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Sample records for principles applications state

  1. Thermographic Phosphors for High Temperature Measurements: Principles, Current State of the Art and Recent Applications

    PubMed Central

    Khalid, Ashiq Hussain; Kontis, Konstantinos

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the state of phosphor thermometry, focusing on developments in the past 15 years. The fundamental principles and theory are presented, and the various spectral and temporal modes, including the lifetime decay, rise time and intensity ratio, are discussed. The entire phosphor measurement system, including relative advantages to conventional methods, choice of phosphors, bonding techniques, excitation sources and emission detection, is reviewed. Special attention is given to issues that may arise at high temperatures. A number of recent developments and applications are surveyed, with examples including: measurements in engines, hypersonic wind tunnel experiments, pyrolysis studies and droplet/spray/gas temperature determination. They show the technique is flexible and successful in measuring temperatures where conventional methods may prove to be unsuitable. PMID:27873836

  2. Thermographic Phosphors for High Temperature Measurements: Principles, Current State of the Art and Recent Applications.

    PubMed

    Khalid, Ashiq Hussain; Kontis, Konstantinos

    2008-09-15

    This paper reviews the state of phosphor thermometry, focusing on developments in the past 15 years. The fundamental principles and theory are presented, and the various spectral and temporal modes, including the lifetime decay, rise time and intensity ratio, are discussed. The entire phosphor measurement system, including relative advantages to conventional methods, choice of phosphors, bonding techniques, excitation sources and emission detection, is reviewed. Special attention is given to issues that may arise at high temperatures. A number of recent developments and applications are surveyed, with examples including: measurements in engines, hypersonic wind tunnel experiments, pyrolysis studies and droplet/spray/gas temperature determination. They show the technique is flexible and successful in measuring temperatures where conventional methods may prove to be unsuitable.

  3. First-principles equation-of-state table of deuterium for inertial confinement fusion applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, S. X.; Militzer, B.; Goncharov, V. N.; Skupsky, S.

    2011-12-01

    Understanding and designing inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions through radiation-hydrodynamics simulations relies on the accurate knowledge of the equation of state (EOS) of the deuterium and tritium fuels. To minimize the drive energy for ignition, the imploding shell of DT fuel must be kept as cold as possible. Such low-adiabat ICF implosions can access to coupled and degenerate plasma conditions, in which the analytical EOS models become inaccurate due to many-body effects. Using the path-integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) simulations we have derived a first-principles EOS (FPEOS) table of deuterium that covers typical ICF fuel conditions at densities ranging from 0.002 to 1596 g/cm3 and temperatures of 1.35 eV to 5.5 keV. We report the internal energy and the pressure and discuss the structure of the plasma in terms of pair-correlation functions. When compared with the widely used SESAME table and the revised Kerley03 table, discrepancies in the internal energy and in the pressure are identified for moderately coupled and degenerate plasma conditions. In contrast to the SESAME table, the revised Kerley03 table is in better agreement with our FPEOS results over a wide range of densities and temperatures. Although subtle differences still exist for lower temperatures (T < 10 eV) and moderate densities (1 to 10 g/cm3), hydrodynamics simulations of cryogenic ICF implosions using the FPEOS table and the Kerley03 table have resulted in similar results for the peak density, areal density (ρR), and neutron yield, which differ significantly from the SESAME simulations.

  4. First-principles equation-of-state table of deuterium for inertial confinement fusion applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, S. X.; Goncharov, V. N.; Skupsky, S.; Militzer, B.

    2011-12-01

    Understanding and designing inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions through radiation-hydrodynamics simulations relies on the accurate knowledge of the equation of state (EOS) of the deuterium and tritium fuels. To minimize the drive energy for ignition, the imploding shell of DT fuel must be kept as cold as possible. Such low-adiabat ICF implosions can access to coupled and degenerate plasma conditions, in which the analytical EOS models become inaccurate due to many-body effects. Using the path-integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) simulations we have derived a first-principles EOS (FPEOS) table of deuterium that covers typical ICF fuel conditions at densities ranging from 0.002 to 1596 g/cm{sup 3} and temperatures of 1.35 eV to 5.5 keV. We report the internal energy and the pressure and discuss the structure of the plasma in terms of pair-correlation functions. When compared with the widely used SESAME table and the revised Kerley03 table, discrepancies in the internal energy and in the pressure are identified for moderately coupled and degenerate plasma conditions. In contrast to the SESAME table, the revised Kerley03 table is in better agreement with our FPEOS results over a wide range of densities and temperatures. Although subtle differences still exist for lower temperatures (T < 10 eV) and moderate densities (1 to 10 g/cm{sup 3}), hydrodynamics simulations of cryogenic ICF implosions using the FPEOS table and the Kerley03 table have resulted in similar results for the peak density, areal density ({rho}R), and neutron yield, which differ significantly from the SESAME simulations.

  5. Magnetism: Principles and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craik, Derek J.

    2003-09-01

    If you are studying physics, chemistry, materials science, electrical engineering, information technology or medicine, then you'll know that understanding magnetism is fundamental to success in your studies and here is the key to unlocking the mysteries of magnetism....... You can: obtain a simple overview of magnetism, including the roles of B and H, resonances and special techniques take full advantage of modern magnets with a wealth of expressions for fields and forces develop realistic general design programmes using isoparametric finite elements study the subtleties of the general theory of magnetic moments and their dynamics follow the development of outstanding materials appreciate how magnetism encompasses topics as diverse as rock magnetism, chemical reaction rates, biological compasses, medical therapies, superconductivity and levitation understand the basis and remarkable achievements of magnetic resonance imaging In his new book, Magnetism, Derek Craik throws light on the principles and applications of this fascinating subject. From formulae for calculating fields to quantum theory, the secrets of magnetism are exposed, ensuring that whether you are a chemist or engineer, physicist, medic or materials scientist Magnetism is the book for our course.

  6. Dye laser principles, with applications

    SciTech Connect

    Duarte, F.J. . Dept. of Physics); Hillman, L.W. . Dept. of Physics)

    1990-01-01

    This book contains papers which explain dye laser principles. Topics covered include: laser dynamics, femtosecond dye lasers, CW dye lasers, technology of pulsed dye lases, photochemistry of laser dyes, and laser applications.

  7. Applications of Bohr's correspondence principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, Frank S.

    1989-07-01

    The Bohr correspondence-principle (cp) formula dE/dn=ℏω is presented (ω is the classical angular frequency) and its predicted energy levels En are compared to those given by the stationary state solutions of the Schrödinger equation, first for several examples in one dimension (1D), including the ``quantum bouncer,'' and then for several examples in three dimensions (3D), including the hydrogen atom and the isotropic harmonic oscillator. For the 3-D cases, the cp predictions based on classical circular orbits are compared with the ``circlelike'' Schrödinger solutions (those with the lowest energy eigenvalue for a given l) and the cp predictions based on classical ``needle'' orbits (having zero angular momentum) with the Schrödinger l=0 solutions. For the H atom and the isotropic oscillator, the cp prediction does not depend on the classical orbit chosen because of a ``degeneracy'': the fact that for these systems ω is independent of the orbit. As a more stringent test of the cp, analogous nondegenerate systems V=-k/r3/2 in place of the H-atom potential V=-e2/r and V=kr4 in place of the oscillator potential V=(1/2)mω2r2 are therefore considered. An interesting anomaly that occurs for the harmonic oscillator and its nondegenerate analog V=kr4 is encountered (but not for the H atom nor its nondegenerate analog V=-k/r3/2), wherein half of the states predicted by application of the cp to the needle orbits are ``spurious'' in that there are no corresponding Schrödinger l=0 states. The assumption that generated the spurious cp states is uncovered—a plausible, but erroneous factor of 2 in calculating the classical frequency—and thus the spurious states are eliminated.

  8. Microdosimetry: Principles and applications

    PubMed Central

    Santa Cruz, Gustavo A.

    2016-01-01

    Aim to present the most important aspects of Microdosimetry, a research field in radiation biophysics. Background microdosimetry is the branch of radiation biophysics that systematically studies the spatial, temporal and spectral aspects of the stochastic nature of the energy deposition processes in microscopic structures. Materials and Methods we briefly review its history, the people, the formalism and the theories and devices that allowed researchers to begin to understand the true nature of radiation action on living matter. Results and Conclusions we outline some of its applications, especially to Boron Neutron Capture Therapy, attempting to explain the biological effectiveness of the boron thermal neutron capture reaction. PMID:26933397

  9. Nanotechnology: Principles and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logothetidis, S.

    Nanotechnology is one of the leading scientific fields today since it combines knowledge from the fields of Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Medicine, Informatics, and Engineering. It is an emerging technological field with great potential to lead in great breakthroughs that can be applied in real life. Novel nano- and biomaterials, and nanodevices are fabricated and controlled by nanotechnology tools and techniques, which investigate and tune the properties, responses, and functions of living and non-living matter, at sizes below 100 nm. The application and use of nanomaterials in electronic and mechanical devices, in optical and magnetic components, quantum computing, tissue engineering, and other biotechnologies, with smallest features, widths well below 100 nm, are the economically most important parts of the nanotechnology nowadays and presumably in the near future. The number of nanoproducts is rapidly growing since more and more nanoengineered materials are reaching the global market The continuous revolution in nanotechnology will result in the fabrication of nanomaterials with properties and functionalities which are going to have positive changes in the lives of our citizens, be it in health, environment, electronics or any other field. In the energy generation challenge where the conventional fuel resources cannot remain the dominant energy source, taking into account the increasing consumption demand and the CO2 emissions alternative renewable energy sources based on new technologies have to be promoted. Innovative solar cell technologies that utilize nanostructured materials and composite systems such as organic photovoltaics offer great technological potential due to their attractive properties such as the potential of large-scale and low-cost roll-to-roll manufacturing processes The advances in nanomaterials necessitate parallel progress of the nanometrology tools and techniques to characterize and manipulate nanostructures. Revolutionary new approaches

  10. Artificial intelligence: Principles and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Yazdami, M.

    1985-01-01

    The book covers the principles of AI, the main areas of application, as well as considering some of the social implications. The applications chapters have a common format structured as follows: definition of the topic; approach with conventional computing techniques; why 'intelligence' would provide a better approach; and how AI techniques would be used and the limitations. The contents discussed are: Principles of artificial intelligence; AI programming environments; LISP, list processing and pattern-making; AI programming with POP-11; Computer processing of natural language; Speech synthesis and recognition; Computer vision; Artificial intelligence and robotics; The anatomy of expert systems - Forsyth; Machine learning; Memory models of man and machine; Artificial intelligence and cognitive psychology; Breaking out of the chinese room; Social implications of artificial intelligence; and Index.

  11. Enzymes: principles and biotechnological applications

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Peter K.

    2015-01-01

    Enzymes are biological catalysts (also known as biocatalysts) that speed up biochemical reactions in living organisms, and which can be extracted from cells and then used to catalyse a wide range of commercially important processes. This chapter covers the basic principles of enzymology, such as classification, structure, kinetics and inhibition, and also provides an overview of industrial applications. In addition, techniques for the purification of enzymes are discussed. PMID:26504249

  12. Enzymes: principles and biotechnological applications.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Peter K

    2015-01-01

    Enzymes are biological catalysts (also known as biocatalysts) that speed up biochemical reactions in living organisms, and which can be extracted from cells and then used to catalyse a wide range of commercially important processes. This chapter covers the basic principles of enzymology, such as classification, structure, kinetics and inhibition, and also provides an overview of industrial applications. In addition, techniques for the purification of enzymes are discussed.

  13. Deming's quality principles: a health care application.

    PubMed

    Lynn, M L; Osborn, D P

    1991-01-01

    W. Edwards Deming is considered a guru of quality by many international manufacturers. His ideas revolutionized Japan's auto industry in the 1950s, but did not make a substantial impact in the United States until 1980. Increasingly, service organizations, from hotels to public utility companies, are experimenting with his principles. This article explains how a 165-bed community hospital--Brazosport Memorial Hospital in Lake Jackson, Texas--is putting Deming's ideas to work in health care. Deming's philosophy and principles are described as is the hospital's application and implementation of his ideas; preliminary results are encouraging.

  14. Artificial intelligence: Principles and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Yazdani, M.

    1986-01-01

    Following the Japanese announcement that they intend to devise, make, and market, in the 1990s, computers incorporating a level of intelligence, a vast amount of energy and expense has been diverted at the field of Artificial Intelligence. Workers for the past 25 years in this discipline have tried to reproduce human behavior on computers and this book presents their achievements and the problems. Subjects include: computer vision, speech processing, robotics, natural language processing expert systems and machine learning. The book also attempts to show the general principles behind the various applications and finally attempts to show their implications for other human endeavors such as philosophy, psychology, and the development of modern society.

  15. Studying Dynamics by Magic-Angle Spinning Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy: Principles and Applications to Biomolecules

    PubMed Central

    Schanda, Paul; Ernst, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Magic-angle spinning solid-state NMR spectroscopy is an important technique to study molecular structure, dynamics and interactions, and is rapidly gaining importance in biomolecular sciences. Here we provide an overview of experimental approaches to study molecular dynamics by MAS solid-state NMR, with an emphasis on the underlying theoretical concepts and differences of MAS solid-state NMR compared to solution-state NMR. The theoretical foundations of nuclear spin relaxation are revisited, focusing on the particularities of spin relaxation in solid samples under magic-angle spinning. We discuss the range of validity of Redfield theory, as well as the inherent multi-exponential behavior of relaxation in solids. Experimental challenges for measuring relaxation parameters in MAS solid-state NMR and a few recently proposed relaxation approaches are discussed, which provide information about time scales and amplitudes of motions ranging from picoseconds to milliseconds. We also discuss the theoretical basis and experimental measurements of anisotropic interactions (chemical-shift anisotropies, dipolar and quadrupolar couplings), which give direct information about the amplitude of motions. The potential of combining relaxation data with such measurements of dynamically-averaged anisotropic interactions is discussed. Although the focus of this review is on the theoretical foundations of dynamics studies rather than their application, we close by discussing a small number of recent dynamics studies, where the dynamic properties of proteins in crystals are compared to those in solution. PMID:27110043

  16. First-principles studies on the equation of state, thermal conductivity, and opacity of deuterium-tritium (DT) and polystyrene (CH) for inertial confinement fusion applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, S. X.; Collins, L. A.; Goncharov, V. N.; Kress, J. D.; Boehly, T. R.; Epstein, R.; McCrory, R. L.; Skupsky, S.

    2016-05-01

    Using first-principles (FP) methods, we have performed ab initio compute for the equation of state (EOS), thermal conductivity, and opacity of deuterium-tritium (DT) in a wide range of densities and temperatures for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) applications. These systematic investigations have recently been expanded to accurately compute the plasma properties of CH ablators under extreme conditions. In particular, the first-principles EOS and thermal-conductivity tables of CH are self-consistently built from such FP calculations, which are benchmarked by experimental measurements. When compared with the traditional models used for these plasma properties in hydrocodes, significant differences have been identified in the warm dense plasma regime. When these FP-calculated properties of DT and CH were used in our hydrodynamic simulations of ICF implosions, we found that the target performance in terms of neutron yield and energy gain can vary by a factor of 2 to 3, relative to traditional model simulations.

  17. First-principles studies on the equation-of-state, thermal-conductivity, and opacity of deuterium-tritium and polystyrene (CH) for inertial confinement fusion applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Suxing; Collins, Lee A.; Goncharov, V. N.; Kress, Joel David; Boehly, T. R.; Epstein, R.; McCrory, R. L.; Skupsky, S.

    2016-05-26

    Using first-principles (FP) methods, we have performed ab initio compute for the equation of state (EOS), thermal conductivity, and opacity of deuterium-tritium (DT) in a wide range of densities and temperatures for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) applications. These systematic investigations have recently been expanded to accurately compute the plasma properties of CH ablators under extreme conditions. In particular, the first-principles EOS and thermal-conductivity tables of CH are self-consistently built from such FP calculations, which are benchmarked by experimental measurements. When compared with the traditional models used for these plasma properties in hydrocodes, significant differences have been identified in the warm dense plasma regime. When these FP-calculated properties of DT and CH were used in our hydrodynamic simulations of ICF implosions, we found that the target performance in terms of neutron yield and energy gain can vary by a factor of 2 to 3, relative to traditional model simulations.

  18. Updated Principle of Corresponding States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-Amotz, Dor; Gift, Alan D.; Levine, R. D.

    2004-01-01

    The rule of corresponding states, which shows the connection between the thermodynamic properties of various liquids is re-examined. The overall likeness is observed by using an updated scaling technique of Lennard-Jones corresponding states (LJ-CS).

  19. Spectral imaging: principles and applications.

    PubMed

    Garini, Yuval; Young, Ian T; McNamara, George

    2006-08-01

    Spectral imaging extends the capabilities of biological and clinical studies to simultaneously study multiple features such as organelles and proteins qualitatively and quantitatively. Spectral imaging combines two well-known scientific methodologies, namely spectroscopy and imaging, to provide a new advantageous tool. The need to measure the spectrum at each point of the image requires combining dispersive optics with the more common imaging equipment, and introduces constrains as well. The principles of spectral imaging and a few representative applications are described. Spectral imaging analysis is necessary because the complex data structure cannot be analyzed visually. A few of the algorithms are discussed with emphasis on the usage for different experimental modes (fluorescence and bright field). Finally, spectral imaging, like any method, should be evaluated in light of its advantages to specific applications, a selection of which is described. Spectral imaging is a relatively new technique and its full potential is yet to be exploited. Nevertheless, several applications have already shown its potential. (c) 2006 International Society for Analytical Cytology.

  20. Scattered Radiation Emission Imaging: Principles and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, M. K.; Truong, T. T.; Morvidone, M.; Zaidi, H.

    2011-01-01

    Imaging processes built on the Compton scattering effect have been under continuing investigation since it was first suggested in the 50s. However, despite many innovative contributions, there are still formidable theoretical and technical challenges to overcome. In this paper, we review the state-of-the-art principles of the so-called scattered radiation emission imaging. Basically, it consists of using the cleverly collected scattered radiation from a radiating object to reconstruct its inner structure. Image formation is based on the mathematical concept of compounded conical projection. It entails a Radon transform defined on circular cone surfaces in order to express the scattered radiation flux density on a detecting pixel. We discuss in particular invertible cases of such conical Radon transforms which form a mathematical basis for image reconstruction methods. Numerical simulations performed in two and three space dimensions speak in favor of the viability of this imaging principle and its potential applications in various fields. PMID:21747823

  1. Application of the principle of similarity fluid mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Sengers, J. V.

    1979-01-01

    Possible applications of the principle of similarity to fluid mechanics is described and illustrated. In correlating thermophysical properties of fluids, the similarity principle transcends the traditional corresponding states principle. In fluid mechanics the similarity principle is useful in correlating flow processes that can be modeled adequately with one independent variable (i.e., one-dimensional flows). In this paper we explore the concept of transforming the conservation equations by combining similarity principles for thermophysical properties with those for fluid flow. We illustrate the usefulness of the procedure by applying such a transformation to calculate two phase critical mass flow through a nozzle.

  2. Deriving and applying generally applicable safety principles

    SciTech Connect

    Spray, S.D.

    1998-08-01

    The nuclear detonation safety of modern nuclear weapons depends on a coordinated safety theme incorporating three general safety principles: isolation, inoperability, and incompatibility. The success of this approach has encouraged them to study whether these and/or other principles might be useful in other applications. Not surprisingly, no additional first-principles (based on physical laws) have been identified. However, a more widely applicable definition and application of the principle-based approach has been developed, resulting in a selection of strategies that are basically subsets and varied combinations of the more general principles above. However, identification of principles to be relied on is only one step in providing a safe design. As one other important example, coordinating overall architecture and strategy is essential: the authors term this a safety theme.

  3. First-principles studies on the equation-of-state, thermal-conductivity, and opacity of deuterium-tritium and polystyrene (CH) for inertial confinement fusion applications

    DOE PAGES

    Hu, Suxing; Collins, Lee A.; Goncharov, V. N.; ...

    2016-05-26

    Using first-principles (FP) methods, we have performed ab initio compute for the equation of state (EOS), thermal conductivity, and opacity of deuterium-tritium (DT) in a wide range of densities and temperatures for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) applications. These systematic investigations have recently been expanded to accurately compute the plasma properties of CH ablators under extreme conditions. In particular, the first-principles EOS and thermal-conductivity tables of CH are self-consistently built from such FP calculations, which are benchmarked by experimental measurements. When compared with the traditional models used for these plasma properties in hydrocodes, significant differences have been identified in the warmmore » dense plasma regime. When these FP-calculated properties of DT and CH were used in our hydrodynamic simulations of ICF implosions, we found that the target performance in terms of neutron yield and energy gain can vary by a factor of 2 to 3, relative to traditional model simulations.« less

  4. [Scope and application of the precautionary principle in public law].

    PubMed

    Bacquet, A

    2000-01-01

    The precautionary principle set forth in article L.200-1 of the rural code is applicable to the environmental domain defined in the first paragraph of the same article. This principle regulates the action of public authorities responsible for elaborating environmental policies and implementing protective measures. It is not only a principle for political action but also a directly applicable legal measure specifically designed to authorize or impose the application of environmental protection measures, even in the absence of certitude. In its present state this new and very general standard fits awkwardly into the existing legal context. The Conseil d'Etat has extended the application of the precautionary principle to the domain of public health. In this context it is essential to maintain the important role of the advantage risk principle.

  5. Functional Neuroimaging: Fundamental Principles and Clinical Applications.

    PubMed

    Khanna, Nishanth; Altmeyer, Wilson; Zhuo, Jiachen; Steven, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    Functional imaging modalities, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), are rapidly changing the scope and practice of neuroradiology. While these modalities have long been used in research, they are increasingly being used in clinical practice to enable reliable identification of eloquent cortex and white matter tracts in order to guide treatment planning and to serve as a diagnostic supplement when traditional imaging fails. An understanding of the scientific principles underlying fMRI and DTI is necessary in current radiological practice. fMRI relies on a compensatory hemodynamic response seen in cortical activation and the intrinsic discrepant magnetic properties of deoxy- and oxyhemoglobin. Neuronal activity can be indirectly visualized based on a hemodynamic response, termed neurovascular coupling. fMRI demonstrates utility in identifying areas of cortical activation (i.e., task-based activation) and in discerning areas of neuronal connectivity when used during the resting state, termed resting state fMRI. While fMRI is limited to visualization of gray matter, DTI permits visualization of white matter tracts through diffusion restriction along different axes. We will discuss the physical, statistical and physiological principles underlying these functional imaging modalities and explore new promising clinical applications.

  6. Combining insights from solid-state NMR and first principles calculation: applications to the 19F NMR of octafluoronaphthalene.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Andrew J; Ng, William T K; Jochym, Dominik; Keal, Thomas W; Clark, Stewart J; Tozer, David J; Hodgkinson, Paul

    2007-05-21

    Advances in solid-state NMR methodology and computational chemistry are applied to the (19)F NMR of solid octafluoronaphthalene. It is demonstrated experimentally, and confirmed by density functional theory (DFT) calculations, that the spectral resolution in the magic-angle spinning spectrum is limited by the anisotropy of the bulk magnetic susceptibility (ABMS). This leads to the unusual observation that the resolution improves as the sample is diluted. DFT calculations provide assignments of each of the peaks in the (19)F spectrum, but the predictions are close to the limits of accuracy and correlation information from 2-D NMR is invaluable in confirming the assignments. The effects of non-Gaussian lineshapes on the use of 2-D NMR for mapping correlations of spectral frequencies (e.g. due to the ABMS) are also discussed.

  7. Qualitative biomechanical principles for application in coaching.

    PubMed

    Knudson, Duane

    2007-01-01

    Many aspects of human movements in sport can be readily understood by Newtonian rigid-body mechanics. Many of these laws and biomechanical principles, however, are counterintuitive to a lot of people. There are also several problems in the application of biomechanics to sports, so the application of biomechanics in the qualitative analysis of sport skills by many coaches has been limited. Biomechanics scholars have long been interested in developing principles that facilitate the qualitative application of biomechanics to improve movement performance and reduce the risk of injury. This paper summarizes the major North American efforts to establish a set of general biomechanical principles of movement, and illustrates how principles can be used to improve the application of biomechanics in the qualitative analysis of sport technique. A coach helping a player with a tennis serve is presented as an example. The standardization of terminology for biomechanical principles is proposed as an important first step in improving the application ofbiomechanics in sport. There is also a need for international cooperation and research on the effectiveness of applying biomechanical principles in the coaching of sport techniques.

  8. Magnetic ground state of SrRuO3 thin film and applicability of standard first-principles approximations to metallic magnetism.

    PubMed

    Ryee, Siheon; Han, Myung Joon

    2017-07-05

    A systematic first-principles study has been performed to understand the magnetism of thin film SrRuO3 which lots of research efforts have been devoted to but no clear consensus has been reached about its ground state properties. The relative t 2g level difference, lattice distortion as well as the layer thickness play together in determining the spin order. In particular, it is important to understand the difference between two standard approximations, namely LDA and GGA, in describing this metallic magnetism. Landau free energy analysis and the magnetization-energy-ratio plot clearly show the different tendency of favoring the magnetic moment formation, and it is magnified when applied to the thin film limit where the experimental information is severely limited. As a result, LDA gives a qualitatively different prediction from GGA in the experimentally relevant region of strain whereas both approximations give reasonable results for the bulk phase. We discuss the origin of this difference and the applicability of standard methods to the correlated oxide and the metallic magnetic systems.

  9. Principles and applications of SPATE - An update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver, D. E.

    The historic background of the stress-pattern-analysis-from-thermal-emissions (SPATE) technique and its principles are reviewed, and applications related to automotive, agricultural, jet-engine, and aerospace industries are outlined. Separation of principal stresses, elevated-temperature and residual-stress measurements, and the development of theories for thermographic damage mechanisms are also discussed as research applications of the method.

  10. Radiation chemistry: principles and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Farhataziz; Rodgers, M.A.J.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to present a detailed overview of radiation chemistry, including physical foundations such as interaction of radiation with matter, description of typical experimental systems, and applications in biological systems and industrial processes. In order to accomplish this ambitious plan, the editors selected as author of each individual chapter a scientist actively engaged in research in the area in question. The first eight chapters are concerned with fundamental topics, including the interaction of radiation with matter, formation of reactive intermediates including electrons, ions, radicals, and excited molecules; and theoretical aspects including track models, diffusion kinetics, and theories of the solvated electron. The next eight chapters discuss radiolysis of various types of chemical systems including gases, water, and aqueous solutions, organic liquids, colloids, and organic solids, alkali halides, and synthetic polymers and biopolymers. The final four chapters concern applications to such areas as biochemistry and radiobiology, radiolysis of microorganisms and mammalian cells, and industrial radiation processing including sterilization.

  11. Teaching General Principles and Applications of Dendrogeomorphology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, David R.

    1987-01-01

    Tree-ring analysis in geomorphology can be incorporated into a number of undergraduate methods in order to reconstruct the history of a variety of geomorphic processes. Discusses dendrochronology, general principles of dendrogeomorphology, field sampling methods, laboratory techniques, and examples of applications. (TW)

  12. Magnetic Resonance Angiography: Principles and Applications.

    PubMed

    Dyke, Lara M

    2013-12-01

    Magnetic Resonance Angiography: Principles and Applications. Carr J. C., Carroll T. J., Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg/New York, 2012. 412 pp. Price $179.00. ISBN 978-1-4419-1685-3 (hardcover). © 2013 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  13. Teaching General Principles and Applications of Dendrogeomorphology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, David R.

    1987-01-01

    Tree-ring analysis in geomorphology can be incorporated into a number of undergraduate methods in order to reconstruct the history of a variety of geomorphic processes. Discusses dendrochronology, general principles of dendrogeomorphology, field sampling methods, laboratory techniques, and examples of applications. (TW)

  14. Optical coherence tomography - principles and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fercher, A. F.; Drexler, W.; Hitzenberger, C. K.; Lasser, T.

    2003-02-01

    There have been three basic approaches to optical tomography since the early 1980s: diffraction tomography, diffuse optical tomography and optical coherence tomography (OCT). Optical techniques are of particular importance in the medical field, because these techniques promise to be safe and cheap and, in addition, offer a therapeutic potential. Advances in OCT technology have made it possible to apply OCT in a wide variety of applications but medical applications are still dominating. Specific advantages of OCT are its high depth and transversal resolution, the fact, that its depth resolution is decoupled from transverse resolution, high probing depth in scattering media, contact-free and non-invasive operation, and the possibility to create various function dependent image contrasting methods. This report presents the principles of OCT and the state of important OCT applications. OCT synthesises cross-sectional images from a series of laterally adjacent depth-scans. At present OCT is used in three different fields of optical imaging, in macroscopic imaging of structures which can be seen by the naked eye or using weak magnifications, in microscopic imaging using magnifications up to the classical limit of microscopic resolution and in endoscopic imaging, using low and medium magnification. First, OCT techniques, like the reflectometry technique and the dual beam technique were based on time-domain low coherence interferometry depth-scans. Later, Fourier-domain techniques have been developed and led to new imaging schemes. Recently developed parallel OCT schemes eliminate the need for lateral scanning and, therefore, dramatically increase the imaging rate. These schemes use CCD cameras and CMOS detector arrays as photodetectors. Video-rate three-dimensional OCT pictures have been obtained. Modifying interference microscopy techniques has led to high-resolution optical coherence microscopy that achieved sub-micrometre resolution. This report is concluded with a

  15. Ultrasound elastography: principles, techniques, and clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Dewall, Ryan J

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasound elastography is an emerging set of imaging modalities used to image tissue elasticity and are often referred to as virtual palpation. These techniques have proven effective in detecting and assessing many different pathologies, because tissue mechanical changes often correlate with tissue pathological changes. This article reviews the principles of ultrasound elastography, many of the ultrasound-based techniques, and popular clinical applications. Originally, elastography was a technique that imaged tissue strain by comparing pre- and postcompression ultrasound images. However, new techniques have been developed that use different excitation methods such as external vibration or acoustic radiation force. Some techniques track transient phenomena such as shear waves to quantitatively measure tissue elasticity. Clinical use of elastography is increasing, with applications including lesion detection and classification, fibrosis staging, treatment monitoring, vascular imaging, and musculoskeletal applications.

  16. Nuclear magnetic resonance in environmental engineering: principles and applications.

    PubMed

    Lens, P N; Hemminga, M A

    1998-01-01

    This paper gives an introduction to nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in relation to applications in the field of environmental science and engineering. The underlying principles of high resolution solution and solid state NMR, relaxation time measurements and imaging are presented. Then, the use of NMR is illustrated and reviewed in studies of biodegradation and biotransformation of soluble and solid organic matter, removal of nutrients and xenobiotics, fate of heavy metal ions, and transport processes in bioreactor systems.

  17. Principle and Application of Differential Spectroradiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzdorf, J.; Möller, W.; Wittchen, T.; Hünerhoff, D.

    1991-01-01

    Differential spectroradiometry is based on the determination and analysis of the differential spectral response of photoelectric devices in the presence of bias irradiance that can be varied with wavelength and over many orders of magnitude. The principle is described. Differential spectroradiometry is particularly suitable for the following applications that are reviewed or illustrated by some examples: determination of spectral and weighted responsivities allowing the transfer of the spectral responsivity scale to high levels of irradiance; determination of nonlinearities in the photocurrent-irradiance characteristic; non-destructive characterization of photoinduced effects.

  18. The applicability of the HSAB principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torrent-Sucarrat, Miquel

    2012-12-01

    In a very recent article (Chem. Eur. J. 14, 8652-8660 (2008)), the present author has shown that the picture of the local softness and local hardness is incomplete and that the understanding of these reactivity indices must be "redefined". In fact, the local softness and hardness contain the "same potential" information and they have to be considered as "local abundance" or "concentration" of their corresponding properties. In this contribution, we will analyze the implications in the applicability of the local version of the HSAB principle.

  19. Microwave thermography: principles, methods and clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Myers, P C; Sadowsky, N L; Barrett, A H

    1979-06-01

    We review the physical principles, method of operation, measurement limitations, and potential medical applications of microwave thermography. We present detailed results of a study of breast cancer detection at 1.3 and 3.3 GHz, including the dependence of detection rates on microwave frequency, time, tumor depth, and tumor size. At 1.3 GHz, microwave thermography detects breast cancer as well as infrared thermography (true-positive rate = 0.76 when true-negative rate = 0.63). When the two methods are combined, the true-positive rate increases by about 0.1 over that of either method alone.

  20. Generalized uncertainty principle: Approaches and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tawfik, A.; Diab, A.

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, we review some highlights from the String theory, the black hole physics and the doubly special relativity and some thought experiments which were suggested to probe the shortest distances and/or maximum momentum at the Planck scale. Furthermore, all models developed in order to implement the minimal length scale and/or the maximum momentum in different physical systems are analyzed and compared. They entered the literature as the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP) assuming modified dispersion relation, and therefore are allowed for a wide range of applications in estimating, for example, the inflationary parameters, Lorentz invariance violation, black hole thermodynamics, Saleker-Wigner inequalities, entropic nature of gravitational laws, Friedmann equations, minimal time measurement and thermodynamics of the high-energy collisions. One of the higher-order GUP approaches gives predictions for the minimal length uncertainty. A second one predicts a maximum momentum and a minimal length uncertainty, simultaneously. An extensive comparison between the different GUP approaches is summarized. We also discuss the GUP impacts on the equivalence principles including the universality of the gravitational redshift and the free fall and law of reciprocal action and on the kinetic energy of composite system. The existence of a minimal length and a maximum momentum accuracy is preferred by various physical observations. The concern about the compatibility with the equivalence principles, the universality of gravitational redshift and the free fall and law of reciprocal action should be addressed. We conclude that the value of the GUP parameters remain a puzzle to be verified.

  1. Principles, Techniques, and Applications of Tissue Microfluidics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, Lawrence A.; Kartalov, Emil P.; Shibata, Darryl; Taylor, Clive

    2011-01-01

    The principle of tissue microfluidics and its resultant techniques has been applied to cell analysis. Building microfluidics to suit a particular tissue sample would allow the rapid, reliable, inexpensive, highly parallelized, selective extraction of chosen regions of tissue for purposes of further biochemical analysis. Furthermore, the applicability of the techniques ranges beyond the described pathology application. For example, they would also allow the posing and successful answering of new sets of questions in many areas of fundamental research. The proposed integration of microfluidic techniques and tissue slice samples is called tissue microfluidics because it molds the microfluidic architectures in accordance with each particular structure of each specific tissue sample. Thus, microfluidics can be built around the tissues, following the tissue structure, or alternatively, the microfluidics can be adapted to the specific geometry of particular tissues. By contrast, the traditional approach is that microfluidic devices are structured in accordance with engineering considerations, while the biological components in applied devices are forced to comply with these engineering presets. The proposed principles represent a paradigm shift in microfluidic technology in three important ways: Microfluidic devices are to be directly integrated with, onto, or around tissue samples, in contrast to the conventional method of off-chip sample extraction followed by sample insertion in microfluidic devices. Architectural and operational principles of microfluidic devices are to be subordinated to suit specific tissue structure and needs, in contrast to the conventional method of building devices according to fluidic function alone and without regard to tissue structure. Sample acquisition from tissue is to be performed on-chip and is to be integrated with the diagnostic measurement within the same device, in contrast to the conventional method of off-chip sample prep and

  2. Flow cytometry: basic principles and applications.

    PubMed

    Adan, Aysun; Alizada, Günel; Kiraz, Yağmur; Baran, Yusuf; Nalbant, Ayten

    2017-03-01

    Flow cytometry is a sophisticated instrument measuring multiple physical characteristics of a single cell such as size and granularity simultaneously as the cell flows in suspension through a measuring device. Its working depends on the light scattering features of the cells under investigation, which may be derived from dyes or monoclonal antibodies targeting either extracellular molecules located on the surface or intracellular molecules inside the cell. This approach makes flow cytometry a powerful tool for detailed analysis of complex populations in a short period of time. This review covers the general principles and selected applications of flow cytometry such as immunophenotyping of peripheral blood cells, analysis of apoptosis and detection of cytokines. Additionally, this report provides a basic understanding of flow cytometry technology essential for all users as well as the methods used to analyze and interpret the data. Moreover, recent progresses in flow cytometry have been discussed in order to give an opinion about the future importance of this technology.

  3. A correspondence principle for steady-state wave problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmerr, L. W.

    1976-01-01

    A correspondence principle was developed for treating the steady state propagation of waves from sources moving along a plane surface or interface. This new principle allows one to obtain, in a unified manner, explicit solutions for any source velocity. To illustrate the correspondence principle in a particular case, the problem of a load moving at an arbitrary constant velocity along the surface of an elastic half-space is considered.

  4. MEMS temperature scanner: principles, advances, and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otto, Thomas; Saupe, Ray; Stock, Volker; Gessner, Thomas

    2010-02-01

    Contactless measurement of temperatures has gained enormous significance in many application fields, ranging from climate protection over quality control to object recognition in public places or military objects. Thereby measurement of linear or spatially temperature distribution is often necessary. For this purposes mostly thermographic cameras or motor driven temperature scanners are used today. Both are relatively expensive and the motor drive devices are limited regarding to the scanning rate additionally. An economic alternative are temperature scanner devices based on micro mirrors. The micro mirror, attached in a simple optical setup, reflects the emitted radiation from the observed heat onto an adapted detector. A line scan of the target object is obtained by periodic deflection of the micro scanner. Planar temperature distribution will be achieved by perpendicularly moving the target object or the scanner device. Using Planck radiation law the temperature of the object is calculated. The device can be adapted to different temperature ranges and resolution by using different detectors - cooled or uncooled - and parameterized scanner parameters. With the basic configuration 40 spatially distributed measuring points can be determined with temperatures in a range from 350°C - 1000°C. The achieved miniaturization of such scanners permits the employment in complex plants with high building density or in direct proximity to the measuring point. The price advantage enables a lot of applications, especially new application in the low-price market segment This paper shows principle, setup and application of a temperature measurement system based on micro scanners working in the near infrared range. Packaging issues and measurement results will be discussed as well.

  5. Principles, Techniques, and Applications of Tissue Microfluidics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, Lawrence A.; Kartalov, Emil P.; Shibata, Darryl; Taylor, Clive

    2011-01-01

    The principle of tissue microfluidics and its resultant techniques has been applied to cell analysis. Building microfluidics to suit a particular tissue sample would allow the rapid, reliable, inexpensive, highly parallelized, selective extraction of chosen regions of tissue for purposes of further biochemical analysis. Furthermore, the applicability of the techniques ranges beyond the described pathology application. For example, they would also allow the posing and successful answering of new sets of questions in many areas of fundamental research. The proposed integration of microfluidic techniques and tissue slice samples is called "tissue microfluidics" because it molds the microfluidic architectures in accordance with each particular structure of each specific tissue sample. Thus, microfluidics can be built around the tissues, following the tissue structure, or alternatively, the microfluidics can be adapted to the specific geometry of particular tissues. By contrast, the traditional approach is that microfluidic devices are structured in accordance with engineering considerations, while the biological components in applied devices are forced to comply with these engineering presets.

  6. 32 CFR 11.4 - Applicable principles of law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicable principles of law. 11.4 Section 11.4... ELEMENTS FOR TRIALS BY MILITARY COMMISSION § 11.4 Applicable principles of law. (a) General intent. All... wrongful if it is done without justification or excuse cognizable under applicable law. The element...

  7. 32 CFR 11.4 - Applicable principles of law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Applicable principles of law. 11.4 Section 11.4... ELEMENTS FOR TRIALS BY MILITARY COMMISSION § 11.4 Applicable principles of law. (a) General intent. All... wrongful if it is done without justification or excuse cognizable under applicable law. The element...

  8. Hooke's Law: Applications of a Recurring Principle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giuliodori, Mauricio J.; Lujan, Heidi L.; Briggs, Whitney S.; Palani, Gurunanthan; DiCarlo, Stephen E.

    2009-01-01

    Students generally approach topics in physiology as a series of unrelated phenomena that share few underlying principles. However, if students recognized that the same underlying principles can be used to explain many physiological phenomena, they may gain a more unified understanding of physiological systems. To address this concern, we…

  9. Hooke's Law: Applications of a Recurring Principle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giuliodori, Mauricio J.; Lujan, Heidi L.; Briggs, Whitney S.; Palani, Gurunanthan; DiCarlo, Stephen E.

    2009-01-01

    Students generally approach topics in physiology as a series of unrelated phenomena that share few underlying principles. However, if students recognized that the same underlying principles can be used to explain many physiological phenomena, they may gain a more unified understanding of physiological systems. To address this concern, we…

  10. Principles of solid-state power conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarter, R. E.

    1985-12-01

    The purpose of this book is to assemble, in one place, the comprehensive tools necessary to meet the growing demands placed upon solid-state power conversion equipment. Aspects of transient analysis, circuit analysis, and waveforms are discussed, taking into account waveform relations, magnetic fields, dielectric fields, the RL circuit, the RC circuit, the RLC circuit, the RLCR circuit with a DC input, AC circuit analysis, and components scaling. Semiconductors and resistors are considered along with capacitors, transformers, inductors, conductors, rectifiers and filters, phase-control circuits, transistor inverters, thyristor inverters, switching regulators, DC-DC converters, protection and safety, electromagnetic compatibility and grounding, semiconductor and equipment cooling, reliability and quality, regulated power supplies, and uninterruptible power systems. Attention is given to magnetic materials, toroid tape core transformers, permalloy powder cores, a six-phase dual bridge, thermal conduction and resistance, heat pipes, and thermoelectric coolers.

  11. Fluorescence interferometry: principles and applications in biology.

    PubMed

    Bilenca, Alberto; Cao, Jing; Colice, Max; Ozcan, Aydogan; Bouma, Brett; Raftery, Laurel; Tearney, Guillermo

    2008-01-01

    The use of fluorescence radiation is of fundamental importance for tackling measurement problems in the life sciences, with recent demonstrations of probing biological systems at the nanoscale. Usually, fluorescent light-based tools and techniques use the intensity of light waves, which is easily measured by detectors. However, the phase of a fluorescence wave contains subtle, but no less important, information about the wave; yet, it has been largely unexplored. Here, we introduce the concept of fluorescence interferometry to allow the measurement of phase information of fluorescent light waves. In principle, fluorescence interferometry can be considered a unique form of optical low-coherence interferometry that uses fluorophores as a light source of low temporal coherence. Fluorescence interferometry opens up new avenues for developing new fluorescent light-based imaging, sensing, ranging, and profiling methods that to some extent resemble interferometric techniques based on white light sources. We propose two experimental realizations of fluorescence interferometry that detect the interference pattern cast by the fluorescence fields. This article discusses their measurement capabilities and limitations and compares them with those offered by optical low-coherence interferometric schemes. We also describe applications of fluorescence interferometry to imaging, ranging, and profiling tasks and present experimental evidences of wide-field cross-sectional imaging with high resolution and large range of depth, as well as quantitative profiling with nanometer-level precision. Finally, we point out future research directions in fluorescence interferometry, such as fluorescence tomography of whole organisms and the extension to molecular interferometry by means of quantum dots and bioluminescence.

  12. A Geometric Application of the "Shepherd's Principle"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murrow, Gene

    1971-01-01

    The Shepherd's Principle (to count the number of sheep in a field, count the number of legs and divide by four) is applied to the problem of finding the number of different rectangles on an N by N checkerboard. (MM)

  13. A Geometric Application of the "Shepherd's Principle"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murrow, Gene

    1971-01-01

    The Shepherd's Principle (to count the number of sheep in a field, count the number of legs and divide by four) is applied to the problem of finding the number of different rectangles on an N by N checkerboard. (MM)

  14. Hooke's law: applications of a recurring principle.

    PubMed

    Giuliodori, Mauricio J; Lujan, Heidi L; Briggs, Whitney S; Palani, Gurunanthan; DiCarlo, Stephen E

    2009-12-01

    Students generally approach topics in physiology as a series of unrelated phenomena that share few underlying principles. However, if students recognized that the same underlying principles can be used to explain many physiological phenomena, they may gain a more unified understanding of physiological systems. To address this concern, we developed a simple, inexpensive, and easy to build model to demonstrate the underlying principles regarding Starling's Law of the Heart as well as lung and arterial elastic recoil. A model was chosen because models significantly enhance student understanding. Working with models also encourages research-oriented learning and helps our students understand complex ideas. Students are drawn into discussion by the power of learning that is associated with manipulating and thinking about objects. Recognizing that the same underlying principles can be used to explain many physiological phenomena may help students gain a more complete understanding of physiological systems.

  15. Volume II: Ecosystem management: principles and applications.

    Treesearch

    M.E. Jensen; P.S. Bourgeron

    1994-01-01

    This document provides land managers with practical suggestions for implementing ecosystem management. It contains 28 papers organized into five sections: historical perspectives, ecological principles, sampling design, case studies, and implementation strategies.

  16. Synthetic protein switches: design principles and applications.

    PubMed

    Stein, Viktor; Alexandrov, Kirill

    2015-02-01

    Protein switches are ubiquitous in biological signal transduction systems, enabling cells to sense and respond to a variety of molecular queues in a rapid, specific, and integrated fashion. Analogously, tailor-engineered protein switches with custom input and output functions have become invaluable research tools for reporting on distinct physiological states and actuating molecular functions in real time and in situ. Here, we analyze recent progress in constructing protein-based switches while assessing their potential in the assembly of defined signaling motifs. We anticipate such systems will ultimately pave the way towards a new generation of molecular diagnostics and facilitate the construction of artificial signaling systems that operate in parallel to the signaling machinery of a host cell for applications in synthetic biology.

  17. Fuel cells: principles, types, fuels, and applications.

    PubMed

    Carrette, L; Friedrich, K A; Stimming, U

    2000-12-15

    During the last decade, fuel cells have received enormous attention from research institutions and companies as novel electrical energy conversion systems. In the near future, they will see application in automotive propulsion, distributed power generation, and in low power portable devices (battery replacement). This review gives an introduction into the fundamentals and applications of fuel cells: Firstly, the environmental and social factors promoting fuel cell development are discussed, with an emphasis on the advantages of fuel cells compared to the conventional techniques. Then, the main reactions, which are responsible for the conversion of chemical into electrical energy in fuel cells, are given and the thermodynamic and kinetic fundamentals are stated. The theoretical and real efficiencies of fuel cells are also compared to that of internal combustion engines. Next, the different types of fuel cells and their main components are explained and the related material issues are presented. A section is devoted to fuel generation and storage, which is of paramount importance for the practical aspects of fuel cell use. Finally, attention is given to the integration of the fuel cells into complete systems. © 2000 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH, Weinheim, Fed. Rep. of Germany.

  18. “Stringy” coherent states inspired by generalized uncertainty principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Subir; Roy, Pinaki

    2012-05-01

    Coherent States with Fractional Revival property, that explicitly satisfy the Generalized Uncertainty Principle (GUP), have been constructed in the context of Generalized Harmonic Oscillator. The existence of such states is essential in motivating the GUP based phenomenological results present in the literature which otherwise would be of purely academic interest. The effective phase space is Non-Canonical (or Non-Commutative in popular terminology). Our results have a smooth commutative limit, equivalent to Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle. The Fractional Revival time analysis yields an independent bound on the GUP parameter. Using this and similar bounds obtained here, we derive the largest possible value of the (GUP induced) minimum length scale. Mandel parameter analysis shows that the statistics is Sub-Poissonian. Correspondence Principle is deformed in an interesting way. Our computational scheme is very simple as it requires only first order corrected energy values and undeformed basis states.

  19. Principles and clinical applications of strain imaging.

    PubMed

    Govind, Satish C; Kiotsekoglou, Anatoli; Gopal, Aasha S; Brodin, Lars Ake; Ramesh; Saha, Samir K

    2011-01-01

    M-Mode echocardiography, 2-D grey scale imaging and standard Doppler that constitute conventional echocardiography has been used for over many decades now. Although these modalities form the backbone in routine clinical echocardiography, its inability to objectively quantify left ventricular function at regional and global levels as well as its loading and heart rate dependency make conventional echocardiography an incomplete tool in clinical situations. Tissue Doppler imaging (which includes myocardial velocity, displacement and strain) has been successfully used in a variety of clinical situations, from investigations of diastolic function to implantation of bi-ventricular pacing for cardiac resynchronization therapy and even in preclinical diagnosis of genetic diseases such as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Strain imaging has been found to be superior to velocity in a variety of clinical conditions and enables us to quantify deformation as a measurable number in terms of regional myocardial deformation. Strain and strain rate have to be assessed together since they provide complementary information somewhat analogous to ejection fraction and contraction. This article has tried to simplify its principles, understand its limitations and know its utility to ensure having a better knowledge of this promising tool before one starts to actively use it. In this review, focus has been made on the physical, technical and also clinical aspects of strain imaging. In the new world of multi-modality imaging, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) and nuclear perfusion scintigraphy (NPS) are the competitors of echocardiography, but it would be of interest to note that even these modalities are also adapting concepts of strain imaging (in CMR) and left ventricular synchronicity (in NPS). This only emphasizes the role of advanced echocardiography as a more economical and stand-alone modality visa vis the other two related technologies. The sooner we adapt to these advanced

  20. Evolutionary principles and their practical application

    PubMed Central

    Hendry, Andrew P; Kinnison, Michael T; Heino, Mikko; Day, Troy; Smith, Thomas B; Fitt, Gary; Bergstrom, Carl T; Oakeshott, John; Jørgensen, Peter S; Zalucki, Myron P; Gilchrist, George; Southerton, Simon; Sih, Andrew; Strauss, Sharon; Denison, Robert F; Carroll, Scott P

    2011-01-01

    Evolutionary principles are now routinely incorporated into medicine and agriculture. Examples include the design of treatments that slow the evolution of resistance by weeds, pests, and pathogens, and the design of breeding programs that maximize crop yield or quality. Evolutionary principles are also increasingly incorporated into conservation biology, natural resource management, and environmental science. Examples include the protection of small and isolated populations from inbreeding depression, the identification of key traits involved in adaptation to climate change, the design of harvesting regimes that minimize unwanted life-history evolution, and the setting of conservation priorities based on populations, species, or communities that harbor the greatest evolutionary diversity and potential. The adoption of evolutionary principles has proceeded somewhat independently in these different fields, even though the underlying fundamental concepts are the same. We explore these fundamental concepts under four main themes: variation, selection, connectivity, and eco-evolutionary dynamics. Within each theme, we present several key evolutionary principles and illustrate their use in addressing applied problems. We hope that the resulting primer of evolutionary concepts and their practical utility helps to advance a unified multidisciplinary field of applied evolutionary biology. PMID:25567966

  1. Principles And Applications Of Dual Adaptive Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mookerjee, Purusottam

    1990-01-01

    Simulations indicate superiority of dual controller over "cautious" controller. Report discusses principles of design of actively adaptive dual controllers. Focus is upon derivation of control laws for dual controller enhancing identification of parameters of mathematical model of multiple-input/multiple-output system, while controlling it at same time. Tasks of identification and control impose competing requirements.

  2. 7 CFR Appendix A to Part 277 - Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Administration of the Food Stamp Program by State...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... provides funds to carry out programs, services, or activities in connection with administration of the Food... activities and operations of the State agency which are necessary to carry out the purposes of the Food Stamp... include procurement, payroll, personnel functions, maintenance and operation of space, data...

  3. 7 CFR Appendix A to Part 277 - Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Administration of the Food Stamp Program by State...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... provides funds to carry out programs, services, or activities in connection with administration of the Food... activities and operations of the State agency which are necessary to carry out the purposes of the Food Stamp... include procurement, payroll, personnel functions, maintenance and operation of space, data...

  4. 7 CFR Appendix A to Part 277 - Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Administration of the Food Stamp Program by State...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... provides funds to carry out programs, services, or activities in connection with administration of the Food... activities and operations of the State agency which are necessary to carry out the purposes of the Food Stamp... include procurement, payroll, personnel functions, maintenance and operation of space, data...

  5. 7 CFR Appendix A to Part 277 - Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Administration of the Food Stamp Program by State...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... provides funds to carry out programs, services, or activities in connection with administration of the Food... activities and operations of the State agency which are necessary to carry out the purposes of the Food Stamp... include procurement, payroll, personnel functions, maintenance and operation of space, data...

  6. Applying best interests to persistent vegetative state--a principled distortion?

    PubMed Central

    Fenwick, A J

    1998-01-01

    "Best interests" is widely accepted as the appropriate foundation principle for medico-legal decisions concerning treatment withdrawal from patients in persistent vegetative state (PVS). Its application appears to progress logically from earlier use regarding legally incompetent patients. This author argues, however, that such confidence in the relevance of the principle of best interests to PVS is misplaced, and that current construction in this context is questionable on four specific grounds. Furthermore, it is argued that the resulting legal inconsistency is distorting both the principle itself and, more particularly, individual patient interests. PMID:9602994

  7. [Application criteria of the precautionary principle].

    PubMed

    Moccaldi, R

    2011-01-01

    The precautionary principle, according to the European Commission (February 2, 2000) must be applied when there is a possibility of a danger to humans, animals and/or environment health, i.e. when the potential harmful effects have been identified by a scientific and objective evaluation, but this evaluation does not allow the risk to be determined with sufficient certainty. However this principle has been invoked, without the identification, even partial, of harmful effects, to justify preventive and protective measures deemed necessary by policy maker mainly due to a high (but unjustified) risk perception by the population. We analyze the examples of the limits imposed by Italian legislation for the protection from EMF, and measures of "prudent avoidance" in the use of mobile phones.

  8. The principle of superposition and its application in ground-water hydraulics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reilly, T.E.; Franke, O.L.; Bennett, G.D.

    1984-01-01

    The principle of superposition, a powerful methematical technique for analyzing certain types of complex problems in many areas of science and technology, has important application in ground-water hydraulics and modeling of ground-water systems. The principle of superposition states that solutions to individual problems can be added together to obtain solutions to complex problems. This principle applies to linear systems governed by linear differential equations. This report introduces the principle of superposition as it applies to groundwater hydrology and provides background information, discussion, illustrative problems with solutions, and problems to be solved by the reader. (USGS)

  9. The principle of superposition and its application in ground-water hydraulics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reilly, Thomas E.; Franke, O. Lehn; Bennett, Gordon D.

    1987-01-01

    The principle of superposition, a powerful mathematical technique for analyzing certain types of complex problems in many areas of science and technology, has important applications in ground-water hydraulics and modeling of ground-water systems. The principle of superposition states that problem solutions can be added together to obtain composite solutions. This principle applies to linear systems governed by linear differential equations. This report introduces the principle of superposition as it applies to ground-water hydrology and provides background information, discussion, illustrative problems with solutions, and problems to be solved by the reader.

  10. Laser-induced plasma spectroscopy: principles, methods and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Lazic, Violeta; Colao, Francesco; Fantoni, Roberta; Spizzichino, Valeria; Jovicevic, Sonja

    2006-12-01

    Principles of the Laser Induced Plasma Spectroscopy and its advances are reported. Methods for obtaining quantitative analyses are described, together with discussion of some applications and the specific problems.

  11. Jaynes' MaxEnt, Steady State Flow Systems and the Maximum Entropy Production Principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niven, Robert K.

    2009-12-01

    Jaynes' maximum entropy (MaxEnt) principle was recently used to give a conditional, local derivation of the "maximum entropy production" (MEP) principle, which states that a flow system with fixed flow(s) or gradient(s) will converge to a steady state of maximum production of thermodynamic entropy (R. K. Niven, Phys. Rev. E, 80(2) (2009) 021113). The analysis provides a steady state analog of the MaxEnt formulation of equilibrium thermodynamics, applicable to many complex flow systems at steady state. The present study examines the classification of physical systems, with emphasis on the choice of constraints in MaxEnt. The discussion clarifies the distinction between equilibrium, fluid flow, source/sink, flow/reactive and other systems, leading into an appraisal of the application of MaxEnt to steady state flow and reactive systems.

  12. Quantitative proteomics using SILAC: Principles, applications, and developments.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiulan; Wei, Shasha; Ji, Yanlong; Guo, Xiaojing; Yang, Fuquan

    2015-09-01

    SILAC is based on direct addition of selected stable isotope amino acids into the cell culture medium, allowing superior quantitative analysis of the cellular proteome compared to other labeling methods. The great advantages of SILAC lie in its straight-forward implementation, quantitative accuracy, and reproducibility over chemical labeling or label-free quantification strategies, favoring its adoption for proteomic research. SILAC has been widely applied to characterize the proteomic changes between different biological samples, to investigate dynamic changes of protein PTMs, to distinguish specific interacting proteins in interaction proteomic analysis, and to analyze protein turnover in the proteome-wide scale. The present review summarizes the principles of SILAC technology, its applications in biological research, and the present state of this technology. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Redesigning State Financial Aid: Principles to Guide State Aid Policymaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pingel, Sarah; Sponsler, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    Several factors create a challenging environment for individuals seeking financial support to complete a postsecondary degree program. In recognition of the challenges of paying for higher education, decision-makers at the federal and state levels support college-going with public policy. Through direct institutional allocations, need and…

  14. Quantification of surface contamination: principles and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Vo-Dinh, T.

    1982-01-01

    The applications discussed in this paper underscore the usefulness and versatility of molecular luminescence spectroscopy as an efficient surface detection technique. The technique can be used not only as a qualitative characterization method, but also as a quantitative analytical tool to detect trace contaminants on surfaces. Recent advances in instrumentation and methodology have expanded the applicability of surface luminescence into many new problem areas. Trace organics are emphasized here.

  15. Application of Pascal Principle in Earth Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samimi Namin, M.

    2009-12-01

    The Pascal experiment is interpreted and the chamber is roughly defined. Pascal experiment in relation to Pascal principle compared with a chamber in the earth crust. It is conclude that: 1: The pressure (P) inside the Pascal's cylinder is the combination of two pressure; the external pressure (P1) and the hydraulic pressure (P2). Pc=P1+P2 The direction of the force is from top to bottom. In the case of the chamber the pressure is Pch=P1-P2 and its positive direction is regarded to be from bottom to top. P1 is the external pressure, and is the maximum pressure applied to chamber .The external pressure creates a constant internal pressure throughout the chamber .The magnitude of the constant pressure is based on the litho static pressure of the bottom of the chamber; because it is the maximum pressure that the chamber is connected. P1=ρ1gH+ρ2gh Where H is the overburden thickness, h is the highness of the chamber, ρ1 is the density of the overburden and ρ2 is density of country rock. The hydrostatic pressure within the chamber is P2=ρ3gh. Also ρ3 is the density of the chamber. So the pressure inside the chamber would be: Pch=P1-P2 then Pch=ρ1gH+(ρ2-ρ3)gh. The equation above means that, the chamber pressure equals to the overburden pressure plus Archimedes pressure. 2: The word squeezing which is a vulgar word has an important physical meaning that is ((Pascal principle driving movement)).In another word, almost all movements, related to chambers, within the earth are a squeezing event which's, driving force is the steady constant pressure mentioned above. Any change in this pressure depends on the rupturing of the chamber and the behavior of the movement of the chamber matter. 3: If we provide a safety valve on piston of the Pascal's cylinder and increase the load we see the safety valve bursts and the matter inside the cylinder squeeze out .The pressure is from top to bottom but the movement is from bottom to top. The direction of force has changed 180

  16. Faculty ethics: ideal principles with practical applications.

    PubMed

    Reybold, L Earle

    2009-01-01

    Ethics in higher education is the subject of intense public attention, with considerable focus on faculty roles and responsibilities. Media reports and scholarly research have documented egregious misconduct that includes plagiarism, falsification of data, illicit teacher-student relationships, and grading bias. These accounts of wrongdoing often portray faculty ethicality as only a legal issue of obeying rules and regulations, especially in the teaching and research roles. My discussion challenges this narrow perspective and argues that characterizations of faculty ethicality should take into account broader expectations for professionalism such as collegiality, respect, and freedom of inquiry. First, I review the general principles of faculty ethics developed by the American Association of University Professors, as well as professional codes of ethics in specific professional fields. Second, I juxtapose the experiences of women and minority faculty members in relation to these general codes of ethics. This section examines three issues that particularly affect women and minority faculty experiences of ethicality: "chilly and alienating" academic climates, "cultural taxation" of minority identity, and the snare of conventional reward systems. Third, I suggest practical strategies to reconcile faculty practice with codes of ethics. My challenge is to the faculty as a community of practice to engage professional ethics as social and political events, not just legal and moral failures.

  17. The Application of Gestalt Principles in Classroom Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Mark

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the application of principles and techniques derived from Gestalt therapy to education. Initial investigations of the results of these applications have noted significant benefits to both teachers and students, including personal control, self-knowledge and self-esteem. For journal availability, see SO 504 730. (Author/DB)

  18. Molecular biology and cytopathology. Principles and applications.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Fernando C; Vielh, Philippe

    2012-12-01

    Some of the main applications of molecular techniques using cellular materials obtained from tumors by means of non-gynecological exfoliative cytology or fine-needle aspiration are briefly described in this review. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Food Irradiation – Principles and Applications

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This article deals with the application of ionizing radiation (IR) to foods so as to improve their safety, shelf-life, and quality. The topics covered include: the types of equipment used to generate IR, and their advantages and disadvantages; IR’s mode of action in foods; the latest information on ...

  20. Nursing application of Bobath principles in stroke care.

    PubMed

    Passarella, P M; Lewis, N

    1987-04-01

    The nursing approach in the care of stroke patients has a direct impact on functional outcome. Nursing application of Bobath principles in stroke care offers a nursing focus on involvement of the affected side; facilitation of normal tone, posture, and movement; and development of more normal function. A research study evaluating the functional gains of stroke patients demonstrated a significant level of functional improvement in those treated with Bobath principles over stroke patients treated with the traditional nursing approach. Practical methods for applying Bobath principles in patient care activities are described. These therapeutic methods provide nurses with the means to maximize stroke patients' potential and further influence their functional recovery.

  1. Digital imaging and video: principles and applications.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Andrew L; Hausman, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Digital imaging has provided orthopaedic surgeons with new, powerful tools that offer a multitude of applications. Already integral to several common medical devices, digital images can be used for case documentation and presentation as well as for diagnostic and surgical patient care information. Educational presentation has been transformed by the use of computers and digital projectors. Understanding the basic foundations of digital imaging technology is important for effectively creating digital images, videos, and presentations.

  2. Principles and clinical applications of image analysis.

    PubMed

    Kisner, H J

    1988-12-01

    Image processing has traveled to the lunar surface and back, finding its way into the clinical laboratory. Advances in digital computers have improved the technology of image analysis, resulting in a wide variety of medical applications. Offering improvements in turnaround time, standardized systems, increased precision, and walkaway automation, digital image analysis has likely found a permanent home as a diagnostic aid in the interpretation of microscopic as well as macroscopic laboratory images.

  3. [Competency: general principles and applicability in dementia].

    PubMed

    Alvaro, L C

    2012-06-01

    Competency means the capacity to make responsible and balanced decisions. This may be performed in clinical settings (decision-making abilities on treatment or risky diagnostic procedures) and also in daily-life activities (financial matters, nursing home admittance, contracts, etc.). Competency is linked to the ethical principle of autonomy and to a horizontal doctor-patient interaction, far from ancient paternalistic relationships. It is contemplated in the Spanish law as the patient's right to be informed and to make free choices, particularly in cases of dementia. The competency that we assess is the so-called natural or working capacity. It is specific for an action or task. The level of required capacity depends on the decision: higher for critical ones, lower for low-risk decisions. The assessment process requires noting the patient's capacity to understand, analyse, self-refer and apply the information. There are some guides available that may be useful in competency assessments, but nevertheless the final statement must be defined by the physician in charge of the patient and clinical judgement. Capacity is directly related to the level of cognitive deterioration. Nevertheless, specific cognitive tests like MMSE (mini-mental) have a low predictive value. The loss of competency is more associated with the so-called legal standards of incapacity (LS). These encompass a five steps range (LS1-LS5), which may detect the incapacity from the mild levels of dementia. The cortical functions that are the best predictors of incapacity are language and executive dysfunctions. These explain the incapacity in cases of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, and have been studied more. Incapacity is common and it influences the clinical decision-making process. We must be particularly cautious with clinical trials of dementia. It also involves other areas of daily life, particularly financially related ones, where limitations are present from the mild cognitive impairment

  4. Granular Salt Summary: Reconsolidation Principles and Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Frank; Popp, Till; Wieczorek, Klaus; Stuehrenberg, Dieter

    2014-07-01

    The purposes of this paper are to review the vast amount of knowledge concerning crushed salt reconsolidation and its attendant hydraulic properties (i.e., its capability for fluid or gas transport) and to provide a sufficient basis to understand reconsolidation and healing rates under repository conditions. Topics covered include: deformation mechanisms and hydro-mechanical interactions during reconsolidation; the experimental data base pertaining to crushed salt reconsolidation; transport properties of consolidating granulated salt and provides quantitative substantiation of its evolution to characteristics emulating undisturbed rock salt; and extension of microscopic and laboratory observations and data to the applicable field scale.

  5. Z-View diffractive wavefront sensor: principle and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yueai; Warden, Laurence; Dillon, Keith; Mills, Gary; Dreher, Andreas

    2005-12-01

    A novel wavefront sensor (Z-View TM) using a two dimensional diffractive grating has been developed at Ophthonix, Inc. Based on the Talbot self-imaging theory, a CMOS camera is placed behind the grating to capture the first Talbot image of the aberrated wavefront. This captured Talbot image is analyzed to recover the wavefront aberration. The diffractive grating wavefront sensor has been used in Ophthonix's Z-View Aberrometer, an objective refractive vision assessment system which is now commercially used in optometrist's offices/clinics across the United States of America. Coupled with a deformable mirror and other auxiliary optics systems, Z-View wavefront sensor forms the A-View adaptive optic vision correction system at Ophthonix. This A-View system is used to study the effect of complete wavefront correction in human vision, and has potential application in prescribing Ophthonix's wavefront-guided iZon TM lenses. In this paper, the wavefront sensing principle of this novel diffractive wavefront sensor and its applications will be discussed.

  6. Disc-based microarrays: principles and analytical applications.

    PubMed

    Morais, Sergi; Puchades, Rosa; Maquieira, Ángel

    2016-07-01

    The idea of using disk drives to monitor molecular biorecognition events on regular optical discs has received considerable attention during the last decade. CDs, DVDs, Blu-ray discs and other new optical discs are universal and versatile supports with the potential for development of protein and DNA microarrays. Besides, standard disk drives incorporated in personal computers can be used as compact and affordable optical reading devices. Consequently, a CD technology, resulting from the audio-video industry, has been used to develop analytical applications in health care, environmental monitoring, food safety and quality assurance. The review presents and critically evaluates the current state of the art of disc-based microarrays with illustrative examples, including past, current and future developments. Special mention is made of the analytical developments that use either chemically activated or raw standard CDs where proteins, oligonucleotides, peptides, haptens or other biological probes are immobilized. The discs are also used to perform the assays and must maintain their readability with standard optical drives. The concept and principle of evolving disc-based microarrays and the evolution of disk drives as optical detectors are also described. The review concludes with the most relevant uses ordered chronologically to provide an overview of the progress of CD technology applications in the life sciences. Also, it provides a selection of important references to the current literature. Graphical Abstract High density disc-based microarrays.

  7. Active Plasmonics: Principles, Structures, and Applications.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Nina; Zhuo, Xiaolu; Wang, Jianfang

    2017-09-29

    Active plasmonics is a burgeoning and challenging subfield of plasmonics. It exploits the active control of surface plasmon resonance. In this review, a first-ever in-depth description of the theoretical relationship between surface plasmon resonance and its affecting factors, which forms the basis for active plasmon control, will be presented. Three categories of active plasmonic structures, consisting of plasmonic structures in tunable dielectric surroundings, plasmonic structures with tunable gap distances, and self-tunable plasmonic structures, will be proposed in terms of the modulation mechanism. The recent advances and current challenges for these three categories of active plasmonic structures will be discussed in detail. The flourishing development of active plasmonic structures opens access to new application fields. A significant part of this review will be devoted to the applications of active plasmonic structures in plasmonic sensing, tunable surface-enhanced Raman scattering, active plasmonic components, and electrochromic smart windows. This review will be concluded with a section on the future challenges and prospects for active plasmonics.

  8. Total internal reflection ellipsometry: principles and applications.

    PubMed

    Arwin, Hans; Poksinski, Michal; Johansen, Knut

    2004-05-20

    A concept for a measurement technique based on ellipsometry in conditions of total internal reflection is presented. When combined with surface plasmon resonance (SPR) effects, this technique becomes powerful for monitoring and analyzing adsorption and desorption on thin semitransparent metal films as well as for analyzing the semitransparent films themselves. We call this technique total internal reflection ellipsometry (TIRE). The theory of ellipsometry under total internal reflection combined with SPR is discussed for some simple cases. For more advanced cases and to prove the concept, simulations are performed with the Fresnel formalism. The use of TIRE is exemplified by applications in protein adsorption, corrosion monitoring, and adsorption from opaque liquids on metal surfaces. Simulations and experiments show greatly enhanced thin-film sensitivity compared with ordinary ellipsometry.

  9. S-layers: principles and applications

    PubMed Central

    Sleytr, Uwe B; Schuster, Bernhard; Egelseer, Eva-Maria; Pum, Dietmar

    2014-01-01

    Monomolecular arrays of protein or glycoprotein subunits forming surface layers (S-layers) are one of the most commonly observed prokaryotic cell envelope components. S-layers are generally the most abundantly expressed proteins, have been observed in species of nearly every taxonomical group of walled bacteria, and represent an almost universal feature of archaeal envelopes. The isoporous lattices completely covering the cell surface provide organisms with various selection advantages including functioning as protective coats, molecular sieves and ion traps, as structures involved in surface recognition and cell adhesion, and as antifouling layers. S-layers are also identified to contribute to virulence when present as a structural component of pathogens. In Archaea, most of which possess S-layers as exclusive wall component, they are involved in determining cell shape and cell division. Studies on structure, chemistry, genetics, assembly, function, and evolutionary relationship of S-layers revealed considerable application potential in (nano)biotechnology, biomimetics, biomedicine, and synthetic biology. PMID:24483139

  10. S-layers: principles and applications.

    PubMed

    Sleytr, Uwe B; Schuster, Bernhard; Egelseer, Eva-Maria; Pum, Dietmar

    2014-09-01

    Monomolecular arrays of protein or glycoprotein subunits forming surface layers (S-layers) are one of the most commonly observed prokaryotic cell envelope components. S-layers are generally the most abundantly expressed proteins, have been observed in species of nearly every taxonomical group of walled bacteria, and represent an almost universal feature of archaeal envelopes. The isoporous lattices completely covering the cell surface provide organisms with various selection advantages including functioning as protective coats, molecular sieves and ion traps, as structures involved in surface recognition and cell adhesion, and as antifouling layers. S-layers are also identified to contribute to virulence when present as a structural component of pathogens. In Archaea, most of which possess S-layers as exclusive wall component, they are involved in determining cell shape and cell division. Studies on structure, chemistry, genetics, assembly, function, and evolutionary relationship of S-layers revealed considerable application potential in (nano)biotechnology, biomimetics, biomedicine, and synthetic biology.

  11. 4D electron microscopy: principles and applications.

    PubMed

    Flannigan, David J; Zewail, Ahmed H

    2012-10-16

    The transmission electron microscope (TEM) is a powerful tool enabling the visualization of atoms with length scales smaller than the Bohr radius at a factor of only 20 larger than the relativistic electron wavelength of 2.5 pm at 200 keV. The ability to visualize matter at these scales in a TEM is largely due to the efforts made in correcting for the imperfections in the lens systems which introduce aberrations and ultimately limit the achievable spatial resolution. In addition to the progress made in increasing the spatial resolution, the TEM has become an all-in-one characterization tool. Indeed, most of the properties of a material can be directly mapped in the TEM, including the composition, structure, bonding, morphology, and defects. The scope of applications spans essentially all of the physical sciences and includes biology. Until recently, however, high resolution visualization of structural changes occurring on sub-millisecond time scales was not possible. In order to reach the ultrashort temporal domain within which fundamental atomic motions take place, while simultaneously retaining high spatial resolution, an entirely new approach from that of millisecond-limited TEM cameras had to be conceived. As shown below, the approach is also different from that of nanosecond-limited TEM, whose resolution cannot offer the ultrafast regimes of dynamics. For this reason "ultrafast electron microscopy" is reserved for the field which is concerned with femtosecond to picosecond resolution capability of structural dynamics. In conventional TEMs, electrons are produced by heating a source or by applying a strong extraction field. Both methods result in the stochastic emission of electrons, with no control over temporal spacing or relative arrival time at the specimen. The timing issue can be overcome by exploiting the photoelectric effect and using pulsed lasers to generate precisely timed electron packets of ultrashort duration. The spatial and temporal resolutions

  12. Keynote Address: Principles and applications of biotelemetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeutter, Dean C.

    1990-06-01

    Biotelemetry provides a means for monitoring and studying human and animal physiologic functions from a remote site with the goals of minimally encumbering or disturbing normal activity allowing ambulatory freedom and often to place the investigator out of harm''s way. Since the early 1950''s biotelemetry has been applied to a wide variety of subjects ranging in size from bees to whales over distances from several feet to thousands of miles. The evolution in sophistication miniaturization and reliability has paralleled the improvements of electronic components and assembly capabilities available to investigators. Modern biotelemetry began as a single transistor Endoradiosonde but now is found in sophisticated miniaturized microcontroller implementations. Signals derived from physiologic transducers have been encoded and formatted in many different ways in an effort to improve transmission reliability and carrier signals have included radio sound and light in air space and water. Power sources have been developed using both primary and secondary cells. Power can now be transferred at radio frequency across the tissues to implanted biotelemeters and their rechargeable batteries to provide for long operational lifetimes. The field of biotelemetry is truly exciting challenging and diverse in new circuit realizations and applications to living subjects.

  13. Digital mammography: physical principles and future applications.

    PubMed

    Gambaccini, Mauro; Baldelli, Paola

    2003-01-01

    Mammography is currently considered the best tool for the detection of breast cancer, pathology with a rate of incidence in constant increase. To produce the radiological picture a screen film combination is conventionally used. One of the inherent limitations of screen- film combination is the fact that the detection, display and storage processes are one and the same, making it impossible to separately optimize each stage. These limitations can be overcome with digital systems. In this work we evaluate the main characteristics of digital detectors available on the market and we compare the performance of digital and conventional systems. Digital mammography, due to the possibility to process images, offers many potential advantages, among these the possibility to introduce the dual-energy technique which employs the composition of two digital images obtained with two different energies to enhance the inherent contrast of pathologies by removing the uniform background. This technique was previously tested by using synchrotron monochromatic beam and a digital detector, and then the Senographe 2000D full-field digital system manufactured by GE Medical Systems. In this work we present preliminary results and the future applications of this technique.

  14. CT perfusion: principles, applications, and problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ting-Yim

    2004-10-01

    The fast scanning speed of current slip-ring CT scanners has enabled the development of perfusion imaging techniques with intravenous injection of contrast medium. In a typical CT perfusion study, contrast medium is injected and rapid scanning at a frequency of 1-2 Hz is used to monitor the first circulation of the injected contrast medium through a 1-2 cm thick slab of tissue. From the acquired time-series of CT images, arteries can be identified within the tissue slab to derive the arterial contrast concentration curve, Ca(t) while each individual voxel produces a tissue residue curve, Q(t) for the corresponding tissue region. Deconvolution between the measured Ca(t) and Q(t) leads to the determination of cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV) and mean transit time (MTT) in brain studies. In this presentation, an important application of CT perfusion in acute stroke studies - the identification of the ischemic penumbra via the CBF/CBV mismatch and factors affecting the quantitative accuracy of deconvolution, including partial volume averaging, arterial delay and dispersion are discussed.

  15. Twelve Principles for Green Energy Storage in Grid Applications.

    PubMed

    Arbabzadeh, Maryam; Johnson, Jeremiah X; Keoleian, Gregory A; Rasmussen, Paul G; Thompson, Levi T

    2016-01-19

    The introduction of energy storage technologies to the grid could enable greater integration of renewables, improve system resilience and reliability, and offer cost effective alternatives to transmission and distribution upgrades. The integration of energy storage systems into the electrical grid can lead to different environmental outcomes based on the grid application, the existing generation mix, and the demand. Given this complexity, a framework is needed to systematically inform design and technology selection about the environmental impacts that emerge when considering energy storage options to improve sustainability performance of the grid. To achieve this, 12 fundamental principles specific to the design and grid application of energy storage systems are developed to inform policy makers, designers, and operators. The principles are grouped into three categories: (1) system integration for grid applications, (2) the maintenance and operation of energy storage, and (3) the design of energy storage systems. We illustrate the application of each principle through examples published in the academic literature, illustrative calculations, and a case study with an off-grid application of vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs). In addition, trade-offs that can emerge between principles are highlighted.

  16. Basic principles, methodology, and applications of remote sensing in agriculture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moreira, M. A. (Principal Investigator); Deassuncao, G. V.

    1984-01-01

    The basic principles of remote sensing applied to agriculture and the methods used in data analysis are described. Emphasis is placed on the importance of developing a methodology that may help crop forecast, basic concepts of spectral signatures of vegetation, the methodology of the LANDSAT data utilization in agriculture, and the remote sensing program application of INPE (Institute for Space Research) in agriculture.

  17. 32 CFR 11.4 - Applicable principles of law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... an Accused under the law of armed conflict, such as self-defense, mistake of fact, and duress, may be... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicable principles of law. 11.4 Section 11.4 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE MILITARY COMMISSIONS CRIMES AND...

  18. 32 CFR 11.4 - Applicable principles of law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... an Accused under the law of armed conflict, such as self-defense, mistake of fact, and duress, may be... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Applicable principles of law. 11.4 Section 11.4 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE MILITARY COMMISSIONS CRIMES AND...

  19. 32 CFR 11.4 - Applicable principles of law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... an Accused under the law of armed conflict, such as self-defense, mistake of fact, and duress, may be... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Applicable principles of law. 11.4 Section 11.4 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE MILITARY COMMISSIONS CRIMES AND...

  20. The Application of Artificial Intelligence Principles to Teaching and Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Keith

    2008-01-01

    This paper compares and contrasts the use of AI principles in industrial training with more normal computer-based training (CBT) approaches. A number of applications of CBT are illustrated (for example simulations, tutorial presentations, fault diagnosis, management games, industrial relations exercises) and compared with an alternative approach…

  1. The Application of Artificial Intelligence Principles to Teaching and Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Keith

    2008-01-01

    This paper compares and contrasts the use of AI principles in industrial training with more normal computer-based training (CBT) approaches. A number of applications of CBT are illustrated (for example simulations, tutorial presentations, fault diagnosis, management games, industrial relations exercises) and compared with an alternative approach…

  2. IEC planning: eight state-of-the-art principles.

    PubMed

    Middleton, J

    1983-12-01

    Considerable experience and research has been accumulated in the last 20 years on the ways in which information/education/communication (IEC) programs can be effectively designed, implemented, and evaluated. Possibly more effort has focused on population and family planning IEC than on any other sectoral program of development communication. Several principles have emerged which, taken together, define the state of the art in the field. These principles provide a framework of experience which can guide the development of comprehensive IEC programs. They include: policy and resource assessment; audience analysis; strategy design; message research and pretesting; participation and feedback; management; evaluation; and collaboration. The nature of the national policy base for population and family planning programs will determine the goals and approaches of the IEC program. Strong policies of limitation on popultion growth lead to equally strong and pervasive IEC efforts designed to directly affect contraceptive behavior. Assessment of existing policy is an essential aspect of the design of an effective IEC program. Policies establish the rationale and boundaries for action. Population and family planning programs are concerned with some of the most intimate human behavior. Consequently, structured and sensitive audience analysis has become an integral part of the design of IEC programs. The design of communication strategy requires clearly stated objectives. Principles of human learning are used to structure information appropriately. Message research and pretesting have become integral components of the strategy design process. Small scale research on specific objectives is necessary to establish the basis for message design. Audience participation and feedback in remaining phases of program development and implementation are important. The management of an IEC program requires a specific combination of planning, flexibility, and creativity. Evaluation of program

  3. Principles and Application of Heterodyne Scanning Tunnelling Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Matsuyama, Eiji; Kondo, Takahiro; Oigawa, Haruhiro; Guo, Donghui; Nemoto, Shojiro; Nakamura, Junji

    2014-01-01

    Detection of the extremely weak signals in spectroscopy over an extremely wide frequency region is central to diverse sciences, including materials science, biology, astronomy and chemistry. Here we show a new type of atomic-scale spectroscopy, heterodyne scanning tunnelling spectroscopy (HSTS), which is based on the innovative application of the nonlinear heterodyne-mixing detection at the metal-insulator-metal (MIM) heterojunction of STM tip–vacuum–sample. The principle of HSTS is identical to that of the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) space telescope in terms of using heterojunction for detecting extremely weak signals by converting from terahertz region to lower frequency regions. The MIM detector of ALMA, which is composed of niobium–titanium–nitride (NbTiN) tip-insulator-NbTiN, is very similar in shape and size to that of HSTS. We successfully detect a heterodyne beat signal f3 (= |f2 − f1|) and intermodulation distortion via tunnelling current by superimposing two different AC signals, f1 and f2, onto the DC tunnelling current at a highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) surface. We then obtain spectra of the localized electronic states of HOPG by using f3. HSTS can be performed with a high resolution and over a wide energy range, including the terahertz range. PMID:25342108

  4. Brain-Compatible Learning: Principles and Applications in Athletic Training

    PubMed Central

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the principles of brain-compatible learning research and provide insights into how this research may be applied in athletic training education to benefit the profession. Background: In the past decade, new brain-imaging techniques have allowed us to observe the brain while it is learning. The field of neuroscience has produced a body of empirical data that provides a new understanding of how we learn. This body of data has implications in education, although the direct study of these implications is in its infancy. Description: An overview of how the brain learns at a cellular level is provided, followed by a discussion of the principles of brain-compatible learning. Applications of these principles and implications for the field of athletic training education are also offered. Application: Many educational-reform fads have garnered attention in the past. Brain-compatible learning will not likely be one of those, as its origin is in neuroscience, not education. Brain-compatible learning is not an educational-reform movement. It does not prescribe how to run your classroom or offer specific techniques to use. Rather, it provides empirical data about how the brain learns and suggests guidelines to be considered while preparing lessons for your students. These guidelines may be incorporated into every educational setting, with every type of curriculum and every age group. The field of athletic training lends itself well to many of the basic principles of brain-compatible learning. PMID:16558681

  5. Application of Genomic Principles to Pharmacotherapy of Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pedigo, Nancy G.; Messersmith, Amy R.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To teach first-year (P1) pharmacy students to apply the principles of pharmacogenomics underlying clinical pharmacotherapeutics to cancer patients. Design. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and high-resolution melting analysis of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) from colorectal cancer cell lines to determine the presence of somatic mutations for an oncogenic marker, students formulated the proper course of treatment for a patient with similar tumor genomics. Assessment. In a postintervention survey, students highly rated the effectiveness of the laboratory session for learning pharmacogenomics, and subsequent examination scores reflected retention of principles and understanding of clinical application. Conclusion. The pharmacogenomic laboratory exercise prepared students to understand how genetic markers give clinical insight into the appropriate application of drugs in oncology pharmacotherapy. Further, the session inspired their interest in learning more about pharmacogenomics and their professional roles in personalized medicine. PMID:24761016

  6. Application of genomic principles to pharmacotherapy of cancer.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Christopher L; Pedigo, Nancy G; Messersmith, Amy R

    2014-04-17

    To teach first-year (P1) pharmacy students to apply the principles of pharmacogenomics underlying clinical pharmacotherapeutics to cancer patients. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and high-resolution melting analysis of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) from colorectal cancer cell lines to determine the presence of somatic mutations for an oncogenic marker, students formulated the proper course of treatment for a patient with similar tumor genomics. In a postintervention survey, students highly rated the effectiveness of the laboratory session for learning pharmacogenomics, and subsequent examination scores reflected retention of principles and understanding of clinical application. The pharmacogenomic laboratory exercise prepared students to understand how genetic markers give clinical insight into the appropriate application of drugs in oncology pharmacotherapy. Further, the session inspired their interest in learning more about pharmacogenomics and their professional roles in personalized medicine.

  7. Low thermal mass gas chromatography: principles and applications.

    PubMed

    Luong, Jim; Gras, Ronda; Mustacich, Robert; Cortes, Hernan

    2006-01-01

    In gas chromatography (GC), temperature programming is often considered to be the second most important parameter to control, the first being column selectivity. A radically new GC technology to achieve ultrafast temperature programming with an unprecedented cool down time and low power consumption has recently become available. This technology is referred to as low thermal mass GC (LTMGC). Though the technology has its roots in resistive heating, which forms the basis of principle and design concept, the approach taken to achieve ultrafast heating and cool down time by LTMGC represents a significant break-through in GC. Despite some rectifiable shortcomings, LTMGC has proven to be an ideal methodology to deliver near/real time GC data, high precision, and high throughput applications. It is a new approach for modern high-speed GC. This paper documents the fundamental design principles behind LTMGC, performance data, and examples of applications investigated.

  8. Genomic selection in domestic animals: Principles, applications and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Boichard, Didier; Ducrocq, Vincent; Croiseau, Pascal; Fritz, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    The principles of genomic selection are described, with the main factors affecting its efficiency and the assumptions underlying the different models proposed. The reasons of its fast adoption in dairy cattle are explained and the conditions of its application to other species are discussed. Perspectives of development include: selection for new traits and new breeding objectives; adoption of more robust approaches based on information on causal variants; predictions of genotype×environment interactions.

  9. [Stereophotogrammetry and facial surgery: Principles, applications and prospects].

    PubMed

    Sigaux, N; Ganry, L; Mojallal, A; Breton, P; Bouletreau, P

    2017-08-09

    The clinical examination of the face needs a reliable, objective and innocuous tool. Stereophotogrammetry for a medical use has been available for more than fifteen years but its popularity is still limited by a high cost. We hereby define the principles of stereophotogrammetry, its fields of application in facial surgery and the prospects, which might soon be offered by a wider access to this technique. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. First-principles Calculation of Excited State Spectra in QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Jozef Dudek,Robert Edwards,Michael Peardon,David Richards,Christopher Thomas

    2011-05-01

    Recent progress at understanding the excited state spectra of mesons and baryons is described. I begin by outlining the application of the variational method to compute the spectrum of QCD, and then present results for the excited meson spectrum, with continuum quantum numbers of the states clearly delineated. I emphasise the need to extend the calculation to encompass multi-hadron contributions, and describe a recent calculation of the I=2 pion-pion energy-dependent phase shifts as a precursor to the study of channels with resonant behavior. I conclude with recent results for the low lying baryon spectrum, and the prospects for future calculations.

  11. Application of trajectory optimization principles to minimize aircraft operating costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorensen, J. A.; Morello, S. A.; Erzberger, H.

    1979-01-01

    This paper summarizes various applications of trajectory optimization principles that have been or are being devised by both government and industrial researchers to minimize aircraft direct operating costs (DOC). These costs (time and fuel) are computed for aircraft constrained to fly over a fixed range. Optimization theory is briefly outlined, and specific algorithms which have resulted from application of this theory are described. Typical results which demonstrate use of these algorithms and the potential savings which they can produce are given. Finally, need for further trajectory optimization research is presented.

  12. Principles, implementation, and application of biology-oriented synthesis (BIOS).

    PubMed

    Wilk, Wolfram; Zimmermann, Tobias J; Kaiser, Markus; Waldmann, Herbert

    2010-05-01

    Biology-oriented synthesis (BIOS) represents an alternative approach for the generation of compound collections for biological applications. In BIOS, biologically relevant and prevalidated scaffold structures, such as core structures of natural products or known drugs, are employed as scaffolds for the generation of compound collections with focused diversity. In this review, we discuss the underlying concept of the BIOS approach, and its practical implementation in library design and synthesis. To highlight its relevance for chemical biology applications, we finally present examples in which compound collections generated under the BIOS principle have been used to elucidate biological questions.

  13. STATE OF THE SCIENCE OF MATERNAL-INFANT BONDING: A PRINCIPLE-BASED CONCEPT ANALYSIS

    PubMed Central

    Bicking Kinsey, Cara; Hupcey, Judith E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To provide a principle-based analysis of the concept of maternal-infant bonding. Design Principle-based method of concept analysis for which the data set included 44 articles published in the last decade from Pubmed, CINAHL, and PyschINFO/PsychARTICLES. Setting Literature inclusion criteria were English language, articles published in the last decade, peer-reviewed journal articles and commentary on published work, and human populations. Measurement and Findings After brief review of the history of maternal-infant bonding, a principle-based concept analysis was completed to examine the state of the science with regard to this concept. The concept was critically examined according to the clarity of definition (epistemological principle), applicability of the concept (pragmatic principle), consistency in use and meaning (linguistic principle), and differentiation of the concept from related concepts (logical principle). Analysis of the concept revealed: (1) maternal-infant bonding describes maternal feelings and emotions towards her infant. Evidence that the concept encompasses behavioral or biological components was limited; (2) the concept is clearly operationalized in the affective domain; and (3) maternal-infant bonding is linguistically confused with attachment, although the boundaries between the concepts are clearly delineated. Key Conclusion Despite widespread use of the concept, maternal-infant bonding is at times superficially developed and subject to confusion with related concepts. Concept clarification is warranted. A theoretical definition of the concept of maternal-infant bonding was developed to aid in the clarification, but more research is necessary to further clarify and advance the concept. Implications for Practice Nurse midwives and other practitioners should use the theoretical definition of maternal-infant bonding as a preliminary guide to identification and understanding of the concept in clinical practice. PMID:23452661

  14. Brain-compatible learning: principles and applications in athletic training.

    PubMed

    Craig, Debbie I

    2003-10-01

    To discuss the principles of brain-compatible learning research and provide insights into how this research may be applied in athletic training education to benefit the profession. In the past decade, new brain-imaging techniques have allowed us to observe the brain while it is learning. The field of neuroscience has produced a body of empirical data that provides a new understanding of how we learn. This body of data has implications in education, although the direct study of these implications is in its infancy. An overview of how the brain learns at a cellular level is provided, followed by a discussion of the principles of brain-compatible learning. Applications of these principles and implications for the field of athletic training education are also offered. Many educational-reform fads have garnered attention in the past. Brain-compatible learning will not likely be one of those, as its origin is in neuroscience, not education. Brain-compatible learning is not an educational-reform movement. It does not prescribe how to run your classroom or offer specific techniques to use. Rather, it provides empirical data about how the brain learns and suggests guidelines to be considered while preparing lessons for your students. These guidelines may be incorporated into every educational setting, with every type of curriculum and every age group. The field of athletic training lends itself well to many of the basic principles of brain-compatible learning.

  15. Development, principles, and applications of automated ice fabric analyzers.

    PubMed

    Wilen, L A; Diprinzio, C L; Alley, R B; Azuma, N

    2003-09-01

    We review the recent development of automated techniques to determine the fabric and texture of polycrystalline ice. The motivation for the study of ice fabric is first outlined. After a brief introduction to the relevant optical concepts, the classic manual technique for fabric measurement is described, along with early attempts at partial automation. Then, the general principles behind fully automated techniques are discussed. We describe in some detail the similarities and differences of the three modern instruments recently developed for ice fabric studies. Next, we discuss briefly X-ray, radar, and acoustic techniques for ice fabric characterization. We also discuss the principles behind automated optical techniques to measure fabric in quartz rock samples. Finally, examples of new applications that have been facilitated by the development of the ice fabric instruments are presented.

  16. Fitts' principles still applicable: computer monitoring of fighter aircraft emergencies.

    PubMed

    Reising, J; Hitchcock, L

    1982-11-01

    When examining the impact of automation in the cockpit, a careful distinction must be drawn between the role of a multi-crew civilian aircraft and a single-seat military aircraft. For the former, there are some concerns that automation can have a negative impact on the crew by reducing their proficiency. However, for a single-seat military aircraft on an attack mission, the role of automation is not only helpful to the pilot now but in the future may be necessary to achieve mission success. These distinctions must constantly be brought to mind in explaining the concepts of Fitts' principles. For a single-seat military aircraft, it is believed that these principles still apply, and that computer monitoring of system failures will further enhance their application. Three approaches to computer-augmented system monitoring are discussed.

  17. The INSAR technique: its principle and applications to mapping the deformation field of earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, Xin-Jian; Ye, Hong

    1998-11-01

    The development, state-of-art and prospects of application of the radar remote sensing technique are presented. The principle of the INSAR (Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar) technique is expounded in more details. Some applications of this technique in measuring seismic dislocations are given. Finally, it is pointed out that INSAR has a non-replaceable application potential in observing ground surface vertical deformations; it would provide an entirely new means and method for monitoring the dynamic field of earthquakes and give an extremely great impetus to the future earthquake prediction work.

  18. Remote sensing applied to agriculture: Basic principles, methodology, and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Mendonca, F. J.

    1981-01-01

    The general principles of remote sensing techniques as applied to agriculture and the methods of data analysis are described. the theoretical spectral responses of crops; reflectance, transmittance, and absorbtance of plants; interactions of plants and soils with reflectance energy; leaf morphology; and factors which affect the reflectance of vegetation cover are dicussed. The methodologies of visual and computer-aided analyses of LANDSAT data are presented. Finally, a case study wherein infrared film was used to detect crop anomalies and other data applications are described.

  19. Open-Shell-Character-Based Molecular Design Principles: Applications to Nonlinear Optics and Singlet Fission.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Masayoshi

    2017-01-01

    Open-shell character, e. g., diradical character, is a quantum chemically well-defined quantity in ground-state molecular systems, which is not an observable but can quantify the degree of effective bond weakness in the chemical sense or electron correlation strength in the physical sense. Because this quantity also correlates to specific excited states, physicochemical properties concerned with those states are expected to strongly correlate to the open-shell character. This feature enables us to open a new path to revealing the mechanism of these properties as well as to realizing new design principles for efficient functional molecular systems. This account explains the open-shell-character-based molecular design principles and introduces their applications to the rational design of highly efficient nonlinear optical and singlet fission molecular systems. © 2017 The Chemical Society of Japan & Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Magnetic particle imaging: from proof of principle to preclinical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knopp, T.; Gdaniec, N.; Möddel, M.

    2017-07-01

    Tomographic imaging has become a mandatory tool for the diagnosis of a majority of diseases in clinical routine. Since each method has its pros and cons, a variety of them is regularly used in clinics to satisfy all application needs. Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) is a relatively new tomographic imaging technique that images magnetic nanoparticles with a high spatiotemporal resolution in a quantitative way, and in turn is highly suited for vascular and targeted imaging. MPI was introduced in 2005 and now enters the preclinical research phase, where medical researchers get access to this new technology and exploit its potential under physiological conditions. Within this paper, we review the development of MPI since its introduction in 2005. Besides an in-depth description of the basic principles, we provide detailed discussions on imaging sequences, reconstruction algorithms, scanner instrumentation and potential medical applications.

  1. Principles of proteomics and its applications in cancer.

    PubMed

    Chuthapisith, S; Layfield, R; Kerr, I D; Eremin, O

    2007-02-01

    During the past decade, genomic analyses have been introduced into cancer studies with variable success. It has become recognised, however, that genomic techniques in isolation are insufficient to study the complex pathways of carcinogenesis; this has led to the application of proteomic techniques, which allow for the reliable analysis of complex mixtures of proteins. This article reviews the basic principles of proteomics, methods currently used in proteomics including two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and mass spectrometry (MS), and the application of proteomics in cancer research. Currently, proteomic technology has been used in two main areas of cancer research: early diagnosis and treatment (included prediction of response to treatment and targeting novel cancer agents). The initial results from both in vitro and in vivo studies are impressive. These technologies, particularly when combined with genomic analyses, will provide valuable insights into the molecular basis of carcinogenesis and the development of more effective anti-cancer therapies.

  2. Principles of contemporary amputation rehabilitation in the United States, 2013.

    PubMed

    Meier, Robert H; Heckman, Jeffrey T

    2014-02-01

    Providing rehabilitation services for the person with an amputation has become more difficult in today's health care environment. Amputation rehabilitation calls for specialized, multidisciplinary rehabilitation training. In examining the principles of amputation rehabilitation, one must understand the lessons learned from the Veterans Affairs Amputation System of Care and return to the founding principles of rehabilitation medicine. Persons with amputations must be reevaluated in a tight program of follow-up care.

  3. Nanotube field electron emission: principles, development, and applications.

    PubMed

    Li, Yunhan; Sun, Yonghai; Yeow, J T W

    2015-06-19

    There is a growing trend to apply field emission (FE) electron sources in vacuum electronic devices due to their fast response, high efficiency and low energy consumption compared to thermionic emission ones. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been regarded as a promising class of electron field emitters since the 1990s and have promoted the development of FE technology greatly because of their high electrical and thermal conductivity, chemical stability, high aspect ratio and small size. Recent studies have shown that FE from CNTs has the potential to replace conventional thermionic emission in many areas and that it exhibits advanced features in practical applications. Consequently, FE from nanotubes and applications thereof have attracted much attention. This paper provides a comprehensive review of both recent advances in CNT field emitters and issues related to applications of CNT based FE. FE theories and principles are introduced, and the early development of field emitters is related. CNT emitter types and their FE performance are discussed. The current situation for applications based on nanotube FE is reviewed. Although challenges remain, the tremendous progress made in CNT FE over the past ten years indicates the field's development potential.

  4. Nanotube field electron emission: principles, development, and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yunhan; Sun, Yonghai; Yeow, J. T. W.

    2015-06-01

    There is a growing trend to apply field emission (FE) electron sources in vacuum electronic devices due to their fast response, high efficiency and low energy consumption compared to thermionic emission ones. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been regarded as a promising class of electron field emitters since the 1990s and have promoted the development of FE technology greatly because of their high electrical and thermal conductivity, chemical stability, high aspect ratio and small size. Recent studies have shown that FE from CNTs has the potential to replace conventional thermionic emission in many areas and that it exhibits advanced features in practical applications. Consequently, FE from nanotubes and applications thereof have attracted much attention. This paper provides a comprehensive review of both recent advances in CNT field emitters and issues related to applications of CNT based FE. FE theories and principles are introduced, and the early development of field emitters is related. CNT emitter types and their FE performance are discussed. The current situation for applications based on nanotube FE is reviewed. Although challenges remain, the tremendous progress made in CNT FE over the past ten years indicates the field’s development potential.

  5. Higher-Education Budgeting at the State Level: Concepts and Principles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Dennis P.

    New approaches to allocating state resources to colleges are discussed. Budgeting and resource allocation principles are considered that: (1) reflect the unique context of higher education; (2) are consistent with sound budgeting and management principles; and (3) represent institutional mechanisms applied at the state level rather than approaches…

  6. Basic humanitarian principles applicable to non-nationals.

    PubMed

    Goodwin-gill, G S; Jenny, R K; Perruchoud, R

    1985-01-01

    This article examines the general status in international law of certain fundamental human rights to determine the minimum "no derogation" standards, and then surveys a number of formal agreements between stages governing migration matters, while examining some of the standard-setting work undertaken by the International Labor Organization (ILO) and other institutions. Article 13 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, proclaims the right of everyone to leave any country, including his or her own. The anti-discrimination provision is widely drawn and includes national or social origin, birth, or other status. Non-discrimination is frequently the core issue in migration matters; it offers the basis for a principles approach to questions involving non-nationals and their methodological analysis, as well as a standard for the progressive elaboration of institutions and practices. As a general rule, ILO conventions give particular importance to the principle of choice of methods by states for the implementation of standards, as well as to the principle of progressive implementation. Non-discrimination implies equality of opportunity in the work field, inremuneration, job opportunity, trade union rights and benefits, social security, taxation, medical treatment, and accommodation; basic legal guarantees are also matters of concern to migrant workers, including termination of employment, non-renewal of work permits, and expulsion. The generality of human rights is due not because the individual is or is not a member of a partucular group, and claims to such rights are not determinable according to membership, but according to the character of the right in question. The individualized aspect of fundamental human rights requires a case-by-case consideration of claims, and the recognition that to all persons now certain special duties are owed.

  7. Principles and application of LIMS in mouse clinics.

    PubMed

    Maier, Holger; Schütt, Christine; Steinkamp, Ralph; Hurt, Anja; Schneltzer, Elida; Gormanns, Philipp; Lengger, Christoph; Griffiths, Mark; Melvin, David; Agrawal, Neha; Alcantara, Rafael; Evans, Arthur; Gannon, David; Holroyd, Simon; Kipp, Christian; Raj, Navis Pretheeba; Richardson, David; LeBlanc, Sophie; Vasseur, Laurent; Masuya, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Kimio; Suzuki, Tomohiro; Tanaka, Nobuhiko; Wakana, Shigeharu; Walling, Alison; Clary, David; Gallegos, Juan; Fuchs, Helmut; de Angelis, Martin Hrabě; Gailus-Durner, Valerie

    2015-10-01

    Large-scale systemic mouse phenotyping, as performed by mouse clinics for more than a decade, requires thousands of mice from a multitude of different mutant lines to be bred, individually tracked and subjected to phenotyping procedures according to a standardised schedule. All these efforts are typically organised in overlapping projects, running in parallel. In terms of logistics, data capture, data analysis, result visualisation and reporting, new challenges have emerged from such projects. These challenges could hardly be met with traditional methods such as pen & paper colony management, spreadsheet-based data management and manual data analysis. Hence, different Laboratory Information Management Systems (LIMS) have been developed in mouse clinics to facilitate or even enable mouse and data management in the described order of magnitude. This review shows that general principles of LIMS can be empirically deduced from LIMS used by different mouse clinics, although these have evolved differently. Supported by LIMS descriptions and lessons learned from seven mouse clinics, this review also shows that the unique LIMS environment in a particular facility strongly influences strategic LIMS decisions and LIMS development. As a major conclusion, this review states that there is no universal LIMS for the mouse research domain that fits all requirements. Still, empirically deduced general LIMS principles can serve as a master decision support template, which is provided as a hands-on tool for mouse research facilities looking for a LIMS.

  8. CEST: From basic principles to applications, challenges and opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinogradov, Elena; Sherry, A. Dean; Lenkinski, Robert E.

    2013-04-01

    Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer (CEST) offers a new type of contrast for MRI that is molecule specific. In this approach, a slowly exchanging NMR active nucleus, typically a proton, possessing a chemical shift distinct from water is selectively saturated and the saturated spin is transferred to the bulk water via chemical exchange. Many molecules can act as CEST agents, both naturally occurring endogenous molecules and new types of exogenous agents. A large variety of molecules have been demonstrated as potential agents, including small diamagnetic molecules, complexes of paramagnetic ions, endogenous macromolecules, dendrimers and liposomes. In this review we described the basic principles of the CEST experiment, with emphasis on the similarity to earlier saturation transfer experiments described in the literature. Interest in quantitative CEST has also resulted in the development of new exchange-sensitive detection schemes. Some emerging clinical applications of CEST are described and the challenges and opportunities associated with translation of these methods to the clinical environment are discussed.

  9. [Basic principles and clinical application of retinal laser therapy].

    PubMed

    Framme, C; Roider, J; Brinkmann, R; Birngruber, R; Gabel, V-P

    2008-04-01

    The scientific background of laser photocoagulation of the ocular fundus was studied extensively by several investigators in the 1970 s and 1980 s. The basic principles were successfully resolved during that time and clinical consequences for proper application of the laser photocoagulation for various diseases were deduced. The present paper gives an overview about the physical basics of laser-tissue interactions during and after retinal laser treatment and the particular laser strategies in the treatment of different retinal diseases. Thus, it addresses the issue of the impact on tissue of laser parameters as wavelength, spot size, pulse duration and laser power. Additionally, the different biological tissue reactions after laser treatment are presented, such as, e. g., for retinopexia or macular treatments as well as for diabetic retinopathies. Specific laser strategies such as the selective laser treatment of the RPE (SRT) or the transpupillary thermotherapy (TTT) are presented and discussed.

  10. Ion-Exchange Chromatography: Basic Principles and Application.

    PubMed

    Cummins, Philip M; Rochfort, Keith D; O'Connor, Brendan F

    2017-01-01

    Ion-Exchange Chromatography (IEC) allows for the separation of ionizable molecules on the basis of differences in charge properties. Its large sample-handling capacity, broad applicability (particularly to proteins and enzymes), moderate cost, powerful resolving ability, and ease of scale-up and automation have led to it becoming one of the most versatile and widely used of all liquid chromatography (LC) techniques. In this chapter, we review the basic principles of IEC, as well as the broader criteria for selecting IEC conditions. By way of further illustration, we outline basic laboratory protocols to partially purify a soluble serine peptidase from bovine whole brain tissue, covering crude tissue extract preparation through to partial purification of the target enzyme using anion-exchange chromatography. Protocols for assaying total protein and enzyme activity in both pre- and post-IEC fractions are also described.

  11. Generic approvals of irradiated foods: Application of the chemiclearance principle

    SciTech Connect

    Taub, I.A.

    1996-10-01

    The use of irradiation for food preservation requires premarket approval primarily by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), based on data establishing the safety of the process. Several approvals have already been granted on the strength of extensive microbiological, genotoxicity, nutritional, and animal feeding studies. Extending approval to other foods that are pasteurized or are sterilized by treatment to high doses, and consequently storable of ambient temperatures, does not necessarily have to involve comprehensive research on each and every food item. Generic approvals of classes of food is possible, because of the commonality in the response of similar foods to treatment by ionizing irradiation. This commonality is the basis for the chemiclearance principle, by which it can be shown that compositionally similar conditions are toxicologically equivalent. The use of different chemical investigations into radiolytic effects in both low and high dose irradiated muscle foods will be discussed to illustrate the application of this approach for obtaining approvals, nationally and internationally.

  12. [Universal ethical principles and their application in clinical drug trials].

    PubMed

    Gonorazky, Sergio Eduardo

    2015-03-01

    Since 1931, and especially since the Nuremberg Code of 1947, an increasing number of declarations, regulations, norms, guidelines, laws, resolutions, and rules intended to create conditions for better protection of subjects participating in research studies have been published, although some have meant setbacks in the human rights of vulnerable populations. As such, violations of the dignity of experimental subjects in clinical trials continue. What researchers investigate and how the research is done, the quality and transparency of the data, and the analysis and the publication of results (of both raw and processed data) respond to the financial interests of the pharmaceutical companies, coming into permanent tension with bioethical principles and the needs of society. The active participation of civil society is necessary to make it so that pharmaceutical research, results and applications subordinate economic benefits to the protection of human rights.

  13. Ultrafast optical imaging technology: principles and applications of emerging methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikami, Hideharu; Gao, Liang; Goda, Keisuke

    2016-09-01

    High-speed optical imaging is an indispensable technology for blur-free observation of fast transient dynamics in virtually all areas including science, industry, defense, energy, and medicine. High temporal resolution is particularly important for microscopy as even a slow event appears to occur "fast" in a small field of view. Unfortunately, the shutter speed and frame rate of conventional cameras based on electronic image sensors are significantly constrained by their electrical operation and limited storage. Over the recent years, several unique and unconventional approaches to high-speed optical imaging have been reported to circumvent these technical challenges and achieve a frame rate and shutter speed far beyond what can be reached with the conventional image sensors. In this article, we review the concepts and principles of such ultrafast optical imaging methods, compare their advantages and disadvantages, and discuss an entirely new class of applications that are possible using them.

  14. Active nondestructive assay of nuclear materials: principles and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Gozani, Tsahi

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to present, coherently and comprehensively, the wealth of available but scattered information on the principles and applications of active nondestructive analysis (ANDA). Chapters are devoted to the following: background and overview; interactions of neutrons with matter; interactions of ..gamma..-rays with matter; neutron production and sources; ..gamma..-ray production and sources; effects of neutron and ..gamma..-ray transport in bulk media; signatures of neutron- and photon-induced fissions; neutron and photon detection systems and electronics; representative ANDA systems; and instrument analysis, calibration, and measurement control for ANDA. Each chapter has an introductory section describing the relationship of the topic of that chapter to ANDA. Each chapter ends with a section that summarizes the main results and conclusions of the chapter, and a reference list.

  15. Hot-melt extrusion--basic principles and pharmaceutical applications.

    PubMed

    Lang, Bo; McGinity, James W; Williams, Robert O

    2014-09-01

    Originally adapted from the plastics industry, the use of hot-melt extrusion has gained favor in drug delivery applications both in academia and the pharmaceutical industry. Several commercial products made by hot-melt extrusion have been approved by the FDA, demonstrating its commercial feasibility for pharmaceutical processing. A significant number of research articles have reported on advances made regarding the pharmaceutical applications of the hot-melt extrusion processing; however, only limited articles have been focused on general principles regarding formulation and process development. This review provides an in-depth analysis and discussion of the formulation and processing aspects of hot-melt extrusion. The impact of physicochemical properties of drug substances and excipients on formulation development using a hot-melt extrusion process is discussed from a material science point of view. Hot-melt extrusion process development, scale-up, and the interplay of formulation and process attributes are also discussed. Finally, recent applications of hot-melt extrusion to a variety of dosage forms and drug substances have also been addressed.

  16. Bioreactors in tissue engineering - principles, applications and commercial constraints.

    PubMed

    Hansmann, Jan; Groeber, Florian; Kahlig, Alexander; Kleinhans, Claudia; Walles, Heike

    2013-03-01

    Bioreactor technology is vital for tissue engineering. Usually, bioreactors are used to provide a tissue-specific physiological in vitro environment during tissue maturation. In addition to this most obvious application, bioreactors have the potential to improve the efficiency of the overall tissue-engineering concept. To date, a variety of bioreactor systems for tissue-specific applications have been developed. Of these, some systems are already commercially available. With bioreactor technology, various functional tissues of different types were generated and cultured in vitro. Nevertheless, these efforts and achievements alone have not yet led to many clinically successful tissue-engineered implants. We review possible applications for bioreactor systems within a tissue-engineering process and present basic principles and requirements for bioreactor development. Moreover, the use of bioreactor systems for the expansion of clinically relevant cell types is addressed. In contrast to cell expansion, for the generation of functional three-dimensional tissue equivalents, additional physical cues must be provided. Therefore, bioreactors for musculoskeletal tissue engineering are discussed. Finally, bioreactor technology is reviewed in the context of commercial constraints. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. A brief introduction to tiling microarrays: principles, concepts, and applications.

    PubMed

    Lemetre, Christophe; Zhang, Zhengdong D

    2013-01-01

    Technological achievements have always contributed to the advancement of biomedical research. It has never been more so than in recent times, when the development and application of innovative cutting-edge technologies have transformed biology into a data-rich quantitative science. This stunning revolution in biology primarily ensued from the emergence of microarrays over two decades ago. The completion of whole-genome sequencing projects and the advance in microarray manufacturing technologies enabled the development of tiling microarrays, which gave unprecedented genomic coverage. Since their first description, several types of application of tiling arrays have emerged, each aiming to tackle a different biological problem. Although numerous algorithms have already been developed to analyze microarray data, new method development is still needed not only for better performance but also for integration of available microarray data sets, which without doubt constitute one of the largest collections of biological data ever generated. In this chapter we first introduce the principles behind the emergence and the development of tiling microarrays, and then discuss with some examples how they are used to investigate different biological problems.

  18. First-principles modeling of materials for nuclear energy applications

    SciTech Connect

    Dmitriev, Andrey I. Nikonov, Anton Yu.; Ponomareva, Alena V.; Abrikosov, Igor A.; Barannikova, Svetlana A.

    2014-11-14

    We discuss recent developments in the field of ab initio electronic structure theory and its use for studies of materials for nuclear energy applications. We review state-of-the-art simulation methods that allow for an efficient treatment of effects due to chemical and magnetic disorder, and illustrate their predictive power with examples of two materials systems, Fe-Cr-Ni alloys and Zr-Nb alloys.

  19. CZT Virtual Frisch-grid Detector: Principles and Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Cui,Y.; Bolotnikov, A.; Camarda, G.; Hossain, A.; James, R. B.

    2009-03-24

    Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CdZnTe or CZT) is a very attractive material for using as room-temperature semiconductor detectors, because it has a wide bandgap and a high atomic number. However, due to the material's poor hole mobility, several special techniques were developed to ensure its suitability for radiation detection. Among them, the virtual Frisch-grid CZT detector is an attractive option, having a simple configuration, yet delivering an outstanding spectral performance. The goal of our group in Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is to improve the performance of Frisch-ring CZT detectors; most recently, that effort focused on the non-contacting Frisch-ring detector, allowing us to build an inexpensive, large-volume detector array with high energy-resolution and a large effective area. In this paper, the principles of virtual Frisch-grid detectors are described, especially BNL's innovative improvements. The potential applications of virtual Frisch-grid detectors are discussed, and as an example, a hand-held gamma-ray spectrometer using a CZT virtual Frischgrid detector array is introduced, which is a self-contained device with a radiation detector, readout circuit, communication circuit, and high-voltage supply. It has good energy resolution of 1.4% (FWHM of 662-keV peak) with a total detection volume of {approx}20 cm{sup 3}. Such a portable inexpensive device can be used widely in nonproliferation applications, non-destructive detection, radiation imaging, and for homeland security. Extended systems based on the same technology have potential applications in industrial- and nuclear-medical-imaging.

  20. Negative-Refraction Metamaterials: Fundamental Principles and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eleftheriades, G. V.; Balmain, K. G.

    2005-06-01

    Learn about the revolutionary new technology of negative-refraction metamaterials Negative-Refraction Metamaterials: Fundamental Principles and Applications introduces artificial materials that support the unusual electromagnetic property of negative refraction. Readers will discover several classes of negative-refraction materials along with their exciting, groundbreaking applications, such as lenses and antennas, imaging with super-resolution, microwave devices, dispersion-compensating interconnects, radar, and defense. The book begins with a chapter describing the fundamentals of isotropic metamaterials in which a negative index of refraction is defined. In the following chapters, the text builds on the fundamentals by describing a range of useful microwave devices and antennas. Next, a broad spectrum of exciting new research and emerging applications is examined, including: Theory and experiments behind a super-resolving, negative-refractive-index transmission-line lens 3-D transmission-line metamaterials with a negative refractive index Numerical simulation studies of negative refraction of Gaussian beams and associated focusing phenomena Unique advantages and theory of shaped lenses made of negative-refractive-index metamaterials A new type of transmission-line metamaterial that is anisotropic and supports the formation of sharp steerable beams (resonance cones) Implementations of negative-refraction metamaterials at optical frequencies Unusual propagation phenomena in metallic waveguides partially filled with negative-refractive-index metamaterials Metamaterials in which the refractive index and the underlying group velocity are both negative This work brings together the best minds in this cutting-edge field. It is fascinating reading for scientists, engineers, and graduate-level students in physics, chemistry, materials science, photonics, and electrical engineering.

  1. Applications of the holographic principle in string theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Button, Bradly Kevin

    The holographic principle has become an extraordinary tool in theoretical physics, most notably in the form of the Anti-deSitter Conformal Field Theory (AdS/CFT) correspondence, in which classical gravitational degrees of freedom in N-dimensions are related quantum field theory degrees of freedom in N -- 1 dimensions in the limit of a large number of fields. Here we present an account of the AdS/CFT correspondence, also known as the gauge/gravity duality, from its origins in the large N 'tHooft expansion, up to Maldacena's proposal that type IIB string theory in the presence of D-branes at low energy is dual to an N = 4, d = 4, U(N) super Yang-Mills on AdS5 . S5 . We begin with an extensive review of (super)string theory including D-branes. We then present the general formulation of the AdS/CFT in the supergravity background of AdS5 x S5 , along with several examples of how it is used in terms of the identification of bulk fields with operators on the boundary of a CFT. We move on to discuss two applications of the gauge/gravity duality. The first is the application of the holographic gauge/gravity correspondence to the QCD k-string. The second applies the AdS/CFT formalism to a Kerr black hole solution embedded in 10-dimensional heterotic sting theory. These two applications of the holographic gauge/gravity duality comprise the original work presented here. We follow with summaries and discussions of the background material, the original work, and future investigations.

  2. CEST: from basic principles to applications, challenges and opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Vinogradov, Elena; Sherry, A Dean; Lenkinski, Robert E

    2012-01-01

    Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer (CEST) offers a new type of contrast for MRI that is molecule specific. In this approach, a slowly exchanging NMR active nucleus, typically a proton, possessing a chemical shift distinct from water is selectively saturated and the saturated spin is transferred to the bulk water via chemical exchange. Many molecules can act as CEST agents, both naturally occurring endogenous molecules and new types of exogenous agents. A large variety of molecules have been demonstrated as potential agents, including small diamagnetic molecules, complexes of paramagnetic ions, endogenous macromolecules, dendrimers and liposomes. In this review we described the basic principles of the CEST experiment, with emphasis on the similarity to earlier saturation transfer experiments described in the literature. Interest in quantitative CEST has also resulted in the development of new exchange-sensitive detection schemes. Some emerging clinical applications of CEST are described and the challenges and opportunities associated with translation of these methods to the clinical environment are discussed. PMID:23273841

  3. The application of psychoanalytic principles to the study of "magic".

    PubMed

    Rudan, Vlasta; Tripković, Mara; Vidas, Mercedes

    2003-06-01

    In this paper Freud's work on animism and magic is elaborated. Those two subjects are presented mainly in his work "Totem and Taboo" (1913). The true motives, which lead primitive man to practice magic are, according to Freud, human whishes and his immense belief in their power. Importance attached to wishes and to the will has been extended from them to all those psychical acts, which are subjected to will. A general overvaluation has thus come about of all mental processes. Things become less important than ideas of things. Relations, which hold between the ideas of things, are equally hold between the things. The principle of governing magic or the technique of animistic way of thinking is one of the 'omnipotence of thoughts'. The overvaluation of psychic acts could be brought into relation with narcissism and megalomania, a belief in the thaumaturgic force of words and a technique for dealing with the external world--'magic'--which appears to be a logical application of these grandiose premises. Recent psychoanalytic authors dealing with the problem of magic emphasize that magic survived culturally to the present days and even in adults who are otherwise intellectually and scientifically 'modern'. Their explanations for that derive from Ferenczi's and especially Róheim's work that pointed out that magic facilitates adaptive and realistically effective endeavors. Balter pointed out that magic employs ego functioning, and conversely ego functioning includes magic.

  4. [The precautionary principle: is it applicable to occupational medicine?].

    PubMed

    Foà, V; Bordiga, A

    2003-01-01

    Precautionary Principle (PP) and its application to environmental and health policy appear in the 70's and from that time is introduced more and more frequently in different international treaties and conferences on environment and health. PP is a risk management policy applied to scientifically uncertain circumstances where it is necessary to act against a potentially harmful risk factor without waiting for more accurate information. When this situation takes place at the workplace, the risk management is an Employer's task. The employer can use different instruments, including the occupational physician's advise, to reach their target. After identification of possible health and safety risk factors and after characterisation of a non-admissible risk for worker's health, the Employer must chose which precautionary actions to take, also in function of economic, technical and judicial needs and restrictions. This action can be the application of measures of "prudent avoidance" through steps such as health surveillance, until more radical measures are taken by using P.P. The Occupational health specialist that is already operating of the work place with characterised and well known risk factors should introduce the instruments, in the health surveillance activities, that may detect possibly adverse effects related to risk factors characterised by scientific uncertainty. This is very important whenever the employers don't have the possibilities or are not sensitive enough to take other kinds of precautionary measures. Moreover, the occupational physician should play an active role also in the risk assessment phase by defining those chemicals or physical agents still characterized by scientific uncertainty.

  5. Liquid-state paramagnetic relaxation from first principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rantaharju, Jyrki; Vaara, Juha

    2016-10-01

    We simulate nuclear and electron spin relaxation rates in a paramagnetic system from first principles. Sampling a molecular dynamics trajectory with quantum-chemical calculations produces a time series of the instantaneous parameters of the relevant spin Hamiltonian. The Hamiltonians are, in turn, used to numerically solve the Liouville-von Neumann equation for the time evolution of the spin density matrix. We demonstrate the approach by studying the aqueous solution of the Ni2 + ion. Taking advantage of Kubo's theory, the spin-lattice (T1) and spin-spin (T2) relaxation rates are extracted from the simulations of the time dependence of the longitudinal and transverse magnetization, respectively. Good agreement with the available experimental data is obtained by the method.

  6. Applications of Principled Search Methods in Climate Influences and Mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glymour, Clark

    2005-01-01

    Forest and grass fires cause economic losses in the billions of dollars in the U.S. alone. In addition, boreal forests constitute a large carbon store; it has been estimated that, were no burning to occur, an additional 7 gigatons of carbon would be sequestered in boreal soils each century. Effective wildfire suppression requires anticipation of locales and times for which wildfire is most probable, preferably with a two to four week forecast, so that limited resources can be efficiently deployed. The United States Forest Service (USFS), and other experts and agencies have developed several measures of fire risk combining physical principles and expert judgment, and have used them in automated procedures for forecasting fire risk. Forecasting accuracies for some fire risk indices in combination with climate and other variables have been estimated for specific locations, with the value of fire risk index variables assessed by their statistical significance in regressions. In other cases, the MAPSS forecasts [23, 241 for example, forecasting accuracy has been estimated only by simulated data. We describe alternative forecasting methods that predict fire probability by locale and time using statistical or machine learning procedures trained on historical data, and we give comparative assessments of their forecasting accuracy for one fire season year, April- October, 2003, for all U.S. Forest Service lands. Aside from providing an accuracy baseline for other forecasting methods, the results illustrate the interdependence between the statistical significance of prediction variables and the forecasting method used.

  7. Application of the double-contingency principle within BNFL

    SciTech Connect

    Strafford, P.I.D.

    1995-12-31

    Historically, the double-contingency principle has been used for criticality assessment within British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL). This paper outlines what is understood by the double-contingency principle to illustrate how it is applied in criticality safety assessments and to highlight various problem areas that are encountered and, where possible, how they might be solved.

  8. Application of the principle of similarity fluid mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendericks, R. C.; Sengers, J. V.

    1979-01-01

    The principle of similarity applied to fluid mechanics is described and illustrated. The concept of transforming the conservation equations by combining similarity principles for thermophysical properties with those for fluid flow is examined. The usefulness of the procedure is illustrated by applying such a transformation to calculate two phase critical mass flow through a nozzle.

  9. Continuing Health Professional Education: Principles for Global Application.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolf, Colin R.

    1993-01-01

    Offers a list of continuing health professional education principles developed by a network of 26 individuals in 14 countries that provide a broad perspective and, as a result of this consultation with individuals of varying cultural circumstances, show differences in emphasis. Proposes personal, educational, and administrative principles.…

  10. A finite-state, finite-memory minimum principle, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandell, N. R., Jr.; Athans, M.

    1975-01-01

    In part 1 of this paper, a minimum principle was found for the finite-state, finite-memory (FSFM) stochastic control problem. In part 2, conditions for the sufficiency of the minimum principle are stated in terms of the informational properties of the problem. This is accomplished by introducing the notion of a signaling strategy. Then a min-H algorithm based on the FSFM minimum principle is presented. This algorithm converges, after a finite number of steps, to a person - by - person extremal solution.

  11. Fist Principles Approach to the Magneto Caloric Effect: Application to Ni2MnGa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odbadrakh, Khorgolkhuu; Nicholson, Don; Rusanu, Aurelian; Eisenbach, Markus; Brown, Gregory; Evans, Boyd, III

    2011-03-01

    The magneto-caloric effect (MCE) has potential application in heating and cooling technologies. In this work, we present calculated magnetic structure of a candidate MCE material, Ni 2 MnGa. The magnetic configurations of a 144 atom supercell is first explored using first-principle, the results are then used to fit exchange parameters of a Heisenberg Hamiltonian. The Wang-Landau method is used to calculate the magnetic density of states of the Heisenberg Hamiltonian. Based on this classical estimate, the magnetic density of states is calculated using the Wang Landau method with energies obtained from the first principles method. The Currie temperature and other thermodynamic properties are calculated using the density of states. The relationships between the density of magnetic states and the field induced adiabatic temperature change and isothermal entropy change are discussed. This work was sponsored by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program (ORNL), by the Mathematical, Information, and Computational Sciences Division; Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (US DOE), and by the Materials Sciences and Engineering Division; Office of Basic Energy Sciences (US DOE).

  12. Wideband Waveform Design principles for Solid-state Weather Radars

    SciTech Connect

    Bharadwaj, Nitin; Chandrasekar, V.

    2012-01-01

    The use of solid-state transmitter is becoming a key part of the strategy to realize a network of low cost electronically steered radars. However, solid-state transmitters have low peak powers and this necessitates the use of pulse compression waveforms. In this paper a frequency diversity wideband waveforms design is proposed to mitigate low sensitivity of solid-state transmitters. In addition, the waveforms mitigate the range eclipsing problem associated with long pulse compression. An analysis of the performance of pulse compression using mismatched compression filters designed to minimize side lobe levels is presented. The impact of range side lobe level on the retrieval of Doppler moments are presented. Realistic simulations are performed based on CSU-CHILL radar data and Center for Collaborative Adaptive Sensing of the Atmosphere (CASA) Integrated Project I (IP1) radar data.

  13. Physical principles and current status of emerging non-volatile solid state memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L.; Yang, C.-H.; Wen, J.

    2015-07-01

    Today the influence of non-volatile solid-state memories on persons' lives has become more prominent because of their non-volatility, low data latency, and high robustness. As a pioneering technology that is representative of non-volatile solidstate memories, flash memory has recently seen widespread application in many areas ranging from electronic appliances, such as cell phones and digital cameras, to external storage devices such as universal serial bus (USB) memory. Moreover, owing to its large storage capacity, it is expected that in the near future, flash memory will replace hard-disk drives as a dominant technology in the mass storage market, especially because of recently emerging solid-state drives. However, the rapid growth of the global digital data has led to the need for flash memories to have larger storage capacity, thus requiring a further downscaling of the cell size. Such a miniaturization is expected to be extremely difficult because of the well-known scaling limit of flash memories. It is therefore necessary to either explore innovative technologies that can extend the areal density of flash memories beyond the scaling limits, or to vigorously develop alternative non-volatile solid-state memories including ferroelectric random-access memory, magnetoresistive random-access memory, phase-change random-access memory, and resistive random-access memory. In this paper, we review the physical principles of flash memories and their technical challenges that affect our ability to enhance the storage capacity. We then present a detailed discussion of novel technologies that can extend the storage density of flash memories beyond the commonly accepted limits. In each case, we subsequently discuss the physical principles of these new types of non-volatile solid-state memories as well as their respective merits and weakness when utilized for data storage applications. Finally, we predict the future prospects for the aforementioned solid-state memories for

  14. 29 CFR 1620.19 - Equality of wages-application of the principle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Equality of wages-application of the principle. 1620.19 Section 1620.19 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION THE EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.19 Equality of wages—application of the principle. Equal wages must be...

  15. 29 CFR 1620.19 - Equality of wages-application of the principle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Equality of wages-application of the principle. 1620.19 Section 1620.19 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION THE EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.19 Equality of wages—application of the principle. Equal wages must be...

  16. 29 CFR 1620.19 - Equality of wages-application of the principle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Equality of wages-application of the principle. 1620.19 Section 1620.19 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION THE EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.19 Equality of wages—application of the principle. Equal wages must be...

  17. 29 CFR 1620.19 - Equality of wages-application of the principle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Equality of wages-application of the principle. 1620.19 Section 1620.19 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION THE EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.19 Equality of wages—application of the principle. Equal wages must be...

  18. 17 CFR Appendix A to Part 39 - Application Guidance and Compliance With Core Principles

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... compliance with one or more core principles. Core Principle B: FINANCIAL RESOURCES—The applicant shall demonstrate that the applicant has adequate financial, operational, and managerial resources to discharge the... derivatives clearing organizations may describe or otherwise document: 1. The resources dedicated...

  19. 10 CFR 603.625 - Cost principles or standards applicable to for-profit participants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cost principles or standards applicable to for-profit participants. 603.625 Section 603.625 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY... Financial Matters § 603.625 Cost principles or standards applicable to for-profit participants. (a) So as...

  20. 10 CFR 603.625 - Cost principles or standards applicable to for-profit participants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cost principles or standards applicable to for-profit participants. 603.625 Section 603.625 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY... Financial Matters § 603.625 Cost principles or standards applicable to for-profit participants. (a) So as...

  1. 10 CFR 603.625 - Cost principles or standards applicable to for-profit participants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cost principles or standards applicable to for-profit participants. 603.625 Section 603.625 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY... Financial Matters § 603.625 Cost principles or standards applicable to for-profit participants. (a) So as...

  2. 28 CFR 552.22 - Principles governing the use of force and application of restraints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Principles governing the use of force and... JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT CUSTODY Use of Force and Application of Restraints on Inmates § 552.22 Principles governing the use of force and application of restraints. (a) Staff ordinarily shall first attempt...

  3. 28 CFR 552.22 - Principles governing the use of force and application of restraints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Principles governing the use of force and... JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT CUSTODY Use of Force and Application of Restraints on Inmates § 552.22 Principles governing the use of force and application of restraints. (a) Staff ordinarily shall first attempt...

  4. 29 CFR 1620.19 - Equality of wages-application of the principle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equality of wages-application of the principle. 1620.19 Section 1620.19 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION THE EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.19 Equality of wages—application of the principle. Equal wages must be paid...

  5. Polymer principles of protein calorimetric two-state cooperativity.

    PubMed

    Kaya, H; Chan, H S

    2000-09-01

    The experimental calorimetric two-state criterion requires the van't Hoff enthalpy DeltaH(vH) around the folding/unfolding transition midpoint to be equal or very close to the calorimetric enthalpy DeltaH(cal) of the entire transition. We use an analytical model with experimental parameters from chymotrypsin inhibitor 2 to elucidate the relationship among several different van't Hoff enthalpies used in calorimetric analyses. Under reasonable assumptions, the implications of these DeltaH(vH)'s being approximately equal to DeltaH(cal) are equivalent: Enthalpic variations among denatured conformations in real proteins are much narrower than some previous lattice-model estimates, suggesting that the energy landscape theory "folding to glass transition temperature ratio" T(f) /T(g) may exceed 6.0 for real calorimetrically two-state proteins. Several popular three-dimensional lattice protein models, with different numbers of residue types in their alphabets, are found to fall short of the high experimental standard for being calorimetrically two-state. Some models postulate a multiple-conformation native state with substantial pre-denaturational energetic fluctuations well below the unfolding transition temperature, or predict a significant post-denaturational continuous conformational expansion of the denatured ensemble at temperatures well above the transition point, or both. These scenarios either disagree with experiments on protein size and dynamics, or are inconsistent with conventional interpretation of calorimetric data. However, when empirical linear baseline subtractions are employed, the resulting DeltaH(vH)/DeltaH(cal)'s for some models can be increased to values closer to unity, and baseline subtractions are found to correspond roughly to an operational definition of native-state conformational diversity. These results necessitate a re-assessment of theoretical models and experimental interpretations.

  6. CT Perfusion of the Liver: Principles and Applications in Oncology

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Se Hyung; Kamaya, Aya

    2014-01-01

    With the introduction of molecularly targeted chemotherapeutics, there is an increasing need for defining new response criteria for therapeutic success because use of morphologic imaging alone may not fully assess tumor response. Computed tomographic (CT) perfusion imaging of the liver provides functional information about the microcirculation of normal parenchyma and focal liver lesions and is a promising technique for assessing the efficacy of various anticancer treatments. CT perfusion also shows promising results for diagnosing primary or metastatic tumors, for predicting early response to anticancer treatments, and for monitoring tumor recurrence after therapy. Many of the limitations of early CT perfusion studies performed in the liver, such as limited coverage, motion artifacts, and high radiation dose of CT, are being addressed by recent technical advances. These include a wide area detector with or without volumetric spiral or shuttle modes, motion correction algorithms, and new CT reconstruction technologies such as iterative algorithms. Although several issues related to perfusion imaging—such as paucity of large multicenter trials, limited accessibility of perfusion software, and lack of standardization in methods—remain unsolved, CT perfusion has now reached technical maturity, allowing for its use in assessing tumor vascularity in larger-scale prospective clinical trials. In this review, basic principles, current acquisition protocols, and pharmacokinetic models used for CT perfusion imaging of the liver are described. Various oncologic applications of CT perfusion of the liver are discussed and current challenges, as well as possible solutions, for CT perfusion are presented. © RSNA, 2014 Online supplemental material is available for this article. PMID:25058132

  7. Maximum entropy principle for stationary states underpinned by stochastic thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, Ian J.

    2015-11-01

    The selection of an equilibrium state by maximizing the entropy of a system, subject to certain constraints, is often powerfully motivated as an exercise in logical inference, a procedure where conclusions are reached on the basis of incomplete information. But such a framework can be more compelling if it is underpinned by dynamical arguments, and we show how this can be provided by stochastic thermodynamics, where an explicit link is made between the production of entropy and the stochastic dynamics of a system coupled to an environment. The separation of entropy production into three components allows us to select a stationary state by maximizing the change, averaged over all realizations of the motion, in the principal relaxational or nonadiabatic component, equivalent to requiring that this contribution to the entropy production should become time independent for all realizations. We show that this recovers the usual equilibrium probability density function (pdf) for a conservative system in an isothermal environment, as well as the stationary nonequilibrium pdf for a particle confined to a potential under nonisothermal conditions, and a particle subject to a constant nonconservative force under isothermal conditions. The two remaining components of entropy production account for a recently discussed thermodynamic anomaly between over- and underdamped treatments of the dynamics in the nonisothermal stationary state.

  8. Principles and application of shock-tubes and shock tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ried, R. C.; Clauss, H. G., Jr.

    1963-01-01

    The principles, theoretical flow equations, calculation techniques, limitations and practical performance characteristics of basic and high performance shock tubes and shock tunnels are presented. Selected operating curves are included.

  9. Mixing light and matter waves: Principles and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yuping

    The work of this dissertation is committed to theoretically explore rich physics involving quantum-mechanical mixing of light and matter waves, while specifically seeking applications in the fields of quantum interferometry, quantum information processing, and testing fundamental quantum mechanics. Towards this goal, the present research is guided by two lines. The first line is to study and manipulate collective behaviors of multi-atom systems at quantum-degenerate temperature, where the wave nature of atoms is maximized. Specifically, a variety of phase-coherent mixing processes of two macroscopic matter-waves, in the form of gaseous Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC), are investigated and engineered via (i) tuning atomic collisional interaction and/or inter-wave tunneling rate; (ii) mixing with optical waves of phase-locked lasers. By these means, a series of novel applications are proposed for generating highly nonclassical states, Heisenberg-uncertainty phase measurements and ultra-fast quantum state mapping between light and matter waves. The second line is to coherently mix single atoms with light beams in free space. It is well known that the free-space atom-photon interactions are weak, usually dominated by incoherent dissipation via spontaneous emission. Usable couplings between atoms and photons are routinely realized by confining them in high-finesse optical cavities in the strong coupling regime. The goal of the present work is to use ultrahigh-sensitivity quantum interferometry and the quantum Zeno effect to overcome the weak free-space atom-photon coupling, thus leading to implementations of quantum information processing in free space. Along the first line of this dissertation, chapter II describes a dynamical approach to create many-particle Schrodinger cat states, created in a Bose-Einstein condensate trapped in a double-well potential, via the technique of Feshbach resonance. A detection scheme for cat states is proposed via revivial of the initial

  10. Nonthermal Plasma Synthesis of Nanocrystals: Fundamental Principles, Materials, and Applications.

    PubMed

    Kortshagen, Uwe R; Sankaran, R Mohan; Pereira, Rui N; Girshick, Steven L; Wu, Jeslin J; Aydil, Eray S

    2016-09-28

    Nonthermal plasmas have emerged as a viable synthesis technique for nanocrystal materials. Inherently solvent and ligand-free, nonthermal plasmas offer the ability to synthesize high purity nanocrystals of materials that require high synthesis temperatures. The nonequilibrium environment in nonthermal plasmas has a number of attractive attributes: energetic surface reactions selectively heat the nanoparticles to temperatures that can strongly exceed the gas temperature; charging of nanoparticles through plasma electrons reduces or eliminates nanoparticle agglomeration; and the large difference between the chemical potentials of the gaseous growth species and the species bound to the nanoparticle surfaces facilitates nanocrystal doping. This paper reviews the state of the art in nonthermal plasma synthesis of nanocrystals. It discusses the fundamentals of nanocrystal formation in plasmas, reviews practical implementations of plasma reactors, surveys the materials that have been produced with nonthermal plasmas and surface chemistries that have been developed, and provides an overview of applications of plasma-synthesized nanocrystals.

  11. Principles and applications of electro-spark deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.N.

    1987-12-01

    Electro-spark deposition (ESD) is a pulsed-arc micro-welding process using short-duration, high-current electrical pulsed to deposit an electrode material on a metallic substrate. It is one of the few methods available by which a fused, metallurgically bonded coating can be applied with such a low total heat input that the bulk substrate material remains at or near ambient temperatures. The short duration of the electrical pulse allows an extremely rapid solidification of the deposited material and results in an exceptionally fine-grained, homogeneous coating that approaches an amorphous structure. This structure is believed to contribute to the good tribological and corrosion performance observed for hardsurfacing materials used in demanding environments. A brief historical review of the process is provided, followed by descriptions of the present state-of-the-art, of the performance and applications of electro-spark deposition coatings in nuclear and fossil energy environments, and of potential applications in development. 23 refs., 23 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Principles and applications of fluorescence lifetime correlation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beranová, Lenka; Humpolícková, Jana; Hof, Martin

    2009-05-01

    Two fluorescence spectroscopy concepts, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and time correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) are employed in fluorescence lifetime correlation spectroscopy (FLCS) - a relatively new technique with several experimental benefits. In FLCS experiments, pulsed excitation is used and data are stored in a special time-tagged time-resolved mode. Mathematical treatment of TCSPC decay patterns of distinct fluorophores and their mixture enables to calculate autocorrelation functions of each of the fluorophores and thus their diffusion properties and concentrations can be determined separately. Moreover, crosscorrelation of the two signals can be performed and information on interaction of the species can be obtained. This technique is particularly helpful for distinguishing different states of the same fluorophore in different microenvironments. The first application of that concept represents the simultaneous determination of two-dimensional diffusion in planar lipid layers and three-dimensional vesicle diffusion in bulk above the lipid layers. The lifetime in both investigated systems differed because the lifetime of the dye is considerably quenched in the layer near the light-absorbing surface. This concept was also used in other applications: a) investigation of a conformational change of a labeled protein, b) detection of small amounts of labeled oligonucleotides bound to metal particles or c) elucidation of the compaction mechanism of different sized labeled DNA molecules. Moreover, it was demonstrated that FLCS can help to overcome some FCS experimental drawbacks.

  13. Excited-State Properties of Molecular Solids from First Principles.

    PubMed

    Kronik, Leeor; Neaton, Jeffrey B

    2016-05-27

    Molecular solids have attracted attention recently in the context of organic (opto)electronics. These materials exhibit unique charge carrier generation and transport phenomena that are distinct from those of conventional semiconductors. Understanding these phenomena is fundamental to optoelectronics and requires a detailed description of the excited-state properties of molecular solids. Recent advances in many-body perturbation theory (MBPT) and density functional theory (DFT) have made such description possible and have revealed many surprising electronic and optical properties of molecular crystals. Here, we review this progress. We summarize the salient aspects of MBPT and DFT as well as various properties that can be described by these methods. These properties include the fundamental gap and its renormalization, hybridization and band dispersion, singlet and triplet excitations, optical spectra, and excitonic properties. For each, we present concrete examples, a comparison to experiments, and a critical discussion.

  14. Main principles of radiation protection and their applications in waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Devgun, J.S.

    1993-09-01

    The average exposure for an individual from such background in the United States is about 300 mrem per year with approximately 200 mrem of this coming from radon exposure alone. In addition to the natural sources of background radiation, a very small amount of the background radiation occurs due to the nuclear weapons test fallout. Manmade sources of radiation also include certain consumer products, industrial and research use of radioisotopes, medical X-rays, and radiopharmaceuticals. When all sources, natural and man-made, are taken into account, the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) has estimated that the average annual dose to individuals in the US population is 360 mrem (NCRP Report No. 93). In this report the fundamental principles of radiation protection are reviewed, as well as the relevant laws and regulations in the United States and discuss application of radiation protection in radioactive waste management.

  15. [Principles of Teaching in Surgery - State of the Art].

    PubMed

    Busemann, A; Patrzyk, M; Busemann, C; Heidecke, C-D

    2016-06-01

    Ten to 15 years ago the number of applications for a surgical residency position was very much larger than the positions available. Today, this situation has clearly reversed itself as indicated through a noticeable deficit in recruits. The decision to become a surgeon has become more uncommon. This can be blamed upon not only the demotivatingly viewed "work-life imbalance" associated with being a surgeon, but also on the basically non-inspiring training process during medical school. Due to the fact that university educators/instructors are not fundamentally trained teachers, they often fail in their capacity to convey their extensive knowledge to medical students and potentially future surgical residents. The quality of primary as well as postgraduate training is an important central factor in the effort to once again restore the attractive image of surgery within the realm of the medical disciplines. This paper presents an overview of the basic modern training concepts by which every surgeon should be able to effectively convey knowledge and practical skills. Furthermore, this work should inspire a more intensive interest in clinical graduate and postgraduate education. Due to the hand in hand relationship, this manuscript does not differentiate between student teaching and postgraduate training. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Optimal quantum state estimation with use of the no-signaling principle

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Yeong-Deok; Bae, Joonwoo; Wang Xiangbin; Hwang, Won-Young

    2010-12-15

    A simple derivation of the optimal state estimation of a quantum bit was obtained by using the no-signaling principle. In particular, the no-signaling principle determines a unique form of the guessing probability independent of figures of merit, such as the fidelity or information gain. This proves that the optimal estimation for a quantum bit can be achieved by the same measurement for almost all figures of merit.

  17. The 'Herbivory Uncertainty Principle': application in a cerrado site.

    PubMed

    Gadotti, C A; Batalha, M A

    2010-05-01

    Researchers may alter the ecology of their studied organisms, even carrying out apparently beneficial activities, as in herbivory studies, when they may alter herbivory damage. We tested whether visit frequency altered herbivory damage, as predicted by the 'Herbivory Uncertainty Principle'. In a cerrado site, we established 80 quadrats, in which we sampled all woody individuals. We used four visit frequencies (high, medium, low, and control), quantifying, at the end of three months, herbivory damage for each species in each treatment. We did not corroborate the 'Herbivory Uncertainty Principle', since visiting frequency did not alter herbivory damage, at least when the whole plant community was taken into account. However, when we analysed each species separately, four out of 11 species presented significant differences in herbivory damage, suggesting that the researcher is not independent of its measurements. The principle could be tested in other ecological studies in which it may occur, such as those on animal behaviour, human ecology, population dynamics, and conservation.

  18. The principle of symmetry in acupuncture and its clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tsun-Nin

    2013-01-01

    The clinical practice of acupuncture and study of the traditional Chinese medicine literature has led to the observation that if the diaphragm is used as an axis of symmetry, there are many symmetrical points on the upper and lower halves of the body. The symmetrical points share several common properties, including physiological functions, mechanisms of pathogenesis and therapeutic effects. Employing these corresponding points on the upper and lower parts of the body simultaneously can frequently enhance the therapeutic outcome rather substantially. This phenomenon may be called the Principle of Symmetry. Traditional and modern scientific literature already provides evidence that verifies the reliability of this principle. Furthermore, this principle may be viewed as the derivative of the Thalamic Neuron Theory.

  19. Status in calculating electronic excited states in transition metal oxides from first principles.

    PubMed

    Bendavid, Leah Isseroff; Carter, Emily Ann

    2014-01-01

    Characterization of excitations in transition metal oxides is a crucial step in the development of these materials for photonic and optoelectronic applications. However, many transition metal oxides are considered to be strongly correlated materials, and their complex electronic structure is challenging to model with many established quantum mechanical techniques. We review state-of-the-art first-principles methods to calculate charged and neutral excited states in extended materials, and discuss their application to transition metal oxides. We briefly discuss developments in density functional theory (DFT) to calculate fundamental band gaps, and introduce time-dependent DFT, which can model neutral excitations. Charged excitations can be described within the framework of many-body perturbation theory based on Green's functions techniques, which predominantly employs the GW approximation to the self-energy to facilitate a feasible solution to the quasiparticle equations. We review the various implementations of the GW approximation and evaluate each approach in its calculation of fundamental band gaps of many transition metal oxides. We also briefly review the related Bethe-Salpeter equation (BSE), which introduces an electron-hole interaction between GW-derived quasiparticles to describe accurately neutral excitations. Embedded correlated wavefunction theory is another framework used to model localized neutral or charged excitations in extended materials. Here, the electronic structure of a small cluster is modeled within correlated wavefunction theory, while its coupling to its environment is represented by an embedding potential. We review a number of techniques to represent this background potential, including electrostatic representations and electron density-based methods, and evaluate their application to transition metal oxides.

  20. Application of the MHD energy principle to magnetostatic atmospheres

    SciTech Connect

    Zweibel, E.G.

    1984-11-01

    We apply the MHD energy principle to the stability of a magnetized atmosphere which is bounded below by much denser fluid, as is the solar corona. We treat the two fluids as ideal; the approximation which is consistent with the energy principle, and use the dynamical conditions that must hold at a fluid-fluid interface to show that if vertical displacements of the lower boundary are permitted, then the lower atmosphere must be perturbed as well. However, displacements which do not perturb the coronal boundary can be properly treated as isolated perturbations of the corona alone.

  1. Application of the MHD energy principle to magnetostatic atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zweibel, E. G.

    1984-01-01

    The MHD energy principle is applied to the stability of a magnetized atmosphere which is bounded below by much denser fluid, as is the solar corona. The two fluids are treated as ideal; the approximation is consistent with the energy principle, and the dynamical conditions that must hold at a fluid-fluid interface are used to show that if vertical displacements of the lower boundary are premitted, then the lower atmosphere must be perturbed as well. However, displacements which do not perturb the coronal boundary can be properly treated as isolated perturbations of the corona alone.

  2. The application of design principles to innovate clinical care delivery.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Michael D; Duncan, Alan K; Armbruster, Ryan R; Montori, Victor M; Feyereisn, Wayne L; LaRusso, Nicholas F

    2009-01-01

    Clinical research centers that support hypothesis-driven investigation have long been a feature of academic medical centers but facilities in which clinical care delivery can be systematically assessed and evaluated have heretofore been nonexistent. The Institute of Medicine report "Crossing the Quality Chasm" identified six core attributes of an ideal care delivery system that in turn relied heavily on system redesign. Although manufacturing and service industries have leveraged modern design principles in new product development, healthcare has lagged behind. In this article, we describe a methodology utilized by our facility to study the clinical care delivery system that incorporates modern design principles.

  3. Application of Pilates principles increases paraspinal muscle activation.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Letícia Souza; Mochizuki, Luís; Pires, Flávio Oliveira; da Silva, Renato André Sousa; Mota, Yomara Lima

    2015-01-01

    To analyze the effect of Pilates principles on the EMG activity of abdominal and paraspinal muscles on stable and unstable surfaces. Surface EMG data about the rectus abdominis (RA), iliocostalis (IL) and lumbar multifidus (MU) of 19 participants were collected while performing three repetitions of a crunch exercise in the following conditions: 1) with no Pilates technique and stable surface (nP + S); 2) with no Pilates technique and unstable surface (nP + U); 3) with Pilates technique and stable surface (P + S); 4) with Pilates and unstable surface (P + U). The EMG Fanalysis was conducted using a custom-made Matlab(®) 10. There was no condition effect in the RA iEMG with stable and unstable surfaces (F(1,290) = 0 p = 0.98) and with and without principles (F(1,290) = 1.2 p = 0.27). IL iEMG was higher for the stable surface condition (F(1,290) = 32.3 p < 0.001) with Pilates principles (F(1,290) = 21.9 p < 0.001). The MU iEMG was higher for the stable surface condition with and without Pilates principles (F(1,290) = 84.9 p < 0.001). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Didactic Principles and Their Applications in the Didactic Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marius-Costel, Esi

    2010-01-01

    The evaluation and reevaluation of the fundamental didactic principles suppose the acceptance at the level of an instructive-educative activity of a new educational paradigm. Thus, its understanding implies an assumption at a conceptual-theoretical level of some approaches where the didactic aspects find their usefulness by relating to value…

  5. Fluidics and pneumatics: principles and applications in anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Duffin, J

    1977-01-01

    This article describes the construction and operation of fluidic and pneumatic devices in current use, as well as the principles of their use in medical devices. The designs for an automatic blood pressure cuff inflator, a blood pump and a high performance ventilator are presented.

  6. Reconstruction of motional states of neutral atoms via maximum entropy principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drobný, Gabriel; Bužek, Vladimír

    2002-05-01

    We present a scheme for a reconstruction of states of quantum systems from incomplete tomographiclike data. The proposed scheme is based on the Jaynes principle of maximum entropy. We apply our algorithm for a reconstruction of motional quantum states of neutral atoms. As an example we analyze the experimental data obtained by Salomon and co-workers and we reconstruct Wigner functions of motional quantum states of Cs atoms trapped in an optical lattice.

  7. High resolution solar observations from first principles to applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdoni, Angelo P.

    2009-10-01

    The expression "high-resolution observations" in Solar Physics refers to the spatial, temporal and spectral domains in their entirety. High-resolution observations of solar fine structure are a necessity to answer many of the intriguing questions related to solar activity. However, a researcher building instruments for high-resolution observations has to cope with the fact that these three domains often have diametrically opposed boundary conditions. Many factors have to be considered in the design of a successful instrument. Modern post-focus instruments are more closely linked with the solar telescopes that they serve than in past. In principle, the quest for high-resolution observations already starts with the selection of the observatory site. The site survey of the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) under the stewardship of the National Solar Observatory (NSO) has identified Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO) as one of the best sites for solar observations. In a first step, the seeing characteristics at BBSO based on the data collected for the ATST site survey are described. The analysis will aid in the scheduling of high-resolution observations at BBSO as well as provide useful information concerning the design and implementation of a thermal control system for the New Solar Telescope (NST). NST is an off-axis open-structure Gregorian-style telescope with a 1.6 m aperture. NST will be housed in a newly constructed 5/8-sphere ventilated dome. With optics exposed to the surrounding air, NST's open-structure design makes it particularly vulnerable to the effects of enclosure-related seeing. In an effort to mitigate these effects, the initial design of a thermal control system for the NST dome is presented. The goal is to remediate thermal related seeing effects present within the dome interior. The THermal Control System (THCS) is an essential component for the open-telescope design of NST to work. Following these tasks, a calibration routine for the

  8. 10 CFR 603.625 - Cost principles or standards applicable to for-profit participants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Accounting Principles (see Statement of Financial Accounting Standards Number 2, “Accounting for Research and... INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Award Terms Affecting Participants' Financial, Property, and Purchasing Systems Financial Matters § 603.625 Cost principles or standards applicable to for-profit participants. (a) So...

  9. 10 CFR 603.625 - Cost principles or standards applicable to for-profit participants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Accounting Principles (see Statement of Financial Accounting Standards Number 2, “Accounting for Research and... INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Award Terms Affecting Participants' Financial, Property, and Purchasing Systems Financial Matters § 603.625 Cost principles or standards applicable to for-profit participants. (a) So...

  10. Relationships among Teacher's Knowledge and Application of Principles of Adult Teaching and Student Satisfaction. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Clay N., Jr.

    The nature of the relationship between a teacher's knowledge of certain principles of adult teaching, his application of those principles in classroom practice, and the resultant level of satisfaction reported by his adult students was studied. Agroup of 1,596 adults in 100 university classes were the subjects. A theoretical framework adapted from…

  11. An application of Hamiltonian neurodynamics using Pontryagin's Maximum (Minimum) Principle.

    PubMed

    Koshizen, T; Fulcher, J

    1995-12-01

    Classical optimal control methods, notably Pontryagin's Maximum (Minimum) Principle (PMP) can be employed, together with Hamiltonians, to determine optimal system weights in Artificial Neural dynamical systems. A new learning rule based on weight equations derived using PMP is shown to be suitable for both discrete- and continuous-time systems, and moreover, can also be applied to feedback networks. Preliminary testing shows that this PMP learning rule compares favorably with Standard BackPropagations (SBP) on the XOR problem.

  12. Toxicology - A primer on toxicology principles and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kamrin, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    As the use of synthetic chemicals increased dramatically after World War II, concern about the possible adverse health and environmental effects of such use grew. The book opens with a discussion of the general principles of toxicology and how these general principles are applied in assessing the acute, subacute and chronic effects of chemicals. Both qualitative and quantitative measures of toxicity are addressed and the protocols for the various tests are described. Emphasis is placed on both the strengths and limitations of the techniques which are in current use. This is then followed by a discussion of risk assessment and risk management. Risk assessment deals with both the toxic potential of a chemical and the exposure likely to occur in specific situations. Risk management includes the steps taken to reduce or eliminate risks identified in the assessment process. The components of risk assessment are described in relation to a variety of possible toxic effects and exposure scenarios. The last part of the book provides a description and analysis of four case studies, each dealing with a different substance. These include the food additives, cyclamate and saccharin; asbestos; formaldehyde; and benzene. The basic toxicological information regarding each, and the different regulations to which they have been subject, provide the basis for exploring how the principles introduced in the first part of the book are applied in practice.

  13. First-principles study of electronic states in LiBe{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Galav, K. L.; Joshi, K. B.

    2016-05-23

    By coupling structure prediction methods with first-principles total energy calculations we find lattice constant and bulk modulus of hcp LiBe{sub 2}. Structural and electronic properties are investigated using Linear Combination of Atomic Orbital’s method. The generalized gradient approximation based density functional calculations are attempted to look for the ground state. Thereafter ground state electronic band structure, total density of states and anisotropies in directional Compton profiles are computed. Step like behavior seen broadly in density of states (DOS) is appreciated by band structure suggesting 2D features. Anisotropic behavior of electronic states around Fermi level is also reflected in anisotropies of directional Compton profiles.

  14. Quantum test of the equivalence principle for atoms in coherent superposition of internal energy states

    PubMed Central

    Rosi, G.; D'Amico, G.; Cacciapuoti, L.; Sorrentino, F.; Prevedelli, M.; Zych, M.; Brukner, Č.; Tino, G. M.

    2017-01-01

    The Einstein equivalence principle (EEP) has a central role in the understanding of gravity and space–time. In its weak form, or weak equivalence principle (WEP), it directly implies equivalence between inertial and gravitational mass. Verifying this principle in a regime where the relevant properties of the test body must be described by quantum theory has profound implications. Here we report on a novel WEP test for atoms: a Bragg atom interferometer in a gravity gradiometer configuration compares the free fall of rubidium atoms prepared in two hyperfine states and in their coherent superposition. The use of the superposition state allows testing genuine quantum aspects of EEP with no classical analogue, which have remained completely unexplored so far. In addition, we measure the Eötvös ratio of atoms in two hyperfine levels with relative uncertainty in the low 10−9, improving previous results by almost two orders of magnitude. PMID:28569742

  15. Quantum test of the equivalence principle for atoms in coherent superposition of internal energy states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosi, G.; D'Amico, G.; Cacciapuoti, L.; Sorrentino, F.; Prevedelli, M.; Zych, M.; Brukner, Č.; Tino, G. M.

    2017-06-01

    The Einstein equivalence principle (EEP) has a central role in the understanding of gravity and space-time. In its weak form, or weak equivalence principle (WEP), it directly implies equivalence between inertial and gravitational mass. Verifying this principle in a regime where the relevant properties of the test body must be described by quantum theory has profound implications. Here we report on a novel WEP test for atoms: a Bragg atom interferometer in a gravity gradiometer configuration compares the free fall of rubidium atoms prepared in two hyperfine states and in their coherent superposition. The use of the superposition state allows testing genuine quantum aspects of EEP with no classical analogue, which have remained completely unexplored so far. In addition, we measure the Eötvös ratio of atoms in two hyperfine levels with relative uncertainty in the low 10-9, improving previous results by almost two orders of magnitude.

  16. Generalized variational principle for excited states using nodes of trial functions.

    PubMed

    Bressanini, Dario; Reynolds, Peter J

    2011-10-01

    The familiar variational principle provides an upper bound to the ground-state energy of a given Hamiltonian. This allows one to optimize a trial wave function by minimizing the expectation value of the energy. This approach is also trivially generalized to excited states, so that given a trial wave function of a certain symmetry, one can compute an upper bound to the lowest-energy level of that symmetry. In order to generalize further and build an upper bound of an arbitrary excited state of the desired symmetry, a linear combination of basis functions is generally used to generate an orthogonal set of trial functions, all bounding their respective states. However, sometimes a compact wave-function form is sought, and a basis-set expansion is not desirable or possible. Here we present an alternative generalization of the variational principle to excited states that does not require explicit orthogonalization to lower-energy states. It is valid for one-dimensional systems and, with additional information, to at least some n-dimensional systems. This generalized variational principle exploits information about the nodal structure of the trial wave function, giving an upper bound to the exact energy without the need to build a linear combination of basis functions. To illustrate the theorem we apply it to a nontrivial example: the 1s2s (1)S excited state of the helium atom.

  17. Generalized variational principle for excited states using nodes of trial functions

    SciTech Connect

    Bressanini, Dario; Reynolds, Peter J.

    2011-10-15

    The familiar variational principle provides an upper bound to the ground-state energy of a given Hamiltonian. This allows one to optimize a trial wave function by minimizing the expectation value of the energy. This approach is also trivially generalized to excited states, so that given a trial wave function of a certain symmetry, one can compute an upper bound to the lowest-energy level of that symmetry. In order to generalize further and build an upper bound of an arbitrary excited state of the desired symmetry, a linear combination of basis functions is generally used to generate an orthogonal set of trial functions, all bounding their respective states. However, sometimes a compact wave-function form is sought, and a basis-set expansion is not desirable or possible. Here we present an alternative generalization of the variational principle to excited states that does not require explicit orthogonalization to lower-energy states. It is valid for one-dimensional systems and, with additional information, to at least some n-dimensional systems. This generalized variational principle exploits information about the nodal structure of the trial wave function, giving an upper bound to the exact energy without the need to build a linear combination of basis functions. To illustrate the theorem we apply it to a nontrivial example: the 1s2s {sup 1} S excited state of the helium atom.

  18. Live three-dimensional echocardiography: imaging principles and clinical application.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin-Fang; Deng, You-Bin; Nanda, Navin C; Deng, Jing; Miller, Andrew P; Xie, Ming-Xing

    2003-10-01

    Live three-dimensional echocardiography (L3DE) is an important breakthrough in the field of medical ultrasound. It will provide a great potential tool for clinical diagnosis and treatment. In this article, the authors first review the bottlenecks in 3D cardiac imaging and the technical principles of L3DE that have been used to overcome some of these problems. We then discuss the scanning methods, clinical usefulness, and the future of L3DE, drawing on our experiences in examining 124 human patients and in conducting animal verification studies with a live 3D ultrasound system.

  19. Principles and Applications of Surgical Oncology in Exotic Animals.

    PubMed

    Steffey, Michele A

    2017-01-01

    The diagnosis and treatment of cancer in exotic species is a rapidly evolving area of veterinary medicine. In general, surgical excision remains pivotal in cancer treatment, although optimal outcomes are achieved when a coherent and thorough diagnostic and therapeutic plan is created prior to surgery. While surgical cure is not always achieveable, multimodal treatment plans can offer a variety of options, and palliative procedures may be used to improve quality of life. Treatment goals, whether curative intent or palliative intent, should be identified before surgery, and practitioners should endeavor to adhere to surgical principles in order to attain the best outcomes.

  20. Dry tests: construction, principle of action, and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chwojnowski, Andrzej

    2001-08-01

    A short description of dry test constructions, chemical principles of action are presented. An example of statement of reflection spectra of described dry tests were shown. For this spectra the best region for determination of analytes by reflectance were selected. The results of a few examples of determination pollution in water an din milk were shown. The all determination had been carried out by dry tests. The reading was performed by comparison with a color scale. In case of flood water analysis determination had been carried out by comparison with a color scale, reflectometrically and by means of classic colorimetric methods.

  1. Principles of pharmacodynamics and their applications in veterinary pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Lees, P; Cunningham, F M; Elliott, J

    2004-12-01

    instance at molecular, cellular and tissue levels in vitro, so that the primary effects can be better understood without interference from the complexities involved in whole animal studies. When a drug, hormone or neurotransmitter combines with a target molecule, it is described as a ligand. Ligands are classified into two groups, agonists (which initiate a chain of reactions leading, usually via the release or formation of secondary messengers, to the response) and antagonists (which fail to initiate the transduction pathways but nevertheless compete with agonists for occupancy of receptor sites and thereby inhibit their actions). The parameters which characterize drug receptor interaction are affinity, efficacy, potency and sensitivity, each of which can be elucidated quantitatively for a particular drug acting on a particular receptor in a particular tissue. The most fundamental objective of PDs is to use the derived numerical values for these parameters to classify and sub-classify receptors and to compare and classify drugs on the basis of their affinity, efficacy, potency and sensitivity. This review introduces and summarizes the principles of PDs and illustrates them with examples drawn from both basic and veterinary pharmacology. Drugs acting on adrenoceptors and cardiovascular, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial drugs are considered briefly to provide a foundation for subsequent reviews in this issue which deal with pharmacokinetic (PK)-PD modelling and integration of these drug classes. Drug action on receptors has many features in common with enzyme kinetics and gas adsorption onto surfaces, as defined by Michaelis-Menten and Langmuir absorption equations, respectively. These and other derived equations are outlined in this review. There is, however, no single theory which adequately explains all aspects of drug-receptor interaction. The early 'occupation' and 'rate' theories each explain some, but not all, experimental observations. From these

  2. Flexibility Principle 2: State-Developed Differentiated Recognition, Accountability, and Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Clearinghouse for English Language Acquisition & Language Instruction Educational Programs, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Within the US Department of Education's new flexibility initiative, there are three key and fundamental areas of focus, each referred to as a "principle." The second of these is that State Education Agencies (SEAs) must develop and implement differentiated recognition, accountability, and support to assure that all students are taught by…

  3. Slope across the Curriculum: Principles and Standards for School Mathematics and Common Core State Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagle, Courtney; Moore-Russo, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    This article provides an initial comparison of the Principles and Standards for School Mathematics and the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics by examining the fundamental notion of slope. Each set of standards is analyzed using eleven previously identified conceptualizations of slope. Both sets of standards emphasize Functional Property,…

  4. The Space Thermal Signature Model: Principles And Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Agostino, John A.

    1987-09-01

    The SPACE (Sun, Precipitation, Atmosphere, Clouds, Earth) Thermal Signature Model has been developed by XonTech as a tool to be used in the accurate prediction of military thermal signatures. Currently this model has been optimized to address 8-12 micrometer signatures of armored ground targets in natural background settings. With somewhat lesser accuracy the current model design can address the 3-5 micrometer spectral region. With some model modifications, air and space targets could be addressed. The model is based entirely on first principles with respect to the thermal signature components induced by the natural environment. However, self-heating effects such as those caused by a tank engine or by friction require empirical input data which must be derived from pre-existing thermal measurements. The SPACE model has been programmed in compiled Microsoft BASIC to run on PC-compatible computers. Some generic target and background descriptions are part of the model ensemble. The development of additional descriptive data bases to cover specific target/background scenarios is possible using related utility software which has been developed for this purpose. The SPACE model is currently being used both by Government and industry to support model comparison studies, the prediction of target-to-background thermal contrast signatures, and the generation of synthetic infrared thermal imagery. It is the purpose of this paper to provide a brief tutorial on the modeling principles behind SPACE, a description of the SPACE software architecture and operation, and some example problems.

  5. Application of the locality principle to radio occultation studies of the Earth's atmosphere and ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavelyev, A. G.; Liou, Y. A.; Matyugov, S. S.; Pavelyev, A. A.; Gubenko, V. N.; Zhang, K.; Kuleshov, Y.

    2015-07-01

    A new formulation of the previously introduced principle of locality is presented. The principle can be applied for modernization of the radio occultation (RO) remote sensing of the atmospheres and ionospheres of the Earth and other planets. The principle states that significant contributions to variations of the intensity and phase of the radio waves passing through a layered medium are connected with influence of the vicinities of tangential points where the refractivity gradient is perpendicular to the radio ray trajectory. The RO method assumes spherical symmetry of the investigated medium. In this case, if location of a tangent point relative to the spherical symmetry centre is known, the time derivatives of the RO signal phase and Doppler frequency variations can be recalculated into the refractive attenuation. Several important findings are consequences of the locality principle: (i) if position of the centre of symmetry is known, the total absorption along the ray path can be determined at a single frequency; (ii) in the case of low absorption the height, displacement from the radio ray perigee, and tilt of the inclined ionospheric (atmospheric) layers can be evaluated; (iii) the contributions of the layered and irregular structures in the RO signal can be separated and parameters of layers and turbulence can be measured at a single frequency using joint analysis of the intensity and phase variations. Specially for the Earth's troposphere, the altitude distributions of the weak total absorption (about of 1-4 db) of the radio waves at GPS frequencies corresponding to possible influence of the oxygen, water vapour, and hydrometeors can be measured with accuracy of about 0.1 db at a single frequency. In accordance with the locality principle, a new index of ionospheric activity is introduced. This index is measured from the phase variations of radio waves passing through the ionosphere. Its high correlation with the S4 scintillation index is established. This

  6. Application of locality principle to radio occultation studies of the Earth's atmosphere and ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavelyev, A. G.; Liou, Y. A.; Matyugov, S. S.; Pavelyev, A. A.; Gubenko, V. N.; Zhang, K.; Kuleshov, Y.

    2015-01-01

    A new formulation of previously introduced principle of locality is presented. The principle can be applied for modernization of the radio occultation (RO) remote sensing of the atmospheres and ionospheres of the Earth and planets. The principle states that significant contributions to variations of the amplitude and phase of the radio waves passing through a layered medium are connected with influence of the vicinities of tangential points where the refractivity gradient is perpendicular to the radio ray trajectory. The RO method assumes spherical symmetry of the investigated medium. In this case if location of a tangent point relative to the spherical symmetry center is known, the derivatives on time of the RO signal phase and Doppler frequency variations can be recalculated into the refractive attenuation. Several important findings are consequences of the locality principle: (i) if position of the center of symmetry is known, the total absorption along the ray path can be determined at a single frequency, (ii) in the case of low absorption the height, displacement from the radio ray perigee, and tilt of the inclined ionospheric (atmospheric) layers can be evaluated, (iii) the contributions of the layered and irregular structures in the RO signal can be separated and parameters of layers and turbulence can be measured at a single frequency using joint analysis of the amplitude and phase variations. Specially for the Earth's troposphere, the altitude distributions of the weak total absorption (about of 1-4 db) of the radio waves at GPS frequencies corresponding to possible influence of the oxygen and water vapor can be measured with accuracy of about 0.1 db at a single frequency. According with the locality principle, a new index of ionospheric activity is introduced. This index is measured from the phase variations of radio waves passing through the ionosphere. Its high correlation with S4 scintillation index is established. This correlation indicates the

  7. A maximum principle for smooth optimal impulsive control problems with multipoint state constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dykhta, V. A.; Samsonyuk, O. N.

    2009-06-01

    A nonlinear optimal impulsive control problem with trajectories of bounded variation subject to intermediate state constraints at a finite number on nonfixed instants of time is considered. Features of this problem are discussed from the viewpoint of the extension of the classical optimal control problem with the corresponding state constraints. A necessary optimality condition is formulated in the form of a smooth maximum principle; thorough comments are given, a short proof is presented, and examples are discussed.

  8. Principles of ballistics applicable to the treatment of gunshot wounds.

    PubMed

    Swan, K G; Swan, R C

    1991-04-01

    Ballistics is the science of the motion of a projectile through the barrel of a firearm (internal ballistics), during its subsequent flight (external ballistics), and during its final complicated motion after it strikes a target (terminal ballistics). Wound ballistics is a special case of terminal ballistics. Although wound ballistics is at best sets of approximations, its principles enter usefully into an evaluation of a gunshot wound and its treatment. A special consideration in these cases is their medicolegal aspects. At a minimum, the medical team receiving the patient should exert care not to destroy the clothing and in particular to cut around and not through bullet holes, to turn over to law enforcement officials any metallic foreign body recovered from the patient, and to describe precisely, or even to photograph, any entrance or exit wounds.

  9. Introduction to Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance: Technical Principles and Clinical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Wen-Yih Isaac; Su, Mao-Yuan Marine; Tseng, Yao-Hui Elton

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is a set of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques designed to assess cardiovascular morphology, ventricular function, myocardial perfusion, tissue characterization, flow quantification and coronary artery disease. Since MRI is a non-invasive tool and free of radiation, it is suitable for longitudinal monitoring of treatment effect and follow-up of disease progress. Compared to MRI of other body parts, CMR faces specific challenges from cardiac and respiratory motion. Therefore, CMR requires synchronous cardiac and respiratory gating or breath-holding techniques to overcome motion artifacts. This article will review the basic principles of MRI and introduce the CMR techniques that can be optimized for enhanced clinical assessment. PMID:27122944

  10. MR enterography in children: Principles, technique, and clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Chavhan, Govind B; Babyn, Paul S; Walters, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    MR enterography is a constantly advancing technique for assessment of bowel with newer technology and sequences. It is being increasingly used for the assessment of inflammatory bowel disease and has almost replaced barium follow through examinations in many institutions. Its lack of radiation makes it an attractive alternative for bowel evaluation in children. It has been proved to be highly sensitive in the detection of Crohn disease in adults and children. It is also superior to barium studies in showing extra-enteric findings and detecting complications such as fistulas and abscesses. Even though at present it is almost exclusively used for the evaluation of inflammatory bowel disease, it has the potential to be used in other conditions affecting the bowel. The principles, MR enterography technique pertinent to children, and its utility in the assessment of Crohn disease in children are discussed in this review.

  11. Application of ALARA principles to shipment of spent nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Greenborg, J.; Brackenbush, L.W.; Murphy, D.W. Burnett, R.A.; Lewis, J.R.

    1980-05-01

    The public exposure from spent fuel shipment is very low. In view of this low exposure and the perfect safety record for spent fuel shipment, existing systems can be considered satisfactory. On the other hand, occupational exposure reduction merits consideration and technology improvement to decrease dose should concentrate on this exposure. Practices that affect the age of spent fuel in shipment and the number of times the fuel must be shipped prior to disposal have the largest impact. A policy to encourage a 5-year spent fuel cooling period prior to shipment coupled with appropriate cask redesign to accommodate larger loads would be consistent with ALARA and economic principles. And finally, bypassing high population density areas will not in general reduce shipment dose.

  12. Shock Hugoniots of Molecular Liquids and the Principle of Corresponding States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chisolm, Eric D.; Crockett, Scott D.; Shaw, M. Sam

    2009-12-01

    We observe that the shock velocity-particle velocity Hugoniots for various liquids (e.g. nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, argon) lie almost on top of one another. Recalling the work of Ross and Ree [J. Chem. Phys. 73, 6146-6152 (1980)], we hypothesize that these materials obey a principle of corresponding states. We use the principle to deduce how the Hugoniots of two corresponding materials should be related, and we compare the results with data and find good agreement. We suggest this as a method for estimating the Hugoniot of a material of the appropriate type in the absence of shock data, and we illustrate with fluorine.

  13. Shock Hugoniots of molecular liquids and the principle of corresponding states

    SciTech Connect

    Chisolm, Eric D; Crockett, Scott D; Shaw, Milton S

    2009-01-01

    We observe that the shock velocity-particle velocity Hugoniots for various liquids (e.g. nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, argon) lie almost on top of one another. Recalling the work of Ross and Ree [J. Chem. Phys. 73, 6146-6152 (1980)], we hypothesize that these materials obey a principle of corresponding states. We use the principle to deduce how the Hugoniots of two corresponding materials should be related, and we compare the results with data and find good agreement. We suggest this as a method for estimating the Hugoniot of a material of the appropriate type in the absence of shock data, and we illustrate with fluorine.

  14. Squeezed States, Uncertainty Relations and the Pauli Principle in Composite and Cosmological Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terazawa, Hidezumi

    1996-01-01

    The importance of not only uncertainty relations but also the Pauli exclusion principle is emphasized in discussing various 'squeezed states' existing in the universe. The contents of this paper include: (1) Introduction; (2) Nuclear Physics in the Quark-Shell Model; (3) Hadron Physics in the Standard Quark-Gluon Model; (4) Quark-Lepton-Gauge-Boson Physics in Composite Models; (5) Astrophysics and Space-Time Physics in Cosmological Models; and (6) Conclusion. Also, not only the possible breakdown of (or deviation from) uncertainty relations but also the superficial violation of the Pauli principle at short distances (or high energies) in composite (and string) models is discussed in some detail.

  15. State of California Consolidated State Application Accountability Workbook. Amended

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This workbook, submitted by the State of California to the U.S. Department of Education, is for State Grants under Title IX, Part C, Section 9302 of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (Public Law 107-110). By January 31, 2003, States must complete and submit to the Department this Consolidated State Application Accountability Workbook. The…

  16. State of New Jersey Consolidated State Application Accountability Workbook. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This workbook, submitted by the State of New Jersey to the U.S. Department of Education, is for State Grants under Title IX, Part C, Section 9302 of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (Public Law 107-110). By January 31, 2003, States must complete and submit to the Department this Consolidated State Application Accountability Workbook.…

  17. Equation of state for technetium from X-ray diffraction and first-principle calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mast, Daniel S.; Kim, Eunja; Siska, Emily M.; Poineau, Frederic; Czerwinski, Kenneth R.; Lavina, Barbara; Forster, Paul M.

    2016-08-01

    The ambient temperature equation of state (EoS) of technetium metal has been measured by X-ray diffraction. The metal was compressed using a diamond anvil cell and using a 4:1 methanol-ethanol pressure transmitting medium. The maximum pressure achieved, as determined from the gold pressureEquation of state for technetium from X-ray diffraction and first-principle calculations scale, was 67 GPa. The compression data shows that the HCP phase of technetium is stable up to 67 GPa. The compression curve of technetium was also calculated using first-principles total-energy calculations. Utilizing a number of fitting strategies to compare the experimental and theoretical data it is determined that the Vinet equation of state with an ambient isothermal bulk modulus of B0T=288 GPa and a first pressure derivative of B‧=5.9(2) best represent the compression behavior of technetium metal.

  18. [Acupoint catgut-embedding therapy: superiorities and principles of application].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuan-Ping; Jia, Chun-Sheng; Wang, Jian-Ling; Shi, Jing; Zhang, Xin; Li, Xiao-Feng; Xu, Xiao-Kang; Qin, Liang; Zhang, Mei-Ling; Kang, Su-Gang; Duan, Xiao-Dong

    2012-10-01

    To analyze the superiorities of acupoint catgut-embedding therapy, discuss its law of clinical application and provide scientific decision-making for clinical treatment. Literatures on acupoint catgut-embedding therapy in the recent 40 years were selected, input, examined and verified, picked up and analyzed by establishing database with the modern computer technology. (1) One thousand and seventy-five literatures were input. It shows that the acupoint catgut-embedding therapy has an extensive application in all departments, especially in the internal department, accounting for 48.54% (50/103) of the total disease category. It has the most extensive application on treatment of epigastric pain, with the frequency of 102 times, and obesity of 74 times. The next is surgery, accounting for 14.56% (15/103). The major application is on low back pain and leg pain with the frequency of 79 times. Psoriasis, with the frequency of 30 times, holds the major application in dermatological department. And blepharoplasty, with the frequency of 30 times, gains the most application in department of ophthalmology and otorhinolaryngology. (2) In the included literatures, selection of adjacent acupoints and distal acupoints are held as the major method of acupoint selection. The adjusted lumbar puncture needle is taken as the major tool for the acupoint catgut-embedding therapy. And catguts of different sizes are adopted for the operation. (3) Analysis of the therapeutic effect shows that acupoint catgut-embedding therapy has obvious effect in all departments, especially in surgery and dermatology, with the total effective rate over 90%. Epigastric pain, obesity, epilepsy, asthma, abdominal pain, facial paralysis and constipation of the internal medicine, low back pain and leg pain of the surgical department, psoriasis of the dermatological department and blepharoplasty of the department of ophthalmology and otorhinolaryngology are considered as the dominant diseases for acupoint

  19. State Financial Aid: Applying Redesign Principles through State Engagement. Special Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pingel, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    College is increasingly expensive for students, but states have an important policy tool to help defray the costs: state financial aid programs. However, many states' programs are misaligned with articulated strategic postsecondary education policy goals. Over the past two years, Education Commission of the States has supported a variety of…

  20. Electroporation-based technologies for medicine: principles, applications, and challenges.

    PubMed

    Yarmush, Martin L; Golberg, Alexander; Serša, Gregor; Kotnik, Tadej; Miklavčič, Damijan

    2014-07-11

    When high-amplitude, short-duration pulsed electric fields are applied to cells and tissues, the permeability of the cell membranes and tissue is increased. This increase in permeability is currently explained by the temporary appearance of aqueous pores within the cell membrane, a phenomenon termed electroporation. During the past four decades, advances in fundamental and experimental electroporation research have allowed for the translation of electroporation-based technologies to the clinic. In this review, we describe the theory and current applications of electroporation in medicine and then discuss current challenges in electroporation research and barriers to a more extensive spread of these clinical applications.

  1. Design principles for Fresnel lenses in telecentric applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCall, Brian; Claytor, Nelson

    2016-09-01

    Fresnel lenses have been found by some optical systems designers to be useful in combination with a main lens to provide quality telecentric images. Aspheric Fresnel lenses are an ideal choice for this application because they achieve a high degree of telecentricity across the entire field of view and introduce very little distortion. In a telecentric system consisting of an aspheric Fresnel lens and an off the shelf non-telecentric main lens, the design parameters are few. Aberration theory, constraints on the visibility of the grooves, and physical constraints can effectively be used to quickly determine if a solution exists for a given application and identify the solution space if it does.

  2. First-principles molecular dynamics calculations of the equation of state for tantalum.

    PubMed

    Ono, Shigeaki

    2009-11-20

    The equation of state of tantalum (Ta) has been investigated to 100 GPa and 3,000 K using the first-principles molecular dynamics method. A large volume dependence of the thermal pressure of Ta was revealed from the analysis of our data. A significant temperature dependence of the calculated effective Grüneisen parameters was confirmed at high pressures. This indicates that the conventional approach to analyze thermal properties using the Mie-Grüneisen approximation is likely to have a significant uncertainty in determining the equation of state for Ta, and that an intrinsic anharmonicity should be considered to analyze the equation of state.

  3. First-Principles Molecular Dynamics Calculations of the Equation of State for Tantalum

    PubMed Central

    Ono, Shigeaki

    2009-01-01

    The equation of state of tantalum (Ta) has been investigated to 100 GPa and 3,000 K using the first-principles molecular dynamics method. A large volume dependence of the thermal pressure of Ta was revealed from the analysis of our data. A significant temperature dependence of the calculated effective Grüneisen parameters was confirmed at high pressures. This indicates that the conventional approach to analyze thermal properties using the Mie-Grüneisen approximation is likely to have a significant uncertainty in determining the equation of state for Ta, and that an intrinsic anharmonicity should be considered to analyze the equation of state. PMID:20057949

  4. Lithium Batteries: A Practical Application of Chemical Principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treptow, Richard S.

    2003-09-01

    In recent years batteries have emerged in the marketplace that take advantage of the unique properties of lithium. Lithium metal is an attractive choice to serve as a battery anode because it is easily oxidized and it produces an exceptionally high amount of electrical charge per unit-weight. The electrolytes used in lithium batteries contain lithium salts dissolved in polar organic solvents. A variety of substances can serve as the battery cathode. They include inorganic solids, liquids, and dissolved gas. The cell potentials of lithium-metal batteries can be calculated from thermodynamic principles. These open-circuit voltages can be compared to the operating voltages of batteries delivering a current. Some lithium batteries employ intercalation compounds as their cathodes. These solids have layered or tunneled crystal structures into which lithium ions insert during the reduction process. When an intercalation cathode is paired with a lithiated-graphite anode, the resulting battery has the advantage of being rechargeable. It is known as a lithium-ion battery because no lithium metal is present.

  5. Integrative Nursing: Application of Principles Across Clinical Settings

    PubMed Central

    Kreitzer, Mary Jo

    2015-01-01

    While the essence of nursing has long been whole person (body, mind, and spirit) and whole system-focused, in reality the contemporary practice of nursing in many settings around the globe has become increasingly fragmented and de-stabilized. Nursing shortages in many parts of the world are significant, and hierarchies and bureaucracies often remove nurses from the point of care, be that the bedside, home, or clinic, replacing them with less skilled workers and filling their time with documentation and other administrative tasks. Integrative nursing is a framework for providing whole person/whole system care that is relationship-based and person-centered and focuses on improving the health and wellbeing of caregivers as well as those they serve. It is aligned with what is being called the “triple aim” in the United States—an effort focused on improving the patient experience (quality and satisfaction), improving the health of populations, and reducing the cost of care. The principles of integrative nursing offer clear and specific guidance that can shape and impact patient care in all clinical settings. PMID:25973268

  6. 17 CFR Appendix A to Part 39 - Application Guidance and Compliance With Core Principles

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Compliance With Core Principles A Appendix A to Part 39 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION DERIVATIVES CLEARING ORGANIZATIONS Pt. 39, App. A Appendix A to Part 39—Application... with which applicants must demonstrate the ability to comply and with which registered...

  7. 12 CFR 621.3 - Application of generally accepted accounting principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Application of generally accepted accounting principles. 621.3 Section 621.3 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM ACCOUNTING AND REPORTING REQUIREMENTS General Rules § 621.3 Application of generally accepted accounting...

  8. Principles of Pesticide Use, Handling, and Application: Instructional Modules for Vocational Agriculture Education. Student Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis Associates, Inc., College Park, MD.

    This training package is designed to present the basic principles of pesticide use, handling, and application. Included in this package is information on federal laws and regulations, personal safety, environmental implications, storage and disposal considerations, proper application procedures, and fundamentals of pest management. Successful…

  9. Principles of Pesticide Use, Handling, and Application: Instructional Modules for Vocational Agriculture Education. Teacher Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis Associates, Inc., College Park, MD.

    The training package is designed to present the basic principles of pesticide use, handling, and application. Included in this package is information on Federal laws and regulations, personal safety, environmental implications, storage and disposal considerations, proper application procedures, and fundamentals of pest management. Successful…

  10. 10 CFR 440.12 - State application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State application. 440.12 Section 440.12 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE FOR LOW-INCOME PERSONS § 440.12 State application. (a) To be eligible for financial assistance under this part, a State shall submit an...

  11. Laser scanning cytometry: principles and applications-an update.

    PubMed

    Pozarowski, Piotr; Holden, Elena; Darzynkiewicz, Zbigniew

    2013-01-01

    Laser scanning cytometer (LSC) is the microscope-based cytofluorometer that offers a plethora of unique analytical capabilities, not provided by flow cytometry (FCM). This review describes attributes of LSC and covers its numerous applications derived from plentitude of the parameters that can be measured. Among many LSC applications the following are emphasized: (a) assessment of chromatin condensation to identify mitotic, apoptotic cells, or senescent cells; (b) detection of nuclear or mitochondrial translocation of critical factors such as NF-κB, p53, or Bax; (c) semi-automatic scoring of micronuclei in mutagenicity assays; (d) analysis of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and use of the FISH analysis attribute to measure other punctuate fluorescence patterns such as γH2AX foci or receptor clustering; (e) enumeration and morphometry of nucleoli and other cell organelles; (f) analysis of progeny of individual cells in clonogenicity assay; (g) cell immunophenotyping; (h) imaging, visual examination, or sequential analysis using different probes of the same cells upon their relocation; (i) in situ enzyme kinetics, drug uptake, and other time-resolved processes; (j) analysis of tissue section architecture using fluorescent and chromogenic probes; (k) application for hypocellular samples (needle aspirate, spinal fluid, etc.); and (l) other clinical applications. Advantages and limitations of LSC are discussed and compared with FCM.

  12. 29 CFR 780.138 - Application of the general principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... General Scope of Agriculture âsuch Farming Operationâ-of the Farmer § 780.138 Application of the general... incident to or in conjunction with his farming operations. Such arrangements are distinguished from those... incorporated association of farmers that does not itself engage in farming operations is not engaged...

  13. 29 CFR 780.138 - Application of the general principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture âsuch Farming Operationâ-of the Farmer § 780.138 Application of the general... not grown by their employer. On the other hand, where a farmer rents some space in a warehouse or...

  14. 29 CFR 780.138 - Application of the general principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture âsuch Farming Operationâ-of the Farmer § 780.138 Application of the general... not grown by their employer. On the other hand, where a farmer rents some space in a warehouse or...

  15. 29 CFR 780.138 - Application of the general principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture âsuch Farming Operationâ-of the Farmer § 780.138 Application of the general... not grown by their employer. On the other hand, where a farmer rents some space in a warehouse or...

  16. The Operating Principle of a Fully Solid State Active Magnetic Regenerator

    SciTech Connect

    Abdelaziz, Omar

    2016-01-01

    As an alternative refrigeration technology, magnetocaloric refrigeration has the potential to be safer, quieter, more efficient, and more environmentally friendly than the conventional vapor compression refrigeration technology. Most of the reported active magnetic regenerator (AMR) systems that operate based on the magnetocaloric effect use heat transfer fluid to exchange heat, which results in complicated mechanical subsystems and components such as rotating valves and hydraulic pumps. This paper presents an operating principle of a fully solid state AMR, in which an alternative mechanism for heat transfer between the AMR and the heat source/sink is proposed. The operating principle of the fully solid state AMR is based on moving rods/sheets (e.g. copper, brass, iron or aluminum), which are employed to replace the heat transfer fluid. Such fully solid state AMR would provide a significantly higher heat transfer rate than a conventional AMR because the conductivity of moving solid rods/plates is high and it enables the increase in the machine operating frequency hence the cooling capacity. The details of operating principle are presented and discussed here. One of the key enabling features for this technology is the contact between the moving rods/sheets and magnetocaloric material, and heat exchange mechanism at the heat source/sink. This paper provides an overview of the design for a fully solid state magnetocaloric refrigeration system along with guidelines for their optimal design.

  17. Applicability of the independence principle to subsonic turbulent flow over a swept rearward-facing step

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selby, G. V.

    1983-01-01

    Prandtl (1946) has concluded that for yawed laminar incompressible flows the streamwise flow is independent of the spanwise flow. However, Ashkenas and Riddell (1955) have reported that for turbulent flow the 'independence principle' does not apply to yawed flat plates. On the other hand, it was also found that this principle may be applicable to many turbulent flows. As the sweep angle is increased, a sweep angle is reached which defines the interval over which the 'independence principle' is valid. The results obtained in the present investigation indicate the magnitude of the critical angle for subsonic turbulent flow over a swept rearward-facing step.

  18. Applicability of the independence principle to subsonic turbulent flow over a swept rearward-facing step

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selby, G. V.

    1983-01-01

    Prandtl (1946) has concluded that for yawed laminar incompressible flows the streamwise flow is independent of the spanwise flow. However, Ashkenas and Riddell (1955) have reported that for turbulent flow the 'independence principle' does not apply to yawed flat plates. On the other hand, it was also found that this principle may be applicable to many turbulent flows. As the sweep angle is increased, a sweep angle is reached which defines the interval over which the 'independence principle' is valid. The results obtained in the present investigation indicate the magnitude of the critical angle for subsonic turbulent flow over a swept rearward-facing step.

  19. Digital micromirror devices: principles and applications in imaging.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Vivek; Saggau, Peter

    2013-05-01

    A digital micromirror device (DMD) is an array of individually switchable mirrors that can be used in many advanced optical systems as a rapid spatial light modulator. With a DMD, several implementations of confocal microscopy, hyperspectral imaging, and fluorescence lifetime imaging can be realized. The DMD can also be used as a real-time optical processor for applications such as the programmable array microscope and compressive sensing. Advantages and disadvantages of the DMD for these applications as well as methods to overcome some of the limitations will be discussed in this article. Practical considerations when designing with the DMD and sample optical layouts of a completely DMD-based imaging system and one in which acousto-optic deflectors (AODs) are used in the illumination pathway are also provided.

  20. Ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy: principles and application to photosynthetic systems.

    PubMed

    Berera, Rudi; van Grondelle, Rienk; Kennis, John T M

    2009-01-01

    The photophysical and photochemical reactions, after light absorption by a photosynthetic pigment-protein complex, are among the fastest events in biology, taking place on timescales ranging from tens of femtoseconds to a few nanoseconds. The advent of ultrafast laser systems that produce pulses with femtosecond duration opened up a new area of research and enabled investigation of these photophysical and photochemical reactions in real time. Here, we provide a basic description of the ultrafast transient absorption technique, the laser and wavelength-conversion equipment, the transient absorption setup, and the collection of transient absorption data. Recent applications of ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy on systems with increasing degree of complexity, from biomimetic light-harvesting systems to natural light-harvesting antennas, are presented. In particular, we will discuss, in this educational review, how a molecular understanding of the light-harvesting and photoprotective functions of carotenoids in photosynthesis is accomplished through the application of ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy.

  1. Principles and biotechnological applications of bacterial ice nucleation.

    PubMed

    Margaritis, A; Bassi, A S

    1991-01-01

    Certain aerobic, Gram-negative bacteria, including the epiphytic plant pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, possess a membrane protein that enables them to nucleate crystallization in supercooled water. Currently, these ice-nucleating (IN) bacteria are being used in snow making and have potential applications in the production and texturing of frozen foods, and as a replacement of silver iodide in cloud seeding. A negative aspect of these IN bacteria is frost damage to plant surfaces. Thus, of the various types of biological ice nucleators, bacteria have been the subject of most research and also appear relevant to the anticipated practical uses. The intent of this review is to explain the identification and ecology of the ice-nucleating bacteria, as well as to discuss aspects of molecular biology related to ice nucleation and consider existing and potential applications of this unique phenomenon.

  2. Proteomic approaches in biological and medical sciences: principles and applications.

    PubMed

    Conrotto, P; Souchelnytskyi, S

    2008-09-01

    After the first introduction of the concept of "proteome" more than 10 years ago, large-scale studies of protein expression, localization, activities and interactions have gained an exponential increase of interest, leading to extensive research and technology development. Proteomics is expansively applied in many areas, ranging from basic research, various disease and malignant tumors diagnostic and biomarker discovery to therapeutic applications. Several proteomics approaches have been developed for protein separation and identification, and for the characterization of protein function and structure. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, chromatography, capillary electrophoresis and mass spectrometry have become the most used proteomics methods. These techniques are also under constant development. This review provides an overview of the main techniques and their combinations, used in proteomics. The emphasis is made on description of advantages and disadvantages of each technique, to navigate in selection of the best application for solving a specific problem.

  3. Principles and application of antibody libraries for infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Lim, Bee Nar; Tye, Gee Jun; Choong, Yee Siew; Ong, Eugene Boon Beng; Ismail, Asma; Lim, Theam Soon

    2014-12-01

    Antibodies have been used efficiently for the treatment and diagnosis of many diseases. Recombinant antibody technology allows the generation of fully human antibodies. Phage display is the gold standard for the production of human antibodies in vitro. To generate monoclonal antibodies by phage display, the generation of antibody libraries is crucial. Antibody libraries are classified according to the source where the antibody gene sequences were obtained. The most useful library for infectious diseases is the immunized library. Immunized libraries would allow better and selective enrichment of antibodies against disease antigens. The antibodies generated from these libraries can be translated for both diagnostic and therapeutic applications. This review focuses on the generation of immunized antibody libraries and the potential applications of the antibodies derived from these libraries.

  4. Design Principles for Covalent Organic Frameworks in Energy Storage Applications.

    PubMed

    Alahakoon, Sampath B; Thompson, Christina M; Occhialini, Gino; Smaldone, Ronald Alexander

    2017-03-16

    Covalent organic frameworks (COFs) are an exciting class of microporous materials that have been explored as energy storage materials for more than a decade. This review will discusses the efforts to develop these materials for applications in gas and electrical power storage. This review will also discuss some of the design strategies for developing the gas sorption properties of COFs and mechanistic studies on their formation.

  5. Application of First Principles Ni-Cd and Ni-H2 Battery Models to Spacecraft Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timmerman, Paul; Bugga, Ratnakumar; DiStefano, Salvador

    1997-01-01

    The conclusions of the application of first principles model to spacecraft operations are: the first principles of Bi-phasic electrode presented model provides an explanation for many behaviors on voltage fading on LEO cycling.

  6. Flat-panel volume CT: fundamental principles, technology, and applications.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Rajiv; Cheung, Arnold C; Bartling, Soenke H; Lisauskas, Jennifer; Grasruck, Michael; Leidecker, Christianne; Schmidt, Bernhard; Flohr, Thomas; Brady, Thomas J

    2008-01-01

    Flat-panel volume computed tomography (CT) systems have an innovative design that allows coverage of a large volume per rotation, fluoroscopic and dynamic imaging, and high spatial resolution that permits visualization of complex human anatomy such as fine temporal bone structures and trabecular bone architecture. In simple terms, flat-panel volume CT scanners can be thought of as conventional multidetector CT scanners in which the detector rows have been replaced by an area detector. The flat-panel detector has wide z-axis coverage that enables imaging of entire organs in one axial acquisition. Its fluoroscopic and angiographic capabilities are useful for intraoperative and vascular applications. Furthermore, the high-volume coverage and continuous rotation of the detector may enable depiction of dynamic processes such as coronary blood flow and whole-brain perfusion. Other applications in which flat-panel volume CT may play a role include small-animal imaging, nondestructive testing in animal survival surgeries, and tissue-engineering experiments. Such versatility has led some to predict that flat-panel volume CT will gain importance in interventional and intraoperative applications, especially in specialties such as cardiac imaging, interventional neuroradiology, orthopedics, and otolaryngology. However, the contrast resolution of flat-panel volume CT is slightly inferior to that of multidetector CT, a higher radiation dose is needed to achieve a comparable signal-to-noise ratio, and a slower scintillator results in a longer scanning time.

  7. [Responsibility: Towards a fifth principle in blood transfusion's ethics. Applicability and limits of Hans Jonas's responsibility principle].

    PubMed

    Nélaton, C

    2016-09-01

    Nowadays, in France, anonymity, gratuity, volunteering, non-profit are recognized as ethical principles in blood transfusion. Can we add responsibility to this list? Can a logo named "Responsiblood" efficiently encourage blood donation? This article explores Hans Jonas's reform of the responsibility concept in order to measure its applicabilities and limits in the field of blood transfusion. Indeed, this concept - rethought by Jonas - seems to be a good encouragement which avoids the pitfalls of the concept of duty and of the idea of payment for blood donation. But can't we also see in this reform a threat to blood transfusion because of technophobia and the heuristics of fear that it involves?

  8. Squeezed states of light and their applications in laser interferometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnabel, Roman

    2017-04-01

    According to quantum theory the energy exchange between physical systems is quantized. As a direct consequence, measurement sensitivities are fundamentally limited by quantization noise, or just 'quantum noise' in short. Furthermore, Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle demands measurement back-action for some observables of a system if they are measured repeatedly. In both respects, squeezed states are of high interest since they show a 'squeezed' uncertainty, which can be used to improve the sensitivity of measurement devices beyond the usual quantum noise limits including those impacted by quantum back-action noise. Squeezed states of light can be produced with nonlinear optics, and a large variety of proof-of-principle experiments were performed in past decades. As an actual application, squeezed light has now been used for several years to improve the measurement sensitivity of GEO 600 - a laser interferometer built for the detection of gravitational waves. Given this success, squeezed light is likely to significantly contribute to the new field of gravitational-wave astronomy. This Review revisits the concept of squeezed states and two-mode squeezed states of light, with a focus on experimental observations. The distinct properties of squeezed states displayed in quadrature phase-space as well as in the photon number representation are described. The role of the light's quantum noise in laser interferometers is summarized and the actual application of squeezed states in these measurement devices is reviewed.

  9. Bibliographic study of georadar principles, applications, advantages, and inconvenience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Declerck, Paul

    Electromagnetic soil surveying has been studied for more than 20 years. The abundant number of references on the subject testifies to the many attempts that have been made to sound the subsurface soil by means of electromagnetic waves. This method has also been used to investigate structures such as tunnel walls and airfield pavements. Electromagnetic waves can be used to examine both soils and structures (bridge decks, tunnel walls, etc.). The possibilities offered by the technique are constantly increased by new developments in electronics and computer science. As a result, large quantities of measuring data and extensive signals processing (including Fourier analysis) are no longer an obstacle to the frequent use of soil-penetrating radar. The road industry too is very interested, with a view to applications such as investigating sites for new road construction, surveying existing road structures or probing for buried conduits or remnants of foundations, which may cause a lot of problems or entail substantial costs when carrying out road works. The literature survey reviews some 25 years of reporting on attempts to use electromagnetic pulses for nondestructive material testing. The applications of the technique were originally of a military nature, but now range from geology, archaeology, environmental management and mining to the investigation of structures, buildings, bridges and roads. The higher the frequency, the higher the resolution and the smaller the depth of penetration. Special antennas are required for specific applications such as the detection of linear structures (pipes, cables) or the investigation of walls and bridge decks. Radar is a fast, high-yield and continuous method of surveying and the waves are not stopped by voids or cracks, unlike acoustic waves or seismic vibrations. Radar operates well in poorly conducting materials and less well in wet or clayey soils. It is a very promising technique besides resistivity, infrared thermography and

  10. Principles and clinical applications of positron emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Gardner, S F; Green, J A; Bednarczyk, E M; Farnett, L; Miraldi, F

    1992-06-01

    The basics of positron emission tomography (PET) are presented, including the physics, instrumentation, and radiopharmaceuticals involved; the clinical and research applications; and the cost. In PET, organic molecules labeled with positron-emitting radionuclides are injected or inhaled, and the high-energy photons produced by annihilation events are detected by paired, integrated crystal detectors. A computer uses the lines of origin of these photons to reconstruct a three-dimensional map of a functioning organ system. The positron-emitting radionuclides most often used are carbon 11, oxygen 15, nitrogen 13, fluorine 18, and rubidium 82. PET imaging centers usually consist of a cyclotron facility, a radiochemistry facility, a PET scanner, and computers for image reconstruction. Radiopharmaceuticals used in PET may be divided into blood flow-imaging agents, metabolic imaging agents, and drug receptor-imaging agents. Although PET is still primarily a research tool, it has shown diagnostic potential in neurology, cardiology, and oncology. It has also shown promise as a tool for pharmacologic assessment, as in studies of the effects of the fluorinated quinolones on cerebral blood flow and glucose metabolism. PET may become important in drug development because it yields specific information relatively noninvasively. A single study carries an average break-even price tag of $1500-$2000; rigorous cost-benefit analyses should be conducted before society is asked to subsidize such costs. Positron emission tomography is a frontier technology for which valuable clinical applications are being discovered. Pharmacists can contribute enormously to PET applications and at the same time establish a unique subspecialty for the profession.

  11. Solar cells: Operating principles, technology, and system applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, M. A.

    Solar cell theory, materials, fabrication, design, modules, and systems are discussed. The solar source of light energy is described and quantified, along with a review of semiconductor properties and the generation, recombination, and the basic equations of photovoltaic device physics. Particular attention is given to p-n junction diodes, including efficiency limits, losses, and measurements. Si solar cell technology is described for the production of solar-quality crystals and wafers, and design, improvements, and device structures are examined. Consideration is given to alternate semiconductor materials and applications in concentrating systems, storage, and the design and construction of stand-alone systems and systems for residential and centralized power generation.

  12. Tilted fiber Bragg gratings: Principle and sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Xiaoyi; Zhang, Hao; Liu, Bo; Miao, Yinping

    2011-03-01

    In this paper, the mode coupling mechanism of tilted fiber Bragg gratings (TFBGs) is briefly introduced at first. And a general review on the fabrication, theoretical and experimental research development of TFBGs is presented from a worldwide perspective, followed by an introduction of our current research work on TFBGs at the Institute of Modern Optics, Nankai University (IMONK), including TFBG sensors for single-parameter measurements, temperature cross sensitivity of TFBG sensors, and TFBG-based interrogation technique. Finally, we would make a summary of the related key techniques and a remark on prospects of the research and applications of TFBGs.

  13. Cell cycle analysis by flow cytometry: principles and applications.

    PubMed

    Jayat, C; Ratinaud, M H

    1993-01-01

    Numerous flow cytometric analyses are based on DNA content studies. We have considered firstly monoparametric cell cycle analyses, which only take DNA content into account, but are sometimes of limited interest. Then, we have presented multiparametric analyses, which can be used to improve cycle phase identification by taking simultaneously into account DNA and other cellular components, or by considering some events occurring during cell cycle. Finally, we have discussed monoparametric and multiparametric cell cycle analysis interest in various application fields, particularly in pharmacology, toxicology, tumoral pathology and higher plant system studies.

  14. First-principles equation of state and electronic properties of warm dense oxygen.

    PubMed

    Driver, K P; Soubiran, F; Zhang, Shuai; Militzer, B

    2015-10-28

    We perform all-electron path integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) and density functional theory molecular dynamics (DFT-MD) calculations to explore warm dense matter states of oxygen. Our simulations cover a wide density-temperature range of 1-100 g cm(-3) and 10(4)-10(9) K. By combining results from PIMC and DFT-MD, we are able to compute pressures and internal energies from first-principles at all temperatures and provide a coherent equation of state. We compare our first-principles calculations with analytic equations of state, which tend to agree for temperatures above 8 × 10(6) K. Pair-correlation functions and the electronic density of states reveal an evolving plasma structure and ionization process that is driven by temperature and density. As we increase the density at constant temperature, we find that the ionization fraction of the 1s state decreases while the other electronic states move towards the continuum. Finally, the computed shock Hugoniot curves show an increase in compression as the first and second shells are ionized.

  15. First-principles equation of state and electronic properties of warm dense oxygen

    SciTech Connect

    Driver, K. P. Soubiran, F.; Zhang, Shuai; Militzer, B.

    2015-10-28

    We perform all-electron path integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) and density functional theory molecular dynamics (DFT-MD) calculations to explore warm dense matter states of oxygen. Our simulations cover a wide density-temperature range of 1–100 g cm{sup −3} and 10{sup 4}–10{sup 9} K. By combining results from PIMC and DFT-MD, we are able to compute pressures and internal energies from first-principles at all temperatures and provide a coherent equation of state. We compare our first-principles calculations with analytic equations of state, which tend to agree for temperatures above 8 × 10{sup 6} K. Pair-correlation functions and the electronic density of states reveal an evolving plasma structure and ionization process that is driven by temperature and density. As we increase the density at constant temperature, we find that the ionization fraction of the 1s state decreases while the other electronic states move towards the continuum. Finally, the computed shock Hugoniot curves show an increase in compression as the first and second shells are ionized.

  16. High applicability of two-dimensional phosphorous in Kagome lattice predicted from first-principles calculations.

    PubMed

    Chen, Peng-Jen; Jeng, Horng-Tay

    2016-03-16

    A new semiconducting phase of two-dimensional phosphorous in the Kagome lattice is proposed from first-principles calculations. The band gaps of the monolayer (ML) and bulk Kagome phosphorous (Kagome-P) are 2.00 and 1.11 eV, respectively. The magnitude of the band gap is tunable by applying the in-plane strain and/or changing the number of stacking layers. High optical absorption coefficients at the visible light region are predicted for multilayer Kagome-P, indicating potential applications for solar cell devices. The nearly dispersionless top valence band of the ML Kagome-P with high density of states at the Fermi level leads to superconductivity with Tc of ~9 K under the optimal hole doping concentration. We also propose that the Kagome-P can be fabricated through the manipulation of the substrate-induced strain during the process of the sample growth. Our work demonstrates the high applicability of the Kagome-P in the fields of electronics, photovoltaics, and superconductivity.

  17. High applicability of two-dimensional phosphorous in Kagome lattice predicted from first-principles calculations

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Peng-Jen; Jeng, Horng-Tay

    2016-01-01

    A new semiconducting phase of two-dimensional phosphorous in the Kagome lattice is proposed from first-principles calculations. The band gaps of the monolayer (ML) and bulk Kagome phosphorous (Kagome-P) are 2.00 and 1.11 eV, respectively. The magnitude of the band gap is tunable by applying the in-plane strain and/or changing the number of stacking layers. High optical absorption coefficients at the visible light region are predicted for multilayer Kagome-P, indicating potential applications for solar cell devices. The nearly dispersionless top valence band of the ML Kagome-P with high density of states at the Fermi level leads to superconductivity with Tc of ~9 K under the optimal hole doping concentration. We also propose that the Kagome-P can be fabricated through the manipulation of the substrate-induced strain during the process of the sample growth. Our work demonstrates the high applicability of the Kagome-P in the fields of electronics, photovoltaics, and superconductivity. PMID:26980060

  18. Guided Bone Regeneration: biological principle and therapeutic applications.

    PubMed

    Retzepi, Maria; Donos, N

    2010-06-01

    The Guided Bone Regeneration (GBR) treatment concept advocates that regeneration of osseous defects is predictably attainable via the application of occlusive membranes, which mechanically exclude non-osteogenic cell populations from the surrounding soft tissues, thereby allowing osteogenic cell populations originating from the parent bone to inhabit the osseous wound. The present review discusses the evolution of the GBR biological rationale and therapeutic concept over the last two decades. Further, an overview of the GBR research history is provided with specific focus on the evidence available on its effectiveness and predictability in promoting the regeneration of critical size cranio-maxillo-facial defects, the neo-osteogenesis potential and the reconstruction of atrophic alveolar ridges before, or in conjunction with, the placement of dental implants. The authors conclude that future research should focus on (a) the investigation of the molecular mechanisms underlying the wound healing process following GBR application; (b) the identification of site and patient related factors which impact on the effectiveness and predictability of GBR therapy and (c) the evaluation of the pathophysiology of the GBR healing process in the presence of systemic conditions potentially affecting the skeletal system.

  19. Electrospray Ionisation Mass Spectrometry: Principles and Clinical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Ho, CS; Lam, CWK; Chan, MHM; Cheung, RCK; Law, LK; Lit, LCW; Ng, KF; Suen, MWM; Tai, HL

    2003-01-01

    This mini-review provides a general understanding of electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) which has become an increasingly important technique in the clinical laboratory for structural study or quantitative measurement of metabolites in a complex biological sample. The first part of the review explains the electrospray ionisation process, design of mass spectrometers with separation capability, characteristics of the mass spectrum, and practical considerations in quantitative analysis. The second part then focuses on some clinical applications. The capability of ESI-tandem-MS in measuring bio-molecules sharing similar molecular structures makes it particularly useful in screening for inborn errors of amino acid, fatty acid, purine, pyrimidine metabolism and diagnosis of galactosaemia and peroxisomal disorders. Electrospray ionisation is also efficient in generating cluster ions for structural elucidation of macromolecules. This has fostered a new and improved approach (vs electrophoresis) for identification and quantification of haemoglobin variants. With the understanding of glycohaemoglobin structure, an IFCC reference method for glycohaemoglobin assay has been established using ESI-MS. It represents a significant advancement for the standardisation of HbA1c in diabetic monitoring. With its other applications such as in therapeutic drug monitoring, ESI-MS will continue to exert an important influence in the future development and organisation of the clinical laboratory service. PMID:18568044

  20. Oregon Consolidated State Application Accountability Workbook. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This workbook, submitted by the State of Oregon to the U.S. Department of Education, is for State Grants under Title IX, Part C, Section 9302 of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (Public Law 107-110). By January 31, 2003, States must complete and submit to the Department this Consolidated State Application Accountability Workbook. The…

  1. Texas Consolidated State Application Accountability Workbook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This workbook, submitted by the State of Texas to the U.S. Department of Education, is for State Grants under Title IX, Part C, Section 9302 of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (Public Law 107-110). By January 31, 2003, States must complete and submit to the Department this Consolidated State Application Accountability Workbook. The…

  2. Pennsylvania Consolidated State Application Accountability Workbook. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This workbook, submitted by the State of Pennsylvania to the U.S. Department of Education, is for State Grants under Title IX, Part C, Section 9302 of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (Public Law 107-110). By January 31, 2003, States must complete and submit to the Department this Consolidated State Application Accountability Workbook.…

  3. Alabama Consolidated State Application Accountability Workbook. Final

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This workbook, submitted by the State of Alabama to the U.S. Department of Education, is for State Grants under Title IX, Part C, Section 9302 of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (Public Law 107-110). By January 31, 2003, States must complete and submit to the Department this Consolidated State Application Accountability Workbook. The…

  4. Louisiana Consolidated State Application Accountability Workbook. Amended

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This workbook, submitted by the State of Louisiana to the U.S. Department of Education, is for State Grants under Title IX, Part C, Section 9302 of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (Public Law 107-110). By January 31, 2003, States must complete and submit to the Department this Consolidated State Application Accountability Workbook. The…

  5. Viewing brain processes as Critical State Transitions across levels of organization: Neural events in Cognition and Consciousness, and general principles.

    PubMed

    Werner, Gerhard

    2009-04-01

    In this theoretical and speculative essay, I propose that insights into certain aspects of neural system functions can be gained from viewing brain function in terms of the branch of Statistical Mechanics currently referred to as "Modern Critical Theory" [Stanley, H.E., 1987. Introduction to Phase Transitions and Critical Phenomena. Oxford University Press; Marro, J., Dickman, R., 1999. Nonequilibrium Phase Transitions in Lattice Models. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK]. The application of this framework is here explored in two stages: in the first place, its principles are applied to state transitions in global brain dynamics, with benchmarks of Cognitive Neuroscience providing the relevant empirical reference points. The second stage generalizes to suggest in more detail how the same principles could also apply to the relation between other levels of the structural-functional hierarchy of the nervous system and between neural assemblies. In this view, state transitions resulting from the processing at one level are the input to the next, in the image of a 'bucket brigade', with the content of each bucket being passed on along the chain, after having undergone a state transition. The unique features of a process of this kind will be discussed and illustrated.

  6. S-layer fusion proteins--construction principles and applications.

    PubMed

    Ilk, Nicola; Egelseer, Eva M; Sleytr, Uwe B

    2011-12-01

    Crystalline bacterial cell surface layers (S-layers) are the outermost cell envelope component of many bacteria and archaea. S-layers are monomolecular arrays composed of a single protein or glycoprotein species and represent the simplest biological membrane developed during evolution. The wealth of information available on the structure, chemistry, genetics and assembly of S-layers revealed a broad spectrum of applications in nanobiotechnology and biomimetics. By genetic engineering techniques, specific functional domains can be incorporated in S-layer proteins while maintaining the self-assembly capability. These techniques have led to new types of affinity structures, microcarriers, enzyme membranes, diagnostic devices, biosensors, vaccines, as well as targeting, delivery and encapsulation systems.

  7. Operating principles of an electrothermal vibrometer for optical switching applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pai, Min-fan; Tien, Norman C.

    1999-09-01

    A compact polysilicon surface-micromachined microactuator designed for optical switching applications is described. This actuator is fabricated using the foundry MUMPs process provided by Cronos Integrated Microsystems Inc. Actuated electrothermally, the microactuator allows fast switching speeds and can be operated with a low voltage square-wave signal. The design, operation mechanisms for this long-range and high frequency thermal actuation are described. A vertical micromirror integrated with this actuator can be operated with a 10.5 V, 20 kHz 15% duty-cycle pulse signal, achieving a lateral moving speed higher than 15.6 mm/sec. The optical switch has been operated to frequencies as high as 30 kHz.

  8. Application of INCSEA principles to the Taiwan Strait.

    SciTech Connect

    Wen-Chung, Chai

    2003-06-01

    The waters surrounding Taiwan are important international waterways. In addition to merchant ships of every nation, the warships of the United States, Japan, Russia, and China may appear in these waters. No hostility is expected between Taiwan and the United States, Japan, or Russia; however, Taiwan and China have a tense relationship, and both sides face a potential for naval incidents. As Taiwan and China expand their naval capability, the International Maritime Organization Convention for the lnternational Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea may not be sufficient to prevent naval incidents, any of which might develop into conflict or war. Therefore, China and Taiwan need to develop maritime confidence building measures (CBMs) that could reduce the chance of naval incidents and strengthen mutual trust and confidence. Among the variety of maritime CBM concepts for military purposes, the most successful and effective measure has been the 1972 U.S.-Soviet Union Agreement on the Prevention of Incidents On and Over the High Seas (INCSEA). The success of the agreement demonstrates that CBMs represent a workable alternative to traditional arms controls. The purpose of this paper is to suggest a concrete approach to the constraint of naval activities between China and Taiwan to reduce accidents and misunderstandings. This paper outlines the categories and characteristics of incidents at sea. Next, the author identifies the successful factors of the U.S.-Soviet INCSEA and applies the INCSEA concept to the Taiwan Strait. Finally, the author develops a framework of options and a step-by-step approach for establishing an INCSEA between Taiwan and China.

  9. First-principles prediction of a ground state crystal structure of magnesium borohydride.

    PubMed

    Ozolins, V; Majzoub, E H; Wolverton, C

    2008-04-04

    Mg(BH(4))(2) contains a large amount of hydrogen by weight and by volume, but its promise as a candidate for hydrogen storage is dependent on the currently unknown thermodynamics of H2 release. Using first-principles density-functional theory calculations and a newly developed prototype electrostatic ground state search strategy, we predict a new T=0 K ground state of Mg(BH(4))(2) with I4[over ]m2 symmetry, which is 5 kJ/mol lower in energy than the recently proposed P6(1) structure. The calculated thermodynamics of H(2) release are within the range required for reversible storage.

  10. Thermophysical property data - Who needs them. [similarity principle applications in fluid mechanics and heat transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R. C.

    1979-01-01

    Specific examples are cited herein to illustrate the universal needs and demands for thermophysical property data. Applications of the principle of similarity in fluid mechanics and heat transfer and extensions of the principle to fluid mixtures are discussed. It becomes quite clear that no matter how eloquent theories or experiments in fluid mechanics or heat transfer are, the results of their application can be no more accurate than the thermophysical properties required to transform these theories into practice, or in the case of an experiment, to reduce the data. Present-day projects take place on such a scale that the need for international standards and mutual cooperation is evident.

  11. Thermophysical property data - Who needs them. [similarity principle applications in fluid mechanics and heat transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R. C.

    1979-01-01

    Specific examples are cited herein to illustrate the universal needs and demands for thermophysical property data. Applications of the principle of similarity in fluid mechanics and heat transfer and extensions of the principle to fluid mixtures are discussed. It becomes quite clear that no matter how eloquent theories or experiments in fluid mechanics or heat transfer are, the results of their application can be no more accurate than the thermophysical properties required to transform these theories into practice, or in the case of an experiment, to reduce the data. Present-day projects take place on such a scale that the need for international standards and mutual cooperation is evident.

  12. Medical students' recognition and application of geriatrics principles in a new curriculum.

    PubMed

    Nanda, Aman; Farrell, Timothy W; Shield, Renée R; Tomas, Maria; Campbell, Susan E; Wetle, Terrie

    2013-03-01

    Given the aging U.S. population, it is imperative that medical students recognize and apply geriatrics principles. To address this need, in 2006, the Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University integrated geriatrics content into a new medical school curriculum. Preclinical and clinical medical students submitted written reflective journals in response to prompts regarding the geriatrics content of the new medical school curriculum, including their didactic and clinical experiences. An interdisciplinary team used a structured qualitative approach to identify themes, including the recognition and application of geriatrics principles. Thirty medical student journalers submitted 405 journal entries. Themes regarding students' emerging understanding of geriatrics principles included a growing understanding of geriatrics principles, recognition of the importance of psychosocial factors and patient preferences in caring for older adults, recognition of the complexities of treating older adults and application of geriatric principles to clinical situations, and understanding of physicians' roles in managing the care of older adults. Medical student reflective journaling allows medical educators to obtain timely feedback on curricular innovations and helps illuminate the process by which medical students learn to recognize and apply core geriatrics principles. © 2013, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2013, The American Geriatrics Society.

  13. Adaptive laboratory evolution – principles and applications for biotechnology

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Adaptive laboratory evolution is a frequent method in biological studies to gain insights into the basic mechanisms of molecular evolution and adaptive changes that accumulate in microbial populations during long term selection under specified growth conditions. Although regularly performed for more than 25 years, the advent of transcript and cheap next-generation sequencing technologies has resulted in many recent studies, which successfully applied this technique in order to engineer microbial cells for biotechnological applications. Adaptive laboratory evolution has some major benefits as compared with classical genetic engineering but also some inherent limitations. However, recent studies show how some of the limitations may be overcome in order to successfully incorporate adaptive laboratory evolution in microbial cell factory design. Over the last two decades important insights into nutrient and stress metabolism of relevant model species were acquired, whereas some other aspects such as niche-specific differences of non-conventional cell factories are not completely understood. Altogether the current status and its future perspectives highlight the importance and potential of adaptive laboratory evolution as approach in biotechnological engineering. PMID:23815749

  14. Hospital management principles applicable to the veterinary teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Harris, Donna L; Lloyd, James W; Marrinan, Mike

    2004-01-01

    The Skills, Knowledge, Aptitude, and Attitude (SKA) Subcommittee of the National Commission on Veterinary Economic Issues (NCVEI) has identified the need for veterinary teaching hospitals (VTH) to be at the forefront of progressive business management to serve as a model for both students and practitioners to emulate. To provide a foundation for developing a model, this study reviewed pertinent literature applicable to the management of a VTH. Much of the literature relevant to VTH management relates to work completed for the human side of medicine (academic health centers, or AHCs) or to the private sector. This review explores management practices in strategic planning, financial management, human resource management, marketing, pricing, operations, and legal issues. It is concluded that strategic management is important to provide the foundation for success in the VTH. In addition, periodic financial reports are recommended, as are the development and use of benchmarks for financial management. Establishing positive, motivating human resource practices is also suggested, along with development of a marketing plan based on a clear understanding of VTH core competencies and the market's specific needs.

  15. Deuterium REDOR: Principles and Applications for Distance Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sack, I.; Goldbourt, A.; Vega, S.; Buntkowsky, G.

    1999-05-01

    The application of short composite pulse schemes ([figure] and [figure]) to the rotational echo double-resonance (REDOR) spectroscopy ofX-2H (X: spin{1}/{2}, observed) systems with large deuterium quadrupolar interactions has been studied experimentally and theoretically and compared with simple 180° pulse schemes. The basic properties of the composite pulses on the deuterium nuclei have been elucidated, using average Hamiltonian theory, and exact simulations of the experiments have been achieved by stepwise integration of the equation of motion of the density matrix. REDOR experiments were performed on15N-2H in doubly labeled acetanilide and on13C-2H in singly2H-labeled acetanilide. The most efficient REDOR dephasing was observed when [figure] composite pulses were used. It is found that the dephasing due to simple 180° deuterium pulses is about a factor of 2 less efficient than the dephasing due to the composite pulse sequences and thus the range of couplings observable byX-2H REDOR is enlarged toward weaker couplings, i.e., larger distances. From these experiments the2H-15N dipolar coupling between the amino deuteron and the amino nitrogen and the2H-13C dipolar couplings between the amino deuteron and the α and β carbons have been elucidated and the corresponding distances have been determined. The distance data from REDOR are in good agreement with data from X-ray and neutron diffraction, showing the power of the method.

  16. Adaptive laboratory evolution -- principles and applications for biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Dragosits, Martin; Mattanovich, Diethard

    2013-07-01

    Adaptive laboratory evolution is a frequent method in biological studies to gain insights into the basic mechanisms of molecular evolution and adaptive changes that accumulate in microbial populations during long term selection under specified growth conditions. Although regularly performed for more than 25 years, the advent of transcript and cheap next-generation sequencing technologies has resulted in many recent studies, which successfully applied this technique in order to engineer microbial cells for biotechnological applications. Adaptive laboratory evolution has some major benefits as compared with classical genetic engineering but also some inherent limitations. However, recent studies show how some of the limitations may be overcome in order to successfully incorporate adaptive laboratory evolution in microbial cell factory design. Over the last two decades important insights into nutrient and stress metabolism of relevant model species were acquired, whereas some other aspects such as niche-specific differences of non-conventional cell factories are not completely understood. Altogether the current status and its future perspectives highlight the importance and potential of adaptive laboratory evolution as approach in biotechnological engineering.

  17. Health care technology assessment. Basic principles and clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Bozic, Kevin J; Pierce, Read G; Herndon, James H

    2004-06-01

    Health care technology (defined as all drugs, devices, and medical and surgical procedures used in medical care as well as the organizational and supportive systems within which such care is provided) is widely regarded as an important driver of escalating health care spending in the United States. Many new health care technologies are adopted and used in clinical practice with little or no evidence that their use is associated with improved patient outcomes. Orthopaedic surgeons are facing increasing scrutiny from hospitals and payers regarding the adoption and use of new technology for the treatment of patients with musculoskeletal disease. Health care technology assessment is a growing field that is concerned with the multidisciplinary evaluation of clinical data on the basis of safety and efficacy as well as economic aspects of technology acquisition. Through an understanding of the relevant literature and the concepts of health care technology assessment, orthopaedic surgeons have an opportunity to participate in the assessment process and thus influence clinical and health policy decisions regarding the adoption and use of new and existing technologies in the field of orthopaedic surgery.

  18. Application of the precautionary principle by senior policy officials: results of a Canadian survey.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Kumanan; Leonard, Blair; Wright, Robert; Graham, Ian; Moffet, John; Pluscauskas, Michael; Wilson, Michael

    2006-08-01

    Though use of the controversial precautionary principle in risk management has increasingly been recommended as a guide for the construction of public policy in Canada and elsewhere, there are few data available characterizing its use in risk management by senior public policymakers. Using established survey methodology we sought to investigate the perceptions and terms of application of the precautionary principle in this important subset of individuals. A total of 240 surveys were sent out to seven departments or agencies in the Canadian government. The overall survey response rate was 26.6%, and our findings need to be interpreted in the context of possible responder bias. Of respondents, the overwhelming majority perceived the precautionary principle and the management of risk as complementary, and endorsed a role for the precautionary principle as a general guideline for all risk management decisions. However, 25% of respondents responded that the lack of clarity of the definition of the principle was a limitation to its effective use. The majority of respondents viewed their own level of understanding of the precautionary principle as moderate. Risk managers appeared to favor an interpretation of the precautionary principle that was based on the seriousness and irreversibility of the threat of damage, and did not endorse as strongly the need for cost effectiveness in the measures taken as a precaution against such threats. In contrast with its perceived role as a general guideline, the application of the precautionary principle by respondents was highly variable, with >60% of respondents reporting using the precautionary principle in one-quarter or less of all risk management decisions. Several factors influenced whether the precautionary principle was applied with the perceived seriousness of the threat being considered the most influential factor. The overwhelming majority of risk managers felt that "preponderance of evidence" was the level of evidence

  19. The Application of Psycho-Analytic Principles in Psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Glover, Edward

    1935-01-01

    Psychiatrists are inclined to follow the lead of their medical colleagues in regarding psycho-analysis mainly as a method of psychological treatment. The fact is thus obscured that the main contributions of psycho-analysis to science are in terms of the structure and function of mind. Of most importance to psychiatrists are the fundamental conceptions of a mental apparatus, of its differentiated parts, of mental mechanisms, and of the developmental order of these parts and mechanisms. The view is maintained that systematic application of these genetic views to the field of psychiatry (which has as yet been explored mainly from the descriptive point of view) would not only illuminate many obscure problems of mental origins, but lead to a more orderly and comprehensible arrangement of psychiatric (clinical) entities. Coöperation between the sciences of psycho-analysis and psychiatry is essential, but cannot be achieved without pooling the methods of investigation. Too much time and energy are spent in fighting old battles regarding the validity of methods of analytical approach. This is particularly true of quarrels regarding the interpretation of material. Unless the psychiatrist exercises the right of interpretation (which has been won for him by the psychoanalyst) descriptive methods of approach will soon lose whatever research value they have attained. The atmosphere of distrust existing between the sciences is due in part to unresolved conflict over the claims of “conscious” and “unconscious” psychology respectively, and in part to unresolved doubt regarding the relations of body and mind. These more fundamental forms of distrust show themselves most readily in the therapeutic field and tend to hinder the progress both of psychiatry and of psycho-analysis. PMID:19990248

  20. Principles of TRIP Steel Optimization for Passive Damping Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraley, George Jay

    Globally many historic structures of cultural significance which do not have systems to mitigate seismic damage are located in areas with heavy seismic activity. Efforts have been undertaken to develop strategies to retrofit such structures, however any intervention must be limited in size for aesthetic reasons. To contribute to this effort, ArcelorMittal aims to create steel-based solutions for passive energy dissipation through plastic deformation during cyclic loading. High-strength TRansformation-Induced Plasticity (TRIP) steels are proposed as an excellent candidate material for this application, due to the extreme combination of high strength and large ductility they are well-known to exhibit. To evaluate high-strength TRIP steels for passive damping applications, isothermal, fully-reversed, displacement-controlled Ultra-Low Cycle Fatigue (ULCF) experiments (Nf < 100) were conducted on two tempering conditions of austenitic BlastAlloy (BA) TRIP 180. One tempering condition resulted in a Mssigma temperature of 27 °C and stress-assisted martensitic nucleation, and the other a Mssigma temperature of -8 °C and strain-induced martensitic nucleation at room temperature. The higher austenite stability condition (Ms sigma = -8 °C) was found to have approximately twice the fatigue life and a lower rate of cyclic hardening at fixed displacement amplitudes for low to intermediate levels of plastic strain range (2-10%) compared to the lower stability austenite condition (Mssigma = 27 °C). However, at higher levels of plastic straining (10-16% strain range) the fatigue lives and strain hardening behavior converged for the two stabilities, indicating a likely exhaustion of transformation during the first few cycles. ULCF life behavior for the high-stability austenite condition compared favorably with literature values for structural stainless steel 316, despite having a yield strength approximately four times larger. For a similar number of cycles to failure the high

  1. 18 CFR 740.3 - State applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false State applications. 740.3 Section 740.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL STATE WATER... for completing the application; (2) The criteria to be used by the Council in assessing need for water...

  2. 18 CFR 740.3 - State applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false State applications. 740.3 Section 740.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL STATE WATER... for completing the application; (2) The criteria to be used by the Council in assessing need for water...

  3. 18 CFR 740.3 - State applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false State applications. 740.3 Section 740.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL STATE WATER... for completing the application; (2) The criteria to be used by the Council in assessing need for water...

  4. 18 CFR 740.3 - State applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false State applications. 740.3 Section 740.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL STATE WATER... for completing the application; (2) The criteria to be used by the Council in assessing need for water...

  5. 18 CFR 740.3 - State applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true State applications. 740.3 Section 740.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL STATE WATER... for completing the application; (2) The criteria to be used by the Council in assessing need for water...

  6. Principles of computer processing of Landsat data for geologic applications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taranik, James V.

    1978-01-01

    The main objectives of computer processing of Landsat data for geologic applications are to improve display of image data to the analyst or to facilitate evaluation of the multispectral characteristics of the data. Interpretations of the data are made from enhanced and classified data by an analyst trained in geology. Image enhancements involve adjustments of brightness values for individual picture elements. Image classification involves determination of the brightness values of picture elements for a particular cover type. Histograms are used to display the range and frequency of occurrence of brightness values. Landsat-1 and -2 data are preprocessed at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) to adjust for the detector response of the multispectral scanner (MSS). Adjustments are applied to minimize the effects of striping, adjust for bad-data lines and line segments and lost individual pixel data. Because illumination conditions and landscape characteristics vary considerably and detector response changes with time, the radiometric adjustments applied at GSFC are seldom perfect and some detector striping remain in Landsat data. Rotation of the Earth under the satellite and movements of the satellite platform introduce geometric distortions in the data that must also be compensated for if image data are to be correctly displayed to the data analyst. Adjustments to Landsat data are made to compensate for variable solar illumination and for atmospheric effects. GeoMetric registration of Landsat data involves determination of the spatial location of a pixel in. the output image and the determination of a new value for the pixel. The general objective of image enhancement is to optimize display of the data to the analyst. Contrast enhancements are employed to expand the range of brightness values in Landsat data so that the data can be efficiently recorded in a manner desired by the analyst. Spatial frequency enhancements are designed to enhance boundaries between features

  7. Application of cognitive engineering principles to the redesign of a dichotomous identification key for parasitology.

    PubMed

    Smith-Akin, Kimberly A; McLane, Sharon; Craig, Thomas M; Johnson, Todd R

    2006-01-01

    Dichotomous identification keys are used throughout biology for identification of plants, insects, and parasites. However, correct use of identification keys can be difficult as they are not usually intended for novice users who may not be familiar with the terminology used or with the morphology of the organism being identified. Therefore, we applied cognitive engineering principles to redesign a parasitology identification key for the Internet. We addressed issues of visual clutter and spatial distance by displaying a single question couplet at a time and by switching to the appropriate next couplet after the user made a choice. Our analysis of the original paper-based key versus the Web-based approach found that of 26 applicable cognitive engineering principles, the paper key did not meet 4 (15%) and partially met 11 (42%). In contrast, the redesigned key met 100% of 32 applicable cognitive engineering principles.

  8. Principles and applications of measurement and uncertainty analysis in research and calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, C.V.

    1992-11-01

    Interest in Measurement Uncertainty Analysis has grown in the past several years as it has spread to new fields of application, and research and development of uncertainty methodologies have continued. This paper discusses the subject from the perspectives of both research and calibration environments. It presents a history of the development and an overview of the principles of uncertainty analysis embodied in the United States National Standard, ANSI/ASME PTC 19.1-1985, Measurement Uncertainty. Examples are presented in which uncertainty analysis was utilized or is needed to gain further knowledge of a particular measurement process and to characterize final results. Measurement uncertainty analysis provides a quantitative estimate of the interval about a measured value or an experiment result within which the true value of that quantity is expected to lie. Years ago, Harry Ku of the United States National Bureau of Standards stated that The informational content of the statement of uncertainty determines, to a large extent, the worth of the calibrated value.'' Today, that statement is just as true about calibration or research results as it was in 1968. Why is that true What kind of information should we include in a statement of uncertainty accompanying a calibrated value How and where do we get the information to include in an uncertainty statement How should we interpret and use measurement uncertainty information This discussion will provide answers to these and other questions about uncertainty in research and in calibration. The methodology to be described has been developed by national and international groups over the past nearly thirty years, and individuals were publishing information even earlier. Yet the work is largely unknown in many science and engineering arenas. I will illustrate various aspects of uncertainty analysis with some examples drawn from the radiometry measurement and calibration discipline from research activities.

  9. Principles and applications of measurement and uncertainty analysis in research and calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, C.V.

    1992-11-01

    Interest in Measurement Uncertainty Analysis has grown in the past several years as it has spread to new fields of application, and research and development of uncertainty methodologies have continued. This paper discusses the subject from the perspectives of both research and calibration environments. It presents a history of the development and an overview of the principles of uncertainty analysis embodied in the United States National Standard, ANSI/ASME PTC 19.1-1985, Measurement Uncertainty. Examples are presented in which uncertainty analysis was utilized or is needed to gain further knowledge of a particular measurement process and to characterize final results. Measurement uncertainty analysis provides a quantitative estimate of the interval about a measured value or an experiment result within which the true value of that quantity is expected to lie. Years ago, Harry Ku of the United States National Bureau of Standards stated that ``The informational content of the statement of uncertainty determines, to a large extent, the worth of the calibrated value.`` Today, that statement is just as true about calibration or research results as it was in 1968. Why is that true? What kind of information should we include in a statement of uncertainty accompanying a calibrated value? How and where do we get the information to include in an uncertainty statement? How should we interpret and use measurement uncertainty information? This discussion will provide answers to these and other questions about uncertainty in research and in calibration. The methodology to be described has been developed by national and international groups over the past nearly thirty years, and individuals were publishing information even earlier. Yet the work is largely unknown in many science and engineering arenas. I will illustrate various aspects of uncertainty analysis with some examples drawn from the radiometry measurement and calibration discipline from research activities.

  10. Initial system-bath state via the maximum-entropy principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Jibo; Len, Yink Loong; Ng, Hui Khoon

    2016-11-01

    The initial state of a system-bath composite is needed as the input for prediction from any quantum evolution equation to describe subsequent system-only reduced dynamics or the noise on the system from joint evolution of the system and the bath. The conventional wisdom is to write down an uncorrelated state as if the system and the bath were prepared in the absence of each other; yet, such a factorized state cannot be the exact description in the presence of system-bath interactions. Here, we show how to go beyond the simplistic factorized-state prescription using ideas from quantum tomography: We employ the maximum-entropy principle to deduce an initial system-bath state consistent with the available information. For the generic case of weak interactions, we obtain an explicit formula for the correction to the factorized state. Such a state turns out to have little correlation between the system and the bath, which we can quantify using our formula. This has implications, in particular, on the subject of subsequent non-completely positive dynamics of the system. Deviation from predictions based on such an almost uncorrelated state is indicative of accidental control of hidden degrees of freedom in the bath.

  11. Early stage spin-state transition in LaCoO3 investigated by first principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leighton, C.; Hsu, H.; Cococcioni, M.; Wentzcovitch, R. M.

    2009-12-01

    Thermal-induced spin-state transition in LaCoO3 has been a highly debated phenomenon. The point in controversy is whether the intermediate-spin (IS) state can stably exist, and whether the intermediate-spin or high-spin (HS) state is the first excited state. In our calculation, we have successfully stabilized isolated HS and IS Co in an array of low-spin (LS) Co in LaCoO3 using the local density approximation + Hubbard U (LDA+U) method. The HS/LS (or IS/LS) Co population ratio is set to 1:7, so that the early stage of spin-state transition is properly approximated. The Hubbard U is self-consistently determined by first principles, so that the equation of state and the energy of Co in each spin state can be determined with better accuracy. We show that at low temperature, isolated IS Co has higher energy than isolated HS Co. We also show that low concentration of isolated IS Co can lead to metallic LaCoO3. Therefore, the early stage spin-state transition in LaCoO3 is LS-to-HS transition. This work was supported primarily by the MRSEC Program of the National Science Foundation under Award Number DMR-0212302 and DMR-0819885. It was also partially supported by NSF grants ITR-0426757 (VLab) and EAR 0757903. Calculations were performed at Minnesota Supercomputing Institute (MSI).

  12. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis: basic principles and applications in radiology.

    PubMed

    van Erkel, A R; Pattynama, P M

    1998-05-01

    Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis is a widely accepted method for analyzing and comparing the diagnostic accuracy of radiological tests. In this paper we will explain the basic principles underlying ROC analysis and provide practical information on the use and interpretation of ROC curves. The major applications of ROC analysis will be discussed and their limitations will be addressed.

  13. Application of the Total Quality Management Approach Principles and the ISO 9000 Standards in Engineering Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waks, Shlomo; Frank, Moti

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the applicability of the definition, principles, and underlying strategies of total quality management (TQM) for engineering education. Describes several tools and methods for the implementation of TQM and its suitability for a variety of school activities. Presents a TQM course outline combining lectures, discussions, suggested…

  14. Application of the comparison principle to analysis of nonlinear systems. [using Lipschitz condition and differential equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunderson, R. W.

    1975-01-01

    A comparison principle based on a Kamke theorem and Lipschitz conditions is presented along with its possible applications and modifications. It is shown that the comparison lemma can be used in the study of such areas as classical stability theory, higher order trajectory derivatives, Liapunov functions, boundary value problems, approximate dynamic systems, linear and nonlinear systems, and bifurcation analysis.

  15. Uniqueness of Zinc as a Bioelement: Principles and Applications in Bioinorganic Chemistry--III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ochiai, Ei-Ichiro

    1988-01-01

    Attempts to delineate certain basic principles and applications of bioinorganic chemistry to oxidation-reduction reactions. Examines why zinc(II) is so uniquely suited to enzymated reactions of the acid-base type. Suggests the answer may be in the natural abundance and the basic physicochemical properties of zinc(II). (MVL)

  16. Application of the Total Quality Management Approach Principles and the ISO 9000 Standards in Engineering Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waks, Shlomo; Frank, Moti

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the applicability of the definition, principles, and underlying strategies of total quality management (TQM) for engineering education. Describes several tools and methods for the implementation of TQM and its suitability for a variety of school activities. Presents a TQM course outline combining lectures, discussions, suggested…

  17. Modification of Taba's Application of Principles and Social Studies Inference Tests. A Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wulff, Kenneth R.

    An updated version of Taba's 1966 "Social Studies Inference Test" and "Application of Principles Test" for elementary students is studied. The original tests measured students' abilities to generalize and draw inferences from short paragraphs containing data relevant to social studies. The "Social Studies Inference…

  18. Uniqueness of Zinc as a Bioelement: Principles and Applications in Bioinorganic Chemistry--III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ochiai, Ei-Ichiro

    1988-01-01

    Attempts to delineate certain basic principles and applications of bioinorganic chemistry to oxidation-reduction reactions. Examines why zinc(II) is so uniquely suited to enzymated reactions of the acid-base type. Suggests the answer may be in the natural abundance and the basic physicochemical properties of zinc(II). (MVL)

  19. The Application of Service-Learning Principles to Support Our National Parks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coates, Tom

    2005-01-01

    Camping and working and learning in national parks may sound like a great way to spend the summer, but for participants enrolled in Rocky Mountain Experience, it is much more. Rocky Mountain Experience is a unique university course that focuses on application of service-learning principles as students travel to, camp in, and complete service…

  20. Lean Principles and Defense Information Technology Acquisition: An Investigation of the Determinants of Successful Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haley, M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether or not there have been successful applications of lean manufacturing principles in highly variable defense IT environments. Specifically, the study assessed if implementation of the lean philosophies by a defense organization yielded repeatable, predictable results in software release schedules…

  1. Lean Principles and Defense Information Technology Acquisition: An Investigation of the Determinants of Successful Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haley, M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether or not there have been successful applications of lean manufacturing principles in highly variable defense IT environments. Specifically, the study assessed if implementation of the lean philosophies by a defense organization yielded repeatable, predictable results in software release schedules…

  2. First-Principles Correlated Approach to the Normal State of Strontium Ruthenate

    PubMed Central

    Acharya, S.; Laad, M. S.; Dey, Dibyendu; Maitra, T.; Taraphder, A.

    2017-01-01

    The interplay between multiple bands, sizable multi-band electronic correlations and strong spin-orbit coupling may conspire in selecting a rather unusual unconventional pairing symmetry in layered Sr2RuO4. This mandates a detailed revisit of the normal state and, in particular, the T-dependent incoherence-coherence crossover. Using a modern first-principles correlated view, we study this issue in the actual structure of Sr2RuO4 and present a unified and quantitative description of a range of unusual physical responses in the normal state. Armed with these, we propose that a new and important element, that of dominant multi-orbital charge fluctuations in a Hund’s metal, may be a primary pair glue for unconventional superconductivity. Thereby we establish a connection between the normal state responses and superconductivity in this system. PMID:28220879

  3. First-Principles Correlated Approach to the Normal State of Strontium Ruthenate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharya, S.; Laad, M. S.; Dey, Dibyendu; Maitra, T.; Taraphder, A.

    2017-02-01

    The interplay between multiple bands, sizable multi-band electronic correlations and strong spin-orbit coupling may conspire in selecting a rather unusual unconventional pairing symmetry in layered Sr2RuO4. This mandates a detailed revisit of the normal state and, in particular, the T-dependent incoherence-coherence crossover. Using a modern first-principles correlated view, we study this issue in the actual structure of Sr2RuO4 and present a unified and quantitative description of a range of unusual physical responses in the normal state. Armed with these, we propose that a new and important element, that of dominant multi-orbital charge fluctuations in a Hund’s metal, may be a primary pair glue for unconventional superconductivity. Thereby we establish a connection between the normal state responses and superconductivity in this system.

  4. Improved techniques for outgoing wave variational principle calculations of converged state-to-state transition probabilities for chemical reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mielke, Steven L.; Truhlar, Donald G.; Schwenke, David W.

    1991-01-01

    Improved techniques and well-optimized basis sets are presented for application of the outgoing wave variational principle to calculate converged quantum mechanical reaction probabilities. They are illustrated with calculations for the reactions D + H2 yields HD + H with total angular momentum J = 3 and F + H2 yields HF + H with J = 0 and 3. The optimization involves the choice of distortion potential, the grid for calculating half-integrated Green's functions, the placement, width, and number of primitive distributed Gaussians, and the computationally most efficient partition between dynamically adapted and primitive basis functions. Benchmark calculations with 224-1064 channels are presented.

  5. The child's right to an open future: is the principle applicable to non-therapeutic circumcision?

    PubMed

    Darby, Robert J L

    2013-07-01

    The principle of the child's right to an open future was first proposed by the legal philosopher Joel Feinberg and developed further by bioethicist Dena Davis. The principle holds that children possess a unique class of rights called rights in trust-rights that they cannot yet exercise, but which they will be able to exercise when they reach maturity. Parents should not, therefore, take actions that permanently foreclose on or pre-empt the future options of their children, but leave them the greatest possible scope for exercising personal life choices in adulthood. Davis particularly applies the principle to genetic counselling, arguing that parents should not take deliberate steps to create physically abnormal children, and to religion, arguing that while parents are entitled to bring their children up in accordance with their own values, they are not entitled to inflict physical or mental harm, neither by omission nor commission. In this paper, I aim to elucidate the open future principle, and consider whether it is applicable to non-therapeutic circumcision of boys, whether performed for cultural/religious or for prophylactic/health reasons. I argue that the principle is highly applicable to non-therapeutic circumcision, and conclude that non-therapeutic circumcision would be a violation of the child's right to an open future, and thus objectionable from both an ethical and a human rights perspective.

  6. Using Uncertainty Principle to Find the Ground-State Energy of the Helium and a Helium-like Hookean Atom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harbola, Varun

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we accurately estimate the ground-state energy and the atomic radius of the helium atom and a helium-like Hookean atom by employing the uncertainty principle in conjunction with the variational approach. We show that with the use of the uncertainty principle, electrons are found to be spread over a radial region, giving an electron…

  7. Using Uncertainty Principle to Find the Ground-State Energy of the Helium and a Helium-like Hookean Atom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harbola, Varun

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we accurately estimate the ground-state energy and the atomic radius of the helium atom and a helium-like Hookean atom by employing the uncertainty principle in conjunction with the variational approach. We show that with the use of the uncertainty principle, electrons are found to be spread over a radial region, giving an electron…

  8. Ground-state densities from the Rayleigh-Ritz variation principle and from density-functional theory.

    PubMed

    Kvaal, Simen; Helgaker, Trygve

    2015-11-14

    The relationship between the densities of ground-state wave functions (i.e., the minimizers of the Rayleigh-Ritz variation principle) and the ground-state densities in density-functional theory (i.e., the minimizers of the Hohenberg-Kohn variation principle) is studied within the framework of convex conjugation, in a generic setting covering molecular systems, solid-state systems, and more. Having introduced admissible density functionals as functionals that produce the exact ground-state energy for a given external potential by minimizing over densities in the Hohenberg-Kohn variation principle, necessary and sufficient conditions on such functionals are established to ensure that the Rayleigh-Ritz ground-state densities and the Hohenberg-Kohn ground-state densities are identical. We apply the results to molecular systems in the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. For any given potential v ∈ L(3/2)(ℝ(3)) + L(∞)(ℝ(3)), we establish a one-to-one correspondence between the mixed ground-state densities of the Rayleigh-Ritz variation principle and the mixed ground-state densities of the Hohenberg-Kohn variation principle when the Lieb density-matrix constrained-search universal density functional is taken as the admissible functional. A similar one-to-one correspondence is established between the pure ground-state densities of the Rayleigh-Ritz variation principle and the pure ground-state densities obtained using the Hohenberg-Kohn variation principle with the Levy-Lieb pure-state constrained-search functional. In other words, all physical ground-state densities (pure or mixed) are recovered with these functionals and no false densities (i.e., minimizing densities that are not physical) exist. The importance of topology (i.e., choice of Banach space of densities and potentials) is emphasized and illustrated. The relevance of these results for current-density-functional theory is examined.

  9. Generalized coherent states and their applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perelomov, Askol'd. Mikhailovich

    The theory of generalized coherent states is presented in a systematic manner. In particular, attention is given to the conventional system of coherent states and its relation to the Heisenberg-Weyl group; coherent states for an arbitrary Lie group; coherent states for a group of three-dimensional space rotations; and coherent states for a boson system with a finite number of degrees of freedom. Physical applications of generalized coherent states are discussed with reference to the quantum oscillator, particles in an external magnetic field, Landau diamagnetism, and synchrotron radiation.

  10. Internet applications for first principle calculations of elastic and thermodynamics properties of materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Da Silveira, P.; Holiday, A.; Kelly, N.; Wentzcovitch, R. M.

    2012-12-01

    We will describe Internet applications for first principles calculations of elastic coefficients (Cij) and thermodynamics properties of crystalline materials, implemented in the VLab Cyberinfrastructure (CI). The Cij application has recently been upgraded to treat crystals of all symmetries. First we review the theory behind these calculations and address the different requirements for each Bravais lattice. We also describe the scientific workflow and its general method for handling actions in the VLab CI, job scheduling on XSEDE and Minnesota Supercomputing Institute High Performance Computing resources, and integration with Apache Airavata API. We illustrate the Cij application with a calculation of diamond's elastic coefficients at high pressures, and a database of results from successful calculations.

  11. Equation of state for technetium from X-ray diffraction and first-principle calculations

    DOE PAGES

    Mast, Daniel S.; Kim, Eunja; Siska, Emily M.; ...

    2016-03-20

    Here, the ambient temperature equation of state (EoS) of technetium metal has been measured by X-ray diffraction. The metal was compressed using a diamond anvil cell and using a 4:1 methanol-ethanol pressure transmitting medium. The maximum pressure achieved, as determined from the gold pressure scale, was 67 GPa. The compression data shows that the HCP phase of technetium is stable up to 67 GPa. The compression curve of technetium was also calculated using first-principles total-energy calculations. Utilizing a number of fitting strategies to compare the experimental and theoretical data it is determined that the Vinet equation of state with anmore » ambient isothermal bulk modulus of B0T = 288 GPa and a first pressure derivative of B' = 5.9(2) best represent the compression behavior of technetium metal.« less

  12. Equation of state for technetium from X-ray diffraction and first-principle calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Mast, Daniel S.; Kim, Eunja; Siska, Emily M.; Poineau, Frederic; Czerwinski, Kenneth R.; Lavina, Barbara; Forster, Paul M.

    2016-03-20

    Here, the ambient temperature equation of state (EoS) of technetium metal has been measured by X-ray diffraction. The metal was compressed using a diamond anvil cell and using a 4:1 methanol-ethanol pressure transmitting medium. The maximum pressure achieved, as determined from the gold pressure scale, was 67 GPa. The compression data shows that the HCP phase of technetium is stable up to 67 GPa. The compression curve of technetium was also calculated using first-principles total-energy calculations. Utilizing a number of fitting strategies to compare the experimental and theoretical data it is determined that the Vinet equation of state with an ambient isothermal bulk modulus of B0T = 288 GPa and a first pressure derivative of B' = 5.9(2) best represent the compression behavior of technetium metal.

  13. First-principles equation of state of polystyrene and its effect on inertial confinement fusion implosions

    DOE PAGES

    Hu, S. X.; Collins, L. A.; Goncharov, V. N.; ...

    2015-10-14

    Obtaining an accurate equation of state (EOS) of polystyrene (CH) is crucial to reliably design inertial confinement fusion (ICF) capsules using CH/CH-based ablators. Thus, with first-principles calculations, we have investigated the extended EOS of CH over a wide range of plasma conditions (ρ = 0.1 to 100 g/cm3 and T = 1,000 to 4,000,000 K). When compared with the widely used SESAME-EOS table, the first-principles equation of state (FPEOS) of CH has shown significant differences in the low-temperature regime, in which strong coupling and electron degeneracy play an essential role in determining plasma properties. Hydrodynamic simulations of cryogenic target implosionsmore » on OMEGA using the FPEOS table of CH have predicted ~5% reduction in implosion velocity and ~30% decrease in neutron yield in comparison with the usual SESAME simulations. This is attributed to the ~10% lower mass ablation rate of CH predicted by FPEOS. Simulations using CH-FPEOS show better agreement with measurements of Hugoniot temperature and scattered lights from ICF implosions.« less

  14. First principles calculations of solid-state thermionic transport in layered van der Waals heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoming; Zebarjadi, Mona; Esfarjani, Keivan

    2016-08-21

    This work aims at understanding solid-state energy conversion and transport in layered (van der Waals) heterostructures in contact with metallic electrodes via a first-principles approach. As an illustration, a graphene/phosphorene/graphene heterostructure in contact with gold electrodes is studied by using density functional theory (DFT)-based first principles calculations combined with real space Green's function (GF) formalism. We show that for a monolayer phosphorene, quantum tunneling dominates the transport. By adding more phosphorene layers, one can switch from tunneling-dominated transport to thermionic-dominated transport, resulting in transporting more heat per charge carrier, thus, enhancing the cooling coefficient of performance. The use of layered van der Waals heterostructures has two advantages: (a) thermionic transport barriers can be tuned by changing the number of layers, and (b) thermal conductance across these non-covalent structures is very weak. The phonon thermal conductance of the present van der Waals heterostructure is found to be 4.1 MW m(-2) K(-1) which is one order of magnitude lower than the lowest value for that of covalently-bonded interfaces. The thermionic coefficient of performance for the proposed device is 18.5 at 600 K corresponding to an equivalent ZT of 0.13, which is significant for nanoscale devices. This study shows that layered van der Waals structures have great potential to be used as solid-state energy-conversion devices.

  15. Towards a new welfare state: the social sustainability principle and health care strategies.

    PubMed

    Garcés, Jorge; Ródenas, Francisco; Sanjosé, Vicente

    2003-09-01

    In this paper we propose a social and health care model that offers alternatives to three problems arising in converging European welfare states, particularly in the southern nations: the rise in demand for services and features linked to the ageing process, the increase in dependency and the crisis of informal support. Development of the principles of social sustainability implies re-formulation of the regulatory, care, economic, administrative, cultural, and axiological framework enabling a response to the needs of long term care without compromising the welfare of future generations. Together with this principle, quality of life elevated to a subjective right directs attention towards the sphere closest to citizens, eliminating all barriers, which hamper exercise of this right. All of the above produces economic and social costs which must be accepted from a viewpoint of social co-responsibility, which brings with it the supply of welfare individually, without detriment to the exercise of state responsibility in guaranteeing a social protection system of a universal nature.

  16. Spin-state transition induced half metallicity in a cobaltate from first principles

    SciTech Connect

    Ou, Xuedong; Fan, Fengren; Li, Zhengwei; Wang, Hongbo; Wu, Hua

    2016-02-29

    Half metal is a promising spintronic material. Here, we explore, using first principles calculations, a spin-state transition induced half metallicity in a layered cobaltate via a physical or chemical pressure. Our exemplary first principles study shows that the layered cobaltate Sr{sub 2}CoO{sub 3}F would undergo a transition, under a pressure of 5.4 GPa, from a high-spin antiferromagnetic insulator to an intermediate-spin ferromagnetic half-metal. The former phase is associated with a superexchange in a Mott insulator, and the latter one is due to a broad band formation and a kinetic energy gain of the partially occupied e{sub g} orbital. Note that the above transition could also be induced by a chemical pressure via doping in (Sr{sub 1−x}Ca{sub x}){sub 2}CoO{sub 3}F (x > 0.3). This work suggests that a cobaltate would be of a particular interest if stabilized into an intermediate-spin state.

  17. First-principles equation of state of polystyrene and its effect on inertial confinement fusion implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, S. X.; Collins, L. A.; Goncharov, V. N.; Kress, J. D.; McCrory, R. L.; Skupsky, S.

    2015-10-01

    Obtaining an accurate equation of state (EOS) of polystyrene (CH) is crucial to reliably design inertial confinement fusion (ICF) capsules using CH/CH-based ablators. With first-principles calculations, we have investigated the extended EOS of CH over a wide range of plasma conditions (ρ =0.1 to 100 g /cm3 and T =1000 to 4 000 000 K ). When compared with the widely used SESAME-EOS table, the first-principles equation of state (FPEOS) of CH has shown significant differences in the low-temperature regime, in which strong coupling and electron degeneracy play an essential role in determining plasma properties. Hydrodynamic simulations of cryogenic target implosions on OMEGA using the FPEOS table of CH have predicted ˜30% decrease in neutron yield in comparison with the usual SESAME simulations. This is attributed to the ˜5% reduction in implosion velocity that is caused by the ˜10% lower mass ablation rate of CH predicted by FPEOS. Simulations using CH-FPEOS show better agreement with measurements of Hugoniot temperature and scattered light from ICF implosions.

  18. First-principles equation of state of polystyrene and its effect on inertial confinement fusion implosions

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, S. X.; Collins, L. A.; Goncharov, V. N.; Kress, J. D.; McCrory, R. L.; Skupsky, S.

    2015-10-14

    Obtaining an accurate equation of state (EOS) of polystyrene (CH) is crucial to reliably design inertial confinement fusion (ICF) capsules using CH/CH-based ablators. Thus, with first-principles calculations, we have investigated the extended EOS of CH over a wide range of plasma conditions (ρ = 0.1 to 100 g/cm3 and T = 1,000 to 4,000,000 K). When compared with the widely used SESAME-EOS table, the first-principles equation of state (FPEOS) of CH has shown significant differences in the low-temperature regime, in which strong coupling and electron degeneracy play an essential role in determining plasma properties. Hydrodynamic simulations of cryogenic target implosions on OMEGA using the FPEOS table of CH have predicted ~5% reduction in implosion velocity and ~30% decrease in neutron yield in comparison with the usual SESAME simulations. This is attributed to the ~10% lower mass ablation rate of CH predicted by FPEOS. Simulations using CH-FPEOS show better agreement with measurements of Hugoniot temperature and scattered lights from ICF implosions.

  19. First-principles equation of state of polystyrene and its effect on inertial confinement fusion implosions.

    PubMed

    Hu, S X; Collins, L A; Goncharov, V N; Kress, J D; McCrory, R L; Skupsky, S

    2015-10-01

    Obtaining an accurate equation of state (EOS) of polystyrene (CH) is crucial to reliably design inertial confinement fusion (ICF) capsules using CH/CH-based ablators. With first-principles calculations, we have investigated the extended EOS of CH over a wide range of plasma conditions (ρ=0.1to100g/cm(3) and T=1000 to 4,000,000 K). When compared with the widely used SESAME-EOS table, the first-principles equation of state (FPEOS) of CH has shown significant differences in the low-temperature regime, in which strong coupling and electron degeneracy play an essential role in determining plasma properties. Hydrodynamic simulations of cryogenic target implosions on OMEGA using the FPEOS table of CH have predicted ∼30% decrease in neutron yield in comparison with the usual SESAME simulations. This is attributed to the ∼5% reduction in implosion velocity that is caused by the ∼10% lower mass ablation rate of CH predicted by FPEOS. Simulations using CH-FPEOS show better agreement with measurements of Hugoniot temperature and scattered light from ICF implosions.

  20. [Principles for the evaluation of telemedicine applications: Results of a systematic review and consensus process].

    PubMed

    Arnold, Katrin; Scheibe, Madlen; Müller, Olaf; Schmitt, Jochen

    2016-11-01

    The limited number of telemedicine applications being transferred to standard medical care in Germany may to some extent be explained by deficits in the current evaluation practice. Effectiveness and cost effectiveness can only be demonstrated to decision makers and potential users with methodologically sound and fully published evaluations. There is a lack of well-founded and mandatory standards for adequate, comparable evaluations of telemedicine applications. As part of the project CCS Telehealth Eastern Saxony (CCS THOS), a systematic review on evaluation concepts for telemedicine applications (search period until September 2014, databases Medline, Embase, HTA-Database, DARE, NHS EED) as well as an additional selective literature search were conducted. Suggestions for evaluation fundamentals were derived from the results. These suggestions were subjected to a formal consensus process (nominal group process) with relevant stakeholder groups (healthcare payers, healthcare providers, health policy representatives, researchers). 19 papers were included in the systematic review. In accordance with the predefined inclusion criteria, each presented an evaluation concept for telemedicine applications that was based upon a systematic review and/or a consensus process. Via a formal consensus process, the suggestions for evaluation principles derived from the review and the selective literature search (23 papers) resulted in ten agreed evaluation principles. Eight of them were unanimously agreed upon, two were arrived at with one abstention each. The principles enclose criteria for the planning, conduct and reporting of telemedicine evaluations. Adherence to them is obligatory for users of the telemedical infrastructure provided by CCS THOS. Furthermore, right from the beginning the intention was very much for these principles to be seized upon by other projects and initiatives. The agreed evaluation principles for telemedicine applications are the first in Germany to be

  1. First-Principles Study of Muon Trapping in Singlet and Triplet States of Oxyhemoglobin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pink, Roger; Badu, S. R.; Das, T. P.; Sahoo, N.; Chow, Lee; Scheicher, R. H.; Nagamine, K.

    2012-02-01

    There is great current interest in the possibility of magnetic character in oxyhemoglobin (OxyHb) due to the detection [1] of muon spin-lattice relaxation in OxyHb. First-Principles variational Hartree-Fock Many Body Perturbation Theory (VHFMBPT) technique investigations on the singlet and triplet states of pure OxyHb have shown^2 that the triplet state is considerably higher than the singlet state ruling out magnetic character. However the charge distribution obtained by the VHFMBPT procedure in both states show a number of sites that have negative charges where the trapping of muon is being investigated to examine if the energy gap in the ordering of singlet and triplet states can be reduced or reversed leading to magnetic effects. Other possible sources of magnetism in Oxyhemoglobin will also be discussed. 1. K. Nagamine et al. Proc. Japan. Acad. B-Physics 83, 120 (2007); 2. S.R. Badu et al. Reported at Third Joint HFI-NQI International Conference, CERN, Geneva, September 2010.

  2. Mechanistic applicability domains for nonanimal-based prediction of toxicological end points: general principles and application to reactive toxicity.

    PubMed

    Aptula, Aynur O; Roberts, David W

    2006-08-01

    In light of new legislation (e.g., the REACH program in the European Union), several initiatives have recently emerged to increase acceptance of (quantitative) structure-activity relationships [(Q)SARs] to reduce reliance on animal (in vivo) testing. Among the principles for assessing the validity of (Q)SARs is the need for a defined domain of applicability, i.e., identification of the range of compounds for which the (Q)SAR can confidently be applied for purposes of toxicity prediction. Here, we attempt to develop a "natural" classification into applicability domains based on considering how a compound and the target organism between them "decide" on the nature and extent of the toxic effect. With particular emphasis on reactive toxicity, we present rules, based on organic reaction mechanistic principles, for classifying reactive toxicants into their appropriate mechanistic applicability domains.

  3. Globalizing rehabilitation psychology: Application of foundational principles to global health and rehabilitation challenges.

    PubMed

    Bentley, Jacob A; Bruyère, Susanne M; LeBlanc, Jeanne; MacLachlan, Malcolm

    2016-02-01

    This article reviewed foundational principles in rehabilitation psychology and explored their application to global health imperatives as outlined in the World Report on Disability (World Health Organization & World Bank, 2011). Historical theories and perspectives are used to assist with conceptual formulation as applied to emerging international rehabilitation psychology topics. According to the World Report on Disability (World Health Organization & World Bank, 2011), there are approximately 1 billion individuals living with some form of disability globally. An estimated 80% of persons with disabilities live in low- to middle-income countries (WHO, 2006). The primary messages and recommendations of the World Report on Disability have been previously summarized as it relates to potential opportunities for contribution within the field of rehabilitation psychology (MacLachlan & Mannan, 2014). Yet, undeniable barriers remain to realizing the full potential for contributions in low- to middle-income country settings. A vision for engaging in international capacity building and public health efforts is needed within the field of rehabilitation psychology. Foundational rehabilitation psychology principles have application to the service of individuals with disabilities in areas of the world facing complex socioeconomic and sociopolitical challenges. Foundational principles of person-environment interaction, importance of social context, and need for involvement of persons with disabilities can provide guidance to the field as it relates to global health and rehabilitation efforts. The authors illustrate the application of rehabilitation psychology foundational principles through case examples and description of ongoing work, and link foundational principles to discreet domains of intervention going forward. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. The uncertainty principle and a semiclassical nonlinear differential equation formulation for bound states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, S.; Bhattacharyya, K.

    2000-10-01

    The kinship of a simple variational scheme involving the uncertainty product with a prevalent semiclassical nonlinear differential equation approach for finding energies of stationary states is established. This leads to a transparent physical interpretation of the embedded parameters in the latter approach, providing additionally a lower bound to the integration constant. The domain of applicability of this strategy is also extended to encompass neighbouring states. Other advantages of the simpler alternative route are stressed. Pilot calculations demonstrate nicely the efficacy of the endeavour.

  5. A survey of parametrized variational principles and applications to computational mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Felippa, Carlos A.

    1993-01-01

    This survey paper describes recent developments in the area of parametrized variational principles (PVP's) and selected applications to finite-element computational mechanics. A PVP is a variational principle containing free parameters that have no effect on the Euler-Lagrange equations. The theory of single-field PVP's based on gauge functions (also known as null Lagrangians) is a subset of the inverse problem of variational calculus that has limited value. On the other hand, multifield PVP's are more interesting from theoretical and practical standpoints. Following a tutorial introduction, the paper describes the recent construction of multifield PVP's in several areas of elasticity and electromagnetics. It then discusses three applications to finite-element computational mechanics: the derivation of high-performance finite elements, the development of element-level error indicators, and the constructions of finite element templates. The paper concludes with an overview of open research areas.

  6. THE ROLE OF METASTABLE STATES IN POLYMER PHASE TRANSITIONS: Concepts, Principles, and Experimental Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Stephen Z. D.; Keller, Andrew

    1998-08-01

    Polymer phases can be described in the same way as phases in other condensed matter using a number density operator and its correlation functions. This description requires the understanding of symmetry operations and order at different atomic and molecular levels. Statistical mechanics provides a link between the microscopic description of the structure and motion and the macroscopic thermodynamic properties. Within the limits of the laws of thermodynamics, polymers exhibit a rich variety of phase transition behaviors. By definition, a first-order phase transition describes a transformation that involves a sudden change of thermodynamic properties at its transition temperature, whereas higher-order phase transitions are classified as critical phenomena. Of special interest is the role of metastability in phase and phase transition behaviors. Although a metastable state possesses a local free energy minimum, it is not at the global equilibrium. Furthermore, metastable states can also be associated with phase sizes. Metastable behavior is also observed in phase transformations that are impeded by kinetic limitations along the pathway to thermodynamic equilibrium. This is illustrated in structural and morphological investigations of crystallization and mesophase transitions, liquid-liquid phase separation, vitrification, and gel formation, as well as combinations of transformation processes. In these cases, the metastable state often becomes the dominant state for the entire system and is observed over a range of time and size scales. This review describes the general principles of metastability in polymer phases and phase transitions and provides illustrations from current experimental works in selected areas.

  7. Quantitative Phase Imaging Techniques for the Study of Cell Pathophysiology: From Principles to Applications

    PubMed Central

    Lee, KyeoReh; Kim, Kyoohyun; Jung, Jaehwang; Heo, JiHan; Cho, Sangyeon; Lee, Sangyun; Chang, Gyuyoung; Jo, YoungJu; Park, Hyunjoo; Park, YongKeun

    2013-01-01

    A cellular-level study of the pathophysiology is crucial for understanding the mechanisms behind human diseases. Recent advances in quantitative phase imaging (QPI) techniques show promises for the cellular-level understanding of the pathophysiology of diseases. To provide important insight on how the QPI techniques potentially improve the study of cell pathophysiology, here we present the principles of QPI and highlight some of the recent applications of QPI ranging from cell homeostasis to infectious diseases and cancer. PMID:23539026

  8. Principles of ESCA and application to metal corrosion, coating and lubrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, D. R.

    1978-01-01

    The principles of ESCA (electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis) were described by comparison with other spectroscopic techniques. The advantages and disadvantages of ESCA as compared to other surface sensitive analytical techniques were evaluated. The use of ESCA was illustrated by actual applications to oxidation of steel and Rene 41, the chemistry of lubricant additives on steel, and the composition of sputter deposited hard coatings. A bibliography of material that was useful for further study of ESCA was presented and commented upon.

  9. Electric tuning of the surface and quantum well states in Bi2Se3 films: a first-principles study

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Hong; Peng, Xiangyang; Liu, Wenliang; Wei, Xiaolin; Hao, Guolin; He, Chaoyu; Li, Jin; Stocks, George Malcolm; Zhong, Jianxin

    2014-01-01

    Based on first-principles calculations in the framework of van der Waals density functional theory, we find that giant, Rashba-like spin splittings can be induced in both the surface states and quantum well states of thin Bi2Se3 films by application of an external electric field. The charge is redistributed so that the Dirac cones of the upper and lower surfaces become nondegenerate and completely gapless. Interestingly, a momentum-dependent spin texture is developed on the two surfaces of the films. Some of the quantum well states, which reside in the middle of the Bi2Se3 film under zero field, are driven to the surface by the electric field. The Rashba splitting energy has a highly non-linear dependence on the momentum and the electric field due to the large contribution of the high-order Rashba terms, which suggests complex spin dynamics in the thin films of Bi2Se3 under an electric field.

  10. 15 CFR Notes Applicable to State... - Notes applicable to State of Understanding related to Medical Equipment:

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the practice of medicine (does not include medical research). (2) Commodities or software are... Understanding related to Medical Equipment: applicable Notes applicable to State of Understanding related to Medical Equipment: Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign...

  11. A Principle of Corresponding States for Two-Component, Self-Gravitating Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caimmi, R.

    2010-06-01

    quadrant of the (O X_{V} X_{p}) plane may be divided into three parts: (i) The G region, where only gas exists; (ii) The S region, where only stars exist; (iii) The GS region, where both gas and stars, exist. With regard to HH and HN/NH macrogases, an application is made to a subsample (N=16) of elliptical galaxies extracted from larger samples N=25, N=48 of early type galaxies investigated within the SAURON project (Cappellari et al. 2006, 2007). Under the simplifying assumption of universal mass ratio of the two subsystems, m, different models characterized by different scaled truncation radii, i.e. concentrations, Ξ_i, Ξ_j, are considered and the related position of sample objects on the (O X_{V} X_{p}) plane is determined. Macrogases fitting to elliptical galaxies are expected to lie within the S region or slightly outside the boundary between the S and the GS region at most. Accordingly, models where sample objects lie outside the S region and far from its boundary, or cannot be positioned on the (O X_{V} X_{p}) plane, are rejected. For each macrogas, twenty models are considered for different values of (Ξ_i, Ξ_j, m), namely Ξ_i, Ξ_j=5, 10, 20, +∞ (Ξ_i, Ξ_j, both either finite or infinite), and m=10, 20}. Acceptable models are (10, 10, 20), (10, 20, 20), (20, 10, 20), (20, 20, 20), for HH macrogases, and (10, 5, 10), (10, 10, 20), (20, 10, 20), for HN/NH macrogases. Tipically, fast rotators are found to lie within the S region, while slow rotators are close (from both sides) to the boundary between the S and the GS region. The net effect of the uncertainty affecting observed quantities, on the position of sample objects on the (O X_{V} X_{p}) plane, is also investigated. Finally, a principle of corresponding states is formulated for macrogases with assigned density profiles and scaled truncation radii.

  12. Electronic properties of corrugated graphene: the Heisenberg principle and wormhole geometry in the solid state.

    PubMed

    Atanasov, Victor; Saxena, Avadh

    2011-05-04

    Adopting a purely two-dimensional relativistic equation for graphene's carriers contradicts the Heisenberg uncertainty principle since it requires setting the off-the-surface coordinate of a three-dimensional wavefunction to zero. Here we present a theoretical framework for describing graphene's massless relativistic carriers in accordance with this most fundamental of all quantum principles. A gradual confining procedure is used to restrict the dynamics onto a surface and normal to the surface parts, and in the process the embedding of this surface into the three-dimensional world is accounted for. As a result an invariant geometric potential arises in the surface part which scales linearly with the mean curvature and shifts the Fermi energy of the material proportional to bending. Strain induced modification of the electronic properties or 'straintronics' is clearly an important field of study in graphene. This opens an avenue to producing electronic devices: micro- and nano-electromechanical systems (MEMS and NEMS), where the electronic properties are controlled by geometric means and no additional alteration of graphene is necessary. The appearance of this geometric potential also provides us with clues as to how quantum dynamics looks in the curved space-time of general relativity. In this context we explore a two-dimensional cross-section of the wormhole geometry, realized with graphene as a solid state thought experiment. © 2011 IOP Publishing Ltd

  13. Application of variational principles and adjoint integrating factors for constructing numerical GFD models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penenko, Vladimir; Tsvetova, Elena; Penenko, Alexey

    2015-04-01

    The proposed method is considered on an example of hydrothermodynamics and atmospheric chemistry models [1,2]. In the development of the existing methods for constructing numerical schemes possessing the properties of total approximation for operators of multiscale process models, we have developed a new variational technique, which uses the concept of adjoint integrating factors. The technique is as follows. First, a basic functional of the variational principle (the integral identity that unites the model equations, initial and boundary conditions) is transformed using Lagrange's identity and the second Green's formula. As a result, the action of the operators of main problem in the space of state functions is transferred to the adjoint operators defined in the space of sufficiently smooth adjoint functions. By the choice of adjoint functions the order of the derivatives becomes lower by one than those in the original equations. We obtain a set of new balance relationships that take into account the sources and boundary conditions. Next, we introduce the decomposition of the model domain into a set of finite volumes. For multi-dimensional non-stationary problems, this technique is applied in the framework of the variational principle and schemes of decomposition and splitting on the set of physical processes for each coordinate directions successively at each time step. For each direction within the finite volume, the analytical solutions of one-dimensional homogeneous adjoint equations are constructed. In this case, the solutions of adjoint equations serve as integrating factors. The results are the hybrid discrete-analytical schemes. They have the properties of stability, approximation and unconditional monotony for convection-diffusion operators. These schemes are discrete in time and analytic in the spatial variables. They are exact in case of piecewise-constant coefficients within the finite volume and along the coordinate lines of the grid area in each

  14. First-principles effective Hamiltonian simulation of ABO3-type perovskite ferroelectrics for energy storage application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Bingcheng; Wang, Xiaohui; Tian, Enke; Wu, Longwen; Li, Longtu

    2016-08-01

    Dielectric materials with high power density and energy density are eagerly desired for the potential application in advanced pulsed capacitors. Here, we present the first-principles effective Hamiltonian simulation of perovskite ferroelectrics BaTiO3, PbTiO3, and KNbO3 in order to better predict and design materials for energy storage application. The lattice constant, dielectric constant and ferroelectric hysteresis, and energy-storage density of BaTiO3, PbTiO3, and KNbO3 were calculated with the consideration of the effects of temperature and external electric field.

  15. High-throughput spectrometer designs in a compact form-factor: principles and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norton, S. M.

    2013-05-01

    Many compact, portable Raman spectrometers have entered the market in the past few years with applications in narcotics and hazardous material identification, as well as verification applications in pharmaceuticals and security screening. Often, the required compact form-factor has forced designers to sacrifice throughput and sensitivity for portability and low-cost. We will show that a volume phase holographic (VPH)-based spectrometer design can achieve superior throughput and thus sensitivity over conventional Czerny-Turner reflective designs. We will look in depth at the factors influencing throughput and sensitivity and illustrate specific VPH-based spectrometer examples that highlight these design principles.

  16. First principles calculations of solid-state thermionic transport in layered van der Waals heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoming; Zebarjadi, Mona; Esfarjani, Keivan

    2016-08-01

    This work aims at understanding solid-state energy conversion and transport in layered (van der Waals) heterostructures in contact with metallic electrodes via a first-principles approach. As an illustration, a graphene/phosphorene/graphene heterostructure in contact with gold electrodes is studied by using density functional theory (DFT)-based first principles calculations combined with real space Green's function (GF) formalism. We show that for a monolayer phosphorene, quantum tunneling dominates the transport. By adding more phosphorene layers, one can switch from tunneling-dominated transport to thermionic-dominated transport, resulting in transporting more heat per charge carrier, thus, enhancing the cooling coefficient of performance. The use of layered van der Waals heterostructures has two advantages: (a) thermionic transport barriers can be tuned by changing the number of layers, and (b) thermal conductance across these non-covalent structures is very weak. The phonon thermal conductance of the present van der Waals heterostructure is found to be 4.1 MW m-2 K-1 which is one order of magnitude lower than the lowest value for that of covalently-bonded interfaces. The thermionic coefficient of performance for the proposed device is 18.5 at 600 K corresponding to an equivalent ZT of 0.13, which is significant for nanoscale devices. This study shows that layered van der Waals structures have great potential to be used as solid-state energy-conversion devices.This work aims at understanding solid-state energy conversion and transport in layered (van der Waals) heterostructures in contact with metallic electrodes via a first-principles approach. As an illustration, a graphene/phosphorene/graphene heterostructure in contact with gold electrodes is studied by using density functional theory (DFT)-based first principles calculations combined with real space Green's function (GF) formalism. We show that for a monolayer phosphorene, quantum tunneling dominates the

  17. Space Charge Layer Effect in Solid State Ion Conductors and Lithium Batteries: Principle and Perspective.

    PubMed

    Chen, Cheng; Guo, Xiangxin

    2016-01-01

    The space charge layer (SCL) effects were initially developed to explain the anomalous conductivity enhancement in composite ionic conductors. They were further extended to qualitatively as well as quantitatively understand the interfacial phenomena in many other ionic-conducting systems. Especially in nanometre-scale systems, the SCL effects could be used to manipulate the conductivity and construct artificial conductors. Recently, existence of such effects either at the electrolyte/cathode interface or at the interfaces inside the composite electrode in all solid state lithium batteries (ASSLB) has attracted attention. Therefore, in this article, the principle of SCL on basis of defect chemistry is first presented. The SCL effects on the carrier transport and storage in typical conducting systems are reviewed. For ASSLB, the relevant effects reported so far are also reviewed. Finally, the perspective of interface engineer related to SCL in ASSLB is addressed.

  18. PRINCIPLE DESIGN OF 300KHZ MECO RF KICKER BIPOLAR SOLID STATE MODULATOR.

    SciTech Connect

    ZHANG,W.; KOTLYAR,Y.

    2004-05-23

    A high speed, high repetition rate, bipolar solid-state high voltage modulator is under development at Brookhaven National Laboratory for Muon Electron Conversion (MECO) Experiment. The modulator will be used to drive a RF kicker consisting a pair of parallel deflecting plates. The principle design is based on the inductive-adder topology. This system requires a fast pulse rise and fall time about 20ns, a pulse width of 100ns, a pulse repetition rate of 300 kHz, and a 60 kHz sine-wave amplitude modulation. The fast high voltage MOSFETs are used as main switching devices.Different magnetic materials are being investigated for adder core magnets. The main circuit design, critical subsystems, and major technical issues will be discussed. The circuit simulation, components selection and evaluation, and preliminary test results will be presented.

  19. Challenging the bioethical application of the autonomy principle within multicultural societies.

    PubMed

    Fagan, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    This article critically re-examines the application of the principle of patient autonomy within bioethics. In complex societies such as those found in North America and Europe health care professionals are increasingly confronted by patients from diverse ethnic, cultural, and religious backgrounds. This affects the relationship between clinicians and patients to the extent that patients' deliberations upon the proposed courses of treatment can, in various ways and to varying extents, be influenced by their ethnic, cultural, and religious commitments. The principle of patient autonomy is the main normative constraint imposed upon medical treatment. Bioethicists typically appeal to the principle of patient autonomy as a means for generally attempting to resolve conflict between patients and clinicians. In recent years a number of bioethicists have responded to the condition of multiculturalism by arguing that the autonomy principle provides the basis for a common moral discourse capable of regulating the relationship between clinicians and patients in those situations where patients' beliefs and commitments do or may contradict the ethos of biomedicine. This article challenges that claim. I argue that the precise manner in which the autonomy principle is philosophically formulated within such accounts prohibits bioethicists' deployment of autonomy as a core ideal for a common moral discourse within multicultural societies. The formulation of autonomy underlying such accounts cannot be extended to simply assimilate individuals' most fundamental religious and cultural commitments and affiliations per se. I challenge the assumption that respecting prospective patients' fundamental religious and cultural commitments is necessarily always compatible with respecting their autonomy. I argue that the character of some peoples' relationship with their cultural or religious community acts to significantly constrain the possibilities for acting autonomously. The implication is

  20. First-principles Equations of State and Shock Hugoniots of First- and Second-Row Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driver, Kevin; Soubiran, Francois; Zhang, Shuai; Militzer, Burkhard

    A first-principles methodology for studying high energy density physics and warm dense matter is important for the stewardship of plasma science and guiding inertial confinement fusion experiments. In order to address this challenge, we have been developing the capability of path integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) for studying dense plasmas comprised of increasingly heavy elements, including nitrogen, oxygen, and neon. In recent work, we have extended PIMC methodology beyond the free-particle node approximation by implementing localized nodal surfaces capable of describing bound plasma states in second-row elements, such as silicon. We combine results from PIMC with results from density functional theory molecular dynamics (DFT-MD) calculations to produce a coherent equation of state that bridges the entire WDM regime. Analysis of pair-correlation functions and the electronic density of states reveals an evolving plasma structure and ionization process that is driven by temperature and pressure. We also compute shock Hugoniot curves for a wide range of initial densities, which generally reveal an increase in compression as the second and first shells are ionized. This work is funded by the NSF/DOE Partnership in Basic Plasma Science and Engineering (DE-SC0010517).

  1. Thermodynamic ground state of MgB{sub 6} predicted from first principles structure search methods

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hui; LeBlanc, K. A.; Gao, Bo; Yao, Yansun

    2014-01-28

    Crystalline structures of magnesium hexaboride, MgB{sub 6}, were investigated using unbiased structure searching methods combined with first principles density functional calculations. An orthorhombic Cmcm structure was predicted as the thermodynamic ground state of MgB{sub 6}. The energy of the Cmcm structure is significantly lower than the theoretical MgB{sub 6} models previously considered based on a primitive cubic arrangement of boron octahedra. The Cmcm structure is stable against the decomposition to elemental magnesium and boron solids at atmospheric pressure and high pressures up to 18.3 GPa. A unique feature of the predicted Cmcm structure is that the boron atoms are clustered into two forms: localized B{sub 6} octahedra and extended B{sub ∞} ribbons. Within the boron ribbons, the electrons are delocalized and this leads to a metallic ground state with vanished electric dipoles. The present prediction is in contrast to the previous proposal that the crystalline MgB{sub 6} maintains a semiconducting state with permanent dipole moments. MgB{sub 6} is estimated to have much weaker electron-phonon coupling compared with that of MgB{sub 2}, and therefore it is not expected to be able to sustain superconductivity at high temperatures.

  2. Electronic Excited States in Amorphous MEH-PPV Polymers from Large-Scale First Principles Calculations.

    PubMed

    Ma, Haibo; Qin, Ting; Troisi, Alessandro

    2014-03-11

    The electronic excited states of amorphous polymeric semiconductor MEH-PPV are investigated by first principles quantum chemical calculations based on trajectories from classical molecular dynamics simulations. We inferred an average conjugation length of ∼5-7 monomers for lowest vertical excitations of amorphous MEH-PPV at room temperature and verified that the normal definition of a chromophore in a polymer based on purely geometric "conjugation breaks" is not always valid in amorphous polymers and a rigorous definition can be only on the basis of the evaluation of the polymer excited state wave function. The charge transfer character is observed to be nearly invariant for all excited states in low energy window while the exciton delocalization extent is found to increase with energy. The interchain excitonic couplings for amorphous MEH-PPV are shown to be usually smaller than 10 meV suggesting that the transport mechanism across chain can be described by incoherent hopping. All these observations about the energetic and spatial distribution of the excitons in polymer as well as their couplings provide important qualitative insights and useful quantitative information for constructing a realistic model for exciton migration dynamics in amorphous polymer materials.

  3. Excited-state PAW Potentials: Modelling Hot-Dense Plasmas From First Principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollebon, Patrick; Vinko, Sam; Ciricosta, Orlando; Wark, Justin

    2015-11-01

    Finite temperature density functional theory has proven to be a successful means of modelling warm and hot dense plasma systems, including the calculation of transport properties, equation of state and ionization potential depression. Such methods take into account the non-negligible influence of quantum mechanics on the electronic structure of these strongly coupled systems. We apply excited state frozen core potentials to model general core-hole states in high density plasma, allowing for the calculation of the electronic structure of a range of ionic configurations. The advantages of using excited-state potentials are explored and we investigate their application towards various response function calculations, with the results shown to be in good agreement with all-electron calculations at finite-temperatures.

  4. 10 CFR 455.130 - State evaluation of grant applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...(b), any additional requirements of the approved State Plan, State environmental laws, and other applicable laws and regulations, then such application will be eligible for financial assistance....

  5. 10 CFR 455.130 - State evaluation of grant applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...(b), any additional requirements of the approved State Plan, State environmental laws, and other applicable laws and regulations, then such application will be eligible for financial assistance....

  6. 10 CFR 455.130 - State evaluation of grant applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...(b), any additional requirements of the approved State Plan, State environmental laws, and other applicable laws and regulations, then such application will be eligible for financial assistance....

  7. 10 CFR 455.130 - State evaluation of grant applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...(b), any additional requirements of the approved State Plan, State environmental laws, and other applicable laws and regulations, then such application will be eligible for financial assistance....

  8. The Principle of Energetic Consistency: Application to the Shallow-Water Equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohn, Stephen E.

    2009-01-01

    If the complete state of the earth's atmosphere (e.g., pressure, temperature, winds and humidity, everywhere throughout the atmosphere) were known at any particular initial time, then solving the equations that govern the dynamical behavior of the atmosphere would give the complete state at all subsequent times. Part of the difficulty of weather prediction is that the governing equations can only be solved approximately, which is what weather prediction models do. But weather forecasts would still be far from perfect even if the equations could be solved exactly, because the atmospheric state is not and cannot be known completely at any initial forecast time. Rather, the initial state for a weather forecast can only be estimated from incomplete observations taken near the initial time, through a process known as data assimilation. Weather prediction models carry out their computations on a grid of points covering the earth's atmosphere. The formulation of these models is guided by a mathematical convergence theory which guarantees that, given the exact initial state, the model solution approaches the exact solution of the governing equations as the computational grid is made more fine. For the data assimilation process, however, there does not yet exist a convergence theory. This book chapter represents an effort to begin establishing a convergence theory for data assimilation methods. The main result, which is called the principle of energetic consistency, provides a necessary condition that a convergent method must satisfy. Current methods violate this principle, as shown in earlier work of the author, and therefore are not convergent. The principle is illustrated by showing how to apply it as a simple test of convergence for proposed methods.

  9. First-principles modeling of localized d states with the GW@LDA+U approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Hong; Gomez-Abal, Ricardo I.; Rinke, Patrick; Scheffler, Matthias

    2010-07-01

    First-principles modeling of systems with localized d states is currently a great challenge in condensed-matter physics. Density-functional theory in the standard local-density approximation (LDA) proves to be problematic. This can be partly overcome by including local Hubbard U corrections (LDA+U) but itinerant states are still treated on the LDA level. Many-body perturbation theory in the GW approach offers both a quasiparticle perspective (appropriate for itinerant states) and an exact treatment of exchange (appropriate for localized states), and is therefore promising for these systems. LDA+U has previously been viewed as an approximate GW scheme. We present here a derivation that is simpler and more general, starting from the static Coulomb-hole and screened exchange approximation to the GW self-energy. Following our previous work for f -electron systems [H. Jiang, R. I. Gomez-Abal, P. Rinke, and M. Scheffler, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 126403 (2009)10.1103/PhysRevLett.102.126403] we conduct a systematic investigation of the GW method based on LDA+U(GW@LDA+U) , as implemented in our recently developed all-electron GW code FHI-gap (Green’s function with augmented plane waves) for a series of prototypical d -electron systems: (1) ScN with empty d states, (2) ZnS with semicore d states, and (3) late transition-metal oxides (MnO, FeO, CoO, and NiO) with partially occupied d states. We show that for ZnS and ScN, the GW band gaps only weakly depend on U but for the other transition-metal oxides the dependence on U is as strong as in LDA+U . These different trends can be understood in terms of changes in the hybridization and screening. Our work demonstrates that GW@LDA+U with “physical” values of U provides a balanced and accurate description of both localized and itinerant states.

  10. The multilingual matrix test: Principles, applications, and comparison across languages: A review.

    PubMed

    Kollmeier, Birger; Warzybok, Anna; Hochmuth, Sabine; Zokoll, Melanie A; Uslar, Verena; Brand, Thomas; Wagener, Kirsten C

    2015-01-01

    A review of the development, evaluation, and application of the so-called 'matrix sentence test' for speech intelligibility testing in a multilingual society is provided. The format allows for repeated use with the same patient in her or his native language even if the experimenter does not understand the language. Using a closed-set format, the syntactically fixed, semantically unpredictable sentences (e.g. 'Peter bought eight white ships') provide a vocabulary of 50 words (10 alternatives for each position in the sentence). The principles (i.e. construction, optimization, evaluation, and validation) for 14 different languages are reviewed. Studies of the influence of talker, language, noise, the training effect, open vs. closed conduct of the test, and the subjects' language proficiency are reported and application examples are discussed. The optimization principles result in a steep intelligibility function and a high homogeneity of the speech materials presented and test lists employed, yielding a high efficiency and excellent comparability across languages. The characteristics of speakers generally dominate the differences across languages. The matrix test format with the principles outlined here is recommended for producing efficient, reliable, and comparable speech reception thresholds across different languages.

  11. Clinical applications of resting state functional connectivity.

    PubMed

    Fox, Michael D; Greicius, Michael

    2010-01-01

    During resting conditions the brain remains functionally and metabolically active. One manifestation of this activity that has become an important research tool is spontaneous fluctuations in the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The identification of correlation patterns in these spontaneous fluctuations has been termed resting state functional connectivity (fcMRI) and has the potential to greatly increase the translation of fMRI into clinical care. In this article we review the advantages of the resting state signal for clinical applications including detailed discussion of signal to noise considerations. We include guidelines for performing resting state research on clinical populations, outline the different areas for clinical application, and identify important barriers to be addressed to facilitate the translation of resting state fcMRI into the clinical realm.

  12. Clinical Applications of Resting State Functional Connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Michael D.; Greicius, Michael

    2010-01-01

    During resting conditions the brain remains functionally and metabolically active. One manifestation of this activity that has become an important research tool is spontaneous fluctuations in the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The identification of correlation patterns in these spontaneous fluctuations has been termed resting state functional connectivity (fcMRI) and has the potential to greatly increase the translation of fMRI into clinical care. In this article we review the advantages of the resting state signal for clinical applications including detailed discussion of signal to noise considerations. We include guidelines for performing resting state research on clinical populations, outline the different areas for clinical application, and identify important barriers to be addressed to facilitate the translation of resting state fcMRI into the clinical realm. PMID:20592951

  13. State of North Carolina State Board of Education Consolidated State Application Accountability Workbook. [Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This workbook, submitted by the State of North Carolina to the U.S. Department of Education, is for State Grants under Title IX, Part C, Section 9302 of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (Public Law 107-110). By January 31, 2003, States must complete and submit to the Department this Consolidated State Application Accountability Workbook.…

  14. Variational principle for steady states of dissipative quantum many-body systems.

    PubMed

    Weimer, Hendrik

    2015-01-30

    We present a novel generic framework to approximate the nonequilibrium steady states of dissipative quantum many-body systems. It is based on the variational minimization of a suitable norm of the quantum master equation describing the dynamics. We show how to apply this approach to different classes of variational quantum states and demonstrate its successful application to a dissipative extension of the Ising model, which is of importance to ongoing experiments on ultracold Rydberg atoms, as well as to a driven-dissipative variant of the Bose-Hubbard model. Finally, we identify several advantages of the variational approach over previously employed mean-field-like methods.

  15. A game plan: Gamification design principles in mHealth applications for chronic disease management.

    PubMed

    Miller, Aaron S; Cafazzo, Joseph A; Seto, Emily

    2016-06-01

    Effective chronic disease management is essential to improve positive health outcomes, and incentive strategies are useful in promoting self-care with longevity. Gamification, applied with mHealth (mobile health) applications, has the potential to better facilitate patient self-management. This review article addresses a knowledge gap around the effective use of gamification design principles, or mechanics, in developing mHealth applications. Badges, leaderboards, points and levels, challenges and quests, social engagement loops, and onboarding are mechanics that comprise gamification. These mechanics are defined and explained from a design and development perspective. Health and fitness applications with gamification mechanics include: bant which uses points, levels, and social engagement, mySugr which uses challenges and quests, RunKeeper which uses leaderboards as well as social engagement loops and onboarding, Fitocracy which uses badges, and Mango Health, which uses points and levels. Specific design considerations are explored, an example of the efficacy of a gamified mHealth implementation in facilitating improved self-management is provided, limitations to this work are discussed, a link between the principles of gaming and gamification in health and wellness technologies is provided, and suggestions for future work are made. We conclude that gamification could be leveraged in developing applications with the potential to better facilitate self-management in persons with chronic conditions. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. First-principles materials applications and design of nonlinear optical crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Zheshuai; Jiang, Xingxing; Kang, Lei; Gong, Pifu; Luo, Siyang; Lee, Ming-Hsien

    2014-06-01

    With the development of laser technology and related scientific fields, understanding of the structure-property relationships in nonlinear optical (NLO) crystals is becoming more and more important. In this article, first-principles studies based on density functional theory, and their applications to elucidate the microscopic origins of the linear and NLO properties in NLO crystals, are reviewed. The ab initio approaches have the ability to accurately predict the optical properties in NLO crystals, and the developed analysis tools are vital to investigating their intrinsic mechanism. This microscopic understanding has further guided molecular engineering design for NLO crystals with novel structures and properties. It is anticipated that first-principle material approaches will greatly improve the search efficiency and greatly help experiments to save resources in the exploration of new NLO crystals with good performance.

  17. Improving animal research facility operations through the application of lean principles.

    PubMed

    Khan, Nabeel; Umrysh, Brian M

    2008-06-01

    Animal research is a vital component of US research and well-functioning animal research facilities are critical both to the research itself and to the housing and feeding of the animals. The Office of Animal Care (OAC) at Seattle Children's Hospital Research Institute realized it had to improve the efficiency and safety of its animal research facility (ARF) to prepare for expansion and to advance the Institute's mission. The main areas for improvement concerned excessive turnaround time to process animal housing and feeding equipment; the movement and flow of equipment and inventory; and personnel safety. To address these problems, management held two process improvement workshops to educate employees about lean principles. In this article we discuss the application of these principles and corresponding methods to advance Children's Research Institute's mission of preventing, treating, and eliminating childhood diseases.

  18. Temperature effects in first-principles solid state calculations of the chemical shielding tensor made simple

    SciTech Connect

    Monserrat, Bartomeu Needs, Richard J.; Pickard, Chris J.

    2014-10-07

    We study the effects of atomic vibrations on the solid-state chemical shielding tensor using first principles density functional theory calculations. At the harmonic level, we use a Monte Carlo method and a perturbative expansion. The Monte Carlo method is accurate but computationally expensive, while the perturbative method is computationally more efficient, but approximate. We find excellent agreement between the two methods for both the isotropic shift and the shielding anisotropy. The effects of zero-point quantum mechanical nuclear motion are important up to relatively high temperatures: at 500 K they still represent about half of the overall vibrational contribution. We also investigate the effects of anharmonic vibrations, finding that their contribution to the zero-point correction to the chemical shielding tensor is small. We exemplify these ideas using magnesium oxide and the molecular crystals L-alanine and β-aspartyl-L-alanine. We therefore propose as the method of choice to incorporate the effects of temperature in solid state chemical shielding tensor calculations using the perturbative expansion within the harmonic approximation. This approach is accurate and requires a computational effort that is about an order of magnitude smaller than that of dynamical or Monte Carlo approaches, so these effects might be routinely accounted for.

  19. State Water Resources Control Board, California Agreement in Principle 1995 summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Laudon, L.

    1996-03-01

    The Agreement in Principle (AIP) was established as part of the Secretary of Energy`s Ten-Point Initiative which was announced in 1989. One of the Secretary`s goals was to integrate the Department of Energy`s (DOE) national security mission with their environmental restoration and compliance responsibilities. In an effort to accomplish this goal, DOE increased the role of the states in the oversight of DOE`s monitoring programs through AIPs. The State of California and DOE negotiated the California AIP beginning in 1989 and signed the Agreement in September 1990. The AIP identified six DOE facilities to be evaluated under the program. The six facilities evaluated by the AIP program were: (1) Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) including LLNL`s Site 300; (2) Sandia National Laboratories, California (SNL/CA); (3) Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL); (4) Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC); (5) Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC); and (6) Laboratory for Energy-Related Health Research (LEHR).

  20. Temperature effects in first-principles solid state calculations of the chemical shielding tensor made simple

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monserrat, Bartomeu; Needs, Richard J.; Pickard, Chris J.

    2014-10-01

    We study the effects of atomic vibrations on the solid-state chemical shielding tensor using first principles density functional theory calculations. At the harmonic level, we use a Monte Carlo method and a perturbative expansion. The Monte Carlo method is accurate but computationally expensive, while the perturbative method is computationally more efficient, but approximate. We find excellent agreement between the two methods for both the isotropic shift and the shielding anisotropy. The effects of zero-point quantum mechanical nuclear motion are important up to relatively high temperatures: at 500 K they still represent about half of the overall vibrational contribution. We also investigate the effects of anharmonic vibrations, finding that their contribution to the zero-point correction to the chemical shielding tensor is small. We exemplify these ideas using magnesium oxide and the molecular crystals L-alanine and β-aspartyl-L-alanine. We therefore propose as the method of choice to incorporate the effects of temperature in solid state chemical shielding tensor calculations using the perturbative expansion within the harmonic approximation. This approach is accurate and requires a computational effort that is about an order of magnitude smaller than that of dynamical or Monte Carlo approaches, so these effects might be routinely accounted for.

  1. Nanomechanical resonators and their applications in biological/chemical detection: Nanomechanics principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eom, Kilho; Park, Harold S.; Yoon, Dae Sung; Kwon, Taeyun

    2011-06-01

    Recent advances in nanotechnology have led to the development of nano-electro-mechanical systems (NEMS) such as nanomechanical resonators, which have recently received significant attention from the scientific community. This is not only due to their capability of label-free detection of bio/chemical molecules at single-molecule (or atomic) resolution for future applications such as the early diagnosis of diseases like cancer, but also due to their unprecedented ability to detect physical quantities such as molecular weight, elastic stiffness, surface stress, and surface elastic stiffness for adsorbed molecules on the surface. Most experimental works on resonator-based molecular detection have been based on the principle that molecular adsorption onto a resonator surface increases the effective mass, and consequently decreases the resonant frequencies of the nanomechanical resonator. However, this principle is insufficient to provide fundamental insights into resonator-based molecular detection at the nanoscale; this is due to recently proposed novel nanoscale detection principles including various effects such as surface effects, nonlinear oscillations, coupled resonance, and stiffness effects. Furthermore, these effects have only recently been incorporated into existing physical models for resonators, and therefore the universal physical principles governing nanoresonator-based detection have not been completely described. Therefore, our objective in this review is to overview the current attempts to understand the underlying mechanisms in nanoresonator-based detection using physical models coupled to computational simulations and/or experiments. Specifically, we will focus on issues of special relevance to the dynamic behavior of nanoresonators and their applications in biological/chemical detection: the resonance behavior of micro/nanoresonators; resonator-based chemical/biological detection; physical models of various nanoresonators such as nanowires, carbon

  2. Principles and applications of imaging radar. Manual of remote sensing: Third edition, Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, F.M.; Lewis, A.J.

    1998-12-31

    This second volume in the Third Edition of the Manual of Remote Sensing offers a current and comprehensive survey of the theory, methods, and applications of imaging radar for geoscientists, engineers and application scientists interested in the advantages of radar remote sensing. Produced under the auspices of the American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, it brings together contributions from experts around the world to discuss the basic principles of imaging radars and trace the research activity--past, present, and future--across the many sciences where radar remote sensing may be applied. This book offers an invaluable snapshot of radar remote sensing technology, including radargrammetry, radar polarimetry and interferometry and its uses. It combines technical and procedural coverage of systems, data interpretation, and other fundamentals with generous coverage of practical applications in agriculture; forestry; soil moisture monitoring; geology; geomorphology and hydrology; oceanography; land use, land cover mapping and archeology.

  3. Fourier-bessel series modeling of dielectrophoretic bionanoparticle transport: principles and applications.

    PubMed

    Bakewell, David J; Chichenkov, Aleksandr

    2012-03-01

    Principles and applications are described for a Fourier-Bessel series model that predicts the transport of bionanoparticles driven by a dielectrophoretic (DEP) force and randomized by Brownian motion. The model is applicable for a dielectrophoretic force that spatially decays from the electrode array according to a reciprocal-law; that is, in the near field of a planar interdigitated array or in the far field where other long range forces assist DEP transport, e.g., ac electro-osmosis. Capabilities of the model are demonstrated for estimating and decomposing data typical of dielectrophoretic bionanoparticle collection experiments. An important approximation, for moderately strong DEP forces, is that a collection can largely be described by a single exponential profile with a square-law dependence on microdevice chamber height. Applications of the model demonstrate transformation and representation of time-dependent bionanoparticle transport in the frequency domain and prediction of a modulation bandwidth that concurs with experimental observations.

  4. Principles, Practices, and Alternatives in State Methods of Financing Community Colleges and an Approach to their Evaluation, with Pennsylvania a Case State. Report No. 32.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martorana, S. V.; Wattenbarger, James L.

    After introducing the financial dilemmas which community colleges face, this paper states the approaches generally advocated for sound community college financing: negotiated budget under full state support, unit rate formulas, minimum foundation funding, and cost-based funding. Criteria related to those principles include: (1) consistency with…

  5. Ab initio optimization principle for the ground states of translationally invariant strongly correlated quantum lattice models.

    PubMed

    Ran, Shi-Ju

    2016-05-01

    In this work, a simple and fundamental numeric scheme dubbed as ab initio optimization principle (AOP) is proposed for the ground states of translational invariant strongly correlated quantum lattice models. The idea is to transform a nondeterministic-polynomial-hard ground-state simulation with infinite degrees of freedom into a single optimization problem of a local function with finite number of physical and ancillary degrees of freedom. This work contributes mainly in the following aspects: (1) AOP provides a simple and efficient scheme to simulate the ground state by solving a local optimization problem. Its solution contains two kinds of boundary states, one of which play the role of the entanglement bath that mimics the interactions between a supercell and the infinite environment, and the other gives the ground state in a tensor network (TN) form. (2) In the sense of TN, a novel decomposition named as tensor ring decomposition (TRD) is proposed to implement AOP. Instead of following the contraction-truncation scheme used by many existing TN-based algorithms, TRD solves the contraction of a uniform TN in an opposite way by encoding the contraction in a set of self-consistent equations that automatically reconstruct the whole TN, making the simulation simple and unified; (3) AOP inherits and develops the ideas of different well-established methods, including the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG), infinite time-evolving block decimation (iTEBD), network contractor dynamics, density matrix embedding theory, etc., providing a unified perspective that is previously missing in this fields. (4) AOP as well as TRD give novel implications to existing TN-based algorithms: A modified iTEBD is suggested and the two-dimensional (2D) AOP is argued to be an intrinsic 2D extension of DMRG that is based on infinite projected entangled pair state. This paper is focused on one-dimensional quantum models to present AOP. The benchmark is given on a transverse Ising

  6. Ab initio optimization principle for the ground states of translationally invariant strongly correlated quantum lattice models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ran, Shi-Ju

    2016-05-01

    In this work, a simple and fundamental numeric scheme dubbed as ab initio optimization principle (AOP) is proposed for the ground states of translational invariant strongly correlated quantum lattice models. The idea is to transform a nondeterministic-polynomial-hard ground-state simulation with infinite degrees of freedom into a single optimization problem of a local function with finite number of physical and ancillary degrees of freedom. This work contributes mainly in the following aspects: (1) AOP provides a simple and efficient scheme to simulate the ground state by solving a local optimization problem. Its solution contains two kinds of boundary states, one of which play the role of the entanglement bath that mimics the interactions between a supercell and the infinite environment, and the other gives the ground state in a tensor network (TN) form. (2) In the sense of TN, a novel decomposition named as tensor ring decomposition (TRD) is proposed to implement AOP. Instead of following the contraction-truncation scheme used by many existing TN-based algorithms, TRD solves the contraction of a uniform TN in an opposite way by encoding the contraction in a set of self-consistent equations that automatically reconstruct the whole TN, making the simulation simple and unified; (3) AOP inherits and develops the ideas of different well-established methods, including the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG), infinite time-evolving block decimation (iTEBD), network contractor dynamics, density matrix embedding theory, etc., providing a unified perspective that is previously missing in this fields. (4) AOP as well as TRD give novel implications to existing TN-based algorithms: A modified iTEBD is suggested and the two-dimensional (2D) AOP is argued to be an intrinsic 2D extension of DMRG that is based on infinite projected entangled pair state. This paper is focused on one-dimensional quantum models to present AOP. The benchmark is given on a transverse Ising

  7. Equation of state and shock compression of warm dense sodium-A first-principles study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuai; Driver, Kevin P; Soubiran, François; Militzer, Burkhard

    2017-02-21

    As one of the simple alkali metals, sodium has been of fundamental interest for shock physics experiments, but knowledge of its equation of state (EOS) in hot, dense regimes is not well known. By combining path integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) results for partially ionized states [B. Militzer and K. P. Driver, Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 176403 (2015)] at high temperatures and density functional theory molecular dynamics (DFT-MD) results at lower temperatures, we have constructed a coherent equation of state for sodium over a wide density-temperature range of 1.93-11.60 g/cm(3) and 10(3)-1.29×10(8) K. We find that a localized, Hartree-Fock nodal structure in PIMC yields pressures and internal energies that are consistent with DFT-MD at intermediate temperatures of 2×10(6) K. Since PIMC and DFT-MD provide a first-principles treatment of electron shell and excitation effects, we are able to identify two compression maxima in the shock Hugoniot curve corresponding to K-shell and L-shell ionization. Our Hugoniot curves provide a benchmark for widely used EOS models: SESAME, LEOS, and Purgatorio. Due to the low ambient density, sodium has an unusually high first compression maximum along the shock Hugoniot curve. At beyond 10(7) K, we show that the radiation effect leads to very high compression along the Hugoniot curve, surpassing relativistic corrections, and observe an increasing deviation of the shock and particle velocities from a linear relation. We also compute the temperature-density dependence of thermal and pressure ionization processes.

  8. Equation of state and shock compression of warm dense sodium—A first-principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shuai; Driver, Kevin P.; Soubiran, François; Militzer, Burkhard

    2017-02-01

    As one of the simple alkali metals, sodium has been of fundamental interest for shock physics experiments, but knowledge of its equation of state (EOS) in hot, dense regimes is not well known. By combining path integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) results for partially ionized states [B. Militzer and K. P. Driver, Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 176403 (2015)] at high temperatures and density functional theory molecular dynamics (DFT-MD) results at lower temperatures, we have constructed a coherent equation of state for sodium over a wide density-temperature range of 1.93-11.60 g/cm3 and 103-1.29 ×108 K. We find that a localized, Hartree-Fock nodal structure in PIMC yields pressures and internal energies that are consistent with DFT-MD at intermediate temperatures of 2 ×106 K. Since PIMC and DFT-MD provide a first-principles treatment of electron shell and excitation effects, we are able to identify two compression maxima in the shock Hugoniot curve corresponding to K-shell and L-shell ionization. Our Hugoniot curves provide a benchmark for widely used EOS models: SESAME, LEOS, and Purgatorio. Due to the low ambient density, sodium has an unusually high first compression maximum along the shock Hugoniot curve. At beyond 107 K, we show that the radiation effect leads to very high compression along the Hugoniot curve, surpassing relativistic corrections, and observe an increasing deviation of the shock and particle velocities from a linear relation. We also compute the temperature-density dependence of thermal and pressure ionization processes.

  9. Tissue engineering and stem cells: basic principles and applications in urology.

    PubMed

    Shokeir, Ahmed A; Harraz, Ahmed M; El-Din, Ahmed B Shehab

    2010-12-01

    To overcome problems of damaged urinary tract tissues and complications of current procedures, tissue engineering (TE) techniques and stem cell (SC) research have achieved great progress. Although diversity of techniques is used, urologists should know the basics. We carried out a literature review regarding the basic principles and applications of TE and SC technologies in the genitourinary tract. We carried out MEDLINE/PubMed searches for English articles until March 2010 using a combination of the following keywords: bladder, erectile dysfunction, kidney, prostate, Peyronie's disease, stem cells, stress urinary incontinence, testis, tissue engineering, ureter, urethra and urinary tract. Retrieved abstracts were checked, and full versions of relevant articles were obtained. Scientists have achieved great advances in basic science research. This is obvious by the tremendous increase in the number of publications. We divided this review in two topics; the first discusses basic science principles of TE and SC, whereas the second part delineates current clinical applications and advances in urological literature. TE and SC applications represent an alternative resource for treating complicated urological diseases. Despite the paucity of clinical trials, the promising results of animal models and continuous work represents the hope of treating various urological disorders with this technology.

  10. Genetics and psychiatry: a proposal for the application of the precautionary principle.

    PubMed

    Porteri, Corinna

    2013-08-01

    The paper suggests an application of the precautionary principle to the use of genetics in psychiatry focusing on scientific uncertainty. Different levels of uncertainty are taken into consideration--from the acknowledgement that the genetic paradigm is only one of the possible ways to explain psychiatric disorders, via the difficulties related to the diagnostic path and genetic methods, to the value of the results of studies carried out in this field. Considering those uncertainties, some measures for the use of genetics in psychiatry are suggested. Some of those measures are related to the conceptual limits of the genetic paradigm; others are related to present knowledge and should be re-evaluated.

  11. Practical Application of Principle-Agent and Auction Theory: A Contracting Guide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    Capt Will Griffin C1C Ryan Holler C1C Jimmy Manuel C1C Ryan McVay Practical Application of Principle-Agent and Auction Theory: A Contracting... Auction Theory: A Contracting Guide 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER...Statement of the Problem  The DOD holds an inferior position when bargaining with the private sector (known budget). This creates inefficiencies in

  12. Molecular diagnosis of B- and T-cell lymphomas: fundamental principles and clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Rezuke, W N; Abernathy, E C; Tsongalis, G J

    1997-10-01

    Molecular diagnostic assays have become routine in the evaluation of lymphoid malignancies. Both Southern transfer and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technologies are used to assess for B- and T-cell clonality, the presence of rearrangements involving protooncogenes such as bcl-1 and bcl-2, and the monitoring of minimal residual disease. We review the fundamentals of B- and T-cell ontogeny as well as the basic principles of the Southern transfer and PCR assays and their applications to the diagnosis of lymphoid malignancies.

  13. Application of marketing principles to improve participation in public health program.

    PubMed

    Alexander, K; McCullough, J

    1981-01-01

    The application of marketing principles to develop a program aimed at increasing participation in a cervical screening program appears to be more effective than the use of sales techniques. Standard methods of promotion such as posters, direct mail, and flyers were generally ineffective. Direct personal contact produced the majority of program participants, and mass media approaches also resulted in significant participant response. A consumer orientation led to development of effective program features designed to satisfy specific consumer needs. Use of female health practitioners, for example, reduced cultural barriers to participation and insured adequate screening in Mexican-American populations.

  14. Optical trapping and Raman spectroscopy of single living cells: principle and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Jianliao; Wei, Qing; Wang, Yuzhu; Li, Yong Qing

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports the principle and applications of the combination technique of optical trapping and Raman spectroscopy for real-time analysis of single living cells. We demonstrate that the information of each substance inside a captured cell can be retrieved by the Raman spectrum of the cell. The effect of alcohol solution on single human Red Blood Cell (RBC) is investigated using near-infrared laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy (LTRS). The significant difference between the spectrum of fresh RBC and the spectrum of RBC exposed to alcohol is observed due to the degradation of RBC. We also present the preliminary study result on the diagnosis of colorectal cancer using LTRS system.

  15. Principles and applications of a dynamically focused phased array real time ultrasound system.

    PubMed

    Morgan, C L; Trought, W S; Clark, W M; Von Ramm, O T; Thurstone, F L

    1978-12-01

    The physical principles and clinical applications of a high-resolution, dynamically focused phased-array real time ultrasound are described. Advantages of the real time technique include rapid survey capability, efficient selection of an appropriate tomographic plane, identification of pulsating structures, and dynamic studies. The capabilities of a high resolution phased array with extended dynamic focusing to a range of 15-20 cm are demonstrated in vascular, abdominal, and obstetric imaging. Appropriate clinical examples showing normal and pathological anatomy are presented. Comparisons with conventional B scans are illustrated.

  16. Al embedded MgO barrier MTJ: A first principle study for application in fast and compact STT-MRAMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Manoj Kumar; Gupta, Santosh Kumar; Rai, Sanjeev; Pandey, Avinash C.

    2017-03-01

    The first principle comparative study of a novel single Al sheet embedded MgO and pure MgO barrier having Fe electrodes magnetic tunnel junction has been presented. Al embedded MgO is reported to provide enhanced spin polarised tunnelling current due to increase of spin-polarized density of states at Fermi energy in the barrier region. This novel MTJ provides a current density and resistance area (RA) product of 94.497 ×107 A / cm2 and 0.105  Ω - μm2 respectively. With such a low RA product; it allows higher deriving current due to which switching time of magnetization reversal reduces without inducing barrier related breakdowns in non-volatile magnetic random access memories. The low RA product and high current density of the proposed MTJ may have possible applications in integration with existing MOS circuits.

  17. The APA Ethical Principles as a foundational competency: application to rehabilitation psychology.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Stephanie L; Kerkhoff, Thomas R

    2011-08-01

    Competence is a core component of ethical conduct as reflected in its addition as an ethical standard in the 2002 APA Ethics Code. Successfully operationalizing and assessing competence provides psychologists a means to improve education and training, advance the field of practice, and create a framework for accountability to the public. Much of the recent competency discussion has been in response to a proposed Cube Model, with its three axes being foundational competencies (practice building blocks, such as scientific knowledge, ethical standards), functional competencies (attributes of providing services, such as assessment, intervention), and developmental progression (acquiring increasing competence over the course of one's education and career). Ethics is included on the foundational competency axis and has been operationalized to the extent that subcomponents and benchmarks have been promulgated. The competency model as proposed faces multiple challenges, including gaining consensus regarding its components, addressing reliable and valid assessment over time, and creating a culture of acceptance. We propose the Ethical Principles as an alternative framework for conceptualizing ethics as a foundational competency given the Ethics Code is already time tested and includes a serial review process for broad discipline input and adaptability. We apply the Ethical Principles as foundational components to rehabilitation psychology training at internship, postdoctoral, and specialty levels to illustrate the model. Rehabilitation psychology should engage in the competency movement at the predoctoral and postdoctoral level. The application of the Ethical Principles as a foundational competency to rehabilitation psychology represents a first step in this dialog.

  18. Application of the principle of breaking ocean waves to mixing technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doman, Michael

    1991-05-01

    Turbulent mixing in the multiphase system of breaking ocean waves and whitecaps is known to play an important role in the mass exchange between ocean and atmosphere. Thus engineering applications to this naturally occurring dynamic exchange process appear to be of interest in various areas of applied mixing technology. Starting from the fact that ocean waves break after having reached their point of instability, a three-dimensional collapsible swivel mechanism (CSM) was developed for simulating by mechanical means the highly dynamic movement of breaking ocean waves. The CSM, employing reversion kinematics of a six-link spatial kinematic chain, has been realized in the construction of a new mixing technology (called swing mixer) that can either move the fluid by the use of mixing tools in a vessel (stirrer principle) or by moving the entire vessel (shaker principle). A first description of swing mixers has recently been given.1 A special characteristic of swing mixers is their three-dimensional reversing motion, the forward and backward paths being nonsuperimposable mirror images of one another. During the mixing process in swing mixers, the efficient mixing principle of repeated stretching and folding2 also takes place in the third dimension. Details of the mixing technology of swing mixers will be discussed together with some suggestions as to how spatial and temporal changes in the concentration may be determined with the help of CCD cameras in a given multiphase system agitated by swing mixers.

  19. Application of Just War principles to nuclear war and deterrence in three contemporary theorists: Michael Walzer, Paul Ramsey, and William V. O'Brien

    SciTech Connect

    Sichol, M.W.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to show that the Just War tradition remains applicable in the nuclear age; three contemporary just war theorists have been selected to show that this is the case: Michael Walzer, political theorist; Paul Ramsey, theologian, and William V. O'Brien, professor of international law. Each is also influenced by his Jewish, Protestant and Roman catholic tradition respectively. The focus is on the principles of proportionality and discrimination, showing how the three theorists define, validate, and apply these principles to the conduct of war as compared to the concepts of the classic Just War theorists and to those expressed in the 1983 US Catholic Bishops' Statement. This Statement reflects the influence of the three secular theorists and also of contemporary moral theory. Just War principles are applied to the uses of nuclear weapons in war-fighting and deterrence and to actual public policy. Just War principles provide policy makers with a moral basis to move beyond national egoism by directing them to be concerned about the needs of the person and about the interdependence among states principles whose validity has often been assumed but whose application has never been so necessary.

  20. Application of toxicological risk assessment principles to the chemical constituents of cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Fowles, J; Dybing, E

    2003-12-01

    To provide a hazard prioritisation for reported chemical constituents of cigarette smoke using toxicological risk assessment principles and assumptions. The purpose is to inform prevention efforts using harm reduction. International Agency for Research on Cancer Monographs; California and US Environmental Protection Agency cancer potency factors (CPFs) and reference exposure levels; scientific journals and government reports from the USA, Canada, and New Zealand. This was an inclusive review of studies reporting yields of cigarette smoke constituents using standard ISO methods. Where possible, the midpoint of reported ranges of yields was used. Data on 158 compounds in cigarette smoke were found. Of these, 45 were known or suspected human carcinogens. Cancer potency factors were available for 40 of these compounds and reference exposure levels (RELs) for non-cancer effects were found for 17. A cancer risk index (CRI) was calculated by multiplying yield levels with CPFs. A non-cancer risk index (NCRI) was calculated by dividing yield levels with RELs. Gas phase constituents dominate both CRI and NCRI for cigarette smoke. The contribution of 1,3-butadiene (BDE) to CRI was more than twice that of the next highest contributing carcinogen (acrylonitrile) using potencies from the State of California EPA. Using those potencies from the USEPA, BDE ranked third behind arsenic and acetaldehyde. A comparison of CRI estimates with estimates of smoking related cancer deaths in the USA showed that the CRI underestimates the observed cancer rates by about fivefold using ISO yields in the exposure estimate. The application of toxicological risk assessment methods to cigarette smoke provides a plausible and objective framework for the prioritisation of carcinogens and other toxicant hazards in cigarette smoke. However, this framework does not enable the prediction of actual cancer risk for a number of reasons that are discussed. Further, the lack of toxicology data on

  1. First-Principles Computer Simulations of Dense Plasmas and Application to the Interiors of Giant Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Militzer, Burkhard

    2013-06-01

    This presentation will review three recent applications of first-principles computer simulation techniques to study matter at extreme temperature-pressure conditions that are of relevance to astrophysics. First we report a recent methodological advance in all-electron path integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) that allowed us to extend this method beyond hydrogen and helium to elements with core electrons [1]. We combine results from PIMC and with density functional molecular dynamics (DFT-MD) simulations and derive a coherent equation of state (EOS) for water and carbon plasmas in the regime from 1-50 Mbar and 104-109 K that can be compared to laboratory shock wave experiments. Second we apply DFT-MD simulations to characterize superionic water in the interiors of Uranus and Neptune. By adopting a thermodynamic integration technique, we derive the Gibbs free energy in order to demonstrate the existence of a phase transformation from body-centered cubic to face-centered cubic superionic water [2]. Finally we again use DFT-MD to study the interiors of gas giant planets. We determine the EOS for hydrogen-helium mixtures spanning density-temperature conditions in the deep interiors of giant planets, 0.2-9.0 g/cc and 1000-80000 K [3]. We compare the simulation results with the semi-analytical EOS model by Saumon and Chabrier. We present a revision to the mass-radius relationship which makes the hottest exoplanets increase in radius by ~0.2 Jupiter radii at fixed entropy and for masses greater than 0.5 Jupiter masses. This change is large enough to have possible implications for some discrepant inflated giant exoplanets. We conclude by demonstrating that all materials in the cores of giant planets, ices, MgO, SiO2, and iron, will all dissolve into metallic hydrogen. This implies the cores of Jupiter and Saturn have been at least partially eroded. [1] K. P. Driver, B. Militzer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108 (2012) 115502. [2] H. F. Wilson, M. L. Wong, B. Militzer, http://arxiv.org/abs/1211

  2. Limitations and Extensions of the Lock-and-Key Principle: Differences between Gas State, Solution and Solid State Structures

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Hans-Jörg

    2015-01-01

    The lock-and-key concept is discussed with respect to necessary extensions. Formation of supramolecular complexes depends not only, and often not even primarily on an optimal geometric fit between host and guest. Induced fit and allosteric interactions have long been known as important modifications. Different binding mechanisms, the medium used and pH effects can exert a major influence on the affinity. Stereoelectronic effects due to lone pair orientation can lead to variation of binding constants by orders of magnitude. Hydrophobic interactions due to high-energy water inside cavities modify the mechanical lock-and-key picture. That optimal affinities are observed if the cavity is only partially filled by the ligand can be in conflict with the lock-and-key principle. In crystals other forces than those between host and guest often dominate, leading to differences between solid state and solution structures. This is exemplified in particular with calixarene complexes, which by X-ray analysis more often than other hosts show guest molecules outside their cavity. In view of this the particular problems with the identification of weak interactions in crystals is discussed. PMID:25815592

  3. First-principles material modeling of solid-state electrolytes with the spinel structure.

    PubMed

    Mees, Maarten J; Pourtois, Geoffrey; Rosciano, Fabio; Put, Brecht; Vereecken, Philippe M; Stesmans, André

    2014-03-21

    Ionic diffusion through the novel (AlxMg1-2xLix)Al2O4 spinel electrolyte is investigated using first-principles calculations, combined with the Kinetic Monte Carlo algorithm. We observe that the ionic diffusion increases with the lithium content x. Furthermore, the structural parameters, formation enthalpies and electronic structures of (AlxMg1-2xLix)Al2O4 are calculated for various stoichiometries. The overall results indicate the (AlxMg1-2xLix)Al2O4 stoichiometries x = 0.2…0.3 as most promising. The (AlxMg1-2xLix)Al2O4 electrolyte is a potential candidate for the all-spinel solid-state battery stack, with the material epitaxially grown between well-known spinel electrodes, such as LiyMn2O4 and Li4+3yTi5O12 (y = 0…1). Due to their identical crystal structure, a good electrolyte-electrode interface is expected.

  4. Surface states and positron annihilation spectroscopy: results and prospects from a first-principles approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callewaert, V.; Saniz, R.; Barbiellini, B.; Partoens, B.

    2017-01-01

    The trapping of positrons at the surface of a material can be exploited to study quite selectively the surface properties of the latter by means of positron annihilation spectroscopy techniques. To support these, it is desirable to be able to theoretically predict the existence of such positronic surface states and to describe their annihilation characteristics with core or valence surface electrons in a reliable way. Here, we build on the well-developed first-principles techniques for the study of positrons in bulk solids as well as on previous models for surfaces, and investigate two schemes that can improve the theoretical description of the interaction of positrons with surfaces. One is based on supplementing the local-density correlation potential with the corrugated image potential at the surface, and the other is based on the weighted-density approximation to correlation. We discuss our results for topological insulators, graphene layers, and quantum dots, with emphasis on the information that can be directly related to experiment. We also discuss some open theoretical problems that should be addressed by future research.

  5. Applications Analysis: Principles and Examples from Various Distributed Computer Applications at Sandia National Laboratories New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Bateman, Dennis; Evans, David; Jensen, Dal; Nelson, Spencer

    1999-08-01

    As information systems have become distributed over many computers within the enterprise, managing those applications has become increasingly important. This is an emerging area of work, recognized as such by many large organizations as well as many start-up companies. In this report, we present a summary of the move to distributed applications, some of the problems that came along for the ride, and some specific examples of the tools and techniques we have used to analyze distributed applications and gain some insight into the mechanics and politics of distributed computing.

  6. Solid State Marx Modulators for Emerging Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kemp, M.A.; /SLAC

    2012-09-14

    Emerging linear accelerator applications increasingly push the boundaries of RF system performance and economics. The power modulator is an integral part of RF systems whose characteristics play a key role in the determining parameters such as efficiency, footprint, cost, stability, and availability. Particularly within the past decade, solid-state switch based modulators have become the standard in high-performance, high power modulators. One topology, the Marx modulator, has characteristics which make it particularly attractive for several emerging applications. This paper is an overview of the Marx topology, some recent developments, and a case study of how this architecture can be applied to a few proposed linear accelerators.

  7. Performance of First-Principles-Based Reaction Class Transition State Theory.

    PubMed

    Ratkiewicz, Artur; Huynh, Lam K; Truong, Thanh N

    2016-03-03

    Performance of the Reaction Class Transition State Theory (RC-TST) for prediction of rates constants of elementary reactions is examined using data from its previous applications to a number of different reaction classes. The RC-TST theory is taking advantage of the common structure denominator of all reactions in a given family combined with structure activity relationships to provide a rigorous theoretical framework to obtain rate expression of any reaction within a reaction class in a simple and cost-effective manner. This opens the possibility for integrating this methodology with an automated mechanism generator for "on-the-fly" generation of accurate kinetic models of complex reacting systems.

  8. The Stampacchia maximum principle for stochastic partial differential equations and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chekroun, Mickaël D.; Park, Eunhee; Temam, Roger

    2016-02-01

    Stochastic partial differential equations (SPDEs) are considered, linear and nonlinear, for which we establish comparison theorems for the solutions, or positivity results a.e., and a.s., for suitable data. Comparison theorems for SPDEs are available in the literature. The originality of our approach is that it is based on the use of truncations, following the Stampacchia approach to maximum principle. We believe that our method, which does not rely too much on probability considerations, is simpler than the existing approaches and to a certain extent, more directly applicable to concrete situations. Among the applications, boundedness results and positivity results are respectively proved for the solutions of a stochastic Boussinesq temperature equation, and of reaction-diffusion equations perturbed by a non-Lipschitz nonlinear noise. Stabilization results to a Chafee-Infante equation perturbed by a nonlinear noise are also derived.

  9. Value of information analysis in healthcare: a review of principles and applications.

    PubMed

    Tuffaha, Haitham W; Gordon, Louisa G; Scuffham, Paul A

    2014-06-01

    Economic evaluations are increasingly utilized to inform decisions in healthcare; however, decisions remain uncertain when they are not based on adequate evidence. Value of information (VOI) analysis has been proposed as a systematic approach to measure decision uncertainty and assess whether there is sufficient evidence to support new technologies. The objective of this paper is to review the principles and applications of VOI analysis in healthcare. Relevant databases were systematically searched to identify VOI articles. The findings from the selected articles were summarized and narratively presented. Various VOI methods have been developed and applied to inform decision-making, optimally designing research studies and setting research priorities. However, the application of this approach in healthcare remains limited due to technical and policy challenges. There is a need to create more awareness about VOI analysis, simplify its current methods, and align them with the needs of decision-making organizations.

  10. Uncertainty quantification in application of the enrichment meter principle for nondestructive assay of special nuclear material

    SciTech Connect

    Burr, Tom; Croft, Stephen; Jarman, Kenneth D.

    2015-09-05

    The various methods of nondestructive assay (NDA) of special nuclear material (SNM) have applications in nuclear nonproliferation, including detection and identification of illicit SNM at border crossings, and quantifying SNM at nuclear facilities for safeguards. No assay method is complete without “error bars,” which provide one way of expressing confidence in the assay result. Consequently, NDA specialists typically quantify total uncertainty in terms of “random” and “systematic” components, and then specify error bars for the total mass estimate in multiple items. Uncertainty quantification (UQ) for NDA has always been important, but it is recognized that greater rigor is needed and achievable using modern statistical methods. To this end, we describe the extent to which the guideline for expressing uncertainty in measurements (GUM) can be used for NDA. Also, we propose improvements over GUM for NDA by illustrating UQ challenges that it does not address, including calibration with errors in predictors, model error, and item-specific biases. A case study is presented using low-resolution NaI spectra and applying the enrichment meter principle to estimate the U-235 mass in an item. The case study illustrates how to update the current American Society for Testing and Materials guide for application of the enrichment meter principle using gamma spectra from a NaI detector.

  11. Uncertainty quantification in application of the enrichment meter principle for nondestructive assay of special nuclear material

    DOE PAGES

    Burr, Tom; Croft, Stephen; Jarman, Kenneth D.

    2015-09-05

    The various methods of nondestructive assay (NDA) of special nuclear material (SNM) have applications in nuclear nonproliferation, including detection and identification of illicit SNM at border crossings, and quantifying SNM at nuclear facilities for safeguards. No assay method is complete without “error bars,” which provide one way of expressing confidence in the assay result. Consequently, NDA specialists typically quantify total uncertainty in terms of “random” and “systematic” components, and then specify error bars for the total mass estimate in multiple items. Uncertainty quantification (UQ) for NDA has always been important, but it is recognized that greater rigor is needed andmore » achievable using modern statistical methods. To this end, we describe the extent to which the guideline for expressing uncertainty in measurements (GUM) can be used for NDA. Also, we propose improvements over GUM for NDA by illustrating UQ challenges that it does not address, including calibration with errors in predictors, model error, and item-specific biases. A case study is presented using low-resolution NaI spectra and applying the enrichment meter principle to estimate the U-235 mass in an item. The case study illustrates how to update the current American Society for Testing and Materials guide for application of the enrichment meter principle using gamma spectra from a NaI detector.« less

  12. Applications of the principle of maximum entropy: from physics to ecology.

    PubMed

    Banavar, Jayanth R; Maritan, Amos; Volkov, Igor

    2010-02-17

    There are numerous situations in physics and other disciplines which can be described at different levels of detail in terms of probability distributions. Such descriptions arise either intrinsically as in quantum mechanics, or because of the vast amount of details necessary for a complete description as, for example, in Brownian motion and in many-body systems. We show that an application of the principle of maximum entropy for estimating the underlying probability distribution can depend on the variables used for describing the system. The choice of characterization of the system carries with it implicit assumptions about fundamental attributes such as whether the system is classical or quantum mechanical or equivalently whether the individuals are distinguishable or indistinguishable. We show that the correct procedure entails the maximization of the relative entropy subject to known constraints and, additionally, requires knowledge of the behavior of the system in the absence of these constraints. We present an application of the principle of maximum entropy to understanding species diversity in ecology and introduce a new statistical ensemble corresponding to the distribution of a variable population of individuals into a set of species not defined a priori.

  13. Proof-of-principle test of coherent-state continuous variable quantum key distribution through turbulent atmosphere (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derkach, Ivan D.; Peuntinger, Christian; Ruppert, László; Heim, Bettina; Gunthner, Kevin; Usenko, Vladyslav C.; Elser, Dominique; Marquardt, Christoph; Filip, Radim; Leuchs, Gerd

    2016-10-01

    Continuous-variable quantum key distribution is a practical application of quantum information theory that is aimed at generation of secret cryptographic key between two remote trusted parties and that uses multi-photon quantum states as carriers of key bits. Remote parties share the secret key via a quantum channel, that presumably is under control of of an eavesdropper, and which properties must be taken into account in the security analysis. Well-studied fiber-optical quantum channels commonly possess stable transmittance and low noise levels, while free-space channels represent a simpler, less demanding and more flexible alternative, but suffer from atmospheric effects such as turbulence that in particular causes a non-uniform transmittance distribution referred to as fading. Nonetheless free-space channels, providing an unobstructed line-of-sight, are more apt for short, mid-range and potentially long-range (using satellites) communication and will play an important role in the future development and implementation of QKD networks. It was previously theoretically shown that coherent-state CV QKD should be in principle possible to implement over a free-space fading channel, but strong transmittance fluctuations result in the significant modulation-dependent channel excess noise. In this regime the post-selection of highly transmitting sub-channels may be needed, which can even restore the security of the protocol in the strongly turbulent channels. We now report the first proof-of-principle experimental test of coherent state CV QKD protocol using different levels Gaussian modulation over a mid-range (1.6-kilometer long) free-space atmospheric quantum channel. The transmittance of the link was characterized using intensity measurements for the reference but channel estimation using the modulated coherent states was also studied. We consider security against Gaussian collective attacks, that were shown to be optimal against CV QKD protocols . We assumed a

  14. Bio-Social Variables as Predictors of Teacher Union Leaders' Adherence to Democratic Principles in Ogun State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fejoh, Johnson

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of bio-social variables - educational status, age and family socio-economic background on teacher union leaders' adherence to democratic principles in Ogun State of Nigeria. The study employed the ex-post-facto research design. Five hypotheses were generated and tested using an instrument titled "union…

  15. First-Principles-Based Method for Electron Localization: Application to Monolayer Hexagonal Boron Nitride.

    PubMed

    Ekuma, C E; Dobrosavljević, V; Gunlycke, D

    2017-03-10

    We present a first-principles-based many-body typical medium dynamical cluster approximation and density function theory method for characterizing electron localization in disordered structures. This method applied to monolayer hexagonal boron nitride shows that the presence of boron vacancies could turn this wide-gap insulator into a correlated metal. Depending on the strength of the electron interactions, these calculations suggest that conduction could be obtained at a boron vacancy concentration as low as 1.0%. We also explore the distribution of the local density of states, a fingerprint of spatial variations, which allows localized and delocalized states to be distinguished. The presented method enables the study of disorder-driven insulator-metal transitions not only in h-BN but also in other physical materials.

  16. First-Principles-Based Method for Electron Localization: Application to Monolayer Hexagonal Boron Nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekuma, C. E.; Dobrosavljević, V.; Gunlycke, D.

    2017-03-01

    We present a first-principles-based many-body typical medium dynamical cluster approximation and density function theory method for characterizing electron localization in disordered structures. This method applied to monolayer hexagonal boron nitride shows that the presence of boron vacancies could turn this wide-gap insulator into a correlated metal. Depending on the strength of the electron interactions, these calculations suggest that conduction could be obtained at a boron vacancy concentration as low as 1.0%. We also explore the distribution of the local density of states, a fingerprint of spatial variations, which allows localized and delocalized states to be distinguished. The presented method enables the study of disorder-driven insulator-metal transitions not only in h -BN but also in other physical materials.

  17. Real processing (RP) I: The principle of minimal entropy production (PME) of irreversible thermodynamics and the principle of minimal deformation (PMD) of hydrodynamics, their dependence and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiser, Bernhard

    1996-02-01

    The principle of minimal entropy production (PME) of irreversible thermodynamics is generalized to determine process parameters in process engineering with well-known mathematical methods. This useful instrument applied to industrial processes is called real processing (RP). A special form of the PME is the principle of minimal deformation (PMD) which allows for applications in hydrodynamics (HD). A second and independent derivation of the PMD takes a similar way as the derivation of the statement of Helmholtz and Rayleigh (SHR). The generalization of SHR then leads to the PMD derived within HD. Next in a similar way. starting directly from the Navier-Stokes equation (NSE) can lead in a third way to the PMD. Several applications of the PMD are given: An analytical and numerical application of PMD is given for the entrance flow of tubes. Physical and analytical applications are the Crocco-Vazsonyi-type equations opening new possibilities of analytical treatment of process engineering problems. Process engineering models may be replaced by applications of PMD. In particular, turbulence may be treated as the answer of nature on PMD. A basic mathematical treatment of these subjects is possible by the gradient field theory (GFT), a particular method of vector analysis stemming from the Clebsch Ansatz for vector fields, which can be ordered from the author together with an advanced detailed mathematical treatment of these subjects.

  18. Passivation for Cu2ZnSnS4/WZ-ZnO interface states: From the first principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Yu-Wen; Tang, Fu-Ling; Xue, Hong-Tao; Liu, Hong-Xia; Gao, Bo

    2017-02-01

    We employed the first-principles calculations to investigate F, Cl and H's passivation effects for Cu2ZnSnS4 (102)/WZ-ZnO (110) interface, in which the interface states mainly originate from Sn atoms. The interface states peaks can be reduced more or less by introducing F, Cl and H around Sn atom. H and F have a more efficient passivation effect than Cl atoms. The charge density difference and Bader atomic charge analysis suggests that F, Cl and H can get part of the electrons leading to interface states and that the interface states can be passivated by F, Cl or H atoms.

  19. Generalization of the variational principle and the Hohenberg and Kohn theorems for excited states of Fermion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonis, A.

    2017-01-01

    Through the entanglement of a collection of K non-interacting replicas of a system of N interacting Fermions, and making use of the properties of reduced density matrices the variational principle and the theorems of Hohenberg and Kohn are generalized to excited states. The generalization of the variational principle makes use of the natural orbitals of an N-particle density matrix describing the state of lowest energy of the entangled state. The extension of the theorems of Hohenberg and Kohn is based on the ground-state formulation of density functional theory but with a new interpretation of the concept of a ground state: It is the state of lowest energy of a system of KN Fermions that is described in terms of the excited states of the N-particle interacting system. This straightforward implementation of the line of reasoning of ground-state density functional theory to a new domain leads to a unique and logically valid extension of the theory to excited states that allows the systematic treatment of all states in the spectrum of the Hamiltonian of an interacting system.

  20. Perceptions of professional nurses regarding introduction of the Batho Pele principles in State hospitals.

    PubMed

    James, Sindiwe; Miza, Thenjiwe M

    2015-03-09

    The South African health care delivery system has shifted focus to primary health care since 1994. For this purpose the Batho Pele principles were introduced. Nurses claim, however, that since the introduction of these principles patients and their families have been making unnecessary and sometimes impossible demands of nursing staff. This article presents the perceptions of the professional nurses regarding the introduction of the Batho Pele principles in their workplace. To describe the perceptions of professional nurses regarding introduction of the Batho Pele principles and to recommend guidelines to facilitate measures to realise the objects of these principles. A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contexual research design was used. Six audio-taped focus group discussions and field notes were used to collect data from purposively sampled participants who have worked in the outpatient departments of hospitals in the Port Elizabeth Hospital Complex. Guba's model of trustworthiness was used to confirm integrity of the study, whilst the participants were kept anonymous, protected from harm and participated voluntarily. Data analysis was done using Tesch's data analysis spiral and with the involvement of an independent-coder. Three themes emerged, revealing that the professional nurses perceived the objectives of the Batho Pele principles as difficult to uphold due to the inadequate planning prior to their implementation. Inadequacy of human and material resources aggravated this perception. Professional nurses are not happy with how things are in terms of introduction of the Batho Pele principles, but are optimistic of a positive change in the near future.

  1. A finite state, finite memory minimum principle, part 2. [a discussion of game theory, signaling, stochastic processes, and control theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandell, N. R., Jr.; Athans, M.

    1975-01-01

    The development of the theory of the finite - state, finite - memory (FSFM) stochastic control problem is discussed. The sufficiency of the FSFM minimum principle (which is in general only a necessary condition) was investigated. By introducing the notion of a signaling strategy as defined in the literature on games, conditions under which the FSFM minimum principle is sufficient were determined. This result explicitly interconnects the information structure of the FSFM problem with its optimality conditions. The min-H algorithm for the FSFM problem was studied. It is demonstrated that a version of the algorithm always converges to a particular type of local minimum termed a person - by - person extremal.

  2. Principles and applications of hyperspectral imaging in quality evaluation of agro-food products: a review.

    PubMed

    Elmasry, Gamal; Kamruzzaman, Mohammed; Sun, Da-Wen; Allen, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The requirements of reliability, expeditiousness, accuracy, consistency, and simplicity for quality assessment of food products encouraged the development of non-destructive technologies to meet the demands of consumers to obtain superior food qualities. Hyperspectral imaging is one of the most promising techniques currently investigated for quality evaluation purposes in numerous sorts of applications. The main advantage of the hyperspectral imaging system is its aptitude to incorporate both spectroscopy and imaging techniques not only to make a direct assessment of different components simultaneously but also to locate the spatial distribution of such components in the tested products. Associated with multivariate analysis protocols, hyperspectral imaging shows a convinced attitude to be dominated in food authentication and analysis in future. The marvellous potential of the hyperspectral imaging technique as a non-destructive tool has driven the development of more sophisticated hyperspectral imaging systems in food applications. The aim of this review is to give detailed outlines about the theory and principles of hyperspectral imaging and to focus primarily on its applications in the field of quality evaluation of agro-food products as well as its future applicability in modern food industries and research.

  3. A Review of the Fundamental Principles and Applications of Solution Blow Spinning.

    PubMed

    Daristotle, John L; Behrens, Adam M; Sandler, Anthony D; Kofinas, Peter

    2016-12-28

    Solution blow spinning (SBS) is a technique that can be used to deposit fibers in situ at low cost for a variety of applications, which include biomedical materials and flexible electronics. This review is intended to provide an overview of the basic principles and applications of SBS. We first describe a method for creating a spinnable polymer solution and stable polymer solution jet by manipulating parameters such as polymer concentration and gas pressure. This method is based on fundamental insights, theoretical models, and empirical studies. We then discuss the unique bundled morphology and mechanical properties of fiber mats produced by SBS, and how they compare with electrospun fiber mats. Applications of SBS in biomedical engineering are highlighted, showing enhanced cell infiltration and proliferation versus electrospun fiber scaffolds and in situ deposition of biodegradable polymers. We also discuss the impact of SBS in applications involving textiles and electronics, including ceramic fibers and conductive composite materials. Strategies for future research are presented that take advantage of direct and rapid polymer deposition via cost-effective methods.

  4. 8 CFR 343b.4 - Applicant outside of United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Applicant outside of United States. 343b.4... CERTIFICATE OF NATURALIZATION FOR RECOGNITION BY A FOREIGN STATE § 343b.4 Applicant outside of United States. If the application is received by a DHS office outside the United States, an officer will,...

  5. A mathematical structure of the separated variational principles of steady states for multi-forces and multi-currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, Kanzo

    2017-03-01

    Separated variational principles of steady states for multi-forces and multi-currents in transport phenomena were recently proposed by Suzuki (Suzuki, 2013) by extending the principle of minimum integrated entropy production for a single force found by the same author (Suzuki, 2013). On the other hand, in non-equilibrium thermodynamics, Edelen (Edelen, 1974) generalized the linear Onsager theory to those irreversible processes with significant thermodynamic forces by means of Onsager fluxes. Onsager fluxes by definition satisfy a nonlinear system of reciprocity relations, vanish in thermodynamic equilibrium, and satisfy the second law of thermodynamics. Each system of Onsager fluxes is derivable from a dissipation potential sometimes called the flux potential. This paper aims to elucidate a mathematical structure of the separated variational principles based on the above work of Edelen.

  6. Application of Lean principles to improve early cardiac care in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Piggott, Zoë; Weldon, Erin; Strome, Trevor; Chochinov, Alecs

    2011-09-01

    To achieve our goal of excellent emergency cardiac care, our institution embarked on a Lean process improvement initiative. We sought to examine and quantify the outcome of this project on the care of suspected acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients in our emergency department (ED). Front-line ED staff participated in several rapid improvement events, using Lean principles and techniques such as waste elimination, supply chain streamlining, and standard work to increase the value of the early care provided to patients with suspected ACS. A chart review was also conducted. To evaluate our success, proportions of care milestones (first electrocardiogram [ECG], ECG interpretation, physician assessment, and acetylsalicylic acid [ASA] administration) meeting target times were chosen as outcome metrics in this before-and-after study. The proportion of cases with 12-lead ECGs completed within 10 minutes of patient triage increased by 37.4% (p < 0.0001). The proportion of cases with physician assessment initiated within 60 minutes increased by 12.1% (p  =  0.0251). Times to ECG, physician assessment, and ASA administration also continued to improve significantly over time (p values < 0.0001). Post-Lean, the median time from ECG performance to physician interpretation was 3 minutes. All of these improvements were achieved using existing staff and resources. The application of Lean principles can significantly improve attainment of early diagnostic and therapeutic milestones of emergency cardiac care in the ED.

  7. The application of evolutionary medicine principles for sustainable malaria control: a scoping study.

    PubMed

    Ocampo, Denise; Booth, Mark

    2016-07-22

    Current interventions against malaria have significantly reduced the number of people infected and the number of deaths. Concerns about emerging resistance of both mosquitoes and parasites to intervention have been raised, and questions remain about how best to generate wider knowledge of the underlying evolutionary processes. The pedagogical and research principles of evolutionary medicine may provide an answer to this problem. Eight programme managers and five academic researchers were interviewed by telephone or videoconference to elicit their first-hand views and experiences of malaria control given that evolution is a constant threat to sustainable control. Interviewees were asked about their views on the relationship between practit groups and academics and for their thoughts on whether or not evolutionary medicine may provide a solution to reported tensions. There was broad agreement that evolution of both parasites and vectors presents an obstacle to sustainable control. It was also widely agreed that through more efficient monitoring, evolution could be widely monitored. Interviewees also expressed the view that even well planned interventions may fail if the evolutionary biology of the disease is not considered, potentially making current tools redundant. This scoping study suggests that it is important to make research, including evolutionary principles, available and easily applicable for programme managers and key decision-makers, including donors and politicians. The main conclusion is that sharing knowledge through the educational and research processes embedded within evolutionary medicine has potential to relieve tensions and facilitate sustainable control of malaria and other parasitic infections.

  8. [Principles and applications of hyperspectral imaging technique in quality and safety inspection of fruits and vegetables].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bao-Hua; Li, Jiang-Bo; Fan, Shu-Xiang; Huang, Wen-Qian; Zhang, Chi; Wang Qing-Yan; Xiao, Guang-Dong

    2014-10-01

    The quality and safety of fruits and vegetables are the most concerns of consumers. Chemical analytical methods are traditional inspection methods which are time-consuming and labor intensive destructive inspection techniques. With the rapid development of imaging technique and spectral technique, hyperspectral imaging technique has been widely used in the nondestructive inspection of quality and safety of fruits and vegetables. Hyperspectral imaging integrates the advantages of traditional imaging and spectroscopy. It can obtain both spatial and spectral information of inspected objects. Therefore, it can be used in either external quality inspection as traditional imaging system, or internal quality or safety inspection as spectroscopy. In recent years, many research papers about the nondestructive inspection of quality and safety of fruits and vegetables by using hyperspectral imaging have been published, and in order to introduce the principles of nondestructive inspection and track the latest research development of hyperspectral imaging in the nondestructive inspection of quality and safety of fruits and vegetables, this paper reviews the principles, developments and applications of hyperspectral imaging in the external quality, internal quality and safety inspection of fruits and vegetables. Additionally, the basic components, analytical methods, future trends and challenges are also reported or discussed in this paper.

  9. Efficient quantum optical state engineering and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCusker, Kevin T.

    Over a century after the modern prediction of the existence of individual particles of light by Albert Einstein, a reliable source of this simple quantum state of one photon does not exist. While common light sources such as a light bulb, LED, or laser can produce a pulse of light with an average of one photon, there is (currently) no way of knowing the number of photons in that pulse without first absorbing (and thereby destroying) them. Spontaneous parametric down-conversion, a process in which one high-energy photon splits into two lower-energy photons, allows us to prepare a single-photon state by detecting one of the photons, which then heralds the existence of its twin. This process has been the workhorse of quantum optics, allowing demonstrations of a myriad of quantum processes and protocols, such as entanglement, cryptography, superdense coding, teleportation, and simple quantum computing demonstrations. All of these processes would benefit from better engineering of the underlying down-conversion process, but despite significant effort (both theoretical and experimental), optimization of this process is ongoing. The focus of this work is to optimize certain aspects of a down-conversion source, and then use this tool in novel experiments not otherwise feasible. Specifically, the goal is to optimize the heralding efficiency of the down-conversion photons, i.e., the probability that if one photon is detected, the other photon is also detected. This source is then applied to two experiments (a single-photon source, and a quantum cryptography implementation), and the detailed theory of an additional application (a source of Fock states and path-entangled states, called N00N states) is discussed, along with some other possible applications.

  10. Application of photon detectors in the VIP2 experiment to test the Pauli Exclusion Principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pichler, A.; Bartalucci, S.; Bazzi, M.; Bertolucci, S.; Berucci, C.; Bragadireanu, M.; Cargnelli, M.; Clozza, A.; Curceanu, C.; De Paolis, L.; Di Matteo, S.; D'Ufflzi, A.; Egger, J.-P.; Guaraldo, C.; Iliescu, M.; Ishiwatari, T.; Laubenstein, M.; Marton, J.; Milotti, E.; Pietreanu, D.; Piscicchia, K.; Ponta, T.; Sbardella, E.; Scordo, A.; Shi, H.; Sirghi, D.; Sirghi, F.; Sperandio, L.; Vazquez-Doce, O.; Widmann, E.; Zmeskal, J.

    2016-05-01

    The Pauli Exclusion Principle (PEP) was introduced by the austrian physicist Wolfgang Pauli in 1925. Since then, several experiments have checked its validity. From 2006 until 2010, the VIP (Violation of the Pauli Principle) experiment took data at the LNGS underground laboratory to test the PEP. This experiment looked for electronic 2p to Is transitions in copper, where 2 electrons are in the Is state before the transition happens. These transitions violate the PEP. The lack of detection of X-ray photons coming from these transitions resulted in a preliminary upper limit for the violation of the PEP of 4.7 × 10-29. Currently, the successor experiment VIP2 is under preparation. The main improvements are, on one side, the use of Silicon Drift Detectors (SDDs) as X-ray photon detectors. On the other side an active shielding is implemented, which consists of plastic scintillator bars read by Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs). The employment of these detectors will improve the upper limit for the violation of the PEP by around 2 orders of magnitude.

  11. Transcranial Doppler Ultrasound: Physical Principles and Principal Applications in Neurocritical Care Unit

    PubMed Central

    D’Andrea, Antonello; Conte, Marianna; Scarafile, Raffaella; Riegler, Lucia; Cocchia, Rosangela; Pezzullo, Enrica; Cavallaro, Massimo; Carbone, Andreina; Natale, Francesco; Russo, Maria Giovanna; Gregorio, Giovanni; Calabrò, Raffaele

    2016-01-01

    Transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasonography is a noninvasive ultrasound study, which has been extensively applied on both outpatient and inpatient settings. It involves the use of a low-frequency (≤2 MHz) transducer, placed on the scalp, to insonate the basal cerebral arteries through relatively thin bone windows and to measure the cerebral blood flow velocity and its alteration in many different conditions. In neurointensive care setting, TCD is useful for both adults and children for day-to-day bedside assessment of critical conditions including vasospasm in subarachnoid hemorrhage, traumatic brain injury, acute ischemic stroke, and brain stem death. It also allows to investigate the cerebrovascular autoregulation in setting of carotid disease and syncope. In this review, we will describe physical principles underlying TCD, flow indices most frequently used in clinical practice and critical care applications in Neurocritical Unit care. PMID:28465958

  12. Introduction to the application of QbD principles for the development of monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Finkler, Christof; Krummen, Lynne

    2016-09-01

    Quality by Design (QbD) is a global regulatory initiative with the goal of enhancing pharmaceutical development through the proactive design of pharmaceutical manufacturing process and controls to consistently deliver the intended performance of the product. The principles of pharmaceutical development relevant to QbD are described in the ICH guidance documents (ICHQ8-11). An integrated set of risk assessments and their related elements developed at Roche/Genentech were designed to provide an overview of product and process knowledge for the production of a recombinant monoclonal antibody. This chapter introduces a publication series on the application of Quality by Design for biopharmaceuticals, with a focus on the development of recombinant monoclonal antibodies. The development of and overview on the QbD concept applied by Roche and Genentech is described and essential QbD elements are presented. Copyright © 2016 International Alliance for Biological Standardization. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The principle of commonality and its application to the Space Station Freedom Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopson, George D.; Thomas, L. Dale; Daniel, Charles C.

    1989-01-01

    The principle of commonality has achieved wide application in the communication, automotive, and aircraft industries. By the use of commonality, component development costs are minimized, logistics are simplified, and the investment costs of spares inventory are reduced. With space systems, which must be maintained and repaired in orbit, the advantages of commonality are compounded. Transportation of spares is expensive, on-board storage volume for spares is limited, and crew training and special tools needed for maintenance and repair are significant considerations. This paper addresses the techniques being formulated to realize the benefits of commonality in the design of the systems and elements of the Space Station Freedom Program, and include the criteria for determining the extent of commonality to be implemented.

  14. Microfluidic Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensors: From Principles to Point-of-Care Applications.

    PubMed

    Wang, Da-Shin; Fan, Shih-Kang

    2016-07-27

    Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) is a label-free, highly-sensitive, and real-time sensing technique. Conventional SPR sensors, which involve a planar thin gold film, have been widely exploited in biosensing; various miniaturized formats have been devised for portability purposes. Another type of SPR sensor which utilizes localized SPR (LSPR), is based on metal nanostructures with surface plasmon modes at the structural interface. The resonance condition is sensitive to the refractive index change of the local medium. The principles of these two types of SPR sensors are reviewed and their integration with microfluidic platforms is described. Further applications of microfluidic SPR sensors to point-of-care (POC) diagnostics are discussed.

  15. The principle of commonality and its application to the Space Station Freedom Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopson, George D.; Thomas, L. Dale; Daniel, Charles C.

    1989-01-01

    The principle of commonality has achieved wide application in the communication, automotive, and aircraft industries. By the use of commonality, component development costs are minimized, logistics are simplified, and the investment costs of spares inventory are reduced. With space systems, which must be maintained and repaired in orbit, the advantages of commonality are compounded. Transportation of spares is expensive, on-board storage volume for spares is limited, and crew training and special tools needed for maintenance and repair are significant considerations. This paper addresses the techniques being formulated to realize the benefits of commonality in the design of the systems and elements of the Space Station Freedom Program, and include the criteria for determining the extent of commonality to be implemented.

  16. GRE T2∗-Weighted MRI: Principles and Clinical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Meng Yue; Chen, Tian Wu; Zhang, Xiao Ming; Huang, Xiao Hua

    2014-01-01

    The sequence of a multiecho gradient recalled echo (GRE) T2*-weighted imaging (T2*WI) is a relatively new magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique. In contrast to T2 relaxation, which acquires a spin echo signal, T2* relaxation acquires a gradient echo signal. The sequence of a GRE T2*WI requires high uniformity of the magnetic field. GRE T2*WI can detect the smallest changes in uniformity in the magnetic field and can improve the rate of small lesion detection. In addition, the T2* value can indirectly reflect changes in tissue biochemical components. Moreover, it can be used for the early diagnosis and quantitative diagnosis of some diseases. This paper reviews the principles and clinical applications as well as the advantages and disadvantages of GRE T2*WI. PMID:24987676

  17. Microfluidic Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensors: From Principles to Point-of-Care Applications

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Da-Shin; Fan, Shih-Kang

    2016-01-01

    Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) is a label-free, highly-sensitive, and real-time sensing technique. Conventional SPR sensors, which involve a planar thin gold film, have been widely exploited in biosensing; various miniaturized formats have been devised for portability purposes. Another type of SPR sensor which utilizes localized SPR (LSPR), is based on metal nanostructures with surface plasmon modes at the structural interface. The resonance condition is sensitive to the refractive index change of the local medium. The principles of these two types of SPR sensors are reviewed and their integration with microfluidic platforms is described. Further applications of microfluidic SPR sensors to point-of-care (POC) diagnostics are discussed. PMID:27472340

  18. Toward Integrated Molecular Diagnostic System (iMDx): Principles and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seung-min; Sabour, Andrew F.; Son, Jun Ho; Lee, Sang Hun

    2014-01-01

    Integrated molecular diagnostic systems (iMDx), which are automated, sensitive, specific, user-friendly, robust, rapid, easy-to-use, and portable, can revolutionize future medicine. This review will first focus on the components of sample extraction, preservation, and filtration necessary for all point-of-care devices to include for practical use. Subsequently, we will look for low-powered and precise methods for both sample amplification and signal transduction, going in-depth to the details behind their principles. The final field of total device integration and its application to the clinical field will also be addressed to discuss the practicality for future patient care. We envision that microfluidic systems hold the potential to breakthrough the number of problems brought into the field of medical diagnosis today. PMID:24759281

  19. Multivariate statistical analysis: Principles and applications to coorbital streams of meteorite falls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, S. F.; Lipschutz, M. E.

    1993-01-01

    Multivariate statistical analysis techniques (linear discriminant analysis and logistic regression) can provide powerful discrimination tools which are generally unfamiliar to the planetary science community. Fall parameters were used to identify a group of 17 H chondrites (Cluster 1) that were part of a coorbital stream which intersected Earth's orbit in May, from 1855 - 1895, and can be distinguished from all other H chondrite falls. Using multivariate statistical techniques, it was demonstrated that a totally different criterion, labile trace element contents - hence thermal histories - or 13 Cluster 1 meteorites are distinguishable from those of 45 non-Cluster 1 H chondrites. Here, we focus upon the principles of multivariate statistical techniques and illustrate their application using non-meteoritic and meteoritic examples.

  20. Motor imagery task classification for brain computer interface applications using spatiotemporal principle component analysis.

    PubMed

    Vallabhaneni, Anirudh; He, Bin

    2004-04-01

    Classification of single-trial imagined left- and right-hand movements recorded through scalp EEG are explored in this study. Classical event-related desynchronization/synchronization (ERD/ERS) calculation approach was utilized to extract ERD features from the raw scalp EEG signal. Principle Component Analysis (PCA) was used for feature extraction and applied on spatial, as well as temporal dimensions in two consecutive steps. A Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier using a linear decision function was used to classify each trial as either left or right. The present approach has yielded good classification results and promises to have potential for further refinement for increased accuracy as well as application in online brain computer interface (BCI).

  1. Multivariate statistical analysis: Principles and applications to coorbital streams of meteorite falls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, S. F.; Lipschutz, M. E.

    1993-01-01

    Multivariate statistical analysis techniques (linear discriminant analysis and logistic regression) can provide powerful discrimination tools which are generally unfamiliar to the planetary science community. Fall parameters were used to identify a group of 17 H chondrites (Cluster 1) that were part of a coorbital stream which intersected Earth's orbit in May, from 1855 - 1895, and can be distinguished from all other H chondrite falls. Using multivariate statistical techniques, it was demonstrated that a totally different criterion, labile trace element contents - hence thermal histories - or 13 Cluster 1 meteorites are distinguishable from those of 45 non-Cluster 1 H chondrites. Here, we focus upon the principles of multivariate statistical techniques and illustrate their application using non-meteoritic and meteoritic examples.

  2. Industrial applications using BASF eco-efficiency analysis: perspectives on green engineering principles.

    PubMed

    Shonnard, David R; Kicherer, Andreas; Saling, Peter

    2003-12-01

    Life without chemicals would be inconceivable, but the potential risks and impacts to the environment associated with chemical production and chemical products are viewed critically. Eco-efficiency analysis considers the economic and life cycle environmental effects of a product or process, giving these equal weighting. The major elements of the environmental assessment include primary energy use, raw materials utilization, emissions to all media, toxicity, safety risk, and land use. The relevance of each environmental category and also for the economic versus the environmental impacts is evaluated using national emissions and economic data. The eco-efficiency analysis method of BASF is briefly presented, and results from three applications to chemical processes and products are summarized. Through these applications, the eco-efficiency analyses mostly confirm the 12 Principles listed in Anastas and Zimmerman (Environ. Sci. Technol. 2003, 37(5), 94A), with the exception that, in one application, production systems based on bio-based feedstocks were not the most eco-efficient as compared to those based on fossil resources. Over 180 eco-efficiency analyses have been conducted at BASF, and their results have been used to support strategic decision-making, marketing, research and development, and communication with external parties. Eco-efficiency analysis, as one important strategy and success factor in sustainable development, will continue to be a very strong operational tool at BASF.

  3. The use of lasers in dentistry: principles of operation and clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Stabholz, Adam; Zeltser, Rephael; Sela, Mordechai; Peretz, Benjamin; Moshonov, Joshua; Ziskind, Daniel; Stabholz, Ayala

    2003-12-01

    This article describes the principles of laser operation and the clinical application of laser technology in the different fields of dentistry. It discusses the use of the Er:YAG laser in restorative dentistry, pediatric dentistry, and periodontics, as well as the introduction of a new side-firing spiral tip for efficient cleaning of the root canal system by means of lateral laser irradiation. Although the Er:YAG laser is used mostly on enamel and dentin, the gingival depigmentation procedure using this laser also is described. Clinical applications of the CO2 and diode lasers on soft tissues, particularly in the fields of oral and maxillofacial surgery and perodontics, are explained. Because teeth whitening for esthetic reasons has gained increasing popularity in dentistry, the application of diode lasers for this purpose is discussed. All the dental laser procedures described in this article are conducted at the Hebrew University-Hadassah School of Dental Medicine and are further investigated in various clinical research projects.

  4. Lean principles and defense information technology acquisition: An investigation of the determinants of successful application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haley, M.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether or not there have been successful applications of lean manufacturing principles in highly variable defense IT environments. Specifically, the study assessed if implementation of the lean philosophies by a defense organization yielded repeatable, predictable results in software release schedules reductions. Additionally, the study set out to determine what potential critical success factors (CSF's) were documented in the secondary data captured for each release, and extracted the variables used in the decision making for acceptability of fielding. In evaluating lean applicability to the high variability environment of USAF IT acquisitions, the research was conducted using non-experimental quantitative methods of archival secondary data. The sample for this case study was compiled from a USAF office that had implemented these techniques in pre-development, development and testing, and fielding phases. Based on the research data, acquisitionists and lean practitioners are inherently interconnected. Therefore, an understanding that critical success factors (CSFs) are integral to successful lean application in DoD IT acquisitions is crucial. Through a combination of synergistic alignments, plyometric CSFs were discovered to maximize the effects of each single CSF to produce rapid results in defense IT acquisitions. These include: (1) Enterprise Incorporation, (2) Team Trust, (3) Transformational Leadership, (4) Recursive Improvement, (5) Integrated Synergy, (6) Customer-Centric Culture and (7) Heuristic Communication.

  5. An Automated Application Framework to Model Disordered Materials Based on a High Throughput First Principles Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oses, Corey; Yang, Kesong; Curtarolo, Stefano; Duke Univ Collaboration; UC San Diego Collaboration

    Predicting material properties of disordered systems remains a long-standing and formidable challenge in rational materials design. To address this issue, we introduce an automated software framework capable of modeling partial occupation within disordered materials using a high-throughput (HT) first principles approach. At the heart of the approach is the construction of supercells containing a virtually equivalent stoichiometry to the disordered material. All unique supercell permutations are enumerated and material properties of each are determined via HT electronic structure calculations. In accordance with a canonical ensemble of supercell states, the framework evaluates ensemble average properties of the system as a function of temperature. As proof of concept, we examine the framework's final calculated properties of a zinc chalcogenide (ZnS1-xSex), a wide-gap oxide semiconductor (MgxZn1-xO), and an iron alloy (Fe1-xCux) at various stoichiometries.

  6. Low-coherence enhanced backscattering: review of principles and applications for colon cancer screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Young L.; Liu, Yang; Turzhitsky, Vladimir M.; Roy, Hemant K.; Wali, Ramesh K.; Subramanian, Hariharan; Pradhan, Prabhakar; Backman, Vadim

    2006-07-01

    The phenomenon of enhanced backscattering (EBS) of light, also known as coherent backscattering (CBS) of light, has been the object of intensive investigation in nonbiological media over the last two decades. However, there have been only a few attempts to explore EBS for tissue characterization and diagnosis. We have recently made progress in the EBS measurements in tissue by taking advantage of low spatial coherence illumination, which has led us to the development of low-coherence enhanced backscattering (LEBS) spectroscopy. In this work, we review the current state of research on LEBS. After a brief discussion of the basic principle of EBS and LEBS, we present an overview of the unique features of LEBS for tissue characterization, and show that LEBS enables depth-selective spectroscopic assessment of mucosal tissue. Then, we demonstrate the potential of LEBS spectroscopy for predicting the risk of colon carcinogenesis and colonoscopy-free screening for colorectal cancer (CRC).

  7. Marginal Bidding: An Application of the Equimarginal Principle to Bidding in TAC SCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenwald, Amy; Naroditskiy, Victor; Odean, Tyler; Ramirez, Mauricio; Sodomka, Eric; Zimmerman, Joe; Cutler, Clark

    We present a fast and effective bidding strategy for the Trading Agent Competition in Supply Chain Management (TAC SCM). In TAC SCM, manufacturers compete to procure computer parts from suppliers (the procurement problem), and then sell assembled computers to customers in reverse auctions (the bidding problem). This paper is concerned only with bidding, in which an agent must decide how many computers to sell and at what prices to sell them. We propose a greedy solution, Marginal Bidding, inspired by the Equimarginal Principle, which states that revenue is maximized among possible uses of a resource when the return on the last unit of the resource is the same across all areas of use. We show experimentally that certain variations of Marginal Bidding can compute bids faster than our ILP solution, which enables Marginal Bidders to consider future demand as well as current demand, and hence achieve greater revenues when knowledge of the future is valuable.

  8. Low-coherence enhanced backscattering: review of principles and applications for colon cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young L; Turzhitsky, Vladimir M; Liu, Yang; Roy, Hemant K; Wali, Ramesh K; Subramanian, Hariharan; Pradhan, Prabhakar; Backman, Vadim

    2006-01-01

    The phenomenon of enhanced backscattering (EBS) of light, also known as coherent backscattering (CBS) of light, has been the object of intensive investigation in nonbiological media over the last two decades. However, there have been only a few attempts to explore EBS for tissue characterization and diagnosis. We have recently made progress in the EBS measurements in tissue by taking advantage of low spatial coherence illumination, which has led us to the development of low-coherence enhanced backscattering (LEBS) spectroscopy. In this work, we review the current state of research on LEBS. After a brief discussion of the basic principle of EBS and LEBS, we present an overview of the unique features of LEBS for tissue characterization, and show that LEBS enables depth-selective spectroscopic assessment of mucosal tissue. Then, we demonstrate the potential of LEBS spectroscopy for predicting the risk of colon carcinogenesis and colonoscopy-free screening for colorectal cancer (CRC).

  9. The biological default state of cell proliferation with variation and motility, a fundamental principle for a theory of organisms.

    PubMed

    Soto, Ana M; Longo, Giuseppe; Montévil, Maël; Sonnenschein, Carlos

    2016-10-01

    The principle of inertia is central to the modern scientific revolution. By postulating this principle Galileo at once identified a pertinent physical observable (momentum) and a conservation law (momentum conservation). He then could scientifically analyze what modifies inertial movement: gravitation and friction. Inertia, the default state in mechanics, represented a major theoretical commitment: there is no need to explain uniform rectilinear motion, rather, there is a need to explain departures from it. By analogy, we propose a biological default state of proliferation with variation and motility. From this theoretical commitment, what requires explanation is proliferative quiescence, lack of variation, lack of movement. That proliferation is the default state is axiomatic for biologists studying unicellular organisms. Moreover, it is implied in Darwin's "descent with modification". Although a "default state" is a theoretical construct and a limit case that does not need to be instantiated, conditions that closely resemble unrestrained cell proliferation are readily obtained experimentally. We will illustrate theoretical and experimental consequences of applying and of ignoring this principle.

  10. Principles and clinical applications of liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of adrenal and gonadal steroid hormones.

    PubMed

    Kulle, A E; Welzel, M; Holterhus, P-M; Riepe, F G

    2011-10-01

    Liquid-chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) is becoming the method of choice for clinical steroid analysis. In most instances, it has the advantage of higher sensitivity, better reproducibility and greater specificity than commercial immunoassay techniques. The method requires only minimal sample preparation and a small sample volume. Furthermore, it has the potential to analyze multiple steroids simultaneously. Modern instruments guarantee high throughput, allowing an affordable price for the individual assay. All this makes LC-MS/MS an attractive method for use in a clinical setting. Reliable reference ranges for the detected analytes are the pre-requisite for their clinical use. If these are available, LC-MS/MS can find application in congenital disorders of steroid metabolism, such as congenital adrenal hyperplasia, disorders of sex development and disorders of salt homeostasis, as well as in acquired disorders of steroid metabolism, such as primary aldosteronism, Cushing's disease, Addison's disease, and hyperandrogenemia, as well as in psychiatric disease states such as depression or anxiety disorders. The principles of LC-MS/MS for steroid measurement, the pros and cons of LC-MS/MS compared with conventional immunoassays and the possible applications in clinical routine, with a special focus on pediatric endocrinology needs, are discussed here.

  11. Equivalence principles and electromagnetism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ni, W.-T.

    1977-01-01

    The implications of the weak equivalence principles are investigated in detail for electromagnetic systems in a general framework. In particular, it is shown that the universality of free-fall trajectories (Galileo weak equivalence principle) does not imply the validity of the Einstein equivalence principle. However, the Galileo principle plus the universality of free-fall rotation states does imply the Einstein principle.

  12. Proof-of-principle demonstration of Nb 3 Sn superconducting radiofrequency cavities for high Q 0 applications

    DOE PAGES

    Posen, S.; Liepe, M.; Hall, D. L.

    2015-02-23

    Many future particle accelerators require hundreds of superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) cavities operating with high duty factor. The large dynamic heat load of the cavities causes the cryogenic plant to make up a significant part of the overall cost of the facility. Our contribution can be reduced by replacing standard niobium cavities with ones coated with a low-dissipation superconductor such as Nb3Sn. Here, we present results for single cell cavities coated with Nb3Sn at Cornell. Five coatings were carried out, showing that at 4.2 K, high Q0 out to medium fields was reproducible, resulting in an average quench field of 14more » MV/m and an average 4.2 K Q0 at quench of 8 x 109 . In each case, the peak surface magnetic field at quench was well above Hc1, showing that it is not a limiting field in these cavities. Furthermore, the coating with the best performance had a quench field of 17 MV/m, exceeding gradient requirements for state-of-the-art high duty factor SRF accelerators. It is also shown that—taking into account the thermodynamic efficiency of the cryogenic plant—the 4.2 K Q0 values obtained meet the AC power consumption requirements of state-of-the-art high duty factor accelerators, making this a proof-of-principle demonstration for Nb3Sn cavities in future applications.« less

  13. Proof-of-principle demonstration of Nb$$_3$$Sn superconducting radiofrequency cavities for high $$Q_0$$ applications

    DOE PAGES

    Posen, S.; Liepe, M.; Hall, D. L.

    2015-02-01

    Many future particle accelerators require hundreds of superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) cavities operating with high duty factor. The large dynamic heat load of the cavities causes the cryogenic plant to make up a significant part of the overall cost of the facility. This contribution can be reduced by replacing standard niobium cavities with ones coated with a low-dissipation superconductor such as Nb3Sn. In this paper, we present results for single cell cavities coated with Nb3Sn at Cornell. Five coatings were carried out, showing that at 4.2 K, high Q0 out to medium fields was reproducible, resulting in an average quench fieldmore » of 14 MV/m and an average 4.2 K Q0 at quench of 8 109 . In each case, the peak surface magnetic field at quench was well above Hc1, showing that it is not a limiting field in these cavities. The coating with the best performance had a quench field of 17 MV/m, exceeding gradient requirements for state-of-the-art high duty factor SRF accelerators. It is also shown that—taking into account the thermodynamic efficiency of the cryogenic plant—the 4.2 K Q0 values obtained meet the AC power consumption requirements of state-of-the-art high duty factor accelerators, making this a proof-of-principle demonstration for Nb3Sn cavities in future applications.« less

  14. Archimedes' principle in general coordinates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridgely, Charles T.

    2010-05-01

    Archimedes' principle is well known to state that a body submerged in a fluid is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the body. Herein, Archimedes' principle is derived from first principles by using conservation of the stress-energy-momentum tensor in general coordinates. The resulting expression for the force is applied in Schwarzschild coordinates and in rotating coordinates. Using Schwarzschild coordinates for the case of a spherical mass suspended within a perfect fluid leads to the familiar expression of Archimedes' principle. Using rotating coordinates produces an expression for a centrifugal buoyancy force that agrees with accepted theory. It is then argued that Archimedes' principle ought to be applicable to non-gravitational phenomena, as well. Conservation of the energy-momentum tensor is then applied to electromagnetic phenomena. It is shown that a charged body submerged in a charged medium experiences a buoyancy force in accordance with an electromagnetic analogue of Archimedes' principle.

  15. First-principles calculation of ground and excited-state absorption spectra of ruby and alexandrite considering lattice relaxation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Shinta; Sasaki, Tomomi; Taniguchi, Rie; Ishii, Takugo; Ogasawara, Kazuyoshi

    2009-02-01

    We performed first-principles calculations of multiplet structures and the corresponding ground-state absorption and excited-state absorption spectra for ruby (Cr3+:α-Al2O3) and alexandrite (Cr3+:BeAl2O4) which included lattice relaxation. The lattice relaxation was estimated using the first-principles total energy and molecular-dynamics method of the CASTEP code. The multiplet structure and absorption spectra were calculated using the configuration-interaction method based on density-functional calculations. For both ruby and alexandrite, the theoretical absorption spectra, which were already in reasonable agreement with experimental spectra, were further improved by consideration of lattice relaxation. In the case of ruby, the peak positions and peak intensities were improved through the use of models with relaxations of 11 or more atoms. For alexandrite, the polarization dependence of the U band was significantly improved, even by a model with a relaxation of only seven atoms.

  16. Guiding Principles and Clinical Applications for Speech-Language Pathology Practice in Early Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Diane; Roth, Froma P.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This article describes guiding principles in early intervention (EI) and demonstrates how speech-language pathologists (SLPs) can apply these principles to best serve infants and toddlers with communication and related problems and their families. Method: Four principles guide the implementation of speech-language pathology services. EI…

  17. Striving for Excellence: Applications of Successful Business Principles. Ideas for Action in Education and Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Tom

    Eight principles that have been used to reach excellence in business and industry and ways that schools can apply those principles are described. The principles, identified by Thomas J. Peters and Robert N. Waterman, Jr. in "In Search of Excellence: Lessons from America's Best-Run Companies" are: (1) a bias for action (not waiting for…

  18. 28 CFR 104.42 - Applicable state law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicable state law. 104.42 Section 104... OF 2001 Amount of Compensation for Eligible Claimants. § 104.42 Applicable state law. The phrase “to the extent recovery for such loss is allowed under applicable state law,” as used in the...

  19. 12 CFR 34.4 - Applicability of state law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Applicability of state law. 34.4 Section 34.4... APPRAISALS General § 34.4 Applicability of state law. (a) Except where made applicable by Federal law, state laws that obstruct, impair, or condition a national bank's ability to fully exercise its Federally...

  20. Detector-based spectral CT with a novel dual-layer technology: principles and applications.

    PubMed

    Rassouli, Negin; Etesami, Maryam; Dhanantwari, Amar; Rajiah, Prabhakar

    2017-10-06

    Detector-based spectral computed tomography is a novel dual-energy CT technology that employs two layers of detectors to simultaneously collect low- and high-energy data in all patients using standard CT protocols. In addition to the conventional polyenergetic images created for each patient, projection-space decomposition is used to generate spectral basis images (photoelectric and Compton scatter) for creating multiple spectral images, including material decomposition (iodine-only, virtual non-contrast, effective atomic number) and virtual monoenergetic images, on-demand according to clinical need. These images are useful in multiple clinical applications, including- improving vascular contrast, improving lesion conspicuity, decreasing artefacts, material characterisation and reducing radiation dose. In this article, we discuss the principles of this novel technology and also illustrate the common clinical applications. Teaching points • The top and bottom layers of dual-layer CT absorb low- and high-energy photons, respectively.• Multiple spectral images are generated by projection-space decomposition.• Spectral images can be generated in all patients scanned in this scanner.

  1. First-principles prediction of new complex transition metal hydrides for high temperature applications.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Kelly M; Sholl, David S

    2014-11-17

    Metal hydrides with high thermodynamic stability are desirable for high-temperature applications, such as those that require high hydrogen release temperatures or low hydrogen overpressures. First-principles calculations have been used previously to identify complex transition metal hydrides (CTMHs) for high temperature use by screening materials with experimentally known structures. Here, we extend our previous screening of CTMHs with a library of 149 proposed materials based on known prototype structures and charge balancing rules. These proposed materials are typically related to known materials by cation substitution. Our semiautomated, high-throughput screening uses density functional theory (DFT) and grand canonical linear programming (GCLP) methods to compute thermodynamic properties and phase diagrams: 81 of the 149 materials are found to be thermodynamically stable. We identified seven proposed materials that release hydrogen at higher temperatures than the associated binary hydrides and at high temperature, T > 1000 K, for 1 bar H2 overpressure. Our results indicate that there are many novel CTMH compounds that are thermodynamically stable, and the computed thermodynamic data and phase diagrams should be useful for selecting materials and operating parameters for high temperature metal hydride applications.

  2. Affinity monolith chromatography: A review of principles and recent analytical applications

    PubMed Central

    Pfaunmiller, Erika L.; Paulemond, Marie Laura; Dupper, Courtney M.; Hage, David S.

    2012-01-01

    Affinity monolith chromatography (AMC) is a type of liquid chromatography that uses a monolithic support and a biologically-related binding agent as a stationary phase. AMC is a powerful method for the selective separation, analysis or studies of specific target compounds in a sample. This review discusses the basic principles of AMC and recent developments or applications of this method, with particular emphasis being given to work that has appeared in the last five years. Various materials that have been used to prepare columns for AMC are examined, including organic monoliths, silica monoliths, agarose monoliths and cryogels. These supports have been used in AMC for formats that have ranged from traditional columns to disks, microcolumns and capillaries. Many binding agents have also been employed in AMC, such as antibodies, enzymes, proteins, lectins, immobilized metal-ions and dyes. Some applications that have been reported with these binding agents in AMC are bioaffinity chromatography, immunoaffinity chromatography or immunoextraction, immobilized metal-ion affinity chromatography, dye-ligand affinity chromatography, chiral separations and biointeraction studies. Examples are presented from fields that include analytical chemistry, pharmaceutical analysis, clinical testing and biotechnology. Current trends and possible future directions in AMC are also discussed. PMID:23187827

  3. A calculus of unnecessary echoes: application of management principles to health care.

    PubMed

    Waldman, J D; McCullough, G

    2002-01-01

    We studied the clinical utility of echocardiography in children and applied principles of business management to draw conclusions that are applicable to health care in general. A significant number (13% in this series) of expensive medical diagnostic tests could be avoided without harm to patients. Cost reduction in medicine is possible in many situations without compromising quality of care. Care pathways (i.e., practice guidelines or clinical algorithms) provide one useful modality. However, for the safety of patients, all cost reduction methods must start with practicing physicians (or involve them at conceptualization) and an escape clause must be available to the treating physician for the atypical patient. The analytic approach used--concurrent assessment of percentage cost, charge, and payor--is applicable to all components of the health care value chain. The use of "percentage of charges" as an indicator of collection effectiveness is unrealistic and should be changed to "percentage potential reimbursement" because health care is effectively a fixed-reimbursement industry rather than a system subject to standard microeconomic (supply and demand) forces. The current reimbursement structure provides conflicting incentives both to health care institutions and to providers, creating an insurmountable barrier to any effective incentive system. Colloquy between practicing physicians and experts in operations management will stimulate cost reduction and can optimize the delivery of health care.

  4. [The principle and application of the single-molecule real-time sequencing technology].

    PubMed

    Yanhu, Liu; Lu, Wang; Li, Yu

    2015-03-01

    Last decade witnessed the explosive development of the third-generation sequencing strategy, including single-molecule real-time sequencing (SMRT), true single-molecule sequencing (tSMSTM) and the single-molecule nanopore DNA sequencing. In this review, we summarize the principle, performance and application of the SMRT sequencing technology. Compared with the traditional Sanger method and the next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies, the SMRT approach has several advantages, including long read length, high speed, PCR-free and the capability of direct detection of epigenetic modifications. However, the disadvantage of its low accuracy, most of which resulted from insertions and deletions, is also notable. So, the raw sequence data need to be corrected before assembly. Up to now, the SMRT is a good fit for applications in the de novo genomic sequencing and the high-quality assemblies of small genomes. In the future, it is expected to play an important role in epigenetics, transcriptomic sequencing, and assemblies of large genomes.

  5. T1ρ magnetic resonance: basic physics principles and applications in knee and intervertebral disc imaging

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qinwei; Li, Xiaojuan; Chen, Weitian; Ahuja, Anil; Yuan, Jing

    2015-01-01

    T1ρ relaxation time provides a new contrast mechanism that differs from T1- and T2-weighted contrast, and is useful to study low-frequency motional processes and chemical exchange in biological tissues. T1ρ imaging can be performed in the forms of T1ρ-weighted image, T1ρ mapping and T1ρ dispersion. T1ρ imaging, particularly at low spin-lock frequency, is sensitive to B0 and B1 inhomogeneity. Various composite spin-lock pulses have been proposed to alleviate the influence of field inhomogeneity so as to reduce the banding-like spin-lock artifacts. T1ρ imaging could be specific absorption rate (SAR) intensive and time consuming. Efforts to address these issues and speed-up data acquisition are being explored to facilitate wider clinical applications. This paper reviews the T1ρ imaging’s basic physic principles, as well as its application for cartilage imaging and intervertebral disc imaging. Compared to more established T2 relaxation time, it has been shown that T1ρ provides more sensitive detection of proteoglycan (PG) loss at early stages of cartilage degeneration. T1ρ has also been shown to provide more sensitive evaluation of annulus fibrosis (AF) degeneration of the discs. PMID:26807369

  6. T1ρ magnetic resonance: basic physics principles and applications in knee and intervertebral disc imaging.

    PubMed

    Wáng, Yì-Xiáng J; Zhang, Qinwei; Li, Xiaojuan; Chen, Weitian; Ahuja, Anil; Yuan, Jing

    2015-12-01

    T1ρ relaxation time provides a new contrast mechanism that differs from T1- and T2-weighted contrast, and is useful to study low-frequency motional processes and chemical exchange in biological tissues. T1ρ imaging can be performed in the forms of T1ρ-weighted image, T1ρ mapping and T1ρ dispersion. T1ρ imaging, particularly at low spin-lock frequency, is sensitive to B0 and B1 inhomogeneity. Various composite spin-lock pulses have been proposed to alleviate the influence of field inhomogeneity so as to reduce the banding-like spin-lock artifacts. T1ρ imaging could be specific absorption rate (SAR) intensive and time consuming. Efforts to address these issues and speed-up data acquisition are being explored to facilitate wider clinical applications. This paper reviews the T1ρ imaging's basic physic principles, as well as its application for cartilage imaging and intervertebral disc imaging. Compared to more established T2 relaxation time, it has been shown that T1ρ provides more sensitive detection of proteoglycan (PG) loss at early stages of cartilage degeneration. T1ρ has also been shown to provide more sensitive evaluation of annulus fibrosis (AF) degeneration of the discs.

  7. Cross-cultural medical education in the United States: key principles and experiences.

    PubMed

    Betancourt, Joseph R; Cervantes, Marina C

    2009-09-01

    The field of cross-cultural care focuses on the ability to communicate effectively and provide quality health care to patients from diverse sociocultural backgrounds. In recent years, medical schools in the United States have increasingly recognized the growing importance of incorporating cross-cultural curricula into medical education. Cross-cultural medical education in the United States has emerged for four reasons: (1) the need for providers to have the skills to care for a diverse patient population; (2) the link between effective communication and health outcomes; (3) the presence of racial/ethnic disparities that are, in part, due to poor communication across cultures; and (4) medical school accreditation requirements. There are three major approaches to cross-cultural education: (1) the cultural sensitivity/awareness approach that focuses on attitudes; (2) the multicultural/categorical approach that focuses on knowledge; and (3) the cross-cultural approach that focuses on skills. The patient-based approach to cross-cultural care combines these three concepts into a framework that can be used to care for any patient, anytime, anywhere. Ultimately, if cross-cultural medical education is to evolve, students must believe it is important and understand that the categorical approach can lead to stereotyping; it should be taught using patient cases and highlighting clinical applications; it should be embedded in a longitudinal, developmentally appropriate fashion; and it should be integrated into the larger curriculum whenever possible. At the Harvard Medical School, we have tried to apply all of these lessons to our work, and we have started to develop a strategic integration process where we try to raise awareness, impart knowledge, and teach cross-cultural skills over the 4 years of schooling.

  8. Principles of Public School Accounting. State Educational Records and Reports Series: Handbook II-B.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Bert K.; And Others

    This handbook discusses the following primary aspects of school accounting: Definitions and principles; opening the general ledger; recording the approved budget; a sample month of transactions; the balance sheet, monthly, and annual reports; subsidiary journals; payroll procedures; cafeteria fund accounting; debt service accounting; construction…

  9. Fighting the curse of dimensionality in first-principles semiclassical calculations: non-local reference states for large number of dimensions.

    PubMed

    Ceotto, Michele; Tantardini, Gian Franco; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán

    2011-12-07

    Semiclassical methods face numerical challenges as the dimensionality of the system increases. In the general context of the theory of differential equations, this is known as the "curse of dimensionality." In the present manuscript, we apply the recently-introduced multi-coherent states semiclassical initial value representation (MC-SC-IVR) approach to extend the applicability of first-principles semiclassical calculations. The proposed strategy involves the use of non-local coherent states with the goal of increasing accuracy in the Fourier transforms, and on the other hand, allows for the selection of peaks of different frequencies. The ability to filter desired peaks is important for analyzing the power spectra of complex systems. The MC-SC-IVR approach allows us to solve a 19-dimensional test system and to resolve on-the-fly the power spectra of the formaldehyde molecule with very few classical trajectories.

  10. Spin polarization and transport of surface states in the topological insulators Bi2Se3 and Bi2Te3 from first principles.

    PubMed

    Yazyev, Oleg V; Moore, Joel E; Louie, Steven G

    2010-12-31

    We investigate the band dispersion and the spin texture of topologically protected surface states in the bulk topological insulators Bi2Se3 and Bi2Te3 by first-principles methods. Strong spin-orbit entanglement in these materials reduces the spin polarization of the surface states to ∼50% in both cases; this reduction is absent in simple models but of important implications to essentially any spintronic application. We propose a way of controlling the magnitude of spin polarization associated with a charge current in thin films of topological insulators by means of an external electric field. The proposed dual-gate device configuration provides new possibilities for electrical control of spin.

  11. Fighting the curse of dimensionality in first-principles semiclassical calculations: Non-local reference states for large number of dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceotto, Michele; Tantardini, Gian Franco; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán

    2011-12-01

    Semiclassical methods face numerical challenges as the dimensionality of the system increases. In the general context of the theory of differential equations, this is known as the "curse of dimensionality." In the present manuscript, we apply the recently-introduced multi-coherent states semiclassical initial value representation (MC-SC-IVR) approach to extend the applicability of first-principles semiclassical calculations. The proposed strategy involves the use of non-local coherent states with the goal of increasing accuracy in the Fourier transforms, and on the other hand, allows for the selection of peaks of different frequencies. The ability to filter desired peaks is important for analyzing the power spectra of complex systems. The MC-SC-IVR approach allows us to solve a 19-dimensional test system and to resolve on-the-fly the power spectra of the formaldehyde molecule with very few classical trajectories.

  12. Maximum Principle of Optimal Control of the Primitive Equations of the Ocean with Two Point Boundary State Constraint

    SciTech Connect

    Tachim Medjo, Theodore

    2010-08-15

    We study in this article the Pontryagin's maximum principle for a class of control problems associated with the primitive equations (PEs) of the ocean with two point boundary state constraint. These optimal problems involve a two point boundary state constraint similar to that considered in Wang, Nonlinear Anal. 51, 509-536, 2002 for the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes (NS) equations. The main difference between this work and Wang, Nonlinear Anal. 51, 509-536, 2002 is that the nonlinearity in the PEs is stronger than in the three-dimensional NS systems.

  13. 29 CFR 18.302 - Applicability of state law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES Rules of Evidence Presumptions § 18.302 Applicability of state law... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability of state law. 18.302 Section 18.302 Labor... State law supplies the rule of decision is determined in accordance with State law. Relevancy and Its...

  14. 36 CFR 1004.2 - State law applicable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... State law applicable. (a) Unless specifically addressed by regulations in this chapter, traffic and the... State law. State law that is now or may later be in effect is adopted and made a part of the regulations... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false State law applicable. 1004.2...

  15. 29 CFR 18.302 - Applicability of state law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Applicability of state law. 18.302 Section 18.302 Labor... OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES Rules of Evidence Presumptions § 18.302 Applicability of state law... State law supplies the rule of decision is determined in accordance with State law. Relevancy and...

  16. 32 CFR 1903.3 - State law applicable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false State law applicable. 1903.3 Section 1903.3... AGENCY INSTALLATIONS § 1903.3 State law applicable. (a) Unless specifically addressed by the regulations... installation are governed by State law. State law that is now or may later be in effect is adopted and made...

  17. 36 CFR 1004.2 - State law applicable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false State law applicable. 1004.2... State law applicable. (a) Unless specifically addressed by regulations in this chapter, traffic and the... State law. State law that is now or may later be in effect is adopted and made a part of the...

  18. 36 CFR 1004.2 - State law applicable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false State law applicable. 1004.2... State law applicable. (a) Unless specifically addressed by regulations in this chapter, traffic and the... State law. State law that is now or may later be in effect is adopted and made a part of the...

  19. 36 CFR 4.2 - State law applicable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false State law applicable. 4.2... AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 4.2 State law applicable. (a) Unless specifically addressed by regulations in this chapter, traffic and the use of vehicles within a park area are governed by State law. State...

  20. Structure-Based Virtual Screening for Drug Discovery: Principles, Applications and Recent Advances

    PubMed Central

    Lionta, Evanthia; Spyrou, George; Vassilatis, Demetrios K.; Cournia, Zoe

    2014-01-01

    Structure-based drug discovery (SBDD) is becoming an essential tool in assisting fast and cost-efficient lead discovery and optimization. The application of rational, structure-based drug design is proven to be more efficient than the traditional way of drug discovery since it aims to understand the molecular basis of a disease and utilizes the knowledge of the three-dimensional structure of the biological target in the process. In this review, we focus on the principles and applications of Virtual Screening (VS) within the context of SBDD and examine different procedures ranging from the initial stages of the process that include receptor and library pre-processing, to docking, scoring and post-processing of topscoring hits. Recent improvements in structure-based virtual screening (SBVS) efficiency through ensemble docking, induced fit and consensus docking are also discussed. The review highlights advances in the field within the framework of several success studies that have led to nM inhibition directly from VS and provides recent trends in library design as well as discusses limitations of the method. Applications of SBVS in the design of substrates for engineered proteins that enable the discovery of new metabolic and signal transduction pathways and the design of inhibitors of multifunctional proteins are also reviewed. Finally, we contribute two promising VS protocols recently developed by us that aim to increase inhibitor selectivity. In the first protocol, we describe the discovery of micromolar inhibitors through SBVS designed to inhibit the mutant H1047R PI3Kα kinase. Second, we discuss a strategy for the identification of selective binders for the RXRα nuclear receptor. In this protocol, a set of target structures is constructed for ensemble docking based on binding site shape characterization and clustering, aiming to enhance the hit rate of selective inhibitors for the desired protein target through the SBVS process. PMID:25262799

  1. State of Vermont Consolidated State Application Accountability Workbook. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This workbook, submitted by the State of Vermont to the U.S. Department of Education, is for State Grants under Title IX, Part C, Section 9302 of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (Public Law 107-110). It is a summary of implementation status for required elements of state accountability systems. By January 31, 2003, States must complete…

  2. Current State and Future Prospect of Applications of Elliptic Function to Electric Power Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinoshita, Haruka; Watanabe, Kazuo

    The paper deals with the current state and future prospect of applications of elliptic function to the electric power and energy field. In particular, practical use of conformal mapping technology by elliptic function are introduced for electric power cables. Returning to Riemann's basic principle “thinking instead of calculation”, against the main current of numerical calculation, we have a new understanding of elliptic function analysis for the usefulness and the beautiful with simplicity and elegance.

  3. 45 CFR Appendix E to Part 74 - Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Research and Development Under Grants and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Research and Development Under Grants and Contracts With Hospitals E Appendix E to Part 74 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR AWARDS AND SUBAWARDS TO INSTITUTIONS OF...

  4. Application of Theories, Principles and Methods of Adult Learning for Managers to Improve Workplace Reactions to Learning, Knowledge and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steier, E. Joseph, III

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this dissertation was to explore the concept that knowledge and application of theories, principles and methods of adult learning to teaching may be a core management competency needed for companies to improve employee reaction to learning, knowledge transfer and behavior as well as engagement, retention and profitability.…

  5. Application of Theories, Principles and Methods of Adult Learning for Managers to Improve Workplace Reactions to Learning, Knowledge and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steier, E. Joseph, III

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this dissertation was to explore the concept that knowledge and application of theories, principles and methods of adult learning to teaching may be a core management competency needed for companies to improve employee reaction to learning, knowledge transfer and behavior as well as engagement, retention and profitability.…

  6. 2 CFR Appendix A to Part 220 - Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Grants, Contracts, and Other Agreements With...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Grants, Contracts, and Other Agreements With Educational Institutions A Appendix A to Part 220 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET CIRCULARS AND GUIDANCE Reserve...

  7. 2 CFR Appendix A to Part 220 - Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Grants, Contracts, and Other Agreements With...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Grants, Contracts, and Other Agreements With Educational Institutions A Appendix A to Part 220 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET CIRCULARS AND GUIDANCE Reserve...

  8. Designing Excellence in Secondary Vocational Education: Applications of Principles from Effective Schooling and Successful Business Practices. Research Summary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Thomas R.; Crohn, Leslie

    Two sets of research findings are available that may provide a sound base for conducting vocational education research leading to systematic program improvement and to the attainment of excellence in education. The first is effective schooling research and the second concerns principles used by successful businesses in the United States. An…

  9. First-Principles Models for van der Waals Interactions in Molecules and Materials: Concepts, Theory, and Applications.

    PubMed

    Hermann, Jan; DiStasio, Robert A; Tkatchenko, Alexandre

    2017-03-22

    Noncovalent van der Waals (vdW) or dispersion forces are ubiquitous in nature and influence the structure, stability, dynamics, and function of molecules and materials throughout chemistry, biology, physics, and materials science. These forces are quantum mechanical in origin and arise from electrostatic interactions between fluctuations in the electronic charge density. Here, we explore the conceptual and mathematical ingredients required for an exact treatment of vdW interactions, and present a systematic and unified framework for classifying the current first-principles vdW methods based on the adiabatic-connection fluctuation-dissipation (ACFD) theorem (namely the Rutgers-Chalmers vdW-DF, Vydrov-Van Voorhis (VV), exchange-hole dipole moment (XDM), Tkatchenko-Scheffler (TS), many-body dispersion (MBD), and random-phase approximation (RPA) approaches). Particular attention is paid to the intriguing nature of many-body vdW interactions, whose fundamental relevance has recently been highlighted in several landmark experiments. The performance of these models in predicting binding energetics as well as structural, electronic, and thermodynamic properties is connected with the theoretical concepts and provides a numerical summary of the state-of-the-art in the field. We conclude with a roadmap of the conceptual, methodological, practical, and numerical challenges that remain in obtaining a universally applicable and truly predictive vdW method for realistic molecular systems and materials.

  10. Principles for new optical techniques in medical diagnostics for mHealth applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balsam, Joshua Michael

    Medical diagnostics is a critical element of effective medical treatment. However, many modern and emerging diagnostic technologies are not affordable or compatible with the needs and conditions found in low-income and middle-income countries and regions. Resource-poor areas require low-cost, robust, easy-to-use, and portable diagnostics devices compatible with telemedicine (i.e. mHealth) that can be adapted to meet diverse medical needs. Many suitable devices will need to be based on optical technologies, which are used for many types of biological analyses. This dissertation describes the fabrication and detection principles for several low-cost optical technologies for mHealth applications including: (1) a webcam based multi-wavelength fluorescence plate reader, (2) a lens-free optical detector used for the detection of Botulinum A neurotoxin activity, (3) a low cost micro-array reader that allows the performance of typical fluorescence based assays demonstrated for the detection of the toxin staphylococcal enterotoxin (SEB), and (4) a wide-field flow cytometer for high throughput detection of fluorescently labeled rare cells. This dissertation discusses how these technologies can be harnessed using readily available consumer electronics components such as webcams, cell phones, CCD cameras, LEDs, and laser diodes. There are challenges in developing devices with sufficient sensitivity and specificity, and approaches are presented to overcoming these challenges to create optical detectors that can serve as low cost medical diagnostics in resource-poor settings for mHealth.

  11. Superhydrophobic hierarchically structured surfaces in biology: evolution, structural principles and biomimetic applications.

    PubMed

    Barthlott, W; Mail, M; Neinhuis, C

    2016-08-06

    A comprehensive survey of the construction principles and occurrences of superhydrophobic surfaces in plants, animals and other organisms is provided and is based on our own scanning electron microscopic examinations of almost 20 000 different species and the existing literature. Properties such as self-cleaning (lotus effect), fluid drag reduction (Salvinia effect) and the introduction of new functions (air layers as sensory systems) are described and biomimetic applications are discussed: self-cleaning is established, drag reduction becomes increasingly important, and novel air-retaining grid technology is introduced. Surprisingly, no evidence for lasting superhydrophobicity in non-biological surfaces exists (except technical materials). Phylogenetic trees indicate that superhydrophobicity evolved as a consequence of the conquest of land about 450 million years ago and may be a key innovation in the evolution of terrestrial life. The approximate 10 million extant species exhibit a stunning diversity of materials and structures, many of which are formed by self-assembly, and are solely based on a limited number of molecules. A short historical survey shows that bionics (today often called biomimetics) dates back more than 100 years. Statistical data illustrate that the interest in biomimetic surfaces is much younger still. Superhydrophobicity caught the attention of scientists only after the extreme superhydrophobicity of lotus leaves was published in 1997. Regrettably, parabionic products play an increasing role in marketing.This article is part of the themed issue 'Bioinspired hierarchically structured surfaces for green science'.

  12. Inverse Problem Optimization Method to Design Passive Samplers for Volatile Organic Compounds: Principle and Application.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jianping; Du, Zhengjian; Mo, Jinhan; Li, Xinxiao; Xu, Qiujian; Zhang, Yinping

    2016-12-20

    Passive sampling is an alternative to active sampling for measuring concentrations of gas-phase volatile organic compounds (VOCs). However, the uncertainty or relative error of the measurements have not been minimized due to the limitations of existing design methods. In this paper, we have developed a novel method, the inverse problem optimization method, to address the problems associated with designing accurate passive samplers. The principle is to determine the most appropriate physical properties of the materials, and the optimal geometry of a passive sampler, by minimizing the relative sampling error based on the mass transfer model of VOCs for a passive sampler. As an example application, we used our proposed method to optimize radial passive samplers for the sampling of benzene and formaldehyde in a normal indoor environment. A new passive sampler, which we have called the Tsinghua Passive Diffusive Sampler (THPDS), for indoor benzene measurement was developed according to the optimized results. Silica zeolite was selected as the sorbent for the THPDS. The measured overall uncertainty of THPDS (22% for benzene) is lower than that of most commercially available passive samplers but is quite a bit larger than the modeled uncertainty (4.8% for benzene, the optimized result), suggesting that further research is required.

  13. Using Electromagnetic Induction Technique to Detect Hydropedological Dynamics: Principles and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Qing; Liao, Kaihua; Doolittle, James; Lin, Henry

    2014-05-01

    Hydropedological dynamics including soil moisture variation, subsurface flow, and spatial distributions of different soil properties are important parameters in ecological, environmental, hydrological, and agricultural modeling and applications. However, technical gap exists in mapping these dynamics at intermediate spatial scale (e.g., farm and catchment scales). At intermediate scales, in-situ monitoring provides detailed data, but is restricted in number and spatial coverage; while remote sensing provides more acceptable spatial coverage, but has comparatively low spatial resolution, limited observation depths, and is greatly influenced by the surface condition and climate. As a non-invasive, fast, and convenient geophysical tool, electromagnetic induction (EMI) measures soil apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) and has great potential to bridge this technical gap. In this presentation, principles of different EMI meters are briefly introduced. Then, case studies of using repeated EMI to detect spatial distributions of subsurface convergent flow, soil moisture dynamics, soil types and their transition zones, and different soil properties are presented. The suitability, effectiveness, and accuracy of EMI are evaluated for mapping different hydropedological dynamics. Lastly, contributions of different hydropedological and terrain properties on soil ECa are quantified under different wetness conditions, seasons, and land use types using Classification and Regression Tree model. Trend removal and residual analysis are then used for further mining of EMI survey data. Based on these analyses, proper EMI survey designs and data processing are proposed.

  14. The practical application of implementing the equimolar response principle of chemiluminescent nitrogen detection in pharmaceutical analysis.

    PubMed

    Liang, X; Patel, H; Young, J; Shah, P; Raglione, T

    2008-08-05

    Since nearly 90% of all developmental and marketed drugs contain at least one nitrogen atom, the implementation of chemiluminescent nitrogen detection (CLND) in pharmaceutical analysis is intriguing due to its equimolar response for nitrogen. Although the documented accuracy of CLND when using a surrogate nitrogen-containing standard may be inadequate for purity and potency determinations, it is acceptable for the quantitation of low-level impurities. A comparison of the quantitative results obtained using both CLND and UV detection for a developmental drug and its related impurities is presented. The results indicated that the impurities can be accurately quantified using a surrogate standard, based on the equimolar response principle of CLND, when the concentrations of the surrogate standard and the component of interest are similar. When the impurities are present at much lower levels than the surrogate standard however, the common practice of direct conversion of area percent to weight percent can result in significant errors using CLND, due to the limited linear dynamic range for CLND. To increase quantitation accuracy, the authors propose that a secondary dilution of the surrogate reference standard solution should be used for the quantitation of low-level impurities. The practical application of this approach for impurity quantitation or as a means to determine impurity relative response factors for use with a traditional UV based method is discussed.

  15. Principle and Performance of Gas Self-inducing Reactors and Applications to Biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Ye, Qin; Li, Zhimin; Wu, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Gas-liquid contacting is an important unit operation in chemical and biochemical processes, but the gas utilization efficiency is low in conventional gas-liquid contactors especially for sparingly soluble gases. The gas self-inducing impeller is able to recycle gas in the headspace of a reactor to the liquid without utilization of additional equipment such as a gas compressor, and thus, the gas utilization efficiency is significantly enhanced. Gas induction is caused by the low pressure or deep vortex at a sufficiently high impeller speed, and the speed at which gas induction starts is termed the critical speed. The critical impeller speed, gas-induction flow rate, power consumption, and gas-liquid mass transfer are determined by the impeller design and operation conditions. When the reactor is operated in a dead-end mode, all the introduced gas can be completely used, and this feature is especially favorable to flammable and/or toxic gases. In this article, the principles, designs, characteristics of self-inducing reactors, and applications to biotechnology are described.

  16. Superhydrophobic hierarchically structured surfaces in biology: evolution, structural principles and biomimetic applications

    PubMed Central

    Mail, M.; Neinhuis, C.

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive survey of the construction principles and occurrences of superhydrophobic surfaces in plants, animals and other organisms is provided and is based on our own scanning electron microscopic examinations of almost 20 000 different species and the existing literature. Properties such as self-cleaning (lotus effect), fluid drag reduction (Salvinia effect) and the introduction of new functions (air layers as sensory systems) are described and biomimetic applications are discussed: self-cleaning is established, drag reduction becomes increasingly important, and novel air-retaining grid technology is introduced. Surprisingly, no evidence for lasting superhydrophobicity in non-biological surfaces exists (except technical materials). Phylogenetic trees indicate that superhydrophobicity evolved as a consequence of the conquest of land about 450 million years ago and may be a key innovation in the evolution of terrestrial life. The approximate 10 million extant species exhibit a stunning diversity of materials and structures, many of which are formed by self-assembly, and are solely based on a limited number of molecules. A short historical survey shows that bionics (today often called biomimetics) dates back more than 100 years. Statistical data illustrate that the interest in biomimetic surfaces is much younger still. Superhydrophobicity caught the attention of scientists only after the extreme superhydrophobicity of lotus leaves was published in 1997. Regrettably, parabionic products play an increasing role in marketing. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Bioinspired hierarchically structured surfaces for green science’. PMID:27354736

  17. Linear and non-linear spectroscopy of microparticles: basic principles, new techniques and promising applications.

    PubMed

    Chang, Richard K; Pan, Yong-Le

    2008-01-01

    In the introduction a brief recollection is made of how one of us (RKC), accidentally, got into this field of linear and nonlinear spectroscopy of a dielectric micro-particle that can be treated as a micro-cavity or a micro-resonator. The basic principles of whispering gallery modes (WGMs) and their relationship with electromagnetic theory are presented. To simplify the mathematics, we only discuss an example from a 2-d case of light illumination perpendicular to the fiber axis. This 2-d example has relevance to semiconductor circular disk lasers, nonlinear optics in torroids, fibers and spheres at the tip of a fiber. The internal and near-field distribution of a WGM are graphically plotted to give the reader a chance to get a physical understanding of the spatial distribution as well as spectral distribution of WGMs. Several new techniques that enable the measurements of: (1) nanometer changes in the cladding diameter over a centimeter length of fiber; (2) some aspects of the morphology of micro-particles by elastic scattering; and (3) biochemical reactions at the interface of liquid media with a sphere at the end of a fiber. A few interesting nonlinear optical experimental results pertaining to stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) are touched upon. We present some preliminary results for promising applications in the area of bioaerosols. These include ambient aerosol characterization and identification with elastic scattering, fluorescence spectroscopy, and other optical and/or biochemical identifiers.

  18. A pharmacy business management simulation exercise as a practical application of business management material and principles.

    PubMed

    Rollins, Brent L; Gunturi, Rahul; Sullivan, Donald

    2014-04-17

    To implement a pharmacy business management simulation exercise as a practical application of business management material and principles and assess students' perceived value. As part of a pharmacy management and administration course, students made various calculations and management decisions in the global categories of hours of operation, inventory, pricing, and personnel. The students entered the data into simulation software and a realistic community pharmacy marketplace was modeled. Course topics included accounting, economics, finance, human resources, management, marketing, and leadership. An 18-item posttest survey was administered. Students' slightly to moderately agreed the pharmacy simulation program enhanced their knowledge and understanding, particularly of inventory management, cash flow statements, balance sheets, and income statements. Overall attitudes toward the pharmacy simulation program were also slightly positive and students also slightly agreed the pharmacy simulation program enhanced their learning of pharmacy business management. Inventory management was the only area in which students felt they had at least "some" exposure to the assessed business management topics during IPPEs/internship, while all other areas of experience ranged from "not at all" to "a little." The pharmacy simulation program is an effective active-learning exercise and enhanced students' knowledge and understanding of the business management topics covered.

  19. Contactless inductive flow tomography: basic principles and first applications in the experimental modelling of continuous casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefani, F.; Eckert, S.; Ratajczak, M.; Timmel, K.; Wondrak, T.

    2016-07-01

    Contactless inductive flow tomography (CIFT) aims at reconstructing the flow structure of a liquid metal from the magnetic fields measured at various positions outside the fluid body which are induced by the flow under the influence of one or multiple applied magnetic fields. We recap the basic mathematical principles of CIFT and the results of an experiment in which the propeller-driven three-dimensional flow in a cylindrical had been reconstructed. We also summarize the recent activities to utilize CIFT in various problems connected with the experimental simulation of the continuous casting process. These include flow reconstructions in single-phase and two-phase flow problems in the Mini-LIMMCAST model of slab-casting, studies of the specific effects of an electromagnetic stirrer attached to the Submerged Entry Nozzle (SEN), as well as first successful applications of CIFT on the background of a strong electromagnetic brake field. We conclude by discussing some remaining obstacles for the deployment of CIFT in a real caster.

  20. Principles and Applications of Ultrasonic-Based Nondestructive Methods for Self-Healing in Cementitious Materials

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Eunjong; Kim, Hyunjun; Sim, Sung-Han; Shin, Sung Woo; Shin, Myoungsu

    2017-01-01

    Recently, self-healing technologies have emerged as a promising approach to extend the service life of social infrastructure in the field of concrete construction. However, current evaluations of the self-healing technologies developed for cementitious materials are mostly limited to lab-scale experiments to inspect changes in surface crack width (by optical microscopy) and permeability. Furthermore, there is a universal lack of unified test methods to assess the effectiveness of self-healing technologies. Particularly, with respect to the self-healing of concrete applied in actual construction, nondestructive test methods are required to avoid interrupting the use of the structures under evaluation. This paper presents a review of all existing research on the principles of ultrasonic test methods and case studies pertaining to self-healing concrete. The main objective of the study is to examine the applicability and limitation of various ultrasonic test methods in assessing the self-healing performance. Finally, future directions on the development of reliable assessment methods for self-healing cementitious materials are suggested. PMID:28772640

  1. Quantification of protein posttranslational modifications using stable isotope and mass spectrometry I: principles and applications.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xinzhao Grace; Apostol, Izydor; Luo, Quanzhou; Lewis, Jeffrey; Keener, Ronald; Luo, Shun; Jerums, Matthew; Zhang, Xin; Wypych, Jette; Huang, Gang

    2012-02-15

    With the increased attention to quality by design (QbD) for biopharmaceutical products, there is a demand for accurate and precise quantification methods to monitor critical quality attributes (CQAs). To address this need we have developed a mass spectrometry (MS) based method to quantify a wide range of posttranslational modifications (PTMs) in recombinant proteins using stable isotope-labeled internal standard (SILIS). The SILIS was produced through metabolic labeling where ¹⁵N was uniformly introduced at every nitrogen atom in the studied proteins. To enhance the accuracy of the method, the levels of PTMs in SILIS were quantified using orthogonal analytical techniques. Digestion of an unknown sample mixed with SILIS generates a labeled and a nonlabeled version of each peptide. The nonlabeled and labeled counterparts coelute during RP-HPLC separation but exhibit a sufficient mass difference to be distinguished by MS detection. With the application of SILIS, numerous PTMs can be quantified in a single analysis based on the measured MS signal ratios of ¹⁵N-labeled versus the nonlabeled pairs. Several examples using microbial and mammalian-expressed recombinant proteins demonstrated the principle and utility of this method. The results indicate that SILIS is a valuable methodology in addressing CQAs for the QbD paradigm. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A Pharmacy Business Management Simulation Exercise as a Practical Application of Business Management Material and Principles

    PubMed Central

    Rollins, Brent L.; Gunturi, Rahul; Sullivan, Donald

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To implement a pharmacy business management simulation exercise as a practical application of business management material and principles and assess students’ perceived value. Design. As part of a pharmacy management and administration course, students made various calculations and management decisions in the global categories of hours of operation, inventory, pricing, and personnel. The students entered the data into simulation software and a realistic community pharmacy marketplace was modeled. Course topics included accounting, economics, finance, human resources, management, marketing, and leadership. Assessment. An 18-item posttest survey was administered. Students’ slightly to moderately agreed the pharmacy simulation program enhanced their knowledge and understanding, particularly of inventory management, cash flow statements, balance sheets, and income statements. Overall attitudes toward the pharmacy simulation program were also slightly positive and students also slightly agreed the pharmacy simulation program enhanced their learning of pharmacy business management. Inventory management was the only area in which students felt they had at least “some” exposure to the assessed business management topics during IPPEs/internship, while all other areas of experience ranged from “not at all” to “a little.” Conclusion. The pharmacy simulation program is an effective active-learning exercise and enhanced students’ knowledge and understanding of the business management topics covered. PMID:24761023

  3. Rapid methods for the detection of foodborne bacterial pathogens: principles, applications, advantages and limitations

    PubMed Central

    Law, Jodi Woan-Fei; Ab Mutalib, Nurul-Syakima; Chan, Kok-Gan; Lee, Learn-Han

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of foodborne diseases has increased over the years and resulted in major public health problem globally. Foodborne pathogens can be found in various foods and it is important to detect foodborne pathogens to provide safe food supply and to prevent foodborne diseases. The conventional methods used to detect foodborne pathogen are time consuming and laborious. Hence, a variety of methods have been developed for rapid detection of foodborne pathogens as it is required in many food analyses. Rapid detection methods can be categorized into nucleic acid-based, biosensor-based and immunological-based methods. This review emphasizes on the principles and application of recent rapid methods for the detection of foodborne bacterial pathogens. Detection methods included are simple polymerase chain reaction (PCR), multiplex PCR, real-time PCR, nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA), loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and oligonucleotide DNA microarray which classified as nucleic acid-based methods; optical, electrochemical and mass-based biosensors which classified as biosensor-based methods; enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and lateral flow immunoassay which classified as immunological-based methods. In general, rapid detection methods are generally time-efficient, sensitive, specific and labor-saving. The developments of rapid detection methods are vital in prevention and treatment of foodborne diseases. PMID:25628612

  4. Second Order Boltzmann-Gibbs Principle for Polynomial Functions and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, Patrícia; Jara, Milton; Simon, Marielle

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we give a new proof of the second order Boltzmann-Gibbs principle introduced in Gonçalves and Jara (Arch Ration Mech Anal 212(2):597-644, 2014). The proof does not impose the knowledge on the spectral gap inequality for the underlying model and it relies on a proper decomposition of the antisymmetric part of the current of the system in terms of polynomial functions. In addition, we fully derive the convergence of the equilibrium fluctuations towards (1) a trivial process in case of super-diffusive systems, (2) an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process or the unique energy solution of the stochastic Burgers equation, as defined in Gubinelli and Jara (SPDEs Anal Comput (1):325-350, 2013) and Gubinelli and Perkowski (Arxiv:1508.07764, 2015), in case of weakly asymmetric diffusive systems. Examples and applications are presented for weakly and partial asymmetric exclusion processes, weakly asymmetric speed change exclusion processes and hamiltonian systems with exponential interactions.

  5. Principles and Applications of Ultrasonic-Based Nondestructive Methods for Self-Healing in Cementitious Materials.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Eunjong; Kim, Hyunjun; Sim, Sung-Han; Shin, Sung Woo; Shin, Myoungsu

    2017-03-10

    Recently, self-healing technologies have emerged as a promising approach to extend the service life of social infrastructure in the field of concrete construction. However, current evaluations of the self-healing technologies developed for cementitious materials are mostly limited to lab-scale experiments to inspect changes in surface crack width (by optical microscopy) and permeability. Furthermore, there is a universal lack of unified test methods to assess the effectiveness of self-healing technologies. Particularly, with respect to the self-healing of concrete applied in actual construction, nondestructive test methods are required to avoid interrupting the use of the structures under evaluation. This paper presents a review of all existing research on the principles of ultrasonic test methods and case studies pertaining to self-healing concrete. The main objective of the study is to examine the applicability and limitation of various ultrasonic test methods in assessing the self-healing performance. Finally, future directions on the development of reliable assessment methods for self-healing cementitious materials are suggested.

  6. Rapid methods for the detection of foodborne bacterial pathogens: principles, applications, advantages and limitations.

    PubMed

    Law, Jodi Woan-Fei; Ab Mutalib, Nurul-Syakima; Chan, Kok-Gan; Lee, Learn-Han

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of foodborne diseases has increased over the years and resulted in major public health problem globally. Foodborne pathogens can be found in various foods and it is important to detect foodborne pathogens to provide safe food supply and to prevent foodborne diseases. The conventional methods used to detect foodborne pathogen are time consuming and laborious. Hence, a variety of methods have been developed for rapid detection of foodborne pathogens as it is required in many food analyses. Rapid detection methods can be categorized into nucleic acid-based, biosensor-based and immunological-based methods. This review emphasizes on the principles and application of recent rapid methods for the detection of foodborne bacterial pathogens. Detection methods included are simple polymerase chain reaction (PCR), multiplex PCR, real-time PCR, nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA), loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and oligonucleotide DNA microarray which classified as nucleic acid-based methods; optical, electrochemical and mass-based biosensors which classified as biosensor-based methods; enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and lateral flow immunoassay which classified as immunological-based methods. In general, rapid detection methods are generally time-efficient, sensitive, specific and labor-saving. The developments of rapid detection methods are vital in prevention and treatment of foodborne diseases.

  7. Dual- and Multi-Energy CT: Principles, Technical Approaches, and Clinical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Leng, Shuai; Yu, Lifeng; Fletcher, Joel G.

    2015-01-01

    In x-ray computed tomography (CT), materials having different elemental compositions can be represented by identical pixel values on a CT image (ie, CT numbers), depending on the mass density of the material. Thus, the differentiation and classification of different tissue types and contrast agents can be extremely challenging. In dual-energy CT, an additional attenuation measurement is obtained with a second x-ray spectrum (ie, a second “energy”), allowing the differentiation of multiple materials. Alternatively, this allows quantification of the mass density of two or three materials in a mixture with known elemental composition. Recent advances in the use of energy-resolving, photon-counting detectors for CT imaging suggest the ability to acquire data in multiple energy bins, which is expected to further improve the signal-to-noise ratio for material-specific imaging. In this review, the underlying motivation and physical principles of dual- or multi-energy CT are reviewed and each of the current technical approaches is described. In addition, current and evolving clinical applications are introduced. © RSNA, 2015 PMID:26302388

  8. Students' perceptions of the interprofessional team in practice through the application of servant leadership principles.

    PubMed

    Neill, Mark; Hayward, Karen S; Peterson, Teri

    2007-08-01

    This study examined students' perceptions of interprofessional practice within a framework of servant leadership principles, applied in the care of rural older adults utilizing a service learning model. Mobile wellness services were provided through the Idaho State University Senior Health Mobile project in a collaborative team approach in the community-based setting. Students from varied health professional programs were placed in teams for the provision of wellness care, with communication among team members facilitated by a health professions faculty member serving as field coordinator. The Interdisciplinary Education Perception Scale (IEPS) was used to measure students' perceptions of interprofessional practice using a pretest post-test research design. Multivariate analysis was performed revealing a significant pretest to post-test effect on students' perceptions as measured by factors inherent in the IEPS and deemed essential to effective interprofessional practice. Univariate analysis revealed a significant change in students' perception of professional competence and autonomy, actual cooperation and resource sharing within and across professions, and an understanding of the value and contributions of other professionals from pretest to post-test.

  9. Bioremediation techniques-classification based on site of application: principles, advantages, limitations and prospects.

    PubMed

    Azubuike, Christopher Chibueze; Chikere, Chioma Blaise; Okpokwasili, Gideon Chijioke

    2016-11-01

    Environmental pollution has been on the rise in the past few decades owing to increased human activities on energy reservoirs, unsafe agricultural practices and rapid industrialization. Amongst the pollutants that are of environmental and public health concerns due to their toxicities are: heavy metals, nuclear wastes, pesticides, green house gases, and hydrocarbons. Remediation of polluted sites using microbial process (bioremediation) has proven effective and reliable due to its eco-friendly features. Bioremediation can either be carried out ex situ or in situ, depending on several factors, which include but not limited to cost, site characteristics, type and concentration of pollutants. Generally, ex situ techniques apparently are more expensive compared to in situ techniques as a result of additional cost attributable to excavation. However, cost of on-site installation of equipment, and inability to effectively visualize and control the subsurface of polluted sites are of major concerns when carrying out in situ bioremediation. Therefore, choosing appropriate bioremediation technique, which will effectively reduce pollutant concentrations to an innocuous state, is crucial for a successful bioremediation project. Furthermore, the two major approaches to enhance bioremediation are biostimulation and bioaugmentation provided that environmental factors, which determine the success of bioremediation, are maintained at optimal range. This review provides more insight into the two major bioremediation techniques, their principles, advantages, limitations and prospects.

  10. The Impact of Emotion on Learners' Application of Basic Science Principles to Novel Problems.

    PubMed

    McConnell, Meghan M; Monteiro, Sandra; Pottruff, Molly M; Neville, Alan; Norman, Geoff R; Eva, Kevin W; Kulasegaram, Kulamakan

    2016-11-01

    Training to become a physician is an emotionally laden experience. Research in cognitive psychology indicates that emotions can influence learning and performance, but the materials used in such research (e.g., word lists) rarely reflect the complexity of material presented in medical school. The present study examined whether emotions influence learning of basic science principles. Fifty-five undergraduate psychology students were randomly assigned to write about positive, negative, or neutral life events for nine minutes. Participants were then taught three physiological concepts, each in the context of a single organ system. Testing consisted of 13 clinical cases, 7 presented with the same concept/organ system pairing used during training ("near transfer") and 6 with novel pairings ("far transfer"). Testing was repeated after one week with 13 additional cases. Forty-nine students provided complete data. Higher test scores were found when the concept/organ system pairing was held constant (near transfer = 51% correct vs. far = 33%; P < .001). Emotion condition influenced participants' overall performance, with individuals in the neutral condition (50.1%) performing better than those in the positive (38.2%, P < .05) and negative (37.7%, P < .001) emotion conditions. These data suggest that regardless of whether the emotion is positive or negative, mild affective states can impair learning of basic science concepts by novices. Demands on working memory and subsequent cognitive load provide a potential explanation. Future work will examine the extent to which these findings generalize to medical trainees.

  11. First-principles study of (Ga, Al)-codoped ZnO for optoelectronic device application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Praveen K.; Salim, Mohammad

    2017-07-01

    The relative stability, electronic structure, and optical properties of (Ga-Al)-codoped ZnO were investigated by first-principles calculations based on density functional theory (DFT). To study the doping effects, ZnO supercells with 32 atoms were built. The results were obtained by using Material Studios 8.0 provided by Accelrys. Ab initio spin-polarized all-electron DFT computations have been performed for substitution. The results indicate that the energy band shifts towards the higher-energy region for Al- and/or Ga-doped ZnO, which endorsed the doping of Al and/or Ga. It has been observed that the preparation of (Ga-Al)-codoped ZnO is difficult compared to Al/Ga-doped ZnO due to the considerably larger formation energy required. The imaginary part of the dielectric function ɛ 2(ω), reflectivity R(ω), absorption coefficient α(ω), and refractive index n(ω) were calculated. The contribution of different density of states in the formation of the conduction and valence band has been analyzed for different configurations of ZnO.

  12. Variation Principles and Applications in the Study of Cell Structure and Aging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Economos, Angelos C.; Miquel, Jaime; Ballard, Ralph C.; Johnson, John E., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    In this report we have attempted to show that "some reality lies concealed in biological variation". This "reality" has its principles, laws, mechanisms, and rules, only a few of which we have sketched. A related idea we pursued was that important information may be lost in the process of ignoring frequency distributions of physiological variables (as is customary in experimental physiology and gerontology). We suggested that it may be advantageous to expand one's "statistical field of vision" beyond simple averages +/- standard deviations. Indeed, frequency distribution analysis may make visible some hidden information not evident from a simple qualitative analysis, particularly when the effect of some external factor or condition (e.g., aging, dietary chemicals) is being investigated. This was clearly illustrated by the application of distribution analysis in the study of variation in mouse liver cellular and fine structure, and may be true of fine structural studies in general. In living systems, structure and function interact in a dynamic way; they are "inseparable," unlike in technological systems or machines. Changes in fine structure therefore reflect changes in function. If such changes do not exceed a certain physiologic range, a quantitative analysis of structure will provide valuable information on quantitative changes in function that may not be possible or easy to measure directly. Because there is a large inherent variation in fine structure of cells in a given organ of an individual and among individuals, changes in fine structure can be analyzed only by studying frequency distribution curves of various structural characteristics (dimensions). Simple averages +/- S.D. do not in general reveal all information on the effect of a certain factor, because often this effect is not uniform; on the contrary, this will be apparent from distribution analysis because the form of the curves will be affected. We have also attempted to show in this chapter that

  13. First-principles study on adsorption structure and electronic state of stanene on α-alumina surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araidai, Masaaki; Kurosawa, Masashi; Ohta, Akio; Shiraishi, Kenji

    2017-09-01

    The adsorption structure and electronic state of stanene on an α-Al2O3(0001) 1×1 surface were investigated by first-principles calculations. The variation in the electronic state of the adsorbed stanene from that of the free-standing one increased with the stanene-alumina distance, because the strength of the stanene-alumina interaction increased with the distance. The band splitting induced by the Rashba effect was observed in the electronic band structures. It was observed from the band structures with spin-orbit interactions that the degrees of band-gap opening due to the spin-orbit interactions were much lower than that due to the interaction between stanene and the α-alumina surface. By population analyses for chemical bonds, we revealed that the electronic state of stanene on the α-alumina surface was affected by Sn-O bonds with antibonding nature.

  14. Precautionary Principles: General Definitions and Specific Applications to Genetically Modified Organisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lofstedt, Ragnar E.; Fischhoff, Baruch; Fischhoff, Ilya R.

    2002-01-01

    Precautionary principles have been proposed as a fundamental element of sound risk management. Their advocates see them as guiding action in the face of uncertainty, encouraging the adoption of measures that reduce serious risks to health, safety, and the environment. Their opponents may reject the very idea of precautionary principles, find…

  15. Application of Merrill's First Principles of Instruction in a Museum Education Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Kari Ross

    2015-01-01

    In an effort to support a solid grounding in educational theory within the field of museum education, three texts considered essential reading for museum educators were surveyed for correlations with Merrill's First Principles of Instruction, an influential work in the field of instructional design. Each of five First Principles were found to be…

  16. An Application of Total Quality Principles in Transforming the Culture of Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Algozzine, Bob; Audette, Robert H.; Marr, Mary Beth; Algozzine, Kate

    2005-01-01

    During the 1990s, many public schools began to apply the principles of Total Quality Management. As they moved ahead, they discovered that most of the separate principles that comprise Total Quality Management are not new to public education. Theories and practices using similar and related ideas have been championed by educators for generations.…

  17. The Equal Marginal Value Principle: A Graphical Analysis with Environmental Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Andrew J.

    1998-01-01

    Maintains that the equal marginal value principle may not be optimal in the analysis of the cost-effectiveness of policies to reduce auto emissions, the economics of garbage disposal, and the economics of pollution abatement. Argues that examining these exceptions can help students understand the equal marginal value principle. (MJP)

  18. Erickson for Counselors and Educators: A Review and Practical Application of Six Treatment Principles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahlin, Francine C.

    1987-01-01

    Six treatment principles of Milton Erickson, physician and hypnotherapist, are applied to counselors and educators. Principles include: (1) People are always responding, always communicating. (2) Respect all messages from the client. (3) People make the best choice for themselves at any given moment. (4) Teach choice; never attempt to take choice…

  19. The Equal Marginal Value Principle: A Graphical Analysis with Environmental Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Andrew J.

    1998-01-01

    Maintains that the equal marginal value principle may not be optimal in the analysis of the cost-effectiveness of policies to reduce auto emissions, the economics of garbage disposal, and the economics of pollution abatement. Argues that examining these exceptions can help students understand the equal marginal value principle. (MJP)

  20. Precautionary Principles: General Definitions and Specific Applications to Genetically Modified Organisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lofstedt, Ragnar E.; Fischhoff, Baruch; Fischhoff, Ilya R.

    2002-01-01

    Precautionary principles have been proposed as a fundamental element of sound risk management. Their advocates see them as guiding action in the face of uncertainty, encouraging the adoption of measures that reduce serious risks to health, safety, and the environment. Their opponents may reject the very idea of precautionary principles, find…