problemas, para determinar el potencial autogravitatorio en las configuraciones de equilibrio, emplean desarrollos en serie de los potenciales interior y exterior del potencial autogravitatorio. Estos métodos incurren en el error de suponer la convergencia en capas donde resulta cuestionable dicha convergencia para estos desarrollos en serie. En este trabajo se han elaborado unos algoritmos que contemplan toda la casuí&stica y que permiten una manipulación efic iente del producto de polinomios de Legendre, del producto de funciones asociada s de Legendre y del producto de armónicos esféricos como combinacióon lineal de ellos mismos, respectivamente. Se han obtenido, para primer y segundo orden en las amplitudes, los desarrollos correctos para los potencial es interior y exterior del potencial autogravitatorio para configuraciones de equilibrio aisladas, y , en primer orden de amplitudes, los mismos potenciales para los sistemas binarios próximos. Se ha elaborado un método analítico, en primer orden respecto de las amplitudes, para la determinación del potencial de marea en sistemas binarios próximos en el cual se manifiesta la forma de la componente secundaria del sistema

  20. Hospital medication errors in a pharmacovigilance system in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Machado Alba, Jorge Enrique; Moreno Gutiérrez, Paula Andrea; Moncada Escobar, Juan Carlos

    2015-11-01

    Objetivos: analizar los errores de medicacion reportados en un sistema de farmacovigilancia en 26 hospitales para pacientes del sistema de salud de Colombia. Métodos: estudio retrospectivo que evaluo las bases de datos sistematizadas de reportes de errores de medicacion entre el 1 de enero de 2008 y el 12 de septiembre de 2013 de los medicamentos dispensados por la empresa Audifarma S.A a hospitales de Colombia. Se utilizo la clasificacion taxonomica del National Coordinating Council for Medication Error Reporting and Prevention (NCC MERP). El analisis de los datos se realizo mediante SPSS 22.0 para Windows Se determino como nivel de significacion estadistica una p < 0,05. Resultados: se reportaron 9.062 EM en 45 servicios farmaceuticos hospitalarios. El 51,9% (n = 4.707) de los errores realmente se produjeron, de los cuales el 12,0% (n = 567) afectaron al paciente (categorias C a I) y causaron dano (categorias E a I) a 17 (0,36%). El proceso implicado en los EM ocurridos (categorias B a I) con mayor frecuencia fue la prescripcion (n = 1.758, 37,3%), seguido por la dispensacion (n = 1.737, 36,9%), la transcripcion (n = 970, 20,6%) y, por ultimo, la administracion (n = 242, 5,1%). Los errores relacionados con los procesos de administracion aumentaban 45,2 veces el riesgo de que el medicamento erroneo afectara al paciente (IC 95% 20,2-100,9). Conclusiones: es necesario aumentar la cobertura de los sistemas de reporte de errores de medicacion, y crear estrategias para su prevencion, especialmente en la etapa de administracion del medicamento.

  1. Sobre el estado evolutivo de β Pictoris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunini, A.; Benvenuto, O. G.

    Desde el descubrimiento de fuertes excesos infrarrojos en β Pictoris, esta estrella ha sido muy estudiada y es considerada candidata a poseer un sistema planetario propio. β Pic está rodeada de un disco asimétrico de polvo que se observa de canto y que esta vacío a distancias <= 40 AU. Esto se considera una fuerte evidencia en favor de la presencia de (al menos) un planeta gigante. Recientemente se han observado líneas de material circunestelar que se han interpretado como consecuencia de la caída de objetos cometarios sobre esta estrella. Recientemente se ha utilizado la existencia del disco de polvo para atribuir una edad corta (pre - secuencia principal) a βPic. Sin embargo, la evaporación de estos cometas provee suficiente polvo como para explicar la presencia del disco observado sin necesidad de edades cortas. En este trabajo mostramos que la comparación entre la tasa de impactos cometarios estimada en el Sistema Solar para diferentes etapas de su evolución y los datos observados en β Pic indica edades avanzadas para β Pic. Esta estimación debe tomarse con cautela ya que depende de la estructura de los sistemas planetarios. Además mostramos que, desde el punto de vista de la evolución estelar y con las incertezas presentes en la luminosidad y la temperatura efectiva, existe un continuo de edades posible para β Pic. Sin embargo, empleando los datos provenientes de los flujos cometarios encontramos que una edad prolongada es consistente con ambos tratamientos.

  2. Análisis del futuro marco de referencia internacional

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cionco, G. R.; Arias, E. F.

    La técnica de interferometría de muy larga línea de base (VLBI) se aplica hoy a la astrometría para el cálculo de posiciones precisas de radiofuentes extragalácticas. Por tratarse de objetos lejanos, sus movimientos propios aparentes pueden considerarse nulos; esta propiedad hace que los catálogos de radiofuentes extragalácticas VLBI constituyan la mejor materialización de un sistema de referencia celeste inercial definido cinemáticamente. La Unión Astronómica Internacional (IAU) recomendó la adopción de un nuevo sistema de referencia celeste internacional materializado por las coordenadas ecuatoriales de objetos extragalácticos observados con le técnica VLBI. Para superar la precisión astrométrica actual es necesaria una mejora en la modelización de aquellos fenómenos que pueden introducir desviaciones sistemáticas en el marco de referencia celeste. El objetivo de este trabajo es poner de manifiesto las sistematicidades presentes en los distintos marcos de referencia elaborados con el próposito de materializar el nuevo sistema de referencia celeste de la IAU. Para la comparación de los distintos marcos de referencia se propone un modelo de tres rotaciones diferenciales más un término lineal que procura absorber los efectos sistemáticos presentes en las coordenadas. Se analiza igualmente la estabilidad de la solución cuando se utilizan distintos conjuntos de objetos de definición.

  3. [Social determinants and risk of acute viral hepatitis].

    PubMed

    Malvasio, P; Russo, R; Zotti, C; Vigna, I; Ruggenini Moiraghi, A

    1998-01-01

    The authors examined the relationship between viral hepatitis risk and social determinants in Piedmont region population surveyed by SEIEVA (sistema epidemiologico integrato dell'epatite virale acuta). The education and the working position showed different correlation with incidence rates of different types of viral hepatitis A, B, non-A non-B. The hepatitis A risk is proportional to education and the probability of hepatitis B and non-A non-B is higher in low social classes. This situation is only apparently a balanced risk: the clinical seriousness and the strong probability of complications of hepatitis B and non-A non-B make the risks deeply unequal.

  4. [Microdeletion 12p12 involving SOX5 gene: a new syndrome with developmental delay].

    PubMed

    Arroyo-Carrera, Ignacio; de Zaldívar-Tristancho, M Solo; Martín-Fernández, Rebeca; Hernández-Martín, Raquel; López-Lafuente, Amparo; Rodríguez-Revenga, Laia

    2015-05-16

    Introduccion. El gen SOX5 codifica un factor de transcripcion implicado en la regulacion de la condrogenia y el desarrollo del sistema nervioso. Caso clinico. Niña de 10 anos con discapacidad intelectual, alteracion conductual y malformaciones menores de este nuevo sindrome con alteracion en el neurodesarrollo, con una delecion 12p12 que incluye el gen SOX5. Conclusiones. Se revisan los casos publicados tanto de deleciones intragenicas de SOX5 como de deleciones mas grandes que incluyen este gen, y se analizan las correlaciones genotipo-fenotipo y los genes implicados en esta paciente.

  5. Femtoquímica: reacciones en tiempo real, ?`Posibles aplicaciones en Astrofísica?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douhal, Abderrazzak

    En esta conferencia, se mostrarán resultados de medidas en escala del femtosegundo por la primera vez obtenidos en España. Los sistemas elegidos muestran dinámicas que varían de 50 fs a centenas de picosegundo. La técnica usada (sumación de frecuencia) permite ver como ocurren las reacciones químicas y biológicas en tiempo real de reacciones. Su aplicación al estudio de las reacciones fotónicas en el espacio es evidente.

  6. Impact of implementing an Internal Bed Regulation Committee on administrative and care indicators at a teaching hospital

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Luciane Cristine Ribeiro; Juliani, Carmen Maria Casquel Monti

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare hospital indicators before and after implementing an Internal Bed Regulation Committee at a reference hospital. Methods It is an quantitative, evaluation, exploratory, descriptive and cross-sectional research. The data was gathered from the hospital administrative reports for the period 2008-2013, provided by the Information Technology Center of the Complexo FAMEMA. Results The indicators improved after implementation of the Internal Bed Regulation Committee. Conclusion The individuals involved in the process acknowledged the improvement. It is necessary to carry on the regulatory actions, especially in a comprehensive and complex healthcare system, such as the brazilian Sistema Único de Saúde. PMID:25993075

  7. Use of closed systems in the Hospital Pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Forte Pérez-Minayo, María; Castillo Bazán, Eva; Hernández Segurado, Marta; Arias Moya, María Ángeles; Pelegrín Torres, Paloma; Bécares Martínez, Francisco Javier

    2016-03-01

    Objetivo: En el contexto del auge de los sistemas cerrados para la reconstitución y preparación de estos fármacos, se propone analizar el uso correcto de estos sistemas en el servicio de farmacia, con el objetivo de minimizar los riesgos de exposición no solo de los trabajadores expuestos, sino de todos los trabajadores del servicio, atendiendo también a criterios de eficiencia. Método: Puesto que algunos sistemas protegen frente a la formación de aerosoles pero no frente a vapores, decidimos revisar qué citostáticos debían prepararse con un punzón que constase de una válvula de admisión de aire para implementar un nuevo procedimiento de trabajo. Se revisaron las presentaciones disponibles en nuestro hospital atendiendo a: vía de administración, excipientes y riesgo para el personal manipulador, y se midieron los diámetros de los viales. Se seleccionaron tanto los fármacos de riesgo 1 como aquellos cuyos excipientes incluyesen vehículos alcohólicos, susceptibles de formar vapores. Resultados: De las 66 presentaciones revisadas, un total de 11 fármacos debían reconstituirse con este tipo de punzón: busulfán, cabazitaxel, carmustina, ciclofosfamida, eribulina, etopósido, fotemustina, melfalán, paclitaxel, temsirolimús y tiotepa; representando un 18% respecto al volumen total de presentaciones. Conclusiones: La selección de los productos sanitarios debe realizarse desde los servicios de farmacia, ya que la utilización de un sistema con válvula de admisión de aire para tan solo los fármacos seleccionados supuso un ahorro y un empleo más eficiente del material. Desde nuestra experiencia comprobamos que el uso de la aguja solo podía relegarse si el punzón se adaptaba a las diferentes presentaciones de citostáticos, y esto solo se consigue disponiendo de varios tipos de punzones. Además, las conexiones solo estaban realmente cerradas si se utilizaba un punzón por cada vial. Con el cambio en la metodología de trabajo a la hora de

  8. Fotoexcitación de Moléculas Pequeñas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González Díaz, P. F.

    El modelo estocástico no puede justificar la excitación multi-fotónica de moléculas pequeñas o muy simétricas. Basándonos en un escenario de interacción radiación-molécula cooperativo para la absorción de N-1 fotones IR por un sistema de N niveles, se especula que un posible mecanismo para la excitación no estocástica de moléculas pudiera ser la generación de procesos caóticos intra-moleculares.

  9. From 9 to 12 and Finally 8: how Many Planets are around the Sun? (Spanish Title: De 9 a 12 y Finalmente 8: ¿Cuántos Planetas Hay Alrededor del Sol?) De 9 a 12 e Finalmente 8: Quantos Planetas Existem AO Redor do Sol?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tancredi, Gonzalo

    2007-12-01

    The International Astronomical Union, the organization that groups together the professional astronomers over the world, has recently adopted a historical definition: What is a planet in the Solar System? Changing 76 years of tradition, our Solar System has now 8 planets and an increasing number of a new category of bodies named "dwarf planets", among them is the former planet Pluto. In this article we present the reasons that support the resolution and we describe the participation of the Latin-American astronomers in the process to adopt it. La Unión Astronómica Internacional, la organización que agrupa a los astrónomos profesionales del planeta, acaba de adoptar una definición histórica: ¿Qué es un planeta en nuestro Sistema Solar? Cambiando 76 años de tradición, según esta definición, nuestro Sistema Solar cuenta con 8 planetas y una creciente cantidad de "planetas enanos", entre los que quedó incluido el hasta hace poco planeta Plutón. En el presente artículo se presentarán los argumentos que fundamentan esta resolución y la participación que han tenido los astrónomos latinoamericanos en la adopción de la misma. A União Astronômica Internacional, a organização que agrupa os astrônomos profissionais do planeta, acaba de adotar uma definição histórica: O que é um planeta em nosso Sistema Solar? Mudando 76 anos de tradição, segundo esta definição, nosso Sistema Solar conta com 8 planetas e uma crescente quantidade de "planetas anões", entre os quais foi incluido o até há pouco planeta Plutão. No presente artigo serão apresentados os argumentos que fundamentam esta resolução e a participação que tiveram os astrônomos latino-americanos na adoção da mesma.

  10. SIBAS: a blood bank information system and its 5-year implementation at Macau.

    PubMed

    Li, Bing Nan; Chao, Sam; Chui Dong, Ming

    2007-05-01

    Automation systems and information technology can greatly help medical facilities to improve their working efficiency and optimize the whole workflow. This article surveys electronic information management in blood donation and transfusion service, and explores the rationale and archetype of blood bank information systems, then exemplifies a successful in-running system-Sistema Integrado de Bancos de Sangue (SIBAS), which is developed by the Institute of Systems and Computer Engineering of Macau (INESC-Macau) in cooperation with the Macau Blood Transfusion Center (CTS-Macau). Its implementation and the related lessons are briefly introduced too. In essence, this article is oriented to serve as a reference of contemporary blood bank information systems.

  11. Apoyo a Estudios Geodinamicos con GPS en Guatemala

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robles, V. R.

    2013-05-01

    El Instituto Geografico Nacional de Guatemala implemento 17 estaciones GNSS en el año 2009, como un proyecto de credito mixto de donacion de equipamiento del Gobierno de Suiza, el cual, este equipamiento de estaciones CORS GNSS es un sistema de recepción y transmisión de datos crudos GPS RInex que utiliza la tecnologia Spider Web de Leica, asi mismo este sistema esta sirviendo para el espablecimiento de un marco geodesico nacional de coordenadas geodesicas oficiales, el cual se calculan u obtienen las velocidades en tiempos temporales programados de las 17 Estaciones CORS. La infraestructura del marco geodesico de Guatemala esta sirviendo de base para las aplicaciones de estudios geodinamicos como el monitoreo de del desplazamiento de las placas tectonicas por medio de un estudio que se inicio en el año de 1999, llamado medicion con GPS el sistema de Fallas de los rios Polochic Motagua de Guatemala, tambien para un estudio que se implemento para deformación de corteza terrestre local en un Volcan Activo de Guatemala llamado Pacaya. Para el estudio de medicion con GPS en el sistema de falla de los Rios del polochic Motagua se implementaron 16 puntos para medir con GPS de dos frecuencias en el año de 1999, el cual, tres puntos son estaciones geodesicas CORS IGS llamados GUAT, ELEN y HUEH, despues en el año de 2003 se hizo otra medicion en un total de 20 puntos, que permitió calcular las velocidades de desplazamieinto de los puntos en mención, usando como referencia el modelo NUVEL 1A de DeMets de la placa de Norteamerica. Este estudio fue en cooperación internacional por la universidad de Nice de Francia y el IGNde Francia. Para el estudio del monitoreo con GPS del volcan activo de Guatemala, se implementaron cuatro puntos al rededor del volcan, el cual, se realizan cuatro mediciones al año, que permiten determinar axialmente la distancias entre los puntos, y rebisar estadisticamente cual es el comportamiento de las distancias en funcion del tiempo, si

  12. Observaciones del CH interestelar y el continuo en 3,3 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olano, C. A.; Combi, J. A.; Pöppel, W.; Benaglia, P.; Sanz, A. J.; Bava, J. A.

    Se informa sobre el proyecto que se lleva a cabo en el IAR con el propósito de observar las líneas hiperfinas del estado fundamental del CH y el continuo en la banda de 3,3 GHz. El nuevo receptor construído en nuestro laboratorio para tal fin se instaló sobre uno de los radiotelescopios, funcionando conjuntamente con los sistemas de procesamiento actuales del IAR. Los resultados de las primeras observaciones, realizadas tanto en las líneas espectrales como en el continuo sobre fuentes conocidas, fueron satisfactorios.

  13. On the Determination of Perturbations in Planetary Motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunini, A.

    1990-11-01

    ABSTRACT. The main goal of this paper is to give an alternative way when the physical reaiity is too difficult to interpret, in such form that small effects can be ignored in the force model of dynamical systems. RESUMEN. El principal objetivo de este trabajo es ofrecer una via alterna para cuando la realidad fisica es demasiado dificil de interpretar, en tal forma que los efectos pequefios puedan despreciarse en los modelos de fuerza de sistemas dinamicos. Key words: PLANETS AND SATELLITES-DYNAMICS

  14. New information on regional subsidence and soil fracturing in Mexico City Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auvinet, G.; Méndez-Sánchez, E.; Juárez-Camarena, M.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, updated information about regional subsidence in Mexico City downtown area is presented. Data obtained by R. Gayol in 1891, are compared with information obtained recently from surveys using the reference points of Sistema de Aguas de la Ciudad de México (2008) and on the elevation of a cloud of points on the ground surface determined using Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) technology. In addition, this paper provides an overview of recent data obtained from systematic studies focused on understanding soil fracturing associated with regional land subsidence and mapping of areas susceptible to cracking in Mexico City Valley.

  15. Calorimetria nucleare in collisioni tra ioni pesanti ad energie intermedie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spezzi, L.

    2002-07-01

    Nel presente lavoro di tesi ci si e' occupati di uno studio sistematico di misure di temperatura ed energia di eccitazione in sistemi nucleari formati in reazioni tra ioni pesanti ad energie intermedie. La temperatura a stata misurata tramite due diversi metodi: rapporto tra le rese di isotopi che differiscono di uno stesso numero di nucleoni ( d/t-3He/4He , 3He/4He -6Li/7Li) - temperatura isotopica -, e rapporto tra le popolazioni degli stati eccitati in frammenti instabili (5Li e 6Li) che decadono in particelle leggere in coincidenza - temperatura di emissione. Le misure in esame sono state effettuate presso i Laboratori Nazionali del Sud per i sistemi 93Nb+93Nb, 93Nb+116,124Sn, 116,120Sn+116,124Sn e 116Sn+93Nb ad energie comprese tra 17 e 40 A MeV. L'apparato di rivelazione era costituito da un odoscopio ad alta granularite (96 telescopi Si (50micron)-Si(300micron)-CsI(Tl) ) e basse soglie di rivelazione, utilizzato sia per identificare risonanze in frammenti eccitati che per misure di rese di isotopi di frammenti con 2<=Z<=6, e dal multirivelatore FIASCO che, grazie alla misura contemporanea di posizione e tempo di volo dei frammenti provenienti dal proiettile (PLF - Projectile Like Fragments) e dal bersaglio (TLF - Target Like Fragment), e' stato utilizzato per misurare direttamente l'energia di eccitazione del sistema in studio. Analisi precedenti, condotte nell'ambito di varie collaborazioni, hanno messo in evidenza la possible esistenza di una transizione di fase liquido-gas del primo ordine nella materia nucleare. In tale contesto, ci siamo occupati di una verifica della curva calorica nucleare, ovvero della correlazione esistente fra temperatura ed energia di eccitazione del sistema, indagando, nel contempo, sulla sua dipendenza dalla massa del sistema che si frammenta. Si e' effettuato, inoltre, un confronto fra i due diversi metodi di misura della temperatura (temperatura isotopica e di emissione): l'andamento plateau-like della curva calorica e' stato

  16. Gohieria fusca (Acari: Astigmata) found in the filter dusts of air conditioners in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Chaopin; Zhan, Xiaodong; Zhao, Jinhong; Wei, Guo

    2014-10-06

    Objetivo: La Gohieria fusca (Oudemans, 1902) se reproduce en la harina de trigo, arroz, maíz, piensos, salvado de trigo y los medicamentos a base de hierbas, además de en otros productos almacenados; este ácaro puede tener una reactividad cruzada de leve a moderada con alérgenos de los ácaros del polvo domésticos, una importante fuente de alérgenos de interior asociada al asma y otras afecciones alérgicas. Los sistemas de aire acondicionado son indispensables en edificios públicos y civiles, y las pantallas de estos aparatos son los lugares donde más se acumula el polvo. Se realizó este estudio con el fin de investigar si la Gohieria fusca puede reproducirse en las pantallas de los acondicionadores de aire instalados en espacios públicos o viviendas en la ciudad de Wuhu, provincia de Anhui, China. Métodos: Se recogieron 430 muestras de polvo de los filtros de los sistemas de aire acondicionado en la cafeterías de centros educativos, mercados, hoteles y edificios civiles entre junio y septiembre de 2013, y se aisló la Gohieria fusca de dichas muestras. Resultados: Los resultados indicaron que la Gohieria fusca estaba presente en 98 de las 430 muestras (22,79%), y la tasa de reproducción fue significativa en los filtros del aire acondicionado de diferentes espacios (c2=18.294, P.

  17. [Is the prefrontal cortex the center of the universe?].

    PubMed

    Garcia-Molina, A; Ensenat, A

    2015-10-16

    Introduccion. Actualmente, cuando reflexionamos sobre cual es la estructura mas relevante del encefalo humano invariablemente pensamos en las regiones anteriores de la corteza cerebral, concretamente en la corteza prefrontal. Si bien este ha sido el dogma predominante a lo largo de mas de 150 años, investigadores de reconocido prestigio han cuestionado abiertamente tal supuesto. Desarrollo. A caballo entre los siglos XIX y XX, diversos investigadores consideraron que las regiones corticales posteriores son la sede neuroanatomica de las mas altas facultades intelectuales. Entre todos ellos destaco, por la elaboracion de sus propuestas e impacto en la comunidad cientifica, el neuroanatomista aleman Paul Emil Flechsig (1847-1929). Wilder Graves Penfield (1891-1976) fue otro detractor del dogma que considera la corteza prefrontal el sustrato anatomico de los procesos mentales mas complejos y sublimes del ser humano. A mediados del siglo XX, Penfield mantuvo la hipotesis de la existencia de lo que denomino el sistema de integracion centrencefalico, responsable del nivel mas elevado de integracion del sistema nervioso central. Conclusiones. Las concepciones corticocentricas otorgan el preciado cetro de 'estructura mas importante del encefalo' a la corteza prefrontal. Sin embargo, no han faltado propuestas alternativas que, con mayor o menor exito, han intentado arrebatarselo en favor de otras estructuras encefalicas.

  18. [The role of the prefrontal cortex in the sensory problems of children with autism spectrum disorder and its involvement in social aspects].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Sanchis, Sonia

    2015-02-25

    Introduccion. En las personas con trastornos del espectro autista (TEA), las percepciones sensoriales aberrantes podrian ser tan caracteristicas y disruptivas como la presencia de anomalias en la comunicacion e interaccion social, asi como de intereses restringidos y repetitivos. La mayoria presenta trastornos de la modulacion sensorial (hiper o hiporresponsividad) en varios canales sensoriales. Ademas, muestra un deficit en la integracion de la informacion procedente de varios sistemas sensoriales (por ejemplo, auditivo y visual). Todo ello agravaria los sintomas nucleares relacionados con la comunicacion y aumentaria la aparicion de problemas conductuales. Objetivo. Revisar la evidencia experimental que aborda el papel de la corteza prefrontal en las experiencias sensoriales inusuales en los TEA y su implicacion en los aspectos sociales. Hay evidencia de hipoactivacion y disfuncion en redes neurales, que incluyen la corteza prefrontal y participan en la cognicion social, como la red por defecto y el sistema de neuronas espejo en niños con TEA. Conclusiones. Los problemas sensoriomotores a edad temprana suponen una disrupcion de la organizacion y regulacion no solo de la percepcion y la accion, sino tambien del lenguaje, el pensamiento, la emocion e incluso la memoria.

  19. [Refractory encephalitis because of seronegative celiac disease: a case report].

    PubMed

    Filippín, Federico A; Alfonso, Alejandra; López-Presas, Héctor

    2016-04-01

    Introduccion. La enfermedad celiaca es una enteropatia inducida por el gluten por mecanismos inmunes, que puede presentar afectacion sistemica y producir un amplio espectro de manifestaciones neurologicas, que van desde polineuropatia periferica, ataxia, epilepsia y migraña hasta encefalitis. El objetivo es informar de un caso de posible encefalitis refractaria por enfermedad celiaca. Caso clinico. Varon de 45 años con diagnostico histopatologico de enfermedad celiaca y anticuerpos anticeliaquia negativos que intercurre con encefalitis, manifestaciones del tronco encefalico y del sistema nervioso periferico, entre las que se incluyen deterioro cognitivo y convulsiones, diplopia y ataxia, y polirradiculopatia y polineuropatia, respectivamente; liquido cefalorraquideo inflamatorio y multiples lesiones corticosubcorticales supratentoriales y en el tronco encefalico con leve realce con contraste. Los deficits neurologicos progresan a pesar de una dieta libre de gluten y el tratamiento farmacologico inmunosupresor. Durante el curso de la enfermedad se estudian patologias con afectacion simultanea intestinal y del sistema nervioso, como sarcoidosis, lupus eritematoso sistemico, enfermedad de Sjogren, sindrome paraneoplasico, sida, enfermedad de Whipple y deficit de vitamina B12. Conclusion. La encefalitis es una manifestacion clinica infrecuente en la enfermedad celiaca, con pocos casos notificados a pesar de la alta prevalencia de la enfermedad. Los diagnosticos diferenciales son dificiles y exigen una alta sospecha diagnostica, por lo que es un reto terapeutico.

  20. A comparative molecular analysis of water-filled limestone sinkholes in north-eastern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Sahl, Jason W; Gary, Marcus O; Harris, J Kirk; Spear, John R

    2011-01-01

    Sistema Zacatón in north-eastern Mexico is host to several deep, water-filled, anoxic, karstic sinkholes (cenotes). These cenotes were explored, mapped, and geochemically and microbiologically sampled by the autonomous underwater vehicle deep phreatic thermal explorer (DEPTHX). The community structure of the filterable fraction of the water column and extensive microbial mats that coat the cenote walls was investigated by comparative analysis of small-subunit (SSU) 16S rRNA gene sequences. Full-length Sanger gene sequence analysis revealed novel microbial diversity that included three putative bacterial candidate phyla and three additional groups that showed high intra-clade distance with poorly characterized bacterial candidate phyla. Limited functional gene sequence analysis in these anoxic environments identified genes associated with methanogenesis, sulfate reduction and anaerobic ammonium oxidation. A directed, barcoded amplicon, multiplex pyrosequencing approach was employed to compare ∼100,000 bacterial SSU gene sequences from water column and wall microbial mat samples from five cenotes in Sistema Zacatón. A new, high-resolution sequence distribution profile (SDP) method identified changes in specific phylogenetic types (phylotypes) in microbial mats at varied depths; Mantel tests showed a correlation of the genetic distances between mat communities in two cenotes and the geographic location of each cenote. Community structure profiles from the water column of three neighbouring cenotes showed distinct variation; statistically significant differences in the concentration of geochemical constituents suggest that the variation observed in microbial communities between neighbouring cenotes are due to geochemical variation.

  1. [Neurological manifestations in patients with cancer: more than 17,000 reasons for consultation].

    PubMed

    Cacho-Diaz, B; Reyes-Soto, G; Monroy-Sosa, A; Lorenzana-Mendoza, N A; Olvera-Manzanilla, E; Rodriguez-Orozco, J; Xolio-Villanueva, A; Herrera-Gomez, A; Granados-Garcia, M

    2016-05-16

    Introduccion. El cancer es una de las primeras causas de muerte en nuestra poblacion. Las complicaciones neurologicas asociadas son frecuentes e incrementan significativamente la morbilidad y la mortalidad de estos pacientes. Objetivo. Describir las manifestaciones neurologicas en pacientes con cancer. Pacientes y metodos. Desde enero de 2010 hasta diciembre de 2014 se creo una base de datos de pacientes con cancer que merecian una valoracion por neurooncologia en un centro de referencia. Resultados. Se describen 17.092 motivos de consulta de neurooncologia. Las neoplasias que mas se relacionaron con manifestaciones neurologicas fueron: cancer de mama, neoplasias hematologicas, tumores primarios del sistema nervioso central, cancer de pulmon y neoplasias ginecologicas. Las manifestaciones neurologicas mas frecuentes fueron: afeccion neuromuscular, actividad tumoral en el sistema nervioso central, cefalea primaria, crisis convulsivas, enfermedad vascular cerebral y tumores neurologicos primarios. Conclusiones. Es importante que los neurologos, medicos de distintas areas de la medicina y personal paramedico, involucrados en el manejo de estos pacientes, reconozcan las complicaciones neurologicas de manera temprana.

  2. [Enhancement of motor relearning and functional recovery in stroke patients: non-invasive strategies for modulating the central nervous system].

    PubMed

    Bravo-Esteban, Elisabeth; López-Larraz, Eduardo

    2016-03-16

    Introduccion. La mayoria de los pacientes que han sufrido un ictus no recuperan el estado funcional basal de la extremidad superior afecta y sufren una grave limitacion que permanece en la fase cronica de la enfermedad y que repercute de manera devastadora en su calidad de vida. Por ello, las estrategias de neurorrehabilitacion tratan de evitar o minimizar las posibles disfunciones sensitivomotoras asociadas al ictus mediante la promocion de cambios plasticos en el sistema nervioso central. Desarrollo. La reorganizacion cerebral que tiene lugar tras el ictus puede promover la recuperacion motora y funcional de los sujetos con ictus. No obstante, tras la lesion, tambien se pueden iniciar cambios neuroplasticos maladaptativos responsables del desarrollo de trastornos sensitivomotores, como el sindrome de espasticidad. Las estrategias no invasivas de estimulacion cerebral, como la estimulacion con corriente directa y la estimulacion magnetica transcraneal, son unas tecnicas ampliamente utilizadas que, aplicadas sobre la corteza motora primaria, pueden modificar la excitabilidad de los circuitos neuronales y las funciones cognitivas, tanto en las personas sanas como en los pacientes con afectacion neurologica. Asimismo, los sistemas de interfaces cerebro-maquina tambien son capaces de generar esa reorganizacion por medio de la asociacion contingente y simultanea entre la activacion cerebral y la estimulacion periferica. Conclusiones. Se evidencian los efectos positivos de las estrategias de neurorrehabilitacion citadas previamente en la potenciacion de la reorganizacion cortical despues del ictus, asi como en la paliacion de los efectos adversos asociados al desarrollo de la espasticidad.

  3. Difusión de Arnold en un modelo simple

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cincotta, P. M.; Nuñez, J. A.; Miloni, O.

    Investigadores como Merritt, Valluri, Pfenniger o Contopoulos (por citar los más relevantes) consideran seriamente la hipótesis que la difusión de Arnold juega un rol importante en la evolución dinámica de los sistemas estelares y planetarios. Sin embargo no existe ninguna evidencia. El mayor problema para investigar fenómenos como éste es que uno debe estudiar numéricamente sistemas multidimensionales (más de dos grados de libertad) y visualizar de alguna manera el espacio de fases (más de cuatro dimensiones). Más complicado aún es el caso de difusión de Arnold, donde deben considerarse tiempos de movimiento extremadamente largos y tratar con parámetros exponencialmente pequeños. El propósito de este trabajo es estudiar, en un modelo simple 3D, la existencia o no de difusión de Arnold mediante experimentos numéricos y estimaciones analíticas. Siguiendo los trabajos de Cincotta (2000) y Cincotta, Nuñez y Simo (2000), aquí se pretende ``visualizar" la difusión y, a la vez, determinar la escala de tiempo en la que ésta se podría manifestar. Este trabajo es el escalón inicial para luego abordar este problema en modelos.

  4. [The social brain: neurobiological bases of clinical interest].

    PubMed

    Álvaro-González, Luis C

    2015-11-16

    Introduccion. Las capacidades sociales humanas son evolutivamente tardias y unicas. Permiten una especializacion que mejora la disponibilidad de recursos y facilita la reproduccion. Nuestra complejidad social descansa en circuitos y mecanismos especificos, que analizamos. Desarrollo. A esos efectos, resultan operativos: el conocimiento del otro mediante la empatia, mecanismos especificos que nos dotan de capacidad para detectar defraudadores, factores geneticos y bioquimicos, y el sistema nervioso autonomo. La empatia es el mecanismo basico de la sociabilidad. Reconoce niveles de complejidad (emocional, cognitiva, de atribucion), con diferenciacion anatomica especifica. Lo social va ligado a lo emocional, y esto a lo homeostatico. Asi, dolor fisico y social comparten matriz anatomica y terapias. Somos seres sociales de naturaleza biologica egoista, que ajustamos gracias a una capacidad especial para detectar defraudadores, dominante sobre las de planificacion o abstraccion. La oxitocina es el mediador neuroquimico prosocial esencial. La serotonina y la enzima MAO se consideran con capacidad antisocial, dependiente de la interaccion con ambientes adversos. Finalmente, el sistema vagal mas reciente filogeneticamente y mielinizado, el del nucleo dorsal del vago, es requisito para la interaccion social acogedora y ludica. Conclusiones. La neurobiologia de lo social permite reconocer trastornos de esta conducta en lesiones estructurales (vasculares, de la sustancia blanca, demencias...), alteraciones del neurodesarrollo (autismo), enfermedades psiquiatricas (esquizofrenia) o trastornos de la personalidad. Existen posibilidades de intervencion terapeutica (estimulacion magnetica transcraneal, farmacos) prometedoras. La adicion de factores culturales y ambientales a los neurobiologicos introduce complejidad ecologica, sin restar validez a lo expuesto.

  5. Base de linhas moleculares para síntese espectral estelar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milone, A.; Sanzovo, G.

    2003-08-01

    A análise das abundâncias quí micas fotosféricas em estrelas do tipo solar ou tardia, através do cálculo teórico de seus espectros, emprega a espectroscopia de alta resolução e necessita de uma base representativa de linhas atômicas e moleculares com suas respectivas constantes bem determinadas. Nesse trabalho, utilizamos como ponto de partida as extensas listas de linhas espectrais de sistemas eletrônicos de algumas moléculas diatômicas compiladas por Kurucz para a construção de uma base de linhas moleculares para a sí ntese espectral estelar. Revisamos as determinações dos fatores rotacionais de Honl-London das forças de oscilador das linhas moleculares, para cada banda vibracional de alguns sistemas eletrônicos, seguindo a regra usual de normalização. Usamos as forças de oscilador eletrônicas da literatura. Os fatores vibracionais de Franck-Condon de cada banda foram especialmente recalculados empregando-se novas constantes moleculares. Reproduzimos, com êxito, as absorções espectrais de determinadas bandas eletrônicas-vibracionais das espécies moleculares C12C12, C12N14 e Mg24H em espectros de estrelas de referência como o Sol e Arcturus.

  6. Un asteroide proveniente de la Luna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tancredi, G.

    El descubrimiento de un débil objeto en movimiento por el telescopio Spacewatch (un instrumento dedicado a la búsqueda de Asteroides Cercanos a la Tierra) en 1991, ha generado una gran controversia en la comunidad planetaria. El objeto, denominado 1991 VG, tiene elementos orbitales llamativamente similares a los de la Tierra, lo que ha llevado a B. G. Marsden a aventurar:``El objeto podría ser una nave espacial en retorno (IAUC 5387)". Luego de analizar las características dinámicas de 1991 VG y las diferentes hipótesis sobre su origen, favorecemos la alternativa de que el objeto es un gran fragmento de material eyectado de la Luna durante un reciente impacto (en las últimas decenas de miles de años). El hallazgo en 1983 en la Antártida de meteoritos con composición tipo lunar, confirma la posibilidad de que material de la superficie del satélite puede ser eyectado a velocidades superiores a la de escape del sistema Tierra-Luna y alcance órbitas heliocéntricas. Los elementos orbitales de 1991 VG corresponden a los valores alcanzados por partículas que apenas escapan de la gravedad lunar y entran en órbitas heliocéntricas a través del punto Lagrangiano exterior del sistema Tierra-Sol.

  7. Improving mating performance of mass-reared sterile Mediterranean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) through changes in adult holding conditions: demography and mating competitiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Liedo, P.; Salgado, S.; Oropeza, A.; Toledo, J.

    2007-03-15

    with wild flies. As colonization progressed, life expectancy and fecundity rates increased in the 3 rearing systems. There was no significant difference in standard quality control parameters among the 3 rearing systems. Wild males always achieved more matings than any of the mass reared males. Mating competitiveness of males from the IS, although surprisingly not from the SS, was significantly greater than that of males from the MS. Our results indicate that these slight changes in the adult holding conditions can significantly reduce the harmful effects of mass rearing on the mating performance of sterile flies. (author) [Spanish] Se ha demostrado que las condiciones de cria masiva afectan el comportamiento de apareamiento de la mosca del Mediterraneo Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). Nosotros evaluamos el efecto de ligeros cambios en las condiciones en las que los adultos son mantenidos para la produccion de huevos, en el desempeno de apareamiento de las moscas esteriles. La colonizacion se inicio con moscas silvestres colectadas como larvas en cerezas de cafe (Coffea arabica L.) infestadas. Cuando las pupas estuvieron cerca de la emergencia de los adultos, se dividieron en tres grupos al azar y los adultos recien emergidos fueron criados en las siguientes condiciones: (1) Sistema Metapa (MS, testigo), consistente en jaulas con marco de aluminio de 70 x 45 x 15 cm, cubiertas con malla, con una densidad de 2,200 moscas por jaula y una relacion de sexos inicial de 1:1; (2); Sistema Insertos (IS), con el mismo tipo de jaula, densidad de moscas, y relacion de sexos que en el MS, pero conteniendo 12 piezas de plexiglas (23 x 8.5 cm) para proporcionar superficie horizontal al interior de la jaula; y (3) Sistema de Relacion de Sexos (SS), igual que el IS, pero en este caso la relacion inicial macho: hembra fue de 4:1, tres dias despues se introdujeron hembras recien emergidas para tener una relacion de 3:1 y en el 6 dia se anadio otro grupo de hembras para tener una relacion

  8. Final report on COOMET.AUV.A-S1: Technical report on supplementary comparison 'Comparison of national standards of the sound pressure unit in air through calibration of working reference microphones'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozdeeva, Valentina; Chalyy, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    The supplementary comparison COOMET.AUV.A-S1 for secondary calibration methods using WS1 and WS2 measurement microphones was carried out from 2009 to 2010. The results were submitted to and approved by CCAUV in April 2014. Four National Metrology Institutes took part in this comparison and are as follows: BelGIM (Belarus), VNIIFTRI (Russia), SMU (Slovakia) and DP NDI 'Sistema' (Ukraine). Three of the above NMIs (VNIIFTRI, SMU and DP NDI 'Sistema') had earlier participated in COOMET key comparisons and one NMI (VNIIFTRI) had also participated in CCAUV key comparisons. The Comparison Reference Values were calculated as the weighted mean values from results obtained by three institutes. The comparison results show agreement for all participants in the frequency range from 20 Hz to 12.5 kHz for WS1 microphones, and in the frequency range from 20 Hz to 16 kHz for WS2 microphones. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCAUV, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  9. An update on clinical oncology for the non-oncologist.

    PubMed

    Kaliks, Rafael Aliosha

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACTRecent advances in the understanding of tumor driver mutations, signaling pathways that lead to tumor progression, and the better understanding of the interaction between tumor cells and the immune system are revolutionizing cancer treatment. The pace at which new treatments are approved and the prices at which they are set have made it even more difficult to offer these treatments in countries like Brazil. In this review we present for the non-oncologist these new treatments and compare their availability in Brazilian public health system and private health system with that of developed countries.RESUMOAvanços recentes na compreensão de mutações promotoras de desenvolvimento do câncer, sinalização que leva à progressão de tumores, e o avanço no entendimento da interação entre as células tumorais e o sistema imunológico estão revolucionando o tratamento do câncer. A velocidade com que novos tratamentos são aprovados e o alto custo das medicações dificultam a disponibilização de terapêuticas em países como o Brasil. Nesta revisão, apresentamos ao não oncologista esses novos tratamentos e comparamos sua disponibilidade nos sistemas público e privado de saúde no Brasil com os países desenvolvidos. PMID:27462901

  10. Polarización lineal en estrellas simbióticas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandi, E.; García, L. G.; Ferrer, O. E.

    Se presenta un estudio de polarización lineal en las bandas UBVRI de un grupo de estrellas simbióticas, a fin de analizar el comportamiento del grado de polarización y del ángulo de posición en función de la longitud de onda. En aquellos sistemas observados repetidas veces, se analizan además variaciones temporales en los parámetros de polarización. En base a este comportamiento se determina si la polarización observada es puramente interestelar o si existe una contribución de polarización, intrínseca al objeto. La muestra de objetos estudiados presenta ciertas características comunes, es decir, son sistemas simbióticos tipo D, cuyas respectivas componentes gigantes son variables tipo Mira y además presentan nebulosas ionizadas extendidas con morfología y dimensiones conocidas. Esto es de importancia ya que el conocimiento de la estructura del gas extendido permite interpretar la geometría de scattering que produce la polarización observada. Las observaciones fueron realizadas con el Fotopolarímetro de Torino adosado al telescopio de 2.15 m del CASLEO.

  11. [Early development of language in small children with autism spectrum disorder using alternative systems].

    PubMed

    Fortea-Sevilla, M Sol; Escandell-Bermúdez, M Olga; Castro-Sánchez, José Juan; Martos-Pérez, Juan

    2015-02-25

    Introduccion. Los ultimos hallazgos en investigacion demuestran la importancia de la atencion temprana en niños con trastorno del espectro autista (TEA) en todas las areas del desarrollo y tambien del lenguaje. El uso de sistemas de comunicacion aumentativa y alternativa (SAAC) favorece el desarrollo comunicativo y linguistico. Objetivo. Demostrar la efectividad de los SAAC a la hora de desarrollar el lenguaje oral en niños pequeños no verbales con diagnostico de TEA. Pacientes y metodos. Treinta niños (25 varones y 5 mujeres) a los que se les diagnostico TEA cuando tenian entre 18 meses y 30 meses, mediante los instrumentos ADOS y ADIR. Ninguno de ellos presentaba desarrollo del lenguaje oral en el momento de la evaluacion. Se diseño un programa de intervencion sobre el area del lenguaje basado en el uso de comunicacion total por parte del terapeuta y entrenamiento del niño en el sistema de comunicacion por intercambio de imagenes. Pasado un año se evaluaron los aspectos formales del lenguaje a traves de la prueba de lenguaje oral de Navarra revisada, ya que se habia desarrollado el lenguaje oral. Resultados. Todos ellos han desarrollado el lenguaje oral en alguna medida en un periodo de un año. Conclusiones. La atencion temprana y el uso de SAAC con apoyos visuales favorecen el desarrollo del lenguaje oral en niños con TEA en los primeros años de vida.

  12. Análisis fotométrico-espectroscópico de un par de binarias en NGC 3532

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gramajo, L.; González, J. F.

    Presentamos el informe de avance de un proyecto que apunta a la determinación de masas y radios de precisión en estrellas tempranas de cúmulos abiertos mediante el análisis fotométrico-espectroscópico de sistemas binarios detached con baja rotación. Con ello se pretende determinar el estado evolutivo de estas estrellas y confrontar su estructura con modelos estelares teóricos con distinto grado de ``overshooting". Los primeros objetos seleccionados son dos sistemas binarios de espectros dobles (BDA27 y BDA363) detectados en el cúmulo NGC 3532. Presentamos la órbita espectroscópica obtenida para la binaria eclipsante BDA27, para la cual obtuvimos un período de 4.29 días y una razón de masas q=0.62. Derivamos sus parámetros absolutos preliminares usando nuestra curva de velocidad y datos fotométricos existentes en la literatura, y presentamos estimas del alcance de nuestros resultados una vez que hayamos completado nuestras observaciones con nuevas curvas de luz.

  13. An update on clinical oncology for the non-oncologist.

    PubMed

    Kaliks, Rafael Aliosha

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACTRecent advances in the understanding of tumor driver mutations, signaling pathways that lead to tumor progression, and the better understanding of the interaction between tumor cells and the immune system are revolutionizing cancer treatment. The pace at which new treatments are approved and the prices at which they are set have made it even more difficult to offer these treatments in countries like Brazil. In this review we present for the non-oncologist these new treatments and compare their availability in Brazilian public health system and private health system with that of developed countries.RESUMOAvanços recentes na compreensão de mutações promotoras de desenvolvimento do câncer, sinalização que leva à progressão de tumores, e o avanço no entendimento da interação entre as células tumorais e o sistema imunológico estão revolucionando o tratamento do câncer. A velocidade com que novos tratamentos são aprovados e o alto custo das medicações dificultam a disponibilização de terapêuticas em países como o Brasil. Nesta revisão, apresentamos ao não oncologista esses novos tratamentos e comparamos sua disponibilidade nos sistemas público e privado de saúde no Brasil com os países desenvolvidos.

  14. Amplificadores en bandas para receptores de uso radioastronómicos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bava, A. J.; Sanz, A. J.

    Está en curso de realización en el IAR un cabezal de receptor, en la frecuencia de 3.3 GHz. Este receptor, conjuntamente con los sistemas de procesamientos actuales del IAR y con los futuros proyectos de procesamientos, permitirán las observaciones de las líneas de la molécula de CH, de gran interés astrofísico, y las observaciones en el continuo que complementarán las realizadas en 1420 MHz. En este trabajo, se presentan el diseño de los amplificadores de bajo ruido, que van a conformar las primeras etapas del receptor de 3.3 GHz. El desarrollo de los mismos se realizó teniendo en cuenta que la temperatura del sistema, según consideraciones observacionales, deberá ser de 60oK. Por tal motivo se realizó un diseño de bajo ruido utilizando como elemento activo un HEMT. Tanto los métodos de diseño, como el circuito final, fueron realizados y comprobados con programas de simulación, permitiendo de esta forma obtener el amplificador deseado.

  15. [IgG4- and MPO-ANCA-associated hypertrophic pachymeningitis].

    PubMed

    Aragonès, Josep M; Arias-Rivero, Montserrat; García-Barrionuevo, Joan M; Lucchetti, Gianni

    2015-11-16

    Introduccion. La paquimeningitis hipertrofica idiopatica es una enfermedad fibroinflamatoria de la duramadre. Su diagnostico requiere la exclusion de enfermedades infecciosas, tumorales y otras enfermedades inflamatorias. En los ultimos años se han descrito nuevas entidades que pueden presentarse con paquimeningitis hipertrofica: la enfermedad relacionada con IgG4 y la paquimeningitis MPO-ANCA+ como forma de vasculitis limitada al sistema nervioso central. Caso clinico. Varon de 64 años con cefalea y cervicalgia de predominio nocturno y clinica de compresion medular. Tras el diagnostico de paquimeningitis hipertrofica craneocervical facilitado por el estudio de resonancia magnetica, se realizo un estudio etiologico. Se descartaron enfermedades infecciosas y tumorales. La clinica no mostraba afectacion sistemica y en la analitica presentaba IgG4 elevada y MPO-ANCA+. Tras tratamiento con corticoides presento una rapida mejoria de la clinica. Conclusiones. La enfermedad relacionada con IgG4 y la vasculitis asociada a MPO-ANCA limitada al sistema nervioso central pueden representar un alto porcentaje de las paquimeningitis hipertroficas que se consideraban idiopaticas, y su diagnostico requiere biopsia y estudio histologico.

  16. [Acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy. A rare cause of ischaemic stroke].

    PubMed

    del Saz-Saucedo, Pablo; Alfaya-Muñoz, Laura Blanca; Recio-Bermejo, Marta; Lara-Medina, Francisco Javier; García-Chiclano, Amalia; Ortega-León, Teresa; Rueda-Medina, Ignacio; Domínguez-Fernández, María José; Madrid-Muñiz, Carmen; Franco-Huerta, María

    2013-06-01

    Introduccion. La epiteliopatia pigmentaria placoide multifocal posterior aguda (EPPMPA) es una enfermedad inflamatoria rara, generalmente de etiologia indeterminada, de la coriocapilar, el epitelio pigmentario y la retina externa. Afecta predominantemente a pacientes jovenes y en algunos casos puede involucrar al sistema nervioso central en forma de ictus o de meningoencefalitis. Presentamos el caso clinico de una mujer joven con EPPMPA complicada con ictus e hipertension intracraneal. Caso clinico. Mujer de 16 anos que comienza con cefalea intensa sugestiva de hipertension intracraneal, asi como con un deficit agudo hemisferico izquierdo. La resonancia magnetica craneal ponia de manifiesto lesiones embolicas o vasculiticas en diferentes territorios. No se evidenciaron datos de meningoencefalitis en el estudio del liquido cefalorraquideo, pero si de hipertension intracraneal asociada. La presencia de lesiones muy especificas en el polo ocular posterior permitio el diagnostico de EPPMPA complicada con ictus isquemico, probablemente por mecanismo vasculitico. Un amplio estudio etiologico fue negativo para identificar un factor desencadenante claro del proceso. Se inicio tratamiento corticoideo con buena evolucion clinica y radiologica. Conclusiones. La EPPMPA es una entidad rara que generalmente entrana buen pronostico; sin embargo, en algunos casos puede complicarse con afectacion del sistema nervioso central, y el ictus isquemico secundario a vasculitis es la complicacion mas grave. Ante un paciente joven con ictus que presente sintomatologia visual y lesiones coriorretinianas, debe considerarse la EPPMPA en su diagnostico etiologico.

  17. Estudio teórico de moléculas de interés en Astrofísica: compuestos binarios policarbonados

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Largo-Cabrerizo, A.

    Se han detectado en el espacio distintos compuestos binarios policarbonados (que se pueden formular como CnX), algunos de ellos con elementos de la primera fila del sistema periódico, pero también existen otros que contienen elementos de la segunda fila, como azufre o silicio. La información experimental sobre estos últimos compuestos es escasa, por lo que los estudios teóricos son especialmente valiosos en este campo. En esta comunicación presentaremos los avances mas recientes que sobre el tema ha realizado nuestro grupo. Incidiremos particularmente en dos aspectos. En primer lugar resumiremos los estudios en los que hemos intentado proporcionar información estructural sobre carburos metálicos formados por sodio, magnesio, aluminio o calcio, que pueda ser de ayuda a la hora de caracterizar estas moléculas en laboratorio como paso previo a su eventual detección en el espacio. Un aspecto importante dentro de este primer apartado es el análisis de las propiedades moleculares en función del tamaño del sistema (cuantificado en el numero de átomos de carbono) con el objeto de intentar sistematizar su estudio. En segundo lugar comentaremos brevemente algunos de los estudios realizados sobre posibles reacciones que pueden ser vías de síntesis de este tipo de compuestos en el medio interestelar.

  18. [Erythropoietin as a protective factor in rat CNS cells receiving radiotherapy -an in vitro study].

    PubMed

    Gomez-De la Riva, Álvaro; Isla-Guerrero, Alberto; García-Grande, Antonio

    2014-03-01

    Objetivo. Investigar el efecto de la eritropoyetina en cultivos celulares de corteza cerebral de ratas cuando se administra radioterapia. Materiales y metodos. El estudio se desarrolla con la obtencion de corteza cerebral de embriones de 17 dias de preñez de ratas Wistar. Las celulas cultivadas despues de 72 horas de la extraccion de la corteza se dividieron en dos grupos, a uno de ellos se le administro eritropoyetina alfa a una concentracion de 30 pM y el otro era el grupo control. A los dos grupos de celulas se les radio con 6 Gy mediante un aparato Phoenix. Tras la radioterapia permanecieron 24 horas en la incubadora antes de fijarlas. Las celulas fueron fijadas con formaldehido al 4%. A continuacion, con la tecnica de TUNEL, se valoro el numero de celulas apoptoticas en los cultivos radiados. Resultados. Se observo un porcentaje de apoptosis del 25,22% del grupo de cultivo sin eritropoyetina, mientras que en el grupo de celulas radiadas con eritropoyetina fue del 15,5%. Las variables cuantitativas se analizaron mediante el test t de Student y el resultado de la comparacion entre los dos grupos fue estadisticamente significativo (p < 0,0001). Conclusion. En nuestro modelo experimental in vitro se comprobo que la eritropoyetina es eficaz en la prevencion de la apoptosis en celulas del sistema nervioso central de ratas por radiacion. Esto abre nuevos campos para la investigacion del efecto protector del sistema nervioso.

  19. Gas-exchange patterns of Mediterranean fruit fly Pupae (Diptera: Tephritidae): A tool to forecast developmental stage

    SciTech Connect

    Nestel, D.; Nemny-Lavy, E.; Alchanatis, V.

    2007-03-15

    The pattern of gas-exchange (CO{sub 2} emission) was investigated for developing Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) pupae incubated at different temperatures. This study was undertaken to explore the usefulness of gas-exchange systems in the determination of physiological age in developing pupae that are mass produced for sterile insect technique projects. The rate of CO{sub 2} emission was measured in a closed flow-through system connected to commercial infrared gas analysis equipment. Metabolic activity (rate of CO{sub 2} emission) was related to pupal eye-color, which is the current technique used to determine physiological age. Eye-color was characterized digitally with 3 variables (Hue, Saturation and Intensity), and color separated by discriminant analysis. The rate of CO{sub 2} emission throughout pupal development followed a U-shape, with high levels of emission during pupariation, pupal transformation and final pharate adult stages. Temperature affected the development time of pupae, but not the basic CO{sub 2} emission patterns during development. In all temperatures, rates of CO{sub 2} emission 1 and 2 d before adult emergence were very similar. After mid larval-adult transition (e.g., phanerocephalic pupa), digital eye-color was significantly correlated with CO{sub 2} emission. Results support the suggestion that gas-exchange should be explored further as a system to determine pupal physiological age in mass production of fruit flies. (author) [Spanish] En el presente estudio se investigaron los patrones de intercambio gaseoso (emision de CO{sub 2}) en pupas de la mosca de las frutas del Mediterraneo (Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann) incubadas a diferentes temperaturas. El estudio fue realizado con la finalidad de explorar la utilizacion de sistemas de intercambio gaseoso en la determinacion de la edad fisiologica de pupas durante su produccion masiva en proyectos de mosca esteril. La proporcion de emision de CO{sub 2} fue

  20. Condições físicas do disco de acréscimo da nova-anã V4140 SGR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borges, B.; Baptista, R.

    2003-08-01

    Discos de acréscimo são aparatos cósmicos que permitem que matéria seja eficientemente acrescida sobre uma fonte compacta pela remoção de momento angular via tensões viscosas enquanto transforma a energia potencial gravitacional em calor e, posteriormente, em radiação. Sistemas binários semi-ligados, como Variáveis Cataclísmicas (VCs) não-magnéticas, são talvez os melhores ambientes encontrados para o estudo da física desses discos de acréscimo. O desenvolvimento de técnicas de imageamento indireto, como o mapeamento por eclipses (MME) e a tomografia Doppler, permitiu avanços importantes na compreensão da física dos processos de acréscimo desses sistemas. V4140 Sagitarii é uma VC eclipsante de curto período orbital (~ 90 min) que não havia sido classificada como nova-anã ou polar. Neste trabalho apresentamos a análise do mapeamento por eclipse feito com dados de fotometria CCD nas bandas B, V e R de V4140 Sgr realizada no LNA. O objeto foi observado no declínio de erupção em julho de 1992 e em erupção em julho de 2001, isso indicou a classificação do sistema como uma nova-anã. A análise, feita sobre os mapas já apresentados em trabalho anterior, apresenta (i) diagrama cor-cor, que indica uma emissão opticamente espessa nas partes internas do disco em quiescência (R < RL1); (ii) diagrama cor-magnitude, usado para inferir uma distância de 600 +/- 10 pc ao sistema; (iii) a distribuição radial de temperatura observada que concorda com a lei de disco espesso em estado estacionário TµR-3/4, com temperaturas em torno de 10000 K e 3000 K ns partes internas e externas do disco em quiescência, respectivamente; (iv) a evolução da distribuição de temperatura no declínio de erupção; (v) estimativa da transferência de massa de 109.9+/-0.1 M¤/ano em quiescência, similar àquelas observadas em novas-like. O sistema é comparado à outras novas-anãs (e.g. OY Car e Z Cha) em quiescência e erupção, mostrando-se tratar um

  1. Capture of Anastrepha species (Diptera: Tephritidae) with multilure traps and biolure attractants in Guatemala

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, A.J.; Salinas, E.J.; Rendon, P.

    2007-03-15

    Two trapping systems were compared in a study in Guatemala during the wet season, May through Dec 2001. Trap/lure combinations consisting of green or yellow-based plastic McPhail-like traps baited with a synthetic 2-component lure (putrescine and ammonium acetate) and 300 mL of propylene glycol antifreeze as a preservative were compared to the traditional glass McPhail baited with torula yeast/borax and 300 mL of water. Both systems captured several key Anastrepha species including Anastrepha ludens Loew, A. obliqua, Macquart, A. serpentina Weidemann, A. striata Schiner, A. distincta Greene, A. fraterculus Weidemann as well as Ceratitis capitata Weidemann. Additionally, 13 other Anastrepha spp. were captured with the synthetic lure. The plastic traps captured more key flies than the McPhail trap except for A. distincta where there were no significant differences between the yellow-based plastic trap and the McPhail trap and no significant differences between any trap and lure for trapping A. fraterculus. The synthetic lure lasted 10 weeks. The sex ratio was female-biased for almost all captured key species in both systems. Moreover, there were significant numbers of captured nontarget insects in all traps; however, the captured flies in those traps with the synthetic lure were not adversely affected by these insects. Propylene glycol-based antifreeze was a superior preservative when compared to borax/water. (author) [Spanish] En Guatemala, se compararon dos sistemas de trampeo durante la epoca lluviosa de Mayo a Deciembre, 2001. Combinaciones de trampa/atrayente que consistieron de trampas de plastico con bases verdes o amarillos y con atrayentes sinteticos (acetate de amoniaco y putrecina) fueron comparadas con el sistema de trampeo tradicional McPhail de vidrio cebada con torula y borax en agua. Los dos sistemas capturaron moscas del genero Anastrepha incluyendo Anastrepha ludens Loew, A. obliqua, Macquart, A. serpentina Weidemann, A. striata Schiner, A

  2. Sputum smear microscopy referral rates and turnaround time in the Tonga Islands.

    PubMed

    Fonua, L; Bissell, K; Vivili, P; Gounder, S; Hill, P C

    2014-06-21

    Contexte : Le programme national de lutte contre la tuberculose et le laboratoire de référence de Tonga, situé sur l'île principale, Tongatapu, et trois laboratoires d'hôpitaux de district situés sur d'autres îles.Objectifs : Comparer Tongatapu avec les autres îles en ce qui concerne le taux de référence des crachats, le nombre d'échantillons par patient, la qualité des échantillons, les résultats de l'examen, le délai de retour du résultat et le délai entre le résultat et la mise en route du traitement.Schéma: Etude rétrospective par revue des dossiers de laboratoire et des registres de traitement anti tuberculeux des quatre hôpitaux des Tonga entre 2003 et 2012.Résultats : Parmi 3078 échantillons de crachats, 71,7% étaient de bonne qualité. Le taux de référence des crachats était presque deux fois plus élevé à Tongatapu que dans les îles extérieures (353 contre 180/100 000). Le délai de retour des crachats à Tongatapu et dans les îles extérieures était respectivement de 4,02 et 4,11 jours. Sur 83 cas positifs, 91,2% étaient traités le jour même à Tongatapu contre 80% dans les îles extérieures.Conclusion : Entre l'île principale et les îles extérieures, on note des différences en matière de taux d'examen de crachats mais pas en termes de délai de retour. Les données relatives à la qualité des frottis et aux dates de réalisation ont des limitations qui méritent une intervention avec des directives et des registres spécifiques de la TB. Une recherche supplémentaire est requise pour comprendre les différences entre les taux de référence.

  3. Les valvulopathies cardiaques en milieu hospitalier à Lomé (Togo)

    PubMed Central

    Balaka, Abago; Tchamdja, Toyi; Djibril, Mohaman Awalou; Djagadou, Kodjo Agbéko; Tchandana, Makilioubè; Damorou, Findibé; Agbétra, Aïssah

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Notre étude a consisté en l'identification les principales valvulopathies retrouvées en milieu hospitalier à Lomé (Togo). Méthodes Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective, transversale, multicentrique menée du 1er janvier 2006 au 31 décembre 2010 et portant sur les dossiers de patients suivis dans le service de cardiologie du CHU Campus de Lomé. Résultats Du 1er janvier 2006 au 31 Décembre 2010,5412 patients ont été consulté dans le service de cardiologie du CHU Campus. Parmi eux, 241 (4,45%) présentaient une valvulopathie. On notait une prédominance féminine avec un sex-ratio H/F à 0,60. La moyenne d’âge était de 62,32 ans avec des extrêmes allant de 16 à 89 ans et un écart type de 14,27. Les antécédents le plus souvent retrouvés étaient l'hypertension artérielle (26,97%) et le diabète (8,29%). Parmi les motifs de consultations, les plus fréquents étaient la dyspnée (39,00%), les précordialgies (32,78%) et les palpitations (21,16%). A l'examen physique 30,70% des patients présentaient des signes de d'insuffisance cardiaque. A l’échographie, on notait des atteintes d'une seule valve (77,17%), de 02 valves (17,42%) ou 03 valves (5,4%). L'insuffisance mitrale (56,84%) et l'insuffisance aortique (30,70%) ont été les valvulopathies les plus fréquemment retrouvées. La maladie mitrale a été notée chez 05 patients. Les principales étiologies étaient dégénératives et ischémiques. Conclusion Les valvulopathies sont relativement fréquentes à Lomé. L'insuffisance cardiaque est leur principal mode de révélation. Les plus retrouvées sont l'insuffisance mitrale et aortique. PMID:26113911

  4. Le groupe de recherches transfusionnelles d’Afrique francophone: bilan des cinq premières années

    PubMed Central

    Tagny, Claude Tayou; Murphy, Edward L.; Lefrère, Jean-Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Les travaux de recherches sur la sécurité transfusionnelle en Afrique sub-saharienne sont peu nombreux, souvent limités à des initiatives locales avec des conclusions difficilement représentatives de cette région. Le Groupe de recherches transfusionnelles en Afrique sub-saharienne francophone a été créé en mai 2007 avec pour objectif de développer des stratégies globales d’amélioration de la sécurité transfusionnelle mais adaptables à la situation de chaque pays. Les activités du Groupe à ce jour ont porté essentiellement sur l’obtention de données épidémiologiques et de laboratoire sur la transfusion sanguine et à proposer des stratégies de sécurité transfusionnelle dans le domaine des infections transmissibles par la transfusion. Pour mener à bien ces activités de recherche, le Groupe travaille en étroite collaboration avec les Centres nationaux de transfusion sanguine (CNTS), les Centres régionaux de transfusion sanguine (CRTS), les banques de sang hospitalières (BSH) et les postes de collecte de sang. Pour les 5 premières années, quatre priorités de recherche ont été identifiées: (i) des études descriptives sur les caractéristiques des donneurs de sang et des centres de transfusion; (ii) une estimation du risque résiduel post-transfusionnel des principales infections virales transmissibles par la transfusion; (iii) une analyse des stratégies de sélection médicale des donneurs de sang; et (iv) une description des stratégies de dépistage des ITT et une description du système d’assurance qualité externe existant. Durant cette période, sept projets ont été mis en œuvre au niveau national et publiés et cinq études multicentriques ont été réalisées et publiées. La présente étude rapporte les principales observations et recommandations de ces études. PMID:24360798

  5. Mixed dietary pattern is associated with a slower decline of body weight change during postpartum in a cohort of Brazilian women.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Maria Beatriz Trindade; Sichieri, Rosely; Barbosa Brito, Flávia dos Santos; Nascimento, Sileia; Kac, Gilberto

    2014-03-01

    Objetivo: El propósito de este estudio fue evaluar el efecto del patrón dietético sobre el cambio de peso corporal (CPC) en el puerperio. Métodos: Se aplicó una Cuestionario de frecuencia de alimentos (CFA) con 81 ítemes a 278 mujeres en el marco temporal de los siguientes 6 meses después del parto. El peso corporal (PC) se midió a los 15 días (basal) y a los 2,6 y 9 meses posparto. Se utilizó el análisis de los componentes principales para extraer los patrones dietéticos. Se realizaron modelos lineares mixtos, siendo el CPC el resultado y los patrones dietéticos las variables independientes. Resultados: Se identificaron dos patrones dietéticos principales: saludable y mixto. El consumo de energía fue de 2.838 kcal (DP = 624) y 2.233 kcal (DP = 455), para las mujeres clasificadas en los cuartiles más altos de los patrones dietéticos mixto y saludable, respectivamente. El decremento promedio del CPC fue de -0,151 kg/mes (EE = 0,02) independientemente del patrón dietético. Los valores predictivos del CPC en las mujeres con un patrón dietético mixto indicaron un menor CPC de 0,830 kg/mes (EE = 0,24; p < 0,001) a los 6 meses y de 0,938 kg/mes (EE = 0,24; p < 0,001) a los 9 meses posparto. Conclusión: El patrón dietético mixto se asoció con un ritmo de pérdida de peso más lento durante el puerperio en comparación con el patrón dietético saludable.

  6. Developmental course of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and its predictors.

    PubMed

    Cherkasova, Mariya; Sulla, Erin M; Dalena, Kara L; Pondé, Milena P; Hechtman, Lily

    2013-02-01

    Résumé OBJECTIF: Cette revue entend présenter les principales caractéristiques de la progression développementale du trouble de déficit de l’attention avec hyperactivité (TDAH) et examiner les influences les plus dominantes du cours développemental et des résultats du TDAH. MÉTHODES: Cette revue sélective porte principalement sur les études prospectives de suivi. Les publications pertinentes ont été choisies par une recherche dans les bases de données MEDLINE et PubMed, à l’aide des mots clés: TDAH, développement, préscolaire, adolescent, adulte, suivi, résultat, long terme, prédicteurs, et traitement. Des publications additionnelles ont ensuite été repérées dans les bibliographies des articles sélectionnés. RÉSULTATS: La présentation du TDAH et les déficiences qui y sont associées évoluent durant le développement, tout comme les prédicteurs de résultat. En début de développement, outre la génétique, certaines formes d’adversité prénatale accroissent le risque du TDAH. Dans les années préscolaires, la gravité des symptômes, la fonction cognitive, et les facteurs familiaux deviennent des prédicteurs significatifs des résultats à l’âge scolaire. Ces facteurs continuent de prédire les résultats à long terme des enfants d’âge scolaire; la comorbidité apparaît comme étant un autre prédicteur significatif des résultats à long terme à ce stade. CONCLUSIONS: La présentation du TDAH et les facteurs de risque d’adversité ultérieure évoluent au cours du développement, ce qui requiert des pratiques cliniques éclairées en matière de développement.

  7. Synthese de champs sonores adaptative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauthier, Philippe-Aubert

    La reproduction de champs acoustiques est une approche physique au probleme technologique de la spatialisation sonore. Cette these concerne l'aspect physique de la reproduction de champs acoustiques. L'objectif principal est l'amelioration de la reproduction de champs acoustiques par "synthese de champs acoustiques" ("Wave Field Synthesis", WFS), une approche connue, basee sur des hypotheses de champ libre, a l'aide du controle actif par l'ajout de capteurs de l'erreur de reproduction et d'une boucle fermee. Un premier chapitre technique (chapitre 4) expose les resultats d'appreciation objective de la WFS par simulations et mesures experimentales. L'effet indesirable de la salle de reproduction sur les qualites objectives de la WFS fut illustre. Une premiere question de recherche fut ensuite abordee (chapitre 5), a savoir s'il est possible de reproduire des champs progressifs en salle dans un paradigme physique de controle actif: cette possibilite fut prouvee. L'approche technique privilegiee, "synthese de champs adaptative" ("Adaptive Wave Field Synthesis" [AWFS]), fut definie, puis simulee (chapitre 6). Cette approche d'AWFS comporte une originalite en controle actif et en reproduction de champs acoustiques: la fonction cout quadratique representant la minimisation des erreurs de reproduction inclut une regularisation de Tikhonov avec solution a priori qui vient de la WFS. L'etude de l'AWFS a l'aide de la decomposition en valeurs singulieres (chapitre 7) a permis de comprendre les mecanismes propres a l'AWFS. C'est la deuxieme principale originalite de la these. L'algorithme FXLMS (LMS et reference filtree) est modifie pour l'AWFS (chapitre 8). Le decouplage du systeme par decomposition en valeurs singulieres est illustre dans le domaine du traitement de signal et l'AWFS basee sur le controle independant des modes de rayonnement est simulee (chapitre 8). Ce qui constitue la troisieme originalite principale de cette these. Ces simulations du traitement de signal

  8. [Indications for the use of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion in pediatric patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Espejel-Huerta, Diana; Antillón-Ferreira, Carlos Alberto; Iglesias-Leboreiro, José; Bernárdez-Zapata, Isabel; Martínez-Ramos Méndez, Angélica; Rendón-Macías, Mario Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: la diabetes es un problema serio de salud para la pediatría. En pacientes de ese grupo etario, el control depende de la adecuada administración de la insulina.Se buscó analizar las indicaciones para el uso de terapia de infusión continua subcutánea de insulina (ICSI) en niños y adolescentes con diabetes mellitus 1 (DM1). Métodos: estudio descriptivo en pacientes de 1 a 16 años con DM1, en quienes se propuso el inicio de la terapia con ICSI. Se analizó el motivo principal para justificar su inicio y si este fue diferente según edad, sexo y tiempo de evolución. Resultados: en 61 pacientes se aceptó el inicio de ICSI. La mediana de edad fue de 9 años al momento de la colocación y 43 pacientes (71.6 %) tuvieron más de un año de diagnóstico. Los motivos principales para su inicio fueron: 42.6 % (26 de 61) ante un deseo de mejorar su calidad de vida; 34.4 % (21 de 61) para reducir una variabilidad glucémica importante; 13.1 % (8 de 61) para controlar hipoglucemias recurrentes, y 9.8 % (6 de 61) para lograr metas de control en su valor de HbA1c. En los menores de 6 años (n = 14) se indicó más por hipoglucemias recurrentes y para mejorar su calidad de vida; para los de 6 a 12 años (n = 27) para mejorar su calidad de vida; y en los mayores de 12 años (n = 20) por variabilidad glucémica importante e hipoglucemias recurrentes. No hubo diferencias por sexos. Conclusión: los principales motivos que influyeron en la indicación de la ICSI en nuestros pacientes pediátricos fueron mejorar su calidad de vida y lograr un mejor control glucémico.

  9. CONTAMINACIÓN AMBIENTAL, VARIABILIDAD CLIMÁTICA Y CAMBIO CLIMÁTICO: UNA REVISIÓN DEL IMPACTO EN LA SALUD DE LA POBLACIÓN PERUANA

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales, Gustavo F.; Zevallos, Alisson; Gonzales-Castañeda, Cynthia; Nuñez, Denisse; Gastañaga, Carmen; Cabezas, César; Naeher, Luke; Levy, Karen; Steenland, Kyle

    2015-01-01

    RESUMEN El presente artículo es una revisión sobre la contaminación del agua, el aire y el efecto del cambio climático en la salud de la población peruana. Uno de los principales contaminantes del aire es el material particulado menor de 2,5 μ (PM 2,5), en la ciudad de Lima, anualmente 2300 muertes prematuras son atribuibles a este contaminante. Otro problema es la contaminación del aire domiciliario por el uso de cocinas con combustible de biomasa, donde la exposición excesiva a PM 2,5 dentro de las casas es responsable de aproximadamente 3000 muertes prematuras anuales entre adultos, con otro número desconocido de muertes entre niños debido a infecciones respiratorias. La contaminación del agua tiene como principales causas los desagües vertidos directamente a los ríos, minerales (arsénico) de varias fuentes, y fallas de las plantas de tratamiento. En el Perú, el cambio climático puede impactar en la frecuencia y severidad del fenómeno de El Niño oscilación del sur (ENSO) que se ha asociado con un incremento en los casos de enfermedades como cólera, malaria y dengue. El cambio climático incrementa la temperatura y puede extender las áreas afectadas por enfermedades transmitidas por vectores, además de tener efecto en la disponibilidad del agua y en la contaminación del aire. En conclusión, el Perú, pasa por una transición de factores de riesgo ambientales, donde coexisten riesgos tradicionales y modernos, y persisten los problemas infecciosos y crónicos, algunos de los cuales se asocian con problemas de contaminación de agua y de aire. PMID:25418656

  10. Caractéristiques bactériologiques des infections de liquide de dialyse péritonéale

    PubMed Central

    Jellouli, Manel; Ferjani, Meriem; Abidi, Kamel; Hammi, Yosra; Abdallah, Taieb Ben; Gargah, Tahar

    2015-01-01

    La péritonite infectieuse (PI) est la principale complication de la dialyse péritonéale (DP). L'objectif de notre travail était de déterminer l’écologie bactérienne des PI et d'adapter l'antibiothérapie selon les germes isolés et les résistances observées. Étude rétrospective effectuée chez tous les enfants traités par DP et ayant présenté une PI dans le service de pédiatrie de l'hôpital Charles Nicolle de Tunis (2004-2013). Au total, 61 ont développé 97 PI. L'incidence des PI était de 0,75 épisode/patient-année. La culture du LDP était négative dans 40 cas. Les Gram Positif ont été notés dans 56% des cas avec prédominance du Staphylococcus aureus. Les Gram négatif étaient retrouvés en seconde position (40%) représentés principalement par le Klebsiella pneumoniae et le Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Des souches de Staphylocoque méticilline résistant étaient isolées dans 21,4%. Les bactéries à Gram positif étaient résistantes aux céphalosporines de première génération dans 25% des cas et aucune résistance à la vancomycine n'avait été décelée. Les bactéries à Gram négatif avaient une résistance globale de 38% avec des souches β-lactamase à spectre élargi (BLSE). L'antibiothérapie empirique devra couvrir les germes à Gram positif par la vancomycine et les germes à Gram négatif par la ceftazidime. PMID:26893796

  11. [Effects of wine polyphenols on cancer prevention].

    PubMed

    Sancho, Marta; Mach, Núria

    2014-10-03

    Introducción: El cáncer se ha convertido en las últimas décadas en una de las principales causas de muerte en todo el mundo. La búsqueda para la prevención efectiva, se ha convertido en una prioridad para la ciencia básica y clínica. Los polifenoles del vino se han propuesto como terapia alternativa para inducir o mantener la remisión del cáncer. Objetivo: Revisar las evidencias científicas publicadas sobre el cáncer y la eficacia de la terapia con suplementos dietarios (especialmente polifenoles del vino). Material y métodos: Se ha realizado una extensa búsqueda de publicaciones científicas en las principales bases de datos electrónicas especializadas: NBCI, Elsevier, Scielo, Scirus y Science Direct. Resultados y Discusión: Se han reunido resultados de trabajos realizados in vitro y en animales de laboratorio en los que se pone de manifiesto el efecto de los polifenoles del vino (especialmente, el resveratrol) en el control de la apoptosis celular de diferentes tipos de cánceres mediante un aumento de las especies reactivas de oxígeno, así como también el retardo en el crecimiento de las mismas. El consumo de vino regular y moderado (uno o dos vasos al día) se asocia con la disminución de la incidencia de enfermedad cardiovascular, la hipertensión, la diabetes, y ciertos tipos de cáncer, como el de colon, el de mama, el de pulmón, o de próstata. Sin embargo, las evidencias científicas a cerca de los efectos protectores del resveratrol son insuficientes. Conclusiones:Los resultados publicados hasta la fecha referentes al rol de los polifenoles del vino en la prevención del cáncer contribuyen al mejor conocimiento y entendimiento de las modificaciones moleculares del cáncer. Los polifenoles del vino ha demostrado un papel significativo como antioxidante y prooxidante en el cáncer, aunque son necesarias más investigaciones en humanos.

  12. Mise à jour sur la prévention et le dépistage selon l’âge à l’intention des médecins de soins primaires canadiens

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Tawnya; Bouchard, Manon; Mavriplis, Cleo

    2016-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Faire la synthèse des meilleures lignes directrices fondées sur des données probantes concernant la prévention et le dépistage chez les adultes canadiens selon l’âge. Qualité des données Les recommandations du Groupe d’étude canadien sur les soins de santé préventifs représentent la source principale des renseignements et sont complétées par les recommandations pertinentes du Preventive Services Task Force des États-Unis lorsque celles du Groupe d’étude canadien étaient inaccessibles ou désuètes. Les guides de pratique des principales organisations nationales axées spécifiquement sur une maladie ou une spécialité ont aussi fait l’objet d’une révision pour prendre en compte les données factuelles les plus récentes. Message principal Les interventions de dépistage recommandées selon l’âge et le sexe sont présentées dans un tableau de synthèse où est mise en évidence la qualité des données à l’appui de ces recommandations. Un exemple de modèle à suivre dans les dossiers médicaux électroniques ou sur papier est aussi proposé. Conclusion Qu’il s’agisse d’une visite consacrée à la prévention ou d’une occasion saisie autrement de faire du counseling et du dépistage de prévention chez leurs patients, les médecins de soins primaires peuvent se servir de cette synthèse des recommandations fondées sur des données probantes pour maximiser leur efficience et prévenir d’importantes omissions ou des dépistages inutiles.

  13. Anomalies échocardiographiques chez l'hémodialysé chronique: prévalence et facteurs de risqué

    PubMed Central

    Ezziani, Mariam; Najdi, Adil; Mikou, Souad; Elhassani, Anis; Akrichi, Mohammed Amine; Hanin, Hakim; Arrayhani, Mohammed; Houssaini, Tarik Sqalli

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Les complications cardio-vasculaires sont la principale cause de mortalité et de morbidité chez les patients hémodialysés chroniques. Le but de cette étude est de décrire les différentes atteintes cardiaques à l’échocardiographie transthoracique et de dégager les facteurs associés aux principales atteintes. Méthodes Etude transversale monocentrique incluant des patients adultes hémodialysés depuis plus d'un an et ayant bénéficié d'une échocardiographie transthoracique durant l'année 2012. Notre étude descriptive puis analytique a porté sur l'analyse des données démographiques, cliniques, biologiques et échocardiographiques. Résultats 50 patients ont été colligés, 32 femmes et 18 hommes. Leur âge moyen est de 55 ± 14 ans avec une ancienneté moyenne en hémodialyse de 93 ± 55 mois. Les anomalies échocardiographiques retrouvées sont dominées par l'hypertrophie ventriculaire gauche chez 56% des patients et les valvulopathies chez 80%. Les calcifications valvulaires ont été notées dans 14% des cas, une dilatation du ventricule gauche dans 12%, une hypertension artérielle pulmonaire dans 10% et une péricardite dans 6% des cas. Une seule dysfonction du ventricule gauche a été notée et la fraction d’éjection systolique moyenne est de 68,9 ± 9,5%. L'analyse statistique de variance des différentes anomalies montre que l'hypertrophie ventriculaire gauche est positivement corrélée à l'hypertension artérielle (p = 0,046) et que les pressions artérielles moyennes systoliques (p = 0,005) et diastoliques (p = 0,035) sont significativement plus élevées chez les patients avec une hypertrophie du ventricule gauche. Conclusion Les anomalies échocardiographiques sont fréquentes chez les hémodialysés chroniques notamment l'hypertrophie ventriculaire gauche qui est fortement liée à la présence d'une hypertension artérielle. PMID:25419342

  14. Etude des connaissances, attitudes et pratiques en matière de réintégration sociale des femmes victimes de fistule obstétricale: région de l'Extrême-nord, Cameroun

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Sanou Sobze; Adogaye, Sali Ben Béchir; Rodrigue, Mabvouna Biguioh; Maurice, Douryang; Vivaldi, Teikeu Tessa Vladimir; Amede, Saah Fopa Michael; Marie, Ovaga Eyenga Landry; Meriam, Ausseil Sandra; Colizzi, Vittorio; Gianluca, Russo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction La fistule obstétricale est un orifice entre le vagin et la vessie ou le rectum, voire les deux. Ses impacts sont des conséquences anatomo-fonctionnelles et sociales. On estime à plus de 19 000 le nombre de femmes qui souffrent de fistule obstétricale au Cameroun. Méthodes Il s'agissait d'une étude transversale descriptive conduite dans trois districts de santé de la région de l'Extrême-nord. Vingt-huit femmes victimes de fistules obstétricales, quarante-deux membres de leur entourage et vingt-quatre agents de santé ont été interviewés entre Novembre et Décembre 2013. Trois types de questionnaires ont été utilisés. Les données ont été analysées dans Epi Info version 7.1.4.0. Les moyennes et les fréquences ont été calculées avec un intervalle de confiance à 95%. Résultats 46,4% des femmes victimes de fistule obstétricales interviewées avaient subi une intervention chirurgicale réparatrice parmi lesquelles, 61,5% bénéficiaient de la réintégration. Le fonds de commerce (62,5%) était l'aide la plus reçue. Vingt-deux membres de l'entourage savaient pourquoi on fait la réintégration. Selon eux, les considérations socioculturelles (68,2%), sont la principale barrière de la réintégration. D'après les agents de santé, le suivi psychosocial (58,3%) est la principale activité de la réintégration dans les centres de prise en charge de la fistule. Conclusion La prise en charge des fistules obstétricales au Cameroun souffre de manque de réintégration sociale. Ceci expliquerait en partie la persistance de cette pathologie. Un accent devrait être mis sur l'appui matériel, financier et sur le suivi psychosocial des femmes victimes de fistule obstétricale. PMID:26113915

  15. Physiopathology and treatment of critical bleeding: a literature review.

    PubMed

    González Guerrero, Celia; Montoro Ronsano, José Bruno

    2015-11-01

    Objetivos: desarrollar los factores implicados en la fisiopatología de la coagulopatía asociada al traumatismo (CAT) mediante una revisión de la literatura publicada al respecto; además de revisar la evidencia disponible sobre el tratamiento de la hemorragia crítica y las recomendaciones de las guías de práctica clínica. Métodos: se ha realizado una búsqueda de la bibliografía publicada sobre la fisiopatología y tratamiento de la hemorragia crítica en las bases de datos PUBMED, BestPractice, UpToDate y la Biblioteca Cochrane Plus. Las principales palabras clave utilizadas para la búsqueda han sido: “early trauma induced coagulopathy”, “mechanisms of early trauma-induced coagulopathy”, “blood transfusión guidelines”, “massive transfusion guidelines” y ”fibrinogen replacement therapy”. Los artículos más clínicamente relevantes han sido seleccionados para la revisión. Conclusiones: la fisiopatología de la coagulopatía asociada al traumatismo se trata de un cuadro más complejo y multifactorial de lo que inicialmente se había aceptado. El tratamiento precoz de la coagulopatía es imprescindible para el manejo inicial de la hemorragia crítica. No obstante, el uso de hemoderivados debería ser racional y basado en una evidencia científica homogénea y de alta calidad. Los principales pilares del tratamiento de la hemorragia crítica son la fluidoterapia, el concentrado de fibrinógeno, el concentrado de complejo protrombínico, el plasma, los concentrados de hematíes o de plaquetas, el ácido tranexámico y el calcio. Su administración debería valorarse en función de las condiciones clínicas de cada paciente.

  16. [Effects of combined aerobic and resistance training on cognition following stroke: a systematic review].

    PubMed

    García-Soto, Edurne; López de Munaín, M Lourdes; Santibáñez, Miguel

    2013-12-16

    Introduccion. El ictus es una de las principales causas de discapacidad. El ejercicio fisico ha demostrado beneficio en la rehabilitacion fisica de estos pacientes, pero su impacto en la funcion cognitiva no ha sido tan estudiado. Objetivo. Revisar los estudios que han evaluado el impacto del ejercicio fisico, especificamente del entrenamiento en fuerza/resistencia, sobre la mejora cognitiva en estos pacientes. Pacientes y metodos. Se realizo una busqueda en CENTRAL, Medline e ISI Web of Knowledge de estudios llevados a cabo en pacientes con ictus en los que se intervino con ejercicio fisico y se evaluo la funcion cognitiva tras la intervencion. Resultados. Se identificaron cinco estudios (93 pacientes). Los estudios identificados muestran una gran heterogeneidad en los tests usados para evaluar la funcion cognitiva y en los protocolos de ejercicio, y apoyan el impacto positivo del entrenamiento aerobico en la mejora en la funcion cognitiva. Los dos ultimos estudios publicados (50 pacientes) han evaluado de manera especifica la combinacion de entrenamiento aerobico y de fuerza/resistencia. Estos estudios sugieren que añadir fuerza/resistencia mejoraria en mayor medida la funcion cognitiva en general y la funcion ejecutiva en particular. Conclusiones. La actividad fisica constituye una estrategia prometedora para mejorar las funciones cognitivas tras el ictus. Se necesitan ensayos clinicos de mayor tamaño muestral y con mayor homogeneidad, tanto en los protocolos de ejercicio como en los tests usados para la funcion cognitiva, que confirmen estos resultados.

  17. Épidémiologie descriptive de la brûlure dans un territoire de santé exemple du « territoire nord franche-comté » durant l’année 2014

    PubMed Central

    Fortin, J.L.; Bitar, M.P.; Marx, T.; Macher, J.M.; Desmettre, T.; Ravat, F.; Labourey, J.M.; Capellier, G.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Cette étude est une analyse épidémiologique rétrospective du recours aux services de santé du nord de la Franche-Comté en raison d’une brûlure durant l’année 2014 (114 patients). L’âge moyen était de 26 ans (8 mois-81 ans), 1/3 des brûlures ont touché des enfants de moins de 15 ans. Les brûlures, plus fréquentes l’été, surviennent principalement autour de l’heure des repas, les jours « sans école », à domicile, avec un liquide chaud. Elles sont peu étendues (4,81% de la SCT) et souvent superficielles. Elles nécessitent un passage dans un Service d’Accueil des Urgences dans 88,59% des cas, suivi d’un transfert en CTB (Lyon plus que Nancy ou Metz) dans 12,28% des cas. PMID:27252605

  18. [Structural congenital myopathies].

    PubMed

    Erazo-Torricelli, Ricardo

    2013-09-01

    Introduccion. Las miopatias congenitas son un grupo heterogeneo de enfermedades que comparten clinica de inicio precoz y alteraciones histopatologicas musculares especificas. El estudio genetico permite determinar la mutacion causal en la mayoria de los casos. Existe heterogeneidad fenotipica y genotipica, lo que se ilustra al observar que un genotipo puede expresarse en mas de una forma clinicopatologica y un fenotipo puede estar causado por diferentes mutaciones geneticas. Desarrollo. En esta revision, se detallan las caracteristicas de las principales miopatias congenitas que permiten su identificacion clinica, patologica y genetica. Se describen los hallazgos de la biopsia muscular que constituyen el principal pilar diagnostico. Se enfatiza y se detalla la importancia del diagnostico diferencial, descartando otras patologias que se presentan con hipotonia en la lactancia o el periodo neonatal. Se destacan las formas neonatales graves (nemalinica, miotubular ligada al X) que se deben identificar precozmente para establecer el pronostico y brindar un consejo genetico adecuado. Se subrayan las mutaciones del gen rianodina (RYR1) por su asociacion a la hipertermia maligna y las mutaciones de la selenoproteina 1 (SEPN1) y la miopatia nemalinica por su asociacion a hipoventilacion nocturna. Conclusiones. El conocimiento profundo de las miopatias estructurales congenitas facilita la confirmacion diagnostica de la miopatia congenita, lo que permite la aplicacion oportuna de medidas relacionadas con la respiracion y la alimentacion de los casos mas graves y con la optimizacion de la funcion motora en todos los pacientes con miopatia congenita.

  19. [Oliver Sacks and literary neurology].

    PubMed

    Guardiola, Elena; Banos, Josep E

    2014-03-16

    Introduccion. La literatura medica de divulgacion intenta poner al alcance del publico general temas medicos en un lenguaje desprovisto, en lo posible, de jerga medica para hacerlo mas inteligible. En el ambito de la neurologia, su complejidad hace dificil que los relatos de esta especialidad sean faciles de comprender para el publico sin formacion medica. Objetivo. El presente articulo revisa la obra de Oliver Sacks en el ambito de la neurologia dirigida al publico general; se presentan las principales caracteristicas y las situaciones clinicas que describe. Desarrollo. Se incluyen unas notas biograficas sobre Oliver Sacks y se analizan los 11 libros publicados a lo largo de los ultimos 40 años. Para cada uno de ellos, se realiza una contextualizacion historica y se comentan los aspectos mas destacados que justifican el interes de su lectura. En la mayoria de los casos, se explica la genesis de la obra, asi como sus caracteristicas mas relevantes. Conclusiones. La obra de Sacks contiene un amplio abanico de situaciones clinicas de gran interes que se explican, generalmente, con un lenguaje accesible para el publico general. A los neurologos les permite, ademas, una vision holistica de diversas situaciones clinicas con una discusion de sus componentes biograficos, historicos y evolutivos.

  20. Qualification sous irradiation du crayon cea: de la conception des composants a l'irradiation d'assemblages en reacteur de puissance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marin, Jean-François; Pillet, Claude; François, Bernard; Morize, Pierre; Petitgrand, Sylvie; Atabek, Rose-Marie; Houdaille, Brigitte

    1982-04-01

    Cet article résume les principaux résultats obtenus au CEA au cours des dix dernières années dans la conception, la qualification et la fabrication des différents éléments originaux constitutifs d'un assemblage de réacteur à eau pressurisée, notamment: l'oxyde UO 2 obtenu par le procédé du Double Cycle Inverse, la gaine en zircaloy 4 recris talllsée, la grille à ressort papillon, la structure à grilles coulissantes. Les etudes et essais hors-pile de comportement thermomécanique du crayon et thermohydraulique des composants de l'assemblage, les irradiations paramétriques de crayons jusqu'à une combustion massique élevée, la validation à partir d'examens aprés irradiation des principaux modèles introduits dans les calculs de conception, enfin l'introduction en réacteur prototype, puis en réacteur de puissance d'assemblages comportant ces différents éléments, constituent les principales étapes de ce développement.