Science.gov

Sample records for principles applications state

  1. Thermographic Phosphors for High Temperature Measurements: Principles, Current State of the Art and Recent Applications

    PubMed Central

    Khalid, Ashiq Hussain; Kontis, Konstantinos

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the state of phosphor thermometry, focusing on developments in the past 15 years. The fundamental principles and theory are presented, and the various spectral and temporal modes, including the lifetime decay, rise time and intensity ratio, are discussed. The entire phosphor measurement system, including relative advantages to conventional methods, choice of phosphors, bonding techniques, excitation sources and emission detection, is reviewed. Special attention is given to issues that may arise at high temperatures. A number of recent developments and applications are surveyed, with examples including: measurements in engines, hypersonic wind tunnel experiments, pyrolysis studies and droplet/spray/gas temperature determination. They show the technique is flexible and successful in measuring temperatures where conventional methods may prove to be unsuitable.

  2. Application of the principle of corresponding states to two phase choked flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Simoneau, R. J.

    1973-01-01

    It is pointed out that several fluids including methane, oxygen, and nitrogen appear to form an average parametric plot which indicates that the isenthalpic Joule-Thomson coefficient must nearly obey the principle of corresponding states. With this as a basis, it was assumed that there could be several thermodynamic flow processes which nearly obey the principle. An examination was made to determine whether two-phase choked flow could be one of them. The analysis is described and the results are given.

  3. RPL Dosimetry: Principles and Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Takayoshi

    2011-05-05

    The principle of radio-photoluminescence (RPL) is applied to the glass dosimeter, which is one of the most excellent solid state dosimeters. The silver activated phosphate glass irradiated with ionizing radiations emits luminescence when exposed to UV light. This phenomenon is called RPL. The most characteristic features of the glass dosimeters are data accumulation and no fading. The basic principle of RPL is described and then how it is applied to the glass dosimeter is explained. Finally some applications of RPL will be introduced.

  4. Magnetism: Principles and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craik, Derek J.

    2003-09-01

    If you are studying physics, chemistry, materials science, electrical engineering, information technology or medicine, then you'll know that understanding magnetism is fundamental to success in your studies and here is the key to unlocking the mysteries of magnetism....... You can: obtain a simple overview of magnetism, including the roles of B and H, resonances and special techniques take full advantage of modern magnets with a wealth of expressions for fields and forces develop realistic general design programmes using isoparametric finite elements study the subtleties of the general theory of magnetic moments and their dynamics follow the development of outstanding materials appreciate how magnetism encompasses topics as diverse as rock magnetism, chemical reaction rates, biological compasses, medical therapies, superconductivity and levitation understand the basis and remarkable achievements of magnetic resonance imaging In his new book, Magnetism, Derek Craik throws light on the principles and applications of this fascinating subject. From formulae for calculating fields to quantum theory, the secrets of magnetism are exposed, ensuring that whether you are a chemist or engineer, physicist, medic or materials scientist Magnetism is the book for our course.

  5. Wave function formalism in quantum optics and generalized Huygens-Fresnel principle for N-photon states: derivation and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brainis, E.; Emplit, Ph.

    2010-06-01

    Few-photon systems are best described by their wave function rather than by the usual quantum field formalism. In this work, we develop a photon wave function (PWF) formalism suitable for analyzing a wide variety of quantum optical problems related to propagation, diffraction and imaging with quantum states of light. We establish a generalized Huygens-Fresnel (GH-F) principle that describes the propagation of any paraxial N-photon state. This tool is very helpful for predicting photo-detection correlations in space and time due to an initial N-particle entanglement, even in complex situation. The effect of lenses, beam splitters, filters ... on the photon paths can be easily taken into account. We apply the PWF formalism and the GH-F principle to three specific problems in quantum optics. First, we revisit the Hong-Ou-Mandel two-photon interference effect and analyze the effect of photon shape mismatch in space, time and polarization using the PWF formalism. Second, we show how to use the GH-F principle to analyze "ghost" imaging and diffraction experiments with entangled photon pairs such as those realized by Strekalov et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3600 (1995)] and Pittman et al. [Phys. Rev. A 52, R3429 (1995)] in the nineties. Finally, we use the GH-F principle to analyze the resolution enhancement in a recent quantum imaging proposal based on N incoherent single-photon sources [Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 133603 (2007) and Phys. Rev. A 80, 013820 (2009)].

  6. Applications of Bohr's correspondence principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, Frank S.

    1989-07-01

    The Bohr correspondence-principle (cp) formula dE/dn=ℏω is presented (ω is the classical angular frequency) and its predicted energy levels En are compared to those given by the stationary state solutions of the Schrödinger equation, first for several examples in one dimension (1D), including the ``quantum bouncer,'' and then for several examples in three dimensions (3D), including the hydrogen atom and the isotropic harmonic oscillator. For the 3-D cases, the cp predictions based on classical circular orbits are compared with the ``circlelike'' Schrödinger solutions (those with the lowest energy eigenvalue for a given l) and the cp predictions based on classical ``needle'' orbits (having zero angular momentum) with the Schrödinger l=0 solutions. For the H atom and the isotropic oscillator, the cp prediction does not depend on the classical orbit chosen because of a ``degeneracy'': the fact that for these systems ω is independent of the orbit. As a more stringent test of the cp, analogous nondegenerate systems V=-k/r3/2 in place of the H-atom potential V=-e2/r and V=kr4 in place of the oscillator potential V=(1/2)mω2r2 are therefore considered. An interesting anomaly that occurs for the harmonic oscillator and its nondegenerate analog V=kr4 is encountered (but not for the H atom nor its nondegenerate analog V=-k/r3/2), wherein half of the states predicted by application of the cp to the needle orbits are ``spurious'' in that there are no corresponding Schrödinger l=0 states. The assumption that generated the spurious cp states is uncovered—a plausible, but erroneous factor of 2 in calculating the classical frequency—and thus the spurious states are eliminated.

  7. Nanotechnology: Principles and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logothetidis, S.

    Nanotechnology is one of the leading scientific fields today since it combines knowledge from the fields of Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Medicine, Informatics, and Engineering. It is an emerging technological field with great potential to lead in great breakthroughs that can be applied in real life. Novel nano- and biomaterials, and nanodevices are fabricated and controlled by nanotechnology tools and techniques, which investigate and tune the properties, responses, and functions of living and non-living matter, at sizes below 100 nm. The application and use of nanomaterials in electronic and mechanical devices, in optical and magnetic components, quantum computing, tissue engineering, and other biotechnologies, with smallest features, widths well below 100 nm, are the economically most important parts of the nanotechnology nowadays and presumably in the near future. The number of nanoproducts is rapidly growing since more and more nanoengineered materials are reaching the global market The continuous revolution in nanotechnology will result in the fabrication of nanomaterials with properties and functionalities which are going to have positive changes in the lives of our citizens, be it in health, environment, electronics or any other field. In the energy generation challenge where the conventional fuel resources cannot remain the dominant energy source, taking into account the increasing consumption demand and the CO2 emissions alternative renewable energy sources based on new technologies have to be promoted. Innovative solar cell technologies that utilize nanostructured materials and composite systems such as organic photovoltaics offer great technological potential due to their attractive properties such as the potential of large-scale and low-cost roll-to-roll manufacturing processes The advances in nanomaterials necessitate parallel progress of the nanometrology tools and techniques to characterize and manipulate nanostructures. Revolutionary new approaches

  8. Artificial intelligence: Principles and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Yazdami, M.

    1985-01-01

    The book covers the principles of AI, the main areas of application, as well as considering some of the social implications. The applications chapters have a common format structured as follows: definition of the topic; approach with conventional computing techniques; why 'intelligence' would provide a better approach; and how AI techniques would be used and the limitations. The contents discussed are: Principles of artificial intelligence; AI programming environments; LISP, list processing and pattern-making; AI programming with POP-11; Computer processing of natural language; Speech synthesis and recognition; Computer vision; Artificial intelligence and robotics; The anatomy of expert systems - Forsyth; Machine learning; Memory models of man and machine; Artificial intelligence and cognitive psychology; Breaking out of the chinese room; Social implications of artificial intelligence; and Index.

  9. Enzymes: principles and biotechnological applications.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Peter K

    2015-01-01

    Enzymes are biological catalysts (also known as biocatalysts) that speed up biochemical reactions in living organisms, and which can be extracted from cells and then used to catalyse a wide range of commercially important processes. This chapter covers the basic principles of enzymology, such as classification, structure, kinetics and inhibition, and also provides an overview of industrial applications. In addition, techniques for the purification of enzymes are discussed.

  10. Enzymes: principles and biotechnological applications

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Peter K.

    2015-01-01

    Enzymes are biological catalysts (also known as biocatalysts) that speed up biochemical reactions in living organisms, and which can be extracted from cells and then used to catalyse a wide range of commercially important processes. This chapter covers the basic principles of enzymology, such as classification, structure, kinetics and inhibition, and also provides an overview of industrial applications. In addition, techniques for the purification of enzymes are discussed. PMID:26504249

  11. Updated Principle of Corresponding States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-Amotz, Dor; Gift, Alan D.; Levine, R. D.

    2004-01-01

    The rule of corresponding states, which shows the connection between the thermodynamic properties of various liquids is re-examined. The overall likeness is observed by using an updated scaling technique of Lennard-Jones corresponding states (LJ-CS).

  12. Artificial intelligence: Principles and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Yazdani, M.

    1986-01-01

    Following the Japanese announcement that they intend to devise, make, and market, in the 1990s, computers incorporating a level of intelligence, a vast amount of energy and expense has been diverted at the field of Artificial Intelligence. Workers for the past 25 years in this discipline have tried to reproduce human behavior on computers and this book presents their achievements and the problems. Subjects include: computer vision, speech processing, robotics, natural language processing expert systems and machine learning. The book also attempts to show the general principles behind the various applications and finally attempts to show their implications for other human endeavors such as philosophy, psychology, and the development of modern society.

  13. First-principles studies on the equation of state, thermal conductivity, and opacity of deuterium-tritium (DT) and polystyrene (CH) for inertial confinement fusion applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, S. X.; Collins, L. A.; Goncharov, V. N.; Kress, J. D.; Boehly, T. R.; Epstein, R.; McCrory, R. L.; Skupsky, S.

    2016-05-01

    Using first-principles (FP) methods, we have performed ab initio compute for the equation of state (EOS), thermal conductivity, and opacity of deuterium-tritium (DT) in a wide range of densities and temperatures for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) applications. These systematic investigations have recently been expanded to accurately compute the plasma properties of CH ablators under extreme conditions. In particular, the first-principles EOS and thermal-conductivity tables of CH are self-consistently built from such FP calculations, which are benchmarked by experimental measurements. When compared with the traditional models used for these plasma properties in hydrocodes, significant differences have been identified in the warm dense plasma regime. When these FP-calculated properties of DT and CH were used in our hydrodynamic simulations of ICF implosions, we found that the target performance in terms of neutron yield and energy gain can vary by a factor of 2 to 3, relative to traditional model simulations.

  14. External Fixation: Principles and Applications.

    PubMed

    Bible, Jesse E; Mir, Hassan R

    2015-11-01

    The modularity and ease of application of modern external fixation has expanded its potential use in the management of fractures and other musculoskeletal conditions. In fracture care, it can be used for provisional and definitive fixation. Short-term provisional applications include "damage control" and periarticular fracture fixation. The risk:benefit ratio of added stability needs to be assessed with each fixator. Soft-tissue management is critical during pin insertion to lessen the risk of loosening and infection. Although provisional fixation is safe for early conversion to definitive fixation, several factors affect the timing of definitive surgery, including the initial injury, external fixator stability, infection, and the physiologic state of the patient. PMID:26306568

  15. Application of the principle of similarity fluid mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Sengers, J. V.

    1979-01-01

    Possible applications of the principle of similarity to fluid mechanics is described and illustrated. In correlating thermophysical properties of fluids, the similarity principle transcends the traditional corresponding states principle. In fluid mechanics the similarity principle is useful in correlating flow processes that can be modeled adequately with one independent variable (i.e., one-dimensional flows). In this paper we explore the concept of transforming the conservation equations by combining similarity principles for thermophysical properties with those for fluid flow. We illustrate the usefulness of the procedure by applying such a transformation to calculate two phase critical mass flow through a nozzle.

  16. Applications of Adlerian Principles in School Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pryor, Deborah B.; Tollerud, Toni R.

    1999-01-01

    Explores some applications of Adlerian principles that counselors can use in their work with students and teachers. Applications include reacting concretely to misbehavior, learning to give encouragement, implementing natural and logical consequences, and handling special-needs children with sensitivity. Applying principles of mutual respect,…

  17. Deriving and applying generally applicable safety principles

    SciTech Connect

    Spray, S.D.

    1998-08-01

    The nuclear detonation safety of modern nuclear weapons depends on a coordinated safety theme incorporating three general safety principles: isolation, inoperability, and incompatibility. The success of this approach has encouraged them to study whether these and/or other principles might be useful in other applications. Not surprisingly, no additional first-principles (based on physical laws) have been identified. However, a more widely applicable definition and application of the principle-based approach has been developed, resulting in a selection of strategies that are basically subsets and varied combinations of the more general principles above. However, identification of principles to be relied on is only one step in providing a safe design. As one other important example, coordinating overall architecture and strategy is essential: the authors term this a safety theme.

  18. Functional Neuroimaging: Fundamental Principles and Clinical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Altmeyer, Wilson; Zhuo, Jiachen; Steven, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Functional imaging modalities, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), are rapidly changing the scope and practice of neuroradiology. While these modalities have long been used in research, they are increasingly being used in clinical practice to enable reliable identification of eloquent cortex and white matter tracts in order to guide treatment planning and to serve as a diagnostic supplement when traditional imaging fails. An understanding of the scientific principles underlying fMRI and DTI is necessary in current radiological practice. fMRI relies on a compensatory hemodynamic response seen in cortical activation and the intrinsic discrepant magnetic properties of deoxy- and oxyhemoglobin. Neuronal activity can be indirectly visualized based on a hemodynamic response, termed neurovascular coupling. fMRI demonstrates utility in identifying areas of cortical activation (i.e., task-based activation) and in discerning areas of neuronal connectivity when used during the resting state, termed resting state fMRI. While fMRI is limited to visualization of gray matter, DTI permits visualization of white matter tracts through diffusion restriction along different axes. We will discuss the physical, statistical and physiological principles underlying these functional imaging modalities and explore new promising clinical applications. PMID:25963153

  19. Qualitative biomechanical principles for application in coaching.

    PubMed

    Knudson, Duane

    2007-01-01

    Many aspects of human movements in sport can be readily understood by Newtonian rigid-body mechanics. Many of these laws and biomechanical principles, however, are counterintuitive to a lot of people. There are also several problems in the application of biomechanics to sports, so the application of biomechanics in the qualitative analysis of sport skills by many coaches has been limited. Biomechanics scholars have long been interested in developing principles that facilitate the qualitative application of biomechanics to improve movement performance and reduce the risk of injury. This paper summarizes the major North American efforts to establish a set of general biomechanical principles of movement, and illustrates how principles can be used to improve the application of biomechanics in the qualitative analysis of sport technique. A coach helping a player with a tennis serve is presented as an example. The standardization of terminology for biomechanical principles is proposed as an important first step in improving the application ofbiomechanics in sport. There is also a need for international cooperation and research on the effectiveness of applying biomechanical principles in the coaching of sport techniques. PMID:17542182

  20. Teaching General Principles and Applications of Dendrogeomorphology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, David R.

    1987-01-01

    Tree-ring analysis in geomorphology can be incorporated into a number of undergraduate methods in order to reconstruct the history of a variety of geomorphic processes. Discusses dendrochronology, general principles of dendrogeomorphology, field sampling methods, laboratory techniques, and examples of applications. (TW)

  1. Principle and applications of terahertz molecular imaging.

    PubMed

    Son, Joo-Hiuk

    2013-05-31

    The principle, characteristics and applications of molecular imaging with terahertz electromagnetic waves are reviewed herein. The terahertz molecular imaging (TMI) technique uses nanoparticle probes to achieve dramatically enhanced sensitivity compared with that of conventional terahertz imaging. Surface plasmons, induced around the nanoparticles, raise the temperature of water in biological cells, and the temperature-dependent changes in the optical properties of water, which are large in the terahertz range, are measured differentially by terahertz waves. TMI has been applied to cancer diagnosis and nanoparticle drug delivery imaging. The technique is also compared with magnetic resonance imaging by using a dual-modality nanoparticle probe.

  2. Nuclear magnetic resonance in environmental engineering: principles and applications.

    PubMed

    Lens, P N; Hemminga, M A

    1998-01-01

    This paper gives an introduction to nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in relation to applications in the field of environmental science and engineering. The underlying principles of high resolution solution and solid state NMR, relaxation time measurements and imaging are presented. Then, the use of NMR is illustrated and reviewed in studies of biodegradation and biotransformation of soluble and solid organic matter, removal of nutrients and xenobiotics, fate of heavy metal ions, and transport processes in bioreactor systems.

  3. STARR-seq - principles and applications.

    PubMed

    Muerdter, Felix; Boryń, Łukasz M; Arnold, Cosmas D

    2015-09-01

    Differential gene expression is the basis for cell type diversity in multicellular organisms and the driving force of development and differentiation. It is achieved by cell type-specific transcriptional enhancers, which are genomic DNA sequences that activate the transcription of their target genes. Their identification and characterization is fundamental to our understanding of gene regulation. Features that are associated with enhancer activity, such as regulatory factor binding or histone modifications can predict the location of enhancers. Nonetheless, enhancer activity can only be assessed by transcriptional reporter assays. Over the past years massively parallel reporter assays have been developed for large scale testing of enhancers. In this review we focus on the principles and applications of STARR-seq, a functional assay that quantifies enhancer strengths in complex candidate libraries and thus allows activity-based enhancer identification in entire genomes. We explain how STARR-seq works, discuss current uses and give an outlook to future applications.

  4. Principles, Techniques, and Applications of Tissue Microfluidics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, Lawrence A.; Kartalov, Emil P.; Shibata, Darryl; Taylor, Clive

    2011-01-01

    The principle of tissue microfluidics and its resultant techniques has been applied to cell analysis. Building microfluidics to suit a particular tissue sample would allow the rapid, reliable, inexpensive, highly parallelized, selective extraction of chosen regions of tissue for purposes of further biochemical analysis. Furthermore, the applicability of the techniques ranges beyond the described pathology application. For example, they would also allow the posing and successful answering of new sets of questions in many areas of fundamental research. The proposed integration of microfluidic techniques and tissue slice samples is called tissue microfluidics because it molds the microfluidic architectures in accordance with each particular structure of each specific tissue sample. Thus, microfluidics can be built around the tissues, following the tissue structure, or alternatively, the microfluidics can be adapted to the specific geometry of particular tissues. By contrast, the traditional approach is that microfluidic devices are structured in accordance with engineering considerations, while the biological components in applied devices are forced to comply with these engineering presets. The proposed principles represent a paradigm shift in microfluidic technology in three important ways: Microfluidic devices are to be directly integrated with, onto, or around tissue samples, in contrast to the conventional method of off-chip sample extraction followed by sample insertion in microfluidic devices. Architectural and operational principles of microfluidic devices are to be subordinated to suit specific tissue structure and needs, in contrast to the conventional method of building devices according to fluidic function alone and without regard to tissue structure. Sample acquisition from tissue is to be performed on-chip and is to be integrated with the diagnostic measurement within the same device, in contrast to the conventional method of off-chip sample prep and

  5. MEMS temperature scanner: principles, advances, and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otto, Thomas; Saupe, Ray; Stock, Volker; Gessner, Thomas

    2010-02-01

    Contactless measurement of temperatures has gained enormous significance in many application fields, ranging from climate protection over quality control to object recognition in public places or military objects. Thereby measurement of linear or spatially temperature distribution is often necessary. For this purposes mostly thermographic cameras or motor driven temperature scanners are used today. Both are relatively expensive and the motor drive devices are limited regarding to the scanning rate additionally. An economic alternative are temperature scanner devices based on micro mirrors. The micro mirror, attached in a simple optical setup, reflects the emitted radiation from the observed heat onto an adapted detector. A line scan of the target object is obtained by periodic deflection of the micro scanner. Planar temperature distribution will be achieved by perpendicularly moving the target object or the scanner device. Using Planck radiation law the temperature of the object is calculated. The device can be adapted to different temperature ranges and resolution by using different detectors - cooled or uncooled - and parameterized scanner parameters. With the basic configuration 40 spatially distributed measuring points can be determined with temperatures in a range from 350°C - 1000°C. The achieved miniaturization of such scanners permits the employment in complex plants with high building density or in direct proximity to the measuring point. The price advantage enables a lot of applications, especially new application in the low-price market segment This paper shows principle, setup and application of a temperature measurement system based on micro scanners working in the near infrared range. Packaging issues and measurement results will be discussed as well.

  6. Principles, Techniques, and Applications of Tissue Microfluidics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, Lawrence A.; Kartalov, Emil P.; Shibata, Darryl; Taylor, Clive

    2011-01-01

    The principle of tissue microfluidics and its resultant techniques has been applied to cell analysis. Building microfluidics to suit a particular tissue sample would allow the rapid, reliable, inexpensive, highly parallelized, selective extraction of chosen regions of tissue for purposes of further biochemical analysis. Furthermore, the applicability of the techniques ranges beyond the described pathology application. For example, they would also allow the posing and successful answering of new sets of questions in many areas of fundamental research. The proposed integration of microfluidic techniques and tissue slice samples is called "tissue microfluidics" because it molds the microfluidic architectures in accordance with each particular structure of each specific tissue sample. Thus, microfluidics can be built around the tissues, following the tissue structure, or alternatively, the microfluidics can be adapted to the specific geometry of particular tissues. By contrast, the traditional approach is that microfluidic devices are structured in accordance with engineering considerations, while the biological components in applied devices are forced to comply with these engineering presets.

  7. Hooke's Law: Applications of a Recurring Principle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giuliodori, Mauricio J.; Lujan, Heidi L.; Briggs, Whitney S.; Palani, Gurunanthan; DiCarlo, Stephen E.

    2009-01-01

    Students generally approach topics in physiology as a series of unrelated phenomena that share few underlying principles. However, if students recognized that the same underlying principles can be used to explain many physiological phenomena, they may gain a more unified understanding of physiological systems. To address this concern, we…

  8. 32 CFR 11.4 - Applicable principles of law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Accused's acts. As provided in 32 CFR 9.5(c), the prosecution bears the burden of establishing the Accused... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicable principles of law. 11.4 Section 11.4... ELEMENTS FOR TRIALS BY MILITARY COMMISSION § 11.4 Applicable principles of law. (a) General intent....

  9. A Geometric Application of the "Shepherd's Principle"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murrow, Gene

    1971-01-01

    The Shepherd's Principle (to count the number of sheep in a field, count the number of legs and divide by four) is applied to the problem of finding the number of different rectangles on an N by N checkerboard. (MM)

  10. Synthetic protein switches: design principles and applications.

    PubMed

    Stein, Viktor; Alexandrov, Kirill

    2015-02-01

    Protein switches are ubiquitous in biological signal transduction systems, enabling cells to sense and respond to a variety of molecular queues in a rapid, specific, and integrated fashion. Analogously, tailor-engineered protein switches with custom input and output functions have become invaluable research tools for reporting on distinct physiological states and actuating molecular functions in real time and in situ. Here, we analyze recent progress in constructing protein-based switches while assessing their potential in the assembly of defined signaling motifs. We anticipate such systems will ultimately pave the way towards a new generation of molecular diagnostics and facilitate the construction of artificial signaling systems that operate in parallel to the signaling machinery of a host cell for applications in synthetic biology.

  11. Sex Education, State Policy and the Principle of Mutual Consent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steutel, Jan; Spiecker, Ben

    2004-01-01

    Constitutive of the prevalent sexual morality in most Western European countries is the liberal principle of mutual consent (PMC). This sociological fact may give rise to the ethical question as to whether or not the state has the right to make sure that its citizens will observe PMC, among other ways by prescribing some form of sex education…

  12. Evolutionary principles and their practical application

    PubMed Central

    Hendry, Andrew P; Kinnison, Michael T; Heino, Mikko; Day, Troy; Smith, Thomas B; Fitt, Gary; Bergstrom, Carl T; Oakeshott, John; Jørgensen, Peter S; Zalucki, Myron P; Gilchrist, George; Southerton, Simon; Sih, Andrew; Strauss, Sharon; Denison, Robert F; Carroll, Scott P

    2011-01-01

    Evolutionary principles are now routinely incorporated into medicine and agriculture. Examples include the design of treatments that slow the evolution of resistance by weeds, pests, and pathogens, and the design of breeding programs that maximize crop yield or quality. Evolutionary principles are also increasingly incorporated into conservation biology, natural resource management, and environmental science. Examples include the protection of small and isolated populations from inbreeding depression, the identification of key traits involved in adaptation to climate change, the design of harvesting regimes that minimize unwanted life-history evolution, and the setting of conservation priorities based on populations, species, or communities that harbor the greatest evolutionary diversity and potential. The adoption of evolutionary principles has proceeded somewhat independently in these different fields, even though the underlying fundamental concepts are the same. We explore these fundamental concepts under four main themes: variation, selection, connectivity, and eco-evolutionary dynamics. Within each theme, we present several key evolutionary principles and illustrate their use in addressing applied problems. We hope that the resulting primer of evolutionary concepts and their practical utility helps to advance a unified multidisciplinary field of applied evolutionary biology. PMID:25567966

  13. Evolutionary principles and their practical application.

    PubMed

    Hendry, Andrew P; Kinnison, Michael T; Heino, Mikko; Day, Troy; Smith, Thomas B; Fitt, Gary; Bergstrom, Carl T; Oakeshott, John; Jørgensen, Peter S; Zalucki, Myron P; Gilchrist, George; Southerton, Simon; Sih, Andrew; Strauss, Sharon; Denison, Robert F; Carroll, Scott P

    2011-03-01

    Evolutionary principles are now routinely incorporated into medicine and agriculture. Examples include the design of treatments that slow the evolution of resistance by weeds, pests, and pathogens, and the design of breeding programs that maximize crop yield or quality. Evolutionary principles are also increasingly incorporated into conservation biology, natural resource management, and environmental science. Examples include the protection of small and isolated populations from inbreeding depression, the identification of key traits involved in adaptation to climate change, the design of harvesting regimes that minimize unwanted life-history evolution, and the setting of conservation priorities based on populations, species, or communities that harbor the greatest evolutionary diversity and potential. The adoption of evolutionary principles has proceeded somewhat independently in these different fields, even though the underlying fundamental concepts are the same. We explore these fundamental concepts under four main themes: variation, selection, connectivity, and eco-evolutionary dynamics. Within each theme, we present several key evolutionary principles and illustrate their use in addressing applied problems. We hope that the resulting primer of evolutionary concepts and their practical utility helps to advance a unified multidisciplinary field of applied evolutionary biology.

  14. No-signaling principle can determine optimal quantum state discrimination.

    PubMed

    Bae, Joonwoo; Hwang, Won-Young; Han, Yeong-Deok

    2011-10-21

    We provide a general framework of utilizing the no-signaling principle in derivation of the guessing probability in the minimum-error quantum state discrimination. We show that, remarkably, the guessing probability can be determined by the no-signaling principle. This is shown by proving that, in the semidefinite programing for the discrimination, the optimality condition corresponds to the constraint that quantum theory cannot be used for a superluminal communication. Finally, a general bound to the guessing probability is presented in a closed form.

  15. Redesigning State Financial Aid: Principles to Guide State Aid Policymaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pingel, Sarah; Sponsler, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    Several factors create a challenging environment for individuals seeking financial support to complete a postsecondary degree program. In recognition of the challenges of paying for higher education, decision-makers at the federal and state levels support college-going with public policy. Through direct institutional allocations, need and…

  16. The principle of superposition and its application in ground-water hydraulics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reilly, T.E.; Franke, O.L.; Bennett, G.D.

    1984-01-01

    The principle of superposition, a powerful methematical technique for analyzing certain types of complex problems in many areas of science and technology, has important application in ground-water hydraulics and modeling of ground-water systems. The principle of superposition states that solutions to individual problems can be added together to obtain solutions to complex problems. This principle applies to linear systems governed by linear differential equations. This report introduces the principle of superposition as it applies to groundwater hydrology and provides background information, discussion, illustrative problems with solutions, and problems to be solved by the reader. (USGS)

  17. The principle of superposition and its application in ground-water hydraulics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reilly, Thomas E.; Franke, O. Lehn; Bennett, Gordon D.

    1987-01-01

    The principle of superposition, a powerful mathematical technique for analyzing certain types of complex problems in many areas of science and technology, has important applications in ground-water hydraulics and modeling of ground-water systems. The principle of superposition states that problem solutions can be added together to obtain composite solutions. This principle applies to linear systems governed by linear differential equations. This report introduces the principle of superposition as it applies to ground-water hydrology and provides background information, discussion, illustrative problems with solutions, and problems to be solved by the reader.

  18. Quantitative proteomics using SILAC: Principles, applications, and developments.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiulan; Wei, Shasha; Ji, Yanlong; Guo, Xiaojing; Yang, Fuquan

    2015-09-01

    SILAC is based on direct addition of selected stable isotope amino acids into the cell culture medium, allowing superior quantitative analysis of the cellular proteome compared to other labeling methods. The great advantages of SILAC lie in its straight-forward implementation, quantitative accuracy, and reproducibility over chemical labeling or label-free quantification strategies, favoring its adoption for proteomic research. SILAC has been widely applied to characterize the proteomic changes between different biological samples, to investigate dynamic changes of protein PTMs, to distinguish specific interacting proteins in interaction proteomic analysis, and to analyze protein turnover in the proteome-wide scale. The present review summarizes the principles of SILAC technology, its applications in biological research, and the present state of this technology.

  19. Quantification of surface contamination: principles and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Vo-Dinh, T.

    1982-01-01

    The applications discussed in this paper underscore the usefulness and versatility of molecular luminescence spectroscopy as an efficient surface detection technique. The technique can be used not only as a qualitative characterization method, but also as a quantitative analytical tool to detect trace contaminants on surfaces. Recent advances in instrumentation and methodology have expanded the applicability of surface luminescence into many new problem areas. Trace organics are emphasized here.

  20. Application of Pascal Principle in Earth Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samimi Namin, M.

    2009-12-01

    The Pascal experiment is interpreted and the chamber is roughly defined. Pascal experiment in relation to Pascal principle compared with a chamber in the earth crust. It is conclude that: 1: The pressure (P) inside the Pascal's cylinder is the combination of two pressure; the external pressure (P1) and the hydraulic pressure (P2). Pc=P1+P2 The direction of the force is from top to bottom. In the case of the chamber the pressure is Pch=P1-P2 and its positive direction is regarded to be from bottom to top. P1 is the external pressure, and is the maximum pressure applied to chamber .The external pressure creates a constant internal pressure throughout the chamber .The magnitude of the constant pressure is based on the litho static pressure of the bottom of the chamber; because it is the maximum pressure that the chamber is connected. P1=ρ1gH+ρ2gh Where H is the overburden thickness, h is the highness of the chamber, ρ1 is the density of the overburden and ρ2 is density of country rock. The hydrostatic pressure within the chamber is P2=ρ3gh. Also ρ3 is the density of the chamber. So the pressure inside the chamber would be: Pch=P1-P2 then Pch=ρ1gH+(ρ2-ρ3)gh. The equation above means that, the chamber pressure equals to the overburden pressure plus Archimedes pressure. 2: The word squeezing which is a vulgar word has an important physical meaning that is ((Pascal principle driving movement)).In another word, almost all movements, related to chambers, within the earth are a squeezing event which's, driving force is the steady constant pressure mentioned above. Any change in this pressure depends on the rupturing of the chamber and the behavior of the movement of the chamber matter. 3: If we provide a safety valve on piston of the Pascal's cylinder and increase the load we see the safety valve bursts and the matter inside the cylinder squeeze out .The pressure is from top to bottom but the movement is from bottom to top. The direction of force has changed 180

  1. The Application of Gestalt Principles in Classroom Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Mark

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the application of principles and techniques derived from Gestalt therapy to education. Initial investigations of the results of these applications have noted significant benefits to both teachers and students, including personal control, self-knowledge and self-esteem. For journal availability, see SO 504 730. (Author/DB)

  2. A corresponding-states principle for the equation of state of hard-convex-body fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeso, M. J.; Solana, J. R.

    1994-09-01

    A theoretically based corresponding-states principle is developed for the equation of state of hard-convex-body fluids. For all the fluids considered, the excess compressibility factor, reduced by means of a parameter which can be determined analytically. lies on a single curve whose analytical expression can be obtained from the equation of state of the hard-sphere fluid.

  3. Magnetic resonance angiography: physical principles and applications.

    PubMed

    Kiruluta, Andrew J M; González, R Gilberto

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) is the visualization of hemodynamic flow using imaging techniques that discriminate flowing spins in blood from those in stationary tissue. There are two classes of MRA methods based on whether the magnetic resonance imaging signal in flowing blood is derived from the amplitude of the moving spins, the time-of-flight methods, or is based on the phase accumulated by these flowing spins, as in phase contrast methods. Each method has particular advantages and limitations as an angiographic imaging technique, as evidenced in their application space. Here we discuss the physics of MRA for both classes of imaging techniques, including contrast-enhanced approaches and the recent rapid expansion of the techniques to fast acquisition and processing techniques using parallel imaging coils as well as their application in high-field MR systems such as 3T and 7T. PMID:27432663

  4. Principles and clinical applications of image analysis.

    PubMed

    Kisner, H J

    1988-12-01

    Image processing has traveled to the lunar surface and back, finding its way into the clinical laboratory. Advances in digital computers have improved the technology of image analysis, resulting in a wide variety of medical applications. Offering improvements in turnaround time, standardized systems, increased precision, and walkaway automation, digital image analysis has likely found a permanent home as a diagnostic aid in the interpretation of microscopic as well as macroscopic laboratory images.

  5. Granular Salt Summary: Reconsolidation Principles and Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Frank; Popp, Till; Wieczorek, Klaus; Stuehrenberg, Dieter

    2014-07-01

    The purposes of this paper are to review the vast amount of knowledge concerning crushed salt reconsolidation and its attendant hydraulic properties (i.e., its capability for fluid or gas transport) and to provide a sufficient basis to understand reconsolidation and healing rates under repository conditions. Topics covered include: deformation mechanisms and hydro-mechanical interactions during reconsolidation; the experimental data base pertaining to crushed salt reconsolidation; transport properties of consolidating granulated salt and provides quantitative substantiation of its evolution to characteristics emulating undisturbed rock salt; and extension of microscopic and laboratory observations and data to the applicable field scale.

  6. Disc-based microarrays: principles and analytical applications.

    PubMed

    Morais, Sergi; Puchades, Rosa; Maquieira, Ángel

    2016-07-01

    The idea of using disk drives to monitor molecular biorecognition events on regular optical discs has received considerable attention during the last decade. CDs, DVDs, Blu-ray discs and other new optical discs are universal and versatile supports with the potential for development of protein and DNA microarrays. Besides, standard disk drives incorporated in personal computers can be used as compact and affordable optical reading devices. Consequently, a CD technology, resulting from the audio-video industry, has been used to develop analytical applications in health care, environmental monitoring, food safety and quality assurance. The review presents and critically evaluates the current state of the art of disc-based microarrays with illustrative examples, including past, current and future developments. Special mention is made of the analytical developments that use either chemically activated or raw standard CDs where proteins, oligonucleotides, peptides, haptens or other biological probes are immobilized. The discs are also used to perform the assays and must maintain their readability with standard optical drives. The concept and principle of evolving disc-based microarrays and the evolution of disk drives as optical detectors are also described. The review concludes with the most relevant uses ordered chronologically to provide an overview of the progress of CD technology applications in the life sciences. Also, it provides a selection of important references to the current literature. Graphical Abstract High density disc-based microarrays. PMID:26922341

  7. S-layers: principles and applications

    PubMed Central

    Sleytr, Uwe B; Schuster, Bernhard; Egelseer, Eva-Maria; Pum, Dietmar

    2014-01-01

    Monomolecular arrays of protein or glycoprotein subunits forming surface layers (S-layers) are one of the most commonly observed prokaryotic cell envelope components. S-layers are generally the most abundantly expressed proteins, have been observed in species of nearly every taxonomical group of walled bacteria, and represent an almost universal feature of archaeal envelopes. The isoporous lattices completely covering the cell surface provide organisms with various selection advantages including functioning as protective coats, molecular sieves and ion traps, as structures involved in surface recognition and cell adhesion, and as antifouling layers. S-layers are also identified to contribute to virulence when present as a structural component of pathogens. In Archaea, most of which possess S-layers as exclusive wall component, they are involved in determining cell shape and cell division. Studies on structure, chemistry, genetics, assembly, function, and evolutionary relationship of S-layers revealed considerable application potential in (nano)biotechnology, biomimetics, biomedicine, and synthetic biology. PMID:24483139

  8. Soil Fumigation: Principles and Application Technology

    PubMed Central

    Lembright, H. W.

    1990-01-01

    The principal soil fumigants and their order of discovery are carbon disulfide, chloropicrin, methyl bromide, 1,3-dichloropropene, ethylene dibromide, 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane, and methyl isothiocyanate. Biological activity of soil fumigants ranges from limited to broad spectrum. Fumigants diffuse through the continuous soil air space as gases. Physical and chemical characteristics determine diffusion rates, distribution between the soil air and moisture, and sorption onto and into the soil particles. The principal soil factors affecting the efficacy of each treatment are the size and continuity of air space, moisture, temperature, organic matter, and depth of placement. Application can be made overall with tractor injection or plow-sole, or as a row or bed treatment. Treatment for trees is best made in conjunction with tree site backhoeing. PMID:19287772

  9. 4D electron microscopy: principles and applications.

    PubMed

    Flannigan, David J; Zewail, Ahmed H

    2012-10-16

    The transmission electron microscope (TEM) is a powerful tool enabling the visualization of atoms with length scales smaller than the Bohr radius at a factor of only 20 larger than the relativistic electron wavelength of 2.5 pm at 200 keV. The ability to visualize matter at these scales in a TEM is largely due to the efforts made in correcting for the imperfections in the lens systems which introduce aberrations and ultimately limit the achievable spatial resolution. In addition to the progress made in increasing the spatial resolution, the TEM has become an all-in-one characterization tool. Indeed, most of the properties of a material can be directly mapped in the TEM, including the composition, structure, bonding, morphology, and defects. The scope of applications spans essentially all of the physical sciences and includes biology. Until recently, however, high resolution visualization of structural changes occurring on sub-millisecond time scales was not possible. In order to reach the ultrashort temporal domain within which fundamental atomic motions take place, while simultaneously retaining high spatial resolution, an entirely new approach from that of millisecond-limited TEM cameras had to be conceived. As shown below, the approach is also different from that of nanosecond-limited TEM, whose resolution cannot offer the ultrafast regimes of dynamics. For this reason "ultrafast electron microscopy" is reserved for the field which is concerned with femtosecond to picosecond resolution capability of structural dynamics. In conventional TEMs, electrons are produced by heating a source or by applying a strong extraction field. Both methods result in the stochastic emission of electrons, with no control over temporal spacing or relative arrival time at the specimen. The timing issue can be overcome by exploiting the photoelectric effect and using pulsed lasers to generate precisely timed electron packets of ultrashort duration. The spatial and temporal resolutions

  10. [Magnetoencephalography: its principles and clinical application].

    PubMed

    Takanashi, Y

    1993-11-01

    This review attempts to provide the basis of neuromagnetism and its clinical applications. The progress in this field has been connected with the introduction of SQUID (superconducting quantum interference device) magnetometer which was produced by the progress of low temperature physics. A magnetic field is generated by an electric current in accordance with 'the right hand law', and the magnetic field pattern inevitably crosses orthogonally that of the electric field. A SQUID magnetometer is able to only detect the magnetic field which is generated by the current dipole orientated parallel to the skull surface. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) has several advantages compared to electroencephalography (EEG). One is its more excellent spatial resolution than that of EEG, and the other is a non-contact measurement, i. e., a noninvasive method. Therefore, MEG measurement could not interfere with sweating on the skull skin or a depolarization between skin and electrodes. This advantage allows it to record the magnetic field generated by the direct current potential in the cortical surface, and one example, that is, direct current magnetic fields evoked by slow potential changes in rat brain during asphyxia, are shown. PMID:8283795

  11. CT perfusion: principles, applications, and problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ting-Yim

    2004-10-01

    The fast scanning speed of current slip-ring CT scanners has enabled the development of perfusion imaging techniques with intravenous injection of contrast medium. In a typical CT perfusion study, contrast medium is injected and rapid scanning at a frequency of 1-2 Hz is used to monitor the first circulation of the injected contrast medium through a 1-2 cm thick slab of tissue. From the acquired time-series of CT images, arteries can be identified within the tissue slab to derive the arterial contrast concentration curve, Ca(t) while each individual voxel produces a tissue residue curve, Q(t) for the corresponding tissue region. Deconvolution between the measured Ca(t) and Q(t) leads to the determination of cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV) and mean transit time (MTT) in brain studies. In this presentation, an important application of CT perfusion in acute stroke studies - the identification of the ischemic penumbra via the CBF/CBV mismatch and factors affecting the quantitative accuracy of deconvolution, including partial volume averaging, arterial delay and dispersion are discussed.

  12. [Magnetoencephalography: its principles and clinical application].

    PubMed

    Takanashi, Y

    1993-11-01

    This review attempts to provide the basis of neuromagnetism and its clinical applications. The progress in this field has been connected with the introduction of SQUID (superconducting quantum interference device) magnetometer which was produced by the progress of low temperature physics. A magnetic field is generated by an electric current in accordance with 'the right hand law', and the magnetic field pattern inevitably crosses orthogonally that of the electric field. A SQUID magnetometer is able to only detect the magnetic field which is generated by the current dipole orientated parallel to the skull surface. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) has several advantages compared to electroencephalography (EEG). One is its more excellent spatial resolution than that of EEG, and the other is a non-contact measurement, i. e., a noninvasive method. Therefore, MEG measurement could not interfere with sweating on the skull skin or a depolarization between skin and electrodes. This advantage allows it to record the magnetic field generated by the direct current potential in the cortical surface, and one example, that is, direct current magnetic fields evoked by slow potential changes in rat brain during asphyxia, are shown.

  13. Twelve Principles for Green Energy Storage in Grid Applications.

    PubMed

    Arbabzadeh, Maryam; Johnson, Jeremiah X; Keoleian, Gregory A; Rasmussen, Paul G; Thompson, Levi T

    2016-01-19

    The introduction of energy storage technologies to the grid could enable greater integration of renewables, improve system resilience and reliability, and offer cost effective alternatives to transmission and distribution upgrades. The integration of energy storage systems into the electrical grid can lead to different environmental outcomes based on the grid application, the existing generation mix, and the demand. Given this complexity, a framework is needed to systematically inform design and technology selection about the environmental impacts that emerge when considering energy storage options to improve sustainability performance of the grid. To achieve this, 12 fundamental principles specific to the design and grid application of energy storage systems are developed to inform policy makers, designers, and operators. The principles are grouped into three categories: (1) system integration for grid applications, (2) the maintenance and operation of energy storage, and (3) the design of energy storage systems. We illustrate the application of each principle through examples published in the academic literature, illustrative calculations, and a case study with an off-grid application of vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs). In addition, trade-offs that can emerge between principles are highlighted. PMID:26629882

  14. Twelve Principles for Green Energy Storage in Grid Applications.

    PubMed

    Arbabzadeh, Maryam; Johnson, Jeremiah X; Keoleian, Gregory A; Rasmussen, Paul G; Thompson, Levi T

    2016-01-19

    The introduction of energy storage technologies to the grid could enable greater integration of renewables, improve system resilience and reliability, and offer cost effective alternatives to transmission and distribution upgrades. The integration of energy storage systems into the electrical grid can lead to different environmental outcomes based on the grid application, the existing generation mix, and the demand. Given this complexity, a framework is needed to systematically inform design and technology selection about the environmental impacts that emerge when considering energy storage options to improve sustainability performance of the grid. To achieve this, 12 fundamental principles specific to the design and grid application of energy storage systems are developed to inform policy makers, designers, and operators. The principles are grouped into three categories: (1) system integration for grid applications, (2) the maintenance and operation of energy storage, and (3) the design of energy storage systems. We illustrate the application of each principle through examples published in the academic literature, illustrative calculations, and a case study with an off-grid application of vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs). In addition, trade-offs that can emerge between principles are highlighted.

  15. Basic principles, methodology, and applications of remote sensing in agriculture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moreira, M. A. (Principal Investigator); Deassuncao, G. V.

    1984-01-01

    The basic principles of remote sensing applied to agriculture and the methods used in data analysis are described. Emphasis is placed on the importance of developing a methodology that may help crop forecast, basic concepts of spectral signatures of vegetation, the methodology of the LANDSAT data utilization in agriculture, and the remote sensing program application of INPE (Institute for Space Research) in agriculture.

  16. The Application of Artificial Intelligence Principles to Teaching and Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Keith

    2008-01-01

    This paper compares and contrasts the use of AI principles in industrial training with more normal computer-based training (CBT) approaches. A number of applications of CBT are illustrated (for example simulations, tutorial presentations, fault diagnosis, management games, industrial relations exercises) and compared with an alternative approach…

  17. [Headgears in orthodontics: mechanical principles and clinical application].

    PubMed

    Ruiken, H M; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A M

    1991-08-01

    Understanding of the mechanics of displacement of molars during headgear treatment makes an efficient clinical application possible, while undesirable molar displacements can be prevented or compensated. Of paramount importance is the relationship of the line of force to the center of resistance of the tooth to be moved. This relationship is examined in three dimensions. Subsequently the applicability of mechanical principles in clinical use of headgears is discussed.

  18. Facilitating emotional processing in depression: the application of exposure principles

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Adele M.

    2015-01-01

    Even with the best psychosocial and pharmacological treatments for unipolar depression, relapse is a serious problem. One path to improve treatments for depression is to target fundamental processes that go awry in depression and to enhance new learning by adapting principles and strategies from exposure-based treatments for anxiety and fear-related disorders. I describe basic principles of exposure and emotional processing and illustrate with Exposure-Based Cognitive Therapy (EBCT) for depression, how these principles can be applied, with some adaptation, to address the therapeutic targets of depression. Clinical trial data of EBCT suggest that this application might be fruitful and that the process of change might be similar to that in exposure-based treatments for anxiety and trauma-related disorders. PMID:25932464

  19. First-principles Calculation of Excited State Spectra in QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Jozef Dudek,Robert Edwards,Michael Peardon,David Richards,Christopher Thomas

    2011-05-01

    Recent progress at understanding the excited state spectra of mesons and baryons is described. I begin by outlining the application of the variational method to compute the spectrum of QCD, and then present results for the excited meson spectrum, with continuum quantum numbers of the states clearly delineated. I emphasise the need to extend the calculation to encompass multi-hadron contributions, and describe a recent calculation of the I=2 pion-pion energy-dependent phase shifts as a precursor to the study of channels with resonant behavior. I conclude with recent results for the low lying baryon spectrum, and the prospects for future calculations.

  20. Principle and applications of Faraday-Fabry-Perot cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di, Nan; Zhao, Jianlin

    2010-10-01

    A Faraday-Fabry-Perot (FFP) cavity, composed of an Fabry-Perot (FP) cavity and a piece of Faraday magneto-optical material, is presented. The principle of FFP cavity and its polarization modulation effect are described by use of optical matrix analysis. The result shows that the Faraday rotation is able to be magnified by more than two orders of magnitude in resonant FFP cavity, while different elliptically polarized lights are obtained in non-resonant cavity. Furthermore two novel applications, that is, optical isolator based on passive FFP cavity (FOI) and Faraday-Zeeman dual-frequency laser (FZDL) based on active FFP cavity whose eigen modes operate as circularly polarized lights and whose frequency difference can be adjusted continuously by magnetic field, are introduced. The principles, typical parameters and performance characteristics are analyzed in both applications.

  1. STATE OF THE SCIENCE OF MATERNAL-INFANT BONDING: A PRINCIPLE-BASED CONCEPT ANALYSIS

    PubMed Central

    Bicking Kinsey, Cara; Hupcey, Judith E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To provide a principle-based analysis of the concept of maternal-infant bonding. Design Principle-based method of concept analysis for which the data set included 44 articles published in the last decade from Pubmed, CINAHL, and PyschINFO/PsychARTICLES. Setting Literature inclusion criteria were English language, articles published in the last decade, peer-reviewed journal articles and commentary on published work, and human populations. Measurement and Findings After brief review of the history of maternal-infant bonding, a principle-based concept analysis was completed to examine the state of the science with regard to this concept. The concept was critically examined according to the clarity of definition (epistemological principle), applicability of the concept (pragmatic principle), consistency in use and meaning (linguistic principle), and differentiation of the concept from related concepts (logical principle). Analysis of the concept revealed: (1) maternal-infant bonding describes maternal feelings and emotions towards her infant. Evidence that the concept encompasses behavioral or biological components was limited; (2) the concept is clearly operationalized in the affective domain; and (3) maternal-infant bonding is linguistically confused with attachment, although the boundaries between the concepts are clearly delineated. Key Conclusion Despite widespread use of the concept, maternal-infant bonding is at times superficially developed and subject to confusion with related concepts. Concept clarification is warranted. A theoretical definition of the concept of maternal-infant bonding was developed to aid in the clarification, but more research is necessary to further clarify and advance the concept. Implications for Practice Nurse midwives and other practitioners should use the theoretical definition of maternal-infant bonding as a preliminary guide to identification and understanding of the concept in clinical practice. PMID:23452661

  2. Principle and application of multiple fractional Fourier transform holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Yangsu; Guo, Yongkang; Gao, Fuhua; Zhu, Jianhua

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the principle of multiple fractional Fourier transform hologram (FRTH) is presented, and its characteristics based on the particularity in recording and reconstruction are analyzed. With this method, a multiple FRTH of several objects with different fractional transform orders is fabricated on one holographic plate. It requires a matched multiple fractional Fourier transform system to reconstruct the recorded images correctly. The potential application of multiple FRTH in optical security or anti-counterfeiting system is also discussed.

  3. Design principles for solid-state lithium superionic conductors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Richards, William Davidson; Ong, Shyue Ping; Miara, Lincoln J; Kim, Jae Chul; Mo, Yifei; Ceder, Gerbrand

    2015-10-01

    Lithium solid electrolytes can potentially address two key limitations of the organic electrolytes used in today's lithium-ion batteries, namely, their flammability and limited electrochemical stability. However, achieving a Li(+) conductivity in the solid state comparable to existing liquid electrolytes (>1 mS cm(-1)) is particularly challenging. In this work, we reveal a fundamental relationship between anion packing and ionic transport in fast Li-conducting materials and expose the desirable structural attributes of good Li-ion conductors. We find that an underlying body-centred cubic-like anion framework, which allows direct Li hops between adjacent tetrahedral sites, is most desirable for achieving high ionic conductivity, and that indeed this anion arrangement is present in several known fast Li-conducting materials and other fast ion conductors. These findings provide important insight towards the understanding of ionic transport in Li-ion conductors and serve as design principles for future discovery and design of improved electrolytes for Li-ion batteries. PMID:26280225

  4. Design principles for solid-state lithium superionic conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan; Richards, William Davidson; Ong, Shyue Ping; Miara, Lincoln J.; Kim, Jae Chul; Mo, Yifei; Ceder, Gerbrand

    2015-10-01

    Lithium solid electrolytes can potentially address two key limitations of the organic electrolytes used in today's lithium-ion batteries, namely, their flammability and limited electrochemical stability. However, achieving a Li+ conductivity in the solid state comparable to existing liquid electrolytes (>1 mS cm-1) is particularly challenging. In this work, we reveal a fundamental relationship between anion packing and ionic transport in fast Li-conducting materials and expose the desirable structural attributes of good Li-ion conductors. We find that an underlying body-centred cubic-like anion framework, which allows direct Li hops between adjacent tetrahedral sites, is most desirable for achieving high ionic conductivity, and that indeed this anion arrangement is present in several known fast Li-conducting materials and other fast ion conductors. These findings provide important insight towards the understanding of ionic transport in Li-ion conductors and serve as design principles for future discovery and design of improved electrolytes for Li-ion batteries.

  5. Statistical mechanical theory for steady state systems. VI. Variational principles.

    PubMed

    Attard, Phil

    2006-12-01

    Several variational principles that have been proposed for nonequilibrium systems are analyzed. These include the principle of minimum rate of entropy production due to Prigogine [Introduction to Thermodynamics of Irreversible Processes (Interscience, New York, 1967)], the principle of maximum rate of entropy production, which is common on the internet and in the natural sciences, two principles of minimum dissipation due to Onsager [Phys. Rev. 37, 405 (1931)] and to Onsager and Machlup [Phys. Rev. 91, 1505 (1953)], and the principle of maximum second entropy due to Attard [J. Chem.. Phys. 122, 154101 (2005); Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 8, 3585 (2006)]. The approaches of Onsager and Attard are argued to be the only viable theories. These two are related, although their physical interpretation and mathematical approximations differ. A numerical comparison with computer simulation results indicates that Attard's expression is the only accurate theory. The implications for the Langevin and other stochastic differential equations are discussed.

  6. Principles, techniques, and applications of biocatalyst immobilization for industrial application.

    PubMed

    Eş, Ismail; Vieira, José Daniel Gonçalves; Amaral, André Corrêa

    2015-03-01

    Immobilization is one of the most effective and powerful tools used in industry, which has been studied and improved since the last century. Various immobilization techniques and support materials have been used on both laboratory and industrial scale. Each immobilization technique is applicable for a specific production mostly depending on the cost and sensibility of process. Compared to free biocatalyst systems, immobilization techniques often offer better stability, increased activity and selectivity, higher resistance, improved separation and purification, reuse of enzymes, and consequently more efficient process. Recently, many reviews have been published about immobilization systems; however, most of them have focused on a specific application or not emphasized in details. This review focuses on most commonly used techniques in industry with many recent applications including using bioreactor systems for industrial production. It is also aimed to emphasize the advantages and disadvantages of the immobilization techniques and how these systems improve process productivity compared to non-immobilized systems.

  7. Development, principles, and applications of automated ice fabric analyzers.

    PubMed

    Wilen, L A; Diprinzio, C L; Alley, R B; Azuma, N

    2003-09-01

    We review the recent development of automated techniques to determine the fabric and texture of polycrystalline ice. The motivation for the study of ice fabric is first outlined. After a brief introduction to the relevant optical concepts, the classic manual technique for fabric measurement is described, along with early attempts at partial automation. Then, the general principles behind fully automated techniques are discussed. We describe in some detail the similarities and differences of the three modern instruments recently developed for ice fabric studies. Next, we discuss briefly X-ray, radar, and acoustic techniques for ice fabric characterization. We also discuss the principles behind automated optical techniques to measure fabric in quartz rock samples. Finally, examples of new applications that have been facilitated by the development of the ice fabric instruments are presented.

  8. A corresponding states principle for the equation of state of hard body fluid mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrio, C.; Largo, J.; Solana, J. R.

    2001-01-01

    A theoretically based corresponding-states principle is developed for athermal mixtures consisting of hard molecules. The principle states that when scaled appropriately, the excess compressibility factor for such mixtures reduces to a universal function of the effective packing fraction of the mixture. The latter represents the number density reduced by means of the effective molecular volume, which is defined as the volume a molecule excludes to any point of another molecule and depends on the geometry of both molecules. The scaling factor is related to a sort of effective nonsphericity parameter for the mixture that depends on composition as well as the nonsphericity parameters of the molecules which form the mixture and their effective molecular volumes. The universal function represents the excess compressibility factor of a pure hard-sphere fluid. Results are in good agreement with available simulation data.

  9. Remote sensing applied to agriculture: Basic principles, methodology, and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Mendonca, F. J.

    1981-01-01

    The general principles of remote sensing techniques as applied to agriculture and the methods of data analysis are described. the theoretical spectral responses of crops; reflectance, transmittance, and absorbtance of plants; interactions of plants and soils with reflectance energy; leaf morphology; and factors which affect the reflectance of vegetation cover are dicussed. The methodologies of visual and computer-aided analyses of LANDSAT data are presented. Finally, a case study wherein infrared film was used to detect crop anomalies and other data applications are described.

  10. 3D electron microscopy of biological nanomachines: principles and applications.

    PubMed

    Sorzano, C O S; Jonic, S; Cottevieille, M; Larquet, E; Boisset, N; Marco, S

    2007-11-01

    Transmission electron microscopy is a powerful technique for studying the three-dimensional (3D) structure of a wide range of biological specimens. Knowledge of this structure is crucial for fully understanding complex relationships among macromolecular complexes and organelles in living cells. In this paper, we present the principles and main application domains of 3D transmission electron microscopy in structural biology. Moreover, we survey current developments needed in this field, and discuss the close relationship of 3D transmission electron microscopy with other experimental techniques aimed at obtaining structural and dynamical information from the scale of whole living cells to atomic structure of macromolecular complexes.

  11. Microwave noise field: active radiometry principles and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polivka, Jiri

    2012-06-01

    Principles of Active Radiometry are presented. Noise radiators are used to generate the low-coherence microwave noise field, and radiometers to evaluate its intensity, polarization and coherence. Several types of noise radiators are described as well as radiometers and antennas. The following applications are introduced: Material evaluation where insertion loss and reflectivity of grainy, irregular and moving objects are preferable. Microwave Coherence Tomography allowing the depth irregularity to be detected in low-loss objects. Near-Field antenna testing, field coherence evaluation, and spatial combining of noise radiators.

  12. Application of TQM principles to the utilization management process.

    PubMed

    Miller, J B; Rose, M S; Milakovich, M; Rosasco, E J

    1992-01-01

    Application of the philosophy and principles of TQM and CQI to utilization management within an institution necessitates an in-depth review of the systems and processes of the flow of inpatients throughout their stay. This encompasses a total systems perspective, beginning with the admitting process and going through the discharge process. TQM and CQI philosophies identify that the most significant and costly inefficiencies are due to faulty systems and processes, not individuals. Applying this management strategy to a health care institution requires a detailed review and analysis of processes by which service is delivered and requires evaluation of the outcomes of patient care and patient satisfaction.

  13. Coded optical time domain reflectometry: principle and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Namkyoo; Lee, Jeonghwan; Park, Jonghan; Shim, Jae Gwang; Yoon, Hosung; Kim, Jin Hee; Kim, Kyoungmin; Byun, Jae-Oh; Bolognini, Gabriele; Lee, Duckey; Di Pasquale, Fabrizio

    2007-11-01

    In this paper, we will briefly outline our contributions for the physical realization of coded OTDR, along with its principles and also highlight recent key results related with its applications. For the communication network application, we report a multi-port / multi-wavelength, high-speed supervisory system for the in-service monitoring of a bidirectional WDM-PON system transmission line up to 16 ports x 32 nodes (512 users) capacity. Monitoring of individual branch traces up to 60 km was achieved with the application of a 127-bit simplex code, corresponding to a 7.5dB SNR coding gain effectively reducing the measurement time about 30 times when compared to conventional average mode OTDR. Transmission experiments showed negligible penalty from the monitoring system to the transmission signal quality, at a 2.5Gbps / 125Mbps (down / up stream) data rate. As an application to sensor network, a Raman scattering based coded-OTDR distributed temperature sensor system will be presented. Utilizing a 255-bit Simplex coded OTDR together with optimized sensing link (composed of cascaded fibers with different Raman coefficients), significant enhancement in the interrogation distance (19.5km from coding gain, and 9.6km from link-combination optimization) was achieved to result a total sensing range of 37km (at 17m/3K spatial/temperature resolution), employing a conventional off-shelf low power (80mW) laser diode.

  14. Nanotube field electron emission: principles, development, and applications.

    PubMed

    Li, Yunhan; Sun, Yonghai; Yeow, J T W

    2015-06-19

    There is a growing trend to apply field emission (FE) electron sources in vacuum electronic devices due to their fast response, high efficiency and low energy consumption compared to thermionic emission ones. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been regarded as a promising class of electron field emitters since the 1990s and have promoted the development of FE technology greatly because of their high electrical and thermal conductivity, chemical stability, high aspect ratio and small size. Recent studies have shown that FE from CNTs has the potential to replace conventional thermionic emission in many areas and that it exhibits advanced features in practical applications. Consequently, FE from nanotubes and applications thereof have attracted much attention. This paper provides a comprehensive review of both recent advances in CNT field emitters and issues related to applications of CNT based FE. FE theories and principles are introduced, and the early development of field emitters is related. CNT emitter types and their FE performance are discussed. The current situation for applications based on nanotube FE is reviewed. Although challenges remain, the tremendous progress made in CNT FE over the past ten years indicates the field's development potential.

  15. Basic humanitarian principles applicable to non-nationals.

    PubMed

    Goodwin-gill, G S; Jenny, R K; Perruchoud, R

    1985-01-01

    This article examines the general status in international law of certain fundamental human rights to determine the minimum "no derogation" standards, and then surveys a number of formal agreements between stages governing migration matters, while examining some of the standard-setting work undertaken by the International Labor Organization (ILO) and other institutions. Article 13 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, proclaims the right of everyone to leave any country, including his or her own. The anti-discrimination provision is widely drawn and includes national or social origin, birth, or other status. Non-discrimination is frequently the core issue in migration matters; it offers the basis for a principles approach to questions involving non-nationals and their methodological analysis, as well as a standard for the progressive elaboration of institutions and practices. As a general rule, ILO conventions give particular importance to the principle of choice of methods by states for the implementation of standards, as well as to the principle of progressive implementation. Non-discrimination implies equality of opportunity in the work field, inremuneration, job opportunity, trade union rights and benefits, social security, taxation, medical treatment, and accommodation; basic legal guarantees are also matters of concern to migrant workers, including termination of employment, non-renewal of work permits, and expulsion. The generality of human rights is due not because the individual is or is not a member of a partucular group, and claims to such rights are not determinable according to membership, but according to the character of the right in question. The individualized aspect of fundamental human rights requires a case-by-case consideration of claims, and the recognition that to all persons now certain special duties are owed.

  16. Towards a mulitphase equation of state of Carbon from first principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correa, Alfredo; Benedict, Lorin; Schwegler, Eric

    2007-03-01

    Ab initio molecular dynamics and electronic structure calculation had become one of the most useful tools to investigate properties of materials. Unfortunately these atomistic detailed results are rarely reused in calculations at a higher level of description, such as fluid dynamics and finite elements calculations. In this talk we present a concrete example showing the way that first principles results can be expressed in a way that is useful for hydrodynamics calculations, in particular we show how to build a analytic equation of state for Carbon that involves solid (diamond and BC8) and liquid phases. Applications of this newly obtained equation of state will be presented. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Dept. of Energy at the University of California/Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract no. W-7405-Eng-48.

  17. Principles and application of LIMS in mouse clinics.

    PubMed

    Maier, Holger; Schütt, Christine; Steinkamp, Ralph; Hurt, Anja; Schneltzer, Elida; Gormanns, Philipp; Lengger, Christoph; Griffiths, Mark; Melvin, David; Agrawal, Neha; Alcantara, Rafael; Evans, Arthur; Gannon, David; Holroyd, Simon; Kipp, Christian; Raj, Navis Pretheeba; Richardson, David; LeBlanc, Sophie; Vasseur, Laurent; Masuya, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Kimio; Suzuki, Tomohiro; Tanaka, Nobuhiko; Wakana, Shigeharu; Walling, Alison; Clary, David; Gallegos, Juan; Fuchs, Helmut; de Angelis, Martin Hrabě; Gailus-Durner, Valerie

    2015-10-01

    Large-scale systemic mouse phenotyping, as performed by mouse clinics for more than a decade, requires thousands of mice from a multitude of different mutant lines to be bred, individually tracked and subjected to phenotyping procedures according to a standardised schedule. All these efforts are typically organised in overlapping projects, running in parallel. In terms of logistics, data capture, data analysis, result visualisation and reporting, new challenges have emerged from such projects. These challenges could hardly be met with traditional methods such as pen & paper colony management, spreadsheet-based data management and manual data analysis. Hence, different Laboratory Information Management Systems (LIMS) have been developed in mouse clinics to facilitate or even enable mouse and data management in the described order of magnitude. This review shows that general principles of LIMS can be empirically deduced from LIMS used by different mouse clinics, although these have evolved differently. Supported by LIMS descriptions and lessons learned from seven mouse clinics, this review also shows that the unique LIMS environment in a particular facility strongly influences strategic LIMS decisions and LIMS development. As a major conclusion, this review states that there is no universal LIMS for the mouse research domain that fits all requirements. Still, empirically deduced general LIMS principles can serve as a master decision support template, which is provided as a hands-on tool for mouse research facilities looking for a LIMS.

  18. CEST: From basic principles to applications, challenges and opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinogradov, Elena; Sherry, A. Dean; Lenkinski, Robert E.

    2013-04-01

    Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer (CEST) offers a new type of contrast for MRI that is molecule specific. In this approach, a slowly exchanging NMR active nucleus, typically a proton, possessing a chemical shift distinct from water is selectively saturated and the saturated spin is transferred to the bulk water via chemical exchange. Many molecules can act as CEST agents, both naturally occurring endogenous molecules and new types of exogenous agents. A large variety of molecules have been demonstrated as potential agents, including small diamagnetic molecules, complexes of paramagnetic ions, endogenous macromolecules, dendrimers and liposomes. In this review we described the basic principles of the CEST experiment, with emphasis on the similarity to earlier saturation transfer experiments described in the literature. Interest in quantitative CEST has also resulted in the development of new exchange-sensitive detection schemes. Some emerging clinical applications of CEST are described and the challenges and opportunities associated with translation of these methods to the clinical environment are discussed.

  19. Active nondestructive assay of nuclear materials: principles and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Gozani, Tsahi

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to present, coherently and comprehensively, the wealth of available but scattered information on the principles and applications of active nondestructive analysis (ANDA). Chapters are devoted to the following: background and overview; interactions of neutrons with matter; interactions of ..gamma..-rays with matter; neutron production and sources; ..gamma..-ray production and sources; effects of neutron and ..gamma..-ray transport in bulk media; signatures of neutron- and photon-induced fissions; neutron and photon detection systems and electronics; representative ANDA systems; and instrument analysis, calibration, and measurement control for ANDA. Each chapter has an introductory section describing the relationship of the topic of that chapter to ANDA. Each chapter ends with a section that summarizes the main results and conclusions of the chapter, and a reference list.

  20. Generic approvals of irradiated foods: Application of the chemiclearance principle

    SciTech Connect

    Taub, I.A.

    1996-10-01

    The use of irradiation for food preservation requires premarket approval primarily by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), based on data establishing the safety of the process. Several approvals have already been granted on the strength of extensive microbiological, genotoxicity, nutritional, and animal feeding studies. Extending approval to other foods that are pasteurized or are sterilized by treatment to high doses, and consequently storable of ambient temperatures, does not necessarily have to involve comprehensive research on each and every food item. Generic approvals of classes of food is possible, because of the commonality in the response of similar foods to treatment by ionizing irradiation. This commonality is the basis for the chemiclearance principle, by which it can be shown that compositionally similar conditions are toxicologically equivalent. The use of different chemical investigations into radiolytic effects in both low and high dose irradiated muscle foods will be discussed to illustrate the application of this approach for obtaining approvals, nationally and internationally.

  1. Hot-melt extrusion--basic principles and pharmaceutical applications.

    PubMed

    Lang, Bo; McGinity, James W; Williams, Robert O

    2014-09-01

    Originally adapted from the plastics industry, the use of hot-melt extrusion has gained favor in drug delivery applications both in academia and the pharmaceutical industry. Several commercial products made by hot-melt extrusion have been approved by the FDA, demonstrating its commercial feasibility for pharmaceutical processing. A significant number of research articles have reported on advances made regarding the pharmaceutical applications of the hot-melt extrusion processing; however, only limited articles have been focused on general principles regarding formulation and process development. This review provides an in-depth analysis and discussion of the formulation and processing aspects of hot-melt extrusion. The impact of physicochemical properties of drug substances and excipients on formulation development using a hot-melt extrusion process is discussed from a material science point of view. Hot-melt extrusion process development, scale-up, and the interplay of formulation and process attributes are also discussed. Finally, recent applications of hot-melt extrusion to a variety of dosage forms and drug substances have also been addressed.

  2. Bioreactors in tissue engineering - principles, applications and commercial constraints.

    PubMed

    Hansmann, Jan; Groeber, Florian; Kahlig, Alexander; Kleinhans, Claudia; Walles, Heike

    2013-03-01

    Bioreactor technology is vital for tissue engineering. Usually, bioreactors are used to provide a tissue-specific physiological in vitro environment during tissue maturation. In addition to this most obvious application, bioreactors have the potential to improve the efficiency of the overall tissue-engineering concept. To date, a variety of bioreactor systems for tissue-specific applications have been developed. Of these, some systems are already commercially available. With bioreactor technology, various functional tissues of different types were generated and cultured in vitro. Nevertheless, these efforts and achievements alone have not yet led to many clinically successful tissue-engineered implants. We review possible applications for bioreactor systems within a tissue-engineering process and present basic principles and requirements for bioreactor development. Moreover, the use of bioreactor systems for the expansion of clinically relevant cell types is addressed. In contrast to cell expansion, for the generation of functional three-dimensional tissue equivalents, additional physical cues must be provided. Therefore, bioreactors for musculoskeletal tissue engineering are discussed. Finally, bioreactor technology is reviewed in the context of commercial constraints.

  3. The Application of Ecological Principles in Establishing an Environmental Ethic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bicak, Charles J.

    1997-01-01

    Examines four ecological principles and their misapplication in common models of environmental ethics. The principles include balance in nature, the fragility of nature, high diversity yielding high stability, and interdependence in nature. Also suggests an alternative way to incorporate each principle in a working environmental ethic. (AIM)

  4. A brief introduction to tiling microarrays: principles, concepts, and applications.

    PubMed

    Lemetre, Christophe; Zhang, Zhengdong D

    2013-01-01

    Technological achievements have always contributed to the advancement of biomedical research. It has never been more so than in recent times, when the development and application of innovative cutting-edge technologies have transformed biology into a data-rich quantitative science. This stunning revolution in biology primarily ensued from the emergence of microarrays over two decades ago. The completion of whole-genome sequencing projects and the advance in microarray manufacturing technologies enabled the development of tiling microarrays, which gave unprecedented genomic coverage. Since their first description, several types of application of tiling arrays have emerged, each aiming to tackle a different biological problem. Although numerous algorithms have already been developed to analyze microarray data, new method development is still needed not only for better performance but also for integration of available microarray data sets, which without doubt constitute one of the largest collections of biological data ever generated. In this chapter we first introduce the principles behind the emergence and the development of tiling microarrays, and then discuss with some examples how they are used to investigate different biological problems.

  5. A principle in dynamic coarse graining-Onsager principle and its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doi, M.

    2016-07-01

    Dynamic coarse graining is a procedure to map a dynamical system with large degrees of freedom to a system with smaller degrees of freedom by properly choosing coarse grained variables. This procedure has been conducted mainly by empiricisms. In this paper, I will discuss a theoretical principle which may be useful for this procedure. I will discuss how to choose coarse grained variables (or slow variables), and how to set up their evolution equations. To this end, I will review the classical example of dynamic coarse graining, i.e., the Brownian motion theory, and show a variational principle for the evolution of the slow variables. The principle, called the Onsager principle, is useful not only to derive the evolution equations, but also to solve the problems.

  6. First-principles modeling of materials for nuclear energy applications

    SciTech Connect

    Dmitriev, Andrey I. Nikonov, Anton Yu.; Ponomareva, Alena V.; Abrikosov, Igor A.; Barannikova, Svetlana A.

    2014-11-14

    We discuss recent developments in the field of ab initio electronic structure theory and its use for studies of materials for nuclear energy applications. We review state-of-the-art simulation methods that allow for an efficient treatment of effects due to chemical and magnetic disorder, and illustrate their predictive power with examples of two materials systems, Fe-Cr-Ni alloys and Zr-Nb alloys.

  7. Negative-Refraction Metamaterials: Fundamental Principles and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eleftheriades, G. V.; Balmain, K. G.

    2005-06-01

    Learn about the revolutionary new technology of negative-refraction metamaterials Negative-Refraction Metamaterials: Fundamental Principles and Applications introduces artificial materials that support the unusual electromagnetic property of negative refraction. Readers will discover several classes of negative-refraction materials along with their exciting, groundbreaking applications, such as lenses and antennas, imaging with super-resolution, microwave devices, dispersion-compensating interconnects, radar, and defense. The book begins with a chapter describing the fundamentals of isotropic metamaterials in which a negative index of refraction is defined. In the following chapters, the text builds on the fundamentals by describing a range of useful microwave devices and antennas. Next, a broad spectrum of exciting new research and emerging applications is examined, including: Theory and experiments behind a super-resolving, negative-refractive-index transmission-line lens 3-D transmission-line metamaterials with a negative refractive index Numerical simulation studies of negative refraction of Gaussian beams and associated focusing phenomena Unique advantages and theory of shaped lenses made of negative-refractive-index metamaterials A new type of transmission-line metamaterial that is anisotropic and supports the formation of sharp steerable beams (resonance cones) Implementations of negative-refraction metamaterials at optical frequencies Unusual propagation phenomena in metallic waveguides partially filled with negative-refractive-index metamaterials Metamaterials in which the refractive index and the underlying group velocity are both negative This work brings together the best minds in this cutting-edge field. It is fascinating reading for scientists, engineers, and graduate-level students in physics, chemistry, materials science, photonics, and electrical engineering.

  8. CZT Virtual Frisch-grid Detector: Principles and Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Cui,Y.; Bolotnikov, A.; Camarda, G.; Hossain, A.; James, R. B.

    2009-03-24

    Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CdZnTe or CZT) is a very attractive material for using as room-temperature semiconductor detectors, because it has a wide bandgap and a high atomic number. However, due to the material's poor hole mobility, several special techniques were developed to ensure its suitability for radiation detection. Among them, the virtual Frisch-grid CZT detector is an attractive option, having a simple configuration, yet delivering an outstanding spectral performance. The goal of our group in Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is to improve the performance of Frisch-ring CZT detectors; most recently, that effort focused on the non-contacting Frisch-ring detector, allowing us to build an inexpensive, large-volume detector array with high energy-resolution and a large effective area. In this paper, the principles of virtual Frisch-grid detectors are described, especially BNL's innovative improvements. The potential applications of virtual Frisch-grid detectors are discussed, and as an example, a hand-held gamma-ray spectrometer using a CZT virtual Frischgrid detector array is introduced, which is a self-contained device with a radiation detector, readout circuit, communication circuit, and high-voltage supply. It has good energy resolution of 1.4% (FWHM of 662-keV peak) with a total detection volume of {approx}20 cm{sup 3}. Such a portable inexpensive device can be used widely in nonproliferation applications, non-destructive detection, radiation imaging, and for homeland security. Extended systems based on the same technology have potential applications in industrial- and nuclear-medical-imaging.

  9. Applications of the holographic principle in string theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Button, Bradly Kevin

    The holographic principle has become an extraordinary tool in theoretical physics, most notably in the form of the Anti-deSitter Conformal Field Theory (AdS/CFT) correspondence, in which classical gravitational degrees of freedom in N-dimensions are related quantum field theory degrees of freedom in N -- 1 dimensions in the limit of a large number of fields. Here we present an account of the AdS/CFT correspondence, also known as the gauge/gravity duality, from its origins in the large N 'tHooft expansion, up to Maldacena's proposal that type IIB string theory in the presence of D-branes at low energy is dual to an N = 4, d = 4, U(N) super Yang-Mills on AdS5 . S5 . We begin with an extensive review of (super)string theory including D-branes. We then present the general formulation of the AdS/CFT in the supergravity background of AdS5 x S5 , along with several examples of how it is used in terms of the identification of bulk fields with operators on the boundary of a CFT. We move on to discuss two applications of the gauge/gravity duality. The first is the application of the holographic gauge/gravity correspondence to the QCD k-string. The second applies the AdS/CFT formalism to a Kerr black hole solution embedded in 10-dimensional heterotic sting theory. These two applications of the holographic gauge/gravity duality comprise the original work presented here. We follow with summaries and discussions of the background material, the original work, and future investigations.

  10. Wideband Waveform Design principles for Solid-state Weather Radars

    SciTech Connect

    Bharadwaj, Nitin; Chandrasekar, V.

    2012-01-01

    The use of solid-state transmitter is becoming a key part of the strategy to realize a network of low cost electronically steered radars. However, solid-state transmitters have low peak powers and this necessitates the use of pulse compression waveforms. In this paper a frequency diversity wideband waveforms design is proposed to mitigate low sensitivity of solid-state transmitters. In addition, the waveforms mitigate the range eclipsing problem associated with long pulse compression. An analysis of the performance of pulse compression using mismatched compression filters designed to minimize side lobe levels is presented. The impact of range side lobe level on the retrieval of Doppler moments are presented. Realistic simulations are performed based on CSU-CHILL radar data and Center for Collaborative Adaptive Sensing of the Atmosphere (CASA) Integrated Project I (IP1) radar data.

  11. A finite-state, finite-memory minimum principle, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandell, N. R., Jr.; Athans, M.

    1975-01-01

    In part 1 of this paper, a minimum principle was found for the finite-state, finite-memory (FSFM) stochastic control problem. In part 2, conditions for the sufficiency of the minimum principle are stated in terms of the informational properties of the problem. This is accomplished by introducing the notion of a signaling strategy. Then a min-H algorithm based on the FSFM minimum principle is presented. This algorithm converges, after a finite number of steps, to a person - by - person extremal solution.

  12. Applications of Principled Search Methods in Climate Influences and Mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glymour, Clark

    2005-01-01

    Forest and grass fires cause economic losses in the billions of dollars in the U.S. alone. In addition, boreal forests constitute a large carbon store; it has been estimated that, were no burning to occur, an additional 7 gigatons of carbon would be sequestered in boreal soils each century. Effective wildfire suppression requires anticipation of locales and times for which wildfire is most probable, preferably with a two to four week forecast, so that limited resources can be efficiently deployed. The United States Forest Service (USFS), and other experts and agencies have developed several measures of fire risk combining physical principles and expert judgment, and have used them in automated procedures for forecasting fire risk. Forecasting accuracies for some fire risk indices in combination with climate and other variables have been estimated for specific locations, with the value of fire risk index variables assessed by their statistical significance in regressions. In other cases, the MAPSS forecasts [23, 241 for example, forecasting accuracy has been estimated only by simulated data. We describe alternative forecasting methods that predict fire probability by locale and time using statistical or machine learning procedures trained on historical data, and we give comparative assessments of their forecasting accuracy for one fire season year, April- October, 2003, for all U.S. Forest Service lands. Aside from providing an accuracy baseline for other forecasting methods, the results illustrate the interdependence between the statistical significance of prediction variables and the forecasting method used.

  13. A corresponding-states principle for the equation of state of linear homonuclear fused-hard-sphere fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeso, M. J.; Solana, J. R.

    1995-11-01

    A theoretically based corresponding-states principle previously developed for the equation of state of hard-convex-body fluids is extended to rigid linear homonuclear fused-hard-sphere fluids. Effective volumes and shapes are introduced in order to account for the nonconvexity of the molecules. The excess compressibility factor, reduced by means of a parameter which can be determined analytically, is a common function of the effective packing fraction. The analytical expression for the function can be obtained from the equation of state of the hard-sphere fluid. Existing simulation data for diatomics, triatomics and tetraatomics show excellent agreement with the corresponding-states principle.

  14. Physical principles and current status of emerging non-volatile solid state memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L.; Yang, C.-H.; Wen, J.

    2015-07-01

    Today the influence of non-volatile solid-state memories on persons' lives has become more prominent because of their non-volatility, low data latency, and high robustness. As a pioneering technology that is representative of non-volatile solidstate memories, flash memory has recently seen widespread application in many areas ranging from electronic appliances, such as cell phones and digital cameras, to external storage devices such as universal serial bus (USB) memory. Moreover, owing to its large storage capacity, it is expected that in the near future, flash memory will replace hard-disk drives as a dominant technology in the mass storage market, especially because of recently emerging solid-state drives. However, the rapid growth of the global digital data has led to the need for flash memories to have larger storage capacity, thus requiring a further downscaling of the cell size. Such a miniaturization is expected to be extremely difficult because of the well-known scaling limit of flash memories. It is therefore necessary to either explore innovative technologies that can extend the areal density of flash memories beyond the scaling limits, or to vigorously develop alternative non-volatile solid-state memories including ferroelectric random-access memory, magnetoresistive random-access memory, phase-change random-access memory, and resistive random-access memory. In this paper, we review the physical principles of flash memories and their technical challenges that affect our ability to enhance the storage capacity. We then present a detailed discussion of novel technologies that can extend the storage density of flash memories beyond the commonly accepted limits. In each case, we subsequently discuss the physical principles of these new types of non-volatile solid-state memories as well as their respective merits and weakness when utilized for data storage applications. Finally, we predict the future prospects for the aforementioned solid-state memories for

  15. Application of the principle of similarity fluid mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendericks, R. C.; Sengers, J. V.

    1979-01-01

    The principle of similarity applied to fluid mechanics is described and illustrated. The concept of transforming the conservation equations by combining similarity principles for thermophysical properties with those for fluid flow is examined. The usefulness of the procedure is illustrated by applying such a transformation to calculate two phase critical mass flow through a nozzle.

  16. Maximum entropy principle for stationary states underpinned by stochastic thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, Ian J.

    2015-11-01

    The selection of an equilibrium state by maximizing the entropy of a system, subject to certain constraints, is often powerfully motivated as an exercise in logical inference, a procedure where conclusions are reached on the basis of incomplete information. But such a framework can be more compelling if it is underpinned by dynamical arguments, and we show how this can be provided by stochastic thermodynamics, where an explicit link is made between the production of entropy and the stochastic dynamics of a system coupled to an environment. The separation of entropy production into three components allows us to select a stationary state by maximizing the change, averaged over all realizations of the motion, in the principal relaxational or nonadiabatic component, equivalent to requiring that this contribution to the entropy production should become time independent for all realizations. We show that this recovers the usual equilibrium probability density function (pdf) for a conservative system in an isothermal environment, as well as the stationary nonequilibrium pdf for a particle confined to a potential under nonisothermal conditions, and a particle subject to a constant nonconservative force under isothermal conditions. The two remaining components of entropy production account for a recently discussed thermodynamic anomaly between over- and underdamped treatments of the dynamics in the nonisothermal stationary state.

  17. Maximum entropy principle for stationary states underpinned by stochastic thermodynamics.

    PubMed

    Ford, Ian J

    2015-11-01

    The selection of an equilibrium state by maximizing the entropy of a system, subject to certain constraints, is often powerfully motivated as an exercise in logical inference, a procedure where conclusions are reached on the basis of incomplete information. But such a framework can be more compelling if it is underpinned by dynamical arguments, and we show how this can be provided by stochastic thermodynamics, where an explicit link is made between the production of entropy and the stochastic dynamics of a system coupled to an environment. The separation of entropy production into three components allows us to select a stationary state by maximizing the change, averaged over all realizations of the motion, in the principal relaxational or nonadiabatic component, equivalent to requiring that this contribution to the entropy production should become time independent for all realizations. We show that this recovers the usual equilibrium probability density function (pdf) for a conservative system in an isothermal environment, as well as the stationary nonequilibrium pdf for a particle confined to a potential under nonisothermal conditions, and a particle subject to a constant nonconservative force under isothermal conditions. The two remaining components of entropy production account for a recently discussed thermodynamic anomaly between over- and underdamped treatments of the dynamics in the nonisothermal stationary state.

  18. CT Perfusion of the Liver: Principles and Applications in Oncology

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Se Hyung; Kamaya, Aya

    2014-01-01

    With the introduction of molecularly targeted chemotherapeutics, there is an increasing need for defining new response criteria for therapeutic success because use of morphologic imaging alone may not fully assess tumor response. Computed tomographic (CT) perfusion imaging of the liver provides functional information about the microcirculation of normal parenchyma and focal liver lesions and is a promising technique for assessing the efficacy of various anticancer treatments. CT perfusion also shows promising results for diagnosing primary or metastatic tumors, for predicting early response to anticancer treatments, and for monitoring tumor recurrence after therapy. Many of the limitations of early CT perfusion studies performed in the liver, such as limited coverage, motion artifacts, and high radiation dose of CT, are being addressed by recent technical advances. These include a wide area detector with or without volumetric spiral or shuttle modes, motion correction algorithms, and new CT reconstruction technologies such as iterative algorithms. Although several issues related to perfusion imaging—such as paucity of large multicenter trials, limited accessibility of perfusion software, and lack of standardization in methods—remain unsolved, CT perfusion has now reached technical maturity, allowing for its use in assessing tumor vascularity in larger-scale prospective clinical trials. In this review, basic principles, current acquisition protocols, and pharmacokinetic models used for CT perfusion imaging of the liver are described. Various oncologic applications of CT perfusion of the liver are discussed and current challenges, as well as possible solutions, for CT perfusion are presented. © RSNA, 2014 Online supplemental material is available for this article. PMID:25058132

  19. Excited-State Properties of Molecular Solids from First Principles.

    PubMed

    Kronik, Leeor; Neaton, Jeffrey B

    2016-05-27

    Molecular solids have attracted attention recently in the context of organic (opto)electronics. These materials exhibit unique charge carrier generation and transport phenomena that are distinct from those of conventional semiconductors. Understanding these phenomena is fundamental to optoelectronics and requires a detailed description of the excited-state properties of molecular solids. Recent advances in many-body perturbation theory (MBPT) and density functional theory (DFT) have made such description possible and have revealed many surprising electronic and optical properties of molecular crystals. Here, we review this progress. We summarize the salient aspects of MBPT and DFT as well as various properties that can be described by these methods. These properties include the fundamental gap and its renormalization, hybridization and band dispersion, singlet and triplet excitations, optical spectra, and excitonic properties. For each, we present concrete examples, a comparison to experiments, and a critical discussion.

  20. Excited-State Properties of Molecular Solids from First Principles.

    PubMed

    Kronik, Leeor; Neaton, Jeffrey B

    2016-05-27

    Molecular solids have attracted attention recently in the context of organic (opto)electronics. These materials exhibit unique charge carrier generation and transport phenomena that are distinct from those of conventional semiconductors. Understanding these phenomena is fundamental to optoelectronics and requires a detailed description of the excited-state properties of molecular solids. Recent advances in many-body perturbation theory (MBPT) and density functional theory (DFT) have made such description possible and have revealed many surprising electronic and optical properties of molecular crystals. Here, we review this progress. We summarize the salient aspects of MBPT and DFT as well as various properties that can be described by these methods. These properties include the fundamental gap and its renormalization, hybridization and band dispersion, singlet and triplet excitations, optical spectra, and excitonic properties. For each, we present concrete examples, a comparison to experiments, and a critical discussion. PMID:27090844

  1. Excited-State Properties of Molecular Solids from First Principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kronik, Leeor; Neaton, Jeffrey B.

    2016-05-01

    Molecular solids have attracted attention recently in the context of organic (opto)electronics. These materials exhibit unique charge carrier generation and transport phenomena that are distinct from those of conventional semiconductors. Understanding these phenomena is fundamental to optoelectronics and requires a detailed description of the excited-state properties of molecular solids. Recent advances in many-body perturbation theory (MBPT) and density functional theory (DFT) have made such description possible and have revealed many surprising electronic and optical properties of molecular crystals. Here, we review this progress. We summarize the salient aspects of MBPT and DFT as well as various properties that can be described by these methods. These properties include the fundamental gap and its renormalization, hybridization and band dispersion, singlet and triplet excitations, optical spectra, and excitonic properties. For each, we present concrete examples, a comparison to experiments, and a critical discussion.

  2. 12 CFR 621.3 - Application of generally accepted accounting principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Application of generally accepted accounting principles. 621.3 Section 621.3 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM ACCOUNTING AND REPORTING REQUIREMENTS General Rules § 621.3 Application of generally accepted accounting principles. Each institution shall: (a) Prepare...

  3. Corresponding-states principle for two-dimensional hard models of molecular fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeso, M. J.; Solana, J. R.

    1997-07-01

    This paper develops a theoretically based corresponding-states principle for the equation of state of athermal two-dimensional fluids consisting of rigid molecules. It is shown that the excess compressibility factor, reduced by means of a parameter which can be determined from the geometry of the molecules, is very nearly a common function of the excess compressibility factor of the hard-disk fluid. Existing simulation data show very good agreement with the corresponding-states principle, except for some molecules with very large bond length.

  4. Optimal quantum state estimation with use of the no-signaling principle

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Yeong-Deok; Bae, Joonwoo; Wang Xiangbin; Hwang, Won-Young

    2010-12-15

    A simple derivation of the optimal state estimation of a quantum bit was obtained by using the no-signaling principle. In particular, the no-signaling principle determines a unique form of the guessing probability independent of figures of merit, such as the fidelity or information gain. This proves that the optimal estimation for a quantum bit can be achieved by the same measurement for almost all figures of merit.

  5. Nonthermal Plasma Synthesis of Nanocrystals: Fundamental Principles, Materials, and Applications.

    PubMed

    Kortshagen, Uwe R; Sankaran, R Mohan; Pereira, Rui N; Girshick, Steven L; Wu, Jeslin J; Aydil, Eray S

    2016-09-28

    Nonthermal plasmas have emerged as a viable synthesis technique for nanocrystal materials. Inherently solvent and ligand-free, nonthermal plasmas offer the ability to synthesize high purity nanocrystals of materials that require high synthesis temperatures. The nonequilibrium environment in nonthermal plasmas has a number of attractive attributes: energetic surface reactions selectively heat the nanoparticles to temperatures that can strongly exceed the gas temperature; charging of nanoparticles through plasma electrons reduces or eliminates nanoparticle agglomeration; and the large difference between the chemical potentials of the gaseous growth species and the species bound to the nanoparticle surfaces facilitates nanocrystal doping. This paper reviews the state of the art in nonthermal plasma synthesis of nanocrystals. It discusses the fundamentals of nanocrystal formation in plasmas, reviews practical implementations of plasma reactors, surveys the materials that have been produced with nonthermal plasmas and surface chemistries that have been developed, and provides an overview of applications of plasma-synthesized nanocrystals.

  6. Nonthermal Plasma Synthesis of Nanocrystals: Fundamental Principles, Materials, and Applications.

    PubMed

    Kortshagen, Uwe R; Sankaran, R Mohan; Pereira, Rui N; Girshick, Steven L; Wu, Jeslin J; Aydil, Eray S

    2016-09-28

    Nonthermal plasmas have emerged as a viable synthesis technique for nanocrystal materials. Inherently solvent and ligand-free, nonthermal plasmas offer the ability to synthesize high purity nanocrystals of materials that require high synthesis temperatures. The nonequilibrium environment in nonthermal plasmas has a number of attractive attributes: energetic surface reactions selectively heat the nanoparticles to temperatures that can strongly exceed the gas temperature; charging of nanoparticles through plasma electrons reduces or eliminates nanoparticle agglomeration; and the large difference between the chemical potentials of the gaseous growth species and the species bound to the nanoparticle surfaces facilitates nanocrystal doping. This paper reviews the state of the art in nonthermal plasma synthesis of nanocrystals. It discusses the fundamentals of nanocrystal formation in plasmas, reviews practical implementations of plasma reactors, surveys the materials that have been produced with nonthermal plasmas and surface chemistries that have been developed, and provides an overview of applications of plasma-synthesized nanocrystals. PMID:27550744

  7. [Malaria in Hungary: origin, current state and principles of prevention].

    PubMed

    Szénási, Zsuzsanna; Vass, Adám; Melles, Márta; Kucsera, István; Danka, József; Csohán, Agnes; Krisztalovics, Katalin

    2003-05-25

    Malaria was an endemic disease in Hungary for many centuries. A country-wide survey of the epidemiologic situation on malaria started in the year of 1927. That was done by the Department of Parasitology of the Royal State Institute of Hygiene (presently: Johan Béla National Center for Epidemiology). The notification of malaria was made compulsory in 1930. Free of charge laboratory examination of the blood of persons suffering from malaria or suspected of an infection have been carried out. Anti-malarial drugs were also distributed free of charge, together with appropriate medical advise given at the anti-malarial sanitary stations. Between 1933 and 1943, the actual number of malaria cases was estimated as high as 10-100,000 per year. The major breakthrough came in 1949 by the organized antimalarial campaign applying DDT for mosquito eradication. The drastic reduction of the vectors resulted in the rapid decline of malaria cases. Since 1956, there have not been reported any indigenous case in Hungary. In 1963, Hungary entered on the Official Register of the WHO to the areas where malaria eradication has been achieved. During the period of 1963-2001, 169 Hungarians acquired the malaria in abroad and 263 foreigners infected in abroad were registered in Hungary. More than half of the cases (230) were caused by Plasmodium falciparum. Further 178 cases were caused by Plasmodium vivax and 24 cases by other Plasmodium species. During that period, 7 fatal cases were reported (Plasmodium falciparum). The expansion of migration (both the increase of the number of foreigners travelling into Hungary and of Hungarians travelling abroad) favours to the appearance of imported cases. Attention is called of all the persons travelling to malaria endemic countries to the importance of malaria prevention by the International Vaccination Stations located in the National Center for Epidemiology and in the Public Health Institutes of 19 counties and of Budapest. The Johan Béla National

  8. Principles and applications of fluorescence lifetime correlation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beranová, Lenka; Humpolícková, Jana; Hof, Martin

    2009-05-01

    Two fluorescence spectroscopy concepts, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and time correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) are employed in fluorescence lifetime correlation spectroscopy (FLCS) - a relatively new technique with several experimental benefits. In FLCS experiments, pulsed excitation is used and data are stored in a special time-tagged time-resolved mode. Mathematical treatment of TCSPC decay patterns of distinct fluorophores and their mixture enables to calculate autocorrelation functions of each of the fluorophores and thus their diffusion properties and concentrations can be determined separately. Moreover, crosscorrelation of the two signals can be performed and information on interaction of the species can be obtained. This technique is particularly helpful for distinguishing different states of the same fluorophore in different microenvironments. The first application of that concept represents the simultaneous determination of two-dimensional diffusion in planar lipid layers and three-dimensional vesicle diffusion in bulk above the lipid layers. The lifetime in both investigated systems differed because the lifetime of the dye is considerably quenched in the layer near the light-absorbing surface. This concept was also used in other applications: a) investigation of a conformational change of a labeled protein, b) detection of small amounts of labeled oligonucleotides bound to metal particles or c) elucidation of the compaction mechanism of different sized labeled DNA molecules. Moreover, it was demonstrated that FLCS can help to overcome some FCS experimental drawbacks.

  9. Main principles of radiation protection and their applications in waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Devgun, J.S.

    1993-09-01

    The average exposure for an individual from such background in the United States is about 300 mrem per year with approximately 200 mrem of this coming from radon exposure alone. In addition to the natural sources of background radiation, a very small amount of the background radiation occurs due to the nuclear weapons test fallout. Manmade sources of radiation also include certain consumer products, industrial and research use of radioisotopes, medical X-rays, and radiopharmaceuticals. When all sources, natural and man-made, are taken into account, the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) has estimated that the average annual dose to individuals in the US population is 360 mrem (NCRP Report No. 93). In this report the fundamental principles of radiation protection are reviewed, as well as the relevant laws and regulations in the United States and discuss application of radiation protection in radioactive waste management.

  10. Magnetic tunnel junctions with ferroelectric barriers: prediction of four resistance States from first principles.

    PubMed

    Velev, Julian P; Duan, Chun-Gang; Burton, J D; Smogunov, Alexander; Niranjan, Manish K; Tosatti, Erio; Jaswal, S S; Tsymbal, Evgeny Y

    2009-01-01

    Magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs), composed of two ferromagnetic electrodes separated by a thin insulating barrier layer, are currently used in spintronic devices, such as magnetic sensors and magnetic random access memories. Recently, driven by demonstrations of ferroelectricity at the nanoscale, thin-film ferroelectric barriers were proposed to extend the functionality of MTJs. Due to the sensitivity of conductance to the magnetization alignment of the electrodes (tunneling magnetoresistance) and the polarization orientation in the ferroelectric barrier (tunneling electroresistance), these multiferroic tunnel junctions (MFTJs) may serve as four-state resistance devices. On the basis of first-principles calculations, we demonstrate four resistance states in SrRuO(3)/BaTiO(3)/SrRuO(3) MFTJs with asymmetric interfaces. We find that the resistance of such a MFTJ is significantly changed when the electric polarization of the barrier is reversed and/or when the magnetizations of the electrodes are switched from parallel to antiparallel. These results reveal the exciting prospects of MFTJs for application as multifunctional spintronic devices. PMID:19113889

  11. The 'Herbivory Uncertainty Principle': application in a cerrado site.

    PubMed

    Gadotti, C A; Batalha, M A

    2010-05-01

    Researchers may alter the ecology of their studied organisms, even carrying out apparently beneficial activities, as in herbivory studies, when they may alter herbivory damage. We tested whether visit frequency altered herbivory damage, as predicted by the 'Herbivory Uncertainty Principle'. In a cerrado site, we established 80 quadrats, in which we sampled all woody individuals. We used four visit frequencies (high, medium, low, and control), quantifying, at the end of three months, herbivory damage for each species in each treatment. We did not corroborate the 'Herbivory Uncertainty Principle', since visiting frequency did not alter herbivory damage, at least when the whole plant community was taken into account. However, when we analysed each species separately, four out of 11 species presented significant differences in herbivory damage, suggesting that the researcher is not independent of its measurements. The principle could be tested in other ecological studies in which it may occur, such as those on animal behaviour, human ecology, population dynamics, and conservation.

  12. The application of design principles to innovate clinical care delivery.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Michael D; Duncan, Alan K; Armbruster, Ryan R; Montori, Victor M; Feyereisn, Wayne L; LaRusso, Nicholas F

    2009-01-01

    Clinical research centers that support hypothesis-driven investigation have long been a feature of academic medical centers but facilities in which clinical care delivery can be systematically assessed and evaluated have heretofore been nonexistent. The Institute of Medicine report "Crossing the Quality Chasm" identified six core attributes of an ideal care delivery system that in turn relied heavily on system redesign. Although manufacturing and service industries have leveraged modern design principles in new product development, healthcare has lagged behind. In this article, we describe a methodology utilized by our facility to study the clinical care delivery system that incorporates modern design principles. PMID:19343895

  13. Application of the MHD energy principle to magnetostatic atmospheres

    SciTech Connect

    Zweibel, E.G.

    1984-11-01

    We apply the MHD energy principle to the stability of a magnetized atmosphere which is bounded below by much denser fluid, as is the solar corona. We treat the two fluids as ideal; the approximation which is consistent with the energy principle, and use the dynamical conditions that must hold at a fluid-fluid interface to show that if vertical displacements of the lower boundary are permitted, then the lower atmosphere must be perturbed as well. However, displacements which do not perturb the coronal boundary can be properly treated as isolated perturbations of the corona alone.

  14. The Didactic Principles and Their Applications in the Didactic Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marius-Costel, Esi

    2010-01-01

    The evaluation and reevaluation of the fundamental didactic principles suppose the acceptance at the level of an instructive-educative activity of a new educational paradigm. Thus, its understanding implies an assumption at a conceptual-theoretical level of some approaches where the didactic aspects find their usefulness by relating to value…

  15. 10 CFR 603.625 - Cost principles or standards applicable to for-profit participants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Accounting Principles (see Statement of Financial Accounting Standards Number 2, “Accounting for Research and... INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Award Terms Affecting Participants' Financial, Property, and Purchasing Systems Financial Matters § 603.625 Cost principles or standards applicable to for-profit participants. (a) So...

  16. 10 CFR 603.625 - Cost principles or standards applicable to for-profit participants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Award Terms Affecting Participants' Financial, Property, and Purchasing Systems Financial Matters § 603.625 Cost principles or standards applicable to for-profit participants. (a) So as... to apply the Government cost principles in 48 CFR part 31 to for-profit participants that...

  17. 10 CFR 603.625 - Cost principles or standards applicable to for-profit participants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Award Terms Affecting Participants' Financial, Property, and Purchasing Systems Financial Matters § 603.625 Cost principles or standards applicable to for-profit participants. (a) So as... to apply the Government cost principles in 48 CFR part 31 to for-profit participants that...

  18. 10 CFR 603.625 - Cost principles or standards applicable to for-profit participants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Award Terms Affecting Participants' Financial, Property, and Purchasing Systems Financial Matters § 603.625 Cost principles or standards applicable to for-profit participants. (a) So as... to apply the Government cost principles in 48 CFR part 31 to for-profit participants that...

  19. 10 CFR 603.625 - Cost principles or standards applicable to for-profit participants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Award Terms Affecting Participants' Financial, Property, and Purchasing Systems Financial Matters § 603.625 Cost principles or standards applicable to for-profit participants. (a) So as... to apply the Government cost principles in 48 CFR part 31 to for-profit participants that...

  20. 12 CFR 621.3 - Application of generally accepted accounting principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... management and the Farm Credit Administration, in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Application of generally accepted accounting principles. 621.3 Section 621.3 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM...

  1. 12 CFR 621.3 - Application of generally accepted accounting principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... management and the Farm Credit Administration, in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Application of generally accepted accounting principles. 621.3 Section 621.3 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM...

  2. 12 CFR 621.3 - Application of generally accepted accounting principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... management and the Farm Credit Administration, in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Application of generally accepted accounting principles. 621.3 Section 621.3 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM...

  3. The Application of Social Ecological Principles to the Assessment of Inner-City Black Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Samuel A.; Steele, Robert E.

    The application of the four basic principles of social ecology as a framework for assessing inner city black communities is the focus of this paper. Social ecology is described as a concept that includes variables from both the social and physical environments. Its four basic principles are said to be recognition of the interdependence of roles…

  4. Toxicology - A primer on toxicology principles and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kamrin, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    As the use of synthetic chemicals increased dramatically after World War II, concern about the possible adverse health and environmental effects of such use grew. The book opens with a discussion of the general principles of toxicology and how these general principles are applied in assessing the acute, subacute and chronic effects of chemicals. Both qualitative and quantitative measures of toxicity are addressed and the protocols for the various tests are described. Emphasis is placed on both the strengths and limitations of the techniques which are in current use. This is then followed by a discussion of risk assessment and risk management. Risk assessment deals with both the toxic potential of a chemical and the exposure likely to occur in specific situations. Risk management includes the steps taken to reduce or eliminate risks identified in the assessment process. The components of risk assessment are described in relation to a variety of possible toxic effects and exposure scenarios. The last part of the book provides a description and analysis of four case studies, each dealing with a different substance. These include the food additives, cyclamate and saccharin; asbestos; formaldehyde; and benzene. The basic toxicological information regarding each, and the different regulations to which they have been subject, provide the basis for exploring how the principles introduced in the first part of the book are applied in practice.

  5. Slope across the Curriculum: Principles and Standards for School Mathematics and Common Core State Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagle, Courtney; Moore-Russo, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    This article provides an initial comparison of the Principles and Standards for School Mathematics and the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics by examining the fundamental notion of slope. Each set of standards is analyzed using eleven previously identified conceptualizations of slope. Both sets of standards emphasize Functional Property,…

  6. An Efficient Variational Principle for the Direct Optimization of Excited States.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Luning; Neuscamman, Eric

    2016-08-01

    We present a variational principle that enables systematically improvable predictions for individual excited states through an efficient Monte Carlo evaluation. We demonstrate its compatibility with different ansatzes and with both real space and Fock space sampling and discuss its potential for use in the solid state. In numerical demonstrations for challenging molecular excitations, the method rivals or surpasses the accuracy of very high level methods using drastically more compact wave function approximations. PMID:27379468

  7. Shock Hugoniots of molecular liquids and the principle of corresponding states

    SciTech Connect

    Chisolm, Eric D; Crockett, Scott D; Shaw, Milton S

    2009-01-01

    We observe that the shock velocity-particle velocity Hugoniots for various liquids (e.g. nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, argon) lie almost on top of one another. Recalling the work of Ross and Ree [J. Chem. Phys. 73, 6146-6152 (1980)], we hypothesize that these materials obey a principle of corresponding states. We use the principle to deduce how the Hugoniots of two corresponding materials should be related, and we compare the results with data and find good agreement. We suggest this as a method for estimating the Hugoniot of a material of the appropriate type in the absence of shock data, and we illustrate with fluorine.

  8. Squeezed States, Uncertainty Relations and the Pauli Principle in Composite and Cosmological Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terazawa, Hidezumi

    1996-01-01

    The importance of not only uncertainty relations but also the Pauli exclusion principle is emphasized in discussing various 'squeezed states' existing in the universe. The contents of this paper include: (1) Introduction; (2) Nuclear Physics in the Quark-Shell Model; (3) Hadron Physics in the Standard Quark-Gluon Model; (4) Quark-Lepton-Gauge-Boson Physics in Composite Models; (5) Astrophysics and Space-Time Physics in Cosmological Models; and (6) Conclusion. Also, not only the possible breakdown of (or deviation from) uncertainty relations but also the superficial violation of the Pauli principle at short distances (or high energies) in composite (and string) models is discussed in some detail.

  9. Fisrt-principles calculations on metal-induced gap states at metal-semiconductor interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gohda, Y.; Tsuneyuki, S.

    2010-03-01

    Metal-induced gap states (MIGS) are responsible for Fermi-level pinning for narrow-gap semiconductors such as Si and GaAs. First-principles calculations have demonstrated that MIGS are related to the tails of metal states penetrating into the semiconductor corresponding to Bloch states with wave vectors having an imaginary part. Thus, their existence is a consequence of intrinsic properties of the bulk semiconductor. In contrast, a removal of FLP has been reported experimentally at atomically controlled Al-Si(100) interfaces, suggesting that MIGS play a less dominant role in determining the interface properties. This inconsistency between experimental results and the accepted view of MIGS calls for a detailed theoretical investigation. Here, we report our recent progresses on MIGS at a few metal-semiconductor interfaces investigated by means of first-principles calculations.

  10. Equation of state for technetium from X-ray diffraction and first-principle calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mast, Daniel S.; Kim, Eunja; Siska, Emily M.; Poineau, Frederic; Czerwinski, Kenneth R.; Lavina, Barbara; Forster, Paul M.

    2016-08-01

    The ambient temperature equation of state (EoS) of technetium metal has been measured by X-ray diffraction. The metal was compressed using a diamond anvil cell and using a 4:1 methanol-ethanol pressure transmitting medium. The maximum pressure achieved, as determined from the gold pressureEquation of state for technetium from X-ray diffraction and first-principle calculations scale, was 67 GPa. The compression data shows that the HCP phase of technetium is stable up to 67 GPa. The compression curve of technetium was also calculated using first-principles total-energy calculations. Utilizing a number of fitting strategies to compare the experimental and theoretical data it is determined that the Vinet equation of state with an ambient isothermal bulk modulus of B0T=288 GPa and a first pressure derivative of B‧=5.9(2) best represent the compression behavior of technetium metal.

  11. Application of the locality principle to radio occultation studies of the Earth's atmosphere and ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavelyev, A. G.; Liou, Y. A.; Matyugov, S. S.; Pavelyev, A. A.; Gubenko, V. N.; Zhang, K.; Kuleshov, Y.

    2015-07-01

    A new formulation of the previously introduced principle of locality is presented. The principle can be applied for modernization of the radio occultation (RO) remote sensing of the atmospheres and ionospheres of the Earth and other planets. The principle states that significant contributions to variations of the intensity and phase of the radio waves passing through a layered medium are connected with influence of the vicinities of tangential points where the refractivity gradient is perpendicular to the radio ray trajectory. The RO method assumes spherical symmetry of the investigated medium. In this case, if location of a tangent point relative to the spherical symmetry centre is known, the time derivatives of the RO signal phase and Doppler frequency variations can be recalculated into the refractive attenuation. Several important findings are consequences of the locality principle: (i) if position of the centre of symmetry is known, the total absorption along the ray path can be determined at a single frequency; (ii) in the case of low absorption the height, displacement from the radio ray perigee, and tilt of the inclined ionospheric (atmospheric) layers can be evaluated; (iii) the contributions of the layered and irregular structures in the RO signal can be separated and parameters of layers and turbulence can be measured at a single frequency using joint analysis of the intensity and phase variations. Specially for the Earth's troposphere, the altitude distributions of the weak total absorption (about of 1-4 db) of the radio waves at GPS frequencies corresponding to possible influence of the oxygen, water vapour, and hydrometeors can be measured with accuracy of about 0.1 db at a single frequency. In accordance with the locality principle, a new index of ionospheric activity is introduced. This index is measured from the phase variations of radio waves passing through the ionosphere. Its high correlation with the S4 scintillation index is established. This

  12. Application of locality principle to radio occultation studies of the Earth's atmosphere and ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavelyev, A. G.; Liou, Y. A.; Matyugov, S. S.; Pavelyev, A. A.; Gubenko, V. N.; Zhang, K.; Kuleshov, Y.

    2015-01-01

    A new formulation of previously introduced principle of locality is presented. The principle can be applied for modernization of the radio occultation (RO) remote sensing of the atmospheres and ionospheres of the Earth and planets. The principle states that significant contributions to variations of the amplitude and phase of the radio waves passing through a layered medium are connected with influence of the vicinities of tangential points where the refractivity gradient is perpendicular to the radio ray trajectory. The RO method assumes spherical symmetry of the investigated medium. In this case if location of a tangent point relative to the spherical symmetry center is known, the derivatives on time of the RO signal phase and Doppler frequency variations can be recalculated into the refractive attenuation. Several important findings are consequences of the locality principle: (i) if position of the center of symmetry is known, the total absorption along the ray path can be determined at a single frequency, (ii) in the case of low absorption the height, displacement from the radio ray perigee, and tilt of the inclined ionospheric (atmospheric) layers can be evaluated, (iii) the contributions of the layered and irregular structures in the RO signal can be separated and parameters of layers and turbulence can be measured at a single frequency using joint analysis of the amplitude and phase variations. Specially for the Earth's troposphere, the altitude distributions of the weak total absorption (about of 1-4 db) of the radio waves at GPS frequencies corresponding to possible influence of the oxygen and water vapor can be measured with accuracy of about 0.1 db at a single frequency. According with the locality principle, a new index of ionospheric activity is introduced. This index is measured from the phase variations of radio waves passing through the ionosphere. Its high correlation with S4 scintillation index is established. This correlation indicates the

  13. State Financial Aid: Applying Redesign Principles through State Engagement. Special Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pingel, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    College is increasingly expensive for students, but states have an important policy tool to help defray the costs: state financial aid programs. However, many states' programs are misaligned with articulated strategic postsecondary education policy goals. Over the past two years, Education Commission of the States has supported a variety of…

  14. Application and Utility of Psychodynamic Principles in Forensic Assessment.

    PubMed

    Simopoulos, Eugene F; Cohen, Bruce

    2015-12-01

    Effective practice of forensic psychiatry is dependent on a clinical recognition and understanding of core psychodynamic principles and theory. Practice guidelines, rooted in the ethics-based imperative to strive for honesty and objectivity, demand that practitioners remain vigilant to the development of bias and appreciate interpersonal dynamics that may be re-enacted in the forensic setting. Although it is not feasible to maintain complete impartiality, especially when confronted with the nature of certain offenses, knowledge of both conscious and unconscious responses can bolster the intellectual integrity of the clinical assessment. The identification of defense mechanisms within both the evaluator and evaluee and attention to transference and countertransference are essential for an accurate conceptualization of an offender's psychological functioning, vulnerabilities, and risk of reoffense. In this article, we review psychodynamic concepts and their potential impact in the forensic setting and underscore interventions that may aid in the elucidation and management of these processes. PMID:26668219

  15. Application of ALARA principles to shipment of spent nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Greenborg, J.; Brackenbush, L.W.; Murphy, D.W. Burnett, R.A.; Lewis, J.R.

    1980-05-01

    The public exposure from spent fuel shipment is very low. In view of this low exposure and the perfect safety record for spent fuel shipment, existing systems can be considered satisfactory. On the other hand, occupational exposure reduction merits consideration and technology improvement to decrease dose should concentrate on this exposure. Practices that affect the age of spent fuel in shipment and the number of times the fuel must be shipped prior to disposal have the largest impact. A policy to encourage a 5-year spent fuel cooling period prior to shipment coupled with appropriate cask redesign to accommodate larger loads would be consistent with ALARA and economic principles. And finally, bypassing high population density areas will not in general reduce shipment dose.

  16. Application and Utility of Psychodynamic Principles in Forensic Assessment.

    PubMed

    Simopoulos, Eugene F; Cohen, Bruce

    2015-12-01

    Effective practice of forensic psychiatry is dependent on a clinical recognition and understanding of core psychodynamic principles and theory. Practice guidelines, rooted in the ethics-based imperative to strive for honesty and objectivity, demand that practitioners remain vigilant to the development of bias and appreciate interpersonal dynamics that may be re-enacted in the forensic setting. Although it is not feasible to maintain complete impartiality, especially when confronted with the nature of certain offenses, knowledge of both conscious and unconscious responses can bolster the intellectual integrity of the clinical assessment. The identification of defense mechanisms within both the evaluator and evaluee and attention to transference and countertransference are essential for an accurate conceptualization of an offender's psychological functioning, vulnerabilities, and risk of reoffense. In this article, we review psychodynamic concepts and their potential impact in the forensic setting and underscore interventions that may aid in the elucidation and management of these processes.

  17. Introduction to Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance: Technical Principles and Clinical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Wen-Yih Isaac; Su, Mao-Yuan Marine; Tseng, Yao-Hui Elton

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is a set of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques designed to assess cardiovascular morphology, ventricular function, myocardial perfusion, tissue characterization, flow quantification and coronary artery disease. Since MRI is a non-invasive tool and free of radiation, it is suitable for longitudinal monitoring of treatment effect and follow-up of disease progress. Compared to MRI of other body parts, CMR faces specific challenges from cardiac and respiratory motion. Therefore, CMR requires synchronous cardiac and respiratory gating or breath-holding techniques to overcome motion artifacts. This article will review the basic principles of MRI and introduce the CMR techniques that can be optimized for enhanced clinical assessment. PMID:27122944

  18. Principles of ballistics applicable to the treatment of gunshot wounds.

    PubMed

    Swan, K G; Swan, R C

    1991-04-01

    Ballistics is the science of the motion of a projectile through the barrel of a firearm (internal ballistics), during its subsequent flight (external ballistics), and during its final complicated motion after it strikes a target (terminal ballistics). Wound ballistics is a special case of terminal ballistics. Although wound ballistics is at best sets of approximations, its principles enter usefully into an evaluation of a gunshot wound and its treatment. A special consideration in these cases is their medicolegal aspects. At a minimum, the medical team receiving the patient should exert care not to destroy the clothing and in particular to cut around and not through bullet holes, to turn over to law enforcement officials any metallic foreign body recovered from the patient, and to describe precisely, or even to photograph, any entrance or exit wounds.

  19. First-Principles Molecular Dynamics Calculations of the Equation of State for Tantalum

    PubMed Central

    Ono, Shigeaki

    2009-01-01

    The equation of state of tantalum (Ta) has been investigated to 100 GPa and 3,000 K using the first-principles molecular dynamics method. A large volume dependence of the thermal pressure of Ta was revealed from the analysis of our data. A significant temperature dependence of the calculated effective Grüneisen parameters was confirmed at high pressures. This indicates that the conventional approach to analyze thermal properties using the Mie-Grüneisen approximation is likely to have a significant uncertainty in determining the equation of state for Ta, and that an intrinsic anharmonicity should be considered to analyze the equation of state. PMID:20057949

  20. The gas electron multiplier (GEM): Operating principles and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauli, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Introduced by the author in 1997, The Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) constitutes a powerful addition to the family of fast radiation detectors; originally developed for particle physics experiments, the device and has spawned a large number of developments and applications; a web search yields more than 400 articles on the subject. This note is an attempt to summarize the status of the design, developments and applications of the new detector.

  1. New approximation method in the proof of the Maximum Principle for nonsmooth optimal control problems with state constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shvartsman, Ilya A.

    2007-02-01

    Traditional proofs of the Pontryagin Maximum Principle (PMP) require the continuous differentiability of the dynamics with respect to the state variable on a neighborhood of the minimizing state trajectory, when arbitrary values of control variable are inserted into the dynamic equations. Sussmann has drawn attention to the fact that the PMP remains valid when the dynamics are differentiable with respect to the state variable, merely when the minimizing control is inserted into the dynamic equations. This weakening of earlier hypotheses has been referred to as the Lojasiewicz refinement. Arutyunov and Vinter showed that these extensions of early versions of the PMP can be simply proved by finite-dimensional approximations, application of a Lagrange multiplier rule in finite dimensions and passage to the limit. This paper generalizes the finite-dimensional approximation technique to a problem with state constraints, where the use of needle variations of the optimal control had not been successful. Moreover, the cost function and endpoint constraints are not assumed to be differentiable, but merely locally Lipschitz continuous. The Maximum Principle is expressed in terms of Michel-Penot subdifferential.

  2. The Operating Principle of a Fully Solid State Active Magnetic Regenerator

    SciTech Connect

    Abdelaziz, Omar

    2016-01-01

    As an alternative refrigeration technology, magnetocaloric refrigeration has the potential to be safer, quieter, more efficient, and more environmentally friendly than the conventional vapor compression refrigeration technology. Most of the reported active magnetic regenerator (AMR) systems that operate based on the magnetocaloric effect use heat transfer fluid to exchange heat, which results in complicated mechanical subsystems and components such as rotating valves and hydraulic pumps. This paper presents an operating principle of a fully solid state AMR, in which an alternative mechanism for heat transfer between the AMR and the heat source/sink is proposed. The operating principle of the fully solid state AMR is based on moving rods/sheets (e.g. copper, brass, iron or aluminum), which are employed to replace the heat transfer fluid. Such fully solid state AMR would provide a significantly higher heat transfer rate than a conventional AMR because the conductivity of moving solid rods/plates is high and it enables the increase in the machine operating frequency hence the cooling capacity. The details of operating principle are presented and discussed here. One of the key enabling features for this technology is the contact between the moving rods/sheets and magnetocaloric material, and heat exchange mechanism at the heat source/sink. This paper provides an overview of the design for a fully solid state magnetocaloric refrigeration system along with guidelines for their optimal design.

  3. Electroporation-based technologies for medicine: principles, applications, and challenges.

    PubMed

    Yarmush, Martin L; Golberg, Alexander; Serša, Gregor; Kotnik, Tadej; Miklavčič, Damijan

    2014-07-11

    When high-amplitude, short-duration pulsed electric fields are applied to cells and tissues, the permeability of the cell membranes and tissue is increased. This increase in permeability is currently explained by the temporary appearance of aqueous pores within the cell membrane, a phenomenon termed electroporation. During the past four decades, advances in fundamental and experimental electroporation research have allowed for the translation of electroporation-based technologies to the clinic. In this review, we describe the theory and current applications of electroporation in medicine and then discuss current challenges in electroporation research and barriers to a more extensive spread of these clinical applications. PMID:24905876

  4. Electroporation-based technologies for medicine: principles, applications, and challenges.

    PubMed

    Yarmush, Martin L; Golberg, Alexander; Serša, Gregor; Kotnik, Tadej; Miklavčič, Damijan

    2014-07-11

    When high-amplitude, short-duration pulsed electric fields are applied to cells and tissues, the permeability of the cell membranes and tissue is increased. This increase in permeability is currently explained by the temporary appearance of aqueous pores within the cell membrane, a phenomenon termed electroporation. During the past four decades, advances in fundamental and experimental electroporation research have allowed for the translation of electroporation-based technologies to the clinic. In this review, we describe the theory and current applications of electroporation in medicine and then discuss current challenges in electroporation research and barriers to a more extensive spread of these clinical applications.

  5. Integrative Nursing: Application of Principles Across Clinical Settings

    PubMed Central

    Kreitzer, Mary Jo

    2015-01-01

    While the essence of nursing has long been whole person (body, mind, and spirit) and whole system-focused, in reality the contemporary practice of nursing in many settings around the globe has become increasingly fragmented and de-stabilized. Nursing shortages in many parts of the world are significant, and hierarchies and bureaucracies often remove nurses from the point of care, be that the bedside, home, or clinic, replacing them with less skilled workers and filling their time with documentation and other administrative tasks. Integrative nursing is a framework for providing whole person/whole system care that is relationship-based and person-centered and focuses on improving the health and wellbeing of caregivers as well as those they serve. It is aligned with what is being called the “triple aim” in the United States—an effort focused on improving the patient experience (quality and satisfaction), improving the health of populations, and reducing the cost of care. The principles of integrative nursing offer clear and specific guidance that can shape and impact patient care in all clinical settings. PMID:25973268

  6. Desiccation tolerance of prokaryotes: application of principles to human cells.

    PubMed

    Potts, Malcolm; Slaughter, Stephen M; Hunneke, Frank-U; Garst, James F; Helm, Richard F

    2005-11-01

    The loss of water from cells is a stress that was likely imposed very early in evolution. An understanding of the sensitivity or tolerance of cells to depletion of intracellular water is relevant to the study of quiescence, longevity and aging, because one consequence of air-drying is full metabolic arrest, sometimes for extended periods. When considering the adaptation of cells to physiological extremes of pH, temperature or pressure, it is generally assumed that evolution is driven toward optimum function rather than maximum stability. However, adaptation to desiccation has the singular and crucial distinction that dried cells do not grow, and the time the cell is dried may represent the greater part of the life (the time the cell remains viable) of that cell and its component macromolecules. Is a consideration of "function" relevant in the context of desiccated cells? The response of prokaryotic cells to desiccation, and the mechanisms they employ to tolerate this stress at the level of the cell, genome and proteome are considered. Fundamental principles were then implemented in the design of strategies to achieve air-dry stabilization of sensitive eukaryotic (human) cells. The responses of the transcriptomes and proteomes of prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells (yeast and human) to drying in air are compared and contrasted to achieve an evolutionary context. The concept of the "desiccome" is developed to question whether there is common set of structural, physiological and molecular mechanisms that constitute desiccation tolerance. PMID:21676831

  7. Hypnosis principles and applications: an adjunct to health care.

    PubMed

    Eslinger, M R

    2000-11-01

    Hypnosis has existed since the beginning of humankind, and is a part of everyday life. It is a valuable addition to the methods and techniques available to all health care-providers, as well as a safe and uncomplicated method used to enhance patient health care. It is simply a state of complete physical and mental relaxation which produces an altered state of consciousness acceptable to suggestions. It is characterized by an increased ability to produce desirable changes in habit patterns, motivation, self-image, lifestyle, and personal health.

  8. Spin-state transition induced half metallicity in a cobaltate from first principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, Xuedong; Fan, Fengren; Li, Zhengwei; Wang, Hongbo; Wu, Hua

    2016-02-01

    Half metal is a promising spintronic material. Here, we explore, using first principles calculations, a spin-state transition induced half metallicity in a layered cobaltate via a physical or chemical pressure. Our exemplary first principles study shows that the layered cobaltate Sr2CoO3F would undergo a transition, under a pressure of 5.4 GPa, from a high-spin antiferromagnetic insulator to an intermediate-spin ferromagnetic half-metal. The former phase is associated with a superexchange in a Mott insulator, and the latter one is due to a broad band formation and a kinetic energy gain of the partially occupied eg orbital. Note that the above transition could also be induced by a chemical pressure via doping in (Sr1-xCax)2CoO3F (x > 0.3). This work suggests that a cobaltate would be of a particular interest if stabilized into an intermediate-spin state.

  9. First-Principles Studies of the Excited States of Chromophore Monomers and Dimers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamed, Samia; Sharifzadeh, Sahar; Neaton, Jeffrey

    2015-03-01

    Elucidation of the energy transfer mechanism in natural photosynthetic systems remains an exciting challenge. Through the careful analysis of excited states on individual chromophores and dimers - and the predictive first-principles methods used to compute them - we are building towards an understanding of the nature of excitation transfer among arrays of chromophores embedded in protein environments. Excitation energies, transition dipoles, and natural transition orbitals for the important low-lying singlet and triplet states of experimentally-relevant chromophores are obtained from first-principles time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) and many body perturbation theory. The effect of the Tamm-Dancoff approximation and the performance of several exchange-correlation functionals, including an optimally-tuned range-separated hybrid, are evaluated with TDDFT, and compared to MBPT calculations and experiments. This work has been supported by the DOE; computational resources have been provided by NERSC.

  10. 29 CFR 780.138 - Application of the general principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... General Scope of Agriculture âsuch Farming Operationâ-of the Farmer § 780.138 Application of the general... incident to or in conjunction with his farming operations. Such arrangements are distinguished from those... incorporated association of farmers that does not itself engage in farming operations is not engaged...

  11. 29 CFR 780.138 - Application of the general principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... General Scope of Agriculture âsuch Farming Operationâ-of the Farmer § 780.138 Application of the general... incident to or in conjunction with his farming operations. Such arrangements are distinguished from those... incorporated association of farmers that does not itself engage in farming operations is not engaged...

  12. 29 CFR 780.138 - Application of the general principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... General Scope of Agriculture âsuch Farming Operationâ-of the Farmer § 780.138 Application of the general... incident to or in conjunction with his farming operations. Such arrangements are distinguished from those... incorporated association of farmers that does not itself engage in farming operations is not engaged...

  13. 29 CFR 780.138 - Application of the general principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... General Scope of Agriculture âsuch Farming Operationâ-of the Farmer § 780.138 Application of the general... incident to or in conjunction with his farming operations. Such arrangements are distinguished from those... incorporated association of farmers that does not itself engage in farming operations is not engaged...

  14. 29 CFR 780.138 - Application of the general principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... General Scope of Agriculture âsuch Farming Operationâ-of the Farmer § 780.138 Application of the general... incident to or in conjunction with his farming operations. Such arrangements are distinguished from those... incorporated association of farmers that does not itself engage in farming operations is not engaged...

  15. First-principles equation of state and electronic properties of warm dense oxygen

    SciTech Connect

    Driver, K. P. Soubiran, F.; Zhang, Shuai; Militzer, B.

    2015-10-28

    We perform all-electron path integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) and density functional theory molecular dynamics (DFT-MD) calculations to explore warm dense matter states of oxygen. Our simulations cover a wide density-temperature range of 1–100 g cm{sup −3} and 10{sup 4}–10{sup 9} K. By combining results from PIMC and DFT-MD, we are able to compute pressures and internal energies from first-principles at all temperatures and provide a coherent equation of state. We compare our first-principles calculations with analytic equations of state, which tend to agree for temperatures above 8 × 10{sup 6} K. Pair-correlation functions and the electronic density of states reveal an evolving plasma structure and ionization process that is driven by temperature and density. As we increase the density at constant temperature, we find that the ionization fraction of the 1s state decreases while the other electronic states move towards the continuum. Finally, the computed shock Hugoniot curves show an increase in compression as the first and second shells are ionized.

  16. 12 CFR 611.350 - Application of cooperative principles to the election of directors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Application of cooperative principles to the election of directors. 611.350 Section 611.350 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM ORGANIZATION Election of Directors and Other Voting Procedures § 611.350 Application...

  17. Principles of Pesticide Use, Handling, and Application: Instructional Modules for Vocational Agriculture Education. Student Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis Associates, Inc., College Park, MD.

    This training package is designed to present the basic principles of pesticide use, handling, and application. Included in this package is information on federal laws and regulations, personal safety, environmental implications, storage and disposal considerations, proper application procedures, and fundamentals of pest management. Successful…

  18. Principles of Pesticide Use, Handling, and Application: Instructional Modules for Vocational Agriculture Education. Teacher Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis Associates, Inc., College Park, MD.

    The training package is designed to present the basic principles of pesticide use, handling, and application. Included in this package is information on Federal laws and regulations, personal safety, environmental implications, storage and disposal considerations, proper application procedures, and fundamentals of pest management. Successful…

  19. 12 CFR 621.3 - Application of generally accepted accounting principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Application of generally accepted accounting principles. 621.3 Section 621.3 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM ACCOUNTING AND REPORTING REQUIREMENTS General Rules § 621.3 Application of generally accepted...

  20. Principles and application of antibody libraries for infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Lim, Bee Nar; Tye, Gee Jun; Choong, Yee Siew; Ong, Eugene Boon Beng; Ismail, Asma; Lim, Theam Soon

    2014-12-01

    Antibodies have been used efficiently for the treatment and diagnosis of many diseases. Recombinant antibody technology allows the generation of fully human antibodies. Phage display is the gold standard for the production of human antibodies in vitro. To generate monoclonal antibodies by phage display, the generation of antibody libraries is crucial. Antibody libraries are classified according to the source where the antibody gene sequences were obtained. The most useful library for infectious diseases is the immunized library. Immunized libraries would allow better and selective enrichment of antibodies against disease antigens. The antibodies generated from these libraries can be translated for both diagnostic and therapeutic applications. This review focuses on the generation of immunized antibody libraries and the potential applications of the antibodies derived from these libraries.

  1. In vivo confocal imaging: general principles and applications.

    PubMed

    Petroll, W M; Jester, J V; Cavanagh, H D

    1994-01-01

    It is well established that confocal microscopy provides higher resolution images with better rejection of out-of-focus information than conventional light microscopy. The optical sectioning ability of confocal microscopy allows images to be obtained from different depths within a thick tissue specimen, thereby eliminating the need for processing and sectioning procedures. Thus, confocal microscopy has made it possible to view biological tissues under more physiologic conditions than previously possible. The most widespread biological application of confocal microscopy has been in the localization of immunofluorescently labeled proteins in cell culture or within excised blocks of tissue. Because of its noninvasive optical sectioning capability, confocal microscopy is also ideally suited to the study of tissue in intact living animals, although the potential in vivo applications of this paradigm have received less attention. In this paper we trace the development of in vivo confocal microscopy and present examples of current capabilities for both research and clinical use.

  2. [Responsibility: Towards a fifth principle in blood transfusion's ethics. Applicability and limits of Hans Jonas's responsibility principle].

    PubMed

    Nélaton, C

    2016-09-01

    Nowadays, in France, anonymity, gratuity, volunteering, non-profit are recognized as ethical principles in blood transfusion. Can we add responsibility to this list? Can a logo named "Responsiblood" efficiently encourage blood donation? This article explores Hans Jonas's reform of the responsibility concept in order to measure its applicabilities and limits in the field of blood transfusion. Indeed, this concept - rethought by Jonas - seems to be a good encouragement which avoids the pitfalls of the concept of duty and of the idea of payment for blood donation. But can't we also see in this reform a threat to blood transfusion because of technophobia and the heuristics of fear that it involves? PMID:27424285

  3. First-principles prediction of the equation of state for TcC with rocksalt structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiao-Wei; Chu, Yan-Dong; Liu, Zi-Jiang; Song, Ting; Tian, Jun-Hong; Wei, Xiao-Ping

    2014-10-01

    The equation of state of TcC with rocksalt structure is investigated by means of first-principles density functional theory calculations combined with the quasi-harmonic Debye model in which the phononic effects are considered. Particular attention is paid to the predictions of the compressibility, the isothermal bulk modulus and its first pressure derivative which play a central role in the formulation of approximate equations of state for the first time. The properties of TcC with rocksalt structure are summarized in the pressure range of 0-80 GPa and the temperature up to 2500 K.

  4. Electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry: principles and clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Ho, C S; Lam, C W K; Chan, M H M; Cheung, R C K; Law, L K; Lit, L C W; Ng, K F; Suen, M W M; Tai, H L

    2003-01-01

    This mini-review provides a general understanding of electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) which has become an increasingly important technique in the clinical laboratory for structural study or quantitative measurement of metabolites in a complex biological sample. The first part of the review explains the electrospray ionisation process, design of mass spectrometers with separation capability, characteristics of the mass spectrum, and practical considerations in quantitative analysis. The second part then focuses on some clinical applications. The capability of ESI-tandem-MS in measuring bio-molecules sharing similar molecular structures makes it particularly useful in screening for inborn errors of amino acid, fatty acid, purine, pyrimidine metabolism and diagnosis of galactosaemia and peroxisomal disorders. Electrospray ionisation is also efficient in generating cluster ions for structural elucidation of macromolecules. This has fostered a new and improved approach (vs electrophoresis) for identification and quantification of haemoglobin variants. With the understanding of glycohaemoglobin structure, an IFCC reference method for glycohaemoglobin assay has been established using ESI-MS. It represents a significant advancement for the standardisation of HbA1c in diabetic monitoring. With its other applications such as in therapeutic drug monitoring, ESI-MS will continue to exert an important influence in the future development and organisation of the clinical laboratory service.

  5. Geoid determination by airborne gravimetry - principles and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forsberg, R.; Olesen, A. V.

    2009-12-01

    The operational development of long-range airborne gravimetry has meant that large areas can be covered in a short time frame with high-quality medium-wavelength gravity field data, perfectly matching the needs of geoid determination. Geoid from a combination of surface, airborne and satellite data not only is able to cover the remaining large data voids on the earth, notably Antarctica and tropical jungle regions, but also provide seamless coverage across the coastal zone, and tie in older marine and land gravity data. Airborne gravity can therefore provide essential data for GPS applications both on land and at sea, e.g. for marine construction projects such as bridges, wind mill farms etc. Current operational accuracies with the DTU-Space/UiB airborne system are in the 1-2 mGal range, which translates into geoid accuracies of 5-10 cm, dependent on track spacing. In the paper we will outline the current accuracy of airborne gravity and geoid determination, and show examples from recent international airborne gravity campaigns, aimed at either providing national survey infrastructure, or scientific applications for e.g. oceanography or sea-ice thickness determination.

  6. High applicability of two-dimensional phosphorous in Kagome lattice predicted from first-principles calculations

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Peng-Jen; Jeng, Horng-Tay

    2016-01-01

    A new semiconducting phase of two-dimensional phosphorous in the Kagome lattice is proposed from first-principles calculations. The band gaps of the monolayer (ML) and bulk Kagome phosphorous (Kagome-P) are 2.00 and 1.11 eV, respectively. The magnitude of the band gap is tunable by applying the in-plane strain and/or changing the number of stacking layers. High optical absorption coefficients at the visible light region are predicted for multilayer Kagome-P, indicating potential applications for solar cell devices. The nearly dispersionless top valence band of the ML Kagome-P with high density of states at the Fermi level leads to superconductivity with Tc of ~9 K under the optimal hole doping concentration. We also propose that the Kagome-P can be fabricated through the manipulation of the substrate-induced strain during the process of the sample growth. Our work demonstrates the high applicability of the Kagome-P in the fields of electronics, photovoltaics, and superconductivity. PMID:26980060

  7. Fundamental principles and applications of natural gas hydrates.

    PubMed

    Sloan, E Dendy

    2003-11-20

    Natural gas hydrates are solid, non-stoichiometric compounds of small gas molecules and water. They form when the constituents come into contact at low temperature and high pressure. The physical properties of these compounds, most notably that they are non-flowing crystalline solids that are denser than typical fluid hydrocarbons and that the gas molecules they contain are effectively compressed, give rise to numerous applications in the broad areas of energy and climate effects. In particular, they have an important bearing on flow assurance and safety issues in oil and gas pipelines, they offer a largely unexploited means of energy recovery and transportation, and they could play a significant role in past and future climate change.

  8. β-Alkyl Elimination: Fundamental Principles and Some Applications.

    PubMed

    O'Reilly, Matthew E; Dutta, Saikat; Veige, Adam S

    2016-07-27

    This review describes organometallic compounds and materials that are capable of mediating a rarely encountered but fundamentally important reaction: β-alkyl elimination at the metal-Cα-Cβ-R moiety, in which an alkyl group attached to the Cβ atom is transferred to the metal or to a coordinated substrate. The objectives of this review are to provide a cohesive fundamental understanding of β-alkyl-elimination reactions and to highlight its applications in olefin polymerization, alkane hydrogenolysis, depolymerization of branched polymers, ring-opening polymerization of cycloalkanes, and other useful organic reactions. To provide a coherent understanding of the β-alkyl elimination reaction, special attention is given to conditions and strategies used to facilitate β-alkyl-elimination/transfer events in metal-catalyzed olefin polymerization, which provide the well-studied examples.

  9. Fundamental principles and applications of natural gas hydrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sloan, E. Dendy

    2003-11-01

    Natural gas hydrates are solid, non-stoichiometric compounds of small gas molecules and water. They form when the constituents come into contact at low temperature and high pressure. The physical properties of these compounds, most notably that they are non-flowing crystalline solids that are denser than typical fluid hydrocarbons and that the gas molecules they contain are effectively compressed, give rise to numerous applications in the broad areas of energy and climate effects. In particular, they have an important bearing on flow assurance and safety issues in oil and gas pipelines, they offer a largely unexploited means of energy recovery and transportation, and they could play a significant role in past and future climate change.

  10. The entropy conservation principle: applications in ergonomics and human factors.

    PubMed

    Hong, S Lee

    2010-07-01

    The entropy conservation framework describes the task-organism-environment system as a system where entropy remains a conserved quantity that is redistributed for the purposes of motor adaptation. In this paper, potential applications for the entropy conservation framework in the areas of ergonomics and human factors are presented. First, a brief overview of the concept of entropy conservation and explore its links to the extant literature will be provided. Following which, this paper will introduce theoretically-based methods of changing the properties of the task, environment, and organism to improve worker performance and reduce the occurrence of overuse injuries. Finally, methods of adapting the workplace to the aging organism will be explored. Overall the paper will provide a view that any changes in task, organism, or environment will result in a change to the entire system.

  11. Application of INCSEA principles to the Taiwan Strait.

    SciTech Connect

    Wen-Chung, Chai

    2003-06-01

    The waters surrounding Taiwan are important international waterways. In addition to merchant ships of every nation, the warships of the United States, Japan, Russia, and China may appear in these waters. No hostility is expected between Taiwan and the United States, Japan, or Russia; however, Taiwan and China have a tense relationship, and both sides face a potential for naval incidents. As Taiwan and China expand their naval capability, the International Maritime Organization Convention for the lnternational Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea may not be sufficient to prevent naval incidents, any of which might develop into conflict or war. Therefore, China and Taiwan need to develop maritime confidence building measures (CBMs) that could reduce the chance of naval incidents and strengthen mutual trust and confidence. Among the variety of maritime CBM concepts for military purposes, the most successful and effective measure has been the 1972 U.S.-Soviet Union Agreement on the Prevention of Incidents On and Over the High Seas (INCSEA). The success of the agreement demonstrates that CBMs represent a workable alternative to traditional arms controls. The purpose of this paper is to suggest a concrete approach to the constraint of naval activities between China and Taiwan to reduce accidents and misunderstandings. This paper outlines the categories and characteristics of incidents at sea. Next, the author identifies the successful factors of the U.S.-Soviet INCSEA and applies the INCSEA concept to the Taiwan Strait. Finally, the author develops a framework of options and a step-by-step approach for establishing an INCSEA between Taiwan and China.

  12. Deuterium REDOR: Principles and Applications for Distance Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sack, I.; Goldbourt, A.; Vega, S.; Buntkowsky, G.

    1999-05-01

    The application of short composite pulse schemes ([figure] and [figure]) to the rotational echo double-resonance (REDOR) spectroscopy ofX-2H (X: spin{1}/{2}, observed) systems with large deuterium quadrupolar interactions has been studied experimentally and theoretically and compared with simple 180° pulse schemes. The basic properties of the composite pulses on the deuterium nuclei have been elucidated, using average Hamiltonian theory, and exact simulations of the experiments have been achieved by stepwise integration of the equation of motion of the density matrix. REDOR experiments were performed on15N-2H in doubly labeled acetanilide and on13C-2H in singly2H-labeled acetanilide. The most efficient REDOR dephasing was observed when [figure] composite pulses were used. It is found that the dephasing due to simple 180° deuterium pulses is about a factor of 2 less efficient than the dephasing due to the composite pulse sequences and thus the range of couplings observable byX-2H REDOR is enlarged toward weaker couplings, i.e., larger distances. From these experiments the2H-15N dipolar coupling between the amino deuteron and the amino nitrogen and the2H-13C dipolar couplings between the amino deuteron and the α and β carbons have been elucidated and the corresponding distances have been determined. The distance data from REDOR are in good agreement with data from X-ray and neutron diffraction, showing the power of the method.

  13. Hospital management principles applicable to the veterinary teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Harris, Donna L; Lloyd, James W; Marrinan, Mike

    2004-01-01

    The Skills, Knowledge, Aptitude, and Attitude (SKA) Subcommittee of the National Commission on Veterinary Economic Issues (NCVEI) has identified the need for veterinary teaching hospitals (VTH) to be at the forefront of progressive business management to serve as a model for both students and practitioners to emulate. To provide a foundation for developing a model, this study reviewed pertinent literature applicable to the management of a VTH. Much of the literature relevant to VTH management relates to work completed for the human side of medicine (academic health centers, or AHCs) or to the private sector. This review explores management practices in strategic planning, financial management, human resource management, marketing, pricing, operations, and legal issues. It is concluded that strategic management is important to provide the foundation for success in the VTH. In addition, periodic financial reports are recommended, as are the development and use of benchmarks for financial management. Establishing positive, motivating human resource practices is also suggested, along with development of a marketing plan based on a clear understanding of VTH core competencies and the market's specific needs. PMID:15510343

  14. Thermophysical property data - Who needs them. [similarity principle applications in fluid mechanics and heat transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R. C.

    1979-01-01

    Specific examples are cited herein to illustrate the universal needs and demands for thermophysical property data. Applications of the principle of similarity in fluid mechanics and heat transfer and extensions of the principle to fluid mixtures are discussed. It becomes quite clear that no matter how eloquent theories or experiments in fluid mechanics or heat transfer are, the results of their application can be no more accurate than the thermophysical properties required to transform these theories into practice, or in the case of an experiment, to reduce the data. Present-day projects take place on such a scale that the need for international standards and mutual cooperation is evident.

  15. Early stage spin-state transition in LaCoO3 investigated by first principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leighton, C.; Hsu, H.; Cococcioni, M.; Wentzcovitch, R. M.

    2009-12-01

    Thermal-induced spin-state transition in LaCoO3 has been a highly debated phenomenon. The point in controversy is whether the intermediate-spin (IS) state can stably exist, and whether the intermediate-spin or high-spin (HS) state is the first excited state. In our calculation, we have successfully stabilized isolated HS and IS Co in an array of low-spin (LS) Co in LaCoO3 using the local density approximation + Hubbard U (LDA+U) method. The HS/LS (or IS/LS) Co population ratio is set to 1:7, so that the early stage of spin-state transition is properly approximated. The Hubbard U is self-consistently determined by first principles, so that the equation of state and the energy of Co in each spin state can be determined with better accuracy. We show that at low temperature, isolated IS Co has higher energy than isolated HS Co. We also show that low concentration of isolated IS Co can lead to metallic LaCoO3. Therefore, the early stage spin-state transition in LaCoO3 is LS-to-HS transition. This work was supported primarily by the MRSEC Program of the National Science Foundation under Award Number DMR-0212302 and DMR-0819885. It was also partially supported by NSF grants ITR-0426757 (VLab) and EAR 0757903. Calculations were performed at Minnesota Supercomputing Institute (MSI).

  16. The Application of Psycho-Analytic Principles in Psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Glover, Edward

    1935-01-01

    Psychiatrists are inclined to follow the lead of their medical colleagues in regarding psycho-analysis mainly as a method of psychological treatment. The fact is thus obscured that the main contributions of psycho-analysis to science are in terms of the structure and function of mind. Of most importance to psychiatrists are the fundamental conceptions of a mental apparatus, of its differentiated parts, of mental mechanisms, and of the developmental order of these parts and mechanisms. The view is maintained that systematic application of these genetic views to the field of psychiatry (which has as yet been explored mainly from the descriptive point of view) would not only illuminate many obscure problems of mental origins, but lead to a more orderly and comprehensible arrangement of psychiatric (clinical) entities. Coöperation between the sciences of psycho-analysis and psychiatry is essential, but cannot be achieved without pooling the methods of investigation. Too much time and energy are spent in fighting old battles regarding the validity of methods of analytical approach. This is particularly true of quarrels regarding the interpretation of material. Unless the psychiatrist exercises the right of interpretation (which has been won for him by the psychoanalyst) descriptive methods of approach will soon lose whatever research value they have attained. The atmosphere of distrust existing between the sciences is due in part to unresolved conflict over the claims of “conscious” and “unconscious” psychology respectively, and in part to unresolved doubt regarding the relations of body and mind. These more fundamental forms of distrust show themselves most readily in the therapeutic field and tend to hinder the progress both of psychiatry and of psycho-analysis. PMID:19990248

  17. RNA triplexes: from structural principles to biological and biotech applications.

    PubMed

    Devi, Gitali; Zhou, Yuan; Zhong, Zhensheng; Toh, Desiree-Faye Kaixin; Chen, Gang

    2015-01-01

    The diverse biological functions of RNA are determined by the complex structures of RNA stabilized by both secondary and tertiary interactions. An RNA triplex is an important tertiary structure motif that is found in many pseudoknots and other structured RNAs. A triplex structure usually forms through tertiary interactions in the major or minor groove of a Watson-Crick base-paired stem. A major-groove RNA triplex structure is stable in isolation by forming consecutive major-groove base triples such as U·A-U and C(+) ·G-C. Minor-groove RNA triplexes, e.g., A-minor motif triplexes, are found in almost all large structured RNAs. As double-stranded RNA stem regions are often involved in biologically important tertiary triplex structure formation and protein binding, the ability to sequence specifically target any desired RNA duplexes by triplex formation would have great potential for biomedical applications. Programmable chemically modified triplex-forming oligonucleotides (TFOs) and triplex-forming peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) have been developed to form TFO·RNA2 and PNA·RNA2 triplexes, respectively, with enhanced binding affinity and sequence specificity at physiological conditions. Here, we (1) provide an overview of naturally occurring RNA triplexes, (2) summarize the experimental methods for studying triplexes, and (3) review the development of TFOs and triplex-forming PNAs for targeting an HIV-1 ribosomal frameshift-inducing RNA, a bacterial ribosomal A-site RNA, and a human microRNA hairpin precursor, and for inhibiting the RNA-protein interactions involving human RNA-dependent protein kinase and HIV-1 viral protein Rev.

  18. Principles of TRIP Steel Optimization for Passive Damping Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraley, George Jay

    Globally many historic structures of cultural significance which do not have systems to mitigate seismic damage are located in areas with heavy seismic activity. Efforts have been undertaken to develop strategies to retrofit such structures, however any intervention must be limited in size for aesthetic reasons. To contribute to this effort, ArcelorMittal aims to create steel-based solutions for passive energy dissipation through plastic deformation during cyclic loading. High-strength TRansformation-Induced Plasticity (TRIP) steels are proposed as an excellent candidate material for this application, due to the extreme combination of high strength and large ductility they are well-known to exhibit. To evaluate high-strength TRIP steels for passive damping applications, isothermal, fully-reversed, displacement-controlled Ultra-Low Cycle Fatigue (ULCF) experiments (Nf < 100) were conducted on two tempering conditions of austenitic BlastAlloy (BA) TRIP 180. One tempering condition resulted in a Mssigma temperature of 27 °C and stress-assisted martensitic nucleation, and the other a Mssigma temperature of -8 °C and strain-induced martensitic nucleation at room temperature. The higher austenite stability condition (Ms sigma = -8 °C) was found to have approximately twice the fatigue life and a lower rate of cyclic hardening at fixed displacement amplitudes for low to intermediate levels of plastic strain range (2-10%) compared to the lower stability austenite condition (Mssigma = 27 °C). However, at higher levels of plastic straining (10-16% strain range) the fatigue lives and strain hardening behavior converged for the two stabilities, indicating a likely exhaustion of transformation during the first few cycles. ULCF life behavior for the high-stability austenite condition compared favorably with literature values for structural stainless steel 316, despite having a yield strength approximately four times larger. For a similar number of cycles to failure the high

  19. Application of the precautionary principle by senior policy officials: results of a Canadian survey.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Kumanan; Leonard, Blair; Wright, Robert; Graham, Ian; Moffet, John; Pluscauskas, Michael; Wilson, Michael

    2006-08-01

    Though use of the controversial precautionary principle in risk management has increasingly been recommended as a guide for the construction of public policy in Canada and elsewhere, there are few data available characterizing its use in risk management by senior public policymakers. Using established survey methodology we sought to investigate the perceptions and terms of application of the precautionary principle in this important subset of individuals. A total of 240 surveys were sent out to seven departments or agencies in the Canadian government. The overall survey response rate was 26.6%, and our findings need to be interpreted in the context of possible responder bias. Of respondents, the overwhelming majority perceived the precautionary principle and the management of risk as complementary, and endorsed a role for the precautionary principle as a general guideline for all risk management decisions. However, 25% of respondents responded that the lack of clarity of the definition of the principle was a limitation to its effective use. The majority of respondents viewed their own level of understanding of the precautionary principle as moderate. Risk managers appeared to favor an interpretation of the precautionary principle that was based on the seriousness and irreversibility of the threat of damage, and did not endorse as strongly the need for cost effectiveness in the measures taken as a precaution against such threats. In contrast with its perceived role as a general guideline, the application of the precautionary principle by respondents was highly variable, with >60% of respondents reporting using the precautionary principle in one-quarter or less of all risk management decisions. Several factors influenced whether the precautionary principle was applied with the perceived seriousness of the threat being considered the most influential factor. The overwhelming majority of risk managers felt that "preponderance of evidence" was the level of evidence

  20. Principles of computer processing of Landsat data for geologic applications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taranik, James V.

    1978-01-01

    The main objectives of computer processing of Landsat data for geologic applications are to improve display of image data to the analyst or to facilitate evaluation of the multispectral characteristics of the data. Interpretations of the data are made from enhanced and classified data by an analyst trained in geology. Image enhancements involve adjustments of brightness values for individual picture elements. Image classification involves determination of the brightness values of picture elements for a particular cover type. Histograms are used to display the range and frequency of occurrence of brightness values. Landsat-1 and -2 data are preprocessed at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) to adjust for the detector response of the multispectral scanner (MSS). Adjustments are applied to minimize the effects of striping, adjust for bad-data lines and line segments and lost individual pixel data. Because illumination conditions and landscape characteristics vary considerably and detector response changes with time, the radiometric adjustments applied at GSFC are seldom perfect and some detector striping remain in Landsat data. Rotation of the Earth under the satellite and movements of the satellite platform introduce geometric distortions in the data that must also be compensated for if image data are to be correctly displayed to the data analyst. Adjustments to Landsat data are made to compensate for variable solar illumination and for atmospheric effects. GeoMetric registration of Landsat data involves determination of the spatial location of a pixel in. the output image and the determination of a new value for the pixel. The general objective of image enhancement is to optimize display of the data to the analyst. Contrast enhancements are employed to expand the range of brightness values in Landsat data so that the data can be efficiently recorded in a manner desired by the analyst. Spatial frequency enhancements are designed to enhance boundaries between features

  1. 18 CFR 740.3 - State applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false State applications. 740.3 Section 740.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL STATE WATER... for completing the application; (2) The criteria to be used by the Council in assessing need for...

  2. 18 CFR 740.3 - State applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false State applications. 740.3 Section 740.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL STATE WATER... for completing the application; (2) The criteria to be used by the Council in assessing need for...

  3. 18 CFR 740.3 - State applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false State applications. 740.3 Section 740.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL STATE WATER... for completing the application; (2) The criteria to be used by the Council in assessing need for...

  4. 18 CFR 740.3 - State applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false State applications. 740.3 Section 740.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL STATE WATER... for completing the application; (2) The criteria to be used by the Council in assessing need for...

  5. 18 CFR 740.3 - State applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true State applications. 740.3 Section 740.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL STATE WATER... for completing the application; (2) The criteria to be used by the Council in assessing need for...

  6. Improved techniques for outgoing wave variational principle calculations of converged state-to-state transition probabilities for chemical reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mielke, Steven L.; Truhlar, Donald G.; Schwenke, David W.

    1991-01-01

    Improved techniques and well-optimized basis sets are presented for application of the outgoing wave variational principle to calculate converged quantum mechanical reaction probabilities. They are illustrated with calculations for the reactions D + H2 yields HD + H with total angular momentum J = 3 and F + H2 yields HF + H with J = 0 and 3. The optimization involves the choice of distortion potential, the grid for calculating half-integrated Green's functions, the placement, width, and number of primitive distributed Gaussians, and the computationally most efficient partition between dynamically adapted and primitive basis functions. Benchmark calculations with 224-1064 channels are presented.

  7. First-Principles Equation of State Calculations of First- and Second-Row Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driver, K. P.; Soubiran, F.; Zhang, S.; Militzer, B.

    2015-12-01

    Theoretical studies of high energy density matter are a key component to improving our knowledge related to interiors of giant planets and stars, astrophysical processes, and new plasma energy technologies, such as inertial confined fusion. Path integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) and density functional theory molecular dynamics (DFT-MD) are simulation methods that provide consistent, first-principles descriptions of warm, dense matter and plasmas over a wide range of density and temperature conditions. Here, we report simulation results using these two methods for a number of first- and second-row elements. DFT-MD algorithms are well-suited for low temperatures, while PIMC has been restricted to relatively high temperatures due to the free-particle approximation of the nodal surface. For first-row elements, we find that the free-particle approximation is sufficient as long as the temperature is high enough to sufficiently ionize the second electronic shell of the atoms. For heavier, second-row elements, we have developed a new, localized nodal surface, which allows us to treat bound states within the PIMC formalism. By combining PIMC and DFT-MD pressures and internal energies, we produce a coherent, first-principles equation of state, bridging the entire warm dense matter regime. Pair-correlation functions and the density of electronic states reveal an evolving plasma structure. The degree of ionization is affected by both temperature and density. Finally, shock Hugoniot curves show an increase in compression as the first and second shells are ionized.

  8. Using Uncertainty Principle to Find the Ground-State Energy of the Helium and a Helium-like Hookean Atom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harbola, Varun

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we accurately estimate the ground-state energy and the atomic radius of the helium atom and a helium-like Hookean atom by employing the uncertainty principle in conjunction with the variational approach. We show that with the use of the uncertainty principle, electrons are found to be spread over a radial region, giving an electron…

  9. Principles and applications of measurement and uncertainty analysis in research and calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, C.V.

    1992-11-01

    Interest in Measurement Uncertainty Analysis has grown in the past several years as it has spread to new fields of application, and research and development of uncertainty methodologies have continued. This paper discusses the subject from the perspectives of both research and calibration environments. It presents a history of the development and an overview of the principles of uncertainty analysis embodied in the United States National Standard, ANSI/ASME PTC 19.1-1985, Measurement Uncertainty. Examples are presented in which uncertainty analysis was utilized or is needed to gain further knowledge of a particular measurement process and to characterize final results. Measurement uncertainty analysis provides a quantitative estimate of the interval about a measured value or an experiment result within which the true value of that quantity is expected to lie. Years ago, Harry Ku of the United States National Bureau of Standards stated that The informational content of the statement of uncertainty determines, to a large extent, the worth of the calibrated value.'' Today, that statement is just as true about calibration or research results as it was in 1968. Why is that true What kind of information should we include in a statement of uncertainty accompanying a calibrated value How and where do we get the information to include in an uncertainty statement How should we interpret and use measurement uncertainty information This discussion will provide answers to these and other questions about uncertainty in research and in calibration. The methodology to be described has been developed by national and international groups over the past nearly thirty years, and individuals were publishing information even earlier. Yet the work is largely unknown in many science and engineering arenas. I will illustrate various aspects of uncertainty analysis with some examples drawn from the radiometry measurement and calibration discipline from research activities.

  10. Principles and applications of measurement and uncertainty analysis in research and calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, C.V.

    1992-11-01

    Interest in Measurement Uncertainty Analysis has grown in the past several years as it has spread to new fields of application, and research and development of uncertainty methodologies have continued. This paper discusses the subject from the perspectives of both research and calibration environments. It presents a history of the development and an overview of the principles of uncertainty analysis embodied in the United States National Standard, ANSI/ASME PTC 19.1-1985, Measurement Uncertainty. Examples are presented in which uncertainty analysis was utilized or is needed to gain further knowledge of a particular measurement process and to characterize final results. Measurement uncertainty analysis provides a quantitative estimate of the interval about a measured value or an experiment result within which the true value of that quantity is expected to lie. Years ago, Harry Ku of the United States National Bureau of Standards stated that ``The informational content of the statement of uncertainty determines, to a large extent, the worth of the calibrated value.`` Today, that statement is just as true about calibration or research results as it was in 1968. Why is that true? What kind of information should we include in a statement of uncertainty accompanying a calibrated value? How and where do we get the information to include in an uncertainty statement? How should we interpret and use measurement uncertainty information? This discussion will provide answers to these and other questions about uncertainty in research and in calibration. The methodology to be described has been developed by national and international groups over the past nearly thirty years, and individuals were publishing information even earlier. Yet the work is largely unknown in many science and engineering arenas. I will illustrate various aspects of uncertainty analysis with some examples drawn from the radiometry measurement and calibration discipline from research activities.

  11. The triplet excited state of Bodipy: formation, modulation and application.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jianzhang; Xu, Kejing; Yang, Wenbo; Wang, Zhijia; Zhong, Fangfang

    2015-12-21

    Boron dipyrromethene (Bodipy) is one of the most extensively investigated organic chromophores. Most of the investigations are focused on the singlet excited state of Bodipy, such as fluorescence. In stark contrast, the study of the triplet excited state of Bodipy is limited, but it is an emerging area, since the triplet state of Bodipy is tremendously important for several areas, such as the fundamental photochemistry study, photodynamic therapy (PDT), photocatalysis and triplet-triplet annihilation (TTA) upconversion. The recent developments in the study of the production, modulation and application of the triplet excited state of Bodipy are discussed in this review article. The formation of the triplet state of Bodipy upon photoexcitation, via the well known approach such as the heavy atom effect (including I, Br, Ru, Ir, etc.), and the new methods, such as using a spin converter (e.g. C60), charge recombination, exciton coupling and the doubly substituted excited state, are summarized. All the Bodipy-based triplet photosensitizers show strong absorption of visible or near IR light and the long-lived triplet excited state, which are important for the application of the triplet excited state in PDT or photocatalysis. Moreover, the methods for switching (or modulation) of the triplet excited state of Bodipy were discussed, such as those based on the photo-induced electron transfer (PET), by controlling the competing Förster-resonance-energy-transfer (FRET), or the intermolecular charge transfer (ICT). Controlling the triplet excited state will give functional molecules such as activatable PDT reagents or molecular devices. It is worth noting that switching of the singlet excited state and the triplet state of Bodipy may follow different principles. Application of the triplet excited state of Bodipy in PDT, hydrogen (H2) production, photoredox catalytic organic reactions and TTA upconversion were discussed. The challenges and the opportunities in these areas were

  12. Multiple coherent states for first-principles semiclassical initial value representation molecular dynamics.

    PubMed

    Ceotto, Michele; Atahan, Sule; Tantardini, Gian Franco; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán

    2009-06-21

    A multiple coherent states implementation of the semiclassical approximation is introduced and employed to obtain the power spectra with a few classical trajectories. The method is integrated with the time-averaging semiclassical initial value representation to successfully reproduce anharmonicity and Fermi resonance splittings at a level of accuracy comparable to semiclassical simulations of thousands of trajectories. The method is tested on two different model systems with analytical potentials and implemented in conjunction with the first-principles molecular dynamics scheme to obtain the power spectrum for the carbon dioxide molecule. PMID:19548717

  13. Multiple coherent states for first-principles semiclassical initial value representation molecular dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceotto, Michele; Atahan, Sule; Tantardini, Gian Franco; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán

    2009-06-01

    A multiple coherent states implementation of the semiclassical approximation is introduced and employed to obtain the power spectra with a few classical trajectories. The method is integrated with the time-averaging semiclassical initial value representation to successfully reproduce anharmonicity and Fermi resonance splittings at a level of accuracy comparable to semiclassical simulations of thousands of trajectories. The method is tested on two different model systems with analytical potentials and implemented in conjunction with the first-principles molecular dynamics scheme to obtain the power spectrum for the carbon dioxide molecule.

  14. Applications of adaptive state estimation theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moose, R. L.; Vanlandingham, H. F.; Mccabe, D. H.

    1980-01-01

    Two main areas of application of adaptive state estimation theory are presented. Following a review of the basic estimation approach, its application to both the control of nonlinear plants and to the problem of tracking maneuvering targets is presented. Results are brought together from these two areas of investigation to provide insight into the wide range of possible applications of the general estimation method.

  15. 67th Mosbacher Kolloquium: Protein Design: From First Principles to Biomedical Applications.

    PubMed

    Spieler, Valerie; Lühmann, Tessa

    2016-07-15

    The 67th Mosbacher Kolloquium of the German Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (GBM) with the topic "Protein Design-From First Principles to Biomedical Application" took place from March 31 to April 2 in Mosbach, Germany. Highlights of the colloquium are presented here.

  16. 17 CFR 49.19 - Core principles applicable to registered swap data repositories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... swap data repositories shall adhere to Commission requirements regarding fair and open access and the... registered swap data repositories. 49.19 Section 49.19 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION SWAP DATA REPOSITORIES § 49.19 Core principles applicable to registered swap...

  17. The Application of Operant Principles to Mentally Retarded Children. (RIEEC Research Bulletin 1).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamaguchi, Kaoru

    Presented are six case studies demonstrating the application of operant conditioning principles to teaching self-care skills and modifying deviant behavior in six moderately to profoundly retarded children 5- to 15-years-old in Japan. Included in the case histories, such as that of a moderately retarded 12-year-old who was toilet trained, are…

  18. Uniqueness of Zinc as a Bioelement: Principles and Applications in Bioinorganic Chemistry--III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ochiai, Ei-Ichiro

    1988-01-01

    Attempts to delineate certain basic principles and applications of bioinorganic chemistry to oxidation-reduction reactions. Examines why zinc(II) is so uniquely suited to enzymated reactions of the acid-base type. Suggests the answer may be in the natural abundance and the basic physicochemical properties of zinc(II). (MVL)

  19. Application of the comparison principle to analysis of nonlinear systems. [using Lipschitz condition and differential equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunderson, R. W.

    1975-01-01

    A comparison principle based on a Kamke theorem and Lipschitz conditions is presented along with its possible applications and modifications. It is shown that the comparison lemma can be used in the study of such areas as classical stability theory, higher order trajectory derivatives, Liapunov functions, boundary value problems, approximate dynamic systems, linear and nonlinear systems, and bifurcation analysis.

  20. 17 CFR Appendix A to Part 39 - Application Guidance and Compliance With Core Principles

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... as demonstrated through use of hypothetical default scenarios that explain assumptions and variables... independent professional. Core Principle J: REPORTING—The applicant shall provide to the Commission all... the entity would satisfy the performance standards of Commission regulation 1.31 (17 CFR...

  1. The Application of Service-Learning Principles to Support Our National Parks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coates, Tom

    2005-01-01

    Camping and working and learning in national parks may sound like a great way to spend the summer, but for participants enrolled in Rocky Mountain Experience, it is much more. Rocky Mountain Experience is a unique university course that focuses on application of service-learning principles as students travel to, camp in, and complete service…

  2. Lean Principles and Defense Information Technology Acquisition: An Investigation of the Determinants of Successful Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haley, M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether or not there have been successful applications of lean manufacturing principles in highly variable defense IT environments. Specifically, the study assessed if implementation of the lean philosophies by a defense organization yielded repeatable, predictable results in software release schedules…

  3. Application of the Total Quality Management Approach Principles and the ISO 9000 Standards in Engineering Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waks, Shlomo; Frank, Moti

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the applicability of the definition, principles, and underlying strategies of total quality management (TQM) for engineering education. Describes several tools and methods for the implementation of TQM and its suitability for a variety of school activities. Presents a TQM course outline combining lectures, discussions, suggested…

  4. X-ray cone-beam computed tomography: principles, applications, challenges and solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noo, Frederic

    2010-03-01

    In the nineties, x-ray computed tomography, commonly referred to as CT, seemed to be on the track to become old technology, bound to be replaced by more sophisticated techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging, due in particular to the harmful effects of x-ray radiation exposure. Yet, the new century brought with it new technology that allowed a complete change in trends and re-affirmed CT as an essential tool in radiology. For instance, the popularity of CT in 2007 was such that approximately 68.7 million CT examinations were performed in the United States, which was nearly 2.5 times the number of magnetic resonance (MRI) examinations. More than that, CT has expanded beyond its conventional diagnostic role; CT is now used routinely in interventional radiology and also in radiation therapy treatment. The technology advances that allowed the revival of CT are those that made fast, accurate cone-beam data acquisition possible. Nowadays, cone-beam data acquisition allows scanning large volumes with isotropic sub-millimeter spatial resolution in a very fast time, which can be as short as 500ms for cardiac imaging. The principles of cone-beam imaging will be first reviewed. Then a discussion of its applications will be given. Old and new challenges will be presented along the way with current solutions.

  5. Electronic structure and equation of state of Sm2Co17 from first-principles DFT+ U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Patrick; Butch, Nicholas P.; Jeffries, Jason R.; McCall, Scott K.

    2013-03-01

    Rare-earth intermetallics have important applications as permanent magnet materials, and the rational optimization of their properties would benefit greatly from guidance from ab initio modeling. However, these systems are particularly challenging for current electronic structure methods. Here, we present an ab initio study of the prototype material Sm2Co17 and related compounds, using density functional theory with a Hubbard correction for the Sm 4 f-electrons (DFT+ U method) and ultrasoft pseudopotentials. The Hubbard U parameter is derived from first principles [Cococcioni and de Gironcoli, PRB 71, 035105 (2005)], not fit to experiment. Our calculations are in good agreement with recent photoemission measurements at ambient pressure and the equation of state up to 40 GPa, thus supporting the validity of our DFT+ U model. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  6. Towards a new welfare state: the social sustainability principle and health care strategies.

    PubMed

    Garcés, Jorge; Ródenas, Francisco; Sanjosé, Vicente

    2003-09-01

    In this paper we propose a social and health care model that offers alternatives to three problems arising in converging European welfare states, particularly in the southern nations: the rise in demand for services and features linked to the ageing process, the increase in dependency and the crisis of informal support. Development of the principles of social sustainability implies re-formulation of the regulatory, care, economic, administrative, cultural, and axiological framework enabling a response to the needs of long term care without compromising the welfare of future generations. Together with this principle, quality of life elevated to a subjective right directs attention towards the sphere closest to citizens, eliminating all barriers, which hamper exercise of this right. All of the above produces economic and social costs which must be accepted from a viewpoint of social co-responsibility, which brings with it the supply of welfare individually, without detriment to the exercise of state responsibility in guaranteeing a social protection system of a universal nature.

  7. First-principles equation of state of polystyrene and its effect on inertial confinement fusion implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, S. X.; Collins, L. A.; Goncharov, V. N.; Kress, J. D.; McCrory, R. L.; Skupsky, S.

    2015-10-01

    Obtaining an accurate equation of state (EOS) of polystyrene (CH) is crucial to reliably design inertial confinement fusion (ICF) capsules using CH/CH-based ablators. With first-principles calculations, we have investigated the extended EOS of CH over a wide range of plasma conditions (ρ =0.1 to 100 g /cm3 and T =1000 to 4 000 000 K ). When compared with the widely used SESAME-EOS table, the first-principles equation of state (FPEOS) of CH has shown significant differences in the low-temperature regime, in which strong coupling and electron degeneracy play an essential role in determining plasma properties. Hydrodynamic simulations of cryogenic target implosions on OMEGA using the FPEOS table of CH have predicted ˜30% decrease in neutron yield in comparison with the usual SESAME simulations. This is attributed to the ˜5% reduction in implosion velocity that is caused by the ˜10% lower mass ablation rate of CH predicted by FPEOS. Simulations using CH-FPEOS show better agreement with measurements of Hugoniot temperature and scattered light from ICF implosions.

  8. First-principles equation of state of polystyrene and its effect on inertial confinement fusion implosions

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, S. X.; Collins, L. A.; Goncharov, V. N.; Kress, J. D.; McCrory, R. L.; Skupsky, S.

    2015-10-14

    Obtaining an accurate equation of state (EOS) of polystyrene (CH) is crucial to reliably design inertial confinement fusion (ICF) capsules using CH/CH-based ablators. Thus, with first-principles calculations, we have investigated the extended EOS of CH over a wide range of plasma conditions (ρ = 0.1 to 100 g/cm3 and T = 1,000 to 4,000,000 K). When compared with the widely used SESAME-EOS table, the first-principles equation of state (FPEOS) of CH has shown significant differences in the low-temperature regime, in which strong coupling and electron degeneracy play an essential role in determining plasma properties. Hydrodynamic simulations of cryogenic target implosions on OMEGA using the FPEOS table of CH have predicted ~5% reduction in implosion velocity and ~30% decrease in neutron yield in comparison with the usual SESAME simulations. This is attributed to the ~10% lower mass ablation rate of CH predicted by FPEOS. Simulations using CH-FPEOS show better agreement with measurements of Hugoniot temperature and scattered lights from ICF implosions.

  9. First-principles equation of state of polystyrene and its effect on inertial confinement fusion implosions

    DOE PAGES

    Hu, S. X.; Collins, L. A.; Goncharov, V. N.; Kress, J. D.; McCrory, R. L.; Skupsky, S.

    2015-10-14

    Obtaining an accurate equation of state (EOS) of polystyrene (CH) is crucial to reliably design inertial confinement fusion (ICF) capsules using CH/CH-based ablators. Thus, with first-principles calculations, we have investigated the extended EOS of CH over a wide range of plasma conditions (ρ = 0.1 to 100 g/cm3 and T = 1,000 to 4,000,000 K). When compared with the widely used SESAME-EOS table, the first-principles equation of state (FPEOS) of CH has shown significant differences in the low-temperature regime, in which strong coupling and electron degeneracy play an essential role in determining plasma properties. Hydrodynamic simulations of cryogenic target implosionsmore » on OMEGA using the FPEOS table of CH have predicted ~5% reduction in implosion velocity and ~30% decrease in neutron yield in comparison with the usual SESAME simulations. This is attributed to the ~10% lower mass ablation rate of CH predicted by FPEOS. Simulations using CH-FPEOS show better agreement with measurements of Hugoniot temperature and scattered lights from ICF implosions.« less

  10. Towards a new welfare state: the social sustainability principle and health care strategies.

    PubMed

    Garcés, Jorge; Ródenas, Francisco; Sanjosé, Vicente

    2003-09-01

    In this paper we propose a social and health care model that offers alternatives to three problems arising in converging European welfare states, particularly in the southern nations: the rise in demand for services and features linked to the ageing process, the increase in dependency and the crisis of informal support. Development of the principles of social sustainability implies re-formulation of the regulatory, care, economic, administrative, cultural, and axiological framework enabling a response to the needs of long term care without compromising the welfare of future generations. Together with this principle, quality of life elevated to a subjective right directs attention towards the sphere closest to citizens, eliminating all barriers, which hamper exercise of this right. All of the above produces economic and social costs which must be accepted from a viewpoint of social co-responsibility, which brings with it the supply of welfare individually, without detriment to the exercise of state responsibility in guaranteeing a social protection system of a universal nature. PMID:12941489

  11. First principles calculations of solid-state thermionic transport in layered van der Waals heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoming; Zebarjadi, Mona; Esfarjani, Keivan

    2016-08-21

    This work aims at understanding solid-state energy conversion and transport in layered (van der Waals) heterostructures in contact with metallic electrodes via a first-principles approach. As an illustration, a graphene/phosphorene/graphene heterostructure in contact with gold electrodes is studied by using density functional theory (DFT)-based first principles calculations combined with real space Green's function (GF) formalism. We show that for a monolayer phosphorene, quantum tunneling dominates the transport. By adding more phosphorene layers, one can switch from tunneling-dominated transport to thermionic-dominated transport, resulting in transporting more heat per charge carrier, thus, enhancing the cooling coefficient of performance. The use of layered van der Waals heterostructures has two advantages: (a) thermionic transport barriers can be tuned by changing the number of layers, and (b) thermal conductance across these non-covalent structures is very weak. The phonon thermal conductance of the present van der Waals heterostructure is found to be 4.1 MW m(-2) K(-1) which is one order of magnitude lower than the lowest value for that of covalently-bonded interfaces. The thermionic coefficient of performance for the proposed device is 18.5 at 600 K corresponding to an equivalent ZT of 0.13, which is significant for nanoscale devices. This study shows that layered van der Waals structures have great potential to be used as solid-state energy-conversion devices.

  12. First principles calculations of solid-state thermionic transport in layered van der Waals heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoming; Zebarjadi, Mona; Esfarjani, Keivan

    2016-08-21

    This work aims at understanding solid-state energy conversion and transport in layered (van der Waals) heterostructures in contact with metallic electrodes via a first-principles approach. As an illustration, a graphene/phosphorene/graphene heterostructure in contact with gold electrodes is studied by using density functional theory (DFT)-based first principles calculations combined with real space Green's function (GF) formalism. We show that for a monolayer phosphorene, quantum tunneling dominates the transport. By adding more phosphorene layers, one can switch from tunneling-dominated transport to thermionic-dominated transport, resulting in transporting more heat per charge carrier, thus, enhancing the cooling coefficient of performance. The use of layered van der Waals heterostructures has two advantages: (a) thermionic transport barriers can be tuned by changing the number of layers, and (b) thermal conductance across these non-covalent structures is very weak. The phonon thermal conductance of the present van der Waals heterostructure is found to be 4.1 MW m(-2) K(-1) which is one order of magnitude lower than the lowest value for that of covalently-bonded interfaces. The thermionic coefficient of performance for the proposed device is 18.5 at 600 K corresponding to an equivalent ZT of 0.13, which is significant for nanoscale devices. This study shows that layered van der Waals structures have great potential to be used as solid-state energy-conversion devices. PMID:27314610

  13. Spin of the ground quantum state of electrons from first principles in the representation of Feynman path integrals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevkunov, S. V.

    2016-08-01

    A method for calculating the spin of the ground quantum state of nonrelativistic electrons and distance between energy levels of quantum states differing in the spin magnitude from first principles is proposed. The approach developed is free from the one-electron approximation and applicable in multielectron systems with allowance for all spatial correlations. The possibilities of the method are demonstrated by the example of calculating the energy gap between spin states in model ellipsoidal quantum dots with a harmonic confining field. The results of computations by the Monte Carlo method point to high sensitivity of the energy gap to the break of spherical symmetry of the quantum dot. For three electrons, the phenomenon of inversion has been revealed for levels corresponding to high and low values of the spin. The calculations demonstrate the practical possibility to obtain spin states with arbitrarily close energies by varying the shape of the quantum dot, which is a key condition for development prospects in technologies of storage systems based on spin qubits.

  14. The application of Gestalt principles in a middle school science classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbar, Salma

    This thesis is an initial step in creating an educational philosophy for a private, affiliated school through the application of Gestalt principles. Middle school science students were given a pre-test for measuring their critical thinking skills which were defined by Gestalt principles (Blosser 1973) and modeled on real life science fair project scenarios. After taking the pre-test, the students were assigned science fair projects. Simultaneously they were informally assessed by a rubric. Finally, the students took a post-test to see if their critical thinking skills improved as a result of being guided to think along the lines of the Gestalt learning theory. As a result of completing the procedure, the researcher found that the students' critical thinking skills were improved as evidenced by the higher test scores on the post-test. The pilot study was successful and Gestalt Principles could be successfully implemented as part of the private school curriculum.

  15. A Principle of Corresponding States for Two-Component, Self-Gravitating Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caimmi, R.

    2010-06-01

    quadrant of the (O X_{V} X_{p}) plane may be divided into three parts: (i) The G region, where only gas exists; (ii) The S region, where only stars exist; (iii) The GS region, where both gas and stars, exist. With regard to HH and HN/NH macrogases, an application is made to a subsample (N=16) of elliptical galaxies extracted from larger samples N=25, N=48 of early type galaxies investigated within the SAURON project (Cappellari et al. 2006, 2007). Under the simplifying assumption of universal mass ratio of the two subsystems, m, different models characterized by different scaled truncation radii, i.e. concentrations, Ξ_i, Ξ_j, are considered and the related position of sample objects on the (O X_{V} X_{p}) plane is determined. Macrogases fitting to elliptical galaxies are expected to lie within the S region or slightly outside the boundary between the S and the GS region at most. Accordingly, models where sample objects lie outside the S region and far from its boundary, or cannot be positioned on the (O X_{V} X_{p}) plane, are rejected. For each macrogas, twenty models are considered for different values of (Ξ_i, Ξ_j, m), namely Ξ_i, Ξ_j=5, 10, 20, +∞ (Ξ_i, Ξ_j, both either finite or infinite), and m=10, 20}. Acceptable models are (10, 10, 20), (10, 20, 20), (20, 10, 20), (20, 20, 20), for HH macrogases, and (10, 5, 10), (10, 10, 20), (20, 10, 20), for HN/NH macrogases. Tipically, fast rotators are found to lie within the S region, while slow rotators are close (from both sides) to the boundary between the S and the GS region. The net effect of the uncertainty affecting observed quantities, on the position of sample objects on the (O X_{V} X_{p}) plane, is also investigated. Finally, a principle of corresponding states is formulated for macrogases with assigned density profiles and scaled truncation radii.

  16. Electronic properties of corrugated graphene: the Heisenberg principle and wormhole geometry in the solid state.

    PubMed

    Atanasov, Victor; Saxena, Avadh

    2011-05-01

    Adopting a purely two-dimensional relativistic equation for graphene's carriers contradicts the Heisenberg uncertainty principle since it requires setting the off-the-surface coordinate of a three-dimensional wavefunction to zero. Here we present a theoretical framework for describing graphene's massless relativistic carriers in accordance with this most fundamental of all quantum principles. A gradual confining procedure is used to restrict the dynamics onto a surface and normal to the surface parts, and in the process the embedding of this surface into the three-dimensional world is accounted for. As a result an invariant geometric potential arises in the surface part which scales linearly with the mean curvature and shifts the Fermi energy of the material proportional to bending. Strain induced modification of the electronic properties or 'straintronics' is clearly an important field of study in graphene. This opens an avenue to producing electronic devices: micro- and nano-electromechanical systems (MEMS and NEMS), where the electronic properties are controlled by geometric means and no additional alteration of graphene is necessary. The appearance of this geometric potential also provides us with clues as to how quantum dynamics looks in the curved space-time of general relativity. In this context we explore a two-dimensional cross-section of the wormhole geometry, realized with graphene as a solid state thought experiment.

  17. First principles calculations of solid-state thermionic transport in layered van der Waals heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoming; Zebarjadi, Mona; Esfarjani, Keivan

    2016-08-01

    This work aims at understanding solid-state energy conversion and transport in layered (van der Waals) heterostructures in contact with metallic electrodes via a first-principles approach. As an illustration, a graphene/phosphorene/graphene heterostructure in contact with gold electrodes is studied by using density functional theory (DFT)-based first principles calculations combined with real space Green's function (GF) formalism. We show that for a monolayer phosphorene, quantum tunneling dominates the transport. By adding more phosphorene layers, one can switch from tunneling-dominated transport to thermionic-dominated transport, resulting in transporting more heat per charge carrier, thus, enhancing the cooling coefficient of performance. The use of layered van der Waals heterostructures has two advantages: (a) thermionic transport barriers can be tuned by changing the number of layers, and (b) thermal conductance across these non-covalent structures is very weak. The phonon thermal conductance of the present van der Waals heterostructure is found to be 4.1 MW m-2 K-1 which is one order of magnitude lower than the lowest value for that of covalently-bonded interfaces. The thermionic coefficient of performance for the proposed device is 18.5 at 600 K corresponding to an equivalent ZT of 0.13, which is significant for nanoscale devices. This study shows that layered van der Waals structures have great potential to be used as solid-state energy-conversion devices.This work aims at understanding solid-state energy conversion and transport in layered (van der Waals) heterostructures in contact with metallic electrodes via a first-principles approach. As an illustration, a graphene/phosphorene/graphene heterostructure in contact with gold electrodes is studied by using density functional theory (DFT)-based first principles calculations combined with real space Green's function (GF) formalism. We show that for a monolayer phosphorene, quantum tunneling dominates the

  18. Space Charge Layer Effect in Solid State Ion Conductors and Lithium Batteries: Principle and Perspective.

    PubMed

    Chen, Cheng; Guo, Xiangxin

    2016-01-01

    The space charge layer (SCL) effects were initially developed to explain the anomalous conductivity enhancement in composite ionic conductors. They were further extended to qualitatively as well as quantitatively understand the interfacial phenomena in many other ionic-conducting systems. Especially in nanometre-scale systems, the SCL effects could be used to manipulate the conductivity and construct artificial conductors. Recently, existence of such effects either at the electrolyte/cathode interface or at the interfaces inside the composite electrode in all solid state lithium batteries (ASSLB) has attracted attention. Therefore, in this article, the principle of SCL on basis of defect chemistry is first presented. The SCL effects on the carrier transport and storage in typical conducting systems are reviewed. For ASSLB, the relevant effects reported so far are also reviewed. Finally, the perspective of interface engineer related to SCL in ASSLB is addressed.

  19. PRINCIPLE DESIGN OF 300KHZ MECO RF KICKER BIPOLAR SOLID STATE MODULATOR.

    SciTech Connect

    ZHANG,W.; KOTLYAR,Y.

    2004-05-23

    A high speed, high repetition rate, bipolar solid-state high voltage modulator is under development at Brookhaven National Laboratory for Muon Electron Conversion (MECO) Experiment. The modulator will be used to drive a RF kicker consisting a pair of parallel deflecting plates. The principle design is based on the inductive-adder topology. This system requires a fast pulse rise and fall time about 20ns, a pulse width of 100ns, a pulse repetition rate of 300 kHz, and a 60 kHz sine-wave amplitude modulation. The fast high voltage MOSFETs are used as main switching devices.Different magnetic materials are being investigated for adder core magnets. The main circuit design, critical subsystems, and major technical issues will be discussed. The circuit simulation, components selection and evaluation, and preliminary test results will be presented.

  20. Space Charge Layer Effect in Solid State Ion Conductors and Lithium Batteries: Principle and Perspective.

    PubMed

    Chen, Cheng; Guo, Xiangxin

    2016-01-01

    The space charge layer (SCL) effects were initially developed to explain the anomalous conductivity enhancement in composite ionic conductors. They were further extended to qualitatively as well as quantitatively understand the interfacial phenomena in many other ionic-conducting systems. Especially in nanometre-scale systems, the SCL effects could be used to manipulate the conductivity and construct artificial conductors. Recently, existence of such effects either at the electrolyte/cathode interface or at the interfaces inside the composite electrode in all solid state lithium batteries (ASSLB) has attracted attention. Therefore, in this article, the principle of SCL on basis of defect chemistry is first presented. The SCL effects on the carrier transport and storage in typical conducting systems are reviewed. For ASSLB, the relevant effects reported so far are also reviewed. Finally, the perspective of interface engineer related to SCL in ASSLB is addressed. PMID:27640376

  1. A survey of parametrized variational principles and applications to computational mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Felippa, Carlos A.

    1993-01-01

    This survey paper describes recent developments in the area of parametrized variational principles (PVP's) and selected applications to finite-element computational mechanics. A PVP is a variational principle containing free parameters that have no effect on the Euler-Lagrange equations. The theory of single-field PVP's based on gauge functions (also known as null Lagrangians) is a subset of the inverse problem of variational calculus that has limited value. On the other hand, multifield PVP's are more interesting from theoretical and practical standpoints. Following a tutorial introduction, the paper describes the recent construction of multifield PVP's in several areas of elasticity and electromagnetics. It then discusses three applications to finite-element computational mechanics: the derivation of high-performance finite elements, the development of element-level error indicators, and the constructions of finite element templates. The paper concludes with an overview of open research areas.

  2. First-principles Equations of State and Shock Hugoniots of First- and Second-Row Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driver, Kevin; Soubiran, Francois; Zhang, Shuai; Militzer, Burkhard

    A first-principles methodology for studying high energy density physics and warm dense matter is important for the stewardship of plasma science and guiding inertial confinement fusion experiments. In order to address this challenge, we have been developing the capability of path integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) for studying dense plasmas comprised of increasingly heavy elements, including nitrogen, oxygen, and neon. In recent work, we have extended PIMC methodology beyond the free-particle node approximation by implementing localized nodal surfaces capable of describing bound plasma states in second-row elements, such as silicon. We combine results from PIMC with results from density functional theory molecular dynamics (DFT-MD) calculations to produce a coherent equation of state that bridges the entire WDM regime. Analysis of pair-correlation functions and the electronic density of states reveals an evolving plasma structure and ionization process that is driven by temperature and pressure. We also compute shock Hugoniot curves for a wide range of initial densities, which generally reveal an increase in compression as the second and first shells are ionized. This work is funded by the NSF/DOE Partnership in Basic Plasma Science and Engineering (DE-SC0010517).

  3. Principles of ESCA and application to metal corrosion, coating and lubrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, D. R.

    1978-01-01

    The principles of ESCA (electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis) were described by comparison with other spectroscopic techniques. The advantages and disadvantages of ESCA as compared to other surface sensitive analytical techniques were evaluated. The use of ESCA was illustrated by actual applications to oxidation of steel and Rene 41, the chemistry of lubricant additives on steel, and the composition of sputter deposited hard coatings. A bibliography of material that was useful for further study of ESCA was presented and commented upon.

  4. Principles of ESCA and applications to metal corrosion, coating and lubrication. [Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, D. R.

    1978-01-01

    The principles of ESCA (electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis) are described by comparison with other spectroscopic techniques. The advantages and disadvantages of ESCA as compared to other surface sensitive analytical techniques are evaluated. The use of ESCA is illustrated by actual applications to oxidation of steel and Rene 41, the chemistry of lubricant additives on steel, and the composition of sputter deposited hard coatings. Finally, a bibliography of material that is useful for further study of ESCA is presented and commented upon.

  5. Application of variational principles and adjoint integrating factors for constructing numerical GFD models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penenko, Vladimir; Tsvetova, Elena; Penenko, Alexey

    2015-04-01

    The proposed method is considered on an example of hydrothermodynamics and atmospheric chemistry models [1,2]. In the development of the existing methods for constructing numerical schemes possessing the properties of total approximation for operators of multiscale process models, we have developed a new variational technique, which uses the concept of adjoint integrating factors. The technique is as follows. First, a basic functional of the variational principle (the integral identity that unites the model equations, initial and boundary conditions) is transformed using Lagrange's identity and the second Green's formula. As a result, the action of the operators of main problem in the space of state functions is transferred to the adjoint operators defined in the space of sufficiently smooth adjoint functions. By the choice of adjoint functions the order of the derivatives becomes lower by one than those in the original equations. We obtain a set of new balance relationships that take into account the sources and boundary conditions. Next, we introduce the decomposition of the model domain into a set of finite volumes. For multi-dimensional non-stationary problems, this technique is applied in the framework of the variational principle and schemes of decomposition and splitting on the set of physical processes for each coordinate directions successively at each time step. For each direction within the finite volume, the analytical solutions of one-dimensional homogeneous adjoint equations are constructed. In this case, the solutions of adjoint equations serve as integrating factors. The results are the hybrid discrete-analytical schemes. They have the properties of stability, approximation and unconditional monotony for convection-diffusion operators. These schemes are discrete in time and analytic in the spatial variables. They are exact in case of piecewise-constant coefficients within the finite volume and along the coordinate lines of the grid area in each

  6. High-throughput spectrometer designs in a compact form-factor: principles and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norton, S. M.

    2013-05-01

    Many compact, portable Raman spectrometers have entered the market in the past few years with applications in narcotics and hazardous material identification, as well as verification applications in pharmaceuticals and security screening. Often, the required compact form-factor has forced designers to sacrifice throughput and sensitivity for portability and low-cost. We will show that a volume phase holographic (VPH)-based spectrometer design can achieve superior throughput and thus sensitivity over conventional Czerny-Turner reflective designs. We will look in depth at the factors influencing throughput and sensitivity and illustrate specific VPH-based spectrometer examples that highlight these design principles.

  7. Temperature effects in first-principles solid state calculations of the chemical shielding tensor made simple

    SciTech Connect

    Monserrat, Bartomeu Needs, Richard J.; Pickard, Chris J.

    2014-10-07

    We study the effects of atomic vibrations on the solid-state chemical shielding tensor using first principles density functional theory calculations. At the harmonic level, we use a Monte Carlo method and a perturbative expansion. The Monte Carlo method is accurate but computationally expensive, while the perturbative method is computationally more efficient, but approximate. We find excellent agreement between the two methods for both the isotropic shift and the shielding anisotropy. The effects of zero-point quantum mechanical nuclear motion are important up to relatively high temperatures: at 500 K they still represent about half of the overall vibrational contribution. We also investigate the effects of anharmonic vibrations, finding that their contribution to the zero-point correction to the chemical shielding tensor is small. We exemplify these ideas using magnesium oxide and the molecular crystals L-alanine and β-aspartyl-L-alanine. We therefore propose as the method of choice to incorporate the effects of temperature in solid state chemical shielding tensor calculations using the perturbative expansion within the harmonic approximation. This approach is accurate and requires a computational effort that is about an order of magnitude smaller than that of dynamical or Monte Carlo approaches, so these effects might be routinely accounted for.

  8. State Water Resources Control Board, California Agreement in Principle 1995 summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Laudon, L.

    1996-03-01

    The Agreement in Principle (AIP) was established as part of the Secretary of Energy`s Ten-Point Initiative which was announced in 1989. One of the Secretary`s goals was to integrate the Department of Energy`s (DOE) national security mission with their environmental restoration and compliance responsibilities. In an effort to accomplish this goal, DOE increased the role of the states in the oversight of DOE`s monitoring programs through AIPs. The State of California and DOE negotiated the California AIP beginning in 1989 and signed the Agreement in September 1990. The AIP identified six DOE facilities to be evaluated under the program. The six facilities evaluated by the AIP program were: (1) Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) including LLNL`s Site 300; (2) Sandia National Laboratories, California (SNL/CA); (3) Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL); (4) Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC); (5) Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC); and (6) Laboratory for Energy-Related Health Research (LEHR).

  9. Temperature effects in first-principles solid state calculations of the chemical shielding tensor made simple

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monserrat, Bartomeu; Needs, Richard J.; Pickard, Chris J.

    2014-10-01

    We study the effects of atomic vibrations on the solid-state chemical shielding tensor using first principles density functional theory calculations. At the harmonic level, we use a Monte Carlo method and a perturbative expansion. The Monte Carlo method is accurate but computationally expensive, while the perturbative method is computationally more efficient, but approximate. We find excellent agreement between the two methods for both the isotropic shift and the shielding anisotropy. The effects of zero-point quantum mechanical nuclear motion are important up to relatively high temperatures: at 500 K they still represent about half of the overall vibrational contribution. We also investigate the effects of anharmonic vibrations, finding that their contribution to the zero-point correction to the chemical shielding tensor is small. We exemplify these ideas using magnesium oxide and the molecular crystals L-alanine and β-aspartyl-L-alanine. We therefore propose as the method of choice to incorporate the effects of temperature in solid state chemical shielding tensor calculations using the perturbative expansion within the harmonic approximation. This approach is accurate and requires a computational effort that is about an order of magnitude smaller than that of dynamical or Monte Carlo approaches, so these effects might be routinely accounted for.

  10. The Principle of Energetic Consistency: Application to the Shallow-Water Equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohn, Stephen E.

    2009-01-01

    If the complete state of the earth's atmosphere (e.g., pressure, temperature, winds and humidity, everywhere throughout the atmosphere) were known at any particular initial time, then solving the equations that govern the dynamical behavior of the atmosphere would give the complete state at all subsequent times. Part of the difficulty of weather prediction is that the governing equations can only be solved approximately, which is what weather prediction models do. But weather forecasts would still be far from perfect even if the equations could be solved exactly, because the atmospheric state is not and cannot be known completely at any initial forecast time. Rather, the initial state for a weather forecast can only be estimated from incomplete observations taken near the initial time, through a process known as data assimilation. Weather prediction models carry out their computations on a grid of points covering the earth's atmosphere. The formulation of these models is guided by a mathematical convergence theory which guarantees that, given the exact initial state, the model solution approaches the exact solution of the governing equations as the computational grid is made more fine. For the data assimilation process, however, there does not yet exist a convergence theory. This book chapter represents an effort to begin establishing a convergence theory for data assimilation methods. The main result, which is called the principle of energetic consistency, provides a necessary condition that a convergent method must satisfy. Current methods violate this principle, as shown in earlier work of the author, and therefore are not convergent. The principle is illustrated by showing how to apply it as a simple test of convergence for proposed methods.

  11. Ab initio optimization principle for the ground states of translationally invariant strongly correlated quantum lattice models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ran, Shi-Ju

    2016-05-01

    In this work, a simple and fundamental numeric scheme dubbed as ab initio optimization principle (AOP) is proposed for the ground states of translational invariant strongly correlated quantum lattice models. The idea is to transform a nondeterministic-polynomial-hard ground-state simulation with infinite degrees of freedom into a single optimization problem of a local function with finite number of physical and ancillary degrees of freedom. This work contributes mainly in the following aspects: (1) AOP provides a simple and efficient scheme to simulate the ground state by solving a local optimization problem. Its solution contains two kinds of boundary states, one of which play the role of the entanglement bath that mimics the interactions between a supercell and the infinite environment, and the other gives the ground state in a tensor network (TN) form. (2) In the sense of TN, a novel decomposition named as tensor ring decomposition (TRD) is proposed to implement AOP. Instead of following the contraction-truncation scheme used by many existing TN-based algorithms, TRD solves the contraction of a uniform TN in an opposite way by encoding the contraction in a set of self-consistent equations that automatically reconstruct the whole TN, making the simulation simple and unified; (3) AOP inherits and develops the ideas of different well-established methods, including the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG), infinite time-evolving block decimation (iTEBD), network contractor dynamics, density matrix embedding theory, etc., providing a unified perspective that is previously missing in this fields. (4) AOP as well as TRD give novel implications to existing TN-based algorithms: A modified iTEBD is suggested and the two-dimensional (2D) AOP is argued to be an intrinsic 2D extension of DMRG that is based on infinite projected entangled pair state. This paper is focused on one-dimensional quantum models to present AOP. The benchmark is given on a transverse Ising

  12. A game plan: Gamification design principles in mHealth applications for chronic disease management.

    PubMed

    Miller, Aaron S; Cafazzo, Joseph A; Seto, Emily

    2016-06-01

    Effective chronic disease management is essential to improve positive health outcomes, and incentive strategies are useful in promoting self-care with longevity. Gamification, applied with mHealth (mobile health) applications, has the potential to better facilitate patient self-management. This review article addresses a knowledge gap around the effective use of gamification design principles, or mechanics, in developing mHealth applications. Badges, leaderboards, points and levels, challenges and quests, social engagement loops, and onboarding are mechanics that comprise gamification. These mechanics are defined and explained from a design and development perspective. Health and fitness applications with gamification mechanics include: bant which uses points, levels, and social engagement, mySugr which uses challenges and quests, RunKeeper which uses leaderboards as well as social engagement loops and onboarding, Fitocracy which uses badges, and Mango Health, which uses points and levels. Specific design considerations are explored, an example of the efficacy of a gamified mHealth implementation in facilitating improved self-management is provided, limitations to this work are discussed, a link between the principles of gaming and gamification in health and wellness technologies is provided, and suggestions for future work are made. We conclude that gamification could be leveraged in developing applications with the potential to better facilitate self-management in persons with chronic conditions. PMID:24986104

  13. A game plan: Gamification design principles in mHealth applications for chronic disease management.

    PubMed

    Miller, Aaron S; Cafazzo, Joseph A; Seto, Emily

    2016-06-01

    Effective chronic disease management is essential to improve positive health outcomes, and incentive strategies are useful in promoting self-care with longevity. Gamification, applied with mHealth (mobile health) applications, has the potential to better facilitate patient self-management. This review article addresses a knowledge gap around the effective use of gamification design principles, or mechanics, in developing mHealth applications. Badges, leaderboards, points and levels, challenges and quests, social engagement loops, and onboarding are mechanics that comprise gamification. These mechanics are defined and explained from a design and development perspective. Health and fitness applications with gamification mechanics include: bant which uses points, levels, and social engagement, mySugr which uses challenges and quests, RunKeeper which uses leaderboards as well as social engagement loops and onboarding, Fitocracy which uses badges, and Mango Health, which uses points and levels. Specific design considerations are explored, an example of the efficacy of a gamified mHealth implementation in facilitating improved self-management is provided, limitations to this work are discussed, a link between the principles of gaming and gamification in health and wellness technologies is provided, and suggestions for future work are made. We conclude that gamification could be leveraged in developing applications with the potential to better facilitate self-management in persons with chronic conditions.

  14. Improving animal research facility operations through the application of lean principles.

    PubMed

    Khan, Nabeel; Umrysh, Brian M

    2008-06-01

    Animal research is a vital component of US research and well-functioning animal research facilities are critical both to the research itself and to the housing and feeding of the animals. The Office of Animal Care (OAC) at Seattle Children's Hospital Research Institute realized it had to improve the efficiency and safety of its animal research facility (ARF) to prepare for expansion and to advance the Institute's mission. The main areas for improvement concerned excessive turnaround time to process animal housing and feeding equipment; the movement and flow of equipment and inventory; and personnel safety. To address these problems, management held two process improvement workshops to educate employees about lean principles. In this article we discuss the application of these principles and corresponding methods to advance Children's Research Institute's mission of preventing, treating, and eliminating childhood diseases.

  15. Improving animal research facility operations through the application of lean principles.

    PubMed

    Khan, Nabeel; Umrysh, Brian M

    2008-01-01

    Animal research is a vital component of US research and well-functioning animal research facilities are critical both to the research itself and to the housing and feeding of the animals. The Office of Animal Care (OAC) at Seattle Children's Hospital Research Institute realized it had to improve the efficiency and safety of its animal research facility (ARF) to prepare for expansion and to advance the Institute's mission. The main areas for improvement concerned excessive turnaround time to process animal housing and feeding equipment; the movement and flow of equipment and inventory; and personnel safety. To address these problems, management held two process improvement workshops to educate employees about lean principles. In this article we discuss the application of these principles and corresponding methods to advance Children's Research Institute's mission of preventing, treating, and eliminating childhood diseases. PMID:18506058

  16. 2 CFR Appendix A to Part 220 - Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Grants, Contracts, and Other Agreements With...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... allocability of costs provisions of subsection C.3 of Appendix A to 2 CFR part 225 Cost Principles for State, Local, and Indian Tribal Governments (OMB Circular A-87), Section C, subpart 4 to 2 CFR part 220 Cost Principles for Educational Institutions (OMB Circular A-21), and subsection A.4 of Appendix A to 2 CFR...

  17. Limitations and Extensions of the Lock-and-Key Principle: Differences between Gas State, Solution and Solid State Structures

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Hans-Jörg

    2015-01-01

    The lock-and-key concept is discussed with respect to necessary extensions. Formation of supramolecular complexes depends not only, and often not even primarily on an optimal geometric fit between host and guest. Induced fit and allosteric interactions have long been known as important modifications. Different binding mechanisms, the medium used and pH effects can exert a major influence on the affinity. Stereoelectronic effects due to lone pair orientation can lead to variation of binding constants by orders of magnitude. Hydrophobic interactions due to high-energy water inside cavities modify the mechanical lock-and-key picture. That optimal affinities are observed if the cavity is only partially filled by the ligand can be in conflict with the lock-and-key principle. In crystals other forces than those between host and guest often dominate, leading to differences between solid state and solution structures. This is exemplified in particular with calixarene complexes, which by X-ray analysis more often than other hosts show guest molecules outside their cavity. In view of this the particular problems with the identification of weak interactions in crystals is discussed. PMID:25815592

  18. Nanomechanical resonators and their applications in biological/chemical detection: Nanomechanics principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eom, Kilho; Park, Harold S.; Yoon, Dae Sung; Kwon, Taeyun

    2011-06-01

    Recent advances in nanotechnology have led to the development of nano-electro-mechanical systems (NEMS) such as nanomechanical resonators, which have recently received significant attention from the scientific community. This is not only due to their capability of label-free detection of bio/chemical molecules at single-molecule (or atomic) resolution for future applications such as the early diagnosis of diseases like cancer, but also due to their unprecedented ability to detect physical quantities such as molecular weight, elastic stiffness, surface stress, and surface elastic stiffness for adsorbed molecules on the surface. Most experimental works on resonator-based molecular detection have been based on the principle that molecular adsorption onto a resonator surface increases the effective mass, and consequently decreases the resonant frequencies of the nanomechanical resonator. However, this principle is insufficient to provide fundamental insights into resonator-based molecular detection at the nanoscale; this is due to recently proposed novel nanoscale detection principles including various effects such as surface effects, nonlinear oscillations, coupled resonance, and stiffness effects. Furthermore, these effects have only recently been incorporated into existing physical models for resonators, and therefore the universal physical principles governing nanoresonator-based detection have not been completely described. Therefore, our objective in this review is to overview the current attempts to understand the underlying mechanisms in nanoresonator-based detection using physical models coupled to computational simulations and/or experiments. Specifically, we will focus on issues of special relevance to the dynamic behavior of nanoresonators and their applications in biological/chemical detection: the resonance behavior of micro/nanoresonators; resonator-based chemical/biological detection; physical models of various nanoresonators such as nanowires, carbon

  19. Principles and applications of imaging radar. Manual of remote sensing: Third edition, Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, F.M.; Lewis, A.J.

    1998-12-31

    This second volume in the Third Edition of the Manual of Remote Sensing offers a current and comprehensive survey of the theory, methods, and applications of imaging radar for geoscientists, engineers and application scientists interested in the advantages of radar remote sensing. Produced under the auspices of the American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, it brings together contributions from experts around the world to discuss the basic principles of imaging radars and trace the research activity--past, present, and future--across the many sciences where radar remote sensing may be applied. This book offers an invaluable snapshot of radar remote sensing technology, including radargrammetry, radar polarimetry and interferometry and its uses. It combines technical and procedural coverage of systems, data interpretation, and other fundamentals with generous coverage of practical applications in agriculture; forestry; soil moisture monitoring; geology; geomorphology and hydrology; oceanography; land use, land cover mapping and archeology.

  20. Principles of the equilibrium theory of small multicomponent systems in three aggregate states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tovbin, Yu. K.

    2015-11-01

    Principles of the molecular statistical theory of small multicomponent drops/microcrystals in a three-dimensional bulk and in two-dimensional adsorption systems are developed. Equations of the theory are derived using the cluster approach. The theory describes discrete distributions of molecules in space (on a size scale comparable to the molecular size) and continuous molecular distributions (at short distances inside cells) upon their translational and vibrational motions. The theory provides a unified description of the equilibrium molecular distributions in three aggregate states and at their interfaces. Pair intermolecular interaction potentials (such as the Mie potential) in several coordination spheres that determine lattice structure compressibility are taken into account. For simplicity, it is considered that the sizes of mixture components are virtually the same. Structural cell distribution functions for the transition region of curved interfaces are derived. Expressions for the pressure tensor components inside small bodies are obtained, allowing us to calculate the thermodynamic characteristics of a vapor-liquid interface, including surface tension. Questions regarding the consistency between the theory of phase transitions in small systems and the traditional theory of associate (cluster) formation and the transition to systems limited in the total volume value are discussed.

  1. First-principles material modeling of solid-state electrolytes with the spinel structure.

    PubMed

    Mees, Maarten J; Pourtois, Geoffrey; Rosciano, Fabio; Put, Brecht; Vereecken, Philippe M; Stesmans, André

    2014-03-21

    Ionic diffusion through the novel (AlxMg1-2xLix)Al2O4 spinel electrolyte is investigated using first-principles calculations, combined with the Kinetic Monte Carlo algorithm. We observe that the ionic diffusion increases with the lithium content x. Furthermore, the structural parameters, formation enthalpies and electronic structures of (AlxMg1-2xLix)Al2O4 are calculated for various stoichiometries. The overall results indicate the (AlxMg1-2xLix)Al2O4 stoichiometries x = 0.2…0.3 as most promising. The (AlxMg1-2xLix)Al2O4 electrolyte is a potential candidate for the all-spinel solid-state battery stack, with the material epitaxially grown between well-known spinel electrodes, such as LiyMn2O4 and Li4+3yTi5O12 (y = 0…1). Due to their identical crystal structure, a good electrolyte-electrode interface is expected.

  2. Genetics and psychiatry: a proposal for the application of the precautionary principle.

    PubMed

    Porteri, Corinna

    2013-08-01

    The paper suggests an application of the precautionary principle to the use of genetics in psychiatry focusing on scientific uncertainty. Different levels of uncertainty are taken into consideration--from the acknowledgement that the genetic paradigm is only one of the possible ways to explain psychiatric disorders, via the difficulties related to the diagnostic path and genetic methods, to the value of the results of studies carried out in this field. Considering those uncertainties, some measures for the use of genetics in psychiatry are suggested. Some of those measures are related to the conceptual limits of the genetic paradigm; others are related to present knowledge and should be re-evaluated.

  3. Application of the principle of breaking ocean waves to mixing technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doman, Michael

    1991-05-01

    Turbulent mixing in the multiphase system of breaking ocean waves and whitecaps is known to play an important role in the mass exchange between ocean and atmosphere. Thus engineering applications to this naturally occurring dynamic exchange process appear to be of interest in various areas of applied mixing technology. Starting from the fact that ocean waves break after having reached their point of instability, a three-dimensional collapsible swivel mechanism (CSM) was developed for simulating by mechanical means the highly dynamic movement of breaking ocean waves. The CSM, employing reversion kinematics of a six-link spatial kinematic chain, has been realized in the construction of a new mixing technology (called swing mixer) that can either move the fluid by the use of mixing tools in a vessel (stirrer principle) or by moving the entire vessel (shaker principle). A first description of swing mixers has recently been given.1 A special characteristic of swing mixers is their three-dimensional reversing motion, the forward and backward paths being nonsuperimposable mirror images of one another. During the mixing process in swing mixers, the efficient mixing principle of repeated stretching and folding2 also takes place in the third dimension. Details of the mixing technology of swing mixers will be discussed together with some suggestions as to how spatial and temporal changes in the concentration may be determined with the help of CCD cameras in a given multiphase system agitated by swing mixers.

  4. First-Principles Computer Simulations of Dense Plasmas and Application to the Interiors of Giant Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Militzer, Burkhard

    2013-06-01

    This presentation will review three recent applications of first-principles computer simulation techniques to study matter at extreme temperature-pressure conditions that are of relevance to astrophysics. First we report a recent methodological advance in all-electron path integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) that allowed us to extend this method beyond hydrogen and helium to elements with core electrons [1]. We combine results from PIMC and with density functional molecular dynamics (DFT-MD) simulations and derive a coherent equation of state (EOS) for water and carbon plasmas in the regime from 1-50 Mbar and 104-109 K that can be compared to laboratory shock wave experiments. Second we apply DFT-MD simulations to characterize superionic water in the interiors of Uranus and Neptune. By adopting a thermodynamic integration technique, we derive the Gibbs free energy in order to demonstrate the existence of a phase transformation from body-centered cubic to face-centered cubic superionic water [2]. Finally we again use DFT-MD to study the interiors of gas giant planets. We determine the EOS for hydrogen-helium mixtures spanning density-temperature conditions in the deep interiors of giant planets, 0.2-9.0 g/cc and 1000-80000 K [3]. We compare the simulation results with the semi-analytical EOS model by Saumon and Chabrier. We present a revision to the mass-radius relationship which makes the hottest exoplanets increase in radius by ~0.2 Jupiter radii at fixed entropy and for masses greater than 0.5 Jupiter masses. This change is large enough to have possible implications for some discrepant inflated giant exoplanets. We conclude by demonstrating that all materials in the cores of giant planets, ices, MgO, SiO2, and iron, will all dissolve into metallic hydrogen. This implies the cores of Jupiter and Saturn have been at least partially eroded. [1] K. P. Driver, B. Militzer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108 (2012) 115502. [2] H. F. Wilson, M. L. Wong, B. Militzer, http://arxiv.org/abs/1211

  5. 10 CFR 455.130 - State evaluation of grant applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false State evaluation of grant applications. 455.130 Section... State evaluation of grant applications. (a) If an application received by a State is reviewed and...) Concurrent with its evaluation and ranking of grant applications pursuant to § 455.131, the State...

  6. Applications Analysis: Principles and Examples from Various Distributed Computer Applications at Sandia National Laboratories New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Bateman, Dennis; Evans, David; Jensen, Dal; Nelson, Spencer

    1999-08-01

    As information systems have become distributed over many computers within the enterprise, managing those applications has become increasingly important. This is an emerging area of work, recognized as such by many large organizations as well as many start-up companies. In this report, we present a summary of the move to distributed applications, some of the problems that came along for the ride, and some specific examples of the tools and techniques we have used to analyze distributed applications and gain some insight into the mechanics and politics of distributed computing.

  7. Solid State Marx Modulators for Emerging Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kemp, M.A.; /SLAC

    2012-09-14

    Emerging linear accelerator applications increasingly push the boundaries of RF system performance and economics. The power modulator is an integral part of RF systems whose characteristics play a key role in the determining parameters such as efficiency, footprint, cost, stability, and availability. Particularly within the past decade, solid-state switch based modulators have become the standard in high-performance, high power modulators. One topology, the Marx modulator, has characteristics which make it particularly attractive for several emerging applications. This paper is an overview of the Marx topology, some recent developments, and a case study of how this architecture can be applied to a few proposed linear accelerators.

  8. The Stampacchia maximum principle for stochastic partial differential equations and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chekroun, Mickaël D.; Park, Eunhee; Temam, Roger

    2016-02-01

    Stochastic partial differential equations (SPDEs) are considered, linear and nonlinear, for which we establish comparison theorems for the solutions, or positivity results a.e., and a.s., for suitable data. Comparison theorems for SPDEs are available in the literature. The originality of our approach is that it is based on the use of truncations, following the Stampacchia approach to maximum principle. We believe that our method, which does not rely too much on probability considerations, is simpler than the existing approaches and to a certain extent, more directly applicable to concrete situations. Among the applications, boundedness results and positivity results are respectively proved for the solutions of a stochastic Boussinesq temperature equation, and of reaction-diffusion equations perturbed by a non-Lipschitz nonlinear noise. Stabilization results to a Chafee-Infante equation perturbed by a nonlinear noise are also derived.

  9. Uncertainty quantification in application of the enrichment meter principle for nondestructive assay of special nuclear material

    SciTech Connect

    Burr, Tom; Croft, Stephen; Jarman, Kenneth D.

    2015-09-05

    The various methods of nondestructive assay (NDA) of special nuclear material (SNM) have applications in nuclear nonproliferation, including detection and identification of illicit SNM at border crossings, and quantifying SNM at nuclear facilities for safeguards. No assay method is complete without “error bars,” which provide one way of expressing confidence in the assay result. Consequently, NDA specialists typically quantify total uncertainty in terms of “random” and “systematic” components, and then specify error bars for the total mass estimate in multiple items. Uncertainty quantification (UQ) for NDA has always been important, but it is recognized that greater rigor is needed and achievable using modern statistical methods. To this end, we describe the extent to which the guideline for expressing uncertainty in measurements (GUM) can be used for NDA. Also, we propose improvements over GUM for NDA by illustrating UQ challenges that it does not address, including calibration with errors in predictors, model error, and item-specific biases. A case study is presented using low-resolution NaI spectra and applying the enrichment meter principle to estimate the U-235 mass in an item. The case study illustrates how to update the current American Society for Testing and Materials guide for application of the enrichment meter principle using gamma spectra from a NaI detector.

  10. Uncertainty quantification in application of the enrichment meter principle for nondestructive assay of special nuclear material

    DOE PAGES

    Burr, Tom; Croft, Stephen; Jarman, Kenneth D.

    2015-09-05

    The various methods of nondestructive assay (NDA) of special nuclear material (SNM) have applications in nuclear nonproliferation, including detection and identification of illicit SNM at border crossings, and quantifying SNM at nuclear facilities for safeguards. No assay method is complete without “error bars,” which provide one way of expressing confidence in the assay result. Consequently, NDA specialists typically quantify total uncertainty in terms of “random” and “systematic” components, and then specify error bars for the total mass estimate in multiple items. Uncertainty quantification (UQ) for NDA has always been important, but it is recognized that greater rigor is needed andmore » achievable using modern statistical methods. To this end, we describe the extent to which the guideline for expressing uncertainty in measurements (GUM) can be used for NDA. Also, we propose improvements over GUM for NDA by illustrating UQ challenges that it does not address, including calibration with errors in predictors, model error, and item-specific biases. A case study is presented using low-resolution NaI spectra and applying the enrichment meter principle to estimate the U-235 mass in an item. The case study illustrates how to update the current American Society for Testing and Materials guide for application of the enrichment meter principle using gamma spectra from a NaI detector.« less

  11. 15 CFR Notes Applicable to State... - Notes applicable to State of Understanding related to Medical Equipment:

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Understanding related to Medical Equipment: applicable Notes applicable to State of Understanding related to Medical Equipment: Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade... of Understanding—medical equipment: Commodities that are “specially designed for medical...

  12. Communication: Surface stability and topological surface states of cleaved Bi2Se3: First-principles studies.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y N

    2015-10-21

    Through systematic first principles calculations within the nonlocal van der Waals functional, we investigated the structure stability and topological surface state properties of various surface cleaves in the topological insulator Bi2Se3 Our results reveal that under Bi-rich conditions, the Bi bilayer-covered surface and the Se-terminated surface with a Bi bilayer under the first quintuple layer are even more stable than the generic Bi2Se3. The surface state bands are changed by different surface terminations, causing the formation of new Dirac states. We may distinguish various surfaces by using scanning tunneling microscopy experimentally. PMID:26493890

  13. Applicability of the principle of respect for autonomy: the perspective of Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Kara, Mahmut Alpertunga

    2007-01-01

    Turkey has a complex character, which has differences from the Western world or Eastern Asia as well as common points. Even after more than a century of efforts to modernise and integrate with the West, Turkish society has values that are different from those of the West, as well as having Western values. It is worth questioning whether ordinary Turkish people show an individualistic character. The principle of respect for individual autonomy arises from a perception of oneself as an individual, and the person's situation may affect the applicability of the principle. Patients who perceive themselves to be members of a community rather than free persons and who prefer to participate in the common decisions of the community and to consider the common interest and the common value system of the community concerning problems of their life (except healthcare or biomedical research) rather than to decide as independent, rational individuals may not be competent to make an autonomous choice. Expectations that such patients will behave as autonomous individuals may be unjustified. The family, rather than the patient, may take a primary role in decisions. A flexible system considering cultural differences in the concept of autonomy may be more feasible than a system following strict universal norms. PMID:17971462

  14. Application of photon detectors in the VIP2 experiment to test the Pauli Exclusion Principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pichler, A.; Bartalucci, S.; Bazzi, M.; Bertolucci, S.; Berucci, C.; Bragadireanu, M.; Cargnelli, M.; Clozza, A.; Curceanu, C.; De Paolis, L.; Di Matteo, S.; D'Ufflzi, A.; Egger, J.-P.; Guaraldo, C.; Iliescu, M.; Ishiwatari, T.; Laubenstein, M.; Marton, J.; Milotti, E.; Pietreanu, D.; Piscicchia, K.; Ponta, T.; Sbardella, E.; Scordo, A.; Shi, H.; Sirghi, D.; Sirghi, F.; Sperandio, L.; Vazquez-Doce, O.; Widmann, E.; Zmeskal, J.

    2016-05-01

    The Pauli Exclusion Principle (PEP) was introduced by the austrian physicist Wolfgang Pauli in 1925. Since then, several experiments have checked its validity. From 2006 until 2010, the VIP (Violation of the Pauli Principle) experiment took data at the LNGS underground laboratory to test the PEP. This experiment looked for electronic 2p to Is transitions in copper, where 2 electrons are in the Is state before the transition happens. These transitions violate the PEP. The lack of detection of X-ray photons coming from these transitions resulted in a preliminary upper limit for the violation of the PEP of 4.7 × 10-29. Currently, the successor experiment VIP2 is under preparation. The main improvements are, on one side, the use of Silicon Drift Detectors (SDDs) as X-ray photon detectors. On the other side an active shielding is implemented, which consists of plastic scintillator bars read by Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs). The employment of these detectors will improve the upper limit for the violation of the PEP by around 2 orders of magnitude.

  15. Diffusion-Weighted MRI for the Assessment of Liver Fibrosis: Principles and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Attinà, Giancarlo; Fuccio Sanzà, Giovanni; Foti, Pietro Valerio; Ettorre, Giovanni Carlo; Milone, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    The importance of an early identification of hepatic fibrosis has been emphasized, in order to start therapy and obtain fibrosis regression. Biopsy is the gold-standard method for the assessment of liver fibrosis in chronic liver diseases, but it is limited by complications, interobserver variability, and sampling errors. Several noninvasive methods have been recently introduced into clinical routine, in order to detect liver fibrosis early. One of the most diffuse approaches is represented by diffusion-weighted liver MRI. In this review, the main technical principles are briefly reported in order to explain the rationale for clinical applications. In addition, roles of apparent diffusion coefficient, intravoxel incoherent motion, and relative apparent diffusion coefficient are also reported, showing their advantages and limits. PMID:25866819

  16. Enhancement of the capabilities of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry with derivatization: general principles and applications.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fengguo; Zou, Li; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Zunjian; Ong, Choon Nam

    2011-01-01

    The integration of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) with derivatization is a relatively new and unique strategy that could add value and could enhance the capabilities of LC-MS-based technologies. The derivatization process could be carried out in various analytical steps, for example, sampling, storage, sample preparation, HPLC separation, and MS detection. This review presents an overview of derivatization-based LC-MS strategy over the past 10 years and covers both the general principles and applications in the fields of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis, biomarker and metabolomic research, environmental analysis, and food-safety evaluation. The underlying mechanisms and theories for derivative reagent selection are summarized and highlighted to guide future studies.

  17. GRE T2∗-Weighted MRI: Principles and Clinical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Meng Yue; Chen, Tian Wu; Zhang, Xiao Ming; Huang, Xiao Hua

    2014-01-01

    The sequence of a multiecho gradient recalled echo (GRE) T2*-weighted imaging (T2*WI) is a relatively new magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique. In contrast to T2 relaxation, which acquires a spin echo signal, T2* relaxation acquires a gradient echo signal. The sequence of a GRE T2*WI requires high uniformity of the magnetic field. GRE T2*WI can detect the smallest changes in uniformity in the magnetic field and can improve the rate of small lesion detection. In addition, the T2* value can indirectly reflect changes in tissue biochemical components. Moreover, it can be used for the early diagnosis and quantitative diagnosis of some diseases. This paper reviews the principles and clinical applications as well as the advantages and disadvantages of GRE T2*WI. PMID:24987676

  18. Microfluidic Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensors: From Principles to Point-of-Care Applications

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Da-Shin; Fan, Shih-Kang

    2016-01-01

    Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) is a label-free, highly-sensitive, and real-time sensing technique. Conventional SPR sensors, which involve a planar thin gold film, have been widely exploited in biosensing; various miniaturized formats have been devised for portability purposes. Another type of SPR sensor which utilizes localized SPR (LSPR), is based on metal nanostructures with surface plasmon modes at the structural interface. The resonance condition is sensitive to the refractive index change of the local medium. The principles of these two types of SPR sensors are reviewed and their integration with microfluidic platforms is described. Further applications of microfluidic SPR sensors to point-of-care (POC) diagnostics are discussed. PMID:27472340

  19. Microfluidic Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensors: From Principles to Point-of-Care Applications.

    PubMed

    Wang, Da-Shin; Fan, Shih-Kang

    2016-07-27

    Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) is a label-free, highly-sensitive, and real-time sensing technique. Conventional SPR sensors, which involve a planar thin gold film, have been widely exploited in biosensing; various miniaturized formats have been devised for portability purposes. Another type of SPR sensor which utilizes localized SPR (LSPR), is based on metal nanostructures with surface plasmon modes at the structural interface. The resonance condition is sensitive to the refractive index change of the local medium. The principles of these two types of SPR sensors are reviewed and their integration with microfluidic platforms is described. Further applications of microfluidic SPR sensors to point-of-care (POC) diagnostics are discussed.

  20. Microfluidic Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensors: From Principles to Point-of-Care Applications.

    PubMed

    Wang, Da-Shin; Fan, Shih-Kang

    2016-01-01

    Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) is a label-free, highly-sensitive, and real-time sensing technique. Conventional SPR sensors, which involve a planar thin gold film, have been widely exploited in biosensing; various miniaturized formats have been devised for portability purposes. Another type of SPR sensor which utilizes localized SPR (LSPR), is based on metal nanostructures with surface plasmon modes at the structural interface. The resonance condition is sensitive to the refractive index change of the local medium. The principles of these two types of SPR sensors are reviewed and their integration with microfluidic platforms is described. Further applications of microfluidic SPR sensors to point-of-care (POC) diagnostics are discussed. PMID:27472340

  1. Toward Integrated Molecular Diagnostic System (iMDx): Principles and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seung-min; Sabour, Andrew F.; Son, Jun Ho; Lee, Sang Hun

    2014-01-01

    Integrated molecular diagnostic systems (iMDx), which are automated, sensitive, specific, user-friendly, robust, rapid, easy-to-use, and portable, can revolutionize future medicine. This review will first focus on the components of sample extraction, preservation, and filtration necessary for all point-of-care devices to include for practical use. Subsequently, we will look for low-powered and precise methods for both sample amplification and signal transduction, going in-depth to the details behind their principles. The final field of total device integration and its application to the clinical field will also be addressed to discuss the practicality for future patient care. We envision that microfluidic systems hold the potential to breakthrough the number of problems brought into the field of medical diagnosis today. PMID:24759281

  2. Multivariate statistical analysis: Principles and applications to coorbital streams of meteorite falls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, S. F.; Lipschutz, M. E.

    1993-01-01

    Multivariate statistical analysis techniques (linear discriminant analysis and logistic regression) can provide powerful discrimination tools which are generally unfamiliar to the planetary science community. Fall parameters were used to identify a group of 17 H chondrites (Cluster 1) that were part of a coorbital stream which intersected Earth's orbit in May, from 1855 - 1895, and can be distinguished from all other H chondrite falls. Using multivariate statistical techniques, it was demonstrated that a totally different criterion, labile trace element contents - hence thermal histories - or 13 Cluster 1 meteorites are distinguishable from those of 45 non-Cluster 1 H chondrites. Here, we focus upon the principles of multivariate statistical techniques and illustrate their application using non-meteoritic and meteoritic examples.

  3. Principle, calibration, and application of the in situ alkali chloride monitor.

    PubMed

    Forsberg, Christer; Broström, Markus; Backman, Rainer; Edvardsson, Elin; Badiei, Shahriar; Berg, Magnus; Kassman, Håkan

    2009-02-01

    The extended use of biomass for heat and power production has caused increased operational problems with fouling and high-temperature corrosion in boilers. These problems are mainly related to the presence of alkali chlorides (KCl and NaCl) at high concentrations in the flue gas. The in situ alkali chloride monitor (IACM) was developed by Vattenfall Research and Development AB for measuring the alkali chloride concentration in hot flue gases (less than or approximately 650 degrees C). The measurement technique is based on molecular differential absorption spectroscopy in the UV range. Simultaneous measurement of SO(2) concentration is also possible. The measuring range is 1-50 ppm for the sum of KCl and NaCl concentrations and 4-750 ppm for SO(2). This paper describes the principle of the IACM as well as its calibration. Furthermore, an example of its application in an industrial boiler is given.

  4. Chemical-state analysis of organic semiconductors using soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy combined with first-principles calculation.

    PubMed

    Natsume, Yutaka; Kohno, Teiichiro; Minakata, Takashi; Konishi, Tokuzo; Gullikson, Eric M; Muramatsu, Yasuji

    2012-02-16

    The chemical states of organic semiconductors were investigated by total-electron-yield soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy (TEY-XAS) and first-principles calculations. The organic semiconductors, pentacene (C(22)H(14)) and pentacenequinone (C(22)H(12)O(2)), were subjected to TEY-XAS and the experimental spectra obtained were compared with the 1s core-level excited spectra of C and O atoms, calculated by a first-principles planewave pseudopotential method. Excellent agreement between the measured and the calculated spectra were obtained for both materials. Using this methodology, we examined the chemical states of the aged pentacene, and confirmed that both C-OH and C═O chemical bonds are generated by exposure to air. This result implies that not only oxygen but also humidity causes pentacene oxidation.

  5. First-principles calculation of ground and excited-state absorption spectra of ruby and alexandrite considering lattice relaxation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Shinta; Sasaki, Tomomi; Taniguchi, Rie; Ishii, Takugo; Ogasawara, Kazuyoshi

    2009-02-01

    We performed first-principles calculations of multiplet structures and the corresponding ground-state absorption and excited-state absorption spectra for ruby (Cr3+:α-Al2O3) and alexandrite (Cr3+:BeAl2O4) which included lattice relaxation. The lattice relaxation was estimated using the first-principles total energy and molecular-dynamics method of the CASTEP code. The multiplet structure and absorption spectra were calculated using the configuration-interaction method based on density-functional calculations. For both ruby and alexandrite, the theoretical absorption spectra, which were already in reasonable agreement with experimental spectra, were further improved by consideration of lattice relaxation. In the case of ruby, the peak positions and peak intensities were improved through the use of models with relaxations of 11 or more atoms. For alexandrite, the polarization dependence of the U band was significantly improved, even by a model with a relaxation of only seven atoms.

  6. An Automated Application Framework to Model Disordered Materials Based on a High Throughput First Principles Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oses, Corey; Yang, Kesong; Curtarolo, Stefano; Duke Univ Collaboration; UC San Diego Collaboration

    Predicting material properties of disordered systems remains a long-standing and formidable challenge in rational materials design. To address this issue, we introduce an automated software framework capable of modeling partial occupation within disordered materials using a high-throughput (HT) first principles approach. At the heart of the approach is the construction of supercells containing a virtually equivalent stoichiometry to the disordered material. All unique supercell permutations are enumerated and material properties of each are determined via HT electronic structure calculations. In accordance with a canonical ensemble of supercell states, the framework evaluates ensemble average properties of the system as a function of temperature. As proof of concept, we examine the framework's final calculated properties of a zinc chalcogenide (ZnS1-xSex), a wide-gap oxide semiconductor (MgxZn1-xO), and an iron alloy (Fe1-xCux) at various stoichiometries.

  7. Marginal Bidding: An Application of the Equimarginal Principle to Bidding in TAC SCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenwald, Amy; Naroditskiy, Victor; Odean, Tyler; Ramirez, Mauricio; Sodomka, Eric; Zimmerman, Joe; Cutler, Clark

    We present a fast and effective bidding strategy for the Trading Agent Competition in Supply Chain Management (TAC SCM). In TAC SCM, manufacturers compete to procure computer parts from suppliers (the procurement problem), and then sell assembled computers to customers in reverse auctions (the bidding problem). This paper is concerned only with bidding, in which an agent must decide how many computers to sell and at what prices to sell them. We propose a greedy solution, Marginal Bidding, inspired by the Equimarginal Principle, which states that revenue is maximized among possible uses of a resource when the return on the last unit of the resource is the same across all areas of use. We show experimentally that certain variations of Marginal Bidding can compute bids faster than our ILP solution, which enables Marginal Bidders to consider future demand as well as current demand, and hence achieve greater revenues when knowledge of the future is valuable.

  8. Industrial applications using BASF eco-efficiency analysis: perspectives on green engineering principles.

    PubMed

    Shonnard, David R; Kicherer, Andreas; Saling, Peter

    2003-12-01

    Life without chemicals would be inconceivable, but the potential risks and impacts to the environment associated with chemical production and chemical products are viewed critically. Eco-efficiency analysis considers the economic and life cycle environmental effects of a product or process, giving these equal weighting. The major elements of the environmental assessment include primary energy use, raw materials utilization, emissions to all media, toxicity, safety risk, and land use. The relevance of each environmental category and also for the economic versus the environmental impacts is evaluated using national emissions and economic data. The eco-efficiency analysis method of BASF is briefly presented, and results from three applications to chemical processes and products are summarized. Through these applications, the eco-efficiency analyses mostly confirm the 12 Principles listed in Anastas and Zimmerman (Environ. Sci. Technol. 2003, 37(5), 94A), with the exception that, in one application, production systems based on bio-based feedstocks were not the most eco-efficient as compared to those based on fossil resources. Over 180 eco-efficiency analyses have been conducted at BASF, and their results have been used to support strategic decision-making, marketing, research and development, and communication with external parties. Eco-efficiency analysis, as one important strategy and success factor in sustainable development, will continue to be a very strong operational tool at BASF. PMID:14700318

  9. High-intensity focused ultrasound: principles, therapy guidance, simulations and applications.

    PubMed

    Jenne, Jürgen W; Preusser, Tobias; Günther, Matthias

    2012-12-01

    In the past two decades, high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) in combination with diagnostic ultrasound (USgFUS) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRgFUS) opened new ways of therapeutic access to a multitude of pathologic conditions. The therapeutic potential of HIFU lies in the fact that it enables the localized deposition of high-energy doses deep within the human body without harming the surrounding tissue. The addition of diagnostic ultrasound or in particular MRI with HIFU allows for planning, control and direct monitoring of the treatment process. The clinical and preclinical applications of HIFU range from the thermal treatment of benign and malign lesions, targeted drug delivery, to the treatment of thrombi (sonothrombolysis). Especially the therapy of prostate cancer under US-guidance and the ablation of benign uterine fibroids under MRI monitoring are now therapy options available to a larger number of patients. The main challenges for an abdominal application of HIFU are posed by partial or full occlusion of the target site by bones or air filled structures (e.g. colon), as well as organ motion. In non-trivial cases, the implementation of computer based modeling, simulation and optimization is desirable. This article describes the principles of HIFU, ultrasound and MRI therapy guidance, therapy planning and simulation, and gives an overview of the current and potential future applications.

  10. Lean principles and defense information technology acquisition: An investigation of the determinants of successful application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haley, M.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether or not there have been successful applications of lean manufacturing principles in highly variable defense IT environments. Specifically, the study assessed if implementation of the lean philosophies by a defense organization yielded repeatable, predictable results in software release schedules reductions. Additionally, the study set out to determine what potential critical success factors (CSF's) were documented in the secondary data captured for each release, and extracted the variables used in the decision making for acceptability of fielding. In evaluating lean applicability to the high variability environment of USAF IT acquisitions, the research was conducted using non-experimental quantitative methods of archival secondary data. The sample for this case study was compiled from a USAF office that had implemented these techniques in pre-development, development and testing, and fielding phases. Based on the research data, acquisitionists and lean practitioners are inherently interconnected. Therefore, an understanding that critical success factors (CSFs) are integral to successful lean application in DoD IT acquisitions is crucial. Through a combination of synergistic alignments, plyometric CSFs were discovered to maximize the effects of each single CSF to produce rapid results in defense IT acquisitions. These include: (1) Enterprise Incorporation, (2) Team Trust, (3) Transformational Leadership, (4) Recursive Improvement, (5) Integrated Synergy, (6) Customer-Centric Culture and (7) Heuristic Communication.

  11. Industrial applications using BASF eco-efficiency analysis: perspectives on green engineering principles.

    PubMed

    Shonnard, David R; Kicherer, Andreas; Saling, Peter

    2003-12-01

    Life without chemicals would be inconceivable, but the potential risks and impacts to the environment associated with chemical production and chemical products are viewed critically. Eco-efficiency analysis considers the economic and life cycle environmental effects of a product or process, giving these equal weighting. The major elements of the environmental assessment include primary energy use, raw materials utilization, emissions to all media, toxicity, safety risk, and land use. The relevance of each environmental category and also for the economic versus the environmental impacts is evaluated using national emissions and economic data. The eco-efficiency analysis method of BASF is briefly presented, and results from three applications to chemical processes and products are summarized. Through these applications, the eco-efficiency analyses mostly confirm the 12 Principles listed in Anastas and Zimmerman (Environ. Sci. Technol. 2003, 37(5), 94A), with the exception that, in one application, production systems based on bio-based feedstocks were not the most eco-efficient as compared to those based on fossil resources. Over 180 eco-efficiency analyses have been conducted at BASF, and their results have been used to support strategic decision-making, marketing, research and development, and communication with external parties. Eco-efficiency analysis, as one important strategy and success factor in sustainable development, will continue to be a very strong operational tool at BASF.

  12. Equivalence principles and electromagnetism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ni, W.-T.

    1977-01-01

    The implications of the weak equivalence principles are investigated in detail for electromagnetic systems in a general framework. In particular, it is shown that the universality of free-fall trajectories (Galileo weak equivalence principle) does not imply the validity of the Einstein equivalence principle. However, the Galileo principle plus the universality of free-fall rotation states does imply the Einstein principle.

  13. Principles of Public School Accounting. State Educational Records and Reports Series: Handbook II-B.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Bert K.; And Others

    This handbook discusses the following primary aspects of school accounting: Definitions and principles; opening the general ledger; recording the approved budget; a sample month of transactions; the balance sheet, monthly, and annual reports; subsidiary journals; payroll procedures; cafeteria fund accounting; debt service accounting; construction…

  14. Archimedes' principle in general coordinates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridgely, Charles T.

    2010-05-01

    Archimedes' principle is well known to state that a body submerged in a fluid is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the body. Herein, Archimedes' principle is derived from first principles by using conservation of the stress-energy-momentum tensor in general coordinates. The resulting expression for the force is applied in Schwarzschild coordinates and in rotating coordinates. Using Schwarzschild coordinates for the case of a spherical mass suspended within a perfect fluid leads to the familiar expression of Archimedes' principle. Using rotating coordinates produces an expression for a centrifugal buoyancy force that agrees with accepted theory. It is then argued that Archimedes' principle ought to be applicable to non-gravitational phenomena, as well. Conservation of the energy-momentum tensor is then applied to electromagnetic phenomena. It is shown that a charged body submerged in a charged medium experiences a buoyancy force in accordance with an electromagnetic analogue of Archimedes' principle.

  15. Tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance driven by resonant surface states: first-principles calculations on an Fe(001) surface.

    PubMed

    Chantis, Athanasios N; Belashchenko, Kirill D; Tsymbal, Evgeny Y; van Schilfgaarde, Mark

    2007-01-26

    Fully relativistic first-principles calculations of the Fe(001) surface demonstrate that resonant surface (interface) states may produce sizable tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance in magnetic tunnel junctions with a single magnetic electrode. The effect is driven by the spin-orbit coupling. It shifts the resonant surface band via the Rashba effect when the magnetization direction changes. We find that spin-flip scattering at the interface is controlled not only by the strength of the spin-orbit coupling, but depends strongly on the intrinsic width of the resonant surface states. PMID:17358794

  16. Maximum Principle of Optimal Control of the Primitive Equations of the Ocean with Two Point Boundary State Constraint

    SciTech Connect

    Tachim Medjo, Theodore

    2010-08-15

    We study in this article the Pontryagin's maximum principle for a class of control problems associated with the primitive equations (PEs) of the ocean with two point boundary state constraint. These optimal problems involve a two point boundary state constraint similar to that considered in Wang, Nonlinear Anal. 51, 509-536, 2002 for the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes (NS) equations. The main difference between this work and Wang, Nonlinear Anal. 51, 509-536, 2002 is that the nonlinearity in the PEs is stronger than in the three-dimensional NS systems.

  17. Striving for Excellence: Applications of Successful Business Principles. Ideas for Action in Education and Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Tom

    Eight principles that have been used to reach excellence in business and industry and ways that schools can apply those principles are described. The principles, identified by Thomas J. Peters and Robert N. Waterman, Jr. in "In Search of Excellence: Lessons from America's Best-Run Companies" are: (1) a bias for action (not waiting for extensive…

  18. Guiding Principles and Clinical Applications for Speech-Language Pathology Practice in Early Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Diane; Roth, Froma P.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This article describes guiding principles in early intervention (EI) and demonstrates how speech-language pathologists (SLPs) can apply these principles to best serve infants and toddlers with communication and related problems and their families. Method: Four principles guide the implementation of speech-language pathology services. EI…

  19. Fighting the curse of dimensionality in first-principles semiclassical calculations: Non-local reference states for large number of dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceotto, Michele; Tantardini, Gian Franco; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán

    2011-12-01

    Semiclassical methods face numerical challenges as the dimensionality of the system increases. In the general context of the theory of differential equations, this is known as the "curse of dimensionality." In the present manuscript, we apply the recently-introduced multi-coherent states semiclassical initial value representation (MC-SC-IVR) approach to extend the applicability of first-principles semiclassical calculations. The proposed strategy involves the use of non-local coherent states with the goal of increasing accuracy in the Fourier transforms, and on the other hand, allows for the selection of peaks of different frequencies. The ability to filter desired peaks is important for analyzing the power spectra of complex systems. The MC-SC-IVR approach allows us to solve a 19-dimensional test system and to resolve on-the-fly the power spectra of the formaldehyde molecule with very few classical trajectories.

  20. Fighting the curse of dimensionality in first-principles semiclassical calculations: non-local reference states for large number of dimensions.

    PubMed

    Ceotto, Michele; Tantardini, Gian Franco; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán

    2011-12-01

    Semiclassical methods face numerical challenges as the dimensionality of the system increases. In the general context of the theory of differential equations, this is known as the "curse of dimensionality." In the present manuscript, we apply the recently-introduced multi-coherent states semiclassical initial value representation (MC-SC-IVR) approach to extend the applicability of first-principles semiclassical calculations. The proposed strategy involves the use of non-local coherent states with the goal of increasing accuracy in the Fourier transforms, and on the other hand, allows for the selection of peaks of different frequencies. The ability to filter desired peaks is important for analyzing the power spectra of complex systems. The MC-SC-IVR approach allows us to solve a 19-dimensional test system and to resolve on-the-fly the power spectra of the formaldehyde molecule with very few classical trajectories. PMID:22149780

  1. T1ρ magnetic resonance: basic physics principles and applications in knee and intervertebral disc imaging.

    PubMed

    Wáng, Yì-Xiáng J; Zhang, Qinwei; Li, Xiaojuan; Chen, Weitian; Ahuja, Anil; Yuan, Jing

    2015-12-01

    T1ρ relaxation time provides a new contrast mechanism that differs from T1- and T2-weighted contrast, and is useful to study low-frequency motional processes and chemical exchange in biological tissues. T1ρ imaging can be performed in the forms of T1ρ-weighted image, T1ρ mapping and T1ρ dispersion. T1ρ imaging, particularly at low spin-lock frequency, is sensitive to B0 and B1 inhomogeneity. Various composite spin-lock pulses have been proposed to alleviate the influence of field inhomogeneity so as to reduce the banding-like spin-lock artifacts. T1ρ imaging could be specific absorption rate (SAR) intensive and time consuming. Efforts to address these issues and speed-up data acquisition are being explored to facilitate wider clinical applications. This paper reviews the T1ρ imaging's basic physic principles, as well as its application for cartilage imaging and intervertebral disc imaging. Compared to more established T2 relaxation time, it has been shown that T1ρ provides more sensitive detection of proteoglycan (PG) loss at early stages of cartilage degeneration. T1ρ has also been shown to provide more sensitive evaluation of annulus fibrosis (AF) degeneration of the discs.

  2. T1ρ magnetic resonance: basic physics principles and applications in knee and intervertebral disc imaging

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qinwei; Li, Xiaojuan; Chen, Weitian; Ahuja, Anil; Yuan, Jing

    2015-01-01

    T1ρ relaxation time provides a new contrast mechanism that differs from T1- and T2-weighted contrast, and is useful to study low-frequency motional processes and chemical exchange in biological tissues. T1ρ imaging can be performed in the forms of T1ρ-weighted image, T1ρ mapping and T1ρ dispersion. T1ρ imaging, particularly at low spin-lock frequency, is sensitive to B0 and B1 inhomogeneity. Various composite spin-lock pulses have been proposed to alleviate the influence of field inhomogeneity so as to reduce the banding-like spin-lock artifacts. T1ρ imaging could be specific absorption rate (SAR) intensive and time consuming. Efforts to address these issues and speed-up data acquisition are being explored to facilitate wider clinical applications. This paper reviews the T1ρ imaging’s basic physic principles, as well as its application for cartilage imaging and intervertebral disc imaging. Compared to more established T2 relaxation time, it has been shown that T1ρ provides more sensitive detection of proteoglycan (PG) loss at early stages of cartilage degeneration. T1ρ has also been shown to provide more sensitive evaluation of annulus fibrosis (AF) degeneration of the discs. PMID:26807369

  3. Affinity monolith chromatography: A review of principles and recent analytical applications

    PubMed Central

    Pfaunmiller, Erika L.; Paulemond, Marie Laura; Dupper, Courtney M.; Hage, David S.

    2012-01-01

    Affinity monolith chromatography (AMC) is a type of liquid chromatography that uses a monolithic support and a biologically-related binding agent as a stationary phase. AMC is a powerful method for the selective separation, analysis or studies of specific target compounds in a sample. This review discusses the basic principles of AMC and recent developments or applications of this method, with particular emphasis being given to work that has appeared in the last five years. Various materials that have been used to prepare columns for AMC are examined, including organic monoliths, silica monoliths, agarose monoliths and cryogels. These supports have been used in AMC for formats that have ranged from traditional columns to disks, microcolumns and capillaries. Many binding agents have also been employed in AMC, such as antibodies, enzymes, proteins, lectins, immobilized metal-ions and dyes. Some applications that have been reported with these binding agents in AMC are bioaffinity chromatography, immunoaffinity chromatography or immunoextraction, immobilized metal-ion affinity chromatography, dye-ligand affinity chromatography, chiral separations and biointeraction studies. Examples are presented from fields that include analytical chemistry, pharmaceutical analysis, clinical testing and biotechnology. Current trends and possible future directions in AMC are also discussed. PMID:23187827

  4. Principles and Clinical Application of Dual-energy Computed Tomography in the Evaluation of Cerebrovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Charlie Chia-Tsong; Kwan, Gigi Nga Chi; Singh, Dalveer; Pratap, Jit; Watkins, Trevor William

    2016-01-01

    Dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) simultaneously acquires images at two X-ray energy levels, at both high- and low-peak voltages (kVp). The material attenuation difference obtained from the two X-ray energies can be processed by software to analyze material decomposition and to create additional image datasets, namely, virtual noncontrast, virtual contrast also known as iodine overlay, and bone/calcium subtraction images. DECT has a vast array of clinical applications in imaging cerebrovascular diseases, which includes: (1) Identification of active extravasation of iodinated contrast in various types of intracranial hemorrhage; (2) differentiation between hemorrhagic transformation and iodine staining in acute ischemic stroke following diagnostic and/or therapeutic catheter angiography; (3) identification of culprit lesions in intra-axial hemorrhage; (4) calcium subtraction from atheromatous plaque for the assessment of plaque morphology and improved quantification of luminal stenosis; (5) bone subtraction to improve the depiction of vascular anatomy with more clarity, especially at the skull base; (6) metal artifact reduction utilizing virtual monoenergetic reconstructions for improved luminal assessment postaneurysm coiling or clipping. We discuss the physical principles of DECT and review the clinical applications of DECT for the evaluation of cerebrovascular diseases. PMID:27512615

  5. Principles and Clinical Application of Dual-energy Computed Tomography in the Evaluation of Cerebrovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Charlie Chia-Tsong; Kwan, Gigi Nga Chi; Singh, Dalveer; Pratap, Jit; Watkins, Trevor William

    2016-01-01

    Dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) simultaneously acquires images at two X-ray energy levels, at both high- and low-peak voltages (kVp). The material attenuation difference obtained from the two X-ray energies can be processed by software to analyze material decomposition and to create additional image datasets, namely, virtual noncontrast, virtual contrast also known as iodine overlay, and bone/calcium subtraction images. DECT has a vast array of clinical applications in imaging cerebrovascular diseases, which includes: (1) Identification of active extravasation of iodinated contrast in various types of intracranial hemorrhage; (2) differentiation between hemorrhagic transformation and iodine staining in acute ischemic stroke following diagnostic and/or therapeutic catheter angiography; (3) identification of culprit lesions in intra-axial hemorrhage; (4) calcium subtraction from atheromatous plaque for the assessment of plaque morphology and improved quantification of luminal stenosis; (5) bone subtraction to improve the depiction of vascular anatomy with more clarity, especially at the skull base; (6) metal artifact reduction utilizing virtual monoenergetic reconstructions for improved luminal assessment postaneurysm coiling or clipping. We discuss the physical principles of DECT and review the clinical applications of DECT for the evaluation of cerebrovascular diseases. PMID:27512615

  6. 28 CFR 104.42 - Applicable state law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicable state law. 104.42 Section 104... OF 2001 Amount of Compensation for Eligible Claimants. § 104.42 Applicable state law. The phrase “to the extent recovery for such loss is allowed under applicable state law,” as used in the...

  7. 36 CFR 1004.2 - State law applicable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false State law applicable. 1004.2... State law applicable. (a) Unless specifically addressed by regulations in this chapter, traffic and the... State law. State law that is now or may later be in effect is adopted and made a part of the...

  8. 29 CFR 18.302 - Applicability of state law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Applicability of state law. 18.302 Section 18.302 Labor... OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES Rules of Evidence Presumptions § 18.302 Applicability of state law... State law supplies the rule of decision is determined in accordance with State law. Relevancy and...

  9. 36 CFR 1004.2 - State law applicable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false State law applicable. 1004.2... State law applicable. (a) Unless specifically addressed by regulations in this chapter, traffic and the... State law. State law that is now or may later be in effect is adopted and made a part of the...

  10. 36 CFR 4.2 - State law applicable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false State law applicable. 4.2... AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 4.2 State law applicable. (a) Unless specifically addressed by regulations in this chapter, traffic and the use of vehicles within a park area are governed by State law. State...

  11. 29 CFR 18.302 - Applicability of state law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability of state law. 18.302 Section 18.302 Labor... OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES Rules of Evidence Presumptions § 18.302 Applicability of state law... State law supplies the rule of decision is determined in accordance with State law. Relevancy and...

  12. First-principle calculations of the Berry curvature of Bloch states for charge and spin transport of electrons.

    PubMed

    Gradhand, M; Fedorov, D V; Pientka, F; Zahn, P; Mertig, I; Györffy, B L

    2012-05-30

    Recent progress in wave packet dynamics based on the insight of Berry pertaining to adiabatic evolution of quantum systems has led to the need for a new property of a Bloch state, the Berry curvature, to be calculated from first principles. We report here on the response to this challenge by the ab initio community during the past decade. First we give a tutorial introduction of the conceptual developments we mentioned above. Then we describe four methodologies which have been developed for first-principle calculations of the Berry curvature. Finally, to illustrate the significance of the new developments, we report some results of calculations of interesting physical properties such as the anomalous and spin Hall conductivity as well as the anomalous Nernst conductivity and discuss the influence of the Berry curvature on the de Haas-van Alphen oscillation. PMID:22575767

  13. Structure-Based Virtual Screening for Drug Discovery: Principles, Applications and Recent Advances

    PubMed Central

    Lionta, Evanthia; Spyrou, George; Vassilatis, Demetrios K.; Cournia, Zoe

    2014-01-01

    Structure-based drug discovery (SBDD) is becoming an essential tool in assisting fast and cost-efficient lead discovery and optimization. The application of rational, structure-based drug design is proven to be more efficient than the traditional way of drug discovery since it aims to understand the molecular basis of a disease and utilizes the knowledge of the three-dimensional structure of the biological target in the process. In this review, we focus on the principles and applications of Virtual Screening (VS) within the context of SBDD and examine different procedures ranging from the initial stages of the process that include receptor and library pre-processing, to docking, scoring and post-processing of topscoring hits. Recent improvements in structure-based virtual screening (SBVS) efficiency through ensemble docking, induced fit and consensus docking are also discussed. The review highlights advances in the field within the framework of several success studies that have led to nM inhibition directly from VS and provides recent trends in library design as well as discusses limitations of the method. Applications of SBVS in the design of substrates for engineered proteins that enable the discovery of new metabolic and signal transduction pathways and the design of inhibitors of multifunctional proteins are also reviewed. Finally, we contribute two promising VS protocols recently developed by us that aim to increase inhibitor selectivity. In the first protocol, we describe the discovery of micromolar inhibitors through SBVS designed to inhibit the mutant H1047R PI3Kα kinase. Second, we discuss a strategy for the identification of selective binders for the RXRα nuclear receptor. In this protocol, a set of target structures is constructed for ensemble docking based on binding site shape characterization and clustering, aiming to enhance the hit rate of selective inhibitors for the desired protein target through the SBVS process. PMID:25262799

  14. [(18)F]-Organotrifluoroborates as Radioprosthetic Groups for PET Imaging: From Design Principles to Preclinical Applications.

    PubMed

    Perrin, David M

    2016-07-19

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is revolutionizing our ability to visualize in vivo targets for target validation and personalized medicine. Of several classes of imaging agents, peptides afford high affinity and high specificity to distinguish pathologically distinct cell types by the presence of specific molecular targets. Of various available PET isotopes, [(18)F]-fluoride ion is preferred because of its excellent nuclear properties and on-demand production in hospitals at Curie levels. However, the short half-life of (18)F and its lack of reactivity in water continue to challenge peptide labeling. Hence, peptides are often conjugated to a metal chelator for late-stage, one-step labeling. Yet radiometals, while effective, are neither as desirable nor as available as [(18)F]-fluoride ion. Despite considerable past success in identifying semifeasible radiosyntheses, significant challenges continue to confound tracer development. These interrelated challenges relate to (1) isotope/prosthetic choice; (2) bioconjugation for high affinity; (3) high radiochemical yields, (4) specific activities of >1 Ci/μmol to meet FDA microdose requirements; and (5) rapid clearance and in vivo stability. These enduring challenges have been extensively highlighted, while a single-step, operationally simple, and generally applicable means of labeling a peptide with [(18)F]-fluoride ion in good yield and high specific activity has eluded radiochemists and nuclear medicine practitioners for decades. Radiosynthetic ease is of primordial importance since multistep labeling reactions challenge clinical tracer production. In the past decade, as we sought to meet this challenge, appreciation of reactions with aqueous fluoride led us to consider organotrifluoroborate (RBF3(-)) synthesis as a means of rapid aqueous peptide labeling. We have applied principles of mechanistic chemistry, knowledge of chemical reactivity, and synthetic chemistry to design stable RBF3(-)s. Over the past 10 years

  15. 45 CFR Appendix E to Part 74 - Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Research and Development Under Grants and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Research and Development Under Grants and Contracts With Hospitals E Appendix E to Part 74 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR AWARDS AND SUBAWARDS TO INSTITUTIONS...

  16. 45 CFR Appendix E to Part 74 - Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Research and Development Under Grants and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Research and Development Under Grants and Contracts With Hospitals E Appendix E to Part 74 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR AWARDS AND SUBAWARDS TO INSTITUTIONS...

  17. 45 CFR Appendix E to Part 74 - Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Research and Development Under Grants and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Research and Development Under Grants and Contracts With Hospitals E Appendix E to Part 74 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR AWARDS AND SUBAWARDS TO INSTITUTIONS...

  18. 45 CFR Appendix E to Part 74 - Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Research and Development Under Grants and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Research and Development Under Grants and Contracts With Hospitals E Appendix E to Part 74 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR AWARDS AND SUBAWARDS TO INSTITUTIONS...

  19. Application of Theories, Principles and Methods of Adult Learning for Managers to Improve Workplace Reactions to Learning, Knowledge and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steier, E. Joseph, III

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this dissertation was to explore the concept that knowledge and application of theories, principles and methods of adult learning to teaching may be a core management competency needed for companies to improve employee reaction to learning, knowledge transfer and behavior as well as engagement, retention and profitability.…

  20. Designing Excellence in Secondary Vocational Education: Applications of Principles from Effective Schooling and Successful Business Practices. Research Summary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Thomas R.; Crohn, Leslie

    Two sets of research findings are available that may provide a sound base for conducting vocational education research leading to systematic program improvement and to the attainment of excellence in education. The first is effective schooling research and the second concerns principles used by successful businesses in the United States. An…

  1. A Pharmacy Business Management Simulation Exercise as a Practical Application of Business Management Material and Principles

    PubMed Central

    Rollins, Brent L.; Gunturi, Rahul; Sullivan, Donald

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To implement a pharmacy business management simulation exercise as a practical application of business management material and principles and assess students’ perceived value. Design. As part of a pharmacy management and administration course, students made various calculations and management decisions in the global categories of hours of operation, inventory, pricing, and personnel. The students entered the data into simulation software and a realistic community pharmacy marketplace was modeled. Course topics included accounting, economics, finance, human resources, management, marketing, and leadership. Assessment. An 18-item posttest survey was administered. Students’ slightly to moderately agreed the pharmacy simulation program enhanced their knowledge and understanding, particularly of inventory management, cash flow statements, balance sheets, and income statements. Overall attitudes toward the pharmacy simulation program were also slightly positive and students also slightly agreed the pharmacy simulation program enhanced their learning of pharmacy business management. Inventory management was the only area in which students felt they had at least “some” exposure to the assessed business management topics during IPPEs/internship, while all other areas of experience ranged from “not at all” to “a little.” Conclusion. The pharmacy simulation program is an effective active-learning exercise and enhanced students’ knowledge and understanding of the business management topics covered. PMID:24761023

  2. Contactless inductive flow tomography: basic principles and first applications in the experimental modelling of continuous casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefani, F.; Eckert, S.; Ratajczak, M.; Timmel, K.; Wondrak, T.

    2016-07-01

    Contactless inductive flow tomography (CIFT) aims at reconstructing the flow structure of a liquid metal from the magnetic fields measured at various positions outside the fluid body which are induced by the flow under the influence of one or multiple applied magnetic fields. We recap the basic mathematical principles of CIFT and the results of an experiment in which the propeller-driven three-dimensional flow in a cylindrical had been reconstructed. We also summarize the recent activities to utilize CIFT in various problems connected with the experimental simulation of the continuous casting process. These include flow reconstructions in single-phase and two-phase flow problems in the Mini-LIMMCAST model of slab-casting, studies of the specific effects of an electromagnetic stirrer attached to the Submerged Entry Nozzle (SEN), as well as first successful applications of CIFT on the background of a strong electromagnetic brake field. We conclude by discussing some remaining obstacles for the deployment of CIFT in a real caster.

  3. Superhydrophobic hierarchically structured surfaces in biology: evolution, structural principles and biomimetic applications.

    PubMed

    Barthlott, W; Mail, M; Neinhuis, C

    2016-08-01

    A comprehensive survey of the construction principles and occurrences of superhydrophobic surfaces in plants, animals and other organisms is provided and is based on our own scanning electron microscopic examinations of almost 20 000 different species and the existing literature. Properties such as self-cleaning (lotus effect), fluid drag reduction (Salvinia effect) and the introduction of new functions (air layers as sensory systems) are described and biomimetic applications are discussed: self-cleaning is established, drag reduction becomes increasingly important, and novel air-retaining grid technology is introduced. Surprisingly, no evidence for lasting superhydrophobicity in non-biological surfaces exists (except technical materials). Phylogenetic trees indicate that superhydrophobicity evolved as a consequence of the conquest of land about 450 million years ago and may be a key innovation in the evolution of terrestrial life. The approximate 10 million extant species exhibit a stunning diversity of materials and structures, many of which are formed by self-assembly, and are solely based on a limited number of molecules. A short historical survey shows that bionics (today often called biomimetics) dates back more than 100 years. Statistical data illustrate that the interest in biomimetic surfaces is much younger still. Superhydrophobicity caught the attention of scientists only after the extreme superhydrophobicity of lotus leaves was published in 1997. Regrettably, parabionic products play an increasing role in marketing.This article is part of the themed issue 'Bioinspired hierarchically structured surfaces for green science'. PMID:27354736

  4. Superhydrophobic hierarchically structured surfaces in biology: evolution, structural principles and biomimetic applications.

    PubMed

    Barthlott, W; Mail, M; Neinhuis, C

    2016-08-01

    A comprehensive survey of the construction principles and occurrences of superhydrophobic surfaces in plants, animals and other organisms is provided and is based on our own scanning electron microscopic examinations of almost 20 000 different species and the existing literature. Properties such as self-cleaning (lotus effect), fluid drag reduction (Salvinia effect) and the introduction of new functions (air layers as sensory systems) are described and biomimetic applications are discussed: self-cleaning is established, drag reduction becomes increasingly important, and novel air-retaining grid technology is introduced. Surprisingly, no evidence for lasting superhydrophobicity in non-biological surfaces exists (except technical materials). Phylogenetic trees indicate that superhydrophobicity evolved as a consequence of the conquest of land about 450 million years ago and may be a key innovation in the evolution of terrestrial life. The approximate 10 million extant species exhibit a stunning diversity of materials and structures, many of which are formed by self-assembly, and are solely based on a limited number of molecules. A short historical survey shows that bionics (today often called biomimetics) dates back more than 100 years. Statistical data illustrate that the interest in biomimetic surfaces is much younger still. Superhydrophobicity caught the attention of scientists only after the extreme superhydrophobicity of lotus leaves was published in 1997. Regrettably, parabionic products play an increasing role in marketing.This article is part of the themed issue 'Bioinspired hierarchically structured surfaces for green science'.

  5. Principle and Performance of Gas Self-inducing Reactors and Applications to Biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Ye, Qin; Li, Zhimin; Wu, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Gas-liquid contacting is an important unit operation in chemical and biochemical processes, but the gas utilization efficiency is low in conventional gas-liquid contactors especially for sparingly soluble gases. The gas self-inducing impeller is able to recycle gas in the headspace of a reactor to the liquid without utilization of additional equipment such as a gas compressor, and thus, the gas utilization efficiency is significantly enhanced. Gas induction is caused by the low pressure or deep vortex at a sufficiently high impeller speed, and the speed at which gas induction starts is termed the critical speed. The critical impeller speed, gas-induction flow rate, power consumption, and gas-liquid mass transfer are determined by the impeller design and operation conditions. When the reactor is operated in a dead-end mode, all the introduced gas can be completely used, and this feature is especially favorable to flammable and/or toxic gases. In this article, the principles, designs, characteristics of self-inducing reactors, and applications to biotechnology are described.

  6. Dual- and Multi-Energy CT: Principles, Technical Approaches, and Clinical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Leng, Shuai; Yu, Lifeng; Fletcher, Joel G.

    2015-01-01

    In x-ray computed tomography (CT), materials having different elemental compositions can be represented by identical pixel values on a CT image (ie, CT numbers), depending on the mass density of the material. Thus, the differentiation and classification of different tissue types and contrast agents can be extremely challenging. In dual-energy CT, an additional attenuation measurement is obtained with a second x-ray spectrum (ie, a second “energy”), allowing the differentiation of multiple materials. Alternatively, this allows quantification of the mass density of two or three materials in a mixture with known elemental composition. Recent advances in the use of energy-resolving, photon-counting detectors for CT imaging suggest the ability to acquire data in multiple energy bins, which is expected to further improve the signal-to-noise ratio for material-specific imaging. In this review, the underlying motivation and physical principles of dual- or multi-energy CT are reviewed and each of the current technical approaches is described. In addition, current and evolving clinical applications are introduced. © RSNA, 2015 PMID:26302388

  7. Rapid methods for the detection of foodborne bacterial pathogens: principles, applications, advantages and limitations

    PubMed Central

    Law, Jodi Woan-Fei; Ab Mutalib, Nurul-Syakima; Chan, Kok-Gan; Lee, Learn-Han

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of foodborne diseases has increased over the years and resulted in major public health problem globally. Foodborne pathogens can be found in various foods and it is important to detect foodborne pathogens to provide safe food supply and to prevent foodborne diseases. The conventional methods used to detect foodborne pathogen are time consuming and laborious. Hence, a variety of methods have been developed for rapid detection of foodborne pathogens as it is required in many food analyses. Rapid detection methods can be categorized into nucleic acid-based, biosensor-based and immunological-based methods. This review emphasizes on the principles and application of recent rapid methods for the detection of foodborne bacterial pathogens. Detection methods included are simple polymerase chain reaction (PCR), multiplex PCR, real-time PCR, nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA), loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and oligonucleotide DNA microarray which classified as nucleic acid-based methods; optical, electrochemical and mass-based biosensors which classified as biosensor-based methods; enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and lateral flow immunoassay which classified as immunological-based methods. In general, rapid detection methods are generally time-efficient, sensitive, specific and labor-saving. The developments of rapid detection methods are vital in prevention and treatment of foodborne diseases. PMID:25628612

  8. Compressed Sensing Reconstruction of Ultrafast 2D NMR Data: Principles and Biomolecular Applications

    PubMed Central

    Shrot, Yoav; Frydman, Lucio

    2016-01-01

    A topic of active investigation in 2D NMR relates to the minimum number of scans required for acquiring this kind of spectra, particularly when these are dictated by sampling rather than by sensitivity considerations. Reductions in this minimum number of scans have been achieved by departing from the regular sampling used to monitor the indirect domain, and relying instead on non-uniform sampling and iterative reconstruction algorithms. Alternatively, so-called “ultrafast” methods can compress the minimum number of scans involved in 2D NMR all the way to a minimum number of one, by spatially encoding the indirect domain information and subsequently recovering it via oscillating field gradients. Given ultrafast NMR’s simultaneous recording of the indirect- and direct-domain data, this experiment couples the spectral constraints of these orthogonal domains –often calling for the use of strong acquisition gradients and large filter widths to fulfill the desired bandwidth and resolution demands along all spectral dimensions. This study discusses a way to alleviate these demands, and thereby enhance the method’s performance and applicability, by combining spatial encoding with iterative reconstruction approaches. Examples of these new principles are given based on the compressed-sensed reconstruction of biomolecular 2D HSQC ultrafast NMR data, an approach that we show enables a decrease of the gradient strengths demanded in this type of experiments by up to 80%. PMID:21316276

  9. Quantification of protein posttranslational modifications using stable isotope and mass spectrometry I: principles and applications.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xinzhao Grace; Apostol, Izydor; Luo, Quanzhou; Lewis, Jeffrey; Keener, Ronald; Luo, Shun; Jerums, Matthew; Zhang, Xin; Wypych, Jette; Huang, Gang

    2012-02-15

    With the increased attention to quality by design (QbD) for biopharmaceutical products, there is a demand for accurate and precise quantification methods to monitor critical quality attributes (CQAs). To address this need we have developed a mass spectrometry (MS) based method to quantify a wide range of posttranslational modifications (PTMs) in recombinant proteins using stable isotope-labeled internal standard (SILIS). The SILIS was produced through metabolic labeling where ¹⁵N was uniformly introduced at every nitrogen atom in the studied proteins. To enhance the accuracy of the method, the levels of PTMs in SILIS were quantified using orthogonal analytical techniques. Digestion of an unknown sample mixed with SILIS generates a labeled and a nonlabeled version of each peptide. The nonlabeled and labeled counterparts coelute during RP-HPLC separation but exhibit a sufficient mass difference to be distinguished by MS detection. With the application of SILIS, numerous PTMs can be quantified in a single analysis based on the measured MS signal ratios of ¹⁵N-labeled versus the nonlabeled pairs. Several examples using microbial and mammalian-expressed recombinant proteins demonstrated the principle and utility of this method. The results indicate that SILIS is a valuable methodology in addressing CQAs for the QbD paradigm.

  10. Assessment of tumor oxygenation by electron paramagnetic resonance: principles and applications.

    PubMed

    Gallez, Bernard; Baudelet, Christine; Jordan, Bénédicte F

    2004-08-01

    This review paper attempts to provide an overview of the principles and techniques that are often termed electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) oximetry. The paper discusses the potential of such methods and illustrates they have been successfully applied to measure oxygen tension, an essential parameter of the tumor microenvironment. To help the reader understand the motivation for carrying out these measurements, the importance of tumor hypoxia is first discussed: the basic issues of why a tumor is hypoxic, why these hypoxic microenvironments promote processes driving malignant progression and why hypoxia dramatically influences the response of tumors to cytotoxic treatments will be explained. The different methods that have been used to estimate the oxygenation in tumors will be reviewed. To introduce the basics of EPR oximetry, the specificity of in vivo EPR will be discussed by comparing this technique with NMR and MRI. The different types of paramagnetic oxygen sensors will be presented, as well as the methods for recording the information (EPR spectroscopy, EPR imaging, dynamic nuclear polarization). Several applications of EPR for characterizing tumor oxygenation will be illustrated, with a special emphasis on pharmacological interventions that modulate the tumor microenvironment. Finally, the challenges for transposing the method into the clinic will also be discussed. PMID:15366026

  11. Principles for new optical techniques in medical diagnostics for mHealth applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balsam, Joshua Michael

    Medical diagnostics is a critical element of effective medical treatment. However, many modern and emerging diagnostic technologies are not affordable or compatible with the needs and conditions found in low-income and middle-income countries and regions. Resource-poor areas require low-cost, robust, easy-to-use, and portable diagnostics devices compatible with telemedicine (i.e. mHealth) that can be adapted to meet diverse medical needs. Many suitable devices will need to be based on optical technologies, which are used for many types of biological analyses. This dissertation describes the fabrication and detection principles for several low-cost optical technologies for mHealth applications including: (1) a webcam based multi-wavelength fluorescence plate reader, (2) a lens-free optical detector used for the detection of Botulinum A neurotoxin activity, (3) a low cost micro-array reader that allows the performance of typical fluorescence based assays demonstrated for the detection of the toxin staphylococcal enterotoxin (SEB), and (4) a wide-field flow cytometer for high throughput detection of fluorescently labeled rare cells. This dissertation discusses how these technologies can be harnessed using readily available consumer electronics components such as webcams, cell phones, CCD cameras, LEDs, and laser diodes. There are challenges in developing devices with sufficient sensitivity and specificity, and approaches are presented to overcoming these challenges to create optical detectors that can serve as low cost medical diagnostics in resource-poor settings for mHealth.

  12. 29 CFR 1604.1 - General principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General principles. 1604.1 Section 1604.1 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION GUIDELINES ON DISCRIMINATION BECAUSE... state principles that are applicable not only to employers but also to labor organizations and...

  13. 29 CFR 1604.1 - General principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false General principles. 1604.1 Section 1604.1 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION GUIDELINES ON DISCRIMINATION BECAUSE... state principles that are applicable not only to employers but also to labor organizations and...

  14. Students' perceptions of the interprofessional team in practice through the application of servant leadership principles.

    PubMed

    Neill, Mark; Hayward, Karen S; Peterson, Teri

    2007-08-01

    This study examined students' perceptions of interprofessional practice within a framework of servant leadership principles, applied in the care of rural older adults utilizing a service learning model. Mobile wellness services were provided through the Idaho State University Senior Health Mobile project in a collaborative team approach in the community-based setting. Students from varied health professional programs were placed in teams for the provision of wellness care, with communication among team members facilitated by a health professions faculty member serving as field coordinator. The Interdisciplinary Education Perception Scale (IEPS) was used to measure students' perceptions of interprofessional practice using a pretest post-test research design. Multivariate analysis was performed revealing a significant pretest to post-test effect on students' perceptions as measured by factors inherent in the IEPS and deemed essential to effective interprofessional practice. Univariate analysis revealed a significant change in students' perception of professional competence and autonomy, actual cooperation and resource sharing within and across professions, and an understanding of the value and contributions of other professionals from pretest to post-test.

  15. Bioremediation techniques-classification based on site of application: principles, advantages, limitations and prospects.

    PubMed

    Azubuike, Christopher Chibueze; Chikere, Chioma Blaise; Okpokwasili, Gideon Chijioke

    2016-11-01

    Environmental pollution has been on the rise in the past few decades owing to increased human activities on energy reservoirs, unsafe agricultural practices and rapid industrialization. Amongst the pollutants that are of environmental and public health concerns due to their toxicities are: heavy metals, nuclear wastes, pesticides, green house gases, and hydrocarbons. Remediation of polluted sites using microbial process (bioremediation) has proven effective and reliable due to its eco-friendly features. Bioremediation can either be carried out ex situ or in situ, depending on several factors, which include but not limited to cost, site characteristics, type and concentration of pollutants. Generally, ex situ techniques apparently are more expensive compared to in situ techniques as a result of additional cost attributable to excavation. However, cost of on-site installation of equipment, and inability to effectively visualize and control the subsurface of polluted sites are of major concerns when carrying out in situ bioremediation. Therefore, choosing appropriate bioremediation technique, which will effectively reduce pollutant concentrations to an innocuous state, is crucial for a successful bioremediation project. Furthermore, the two major approaches to enhance bioremediation are biostimulation and bioaugmentation provided that environmental factors, which determine the success of bioremediation, are maintained at optimal range. This review provides more insight into the two major bioremediation techniques, their principles, advantages, limitations and prospects.

  16. Bioremediation techniques-classification based on site of application: principles, advantages, limitations and prospects.

    PubMed

    Azubuike, Christopher Chibueze; Chikere, Chioma Blaise; Okpokwasili, Gideon Chijioke

    2016-11-01

    Environmental pollution has been on the rise in the past few decades owing to increased human activities on energy reservoirs, unsafe agricultural practices and rapid industrialization. Amongst the pollutants that are of environmental and public health concerns due to their toxicities are: heavy metals, nuclear wastes, pesticides, green house gases, and hydrocarbons. Remediation of polluted sites using microbial process (bioremediation) has proven effective and reliable due to its eco-friendly features. Bioremediation can either be carried out ex situ or in situ, depending on several factors, which include but not limited to cost, site characteristics, type and concentration of pollutants. Generally, ex situ techniques apparently are more expensive compared to in situ techniques as a result of additional cost attributable to excavation. However, cost of on-site installation of equipment, and inability to effectively visualize and control the subsurface of polluted sites are of major concerns when carrying out in situ bioremediation. Therefore, choosing appropriate bioremediation technique, which will effectively reduce pollutant concentrations to an innocuous state, is crucial for a successful bioremediation project. Furthermore, the two major approaches to enhance bioremediation are biostimulation and bioaugmentation provided that environmental factors, which determine the success of bioremediation, are maintained at optimal range. This review provides more insight into the two major bioremediation techniques, their principles, advantages, limitations and prospects. PMID:27638318

  17. After the Tipping Point: A New First Principle for State Postsecondary Education Finance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conklin, Kristin D.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses why the current economic downturn for public institutions requires that policy makers respond with new financing policies that reflect the simultaneous convergence of state deficits, changing demographics, and the information economy's voracious demand for a more educated workforce. Presents strategies for states to behave as investors…

  18. Phase stability, electronic structure and equation of state of cubic TcN from first-principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, T.; Ma, Q.; Sun, X. W.; Liu, Z. J.; Fu, Z. J.; Wei, X. P.; Wang, T.; Tian, J. H.

    2016-09-01

    The phase transition, electronic band structure, and equation of state (EOS) of cubic TcN are investigated by first-principles pseudopotential method based on density-functional theory. The calculated enthalpies show that TcN has a transformation between zincblende and rocksalt phases and the pressure determined by the relative enthalpy is 32 GPa. The calculated band structure indicates the metallic feature and it might make cubic TcN a better candidate for hard materials. Particular attention is paid to the predictions of volume, bulk modulus and its pressure derivative which play a central role in the formulation of approximate EOSs using the quasi-harmonic Debye model.

  19. Variation Principles and Applications in the Study of Cell Structure and Aging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Economos, Angelos C.; Miquel, Jaime; Ballard, Ralph C.; Johnson, John E., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    In this report we have attempted to show that "some reality lies concealed in biological variation". This "reality" has its principles, laws, mechanisms, and rules, only a few of which we have sketched. A related idea we pursued was that important information may be lost in the process of ignoring frequency distributions of physiological variables (as is customary in experimental physiology and gerontology). We suggested that it may be advantageous to expand one's "statistical field of vision" beyond simple averages +/- standard deviations. Indeed, frequency distribution analysis may make visible some hidden information not evident from a simple qualitative analysis, particularly when the effect of some external factor or condition (e.g., aging, dietary chemicals) is being investigated. This was clearly illustrated by the application of distribution analysis in the study of variation in mouse liver cellular and fine structure, and may be true of fine structural studies in general. In living systems, structure and function interact in a dynamic way; they are "inseparable," unlike in technological systems or machines. Changes in fine structure therefore reflect changes in function. If such changes do not exceed a certain physiologic range, a quantitative analysis of structure will provide valuable information on quantitative changes in function that may not be possible or easy to measure directly. Because there is a large inherent variation in fine structure of cells in a given organ of an individual and among individuals, changes in fine structure can be analyzed only by studying frequency distribution curves of various structural characteristics (dimensions). Simple averages +/- S.D. do not in general reveal all information on the effect of a certain factor, because often this effect is not uniform; on the contrary, this will be apparent from distribution analysis because the form of the curves will be affected. We have also attempted to show in this chapter that

  20. The Equal Marginal Value Principle: A Graphical Analysis with Environmental Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Andrew J.

    1998-01-01

    Maintains that the equal marginal value principle may not be optimal in the analysis of the cost-effectiveness of policies to reduce auto emissions, the economics of garbage disposal, and the economics of pollution abatement. Argues that examining these exceptions can help students understand the equal marginal value principle. (MJP)

  1. Precautionary Principles: General Definitions and Specific Applications to Genetically Modified Organisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lofstedt, Ragnar E.; Fischhoff, Baruch; Fischhoff, Ilya R.

    2002-01-01

    Precautionary principles have been proposed as a fundamental element of sound risk management. Their advocates see them as guiding action in the face of uncertainty, encouraging the adoption of measures that reduce serious risks to health, safety, and the environment. Their opponents may reject the very idea of precautionary principles, find…

  2. An Application of Total Quality Principles in Transforming the Culture of Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Algozzine, Bob; Audette, Robert H.; Marr, Mary Beth; Algozzine, Kate

    2005-01-01

    During the 1990s, many public schools began to apply the principles of Total Quality Management. As they moved ahead, they discovered that most of the separate principles that comprise Total Quality Management are not new to public education. Theories and practices using similar and related ideas have been championed by educators for generations.…

  3. Erickson for Counselors and Educators: A Review and Practical Application of Six Treatment Principles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahlin, Francine C.

    1987-01-01

    Six treatment principles of Milton Erickson, physician and hypnotherapist, are applied to counselors and educators. Principles include: (1) People are always responding, always communicating. (2) Respect all messages from the client. (3) People make the best choice for themselves at any given moment. (4) Teach choice; never attempt to take choice…

  4. The Identification of Ten Principles of Learning and Their Applications to Vocational Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacFarland, Thomas W.

    This paper examines 10 principles of learning and suggests ways in which vocational education teachers may apply them in their classrooms. The following principles are discussed: reductionism, the law of effect, imitation and observational learning, classroom management without punishment, shaping, the law of primacy, token rewards, the law of…

  5. Design principle of multi-cluster and desynchronized states in oscillatory media via nonlinear global feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Yasuaki; Kori, Hiroshi

    2009-03-01

    A theoretical framework is developed for the precise control of spatial patterns in oscillatory media using nonlinear global feedback, where a proper form of the feedback function corresponding to a specific pattern is predicted through the analysis of a phase diffusion equation with global coupling. In particular, feedback functions that generate the following spatial patterns are analytically given: (i) 2-cluster states with an arbitrary population ratio, (ii) equally populated multi-cluster states and (iii) a desynchronized state. Our method is demonstrated numerically by using the Brusselator model in the oscillatory regime. Experimental realization is also discussed.

  6. Transition-state searches in metal clusters by first-principle methods.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Olvera, Domingo; Vasquez, Alejandra de la Trinidad; Geudtner, Gerald; Vásquez-Pérez, José Manuel; Calaminici, Patrizia; Köster, Andreas M

    2015-03-01

    Elucidation of the chemical reactivity of metal clusters is often cumbersome due to the nonintuitive structures of the corresponding transition states. In this work, a hierarchical transition-state algorithm as implemented in the deMon2k code has been applied to locate transition states of small sodium clusters with 6-10 atoms. This algorithm combines the so-called double-ended interpolation method with the uphill trust region method. The minimum structures needed as input were obtained from Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics simulations. To connect the found transition states with the corresponding minimum structures, the intrinsic reaction coordinates were calculated. This work demonstrates how nonintuitive rearrangement mechanisms can be studied in metal clusters. PMID:25072358

  7. Rotordynamic analysis using the Complex Transfer Matrix: An application to elastomer supports using the viscoelastic correspondence principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varney, Philip; Green, Itzhak

    2014-11-01

    Numerous methods are available to calculate rotordynamic whirl frequencies, including analytic methods, finite element analysis, and the transfer matrix method. The typical real-valued transfer matrix (RTM) suffers from several deficiencies, including lengthy computation times and the inability to distinguish forward and backward whirl. Though application of complex coordinates in rotordynamic analysis is not novel per se, specific advantages gained from using such coordinates in a transfer matrix analysis have yet to be elucidated. The present work employs a complex coordinate redefinition of the transfer matrix to obtain reduced forms of the elemental transfer matrices in inertial and rotating reference frames, including external stiffness and damping. Application of the complex-valued state variable redefinition results in a reduction of the 8×8 RTM to the 4×4 Complex Transfer Matrix (CTM). The CTM is advantageous in that it intrinsically separates forward and backward whirl, eases symbolic manipulation by halving the transfer matrices’ dimension, and provides significant improvement in computation time. A symbolic analysis is performed on a simple overhung rotor to demonstrate the mathematical motivation for whirl frequency separation. The CTM's utility is further shown by analyzing a rotordynamic system supported by viscoelastic elastomer rings. Viscoelastic elastomer ring supports can provide significant damping while reducing the cost and complexity associated with conventional components such as squeeze film dampers. The stiffness and damping of a viscoelastic damper ring are determined herein as a function of whirl frequency using the viscoelastic correspondence principle and a constitutive fractional calculus viscoelasticity model. The CTM is then employed to obtain the characteristic equation, where the whirl frequency dependent stiffness and damping of the elastomer supports are included. The Campbell diagram is shown, demonstrating the CTM

  8. 20 CFR 617.16 - Applicable State law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applicable State law. 617.16 Section 617.16... law. (a) What law governs. The applicable State law for any individual, for all of the purposes of this part 617, is the State law of the State— (1) In which the individual is entitled to UI (whether...

  9. 17 CFR 30.11 - Applicability of state law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Applicability of state law. 30... FUTURES AND FOREIGN OPTIONS TRANSACTIONS § 30.11 Applicability of state law. Pursuant to section 12(e)(2) of the Act, the provisions of any state law, including any rule or regulation thereunder, may...

  10. 17 CFR 30.11 - Applicability of state law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Applicability of state law. 30... FUTURES AND FOREIGN OPTIONS TRANSACTIONS § 30.11 Applicability of state law. Pursuant to section 12(e)(2) of the Act, the provisions of any state law, including any rule or regulation thereunder, may...

  11. 20 CFR 617.16 - Applicable State law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Applicable State law. 617.16 Section 617.16... law. (a) What law governs. The applicable State law for any individual, for all of the purposes of this part 617, is the State law of the State— (1) In which the individual is entitled to UI (whether...

  12. 17 CFR 30.11 - Applicability of state law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Applicability of state law. 30... FUTURES AND FOREIGN OPTIONS TRANSACTIONS § 30.11 Applicability of state law. Pursuant to section 12(e)(2) of the Act, the provisions of any state law, including any rule or regulation thereunder, may...

  13. 20 CFR 625.11 - Provisions of State law applicable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Provisions of State law applicable. 625.11 Section 625.11 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.11 Provisions of State law applicable. The terms and conditions of the State...

  14. 20 CFR 625.11 - Provisions of State law applicable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Provisions of State law applicable. 625.11 Section 625.11 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.11 Provisions of State law applicable. The terms and conditions of the State...

  15. 20 CFR 625.11 - Provisions of State law applicable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Provisions of State law applicable. 625.11 Section 625.11 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.11 Provisions of State law applicable. The terms and conditions of the State...

  16. 20 CFR 625.11 - Provisions of State law applicable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Provisions of State law applicable. 625.11 Section 625.11 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.11 Provisions of State law applicable. The terms and conditions of the State...

  17. 20 CFR 625.11 - Provisions of State law applicable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Provisions of State law applicable. 625.11 Section 625.11 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.11 Provisions of State law applicable. The terms and conditions of the State...

  18. 45 CFR 1080.5 - Application procedures for States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Application procedures for States. 1080.5 Section 1080.5 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF COMMUNITY SERVICES... HOMELESS GRANT PROGRAM § 1080.5 Application procedures for States. (a) Each State requesting funds...

  19. 45 CFR 1080.5 - Application procedures for States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application procedures for States. 1080.5 Section 1080.5 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF COMMUNITY SERVICES... HOMELESS GRANT PROGRAM § 1080.5 Application procedures for States. (a) Each State requesting funds...

  20. 20 CFR 617.16 - Applicable State law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Applicable State law. 617.16 Section 617.16... law. (a) What law governs. The applicable State law for any individual, for all of the purposes of this part 617, is the State law of the State— (1) In which the individual is entitled to UI (whether...

  1. First-principles investigations of equation of states and phase transitions in PaN under pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modak, P.; Verma, Ashok K.

    2013-02-01

    We have studied equation of states (EOS) and pressure induced structural transitions of PaN using first principles electronic structure and total energy calculations. We have predicted that PaN undergoes a structural transition from NaCl to R-3m structure at around 55 GPa pressure. We have also calculated the enthalpy as a function of rhombohedral angle at constant pressures for the Buerger pathway of B1-B2 transition where R-3m is the intermediate state. We have showed that NaCl structure becomes mechanically unstable and f electrons of Pa plays crucial role to stabilize R-3m structure instead of CsCl at high pressure.

  2. An accurate quantum expression of the z-dipole matrix element between nearby Rydberg parabolic states and the correspondence principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewangan, D. P.

    2008-01-01

    We give an exact quantum formula for the z-component of the dipole matrix element between parabolic states of a hydrogen atom in terms of the Jacobi polynomials. The formula extends the range of numerical computation to larger values of the parabolic quantum numbers for which computation from the standard textbook formula, which is in terms of the hypergeometric functions, is defined. We obtain an accurate quantum expression of the z-dipole matrix element in terms of the ordinary Bessel functions for transition between nearby Rydberg parabolic states. We derive for the first time the formula of the z-dipole matrix element of the correspondence principle method directly from the quantum expression, and in the process of derivation, clarify the nature of classical-quantum correspondence. The expressions obtained in this work solve the problem of computation of the z-dipole matrix element of hydrogen to a large extent.

  3. Dental age estimation utilizing third molar development: A review of principles, methods, and population studies used in the United States.

    PubMed

    Lewis, James M; Senn, David R

    2010-09-10

    When an individual reaches the age of legal majority, their treatment within the criminal and civil legal systems is changed dramatically in the United States. Forensic odontologists are often asked to assist government agencies in estimating the ages of persons who may or may not have reached that legally important age. The third molars are the only teeth useful as forensic estimators of chronological age in the target age group. This study reviews the principles, methodology, and population data of the most commonly used technique in the United States, the analysis of the third molar development based on modified Demirjian staging. The method analyzes the developing third molar to estimate mean age, age intervals and the empirical probability that an individual has reached the anniversary of her or his eighteenth birthday.

  4. Charge transfer of edge states in zigzag silicene nanoribbons with Stone-Wales defects from first-principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ting, Xie; Rui, Wang; Shaofeng, Wang; Xiaozhi, Wu

    2016-10-01

    Stone-Wales (SW) defects are favorably existed in graphene-like materials with honeycomb lattice structure and potentially employed to change the electronic properties in band engineering. In this paper, we investigate structural and electronic properties of SW defects in silicene sheet and its nanoribbons as a function of their concentration using the methods of periodic boundary conditions with first-principles calculations. We first calculate the formation energy, structural properties, and electronic band structures of SW defects in silicene sheet, with dependence on the concentration of SW defects. Our results show a good agreement with available values from the previous first-principles calculations. The energetics, structural aspects, and electronic properties of SW defects with dependence on defect concentration and location in edge-hydrogenated zigzag silicene nanoribbons are obtained. For all calculated concentrations, the SW defects prefer to locate at the edge due to the lower formation energy. The SW defects at the center of silicene nanoribbons slightly influence on the electronic properties, whereas the SW defects at the edge of silicene nanoribbons split the degenerate edge states and induce a sizable gap, which depends on the concentration of defects. It is worth to find that the SW defects produce a perturbation repulsive potential, which leads the decomposed charge of edge states at the side with defect to transfer to the other side without defect.

  5. Le Chatelier Principle for Out-of-Equilibrium and Boundary-Driven Systems: Application to Dynamical Phase Transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shpielberg, O.; Akkermans, E.

    2016-06-01

    A stability analysis is presented for boundary-driven and out-of-equilibrium systems in the framework of the hydrodynamic macroscopic fluctuation theory. A Hamiltonian description is proposed which allows us to thermodynamically interpret the additivity principle. A necessary and sufficient condition for the validity of the additivity principle is obtained as an extension of the Le Chatelier principle. These stability conditions result from a diagonal quadratic form obtained using the cumulant generating function. This approach allows us to provide a proof for the stability of the weakly asymmetric exclusion process and to reduce the search for stability to the solution of two coupled linear ordinary differential equations instead of nonlinear partial differential equations. Additional potential applications of these results are discussed in the realm of classical and quantum systems.

  6. Determining charge state of graphene vacancy by noncontact atomic force microscopy and first-principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Weinert, M.; Li, L.

    2015-01-01

    Graphene vacancies are engineered for novel functionalities, however, the charge state of these defects, the key parameter that is vital to charge transfer during chemical reactions and carrier scattering, is generally unknown. Here, we carried out atomic resolution imaging of graphene vacancy defects created by Ar plasma using noncontact atomic force microscopy, and made the first determination of their charge state by local contact potential difference measurements. Combined with density functional theory calculations, we show that graphene vacancies are typically positively charged, with size-dependent charge states that are not necessarily integer-valued. These findings provide new insights into carrier scattering by vacancy defects in graphene, as well as its functionalization for chemical sensing and catalysis, and underline the tunability of these functions by controlling the size of vacancy defect.

  7. Everettian quantum mechanics and physical probability: Against the principle of "State Supervenience"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansson, Lina

    2016-02-01

    Everettian quantum mechanics faces the challenge of how to make sense of probability and probabilistic reasoning in a setting where there is typically no unique outcome of measurements. Wallace has built on a proof by Deutsch to argue that a notion of probability can be recovered in the many worlds setting. In particular, Wallace argues that a rational agent has to assign probabilities in accordance with the Born rule. This argument relies on a rationality constraint that Wallace calls state supervenience. I argue that state supervenience is not defensible as a rationality constraint for Everettian agents unless we already invoke probabilistic notions.

  8. Improving Student Learning: Action Principles for Families, Schools, Districts and States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walberg, Herbert J.

    2010-01-01

    Improving Schools to Promote Learning is a concise and common-sense examination of all the moving parts that drive student learning. The book ties together the research, policies, and practices relative to the state, district, school, classroom, and family, and explains their effects on student learning. The author covers an array of topics,…

  9. Design principle and calculations of a Scheffler fixed focus concentrator for medium temperature applications

    SciTech Connect

    Munir, A.; Hensel, O.; Scheffler, W.

    2010-08-15

    Scheffler fixed focus concentrators are successfully used for medium temperature applications in different parts of the world. These concentrators are taken as lateral sections of paraboloids and provide fixed focus away from the path of incident beam radiations throughout the year. The paper presents a complete description about the design principle and construction details of an 8 m{sup 2} surface area Scheffler concentrator. The first part of the paper presents the mathematical calculations to design the reflector parabola curve and reflector elliptical frame with respect to equinox (solar declination = 0) by selecting a specific lateral part of a paraboloid. Crossbar equations and their ellipses, arc lengths and their radii are also calculated to form the required lateral section of the paraboloid. Thereafter, the seasonal parabola equations are calculated for two extreme positions of summer and winter in the northern hemisphere (standing reflectors). The slopes of the parabola equations for equinox (solar declination = 0), summer (solar declination = +23.5) and winter (solar declination = -23.5) for the Scheffler reflector (8 m{sup 2} surface area) are calculated to be 0.17, 0.28, and 0.13 respectively. The y-intercepts of the parabola equations for equinox, summer and winter are calculated as 0, 0.54, and -0.53 respectively. By comparing with the equinox parabola curve, the summer parabola is found to be smaller in size and uses the top part of the parabola curve while the winter parabola is bigger in size and uses the lower part of the parabola curve to give the fixed focus. For this purpose, the reflector assembly is composed of flexible crossbars and a frame to induce the required change of the parabola curves with the changing solar declination. The paper also presents the calculation procedure of seasonal parabola equations for standing reflectors in the southern hemisphere as well as for laying reflectors in the northern and southern hemispheres. Highly

  10. First Principles Studies of Tapered Silicon Nanowires: Fundamental Insights and Practical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhigang

    2008-03-01

    Nanowires (NWs) are often observed experimentally to be tapered rather than straight-edged, with diameters (d) shrinking by as much as 1 nm per 10 nm of vertical growth. Previous theoretical studies have examined the electronic properties of straight-edged nanowires (SNWs), although the effects of tapering on quantum confinement may be of both fundamental and practical importance. We have employed ab initio calculations to study the structural and electronic properties of tapered Si NWs. As one may expect, tapered nanowires (TNWs) possess axially-dependent electronic properties; their local energy gaps vary along the wire axis, with the largest gap occurring at the narrowest point of the wire. In contrast to SNWs, where confinement tends to shift valence bands more than conduction bands away from the bulk gap, the unoccupied states in TNWs are much more sensitive to d than the occupied states. In addition, tapering causes the band-edge states to be spatially separated along the wire axis, a consequence of the interplay between a strong variation in quantum confinement strength with diameter and the tapering-induced charge transfer. This property may be exploited in electronic and optical applications, for example, in photovoltaic devices where the separation of the valence and conduction band states could be used to transport excited charges during the thermalization process. In order to gain insight into TNW photovoltaic properties, we have also carried out calculations of the dipole matrix elements near the band edges as well as the role of metal contacts on TNW electronic properties. Finally, a combination of ab initio total energy calculations and classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are employed to suggest a new technique for bringing nanoscale objects together to form ordered, ultra high-aspect ratio nanowires. This work was supported in part by the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231.

  11. Application of legal principles and medical ethics: multifetal pregnancy and fetal reduction.

    PubMed

    Cheong, M A; Tay, S K

    2014-06-01

    In the management of complex medical cases such as a multifetal pregnancy, knowledge of the ethical and legal implications is important, alongside having competent medical skills. This article reviews these principles and applies them to scenarios of multifetal pregnancy and fetal reduction. Such a discussion is not solely theoretical, but is also relevant to clinical practice. The importance of topics such as bioethical principles and informed consent are also herein addressed.

  12. Application of legal principles and medical ethics: multifetal pregnancy and fetal reduction

    PubMed Central

    Cheong, May Anne; Tay, Catherine Swee Kian

    2014-01-01

    In the management of complex medical cases such as a multifetal pregnancy, knowledge of the ethical and legal implications is important, alongside having competent medical skills. This article reviews these principles and applies them to scenarios of multifetal pregnancy and fetal reduction. Such a discussion is not solely theoretical, but is also relevant to clinical practice. The importance of topics such as bioethical principles and informed consent are also herein addressed. PMID:25017403

  13. A new approach to problem of enzymatic catalysis based on excited state of proteins and Le Chatelier's principle.

    PubMed

    Dmitriev, Leonid F

    2007-08-01

    A hypothesis is proposed that the energy of an exothermic reaction in an aqueous medium can be used to shift the equilibrium in an endothermic reaction involving hydrated ions. This takes place according to Le Chatelier's principle, and the water dissociation in the homogeneous medium at the protein-water interface gives rise to concentration gradients of ions H(+) and OH(-). The hypothesis implies that the chemical conversion of the substrate into the product is preceded by an attack of hydrated ions on the protein and their association on the protein (an attack of the nucleophilic agent with the subsequent proton addition). This leads to the formation of a cyclic peroxide in an amino acid residue and to the transition C=O-->[C=O](*). The return of carbonyl to the ground state ultimately allows to accumulate a part of the free energy and to use it to bring the enzyme to a state where the conformational energy is higher. Thus, an electronically excited state of a protein is regarded as a state required for dark reactions. This means that, along with the substrate sorption on the protein, the other aspect of the behavior of the dynamic system should be taken into account. PMID:17466931

  14. Inverse simulation as a tool for flight dynamics research—Principles and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, Douglas; Bradley, Roy

    2006-05-01

    The technique of inverse simulation is finding application in many and varied fields. As the name implies this technique is used to calculate the control action required to achieve a specified system response. The field of aircraft flight dynamics is particularly suited to this form of simulation as the question of what control actions must the pilot (or automatic flight control system) take for the aircraft to fly along a particular trajectory (a landing approach, for example) is often asked. This paper looks specifically at the application of inverse simulation in flight dynamics. The aim is not only to give an overview of the various techniques and applications but also to provide guidance to potential users of the technique on several of the physical and numerical features often observed in the results. An extensive review of the methodologies used within the family of inverse simulations is presented followed by a formal treatment of the theoretical development of inverse simulation as an established technique. A case study involving the inverse simulation of a helicopter flying a slalom manoeuvre is presented to demonstrate the application of inverse simulation in a flight dynamics analysis. An important feature of the use of inverse simulation is that it is necessary to define the output response required-in the case of flight dynamics the required flight path has to be modelled. Some of the methods used are documented, and their validity discussed. The paper also gives an insight into the types of problem which can be addressed by inverse simulation by detailing some of the many applications to which it has been put in the past. These include studies of rotorcraft handling qualities, performance and design, and pilot modelling as well as model validation. An important element of this paper is the formal, theoretical analysis of some of the numerical and physical features exhibited by inverse simulation which should aid potential users to interpret their

  15. The divine clockwork: Bohr's correspondence principle and Nelson's stochastic mechanics for the atomic elliptic state

    SciTech Connect

    Durran, Richard; Neate, Andrew; Truman, Aubrey

    2008-03-15

    We consider the Bohr correspondence limit of the Schroedinger wave function for an atomic elliptic state. We analyze this limit in the context of Nelson's stochastic mechanics, exposing an underlying deterministic dynamical system in which trajectories converge to Keplerian motion on an ellipse. This solves the long standing problem of obtaining Kepler's laws of planetary motion in a quantum mechanical setting. In this quantum mechanical setting, local mild instabilities occur in the Keplerian orbit for eccentricities greater than (1/{radical}(2)) which do not occur classically.

  16. On the Applicability of the Green Chemistry Principles to Sustainability of Organic Matter on Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolb, Vera M.

    2010-06-01

    The connection between astrobiology and green chemistry represents a new approach to sustainability of organic matter on asteroids or similar bodies. Green chemistry is chemistry which is environmentally friendly. One obvious way for chemistry to be green is to use water as a solvent, instead of more toxic organic solvents. Many astrobiological reactions occur in the aqueous medium, for example in the prebiotic soup or during the aqueous alteration period on asteroids. Thus any advances in the green organic reactions in water are directly applicable to astrobiology. Another green chemistry approach is to abolish use of toxic solvents. This can be accomplished by carrying out the reactions without a solvent in the solventless or solid-state reactions. The advances in these green reactions are directly applicable to the chemistry on asteroids during the periods when water was not available. Many reactions on asteroids may have been done in the solid mixtures. These reactions may be responsible for a myriad of organic compounds that have been isolated from the meteorites.

  17. Solar hot water systems for the southeastern United States: principles and construction of breadbox water heaters

    SciTech Connect

    1983-02-01

    The use of solar energy to provide hot water is among the easier solar technologies for homeowners to utilize. In the Southeastern United States, because of the mild climate and abundant sunshine, solar energy can be harnessed to provide a household's hot water needs during the non-freezing weather period mid-April and mid-October. This workbook contains detailed plans for building breadbox solar water heaters that can provide up to 65% of your hot water needs during warm weather. If fuel costs continue to rise, the annual savings obtained from a solar water heater will grow dramatically. The designs in this workbook use readily available materials and the construction costs are low. Although these designs may not be as efficient as some commercially available systems, most of a household's hot water needs can be met with them. The description of the breadbox water heater and other types of solar systems will help you make an informed decision between constructing a solar water heater or purchasing one. This workbook is intended for use in the southeastern United States and the designs may not be suitable for use in colder climates.

  18. First-Principles Momentum Dependent Local Ansatz Approach to the Ground-State Properties of Iron-Group Transition Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakehashi, Yoshiro; Chandra, Sumal

    2016-08-01

    The ground-state properties of iron-group transition metals from Sc to Cu have been investigated on the basis of the first-principles momentum dependent local ansatz (MLA) theory. Correlation energy gain is found to show large values for Mn and Fe: 0.090 Ry (Mn) and 0.094 Ry (Fe). The Hund-rule coupling energies are found to be 3000 K (Fe), 1400 K (Co), and 300 K (Ni). It is suggested that these values can resolve the inconsistency in magnetic energy between the density functional theory and the first-principles dynamical coherent potential approximation theory at finite temperatures. Charge fluctuations are shown to be suppressed by the intra-orbital correlations and inter-orbital charge-charge correlations, so that they show nearly constant values from V to Fe: 1.57 (V and Cr), 1.52 (Mn), and 1.44 (Fe), which are roughly twice as large as those obtained by the d band model. The amplitudes of local moments are enhanced by the intra-orbital and inter-orbital spin-spin correlations and show large values for Mn and Fe: 2.87 (Mn) and 2.58 (Fe). These values are in good agreement with the experimental values estimated from the effective Bohr magneton number and the inner core photoemission data.

  19. New variational principles in plasticity and their application to composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castañeda, P. Ponte

    1992-11-01

    I N THIS PAPER, a variational method for bounding the effective properties of nonlinear composites with isotropic phases, proposed recently by ponte castañeda ( J. Mech. Phys. Solids39, 45, 1991), is given full variational principle status. Two dual versions of the new variational principle are presented and their equivalence to each other, and to the classical variational principles, is demonstrated. The variational principles are used to determine bounds and estimates for the effective energy functions of nonlinear composites with prescribed volume fractions in the context of the deformation theory of plasticity. The classical bounds of Voigt and Reuss for completely anisotropic composites are recovered from the new variational principles and are given alternative, simpler forms. Also, use of a novel identity allows the determination of simpler forms for nonlinear Hashin-Shtrikman bounds, and estimates, for isotropic, particle-reinforced composites, as well as for transversely isotropic, fiber-reinforced composites. Additionally, third-order bounds of the Beran type are determined for the first time for nonlinear composites. The question of the optimality of these bounds is discussed briefly.

  20. Possibility of transforming the electronic structure of one species of graphene adatoms into that of another by application of gate voltage: First-principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Kevin T.; Lee, Hoonkyung; Cohen, Marvin L.

    2011-10-01

    Graphene provides many advantages for controlling the electronic structure of adatoms and other adsorbates via gating. Using the projected density of states and charge density obtained from first-principles density-functional periodic supercell calculations, we investigate the possibility of performing “alchemy” of adatoms on graphene, i.e., transforming the electronic structure of one species of adatom into that of another species by application of a gate voltage. Gating is modeled as a change in the number of electrons in the unit cell, with the inclusion of a compensating uniform background charge. Within this model and the generalized gradient approximation to the exchange-correlation functional, we find that such transformations are possible for K, Ca, and several transition-metal adatoms. Gate control of the occupation of the p states of In on graphene is also investigated. The validity of the supercell approximation with uniform compensating charge and the model for exchange and correlation is also discussed.

  1. First principles calculation of point defects and mobility degradation in bulk AlSb for radiation detection application

    SciTech Connect

    Lordi, V; Aberg, D; Erhart, P; Wu, K J

    2007-07-30

    The development of high resolution, room temperature semiconductor radiation detectors requires the introduction of materials with increased carrier mobility-lifetime ({mu}{tau}) product, while having a band gap in the 1.4-2.2 eV range. AlSb is a promising material for this application. However, systematic improvements in the material quality are necessary to achieve an adequate {mu}{tau} product. We are using a combination of simulation and experiment to develop a fundamental understanding of the factors which affect detector material quality. First principles calculations are used to study the microscopic mechanisms of mobility degradation from point defects and to calculate the intrinsic limit of mobility from phonon scattering. We use density functional theory (DFT) to calculate the formation energies of native and impurity point defects, to determine their equilibrium concentrations as a function of temperature and charge state. Perturbation theory via the Born approximation is coupled with Boltzmann transport theory to calculate the contribution toward mobility degradation of each type of point defect, using DFT-computed carrier scattering rates. A comparison is made to measured carrier concentrations and mobilities from AlSb crystals grown in our lab. We find our predictions in good quantitative agreement with experiment, allowing optimized annealing conditions to be deduced. A major result is the determination of oxygen impurity as a severe mobility killer, despite the ability of oxygen to compensation dope AlSb and reduce the net carrier concentration. In this case, increased resistivity is not a good indicator of improved material performance, due to the concomitant sharp reduction in {mu}{tau}.

  2. First-principles study of electronic states in Mg2C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trivedi, D. K.; Galav, K. L.; Paliwal, U.; Joshi, K. B.

    2016-05-01

    The electronic properties of magnesium methanide Mg2C are reported. Investigations are carried out applying the linear combination of atomic orbitals method. After settling ground state of the antifluorite structure the electronic band structure calculations are undertaken using PBE-GGA exchange and correlation functional and PBE0 hybrid functional. All calculations show that Mg2C has indirect band gap with conduction band minimum at Γ and valence band maximum at the X point. The values of band gap from PBE and the PBE0 are 2.05 and 3.46 eV respectively. In comparison to beryllium methanide the electronic bands are flat suggesting ionic nature of bonding.

  3. Reaction Networks as Systems for Resource Allocation: A Variational Principle for Their Non-Equilibrium Steady States

    PubMed Central

    De Martino, Andrea; De Martino, Daniele; Mulet, Roberto; Uguzzoni, Guido

    2012-01-01

    Within a fully microscopic setting, we derive a variational principle for the non-equilibrium steady states of chemical reaction networks, valid for time-scales over which chemical potentials can be taken to be slowly varying: at stationarity the system minimizes a global function of the reaction fluxes with the form of a Hopfield Hamiltonian with Hebbian couplings, that is explicitly seen to correspond to the rate of decay of entropy production over time. Guided by this analogy, we show that reaction networks can be formally re-cast as systems of interacting reactions that optimize the use of the available compounds by competing for substrates, akin to agents competing for a limited resource in an optimal allocation problem. As an illustration, we analyze the scenario that emerges in two simple cases: that of toy (random) reaction networks and that of a metabolic network model of the human red blood cell. PMID:22815715

  4. 36 CFR 1004.2 - State law applicable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State law applicable. 1004.2 Section 1004.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 1004.2 State law applicable. (a) Unless specifically addressed by regulations in this chapter, traffic and...

  5. 8 CFR 343b.4 - Applicant outside of United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Applicant outside of United States. 343b.4 Section 343b.4 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY NATIONALITY REGULATIONS SPECIAL CERTIFICATE OF NATURALIZATION FOR RECOGNITION BY A FOREIGN STATE § 343b.4 Applicant outside of United...

  6. 8 CFR 343b.4 - Applicant outside of United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Applicant outside of United States. 343b.4 Section 343b.4 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY NATIONALITY REGULATIONS SPECIAL CERTIFICATE OF NATURALIZATION FOR RECOGNITION BY A FOREIGN STATE § 343b.4 Applicant outside of United...

  7. 8 CFR 343b.4 - Applicant outside of United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Applicant outside of United States. 343b.4 Section 343b.4 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY NATIONALITY REGULATIONS SPECIAL CERTIFICATE OF NATURALIZATION FOR RECOGNITION BY A FOREIGN STATE § 343b.4 Applicant outside of United...

  8. 8 CFR 343b.4 - Applicant outside of United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Applicant outside of United States. 343b.4 Section 343b.4 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY NATIONALITY REGULATIONS SPECIAL CERTIFICATE OF NATURALIZATION FOR RECOGNITION BY A FOREIGN STATE § 343b.4 Applicant outside of United...

  9. 32 CFR 1903.3 - State law applicable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State law applicable. 1903.3 Section 1903.3 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY CONDUCT ON AGENCY INSTALLATIONS § 1903.3 State law applicable. (a) Unless specifically addressed by the...

  10. 10 CFR 455.130 - State evaluation of grant applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 455.130 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION GRANT PROGRAMS FOR SCHOOLS AND HOSPITALS AND...(b), any additional requirements of the approved State Plan, State environmental laws, and other applicable laws and regulations, then such application will be eligible for financial assistance....

  11. Accurate First-Principles Spectra Predictions for Planetological and Astrophysical Applications at Various T-Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rey, M.; Nikitin, A. V.; Tyuterev, V.

    2014-06-01

    Knowledge of near infrared intensities of rovibrational transitions of polyatomic molecules is essential for the modeling of various planetary atmospheres, brown dwarfs and for other astrophysical applications 1,2,3. For example, to analyze exoplanets, atmospheric models have been developed, thus making the need to provide accurate spectroscopic data. Consequently, the spectral characterization of such planetary objects relies on the necessity of having adequate and reliable molecular data in extreme conditions (temperature, optical path length, pressure). On the other hand, in the modeling of astrophysical opacities, millions of lines are generally involved and the line-by-line extraction is clearly not feasible in laboratory measurements. It is thus suggested that this large amount of data could be interpreted only by reliable theoretical predictions. There exists essentially two theoretical approaches for the computation and prediction of spectra. The first one is based on empirically-fitted effective spectroscopic models. Another way for computing energies, line positions and intensities is based on global variational calculations using ab initio surfaces. They do not yet reach the spectroscopic accuracy stricto sensu but implicitly account for all intramolecular interactions including resonance couplings in a wide spectral range. The final aim of this work is to provide reliable predictions which could be quantitatively accurate with respect to the precision of available observations and as complete as possible. All this thus requires extensive first-principles quantum mechanical calculations essentially based on three necessary ingredients which are (i) accurate intramolecular potential energy surface and dipole moment surface components well-defined in a large range of vibrational displacements and (ii) efficient computational methods combined with suitable choices of coordinates to account for molecular symmetry properties and to achieve a good numerical

  12. State Waste Discharge Permit application: 400 Area Septic System

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations, the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affects groundwater or has the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173-216 (or 173-218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. This document constitutes the State Waste Discharge Permit application for the 400 Area Septic System. The influent to the system is domestic waste water. Although the 400 Area Septic System is not a Public Owned Treatment Works, the Public Owned Treatment Works application is more applicable than the application for industrial waste water. Therefore, the State Waste Discharge Permit application for Public Owned Treatment Works Discharges to Land was used.

  13. Quantum valley Hall states and topological transitions in Pt(Ni, Pd)-decorated silicene: A first-principles study

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Bao; Zhang, Jiayong; Wang, Yicheng; Yang, Zhongqin

    2014-12-28

    The electronic states and topological behaviors of Pt(Ni, Pd)-decorated silicene are investigated by using an ab-initio method. All the three kinds of the adatoms prefer hollow sites of the silicene, guaranteeing the Dirac cones unbroken. The Pt(Ni, Pd)-decorated silicene systems all present quantum valley Hall (QVH) states with the gap opened exactly at the Fermi level. The gaps of the QVH states can be increased substantially by applying a positive electric field. Very fascinating phase transitions from QVH to quantum spin Hall (QSH) and then to QVH again are achieved in the Pt/Ni-decorated silicene when a negative electric field is applied. The QSH state in the Pd case with a negative electric field is, however, quenched because of relatively larger Rashba spin-orbit coupling (SOC) than the intrinsic SOC in the system. Our findings may be useful for the applications of silicene-based devices in valleytronics and spintronics.

  14. Quantum valley Hall states and topological transitions in Pt(Ni, Pd)-decorated silicene: a first-principles study.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Bao; Zhang, Jiayong; Wang, Yicheng; Yang, Zhongqin

    2014-12-28

    The electronic states and topological behaviors of Pt(Ni, Pd)-decorated silicene are investigated by using an ab-initio method. All the three kinds of the adatoms prefer hollow sites of the silicene, guaranteeing the Dirac cones unbroken. The Pt(Ni, Pd)-decorated silicene systems all present quantum valley Hall (QVH) states with the gap opened exactly at the Fermi level. The gaps of the QVH states can be increased substantially by applying a positive electric field. Very fascinating phase transitions from QVH to quantum spin Hall (QSH) and then to QVH again are achieved in the Pt/Ni-decorated silicene when a negative electric field is applied. The QSH state in the Pd case with a negative electric field is, however, quenched because of relatively larger Rashba spin-orbit coupling (SOC) than the intrinsic SOC in the system. Our findings may be useful for the applications of silicene-based devices in valleytronics and spintronics.

  15. Application of Hamilton's Principle to the Study of the Anharmonic Oscillator in Classical Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; Gilmartin, Harvey

    1979-01-01

    Presented is a form of Hamilton's principle for classical mechanics appropriate to the study of arbitrary self-sustained vibrations in one dimension. It is applied as an approximate computational tool to the study of several examples of anharmonic oscillation. (Author/GA)

  16. Application of Multimedia Design Principles to Visuals Used in Course-Books: An Evaluation Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuzu, Abdullah; Akbulut, Yavuz; Sahin, Mehmet Can

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces an evaluation tool prepared to examine the quality of visuals in course-books. The tool is based on Mayer's Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning (i.e. Generative Theory) and its principles regarding the correct use of illustrations within text. The reason to generate the tool, the development process along with the…

  17. The On-Line Application of Binding Principle A in English as a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felser, Claudia; Sato, Mikako; Bertenshaw, Nicholas

    2009-01-01

    We report the results from two experiments investigating proficient Japanese-speaking learners' processing of reflexive object pronouns in English as a second language (L2). Experiment 1 used a timed grammaticality judgement task to assess learners' sensitivity to binding Principle A under processing pressure, and Experiment 2 investigated the…

  18. Maximum Principles and Application to the Analysis of An Explicit Time Marching Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeTallec, Patrick; Tidriri, Moulay D.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we develop local and global estimates for the solution of convection-diffusion problems. We then study the convergence properties of a Time Marching Algorithm solving Advection-Diffusion problems on two domains using incompatible discretizations. This study is based on a De-Giorgi-Nash maximum principle.

  19. Applications of Information Theory and Acceptance Sampling Principles to the Management of Mathematics Instruction, Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kriewall, Thomas E.

    This Technical Report is concerned with various problems of instructional management encountered in situations which stress self-selection and self-pacing principles. These problems deal primarily with the efficient utilization and allocation of human and material resource materials to formulate an operational, individualized, inquiry-learning…

  20. Applications of Information Theory and Acceptance Sampling Principles to the Management of Mathematics Instruction, Part 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kriewall, Thomas E.

    This Technical Report is concerned with various problems of instructional management encountered in situations which stress self-selection and self-pacing principles. These problems deal primarily with the efficient utilization and allocation of human and material resource materials to formulate an operational, individualized, inquiry-learning…

  1. Diverse Applications of the Unifying Principles of Lifelong Education to Teacher Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckley, Dennis L.

    1978-01-01

    Reports on procedures of teacher preparation for experimental lifelong education programs developed in Germany, Singapore, Hungary, Australia, and India. The programs were part of a research project employing principles of lifelong education including (1) horizontal integration of formal, nonformal, and informal learning, and (2) democratization…

  2. Applications of Contingency Management Principles to the College Classroom: The Con Game Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swenson, Leland C.

    A system of teaching based on the principles of the Token economy was developed. This system allowed students to choose not only the pace at which they would advance through a curriculae but also allowed them the choice of output mode (paper versus tests) and areas of concentration. By rewarding student participation in helping to find educational…

  3. Regulation of Spatiotemporal Patterns by Biological Variability: General Principles and Applications to Dictyostelium discoideum

    PubMed Central

    Grace, Miriam; Hütt, Marc-Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    Spatiotemporal patterns often emerge from local interactions in a self-organizing fashion. In biology, the resulting patterns are also subject to the influence of the systematic differences between the system’s constituents (biological variability). This regulation of spatiotemporal patterns by biological variability is the topic of our review. We discuss several examples of correlations between cell properties and the self-organized spatiotemporal patterns, together with their relevance for biology. Our guiding, illustrative example will be spiral waves of cAMP in a colony of Dictyostelium discoideum cells. Analogous processes take place in diverse situations (such as cardiac tissue, where spiral waves occur in potentially fatal ventricular fibrillation) so a deeper understanding of this additional layer of self-organized pattern formation would be beneficial to a wide range of applications. One of the most striking differences between pattern-forming systems in physics or chemistry and those in biology is the potential importance of variability. In the former, system components are essentially identical with random fluctuations determining the details of the self-organization process and the resulting patterns. In biology, due to variability, the properties of potentially very few cells can have a driving influence on the resulting asymptotic collective state of the colony. Variability is one means of implementing a few-element control on the collective mode. Regulatory architectures, parameters of signaling cascades, and properties of structure formation processes can be "reverse-engineered" from observed spatiotemporal patterns, as different types of regulation and forms of interactions between the constituents can lead to markedly different correlations. The power of this biology-inspired view of pattern formation lies in building a bridge between two scales: the patterns as a collective state of a very large number of cells on the one hand, and the internal

  4. 10 CFR 455.131 - State ranking of grant applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false State ranking of grant applications. 455.131 Section 455... hospitals. (c) All eligible applications for energy conservation measures received will be ranked by the... basis, several buildings may be ranked as a single building if the application proposes a single...

  5. 10 CFR 455.131 - State ranking of grant applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false State ranking of grant applications. 455.131 Section 455... hospitals. (c) All eligible applications for energy conservation measures received will be ranked by the... basis, several buildings may be ranked as a single building if the application proposes a single...

  6. 10 CFR 455.131 - State ranking of grant applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false State ranking of grant applications. 455.131 Section 455... hospitals. (c) All eligible applications for energy conservation measures received will be ranked by the... basis, several buildings may be ranked as a single building if the application proposes a single...

  7. 10 CFR 455.131 - State ranking of grant applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State ranking of grant applications. 455.131 Section 455... hospitals. (c) All eligible applications for energy conservation measures received will be ranked by the... basis, several buildings may be ranked as a single building if the application proposes a single...

  8. 78 FR 69641 - State Advisory Committees; Request for Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office COMMISSION ON CIVIL RIGHTS State Advisory Committees; Request for Applications AGENCY: United States Commission on Civil Rights... Committee are expiring as of March 16, 2014, the United States Commission on Civil Rights hereby invites...

  9. Applications of electromagnetic principles in the design and development of proximity wireless sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Md Nazmul

    Sensors and sensing system are playing dominant roles in monitoring the health of infrastructure, such as bridges, power lines, gas pipelines, rail roads etc. Sensing modalities employing Surface Acoustic Waves (SAW), Electromagnetic (EM) and optical have been investigated and reported. Sensors that utilize the perturbation of EM fields as function of the change in the physical structural or material phenomenon are of particular interest because of their inherent synergy with electronic system and diagnostic techniques, e.g. Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR), Joint-Time-Frequency-Domain-Reflectometry (JTFDR). The focus of this work is to study and develop new sensing and monitoring concepts that are based on EM principles. First, the analyses, design and development of a static electric field type sensor are presented for application in embedded concrete moisture content measurement. The analytical formulation and results based on conformal mapping method for an interdigitated sensor clearly show the dependency of the field penetration depth and the inter-electrode capacitance on the electrode sizes and their spacings. It is observed that larger electrode size and small separation are needed in order to achieve substantially higher capacitance or large field penetration depth. A meander and a circular sensor are fabricated and tested to demonstrate concrete moisture content measurements that show that moisture content is a linear function of sensor interelectrode capacitance. Second, sub-wavelength dimension non-intrusive wave launchers are designed and tested that can launch TDR or JTFDR type broadband surface wave waveforms in the VHF-UHF bands in order to detect cable faults. Greater than 3:1 transmission bandwidth (100-300 MHz) is obtained with a cylindrical launcher on square orthogonal ground plane while with a CSW launcher more than an octave (100-240 MHz) bandwidth is achieved. Open circuit faults are detected using surface waves and TDR on two XLPE cables

  10. Variational Principle for Planetary Interiors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Li; Jacobsen, Stein B.

    2016-09-01

    In the past few years, the number of confirmed planets has grown above 2000. It is clear that they represent a diversity of structures not seen in our own solar system. In addition to very detailed interior modeling, it is valuable to have a simple analytical framework for describing planetary structures. The variational principle is a fundamental principle in physics, entailing that a physical system follows the trajectory, which minimizes its action. It is alternative to the differential equation formulation of a physical system. Applying the variational principle to the planetary interior can beautifully summarize the set of differential equations into one, which provides us some insight into the problem. From this principle, a universal mass-radius relation, an estimate of the error propagation from the equation of state to the mass-radius relation, and a form of the virial theorem applicable to planetary interiors are derived.

  11. Application of the time-temperature superposition principle to the mechanical characterization of elastomeric adhesives for crash simulation purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauh, A.; Hinterhölzl, R.; Drechsler, K.

    2012-05-01

    In the automotive industry, finite element simulation is widely used to ensure crashworthiness. Mechanical material data over wide strain rate and temperature ranges are required as a basis. This work proposes a method reducing the cost of mechanical material characterization by using the time-temperature superposition principle on elastomeric adhesives. The method is based on the time and temperature interdependence which is characteristic for mechanical properties of polymers. Based on the assumption that polymers behave similarly at high strain rates and at low temperatures, a temperature-dominated test program is suggested, which can be used to deduce strain rate dependent material behavior at different reference temperatures. The temperature shift factor is found by means of dynamic mechanical analysis according to the WLF-equation, named after Williams, Landel and Ferry. The principle is applied to the viscoelastic properties as well as to the failure properties of the polymer. The applicability is validated with high strain rate tests.

  12. Extending the Relaxed-State Principle to Allowing for Internal Transport Barriers: Implications of Electric Currents Networking in a Tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukushkin, A. B.; Rantsev-Kartinov, V. A.

    1998-11-01

    An algorithm for calculating the equilibrium, "relaxed state" profiles in a tokamak is suggested which is based on a qualitative extension [1] of recently formulated concept [2] of a long-living filamentation of electric currents and their networking, from the case of dense Z-pinches (and other inertially confined plasmas) to the case of magnetically confined plasmas. The approach [1] allows to (i) give alternative explanation to the success of Taylor's principle [3] (relaxation to a minimum magnetic energy state under condition of the conserved magnetic helicity), (ii) indicate the most self-consistent extension, among several suggested approaches, of the concept [3] to the case of non-force-free equilibria (i.e. with finite pressure, plasma flows), and (iii) naturally include the presence of the strongest internal transport barriers (at low-order rational q surfaces) to minimization procedure. [1] Kukushkin A.B., Rantsev-Kartinov V.A., Preprint Kurchatov Institute, IAE-6095/6, 1998. [2] Kukushkin A.B., Rantsev-Kartinov V.A., Laser and Particle Beams, 16(3) 1998 (to be published). [3] Taylor J.B., Rev.Mod.Phys., 58 (1986) 741.

  13. Critical aspects in implementing the OECD monograph No. 14 "the application of the principles of GLP to in vitro studies".

    PubMed

    Beernaert, Hedwig; Vanherle, Anne-Marie; Bertrand, Sophie

    2008-01-01

    The Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OEC D) principles of good laboratory practice (GLP) were originally developed for application to animal-based toxicology studies. On the other hand, more and more studies involving in vitro test systems are performed to produce data on the safety of chemicals with respect to human health and the environment. Therefore, national legislation usually requires that the in vitro studies are conducted in compliance with the GLP principles. Furthermore, developments in the area of toxicogenomics, toxicoproteomics, toxicometabonomics and various high throughput screening techniques will also enhance the importance of in vitro methodologies for safety testing. The OEC D principles of GLP require that safety studies, independent of their type, are planned, conducted, recorded, reported, and archived in a way that they can be inspected by the GLP monitoring authorities and scientifically evaluated by the receiving authorities. Some critical aspects and pitfalls are discussed as regards the proper application and interpretation of the GLP principles for the organisation and management of in vitro studies. Organisational charts and responsibilities of test facilities (TFs) involved in single or multisite studies are sometimes dysfunctioning because there is a lack of traceability in reporting and communication lines. Manipulation of cell and tissue cultures of different test systems should be separated and performed under aseptic conditions to prevent cross-contamination. Characterization and environmental conditions under which the test systems are manipulated and stored are critical in in vitro studies. Another important pitfall is the lack of description in the experimental design concerning the use of any internal control items to control bias and to evaluate the performance of the test system. Finally, it is observed that samples of long-term preservable test systems are not always retained or only for a short time

  14. Large-Scale First-Principles Molecular Dynamics Simulations with Electrostatic Embedding: Application to Acetylcholinesterase Catalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Fattebert, Jean-Luc; Lau, Edmond Y.; Bennion, Brian J.; Huang, Patrick; Lightstone, Felice C.

    2015-10-22

    Enzymes are complicated solvated systems that typically require many atoms to simulate their function with any degree of accuracy. We have recently developed numerical techniques for large scale First-Principles molecular dynamics simulations and applied them to study the enzymatic reaction catalyzed by acetylcholinesterase. We carried out Density functional theory calculations for a quantum mechanical (QM) sub- system consisting of 612 atoms with an O(N) complexity finite-difference approach. The QM sub-system is embedded inside an external potential field representing the electrostatic effect due to the environment. We obtained finite temperature sampling by First-Principles molecular dynamics for the acylation reaction of acetylcholine catalyzed by acetylcholinesterase. Our calculations shows two energies barriers along the reaction coordinate for the enzyme catalyzed acylation of acetylcholine. In conclusion, the second barrier (8.5 kcal/mole) is rate-limiting for the acylation reaction and in good agreement with experiment.

  15. Large-Scale First-Principles Molecular Dynamics Simulations with Electrostatic Embedding: Application to Acetylcholinesterase Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Fattebert, Jean-Luc; Lau, Edmond Y; Bennion, Brian J; Huang, Patrick; Lightstone, Felice C

    2015-12-01

    Enzymes are complicated solvated systems that typically require many atoms to simulate their function with any degree of accuracy. We have recently developed numerical techniques for large scale first-principles molecular dynamics simulations and applied them to the study of the enzymatic reaction catalyzed by acetylcholinesterase. We carried out density functional theory calculations for a quantum-mechanical (QM) subsystem consisting of 612 atoms with an O(N) complexity finite-difference approach. The QM subsystem is embedded inside an external potential field representing the electrostatic effect due to the environment. We obtained finite-temperature sampling by first-principles molecular dynamics for the acylation reaction of acetylcholine catalyzed by acetylcholinesterase. Our calculations show two energy barriers along the reaction coordinate for the enzyme-catalyzed acylation of acetylcholine. The second barrier (8.5 kcal/mol) is rate-limiting for the acylation reaction and in good agreement with experiment. PMID:26642985

  16. Large-Scale First-Principles Molecular Dynamics Simulations with Electrostatic Embedding: Application to Acetylcholinesterase Catalysis

    DOE PAGES

    Fattebert, Jean-Luc; Lau, Edmond Y.; Bennion, Brian J.; Huang, Patrick; Lightstone, Felice C.

    2015-10-22

    Enzymes are complicated solvated systems that typically require many atoms to simulate their function with any degree of accuracy. We have recently developed numerical techniques for large scale First-Principles molecular dynamics simulations and applied them to study the enzymatic reaction catalyzed by acetylcholinesterase. We carried out Density functional theory calculations for a quantum mechanical (QM) sub- system consisting of 612 atoms with an O(N) complexity finite-difference approach. The QM sub-system is embedded inside an external potential field representing the electrostatic effect due to the environment. We obtained finite temperature sampling by First-Principles molecular dynamics for the acylation reaction of acetylcholinemore » catalyzed by acetylcholinesterase. Our calculations shows two energies barriers along the reaction coordinate for the enzyme catalyzed acylation of acetylcholine. In conclusion, the second barrier (8.5 kcal/mole) is rate-limiting for the acylation reaction and in good agreement with experiment.« less

  17. Application of Instructional Design Principles in Developing an Online Information Literacy Curriculum.

    PubMed

    Mi, Misa

    2016-01-01

    An online information literacy curriculum was developed as an intervention to engage students in independent study and self-assessment of their learning needs and learning outcomes, develop proficiency in information skills, and foster lifelong learning. This column demonstrates how instructional design principles were applied to create the learning experiences integrated into various courses of the medical curriculum to promote active learning of information skills and maximize self-directed learning outcomes for lifelong learning.

  18. Application of Instructional Design Principles in Developing an Online Information Literacy Curriculum.

    PubMed

    Mi, Misa

    2016-01-01

    An online information literacy curriculum was developed as an intervention to engage students in independent study and self-assessment of their learning needs and learning outcomes, develop proficiency in information skills, and foster lifelong learning. This column demonstrates how instructional design principles were applied to create the learning experiences integrated into various courses of the medical curriculum to promote active learning of information skills and maximize self-directed learning outcomes for lifelong learning. PMID:26794201

  19. Teaching epidemiology using WebCT: application of the seven principles of good practice.

    PubMed

    Suen, Lorna

    2005-03-01

    Web-based teaching was strategically used to supplement classroom instruction in an epidemiology course for RN-to-BSN students. This article investigates how the "Seven Principles for Good Practice" were applied as a guide when teaching this online course and discusses this innovative teaching strategy with the aim of advancing pedagogical strategies from the traditional, teacher-centered paradigm to an active, learner-centered paradigm.

  20. Application of Smart Solid State Sensor Technology in Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Gary W.; Xu, Jennifer C.; Dungan, L.K.; Makel, D.; Ward, B.; Androjna, D.

    2008-01-01

    Aerospace applications require a range of chemical sensing technologies to monitor conditions in both space vehicles and aircraft operations. One example is the monitoring of oxygen. For example, monitoring of ambient oxygen (O2) levels is critical to ensuring the health, safety, and performance of humans living and working in space. Oxygen sensors can also be incorporated in detection systems to determine if hazardous leaks are occurring in space propulsion systems and storage facilities. In aeronautic applications, O2 detection has been investigated for fuel tank monitoring. However, as noted elsewhere, O2 is not the only species of interest in aerospace applications with a wide range of species of interest being relevant to understand an environmental or vehicle condition. These include combustion products such as CO, HF, HCN, and HCl, which are related to both the presence of a fire and monitoring of post-fire clean-up operations. This paper discusses the development of an electrochemical cell platform based on a polymer electrolyte, NAFION, and a three-electrode configuration. The approach has been to mature this basic platform for a range of applications and to test this system, combined with "Lick and Stick" electronics, for its viability to monitor an environment related to astronaut crew health and safety applications with an understanding that a broad range of applications can be addressed with a core technology.

  1. Administering Our State Library Agencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuFrane, Gerard

    1970-01-01

    A satire on the application of scientific management principles to a state library agency. Covers relationships of the state librarian to staff, the profession, and state and federal governments. (Author/JS)

  2. State-Based Implicit Coordination and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narkawicz, Anthony J.; Munoz, Cesar A.

    2011-01-01

    In air traffic management, pairwise coordination is the ability to achieve separation requirements when conflicting aircraft simultaneously maneuver to solve a conflict. Resolution algorithms are implicitly coordinated if they provide coordinated resolution maneuvers to conflicting aircraft when only surveillance data, e.g., position and velocity vectors, is periodically broadcast by the aircraft. This paper proposes an abstract framework for reasoning about state-based implicit coordination. The framework consists of a formalized mathematical development that enables and simplifies the design and verification of implicitly coordinated state-based resolution algorithms. The use of the framework is illustrated with several examples of algorithms and formal proofs of their coordination properties. The work presented here supports the safety case for a distributed self-separation air traffic management concept where different aircraft may use different conflict resolution algorithms and be assured that separation will be maintained.

  3. 10 CFR 420.13 - Annual State applications and amendments to State plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., renewable energy, and alternative transportation fuel goals to be achieved, including wherever practicable... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Annual State applications and amendments to State plans. 420.13 Section 420.13 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION STATE ENERGY PROGRAM...

  4. 10 CFR 420.13 - Annual State applications and amendments to State plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., renewable energy, and alternative transportation fuel goals to be achieved, including wherever practicable... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Annual State applications and amendments to State plans. 420.13 Section 420.13 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION STATE ENERGY PROGRAM...

  5. 10 CFR 420.13 - Annual State applications and amendments to State plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., renewable energy, and alternative transportation fuel goals to be achieved, including wherever practicable... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Annual State applications and amendments to State plans. 420.13 Section 420.13 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION STATE ENERGY PROGRAM...

  6. 10 CFR 420.13 - Annual State applications and amendments to State plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., renewable energy, and alternative transportation fuel goals to be achieved, including wherever practicable... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Annual State applications and amendments to State plans. 420.13 Section 420.13 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION STATE ENERGY PROGRAM...

  7. 10 CFR 420.13 - Annual State applications and amendments to State plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., renewable energy, and alternative transportation fuel goals to be achieved, including wherever practicable... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Annual State applications and amendments to State plans. 420.13 Section 420.13 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION STATE ENERGY PROGRAM...

  8. Basic principles of the KIV model and its application to the navigation problem.

    PubMed

    Kozma, Robert; Freeman, Walter J

    2003-06-01

    EEG measurements indicate the presence of common-mode, coherent oscillations shared by multiple cortical areas. In previous studies the KIII model has been introduced, which interprets the experimental observations as nonlinear, spatially distributed dynamical oscillations of locally coupled neural populations. KIII can account for the fast and robust classification and pattern recognition in sensory cortices. In order to describe selection of action, planning, and spatial orientation functions, in this paper we expand KIII into the KIV model. KIV approximates the operation of the corticostriatal-hippocampal system. KIV consists of three KI, eight KII and three KIII components, including sensory and cortical systems, as well as the hippocampus, amygdala, and the septum. KIV implements various types of dynamic neural activities. The neural activity patterns determine the emergence of global spatial encoding to implement the orientation function of a simulated animal. Our results indicate the mechanisms, which we believe support the generation of cognitive maps in the hippocampus based on the sensory input-based destabilization of cortical spatio-temporal patterns. In this paper, we describe the conceptual design of the KIV model. We outline the biological background and motivation of the basic principles that are applied to design the KIV computational model. We use the KIV model to explain how the hippocampal neural circuitry functions are constructed and controlled by the corticostriatal-hippocampal loops, supplemented with specific subcortical units. In the second part, we implement these principles using the example of the hippocampal formation as a KIII unit. We demonstrate the learning and navigation principles using the Evolving Multi-module Mobile Agent (EMMA) in 2D software environment. PMID:15011280

  9. An Overview of Principles of Effective Treatment of Substance Use Disorders and their Potential Application to Pregnant Cigarette Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Heil, Sarah H.; Scott, Teresa Linares; Higgins, Stephen T.

    2009-01-01

    Cigarette smoking remains a leading preventable cause of poor pregnancy outcomes and infant morbidity and mortality. Despite three decades of research encompassing more than 60 trials and 20,000 pregnant women, cessation rates produced by existing interventions are often low (< 20%), especially among socioeconomically disadvantaged women. This has led to a call for the development and testing of novel interventions. One strategy for identifying novel interventions for pregnant smokers is to examine efficacious interventions for other types of substance use disorders (SUDs). Pregnant smokers share many sociodemographic similarities with other sub-populations of individuals with SUDs, suggesting that interventions efficacious with the latter may also benefit the former. The National Institute on Drug Abuse’s guide, “Principles of Drug Addiction Treatment: A Research-based Guide”, presents empirically validated principles of effective treatments for other SUDs. The present report enumerates these principles, briefly describes some of the empirical evidence supporting them, and explores their potential application to the treatment of smoking during pregnancy. Overall, the results of this exercise suggest much promise for enhancing treatment outcomes for pregnant smokers by borrowing from and extending what has been learned with other populations with SUDs. PMID:19540679

  10. Atomic interferometer with amplitude gratings of light and its applications to atom based tests of the equivalence principle.

    PubMed

    Fray, Sebastian; Diez, Cristina Alvarez; Hänsch, Theodor W; Weitz, Martin

    2004-12-10

    We have developed a matter wave interferometer based on the diffraction of atoms from effective absorption gratings of light. In a setup with cold rubidium atoms in an atomic fountain the interferometer has been used to carry out tests of the equivalence principle on an atomic basis. The gravitational acceleration of the two isotopes 85Rb and 87Rb was compared, yielding a difference Deltag/g=(1.2+/-1.7)x10(-7). We also perform a differential free fall measurement of atoms in two different hyperfine states, and obtained a result of Deltag/g=(0.4+/-1.2)x10(-7).

  11. Application of Systems Engineering Principles for Concept Design of New Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Karunakaran Nair Ajith; Jagathy Raj, Vettuvila Purushothaman

    2016-06-01

    A successful engineering design is one that meets the user requirements completely. Design essentially starts with concept design followed by detailed design. The importance of concept design is brought out in this paper. Systems engineering principles and practices are used to build the concept design starting from user requirements and user specified reference scenarios. Systems engineering methodology helps in proper understanding of the user requirements, identifying multiple solutions, short listing the candidate solutions and finally selecting one or two feasible designs. A case study analysis is presented to demonstrate the systems engineering practices followed for concept abstraction and preliminary design of a typical engineering system.

  12. Principles and Applications of Solid Polymer Electrolyte Reactors for Electrochemical Hydrodehalogenation of Organic Pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Hua; Scott, Keith

    The ability to re-cycle halogenated liquid wastes, based on electrochemical hydrodehalogenation (EHDH), will provide a significant economic advantage and will reduce the environmental burden in a number of processes. The use of a solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) reactor is very attractive for this purpose. Principles and features of electrochemical HDH technology and SPE EHDH reactors are described. The SPE reactor enables selective dehalogenation of halogenated organic compounds in both aqueous and non-aqueous media with high current efficiency and low energy consumption. The influence of operating conditions, including cathode material, current density, reactant concentration and temperature on the HDH process and its stability are examined.

  13. F-cell world drive 2011: are tactical medicine principles applicable to a civilian scenario?

    PubMed

    Burkert, Manuel G

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, a Mercedes Benz (MB) conducted the F-Cell World Drive tour around the globe in 125 days. While crossing Asia from Shanghai (China) to Helsinki (Finland) by car, en route medical care was provided by embedded emergency physicians. The designated route crossed four different countries, multiple climate zones, and challenging road conditions. There was only limited information provided about hospitals and emergency medical services within different host nations in the planning phase, so we adopted tactical medical principles for mission planning and execution, as we were facing remote conditions and limitations to equipment, staffing, and patient transport.

  14. The Principle and Applications of Multi-Plane Separation for Balancing Machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Y.; Sheen, G.-J.; Tang, P.-H.

    1997-11-01

    Two-plane separation is a conventional technique of balancing machines for rigid rotors such that each sensor measures the separated effects of equivalent imbalances in two planes. However, some complex rigid rotors such as multicylinder crankshafts need to be balanced by multi-plane correction for reducing mass concentration at two planes. This study verifies the principle of plane separation by using an exact-point influence coefficient approach. From the analysis a generalized algorithm of multiplane separation can be developed. Thus, an unlimited technique of plane separation is provided to improve balancing machines for complex rotors which have several planes in need of correction.

  15. F-cell world drive 2011: are tactical medicine principles applicable to a civilian scenario?

    PubMed

    Burkert, Manuel G

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, a Mercedes Benz (MB) conducted the F-Cell World Drive tour around the globe in 125 days. While crossing Asia from Shanghai (China) to Helsinki (Finland) by car, en route medical care was provided by embedded emergency physicians. The designated route crossed four different countries, multiple climate zones, and challenging road conditions. There was only limited information provided about hospitals and emergency medical services within different host nations in the planning phase, so we adopted tactical medical principles for mission planning and execution, as we were facing remote conditions and limitations to equipment, staffing, and patient transport. PMID:22427051

  16. First-principles study of intercalation of alkali ions in FeSe for solid-state batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhiqiang; Gu, Xiao; Wang, Linxia; Huang, Li

    2016-08-01

    Electrochemical properties of alkali ions (Li+, Na+, and K+) intercalating into FeSe have been studied based on first-principles calculations within density functional theory. The intercalation sites of lithium ions are found to be different from sodium and potassium ions due to the small ionic radius of lithium. Calculations of minimum energy path on the diffusions of Li+, Na+, and K+ in FeSe show that the activation energies for those alkali ions increase with their ionic radii. Lithium ions have a rather smaller diffusion barrier of about 0.20 eV, which leads to a bigger diffusion coefficient of about 6.3 ×10-6cm2 /s . We also show that FeSe has a flat discharging stage at about 1.0 V with lithium ions. These results indicate that XFe2Se2 (X = Li, Na, K) may be potential electrochemical active materials, especially for solid-state electrolyte and supercapacitors.

  17. Advanced trauma and life support principles: an audit of their application in a rural trauma centre.

    PubMed

    Calleary, J G; el-Nazir, A K; el-Sadig, O; Carolan, P E; Joyce, W P

    1999-01-01

    In December of 1995 a system of trauma care based on Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) principles was instituted to assess the impact of such principles on trauma care in a rural general hospital setting. This audit reviews the results over a 2 yr period to December 1997. All patients admitted with major trauma (i.e. with life threatening or potentially life threatening injuries) to Cavan General Hospital (CGH) were eligible for inclusion. This numbered 70 patients admitted (for at least 3 days), or who were transferred after resuscitation and stabilization as well as inpatient deaths. Twenty-seven patients who died prior to admission are also reviewed. The endpoints assessed were death, disability and survival 3 months post-accident. Based on injury severity scores 7 per cent of cases suffered fatal non-survivable injury, 20-30 per cent had very serious injury with an overall mortality rate of 17 per cent. The predicted mortality rate was 30 per cent. One-third had their full treatment at CGH with a 76 per cent survival rate. The other two-thirds were transferred for specialist intervention with an overall survival of 80 per cent, a disability rate of 16 per cent and a mortality rate of 4 per cent. No patient died during transportation. PMID:10422385

  18. Application of fluid dynamics principles in tilted permeable media to terrestrial hydrothermal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Criss, R.E.; Hofmeister, A.M.

    1991-02-01

    Fluid dynamics principles require that circulation of aqueous fluid will be practically ubiquitous in tectonically active parts of the Earth's crust and upper mantle. Both experiment and theory demonstrate that flow, generally in the form of unicells (Hadley circulation), always occurs for isothermal tilts above a very small critical angle ({approximately}5{degree}), for any non-zero permeability or Rayleigh number, and even for hot over cold geometries. Interestingly, heat transport rates in the unicellular regime are essentially conductive, so such flow, unlike more vigorous flow at higher Rayleigh number, is not properly termed convective. These principles have numerous geological ramifications, including: (1) many of the hydrothermal systems developed around epizonal intrusions should be dominantly unicellular in nature, which explains their aspect ratios and the smooth and very regular {delta}{sup 18}O variations that are produced in the rocks; (2) large, long-lived unicells are predicted to occur deep in the Earth's crust wherever Rayleigh numbers are finite and isotherms are substantially inclined, as in zones of batholith intrusion, regional metamorphism, and collision; (3) unicells with lateral dimensions of several hundred kilometers are predicted to be associated with subduction zones dipping more than 6-12{degree}, with fluid advection into the hot mantle wedge being instrumental in mantle metasomatism and in the generation of andesitic magmas.

  19. General Principles for the welfare of animals in production systems: the underlying science and its application.

    PubMed

    Fraser, David; Duncan, Ian J H; Edwards, Sandra A; Grandin, Temple; Gregory, Neville G; Guyonnet, Vincent; Hemsworth, Paul H; Huertas, Stella M; Huzzey, Juliana M; Mellor, David J; Mench, Joy A; Spinka, Marek; Whay, H Rebecca

    2013-10-01

    In 2012, the World Organisation for Animal Health adopted 10 'General Principles for the Welfare of Animals in Livestock Production Systems' to guide the development of animal welfare standards. The General Principles draw on half a century of scientific research relevant to animal welfare: (1) how genetic selection affects animal health, behaviour and temperament; (2) how the environment influences injuries and the transmission of diseases and parasites; (3) how the environment affects resting, movement and the performance of natural behaviour; (4) the management of groups to minimize conflict and allow positive social contact; (5) the effects of air quality, temperature and humidity on animal health and comfort; (6) ensuring access to feed and water suited to the animals' needs and adaptations; (7) prevention and control of diseases and parasites, with humane euthanasia if treatment is not feasible or recovery is unlikely; (8) prevention and management of pain; (9) creation of positive human-animal relationships; and (10) ensuring adequate skill and knowledge among animal handlers. Research directed at animal welfare, drawing on animal behaviour, stress physiology, veterinary epidemiology and other fields, complements more established fields of animal and veterinary science and helps to create a more comprehensive scientific basis for animal care and management.

  20. Prosthetic EMG control enhancement through the application of man-machine principles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simcox, W. A.

    1977-01-01

    An area in medicine that appears suitable to man-machine principles is rehabilitation research, particularly when the motor aspects of the body are involved. If one considers the limb, whether functional or not, as the machine, the brain as the controller and the neuromuscular system as the man-machine interface, the human body is reduced to a man-machine system that can benefit from the principles behind such systems. The area of rehabilitation that this paper deals with is that of an arm amputee and his prosthetic device. Reducing this area to its man-machine basics, the problem becomes one of attaining natural multiaxis prosthetic control using Electromyographic activity (EMG) as the means of communication between man and prothesis. In order to use EMG as the communication channel it must be amplified and processed to yield a high information signal suitable for control. The most common processing scheme employed is termed Mean Value Processing. This technique for extracting the useful EMG signal consists of a differential to single ended conversion to the surface activity followed by a rectification and smoothing.

  1. Major concerns in developing countries: applications of the Precautionary Principle in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Harari, Raúl; Freire Morales, Rocío; Harari, Homero

    2004-01-01

    Ecuador is a Latin American country with one of the biggest biodiversities. At the same time, social and environmental problems are also big. Poverty, political and social problems as well as questions like old transport systems, imported hazards from industrialized countries and lack of information and weak health care systems are the framework of this situation. The most common problems are the use of heavy metals in many activities without safety and health protection, a low technological oil production during two decades, intensive use of pesticides in agriculture, and some other chemical risks. A limited capacity to develop prevention strategies, reduced technical and scientific skills, and the absence of a reliable information and control system, lead to a weak response mechanism. The Precautionary Principle could help to stimulate prevention, protection and to have a new tool to improve the interest in environment and health problems. Reinforcing the presence of international organizations like the World Health Organization or the International Labour Organization, establishing bridges among scientific organizations from developed and developing countries and introducing the Precautionary Principle in the legislation and daily practices of industry and agriculture could lead to an improvement in our environment and health.

  2. Solid state neutron dosimeter for space applications

    SciTech Connect

    Nagarkar, V.; Entine, G.; Stoppel, P.; Cirignano, L. ); Swinehart, P. )

    1992-08-01

    One of the most important contributions to the radiation exposure of astronauts engaged in space flight is the significant flux of high energy neutrons arising from both primary and secondary sources of ionizing radiation. Under NASA sponsorship, the authors are developing a solid state neutron sensor capable of being incorporated into a very compact, flight instrument to provide high quality real time measurement of this important radiation flux. The dosimeter uses a special, high neutron sensitivity, PIN diode that is insensitive t the other forms of ionizing radiation. The dosimeter will have the ability to measure and record neutron dose over a range of 50 microgray to tens of milligrays (5 millirads to several rads) over a flight of up to 30 days. the performance characteristics of the PIN diode with a detailed description of the overall dosimeter is presented. in this paper.

  3. Solid state dye laser for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldag, Henry R.

    1994-06-01

    The development of solid state dye lasers could lead to a major breakthrough in the cost and compactness of a medical device. Advantages include: elimination of the flow system for the gain medium; ease with which to implement wavelength agility or the replacement of a degraded rod or sheet; and toxicity and flammability become a non-issue. Dye lasers have played a role in cardiology, dermatology, and urology. Of these cardiology is of interest to Palomar. The Palomar Model 3010 flashlamp-pumped dye laser medical device was used during phase 1 FDA clinical trials to break-up blood clots that cause heart attacks, a process known as coronary laser thrombolysis. It is the objective of this research and development effort to produce solid matrix lasers that will replace liquid dye lasers in these medical specialties.

  4. 25 CFR Appendix A to Part 276 - Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Grants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... for the other ultimate cost objective. 2. Application. Typical direct costs chargeable to grant.... Application. These standards will apply irrespective of whether a particular item of cost is treated as direct... provided in d. above. 5. Management studies. The cost of management studies to improve the...

  5. 20 CFR 617.16 - Applicable State law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Applicable State law. 617.16 Section 617.16 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TRADE ADJUSTMENT ASSISTANCE FOR WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Trade Readjustment Allowances (TRA) § 617.16 Applicable...

  6. 20 CFR 617.16 - Applicable State law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Applicable State law. 617.16 Section 617.16 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TRADE ADJUSTMENT ASSISTANCE FOR WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Trade Readjustment Allowances (TRA) § 617.16 Applicable...

  7. Residency Applicants Misinterpret Their United States Medical Licensing Exam Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Roger C.; Desbiens, Norman A.

    2009-01-01

    Proper interpretation of the results of the United States Medical Licensing Exam (USMLE) is important for program directors, residents, and faculty who advise applicants about applying for residency positions. We suspected that applicants often misinterpreted their performance in relationship to others who took the same examination. In 2005, 54…

  8. 17 CFR 30.11 - Applicability of state law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ....11 Section 30.11 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION FOREIGN FUTURES AND FOREIGN OPTIONS TRANSACTIONS § 30.11 Applicability of state law. Pursuant to section 12(e)(2... applicable to any person required to be registered under this part who solicits foreign futures and...

  9. The Obstacle Version of the Geometric Dynamic Programming Principle: Application to the Pricing of American Options Under Constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Bouchard, Bruno Vu, Thanh Nam

    2010-04-15

    We provide an obstacle version of the Geometric Dynamic Programming Principle of Soner and Touzi (J. Eur. Math. Soc. 4:201-236, 2002) for stochastic target problems. This opens the doors to a wide range of applications, particularly in risk control in finance and insurance, in which a controlled stochastic process has to be maintained in a given set on a time interval [0,T]. As an example of application, we show how it can be used to provide a viscosity characterization of the super-hedging cost of American options under portfolio constraints, without appealing to the standard dual formulation from mathematical finance. In particular, we allow for a degenerate volatility, a case which does not seem to have been studied so far in this context.

  10. Duality of Educational Policy as Global and Local: The Case of the Gender Equity Agenda in National Principles and State Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ham, Seung-Hwan; Paine, Lynn W.; Cha, Yun-Kyung

    2011-01-01

    This study provides cross-national empirical evidence that substantiates the dialectic relationship between global and local contexts with regard to educational gender equity both as a national principle and as a priority for state action. Cross-national data on educational gender equity policies across 160 countries were gathered from…

  11. Application of similitude principle to the numerical simulation of solar atmospheric dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, S. T.; Wang, S.; Wang, A. H.; Dryer, M.

    1988-01-01

    Numerical simulation has become an essential part of solar physics because the complex nonlinear characteristics of solar phenomena makes analytical solutions difficult to obtain. Realistic simulation of the birth and decay of an active region still is not possible because of the wide range of spatial and time scales that must be considered. Therefore, proper scaling rules must be recognized for the development of appropriate models. In this paper, the similitude principle is applied to develop scaling rules. It is found that these rules are highly dependent on the physical nature of the specific problem under consideration. A set of 'similitude critiques' is presented for some specific physical conditions. Numerical examples of coronal dynamic response and active region dynamics are used to demonstrate these ideas.

  12. Principles, applications, and limitations of automated ribotyping as a rapid method in food safety.

    PubMed

    Pavlic, Marin; Griffiths, Mansel W

    2009-11-01

    Automated ribotyping (AR) is a genotyping method used for identification and characterization of foodborne pathogens to the strain level. The advantages of AR are full automation, rapidity, and high reproducibility and typeability. AR may be a suitable characterization method for some pathogens when the research purpose requires a genotyping method with a strong discriminatory power. AR is a sensitive subtyping method for pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonellae, while its discriminatory power may often not be sufficient for Campylobacter spp. and especially Escherichia coli. This review discusses the principles of manual and AR and provides examples of typical AR use in the subtyping of several major foodborne pathogens and a brief discussion of several other less prominent pathogens.

  13. A Monograph Assignment as an Integrative Application of Evidence-Based Medicine and Pharmacoeconomic Principles

    PubMed Central

    Jackevicius, Cynthia A.; Bounthavong, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Objective To describe the development and assessment of monographs as an assignment to incorporate evidence-based medicine (EBM) and pharmacoeconomic principles into a third-year pharmacoeconomic course. Design Eight newly FDA-approved drugs were assigned to 16 teams of students, where each drug was assigned to 2 teams. Teams had to research their drug, write a professional monograph, deliver an oral presentation, and answer questions posed by faculty judges. One team was asked to present evidence for inclusion of the drug into a formulary, while another team presented evidence against inclusion. Assessment The teams' average score on the written report was 99.1%; on the oral presentation, 92.5%, and on the online quiz given at the end of the presentations, 77%. Conclusions Monographs are a successful method of incorporating and integrating learning across different concepts, as well as increasing relevance of pharmacoeconomics in the PharmD curriculum. PMID:21451753

  14. Training principles for fascial connective tissues: scientific foundation and suggested practical applications.

    PubMed

    Schleip, Robert; Müller, Divo Gitta

    2013-01-01

    Conventional sports training emphasizes adequate training of muscle fibres, of cardiovascular conditioning and/or neuromuscular coordination. Most sports-associated overload injuries however occur within elements of the body wide fascial net, which are then loaded beyond their prepared capacity. This tensional network of fibrous tissues includes dense sheets such as muscle envelopes, aponeuroses, as well as specific local adaptations, such as ligaments or tendons. Fibroblasts continually but slowly adapt the morphology of these tissues to repeatedly applied challenging loading stimulations. Principles of a fascia oriented training approach are introduced. These include utilization of elastic recoil, preparatory counter movement, slow and dynamic stretching, as well as rehydration practices and proprioceptive refinement. Such training should be practiced once or twice a week in order to yield in a more resilient fascial body suit within a time frame of 6-24 months. Some practical examples of fascia oriented exercises are presented.

  15. Siddha medicine--background and principles and the application for skin diseases.

    PubMed

    Thas, J Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Siddha medicine is one of the most ancient medical systems of India. Siddha is the mother medicine of ancient Tamils/Dravidians of peninsular South India. The word Siddha means established truth. The persons who were associated with establishing such a Siddha school of thought were known as Siddhars. They recorded their mystic findings in medicine, yoga, and astrology in Tamil. Fundamental Principles of Siddha include theories of Five Elements (Aimpootham), and Three Forces/Faults (Mukkuttram). The Eight Methods of Examination (Envakai Thervukal) is used to determine diagnosis, etiology, treatment and prognosis. Siddha has safe herbal and herbo mineral treatment for psoriasis, eczema, alopecia, diabetic ulcer, warts, vitiligo, pemphigus, pompholyx, leprosy, and many more very common and rare diseases. Lifestyle modifications including diet are important. PMID:18280906

  16. An invariance principle for reversible Markov processes. Applications to random motions in random environments

    SciTech Connect

    De Masi, A.; Ferrari, P.A.; Goldstein, S.; Wick, W.D. )

    1989-05-01

    The authors present an invariance principle for antisymmetric functions of a reversible Markov process which immediately implies convergence to Brownian motion for a wide class of random motions in random environments. They apply it to establish convergence to Brownian motion (i) for a walker moving in the infinite cluster of the two-dimensional bond percolation model, (ii) for a d-dimensional walker moving in a symmetric random environment under very mild assumptions on the distribution of the environment, (iii) for a tagged particle in a d-dimensional symmetric lattice gas which allows interchanges, (iv) for a tagged particle in a d-dimensional system of interacting Brownian particles. Their formulation also leads naturally to bounds on the diffusion constant.

  17. Steady-state rate analysis: application to biological transport.

    PubMed

    Wagg, J; Chapman, J B

    1995-05-01

    A novel method for defining the steady-state unidirectional rates of complex reactions has previously been developed (Wagg, 1988 Ph.D. Thesis, Monash University, Australia). This methodology is based upon the method of Wagg (1987, J. theor. Biol. 128, 375-385) for defining the steady-state unidirectional fluxes of chemical species through branched chemical, osmotic and chemiosmotic reactions. It offers a number of distinct advantages over existing approaches to steady-state rate analysis: it is relatively simple to apply to complex reactions and is readily amenable to computer-based application. The method is demonstrated by direct application to a number of hypothetical models for biological transport phenomena.

  18. Three-Dimensional Printing: Basic Principles and Applications in Medicine and Radiology.

    PubMed

    Kim, Guk Bae; Lee, Sangwook; Kim, Haekang; Yang, Dong Hyun; Kim, Young-Hak; Kyung, Yoon Soo; Kim, Choung-Soo; Choi, Se Hoon; Kim, Bum Joon; Ha, Hojin; Kwon, Sun U; Kim, Namkug

    2016-01-01

    The advent of three-dimensional printing (3DP) technology has enabled the creation of a tangible and complex 3D object that goes beyond a simple 3D-shaded visualization on a flat monitor. Since the early 2000s, 3DP machines have been used only in hard tissue applications. Recently developed multi-materials for 3DP have been used extensively for a variety of medical applications, such as personalized surgical planning and guidance, customized implants, biomedical research, and preclinical education. In this review article, we discuss the 3D reconstruction process, touching on medical imaging, and various 3DP systems applicable to medicine. In addition, the 3DP medical applications using multi-materials are introduced, as well as our recent results. PMID:26957903

  19. 28 CFR 552.22 - Principles governing the use of force and application of restraints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT CUSTODY Use of Force and Application of Restraints on Inmates § 552.22...) Medication may not be used as a restraint solely for security purposes. (j) All incidents involving the...

  20. 28 CFR 552.22 - Principles governing the use of force and application of restraints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT CUSTODY Use of Force and Application of Restraints on Inmates § 552.22...) Medication may not be used as a restraint solely for security purposes. (j) All incidents involving the...

  1. 28 CFR 552.22 - Principles governing the use of force and application of restraints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT CUSTODY Use of Force and Application of Restraints on Inmates § 552.22...) Medication may not be used as a restraint solely for security purposes. (j) All incidents involving the...

  2. 28 CFR 552.22 - Principles governing the use of force and application of restraints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT CUSTODY Use of Force and Application of Restraints on Inmates § 552.22...) Medication may not be used as a restraint solely for security purposes. (j) All incidents involving the...

  3. 28 CFR 552.22 - Principles governing the use of force and application of restraints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT CUSTODY Use of Force and Application of Restraints on Inmates § 552.22...) Medication may not be used as a restraint solely for security purposes. (j) All incidents involving the...

  4. Three-Dimensional Printing: Basic Principles and Applications in Medicine and Radiology

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Guk Bae; Lee, Sangwook; Kim, Haekang; Yang, Dong Hyun; Kim, Young-Hak; Kyung, Yoon Soo; Kim, Choung-Soo; Choi, Se Hoon; Kim, Bum Joon; Ha, Hojin; Kwon, Sun U.

    2016-01-01

    The advent of three-dimensional printing (3DP) technology has enabled the creation of a tangible and complex 3D object that goes beyond a simple 3D-shaded visualization on a flat monitor. Since the early 2000s, 3DP machines have been used only in hard tissue applications. Recently developed multi-materials for 3DP have been used extensively for a variety of medical applications, such as personalized surgical planning and guidance, customized implants, biomedical research, and preclinical education. In this review article, we discuss the 3D reconstruction process, touching on medical imaging, and various 3DP systems applicable to medicine. In addition, the 3DP medical applications using multi-materials are introduced, as well as our recent results. PMID:26957903

  5. Dual-energy CT revisited with multidetector CT: review of principles and clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Karçaaltıncaba, Muşturay; Aktaş, Aykut

    2011-09-01

    Although dual-energy CT (DECT) was first conceived in the 1970s, it was not widely used for CT indications. Recently, the simultaneous acquisition of volumetric dual-energy data has been introduced using multidetector CT (MDCT) with two X-ray tubes and rapid kVp switching (gemstone spectral imaging). Two major advantages of DECT are material decomposition by acquiring two image series with different kVp and the elimination of misregistration artifacts. Hounsfield unit measurements by DECT are not absolute and can change depending on the kVp used for an acquisition. Typically, a combination of 80/140 kVp is used for DECT, but for some applications, 100/140 kVp is preferred. In this study, we summarized the clinical applications of DECT and included images that were acquired using the dual-source CT and rapid kVp switching. In general, unenhanced images can be avoided by using DECT for body and neurological applications; iodine can be removed from the image, and a virtual, non-contrast (water) image can be obtained. Neuroradiological applications allow for the removal of bone and calcium from the carotid and brain CT angiography. Thorax applications include perfusion imaging in patients with pulmonary thromboemboli and other chest diseases, xenon ventilation-perfusion imaging and solitary nodule characterization. Cardiac applications include dual-energy cardiac perfusion, viability and cardiac iron detection. The removal of calcific plaques from arteries, bone removal and aortic stent graft evaluation may be achieved in the vascular system. Abdominal applications include the detection and characterization of liver and pancreas masses, the diagnosis of steatosis and iron overload, DECT colonoscopy and CT cholangiography. Urinary system applications are urinary calculi characterization (uric acid vs. non-uric acid), renal cyst characterization and mass characterization. Musculoskeletal applications permit the differentiation of gout from pseudogout and a reduction of

  6. Recent advances of mid-infrared compact, field deployable sensors: principles and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tittel, Frank; Gluszek, Aleksander; Hudzikowski, Arkadiusz; Dong, Lei; Li, Chunguang; Patimisco, Pietro; Sampaolo, Angelo; Spagnolo, Vincenzo; Wojtas, Jacek

    2016-04-01

    The recent development of compact interband cascade lasers(ICLs) and quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) based trace gas sensors will permit the targeting of strong fundamental rotational-vibrational transitions in the mid-infrared which are one to two orders of magnitude more intense than transitions in the overtone and combination bands in the near-infrared. This has led to the design and fabrication of mid-infrared compact, field deployable sensors for use in the petrochemical industry, environmental monitoring and atmospheric chemistry. Specifically, the spectroscopic detection and monitoring of four molecular species, methane (CH4) [1], ethane (C2H6), formaldehyde (H2CO) [2] and hydrogen sulphide (H2S) [3] will be described. CH4, C2H6 and H2CO can be detected using two detection techniques: mid-infrared tunable laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) using a compact multi-pass gas cell and quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS). Both techniques utilize state-of-the-art mid-IR, continuous wave (CW), distributed feedback (DFB) ICLs and QCLs. TDLAS was performed with an ultra-compact 54.6m effective optical path length innovative spherical multipass gas cell capable of 435 passes between two concave mirrors separated by 12.5 cm. QEPAS used a small robust absorption detection module (ADM) which consists of a quartz tuning fork (QTF), two optical windows, gas inlet/outlet ports and a low noise frequency pre-amplifier. Wavelength modulation and second harmonic detection were employed for spectral data processing. TDLAS and QEPAS can achieve minimum detectable absorption losses in the range from 10-8 to 10-11cm-1/Hz1/2. Several recent examples of real world applications of field deployable gas sensors will be described. For example, an ICL based TDLAS sensor system is capable of detecting CH4 and C2H6 concentration levels of 1 ppb in a 1 sec. sampling time, using an ultra-compact, robust sensor architecture. H2S detection was realized with a THz QEPAS sensor

  7. Explosively produced megagauss fields and recent solid state applications

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, C.M.; Freeman, B.L.; Hults, W.L.; King, J.C.; Mueller, F.M.; Rickel, D.G.; Smith, J.L.; Brooks, J.S.; Goettee, J.D.

    1993-12-31

    Large magnetic fields may be generated by compression of an initial magnetic flux generated over a large area at relatively low magnetic field into a region of smaller area. Following a discussion of flux compression principles, the authors discuss megagauss field systems in use at Los Alamos where chemical explosives are used to compress the flux. Their use in some solid state experiments will be discussed briefly, including a planned set of experiments on YBCO to be done jointly with a Russian team, whose aim is to determine the low temperature, critical magnetic field of YBCO.

  8. New equation of state model for hydrodynamic applications

    SciTech Connect

    Young, D.A.; Barbee, T.W. III; Rogers, F.J.

    1997-07-01

    Two new theoretical methods for computing the equation of state of hot, dense matter are discussed.The ab initio phonon theory gives a first-principles calculation of lattice frequencies, which can be used to compare theory and experiment for isothermal and shock compression of solids. The ACTEX dense plasma theory has been improved to allow it to be compared directly with ultrahigh pressure shock data on low-Z materials. The comparisons with experiment are good, suggesting that these models will be useful in generating global EOS tables for hydrodynamic simulations.

  9. Transcriptional regulation with CRISPR-Cas9: principles, advances, and applications.

    PubMed

    Didovyk, Andriy; Borek, Bartłomiej; Tsimring, Lev; Hasty, Jeff

    2016-08-01

    CRISPR-Cas9 has recently emerged as a promising system for multiplexed genome editing as well as epigenome and transcriptome perturbation. Due to its specificity, ease of use and highly modular programmable nature, it has been widely adopted for a variety of applications such as genome editing, transcriptional inhibition and activation, genetic screening, DNA localization imaging, and many more. In this review, we will discuss non-editing applications of CRISPR-Cas9 for transcriptome perturbation, metabolic engineering, and synthetic biology.

  10. Defect states at organic-inorganic interfaces: Insight from first principles calculations for pentaerythritol tetranitrate on MgO surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsyshevsky, Roman V.; Rashkeev, Sergey N.; Kuklja, Maija M.

    2015-07-01

    Light-responsive organic-inorganic interfaces offer experimental opportunities that are otherwise difficult to achieve. Since laser light can be manipulated very precisely, it becomes possible to engineer selective, predictive, and highly controlled interface properties. Photochemistry of organic-inorganic energetic interfaces is a rapidly emerging research field in which energy absorption and interface stability mechanisms have yet to be established. To explore the interaction of the laser irradiation with molecular materials, we performed first principle calculations of a prototype organic-inorganic interface between a nitroester (pentaerythritol tetranitrate, PETN, C5H8N4O12) and a magnesium oxide (MgO) surface. We found that the light absorption is defined by the band alignment between interface components and interfacial charge transfer coupled with electronic states in the band gap, generated by oxide surface defects. Hence the choice of an oxide substrate and its morphology makes the optical absorption tunable and governs both the energy accumulation and energy release at the interface. The obtained results offer a possible consistent interpretation of experiments on selective laser initiation of energetic materials, which reported that the presence of metal oxide additives triggered the photoinitiation by excitation energy much lower than the band gap. We suggest that PETN photodecomposition is catalyzed by oxygen vacancies (F0 centers) at the MgO surface. Our conclusions predict ways for a complete separation of thermo- and photo-stimulated interface chemistry of molecular materials, which is imperative for highly controllable fast decomposition and was not attainable before. The methodology described here can be applied to any type of molecular material/wide band gap dielectric interfaces. It provides a solid basis for novel design and targeted improvements of organic-inorganic interfaces with desired properties that promise to enable vastly new concepts

  11. Large Deviations for Finite State Markov Jump Processes with Mean-Field Interaction Via the Comparison Principle for an Associated Hamilton-Jacobi Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraaij, Richard

    2016-07-01

    We prove the large deviation principle (LDP) for the trajectory of a broad class of finite state mean-field interacting Markov jump processes via a general analytic approach based on viscosity solutions. Examples include generalized Ehrenfest models as well as Curie-Weiss spin flip dynamics with singular jump rates. The main step in the proof of the LDP, which is of independent interest, is the proof of the comparison principle for an associated collection of Hamilton-Jacobi equations. Additionally, we show that the LDP provides a general method to identify a Lyapunov function for the associated McKean-Vlasov equation.

  12. Principles and application of high pressure-based technologies in the food industry.

    PubMed

    Balasubramaniam, V M Bala; Martínez-Monteagudo, Sergio I; Gupta, Rockendra

    2015-01-01

    High pressure processing (HPP) has emerged as a commercially viable food manufacturing tool that satisfies consumers' demand for mildly processed, convenient, fresh-tasting foods with minimal to no preservatives. Pressure treatment, with or without heat, inactivates pathogenic and spoilage bacteria, yeast, mold, viruses, and also spores and extends shelf life. Pressure treatment at ambient or chilled temperatures has minimal impact on product chemistry. The product quality and shelf life are often influenced more by storage conditions and packaging material barrier properties than the treatment itself. Application of pressure reduces the thermal exposure of the food during processing, thereby protecting a variety of bioactive compounds. This review discusses recent scientific advances of high pressure technology for food processing and preservation applications such as pasteurization, sterilization, blanching, freezing, and thawing. We highlight the importance of in situ engineering and thermodynamic properties of food and packaging materials in process design. Current and potential future promising applications of pressure technology are summarized.

  13. Regeneration of Nicotinamide Coenzymes: Principles and Applications for the Synthesis of Chiral Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weckbecker, Andrea; Gröger, Harald; Hummel, Werner

    Dehydrogenases which depend on nicotinamide coenzymes are of increasing interest for the preparation of chiral compounds, either by reduction of a prochiral precursor or by oxidative resolution of their racemate. The regeneration of oxidized and reduced nicotinamide cofactors is a very crucial step because the use of these cofactors in stoichiometric amounts is too expensive for application. There are several possibilities to regenerate nicotinamide cofactors: established methods such as formate/formate dehydrogenase (FDH) for the regeneration of NADH, recently developed electrochemical methods based on new mediator structures, or the application of gene cloning methods for the construction of "designed" cells by heterologous expression of appropriate genes.

  14. Application of PACE Principles for Population Health Management of Frail Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Stefanacci, Richard G; Reich, Shelley; Casiano, Alex

    2015-10-01

    To determine which practices would have the most impact on reducing hospital and emergency department admissions and nursing home placement among older adults with multiple comorbid conditions, a literature search and survey were conducted to identify and prioritize comprehensive care principles as practiced in the Program of All-inclusive Care for the Elderly (PACE). PACE medical directors and members of the PACE interdisciplinary team (IDT) were surveyed to gain their insights on the most impactful practices, which were identified as: End-of-Life Management, Caregiver Support, Management of Red Flags, Medication Management, Participant and Caregiver Health Care System Literacy, and Care Coordination. In addition, this research evaluated measures that could be used to assess an organization's level of success with regard to each of the 6 PACE practices identified. The results reported in this article, found through a survey with PACE medical directors and IDT members concerning effective interventions, can be viewed as strategies to improve care for older adults, enabling them to maintain their independence in the community, avoid the expense of facility-based care, and enhance their quality of life.

  15. First-principles investigations on ionization and thermal conductivity of polystyrene for inertial confinement fusion applications

    DOE PAGES

    Hu, S. X.; Collins, L. A.; Goncharov, V. N.; Kress, J. D.; McCrory, R. L.; Skupsky, S.

    2016-04-14

    Using quantum molecular-dynamics (QMD) methods based on the density functional theory, we have performed first-principles investigations on the ionization and thermal conductivity of polystyrene (CH) over a wide range of plasma conditions (ρ = 0.5 to 100 g/cm3 and T = 15,625 to 500,000 K). The ionization data from orbital-free molecular-dynamics calculations have been fitted with a “Saha-type” model as a function of the CH plasma density and temperature, which exhibits the correct behaviors of continuum lowering and pressure ionization. The thermal conductivities (κQMD) of CH, derived directly from the Kohn–Sham molecular-dynamics calculations, are then analytically fitted with a generalizedmore » Coulomb logarithm [(lnΛ)QMD] over a wide range of plasma conditions. When compared with the traditional ionization and thermal conductivity models used in radiation–hydrodynamics codes for inertial confinement fusion simulations, the QMD results show a large difference in the low-temperature regime in which strong coupling and electron degeneracy play an essential role in determining plasma properties. Furthermore, hydrodynamic simulations of cryogenic deuterium–tritium targets with CH ablators on OMEGA and the National Ignition Facility using the QMD-derived ionization and thermal conductivity of CH have predicted –20% variation in target performance in terms of hot-spot pressure and neutron yield (gain) with respect to traditional model simulations.« less

  16. Developing an approach for first-principles catalyst design: application to carbon-capture catalysis.

    PubMed

    Kulik, Heather J; Wong, Sergio E; Baker, Sarah E; Valdez, Carlos A; Satcher, Joe H; Aines, Roger D; Lightstone, Felice C

    2014-02-01

    An approach to catalyst design is presented in which local potential energy surface models are first built to elucidate design principles and then used to identify larger scaffold motifs that match the target geometries. Carbon sequestration via hydration is used as the model reaction, and three- and four-coordinate sp(2) or sp(3) nitrogen-ligand motifs are considered for Zn(II) metals. The comparison of binding, activation and product release energies over a large range of interaction distances and angles suggests that four-coordinate short Zn(II)-Nsp(3) bond distances favor a rapid turnover for CO2 hydration. This design strategy is then confirmed by computationally characterizing the reactivity of a known mimic over a range of metal-nitrogen bond lengths. A search of existing catalysts in a chemical database reveals structures that match the target geometry from model calculations, and subsequent calculations have identified these structures as potentially effective for CO2 hydration and sequestration. PMID:24508957

  17. Developing an approach for first-principles catalyst design: application to carbon-capture catalysis.

    PubMed

    Kulik, Heather J; Wong, Sergio E; Baker, Sarah E; Valdez, Carlos A; Satcher, Joe H; Aines, Roger D; Lightstone, Felice C

    2014-02-01

    An approach to catalyst design is presented in which local potential energy surface models are first built to elucidate design principles and then used to identify larger scaffold motifs that match the target geometries. Carbon sequestration via hydration is used as the model reaction, and three- and four-coordinate sp(2) or sp(3) nitrogen-ligand motifs are considered for Zn(II) metals. The comparison of binding, activation and product release energies over a large range of interaction distances and angles suggests that four-coordinate short Zn(II)-Nsp(3) bond distances favor a rapid turnover for CO2 hydration. This design strategy is then confirmed by computationally characterizing the reactivity of a known mimic over a range of metal-nitrogen bond lengths. A search of existing catalysts in a chemical database reveals structures that match the target geometry from model calculations, and subsequent calculations have identified these structures as potentially effective for CO2 hydration and sequestration.

  18. In-situ chemical oxidation: Principle and applications of peroxide and persulfate treatments in wastewater systems.

    PubMed

    Devi, Parmila; Das, Umashankar; Dalai, Ajay K

    2016-11-15

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and persulfate are the most efficient and commonly used oxidants in in-situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) of organic contaminants. This review focuses on the principle and activation techniques used in H2O2 and persulfate based ISCO processes. It is crucial to understand the effect of activation techniques on process chemistry and free radicals behaviour in order to achieve high degradation efficiency. The chemistry of interaction of activated H2O2 and persulfate with organic contaminants is complex and many parameters influence the performance of ISCO processes, namely non-productive reactants, reaction intermediates, oxygen and pH. The poor understanding of interaction behaviour and reaction chemistry of oxidants with organic contaminants prevents the utilization of full potential of the process. Therefore, particular attention has been given to the factors affecting degradation efficiency and the performance of ISCO processes. Further, the mechanism of contaminant degradation using activated H2O2 and persulfate significantly differ from each other. The interaction of SO4(-) radical usually involves electron transfer reactions whereas HO radical involve electron-transfer and hydrogen-atom abstraction reactions. Moreover, the research gaps have been identified based on the knowledge of current research and recommendations are made for further understanding of ISCO processes. PMID:27453139

  19. Principles and application of educational counseling used in progressive audiologic tinnitus management.

    PubMed

    Henry, James A; Zaugg, Tara L; Myers, Paula J; Kendall, Caroline J; Turbin, Mitchel B

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to loud sounds is a common cause and exacerbater of tinnitus - a troubling auditory symptom that affects millions of people worldwide. Clinical research at the National Center for Rehabilitative Auditory Research has resulted in a clinical model of tinnitus management referred to as Progressive Audiologic Tinnitus Management (PATM). The model involves five hierarchical levels of management: Triage, Audiologic Evaluation, Group Education, Tinnitus Evaluation, and Individualized Management. Counseling by audiologists and, as needed, mental health providers, is a key component of PATM. This style of counseling focuses less on didactic informational counseling; instead, counseling is used for facilitating patients' learning to adjust to the disturbing auditory symptom by successfully employing tools from two powerful skillsets for self-management of chronic tinnitus - the therapeutic uses of sound and techniques from cognitive-behavioral psychology. This article provides an overview of the methods of counseling used with PATM and provides details concerning the overarching principles of collaborative adult learning that are believed to be most important in facilitating self-management by patients who complain of tinnitus. PMID:19265252

  20. Principles and applications of Ligation Mediated PCR methods for DNA-based typing of microbial organisms.

    PubMed

    Krawczyk, Beata; Kur, Józef; Stojowska-Swędrzyńska, Karolina; Śpibida, Marta

    2016-01-01

    A significant number of DNA-based techniques has been introduced into the field of microorganisms' characterization and taxonomy. These genomic fingerprinting methods were developed to detect DNA sequence polymorphisms by using general principles, such as restriction endonuclease analysis, molecular hybridization, and PCR amplification. In recent years, some alternative techniques based on ligation of oligonucleotide adapters before DNA amplification by PCR, known as Ligation-Mediated PCR methods (LM PCR), have been successfully applied for the typing of microorganisms below the species level. These molecular methods include: Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP), Amplification of DNA fragments Surrounding Rare Restriction Sites (ADSRRS), PCR Melting Profiles (PCR MP), Ligation Mediated PCR/Shifter (LM PCR/Shifter), Infrequent-Restriction-Site Amplification (IRS PCR), double digestion Ligation Mediated Suppression PCR (ddLMS PCR). These techniques are now applied more and more often because they involve less time, are comparably inexpensive, and require only standard lab equipment. Here, we present a general review of this group of methods showing their possibilities and limitations. We also identify questions and propose solutions which may be helpful in choosing a particular LM PCR method for the achievement of the required goal.

  1. Qualitative Research in Emergency Care Part I: Research Principles and Common Applications.

    PubMed

    Choo, Esther K; Garro, Aris C; Ranney, Megan L; Meisel, Zachary F; Morrow Guthrie, Kate

    2015-09-01

    Qualitative methods are increasingly being used in emergency care research. Rigorous qualitative methods can play a critical role in advancing the emergency care research agenda by allowing investigators to generate hypotheses, gain an in-depth understanding of health problems or specific populations, create expert consensus, and develop new intervention and dissemination strategies. This article, Part I of a two-article series, provides an introduction to general principles of applied qualitative health research and examples of its common use in emergency care research, describing study designs and data collection methods most relevant to our field, including observation, individual interviews, and focus groups. In Part II of this series, we will outline the specific steps necessary to conduct a valid and reliable qualitative research project, with a focus on interview-based studies. These elements include building the research team, preparing data collection guides, defining and obtaining an adequate sample, collecting and organizing qualitative data, and coding and analyzing the data. We also discuss potential ethical considerations unique to qualitative research as it relates to emergency care research.

  2. Principles and applications of Ligation Mediated PCR methods for DNA-based typing of microbial organisms.

    PubMed

    Krawczyk, Beata; Kur, Józef; Stojowska-Swędrzyńska, Karolina; Śpibida, Marta

    2016-01-01

    A significant number of DNA-based techniques has been introduced into the field of microorganisms' characterization and taxonomy. These genomic fingerprinting methods were developed to detect DNA sequence polymorphisms by using general principles, such as restriction endonuclease analysis, molecular hybridization, and PCR amplification. In recent years, some alternative techniques based on ligation of oligonucleotide adapters before DNA amplification by PCR, known as Ligation-Mediated PCR methods (LM PCR), have been successfully applied for the typing of microorganisms below the species level. These molecular methods include: Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP), Amplification of DNA fragments Surrounding Rare Restriction Sites (ADSRRS), PCR Melting Profiles (PCR MP), Ligation Mediated PCR/Shifter (LM PCR/Shifter), Infrequent-Restriction-Site Amplification (IRS PCR), double digestion Ligation Mediated Suppression PCR (ddLMS PCR). These techniques are now applied more and more often because they involve less time, are comparably inexpensive, and require only standard lab equipment. Here, we present a general review of this group of methods showing their possibilities and limitations. We also identify questions and propose solutions which may be helpful in choosing a particular LM PCR method for the achievement of the required goal. PMID:26885774

  3. Steady-state flux ratio analysis: application to biological transport.

    PubMed

    Wagg, J; Chapman, J B

    1995-05-01

    A thermodynamically constrained method of flux ratio analysis, based upon a previously developed thermodynamic rate ratio equation has been developed. In this paper it is demonstrated that, for a complex reaction, application of the thermodynamic rate ratio equation may provide a useful tool for the interpretation of unidirectional flux data thought to be mediated by the reaction, provided that: (i) a clearly defined mechanism for the reaction has been proposed; (ii) a set of partial reaction components may be defined for the reaction from the proposed mechanism, with the rate ratio of at least one of these components being amenable to experimental measurement. This paper defines the conditions for which the rate ratio of a component reaction may be measured, and illustrates the basic principles underlying this approach to flux ratio analysis by direct application to a number of hypothetical mechanisms for biological transport phenomena.

  4. 12 CFR 611.350 - Application of cooperative principles to the election of directors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... SYSTEM ORGANIZATION Election of Directors and Other Voting Procedures § 611.350 Application of... this chapter, unless otherwise required by statute or regulation. (a) Each voting stockholder of an... of loans outstanding. Each voting stockholder-association of a Farm Credit Bank has only one...

  5. Two Essays on Learning Disabilities in the Application of Fundamental Financial Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auciello, Daria Joy

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation consists of two essays which examine the relationship between dyslexia and the application and acquisition of financial knowledge. Recent behavioral research has documented that factors such as representativeness, overconfidence, loss aversion, naivete, wealth, age and gender all impact a person's risk perception and asset…

  6. 24 CFR 1003.501 - Applicability of uniform administrative requirements and cost principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... (14) Section 85.37, “Subgrants”. (15) Section 85.40, “Monitoring and reporting program performance... the grant period as defined in 24 CFR 85.25, the proceeds shall be program income; and (ii) Equipment... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Applicability of...

  7. Factor Analysis in Counseling Psychology Research, Training, and Practice: Principles, Advances, and Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Jeffrey H.

    2006-01-01

    Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) have contributed to test development and validation in counseling psychology, but additional applications have not been fully realized. The author presents an overview of the goals, terminology, and procedures of factor analysis; reviews best practices for extracting,…

  8. Application of Cognitive Science Principles: Instructional Heuristics and Mechanisms for Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montague, William E.

    Cognitive science is briefly reviewed, and its implications for instructional design are discussed. The application of cognitive science to instruction requires knowledge of cognitive science, the subject content taught, and the system in which the instruction is imbedded. The central concept of cognitive science is mental representation--the…

  9. 24 CFR 1003.501 - Applicability of uniform administrative requirements and cost principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ‘high-risk’ grantees”. (4) Section 85.20, “Standards for financial management systems,” except paragraph... 24 CFR part 44) and with the following sections of 24 CFR part 85 “Uniform Administrative... and suspended parties”. (13) Section 85.36, “Procurement,” except paragraphs (a) States,...

  10. 24 CFR 1003.501 - Applicability of uniform administrative requirements and cost principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ‘high-risk’ grantees”. (4) Section 85.20, “Standards for financial management systems,” except paragraph... 24 CFR part 44) and with the following sections of 24 CFR part 85 “Uniform Administrative... and suspended parties”. (13) Section 85.36, “Procurement,” except paragraphs (a) States,...

  11. Frequency-localization Duhamel principle and its application to the optimal decay of dissipative systems in low dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jiang; Kawashima, Shuichi

    2016-09-01

    Recently, a time-decay framework L2 (Rn) ∩ B˙2, ∞ - s (Rn) (s > 0) has been given by [49] for linearized dissipative hyperbolic systems, which allows to pay less attention to the traditional spectral analysis. However, owing to interpolation techniques, those decay results for nonlinear hyperbolic systems hold true only in higher dimensions (n ≥ 3), and the analysis in low dimensions (say, n = 1 , 2) was left open. We try to give a satisfactory answer in the current work. First of all, we develop new time-decay properties on the frequency-localization Duhamel principle, and then it is shown that the classical solution and its derivatives of fractional order decay at the optimal algebraic rate in dimensions n = 1 , 2, by using a new technique which is the so-called "piecewise Duhamel principle" in localized time-weighted energy approaches compared to [49]. Finally, as direct applications, explicit decay statements are worked out for some relevant examples subjected to the same dissipative structure, for instance, damped compressible Euler equations, the thermoelasticity with second sound, and Timoshenko systems with equal wave speeds.

  12. A Dendritic Mechanism for Decoding Traveling Waves: Principles and Applications to Motor Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Heitmann, Stewart; Boonstra, Tjeerd; Breakspear, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Traveling waves of neuronal oscillations have been observed in many cortical regions, including the motor and sensory cortex. Such waves are often modulated in a task-dependent fashion although their precise functional role remains a matter of debate. Here we conjecture that the cortex can utilize the direction and wavelength of traveling waves to encode information. We present a novel neural mechanism by which such information may be decoded by the spatial arrangement of receptors within the dendritic receptor field. In particular, we show how the density distributions of excitatory and inhibitory receptors can combine to act as a spatial filter of wave patterns. The proposed dendritic mechanism ensures that the neuron selectively responds to specific wave patterns, thus constituting a neural basis of pattern decoding. We validate this proposal in the descending motor system, where we model the large receptor fields of the pyramidal tract neurons — the principle outputs of the motor cortex — decoding motor commands encoded in the direction of traveling wave patterns in motor cortex. We use an existing model of field oscillations in motor cortex to investigate how the topology of the pyramidal cell receptor field acts to tune the cells responses to specific oscillatory wave patterns, even when those patterns are highly degraded. The model replicates key findings of the descending motor system during simple motor tasks, including variable interspike intervals and weak corticospinal coherence. By additionally showing how the nature of the wave patterns can be controlled by modulating the topology of local intra-cortical connections, we hence propose a novel integrated neuronal model of encoding and decoding motor commands. PMID:24204220

  13. First-principles investigations on ionization and thermal conductivity of polystyrene for inertial confinement fusion applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, S. X.; Collins, L. A.; Goncharov, V. N.; Kress, J. D.; McCrory, R. L.; Skupsky, S.

    2016-04-01

    Using quantum molecular-dynamics (QMD) methods based on the density functional theory, we have performed first-principles investigations of the ionization and thermal conductivity of polystyrene (CH) over a wide range of plasma conditions (ρ = 0.5 to 100 g/cm3 and T = 15 625 to 500 000 K). The ionization data from orbital-free molecular-dynamics calculations have been fitted with a "Saha-type" model as a function of the CH plasma density and temperature, which gives an increasing ionization as the CH density increases even at low temperatures (T < 50 eV). The orbital-free molecular dynamics method is only used to gauge the average ionization behavior of CH under the average-atom model in conjunction with the pressure-matching mixing rule. The thermal conductivities (κQMD) of CH, derived directly from the Kohn-Sham molecular-dynamics calculations, are then analytically fitted with a generalized Coulomb logarithm [(lnΛ)QMD] over a wide range of plasma conditions. When compared with the traditional ionization and thermal conductivity models used in radiation-hydrodynamics codes for inertial confinement fusion simulations, the QMD results show a large difference in the low-temperature regime in which strong coupling and electron degeneracy play an essential role in determining plasma properties. Hydrodynamic simulations of cryogenic deuterium-tritium targets with CH ablators on OMEGA and the National Ignition Facility using the QMD-derived ionization and thermal conductivity of CH have predicted ˜20% variation in target performance in terms of hot-spot pressure and neutron yield (gain) with respect to traditional model simulations.

  14. First-principles opacity table of warm dense deuterium for inertial-confinement-fusion applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, S. X.; Collins, L. A.; Goncharov, V. N.; Boehly, T. R.; Epstein, R.; McCrory, R. L.; Skupsky, S.

    2014-09-01

    Accurate knowledge of the optical properties of a warm dense deuterium-tritium (DT) mixture is important for reliable design of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions using radiation-hydrodynamics simulations. The opacity of a warm dense DT shell essentially determines how much radiation from hot coronal plasmas can be deposited in the DT fuel of an imploding capsule. Even for the simplest species of hydrogen, the accurate calculation of their opacities remains a challenge in the warm-dense matter regime because strong-coupling and quantum effects play an important role in such plasmas. With quantum-molecular-dynamics (QMD) simulations, we have derived a first-principles opacity table (FPOT) of deuterium (and the DT mixture by mass scaling) for a wide range of densities from ρD=0.5 to 673.518g/cm3 and temperatures from T=5000K up to the Fermi temperature TF for each density. Compared with results from the astrophysics opacity table (AOT) currently used in our hydrocodes, the FPOT of deuterium from our QMD calculations has shown a significant increase in opacity for strongly coupled and degenerate plasma conditions by a factor of 3-100 in the ICF-relevant photon-energy range. As conditions approach those of classical plasma, the opacity from the FPOT converges to the corresponding values of the AOT. By implementing the FPOT of deuterium and the DT mixture into our hydrocodes, we have performed radiation-hydrodynamics simulations for low-adiabat cryogenic DT implosions on the OMEGA laser and for direct-drive-ignition designs for the National Ignition Facility. The simulation results using the FPOT show that the target performance (in terms of neutron yield and energy gain) could vary from ˜10% up to a factor of ˜2 depending on the adiabat of the imploding DT capsule; the lower the adiabat, the more variation is seen in the prediction of target performance when compared to the AOT modeling.

  15. The principles of ultrasound and its application in freezing related processes of food materials: A review.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xinfeng; Zhang, Min; Xu, Baoguo; Adhikari, Benu; Sun, Jincai

    2015-11-01

    Ultrasonic processing is a novel and promising technology in food industry. The propagation of ultrasound in a medium generates various physical and chemical effects and these effects have been harnessed to improve the efficiency of various food processing operations. Ultrasound has also been used in food quality control as diagnostic technology. This article provides an overview of recent developments related to the application of ultrasound in low temperature and closely related processes such as freezing, thawing, freeze concentration and freeze drying. The applications of high intensity ultrasound to improve the efficiency of freezing process, to control the size and size distribution of ice crystals and to improve the quality of frozen foods have been discussed in considerable detail. The use of low intensity ultrasound in monitoring the ice content and to monitor the progress of freezing process has also been highlighted.

  16. Fiber optic wavelength division multiplexing: Principles and applications in telecommunications and spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erdmann, R. K.; Walton, B. D.

    1988-01-01

    Design and fabrication tradeoffs of wavelength division multiplexers are discussed and performance parameters are given. The same multiplexer construction based on prism gratings has been used in spectroscopic applications, in the wavelength region from 450 to 1600 nm. For shorter wavelengths down to 200 nm, a similar instrument based on longer fibers (500 to 1000 micrometer) has been constructed and tested with both a fiber array and a photodiode detector array at the output.

  17. Clinical and Biological Principles of Cold Atmospheric Plasma Application in Skin Cancer.

    PubMed

    Gay-Mimbrera, Jesús; García, Maria Carmen; Isla-Tejera, Beatriz; Rodero-Serrano, Antonio; García-Nieto, Antonio Vélez; Ruano, Juan

    2016-06-01

    Plasma-based electrosurgical devices have long been employed for tissue coagulation, cutting, desiccation, and cauterizing. Despite their clinical benefits, these technologies involve tissue heating and their effects are primarily heat-mediated. Recently, there have been significant developments in cold atmospheric pressure plasma (CAP) science and engineering. New sources of CAP with well-controlled temperatures below 40 °C have been designed, permitting safe plasma application on animal and human bodies. In the last decade, a new innovative field, often referred to as plasma medicine, which combines plasma physics, life science, and clinical medicine has emerged. This field aims to exploit effects of mild plasma by controlling the interactions between plasma components (and other secondary species that can be formed from these components) with specific structural elements and functionalities of living cells. Recent studies showed that CAP can exert beneficial effects when applied selectively in certain pathologies with minimal toxicity to normal tissues. The rapid increase in new investigations and development of various devices for CAP application suggest early adoption of cold plasma as a new tool in the biomedical field. This review explores the latest major achievements in the field, focusing on the biological effects, mechanisms of action, and clinical evidence of CAP applications in areas such as skin disinfection, tissue regeneration, chronic wounds, and cancer treatment. This information may serve as a foundation for the design of future clinical trials to assess the efficacy and safety of CAP as an adjuvant therapy for skin cancer.

  18. Engineering applications of a dynamical state feedback chaotification method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şahin, Savaş; Güzeliş, Cüneyt

    2012-09-01

    This paper presents two engineering applications of a chaotification method which can be applied to any inputstate linearizable (nonlinear) system including linear controllable ones as special cases. In the used chaotification method, a reference chaotic and linear system can be combined into a special form by a dynamical state feedback increasing the order of the open loop system to have the same chaotic dynamics with the reference chaotic system. Promising dc motor applications of the method are implemented by the proposed dynamical state feedback which is based on matching the closed loop dynamics to the well known Chua and also Lorenz chaotic systems. The first application, which is the chaotified dc motor used for mixing a corn syrup added acid-base mixture, is implemented via a personal computer and a microcontroller based circuit. As a second application, a chaotified dc motor with a taco-generator used in the feedback is realized by using fully analog circuit elements.

  19. Bernoulli's Principle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Paul G.

    2004-01-01

    Some teachers have difficulty understanding Bernoulli's principle particularly when the principle is applied to the aerodynamic lift. Some teachers favor using Newton's laws instead of Bernoulli's principle to explain the physics behind lift. Some also consider Bernoulli's principle too difficult to explain to students and avoid teaching it…

  20. Application of Transformational Leadership Principles in the Development and Integration of Palliative Care Within an Advanced Heart Failure Program.

    PubMed

    George, Susan; Leasure, A Renee

    2016-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) is a major health problem in United States, and it has reached epidemic proportions. Heart failure is associated with significant morbidity, mortality, and cost. Although the prognosis of HF is worse than many forms of cancer, many patients, families, and clinicians are unaware of the dire prognosis. As the disease progress to advanced HF, patients are faced with many challenges, such as poor quality of life due to worsening symptoms and frequent hospitalizations. Heart failure management adds significant financial burden to the health care system. Palliative care can be integrated into HF care to improve quality of life and symptom management and to address physical, spiritual, and psychosocial needs of patients and families. Palliative care can be used concurrently with or independent of curative or life-prolonging HF therapies. Transformational leadership principles were used to guide the development of a plan to enhance integration of palliative care within traditional advanced HF care. PMID:26836596

  1. Application of Transformational Leadership Principles in the Development and Integration of Palliative Care Within an Advanced Heart Failure Program.

    PubMed

    George, Susan; Leasure, A Renee

    2016-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) is a major health problem in United States, and it has reached epidemic proportions. Heart failure is associated with significant morbidity, mortality, and cost. Although the prognosis of HF is worse than many forms of cancer, many patients, families, and clinicians are unaware of the dire prognosis. As the disease progress to advanced HF, patients are faced with many challenges, such as poor quality of life due to worsening symptoms and frequent hospitalizations. Heart failure management adds significant financial burden to the health care system. Palliative care can be integrated into HF care to improve quality of life and symptom management and to address physical, spiritual, and psychosocial needs of patients and families. Palliative care can be used concurrently with or independent of curative or life-prolonging HF therapies. Transformational leadership principles were used to guide the development of a plan to enhance integration of palliative care within traditional advanced HF care.

  2. First-principles thermal conductivity of warm-dense deuterium plasmas for inertial confinement fusion applications.

    PubMed

    Hu, S X; Collins, L A; Boehly, T R; Kress, J D; Goncharov, V N; Skupsky, S

    2014-04-01

    Thermal conductivity (κ) of both the ablator materials and deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel plays an important role in understanding and designing inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions. The extensively used Spitzer model for thermal conduction in ideal plasmas breaks down for high-density, low-temperature shells that are compressed by shocks and spherical convergence in imploding targets. A variety of thermal-conductivity models have been proposed for ICF hydrodynamic simulations of such coupled and degenerate plasmas. The accuracy of these κ models for DT plasmas has recently been tested against first-principles calculations using the quantum molecular-dynamics (QMD) method; although mainly for high densities (ρ > 100 g/cm3), large discrepancies in κ have been identified for the peak-compression conditions in ICF. To cover the wide range of density-temperature conditions undergone by ICF imploding fuel shells, we have performed QMD calculations of κ for a variety of deuterium densities of ρ = 1.0 to 673.518 g/cm3, at temperatures varying from T = 5 × 103 K to T = 8 × 106 K. The resulting κQMD of deuterium is fitted with a polynomial function of the coupling and degeneracy parameters Γ and θ, which can then be used in hydrodynamic simulation codes. Compared with the "hybrid" Spitzer-Lee-More model currently adopted in our hydrocode lilac, the hydrosimulations using the fitted κQMD have shown up to ∼20% variations in predicting target performance for different ICF implosions on OMEGA and direct-drive-ignition designs for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The lower the adiabat of an imploding shell, the more variations in predicting target performance using κQMD. Moreover, the use of κQMD also modifies the shock conditions and the density-temperature profiles of the imploding shell at early implosion stage, which predominantly affects the final target performance. This is in contrast to the previous speculation that κQMD changes mainly the

  3. First-principles opacity table of warm dense deuterium for inertial-confinement-fusion applications.

    PubMed

    Hu, S X; Collins, L A; Goncharov, V N; Boehly, T R; Epstein, R; McCrory, R L; Skupsky, S

    2014-09-01

    Accurate knowledge of the optical properties of a warm dense deuterium-tritium (DT) mixture is important for reliable design of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions using radiation-hydrodynamics simulations. The opacity of a warm dense DT shell essentially determines how much radiation from hot coronal plasmas can be deposited in the DT fuel of an imploding capsule. Even for the simplest species of hydrogen, the accurate calculation of their opacities remains a challenge in the warm-dense matter regime because strong-coupling and quantum effects play an important role in such plasmas. With quantum-molecular-dynamics (QMD) simulations, we have derived a first-principles opacity table (FPOT) of deuterium (and the DT mixture by mass scaling) for a wide range of densities from ρ(D)=0.5 to 673.518g/cm(3) and temperatures from T=5000K up to the Fermi temperature T(F) for each density. Compared with results from the astrophysics opacity table (AOT) currently used in our hydrocodes, the FPOT of deuterium from our QMD calculations has shown a significant increase in opacity for strongly coupled and degenerate plasma conditions by a factor of 3-100 in the ICF-relevant photon-energy range. As conditions approach those of classical plasma, the opacity from the FPOT converges to the corresponding values of the AOT. By implementing the FPOT of deuterium and the DT mixture into our hydrocodes, we have performed radiation-hydrodynamics simulations for low-adiabat cryogenic DT implosions on the OMEGA laser and for direct-drive-ignition designs for the National Ignition Facility. The simulation results using the FPOT show that the target performance (in terms of neutron yield and energy gain) could vary from ∼10% up to a factor of ∼2 depending on the adiabat of the imploding DT capsule; the lower the adiabat, the more variation is seen in the prediction of target performance when compared to the AOT modeling. PMID:25314551

  4. First-principles thermal conductivity of warm-dense deuterium plasmas for inertial confinement fusion applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, S. X.; Collins, L. A.; Boehly, T. R.; Kress, J. D.; Goncharov, V. N.; Skupsky, S.

    2014-04-01

    Thermal conductivity (κ) of both the ablator materials and deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel plays an important role in understanding and designing inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions. The extensively used Spitzer model for thermal conduction in ideal plasmas breaks down for high-density, low-temperature shells that are compressed by shocks and spherical convergence in imploding targets. A variety of thermal-conductivity models have been proposed for ICF hydrodynamic simulations of such coupled and degenerate plasmas. The accuracy of these κ models for DT plasmas has recently been tested against first-principles calculations using the quantum molecular-dynamics (QMD) method; although mainly for high densities (ρ > 100 g/cm3), large discrepancies in κ have been identified for the peak-compression conditions in ICF. To cover the wide range of density-temperature conditions undergone by ICF imploding fuel shells, we have performed QMD calculations of κ for a variety of deuterium densities of ρ = 1.0 to 673.518 g/cm3, at temperatures varying from T = 5 × 103 K to T = 8 × 106 K. The resulting κQMD of deuterium is fitted with a polynomial function of the coupling and degeneracy parameters Γ and θ, which can then be used in hydrodynamic simulation codes. Compared with the "hybrid" Spitzer-Lee-More model currently adopted in our hydrocode lilac, the hydrosimulations using the fitted κQMD have shown up to ˜20% variations in predicting target performance for different ICF implosions on OMEGA and direct-drive-ignition designs for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The lower the adiabat of an imploding shell, the more variations in predicting target performance using κQMD. Moreover, the use of κQMD also modifies the shock conditions and the density-temperature profiles of the imploding shell at early implosion stage, which predominantly affects the final target performance. This is in contrast to the previous speculation that κQMD changes mainly the

  5. The principles and application of geoelectrochemical sampling for mineral exploration and environmental testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Blaricom, Richard

    A study was initiated to determine if electrochemical sampling techniques could be effectively utilized to test for ions associated with a metallic ore body or those associated with environmental monitoring. The basis for this study is the Russian technique "CHIM" an acronym for "Chastichnoe Isvlechenniye Mettalov," meaning "partial extraction of metals". The term, geoelectrochemistry, was coined to more accurately explain the technique of electrochemistry in a geological environment. This dissertation studies the ions in the earth and in varying detail the production, the dispersion, the electric mobility, and the collection and analysis of cations. A multi-discipline study consisting of geophysics, electrochemistry, geology, hydrology, and soil physics was undertaken to gain a better understanding of the concepts involved. The study developed several modifications of existing equations, several new equations to explain the movement of cations in the rocks and soils, and two patents. Laboratory experiments were performed to gain a better understanding of basic principles and to develop new concepts. This resulted in developing "Linear Ion Accelerators" and the concepts of "No Flow Boundaries", and "Ionic Streaming Tubes". The potential for geoelectrochemical sampling was soon determined, and there was room for improvement. The equipment and techniques developed can be used on the surface or in drill holes. A high negative potential voltage is applied as a force to move cations towards a collecting device. A collecting cathode using cation exchange resins along with a plate of titanium for the cathode in the collecting electrode was invented. This is called a "collectrode" (collecting electrode). These collect essentially 100% of the attracted cations. The cation exchange resins along with the collected cations are dried and ashed. The resulting ash is later analyzed using standard ICP techniques. The technique is both repeatable and accurate. The equipment and

  6. Regeneration of nicotinamide coenzymes: principles and applications for the synthesis of chiral compounds.

    PubMed

    Weckbecker, Andrea; Gröger, Harald; Hummel, Werner

    2010-01-01

    Dehydrogenases which depend on nicotinamide coenzymes are of increasing interest for the preparation of chiral compounds, either by reduction of a prochiral precursor or by oxidative resolution of their racemate. The regeneration of oxidized and reduced nicotinamide cofactors is a very crucial step because the use of these cofactors in stoichiometric amounts is too expensive for application. There are several possibilities to regenerate nicotinamide cofactors: established methods such as formate/formate dehydrogenase (FDH) for the regeneration of NADH, recently developed electrochemical methods based on new mediator structures, or the application of gene cloning methods for the construction of "designed" cells by heterologous expression of appropriate genes.A very promising approach is enzymatic cofactor regeneration. Only a few enzymes are suitable for the regeneration of oxidized nicotinamide cofactors. Glutamate dehydrogenase can be used for the oxidation of NADH as well as NADPH while L: -lactate dehydrogenase is able to oxidize NADH only. The reduction of NAD(+) is carried out by formate and FDH. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and glucose dehydrogenase are able to reduce both NAD(+) and NADP(+). Alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs) are either NAD(+)- or NADP(+)-specific. ADH from horse liver, for example, reduces NAD(+) while ADHs from Lactobacillus strains catalyze the reduction of NADP(+). These enzymes can be applied by their inclusion in whole cell biotransformations with an NAD(P)(+)-dependent primary reaction to achieve in situ the regeneration of the consumed cofactor.Another efficient method for the regeneration of nicotinamide cofactors is the electrochemical approach. Cofactors can be regenerated directly, for example at a carbon anode, or indirectly involving mediators such as redox catalysts based on transition-metal complexes.An increasing number of examples in technical scale applications are known where nicotinamide dependent enzymes were used

  7. Guiding Principles in the Design of Molecular Bioconjugates for Vaccine Applications

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Haipeng; Irvine, Darrell J.

    2015-01-01

    Antigen- and adjuvant-based bioconjugates that can stimulate the immune system play an important role in vaccine applications. Bioconjugates have demonstrated unique physicochemical and biological properties, enabling vaccines to be delivered to key immune cells, to target specific intracellular pathways, or to mimic immunogenic properties of natural pathogens. In this review we highlight recent advances in such molecular immunomodulators, with an emphasis on the structure-function relationships that provide the foundation for rational design of safe and effective vaccines and immunotherapies. PMID:25822926

  8. [Measurement of human body fat by means of gravimetry. Application of Archimedes' principle].

    PubMed

    Dettwiler, W; Ribordy, M; Donath, A; Scherrer, J R

    1978-12-01

    The weighing of the human body under water is an application of Archimedes' law. Fat being lighter than water or than the structures of lean body mass, body fat can be measured by determining the specific gravity of the human body; that is, by underwater weighing. Body fat has been determined in an "ideal" sample of 14 men and 23 women, all aged 20 years. Testing against a reference measure of body fat makes it possible to test the validity of some anthropometric measurements and of some indices of obesity. These indices offer no advantages over anthropometric measurements.

  9. Dual-Energy Computed Tomography Characterization of Urinary Calculi: Basic Principles, Applications and Concerns.

    PubMed

    Mansouri, Mohammad; Aran, Shima; Singh, Ajay; Kambadakone, Avinash R; Sahani, Dushyant V; Lev, Michael H; Abujudeh, Hani H

    2015-01-01

    Dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) is based on obtaining 2 data sets with different peak kilovoltages from the same anatomical region, and material decomposition based on attenuation differences at different energy levels. Several DECT technologies are available such as: the dual-source CT, the fast kilovoltage-switching method, and the sandwich detectors technique. Calculi are detectable using iodine subtraction techniques. DECT also helps characterization of renal stone composition. The advanced postprocessing application enables differentiation of various renal stone types. Calculation of water content using spectral imaging is useful to diagnose urinary obstruction. PMID:26183068

  10. Dual-Energy Computed Tomography Characterization of Urinary Calculi: Basic Principles, Applications and Concerns.

    PubMed

    Mansouri, Mohammad; Aran, Shima; Singh, Ajay; Kambadakone, Avinash R; Sahani, Dushyant V; Lev, Michael H; Abujudeh, Hani H

    2015-01-01

    Dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) is based on obtaining 2 data sets with different peak kilovoltages from the same anatomical region, and material decomposition based on attenuation differences at different energy levels. Several DECT technologies are available such as: the dual-source CT, the fast kilovoltage-switching method, and the sandwich detectors technique. Calculi are detectable using iodine subtraction techniques. DECT also helps characterization of renal stone composition. The advanced postprocessing application enables differentiation of various renal stone types. Calculation of water content using spectral imaging is useful to diagnose urinary obstruction.

  11. Application and principles of photon-doppler velocimetry for explosives testing

    SciTech Connect

    Briggs, Matthew Ellsworth; Hill, Larry; Hull, Larry; Shimas, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The velocimetry technique PDV is easier to field than its predecessors VISAR and Fabry-Perot, works on a broader variety of experiments, and is more accurate and simple to analyze. Experiments and analysis have now demonstrated the accuracy, precision and interpretation of what PDV does and does not measure, and the successful application of POV to basic and applied detonation problems. We present a selection of results intended to help workers assess the capabilities of PDV. First we present general considerations about the technique: various PDV configurations, single-signal, multisignal (e.g., triature) and frequency-shifted PDV; what types of motion are sensed and missed by PDV; analysis schemes for velocity and position extraction; accuracy and precision of the results; and, experimental considerations for probe selection and positioning. We then present the status of various applications: detonation speeds and wall motion in cylinder tests, breakout velocity distributions from bare HE, ejecta, measurements from fibers embedded in HE, projectile velocity, resolving 2 and 3-D velocity vectors. This paper is an overview of work done by many groups around the world.

  12. Radio frequency heating of foods: principles, applications and related properties--a review.

    PubMed

    Piyasena, Punidadas; Dussault, Chantal; Koutchma, Tatiana; Ramaswamy, H S; Awuah, G B

    2003-01-01

    Radio frequency (RF) heating is a promising technology for food applications because of the associated rapid and uniform heat distribution, large penetration depth and lower energy consumption. Radio frequency heating has been successfully applied for drying, baking and thawing of frozen meat and in meat processing. However, its use in continuous pasteurization and sterilization of foods is rather limited. During RF heating, heat is generated within the product due to molecular friction resulting from oscillating molecules and ions caused by the applied alternating electric field. RF heating is influenced principally by the dielectric properties of the product when other conditions are kept constant. This review deals with the current status of RF heating applications in food processing, as well as product and system specific factors that influence the RF heating. It is evident that frequency level, temperature and properties of food, such as viscosity, water content and chemical composition affect the dielectric properties and thus the RF heating of foods. Therefore, these parameters should be taken into account when designing a radio frequency heating system for foods.

  13. First principles investigations of vinazene molecule and molecular crystal: a prospective candidate for organic photovoltaic applications.

    PubMed

    Mohamad, Mazmira; Ahmed, Rashid; Shaari, Amirudin; Goumri-Said, Souraya

    2015-02-01

    Escalating demand for sustainable energy resources, because of the rapid exhaustion of conventional energy resources as well as to maintain the environmental level of carbon dioxide (CO2) to avoid its adverse effect on the climate, has led to the exploitation of photovoltaic technology manifold more than ever. In this regard organic materials have attracted great attention on account of demonstrating their potential to harvest solar energy at an affordable rate for photovoltaic technology. 2-vinyl-4,5-dicyanoimidazole (vinazene) is considered as a suitable material over the fullerenes for photovoltaic applications because of its particular chemical and physical nature. In the present study, DFT approaches are employed to provide an exposition of optoelectronic properties of vinazene molecule and molecular crystal. To gain insight into its properties, different forms of exchange correlation energy functional/potential such as LDA, GGA, BLYP, and BL3YP are used. Calculated electronic structure of vinazene molecule has been displayed via HOMO-LUMO isosurfaces, whereas electronic structure of the vinazene molecular crystal, via electronic band structure, is presented. The calculated electronic and optical properties were analyzed and compared as well. Our results endorse vinazene as a suitable material for organic photovoltaic applications.

  14. Transient plant transformation mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens: Principles, methods and applications.

    PubMed

    Krenek, Pavel; Samajova, Olga; Luptovciak, Ivan; Doskocilova, Anna; Komis, George; Samaj, Jozef

    2015-11-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens is widely used as a versatile tool for development of stably transformed model plants and crops. However, the development of Agrobacterium based transient plant transformation methods attracted substantial attention in recent years. Transient transformation methods offer several applications advancing stable transformations such as rapid and scalable recombinant protein production and in planta functional genomics studies. Herein, we highlight Agrobacterium and plant genetics factors affecting transfer of T-DNA from Agrobacterium into the plant cell nucleus and subsequent transient transgene expression. We also review recent methods concerning Agrobacterium mediated transient transformation of model plants and crops and outline key physical, physiological and genetic factors leading to their successful establishment. Of interest are especially Agrobacterium based reverse genetics studies in economically important crops relying on use of RNA interference (RNAi) or virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) technology. The applications of Agrobacterium based transient plant transformation technology in biotech industry are presented in thorough detail. These involve production of recombinant proteins (plantibodies, vaccines and therapeutics) and effectoromics-assisted breeding of late blight resistance in potato. In addition, we also discuss biotechnological potential of recombinant GFP technology and present own examples of successful Agrobacterium mediated transient plant transformations.

  15. Principles and satellite applications of the information-efficient spectral imaging sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Stallard, B.R.; Gentry, S.M.; Sweatt, W.C.; Motomatsu, S.E.; Boye, C.A.

    1997-06-01

    Remote sensing by satellite is increasingly important to the national government for treaty verification, battlefield monitoring, and other activities. In addition, civilian oriented applications are increasing in areas such as geology, meteorology, ecology, forestry, and agriculture. Spectral imaging sensors, an important subclass of satellite-borne sensors, have been shown to provide information far superior to that of conventional panchromatic images in many of these applications. However, spectral imaging adds at least two challenges to the already difficult task of viewing the earth from a distance of hundreds of kilometers. First, with numerous spectral channels, the signal-to-noise ratio is decreased in any one channel. Second the data rates of spectral imaging sensors (10 Mbytes/sec, or more) stress the limits of the electronic systems, including the onboard data storage, the downlink bandwidth, and the earthbound image analysis system. This report describes a new concept which the authors have dubbed the information-efficient spectral imaging sensor (ISIS) which addresses these two problems. In addition, it offers the promise of nearly real-time identification of targets.

  16. Radio frequency heating of foods: principles, applications and related properties--a review.

    PubMed

    Piyasena, Punidadas; Dussault, Chantal; Koutchma, Tatiana; Ramaswamy, H S; Awuah, G B

    2003-01-01

    Radio frequency (RF) heating is a promising technology for food applications because of the associated rapid and uniform heat distribution, large penetration depth and lower energy consumption. Radio frequency heating has been successfully applied for drying, baking and thawing of frozen meat and in meat processing. However, its use in continuous pasteurization and sterilization of foods is rather limited. During RF heating, heat is generated within the product due to molecular friction resulting from oscillating molecules and ions caused by the applied alternating electric field. RF heating is influenced principally by the dielectric properties of the product when other conditions are kept constant. This review deals with the current status of RF heating applications in food processing, as well as product and system specific factors that influence the RF heating. It is evident that frequency level, temperature and properties of food, such as viscosity, water content and chemical composition affect the dielectric properties and thus the RF heating of foods. Therefore, these parameters should be taken into account when designing a radio frequency heating system for foods. PMID:14669879

  17. Medical applications of Raman spectroscopy: from proof of principle to clinical implementation.

    PubMed

    Choo-Smith, L-P; Edwards, H G M; Endtz, H P; Kros, J M; Heule, F; Barr, H; Robinson, J S; Bruining, H A; Puppels, G J

    2002-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy has recently been applied ex vivo and in vivo to address various biomedical issues such as the early detection of cancers, monitoring of the effect of various agents on the skin, determination of atherosclerotic plaque composition, and rapid identification of pathogenic microorganisms. This leap in the number of applications and the number of groups active in this field has been facilitated by several technological advancements in lasers, CCD detectors, and fiber-optic probes. However, most of the studies are still at the proof of concept stage. We present a discussion on the status of the field today, as well as the problems and issues that still need to be resolved to bring this technology to hospital settings (i.e., the medical laboratory, surgical suites, or clinics). Taken from the viewpoint of clinicians and medical analysts, the potential of Raman spectroscopic techniques as new tools for biomedical applications is discussed and a path is proposed for the clinical implementation of these techniques.

  18. State Waste Discharge Permit application, 100-N Sewage Lagoon

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations (Ecology et al. 1994), the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173--216 (or 173--218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. As a result of this decision, the Washington State Department of Ecology and the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office entered into Consent Order No. DE 91NM-177, (Ecology and DOE-RL 1991). This document constitutes the State Waste Discharge Permit application for the 100-N Sewage Lagoon. Since the influent to the sewer lagoon is domestic waste water, the State Waste Discharge Permit application for Public Owned Treatment Works Discharges to Land was used. Although the 100-N Sewage Lagoon is not a Public Owned Treatment Works, the Public Owned Treatment Works application is more applicable than the application for industrial waste water. The 100-N Sewage Lagoon serves the 100-N Area and other Hanford Site areas by receiving domestic waste from two sources. A network of sanitary sewer piping and lift stations transfers domestic waste water from the 100-N Area buildings directly to the 100-N Sewage Lagoon. Waste is also received by trucks that transport domestic waste pumped from on site septic tanks and holding tanks. Three ponds comprise the 100-N Sewage Lagoon treatment system. These include a lined aeration pond and stabilization pond, as well as an unlined infiltration pond. Both piped-in and trucked-in domestic waste is discharged directly into the aeration pond.

  19. First principles calculations of the magnetic and hyperfine properties of Fe/N/Fe and Fe/O/Fe multilayers in the ground state of cohesive energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dos Santos, A. V.; Samudio Pérez, C. A.; Muenchen, D.; Anibele, T. P.

    2015-01-01

    The ground state properties of Fe/N/Fe and Fe/O/Fe multilayers were investigated using the first principles calculations. The calculations were performed using the Linearized Augmented Plane Wave (LAPW) method implemented in the Wien2k code. A supercell consisting of one layer of nitride (or oxide) between two layers of Fe in the bcc structure was used to model the structure of the multilayer. The research in new materials also stimulated theoretical and experimental studies of iron-based nitrides due to their variety of structural and magnetic properties for the potential applications as in high strength steels and for high corrosion resistance. It is obvious from many reports that magnetic iron nitrides such as γ-Fe4N and α-Fe16N2 have interesting magnetic properties, among these a high magnetisation saturation and a high density crimp. However, although Fe-N films and multilayers have many potential applications, they can be produced in many ways and are being extensively studied from the theoretical point of view there is no detailed knowledge of their electronic structure. Clearly, efforts to understand the influence of the nitrogen atoms on the entire electronic structure are needed as to correctly interpret the observed changes in the magnetic properties when going from Fe-N bulk compounds to multilayer structures. Nevertheless, the N atoms are not solely responsible for electronics alterations in solid compounds. Theoretical results showed that Fe4X bulk compounds, where X is a variable atom with increasing atomic number (Z), the nature of bonding between X and adjacent Fe atoms changes from more covalent to more ionic and the magnetic moments of Fe also increase for Z=7, i.e. N. This is an indicative that atoms with a Z number higher than 7, i.e., O, can produce several new alterations in the entire magnetic properties of Fe multilayers. This paper presents the first results of an ab-initio electronic structure calculations, performed for Fe-N and Fe

  20. Application of the Principle of Maximum Conformality to Top-Pair Production

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; Wu, Xing-Gang; /SLAC /Chongqing U.

    2013-05-13

    A major contribution to the uncertainty of finite-order perturbative QCD predictions is the perceived ambiguity in setting the renormalization scale {mu}{sub r}. For example, by using the conventional way of setting {mu}{sub r} {element_of} [m{sub t}/2, 2m{sub t}], one obtains the total t{bar t} production cross-section {sigma}{sub t{bar t}} with the uncertainty {Delta}{sigma}{sub t{bar t}}/{sigma}{sub t{bar t}} {approx} (+3%/-4%) at the Tevatron and LHC even for the present NNLO level. The Principle of Maximum Conformality (PMC) eliminates the renormalization scale ambiguity in precision tests of Abelian QED and non-Abelian QCD theories. By using the PMC, all nonconformal {l_brace}{beta}{sub i}{r_brace}-terms in the perturbative expansion series are summed into the running coupling constant, and the resulting scale-fixed predictions are independent of the renormalization scheme. The correct scale-displacement between the arguments of different renormalization schemes is automatically set, and the number of active flavors n{sub f} in the {l_brace}{beta}{sub i}{r_brace}-function is correctly determined. The PMC is consistent with the renormalization group property that a physical result is independent of the renormalization scheme and the choice of the initial renormalization scale {mu}{sub r}{sup init}. The PMC scale {mu}{sub r}{sup PMC} is unambiguous at finite order. Any residual dependence on {mu}{sub r}{sup init} for a finite-order calculation will be highly suppressed since the unknown higher-order {l_brace}{beta}{sub i}{r_brace}-terms will be absorbed into the PMC scales higher-order perturbative terms. We find that such renormalization group invariance can be satisfied to high accuracy for {sigma}{sub t{bar t}} at the NNLO level. In this paper we apply PMC scale-setting to predict the t{bar t} cross-section {sigma}{sub t{bar t}} at the Tevatron and LHC colliders. It is found that {sigma}{sub t{bar t}} remains almost unchanged by varying {mu}{sub r}{sup init