Science.gov

Sample records for priority organic pollutants

  1. Direct analysis of organic priority pollutants by IMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giam, C. S.; Reed, G. E.; Holliday, T. L.; Chang, L.; Rhodes, B. J.

    1995-01-01

    Many routine methods for monitoring of trace amounts of atmospheric organic pollutants consist of several steps. Typical steps are: (1) collection of the air sample; (2) trapping of organics from the sample; (3) extraction of the trapped organics; and (4) identification of the organics in the extract by GC (gas chromatography), HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography), or MS (Mass Spectrometry). These methods are often cumbersome and time consuming. A simple and fast method for monitoring atmospheric organics using an IMS (Ion Mobility Spectrometer) is proposed. This method has a short sampling time and does not require extraction of the organics since the sample is placed directly in the IMS. The purpose of this study was to determine the responses in the IMS to organic 'priority pollutants'. Priority pollutants including representative polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phthalates, phenols, chlorinated pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) were analyzed in both the positive and negative detection mode at ambient atmospheric pressure. Detection mode and amount detected are presented.

  2. Occurrence of priority organic pollutants in the fertilizers, China.

    PubMed

    Mo, Ce-Hui; Cai, Quan-Ying; Li, Yun-Hui; Zeng, Qiao-Yun

    2008-04-15

    The use of large quantities of chemical fertilizers is usually associated with environmental problems. A lot of work has been done on the concentrations of heavy metals and radionuclides in chemical fertilizers, but little work has focused on the occurrence of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs). In this study the occurrence of 43 SVOCs listed as priority pollutants in 22 widely used-fertilizers of China was determined by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Twenty-six SVOCs were detected with different detection frequencies and concentrations. The most abundant compounds were phthalic acid esters (PAEs; ranging from 1.17 to 2795 microg kg(-1) dry weight, d.w.) and nitroaromatics (up to 9765 microg kg(-1) d.w.), followed by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs; <140 microg kg(-1) d.w.) and halogenated hydrocarbons (<900 microg kg(-1) d.w.). Chlorobenzenes and haloethers occurred generally at low concentrations. There are large variations in concentrations of various compounds in different fertilizers, and the total concentrations of each class of contaminants varied widely, too. The highest levels of sum concentration for 16 PAHs, for 6 PAEs and for nitroaromatics were found in organic fertilizer containing pesticide and soil amendments. Concentrations of SVOCs in coated fertilizers (the controlled release fertilizer with coating) were considerably higher than those in the corresponding fertilizers without coating. The occurrence frequencies of SVOCs in the straight fertilizers (containing only one of the major plant nutrients) were lower than in the other fertilizers.

  3. Emissions of organic pollutants from traffic and roads: Priority pollutants selection and substance flow analysis.

    PubMed

    Markiewicz, Anna; Björklund, Karin; Eriksson, Eva; Kalmykova, Yuliya; Strömvall, Ann-Margret; Siopi, Anna

    2017-02-15

    A large number of organic pollutants (OPs) emitted from vehicles and traffic-related activities exhibit environmental persistence and a tendency to bioaccumulate, and may have detrimental long-term effects on aquatic life. The aim of the study was to establish a list of significant sources of OPs occurring in road runoff, identify the OPs emitted from these sources, select a number of priority pollutants (PP), and estimate the quantity of PPs emitted in a road environment case study using substance flow analysis (SFA). The priority pollutants included in the SFA were selected from a list of approximately 1100 compounds found after comprehensive screening, including literature and database searches, expert judgments, the Ranking and Identification of Chemical Hazards method, and chemical analysis of sediments. The results showed the following priority order: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)>alkanes C20-C40>alkylphenols>phthalates>aldehydes>phenolic antioxidants>bisphenol A>oxygenated-PAHs>naphtha C5-C12>amides>amines. Among these, PAHs were chosen for a SFA, which was performed for a highway case study area in Gothenburg (Sweden). The SFA showed that the main sources of PAHs emitted in the area were vehicle exhaust gases, followed by tyre wear, motor lubricant oils, road surface wear, and brake linings. Only 2-6% of the total 5.8-29kg annually emitted PAHs/ha ended up in the stormwater sewer system. The measured PAH loads were found in much smaller amounts than the calculated loads and the outflow to stormwater contained much more of the hazardous PAHs than the total loads emitted in the catchment area.

  4. Priority Substances and Emerging Organic Pollutants in Portuguese Aquatic Environment: A Review.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Cláudia; Ribeiro, Ana Rita; Tiritan, Maria Elizabeth

    Aquatic environments are among the most noteworthy ecosystems regarding chemical pollution due to the anthropogenic pressure. In 2000, the European Commission implemented the Water Framework Directive, with the aim of progressively reducing aquatic chemical pollution of the European Union countries. Therefore, the knowledge about the chemical and ecological status is imperative to determine the overall quality of water bodies. Concerning Portugal, some studies have demonstrated the presence of pollutants in the aquatic environment but an overall report is not available yet. The aim of this paper is to provide a comprehensive review about the occurrence of priority substances included in the Water Framework Directive and some classes of emerging organic pollutants that have been found in Portuguese aquatic environment. The most frequently studied compounds comprise industrial compounds, natural and synthetic estrogens, phytoestrogens, phytosterols, pesticides, pharmaceuticals and personal care products. Concentration of these pollutants ranged from few ng L(-1) to higher values such as 30 μg L(-1) for industrial compounds in surface waters and up to 106 μg L(-1) for the pharmaceutical ibuprofen in wastewaters. Compounds already banned in Europe such as atrazine, alkylphenols and alkylphenol polyethoxylates are still found in surface waters, nevertheless their origin is still poorly understood. Beyond the contamination of the Portuguese aquatic environment by priority substances and emerging organic pollutants, this review also highlights the need of more research on other classes of pollutants and emphasizes the importance of extending this research to other locations in Portugal, which have not been investigated yet.

  5. Determination of inorganic and organic priority pollutants in biosolids from meat processing industry

    SciTech Connect

    Sena, Rennio F. de Tambosi, Jose L.; Floriani, Silvia L.; Virmond, Elaine; Schroeder, Horst Fr.; Moreira, Regina F.P.M.; Jose, Humberto J.

    2009-09-15

    The biosolids (BS) generated in the wastewater treatment process of a meat processing plant were monitored and the priority pollutant content was characterized. The trace metal and organic pollutant content - polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF) - were determined quantitatively and compared to guideline limits established by the US EPA and EU. PCBs were not detected in the solid samples, while trace metals, PAHs and PCDD/PCDF were detected in concentrations below the limits established by international standards. Toxic equivalent factors were evaluated for the biosolids, and the results proved that these wastes can be safely deposited on land or used in combustion/incineration plants. Since no previous data were found for meat processing waste, comparisons were made using municipal sewage sludge data reported in the literature. Since, this report monitored part of the priority pollutants established by the US EPA for meat and poultry processing wastewater and sludge, the results verified that low pollution loads are generated by the meat processing plant located in the southern part of Brazil. However, the BS generated in the treatment processes are in accordance with the limits established for waste disposal and even for soil fertilizer.

  6. Determination of inorganic and organic priority pollutants in biosolids from meat processing industry.

    PubMed

    de Sena, Rennio F; Tambosi, José L; Floriani, Silvia L; Virmond, Elaine; Schröder, Horst Fr; Moreira, Regina F P M; José, Humberto J

    2009-09-01

    The biosolids (BS) generated in the wastewater treatment process of a meat processing plant were monitored and the priority pollutant content was characterized. The trace metal and organic pollutant content--polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF)--were determined quantitatively and compared to guideline limits established by the US EPA and EU. PCBs were not detected in the solid samples, while trace metals, PAHs and PCDD/PCDF were detected in concentrations below the limits established by international standards. Toxic equivalent factors were evaluated for the biosolids, and the results proved that these wastes can be safely deposited on land or used in combustion/incineration plants. Since no previous data were found for meat processing waste, comparisons were made using municipal sewage sludge data reported in the literature. Since, this report monitored part of the priority pollutants established by the US EPA for meat and poultry processing wastewater and sludge, the results verified that low pollution loads are generated by the meat processing plant located in the southern part of Brazil. However, the BS generated in the treatment processes are in accordance with the limits established for waste disposal and even for soil fertilizer.

  7. BEHAVIOR AND ASSIMILATION OF ORGANIC AND INORGANIC PRIORITY POLLUTANTS CODISPOSED WITH MUNICIPAL REFUSE. A Project Summary. (EPA/SR-93/137)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research was undertaken to demonstrate and evaluate the capacity of landfill systems to assimilate and attenuate inorganic and organic priority pollutants loadings codisposed with municipal refuse and to determine the fate and effect of the codisposed pollutants as landfill stabi...

  8. Occurrence of priority organic pollutants in Strymon river catchment, Greece: inland, transitional, and coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Litskas, V D; Dosis, I G; Karamanlis, X N; Kamarianos, A P

    2012-09-01

    Twenty-five sampling stations were selected in order to monitor persistent organic pollutants (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organochlorine (OC) pesticides and total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)) in surface water from Kerkini Lake, the Strymon River, its main tributaries and estuary in N. Aegean Sea during January to July, 2008, according to recent European Union (EU) guidelines. The data were divided among the high (January to April) and the low flow season (May to July). Generally, the values for organic pollutants were within the range reported worldwide for surface water. Elevated PAHs concentrations were observed compared with other places in Greece. Anthracene and benzo(a)pyrene exceeded maximum allowable concentration (MAC) of the relative EU guideline. Also, concentrations above MAC were observed for OCs, γ-HCH, and a-endosulfan. Despite the fact that it is banned since 1972, Aldrin was detected during the monitoring season (from limit of detection (LOD) to 15 ng L(-1)). Total PCB concentrations ranged from LOD to 162 ng L(-1). In addition, the load of organic pollutants was estimated in April (high flow) and June (low flow) in selected sampling stations. According to this estimation, napthalene, anthracene, and fluoranthene (PAHs), total dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), aldrin, and total PCBs had the highest load. Taking into account the relative EU guidelines concerning the pollutants studied, the water quality in the Strymon River catchment could be characterized as poor, which can lead to negative impacts to its biota.

  9. Fungal Unspecific Peroxygenases Oxidize the Majority of Organic EPA Priority Pollutants

    PubMed Central

    Karich, Alexander; Ullrich, René; Scheibner, Katrin; Hofrichter, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Unspecific peroxygenases (UPOs) are secreted fungal enzymes with promiscuity for oxygen transfer and oxidation reactions. Functionally, they represent hybrids of P450 monooxygenases and heme peroxidases; phylogenetically they belong to the family of heme-thiolate peroxidases. Two UPOs from the basidiomycetous fungi Agrocybe aegerita (AaeUPO) and Marasmius rotula (MroUPO) converted 35 out of 40 compounds listed as EPA priority pollutants, including chlorinated benzenes and their derivatives, halogenated biphenyl ethers, nitroaromatic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and phthalic acid derivatives. These oxygenations and oxidations resulted in diverse products and—if at all—were limited for three reasons: (i) steric hindrance caused by multiple substitutions or bulkiness of the compound as such (e.g., hexachlorobenzene or large PAHs), (ii) strong inactivation of aromatic rings (e.g., nitrobenzene), and (iii) low water solubility (e.g., complex arenes). The general outcome of our study is that UPOs can be considered as extracellular counterparts of intracellular monooxygenases, both with respect to catalyzed reactions and catalytic versatility. Therefore, they should be taken into consideration as a relevant biocatalytic detoxification and biodegradation tool used by fungi when confronted with toxins, xenobiotics and pollutants in their natural environments. PMID:28848501

  10. National priorities in marine pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, W.M.; Leschine, T.M.; Landy, R.B.

    1988-02-01

    The National Ocean Pollution Program Office (NOPPO) of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration is required by the National Ocean Pollution Planning Act (PL 95-273) to make recommendations on the federal program in marine pollution research, development, and monitoring, and promote interagency cooperation in these areas. The first step in evaluating the Federal effort in ocean pollution research is to identify the marine pollution needs and problems that are facing the nation. To broaden the knowledge base used in identifying and prioritizing these issues, NOPPO has consulted pollution experts outside as well as within the Federal Government using the Priorities Worksheet for National Marine Pollution Problems and Needs. The worksheet was mailed out in January 1987 to over 250 participants representing the following sectors of the ocean community: the Legislative and Executive Branches of the Federal Government, conservation groups, sport and commercial fisheries, offshore petroleum and mining interests, the ports and recreation industries, state and regional governments, and researchers in the marine pollution field. The list of participants was developed with the assistance of a steering committee.

  11. EU Water Framework Directive and Stockholm Convention: can we reach the targets for priority substances and persistent organic pollutants?

    PubMed

    Fuerhacker, Maria

    2009-08-01

    Water is a renewable resource and acceptable quality is important for human health, ecological and economic reasons, but human activity can cause great damage to the natural aquatic environment. Managing the water cycle in a sustainable way is the key to protect natural resources and human health. On a global level, the microbiological contamination of water sources is a major problem in connection with poverty and the United Nations Millennium Development Declaration is an important initiative to handle this problem. In terms of environmental health, persistent organic pollutants (POPs) circulate globally; as they travel long distances, they are found in remote areas far from their original source of application and can cause damage wherever they move to. On a global scale, United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) issued the Stockholm Convention to reduce POPs; in the European Union (EU), one intention of the Water Framework Directive (WFD) is to reach the good chemical status of waters; beside these regulations, there are other directives in support of these goals. The aim of this paper is to discuss whether the Stockholm Convention and the WFD allows meeting the targets of protection of human and environmental health, which are established in the different directives and how could we approach the targets. The aims and scopes of different directives are compiled and compared with the actual quality of water, different approaches of standard settings are compared and potential treatment options are discussed. Under the Stockholm Convention on POPs, which came into force in May 2004, governments are required to develop a National Implementation Plan (NIP) setting out how they will address their obligations under the convention and how they will take measures to eliminate or reduce the release of POPs into the environment by the use of best available techniques (BAT) and application of best environmental practices (BEP). On a European level, the WFD has been in

  12. Assessment of commercially available polymeric materials for sorptive microextraction of priority and emerging nonpolar organic pollutants in environmental water samples.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Zubiaguirre, Laura; Delgado, Alejandra; Ros, Oihana; Posada-Ureta, Oscar; Vallejo, Asier; Prieto, Ailette; Olivares, Maitane; Etxebarria, Nestor

    2014-10-01

    Among the different organic pollutants, persistent organic pollutants and emerging organic contaminants (EOCs) are of particular concern due to their potentially dangerous effects on the ecosystems and on human health. In the framework of the analysis of some of these organic pollutants in water samples, sorptive extraction devices have proven to be adequate for their monitoring. The efficiency of four commercially available and low-cost polymeric materials [polypropylene, poly(ethylene terephthalate), Raffia, and polyethersulfone (PES)] for the simultaneous extraction of 16 organic compounds from five different families from environmental water samples was evaluated in this work. Firstly, the homogeneity of the sorbent materials was confirmed by means of Raman spectroscopy. After the optimization of the parameters affecting the extraction and the liquid desorption steps, it was found that PES showed the largest efficiencies for slightly polar analytes and, to a lesser extent, for nonpolar analytes. Additionally, Raffia rendered good extraction efficiencies for nonpolar compounds. Thus sorptive extraction methods followed by large volume injection-programmable temperature vaporizer-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were validated using PES and Raffia as sorbent materials. The validation of the method provided good linearity (0.978 < r (2) < 0.999 for PES and 0.977 < r (2) < 0.999 for Raffia), adequate repeatability (below 19 % and 14 % for PES and Raffia, respectively), and low method detection limits (low ng · l(-1) level). Finally, these materials were applied to the analysis of contaminants in environmental water samples.

  13. [Priority pollutants ranking and screening of coke industry based on USEtox model].

    PubMed

    Hao, Tian; Du, Peng-Fei; Du, Bin; Zeng, Si-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Thesis aims at evaluating and setting priority to human toxicity and ecotoxicity of coking pollutants. A field research and sampling project are conducted in coke plant in Shanxi so as to complete the coke emission inventory. The USEtox model representing recommended practice in LCIA characterization is applied to the emission inventory to quantify the potential impacts on human toxicity and ecotoxicity of emerging pollutants. Priority pollutants, production procedures and effects of changing plant site on the toxicity are analyzed. As conclusions, benzo(a) pyrene, benzene, Zn and As are identified as the priority pollutants in human toxicity, while pyrene and anthracene in ecotoxicity. Coal charging is the dominant procedure for organic toxicity and priority pollutants include benzo (a) pyrene, benzene, naphthalene, etc. While coke drenching is the dominant procedure for metal toxicity and priority pollutants include Zn, As, Ti, Hg etc. Emission to rural environment can reduce the organic toxicity significantly compared to the emission to urban environment. However, the site changing has no effect on metal toxicity and might increase the risk of the metal pollution to rural water and soil.

  14. [Countermeasures for priority control of toxic VOC pollution].

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying; Li, Li-Na; Yang, Chang-Qing; Hao, Zheng-Ping; Sun, Han-Kun; Li, Yao

    2011-12-01

    VOC pollution is worsening, not only affects the environment, air quality, but also directly harm human health, and Chinese relevant departments need to improve control measures. U. S. toxic air pollutants (HAPs) control system was studied, and Chinese environment countermeasures were proposed based on pollution features. U. S. recognized sources of hazardous air pollutants in the Clean Air Act (CAA), and reduced their emissions by industrial regulations and regional policies. In urban areas, VOC occupied a great part of toxic air and were controlled as a major project in U. S. Due to relatively weak management and technical base, China should screen some VOC components for priority pollutant control. The feature of Chinese VOC pollution was described as complex components, industry sources widely distributed, strong regional characteristics and processes, and gradual development of regional pollution. It was suggested to carry out investigation assessment activities, enhance cumulative risk assessment and environmental impact assessment management, and strengthen emergency risk prevention.

  15. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 423 - 126 Priority Pollutants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 126 Priority Pollutants A Appendix A to Part 423 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS STEAM ELECTRIC POWER GENERATING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Pt. 423, App. A Appendix A to Part...

  16. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 423 - 126 Priority Pollutants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true 126 Priority Pollutants A Appendix A to Part 423 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS STEAM ELECTRIC POWER GENERATING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Pt. 423, App. A Appendix A to Part 423—126...

  17. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 423 - 126 Priority Pollutants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true 126 Priority Pollutants A Appendix A to Part 423 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS STEAM ELECTRIC POWER GENERATING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Pt. 423, App. A Appendix A to Part 423—126...

  18. Risk assessment of selected priority pollutants coming from boating activities.

    PubMed

    Ansanelli, Giuliana; Parrella, Luisa; Di Landa, Giuseppe; Massanisso, Paolo; Schiavo, Simona; Manzo, Sonia

    2016-07-01

    In this work, we evaluated the risk posed to aquatic organisms in the coastal waters of Albania and Apulia (Italy) by two priority pollutants (PPs), Irgarol 1051 and Diuron, used as biocides in antifouling paints on boat hulls. With this aim, we carried out an extensive 3-year monitoring in ports and marinas along the coasts of both countries, which showed a widespread occurrence of both PPs, with Irgarol 1051 concentrations usually being lower than the Diuron ones. The measured concentrations were compared with regulatory Environmental Quality Standards (EQS) (Directive 2008/105/EC) and used to perform a probabilistic Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA), for a thorough evaluation of the potential adverse effects upon marine ecosystem. Irgarol 1051 amounts above the Annual Average Concentration (AA-EQS, 2.5 ng/L) were often detected in Apulia and, less frequently, in Albania. Moreover, in Apulia, sometimes the Maximum Allowable Concentrations (MAC-EQS, 16 ng/L) was exceeded. In Apulia, where levels exceeded MAC/AA-EQS, ERA found not negligible probabilities of exceeding the toxicity level (6-18 %). A less critical situation was observed for Diuron whose levels were always below the MAC-EQS (1800 ng/L) in both countries and, in Albania, also below the AA-EQS (200 ng/L). On the other hand, in Apulia, this limit was exceeded in some locations. Correspondingly, ERA determined a not negligible risk in these sites (probability of exceedance 4-7 %).

  19. Solid-phase extraction combined with large volume injection-programmable temperature vaporization-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the multiresidue determination of priority and emerging organic pollutants in wastewater.

    PubMed

    Bizkarguenaga, E; Ros, O; Iparraguirre, A; Navarro, P; Vallejo, A; Usobiaga, A; Zuloaga, O

    2012-07-20

    In the present work the simultaneous extraction for the multiresidue determination in wastewater samples of organic compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phthalate esters (PEs), alkylphenols (APs), bisphenol A (BPA) or hormones included in different lists of priority and emerging pollutants because of their action as endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) was developed. Different solid phase extraction (SPE) variables such as the nature of the solid phase (Oasis-HLC, C18 and Lichrolut), the sample volume, the addition of MeOH and NaCl, the pH of the water phase and the volume of the eluent solvent were optimized in order to analyze simultaneously the priority and emerging families of pollutants mentioned above. Good recoveries were obtained for Milli-Q water (80-120%), however, since the use of deuterated analogues and dilution of the sample did not correct the matrix effect, additional SPE clean-up step using Florisil® cartridges was necessary to obtain good results for wastewater samples (80-125%). In order to improve the limits of detection (LODs), large volume injection (LVI) using programmable temperature vaporizer (PTV) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was also optimized. Since analytes losses in the case of the most volatile congeners occurred during the derivatization step and no separation of the derivatized and the non-derivatized analytes was possible during SPE elution, two different injections were optimized for each analyte group. LODs were in good agreement with those found in the literature and relative standard deviations (RSDs) were in the 10-25% range for Milli-Q and 12-30% for wastewater samples. The method was finally applied to the determination of target analytes in three different wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs, Bakio, Gernika and Galindo (Spain)) and in one water purification plant (WPP) in Zornotza (Spain).

  20. Chemical hazard identification and assessment tool for evaluation of stormwater priority pollutants.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, E; Baun, A; Mikkelsen, P S; Ledin, A

    2005-01-01

    Assessment of chemical hazards is a critical issue, which have to be dealt with when evaluating different strategies for sustainable handling of stormwater. In the present study, a methodology for identifying the most critical and representative chemical pollutants was developed. A list of selected stormwater priority pollutants (SSPP-list) is the out-put from the procedure. Two different strategies for handling of stormwater were considered; discharge into a surface water recipient and infiltration. However, the same methodology can be used for other types of wastewater and other strategies for handling and treatment. A literature survey revealed that at least 656 xenobiotic organic compounds (XOCs) could be present in stormwater. In the next step, 233 XOCs were evaluated with respect to the potential for being hazardous towards either aquatic living organisms or humans, or causing technical or aesthetical problems. 121 XOCs were found have at least one of these negative effects, while 26 XOCs could not be assessed due to the lack of data. The hazard assessment showed that 40 XOCs had a PEC/PNEC ratio above one., e.g. they should be considered as priority pollutants. The final step is the expert judgement, which resulted in a final SSPP-list containing 16 selected priority pollutants.

  1. Silicone rod extraction followed by liquid desorption-large volume injection-programmable temperature vaporiser-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for trace analysis of priority organic pollutants in environmental water samples.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Alejandra; Posada-Ureta, Oscar; Olivares, Maitane; Vallejo, Asier; Etxebarria, Nestor

    2013-12-15

    In this study a priority organic pollutants usually found in environmental water samples were considered to accomplish two extraction and analysis approaches. Among those compounds organochlorine compounds, pesticides, phthalates, phenols and residues of pharmaceutical and personal care products were included. The extraction and analysis steps were based on silicone rod extraction (SR) followed by liquid desorption in combination with large volume injection-programmable temperature vaporiser (LVI-PTV) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Variables affecting the analytical response as a function of the programmable temperature vaporiser (PTV) parameters were firstly optimised following an experimental design approach. The SR extraction and desorption conditions were assessed afterwards, including matrix modification, time extraction, and stripping solvent composition. Subsequently, the possibility of performing membrane enclosed sorptive coating extraction (MESCO) as a modified extraction approach was also evaluated. The optimised method showed low method detection limits (3-35 ng L(-1)), acceptable accuracy (78-114%) and precision values (<13%) for most of the studied analytes regardless of the aqueous matrix. Finally, the developed approach was successfully applied to the determination of target analytes in aqueous environmental matrices including estuarine and wastewater samples.

  2. Determination of organic priority pollutants and emerging compounds in wastewater and snow samples using multiresidue protocols on the basis of microextraction by packed sorbents coupled to large volume injection gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis.

    PubMed

    Prieto, A; Schrader, S; Moeder, M

    2010-09-17

    This paper describes the development and validation of a new procedure for the simultaneous determination of 41 multi-class priority and emerging organic pollutants in water samples using microextraction by packed sorbent (MEPS) followed by large volume injection-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (LVI-GC-MS). Apart from method parameter optimization the influence of humic acids as matrix components on the extraction efficiency of MEPS procedure was also evaluated. The list of target compounds includes polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), phthalate esters (PEs), nonylphenols (NPs), bisphenol A (BPA) and selected steroid hormones. The performance of the new at-line microextraction-LVI-GC-MS protocol was compared to standard solid-phase extraction (SPE) and LVI-GC-MS analysis. LODs for 100 mL samples (SPE) ranged from 0.2 to 736 ng L(-1) were obtained. LODs for 800 microL of sample (MEPS) were between 0.2 and 266 ng L(-1). In the case of MEPS methodology even a sample volume of only 800 microL allowed to detect the target compounds. These results demonstrate the high sensitivity of both procedures which permitted to obtain good recoveries (>75%) for all cases. The precision of the methods, calculated as relative standard deviation (RSD) was below 21% for all compounds and both methodologies. Finally, the developed methods were applied to the determination of target analytes in various samples, including snow and wastewater.

  3. Uptake calibration of polymer-based passive samplers for monitoring priority and emerging organic non-polar pollutants in WWTP effluents.

    PubMed

    Posada-Ureta, Oscar; Olivares, Maitane; Zatón, Leire; Delgado, Alejandra; Prieto, Ailette; Vallejo, Asier; Paschke, Albrecht; Etxebarria, Nestor

    2016-05-01

    The uptake calibration of more than 12 non-polar organic contaminants by 3 polymeric materials is shown: bare polydimetilsiloxane (PDMS, stir-bars), polyethersulfone tubes and membranes (PES) and polyoxymethylene membranes (POM), both in their free form and membrane-enclosed sorptive coating (MESCO). The calibration process was carried out exposing the samplers to a continuous flow of contaminated water at 100 ng mL(-1) for up to 28 days, and, consequently, the sampling rates (Rs, mL day(-1)) of several organic microcontaminants were provided for the first time. In situ Rs values were also determined disposing the samplers in the effluent of a wastewater treatment plant. Finally, these passive samplers were applied to monitor the effluents of two wastewater treatment plants. This application lead to the confirmation of the presence of galaxolide, tonalide and 4-tert-octylphenol at high ng mL(-1) levels, as well as the identification of compounds like some phthalates and alkylphenols at levels below the detection limits for active sampling methods.

  4. Occurrence and persistence of organic emerging contaminants and priority pollutants in five sewage treatment plants of Spain: two years pilot survey monitoring.

    PubMed

    Bueno, M J Martínez; Gomez, M J; Herrera, S; Hernando, M D; Agüera, A; Fernández-Alba, A R

    2012-05-01

    This work summarized all results obtained during almost two-years of a monitoring programme carried out in five municipal sewage treatment plants (STPs) located in the north, centre and south-east of Spain. The study evaluated the occurrence and persistence of a group of 100 organic compounds belonging to several chemical groups (pharmaceuticals, personal care products, pesticides and metabolites). The average removal efficiencies of the STPs studied varied from 20% (erythromycin) to 99% (acetaminophen). In analysed samples, we identified a large number of compounds at mean range concentrations between 7-59,495 ng/L and 5-32,720 ng/L for influent and effluent samples, respectively. This study also identified 20 of the mostly detected and persistent compounds in wastewater effluent, of which hydrochlorothiazide, atenolol, gemfibrozil, galaxolide and three metabolites (fenofibric acid, 4-AAA and 4-FAA), presented the highest average contribution percentages, in relation to the total load of contaminants for the different STPs effluent studied.

  5. 40 CFR 131.38 - Establishment of Numeric Criteria for priority toxic pollutants for the State of California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY STANDARDS Federally Promulgated Water Quality Standards § 131.38 Establishment of Numeric Criteria for priority toxic pollutants for the State... C2 DHuman health (10−6) risk for carcinogens) For consumption of: Water &organisms (µg/L)...

  6. 40 CFR 131.38 - Establishment of Numeric Criteria for priority toxic pollutants for the State of California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY STANDARDS Federally Promulgated Water Quality Standards § 131.38 Establishment of Numeric Criteria for priority toxic pollutants for the State... C2 DHuman health (10−6) risk for carcinogens) For consumption of: Water &organisms (µg/L)...

  7. 40 CFR 131.38 - Establishment of Numeric Criteria for priority toxic pollutants for the State of California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY STANDARDS Federally Promulgated Water Quality Standards § 131.38 Establishment of Numeric Criteria for priority toxic pollutants for the State... C2 DHuman health (10−6) risk for carcinogens) For consumption of: Water &organisms (µg/L)...

  8. 40 CFR 131.38 - Establishment of Numeric Criteria for priority toxic pollutants for the State of California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY STANDARDS Federally Promulgated Water Quality Standards § 131.38 Establishment of Numeric Criteria for priority toxic pollutants for the State... C2 DHuman health (10−6) risk for carcinogens) For consumption of: Water &organisms (µg/L)...

  9. Immunomodulation by Persistent Organic Pollutants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are widely distnbuted in the environment, are resistant to degradation, and increase in concentration (biomagnify) in the food chain. Concentrations in apical predators may be tens to hundreds of times greater than concentrations in their pref...

  10. Immunomodulation by Persistent Organic Pollutants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are widely distnbuted in the environment, are resistant to degradation, and increase in concentration (biomagnify) in the food chain. Concentrations in apical predators may be tens to hundreds of times greater than concentrations in their pref...

  11. Occurrence of priority pollutants in WWTP effluents and Mediterranean coastal waters of Spain.

    PubMed

    Martí, N; Aguado, D; Segovia-Martínez, L; Bouzas, A; Seco, A

    2011-03-01

    A comprehensive study aimed at evaluating the occurrence, significance of concentrations and spatial distribution of priority pollutants (PPs) along the Comunidad Valenciana coastal waters (Spain) was carried out in order to fulfil the European Water Framework Directive (WFD). Additionally, PP concentrations were also analysed in the effluent of 28 WWTPs distributed along the studied area. In coastal waters 36 organic pollutants of the 71 analysed, including 26 PPs were detected although many of them with low frequency of occurrence. Only 13 compounds, which belong to four different classes (VOCs, organochlorinated pesticides, phthalates and tributyltin compounds (TBT)) showed a frequency of occurrence above 20% in coastal waters. In the results obtained until now, octylphenol, pentachlorobenzene, DEHP and TBT exceeded the annual average concentration (EQS-AAC), and only TBT surpassed the maximum allowable concentration (EQS-MAC). The most frequent contaminants determined in coastal waters were also present in WWTP effluents. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. 75 FR 56015 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List: Partial Deletion of the Letterkenny Army Depot Southeastern (SE) Area and Letterkenny...

  13. Research priority setting in organ transplantation: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Tong, Allison; Sautenet, Benedicte; Chapman, Jeremy R; Harper, Claudia; MacDonald, Peter; Shackel, Nicholas; Crowe, Sally; Hanson, Camilla; Hill, Sophie; Synnot, Anneliese; Craig, Jonathan C

    2017-04-01

    Barriers to access and long-term complications remain a challenge in transplantation. Further advancements may be achieved through research priority setting with patient engagement to strengthen its relevance. We evaluated research priority setting in solid organ transplantation and described stakeholder priorities. Databases were searched to October 2016. We synthesized the findings descriptively. The 28 studies (n = 2071 participants) addressed kidney [9 (32%)], heart [7 (25%)], liver [3 (11%)], lung [1 (4%)], pancreas [1 (4%)], and nonspecified organ transplantation [7 (25%)] using consensus conferences, expert panel meetings, workshops, surveys, focus groups, interviews, and the Delphi technique. Nine (32%) reported patient involvement. The 336 research priorities addressed the following: organ donation [43 priorities (14 studies)]; waitlisting and allocation [43 (10 studies)]; histocompatibility and immunology [31 (8 studies)]; immunosuppression [21 (10 studies)]; graft-related complications [38 (13 studies)]; recipient (non-graft-related) complications [86 (14 studies)]; reproduction [14 (1 study)], psychosocial and lifestyle [49 (7 studies)]; and disparities in access and outcomes [10 (4 studies)]. The priorities identified were broad but only one-third of initiatives engaged patients/caregivers, and details of the process were lacking. Setting research priorities in an explicit manner with patient involvement can guide investment toward the shared priorities of patients and health professionals.

  14. 40 CFR Table 6 to Part 455 - PSES and PSNS for Priority Pollutants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false PSES and PSNS for Priority Pollutants 6 Table 6 to Part 455 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PESTICIDE CHEMICALS Pt. 455, Table 6 Table 6 to Part 455—PSES and PSNS for Priority...

  15. 40 CFR Table 6 to Part 455 - PSES and PSNS for Priority Pollutants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false PSES and PSNS for Priority Pollutants 6 Table 6 to Part 455 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PESTICIDE CHEMICALS Pt. 455, Table 6 Table 6 to Part 455—PSES and PSNS for Priority...

  16. 75 FR 44932 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-30

    ...; FRL-9183-1] National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List... substances, Intergovernmental relations, Natural resources, Oil pollution, Penalties, Reporting and..., Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980, is an Appendix of the National Oil and Hazardous...

  17. 77 FR 46009 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-02

    ...-; FRL-9704-3] National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List... National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the State of Maine... all Site media (including soil and groundwater). DATES: Comments must be received by September 4,...

  18. China's water pollution by persistent organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Bao, Lian-Jun; Maruya, Keith A; Snyder, Shane A; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2012-04-01

    Available data were reviewed to assess the status of contamination by persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), in drinking water sources and coastal waters of China. The levels of POPs in China's waters were generally at the high end of the global range. A comparison of China's regulatory limits indicated that PCBs in rivers and coastal water may pose potential human health risk. Occurrence of DDTs in some rivers of China may also pose health risk to humans using the regulatory limits of DDTs recommended by the European Union. Future monitoring of POPs in China's waters should be directed towards analytes of concern (e.g. PCBs and PCDD/Fs) and to fill data gaps for analytes (e.g. PBDEs, PCDD/Fs, and chlordane) and in watersheds/regions (e.g. West China) where data are scarce.

  19. BEHAVIOR AND ASSIMILATION OF ORGANIC AND INORGANIC PRIOIRTY POLLUTANTS CODISPOSED WITH MUNICIPAL REFUSE - VOLUME II - APPENDICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Organic and inorganic priority pollutants codisposed with municipal solid waste (MSW) in ten pilot-scale simulated landfill columns, operated under single pass leaching or leachate recycle, were capable of being attenuated by microbially-mediated landfill stabilization processes....

  20. BEHAVIOR AND ASSIMILATION OF ORGANIC AND INORGANIC PRIOIRTY POLLUTANTS CODISPOSED WITH MUNICIPAL REFUSE - VOLUME II - APPENDICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Organic and inorganic priority pollutants codisposed with municipal solid waste (MSW) in ten pilot-scale simulated landfill columns, operated under single pass leaching or leachate recycle, were capable of being attenuated by microbially-mediated landfill stabilization processes....

  1. [Preliminary determination of organic pollutants in agricultural fertilizers].

    PubMed

    Mo, Ce-hui; Li, Yun-hui; Cai, Quan-ying; Zeng, Qiao-yun; Wang, Bo-guang; Li, Hai-qin

    2005-05-01

    Organic pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in agricultural fertilizers are new problem deserved more study. Eight kinds of organic pollutants including 43 compounds classified as US EPA priority pollutants in twenty one agricultural fertilizers which were universally used in China were determined by Gas chromatography-mass spectrum (GC-MS). Three kinds of organic pollutants including more than 5 compounds were detected in most fertilizers, composing mainly of phthalic acid esters (PAEs), nitrobenzenes (NBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). There were 26 compounds detected in at least one fertilizer, five of them especially PAEs detected in most fertilizer and even in all fertilizers. Benzo(a)pyrene, a strongly carcinogenic compound was detected in two fertilizers. Higher concentrations of compounds were determined in those fertilizers such as multifunction compound fertilizers and coated fertilizers.

  2. Increasing organ donation by presumed consent and allocation priority: Chile

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Chile, a middle-income country, recently joined Israel and Singapore as the world’s only countries to require reciprocity as a precondition for organ transplantation. The Chilean reform includes opt-out provisions designed to foster donation and priority for organ transplantation for registered people. Although the reform has had serious difficulties in achieving its mission, it can be reviewed by other countries that seek to address the serious shortage of organs. As increased organ donation can substantially enhance or save more lives, the effect on organ availability due to incentives arising from rules of preference should not be underestimated. PMID:25767299

  3. Increasing organ donation by presumed consent and allocation priority: Chile.

    PubMed

    Zúñiga-Fajuri, Alejandra

    2015-03-01

    Chile, a middle-income country, recently joined Israel and Singapore as the world's only countries to require reciprocity as a precondition for organ transplantation. The Chilean reform includes opt-out provisions designed to foster donation and priority for organ transplantation for registered people. Although the reform has had serious difficulties in achieving its mission, it can be reviewed by other countries that seek to address the serious shortage of organs. As increased organ donation can substantially enhance or save more lives, the effect on organ availability due to incentives arising from rules of preference should not be underestimated.

  4. Screening of high phytotoxicity priority pollutants and their ecological risk assessment in China's surface waters.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zhenguang; Wang, Weili; Zhou, Junli; Yi, Xianliang; Zhang, Juan; Wang, Xiaonan; Liu, Zhengtao

    2015-06-01

    The protection of aquatic plants has received less attention in ecological risk assessment of pollutants compared with animals. Some pollutants like herbicide, however, are more toxic to aquatic plants than to animals. Aquatic toxicity data of 126 priority pollutants were screened and analyzed in this study. Through data analysis, five priority pollutants namely 1,1,1-trichloroethane (1,1,1-TCA), 4-nitrophenol (4-NP), butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) were identified to have high phytotoxicity effect. The most sensitive aquatic plants to these five pollutants are all alage, including Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, Gymnodinium breve. The water quality criteria concentration of the five pollutants were derived by the species sensitivity distribution method. The acute criteria concentration for the five pollutants were derived to be 1474, 2180, 54.41, 98.52 and 520.4 μg L(-1), and the chronic criteria concentration for them were 147.4, 218.0, 5.441, 9.852 and 52.04 μg L(-1), respectively. For China's freshwater bodies, the results of ecological risk assessment based on the derived criteria showed that, for the selected pollutants except DBP, there were basically no significant risk in most of the studied water bodies. DBP showed apparent ecological risks in all of the studied water bodies, particularly in the middle Yellow River, the Xuanwu Lake, the Yuehu Lake, etc. Field monitoring data of the Liao River and the Taihu Lake showed that DBP had moderate risks in some of the sampling sites of both the watersheds, while BBP posed moderate risks only on a few sites of the Liao River. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Identification of priority organic compounds in groundwater recharge of China.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhen; Li, Miao; Liu, Xiang; Ma, Yeping; Wu, Miaomiao

    2014-09-15

    Groundwater recharge using reclaimed water is considered a promising method to alleviate groundwater depletion, especially in arid areas. Traditional water treatment systems are inefficient to remove all the types of contaminants that would pose risks to groundwater, so it is crucial to establish a priority list of organic compounds (OCs) that deserve the preferential treatment. In this study, a comprehensive ranking system was developed to determine the list and then applied to China. 151 OCs, for which occurrence data in the wastewater treatment plants were available, were selected as candidate OCs. Based on their occurrence, exposure potential and ecological effects, two different rankings of OCs were established respectively for groundwater recharge by surface infiltration and direct aquifer injection. Thirty-four OCs were regarded as having no risks while the remaining 117 OCs were divided into three groups: high, moderate and low priority OCs. Regardless of the recharge way, nonylphenol, erythromycin and ibuprofen were the highest priority OCs; their removal should be prioritized. Also the database should be updated as detecting technology is developed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Ranking potential impacts of priority and emerging pollutants in urban wastewater through life cycle impact assessment.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Ivan; José Gómez, M; Molina-Díaz, Antonio; Huijbregts, Mark A J; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo R; García-Calvo, Eloy

    2008-12-01

    Life cycle impact assessment (LCIA), a feature of the Life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology, is used in this work outside the LCA framework, as a means to quantify the potential environmental impacts on ecotoxicity and human toxicity of wastewater containing priority and emerging pollutants. In order to do this, so-called characterisation factors are obtained for 98 frequently detected pollutants, using two characterisation models, EDIP97 and USES-LCA. The applicability of this methodology is shown in a case study in which wastewater influent and effluent samples from a Spanish wastewater treatment plant located in the Mediterranean coast were analysed. Characterisation factors were applied to the average concentration of each pollutant, obtaining impact scores for different scenarios: discharging wastewater to aquatic recipient, and using it for crop irrigation. The results show that treated wastewater involves a substantially lower environmental impact when compared to the influent, and pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) are very important contributors to toxicity in this wastewater. Ciprofloxacin, fluoxetine, and nicotine constitute the main PPCPs of concern in this case study, while 2,3,7,8-TCDD, Nickel, and hexachlorobenzene are the priority pollutants with highest contribution. Nevertheless, it must be stressed that the new characterisation factors are based on very limited data, especially with regard to toxicology, and therefore they must be seen as a first screening to be improved in the future when more and higher quality data is available.

  7. Pollution prevention opportunity assessment for organization 1700.

    SciTech Connect

    Gerard, Morgan Evan

    2007-06-01

    This Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment (PPOA) was conducted for Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico Organization 1700 in June, 2006. The primary purpose of this PPOA is to provide recommendations to assist Organization 1700 in reducing the generation of waste and improving the efficiency of their processes and procedures. This report contains a summary of the information collected, analyses performed and recommended options for implementation. The Sandia National Laboratories Pollution Prevention staff will continue to work with Organization 1700 to implement the recommendations.

  8. Decontaminating soil organic pollutants with manufactured nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Li, Qi; Chen, Xijuan; Zhuang, Jie; Chen, Xin

    2016-06-01

    Organic pollutants in soils might threaten the environmental and human health. Manufactured nanoparticles are capable to reduce this risk efficiently due to their relatively large capacity of sorption and degradation of organic pollutants. Stability, mobility, and reactivity of nanoparticles are prerequisites for their efficacy in soil remediation. On the basis of a brief introduction of these issues, this review provides a comprehensive summary of the application and effectiveness of various types of manufactured nanoparticles for removing organic pollutants from soil. The main categories of nanoparticles include iron (oxides), titanium dioxide, carbonaceous, palladium, and amphiphilic polymeric nanoparticles. Their advantages (e.g., unique properties and high sorption capacity) and disadvantages (e.g., high cost and low recovery) for soil remediation are discussed with respect to the characteristics of organic pollutants. The factors that influence the decontamination effects, such as properties, surfactants, solution chemistry, and soil organic matter, are addressed.

  9. Organ donation and priority points in Israel: an ethical analysis.

    PubMed

    Quigley, Muireann; Wright, Linda; Ravitsky, Vardit

    2012-05-27

    Israel's rates of organ donation have been one of the lowest among developed countries. An attempt to change this has led to the introduction of a pioneering new law, the Organ Transplant Act 2008, which came into effect in January 2010 and sets out principles underlying a new policy in relation to the allocation of organs for transplantation. According to this policy, a person can gain priority points by signing a donor card, making a nondirected organ donation during their lifetime, or as a result of a first-degree relative signing a donor card, or consenting to procurement of organs after death. In this opinion piece, we argue that although this approach merits attention for its innovative aspects and its potential benefits, it raises some ethical difficulties. In particular, we discuss some problems of justice and fairness inherent in the system, focusing on inequalities because of the (a) number of relatives one might have, (b) the type of living donation one makes, (c) the potential for strategic behavior, and (d) problems regarding the consent of family members.

  10. HPLC-PFD determination of priority pollutant PAHs in water, sediment, and semipermeable membrane devices

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williamson, K.S.; Petty, J.D.; Huckins, J.N.; Lebo, J.A.; Kaiser, E.M.

    2002-01-01

    High performance liquid chromatography coupled with programmable fluorescence detection was employed for the determination of 15 priority pollutant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PPPAHs) in water, sediment, and semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs). Chromatographic separation using this analytical method facilitates selectivity, sensitivity (ppt levels), and can serve as a non-destructive technique for subsequent analysis by other chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques. Extraction and sample cleanup procedures were also developed for water, sediment, and SPMDs using various chromatographic and wet chemical methods. The focus of this publication is to examine the enrichment techniques and the analytical methodologies used in the isolation, characterization, and quantitation of 15 PPPAHs in different sample matrices.

  11. Geochronology of priority pollutants in a sedimentation area of the Rhine River

    SciTech Connect

    Beurskens, J.E.M.; Mol, G.A.J.; Barreveld, H.L.; Munster, V. van ); Winkels, H.J. )

    1993-09-01

    Eight sediment cores were taken from Lake Ketelmeer, a sedimentation area of the Rhine River. Priority pollutants (eight metals, six planar and mono-ortho polychlorinated biphenyls, seven polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, 10 polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and eight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) were determined in all or in a selected number of cores. Present-day and historical levels of pollutants since the late 1930s were established through the use of radionuclide time tracers ([sup 137]Cs, [sup 134]Cs) and area-specific geological time markers. Postdepositional redistribution of pollutants and possible transformations were evaluated by analyzing sediment top-layer samples that were taken in 1972. For the persistent metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, as well as for the somewhat changed concentrations of chlorinated aromatics, trends in the concentration profiles during the last five decades are described. Rather low concentrations of almost all studied chlorinated compounds were observed in the early 1940s. These low levels were in contrast to the metal and PAH concentrations, which were already high in the late 1930s and were lowered during the second world war. For all studied compounds, maximum concentrations were found between 1955 and 1975. Cadmium and nickel levels remained high until 1980. The highly toxic 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin reached concentrations up to 400 ng/kg in the mid-1960s. Recently deposited sediments showed lower pollutant levels. The levels of lead, arsenic, and all studied PAHs were the lowest observed in the past five decades.

  12. Chemiluminescent detection of organic air pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Marley, N.A.; Gaffney, J.S.; Chen, Yu-Harn

    1996-04-01

    Chemiluminescent reactions can be used for specific and highly sensitive detection of a number of air pollutants. Among these are chemiluminescent reactions of ozone with NO or organics and reactions of luminol with a variety of oxidants. Reported here are studies exploring (1) the use of the temperature dependence of the chemiluminescent reactions of ozone with organic pollutants as a means of differentiating types of hydrocarbon classes and (2) the use of luminol techniques to monitor atmospheric concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) and organic oxidants, specifically peroxyacyl nitrates (PANs). Coupling gas chromatography to the chemiluminescent detectors allows the measurement of individual species at very low concentrations.

  13. AN ORGANIZATION GUIDE TO POLLUTION PREVENTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Pollution Prevention (P2) Guide provides information to help organizations get P2 programs started on t re-evaluate existing P2 programs. It presents an alternative method for working on P2 projects and four approaches to implementing a P2 program in an organization. The int...

  14. AN ORGANIZATION GUIDE TO POLLUTION PREVENTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Pollution Prevention (P2) Guide provides information to help organizations get P2 programs started on t re-evaluate existing P2 programs. It presents an alternative method for working on P2 projects and four approaches to implementing a P2 program in an organization. The int...

  15. Global research priorities to mitigate plastic pollution impacts on marine wildlife

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vegter, Amanda C.; Barletta, Mário; Beck, Cathy A.; Borrero, Jose C.; Burton, Harry; Campbell, Marnie L.; Costa, Monica F.; Eriksen, Marcus; Eriksson, Cecilia; Estrades, Andres; Gilardi, Kirsten V.; Hardesty, Britta D.; do Sul, Juliana A. Ivar; Lavers, Jennifer L.; Lazar, Bojan; Lebreton, Laurent; Nichols, Wallace J.; Ribic, Christine A.; Ryan, Peter G.; Schuyler, Qamar A.; Smith, Stephen D. A.; Takada, Hideshige; Townsend, Kathy A.; Wabnitz, Colette C. C.; Wilcox, Chris; Young, Lindsay C.; Hamann, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Marine wildlife faces a growing number of threats across the globe, and the survival of many species and populations will be dependent on conservation action. One threat in particular that has emerged over the last 4 decades is the pollution of oceanic and coastal habitats with plastic debris. The increased occurrence of plastics in marine ecosystems mirrors the increased prevalence of plastics in society, and reflects the high durability and persistence of plastics in the environment. In an effort to guide future research and assist mitigation approaches to marine conservation, we have generated a list of 16 priority research questions based on the expert opinions of 26 researchers from around the world, whose research expertise spans several disciplines, and covers each of the world’s oceans and the taxa most at risk from plastic pollution. This paper highlights a growing concern related to threats posed to marine wildlife from microplastics and fragmented debris, the need for data at scales relevant to management, and the urgent need to develop interdisciplinary research and management partnerships to limit the release of plastics into the environment and curb the future impacts of plastic pollution.

  16. Microbial processes and organic priority substances in marine coastal sediments (Adriatic Sea, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoppini, Annamaria; Ademollo, Nicoletta; Amalfitano, Stefano; Dellisanti, Walter; Lungarini, Silvia; Miserocchi, Stefano; Patrolecco, Luisa; Langone, Leonardo

    2015-04-01

    PERSEUS EU FP7 Project aims to identify the interacting patterns of natural and human-derived pressures to assess their impact on marine ecosystems and, using the objectives and principles of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) as a vehicle, to design an effective and innovative research governance framework based on sound scientific knowledge. In the frame of this Project (subtask 1.3.3 ADREX: Adriatic and Ionian Seas Experiment), monitoring surveys were conducted in the Adriatic Sea (Italy) in order to study the variation of structural and functional characteristics of native bacterial communities and the occurrence of selected classes of organic priority substances in sediments. The study area represents a good natural laboratory sensitive to climate variability and human pressure, owing to the semi-enclosed nature of the Adriatic Sea and to the increasing trend of human activities in the coastal regions. During the cruise ADRI-13 (November 2013) and ADRI-14 (October 2014) we sampled several coastal sites from the mouth of the Po River to the Otranto strait. Surface sediments were collected in all areas, while sediment cores were sampled in selected sites. Microbes associated with marine sediments play an important role in the C-flux being responsible for the transformation of organic detritus (autochthonous and allochthonous) into biomass. The sediment bacterial abundance was determined by epifluorescence microscopy and the rate of bacterial carbon production by measuring the 3H-leucine uptake rates. The community respiration rate was estimated by the measurement of the electron transport system (ETS) activity. The sediment contamination level was determined by measuring the concentration of contaminants included in the list of organic priority substances: PAHs, bisphenol A (BPA), alkylphenols (APs). The extraction/clean-up of PAHs, BPA and APs was performed by ultrasonic bath with the appropriate solvents, followed by analytical determination with

  17. Enzymatic technologies for remediation of hydrophobic organic pollutants in soil.

    PubMed

    Eibes, G; Arca-Ramos, A; Feijoo, G; Lema, J M; Moreira, M T

    2015-11-01

    Worldwide there are numerous contaminated sites as a result of the widespread production and use of chemicals in industrial and military activities as well as poor schemes of waste disposal and accidental spillages. The implementation of strategies for decontamination and restoration of polluted sites has become a priority, being bioremediation with biological agents a promising alternative. Enzyme-based technologies offer several advantages over the use of microbial cells, provided that the biocatalyst meets specific requirements: efficiency to remove the target pollutant/s, non-dependency on expensive coenzymes or cofactors, enzyme stability, and an affordable production system. In this mini-review, the direct application of enzymes for in situ soil bioremediation is explored, and also novel ex situ enzymatic technologies are presented. This new perspective provides a valuable insight into the different enzymatic alternatives for decontamination of soils. Examples of recent applications are reported, including pilot-scale treatments and patented technologies, and the principles of operation and the main requirements associated are described. Furthermore, the main challenges regarding the applicability of enzymatic technologies for remediation of hydrophobic organic pollutants from soil are discussed.

  18. Determining organic pollutants in automotive industry sludge.

    PubMed

    Munaretto, Juliana S; Wonghon, Audrey L; von Mühlen, Carin

    2012-12-01

    In Brazil, the policy for disposing industrial sludge is changing from an emphasis on using controlled landfills to other treatment or co-processing methods; however, the monitoring of organic pollutants is not mandatory. The present study evaluated two general screening methods for organic pollutants in sludge generated in an automotive industrial complex in southern Brazil. The screening was performed using Soxhlet and sonication extractions and Gas Chromatograph coupled with Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry (GC/qMS). It was concluded that both techniques were effective and that most of the compounds identified were alkanes, phenols and esters. Important pollutants were detected in the sludge, which confirms the necessity of monitoring this type of residue.

  19. Adsorptive displacement analysis of many-component priority pollutants on activated carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Thakkar, S.; Manes, M.

    1987-06-01

    Multiple trace contaminants on activated carbon are determined by adsorptive displacement, i.e., equilibration in a solvent containing a large excess of a strongly adsorbing solute (displacer). Many components are desorbed completely. For most of the others, the adsorption isotherms become linear and mutually independent with a zero intercept, and the amount of the remaining adsorbed contaminant is readily calculable. The method is applied to the simultaneous determination of 25 preloaded base-neutral priority pollutants, which included refractory adsorbates such as benz(a)anthracene and dibenz(a,h)-sorbates such as benz(a)anthracene and dibenz(a,h)-anthracene; all were determined at loadings less than 0.1 mg/g, in methylene chloride containing 7.5% methanol and saturated benz(a)anthracene-7,12-dione as the displacer. About half of the pollutants were completely extracted. Phenol and derivatives exhibit nonlinear isotherms in this displacer system, presumably because of specific interactions with surface groups on the carbon. However, each of these compounds exhibits a zero-intercept linear isotherm in methanol at relatively high concentrations of the other. 4 figures.

  20. Setting priorities in health care organizations: criteria, processes, and parameters of success

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Jennifer L; Martin, Douglas K; Singer, Peter A

    2004-01-01

    Background Hospitals and regional health authorities must set priorities in the face of resource constraints. Decision-makers seek practical ways to set priorities fairly in strategic planning, but find limited guidance from the literature. Very little has been reported from the perspective of Board members and senior managers about what criteria, processes and parameters of success they would use to set priorities fairly. Discussion We facilitated workshops for board members and senior leadership at three health care organizations to assist them in developing a strategy for fair priority setting. Workshop participants identified 8 priority setting criteria, 10 key priority setting process elements, and 6 parameters of success that they would use to set priorities in their organizations. Decision-makers in other organizations can draw lessons from these findings to enhance the fairness of their priority setting decision-making. Summary Lessons learned in three workshops fill an important gap in the literature about what criteria, processes, and parameters of success Board members and senior managers would use to set priorities fairly. PMID:15355544

  1. 40 CFR Table 4 to Part 455 - BAT and NSPS Effluent Limitations for Priority Pollutants for Direct Discharge Point Sources That...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false BAT and NSPS Effluent Limitations for Priority Pollutants for Direct Discharge Point Sources That use End-of-Pipe Biological Treatment 4 Table 4... Limitations for Priority Pollutants for Direct Discharge Point Sources That use End-of-Pipe Biological...

  2. 40 CFR Table 4 to Part 455 - BAT and NSPS Effluent Limitations for Priority Pollutants for Direct Discharge Point Sources That...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false BAT and NSPS Effluent Limitations for Priority Pollutants for Direct Discharge Point Sources That use End-of-Pipe Biological Treatment 4 Table 4... Limitations for Priority Pollutants for Direct Discharge Point Sources That use End-of-Pipe Biological...

  3. SELECTED ORGANIC POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM UNVENTED KEROSENE HEATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    An exploratory study was performed to assess the semivolatile and nonvolatile organic pollutant emission rates from unvented kerosene space heaters. A well-tuned radiant heater and maltuned convective heater were tested for semivolatile and nonvolatile organic pollutant emiss...

  4. SELECTED ORGANIC POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM UNVENTED KEROSENE HEATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    An exploratory study was performed to assess the semivolatile and nonvolatile organic pollutant emission rates from unvented kerosene space heaters. A well-tuned radiant heater and maltuned convective heater were tested for semivolatile and nonvolatile organic pollutant emiss...

  5. Incentivizing Authorization for Deceased Organ Donation With Organ Allocation Priority: The First 5 Years.

    PubMed

    Stoler, A; Kessler, J B; Ashkenazi, T; Roth, A E; Lavee, J

    2016-09-01

    The allocation system of donor organs for transplantation may affect their scarcity. In 2008, Israel's Parliament passed the Organ Transplantation Law, which grants priority on waiting lists for transplants to candidates who are first-degree relatives of deceased organ donors or who previously registered as organ donors themselves. Several public campaigns have advertised the existence of the law since November 2010. We evaluated the effect of the law using all deceased donation requests made in Israel during the period 1998-2015. We use logistic regression to compare the authorization rates of the donors' next of kin in the periods before (1998-2010) and after (2011-2015) the public was made aware of the law. The authorization rate for donation in the period after awareness was substantially higher (55.1% vs. 45.0%, odds ratio [OR] 1.43, p = 0.0003) and reached an all-time high rate of 60.2% in 2015. This increase was mainly due to an increase in the authorization rate of next of kin of unregistered donors (51.1% vs. 42.2%). We also found that the likelihood of next-of-kin authorization for donation was approximately twice as high when the deceased relative was a registered donor rather than unregistered (89.4% vs. 44.6%, OR 14.27, p < 0.0001). We concluded that the priority law is associated with an increased authorization rate for organ donation.

  6. Tracking the distribution of persistent organic pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Wania, F.; Mackay, D.

    1996-09-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POP) are long-lived organic compounds that become concentrated as they move through the food chain. They have toxic effects on animal reproduction, development and immunological function. Understanding how POPs migrate through the global environment has become the focus of growing national and international concern. It is thus timely to evaluate, modify and extend the various concepts of POP distribution, especially in the view of recently announced international intentions to control the use of such substances. 15 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Sequestration of priority pollutant PAHs from sediment pore water employing semipermeable membrane devices

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williamson, K.S.; Petty, J.D.; Huckins, J.N.; Lebo, J.A.; Kaiser, E.M.

    2002-01-01

    Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were employed to sample sediment pore water in static exposure studies under controlled laboratory conditions using (control pond and formulated) sediments fortified with 15 priority pollutant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PPPAHs). The sediment fortification level of 750 ng/g was selected on the basis of what might be detected in a sediment sample from a contaminated area. The sampling interval consisted of 0, 4, 7, 14, and 28 days for each study. The analytical methodologies, as well as the extraction and sample cleanup procedures used in the isolation, characterization, and quantitation of 15 PPPAHs at different fortification levels in SPMDs, water, and sediment were reported previously (Williamson, M.S. Thesis, University of Missouri - Columbia, USA; Williamson et al., Chemosphere (This issue - PII: S0045-6535(02)00394-6)) and used for this project. Average (mean) extraction recoveries for each PPPAH congener in each matrix are reported and discussed. No procedural blank extracts (controls) were found to contain any PPPAH residues above the method quantitation limit, therefore, no matrix interferences were detected. The focus of this publication is to demonstrate the ability to sequester environmental contaminants, specifically PPPAHs, from sediment pore water using SPMDs and two different types of fortified sediment.

  8. Photomutagenicity of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from the US EPA priority pollutant list

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Jian; Wang, Lei; Fu, Peter P.; Yu, Hongtao

    2009-01-01

    The photomutagenicity of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), all on the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) priority pollutant list, was studied. Concomitant exposing the Salmonella typhimurium bacteria strain TA102 to one of the PAHs and light (1.1 J/cm2 UVA+2.1 J/cm2 visible) without the activation enzyme S9, strong photomutagenic response is observed for anthracene, benz[a]anthracene, benzo[ghi]perylene, benzo[a]pyrene, indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, and pyrene. Under the same conditions, acenaphthene, acenaphthylene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, chrysene, and fluorene are weakly photomutagenic. Benzo[b]fluoranthene, fluoranthene, naphthalene, phenanthrene, and dibenz[a,h]anthracene are not photomutagenic. These results indicate that PAHs can be activated by light and become mutagenic in Salmonella TA102 bacteria. At the same time, the mutagenicity for all the 16 PAHs was examined with the standard mutagenicity test with 10% S9 as the activation system. Benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, chrysene, acenaphthylene, and fluorene are weakly mutagenic, while the rest of the PAHs are not. In general, the photomutagenicity of PAHs in TA102 does not correlate with their S9-activated mutagenicity in either TA102 or TA98/TA100 since they involve different activation mechanisms. PMID:14706522

  9. Photocatalytic Degradation of a Gaseous Organic Pollutant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jimmy C.; Chan, Linda Y. L.

    1998-06-01

    A simple and effective method to demonstrate the phenomenon of photocatalytic degradation of a gaseous organic pollutant was developed. Titanium dioxide (anatase) was used as the photocatalyst, and sunlight was found to be an effective light source for the activation of TiO2. The organic pollutant degrade in this demonstration was a common indoor air pollutant, dichloromethane. The TiO2 powder was suspended in a 3:7 ethanol/water solution, and then coated on microscopic slides. The slides together with appropriate indicators were place in 250-mL conical flasks. A small amount of the volatile dichloromethane solvent was injected into each flask, and the flasks were sealed with a piece of parafilm. Some of the flasks were exposed to direct sunlight, and some were kept in the dark. The degradation products of dichloromethane were carbon dioxide, water, and hydrogen chloride. Formation of the acidic HCl gas could be monitored easily by two indicators, the universal pH paper and ammonia. The universal pH paper would change color from green to red in the presence of HCl and H2O, while HCl would react with ammonia to form a white fume. The results of this demonstration showed that both TiO2 and light were required in this photocatalytic degradation process.

  10. Accumulation of persistent organic pollutants in parasites.

    PubMed

    Yen Le, T T; Rijsdijk, Laurie; Sures, Bern; Hendriks, A Jan

    2014-08-01

    Organisms are simultaneously exposed to various stressors, including parasites and pollutants, that may interact with each other. Research on the accumulation of organic compounds in host-parasite systems is scant compared to studies on parasite-metal interactions and mainly focuses on intestinal endoparasites. We reviewed factors that determine the accumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in host-parasite systems. The wet/dry weight-based concentration of POPs in these parasites is usually lower than that in host tissues because of lower lipid contents in the parasites. However, the fractionation of the pollutants into parasites and their hosts may vary, depending on developmental stages in the life cycle of the parasites. Developmental stages determine the trophic relationship and the taxon of the parasite in the host-parasite systems because of different feeding strategies between the stages. Lipid-corrected concentrations of organic chemicals in the host are usually higher than those in the endoparasites studied. This phenomenon is attributed to a number of physiological and behavioural processes, such as feeding selectivity and strategy and excretion. Moreover, no significant relationship was found between the accumulation factor (i.e. the ratio between the lipid-corrected concentrations in parasites and in their hosts) for polychlorinated biphenyls and either hydrophobicity or molecular size. At the intermediate hydrophobicity, larger and more lipophilic compounds are accumulated at higher levels in both parasites and the host than smaller and less lipophilic compounds. The bioaccumulation of POPs in parasites is affected by some other abiotic, e.g. temperature, and biotic factors, e.g. the number of host species infected by parasites.

  11. Generation of novel bacterial regulatory proteins that detect priority pollutant phenols

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, A.A.; Kuske, C.R.

    2000-01-01

    The genetic systems of bacteria that have the ability to use organic pollutants as carbon and energy sources can be adapted to create bacterial biosensors for the detection of industrial pollution. The creation of bacterial biosensors is hampered by a lack of information about the genetic systems that control production of bacterial enzymes that metabolize pollutants. The authors have attempted to overcome this problem through modification of DmpR, a regulatory protein for the phenol degradation pathway of Pseudomonas sp. strain CF600. The phenol detection capacity of DmpR was altered by using mutagenic PCR targeted to the DmpR sensor domain. DmpR mutants were identified that both increased sensitivity to the phenolic effectors of wild-type DmpR and increased the range of molecules detected. The phenol detection characteristics of seven DmpR mutants were demonstrated through their ability to activate transcription of a lacZ reporter gene. Effectors of the DmpR derivatives included phenol, 2-chlorophenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol, 4-chloro-3-methylphenol, 2,4-dimethylphenol, 2-nitrophenol, and 4-nitrophenol.

  12. 76 FR 57662 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-16

    ... Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Chemicals, Hazardous waste, Hazardous substances, Intergovernmental relations, Penalties, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan;...

  13. 76 FR 57701 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-16

    ... Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Chemicals, Hazardous waste, Hazardous substances, Intergovernmental relations, Penalties, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan;...

  14. 76 FR 57661 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-16

    ... protection, Air pollution control, Chemicals, Hazardous waste, Hazardous substances, Intergovernmental relations, Penalties, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National...

  15. 78 FR 44512 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-24

    ... relations, Penalties, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the State of California...

  16. 76 FR 57702 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan National Priorities List

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-16

    ... Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Chemicals, Hazardous waste, Hazardous substances, Intergovernmental relations, Penalties, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan National...

  17. 78 FR 66325 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-05

    ..., Intergovernmental relations, Penalties, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the State of South Carolina...

  18. 78 FR 45905 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-30

    ..., Penalties, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, through the...

  19. 75 FR 27255 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ... relations, Penalties, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the State of Louisiana, through the Louisiana...

  20. Priority pollutants and associated constituents in untreated and treated discharges from coal mining or processing facilities in Pennsylvania, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cravotta, III, Charles A.; Keith B.C. Brady,

    2015-01-01

    Findings from this study suggest that typical chemical or aerobic treatment of CMD to pH > 6 with removal of Fe to <7 mg/L and Mn to <5 mg/L may provide a reasonable measure of protection for aquatic life from priority pollutant metals and other toxic or hazardous constituents in effluent but may not be effective for achieving permissible or background levels for TDS, SC, osmotic pressure, or concentrations of SO4 and some other pollutants, including Se, Br, and Cl, if present.

  1. Priorities of legislatively active veteran services organizations: a content analysis and review for health promotion initiatives.

    PubMed

    Jahnke, Sara A; Haddock, Christopher K; Carlos Poston, Walker S; Jitnarin, Nattinee

    2014-11-01

    Military and Veterans Service Organizations (MVSOs) have a unique opportunity to influence legislation and advocate for the interests of their members. However, little is known about what legislative priorities MVSOs see as important. Understanding the legislative priorities of MVSOs can inform efforts by health scientists to promote policy and laws designed to improve the health of our nation's veterans. Using a mixed methods approach, we conducted a thematic analysis of legislative priorities MVSOs promote with their legislative agendas. Most commonly, MVSOs addressed issues related to disability evaluations and ratings with the Veterans Administration and access to Veterans Administration services. Other common themes identified as priorities include benefits such as retirement, education, housing assistance for veterans, and TRICARE benefits. Findings highlight the broad range of topics MVSOs identify as legislative priorities as well as some health issues that receive relatively limited attention. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  2. Effects of pollution on freshwater organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Phipps, G.L.; Harden, M.J.; Leonard, E.N.; Roush, T.H; Spehar, D.L.; Stephan, C.E.; Pickering, Q.H.; Buikema, A.L. Jr.

    1984-06-01

    This review includes subjects in last year's reviews on effects of pollution on freshwater invertebrates and effects of pollution on freshwater fish and amphibians. This review also includes information on the effects of pollution on freshwater plants. 625 references.

  3. Statistical Survey of Persistent Organic Pollutants: Risk ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    U.S. EPA conducted a national statistical survey of fish tissue contamination at 540 river sites (representing 82 954 river km) in 2008–2009, and analyzed samples for 50 persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including 21 PCB congeners, 8 PBDE congeners, and 21 organochlorine pesticides. The survey results were used to provide national estimates of contamination for these POPs. PCBs were the most abundant, being measured in 93.5% of samples. Summed concentrations of the 21 PCB congeners had a national weighted mean of 32.7 μg/kg and a maximum concentration of 857 μg/kg, and exceeded the human health cancer screening value of 12 μg/kg in 48% of the national sampled population of river km, and in 70% of the urban sampled population. PBDEs (92.0%), chlordane (88.5%) and DDT (98.7%) were also detected frequently, although at lower concentrations. Results were examined by subpopulations of rivers, including urban or nonurban and three defined ecoregions. PCBs, PBDEs, and DDT occur at significantly higher concentrations in fish from urban rivers versus nonurban; however, the distribution varied more among the ecoregions. Wildlife screening values previously published for bird and mammalian species were converted from whole fish to fillet screening values, and used to estimate risk for wildlife through fish consumption. This work presents the results of the 2008-2009 National Rivers and Streams Assessment Survey (NRSA) where 50 persistent organic pollutants (POPs

  4. Monitoring priority substances, other organic contaminants and heavy metals in a volcanic aquifer from different sources and hydrological processes.

    PubMed

    Estevez, Esmeralda; Cabrera, María del Carmen; Fernández-Vera, Juan Ramón; Molina-Díaz, Antonio; Robles-Molina, José; Palacios-Díaz, María del Pino

    2016-05-01

    Irrigation with reclaimed water (R) is necessary to guarantee the sustainability of semi-arid areas. Results obtained during a two years monitoring network (2009-2011) in Gran Canaria are presented, including the analysis of chemical parameters, N and S isotopes, priority substances (2008/105/EC, 2013/39/EU), other organic contaminants and heavy metals in groundwater and R used to irrigate a golf course. The aims of this work are to evaluate the contamination in a volcanic aquifer, relate the presence of organic contaminants and heavy metals with the hydrogeochemistry and identify pollution sources in the area. No priority substance exceeded the EU thresholds for surface water, although seventeen were detected in R. The most frequent compounds were hexachlorobenzene, chlorpyrifos ethyl, fluorene, phenanthrene and pyrene. These compounds were detected at low concentration, except chlorpyrifos. Chlorpyrifos ethyl, terbuthylazine, diuron, terbutryn, procymidone, atrazine and propazine exceeded the European threshold concentration for pesticides in groundwater (100ngL(-1)). Therefore, the priority substances chlorpyrifos ethyl and diuron must be included in monitoring studies. The priority pesticides chlorfenvinphos and diazinon were always detected in R but rarely in groundwater. Besides, the existence of contaminants not related to the current R irrigation has been identified. Absence of environmental problems related to heavy metals can be expected. The relationship among contaminant presence, hydrogeochemistry, including the stable isotopic prints of δ(18)O, δ(15)N and δ(34)S and preferential recharge paths has been described. The coastal well shows high values of EC, nitrate, a variable chemistry, and 50% of organic contaminants detected above 100ngL(-1). The well located in the recharge area presents a stable hydrochemistry, the lowest value of δ(15)N and the lowest contaminants occurrence. The area is an example of a complex volcanic media with several

  5. Assessment of toxicity and biodegradability on activated sludge of priority and emerging pollutants.

    PubMed

    Tobajas, Montserrat; Verdugo, Verónica; Polo, Alicia M; Rodriguez, Juan J; Mohedano, Angel F

    2016-01-01

    Several methods for evaluating the toxicity and biodegradability of hazardous pollutants (chlorinated compounds, chemical additives and pharmaceuticals) have been studied in this work. Different bioassays using representative bacteria of marine and terrestrial ecosystems such as Vibrio fischeri and Pseudomonas putida have been used to assess the ecotoxicity. Activated sludge was used to analyse the effect of those pollutants in a biological reactor of a sewage treatment plant (STP). The results demonstrate that none of the compounds is toxic to activated sludge, except ofloxacin to P. putida. The additives tested can be considered moderately toxic according to the more sensitive V. fischeri assays, whereas the EC50 values of the pharmaceuticals depend on the specific microorganism used in each test. Regarding the biodegradability, respirometric measurements were carried out for fast biodegradability assessment and the Zahn-Wellens test for inherent biodegradability. The evolution of the specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR) showed that only diethyl phthalate was easily biodegradable and acetylsalicylic acid was partially biodegradable (98% and 65% degradation, respectively). The persistence of dichloromethane, ofloxacin and hidrochlorothiazide was confirmed along the 28 days of the Zahn-Wellens test whereas 1,1,1-trichloroethane showed inherent biodegradability (74% removal). Most of the chlorinated compounds, pharmaceuticals, bisphenol A and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid were partially degraded in 28 d with total organic carbon (TOC) reduction ranging from 21% to 51%. Sulphamethoxazole showed certain biodegradation (50% removal) with TOC decrease around 31%, which indicates the formation of non-biodegradable by-products.

  6. Assessment of priority phenolic compounds in sediments from an extremely polluted coastal wetland (Lake Maryut, Egypt).

    PubMed

    Khairy, Mohammed A

    2013-01-01

    Although high concentrations of trace organic pollutants were recorded along the Egyptian Mediterranean Coast and its corresponding coastal wetlands, no published data are available for the levels of phenolic compounds. Thus, this work aimed to investigate the levels of phenolic compounds in sediments of a heavily polluted coastal wetland (Lake Maryut, Egypt). For that purpose, a method was optimized for the extraction and detection of chlorophenols, methylphenols, and nitrophenols in sediments using GC-MS. Sediments were extracted with 0.1 M NaOH/methanol by sonication. Cleanup of sediment extracts using liquid-liquid extraction and SPE was found important to remove most of the interfering co-extracts. The proposed analytical methodology was validated by analysis of matrix spikes. Detection limits were 0.063-0.694 μg/kg dw for sediments. Good recoveries (70-110%) and precision values (RSD < 20%) were obtained from the fortification experiments at the parts per billion level in sediments. The method was applied to investigate the level of contamination with phenols in 19 sediment samples from Lake Maryut. Results revealed that higher concentrations were observed in the main basin (MB) of Lake Maryut affected by the discharge of effluents from a primary wastewater treatment plant, direct discharge of industrial effluents, domestic wastes, and agricultural effluents from Qalaa Drain (QD). Chlorophenols (CPs) were the major group detected in the lake sediments followed by methylphenols (MPs) and nitrophenols (NPs). CPs were dominated by 2-, 4-, and 3-chlorophenols. Concentrations of CPs were higher at the north and northwestern parts of the MB indicating the influence of industrial effluents discharged into the lake. On the other hand, higher concentrations of NPs were observed at the south and southwestern parts of the MB, which is subjected to the discharge of agricultural and domestic effluents via QD. Results of the risk assessment revealed that phenol, cresols

  7. Making customer-service a priority in health care organizations.

    PubMed

    O'Hagan, Joshua; Persaud, David

    2008-01-01

    Improving customer-service in health care organizations has been linked to better patient care, satisfied staff, a reduction in preventable medical errors, fewer malpractice lawsuits and improved revenue. However, it has been observed that there is sometimes a gap between the level of customer-service provided by health care organizations and their clients' expectations. This paper integrates, synthesizes and extends theory and practice from existing literature to provide health care organizations with strategies for closing this gap. Methods are also outlined for creating, implementing and evaluating an organizational plan for improving customer-service.

  8. [Status of trace organic pollution in the network water came from Huangpu River].

    PubMed

    Chen, Li; Zhou, Ying; Wu, Yiling; Zhang, Hao; et al

    2008-03-01

    To investigate the status of trace organic pollution of the network water came from Huangpu River in Shanghai. An analytical method combining solid-phase extraction technique with gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (SPE-GC/MS) was adopted for determination of trace organic chemicals in water samples. The resins containing XAD-2/402 (1:3) as solid sorbent enriched organic materials from drinking water, and 30% acetone-methanol was employed as elution solvent. 18 GC/MS methods were selected according to the priority substances of hazardous substances in drinking water recommended by US EPA. 142 kinds (10 categories) of organic pollutants were detected from drinking water, including phthalate esters, phenolic compounds, amines, alcohols/acids/esters, aliphatic hydrocarbons, alkyl halides, mono-/poly-cyclo aromatic compounds, heterocyclic compounds, aldehydes/ketones and others. Dibutyl phthalate(DBP), 4-cumylphenol and N-phenyl-beta-naphthylamine were found with relative high levels in the water samples. DBP and dioctyl phthalate (DOP) were considered by EPA to control the priority list of hazardous substances. Herbicides such as atrazine and linuron, and estrogen (3-deoxyestradiol) came from drinking water were also detected. Pollutants of drinking water came from Huangpu River as water source were complex. Most of the pollutants detected were not listed into Standards for Drinking Water Quality in China (GB5749-2006), so obviously, their comprehensive harmful effect should be further taken into account.

  9. 76 FR 77457 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-13

    ... of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 300 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Chemicals, Hazardous... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan;...

  10. Incentivizing deceased organ donation: a Swedish priority-setting perspective.

    PubMed

    Omar, Faisal; Tinghög, Gustav; Welin, Stellan

    2011-03-01

    The established deceased organ donation models in many countries, relying chiefly on altruism, have failed to motivate a sufficient number of donors. As a consequence organs that could save lives are routinely missed leading to a growing gap between demand and supply. The aim of this paper is twofold; firstly to develop a proposal for compensated deceased organ donation that could potentially address the organ shortage; secondly to examine the compatibility of the proposal with the ethical values of the Swedish healthcare system. The proposal for compensating deceased donation is grounded in behavioural agency theory and combines extrinsic, intrinsic and signalling incentives in order to increase prosocial behaviour. Furthermore the compatibility of our proposal with the values of the Swedish healthcare system is evaluated in reference to the principles of human dignity, needs and solidarity, and cost effectiveness. Extrinsic incentives in the form of a 5,000 compensation towards funeral expenses paid to the estate of the deceased or family is proposed. Intrinsic and signalling incentives are incorporated by allowing all or part of the compensation to be diverted as a donation to a reputable charity. The decision for organ donation must not be against the explicit will of the donor. We find that our proposal for compensated deceased donation is compatible with the values of the Swedish healthcare system, and therefore merits serious consideration. It is however important to acknowledge issues relating to coercion, commodification and loss of public trust and the ethical challenges that they might pose.

  11. 78 FR 47267 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-05

    ... requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply. Authority: 33 U.S.C. 1321(c)(2); 42 U.S.C. 9601... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the State of Oklahoma, through the...

  12. 77 FR 14717 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-13

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the State of South Dakota, through the Department of... Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP), which EPA promulgated pursuant to section 105 of...

  13. 76 FR 76336 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-07

    ... recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply. Authority: 33 U.S.C. 1321(c)(2... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the State of Texas, through the Texas Commission...

  14. 76 FR 45484 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-29

    ... recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply. Authority: 33 U.S.C. 1321(c)(2... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the State of Texas, through the Texas Commission...

  15. 76 FR 49397 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-10

    ... requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply. Authority: 33 U.S.C. 1321(c)(2); 42 U.S.C. 9601... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the State of Utah, through the Utah Department...

  16. 77 FR 43567 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-25

    ... recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply. Authority: 33 U.S.C. 1321(c)(2... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the State of New Jersey, through the NJ Department...

  17. 76 FR 41751 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-15

    ..., Water pollution control, Water supply. Authority: 33 U.S.C. 1321(c)(2); 42 U.S.C. 9601-9657; E.O. 12777... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... (CERCLA) of 1980, as amended, is an appendix of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution...

  18. 78 FR 57799 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan National Priorities List

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-20

    ... recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply. Authority: 33 U.S.C. 1321(c)(2... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan National....dante@epa.gov . List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 300 Environmental protection, Air pollution control...

  19. 78 FR 69360 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-19

    ... relations, Penalties, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... appendix of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the...

  20. 75 FR 48895 - National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan National Priorities List: Intent...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-12

    ... requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply. Authority: 33 U.S.C. 1321(c)(2); 42 U.S.C. 9601... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan National... and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the State of Arkansas, through...

  1. 77 FR 67783 - National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-14

    ..., Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, and Water supply. Dated... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan National..., is an appendix of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). EPA and...

  2. 76 FR 18136 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ..., Water pollution control, Water supply. Authority: 33 U.S.C. 1321(c)(2); 42 U.S.C. 9601-9657; E.O. 12777... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, through the Massachusetts...

  3. 76 FR 76118 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-06

    ..., Penalties, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the State of Texas, through the...

  4. 78 FR 48844 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-12

    ..., Intergovernmental relations, Penalties, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... amended, is an appendix of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The...

  5. 76 FR 56362 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan National Priorities List

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-13

    ... requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water Supply. Authority: 33 U.S.C. 1321(c)(2); 42 U.S.C. 9601... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan National... INFORMATION: List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 300 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Chemicals...

  6. 78 FR 63099 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ..., Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply. Dated: September... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the State of New York, through...

  7. 75 FR 47521 - National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List: Intent...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-06

    ..., Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply. Authority: 33 U... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan; National... 1980, as amended, is an appendix of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency...

  8. 76 FR 50441 - National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-15

    ... relations, Penalties, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan; National... Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the State of New Jersey, through the New Jersey...

  9. 76 FR 32115 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-03

    ..., Intergovernmental relations, Penalties, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the State of Delaware...

  10. 75 FR 53268 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-31

    ... requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply. Authority: 33 U.S.C. 1321(c)(2); 42 U.S.C. 9601... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the State of Georgia, through the Georgia...

  11. 76 FR 51316 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ... requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply. Authority: 33 U.S.C. 1321(c)(2); 42 U.S.C. 9601... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, through the Puerto...

  12. 77 FR 59338 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-27

    ... recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water Supply. Authority: 33 U.S.C. 1321(c)(2...-1983-0002; FRL-9735-3] National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 300 Environmental protection, Air pollution control...

  13. 77 FR 50070 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-20

    ..., Intergovernmental relations, Penalties, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the State of New York, through the Department of...

  14. 76 FR 45483 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-29

    ... recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply. Authority: 33 U.S.C. 1321(c)(2... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the State of Texas, through the...

  15. 76 FR 50164 - National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ... requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply. Authority: 33 U.S.C. 1321(c)(2); 42 U.S.C. 9601... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan National... Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). EPA and the State of New York, through the Department of...

  16. 78 FR 65210 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ..., Intergovernmental relations, Penalties, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the State of California...

  17. 75 FR 26166 - National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan National Priorities List

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-11

    ..., Intergovernmental relations, Penalties, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan National... 40 CFR part 300 which is the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP...

  18. 77 FR 64790 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-23

    ..., Penalties, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, and Water supply... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 ] National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). EPA and the State of Michigan, through the...

  19. 76 FR 56294 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan National Priorities List

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-13

    ..., Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply. Authority: 33 U.S.C. 1321(c)(2); 42 U.S.C. 9601-9657; E.O... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan National... in 40 CFR Part 300 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Chemicals, Hazardous Waste...

  20. 76 FR 70105 - National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan National Priorities List: Partial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-10

    ... recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply. Authority: 33 U.S.C. 1321(c)(2... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan National... amended, is an appendix of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). EPA...

  1. 76 FR 20605 - National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-13

    ..., Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply. Authority: 33 U... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan National... National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). EPA and the State of Michigan...

  2. 77 FR 50069 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-20

    ... relations, Penalties, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... (CERCLA) of 1980, as amended, is an appendix of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution...

  3. 76 FR 42055 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-18

    ... recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water Supply. Authority: 33 U.S.C. 1321(c)(2... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 300 Environmental protection, Air pollution control...

  4. 76 FR 81904 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply. Authority: 33 U.S.C. 1321(c)(2); 42 U.S.C. 9601... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the State of Florida, through the Florida Department...

  5. 76 FR 81840 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... appendix of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). This direct final... Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP), which EPA promulgated pursuant to section 105 of the Comprehensive...

  6. 76 FR 76048 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-06

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). This direct final deletion is being published by EPA with the concurrence... Part 300 which is the Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP), which EPA...

  7. 76 FR 70057 - National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-10

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan; National..., is an appendix to the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). This... constitutes Appendix B of 40 CFR part 300, which is the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution...

  8. 76 FR 32081 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-03

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). This direct final deletion is being published by EPA with the concurrence... constitutes Appendix B of 40 CFR part 300, which is the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution...

  9. 76 FR 60777 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-30

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). EPA, with the concurrence of the State of North... Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP), which EPA promulgated pursuant to Section 105 of the Comprehensive...

  10. 78 FR 60809 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-02

    ...), located in Paris, New York, from the National Priorities List (NPL) and requests public comments on this.... to 5:00 p.m., and Town of Paris, Town Hall, 2580 Sulphur Springs Road, Sauquoit, NY 13456-0451, Phone...

  11. 78 FR 45167 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-26

    ... Priorities List: Deletion of the Cannon Engineering Corp. (CEC), Superfund Site AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule; notice of intent. SUMMARY: The Environmental Protection... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  12. A miniaturized electrochemical toxicity biosensor based on graphene oxide quantum dots/carboxylated carbon nanotubes for assessment of priority pollutants.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaolin; Wu, Guanlan; Lu, Nan; Yuan, Xing; Li, Baikun

    2017-02-15

    The study presented a sensitive and miniaturized cell-based electrochemical biosensor to assess the toxicity of priority pollutants in the aquatic environment. Human hepatoma (HepG2) cells were used as the biological recognition agent to measure the changes of electrochemical signals and reflect the cell viability. The graphene oxide quantum dots/carboxylated carbon nanotubes hybrid was developed in a facile and green way. Based on the hybrid composite modified pencil graphite electrode, the cell culture and detection vessel was miniaturized to a 96-well plate instead of the traditional culture dish. In addition, three sensitive electrochemical signals attributed to guanine/xanthine, adenine, and hypoxanthine were detected simultaneously. The biosensor was used to evaluate the toxicity of six priority pollutants, including Cd, Hg, Pb, 2,4-dinitrophenol, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, and pentachlorophenol. The 24h IC50 values obtained by the electrochemical biosensor were lower than those of conventional MTT assay, suggesting the enhanced sensitivity of the electrochemical assay towards heavy metals and phenols. This platform enables the label-free and sensitive detection of cell physiological status with multi-parameters and constitutes a promising approach for toxicity detection of pollutants. It makes possible for automatical and high-throughput analysis on nucleotide catabolism, which may be critical for life science and toxicology.

  13. [Groundwater organic pollution source identification technology system research and application].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Hong; Wei, Jia-Hua; Cheng, Zhi-Neng; Liu, Pei-Bin; Ji, Yi-Qun; Zhang, Gan

    2013-02-01

    Groundwater organic pollutions are found in large amount of locations, and the pollutions are widely spread once onset; which is hard to identify and control. The key process to control and govern groundwater pollution is how to control the sources of pollution and reduce the danger to groundwater. This paper introduced typical contaminated sites as an example; then carried out the source identification studies and established groundwater organic pollution source identification system, finally applied the system to the identification of typical contaminated sites. First, grasp the basis of the contaminated sites of geological and hydrogeological conditions; determine the contaminated sites characteristics of pollutants as carbon tetrachloride, from the large numbers of groundwater analysis and test data; then find the solute transport model of contaminated sites and compound-specific isotope techniques. At last, through groundwater solute transport model and compound-specific isotope technology, determine the distribution of the typical site of organic sources of pollution and pollution status; invest identified potential sources of pollution and sample the soil to analysis. It turns out that the results of two identified historical pollution sources and pollutant concentration distribution are reliable. The results provided the basis for treatment of groundwater pollution.

  14. 75 FR 33747 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-15

    ..., Intergovernmental relations, Penalties, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... underlying ground water of the approximately 8-acre western portion of Operable Unit 1 of the...

  15. 76 FR 30081 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... (CERCLA) of 1980, as amended, is an appendix of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution... and Environment (CDPHE), have determined that all appropriate response actions at these...

  16. 78 FR 56611 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-13

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National..., is an appendix of the National Oil and ] Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The... risk to public health, welfare, or the environment. Deletion from the NPL does not preclude...

  17. 75 FR 55479 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-13

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... appendix of the National Oil and ] Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). This partial... the State of Colorado, through the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment (CDPHE),...

  18. 77 FR 31215 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-25

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National..., as amended, is an appendix of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan... EPA and the State of South Dakota, through the Department of Environment and Natural Resources,...

  19. 76 FR 11350 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... (CERCLA) of 1980, as amended, is an appendix of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution... EPA and the State of New Mexico, through the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED), have...

  20. 76 FR 71500 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-18

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan National... Superfund) of 1980, as amended, is an appendix of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution... Environment and Natural Resources (DENR), has determined that all appropriate response actions under...

  1. 75 FR 63140 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-14

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the State of Colorado, through the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment (CDPHE), have determined that all appropriate response...

  2. 76 FR 58404 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-21

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). This partial deletion pertains to the remaining portions of OU9... Health and Environment, have determined that all appropriate response actions under CERCLA, other...

  3. 77 FR 2911 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-20

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... amended, is an appendix of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the State of North Carolina, through the Department of Environment and Natural Resources...

  4. 77 FR 58321 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-20

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... appendix of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). EPA and the State of North Carolina, through the North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources...

  5. Adaptation of forest ecosystems to air pollution and climate change: a global assessment on research priorities

    Treesearch

    Y. Serengil; A. Augustaitis; Andrzej Bytnerowicz; Nancy Grulke; A.R. Kozovitz; R. Matyssek; G. Müller-Starck; M. Schaub; G. Wieser; A.A. Coskun; E. Paoletti

    2011-01-01

    Climate change and air pollution are two of the anthropogenic stressors that require international collaboration. Influence mechanisms and combating strategies towards them have similarities to some extent. Impacts of air pollution and climate change have long been studied under IUFRO Research Group 7.01 and state of the art findings are presented at biannual meetings...

  6. 75 FR 43115 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-23

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, through the... partial deletion pertains to the soil and groundwater of parcels 24, 27, 28, 2-53, 2-53L, 2-54, 2-54L,...

  7. 77 FR 64748 - National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-23

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan; National... Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). This direct final partial deletion is being published by EPA, with the... Michigan Smelter Tailings parcels of OU3 and the Mason Sands Tailings parcel of OU1. The following land...

  8. Sorption of priority pollutants to biochars and activated carbons for application to soil and sediment remediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckingham, B.; Gomez-Eyles, J. L.; Kwon, S.; Riedel, G.; Gilmour, C.; Ghosh, U.

    2012-04-01

    The effectiveness of different biochars in comparison to 2 commercially available activated carbons (ACs) to sorb polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and mercury (Hg) was assessed, with the aim of identifying promising materials for application to soil and sediment remediation and elucidating material properties that may enhance pollutant binding potential. Biochars studied were produced from pine dust, peanut hull, barley straw, and acai pit in addition to steam-activated biochars made from poultry litter (chicken and turkey). Aqueous concentrations of PCBs were measured using a polyoxymethylene passive sampling technique allowing a very low environmentally-relevant concentration range to be examined. Mercury pH-edge isotherms were conducted at relatively high concentrations in a wide pH range (pH 3-11). Sorption of Hg at low concentrations was also performed with ACs and two other biochars made from a marsh reed and a hard wood. Organic contaminant isotherms were analyzed by the Freundlich model, and Freundlich sorption coefficients (KFr) were normalized to a single concentration to allow comparison among materials (i.e. Kd). Values of Kd were related to the sorbent surface area, with sorption being greater for ACs than activated biochars, followed by unactivated biochars. ACs also had higher carbon content (80-90%) than biochars (22 - 77%). This sorption trend would thus be expected for adsorption of hydrophobic compounds to black carbon surfaces. In contrast, at high concentration all biochars removed more Hg from solution than ACs. Steam-activated poultry litter biochars showed the best performance, with consistent removal of >99.7% Hg over the entire pH range. The relatively high sulfur and phosphate content of these materials likely contribute to this enhanced Hg sorption. Also, owing to their lower pyrolysis temperatures relative to ACs, biochars are reported to have a greater surface group functionality which can enhance cation sorption. The importance of

  9. Systematic study of the contamination of wastewater treatment plant effluents by organic priority compounds in Almeria province (SE Spain).

    PubMed

    Barco-Bonilla, Nieves; Romero-González, Roberto; Plaza-Bolaños, Patricia; Martínez Vidal, José L; Garrido Frenich, Antonia

    2013-03-01

    The occurrence of priority organic pollutants in wastewater (WW) effluents was evaluated in a semi-arid area, characterized by a high agricultural and tourism activity, as Almeria province (Southeastern Spain). Twelve wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) were sampled in three campaigns during 2011, obtaining a total of 33 WW samples, monitoring 226 compounds, including pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phenolic compounds and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Certain banned organochlorine pesticides such as aldrin, pentachlorobenzene, o,p'-DDD and endosulfan lactone were found, and the most frequently detected pesticides were herbicides (diuron, triazines). PAHs and VOCs were also detected, noting that some of these pollutants were ubiquitous. Regarding phenolic compounds, 4-tertoctylphenol was found in all the WW samples at high concentration levels (up to 89.7 μg/L). Furthermore, it was observed that WW effluent samples were less contaminated in the second and third sampling periods, which corresponded to dry season. This evaluation revealed that despite the WW was treated in the WWTP, organic contaminants are still being detected in WW effluents and therefore they are released into the environment. Finally the risk of environmental threat due to the presence of some compounds in WWTP effluents, especially concerning 4-tertoctylphenol must be indicated.

  10. Environmental distribution of chlorinated organic pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Emmi, F.

    1983-01-01

    A survey of the concentration of PCB's and chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides in Susquehanna River Basin sediments was performed on samples collected from New York and Pennsylvania in 1976-1979. Highest concentrations were found for PCB's, with median and range of 38 and 13-524 ng/g, respectively. Pesticides had median concentrations ranging from approx.1 ng/g for DDT, DDD, and DDE, to less than 0.1 ng/g for aldrin and dieldrin. Highest concentrations generally were found downstream from industrial centers. Concentrations of PCB's and pesticides were also determined for soil composites collected from six areas of the basin. For several pollutants, the highest levels were found in the Pennsylvania areas, especially the Conestoga River Basin site. The PCB levels were the same (approx.35 ng/g) in all New York soil composites; this was consistent with concentrations predicted from known atmospheric deposition data. Adsorption of atrazine and simazine on model substrates was stuided to elucidate the partitioning of these herbicides on river sediments. Clean sea sand had little affinity for these compounds. Adsorption on illite clay and humic acid-coated sea sand gave relatively large K/sub p/ and K/sub oc/ values compared to the values for river sediments, suggesting that the nature of the sites available for absorbing organic molecules needs further study.

  11. Enantioselective Biotransformation of Chiral Persistent Organic Pollutants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Ye, Jing; Liu, Min

    2017-01-01

    Enantiomers of chiral compounds commonly undergo enantioselective transformation in most biologically mediated processes. As chiral persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are extensively distributed in the environment, differences between enantiomers in biotransformation should be carefully considered to obtain exact enrichment and specific health risks. This review provides an overview of in vivo biotransformation of chiral POPs currently indicated in the Stockholm Convention and their chiral metabolites. Peer-reviewed journal articles focused on the research question were thoroughly searched. A set of inclusion and exclusion criteria were developed to identify relevant studies. We mainly compared the results from different animal models under controlled laboratory conditions to show the difference between enantiomers in terms of distinct transformation potential. Interactions with enzymes involved in enantioselective biotransformation, especially cytochrome P450 (CYP), were discussed. Further research areas regarding this issue were proposed. Limited evidence for a few POPs has been found in 30 studies. Enantioselective biotransformation of α-hexachlorocyclohexane (α-HCH), chlordane, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), heptachlor, hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and toxaphene, has been investigated using laboratory mammal, fish, bird, and worm models. Tissue and excreta distributions, as well as bioaccumulation and elimination kinetics after administration of racemate and pure enantiomers, have been analyzed in these studies. Changes in enantiomeric fractions have been considered as an indicator of enantioselective biotransformation of chiral POPs in most studies. Results of different laboratory animal models revealed that chiral POP biotransformation is seriously affected by chirality. Pronounced results of species-, tissue-, gender-, and individual-dependent differences are observed in in vivo biotransformation of chiral POPs

  12. Mathematical model for cyclodextrin alteration of bioavailability of organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huihui; Cai, Xiyun; Chen, Jingwen

    2013-06-04

    While many cyclodextrin-based applications have been developed to assess or enhance bioavailability of organic pollutants, the choice of cyclodextrin (CD) is largely empirical, with little consideration of pollutant diversity and environmental matrix effects. This study aimed at developing a mathematical model for quantifying CD alteration of bioavailability of organic pollutants. Cyclodextrin appears to have multiple effects, together contributing to its bioavailability-enhancing property. Cyclodextrin is adsorbed onto the adsorbent matrix to different extents. The adsorbed CD is capable of sequestrating organic pollutants, highlighting the role of a pseudophase similar to solid environmental matrix. Aqueous CD can reduce adsorption of organic pollutants via inclusion complexation. The two effects cancel each other to a certain degree, which determines the levels of organic pollutants dissolved (comprising freely dissolved and CD-included forms). Additionally, the CD-included form is nearly identical in biological activity to the free form. A mathematical model of one variable (i.e., CD concentration) was derived to quantify effects of CD on the bioavailability of organic pollutants. Model analysis indicates that alteration of bioavailability of organic pollutants by CD depends on both CD (type and level) and environmental matrix. The selection of CD type and amendment level for a given application may be predicted by the model.

  13. Effectiveness of three configurations of membrane bioreactors on the removal of priority and emergent organic compounds from wastewater: comparison with conventional wastewater treatments.

    PubMed

    Camacho-Muñoz, D; Martín, J; Santos, J L; Alonso, E; Aparicio, I; De la Torre, T; Rodriguez, C; Malfeito, J J

    2012-05-01

    In this work the effectiveness of membrane bioreactors as advanced treatment on the removal of emergent and priority organic compounds in wastewater treatment plants has been evaluated during a one-year monitoring study. The studied wastewater treatment plant operates with flat sheet and hollow fibre membranes in two parallel lines. Moreover, a reverse osmosis module connected in series after the hollow fibre membrane was evaluated for one month. Comparison of membrane bioreactor and conventional activated sludge treatment was also investigated, as well as the influence of the physicochemical properties of the compounds on the removal rates achieved. Sixteen pharmaceutical compounds belonging to seven therapeutic groups and eight priority organic pollutants, including linear alkylbenzene sulfonates, nonylphenol and its ethoxylates and phthalate, were monitored. The highest mean concentrations corresponded to priority organic pollutants (309 μg L(-1) of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate C(12)) followed by pharmaceutical compounds (24.5 μg L(-1) of ibuprofen). No significant difference of effectiveness was found among flat sheet and hollow fibre membranes. However, an improvement was obtained with the addition of a reverse osmosis module for most of the compounds. Biodegradation has been shown as the main route involved in the removal of organic compounds during both technologies.

  14. 78 FR 73449 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-06

    ... Priorities List: Partial Deletion of the Omaha Lead Superfund Site AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... Partially Delete (NOIPD) of the Omaha Lead Superfund Site (Site) located in Omaha, Nebraska from the... residential parcels with soil lead levels at or above 400 parts per million (ppm) will remain on the NPL and...

  15. 78 FR 11620 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-19

    ... Priorities List: Deletion of the Kerr-McGee (Sewage Treatment Plant) Superfund Site AGENCY: Environmental... Agency (EPA) Region 5 is issuing a Notice of Intent to Delete the Kerr-McGee Sewage Treatment Plant... Kerr-McGee (Sewage Treatment Plant) Superfund Site without prior Notice of Intent to Delete because...

  16. 76 FR 45432 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-29

    ... direct final Notice of Deletion of the Palmer Barge Line (PBL) Superfund Site located in Port Arthur... Line (PBL) Superfund Site (Site), from the National Priorities List (NPL). The NPL constitutes Appendix... discusses the PBL Superfund Site and demonstrates how it meets the deletion criteria. Section V discusses...

  17. 76 FR 49324 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-10

    ... Priorities List: Deletion of International Smelting and Refining Superfund Site AGENCY: Environmental... publishing a direct final Notice of Deletion of the International Smelting and Refining Superfund Site (Site... final Notice of Deletion of the International Smelting and Refining Superfund Site, (Site), from the...

  18. 77 FR 21919 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-12

    ...) located in Greenup, Illinois from the National Priorities List (NPL) and requests public comments on this proposed action. The NPL, promulgated pursuant to Section 105 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response... instructions for submitting comments. Email: Gladys Beard, NPL Deletion Process Manager, at...

  19. 75 FR 42361 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-21

    ... Priorities List: Partial Deletion of the Rocky Mountain Arsenal Federal Facility AGENCY: Environmental... Protection Agency (EPA) Region 8 issued a Notice of Intent to Delete portions of the Rocky Mountain Arsenal... legal holidays; and the --Joint Administrative Records Document Facility, Rocky Mountain ] Arsenal, 5650...

  20. 76 FR 41719 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-15

    ... Priorities List: Deletion of the Hipps Road Landfill Superfund Site AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... direct final Notice of Deletion of the Hipps Road Landfill Superfund Site (Site), located in Jacksonville... publishing this direct final Notice of Deletion of the Hipps Road Landfill (Site), from the...

  1. The Fate of Selected Organic Pollutants During Landfill Disposal Operations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-07-11

    DAMD17-85-C-5024 8c. ADDRESS (City, State, and ZIP Code) 10. SOURCE OF FUNDING NUMBERS Fort Detrick PROGRAM PROJECT ITASK iWORK UNIT Frederick, Maryland...inclusion by commercial and industrial operations are additional sources of priority pollutants in sanitary landfills. DeWalle and Chian (6) detected numerous...palmitate Butanol Dibutyl phthalate Tetrahydrofuran Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate Diethylether Terpineol C15 Chloroform Dichloroethane Base/Neutral

  2. Terrestrial pollutant runoff to the Great Barrier Reef: An update of issues, priorities and management responses.

    PubMed

    Brodie, J E; Kroon, F J; Schaffelke, B; Wolanski, E C; Lewis, S E; Devlin, M J; Bohnet, I C; Bainbridge, Z T; Waterhouse, J; Davis, A M

    2012-01-01

    The Great Barrier Reef (GBR) is a World Heritage Area and contains extensive areas of coral reef, seagrass meadows and fisheries resources. From adjacent catchments, numerous rivers discharge pollutants from agricultural, urban, mining and industrial activity. Pollutant sources have been identified and include suspended sediment from erosion in cattle grazing areas; nitrate from fertiliser application on crop lands; and herbicides from various land uses. The fate and effects of these pollutants in the receiving marine environment are relatively well understood. The Australian and Queensland Governments responded to the concerns of pollution of the GBR from catchment runoff with a plan to address this issue in 2003 (Reef Plan; updated 2009), incentive-based voluntary management initiatives in 2007 (Reef Rescue) and a State regulatory approach in 2009, the Reef Protection Package. This paper reviews new research relevant to the catchment to GBR continuum and evaluates the appropriateness of current management responses.

  3. Temporal variation of persistent organic pollutant (POP) residue concentrations in sediments from the bay of Chetumal, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Noreña-Barroso, E; Gold-Bouchot, G; Ceja-Moreno, V

    2007-08-01

    Bay of Chetumal is a transboundary priority area for the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef Systems project, which has been studied because it is the receiving body of pollutants from a large agricultural area and the city of Chetumal. Levels of persistent organic pollutants in sediments from the Bay were assessed a few years after a mass mortality event of Mayan catfish (Ariopsis assimilis) occurred in 1996. Recent sediments were collected in the rainy season (1999) and dry season (2000); results show concentrations in general lower than those reported after the fish kill, and a change of chemical profiles in chemical pollution.

  4. Persistent organic pollutants and male reproductive health

    PubMed Central

    Vested, Anne; Giwercman, Aleksander; Bonde, Jens Peter; Toft, Gunnar

    2014-01-01

    Environmental contaminants such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are man-made bioaccumulative compounds with long half-lives that are found throughout the world as a result of heavy use in a variety of consumer products during the twentieth century. Wildlife and animal studies have long suggested adverse effects of exposure to these compounds on human reproductive health, which, according to the endocrine disrupter hypothesis, are ascribed to the compounds’ potential to interfere with endocrine signaling, especially when exposure occurs during certain phases of fetal and childhood development. An extensive number of epidemiological studies have addressed the possible effects of exposure to POPs on male reproductive health, but the results are conflicting. Thus far, most studies have focused on investigating exposure and the different reproductive health outcomes during adulthood. Some studies have addressed the potential harmful effects of fetal exposure with respect to malformations at birth and/or reproductive development, whereas only a few studies have been able to evaluate whether intrauterine exposure to POPs has long-term consequences for male reproductive health with measurable effects on semen quality markers and reproductive hormone levels in adulthood. Humans are not exposed to a single compound at a time, but rather, to a variety of different substances with potential divergent hormonal effects. Hence, how to best analyze epidemiological data on combined exposures remains a significant challenge. This review on POPs will focus on current knowledge regarding the potential effects of exposure to POPs during fetal and childhood life and during adulthood on male reproductive health, including a critical revision of the endocrine disruption hypothesis, a comment on pubertal development as part of reproductive development and a comment on how to account for combined exposures in epidemiological research. PMID:24369135

  5. Construction of a chemical ranking system of soil pollution substances for screening of priority soil contaminants in Korea.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Seung-Woo; An, Youn-Joo

    2012-04-01

    The Korean government recently proposed expanding the number of soil-quality standards to 30 by 2015. The objectives of our study were to construct a reasonable protocol for screening priority soil contaminants for inclusion in the planned soil quality standard expansion. The chemical ranking system of soil pollution substances (CROSS) was first developed to serve as an analytical tool in chemical scoring and ranking of possible soil pollution substances. CROSS incorporates important parameters commonly used in several previous chemical ranking and scoring systems and the new soil pollution parameters. CROSS uses soil-related parameters in its algorithm, including information related to the soil environment, such as soil ecotoxicological data, the soil toxic release inventory (TRI), and soil partitioning coefficients. Soil TRI and monitoring data were incorporated as local specific parameters. In addition, CROSS scores the transportability of chemicals in soil because soil contamination may result in groundwater contamination. Dermal toxicity was used in CROSS only to consider contact with soil. CROSS uses a certainty score to incorporate data uncertainty. CROSS scores the importance of each candidate substance and assigns rankings on the basis of total scores. Cadmium was the most highly ranked. Generally, metals were ranked higher than other substances. Pentachlorophenol, phenol, dieldrin, and methyl tert-butyl ether were ranked the highest among chlorinated compounds, aromatic compounds, pesticides, and others, respectively. The priority substance list generated from CROSS will be used in selecting substances for possible inclusion in the Korean soil quality standard expansion; it will also provide important information for designing a soil-environment management scheme.

  6. Setting priorities for research on pollution reduction functions of agricultural buffers

    Treesearch

    Michael G. Dosskey

    2002-01-01

    The success of buffer installation initiatives and programs to reduce nonpoint source pollution of streams on agricultural lands will depend the ability of local planners to locate and design buffers for specific circumstances with substantial and predictable results. Current predictive capabilities are inadequate, and major sources of uncertainty remain. An...

  7. Points mean prizes: priority points, preferential status and directed organ donation in Israel

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of Israel’s new Organ Transplantation Act in 2010 has enabled the development of a unique priority point system aimed at motivating individual’s to donate their organ. The priority point system rewards those who are willing to donate an organ with preferential status and an increased chance of receiving a donor organ, should they come to be in need of one. Preliminary evidence suggests it has considerable public support among Israelis, who appear willing to redress the challenge posed by those who are willing to accept an organ but not willing to donate. Since the Act’s introduction Israel has witnessed record numbers signing donor cards and there has been a significant increase in the actual numbers of transplants. One aspect of the new Israeli system that has hitherto not much been considered is its tendency towards a communitarian model of organ donation and the implications this change in emphasis may have for the existing ‘opt-in’ model based upon autonomy and consent. Gil Siegel draws our attention to this aspect when he sets out his defence of a proposal he refers to as ‘directed organ donation to other registered donors’, which encourages community responsibility without affecting the established commitment to consent and individual freedom. This commentary provides a brief overview of the new Act and its priority point system. It also examines Siegel’s proposal and considers the implications it may have for equity and justice, personal choice and dispositional authority. It is argued that although the proposal brings with it several inevitable hurdles for policy makers these are not insurmountable. Rather, its extraordinary potential to save life and avoid suffering should prompt urgent action at policy level. If such a scheme was successfully implemented in Israel it would represent a landmark change in organ donation and allocation policy, and set an example from which we all could learn. PMID:24565060

  8. Points mean prizes: priority points, preferential status and directed organ donation in Israel.

    PubMed

    Cronin, Antonia J

    2014-02-24

    The introduction of Israel's new Organ Transplantation Act in 2010 has enabled the development of a unique priority point system aimed at motivating individual's to donate their organ. The priority point system rewards those who are willing to donate an organ with preferential status and an increased chance of receiving a donor organ, should they come to be in need of one. Preliminary evidence suggests it has considerable public support among Israelis, who appear willing to redress the challenge posed by those who are willing to accept an organ but not willing to donate. Since the Act's introduction Israel has witnessed record numbers signing donor cards and there has been a significant increase in the actual numbers of transplants.One aspect of the new Israeli system that has hitherto not much been considered is its tendency towards a communitarian model of organ donation and the implications this change in emphasis may have for the existing 'opt-in' model based upon autonomy and consent. Gil Siegel draws our attention to this aspect when he sets out his defence of a proposal he refers to as 'directed organ donation to other registered donors', which encourages community responsibility without affecting the established commitment to consent and individual freedom.This commentary provides a brief overview of the new Act and its priority point system. It also examines Siegel's proposal and considers the implications it may have for equity and justice, personal choice and dispositional authority. It is argued that although the proposal brings with it several inevitable hurdles for policy makers these are not insurmountable. Rather, its extraordinary potential to save life and avoid suffering should prompt urgent action at policy level. If such a scheme was successfully implemented in Israel it would represent a landmark change in organ donation and allocation policy, and set an example from which we all could learn.

  9. A REVIEW OF BIOACCUMULATION MODELING APPROACHES FOR PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Persistent organic pollutants and mercury are likely to bioaccumulate in biological components of the environment, including fish and wildlife. The complex and long-term dynamics involved with bioaccumulation are often represented with models. Current scientific developments in t...

  10. Article "403. Toxicology of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs)"

    EPA Science Inventory

    Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) are all synthetic chemicals, either intentionally or unintentionally produced/released. Some POPs are pesticides. Others are industrial products or unintended by-products resulting from industrial processes or combustions (see figure 1). POPs ...

  11. A REVIEW OF BIOACCUMULATION MODELING APPROACHES FOR PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Persistent organic pollutants and mercury are likely to bioaccumulate in biological components of the environment, including fish and wildlife. The complex and long-term dynamics involved with bioaccumulation are often represented with models. Current scientific developments in t...

  12. Article "403. Toxicology of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs)"

    EPA Science Inventory

    Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) are all synthetic chemicals, either intentionally or unintentionally produced/released. Some POPs are pesticides. Others are industrial products or unintended by-products resulting from industrial processes or combustions (see figure 1). POPs ...

  13. Determination of trace organic pollutants in aqueous samples using GC/MS and SPE techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, L.J.; Yamamoto, M.; Fitzsimmons, S.; Shen, Y.

    1996-11-01

    This study evaluates the advantage of using GC/MS (ion trap) and solid phase extraction (SPE) for the determination of semi-volatile organics which cover priority pollutants, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, pesticides, phthalates, and synthetic organic analytes. SPE of trace organic compounds using reverse phase sorbent is attractive compared to the more traditional methods that utilize liquid-liquid extraction or microextraction for the removal of these pollutants from aqueous samples. GC/MS method involving SPE for sample preparation reduces manual labor, speed sample processing,and substantially reduces the volume of solvent required. Also, the application of axial modulation ion trap mass spectrometry improved sensitivity in GC/MS analysis and the method accuracy and precision of semi-volatile organics from GC/MS (ion trap) are very competitive with electron capture detector and photo ionization detector. Systematic studies were done to determine the factors that effect the optimum disk sampling/elution conditions to achieve the quality control requirements for the compliance monitoring. The recoveries of phthalates, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH`s) and most of the organic pesticides, which have very hydrophobic nature and high boiling points, are very acceptable. Consequently GC/MS analysis using solid phase extraction (SPE) techniques can be applied as the primary analytical method and final conformation tool for the routine monitoring samples such as ground water, surface water and reclaimed water for the determination of trace organic pollutants with improved sensitivity, reduced extraction time and monitoring expense.

  14. [Construction of index system for early warning of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) pollution incidents in China].

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Lü, Yong-Long; He, Gui-Zhen; Wang, Tie-Yu

    2014-10-01

    Early warning of pollution incidents caused by persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is urgently needed for China in the circumstances of serious POPs pollution and in increasing demand for improvement in chemical risk management. Given different categories of POPs and pollution incidents, the index system for early warning of POPs pollution accidents was built based on lifecycle theory and POPs formation mechanisms. It will be helpful for decision makers to enhance the early warning management of POPs pollution incidents in China. The index system for early warning includes two parts, early warning and mechanism for system operation. The indices include risk source indicators, warning indicators and warning level indicators. To ensure the effective implementation of this system, the mechanisms for response and policy guarantee were also formulated. These mechanisms contain dynamic inventory management and periodical assessment of risk sources, timely and effective report of warning conditions, as well as coordination and cooperation among the relevant departments.

  15. Organic pollution and its effects in the marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis in Eastern Mediterranean coasts.

    PubMed

    Kasiotis, Konstantinos M; Emmanouil, Christina; Anastasiadou, Pelagia; Papadi-Psyllou, Asimina; Papadopoulos, Antonis; Okay, Oya; Machera, Kyriaki

    2015-01-01

    Persistent chemicals and emerging pollutants are continuously detected in marine waters and biota. Out of these, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCs) are significant contaminants with decades of presence in the marine environment. The Mediterranean Sea is an ecosystem directly affected by a variety of anthropogenic activities including industry, municipal, touristic, commercial and agricultural. The Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) is a filter feeder, which presents wide distribution. In this regard, the specific organism was used as a biological indicator for the monitoring and evaluation of pollution in the studied areas with focus on the mentioned chemical groups. Pristine Turkish sites with minimum effect from anthropogenic activities, in contrast with Greek sites which were subjected to heavy industrial and shipping activity, were selected. A gas chromatographic tandem mass spectrometric method (GC-MS/MS) was developed and validated to monitor 34 compounds (16 EPA priority PAHs and 18 OCs). Analyses of mussel samples in 2011 from sites with the limited anthropogenic pollution shores have shown the occurrence of 11 pollutants (6 PAHs, 5 OCs), while in the samples from sites with intensive activity and expected pollution, 12 PAHs and 6 OCs were detected. Biochemical and biological responses studied only in mussels samples from the sites with the highest contamination showed a situation that was under strong seasonal influence. The intensity of the response was also influenced by deployment duration. Noteworthy correlations were detected among biochemical/biological effects and between mussel body burden and these effects. Continuous monitoring of priority pollutants of East Mediterranean Sea is vital both for ecological and human risk assessment purposes.

  16. Removal of Organic Pollutants from Water Using Superwetting Materials.

    PubMed

    Li, Lingxiao; Zhang, Junping; Wang, Aiqin

    2017-08-02

    The frequent occurrence of water pollution accidents and the leakage of organic pollutants have caused severe environmental and ecological crisis. It is thus highly imperative to find efficient materials to solve the problem. Inspired by the lotus leaf, superwetting materials are receiving increasing attention in the field of removal of organic pollutants from water. Various superwetting materials have been successfully generated and integrated into devices for removal of organic pollutants from water. On the basis of our previous work in the field, we summarized in this account the progress of removal of (1) floating and underwater insoluble, (2) emulsified insoluble, and (3) both insoluble and soluble organic pollutants from water using superwetting materials including superhydrophobic & superoleophilic materials, superhydrophilic & underwater superoleophobic materials, and materials with controllable wettability. The superwetting materials are in the forms of 2D porous materials, 3D porous materials and particles, etc. Finally, the current state and future challenges in this field are discussed. We hope this account could shed light on the design of novel superwetting materials for efficient removal of organic pollutants from water. © 2017 The Chemical Society of Japan & Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Effects of Pollution on Marine Organisms.

    PubMed

    Mearns, Alan J; Reish, Donald J; Oshida, Philip S; Morrison, Ann Michelle; Rempel-Hester, Mary Ann; Arthur, Courtney; Rutherford, Nicolle; Pryor, Rachel

    2016-10-01

    This review covers selected 2015 articles on the biological effects of pollutants and human physical disturbances on marine and estuarine plants, animals, ecosystems and habitats. The review, based largely on journal articles, covers field and laboratory measurement activities (bioaccumulation of contaminants, field assessment surveys, toxicity testing and biomarkers) as well as pollution issues of current interest including endocrine disrupters, emerging contaminants, wastewater discharges, dredging and disposal, etc. Special emphasis is placed on effects of oil spills and marine debris due largely to the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil blowout in the Gulf of Mexico. Several topical areas reviewed in the past (ballast water and ocean acidification) were dropped this year. The focus of this review is on effects, not pollutant fate and transport. There is considerable overlap across subject areas (e.g.some bioaccumulation papers may be cited in other topical categories). Please use keyword searching of the text to locate related but distributed papers. Use this review only as a guide and please consult the original papers before citing them.

  18. Effects of Pollution on Marine Organisms.

    PubMed

    Mearns, Alan J; Reish, Donald J; Oshida, Philip S; Morrison, Ann Michelle; Rempel-Hester, Mary Ann; Arthur, Courtney; Rutherford, Nicolle; Pryor, Rachel

    2016-10-01

    This review covers selected 2015 articles on the biological effects of pollutants and human physical disturbances on marine and estuarine plants, animals, ecosystems and habitats. The review, based largely on journal articles, covers field and laboratory measurement activities (bioaccumulation of contaminants, field assessment surveys, toxicity testing and biomarkers) as well as pollution issues of current interest including endocrine disrupters, emerging contaminants, wastewater discharges, dredging and disposal, etc. Special emphasis is placed on effects of oil spills and marine debris due largely to the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil blowout in the Gulf of Mexico. Several topical areas reviewed in the past (ballast water and ocean acidification) were dropped this year. The focus of this review is on effects, not pollutant fate and transport. There is considerable overlap across subject areas (e.g.some bioaccumulation papers may be cited in other topical categories). Please use keyword searching of the text to locate related but distributed papers. Use this review only as a guide and please consult the original papers before citing them.

  19. Effects of Pollution on Marine Organisms.

    PubMed

    Mearns, Alan J; Reish, Donald J; Oshida, Philip S; Ginn, Thomas; Rempel-Hester, Mary Ann; Arthur, Courtney; Rutherford, Nicolle; Pryor, Rachel

    2015-10-01

    This review covers selected 2014 articles on the biological effects of pollutants and human physical disturbances on marine and estuarine plants, animals, ecosystems and habitats. The review, based largely on journal articles, covers field and laboratory measurement activities (bioaccumulation of contaminants, field assessment surveys, toxicity testing and biomarkers) as well as pollution issues of current interest including endocrine disrupters, emerging contaminants, wastewater discharges, dredging and disposal, etc. Special emphasis is placed on effects of oil spills and marine debris due in part to the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil blowout in the Gulf of Mexico and the 2011 Japanese tsunami. Several topical areas reviewed in the past (ballast water and ocean acidification) were dropped this year. The focus of this review is on effects, not pollutant fate and transport. There is considerable overlap across subject areas (e.g.some bioaccumulation papers may be cited in other topical categories). Please use keyword searching of the text to locate related but distributed papers. Use this review only as a guide and please consult the original papers before citing them.

  20. Photochemical Degradation of Organic Pollutants in Liquid Water and Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprenkle, A. M.; Grannas, A. M.

    2006-12-01

    Arctic snow and ice play an important role as reactive media in the environment. A variety of species are photochemically generated from snow/ice, including carbonyl compounds, alkyl halides, molecular halogens, and nitrogen oxides. However, the fate of anthropogenic organic pollutants in snow and ice is largely unknown. Volatile pollutants evaporate from lower, warmer latitudes and condense out in the higher, colder latitudes by a process known as global distillation, leading to enhanced concentrations of a variety of pollutants in polar regions. Here we present recent results of photochemical degradation studies of several important organic pollutants including aldrin, dieldrin, hexachlorobenzene, and 3,3',4,5'-tetrachlorobiphenyl. Direct and indirect (with H2O2) pathways were studied in both liquid water and ice forms. Aldrin and 3,3',4,5'-tetrachlorobiphenyl have shown the most reactivity, both degrading significantly via the direct and indirect pathway in liquid water and ice. Dieldrin has shown reactivity under both direct and indirect liquid conditions, while HCB is only reactive under indirect liquid conditions. These results indicate that ice can serve as an important reactive surface for anthropogenic organic pollutants. Snow/ice photochemistry should be included in models of pollutant fate, but further studies are necessary to determine which pollutants are most affected by ice photochemistry under typical environmental conditions.

  1. Waste minimization/pollution prevention study of high-priority waste streams

    SciTech Connect

    Ogle, R.B.

    1994-03-01

    Although waste minimization has been practiced by the Metals and Ceramics (M&C) Division in the past, the effort has not been uniform or formalized. To establish the groundwork for continuous improvement, the Division Director initiated a more formalized waste minimization and pollution prevention program. Formalization of the division`s pollution prevention efforts in fiscal year (FY) 1993 was initiated by a more concerted effort to determine the status of waste generation from division activities. The goal for this effort was to reduce or minimize the wastes identified as having the greatest impact on human health, the environment, and costs. Two broad categories of division wastes were identified as solid/liquid wastes and those relating to energy use (primarily electricity and steam). This report presents information on the nonradioactive solid and liquid wastes generated by division activities. More specifically, the information presented was generated by teams of M&C staff members empowered by the Division Director to study specific waste streams.

  2. Association between wheeze and selected air pollution sources in an air pollution priority area in South Africa: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background An association between wheeze (a symptom of asthma) and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), types of fuel used for residential heating or cooking and the frequency of trucks passing near homes, has been reported mainly in developed countries. Little is known about the strength of such associations in developing countries. This study was conducted in residential areas situated in Ekurhuleni Metropolitan Municipality, namely Tembisa and Kempton Park, which form part of the Highveld region, a priority area in terms of air pollution in South Africa. Methods From 3764 eligible school children, aged between 13 and 14 years, from 16 selected high schools in the study area, 3468 completed a modified questionnaire based on the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC). Data were analysed using multiple logistic regression models. Results The results are based on data from 3424 children. In the adjusted models, exposure to ETS at school was associated with wheeze ever (OR 1.22 95% CI: 1.03 - 1.45) and current wheeze (OR 1.33 95% CI: 1.08 - 1.64). When gas was most frequently used for residential heating the likelihood of wheeze ever increased by 47% (OR 1.47 95% CI: 1.15 - 1.88). Trucks passing near homes for almost the whole day during weekdays, increased the likelihood of wheeze ever (OR 1.32 95% CI: 1.01 - 1.73), current wheeze (OR 1.61 95% CI: 1.15 - 2.24) and current severe wheeze (OR 2.22 95% CI: 1.28 - 3.77). When data were stratified according to residential area, for children living in Tembisa, ETS exposure at home was associated with current wheeze (OR 1.36 95% CI: 1.06 - 1.77); gas most frequently used for residential heating was associated with wheeze ever (OR 1.68 95% CI: 1.23 - 2.28) and current wheeze (OR 1.61 95% CI: 1.08 - 2.39); paraffin most frequently used for residential heating was associated with current severe wheeze (OR 1.85 95% CI: 1.04 - 3.28). Conclusion It was concluded that children living in one of the air

  3. Association between wheeze and selected air pollution sources in an air pollution priority area in South Africa: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Shirinde, Joyce; Wichmann, Janine; Voyi, Kuku

    2014-05-06

    An association between wheeze (a symptom of asthma) and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), types of fuel used for residential heating or cooking and the frequency of trucks passing near homes, has been reported mainly in developed countries. Little is known about the strength of such associations in developing countries. This study was conducted in residential areas situated in Ekurhuleni Metropolitan Municipality, namely Tembisa and Kempton Park, which form part of the Highveld region, a priority area in terms of air pollution in South Africa. From 3764 eligible school children, aged between 13 and 14 years, from 16 selected high schools in the study area, 3468 completed a modified questionnaire based on the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC). Data were analysed using multiple logistic regression models. The results are based on data from 3424 children. In the adjusted models, exposure to ETS at school was associated with wheeze ever (OR 1.22 95% CI: 1.03 - 1.45) and current wheeze (OR 1.33 95% CI: 1.08 - 1.64). When gas was most frequently used for residential heating the likelihood of wheeze ever increased by 47% (OR 1.47 95% CI: 1.15 - 1.88). Trucks passing near homes for almost the whole day during weekdays, increased the likelihood of wheeze ever (OR 1.32 95% CI: 1.01 - 1.73), current wheeze (OR 1.61 95% CI: 1.15 - 2.24) and current severe wheeze (OR 2.22 95% CI: 1.28 - 3.77). When data were stratified according to residential area, for children living in Tembisa, ETS exposure at home was associated with current wheeze (OR 1.36 95% CI: 1.06 - 1.77); gas most frequently used for residential heating was associated with wheeze ever (OR 1.68 95% CI: 1.23 - 2.28) and current wheeze (OR 1.61 95% CI: 1.08 - 2.39); paraffin most frequently used for residential heating was associated with current severe wheeze (OR 1.85 95% CI: 1.04 - 3.28). It was concluded that children living in one of the air pollution priority areas of South Africa

  4. 40 CFR Table 5 to Part 455 - BAT and NSPS Effluent Limitations for Priority Pollutants for Direct Discharge Point Sources That...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false BAT and NSPS Effluent Limitations for Priority Pollutants for Direct Discharge Point Sources That Do Not Use End-of-Pipe Biological Treatment 5 Table 5 to Part 455 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PESTICIDE...

  5. 40 CFR Table 5 to Part 455 - BAT and NSPS Effluent Limitations for Priority Pollutants for Direct Discharge Point Sources That...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false BAT and NSPS Effluent Limitations for Priority Pollutants for Direct Discharge Point Sources That Do Not Use End-of-Pipe Biological Treatment 5 Table 5 to Part 455 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS...

  6. 40 CFR Table 5 to Part 455 - BAT and NSPS Effluent Limitations for Priority Pollutants for Direct Discharge Point Sources That...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false BAT and NSPS Effluent Limitations for Priority Pollutants for Direct Discharge Point Sources That Do Not Use End-of-Pipe Biological Treatment 5 Table 5 to Part 455 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PESTICIDE...

  7. 40 CFR Table 5 to Part 455 - BAT and NSPS Effluent Limitations for Priority Pollutants for Direct Discharge Point Sources That...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false BAT and NSPS Effluent Limitations for Priority Pollutants for Direct Discharge Point Sources That Do Not Use End-of-Pipe Biological Treatment 5 Table 5 to Part 455 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS...

  8. 40 CFR Table 5 to Part 455 - BAT and NSPS Effluent Limitations for Priority Pollutants for Direct Discharge Point Sources That...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false BAT and NSPS Effluent Limitations for Priority Pollutants for Direct Discharge Point Sources That Do Not Use End-of-Pipe Biological Treatment 5 Table 5 to Part 455 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS...

  9. 40 CFR Table 4 to Part 455 - BAT and NSPS Effluent Limitations for Priority Pollutants for Direct Discharge Point Sources That...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false BAT and NSPS Effluent Limitations for Priority Pollutants for Direct Discharge Point Sources That use End-of-Pipe Biological Treatment 4 Table 4 to Part 455 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE...

  10. 40 CFR Table 4 to Part 455 - BAT and NSPS Effluent Limitations for Priority Pollutants for Direct Discharge Point Sources That...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false BAT and NSPS Effluent Limitations for Priority Pollutants for Direct Discharge Point Sources That use End-of-Pipe Biological Treatment 4 Table 4... AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE CHEMICALS Pt. 455, Table 4 Table 4 to Part 455—BAT and...

  11. 40 CFR Table 4 to Part 455 - BAT and NSPS Effluent Limitations for Priority Pollutants for Direct Discharge Point Sources That...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false BAT and NSPS Effluent Limitations for Priority Pollutants for Direct Discharge Point Sources That use End-of-Pipe Biological Treatment 4 Table 4... AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE CHEMICALS Pt. 455, Table 4 Table 4 to Part 455—BAT and...

  12. Residential pollutants and ventilation strategies: Volatile organic compounds and radon

    SciTech Connect

    Grimsrud, D.T.; Hadlich, D.E.

    1999-07-01

    This paper reviews literature that reports investigations of residential ventilation and indoor air quality. Two important residential pollutant classes, volatile organic compounds and radon, are examined. A companion paper examines moisture and combustion pollutants. Control strategies recommended from the review include appropriate building design to prevent or limit the sources of the pollutants within the space, proper operation and maintenance to prevent adverse conditions from developing during the building's life and appropriate use of ventilation. The characteristics of these pollutant sources suggest that ventilation systems in residences should have several properties. They should have the extra capacity available to reduce short bursts of pollution, be located close to the expected source of the contamination, and be inexpensive. Mitigation of radon is technically a major success using a form of task ventilation. Whole-house ventilation is, at best, a secondary form of control of excess radon in residences.

  13. Directory of National Organizations Concerned with Land Pollution Control, 1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freed Publishing Co., New York, NY.

    Included in this directory are 204 national organizations, agencies, institutes, and/or private groups concerned with the reduction or prevention of land pollution. Arranged in alphabetical order, each annotation gives the complete name of the organization, its address, telephone number, person to contact, and a short description of the scope of…

  14. Directory of National Organizations Concerned With Land Pollution Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freed Publishing Co., New York, NY.

    Included in this directory are 133 national organizations, agencies, institutes and/or private groups concerned with the reduction or prevention of land pollution. Arranged in alphabetical order, each annotation gives the complete name of the organization, its address, telephone number, person to contact, and a short description of the scope of…

  15. Persistent organic pollutants in maternal blood plasma and breast milk from Russian arctic populations.

    PubMed

    Klopov, V; Odland, J O; Burkow, I C

    1998-10-01

    Under the auspices of Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP), a Russian-Norwegian co-operation project was established to assess the exposure of delivering women to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in Arctic areas of Russia. In the period 1993-95 blood and breast milk samples were collected from 94 delivering women in Yamal and Tajmyr Autonomous Regions of Siberia. Concentrations of chlorinated pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined by high resolution gas chromatography with electron capture detection. The POP levels in maternal plasma among the non-indigenous women were higher than the native population, especially in total PCB, HCHs (hexachlorocyclohexanes) and the DDT-group. The dietary questionnaires showed that the non-indigenous populations consumed considerably less local food items like reindeer meat and fresh water fish. There was no correlation between local food consumption and elevated levels of pollutants. Even if the indigenous groups had lower concentrations of the most important pollutants than the non-indigenous population, they were still higher than the levels measured in the Scandinavian countries of the AMAP-study and up to levels of medical concern. The most important sources of organic pollutants for the Russian Arctic populations of Yamal and Tajmyr seems to be imported food from other areas of Russia and local use of pesticides. It must be a high priority concern to further elucidate these trends and initiate prophylactic measures for the exposed population groups.

  16. The Effects of Organic Pollutants in Soil on Human Health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgess, Lynn

    2013-04-01

    The soil has always been depository of the organic chemicals produced naturally or anthropogenically. Soil contamination is a serious human and environmental problem. A large body of evidence has shown the risks of adverse health effects with the exposure to contaminated soil due to the large quantities of organic chemicals used in agriculture and urban areas that have a legacy of environmental pollution linked to industrial activities, coal burning, motor vehicle emissions, waste incineration and waste dumping. In agricultural areas, because of the effort to provide adequate quantities of agricultural products, farmers have been using an increasing amount of organic chemicals, but the resulting pollution has enormous potential for environmental damage. The types of organic pollutants commonly found in soils are polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, organophosphorus and carbamate insecticides, herbicides and organic fuels, especially gasoline and diesel. Another source of soil pollution is the complex mixture of organic chemicals, metals and microorganisms in the effluent from septic systems, animal wastes and other sources of biowaste. The soils of the world are a vast mixture of chemicals and although conditions are such that an individual is rarely exposed to a single compound, the great majority of people are exposed to a vast chemical mixture of organics, their metabolites, and other compounds at low concentrations Human exposure to organic pollutants in the soil is an area of toxicology that is very difficult to study due to the low concentration of the pollutants. The toxicological studies of single organic pollutants found in soils are limited and research on the metabolites and of chemical mixtures is very limited. The majority of toxicological studies are conducted at relatively high doses and for short periods of exposure. This makes the application of this data to exposure

  17. Photochemical Degradation of Persistent Organic Pollutants in Snow and Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greis, V. M.; Mahanna, K. M.; Grannas, A. M.

    2005-12-01

    The frozen surfaces of polar regions are highly reactive. The Arctic snowpack has been shown to play an important role in processing atmospheric species such as mercury, molecular halogens, organics and ozone. Several recent studies have demonstrated photochemical transformations of anthropogenic organic contaminants in ice. Unfortunately, information on transformations of organic contaminants in snow and ice is currently limited. It is important to gain a better understanding of the photochemical processes that occur, as well as identify the products of degradation, in order to assess the possible ecosystem-wide implications of pollutant degradation (i.e. generation of products more toxic than the original pollutant). With a better grasp of the photochemical processes of anthropogenic organic pollutants, an improved understanding of their effects on the environment can be obtained. In our research, we investigated both direct and indirect photodegradation of several persistent organic pollutants of concern to the Arctic environment, including aldrin, dieldrin, PCBs and hexachlorobenzene. Reactivity in both ice and liquid samples was assessed. We found selective degradation in the samples, with some of the pollutants exhibiting greater degradation in liquid samples, while others showed greater degradation in the ice samples. The methods and results of these experiments will be discussed.

  18. Active biomonitoring with Corbicula for USEPA priority pollutant and metal sources in the Anacostia River (DC, Maryland, USA).

    PubMed

    Phelps, Harriette L

    2016-07-01

    The freshwater Anacostia River watershed (Maryland, DC, USA) was surveyed for the sources of bioavailable US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Priority Pollutants and toxic metals by active biomontoring (ABM) using the freshwater Asiatic clam Corbicula fluminea. The Anacostia River is a 456 km(2) tributary of the tidal freshwater Potomac River that includes the city of Washington, DC where edible fish are highly contaminated with PCBs and chlordane. From 1999 to 2011, Corbicula were collected for ABM from a Potomac reference site and translocated in cages placed at 45 sites in the tidal and nontidal Anacostia watershed. Minimum clam mortality and maximum contaminant bioaccumulation was with 2-week translocation. The clam tissues (28-50) were combined at sites and analyzed by TestAmerica for 66 USEPA Priority Pollutants plus technical chlordane, benz(e) pyrene, and 6 metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb). Tissue contaminants reflected water, not sediment, levels. To compare sites, all contaminant data above detection or reference were grouped as total metals (TMET), total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (TPAH), total PCB congeners (TPCB), total pesticides (TPEST), and total technical chlordane (TCHL). Tidal Anacostia ABM found highest TPAH and TCHL upstream at Bladensburg Marina (MD) except for TCHL at site PP near the confluence. Five nontidal MD subtributaries (94% of flow) had 17 sites with bioavailable TPAH, TPCB, or TCHL 2 to 3 times higher than found at the toxic-sediment "hotspots" near Washington. The only TMET noted was Fe at 1 site. TPAH in MD subtributaries was highest near industrial parks and Metro stations. A naphthalene spill was detected in Watts Branch. TPCB (low molecular weight) originated upstream at 1 industrial park. Total technical chlordane (80% of TPEST) was 2 to 5 times the US Food and Drug Administration action in 4 nontidal tributaries where heptachlor indicated legacy chlordane dumpsites. Total technical chlordane fell to reference

  19. Air pollution from household solid fuel combustion in India: an overview of exposure and health related information to inform health research priorities.

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Ramaswamy, Padmavathi; Sambandam, Sankar; Thangavel, Gurusamy; Ghosh, Santu; Johnson, Priscilla; Mukhopadhyay, Krishnendu; Venugopal, Vidhya; Thanasekaraan, Vijayalakshmi

    2011-01-01

    Environmental and occupational risk factors contribute to nearly 40% of the national burden of disease in India, with air pollution in the indoor and outdoor environment ranking amongst leading risk factors. It is now recognized that the health burden from air pollution exposures that primarily occur in the rural indoors, from pollutants released during the incomplete combustion of solid fuels in households, may rival or even exceed the burden attributable to urban outdoor exposures. Few environmental epidemiological efforts have been devoted to this setting, however. We provide an overview of important available information on exposures and health effects related to household solid fuel use in India, with a view to inform health research priorities for household air pollution and facilitate being able to address air pollution within an integrated rural-urban framework in the future.

  20. Toxic organic pollutants from kerosene space heaters in Iran.

    PubMed

    Keyanpour-Rad, Mansoor

    2004-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate qualitatively the emission of toxic organic pollutants from an unventilated conventional kerosene space heater commonly used in Iran. A brand new common convective kerosene space heater, the "Aladdin," was used for this study. The well-tuned convective heater was operated in a 2.6-m(3) test chamber and then the emission was tested for organic pollutants. The emission was collected on Teflon-impregnated glass-fiber filters and XAD-2 resin and then analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. It was found that in addition to the ordinary pollutant gases, the heater emits aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, polyaromatic hydrocarbons and the related nitrated compounds, phthalates, naphthalenes, and some other toxic organic compounds. However, it was found that the heater did not emit fluoranthene, cyclohexane, benzoic acid, and higher-molecular-weight alkylbenzenes, which could have resulted from the combustion of some other types of kerosene.

  1. Removing environmental organic pollutants with bioremediation and phytoremediation.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jun Won

    2014-06-01

    Hazardous organic pollutants represent a threat to human, animal, and environmental health. If left unmanaged, these pollutants could cause concern. Many researchers have stepped up efforts to find more sustainable and cost-effective alternatives to using hazardous chemicals and treatments to remove existing harmful pollutants. Environmental biotechnology, such as bioremediation and phytoremediation, is a promising field that utilizes natural resources including microbes and plants to eliminate toxic organic contaminants. This technology offers an attractive alternative to other conventional remediation processes because of its relatively low cost and environmentally-friendly method. This review discusses current biological technologies for the removal of organic contaminants, including chlorinated hydrocarbons, focusing on their limitation and recent efforts to correct the drawbacks.

  2. The Persulfate Process for the Mediated Oxidation of Organic Pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vatistas, N.; Comninellis, Ch.

    The electrochemical treatment of effluents with conventional anodic materials is not very efficient in terms of organic pollutant oxidation and produces a large amount of oxygen. These results can be enhanced by mediated oxidation that produces stronger oxidants than oxygen which oxidize the organic pollutants. New electrode materials like, boron-doped diamond (BDD) shows a high selectivity toward organic pollutants and the oxygen is not easily produced. Consequently the contribution of mediated oxidation cannot be excluded, but probably occurs in a different way. This chapter re-examines at the light of the present knowledge the mediated oxidation with the BDD anode, tests the used mediated oxidation method, and proposes an alternative method to increase the positive contribution of this oxidation during electrochemical treatment with BDD anodes.

  3. Treatment of Organic Pollutants by Heterogeneous Photocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feroz, S.; Jesil, A.

    2012-08-01

    An experimental investigation was carried out in the area of heterogeneous catalysis using TiO2 as a catalyst for the removal of the model organic compounds (benzoic acid and phenol) in three different photocatalytic reactors. Natural and artificial UV source of radiation were used and the performance of the reactors were studied in the present investigation. The extent of degradation/removal of the organic compounds was found by varying the initial concentration, flow rate, pipe diameter, TiO2 concentration and exposure time.

  4. Volatility of ten priority pollutants from fortified avian toxicity test diets

    SciTech Connect

    McCrady, J.K.; Johnson, D.E.; Turner, L.W.

    1985-01-01

    With a few important exceptions, most pesticides have low volatility. However, a significant number of the industrial chemicals under the jurisdiction of TSCA have sufficient volatility to affect availability in fortified test diets and consequently the test results. Although extremely volatile chemicals might evaportate from test diets, there is insufficient data to indicate what levels of volatility are of concern. Volatility may be only one of a variety of factors influencing the fate of organic chemicals in test diets. Other mechanisms such as hydrolysis, adsorption, and photolysis should also be considered, but for many chemicals having significant vapor pressures, volatility is likely to be the major source of loss.

  5. Quality_Family Deployment: A New Perspective in Determining Priority Importance for Improving Work Performance in Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fatimah, P. L. Rika; Jemain, A. A.; Ibrahim, K.; Nasir, S. Mohammad; Anuar, M. A. Khairul

    2009-01-01

    Determining priority importance is a matter of concerns among the organization to improve their performance. One of the important aspects that should be considered by the organization is management of human resources, comprising of members who have their own family life. In this paper, we deliver a new perspective for organization to provide…

  6. Priorities of Legislatively-Active Veteran Services Organizations: A Content Analysis and Review for Health Promotion Initiatives

    PubMed Central

    Jahnke, Sara A.; Haddock, Christopher K.; Carlos Poston, Walker S.; Jitnarin, Nattinee

    2014-01-01

    Military and Veterans Service Organizations (MVSOs) have a unique opportunity to influence legislation and advocate for the interests of their members. However, little is known about what legislative priorities MVSOs see as important. Understanding the legislative priorities of MVSOs can inform efforts by health scientists to promote policy and laws designed to improve the health of our nation’s veterans. Using a mixed methods approach, we conducted a thematic analysis of legislative priorities MVSOs promote with their legislative agendas. Most commonly, MVSOs addressed issues related to disability evaluations and ratings with the Veterans Administration (VA) and access to VA services. Other common themes identified as priorities include benefits such as retirement, education, housing assistance for veterans, and TRICARE benefits. Findings highlight the broad range of topics MVSOs identify as legislative priorities as well as some health issues that receive relatively limited attention. PMID:25373063

  7. Organic priority substances and microbial processes in river sediments subject to contrasting hydrological conditions.

    PubMed

    Zoppini, Annamaria; Ademollo, Nicoletta; Amalfitano, Stefano; Casella, Patrizia; Patrolecco, Luisa; Polesello, Stefano

    2014-06-15

    Flood and drought events of higher intensity and frequency are expected to increase in arid and semi-arid regions, in which temporary rivers represent both a water resource and an aquatic ecosystem to be preserved. In this study, we explored the variation of two classes of hazardous substances (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Nonylphenols) and the functioning of the microbial community in river sediments subject to hydrological fluctuations (Candelaro river basin, Italy). Overall, the concentration of pollutants (∑PAHs range 8-275ngg(-1); ∑NPs range 299-4858ngg(-1)) suggests a moderate degree of contamination. The conditions in which the sediments were tested, flow (high/low) and no flow (wet/dry/arid), were associated to significant differences in the chemical and microbial properties. The total organic carbon contribution decreased together with the stream flow reduction, while the contribution of C-PAHs and C-NPs tended to increase. NPs were relatively more concentrated in sediments under high flow, while the more hydrophobic PAHs accumulated under low and no flow conditions. Passing from high to no flow conditions, a gradual reduction of microbial processes was observed, to reach the lowest specific bacterial carbon production rates (0.06fmolCh(-1)cell(-1)), extracellular enzyme activities, and the highest doubling time (40h) in arid sediments. In conclusion, different scenarios for the mobilization of pollutants and microbial processes can be identified under contrasting hydrological conditions: (i) the mobilization of pollutants under high flow and a relatively higher probability for biodegradation; (ii) the accumulation of pollutants during low flow and lower probability for biodegradation; (iii) the drastic reduction of pollutant concentrations under dry and arid conditions, probably independently from the microbial activity (abiotic processes). Our findings let us infer that a multiple approach has to be considered for an appropriate water

  8. Zinc oxide tetrapods as efficient photocatalysts for organic pollutant degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fangzhou; Leung, Yu Hang; Djurisić, Aleksandra B.; Liao, Changzhong; Shih, Kaimin

    2014-03-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) and other organic pollutants from industrial wastewater have drawn increasing concern in the past decades regarding their environmental and biological risks, and hence developing strategies of effective degradation of BPA and other organic pollutants is imperative. Metal oxide nanostructures, in particular titanium oxide (TiO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO), have been demonstrated to exhibit efficient photodegradation of various common organic dyes. ZnO tetrapods are of special interest due to their low density of native defects which consequently lead to lower recombination losses and higher photocatalytic efficiency. Tetrapods can be obtained by relatively simple and low-cost vapor phase deposition in large quantity; the micron-scale size would also be advantageous for catalyst recovery. In this study, the photodegradation of BPA with ZnO tetrapods and TiO2 nanostructures under UV illumination were compared. The concentration of BPA dissolved in DI water was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) at specified time intervals. It was observed that the photocatalytic efficiency of ZnO tetrapods eventually surpassed Degussa P25 in free-standing form, and more than 80% of BPA was degraded after 60 min. Photodegradation of other organic dye pollutants by tetrapods and P25 were also examined. The superior photocatalytic efficiency of ZnO tetrapods for degradation of BPA and other organic dye pollutants and its correlation with the material properties were discussed.

  9. Efficient removal of priority, hazardous priority and emerging pollutants with Prunus armeniaca functionalized biochar from aqueous wastes: Experimental optimization and modeling.

    PubMed

    Turk Sekulić, Maja; Pap, Sabolč; Stojanović, Zoran; Bošković, Nikola; Radonić, Jelena; Šolević Knudsen, Tatjana

    2017-09-19

    This paper investigates the ability of the phosphoric acid functionalized Prunus armeniaca stones biochar (AsPhA) prepared by thermochemical activation to remove lead (Pb(2+)), cadmium (Cd(2+)), nickel (Ni(2+)), naproxen and chlorophenols from aqueous wastes. The engineered biochar was characterized using the Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy-dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and Brunauer, Emmett and Teller technique. The batch studies were performed by varying the initial pH of the solution (2-9), adsorbent dosage (0.2-10gL(-1)), contact time (5-60min), temperature (22, 32 and 42°C) and initial adsorbate concentration (5-500mgL(-1)). With the optimal process conditions, the adsorption efficiency was over 95% (100mgL(-1)). The results were fitted with three kinetic and three equilibrium theoretical adsorption models. The adsorption process has good correlation with pseudo-second-order reaction kinetics. Adsorption mechanism was found to be controlled by pore, film and particle diffusion, throughout the entire adsorption period. The monolayer adsorption capacities were found to be 179.476, 105.844 and 78.798mgg(-1) for Pb(2+), Cd(2+) and Ni(2+), respectively. Thermodynamic parameters such as Gibbs energy, enthalpy and entropy were also calculated. Additionally, preliminary results indicated a strong affinity of the biochar for selected organic micropollutants: naproxen and chlorophenols. Based on desorption study results, biochar was successfully regenerated in 3cycles with diluted phosphoric acid produced as a waste stream during washing of the biochar after thermochemical activation. The experimental results were applied in a two-stage completely stirred tank reactor design. Cost estimation of AsPhA production substantiated its cost effectiveness and adsorption costs of selected pollutants were 5 times lower than with the commercial activated carbons. Based on the low-cost and high capacity, engineered biochar can be used

  10. Historic and newer persistent organic pollutants in food

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This book chapter reviews the literature published over the past five years with regard to the concentrations of historic and newly-listed persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in foods. The chemical classes selected for this review include historic POPs (dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls, and DDT) ...

  11. Bioremediation approaches for organic pollutants: a critical perspective.

    PubMed

    Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Ramakrishnan, Balasubramanian; Venkateswarlu, Kadiyala; Sethunathan, Nambrattil; Naidu, Ravi

    2011-11-01

    Due to human activities to a greater extent and natural processes to some extent, a large number of organic chemical substances such as petroleum hydrocarbons, halogenated and nitroaromatic compounds, phthalate esters, solvents and pesticides pollute the soil and aquatic environments. Remediation of these polluted sites following the conventional engineering approaches based on physicochemical methods is both technically and economically challenging. Bioremediation that involves the capabilities of microorganisms in the removal of pollutants is the most promising, relatively efficient and cost-effective technology. However, the current bioremediation approaches suffer from a number of limitations which include the poor capabilities of microbial communities in the field, lesser bioavailability of contaminants on spatial and temporal scales, and absence of bench-mark values for efficacy testing of bioremediation for their widespread application in the field. The restoration of all natural functions of some polluted soils remains impractical and, hence, the application of the principle of function-directed remediation may be sufficient to minimize the risks of persistence and spreading of pollutants. This review selectively examines and provides a critical view on the knowledge gaps and limitations in field application strategies, approaches such as composting, electrobioremediation and microbe-assisted phytoremediation, and the use of probes and assays for monitoring and testing the efficacy of bioremediation of polluted sites.

  12. Bioremediation via in situ microbial degradation of organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Carsten; Richnow, Hans Hermann

    2014-01-01

    Contamination of soil and natural waters by organic pollutants is a global problem. The major organic pollutants of point sources are mineral oil, fuel components, and chlorinated hydrocarbons. Research from the last two decades discovered that most of these compounds are biodegradable under anoxic conditions. This has led to the rise of bioremediation strategies based on the in situ biodegradation of pollutants. Monitored natural attenuation is a concept by which a contaminated site is remediated by natural biodegradation; to evaluate such processes, a combination of chemical and microbiological methods are usually used. Compound specific stable isotope analysis emerged as a key method for detecting and quantifying in situ biodegradation. Natural attenuation processes can be initiated or accelerated by manipulating the environmental conditions to become favorable for indigenous pollutant degrading microbial communities or by adding externally breeded specific pollutant degrading microorganisms; these techniques are referred to as enhanced natural attenuation. Xenobiotic micropollutants, such as pesticides or pharmaceuticals, contaminate diffusively large areas in low concentrations; the biodegradation pattern of such contaminations are not yet understood.

  13. Monitoring of 1300 organic micro-pollutants in surface waters from Tianjin, North China.

    PubMed

    Kong, Lingxiao; Kadokami, Kiwao; Wang, Shaopo; Duong, Hanh Thi; Chau, Hong Thi Cam

    2015-03-01

    In spite of the quantities and species of chemicals dramatically increased with rapid economic growth in China in the last decade, the focus of environmental research was mainly on limited number of priority pollutants. Therefore, to elucidate environmental pollution by organic micro-pollutants, this work was conducted as the first systematic survey on the occurrence of 1300 substances in 20 surface water samples of Tianjin, North China, selected as a representative area of China. The results showed the presence of 227 chemicals. The most relevant compounds in terms of frequency of detection and median concentration were bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (100%; 0.26μgL(-1)), siduron (100%; 0.20μgL(-1)), lidocaine (100%; 96ngL(-1)), antipyrine (100%; 76ngL(-1)), caffeine (95%; 0.28μgL(-1)), cotinine (95%; 0.20μgL(-1)), phenanthrene (95%; 0.17μgL(-1)), metformin (90%; 0.61μgL(-1)), diethyl phthalate (90%; 0.19μgL(-1)), quinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid (90%; 0.14μgL(-1)), 2-(methylthio)-benzothiazole (85%; 0.11μgL(-1)) and anthraquinone (85%; 54ngL(-1)). Cluster analysis discriminated three highly polluted sites from others based on data similarity. Principle component analysis identified four factors, corresponding to industrial wastewater, domestic discharge, tire production and atmospheric deposition, accounting for 78% of the total variance in the water monitoring data set. This work provides a wide reconnaissance on broad spectrum of organic micro-contaminants in surface waters in China, which indicates that the aquatic environment in China has been polluted by a large number of chemicals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Links between global meat trade and organic river pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Yingrong; Schoups, Gerrit; van de Giesen, Nick

    2017-04-01

    Rising demand of meat boosts livestock farming intensification. Due to international meat trade, the environmental costs of production are becoming increasingly separated from where the meat is consumed. However, little is known about the impact of trade on the environment for both importers and exporters. Combining multi-scale (national, regional and gridded) data, we present a new method to quantify the impacts of international meat trade on global river organic pollution. We computed spatially distributed organic pollution in global river networks with and without meat trade, where the without-trade scenario assumes that meat imports are replaced by local production. Our analysis indicates high potential savings of livestock population and pollutants production at the global scale due to the international meat trade. The spatially detailed analysis shows that current trade contributes to organic pollution reductions in meat importing regions, especially in rich nations. The deterioration of river water quality, especially in developing regions, points to an urgent need for affordable infrastructure and technology development and wastewater solutions.

  15. A method for heavy metal exposure risk assessment to migratory herbivorous birds and identification of priority pollutants/areas in wetlands.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jie; Liu, Jiayu; Yuan, Xingzhong; Zeng, Guangming; Yuan, Yujie; Wu, Haipeng; Li, Fei

    2016-06-01

    Wetlands are important habitats for migratory birds but have been degraded by many anthropogenic factors including heavy metal contamination. Birds inhabiting wetlands are exposed to pollutants. In this study, a method for exposure risk assessment of migratory herbivorous birds and identification of priority pollutants/areas was developed and employed in East Dongting Lake wetland (EDT). Four heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Pb, and Cd) in sedge and soil samples from ten lesser white-fronted goose (Anser erythropus) habitats in EDT were investigated. Results showed that negative effect of Cr and Pb on lesser white-fronted goose may occur while the concentrations of Cu and Cd are considered to be relatively safe. Prioritize threats were decreased in the following sequence: Cr > Pb > Cu > Cd. Cr and Pb were considered to be the priority pollutants. Spatial interpolation based on geostatistical methods showed that Spring Breeze Lake should draw much attention. Furthermore, regions with high hazard index were identified to be priority areas of EDT for risk management.

  16. Interaction of engineered nanomaterials with hydrophobic organic pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahle-Demessie, E.; Han, Changseok; Zhao, Amy; Hahn, Bill; Grecsek, Heidi

    2016-07-01

    As nanomaterials become an increasing part of everyday consumer products, it is imperative to monitor their potential release during production, use and disposal, and to assess their impact on the health of humans and the ecosystem. This necessitates research to better understand how the properties of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) lead to their accumulation and redistribution in the environment, and to assess whether they could become novel pollutants or if they can affect the mobility and bioavailability of other toxins. This study focuses on understanding the influence of nanostructured-TiO2 and the interaction of multi-walled carbon nanotubes with organic pollutants in water. We studied the adsorption and water phase dispersion of model pollutants with relatively small water solubility (i.e., two- and three-ring polyaromatic hydrocarbons and insecticides) with respect to ENMs. The sorption of pollutants was measured based on water phase analysis, and by separating suspended particles from the water phase and analyzing dried samples using integrated thermal-chromatographic-mass spectroscopic (TGA/GC/MS) techniques. Solid phase analysis using a combination of TGA/GC/MS is a novel technique that can provide real-time quantitative analysis and which helps to understand the interaction of hydrophobic organic pollutants and ENMs. The adsorption of these contaminants to nanomaterials increased the concentration of the contaminants in the aqueous phase as compared to the ‘real’ partitioning due to the octanol-water partitioning. The study showed that ENMs can significantly influence the adsorption and dispersion of hydrophobic/low water soluble contaminants. The type of ENM, the exposure to light, and the water pH have a significant influence on the partitioning of pollutants.

  17. Persistent organic pollutants in China's surface water systems.

    PubMed

    Han, Dongmei; Currell, Matthew J

    2017-02-15

    Following recent rapid industrialization, China is now one of the largest producers and consumers of organic chemicals in the world. This is compounded by variable regulatory oversight with respect to storage, use and waste management of these chemicals and their byproducts. This review synthesizes the data on the distribution of selected persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in waters in China. Surface water heavily polluted with POPs is distributed in the Yangtze River Estuary, Pearl River Delta, Minjiang River Estuary, Jiulongjiang Estuary, Daya Bay, Taihu Lake, and the waterways of Zhejiang Province, where concentrations of Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) frequently exceed both international and Chinese guideline values. These areas are mainly distributed along the southeast coast of China, within or downstream of major manufacturing districts, intensive agricultural basins, and other industrial centers. A comparison of the levels of OCPs in the aquatic environment of China with other indicative regions worldwide shows comparable levels of pollution (overall range from below detection limit (BDL) to 5104.8ng/L and regional means from 2.9-929.6ng/L). PAHs and PCBs pollution appear to be particularly serious in China (PAHs overall ranging from BDL to 474,000ng/L with regional means from 15.1-72,400ng/L; PCBs from BDL to 3161ng/L with regional means ranging from 0.2-985.2ng/L). There is as yet limited evidence of serious perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) pollution. We discuss major sources and processes responsible for high POP occurrence using a range of measures (including diagnostic ratios of different compounds), regulatory oversight and policy gaps in the control of POPs in China, and potential long-term health and ecological effects. We argue that water quality guidelines, pollution control measures and cleanup strategies for POPs in China should be

  18. May organic pollutants affect fish populations in the North Sea?

    PubMed

    Hylland, Ketil; Beyer, Jonny; Berntssen, Marc; Klungsøyr, Jarle; Lang, Thomas; Balk, Lennart

    2006-01-08

    The North Sea is a highly productive area with large fish populations that have been extensively harvested over the past century. North Sea fisheries remain important to the surrounding countries despite declining fish stocks over the past decades. The main reason for declining fish stocks is nearly certainly overfishing, but other environmental pressures also affect fish populations, such as eutrophication, climate change, and exposure to metals and organic pollutants, including polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), alkylphenols, and organochlorine compounds. There are three main sources of organic pollutants in the North Sea: atmospheric, land-based sources, and inputs from offshore gas and oil installations. All three sources contribute to elevated concentrations of organic pollutants in the North Sea compared to the Norwegian Sea. There is evidence that chlorinated organic contaminants were present in sufficiently high concentrations in the southern North Sea two decades ago, to alter embryonal development in fish. The results from extensive, long-term monitoring programs show that some diseases decreased whereas other increased in the southern North Sea and that, among other factors, contaminants may play a role in the temporal changes recorded in disease prevalence. Recent studies demonstrated that components in offshore effluents may affect fish reproduction and that tissues of fish near oil rigs are structurally different to tissues of fish from reference areas. Data on effluents from offshore activities have recently become available through an international workshop (BECPELAG) and follow-up studies.

  19. A novel magnetic biochar efficiently sorbs organic pollutants and phosphate.

    PubMed

    Chen, Baoliang; Chen, Zaiming; Lv, Shaofang

    2011-01-01

    Biochar derived from agricultural biomass waste is increasingly recognized as a multifunctional material for agricultural and environmental applications. Three novel magnetic biochars (MOP250, MOP400, MOP700) were prepared by chemical co-precipitation of Fe3+/Fe2+ on orange peel powder and subsequently pyrolyzing under different temperatures (250, 400 and 700 °C), which resulted in iron oxide magnetite formation and biochar preparation in one-step. The MOP400 was comprised of nano-size magnetite particles and amorphous biochar, and thus exhibited hybrid sorption capability to efficiently remove organic pollutants and phosphate from water. For organic pollutants, MOP400 demonstrated the highest sorption capability, and even much larger than the companion non-magnetic biochar (OP400). For phosphate, magnetic biochars, especially MOP250, demonstrated much higher sorption capability than the companion non-magnetic biochars. No significantly competitive effect between organic pollutant and phosphate was observed. These suggest that the magnetic biochar is a potential sorbent to remove organic contaminants and phosphate simultaneously from wastewater.

  20. Bioremediation of organic pollutants in a radioactive wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Oboirien, Bilainu; Molokwane, P.E.; Chirwa, Evans

    2007-07-01

    Bioremediation holds the promise as a cost effective treatment technology for a wide variety of hazardous pollutants. In this study, the biodegradation of organic compounds discharged together with radioactive wastes is investigated. Nuclear process wastewater was simulated by a mixture of phenol and strontium, which is a major radionuclide found in radioactive wastewater. Phenol was used in the study as a model compound due to its simplicity of molecular structure. Moreover, the biodegradation pathway of phenol is well known. Biodegradation studies were conducted using pure cultures of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas putida. The rate of phenol degradation by both species was found to be higher in the test without strontium. This suggests some degree of inhibition in the degradation of phenol by strontium. There was no phenol degradation in the sterile controls. The results indicate the feasibility of the biodegradation of organic pollutants discharged in radioactive effluents by specialised microbial cultures. (authors)

  1. Use of filamentous cyanobacteria for biodegradation of organic pollutants.

    PubMed Central

    Kuritz, T; Wolk, C P

    1995-01-01

    Biodegradation is increasingly being considered as a less expensive alternative to physical and chemical means of decomposing organic pollutants. Pathways of biodegradation have been characterized for a number of heterotrophic microorganisms, mostly soil isolates, some of which have been used for remediation of water. Because cyanobacteria are photoautotrophic and some can fix atmospheric nitrogen, their use for bioremediation of surface waters would circumvent the need to supply biodegradative heterotrophs with organic nutrients. This paper demonstrates that two filamentous cyanobacteria have a natural ability to degrade a highly chlorinated aliphatic pesticide, lindane (gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane); presents quantitative evidence that this ability can be enhanced by genetic engineering; and provides qualitative evidence that those two strains can be genetically engineered to degrade another chlorinated pollutant, 4-chlorobenzoate. PMID:7534052

  2. Use of filamentous cyanobacteria for biodegradation of organic pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Kuritz, T.; Wolk, C.P.

    1995-01-01

    Biodegradation is increasingly being considered as a less expensive alternative to physical and chemical means of decomposing organic pollutants. Pathways of biodegradation have been characterized for a number of heterotrophic microorganisms, mostly soil isolates, some of which have been used for remediation of water. Because cyanobacteria are photoautotrophic and some can fix atmospheric nitrogen, their use for bioremediation of surface waters would circumvent the need to supply biodegradative heterotrophs with organic nutrients. This paper demonstrates that two filamentous cyanobacteria have a natural ability to degrade a highly chlorinated aliphatic pesticide, lindane ({gamma}-hexachlorocyclohexane); presents quantitative evidence that this ability can be enhanced by genetic engineering; and provides qualitative evidence that those two strains can be genetically engineered to degrade another chlorinated pollutant, 4-chlorobenzoate. 42 refs., 3 figs.

  3. Impact of metals on the biodegradation of organic pollutants.

    PubMed Central

    Sandrin, Todd R; Maier, Raina M

    2003-01-01

    Forty percent of hazardous waste sites in the United States are co-contaminated with organic and metal pollutants. Data from both aerobic and anaerobic systems demonstrate that biodegradation of the organic component can be reduced by metal toxicity. Metal bioavailability, determined primarily by medium composition/soil type and pH, governs the extent to which metals affect biodegradation. Failure to consider bioavailability rather than total metal likely accounts for much of the enormous variability among reports of inhibitory concentrations of metals. Metals appear to affect organic biodegradation through impacting both the physiology and ecology of organic degrading microorganisms. Recent approaches to increasing organic biodegradation in the presence of metals involve reduction of metal bioavailability and include the use of metal-resistant bacteria, treatment additives, and clay minerals. The addition of divalent cations and adjustment of pH are additional strategies currently under investigation. PMID:12826480

  4. ENVIRONMENTAL CHARACTERISTICS AFFECTING REDUCTIVE TRANSFORMATION OF ORGANIC POLLUTANTS IN ANOXIC SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reductive transformations are important processes for determining the fate of organic pollutants in anoxic environments. These processes are most often microbially mediated by both direct and indirect means. For example, specific bacteria transform organic pollutants directly as ...

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL CHARACTERISTICS AFFECTING REDUCTIVE TRANSFORMATION OF ORGANIC POLLUTANTS IN ANOXIC SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reductive transformations are important processes for determining the fate of organic pollutants in anoxic environments. These processes are most often microbially mediated by both direct and indirect means. For example, specific bacteria transform organic pollutants directly as ...

  6. Persistent organic pollutants as risk factors for type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ngwa, Elvis Ndonwi; Kengne, Andre-Pascal; Tiedeu-Atogho, Barbara; Mofo-Mato, Edith-Pascale; Sobngwi, Eugene

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a major and fast growing public health problem. Although obesity is considered to be the main driver of the pandemic of T2DM, a possible contribution of some environmental contaminants, of which persistent organic pollutants (POPs) form a particular class, has been suggested. POPs are organic compounds that are resistant to environmental degradation through chemical, biological, and photolytic processes which enable them to persist in the environment, to be capable of long-range transport, bio accumulate in human and animal tissue, bio accumulate in food chains, and to have potential significant impacts on human health and the environment. Several epidemiological studies have reported an association between persistent organic pollutants and diabetes risk. These findings have been replicated in experimental studies both in human (in-vitro) and animals (in-vivo and in-vitro), and patho-physiological derangements through which these pollutants exercise their harmful effect on diabetes risk postulated. This review summarizes available studies, emphasises on limitations so as to enable subsequent studies to be centralized on possible pathways and bring out clearly the role of POPs on diabetes risk.

  7. Carbonyl compounds, hydrocarbons and priority pollutants in the southwestern USA. II. The El Paso - Ciudad Juarez transborder airshed

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.S.; Popp, C.J.; Dixon, R.W.

    1996-12-31

    The combined airshed of El Paso, Texas (USA) and Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua (Mexico) presents a unique situation where autonomous governmental rules and regulations, economic situations, and cultural differences impact the common air quality of two different countries. Effective mitigation can only be achieved upon sufficient understanding of current atmospheric photochemistry. Atmospheric concentrations and seasonal and diurnal behavior of routinely monitored criteria pollutants and a wide range of reactive organic compounds have been quantified at separate sampling locations in each of the two cities during field studies in January and July of 1995. During the measurement campaigns, no exceedances of US ambient air quality standards were observed for any criteria pollutants. Similar concentrations were observed at both sites for both periods, with the exception of NO{sub x} compounds, which occurred at more elevated levels (>200 ppb) in Juarez during winter late evening periods. As expected summer O{sub 3} values were greater than winter values ({approx}33 ppb and {approx}14 ppb, respectively). Analysis of ambient non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC) showed biogenic species, such as isoprene, {alpha}-pinene, {beta}-pinene, likely play a relatively minor role in local photochemistry, being detected infrequently and at low mixing ratios ({approx}0.2 ppb). NMHCs were dominated by species typically of anthropogenic origin. Concentrations of all carbonyls were higher in the summer than in the winter, in some cases by a factor of 10 or more. Acetone, an anthropogenic marker, was similar in concentration to formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. Carbonyl concentrations were considerably higher in Juarez in summer than in El Paso, while concentrations were similar in the winter. The wintertime similarities are likely due to the presence of temperature inversions and a more constant air masses over both cities. PAN and PPN levels were similar to those reported for other urban areas.

  8. Aligning Human Resource Development with the Strategic Priorities of Healthcare Organizations: The CFO Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Carla Breedlove

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to gain an understanding of how human resource development (HRD) can align more closely with the healthcare system's strategic priorities from the perspective of chief financial officers (CFOs). Five common themes emerged: (a) training is well aligned to the strategic priority to optimize clinical…

  9. Aligning Human Resource Development with the Strategic Priorities of Healthcare Organizations: The CFO Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Carla Breedlove

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to gain an understanding of how human resource development (HRD) can align more closely with the healthcare system's strategic priorities from the perspective of chief financial officers (CFOs). Five common themes emerged: (a) training is well aligned to the strategic priority to optimize clinical…

  10. Transport of persistent organic pollutants across the human placenta.

    PubMed

    Vizcaino, Esther; Grimalt, Joan O; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Tardon, Adonina

    2014-04-01

    Prenatal life is the most sensitive stage of human development to environmental pollutants. Early exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) may increase the risk of adverse health effects during childhood. The mechanisms of transference of POPs during pregnancy are still not well understood. The present study is aimed to investigate the transfer of POPs between mother and fetus. The concentrations of 14 organochlorine pesticides, 7 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 14 polybromodiphenyl ether (PBDEs) congeners have been measured in 308 maternal serum samples, their respective umbilical cords and 50 placental tissues from a mother-infant cohort representative of Spanish general population. In general, the adjusted lipid-basis concentrations were higher in maternal serum than in cord serum and placenta. The concentrations of most pollutants between maternal serum and cord serum and between maternal serum and placenta were significantly correlated. These distributions were consistent with a predominant maternal source that transfers the pollutants into the placenta and the fetus. However, this distribution did not correspond to passive diffusion of these compounds between these tissues according to lipid content. The compounds more readily metabolized were higher in newborns, which suggest that differences in metabolic capabilities may be responsible of the observed variations in POP distributions between mother and newborns. Prenatal exposure to 4,4'-DDT and some PBDEs such as BDE 99 and BDE 209 is much higher than it could be anticipated from the composition of maternal serum. POP exposure assessment studies of newborns may overlook the effects of some of these pollutants if they only consider maternal determinations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Persistent organic pollutants in human breast milk from Asian countries.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Shinsuke; Kunisue, Tatsuya

    2007-03-01

    In this paper, we concisely reviewed the contamination of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), chlordane compounds (CHLs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in human breast milk collected from Asian countries such as Japan, China, Philippines, Vietnam, Cambodia, India, Malaysia, and Indonesia during 1999-2003. Dioxins, PCBs, CHLs in Japanese, and DDTs in Vietnamese, Chinese, Cambodian, Malaysian, and HCHs in Chinese, Indian, and HCB in Chinese breast milk were predominant. In India, levels of dioxins and related compounds (DRCs) in the mothers living around the open dumping site were notably higher than those from the reference site and other Asian developing countries, indicating that significant pollution sources of DRCs are present in the dumping site of India and the residents there have been exposed to relatively higher levels of these contaminants possibly via bovine milk.

  12. Organic pollution removal from coke plant wastewater using coking coal.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lihui; Li, Shulei; Wang, Yongtian; Sun, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Coke plant wastewater (CPW) is an intractable chemical wastewater, and it contains many toxic pollutants. This article presents the results of research on a semi-industrial adsorption method of coking wastewater treatment. As a sorbent, the coking coal (CC) was a dozen times less expensive than active carbon. The treatment was conducted within two scenarios, as follows: (1) adsorption after biological treatment of CPW with CC at 40 g L(-1); the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was 75.66%, and the concentration was reduced from 178.99 to 43.56 mg L(-1); (2) given an adsorption by CC of 250 g L(-1) prior to the biological treatment of CPW, the eliminations of COD and phenol were 58.08% and 67.12%, respectively. The CC that adsorbed organic pollution and was returned to the coking system might have no effect on both coke oven gas and coke.

  13. Hydroxylamine Promoted Goethite Surface Fenton Degradation of Organic Pollutants.

    PubMed

    Hou, Xiaojing; Huang, Xiaopeng; Jia, Falong; Ai, Zhihui; Zhao, Jincai; Zhang, Lizhi

    2017-03-30

    In this study, we construct a surface Fenton system with hydroxylamine (NH2OH), goethite (α-FeOOH), and H2O2 (α-FeOOH-HA/H2O2) to degrade various organic pollutants including dyes (methyl orange, methylene blue, and rhodamine B), pesticides (pentachlorophenol, alachlor, and atrazine), and antibiotics (tetracycline, chloramphenicol, and lincomycin) at pH 5.0. In this surface Fenton system, the presence of NH2OH could greatly promote the H2O2 decomposition on the α-FeOOH surface to produce •OH without releasing any detectable iron ions during the alachlor degradation, which was different from some previously reported heterogeneous Fenton counterparts. Moreover, the •OH generation rate constant of this surface Fenton system was 102 - 104 times those of previous heterogeneous Fenton processes. The interaction between α-FeOOH and NH2OH was investigated with using attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations. The effective degradation of organic pollutants in this surface Fenton system was ascribed to the efficient Fe(III)/Fe(II) cycle on the α-FeOOH surface promoted by NH2OH, which was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. The degradation intermediates and mineralization of alachlor in this surface Fenton system were then systematically investigated using total organic carbon and ion chromatography, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. This study offers a new strategy to degrade organic pollutants, and also sheds light on the environmental effects of goethite.

  14. [Effects of two organic pollutants on biomarker system of fish Lateolabrax japonicus and the pollution assessment].

    PubMed

    Wang, You; Jiang, Shuang; Zhao, Xiao-wei; Zhao, Yan-fang; Wu, Peng; Cao, Xi-hua; Tang, Xue-xi

    2010-03-01

    Responses of a select suite of protective enzymes in Lateolabrax japonicus including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (Gpx), reduced glutathione (GSH) glutathione S-transferase (GST), nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in liver tissue and brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE), which could work as sensitively biochemical biomarkers were analyzed when exposed to different concentrations of sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS) and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) under controlled laboratory conditions. Results showed that: (1) The biochemical biomarkers included in this investigation, different responses occurred in the enzymatic activities when exposed to different pollutants: the activities of SOD, GST, Gpx and GSH content were significantly induced by B[a]P (p < 0.05) while others present little different as compared to the control. Differently, SDBS exposure greatly affected the activities of CAT, Gpx, iNOS and AChE while showed little effect on the other evaluated biomarkers. Gpx was the most sensitive biomarker that sensitively indicated the organic pollution stress. (2) The simultaneous assay on heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) expression was conducted by flow cytometry (FCM) and result presented that Hsp 70 expression could be effectively induced by SDBS as compared to the control throughout the experiment; however, B[a]P obviously induced Hsp70 during the first 12 d and then decreased to the level of the control. (3) The evaluated method of biomarker system combined with principal component analysis (PCA) could effectively distinguish different pollutants under controlled laboratory conditions and might be a promising and warning method for the early assessment of environmental change exposed to different organic pollutions.

  15. Optimized Multiresidue Analysis of Organic Contaminants of Priority Concern in a Daily Consumed Fish (Grass Carp)

    PubMed Central

    He, Wei; Chen, Yanru; Yang, Chen; Liu, Wenxiu; Kong, Xiangzhen; Qin, Ning; He, Qishuang

    2017-01-01

    The organic contaminants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), are of priority concern because of their persistence, toxicity, and long-distance transportation in global environment. Their residues in a daily consumed fish (grass carp) pose potential threat to human health and aquatic ecosystems. The present study optimized an analytical protocol of microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), lip-removal by gel permeation chromatography (GPC), cleanup by solid phase cartridge (SC) or adsorption chromatography column (CC), and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Besides traditional statistical parameters, some indicators were calculated to judge the performances of extraction by various methods. The optimization experiment showed that n-hexane/acetone was the best MEA extraction solvent; an optimal fraction time of 10–39 min could simultaneously elute all the target chemicals in a single GPC run. Both CC and SC showed good recoveries. However, CC performed better than SC (p < 0.05) for OCPs, and SC performed better than CC for PBDEs (p < 0.05). We also emphasized the limitations and advantages of SC and CC and finally proposed SC as the promising cleanup method because of its low-cost materials, time-saving steps, being free of manual filling, and operation by automated SPE system. PMID:28348919

  16. Selected persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the Italian environment.

    PubMed

    Miniero, Roberto; De Felip, Elena; Magliuolo, Mariella; Ferri, Fabiola; Di Domenico, Alessandro

    2005-01-01

    The ratification of the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants is a departure point for several considerations on their presence in environmental matrices. In this paper, the Italian situation is presented with emphasis on the most toxic compounds--chemicals with dioxin-like toxic action, and the activity in the area of interest of the Istituto Superiore di Sanità. Biotic, as well as abiotic matrices have been taken in consideration and, where possible, a comparation between their contamination levels with the levels reported on similar matrices by other European countries has been reported.

  17. The use of clays to sequestrate organic pollutants. Leaching experiments.

    PubMed

    Gianotti, V; Benzi, M; Croce, G; Frascarolo, P; Gosetti, F; Mazzucco, E; Bottaro, M; Gennaro, M C

    2008-12-01

    Leaching experiments are performed from clay-pollutant systems in order to evaluate the capability of clays to sequestrate organic pollutants from wastewaters. Reference kaolinite KGa-1b, montmorrillonite SWy-2 and reference soil BCR-700 are the sorbent materials. 2,4,6-trichloroaniline (2,4,6-TCA) and 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) are the typical pollutants, sorbed at amounts of 10.0 mg g(-1) and 5.8 mg g(-1) on SWy-2 and 7.3 mg g(-1) and 2.2 mg g(-1) on KGa-1b, respectively. The leaching agents are ultrapure water and model solutions of acid rain and surface waters that simulate meteoric leaching. 1.0mM HNO(3), 1.0mM H(2)SO(4) solutions and a methanol/water 50/50 (v/v) mixture simulate leaching agents of industrial source. The results are compared and the preferential capability of the clays to sequestrate the more lipophilic 2,4,6-TCA is evidenced. The bond interactions are discussed and explained through preferential adsorption reactions. For montmorrillonite also a simultaneous intercalation in the phyllosilicate interlayer is proposed.

  18. Organic pollution in surficial sediments of Tripoli harbour, Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Merhaby, Dima; Net, Sopheak; Halwani, Jalal; Ouddane, Baghdad

    2015-04-15

    Tripoli harbour is among the most important ports on the Mediterranean Sea eastern basin. The persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were monitored (28 PCBs, 16 PAHs and 18 Me-PAHs) in 15 stations of Tripoli harbour basins, which are influenced by anthropogenic activities. Total PAHs concentrations ranged from 243 to 2965 μg kg(-1)dw, total Me-PAH concentrations ranged from 54 to 1638 μg kg(-1)dw, while total PCB levels ranged from 18 to 302 μg kg(-1)dw. PCBs profiles were dominated by four and six-chlorinated congeners while the PAHs were dominated by four and five rings. For identifying pollution emission sources of PAHs, different ratios were used. The results show that the pollution origin was predominated by pyrogenic process related to the deposition of coal dust and the combustion of biomass and coal. Based on Sediments Quality Guidelines the biological adverse effects on aquatic ecosystems were expected rarely to occasionally for PAHs and PCBs contamination.

  19. Gull eggs--food of high organic pollutant content?

    PubMed

    Pusch, Kerstin; Schlabach, Martin; Prinzinger, Roland; Wing Gabrielsen, Geir

    2005-06-01

    A wide range and occasionally high levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are reported in Arctic regions, especially among top predators. Polar bears (Ursus maritimus), arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus) and some gull species (Larus spp.) often have high levels of these fat-soluble pollutants. Gulls deposit significant levels of these contaminants in their eggs. In northern regions, gull eggs are part of the traditional human diet. In the present study we have investigated the levels of POPs in gull eggs in order to determine the tolerable weekly intake (TWI) for humans. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were measured in 214 gull eggs collected in the spring of 2001-02. The eggs were collected from four gull species (herring gulls (Larus argentatus), great black-backed gulls (L. marinus), lesser black-backed gulls (L. fuscus) and glaucous gulls (L. hyperboreus)) at 12 different locations in Northern Norway, on the Faroe Islands and on Svalbard. The pollutant levels in gull eggs were found to be 65.5 +/- 26.9 pg toxic equivalent (TE) for dioxin and PCB g(-1) wet weight. Based on these findings and the TWI-value determined by the EU Scientific Committee on Food it is advised that children, young women and pregnant and nursing women should not eat gull eggs. Other people should limit their intake of eggs to an absolute minimum, considering the health risks associated with gull egg intake.

  20. Modeling organic micro pollutant degradation kinetics during sewage sludge composting.

    PubMed

    Sadef, Yumna; Poulsen, Tjalfe Gorm; Bester, Kai

    2014-11-01

    Degradation of 13 different organic micro-pollutants in sewage sludge during aerobic composting at 5 different temperatures over a 52 day period was investigated. Adequacy of two kinetic models: a single first order, and a dual first order expression (using an early (first 7 days) and a late-time (last 45 days) degradation coefficient), for describing micro-pollutant degradation, and kinetic constant dependency on composting temperature were evaluated. The results showed that both models provide relatively good descriptions of the degradation process, with the dual first order model being most accurate. The single first order degradation coefficient was 0.025 d(-1) on average across all compounds and temperatures. At early times, degradation was about three times faster than at later times. Average values of the early and late time degradation coefficients for the dual first order model were 0.066 d(-1) and 0.022 d(-1), respectively. On average 30% of the initial micro-pollutant mass present in the compost was degraded rapidly during the early stages of the composting process. Single first order and late time dual first order kinetic constants were strongly dependent on composting temperature with maximum values at temperatures of 35-65°C. In contrast the early time degradation coefficients were relatively independent of composting temperature.

  1. Accumulation of persistent organic pollutants in consumers of eel from polluted rivers compared to marketable eel.

    PubMed

    van den Dungen, Myrthe W; Kok, Dieuwertje E; Polder, Anuschka; Hoogenboom, Ron L A P; van Leeuwen, Stefan P J; Steegenga, Wilma T; Kampman, Ellen; Murk, Albertinka J

    2016-12-01

    Globally, many river sediments are seriously contaminated with persistent organic pollutants (POPs) known to accumulate in aquatic food. In the Netherlands, toxicological risks of human exposure to dioxins and dioxin-like compounds led to a ban on eel fishing in the Rhine-Meuse delta. The aim of this study is to investigate differences in serum POP levels in consumers of eel from high-polluted areas and consumers of eel from low-polluted areas or aquaculture. In total 80 Dutch men were included, aged 40-70 years, with a habitual eel consumption of at least one portion (150 g) per month. Total levels of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds were measured in serum of all participants with the DR CALUX bioassay, validated with GC-MS. For a subgroup of 38 participants extensive POP measurements were performed. We revealed that consumption of eel from polluted rivers resulted in 2.5 and up to 10 times increased levels of dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) respectively compared to controls. The highest PCB levels were detected for PCB 153, with a median level of 896 ng/g lipid and a maximum level of 5000 ng/g lipid in the high-exposed group. Furthermore, hydroxylated PCB metabolites (OH-PCBs: sum of 4-OH-CB107, 4-OH-CB146, 4'-OH-CB172, and 4-OH-CB187) were 8 times higher in men who consumed eel from polluted areas, and detected at levels (median 4.5 ng/g ww) reported to cause adverse health effects. Also, the majority of the perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were significantly higher in consumers of eel from pullulated areas. In conclusion, this study is the first to reveal that (past) consumption of eel from polluted rivers resulted in high body burdens of dioxins, PCBs, OH-PCBs and PFASs. We confirmed the predictions made in a former risk assessment, and the high levels of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds as well as the OH-PCBs are of health concern.

  2. 40 CFR 131.38 - Establishment of Numeric Criteria for priority toxic pollutants for the State of California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Concentration (CMC) equals the highest concentration of a pollutant to which aquatic life can be exposed for a... highest concentration of a pollutant to which aquatic life can be exposed for an extended period of time...., all surface waters of the State not bays or estuaries or ocean) without a MUN use designation....

  3. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart F of... - Organic Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Organic Hazardous Air Pollutants 2...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Organic Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Synthetic...

  4. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart F of... - Organic Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Organic Hazardous Air Pollutants 2...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Organic Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Synthetic...

  5. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart F of... - Organic Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Organic Hazardous Air Pollutants 2...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Organic Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Synthetic...

  6. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart F of... - Organic Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Organic Hazardous Air Pollutants 2...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Organic Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Synthetic...

  7. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart F of... - Organic Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Organic Hazardous Air Pollutants 2...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Organic Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Synthetic...

  8. The monitoring of organic waste pollution in the sibelis river

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huda, Thorikul; Jannah, Wirdatul

    2017-03-01

    Has conducted monitoring of organic waste pollution in the River Sibelis of Tegal City of Central Java. Organic wastes that pollute River Sibelis can degrade the quality of well water along the river. Monitoring carried out in the upstream and downstream by chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) parameters. COD test methods by titration and the results are used to determine the test sample comparison with the volume of diluent required for analysts BOD. COD test results on the upstream and downstream Sibelis River respectively 58.13 mg/L and 73.97 mg / L so that the ratio of the test sample with diluent volume for BOD analysis is 20: 280 (Sawyer, 1978). BOD test principle is based on the reduction of dissolved oxygen zero day (DO0) and five days (DO5). The result of observation BOD samples at upstream and downstream Sibelis Rivers are 10.7212 mg / L and 5.3792 mg / L respectively. Quality control of BOD testing conducted with measurement accuracy and precision and obtained result are 85.36% and 0.27% respectively. The result of uncertainty measurement for BOD testing at upstream and downstream are ±0.4469 mg/L and ±0.22188 mg/L.

  9. Toxicological Function of Adipose Tissue: Focus on Persistent Organic Pollutants

    PubMed Central

    La Merrill, Michele; Emond, Claude; Kim, Min Ji; Antignac, Jean-Philippe; Le Bizec, Bruno; Clément, Karine; Birnbaum, Linda S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Adipose tissue (AT) is involved in several physiological functions, including metabolic regulation, energy storage, and endocrine functions. Objectives: In this review we examined the evidence that an additional function of AT is to modulate persistent organic pollutant (POP) toxicity through several mechanisms. Methods: We reviewed the literature on the interaction of AT with POPs to provide a comprehensive model for this additional function of AT. Discussion: As a storage compartment for lipophilic POPs, AT plays a critical role in the toxicokinetics of a variety of drugs and pollutants, in particular, POPs. By sequestering POPs, AT can protect other organs and tissues from POPs overload. However, this protective function could prove to be a threat in the long run. The accumulation of lipophilic POPs will increase total body burden. These accumulated POPs are slowly released into the bloodstream, and more so during weight loss. Thus, AT constitutes a continual source of internal exposure to POPs. In addition to its buffering function, AT is also a target of POPs and may mediate part of their metabolic effects. This is particularly relevant because many POPs induce obesogenic effects that may lead to quantitative and qualitative alterations of AT. Some POPs also induce a proinflammatory state in AT, which may lead to detrimental metabolic effects. Conclusion: AT appears to play diverse functions both as a modulator and as a target of POPs toxicity. PMID:23221922

  10. Atmospheric Concentrations of Persistent Organic Pollutants in the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlahos, P.; Edson, J.; Cifuentes, A.; McGillis, W. R.; Zappa, C.

    2008-12-01

    Long-range transport of persistent organic pollutant (POPs) is a global concern. Remote regions such as the Southern Ocean are greatly under-sampled though critical components in understanding POPs cycling. Over 20 high-volume air samples were collected in the Southern Ocean aboard the RV Brown during the GASEX III experiment between Mar 05 to April 9 2008. The relatively stationary platform (51S,38W) enabled the collection of a unique atmospheric time series at this open ocean station. Air sampling was also conducted across transects from Punto Arenas, Chile and to Montevideo, Uruguay. Samples were collected using glass sleeves packed with poly-urethane foam plugs and C-18 resin in order to collect target organic pollutants (per-fluorinated compounds, currently and historically used pesticides) in this under-sampled region. Here we present POPs concentrations and trends over the sampled period and compare variations with air parcel back trajectories to establish potential origins of their long-range transport.

  11. Persistent organic pollutant concentrations in first birth mothers across Mexico.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Dozal, Sandra; Riojas Rodríguez, Horacio; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio; Van Oostdam, Jay; Weber, Jean Philippe; Needham, Larry L; Trip, Luke

    2012-01-01

    This project was initiated by the North America Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC). Its main purpose was to obtain an initial profile on pregnant woman's exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in North America (Canada, the United States and Mexico). Persistent organic pollutants are transferred to the fetus via the placenta during the pregnancy or to the infant via maternal milk; therefore, the pregnant woman's body burden is important because of the higher exposures and potential health effects in the fetus and infant. This paper presents the results from 240 pregnant women in 10 Mexican cities, and includes the concentrations of various POPs such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated dibenzo dioxins and furans (PCDDs and PCDFs) in maternal plasma. We found concentrations of p,p'-DDE in maternal samples from Coatzacoalcos to be ∼60% higher than those found in Ciudad Obregon, which had the second highest concentration. Pregnant women from Merida had higher mean concentrations of PCBs than all women in other regions. Results for PCDDs and PCDFs plus dioxin-like PCBs data were only available on the basis of composite samples, and their concentrations are similar in most cities except for Coatzacoalcos, which had more than double the concentration found in other cities. Although this study provides useful information on the variability of POPs in specific populations and possible regional/local differences, these results cannot be generalized to the entire Mexican population because of differences in age, gender, sources of exposure and nonrandom nature of the sample.

  12. A PILOT STUDY OF CHILDREN'S TOTAL EXPOSURE TO PERSISTENT PESTICIDES AND OTHER PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (CTEPP)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pilot Study of Children's Total Exposure to Persistent Pesticides and Other Persistent Organic Pollutants (CTEPP) investigated the aggregate exposures of 257 preschool children and their primary adult caregivers to pollutants commonly detected in their everyday environments. ...

  13. A PILOT STUDY OF CHILDREN'S TOTAL EXPOSURE TO PERSISTENT PESTICIDES AND OTHER PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (CTEPP)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pilot Study of Children's Total Exposure to Persistent Pesticides and Other Persistent Organic Pollutants (CTEPP) investigated the aggregate exposures of 257 preschool children and their primary adult caregivers to pollutants commonly detected in their everyday environments. ...

  14. UTILITY OF ZEOLITES IN REMOVAL OF INORGANIC AND ORGANIC WATER POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Zeolites are well known for their ion exchange, adsorption and acid catalysis properties. Different inorganic and organic pollutants have been removed from water at room temperature using various zeolites. Synthetic zeolite Faujasite Y has been used to remove inorganic pollutants...

  15. UTILITY OF ZEOLITES IN REMOVAL OF INORGANIC AND ORGANIC WATER POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Zeolites are well known for their ion exchange, adsorption and acid catalysis properties. Different inorganic and organic pollutants have been removed from water at room temperature using various zeolites. Synthetic zeolite Faujasite Y has been used to remove inorganic pollutants...

  16. Screening of organic pollutants in urban wastewater treatment plants and corresponding receiving waters.

    PubMed

    Wluka, Ann-Kathrin; Coenen, Laura; Schwarzbauer, Jan

    2017-08-01

    There is a lack of knowledge in environmental pollution of the anthropogenic contaminants in wastewater and surface water. Several organic compounds merit special attention, because of their potential risk to the aquatic environment. Therefore, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-based screening analyses were performed in order to identify anthropogenic organic contaminants and to reveal information on the structural diversity of individual compounds and to characterize their environmental behavior. Wastewater samples from wastewater treatment plants in Germany, representing various capacities, and surface water samples from corresponding receiving waters were analyzed. Numerous substances were identified in the samples. Several compounds were treated inadequately during wastewater treatment, and their identification in surface waters highlights their potential impact on the aquatic environment. Contaminants were selected according to available information about their environmental relevance (e.g. persistence, bioaccumulation potential), their possible application or usage and their occurrence within the environment. Based on the results of this study, it is recommended that non-target screening analyses be undertaken to identify the structural diversity of anthropogenic organic contaminants and that further investigations of specific anthropogenic compounds be undertaken as a high priority.

  17. Biogeochemical processes governing exposure and uptake of organic pollutant compounds in aquatic organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Farrington, J.W. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper reviews current knowledge of biogeochemical cycles of pollutant organic chemicals in aquatic ecosystems with a focus on coastal ecosystems. There is a bias toward discussing chemical and geochemical aspects of biogeochemical cycles and an emphasis on hydrophobic organic compounds such as polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, and chlorinated organic compounds used as pesticides. The complexity of mixtures of pollutant organic compounds, their various modes of entering ecosystems, and their physical chemical forms are discussed. Important factors that influence bioavailability and disposition (e.g., organism-water partitioning, uptake via food, food web transfer) are reviewed. These factors included solubilities of chemicals; partitioning of chemicals between solid surfaces, colloids, and soluble phases; variables rates of sorption, desorption; and physiological status of organism. It appears that more emphasis on considering food as a source of uptake and bioaccumulation is important in benthic and epibenthic ecosystems when sediment-associated pollutants are a significant source of input to an aquatic ecosystem. Progress with mathematical models for exposure and uptake of contaminant chemicals is discussed briefly.

  18. Biogeochemical processes governing exposure and uptake of organic pollutant compounds in aquatic organisms.

    PubMed Central

    Farrington, J W

    1991-01-01

    This paper reviews current knowledge of biogeochemical cycles of pollutant organic chemicals in aquatic ecosystems with a focus on coastal ecosystems. There is a bias toward discussing chemical and geochemical aspects of biogeochemical cycles and an emphasis on hydrophobic organic compounds such as polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, and chlorinated organic compounds used as pesticides. The complexity of mixtures of pollutant organic compounds, their various modes of entering ecosystems, and their physical chemical forms are discussed. Important factors that influence bioavailability and disposition (e.g., organism-water partitioning, uptake via food, food web transfer) are reviewed. These factors include solubilities of chemicals; partitioning of chemicals between solid surfaces, colloids, and soluble phases; variables rates of sorption, desorption; and physiological status of organism. It appears that more emphasis on considering food as a source of uptake and bioaccumulation is important in benthic and epibenthic ecosystems when sediment-associated pollutants are a significant source of input to an aquatic ecosystem. Progress with mathematical models for exposure and uptake of contaminant chemicals is discussed briefly. PMID:1904812

  19. Diffuse pollution by persistent organic pollutants as measured in plastic pellets sampled from various beaches in Greece.

    PubMed

    Karapanagioti, H K; Endo, S; Ogata, Y; Takada, H

    2011-02-01

    Plastic pellets found stranded on beaches are hydrophobic organic materials and thus, they are a favourable medium for persistent organic pollutants to absorb to. In the present study, plastic pellets are used to determine the diffuse pollution of selected Greek beaches. Samples of pellets were taken from these beaches and were analyzed for PCBs, DDTs, HCHs, and PAHs. The observed differences among pellets from various sampling sites are related to the pollution occurring at each site. Plastic pellets collected in Saronikos Gulf beaches demonstrate much higher pollutant loading than the ones collected in a remote island or close to an agricultural area. Based on data collected in this study and the International Pellet Watch program, pollution in Saronikos Gulf, Greece, is comparable to other heavily industrialized places of the world. The present study demonstrates the potential of pellet watch to be utilized as a detailed-scale monitoring tool within a single country. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Global Transport of Organic Pollutants: Ambient Concentrations in the Remote Marine Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atlas, E.; Giam, C. S.

    1981-01-01

    Concentrations of organic pollutants in the air and in precipitation have been measured at Enewetak Atoll in the North Pacific Ocean. These data from a site removed from industrial and human activity indicate the present concentrations of synthetic organic pollutants in the atmosphere and establish the long-range atmospheric transport of organic pollutants to remote marine areas. Hexachlorobenzene and hexachlorocyclohexane isomers are present in the remote marine atmosphere. Polychlorobiphenyls, total DDT, dieldrin, chlordane, and two phthalate ester plasticizers were also found in the samples. The concentrations of pollutants in the atmosphere remote from continental sources are good measures of the minimum concentrations of air pollutants on Earth.

  1. Global transport of organic pollutants: ambient concentrations in the remote marine atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Atlas, E; Giam, C S

    1981-01-09

    Concentrations of organic pollutants in the air and in precipitation have been measured at Enewetak Atoll in the North Pacific Ocean. These data from a site removed from industrial and human activity indicate the present concentrations of synthetic organic pollutants in the atmosphere and establish the long-range atmospheric transport of organic pollutants to remote marine areas. Hexachlorobenzene and hexachlorocyclohexane isomers are present in the remote marine atmosphere. Polychlorobiphenyls, total DDT, dieldrin, chlordane, and two phthalate ester plasticizers were also found in the samples. The concentrations of pollutants in the atmosphere remote from continental sources are good measures of the minimum concentrations of air pollutants on Earth.

  2. Pine needles as monitors of atmospheric organic pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Strachan, W.M.J.; Kylin, H.; Jensen, S.

    1994-12-31

    The wax covering of pine needles was examined for selected persistent organic pollutants known to be transported globally via the atmosphere. Several years of needles from the Scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris) from southern through northern Europe were differentiated and used to determine the time trends of DDT, HCB, HCH, PCP and PCB residues. Methods of collecting, processing and analyzing were investigated and the possibility of using area as a means of expressing results explored. Patterns of accumulation observed were those expected of globally distributed chemicals and local pollutants with an underlying global contribution; PCP was an ambiguous case. PCBs could not be clearly determined due to analytical problems with this matrix. Sampling factors such as facing direction of sample trees and number of sampled trees did not affect the results; there was some indication that height-above-ground was a factor. Levels of analytes observed in the needle wax of the samples were: a-HCH, 0.06--8.2; lindane, 0.07--17.8; HCB, 0.05--2.4; p,p{prime}-DDT, 0.14--1.9; p,p{prime}-DDE, 0.03--0.8; PCP, 0.6--7.3. PCB values were ambiguous largely due to a high number of negative peaks found in the g.c. chromatograms; a possible solution to this difficulty will be discussed.

  3. 20 CFR 668.210 - What priority for designation is given to eligible organizations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) INDIAN AND NATIVE AMERICAN PROGRAMS UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT... Native entities, entities with a Native American-controlled governing body and which are representative of the Native American community or communities involved will have priority for designation....

  4. A Comparison of Perceptions of Campus Priorities: The "Logical" Library in an Organized Anarchy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Carol A.

    1992-01-01

    A survey of chief academic officers (CAOs) and library directors at 96 research institutions revealed great similarities in their perceptions of institutional priorities; however, the CAOs ranked making electronic information available on campus or supporting the development of a national education/research network much lower than the library…

  5. Subjective reactions to volatile organic compounds as air pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mølhave, Lars; Grønkjær, John; Larsen, Søren

    Human subjective reactions to indoor air pollution in the form of volatile organic compounds in five concentrations ⩽ mg m -3 were examined in a climate chamber under controlled conditions in a balanced experimental design. The reactions of 25 subjects were registered in two questionnaires containing 25 and six questions and on a linear analogue rating scale. Each subject was tested for one day including four runs in each of the five treatments of 50 min duration. Dose effects were found for perceived odour intensity at 3 mgm -3. Air quality, need for ventilation, irritation of eye and nose showed significant effect at 8 mg m -3. Significant reduced well being was reported at 25 mgm -3. The analyses indicated that lower threshold for some of these effects would have been found if more subjects or longer exposure-times had been used. Gender, age, occupational education and smoking habits were co-factors for many of the symptoms reported.

  6. Leaching behavior of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in shredder residues.

    PubMed

    Sakai, S; Urano, S; Takatsuki, H

    1998-01-01

    It is well known that some kinds of waste contain persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as PCDD/DFs and PCBs. Leaching behaviors of these chemicals, however, have not been focused so much because of their low leachability. On the other hand, shredder residues originated from automobiles and electric appliances consist mainly of plastics, such as PVC, which contain additives including DEHP. In this study, contents analyses and leaching tests with and without surfactant-like substances for shredder residues were conducted. As a result, shredder residues from automobile and electric appliance contained PCBs in ppm level and a quantity of PCDD/DFs. Surfactant-like substances increase the leaching concentration of POPs. DEHP also leached out considerably even though using distilled water.

  7. The Degradation of Organic Pollutants by Bubble Discharge in Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Linan; Wang, Yongjun; Ren, Zhijun; Liu, Guifang; Kang, Kai

    2013-10-01

    Organic pollutants could be degraded by using bubble discharge in water with gas aeration in the discharge reactor and more plasma can be generated in the discharge process. When pulsed high voltage was applied between electrodes with gas aerated into the reactor, it showed that bubbles were broken, which meant that breakdown took place. It could also be observed that the removal rate of phenol increased with increasing discharge voltage or pulse frequency, and with reducing initial phenol concentration or solution electric conductivity. It could remove more amount of phenol by oxygen aeration. With increasing oxygen flow rate, the removal rate increased. There was little difference with air or nitrogen aeration for phenol removal. The solution temperature after discharge increased to a great extent. However, this part of energy consumption did not contribute to the reaction, which led to a reduction in the energy utilization efficiency.

  8. The Pollution of the Oceans and Great Lakes by Persistent Organic Pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohmann, R.; Muir, D.

    2012-12-01

    The presence of man-made organic chemicals across the Great Lakes and Oceans is widespread. Especially in the northern hemisphere, legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls or DDT can be detected almost everywhere. Despite their ban several decades ago, concentrations are only declining slowly in the atmosphere, while time trends are not available for the waters of the world. While concentrations are often low (picogram per liter range), their bioaccumulation still causes adverse effects in top predators, including humans. Our results for legacy POPs highlight that oceans and the Great Lakes are by now re-releasing these compounds back to the atmosphere. More recently banned POPs include brominated flame retardants and perfluorinated compounds. Atmospheric concentrations are slowly declining, while their impacts on the aquatic environment will be felt for decades to come. Due to the paucity of aqueous data on POPs, we called for a global effort to monitor key POPs using passive samplers (AQUA-GAPS). Our recent cruise results show perfluorinated compounds to be present in all ocean basins, suggesting that they will remain for good. As of yet unknown are the presence and effects of additional hundreds to thousands industrial chemicals that are suspected of being persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic. Several of these have been identified as compounds of potential concern, but few have been investigated in the oceans. The solution to the pollution of POPs will have to rely on better chemical screening prior to high-volume production. The recent REACH legislation by the EU is a step in the right direction, but will not prevent the on-going release of man-made chemicals over the next few decades, many of which are already in use and will continue to be released over time.

  9. Transport of persistent organic pollutants by microplastics in estuarine conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakir, Adil; Rowland, Steven J.; Thompson, Richard C.

    2014-03-01

    Microplastics represent an increasing source of anthropogenic contamination in aquatic environments, where they may also act as scavengers and transporters of persistent organic pollutants. As estuaries are amongst the most productive aquatic systems, it is important to understand sorption behaviour and transport of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) by microplastics along estuarine gradients. The effects of salinity sorption equilibrium kinetics on the distribution coefficients (Kd) of phenanthrene (Phe) and 4,4‧-DDT, onto polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and onto polyethylene (PE) were therefore investigated. A salinity gradient representing freshwater, estuarine and marine conditions, with salinities corresponding to 0 (MilliQ water, 690 μS/cm), 8.8, 17.5, 26.3 and 35 was used. Salinity had no significant effect on the time required to reach equilibrium onto PVC or PE and neither did it affect desorption rates of contaminants from plastics. Although salinity had no effect on sorption capacity of Phe onto plastics, a slight decrease in sorption capacity was observed for DDT with salinity. Salinity had little effect on sorption behaviour and POP/plastic combination was shown to be a more important factor. Transport of Phe and DDT from riverine to brackish and marine waters by plastic is therefore likely to be much more dependent on the aqueous POP concentration than on salinity. The physical characteristics of the polymer and local environmental conditions (e.g. plastic density, particle residence time in estuaries) will affect the physical transport of contaminated plastics. A transport model of POPs by microplastics under estuarine conditions is proposed. Transport of Phe and DDT by PVC and PE from fresh and brackish water toward fully marine conditions was the most likely net direction for contaminant transport and followed the order: Phe-PE >> DDT-PVC = DDT-PE >> Phe-PVC.

  10. A Push-Pull Test to Measure Volatilization Fluxes of Organic Pollutants without Flux Chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, M. C.; Jaffe, P. R.

    2011-12-01

    Volatilization of organic contaminants is a potentially significant removal mechanism from wetlands, but field measurements are scarce and the physiochemical controls on volatilization from wetland soils remain poorly understood. It has been established that volatilization rates of certain pollutants are enhanced by vegetation and are strongly correlated with evapotranspiration (ET). These observations rely on flux chambers measurements, which are characterized by significant uncertainty due the chamber's effects on the meteorological variables around the plant and consequent impact on the biophysical processes governing ET and plant uptake of soil contaminants. Here we present data from a mesocosm study using a modified single-well push-pull test to measure in-situ volatilization rates from inundated soils vegetated with the wetland macrophytes Scirpus acutus and Typha latifolia, as well as from unplanted soil. This new method uses a test solution containing the volatile tracers sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), helium (He), and dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC-12) to estimate first-order volatilization rates and examine the relationship between physiochemical properties and volatilization rates. The test also yields an estimate for the volume of subsurface gas bubbles, which is used to derive a retardation factor for the effect of interphase partitioning on the estimation of kinetic parameters. We evaluate models to partition observed fluxes into different pathways for plant-mediated volatilization: transpirational uptake and consequent volatilization, and gas-phase diffusion through porous root aerenchyma. Those models are then used to scale tracer-derived volatilization fluxes to priority organic pollutants including benzene, trichloroethylene, and vinyl chloride. We also discuss the implementation of this method at field scales to estimate volatilization as a component of phytoremediation applications.

  11. Organic and inorganic priority substances in sediments of Ludaš Lake, a cross-border natural resource on the Ramsar list.

    PubMed

    Grba, Nenad; Krčmar, Dejan; Maletić, Snežana; Bečelić-Tomin, Milena; Grgić, Marko; Pucar, Gordana; Dalmacija, Božo

    2017-01-01

    For the first time, long-term monitoring (from 2002 to 2014) was carried out of surface sediments in Ludaš Lake, a Ramsar site in northern Serbia. Organic (16 EPA PAHs, mineral oils, selected pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)) and inorganic substances (eight heavy metals: Ni, Zn, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, As and Hg) were continually investigated. Dibenzo[a,h]anthracene (DahA) and fluorene (Flo) were found at levels indicative of causing adverse effects to biota. Diagnostic ratios of specific PAHs were dominated by high molecular weight components, particularly DahA, which contributed 81.78 % of the total high carcinogens, benzo[b]fluoranthene (BbF) and Flo. Potential ecological risk factors (ERi) and the high relative standard deviations (RSD) obtained (up to 245 %) for the parameters monitored confirm the high periodical anthropogenic impact from industry, municipal wastewater and agriculture. The highest concentration of inorganic pollution found was for Cd (440-831 mg/kg) at all sites, Cu (439 mg/kg) in the eastern part of the lake and Cu (388 mg/kg) and Hg (771 mg/kg) in the northern part of the lake. Based on factor analysis of principal component analysis (PCA/FA), As and phenanthrene (Phe) had significant loadings (0.808 and 0.907, respectively). This association of As with organic anthropogenic sources was also confirmed with the sum of PAHs, pyrene (Pyr) and mineral oil by 3D factor plot, corroborating the theory of As mobilization from metal-reducing microbes as organic (methylated) forms, accelerated by phenanthrene. According to EU national and regional data results, this research suggests that Cu, As, dibenzo[a,h]anthracene and Flo should be added to the list of priority pollutants within the context of applying the European Water Framework Directive (WFD).

  12. STRESS IN THE AIR: INHALED POLLUTANTS AND MULTI-ORGAN IMPAIRMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air pollution has been blamed for nearly 7 million premature deaths worldwide. For decades, the research on how air pollution impacts human health has centered on cardiopulmonary consequences. However, more recently it is clearly evident that air pollution affects every organ in ...

  13. 40 CFR 131.38 - Establishment of numeric criteria for priority toxic pollutants for the State of California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 0.946 Footnotes to table 2 of paragraph( b)(2): a Conversion Factors for chronic marine criteria are not currently available. Conversion Factors for acute marine criteria have been used for both acute and chronic marine criteria. b Conversion Factors for these pollutants in freshwater are...

  14. 40 CFR 131.38 - Establishment of numeric criteria for priority toxic pollutants for the State of California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 0.946 Footnotes to table 2 of paragraph( b)(2): a Conversion Factors for chronic marine criteria are not currently available. Conversion Factors for acute marine criteria have been used for both acute and chronic marine criteria. b Conversion Factors for these pollutants in freshwater are...

  15. A review of Delphi surveys conducted to establish research priorities by specialty nursing organizations from 1985 to 1995.

    PubMed

    Rudy, S F

    1996-01-01

    Many nursing specialty organizations have completed Delphi surveys to establish their research priorities. The Society of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Nurses (SOHN) is currently conducting its own Delphi survey to the same end. This paper reviews the various Delphi methods employed by specialty nursing organizations on their members between 1985 and 1995. The studies reviewed are carefully limited to those commissioned by specialty nursing organizations and exclusive of those conducted by independent researchers who may have utilized specialty organization members. It presents an introduction to and definition of the Delphi methodology, as well as delving into methodologic and practical aspects of implementing a Delphi survey. It adds to the literature some information previously lacking on cost and time lines for studies, and will serve as a useful guide for future specialty nursing organizations who undertake a Delphi study as a novice effort. It intentionally does not recount the research priorities identified because it does not want to influence, in any way, responses of SOHN members involved in the ongoing Round I Delphi.

  16. Priority Setting Meets Multiple Streams: A Match to Be Further Examined? Comment on "Introducing New Priority Setting and Resource Allocation Processes in a Canadian Healthcare Organization: A Case Study Analysis Informed by Multiple Streams Theory.

    PubMed

    Cumming, Jacqueline Margaret

    2016-05-16

    With demand for health services continuing to grow as populations age and new technologies emerge to meet health needs, healthcare policy-makers are under constant pressure to set priorities, ie, to make choices about the health services that can and cannot be funded within available resources. In a recent paper, Smith et al apply an influential policy studies framework - Kingdon's multiple streams approach (MSA) - to explore the factors that explain why one health service delivery organization adopted a formal priority setting framework (in the form of programme budgeting and marginal analysis [PBMA]) to assist it in making priority setting decisions. MSA is a theory of agenda-setting, ie, how it is that different issues do or do not reach a decision-making point. In this paper, I reflect on the use of the MSA framework to explore priority setting processes and how the framework might be applied to similar cases in future. © 2016 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  17. [Genotoxicity effect of organic pollutants in Meiliang Bay of Taihu Lake on microalga Euglena gracilis].

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiang-Yu; Cui, Yi-Bin; Hu, Chang-Wei; Qian, Xin; Kong, Zhi-Ming; Li, Mei

    2009-11-01

    Organic pollutant ingredients and content of water samples from Taihu Lake were analyzed by GC-MS. Results showed that Taihu Lake was already contaminated by the organic pollutant, and 15 kinds of targeted organic pollutants were detected. At lower concentrations (1 time), organic pollutants could not have notable effect on the growth of Euglena gracilis, but could increase the content of photosynthetic pigment. At higher concentrations (5, 10 times), organic pollutants restrained the growth of E. gracilis remarkably, and decreased the content of photosynthetic pigment. Activities of SOD and POD increased with the content of organic pollutants. It is indicated that organic pollution could induce activities of antioxidation enzymes in E. gracilis. TOM and TM for the genotoxicity assay increased and DNA damage was found. In higher concentration groups, DNA damage was serious and had an obvious dose-effect relationship. It is indicated that Meiliang bay water may have potential mutagenicity. Comet assay combined with SOD analysis was of value to genotoxic monitoring of polluted water and was a suitable biomarker for organic pollutants in water.

  18. Lifecourse Priorities Among Appalachian Emerging Adults: Revisiting Wallace’s Organization of Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Ryan A.; Rehkopf, David H.; Copeland, William E; Costello, E. Jane; Worthman, Carol M.

    2013-01-01

    We examine how social demographics (gender, age, or race–ethnicity), census tract characteristics, and family environment during childhood relate to variability in the lifecourse priorities of 344 Cherokee and white youth during emerging adulthood (age 19–24). Analyses were performed using recursive partitioning and random forest methods to examine determinants of prioritizing education, family formation, economic establishment, self characteristics and close relationships, youth independence, conspicuous consumption, and community reliance. Overall, characteristics of census tracts were the most common and influential predictors of lifecourse priorities. Childhood family poverty, parental relationship problems, parental crime, and stressful life events were also important predictors. Race–ethnicity or cultural group (Cherokee vs. white), age, and gender were relatively unimportant. At this developmental stage and in this population, community characteristics and childhood family experiences may be better proxies for developmental settings (and resulting enculturated values and preferences) than social demographic variables (e.g., ethnicity or gender). PMID:24403647

  19. Mid-Infrared Sensing of Organic Pollutants in Aqueous Environments

    PubMed Central

    Pejcic, Bobby; Myers, Matthew; Ross, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    The development of chemical sensors for monitoring the levels of organic pollutants in the aquatic environment has received a great deal of attention in recent decades. In particular, the mid-infrared (MIR) sensor based on attenuated total reflectance (ATR) is a promising analytical tool that has been used to detect a variety of hydrocarbon compounds (i.e., aromatics, alkyl halides, phenols, etc.) dissolved in water. It has been shown that under certain conditions the MIR-ATR sensor is capable of achieving detection limits in the 10–100 ppb concentration range. Since the infrared spectral features of every single organic molecule are unique, the sensor is highly selective, making it possible to distinguish between many different analytes simultaneously. This review paper discusses some of the parameters (i.e., membrane type, film thickness, conditioning) that dictate MIR-ATR sensor response. The performance of various chemoselective membranes which are used in the fabrication of the sensor will be evaluated. Some of the challenges associated with long-term environmental monitoring are also discussed. PMID:22454582

  20. REMOVAL OF ORGANIC POLLUTANTS FROM SUBCRITICAL WATER WITH ACTIVATED CARBON

    SciTech Connect

    Steven B. Hawthorne; Arnaud J. Lagadec

    1999-08-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) has demonstrated that controlling the temperature (and to a lesser extent, the pressure) of water can dramatically change its ability to extract organics and inorganics from matrices ranging from soils and sediments to waste sludges and coal. The dielectric constant of water can be changed from about 80 (a very polar solvent) to <5 (similar to a nonpolar organic solvent) by controlling the temperature (from ambient to about 400 C) and pressure (from about 5 to 350 bar). The EERC has shown that hazardous organic pollutants such as pesticides, PACS (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons), and PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) can be completely removed from soils, sludges, and sediments at temperatures (250 C) and pressures (<50 atm) that are much milder than typically used for supercritical water processes (temperature >374 C, pressure >221 atm). In addition, the process has been demonstrated to be particularly effective for samples containing very high levels of contaminants (e.g., part per thousand). Current projects include demonstrating the subcritical water remediation process at the pilot scale using an 8-liter system constructed under separate funding during 1997. To date, subcritical water has been shown to be an effective extraction fluid for removing a variety of organic pollutants from soils and sludges contaminated with fossil fuel products and waste products, including PACS from soil (e.g., town gas sites), refining catalysts, and petroleum tank bottom sludges; PCBs from soil and sediments; toxic gasoline components (e.g., benzene) from soil and waste sludge; and phenols from petroleum refinery sludges. The obvious need to clean the wastewater from subcritical water processes led to preliminary experiments with activated carbon placed in line after the extractor. Initial experiments were performed before and after cooling the extractant water (e.g., with water at 200 C and with water cooled to 25 C

  1. Removal of persistent organic pollutants from micro-polluted drinking water by triolein embedded absorbent.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huijuan; Ru, Jia; Qu, Jiuhui; Dai, Ruihua; Wang, Zijian; Hu, Chun

    2009-06-01

    A new biomimetic absorbent, cellulose acetate (CA) embedded with triolein (CA-triolein), was prepared and applied for the removal of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from micro-polluted aqueous solution. The comparison of CA-triolein, CA and granular activated carbon (GAC) for dieldrin removal was investigated. Results showed that CA-triolein absorbent gave a lowest residual concentration after 24 h although GAC had high removal rate in the first 4 h adsorption. Then the removal efficiency of mixed POPs (e.g. aldrin, dieldrin, endrin and heptachlor epoxide), absorption isotherm, absorbent regeneration and initial column experiments of CA-triolein were studied in detail. The linear absorption isotherm and the independent absorption in binary isotherm indicated that the selected POPs are mainly absorbed onto CA-triolein absorbent by a partition mechanism. The absorption constant, K, was closely related to the hydrophobic property of the compound. Thermodynamic calculations showed that the absorption was spontaneous, with a high affinity and the absorption was an endothermic reaction. Rinsing with hexane the CA-triolein absorbent can be regenerated after absorption of POPs. No significant decrease in the dieldrin removal efficiency was observed even when the absorption-regeneration process was repeated for five times. The results of initial column experiments showed that the CA-triolein absorbent did not reach the breakthrough point at a breakthrough empty-bed volume (BV) of 3200 when the influent concentration was 1-1.5 microg/L and the empty-bed contact time (EBCT) was 20 min.

  2. Transport of organic pollutants and their atmospheric fates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raff, Jonathan Daniel

    Suspended sediment samples from ˜30 locations along the Mississippi River and six of its major tributaries collected between 2002 and 2003 were found to contain high levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as toxaphene and polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants. We found that the loss of these pollutants from terrestrial source areas via rivers is insignificant compared to loss via volatilization into the atmosphere. Analysis of pollutants in a sediment core from Siskiwit lake on Isle Royale, a remote island in Lake Superior support the theory that PBDEs undergo long-range atmospheric transport from source areas to regions where they were never used. The congener pattern of PBDEs in the lake sediment suggests that multiple processes act to remove PBDEs from the atmosphere after they are volatilized. Atmospheric removal of PBDEs due to processes such as reactions with OH radical and photolysis were studied using a heated small-volume reaction chamber with online detection of reactants and products by mass spectrometry. Relative rate constants for the reaction of OH with 7 diphenyl ethers having 0 to 2 bromine substituents were determined. Photolysis decays measured for selected PBDE congeners in the gas-phase were substantial, indicating that their photolysis quantum yields are significant. Dibenzofuran production was observed when PBDE congeners containing ortho-bromines were photolyzed in helium. From estimates of removal rates of PBDEs from the lower troposphere, we find that wet and dry deposition account for greater than 95% of the removal of BDE-209, while photolysis accounts for about 90% of the removal of gas-phase congeners such as BDE-47. These results help explain the deposition patterns of PBDEs found in lake and river sediments and have important implications concerning the inclusion of photolysis as a fate process in multi-media models. Relative rate constants were also determined for the reaction of OH with acetone and 3

  3. Spontaneous honeybee behaviour is altered by persistent organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Drummond, Jade; Williamson, Sally M; Fitchett, Ann E; Wright, Geraldine A; Judge, Sarah J

    2017-01-01

    The effect of environmental pollutants on honeybee behaviour has focused mainly on currently used pesticides. However, honeybees are also exposed to persistent organic pollutants (POPs). The aim of this laboratory based study was to determine if exposure to sublethal field-relevant concentrations of POPs altered the spontaneous behaviour of foraging-age worker honeybees. Honeybees (Apis mellifera) were orally exposed to either a sublethal concentration of the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixture Aroclor 1254 (100 ng/ml), the organochlorine insecticide lindane (2.91 ng/ml) or vehicle (0.01% DMSO, 0.00015% ethanol in 1M sucrose) for 1-4 days. The frequency of single event behaviours and the time engaged in one of four behavioural states (walking, flying, upside down and stationary) were monitored for 15 min after 1, 2, 3 and 4 days exposure. Exposure to Aroclor 1254 but not lindane increased the frequency and time engaged in honeybee motor activity behaviours in comparison to vehicle. The Aroclor 1254-induced hyperactivity was evident after 1 day of exposure and persisted with repeated daily exposure. In contrast, 1 day of exposure to lindane elicited abdominal spasms and increased the frequency of grooming behaviours in comparison to vehicle exposure. After 4 days of exposure, abdominal spasms and increased grooming behaviours were also evident in honeybees exposed to Aroclor 1254. These data demonstrate that POPs can induce distinct behavioural patterns, indicating different toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic properties. The changes in spontaneous behaviour, particularly the PCB-induced chronic hyperactivity and the associated energy demands, may have implications for colony health.

  4. Screening for persistent organic pollutants: Techniques to provide a scientific basis for POPs criteria in international negotiations

    SciTech Connect

    Rodan, B.D.; Pennington, D.W.; Eckley, N.; Boethling, R.S.

    1999-10-15

    The United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) is currently coordinating negotiations to develop a binding global agreement by late in the year 2000 to prohibit, restrict, or reduce the production, use, or release of certain persistent organic pollutants (POPs). POPs are a small subset of organic chemicals whose characteristics of persistence in the environment, accumulation in biological organisms, and toxicity make them priority pollutants and environmental risks to humans and ecosystems. Under the UNEP negotiation, representatives are developing criteria and procedures for the addition of substances, guided by the initial list of 12 substances of substance groups selected for global action. It is therefore timely to investigate the scientific foundation for POPs screening criteria that have been used in other international, regional, and national programs, focusing on the properties of persistence, bioaccumulation, toxicity, and long-range transport in a policy context. The theoretical, empirical, and multimedia modeling approaches used reveal that guidance for setting POPs screening criteria can be developed using a combination of science and policy input. These approaches suggest that criteria adopted under regional POPs agreements in North America and Europe are reasonable and tend to isolate a limited number of clearly hazardous POPs from the majority of organic chemicals, while not being so stringent that the ability to respond to as yet unidentified risks is seriously compromised.

  5. Determination of organic pollutants in coking wastewater by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction/GC/MS.

    PubMed

    Song, Guoxin; Zhu, Chunyan; Hu, Yaoming; Chen, Jianmin; Cheng, Hefa

    2013-05-01

    A method based on dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with GC/MS was developed for quantitative analysis of the major organic pollutants listed in the United States Environmental Protection Agency method 8270 and the 15 European-priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in coking wastewater. The major parameters such as extraction solvent, dispersive solvent, solution pH, and extraction time were systematically optimized. The optimum extraction conditions were found to be: 15 μL mixture of 2:1 v/v carbon tetrachloride and chlorobenzene as the extraction solvent, 0.75 mL ACN as the dispersive solvent, solution pH of 8, and extraction time of 2 min. For the major pollutants listed in the United States Environmental Protection Agency 8270, the linear ranges were 0.1 to 100 mg/L, the enrichment factors ranged from 452 to 685, and the relative recoveries ranged from 67.5 to 103.5% with RSDs of 4.0-9.1% (n = 5) at the concentrations of 10 mg/L under the optimum extraction conditions. For the 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, the linear ranges were 0.1 to 100 μg/L, the enrichment factors ranged from 645 to 723, and the relative recoveries ranged from 94.5 to 107.6% with RSDs of 4.6-9.0% (n = 5) at the concentrations of 10 μg/L. The usefulness of the developed method was demonstrated by applying it in the analysis of real-world coking wastewater samples. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Field performance of the Chemcatcher passive sampler for monitoring hydrophobic organic pollutants in surface water.

    PubMed

    Vrana, Branislav; Mills, Graham A; Leonards, Pim E G; Kotterman, Michiel; Weideborg, Mona; Hajslová, Jana; Kocourek, Vladimír; Tomaniová, Monika; Pulkrabová, Jana; Suchanová, Marie; Hájková, Katerina; Herve, Sirpa; Ahkola, Heidi; Greenwood, Richard

    2010-04-01

    Six field trials were carried out to assess the performance of the Chemcatcher passive sampler alongside spot sampling for monitoring priority hydrophobic organic pollutants (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine pesticides) in a wide range of conditions in surface water. The trials were performed in three European rivers: Elbe (Czech Republic), Alna (Norway) and Meuse (Netherlands), in two seasons (April-June 2004, and September-October 2004). Samplers spiked with performance reference compounds (PRCs) were deployed for either 14 or 28 days. Ten spot samples of water were collected over the course of the trial and filtered through a 0.7 microm glass fibre filter. Concentrations of pollutants measured using the Chemcatcher were compared with the average concentrations found in spot samples. This study describes the operational performance of Chemcatcher for measuring hydrophobic (log K(OW) 3.7-6.8) chemicals in surface water. Site specific Chemcatcher sampling rates up to 0.5 L d(-1) were found using the PRC approach that reduced the uncertainty in estimates of sampling kinetics where temperature, local flow conditions and biofouling potential varied between sites and seasons, and with time during sampler exposure. The limits of quantification of sampled analytes ranged from one to tens ng L(-1). Highest sensitivity was achieved for compounds with a favourable combination of low instrument quantification limits and high sampling rates including dieldrin, hexachlorobenzene, lindane, pentachlorobenzene, and PAHs with less than five aromatic rings. The direct comparison of time weighted average (TWA) concentrations (mostly close to method limits of detection) obtained using passive and spot sampling was possible for lindane, hexachlorobenzene, and PAHs < 4 rings. Implications of using the Chemcatcher in regulatory monitoring programmes such as the European Union Water Framework Directive are discussed.

  7. Public health concern behind the exposure to persistent organic pollutants and the risk of metabolic diseases

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are hazardous chemicals omnipresent in our food chain, which have been internationally regulated to ensure public health. Initially described for their potency to affect reproduction and promote cancer, recent studies have highlighted an unexpected implication of POPs in the development of metabolic diseases like type 2 diabetes and obesity. Based on this novel knowledge, this article aims at stimulating discussion and evaluating the effectiveness of current POP legislation to protect humans against the risk of metabolic diseases. Furthermore, the regulation of POPs in animal food products in the European Union (EU) is addressed, with a special focus on marine food since it may represent a major source of POP exposure to humans. Discussion There is mounting scientific evidence showing that current POP risk assessment and regulation cannot effectively protect humans against metabolic disorders. Better regulatory control of POPs in dietary products should be of high public health priority. Summary The general population is exposed to sufficient POPs, both in term of concentration and diversity, to induce metabolic disorders. This situation should attract the greatest attention from the public health and governmental authorities. PMID:22520265

  8. Monitoring of persistent organic pollutants in the polar regions: knowledge gaps & gluts through evidence mapping.

    PubMed

    Mangano, Maria Cristina; Sarà, Gianluca; Corsolini, Simonetta

    2017-04-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are widespread compounds that accumulating in polar regions canalise through trophic webs. Although several dozens of studies have been carried out in the last decades, the information is generally scattered across a large number of literature sources. This does not allow an efficient synthesis and constraints our understanding on how address future monitoring plans and environmental conservation strategies on the Polar Regions with respect to POPs. Thus, here, we present the outcome of a systematic map (SM) to scope, screen and chart evidences from literature dealing with POPs in Polar regions. The SMs strive to produce rigorous guidelines and have recently been proposed as useful and effective tools to summarise growing bodies of research that seek to reduce bias and increase reliability, particularly in the case of high priority and controversial topics. Our SM was based on 125 polar studies, focussing on the most studied target species among those listed in the International Union for Conservation of Nature's Red List (IUCN Red List). To facilitate analysis of evidence, the studies were classified into Accumulation Monitoring (accounting for POP monitoring through sub-organismal, functional and population levels) and Food Web Monitoring approaches (accounting for contaminants monitoring through food webs). Our SM allowed us to assess and visualise, a set of both knowledge gaps and gluts and lastly a list was provided to address future research on POPs in Polar Regions.

  9. [Characteristics of organic pollutants in the sediments from a typical electronics industrial zone].

    PubMed

    Liu, Jin; Deng, Dai-Yong; Xu, Mei-Ying; Sun, Guo-Ping

    2013-03-01

    In order to investigate the contamination status of organic pollutants in a river of a typical electrical equipment industrial area, Ronggui, Foshan, the sediments were sampled for the composition, concentration and occurrence analysis of organic pollutants. The polar and non-polar fractionation methods were employed for the fingerprint establishment of organic pollutants. One hundred and seventy-one of organic chemicals including ten categories of alkanes, alkenes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, benzene, heterocyclic compounds, phthalate esters, aldehydes, ketones, polar compounds, silicon-containing material as well as alkyl esters were examined. The number of different categories of the detected organic pollutants in a descending order was: alkanes > polar compounds > polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons > aldehydes and ketones > heterocyclic compounds > benzene homologues, phthalate ester > alkyl esters > silicon material > olefins. The abundance of detected organic pollutants in a descending order was: alkanes > polar compounds > alkyl esters > olefins > polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons > phthalates > silicon material > aldehydes and ketones > heterocyclic compounds > benzene homologues. Among the 51 kinds of alkanes detected, nonadecane accounted for 14.83%, and the persistent organic pollutants accounted for 2.33% of the total organic matter. Compared to similar studies, there were 51 kinds of alkanes and they accounted for 55.5% of the total organic chemicals, showing high diversity and abundance. In addition, some electronics industry-related organic pollutants such as silicone materials were also detected in high frequency.

  10. Persistent organic pollutants & obesity: potential mechanisms for breast cancer promotion?

    PubMed Central

    Reaves, Denise K.; Ginsburg, Erika; Bang, John J.; Fleming, Jodie M.

    2015-01-01

    Dietary ingestion of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) correlates with developing obesity. Obesity alters metabolism, induces an inflammatory tissue microenvironment, and is also linked with diabetes and breast cancer risk/promotion of the disease. However, no direct evidence exists exploring the correlation among all three of these factors (POPs, obesity, and breast cancer). Herein, we present current correlative studies suggesting a causal link between POPs exposure through diet and their bioaccumulation in adipose that promotes the development of obesity and ultimately influences breast cancer development and/or progression. Furthermore, as endocrine disruptors, POPs can potentially interfere with hormonally responsive tissue functions causing dysregulation in hormone signaling and cell function. This review highlights the critical need for advanced in vitro and in vivo model systems to understand the complex relationship between obesity, POPs, breast cancer, and, more importantly, to delineate their multifaceted molecular, cellular, and biochemical mechanisms. Comprehensive in vitro and in vivo studies directly testing the observed correlations as well as detailing their molecular mechanisms are vital to cancer research and, ultimately, public health. PMID:25624167

  11. Assessing long-range transport potential of persistent organic pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Beyer, A.; Mackay, D.; Matthies, M.; Wania, F.; Webster, E.

    2000-02-15

    An analysis is presented of the factors controlling the potential for the long-range transport (LRT) of persistent organic pollutants subject to degrading reactions and reversible transport to other environmental media. The approach adopted generalizes those developed previously by van Pul et al. and Bennett et al. to estimate a characteristic travel distance (CTD) or a half-distance (analogous to a half-life) for a substance present in a mobile medium such as air and subject to reversible transport to other media such as soil and water. For substances discharged to immobile media, such as pesticides to soil, an effective travel distance (ETD) is defined as the distance that, for example, 1% of the discharged chemical may be transported. It is shown that existing multimedia box models can be used to estimate CTD and that a simple relationship exists between CTD and overall environmental persistence, which can be displayed graphically. CTDs in air and water are calculated illustratively for 18 chemicals, and recommendations are made regarding ranking or grouping chemicals according to their potential for LRT.

  12. On enumeration of congeners of common persistent organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Haranczyk, Maciej; Puzyn, Tomasz; Ng, Esmond G

    2010-08-01

    Congeners are molecules based on the same carbon skeleton but different by the number of substituents and/or a substitution pattern. Various Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) exist in the environment as families of halogen substituted congeners and/or their hydroxyl and methoxy substituted derivatives. Numbers of possible congeners resulting from substitution of a parent POP molecule with only one type of chemical group are generally available. At the same time, numbers of mixed-substituent congeners have not been counted and presented yet, although there is an increasing interest in such as is the increasing number of research articles presenting results on already identified Cl-/Br-mixed type congeners and/or their HO-/CH(3)O-mixed metabolites. We have enumerated and counted possible mixed-substituent congeners of common POPs. This article presents the obtained numbers for congener families of benzene, naphthalene, biphenyl, diphenyl ether, dibenzo-p-dioxin, dibenzofuran, anthracene, pyrene and others and obtained by substitution of up to five chemical group types.

  13. Persistent organic pollutants alter DNA methylation during human adipocyte differentiation.

    PubMed

    van den Dungen, Myrthe W; Murk, Albertinka J; Kok, Dieuwertje E; Steegenga, Wilma T

    2017-04-01

    Ubiquitous persistent organic pollutants (POPs) can accumulate in humans where they might influence differentiation of adipocytes. The aim of this study was to investigate whether DNA methylation is one of the underlying mechanisms by which POPs affect adipocyte differentiation, and to what extent DNA methylation can be related to gene transcription. Adipocyte differentiation was induced in two human cell models with continuous exposure to different POPs throughout differentiation. From the seven tested POPs, perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) decreased lipid accumulation, while tributyltin (TBT) increased lipid accumulation. In human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), TCDD and TBT induced opposite gene expression profiles, whereas after PFOS exposure gene expression remained relatively stable. Genome-wide DNA methylation analysis showed that all three POPs affected DNA methylation patterns in adipogenic and other genes, possibly related to the phenotypic outcome, but without concomitant gene expression changes. Differential methylation was predominantly detected in intergenic regions, where the biological relevance of alterations in DNA methylation is unclear. This study demonstrates that POPs, at environmentally relevant levels, are able to induce differential DNA methylation in human differentiating adipocytes. Copyright © 2017 Wageningen University. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Obesity, Persistent Organic Pollutants and Related Health Problems.

    PubMed

    Vassilopoulou, Loukia; Psycharakis, Christos; Petrakis, Demetrios; Tsiaoussis, John; Tsatsakis, Aristides M

    2017-01-01

    The present review aims to delve into persistent organic pollutants (POPs) , as xenobiotics, in correlation to human health. POPs exhibit a group of common characteristics, including lipophilicity, persistence to decomposition and bioaccumulation in tissues. POPs have been thoroughly studied by former researchers, as they offer a particular interest in the elucidation of metabolic, endocrine and immune perturbation caused by their synergy with intracellular mechanisms. Herein particular focus is attributed to the relationship of POPs with obesity provocation. Obesity nowadays receives epidemic dimensions, as its prevalence elevates in an exponential degree. POPs-induced obesity rotates around interfering in metabolic and endocrinal procedures and interacting with peroxisome-proliferator and retinoic receptors. Moreover, polymorphisms in CYP gene families exert a negative result, as they incapacitate detoxification of POPs. Obesity could be deemed as a multidimensional condition, as various factors interact to lead to an obesogenic result. Therefore, concomitant disorders may occur, from mild to lethal, and get intensified due to POPs exposure. POPs exact function mechanisms remain rather enigmatic, thus further investigation should be prospectively performed, for a more lucid picture of this issue, and, consequently for the establishment of alternative solutions.

  15. Assessment of organic pollutants in coastal sediments, UAE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel Gawad, Esam A.; Al Azab, Mohamed; Lotfy, M. M.

    2008-05-01

    Twenty-five stations were selected along the UAE coastal region to delineate the distribution and to determine the source of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH), total organic carbon (TOC), total Kjeldhal nitrogen (TKN), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The concentrations of TPH ranged between 46 and 223 mg/kg and the level of TOC was in the range from 0.044 to 17.8 wt%, while TPAHs occupied the range of 5-102.2 μg/kg. On the other hand, TPCBs showed values between 60 and 205 μg/kg and TKN ranged from 104 to 1,073 mg/kg. The present study shows that the distribution of organic compounds in UAE sediments were within safe limits comparing with previous studies. The present study revealed that TOC can be used as an indicator of oil pollution in heavily oiled sediments. The highest values of TOC, TPH, TPAHs and TPCBs related to the stations covered in fine sand due to adsorption properties and the large surface areas of the grains. The evaporation of low-boiling point compounds from surface layers leads to the enrichment of sediments with a thick residual. Al Sharjah-1 exhibited the highest values of TPH and TOC at Ras Al-Khaima-5, Umm Al-Quwen-1 and Dubai-1, while the highest values of TPAHs were at KhorFakkan-9, the highest value of TPCBs was at Ajman-2, and the highest values of TKN were at KhorFakkan-1, KhorFakkan-6 and Dubai-1.

  16. Employee retention: applying hospital strategies to EMS. With increasing demand for and decreasing supply of EMTs and paramedics, retention strategies should be a priority for EMS organizations.

    PubMed

    Powers, Robert

    2007-10-01

    Retention strategies are a priority for EMS organizations. These strategies must be broad and varied to address the variety of reasons employees leave healthcare organizations. The value of creating these programs should manifest itself through increased employee satisfaction and an increased sense of belonging to the organization.

  17. Targeting Household Air Pollution for Curbing the Cardiovascular Disease Burden: A Health Priority in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Noubiap, Jean Jacques N; Essouma, Mickael; Bigna, Jean Joel R

    2015-10-01

    Household air pollution (HAP) is a major public health problem, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa where most of the populations still rely on solid fuels for cooking, heating, and lighting. This narrative review highlights the direct and indirect evidence of the important role of HAP in cardiovascular disease, especially in sub-Saharan African countries where highest rates of major cardiovascular disease and death are observed, and thus provides ample reason for promotion of preventive interventions to reduce HAP exposures in the region. There is an urgent need for efficient strategies to educate populations on the health issues associated with this health hazard, to provide affordable clean cooking energy for poor people and to promote improved household ventilation. High-quality data on household energy practices and patterns of HAP and related health issues are still needed for efficient policy making in this region. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. New organ transplant policies in Japan, including the family-oriented priority donation clause.

    PubMed

    Aita, Kaoruko

    2011-03-15

    The revised Organ Transplant Law in Japan that took effect in July 2010 allows organ procurement from brain-dead individuals, including children, only with family consent. The amended law also allows individuals to prioritize family members to receive their donated organs after death. This policy differs from the prioritization policy in Israel, which provides incentives to individuals who agree to help each other in society and rectifies the problem of free riders, individuals who are willing to accept an organ but refuse to donate. Despite these differences, however, the Japanese and Israeli policies have revealed new ethical dilemmas, including the fear of compromising fairness in organ allocation.

  19. Using biochar for remediation of soils contaminated with heavy metals and organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaokai; Wang, Hailong; He, Lizhi; Lu, Kouping; Sarmah, Ajit; Li, Jianwu; Bolan, Nanthi S; Pei, Jianchuan; Huang, Huagang

    2013-12-01

    Soil contamination with heavy metals and organic pollutants has increasingly become a serious global environmental issue in recent years. Considerable efforts have been made to remediate contaminated soils. Biochar has a large surface area, and high capacity to adsorb heavy metals and organic pollutants. Biochar can potentially be used to reduce the bioavailability and leachability of heavy metals and organic pollutants in soils through adsorption and other physicochemical reactions. Biochar is typically an alkaline material which can increase soil pH and contribute to stabilization of heavy metals. Application of biochar for remediation of contaminated soils may provide a new solution to the soil pollution problem. This paper provides an overview on the impact of biochar on the environmental fate and mobility of heavy metals and organic pollutants in contaminated soils and its implication for remediation of contaminated soils. Further research directions are identified to ensure a safe and sustainable use of biochar as a soil amendment for remediation of contaminated soils.

  20. Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowbotham, N.

    1973-01-01

    Presents the material given in one class period in a course on Environmental Studies at Chesterfield School, England. The topics covered include air pollution, water pollution, fertilizers, and insecticides. (JR)

  1. Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowbotham, N.

    1973-01-01

    Presents the material given in one class period in a course on Environmental Studies at Chesterfield School, England. The topics covered include air pollution, water pollution, fertilizers, and insecticides. (JR)

  2. Applications of biofilms in bioremediation and biotransformation of persistent organic pollutants, pharmaceuticals/personal care products, and heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Sarah J; Kjellerup, Birthe V

    2013-12-01

    In this review, the strategies being employed to exploit the inherent durability of biofilms and the diverse nutrient cycling of the microbiome for bioremediation are explored. Focus will be given to halogenated compounds, hydrocarbons, pharmaceuticals, and personal care products as well as some heavy metals and toxic minerals, as these groups represent the majority of priority pollutants. For decades, industrial processes have been creating waste all around the world, resulting in contaminated sediments and subsequent, far-reaching dispersal into aquatic environments. As persistent pollutants have accumulated and are still being created and disposed, the incentive to find suitable and more efficient solutions to effectively detoxify the environment is even greater. Indigenous bacterial communities are capable of metabolizing persistent organic pollutants and oxidizing heavy metal contaminants. However, their low abundance and activity in the environment, difficulties accessing the contaminant or nutrient limitations in the environment all prevent the processes from occurring as quickly as desired and thus reaching the proposed clean-up goals. Biofilm communities provide among other things a beneficial structure, possibility for nutrient, and genetic exchange to participating microorganisms as well as protection from the surrounding environment concerning for instance predation and chemical and shear stresses. Biofilms can also be utilized in other ways as biomarkers for monitoring of stream water quality from for instance mine drainage. The durability and structure of biofilms together with the diverse array of structural and metabolic characteristics make these communities attractive actors in biofilm-mediated remediation solutions and ecosystem monitoring.

  3. The Response of Living Benthic Foraminifera at an Organically Polluted Locality in Eastern Bahrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arslan, Muhammad; Kaminski, Michael; Frontalini, Fabrizio

    2017-04-01

    This study examines the response of living benthic foraminifera at a polluted site in eastern Bahrain, with the aim to determine the effects of anthropogenic pollution on their distribution patterns and the occurrence of morphological deformities. The boat harbor in Askar (Bahrain) is subjected to pollution by nutrients, organic matter, and hydrocarbons. Foraminiferal density is found to be higher at the polluted site compared with a nearby unpolluted site, suggesting a higher amount of available food for the benthic foraminifera. Seven taxonomical groups were recognized in the organically polluted transect including Ammonia, Glabratellina, Murrayinella, Elphidium, Brizalina, miliolids, and peneroplids. By comparing the foraminiferal assemblages with a nearby unpolluted transect, the genus Murrayinella appeared to be a dominant and pervasive taxon that was able to proliferate in an organically polluted environment. Strong correlations of Murrayinella with nitrates, sulfates, TOC, and THC put forward the opportunistic behavior of this taxon. Our results contrast with previously published findings on modern foraminiferal assemblage in the Arabian Gulf, as Murrayinella is rarely reported. The population of miliolids was drastically reduced at the polluted site, which suggests that the group was adversely affected by organic pollution when compared with the unpolluted transect. This reaffirms the sensitive nature of the miliolid group of foraminifera, supporting the findings of previous studies of the effect of historical coastal eutrophication on foraminiferal assemblages in the Gulf of Mexico and Japan. Therefore, the miliolids might be considered as a pollution proxy for future biomonitoring studies in the Gulf region.

  4. Persistent organic pollutants in plasma of delivering women from Arkhangelsk.

    PubMed

    Sandanger, Torkjel M; Odland, Jon Øyvind; Tkachev, Anatoly; Burkow, Ivan C

    2003-05-01

    The high levels of persistent organic pollutants have caused concern about human health, especially the health of the foetus and newborn child. This has especially been the case for Greenlandic and Canadian Inuits, where elevated levels of PCB and p,p'-DDE have been reported. In recent studies from arctic Russia the levels of beta-HCH and the DDT-group have been reported to be high, whereas the levels of PCB are low. However, the information from Northern Russia is, so far, incomplete. In this study, 27 delivering women from the city of Arkhangelsk, Russia, participated. They completed a questionnaire before delivery and plasma samples were collected after delivery. The analytical method developed to support this study involved gel permeation chromatography and silica gel purification, in addition to a traditional GC-MS method, and thus include acid labile compounds. The arithmetic mean levels of p,p'-DDE, beta-HCH and p,p'-DDT were 5.42, 3.59 and 1.17 microg/l, respectively. Toxaphene 26 and 50 were the only toxaphenes above the limit of detection, with arithmetic mean levels of 0.05 and 0.09 microg/l, respectively. Among the PCB congeners, PCB 138/163 was the most abundant with an arithmetic mean of 0.53 microg/l. The elevated levels of beta-HCH and p,p'-DDT as well as a low DDE/DDT ratio is a strong indication of fresh and maybe local sources in this area.

  5. Chlorinated Persistent Organic Pollutants, Obesity, and Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Porta, Miquel; Jacobs, David R.; Vandenberg, Laura N.

    2014-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are lipophilic compounds that travel with lipids and accumulate mainly in adipose tissue. Recent human evidence links low-dose POPs to an increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Because humans are contaminated by POP mixtures and POPs possibly have nonmonotonic dose-response relations with T2D, critical methodological issues arise in evaluating human findings. This review summarizes epidemiological results on chlorinated POPs and T2D, and relevant experimental evidence. It also discusses how features of POPs can affect inferences in humans. The evidence as a whole suggests that, rather than a few individual POPs, background exposure to POP mixtures—including organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls—can increase T2D risk in humans. Inconsistent statistical significance for individual POPs may arise due to distributional differences in POP mixtures among populations. Differences in the observed shape of the dose-response curves among human studies may reflect an inverted U-shaped association secondary to mitochondrial dysfunction or endocrine disruption. Finally, we examine the relationship between POPs and obesity. There is evidence in animal studies that low-dose POP mixtures are obesogenic. However, relationships between POPs and obesity in humans have been inconsistent. Adipose tissue plays a dual role of promoting T2D and providing a relatively safe place to store POPs. Large prospective studies with serial measurements of a broad range of POPs, adiposity, and clinically relevant biomarkers are needed to disentangle the interrelationships among POPs, obesity, and the development of T2D. Also needed are laboratory experiments that more closely mimic real-world POP doses, mixtures, and exposure duration in humans. PMID:24483949

  6. Diagnosing Tibetan pollutant sources via volatile organic compound observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hongyan; He, Qiusheng; Song, Qi; Chen, Laiguo; Song, Yongjia; Wang, Yuhang; Lin, Kui; Xu, Zhencheng; Shao, Min

    2017-10-01

    Atmospheric transport of black carbon (BC) from surrounding areas has been shown to impact the Tibetan environment, and clarifying the geographical source and receptor regions is crucial for providing guidance for mitigation actions. In this study, 10 trace volatile organic compounds (VOCs) sampled across Tibet are chosen as proxies to diagnose source regions and related transport of pollutants to Tibet. The levels of these VOCs in Tibet are higher than those in the Arctic and Antarctic regions but much lower than those observed at many remote and background sites in Asia. The highest VOC level is observed in the eastern region, followed by the southern region and the northern region. A positive matrix factorization (PMF) model found that three factors-industry, biomass burning, and traffic-present different spatial distributions, which indicates that different zones of Tibet are influenced by different VOC sources. The average age of the air masses in the northern and eastern regions is estimated to be 3.5 and 2.8 days using the ratio of toluene to benzene, respectively, which indicates the foreign transport of VOC species to those regions. Back-trajectory analyses show that the Afghanistan-Pakistan-Tajikistan region, Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP), and Meghalaya-Myanmar region could transport industrial VOCs to different zones of Tibet from west to east. The agricultural bases in northern India could transport biomass burning-related VOCs to the middle-northern and eastern zones of Tibet. High traffic along the unique national roads in Tibet is associated with emissions from local sources and neighboring areas. Our study proposes international joint-control efforts and targeted actions to mitigate the climatic changes and effects associated with VOCs in Tibet, which is a climate sensitive region and an important source of global water.

  7. Chlorinated persistent organic pollutants, obesity, and type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Duk-Hee; Porta, Miquel; Jacobs, David R; Vandenberg, Laura N

    2014-08-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are lipophilic compounds that travel with lipids and accumulate mainly in adipose tissue. Recent human evidence links low-dose POPs to an increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Because humans are contaminated by POP mixtures and POPs possibly have nonmonotonic dose-response relations with T2D, critical methodological issues arise in evaluating human findings. This review summarizes epidemiological results on chlorinated POPs and T2D, and relevant experimental evidence. It also discusses how features of POPs can affect inferences in humans. The evidence as a whole suggests that, rather than a few individual POPs, background exposure to POP mixtures-including organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls-can increase T2D risk in humans. Inconsistent statistical significance for individual POPs may arise due to distributional differences in POP mixtures among populations. Differences in the observed shape of the dose-response curves among human studies may reflect an inverted U-shaped association secondary to mitochondrial dysfunction or endocrine disruption. Finally, we examine the relationship between POPs and obesity. There is evidence in animal studies that low-dose POP mixtures are obesogenic. However, relationships between POPs and obesity in humans have been inconsistent. Adipose tissue plays a dual role of promoting T2D and providing a relatively safe place to store POPs. Large prospective studies with serial measurements of a broad range of POPs, adiposity, and clinically relevant biomarkers are needed to disentangle the interrelationships among POPs, obesity, and the development of T2D. Also needed are laboratory experiments that more closely mimic real-world POP doses, mixtures, and exposure duration in humans.

  8. Legacy and contemporary persistent organic pollutants in North Pacific albatross.

    PubMed

    Harwani, Suhash; Henry, Robert W; Rhee, Alexandra; Kappes, Michelle A; Croll, Donald A; Petreas, Myrto; Park, June-Soo

    2011-11-01

    Here we report the first measurements of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE 47, 99, and 153) alongside 11 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and 28 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the plasma of albatross from breeding colonies distributed across a large spatial east-west gradient in the North Pacific Ocean. North Pacific albatross are wide-ranging, top-level consumers that forage in pelagic regions of the North Pacific Ocean, making them an ideal sentinel species for detection and distribution of marine contaminants. Our work on contaminant burdens in albatross tissue provides information on transport of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) to the remote North Pacific and serves as a proxy for regional environmental quality. We sampled black-footed (Phoebastria nigripes; n = 20) and Laysan albatross (P. immutabilis; n = 19) nesting on Tern Island, Hawaii, USA, and Laysan albatross (n = 16) nesting on Guadalupe Island, Mexico. Our results indicate that North Pacific albatross are highly exposed to both PCBs and OCPs, with levels ranging from 8.8 to 86.9 ng/ml wet weight and 7.4 to 162.3 ng/ml wet weight, respectively. A strong significant gradient exists between Laysan albatross breeding in the Eastern Pacific, having approximately 1.5-fold and 2.5-fold higher levels for PCBs and OCPs, respectively, compared to those from the Central Pacific. Interspecies levels of contaminants within the same breeding site also showed high variation, with Tern black-footed albatross having approximately threefold higher levels of both PCBs and OCPs than Tern Laysan albatross. Surprisingly, while PBDEs are known to travel long distances and bioaccumulate in wildlife of high trophic status, we detected these three PBDE congeners only at trace levels ranging from not detectable (ND) to 0.74 ng/ml wet weight in these albatross. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  9. Determination of priority phenolic pollutants exploiting an in-syringe dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction-multisyringe chromatography system.

    PubMed

    González, Alba; Avivar, Jessica; Cerdà, Víctor

    2015-03-01

    An automatic phenolic compounds analyzer is presented. The system performs online magnetic-stirring-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction before multisyringe chromatography (MSC) using a monolithic Chromolith Flash RP-18e column. The extraction behavior of the following phenolic pollutants: phenol, 2-nitrophenol, 4-nitrophenol, 2-chlorophenol, 2,4-diclorophenol, and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, has been studied. A critical comparison of extractants (tributyl phosphate, acetonitrile, hexane, and 1-chlorobutane) and disperser solvents (acetone, acetonitrile, ethanol, methanol, 1-propanol, and 2-propanol) was made. Tributyl phosphate and acetonitrile were chosen as the extractant and the disperser solvent, respectively, since these showed the best performance. Phenols were online back-extracted into NaOH and neutralized before multi-isocratic chromatographic separation. The proposed analyzer can be applied for wide linear working ranges, i.e., between 40 and 20,000 μg L(-1). The precision of the developed system has been proved, with maximum values for the intraday and interday precision of 4.4 % and 5.2 %, respectively, expressed as relative standard deviation, and high preconcentration factors (9.3-10.5) for most of the compounds studied. The method developed was successfully applied to natural water samples.

  10. Potential of vegetated ditches to manage organic pollutants derived from agricultural runoff and domestic sewage: A case study in Sinaloa (Mexico).

    PubMed

    Moeder, Monika; Carranza-Diaz, Otoniel; López-Angulo, Gabriela; Vega-Aviña, Rito; Chávez-Durán, Francisco Armando; Jomaa, Seifeddine; Winkler, Ursula; Schrader, Steffi; Reemtsma, Thorsten; Delgado-Vargas, Francisco

    2017-11-15

    This case study presents the fate of selected organic, priority and emerging pollutants along a 3.6km sector of a vegetated, agricultural ditch situated in Sinaloa (Mexico). The ditch receives runoff of agriculture and domestic wastewater from an adjacent community. During 2013, the occurrence of 38 organic pollutants (pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), artificial sweeteners and pharmaceutical residues) was monitored monthly at five selected points in the ditch water. Additionally, sediment and Typha domingensis (cattail) plants were collected in March, June, and September 2013 and investigated concerning their ability to absorb and accumulate pollutants. The concentrations of the selected pollutants in the ditch water ranged from sub ngL(-1) (metolachlor, atrazine) to μgL(-1) (metalaxyl, acesulfame). The metabolites endosulfan sulfate and endosulfan lactone exceeded mostly the concentration of the precursor insecticide endosulfan. Sorption on sediments was of minor relevance for accumulation of pollutants in the ditch system. Concentrations in the sediments varied seasonally and ranged from 0.2 to 12,432μgkg(-1) dry weight (d.w.). T. domingensis accumulated ten of the studied pollutants mainly in roots (5-1065μgkg(-1) d.w.). Overall, the monitoring results of the ditch compartments indicated that downstream the concentrations of the target pollutants decreased. Under no-flow conditions in the hot season, the ditch revealed a noticeable potential to mitigate pollutants. Among the high microbial activity in the water and the subtropical climate conditions, the ditch vegetation contributed to natural attenuation of the selected pollutants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Persistent organic pollutants in wetlands of the Mekong Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Triet, Tran; Barzen, Jeb Anthony; Choowaew, Sansanee; Engels, Jon Michael; Ni, Duong Van; Mai, Nguyen Anh; Inkhavilay, Khamla; Soben, Kim; Sethik, Rath; Gomotean, Bhuvadol; Thuyen, Le Xuan; Kyi, Aung; Du, Nguyen Huy; Nordheim, Richard; Lam, Ho Si Tung; Moore, Dorn M.; Wilson, Scott

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the presence and concentration of persistent organic pollutants (POP) were assessed in surface sediments collected from a wide variety of wetlands located throughout the Mekong Basin in Myanmar, Lao People’s Democratic Republic (PDR), Thailand, Cambodia, and Vietnam. Of the 39 POPs tested in 531 sediment samples, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites endosulfan, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and endrin were most commonly detected. Even though DDT was banned in the 1990s, some use of DDT may still be occurring in the Mekong Basin. The amount of metabolites for DDT—dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD)—found, however, suggests that use of DDT is on the decline throughout the region. HCB and endrin were found distributed broadly throughout the Mekong Basin but not in high amounts. The concentration and distribution of endosulfan and its metabolites represent a serious problem requiring further study and management action. While the total loading of POPs in wetland sediments of the Mekong Basin was generally low, hotspot sites occurred where concentrations exceeded established ecological risk thresholds. For example, wetlands of the open, dry dipterocarp forest of northern Cambodia and Vietnam as well as wetlands in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam contained high concentrations of some POPs. High concentrations of POPs were detected in some wetlands important for biodiversity conservation. Hotspots identified in wetlands such as the Tonle Sap not only had concentrations of DDT and DDE that exceeded Canadian and U.S. benchmarks, but fauna sampled in the area also showed high degrees of bioaccumulation of the same substances. Further and more extensive attention to monitoring POP presence in water birds, fish, and other aquatic organisms is warranted because of the bioaccumulation of these chemicals at higher levels in the food chain. This study represents a collaboration of eight universities from

  12. Infiltration of organic pollutants into groundwater: Field studies in the alluvial aquifer of the Sava River

    SciTech Connect

    Ahel, M. )

    1991-10-01

    Groundwater represents one of the most important sources of potable water for many public water supplies in the world. The benefits of these valuable water reservoirs are being reduced however, due to the increasing infiltration of both inorganic and organic pollutants from different sources such as wastewaters, polluted freshwaters, contaminated soils, sanitary landfills, and industrial dumping sites. Therefore, investigations of pollutant migration and persistence in groundwaters are of great significance for groundwater protection strategies. The study of organic pollutants is perhaps the most complex issue in groundwater pollution chemistry. The extremely high number of possible organic pollutants as well as the severe ecotoxicological effects of specific organic compounds make the assessment of water quality and long term pollution trends in the aquifer very difficult. The application of the computer-assisted high-resolution gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy in the last decade has extended our knowledge about the occurrence of specific organic pollutants in groundwaters and processes that determine their transport and transformation.

  13. Persistent Organic Pollutants: A Global Issue, A Global Response

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The site explains the importance of the Stockholm Convention, a legally binding international agreement finalized in 2001, in which governments agreed to act to reduce or eliminate the production, use, and/or release of certain of these pollutants.

  14. Photochemical Degradation of Persistent Organic Pollutants: A Study of Ice Photochemistry Mediated by Dissolved Organic Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, B.; Grannas, A. M.

    2010-12-01

    Contamination and accumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the Arctic, an area previously considered as pristine and removed from human influence, has become a growing concern. Volatile and semi-volatile contaminants from lower latitudes are transported to the Arctic through a process known as global distillation. The polar regions are unique in that they sit in darkness during the winter until polar sunrise. These conditions allow pollutants to accumulate during winter and then undergo 24-hours of continuous irradiance in sunlit conditions. Photochemical degradation may thus be an important pathway to consider in the spring/summer Arctic season. Additionally, active photochemistry has also been observed in mid-latitude snowpacks. However, the potential photodegradation of anthropogenic contaminants in mid-latitude snow has received little attention in the literature. Aldrin, a once globally distributed pesticide, is of particular environmental concern due to its low solubility in water, known persistence in the environment, and its ability to degrade into environmentally persistent products. To investigate the potential photochemical degradation of aldrin, samples of aqueous aldrin solution (20 µg/L), in liquid and frozen phases, were irradiated under Q-Panel 340 lamps to simulate the UV radiation profile of natural sunlight. Following irradiation, samples were extracted with organic solvent containing an internal standard for GC-ECD analysis. Results indicated that frozen samples degrade more quickly than liquid samples. Photochemical half lives for frozen and liquid samples were found to be approximately 13.5 hours and 45 hours respectively. It was found that the addition of natural organic matter increased the aldrin degradation rate significantly. Ongoing studies will further evaluate the differences in liquid and frozen reactivity and the influence of different sources of natural organic matter.

  15. Distribution of chlorinated organic pollutants in harbor sediments of Livorno (Italy): a multivariate approach to evaluate dredging sediments.

    PubMed

    Cicero, A M; Mecozzi, M; Morlino, R; Pellegrini, D; Veschetti, E

    2001-10-01

    Dredging is a very important procedure for harbor management. In Italy the guidelines for the offshore dumping of dredged materials are issued by the Ministry of Environment. They described a few steps of dredging activities, such as the sampling strategy, but do not deal with limits or guide-values for the chemical, physical and biological composition of the resulting sediments. The quality of dredged materials is mainly dependent on the presence of inorganic and organic pollutants. In particular, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organo-chlorinated pesticides are seen as a high priority in marine environment by international organizations because of their persistence, toxicity and bioaccumulation capacity. In this article the presence of some PCBs and organo-chlorinated pesticides in sediment samples collected from the harbor of Livorno (Northern Tyrrhenian Sea) was investigated. The concentration of HCHs, Aldrin, Chlordanes, DDEs, DDTs, and PCBs in 12 representative sites ranged between <1 microg kg(-1) and 95, 19, 32, 35, 107, and 111 microg kg(-1), respectively. The application of univariate and multivariate statistical techniques, such as linear regression analysis and principal component analysis, to the experimental data showed a different distribution of PCBs in the two sediment layers. On the contrary, the vertical distribution of the other investigated pollutants was more homogeneous and affected by random variability. The multivariate approach was an important tool to establish more rational criteria for the management of dredged materials.

  16. Diffusion of organic pollutants within a biofilm in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Chihhao; Kao, Chen-Fei; Liu, You-Hsi

    2017-04-01

    The occurrence of aquatic pollution is an inevitable environmental impact resulting from human civilization and societal advancement. Either from the natural or anthropogenic sources, the aqueous contaminants enter the natural environment and aggravate its quality. To assure the aquatic environment quality, the attached-growth biological degradation is often applied to removing organic contaminants by introducing contaminated water into a porous media which is covered by microorganism. Additionally, many natural aquatic systems also form such similar mechanism to increase their self-purification capability. To better understand this transport phenomenon and degradation mechanism in the biofilm for future application, the mathematic characterization of organic contaminant diffusion within the biofilm requires further exploration. The present study aimed to formulate a mathematic representation to quantify the diffusion of the organic contaminant in the biofilm. The BOD was selected as the target contaminant. A series of experiments were conducted to quantify the BOD diffusion in the biofilm under the conditions of influent BOD variation from 50 to 300 mg/L, COD:N:P ratios of 100:5:1 and 100:15:3, with or without auxiliary aeration. For diffusion coefficient calculation, the boundary condition of zero diffusion at the interface between microbial phase and contact media was assumed. With the principle of conservation of mass, the removed contaminants equal those that diffuse into the biofilm, and eq 1 results, and the diffusion coefficient (i.e., eq 2) can be solved through calculus with equations from table of integral. ∂2Sf- Df ∂z2 = Rf (1) --(QSin--QSout)2Y--- Df = 2μmaxxf(Sb + Ks ln-Ks-) Sb+Ks (2) Using the obtained experimental data, the diffusion coefficient was calculated to be 2.02*10-6 m2/d with influent COD of 50 mg/L at COD:N:P ratio of 100:5:1 with aeration, and this coefficient increased to 6.02*10-6 m2/d as the influent concentration increased to

  17. Impact of compost process conditions on organic micro pollutant degradation during full scale composting.

    PubMed

    Sadef, Yumna; Poulsen, Tjalfe Gorm; Bester, Kai

    2015-06-01

    Knowledge about the effects of oxygen concentration, nutrient availability and moisture content on removal of organic micro-pollutants during aerobic composting is at present very limited. Impact of oxygen concentration, readily available nitrogen content (NH4(+), NO3(-)), and moisture content on biological transformation of 15 key organic micro-pollutants during composting, was therefore investigated using bench-scale degradation experiments based on non-sterile compost samples, collected at full-scale composting facilities. In addition, the adequacy of bench-scale composting experiments for representing full-scale composting conditions, was investigated using micro-pollutant concentration measurements from both bench- and full-scale composting experiments. Results showed that lack of oxygen generally prevented transformation of organic micro-pollutants. Increasing readily available nitrogen content from about 50 mg N per 100 g compost to about 140 mg N per 100 g compost actually reduced micro-pollutant transformation, while changes in compost moisture content from 50% to 20% by weight, only had minor influence on micro-pollutant transformation. First-order micro-pollutant degradation rates for 13 organic micro-pollutants were calculated using data from both full- and bench-scale experiments. First-order degradation coefficients for both types of experiments were similar and ranged from 0.02 to 0.03 d(-1) on average, indicating that if a proper sampling strategy is employed, bench-scale experiments can be used to represent full-scale composting conditions.

  18. Treatment of Navy landfill leachate contaminated with low levels of priority pollutants. Final report, Jun 89-Mar 90

    SciTech Connect

    Jue, C.; Regan, R.W.

    1991-10-01

    This report discusses remediation of landfill leachate and contaminated ground water at selected Naval facilities. A conventional treatment train (air stripping, ion exchange, and carbon adsorption) was used to illustrate the treatment potential for a diluted leachate at Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach. The treatment removed specified organics to below 29 ppb and specified metals to below California's drinking water standards. Available costs for conventional and innovative treatment trains were considered. Treatment technologies include oil water separators, activated sludge, trickling filter, powdered activated carbon, neutralization, oxidation reduction, precipitation/floculation/sedimentation, and air stripping.

  19. Lipid methodology and pollutant normalization relationships for neutral nonpolar organic pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Randall, R.C.; Young, D.R.; Lee, H. II; Echols, S.F.

    1998-05-01

    This work compares the ability of hexane and chloroform with methanol (C/M) to extract lipid, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and p,p{prime}-DDE from white croaker (Geneonus lineatus) muscle tissue. Hexane extracted on average 25% of the lipid and 73% of the PCB congeners that were extracted by C/M. Both solvents extracted similar quantities of p,p{prime}-DDE. Consequently, PCB and p,p{prime}-DDE lipid-normalized concentrations using hexane values were 2.9 and 3.9 times greater than with C/M values, and greater than fivefold differences are possible using hexane lipid values with C/M pollutant values. Because the solvents primarily extract different lipid pools, the results conceivably approximate the largest lipid-normalized pollutant concentration differences obtainable using common solvents. The differences suggest that lipid-normalized pollutant concentrations in fish muscle tissue will vary among studies without a standardized total lipid method, but more research is required to better identify complex neutral pollutant and lipid relationships before a final standard methodology can be selected. In the interim, the authors recommend that the Bligh-Dyer method with C/M be used to obtain total lipid for lipid-normalizing pollutant concentrations. If another solvent or system is used, the C/M extraction should be conducted on representative samples to allow for interconversion of lipid results.

  20. Basic Principles of the Electrochemical Mineralization of Organic Pollutants for Wastewater Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapałka, Agnieszka; Fóti, György; Comninellis, Christos

    The electrochemical mineralization of organic pollutants is a new technology for treatment of dilute wastewater (COD < 5 g/L). In this method, utilizing the electrical energy, a complete oxidation of pollutants can be achieved on high oxidation power anodes. An ideal anode for this type of treatment is a boron-doped diamond electrode (BDD) characterized by a high reactivity toward organics oxidation. In the present work, both thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of organics mineralization are discussed. The proposed theoretical kinetic model of organics mineralization on BDD anodes is in excellent agreement with the experimental results. In addition, the economical aspect of electrochemical organics mineralization is reported.

  1. Photochemical Degradation of Persistent Organic Pollutants: A Study of Ice Photochemistry Mediated by Dissolved Organic Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobby, R.; Pagano, L.; Grannas, A. M.

    2012-12-01

    It is well established that ice is a reactive medium in the environment and that active photochemistry occurs in frozen systems. Snow and ice contain a number of absorbing species including nitrate, peroxide and organic matter. Upon irradiation, they can generate a variety of reactive intermediates such as hydroxyl radical and singlet oxygen. It has been shown that dissolved organic matter is a ubiquitous component of snow and ice and plays an important role in overall light absorption properties of the sample. Additionally, the reactive intermediates produced can further react with contaminants present and alter their fate in the environment. Unfortunately, the role of dissolved organic matter in ice photochemistry has received little attention. Here we present results from laboratory-based studies aimed at elucidating the role of dissolved organic matter photochemistry on contaminant degradation in ice. Aqueous samples of our target pollutant, aldrin (20 μg/L), in liquid and frozen phases, were irradiated under Q-Panel 340 lamps to simulate the UV radiation profile of natural sunlight. Results indicated that frozen samples degraded more quickly than liquid samples and that the addition of dissolved organic matter increases the aldrin degradation rate significantly. Both terrestrial (Suwannee River, U.S.) and microbial sources (Pony Lake, Antarctica) of DOM were able to sensitize aldrin loss in ice. Scavengers of singlet oxygen, such as furfuryl alcohol and β-carotene, were also added to DOM solutions. Based on the type of organic matter present, the scavengers had different effects on the photochemical degradation of aldrin. Our results indicate that natural organic matter present in ice is an important component of ice photochemical processes.

  2. The impact of organic pollution on the macrobenthic fauna of Dubai Creek (UAE).

    PubMed

    Saunders, James E; Al Zahed, Khalid Mohammed; Paterson, David M

    2007-11-01

    Dubai Creek is a tidal marine intrusion bisecting Dubai within the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The creek extends 14km inland from its opening into the Arabian Gulf, with a narrow lower creek channel leading to a lagoon section in the upper creek. The creek contains numerous sources of organic pollution including sewage outlet flows and boat waste. A survey of the creek was performed, assessing organic pollution, water properties, and the benthic macrofaunal community. The upper creek was heavily polluted with macrofauna communities commonly associated with organic pollution and eutrophication, while the lower creek contained low pollution and relatively healthy macrofauna communities. There is little net tidal flow of water within the creek and residence time in the lagoon is high, which may account for the high organic pollution levels. However, some evidence of the pollution effect moving into the lower creek was found. The results are considered in light of current and historic organic loading within the creek and future developments in the area.

  3. Arabidopsis and the Genetic Potential for the Phytoremediation of Toxic Elemental and Organic Pollutants

    PubMed Central

    Cobbett, Christopher S.; Meagher, Richard B.

    2002-01-01

    In a process called phytoremediation, plants can be used to extract, detoxify, and/or sequester toxic pollutants from soil, water, and air. Phytoremediation may become an essential tool in cleaning the environment and reducing human and animal exposure to potential carcinogens and other toxins. Arabidopsis has provided useful information about the genetic, physiological, and biochemical mechanisms behind phytoremediation, and it is an excellent model genetic organism to test foreign gene expression. This review focuses on Arabidopsis studies concerning: 1) the remediation of elemental pollutants; 2) the remediation of organic pollutants; and 3) the phytoremediation genome. Elemental pollutants include heavy metals and metalloids (e.g., mercury, lead, cadmium, arsenic) that are immutable. The general goal of phytoremediation is to extract, detoxify, and hyperaccumulate elemental pollutants in above-ground plant tissues for later harvest. A few dozen Arabidopsis genes and proteins that play direct roles in the remediation of elemental pollutants are discussed. Organic pollutants include toxic chemicals such as benzene, benzo(a)pyrene, polychlorinated biphenyls, trichloroethylene, trinitrotoluene, and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane. Phytoremediation of organic pollutants is focused on their complete mineralization to harmless products, however, less is known about the potential of plants to act on complex organic chemicals. A preliminary survey of the Arabidopsis genome suggests that as many as 700 genes encode proteins that have the capacity to act directly on environmental pollutants or could be modified to do so. The potential of the phytoremediation proteome to be used to reduce human exposure to toxic pollutants appears to be enormous and untapped. PMID:22303204

  4. New evidence for high sorption capacity of hydrochar for hydrophobic organic pollutants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study investigated the sorption potential of hydrochars, produced from hydrothermally carbonizing livestock wastes, towards organic pollutants (OPs) with a wide range of hydrophobicity, and compared their sorption capacity with that of pyrochars obtained from conventional dry pyrolysis from the...

  5. Review of 'emerging' organic contaminants in biosolids and assessment of international research priorities for the agricultural use of biosolids.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Bradley O; Smith, Stephen R

    2011-01-01

    A broad spectrum of organic chemicals is essential to modern society. Once discharged from industrial, domestic and urban sources into the urban wastewater collection system they may transfer to the residual solids during wastewater treatment and assessment of their significance and implications for beneficial recycling of the treated sewage sludge biosolids is required. Research on organic contaminants (OCs) in biosolids has been undertaken for over thirty years and the increasing body of evidence demonstrates that the majority of compounds studied do not place human health at risk when biosolids are recycled to farmland. However, there are 143,000 chemicals registered in the European Union for industrial use and all could be potentially found in biosolids. Therefore, a literature review of 'emerging' OCs in biosolids has been conducted for a selection of chemicals of potential concern for land application based upon human toxicity, evidence of adverse effects on the environment and endocrine disruption. To identify monitoring and research priorities the selected chemicals were ranked using an assessment matrix approach. Compounds were evaluated based upon environmental persistence, human toxicity, evidence of bioaccumulation in humans and the environment, evidence of ecotoxicity and the number and quality of studies focussed on the contaminant internationally. The identified chemicals of concern were ranked in decreasing order of priority: perfluorinated chemicals (PFOS, PFOA); polychlorinated alkanes (PCAs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs); organotins (OTs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), triclosan (TCS), triclocarban (TCC); benzothiazoles; antibiotics and pharmaceuticals; synthetic musks; bisphenol A, quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs), steroids; phthalate acid esters (PAEs) and polydimethylsiloxanes (PDMSs). A number of issues were identified and recommendations for the prioritisation of further research and monitoring of 'emerging' OCs for the

  6. A review of current knowledge and future prospects regarding persistent organic pollutants over the Tibetan Plateau.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoping; Gong, Ping; Wang, Chuanfei; Ren, Jiao; Yao, Tandong

    2016-12-15

    Since the turn of the century, our understanding of the quantities, transport pathways, and fate of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) over the Tibetan Plateau (TP), the largest and highest plateau on Earth, has greatly enhanced. We begin in this article by reviewing the available literature on the levels of POPs over the TP. In general, the levels of most POPs are similar or lower than values reported for other background regions. However, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) levels in air and soil far exceed those measured in other mountainous areas. The East Asian monsoon, Indian Monsoon and westerly winds are responsible for the long-range atmospheric transport (LRAT) and arrival of POPs over the TP. Surface soil and vegetation act as "final sinks" for DDTs and other high molecular weight POPs. Linked to the continuous use of POPs in surrounding counties, LRAT and "cold trapping" by the TP can happen following emission-transport-deposition events, leading to the enrichment of POPs in the TP environment. Bioaccumulation of DDTs and high chlorinated PCBs have been found in Tibetan terrestrial and aquatic food chains, and newly emerging compounds such as polyfluoroalkyl substances and hexabromocyclododecanes have been widely detected in wild fish species. The corresponding ecological risks should be of great concern. Climate change, such as increased temperatures and changing coverage of snow and glaciers, has the potential to affect the behavior and distribution of POPs. Therefore, long-term monitoring data are required. Ineffective regulation regarding POPs has been reported for countries in South Asia, emissions patterns, the outflow of POPs, and their seasonal and inter-annual variability should therefore be clarified. Estimating the loading of POPs, as well as how they move, within the TP, especially under the impact of glacial melt and global warming, should be a priority. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. MEDICARE: Physician-Sponsored Organizations Receive Priority for Peer Review Contracts.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    utilization and quality control peer review organization program as the successor to the professional standards review program. The program is...sufficient number of physicians to assure adequate peer review of the services provided by the various medical specialties and subspecialties. The

  8. Priority-pollutant trace elements in streambed sediments of the Cook Inlet basin, Alaska, 1998-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frenzel, Steven A.

    2002-01-01

    Trace element concentrations in 48 streambed sediment samples collected at 47 sites in the Cook Inlet Basin, Alaska, were compared to concentrations from studies in the conterminous United States using identical methods and to Probable Effect Concentrations. Concentrations of arsenic, chromium, mercury, and nickel in the 0.063-mm size fraction of streambed sediments from the Cook Inlet Basin were elevated relative to reference sites in the conterminous United States. Concentrations of cadmium, lead, and zinc were highest at the most urbanized site in Anchorage and at two sites downstream from an ore body in Lake Clark National Park and Preserve. At least 35 percent of the 48 samples collected in the Cook Inlet Basin exceeded the Probable Effect Concentration for arsenic, chromium, or nickel. More than 50 percent of the samples were considered to have low potential toxicity for cadmium, lead, mercury, nickel, selenium, and zinc. A Probable Effect Concentration quotient that reflects the combined toxicity of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, and zinc was exceeded in 44 percent of the samples from the Cook Inlet Basin. The potential toxicity was high in the Denali and Lake Clark National Parks and Preserves where organic carbon concentrations in streambed sediments were low. However, potential toxicity results should be considered in context with the very small amounts of fine-grained sediment present in the streambed sediments of the Cook Inlet Basin.

  9. Relationships between persistent organic pollutants and carbonaceous materials in aquatic sediments of Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hung, Chin-Chang; Gong, Gwo-Ching; Ko, Fung-Chi; Chen, Hung-Yu; Hsu, Min-Lan; Wu, Jian-Ming; Peng, Sen-Chueh; Nan, Fan-Hua; Yeager, Kevin M; Santschi, Peter H

    2010-07-01

    Recent studies have shown that many persistent organic pollutants (POPs, e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and various pesticides), are strongly associated with carbonaceous materials (including organic carbon (OC) and black carbon (BC)). We hypothesize that carbonaceous materials can be used as a first-order pollution index, to indicate areas where POP pollution may require further investigation. We tested our hypothesis and found that strong, positive correlations between BC and OC contents versus the concentrations of PCBs (and PAHs) existed in estuarine sediments of the Danshui River in 2005 and 2008. Thus, our preliminary results demonstrate that POC and BC are potential indicators of the POP pollution potential in fluvial sediments of the Danshui River in Taiwan. This innovative approach can provide a simple, relatively inexpensive and expedient means to monitor concentrations of POPs in polluted aquatic sediments of Taiwan, and/or those having a legacy of POP inputs. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Multi-residue analysis of 36 priority and emerging pollutants in marine echinoderms (Holothuria tubulosa) and marine sediments by solid-liquid extraction followed by dispersive solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis.

    PubMed

    Martín, J; Zafra-Gómez, A; Hidalgo, F; Ibáñez-Yuste, A J; Alonso, E; Vilchez, J L

    2017-05-01

    Marine echinoderms are filter-feeding invertebrates widely distributed along the coasts, and which are therefore extensively exposed to anthropogenic xenobiotics. They can serve as good sentinels for monitoring a large variety of contaminants in marine ecosystems. In this context, a multi-residue analytical method has been validated and applied to Holothuria tubulosa specimens and marine sediments for the determination of 36 organic compounds, which belong to some of the most problematic groups of emerging and priority pollutants (perfluoroalkyl compounds, estrogens, parabens, benzophenones, plasticizers, surfactants, brominated flame retardants and alkylphenols). Lyophilization of samples prior to solvent extraction and clean-up of extracts with C18, followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis, is proposed. A Box-Behnken design was used for optimization of the most influential variables affecting the extraction and clean-up steps. For validation, matrix-matched calibration and recovery assay were applied. Linearity (% r(2)) higher than 99%, recoveries between 80% and 114% (except in LAS and NP1EO), RSD (precision) lower than 15% and limits of quantification between 0.03 and 12.5ngg(-1) dry weight (d.w.) were achieved. The method was applied to nine samples of Holothuria collected along the coast of Granada (Spain), and to marine sediments around the animals. The results demonstrated high bioaccumulation of certain pollutants. A total of 25 out of the 36 studied compounds were quantified, being surfactants, alkylphenols, perfluoroalkyl compounds, triclocarban and parabens the most frequently detected. Nonylphenol was found in the highest concentration (340 and 323ngg(-1) d.w. in sediment and Holothuria samples, respectively). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Endophytic bacteria: prospects and applications for the phytoremediation of organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Afzal, Muhammad; Khan, Qaiser M; Sessitsch, Angela

    2014-12-01

    Recently, there has been an increased effort to enhance the efficacy of phytoremediation of contaminated environments by exploiting plant-microbe interactions. The combined use of plants and endophytic bacteria is an emerging approach for the clean-up of soil and water polluted with organic compounds. In plant-endophyte partnerships, plants provide the habitat as well as nutrients to their associated endophytic bacteria. In response, endophytic bacteria with appropriate degradation pathways and metabolic activities enhance degradation of organic pollutants, and diminish phytotoxicity and evapotranspiration of organic pollutants. Moreover, endophytic bacteria possessing plant growth-promoting activities enhance the plant's adaptation and growth in soil and water contaminated with organic pollutants. Overall, the application of endophytic bacteria gives new insights into novel protocols to improve phytoremediation efficiency. However, successful application of plant-endophyte partnerships for the clean-up of an environment contaminated with organic compounds depends on the abundance and activity of the degrading endophyte in different plant compartments. Although many endophytic bacteria have the potential to degrade organic pollutants and improve plant growth, their contribution to enhance phytoremediation efficiency is still underestimated. A better knowledge of plant-endophyte interactions could be utilized to increase the remediation of polluted soil environments and to protect the foodstuff by decreasing agrochemical residues in food crops. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [Concentration characteristics and ecological risk of persistent organic pollutants in the surface sediments of Tianjin coastal area].

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiao-Xia; Zhang, Shu; Chen, Chao-Qi; Hou, Zhen; Yang, Jun-Jun

    2012-10-01

    Surface sediments were sampled from various surface water bodies in Tianjin coastal area, and four types of persistent organic pollutants including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organic pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were measured. The purposes were to investigate the concentration characteristics of the four types of pollutants and to assess their ecological risks. The results showed that all the 16 priority PAHs were detected from the 10 sediments sampled from the Tianjin coastal area. The total concentrations of the 16 PAHs ranged from 274.06 microg x kg(-1) to 2656.65 microg x kg(-1), with the average being 1 198.51 microg x kg(-1). Combustion of fossil fuel such as coal and gasoline was the major source of PAHs in the surface sediments, while input of petroleum products might occur in some locations. In the Dagu discharging river, the total concentration of 22 OCPs was 3 103.36 microg x kg(-1), the total concentration of 35 PCBs and the total concentration of 14 PBDEs were 87.31 microg x kg(-1) and 13.88 microg x kg(-1), respectively. The concentrations of OCPs, PCBs and PBDEs in other sampling locations were low. The total organic carbon in the surface sediments had good correlation with PAHs but not with OCPs, PCBs and PBDEs, and this might be due to the fact that PAHs mainly came from area pollution while the other compounds mainly came from point pollution. In the sediments, PAHs (particularly low molecular weight PAHs) had high ecological risk; in multiple locations, the concentrations of naphthalene and/or acenaphthene exceeded their probable effect concentrations, indicating that they were most likely causing adverse effects to benthonic organisms. In the Dagu discharging river, the concentrations of heptachlor epoxide and lindane (gamma-BHC) exceeded their probable effect concentrations and were most likely causing adverse effects to benthonic organisms. The OCPs in other

  13. Research of Organic Pollutants Detection in the Roadside Soil at the Suburb of the North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X. Y.; Li, C.; Mao, G. C.; Dai, C. L.; Zhu, Q. Y.; Sun, J. X.; Li, Y. L.

    2006-10-01

    With the development of society and economy, more and more automobile and vehicle run in the various roads. Car tail gas can not only pollute the air, but also can still result in the pollution of soil and ground water even underground water. Soil pollution coming from car tail gas is investigated in detail by experimental detection by Geofina Hydrocarbon Meter (GHM) made in Norway in this paper. Experiment samples are collected from thruway and highway side, and the organic pollutants of the samples are analyzed by the GHM instrument. Experiment shows that various kinds of organic pollutants are found in the samples, such as 14 species normal alkanes, 25 species aromatics, 13 species heteocycle compounds and 9 species phenols and so on. The characteristics of organic pollution resulted from car tail gas in the soil are obtained by detection analysis. The soil pollution caused by car tail gas has heavy toxicity to human being and the natural entironment. Consequently, organic contamination in the soil by the tail gas can't be neglected. The relevant investigation should be made so that some precautionary and cure measures may be proposed as soon as possible.

  14. [Soil organic pollution characteristics and microbial properties in coal mining areas of Mentougou].

    PubMed

    Jia, Jian-Li; Zhang, Yue; Wang, Chen; Li, Dong; Liu, Bo-Wen; Liu, Ying; Zhao, Le; Yang, Si-Qi

    2011-03-01

    Soil micro-ecosystem including organic pollution characteristics, basic physicochemical parameters, and microbial properties was analyzed which contaminated with organic pollutants in coal mining area. Results showed that the organic pollution level in coal mining area soils distributed from 0.4 to 1.5 mg/g dry soil, which was 1. 5-6 times as much as the background sample. Furthermore, the column chromatography and GC-MS analysis revealed that content of lightly components including saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons exceeded 40%, specifically was alkenes (> C15), hydrocarbon derivatives, and a small amount aromatic hydrocarbons. Totally, the components of organic pollutants extracted in soils were similar to which in coal gangue samples, illustrating the source of soil pollution to a certain extent in coal mining areas. The physicochemical factors such as nutrient level and moisture contents were not conducive to the growth and reproduction of microbe except pH level, which might show inhibition to microbial activities. Microbial density of pollutant soils in coal mining areas was totally low, with specific amount 10(4)-10(5) cell/g dry soil and FDA activity 2.0-2.9 mg/(g x min). Generally, the microbial density and activity were decreased as the enhancing pollution level. However, in-depth analysis was needed urgently because of the complex impact of environmental conditions like pH, moisture, and nutrition.

  15. Assessing the bioaccumulation potential of ionizable organic compounds: Current knowledge and research priorities.

    PubMed

    Armitage, James M; Erickson, Russell J; Luckenbach, Till; Ng, Carla A; Prosser, Ryan S; Arnot, Jon A; Schirmer, Kristin; Nichols, John W

    2016-11-07

    The objective of the present study was to review the current knowledge regarding the bioaccumulation potential of ionizable organic compounds (IOCs), with a focus on the availability of empirical data for fish. Aspects of the bioaccumulation potential of IOCs in fish that can be characterized relatively well include the pH dependence of gill uptake and elimination, uptake in the gut, and sorption to phospholipids (membrane-water partitioning). Key challenges include the lack of empirical data for biotransformation and binding in plasma. Fish possess a diverse array of proteins that may transport IOCs across cell membranes. Except in a few cases, however, the significance of this transport for uptake and accumulation of environmental contaminants is unknown. Two case studies are presented. The first describes modeled effects of pH and biotransformation on the bioconcentration of organic acids and bases, while the second employs an updated model to investigate factors responsible for accumulation of perfluorinated alkyl acids. The perfluorinated alkyl acid case study is notable insofar as it illustrates the likely importance of membrane transporters in the kidney and highlights the potential value of read-across approaches. Recognizing the current need to perform bioaccumulation hazard assessments and ecological and exposure risk assessment for IOCs, the authors provide a tiered strategy that progresses (as needed) from conservative assumptions (models and associated data) to more sophisticated models requiring chemical-specific information. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;9999:1-16. © 2016 SETAC.

  16. Liquid- and Ice-Phase Kinetics of Singlet Molecular Oxygen with Organic Pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bower, J. P.; Anastasio, C.

    2012-12-01

    Singlet molecular oxygen (1O2*), a reactive state of dissolved oxygen, is formed from a sensitizer chromophore that absorbs light and transfers energy to ground-state O2. The chemistry of 1O2* has been studied predominantly in surface waters and aqueous atmospheric drops, where 1O2* can be an important sink for electron-rich pollutants. In our recent work we have shown that 1O2* concentrations can be enhanced by several orders of magnitude on ice compared to in identical, but unfrozen, aqueous solutions. The goal of this work is to assess the potential importance of 1O2* to the decay of organic pollutants on ice in order to better understand pollutant cycling in the cryosphere. Using 549 nm radiation we illuminated liquid and bulk ice samples containing a 1O2* sensitizer (Rose Bengal), salt (NaCl), and an organic pollutant at a controlled temperature. Organic species were chosen to represent several chemical classes, including furans (furfuryl alcohol), phenols (bisphenol A), and amino acids (tryptophan). During illumination the decay of the pollutant was measured to determine the rate constant for loss by reaction with 1O2*. In all cases we observe enhanced loss of pollutants on ice relative to liquid samples. We will discuss how the magnitude of the ice-phase enhancement depends on the different pollutant classes, their aqueous solubility, and freezing point depression.

  17. Characterization of EPA's 16 priority pollutant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in tank bottom solids and associated contaminated soils at oil exploration and production sites in Texas.

    PubMed

    Bojes, Heidi K; Pope, Peter G

    2007-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the concentration and types of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), a group of environmentally toxic and persistent chemicals, at contaminated oil exploration and production (E&P) sites located in environmentally sensitive and geographically distinct areas throughout Texas. Samples of tank bottom solids, the oily sediment that collects at the bottom of the tanks, were collected from inactive crude oil storage tanks at E&P sites and hydrocarbon contaminated soil samples were collected from the area surrounding each tank that was sampled. All samples were analyzed for the 16 PAH priority pollutant listed by US EPA and for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH). The results demonstrate that overall average PAH concentrations were significantly higher in tank bottom solids than in contaminated soils. Total PAH concentrations decreased predictably with diminishing hydrocarbon concentrations; but the percent fraction of carcinogenic PAHs per total measured PAH content increased from approximately 12% in tank bottom solids to about 46% in the contaminated soils. These results suggest that the PAH content found in tank bottom solids cannot reliably be used to predict the PAH content in associated contaminated soil. Comparison of PAHs to conservative risk-based screening levels for direct exposure to soil and leaching from soil to groundwater indicate that PAHs are not likely to exceed default risk-based thresholds in soils containing TPH of 1% (10,000mg/kg) or less. These results show that the magnitude of TPH concentration may be a useful indicator of potential risk from PAHs in crude oil-contaminated soils. The results also provide credibility to the 1% (10,000mg/kg) TPH cleanup level, used in Texas as a default management level at E&P sites located in non-sensitive areas, with respect to PAH toxicity.

  18. Evaluating bioavailability of organic pollutants in soils by sequential ultrasonic extraction procedure.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiang; Zhu, Lizhong

    2016-08-01

    Under current retrospective risk assessment framework, the total concentrations of organic pollutants in soils have been employed as the standard for over 30 years. The total concentrations reflect the overall accumulation in soils but tend to be overly conservative for assessing the ecological risks, where the bioavailability plays an important role. In this study, the bioavailability of organic pollutants in soils was evaluated using a stepwise and tiered classification method, namely the sequential ultrasonic extraction procedure (SEUP). The water-soluble and acid-soluble fractions extracted by the SEUP were the bioavailable fractions. The reliability and environmental relevance of the speciation method were examined with representative organic pollutants using the root uptake methods and the semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs). The plant uptake amounts corrected with weight were highly correlated with the bioavailable fractions (R(2) > 0.75). The amounts of the bioavailable fractions were negatively correlated with the logKow values (R(2) ranging from 0.71 to 0.77) of the organic pollutants and the contents of soil organic matter (R(2) ranging from 0.68 to 0.96). As a refinement of the current risk assessment framework, the SUEP that has proved to be a reliable and convenient is thus highly recommended for evaluating the bioavailability of organic pollutants in soils.

  19. Mixotrophic cyanobacteria and microalgae as distinctive biological agents for organic pollutant degradation.

    PubMed

    Subashchandrabose, Suresh R; Ramakrishnan, Balasubramanian; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Venkateswarlu, Kadiyala; Naidu, Ravi

    2013-01-01

    Millions of natural and synthetic organic chemical substances are present in both soil and aquatic environments. Toxicity and/or persistence determine the polluting principle of these substances. The biological responses to these pollutants include accumulation and degradation. The responses of environments with organic pollutants are perceptible from the dwindling degradative abilities of microorganisms. Among different biological members, cyanobacteria and microalgae are highly adaptive through many eons, and can grow autotrophically, heterotrophically or mixotrophically. Mixotrophy in cyanobacteria and microalgae can provide many competitive advantages over bacteria and fungi in degrading organic pollutants. Laboratory culturing of strict phototrophic algae has limited the realization of their potential as bioremediation agents. In the natural assemblages, mixotrophic algae can contribute to sequestration of carbon, which is otherwise emitted as carbon dioxide to the atmosphere under heterotrophic conditions by other organisms. Molecular methods and metabolic and genomic information will help not only in identification and selection of mixotrophic species of cyanobacteria and microalgae with capabilities to degrade organic pollutants but also in monitoring the efficiency of remediation efforts under the field conditions. These organisms are relatively easier for genetic engineering with desirable traits. This review presents a new premise from the literature that mixotrophic algae and cyanobacteria are distinctive bioremediation agents with capabilities to sequester carbon in the environment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Legacy and emerging halogenated organic pollutants in marine organisms from the Pearl River Estuary, South China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Run-Xia; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Tan, Xiao-Xin; Tang, Bin; Li, Zong-Rui; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2015-11-01

    A suite of legacy and emerging halogenated organic pollutants (HOPs) were measured in marine organisms (coastal fish and invertebrates) from the Pearl River Estuary, South China, to investigate the current contamination status after the Stockholm Convention was implemented in China. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were detected in all samples at concentrations of 54-1500, 16-700, and 0.56-59ng/g lipid weight, respectively. Dechlorane Plus (DP), decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE), 2,3,5,6-tetrabromo-p-xylene (pTBX), and pentabromotoluene (PBT) were also found at concentrations of ND (non-detectable) to 37ng/g lipid weight. The concentrations of these investigated contaminants in the present study were at moderate levels, as compared with those reported in other regions. Significant interspecies differences were found in the levels of DDTs, PCBs, PBDEs and the alternative halogenated flame retardants (AHFRs). DDTs were the predominant HOPs in those species and represented >50% of the total HOPs, followed by PCBs, PBDEs, and AHFRs. The total estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of DDTs, PCBs, PBDEs, and AHFRs were 28, 12, 1.0, and 0.18 (ng/kg)/d, respectively, via seafood consumption. These concentrations are not expected to pose health risks to humans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Design and calibration of an organic diffusive probe to extend the diffusion gradient technique to organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Bondarenko, Antonina; Sani, Daniela; Ruello, Maria Letizia

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a method for measuring the mobility of persistent organic pollutants in the solid phase of soils within the context of environmental pollution risk assessment. A new diffusive probe, purposely designed by adapting the diffusive gradient technique method, measures labile organic species by immobilizing them after diffusion through a thin deionized water layer. The measure of the mass accumulated is used to calculate the flow of pollutant from solid phase to pore water. Naphthalene was chosen as a model persistent organic pollutant. The probe was calibrated at different temperatures and was then tested in several microcosms at different porosity and reactivities with naphthalene (one clay soil, two sandy soils and one natural soil). The probe response showed good agreement with the expected different abilities of the solid phases in restoring the solution phase. The concentration of naphthalene in the pore water was well buffered by rapid equilibria with the solid phase in the investigated natural soil. In contrast, pore water concentration in the sandy soils decreased rapidly and the flow was slackened, especially for the sandy soil with finer particles. In clay, only a fraction of the total naphthalene content was present in the labile fraction, while the remaining was tightly bound and was not released to the pore water. Therefore, this first stage of testing points out that the diffusive gradient technique, if optimized, can properly quantify the mobility of organic pollutants in soil.

  2. Choosing priorities.

    PubMed Central

    Gray, J A

    1979-01-01

    Dr Gray leaves us with a question at the conclusion of his article--how should we choose priorities? He says that the debate so far has been mainly on what we should choose, but perhaps we should consider how to choose even more. Under the various subheadings of Criteria, Principles and Persons Dr Gray sets out the pros and cons of the arguments in the priority debates and tries to offer some more specific guidelines to offset the criticism that the government's priority discussions have been too generalised. Yet this is a difficult task when everyone's priorities are so different. PMID:112252

  3. AGGREGATE EXPOSURES OF NINE PRESCHOOL CHILDREN TO PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS AT DAY CARE AND AT HOME

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the summer of 1997, we measured the aggregate exposures of nine preschool children, ages two to five years, to a suite of organic pesticides and other persistent organic pollutants that are commonly found in the home and school environment. The children attended either of t...

  4. The effects of adsorbing organic pollutants from super heavy oil wastewater by lignite activated coke.

    PubMed

    Tong, Kun; Lin, Aiguo; Ji, Guodong; Wang, Dong; Wang, Xinghui

    2016-05-05

    The adsorption of organic pollutants from super heavy oil wastewater (SHOW) by lignite activated coke (LAC) was investigated. Specifically, the effects of LAC adsorption on pH, BOD5/COD(Cr)(B/C), and the main pollutants before and after adsorption were examined. The removed organic pollutants were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Boehm titrations, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and liquid chromatography with organic carbon detection (LC-OCD). FTIR spectra indicated that organic pollutants containing -COOH and -NH2 functional groups were adsorbed from the SHOW. Boehm titrations further demonstrated that carboxyl, phenolic hydroxyl, and lactonic groups on the surface of the LAC increased. GC-MS showed that the removed main organic compounds are difficult to be degraded or extremely toxics to aquatic organisms. According to the results of LC-OCD, 30.37 mg/L of dissolved organic carbons were removed by LAC adsorption. Among these, hydrophobic organic contaminants accounted for 25.03 mg/L. Furthermore, LAC adsorption was found to increase pH and B/C ratio of the SHOW. The mechanisms of adsorption were found to involve between the hydrogen bonding and the functional groups of carboxylic, phenolic, and lactonic on the LAC surface. In summary, all these results demonstrated that LAC adsorption can remove bio-refractory DOCs, which is beneficial for biodegradation.

  5. AGGREGATE EXPOSURES OF NINE PRESCHOOL CHILDREN TO PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS AT DAY CARE AND AT HOME

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the summer of 1997, we measured the aggregate exposures of nine preschool children, ages two to five years, to a suite of organic pesticides and other persistent organic pollutants that are commonly found in the home and school environment. The children attended either of t...

  6. Effects of organic pollution on biological communities of marine biofilm on hard substrata.

    PubMed

    Sanz-Lázaro, C; Fodelianakis, S; Guerrero-Meseguer, L; Marín, A; Karakassis, I

    2015-06-01

    We examined the effect of organic enrichment on diatom and bacterial assemblages of marine epilithic biofilms on two locations in the Mediterranean, one situated in Spain and the other in Greece. Total organic carbon, total organic nitrogen, stable isotopes (δ(13)C and δ(15)N) and chlorophyll a indicated significant incorporation of organic wastes, increased primary production and trophic niche modifications on the biofilms close to the organic enrichment source. In Spain, where the organic load was higher than in Greece, diatom and, to some extent, bacterial assemblages varied following the organic enrichment gradient. The taxonomic richness of diatom and bacterial communities was not influenced by organic enrichment. Classical community parameters showed consistent patterns to organic pollution in both locations, whereas community assemblages were only influenced when organic pollution was greatest. The successional patterns of these communities were similar to other epilithic communities. The modification of community assemblages induced by organic pollution may affect ecological functions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Method for treatment of soils contaminated with organic pollutants

    DOEpatents

    Wickramanayake, Godage B.

    1993-01-01

    A method for treating soil contaminated by organic compounds wherein an ozone containing gas is treated with acid to increase the stability of the ozone in the soil environment and the treated ozone applied to the contaminated soil to decompose the organic compounds. The soil may be treated in situ or may be removed for treatment and refilled.

  8. Fluorescent diagnostics of organic pollution in natural waters: A neural network approach

    SciTech Connect

    Orlov, Y.V.; Persiantsev, I.G.; Rebrik, S.P.

    1995-12-31

    Rapid diagnosis of pollution is one of the key tasks in the field of ecological monitoring of natural and technogeneous environment. One of the promising methods of fluorescent diagnosis of organic pollution of water environment is the registration and analysis of two-dimensional Spectral Fluorescent Signatures (SFS). The neural networks - based system suggested in this paper is intended for solving the problem of detection, identification, and concentration measurement of water environmental pollution. The suggested system uses SFS as input pattern and allows one to build a rapid diagnosis system for ecological monitoring.

  9. Solvent-filled dialysis membranes simulate uptake of pollutants by aquatic organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Soedergren, A.

    1987-09-01

    Dialysis membranes filled with hexane accumulate persistent lipophilic pollutants in a way similar to that of aquatic organisms. The uptake of low molecular weight (< 1000), lipophilic compounds seems to be a passive process governed by partitioning mechanisms. The technique may be used to confirm bioaccumulation mechanisms, to predict environmental hazards of bioavailable compounds, and to monitor lipophilic pollutants, especially in environments too severe for biological indicators to survive.

  10. Applicability of Fluorescence and Absorbance Spectroscopy to Estimate Organic Pollution in Rivers.

    PubMed

    Knapik, Heloise Garcia; Fernandes, Cristovão Vicente Scapulatempo; de Azevedo, Júlio Cesar Rodrigues; do Amaral Porto, Monica Ferreira

    2014-12-01

    This article explores the applicability of fluorescence and absorbance spectroscopy for estimating organic pollution in polluted rivers. The relationship between absorbance, fluorescence intensity, dissolved organic carbon, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and other water quality parameters were used to characterize and identify the origin and the spatial variability of the organic pollution in a highly polluted watershed. Analyses were performed for the Iguassu River, located in southern Brazil, with area about 2,700 km(2) and ∼3 million inhabitants. Samples were collect at six monitoring sites covering 107 km of the main river. BOD, COD, nitrogen, and phosphorus concentration indicates a high input of sewage to the river. Specific absorbance at 254 and 285 nm (SUVA254 and A285/COD) did not show significant variation between sites monitored, indicating the presence of both dissolved compounds found in domestic effluents and humic and fulvic compounds derived from allochthonous organic matter. Correlations between BOD and tryptophan-like fluorescence peak (peak T2, r=0.7560, and peak T1, r=0.6949) and tyrosine-like fluorescence peak (peak B, r=0.7321) indicated the presence of labile organic matter and thus confirmed the presence of sewage in the river. Results showed that fluorescence and absorbance spectroscopy provide useful information on pollution in rivers from critical watersheds and together are a robust method that is simpler and more rapid than traditional methods employed by regulatory agencies.

  11. Interacting effects of toxicants and organic matter on the midge Chironomus riparius in polluted river water.

    PubMed

    Stuijfzand, S C; Helms, M; Kraak, M H; Admiraal, W

    2000-07-01

    Toxicants and organic matter in river water have contrasting impacts on macrofauna. Through manipulations of both factors, their interactive effects on organisms were evaluated. This way, an attempt was made to clarify the presence or absence of pollution-"tolerant" and -"sensitive" species in rivers affected by mixed sources of pollution. Under controlled conditions, larval growth of the "tolerant" midge Chironomus riparius was measured in different types of river water containing varying levels of particles (obtained by selective filtration) and toxicants (either complex mixtures or metals). Exposure of first-instar larvae to water from the polluted rivers Meuse and Dommel revealed that growth was less inhibited by toxicant levels in river water than expected based on laboratory toxicity tests. Factors present in polluted river water stimulated growth of midges to such an extent that inhibiting effects of high toxicant concentrations were neutralized, and at low toxicant levels, were overcompensated for. It was found that particulate matter has great potential to reduce inhibiting effects of toxicants on C. riparius, not (only) by reducing the bioavailability of toxicants, but by serving as a supplementary, superior food source. The success of the "pollution-tolerant" midge was not explained by tolerance of this species to toxicants, but by its ability to take advantage of coinciding organic enrichment. It is hypothesized that the extent to which beneficial effects of organic compounds on organisms occur is species specific.

  12. Applicability of Fluorescence and Absorbance Spectroscopy to Estimate Organic Pollution in Rivers

    PubMed Central

    Knapik, Heloise Garcia; Fernandes, Cristovão Vicente Scapulatempo; de Azevedo, Júlio Cesar Rodrigues; do Amaral Porto, Monica Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This article explores the applicability of fluorescence and absorbance spectroscopy for estimating organic pollution in polluted rivers. The relationship between absorbance, fluorescence intensity, dissolved organic carbon, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and other water quality parameters were used to characterize and identify the origin and the spatial variability of the organic pollution in a highly polluted watershed. Analyses were performed for the Iguassu River, located in southern Brazil, with area about 2,700 km2 and ∼3 million inhabitants. Samples were collect at six monitoring sites covering 107 km of the main river. BOD, COD, nitrogen, and phosphorus concentration indicates a high input of sewage to the river. Specific absorbance at 254 and 285 nm (SUVA254 and A285/COD) did not show significant variation between sites monitored, indicating the presence of both dissolved compounds found in domestic effluents and humic and fulvic compounds derived from allochthonous organic matter. Correlations between BOD and tryptophan-like fluorescence peak (peak T2, r=0.7560, and peak T1, r=0.6949) and tyrosine-like fluorescence peak (peak B, r=0.7321) indicated the presence of labile organic matter and thus confirmed the presence of sewage in the river. Results showed that fluorescence and absorbance spectroscopy provide useful information on pollution in rivers from critical watersheds and together are a robust method that is simpler and more rapid than traditional methods employed by regulatory agencies. PMID:25469076

  13. Determining and broadening the definition of impact from implementing a rational priority setting approach in a healthcare organization.

    PubMed

    Cornelissen, Evelyn; Mitton, Craig; Davidson, Alan; Reid, Colin; Hole, Rachelle; Visockas, Anne-Marie; Smith, Neale

    2014-08-01

    Techniques to manage scarce healthcare resources continue to evolve in response to changing, growing and competing demands. Yet there is no standard definition in the priority setting literature of what might constitute the desired impact or success of resource management activities. In this 2006-09 study, using action research methodology, we determined the impact of implementing a formal priority setting model, Program Budgeting and Marginal Analysis (PBMA), in a Canadian health authority. Qualitative data were collected through post year-1 (n = 12) and year-2 (n = 9) participant interviews, meeting observation and document review. Interviews were analyzed using a constant comparison technique to identify major themes. Impact can be defined as effects at three levels: system, group, and individual. System-level impact can be seen in the actual selection of priorities and resource re-allocation. In this case, participants prioritized a list of $760,000 worth of investment proposals and $38,000 of disinvestment proposals; however, there was no clear evidence as to whether financial resources were reallocated as a result. Group and individual impacts, less frequently reported in the literature, included changes in priority setting knowledge, attitudes and practice. PBMA impacts at these three levels were found to be interrelated. This work argues in favor of attempts to expand the definition of priority setting success by including both desired system-level outcomes like resource re-allocation and individual or group level impacts like changes to priority setting knowledge, attitudes and practice. These latter impacts are worth pursuing as they appear to be intrinsic to successful system-wide priority setting. A broader definition of PBMA impact may also suggest conceptualizing PBMA as both a priority setting approach and as a tool to develop individual and group priority setting knowledge and practice. These results should be of interest to researchers and

  14. COP-compost: a software to study the degradation of organic pollutants in composts.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y; Lashermes, G; Houot, S; Zhu, Y-G; Barriuso, E; Garnier, P

    2014-02-01

    Composting has been demonstrated to be effective in degrading organic pollutants (OP) whose behaviour depends on the composting conditions, the microbial populations activated and interactions with organic matters. The fate of OP during composting involves complex mechanisms and models can be helpful tools for educational and scientific purposes, as well as for industrialists who want to optimise the composting process for OP elimination. A COP-Compost model, which couples an organic carbon (OC) module and an organic pollutant (OP) module and which simulates the changes of organic matter, organic pollutants and the microbial activities during the composting process, has been proposed and calibrated for a first set of OP in a previous study. The objectives of the present work were (1) to introduce the COP-Compost model from its convenient interface to a potential panel of users, (2) to show the variety of OP that could be simulated, including the possibility of choosing between degradation through co-metabolism or specific metabolism and (3) to show the effect of the initial characteristics of organic matter quality and its microbial biomass on the simulated results of the OP dynamic. In the model, we assumed that the pollutants can be adsorbed on organic matter according to the biochemical quality of the OC and that the microorganisms can degrade the pollutants at the same time as they degrade OC (by co-metabolism). A composting experiment describing two different (14)C-labelled organic pollutants, simazine and pyrene, were chosen from the literature because the four OP fractions simulated in the model were measured during the study (the mineralised, soluble, sorbed and non-extractable fractions). Except for the mineralised fraction of simazine, a good agreement was achieved between the simulated and experimental results describing the evolution of the different organic fractions. For simazine, a specific biomass had to be added. To assess the relative importance

  15. Metal Oxide Assisted Preparation of Core-Shell Beads with Dense Metal-Organic Framework Coatings for the Enhanced Extraction of Organic Pollutants.

    PubMed

    Del Rio, Mateo; Palomino Cabello, Carlos; Gonzalez, Veronica; Maya, Fernando; Parra, Jose B; Cerdà, Victor; Turnes Palomino, Gemma

    2016-08-08

    Dense and homogeneous metal-organic framework (MOF) coatings on functional bead surfaces are easily prepared by using intermediate sacrificial metal oxide coatings containing the metal precursor of the MOF. Polystyrene (PS) beads are coated with a ZnO layer to give ZnO@PS core-shell beads. The ZnO@PS beads are reactive in the presence of 2-methylimidazole to transform part of the ZnO coating into a porous zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8) external shell positioned above the internal ZnO precursor shell. The obtained ZIF-8@ZnO@PS beads can be easily packed in column format for flow-through applications, such as the solid-phase extraction of trace priority-listed environmental pollutants. The prepared material shows an excellent permeance to flow when packed as a column to give high enrichment factors, facile regeneration, and excellent reusability for the extraction of the pollutant bisphenol A. It also shows an outstanding performance for the simultaneous enrichment of mixtures of endocrine disrupting chemicals (bisphenol A, 4-tert-octylphenol and 4-n-nonylphenol), facilitating their analysis when present at very low levels (<1 μg L(-1) ) in drinking waters. For the extraction of the pollutant bisphenol A, the prepared ZIF-8@ZnO@PS beads also show a superior extraction and preconcentration capacity to that of the PS beads used as precursors and the composite materials obtained by the direct growth of ZIF-8 on the surface of the PS beads in the absence of metal oxide intermediate coatings.

  16. Organic pollutants and ocean fronts across the Atlantic Ocean: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohmann, Rainer; Belkin, Igor M.

    2014-11-01

    Little is known about the effect of ocean fronts on pollutants dynamics, particularly organic pollutants. Since fronts are associated with convergent currents and productive fishing grounds, any possible convergence of pollutants at fronts would raise concerns. The focus here is on relatively persistent organic pollutants, POPs, as non-persistent organic pollutants are rarely found in the open ocean. Results from recent cruises in the Atlantic Ocean are examined for POP distributions across ocean fronts in (i) the Canary Current; (ii) the Gulf Stream; and (iii) the Amazon and Rio de la Plata Plumes. Few studies achieved a spatial resolution of 10-20 km, while most had 100-300 km between adjacent stations. The majority of the well-resolved studies measured perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), which seem particularly well suited for frontal resolution. In the NE Atlantic, concentrations of PFCs sharply decreased between SW Europe and NW Africa upon crossing the Canary Current Front at 24-27°N. In the Western Atlantic, the PFC concentrations sharply increased upon entering the Amazon River Plume and Rio de la Plata Plume. In the NW Atlantic, concentrations of several pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are very high in Rhode Island Sound, decreasing to below detection limit in the open ocean. The more persistent and already phased-out polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) displayed elevated concentrations in the Gulf Stream and Rhode Island Sound, thereby highlighting the importance of ocean fronts, along-front currents, and cross-frontal transport for the dispersal of PCBs.

  17. Model Simulations of Upwelling and Biouptake of Persistent Bioaccumulative Toxic (PBT) Organic Pollutants from Contaminated Streambeds for Base Flow Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otero, D. D.; Ren, J.

    2009-12-01

    In river systems, understanding the contaminant transport processes occurring between the streambed and stream water is very important in predicting the fate of pollutants and their biological effects. In this study, a process-based multi-phase reactive transport model simulating the upwelling of Persistent Bioaccumulative Toxic (PBT) organic pollutants from contaminated streambed sediments under low-flow conditions and the biouptake of PBT organic pollutants by benthic organisms was developed. The physical exchange process occurring between the streams and streambeds was modeled using a modified advective pumping theory. The interaction of PBT organic pollutants with bed sediments was modeled using kinetic sorption and desorption mechanisms. A bioconcentration factor (BCF) equation was used to model the biouptake of PBT organic pollutants by benthic organisms. Simulation results indicate that the stream water contaminant concentration increases rapidly when the desorption of contaminants from the streambed increases. Additionally, increase in the desorption of contaminants from the streambed causes an increase in the biouptake of PBT organic pollutants by benthic organisms, since more contaminant is available for uptake by the organisms. The effect of nonlinear sorption/desorption on the release and biouptake of PBT organic pollutants was also evaluated using this model. This study demonstrated that the upwelling of PBT organic pollutants can be modeled using the modified advective pumping theory and sorption and desorption mechanisms. This process-based model provided the predictive capability to further study the transport mechanisms controlling the release of contaminants from polluted streambeds.

  18. Canadian Experiences in Pollutant Reporting - the National Pollutant Release Inventory

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Discussion of Canada's National Pollutant Release Inventory, including experiences with pollutant reporting, highlights of 2012 NPRI data, changes to the NPRI over time and current activities and priorities.

  19. [Experimental study on removal of micro-organic pollutants for special ecosystem using ecological embankments].

    PubMed

    Wu, Yi-feng; Lu, Xi-wu

    2009-10-15

    An experimental model was made on the improvement of sources water quality in the Huangpu River through the construction of a special aquatic ecosystem using ecological embankments. A 6 d retention time (RT) gave the highest removal rate capacity and benefit of micro-organic pollutants. Under these conditions, the removal rates were 70.5% atrazine, 57.7% dimethyl phthalate, 72.4% phthalic acid bis (2-ethylhexyl) ester, 62.4% diethyl phthalate, and 45.1% dibutyl phthalate. The varieties of micro-organic pollutants reduced from 51 to 28. In contrast, in the control pool with hard embankment, the removal rates only reached 40.2% atrazine, 42.9% dimethyl phthalate, 54.8% phthalic acid bis (2-ethylhexyl) ester, 52.0% diethyl phthalate, and 16.2% dibutyl phthalate. Through coordination of all constituent elements of special aquatic ecosystem, significant amounts of micro-organic pollutants were removed.

  20. Organic/inorganic hybrid filters based on dendritic and cyclodextrin "nanosponges" for the removal of organic pollutants from water.

    PubMed

    Arkas, Michael; Allabashi, Roza; Tsiourvas, Dimitris; Mattausch, Eva-Maria; Perfler, Reinhard

    2006-04-15

    Long-alkyl chain functionalized poly(propylene imine) dendrimer, poly(ethylene imine) hyperbranched polymer, and beta-cyclodextrin derivatives, which are completely insoluble in water, have the property of encapsulating organic pollutants from water. Ceramic porous filters can be impregnated with these compounds resulting in hybrid organic/ inorganic filter modules. These hybrid filter modules were tested for the effective purification of water, by continuous filtration experiments, employing a variety of water pollutants. It has been established that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can be removed very efficiently (more than 95%), and final concentrations of several ppb (microg/ L) are easily obtained. Representatives of the pollutant group of trihalogen methanes (THMs), monoaromatic hydrocarbons (BTX), and pesticides (simazine) can also be removed (>80%), although the filters are saturated considerably faster in these cases.

  1. Decrease in the abundance and viability of oceanic phytoplankton due to trace levels of complex mixtures of organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Echeveste, Pedro; Dachs, Jordi; Berrojalbiz, Naiara; Agustí, Susana

    2010-09-01

    Long range atmospheric transport and deposition is a significant introduction pathway of organic pollutants to remote oceanic regions, leading to their subsequent accumulation in marine organisms. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) bioconcentrate in planktonic food webs and these exert a biogeochemical control on the regional and global cycling of POPs. Therefore, an important issue is to determine whether the anthropogenic chemical perturbation of the biosphere introduced by the myriad of organic pollutants present in seawater influences phytoplankton abundance and productivity. The results reported here from five sets of experiments performed in the NE Atlantic Ocean show that there is a toxic effect induced by trace levels of complex mixtures of organic pollutants on phytoplankton oceanic communities. The levels of single pollutant, such as phenanthrene and pyrene, at which lethality of phytoplankton is observed are high in comparison to field levels. Complex mixtures of organic pollutants, however, have an important toxic effect on phytoplankton abundances, viability and concentrations of Chlorophyll a at pollutant concentrations 20-40 folds those found in the open ocean. The toxicity of these complex mixtures of organic pollutants exceeds by 10(3) times the toxicity expected for a single pollutant. Therefore, our results point out the need for a systematic investigation of the influence of complex mixtures of organic hydrophobic pollutants to oceanic phytoplankton communities, a perturbation not accounted for on previous assessments of anthropogenic pressures in the marine environment.

  2. Organic pollution of rivers: Combined threats of urbanization, livestock farming and global climate change.

    PubMed

    Wen, Yingrong; Schoups, Gerrit; van de Giesen, Nick

    2017-02-23

    Organic pollution of rivers by wastewater discharge from human activities negatively impacts people and ecosystems. Without treatment, pollution control relies on a combination of natural degradation and dilution by natural runoff to reduce downstream effects. We quantify here for the first time the global sanitation crisis through its impact on organic river pollution from the threats of (1) increasing wastewater discharge due to urbanization and intensification of livestock farming, and (2) reductions in river dilution capacity due to climate change and water extractions. Using in-stream Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) as an overall indicator of organic river pollution, we calculate historical (2000) and future (2050) BOD concentrations in global river networks. Despite significant self-cleaning capacities of rivers, the number of people affected by organic pollution (BOD >5 mg/l) is projected to increase from 1.1 billion in 2000 to 2.5 billion in 2050. With developing countries disproportionately affected, our results point to a growing need for affordable wastewater solutions.

  3. Role of fly ash in the removal of organic pollutants from wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    M. Ahmaruzzaman

    2009-03-15

    Fly ash, a relatively abundant and inexpensive material, is currently being investigated as an adsorbent for the removal of various organic pollutants from wastewater. The wastewater contains various types of phenolic compounds, such as chloro, nitro, amino, and other substituted compounds. Various types of pesticides, such as lindane, malathion, carbofuran, etc., and dyes, such as, methylene blue, crystal violet, malachite green, etc., are also present in the wastewater. These contaminants pollute the water stream. These organic pollutants, such as phenolic compounds, pesticides, and dyes, etc., can be removed very effectively using fly ash as adsorbent. This article presents a detailed review on the role of fly ash in the removal of organic pollutants from wastewater. Adsorption of various pollutants using fly ash has been reviewed. The adsorption mechanism and other influencing factors, favorable conditions, and competitive ions, etc., on the adsorption process have also been discussed in this paper. It is evident from the review that fly ash has demonstrated good removal capabilities for various organic compounds. 171 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. Organic pollution of rivers: Combined threats of urbanization, livestock farming and global climate change

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Yingrong; Schoups, Gerrit; van de Giesen, Nick

    2017-01-01

    Organic pollution of rivers by wastewater discharge from human activities negatively impacts people and ecosystems. Without treatment, pollution control relies on a combination of natural degradation and dilution by natural runoff to reduce downstream effects. We quantify here for the first time the global sanitation crisis through its impact on organic river pollution from the threats of (1) increasing wastewater discharge due to urbanization and intensification of livestock farming, and (2) reductions in river dilution capacity due to climate change and water extractions. Using in-stream Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) as an overall indicator of organic river pollution, we calculate historical (2000) and future (2050) BOD concentrations in global river networks. Despite significant self-cleaning capacities of rivers, the number of people affected by organic pollution (BOD >5 mg/l) is projected to increase from 1.1 billion in 2000 to 2.5 billion in 2050. With developing countries disproportionately affected, our results point to a growing need for affordable wastewater solutions. PMID:28230079

  5. Organic pollution of rivers: Combined threats of urbanization, livestock farming and global climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Yingrong; Schoups, Gerrit; van de Giesen, Nick

    2017-02-01

    Organic pollution of rivers by wastewater discharge from human activities negatively impacts people and ecosystems. Without treatment, pollution control relies on a combination of natural degradation and dilution by natural runoff to reduce downstream effects. We quantify here for the first time the global sanitation crisis through its impact on organic river pollution from the threats of (1) increasing wastewater discharge due to urbanization and intensification of livestock farming, and (2) reductions in river dilution capacity due to climate change and water extractions. Using in-stream Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) as an overall indicator of organic river pollution, we calculate historical (2000) and future (2050) BOD concentrations in global river networks. Despite significant self-cleaning capacities of rivers, the number of people affected by organic pollution (BOD >5 mg/l) is projected to increase from 1.1 billion in 2000 to 2.5 billion in 2050. With developing countries disproportionately affected, our results point to a growing need for affordable wastewater solutions.

  6. Effects of temperature and organic pollution on nutrient cycling in marine sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanz-Lazaro, C.; Valdemarsen, T.; Holmer, M.

    2015-08-01

    Increasing ocean temperature due to climate change is an important anthropogenic driver of ecological change in coastal systems. In these systems sediments play a major role in nutrient cycling. Our ability to predict ecological consequences of climate change is enhanced by simulating real scenarios. Based on predicted climate change scenarios, we tested the effect of temperature and organic pollution on nutrient release from coastal sediments to the water column in a mesocosm experiment. PO43- release rates from sediments followed the same trends as organic matter mineralization rates, increased linearly with temperature and were significantly higher under organic pollution than under nonpolluted conditions. NH4+ release only increased significantly when the temperature rise was above 6 °C, and it was significantly higher in organic polluted compared to nonpolluted sediments. Nutrient release to the water column was only a fraction from the mineralized organic matter, suggesting PO43- retention and NH4+ oxidation in the sediment. Bioturbation and bioirrigation appeared to be key processes responsible for this behavior. Considering that the primary production of most marine basins is N-limited, the excess release of NH4+ at a temperature rise > 6 °C could enhance water column primary productivity, which may lead to the deterioration of the environmental quality. Climate change effects are expected to be accelerated in areas affected by organic pollution.

  7. Concentration Levels and Ecological Risks of Persistent Organic Pollutants in the Surface Sediments of Tianjin Coastal Area, China

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xiaoxia; Chen, Chaoqi; Zhang, Shu; Hou, Zhen; Yang, Junjun

    2013-01-01

    Sediments were sampled from different surface water bodies in Tianjin coastal area, China, and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were measured using GC/MS or GC/ECD. The purposes were to investigate the concentration levels of the POPs and to assess their ecological risks. The results showed that all the 16 priority PAHs were detected from the 10 sediments sampled with the total concentrations of the 16 PAHs ranging from 274.06 μg/kg to 2656.65 μg/kg, while the concentrations of the halogenated POPs were generally low except in the Dagu waste discharging river where the total concentrations of 24 OCPs, 35 PCBs, and 14 PBDEs were 3103.36 μg/kg, 87.31 μg/kg, and 13.88 μg/kg, respectively. In the studied sediments, PAHs exhibited risks to benthonic organisms; particularly the concentrations of naphthalene and/or acenaphthene exceeded their probable effect concentrations in several locations. In comparison, only in the Dagu waste discharging river, OCPs exhibited risks with the concentrations of heptachlor epoxide and lindane exceeding their probable effect concentrations. PCBs and PBDEs posed rare risks in the studied area. PMID:23401668

  8. Concentration levels and ecological risks of persistent organic pollutants in the surface sediments of Tianjin coastal area, China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiaoxia; Chen, Chaoqi; Zhang, Shu; Hou, Zhen; Yang, Junjun

    2013-01-01

    Sediments were sampled from different surface water bodies in Tianjin coastal area, China, and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were measured using GC/MS or GC/ECD. The purposes were to investigate the concentration levels of the POPs and to assess their ecological risks. The results showed that all the 16 priority PAHs were detected from the 10 sediments sampled with the total concentrations of the 16 PAHs ranging from 274.06 μg/kg to 2656.65 μg/kg, while the concentrations of the halogenated POPs were generally low except in the Dagu waste discharging river where the total concentrations of 24 OCPs, 35 PCBs, and 14 PBDEs were 3103.36 μg/kg, 87.31 μg/kg, and 13.88 μg/kg, respectively. In the studied sediments, PAHs exhibited risks to benthonic organisms; particularly the concentrations of naphthalene and/or acenaphthene exceeded their probable effect concentrations in several locations. In comparison, only in the Dagu waste discharging river, OCPs exhibited risks with the concentrations of heptachlor epoxide and lindane exceeding their probable effect concentrations. PCBs and PBDEs posed rare risks in the studied area.

  9. Feasibility study on salting-in of organic pollutants to enhance the effectiveness of ex-situ soil washing

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, S.L.; Dural, N.H.

    1997-06-01

    The feasibility of using a salting-in effect for leaching organic pollutants from subsurface materials was investigated. Two clay samples with contrasting properties and three well-characterized soil samples were spiked with nitrobenzene, a priority contaminant, and experimental desorption equilibrium studies were conducted. By using aqueous solutions of benzoic acid ammonium salt with a concentration range from zero to 72% of saturation, desorption isotherms were generated. The impact of salting-in on the leaching efficiency and the influence of soil properties on the process were examined. Qualitative criteria for feasibility were established. Results showed that the presence of salt caused a substantial increase in the amount of nitrobenzene leached from subsurface materials with low ion-exchange capacity, and the positive trends become more pronounced with increasing levels of salt concentration. In the case of subsurface materials with high ion-exchange capacity, however, solute-solid interaction was the controlling mechanism. Consequently, improvement in leaching efficiency due to increased liquid-side solubility was lessened or diminished. Both physical and chemical characteristics of soil samples had an impact on the levels of leaching achieved. Clay type and its percentage were the dominant factors. They were followed by organic matter content and surface properties. No significant level of salt adsorption on soil was observed.

  10. Organic pollutants removal in wastewater by heterogeneous photocatalytic ozonation.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jiadong; Xie, Yongbing; Cao, Hongbin

    2015-02-01

    Heterogeneous photocatalysis and ozonation are robust advanced oxidation processes for eliminating organic contaminants in wastewater. The combination of these two methods is carried out in order to enhance the overall mineralization of refractory organics. An apparent synergism between heterogeneous photocatalysis and ozonation has been demonstrated in many literatures, which gives rise to an improvement of total organic carbon removal. The present overview dissects the heterogeneous catalysts and the influences of different operational parameters, followed by the discussion on the kinetics, mechanism, economic feasibility and future trends of this integrated technology. The enhanced oxidation rate mainly results from a large amount of hydroxyl radicals generated from a synergistically induced decomposition of dissolved ozone, besides superoxide ion radicals and the photo-induced holes. Six reaction pathways possibly exist for the generation of hydroxyl radicals in the reaction mechanism of heterogeneous photocatalytic ozonation.

  11. Apparatus for treatment of soils contaminated with organic pollutants

    DOEpatents

    Wickramanayake, Godage B.

    1993-01-01

    An apparatus for treating soil contaminated by organic compounds wherein an ozone containing gas is treated with acid to increase the stability of the ozone in the soil environment and the treated ozone applied to the contaminated soil in a manner adapted to decompose the organic compounds; one embodiment of the apparatus comprises a means to supply ozone as a gas-ozone mixture, a stability means to treat ozone obtained from the supply and distribution means to apply the stabilized gas-ozone to soil. The soil may be treated in situ or may be removed for treatment and refilled.

  12. Measurement of Bioaccessibility of Organic Pollutants in Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAllister, Laura; Semple, Kirk T.

    The quantification of organic contaminant bioaccessibility in soils and sediments is essential for the risk assessment and remediation of contaminated land. Within this framework, practitioners require standardised protocols. Cyclodextrins are a group of macrocyclic compounds that can form inclusion complexes with organic xenobiotics. This occurrence can be exploited to measure the labile/rapidly desorbable compound fraction, which correlates with microbial degradation. We present a rapid and easily reproducible HPCD shake extraction technique that has been experimentally demonstrated to directly predict microbial availability and degradation in soil. This method can provide practitioners with both an indication of bioremediation end-points and may be valuable in the risk assessment of contaminated land.

  13. Effects of biochar on the transformation and earthworm bioaccumulation of organic pollutants in soil.

    PubMed

    Gu, Jianqiang; Zhou, Wenqiang; Jiang, Bingqi; Wang, Lianhong; Ma, Yini; Guo, Hongyan; Schulin, Rainer; Ji, Rong; Evangelou, Michael W H

    2016-02-01

    Little is known about the effects of biochar on the fate and behavior of micropollutants in soil, especially in the presence of soil macrofauna. Using a 14C-tracer, we studied the fate of 2,4-dichlorophenol and phenanthrene, after 30 days in soil in the presence of a biochar (0-5%, dry weight) produced from China fir at 400 °C and/or the earthworm Metaphire guillelmi. Application of the biochar significantly reduced the degradation and mineralization of both pollutants and strongly increased the accumulation of their metabolites in soil. The earthworm had no significant effects on the degradation of parent molecules of the pollutants but it significantly reduced the mineralization of the pollutants independent of the presence of the biochar. Although at an application rate of <1% the biochar strongly sorbed both pollutants, it did not significantly decrease the bioaccumulation of free dichlorophenol and phenanthrene and their metabolites by the earthworm. Our results demonstrate the complex effects of biochar on the fate, transformation, and earthworm bioaccumulation of organic pollutants in soil. They show that biochar application may not be an appropriate strategy for treating soil contaminated with hydrophobic organic pollutants and underline the importance of soil-feeding earthworms in risk assessments of biochar effects on soil remediation.

  14. Sophisticated Clean Air Strategies Required to Mitigate Against Particulate Organic Pollution.

    PubMed

    Grigas, T; Ovadnevaite, J; Ceburnis, D; Moran, E; McGovern, F M; Jennings, S G; O'Dowd, C

    2017-03-17

    Since the 1980's, measures mitigating the impact of transboundary air pollution have been implemented successfully as evidenced in the 1980-2014 record of atmospheric sulphur pollution over the NE-Atlantic, a key region for monitoring background northern-hemisphere pollution levels. The record reveals a 72-79% reduction in annual-average airborne sulphur pollution (SO4 and SO2, respectively) over the 35-year period. The NE-Atlantic, as observed from the Mace Head research station on the Irish coast, can be considered clean for 64% of the time during which sulphate dominates PM1 levels, contributing 42% of the mass, and for the remainder of the time, under polluted conditions, a carbonaceous (organic matter and Black Carbon) aerosol prevails, contributing 60% to 90% of the PM1 mass and exhibiting a trend whereby its contribution increases with increasing pollution levels. The carbonaceous aerosol is known to be diverse in source and nature and requires sophisticated air pollution policies underpinned by sophisticated characterisation and source apportionment capabilities to inform selective emissions-reduction strategies. Inauspiciously, however, this carbonaceous concoction is not measured in regulatory Air Quality networks.

  15. Sophisticated Clean Air Strategies Required to Mitigate Against Particulate Organic Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigas, T.; Ovadnevaite, J.; Ceburnis, D.; Moran, E.; McGovern, F. M.; Jennings, S. G.; O'Dowd, C.

    2017-03-01

    Since the 1980’s, measures mitigating the impact of transboundary air pollution have been implemented successfully as evidenced in the 1980-2014 record of atmospheric sulphur pollution over the NE-Atlantic, a key region for monitoring background northern-hemisphere pollution levels. The record reveals a 72-79% reduction in annual-average airborne sulphur pollution (SO4 and SO2, respectively) over the 35-year period. The NE-Atlantic, as observed from the Mace Head research station on the Irish coast, can be considered clean for 64% of the time during which sulphate dominates PM1 levels, contributing 42% of the mass, and for the remainder of the time, under polluted conditions, a carbonaceous (organic matter and Black Carbon) aerosol prevails, contributing 60% to 90% of the PM1 mass and exhibiting a trend whereby its contribution increases with increasing pollution levels. The carbonaceous aerosol is known to be diverse in source and nature and requires sophisticated air pollution policies underpinned by sophisticated characterisation and source apportionment capabilities to inform selective emissions-reduction strategies. Inauspiciously, however, this carbonaceous concoction is not measured in regulatory Air Quality networks.

  16. Sophisticated Clean Air Strategies Required to Mitigate Against Particulate Organic Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Grigas, T.; Ovadnevaite, J.; Ceburnis, D.; Moran, E.; McGovern, F. M.; Jennings, S. G.; O’Dowd, C.

    2017-01-01

    Since the 1980’s, measures mitigating the impact of transboundary air pollution have been implemented successfully as evidenced in the 1980–2014 record of atmospheric sulphur pollution over the NE-Atlantic, a key region for monitoring background northern-hemisphere pollution levels. The record reveals a 72–79% reduction in annual-average airborne sulphur pollution (SO4 and SO2, respectively) over the 35-year period. The NE-Atlantic, as observed from the Mace Head research station on the Irish coast, can be considered clean for 64% of the time during which sulphate dominates PM1 levels, contributing 42% of the mass, and for the remainder of the time, under polluted conditions, a carbonaceous (organic matter and Black Carbon) aerosol prevails, contributing 60% to 90% of the PM1 mass and exhibiting a trend whereby its contribution increases with increasing pollution levels. The carbonaceous aerosol is known to be diverse in source and nature and requires sophisticated air pollution policies underpinned by sophisticated characterisation and source apportionment capabilities to inform selective emissions-reduction strategies. Inauspiciously, however, this carbonaceous concoction is not measured in regulatory Air Quality networks. PMID:28303958

  17. Solid waste containing persistent organic pollutants in Serbia: From precautionary measures to the final treatment (case study).

    PubMed

    Stevanovic-Carapina, Hristina; Milic, Jelena; Curcic, Marijana; Randjelovic, Jasminka; Krinulovic, Katarina; Jovovic, Aleksandar; Brnjas, Zvonko

    2016-07-01

    Sustainable solid waste management needs more dedicated attention in respect of environmental and human health protection. Solid waste containing persistent organic pollutants is of special concern, since persistent organic pollutants are persistent, toxic and of high risk to human health and the environment. The objective of this investigation was to identify critical points in the Serbian system of solid waste and persistent organic pollutants management, to assure the life cycle management of persistent organic pollutants and products containing these chemicals, including prevention and final destruction. Data were collected from the Serbian competent authorities, and led us to identify preventive actions for solid waste management that should reduce or minimise release of persistent organic pollutants into the environment, and to propose actions necessary for persistent organic pollutants solid waste. The adverse impact of persistent organic pollutants is multidimensional. Owing to the lack of treatment or disposal plants for hazardous waste in Serbia, the only option at the moment to manage persistent organic pollutants waste is to keep it in temporary storage and when conditions are created (primarily financial), such waste should be exported for destruction in hazardous waste incinerators. Meanwhile, it needs to be assured that any persistent organic pollutants management activity does not negatively impact recycling flows or disturb progress towards a more circular economy in Serbia. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Evaluation of bioremediation potential of three benthic annelids in organically polluted marine sediment.

    PubMed

    Ito, Mana; Ito, Katsutoshi; Ohta, Kohei; Hano, Takeshi; Onduka, Toshimitsu; Mochida, Kazuhiko; Fujii, Kazunori

    2016-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the possible remedial effects of three marine benthic annelids on organically polluted sediments from the waters of Hatsukaichi Marina, Hiroshima, Japan. Two polychaetes, Perinereis nuntia and Capitella cf. teleta, and an oligochaete, Thalassodrilides sp., were incubated in sediments for 50 days. Their effects on physicochemical properties such as organic matter (loss on ignition), redox potential (Eh), acid volatile sulfides (AVS), and degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were assessed. The polychaetes P. nuntia and C. cf. teleta significantly increased Eh level and decreased AVS level compared with the oligochaete Thalassodrilides sp. and control (without benthic organisms). Total PAH concentration significantly decreased from the initial level with all three groups; Thalassodrilides sp. had a marked ability to reduce PAHs in sediment. These results indicate that benthic organisms have species-specific remediation properties and ecological functions in organically polluted sediments.

  19. Oxidative metabolism of chemical pollutants in marine organisms: molecular and biochemical biomarkers in environmental toxicology.

    PubMed

    Benedetti, Maura; Giuliani, Maria Elisa; Regoli, Francesco

    2015-03-01

    Oxidative stress biomarkers are widely used in marine ecotoxicology. Environmental pollutants enhance intracellular formation of oxyradicals through several mechanisms, but complex oxidative interactions occur in response to chemical mixtures. Metabolism of individual classes of pollutants can be influenced by a sophisticated network of prooxidant relationships, reciprocal and cascade effects, changes of redox-sensitive signaling proteins, and transcription factors. Chemically mediated pathways can affect antioxidant responses at different levels, including pretranscriptional, transcriptional, protein, and catalytic functions; such mechanisms remain largely unexplored in marine organisms. Molecular responses of antioxidants are frequently not paralleled by expected biochemical changes or cellular effects, and caution is needed when interpreting the effects of environmental pollutants. Results on antioxidant variations can be influenced by mRNA stability and protein turnover, different timing for transcriptional and translational mechanisms, metabolic capability of tissues, posttranscriptional modifications of proteins, biphasic responses of antioxidant enzymes, and adaptation mechanisms to chronic pollution.

  20. Biodegradability of anthropogenic organic matter in polluted rivers using fluorescence, UV, and BDOC measurements.

    PubMed

    Knapik, Heloise G; Fernandes, Cristovão V S; de Azevedo, Julio Cesar R; dos Santos, Mauricius M; Dall'Agnol, Patrícia; Fontane, Darrell G

    2015-03-01

    The presence of highly urbanized and polluted areas affects both the quantity and the composition of organic matter in rivers through effluent loads and urban runoff discharges in watersheds. In such context, this paper aims to evaluate the biodegradability of anthropogenic organic matter in polluted rivers. Stream water samples were collected in three different sites considering a non-impacted area, a highly urbanized site located after a sewage treatment plant, and a site downstream of the watershed. For the biodegradation experiment, two adaptations of biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC) essay were evaluated to assess the decomposition rates between 10 days, with added nutrients, in the dark at 20 °C. The organic matter biodegradation was monitored by distinct parameters such as dissolved organic carbon (DOC), total organic carbon (TOC), particulate organic carbon (POC), fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM), and UV absorbance measurements. The measured BDOC ranged from 0.8 mg/L at site IG01 (low anthropogenic occupation) to 4.2 mg/L at site IG02 (high impacted area), with averaged percentage of initial DOC ranging from 20 to 56 %, while an average of 28 % up to 95 % of POC can be considered as biodegradable. This pattern of biodegradation of fluorescent components was also observed through a decrease of tryptophan-like and tyrosine-like fluorescence peak intensity during the incubation time. The results also showed a higher decrease of humic-like fluorescence peak intensity at polluted sites (IG02 and IG05). Our experimental approach and monitoring strategy suggests that the evaluation of the organic matter biodegradability is essential to understand the fate and transformation mechanism of organic matter in urbanized and polluted rivers. And, considering a water quality planning and management perspective, this approach is important to identify the presence and location of organic compounds potentially important for dissolved oxygen

  1. New Photocatalysis for Effective Degradation of Organic Pollutants in Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarei Chaleshtori, M.; Saupe, G. B.; Masoud, S.

    2009-12-01

    The presence of harmful compounds in water supplies and in the discharge of wastewater from chemical industries, power plants, and agricultural sources is a topic of global concern. The processes and technologies available at the present time for the treatment of polluted water are varied that include traditional water treatment processes such as biological, thermal and chemical treatment. All these water treatment processes, have limitations of their own and none is cost effective. Advanced oxidation processes have been proposed as an alternative for the treatment of this kind of wastewater. Heterogeneous photocatalysis has recently emerged as an efficient method for purifying water. TiO2 has generally been demonstrated to be the most active semiconductor material for decontamination water. One significant factor is the cost of separation TiO2, which is generally a powder having a very small particle size from the water after treatment by either sedimentation or ultrafiltration. The new photocatalyst, HTiNbO5, has been tested to determine whether its photocatalytic efficiency is good enough for use in photocatalytic water purification since it has high surface area and relatively large particle size. The larger particle sizes of the porous materials facilitate catalyst removal from a solution, after purification has taken place. It can be separated from water easily than TiO2, a significant technical improvement that might eliminate the tedious final filtration necessary with a slurry. These materials are characterized and tested as water decontamination photocatalysts. The new catalyst exhibited excellent catalytic activity, but with a strong pH dependence on the photo efficiency. These results suggest that elimination of the ion exchange character of the catalyst may greatly improve its performance at various pHs. This new research proposes to study the effects of a topotactic dehydration reaction on these new porous material catalysts.

  2. Toxicity of natural mixtures of organic pollutants in temperate and polar marine phytoplankton.

    PubMed

    Echeveste, Pedro; Galbán-Malagón, Cristóbal; Dachs, Jordi; Berrojalbiz, Naiara; Agustí, Susana

    2016-11-15

    Semivolatile and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) undergo atmospheric transport before being deposited to the oceans, where they partition to phytoplankton organic matter. The goal of this study was to determine the toxicity of naturally occurring complex mixtures of organic pollutants to temperate and polar phytoplankton communities from the Mediterranean Sea, the North East (NE) Atlantic, and Southern Oceans. The cell abundance of the different phytoplankton groups, chlorophyll a concentrations, viability of the cells, and growth and decay constants were monitored in response to addition of a range of concentrations of mixtures of organic pollutants obtained from seawater extracts. Almost all of the phytoplankton groups were significantly affected by the complex mixtures of non-polar and polar organic pollutants, with toxicity being greater for these mixtures than for single POPs or simple POP mixtures. Cocktails' toxicity arose at concentrations as low as tenfold the field oceanic levels, probably due to a higher chemical activity of the mixture than of simple POPs mixtures. Overall, smaller cells were the most affected, although Mediterranean picophytoplankton was significantly more tolerant to non-polar POPs than picophytoplankton from the Atlantic Ocean or the Bellingshausen Sea microphytoplankton.

  3. Photolytic AND Catalytic Destruction of Organic Waste Water Pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torosyan, V. F.; Torosyan, E. S.; Kryuchkova, S. O.; Gromov, V. E.

    2017-01-01

    The system: water supply source - potable and industrial water - wastewater - sewage treatment - water supply source is necessary for water supply and efficient utilization of water resources. Up-to-date technologies of waste water biological treatment require for special microorganisms, which are technologically complex and expensive but unable to solve all the problems. Application of photolytic and catalytically-oxidizing destruction is quite promising. However, the most reagents are strong oxidizers in catalytic oxidation of organic substances and can initiate toxic substance generation. Methodic and scientific approaches to assess bread making industry influence on the environment have been developed in this paper in order to support forecasting and taking technological decisions concerning reduction of this influence. Destructive methods have been tested: ultra violet irradiation and catalytic oxidation for extraction of organic compounds from waste water by natural reagents.

  4. Bioremediation of polluted soil through the combined application of plants, earthworms and organic matter.

    PubMed

    Macci, Cristina; Doni, Serena; Peruzzi, Eleonora; Ceccanti, Brunello; Masciandaro, Grazia

    2012-10-26

    Two plant species (Paulownia tomentosa and Cytisus scoparius), earthworms (Eisenia fetida), and organic matter (horse manure) were used as an ecological approach to bioremediate a soil historically contaminated by heavy metals and hydrocarbons. The experiment was carried out for six months at a mesoscale level using pots containing 90 kg of polluted soil. Three different treatments were performed for each plant: (i) untreated planted soil as a control (C); (ii) planted soil + horse manure (20:1 w/w) (M); (iii) planted soil + horse manure + 15 earthworms (ME). Both the plant species were able to grow in the polluted soil and to improve the soil's bio-chemical conditions, especially when organic matter and earthworms were applied. By comparing the two plant species, few significant differences were observed in the soil characteristics; Cytisus scoparius improved soil nutrient content more than Paulownia tomentosa, which instead stimulated more soil microbial metabolism. Regarding the pollutants, Paulownia tomentosa was more efficient in reducing the heavy metal (Pb, Cr, Cd, Zn, Cu, Ni) content, while earthworms were particularly able to stimulate the processes involved in the decontamination of organic pollutants (hydrocarbons). This ecological approach, validated at a mesoscale level, has recently been transferred to a real scale situation to carry out the bioremediation of polluted soil in San Giuliano Terme Municipality (Pisa, Italy).

  5. Assessment of plant-driven removal of emerging organic pollutants by duckweed.

    PubMed

    Reinhold, Dawn; Vishwanathan, Saritha; Park, Jung Jae; Oh, David; Michael Saunders, F

    2010-08-01

    Constructed treatment wetlands have the potential to reclaim wastewaters through removal of trace concentrations of emerging organic pollutants, including pharmaceuticals, personal care products, and pesticides. Flask-scale assessments incorporating active and inactivated duckweed were used to screen for plant-associated removal of emerging organic pollutants in aquatic plant systems. Removals of four of eight pollutants, specifically atrazine, meta-N,N-diethyl toluamide (DEET), picloram, and clofibric acid, were negligible in all experimental systems, while duckweed actively increased aqueous depletion of fluoxetine, ibuprofen, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, and triclosan. Active plant processes affecting depletion of experimental pollutants included enhancement of microbial degradation of ibuprofen, uptake of fluoxetine, and uptake of degradation products of triclosan and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. Passive plant processes, particularly sorption, also contributed to aqueous depletion of fluoxetine and triclosan. Overall, studies demonstrated that aquatic plants contribute directly and indirectly to the aqueous depletion of emerging organic pollutants in wetland systems through both active and passive processes. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Marine molluscs in environmental monitoring. III. Trace metals and organic pollutants in animal tissue and sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldstein, Tamar; Kashman, Yoel; Abelson, Avigdor; Fishelson, Lev; Mokady, Ofer; Bresler, Vladimir; Erel, Yigal

    2003-10-01

    Concentrations of trace elements and organic pollutants were determined in marine sediments and molluscs from the Mediterranean and Red Sea coasts of Israel. Two bivalve species (Donax trunculus, Pteria aegyptia), two gastropod species (Patella caerulea, Cellana rota) and sediments were sampled at polluted and relatively clean, reference, sites. Along the Mediterranean coast of Israel, sediments and molluscs from Haifa Bay stations were enriched with both organic and trace element contaminants. In the Red Sea, differences between the polluted and reference sites were less pronounced. Bio-concentration factors indicate a significant concentration of Zn, As, Cd, Sn and Pb in animal tissue relative to the concentrations of these elements in the sediments. In contrast, Ce, La and U were not concentrated in molluscs. The trace element results indicate a saturation of the detoxification mechanisms in molluscs from polluted sites. The concentrations of organic pollutants at the same sites are at the lower range of values recorded in other studies. However, synergistic effects between these compounds and between them and metals can lead to acute toxicity.

  7. Can predatory bird feathers be used as a non-destructive biomonitoring tool of organic pollutants?

    PubMed Central

    Jaspers, Veerle L.B; Voorspoels, Stefan; Covaci, Adrian; Eens, Marcel

    2006-01-01

    The monitoring of different types of pollutants that are released into the environment and that present risks for both humans and wildlife has become increasingly important. In this study, we examined whether feathers of predatory birds can be used as a non-destructive biomonitor of organic pollutants. We demonstrate that polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are measurable in one single tail feather of common buzzards (Buteo buteo) and that levels in this feather and internal tissues are significantly related to each other (0.35organic pollutants, although further validation may be necessary. PMID:17148383

  8. Pollution Prevention Plan for the Y-12 Analytical Chemistry Organization Off-Site Union Valley Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, J. G.

    2010-03-01

    The Y-12 Analytical Chemistry Organization (ACO) Off-Site Union Valley Facility (Union Valley Facility) is managed by Babcock and Wilcox Technical Services Y-12, L.L.C. (B and W Y-12) through the Y-12 National Security Complex organization. Accordingly, the Y-12 Pollution Prevention Program encompasses the operations conducted at the Union Valley Facility. The Y-12 Program is designed to fully comply with state, federal and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requirements concerning waste minimization/pollution prevention as documented in the Y-12 Pollution Prevention Program Plan. The Program is formulated to reduce the generation and toxicity of all Y-12 wastes in all media, including those wastes generated by the Union Valley Facility operations. All regulatory and DOE requirements are met by the Y-12 Program Plan.

  9. Gas chromatography - mass spectrometric analysis of four polluted river waters for phenolic and organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Nomani, A A; Ajmal, M; Ahmad, S

    1996-03-01

    Forty-four water samples from eleven sampling points were collected from four highly polluted rivers of northern India once in each four seasons during 1988-1989. The samples were analyzed for phenol, chlorophenols, a few bromophenols and other organics. Phenol was found to be absent in all the analyzed samples. Trichlorophenol and pentachlorophenol were frequently detected. Comparatively, the Ganges river was most polluted at Kannauj followed by Narora, Kachala and Fatehgarh. Maximum phenols were found at Mathura downstream of the Yamuna river followed by Mathura upstream, Okhla, ITO and none at Wazirabad. No phenols were detected in the water of the rivers Hindon and Kali at Ghaziabad and Aligarh, respectively. Some other organic pollutants were also identified by their mass spectra and supported by data from the computerized library, but, not quantified.

  10. Influence of organic matters on AsIII oxidation by the microflora of polluted soils.

    PubMed

    Lescure, T; Moreau, J; Charles, C; Ben Ali Saanda, T; Thouin, H; Pillas, N; Bauda, P; Lamy, I; Battaglia-Brunet, F

    2016-06-01

    The global AsIII-oxidizing activity of microorganisms in eight surface soils from polluted sites was quantified with and without addition of organic substrates. The organic substances provided differed by their nature: either yeast extract, commonly used in microbiological culture media, or a synthetic mixture of defined organic matters (SMOM) presenting some common features with natural soil organic matter. Correlations were sought between soil characteristics and both the AsIII-oxidizing rate constants and their evolution in accordance with inputs of organic substrates. In the absence of added substrate, the global AsIII oxidation rate constant correlated positively with the concentration of intrinsic organic matter in the soil, suggesting that AsIII-oxidizing activity was limited by organic substrate availability in nutrient-poor soils. This limitation was, however, removed by 0.08 g/L of added organic carbon. In most conditions, the AsIII oxidation rate constant decreased as organic carbon input increased from 0.08 to 0.4 g/L. Incubations of polluted soils in aerobic conditions, amended or not with SMOM, resulted in short-term As mobilization in the presence of SMOM and active microorganisms. In contrast, microbial AsIII oxidation seemed to stabilize As when no organic substrate was added. Results suggest that microbial speciation of arsenic driven by nature and concentration of organic matter exerts a major influence on the fate of this toxic element in surface soils.

  11. Dynamics of emerging organic pollutants from a municipal landfill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Guern, Cécile; Béchet, Béatrice; Lépinay, Alexandra; Conil, Pierre

    2017-04-01

    In large cities, municipal landfills may have received waste coming from hospitals, but also green waste. The corresponding anthroposol might thus be a source of organic emerging substances such as pharmaceutical or phytosanitary substances. The occurrence and fate of organic emerging substances from such a former landfill in urban areas has been studied as part of a research program dealing with the observation and the monitoring of the environment. Of the 261 substances sought (30 pharmaceutical molecules, 223 phytosanitary products and 8 other emerging substances), 11 pharmaceutical molecules in particular have been quantified in the leachates, 2 endocrine disruptors (bisphenol A and triclosan) and 10 phytosanitary substances. Most of these substances are found also in groundwater immediately downstream of the site (including carbamazepine) at concentrations ranging between 0.1 µg/l and 10 µg/l. The number of detected substances appears much smaller a few hundred meters far from the landfill (bisphenol A and diclofenac in particularly, with concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 1 µg/l and about 0.1 µg/l respectively). Natural attenuation occurs during transfer in the plume, as observed for PAHs or metals. Several mechanisms may explain the natural attenuation of the substances.

  12. Multiplex screening of persistent organic pollutants in fish using spectrally encoded microspheres

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are food contaminants of global public health concern and known to be carcinogenic and endocrine disruptors. Their monitoring is essential and an easy-to-use, rapid and affordable multi-analyte screening method with simplified sample preparation can be a valuable...

  13. TREATMENT OF URBAN STORMWATER FOR DISSOLVED POLLUTANTS: A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THREE NATURAL ORGANIC MEDIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The feasibility of using hard and soft wood tree mulch and processed jute fiber, as filter media, for treating mixtures of dissolved pollutants (toxic organic compounds and heavy metals) in urban stormwater (SW) runoff was evaluated. Copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr+6), l...

  14. TREATMENT OF URBAN STORMWATER FOR DISSOLVED POLLUTANTS: A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THREE NATURAL ORGANIC MEDIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The feasibility of using hard and soft wood tree mulch and processed jute fiber, as filter media, for treating mixtures of dissolved pollutants (toxic organic compounds and heavy metals) in urban stormwater (SW) runoff was evaluated. Copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr+6), l...

  15. Array-Based Detection of Persistent Organic Pollutants via Cyclodextrin Promoted Energy Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Serio, Nicole; Moyano, Daniel F.; Rotello, Vincent M.; Levine, Mindy

    2015-01-01

    We report herein the selective array-based detection of 30 persistent organic pollutants via cyclodextrin-promoted energy transfer. The use of three fluorophores enabled the development of an array that classified 30 analytes with 100% accuracy and identified unknown analytes with 96% accuracy, as well as identifying 92% of analytes in urine. PMID:26096542

  16. Emissions of unintentional persistent organic pollutants from open burning of municipal solid waste from developing countries

    EPA Science Inventory

    Open burning of waste is the most significant source of polychlorinated dibenzo-para-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF) in many national inventories prepared pursuant to the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs). This is particularly true for developing ...

  17. ORGANIC POLLUTANT DEPOSITION TO THE SIERRA NEVADA (CALIFORNIA, USA) SNOWPACK AND ASSOCIATED LAKE AND STREAM ECOSYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    High elevation ecosystems in the western USA and Canada are receiving deposition of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) that presumably originate in the USA as well as outside its borders. In April 1992 we obtained paired snowpack samples from each of two watersheds located in t...

  18. UTILITY OF SYNTHETIC ZEOLITES IN REMOVAL OF INORGANIC AND ORGANIC WATER POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Zeolites are well known for their ion exchange and adsorption properties. Different inorganic and organic pollutants have been removed from water at room temperature using various zeolites. Synthetic zeolites like ZSM-5, Ferrierite, Beta and Faujasite Y have been used to remove i...

  19. Emissions of unintentional persistent organic pollutants from open burning of municipal solid waste from developing countries

    EPA Science Inventory

    Open burning of waste is the most significant source of polychlorinated dibenzo-para-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF) in many national inventories prepared pursuant to the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs). This is particularly true for developing ...

  20. Use of Physicochemical Parameters to Assess the Environmental Fate of Organic Pollutants: The Fugacity Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domenech, Xavier; Ayllon, Jose Antonio; Peral, Jose

    2006-01-01

    The environmental fate and behavior of different organic pollutants based on the qualitative analysis of thermodynamic and kinetic data is presented. The Fugacity model allows the use of different partition constants in an easy way, to determine the distribution of chemical between different phases in equilibrium of an environmental system.

  1. Effects of hydrologic conditions on biogeochemical processes and organic pollutant degradation in salt marsh sediments

    Treesearch

    W. James Catallo

    2000-01-01

    This work addressed the influence of tidal vs. static hydrologic conditions on biogeochemical processes and the transformation of pollutant organic chemicals (eight representative N-, O-, and S-heterocycles (NOSHs) from coal chemicals, crude oils, and pyrogenic mixtures) in salt marsh sediments. The goals were to: (1) determine the effects of static (flooded, drained)...

  2. UTILITY OF SYNTHETIC ZEOLITES IN REMOVAL OF INORGANIC AND ORGANIC WATER POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Zeolites are well known for their ion exchange and adsorption properties. Different inorganic and organic pollutants have been removed from water at room temperature using various zeolites. Synthetic zeolites like ZSM-5, Ferrierite, Beta and Faujasite Y have been used to remove i...

  3. Use of Physicochemical Parameters to Assess the Environmental Fate of Organic Pollutants: The Fugacity Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domenech, Xavier; Ayllon, Jose Antonio; Peral, Jose

    2006-01-01

    The environmental fate and behavior of different organic pollutants based on the qualitative analysis of thermodynamic and kinetic data is presented. The Fugacity model allows the use of different partition constants in an easy way, to determine the distribution of chemical between different phases in equilibrium of an environmental system.

  4. ORGANIC POLLUTANT DEPOSITION TO THE SIERRA NEVADA (CALIFORNIA, USA) SNOWPACK AND ASSOCIATED LAKE AND STREAM ECOSYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    High elevation ecosystems in the western USA and Canada are receiving deposition of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) that presumably originate in the USA as well as outside its borders. In April 1992 we obtained paired snowpack samples from each of two watersheds located in t...

  5. Comparative evaluation of xenobiotics in human and dietary milk: persistent organic pollutants and mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    Tsakiris, I N; Kokkinakis, E; Dumanov, J M; Tzatzarakis, M N; Flouris, A D; Vlachou, M; Tsatsakis, A M

    2013-11-03

    Publications produced over the past 20 years regarding the concentration of xenobiotics in human and dietary milk were evaluated, focusing primarily on persistent organic pollutants (e.g. polychlorinated biphenyls, flame retardants), pesticides (e.g organochlorine) and mycotoxins. In general, countries of low industrialization rate present low levels of dietary milk contamination with dioxins compared to those with high rate of industrialization. According to published data, the most common persistent organic pollutants detected in breast and dietary milk are dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane compounds, hexachlorocyclohexane, and hexachlorobenzene. Even though the potential risks of persistent organic pollutants in human milk have been acknowledged, the beneficial effect of breastfeeding as the optimal food source for newborn babies should not be disregarded. Especially when sharing information with the general public, it should be made clear that the presence of dioxins and persistent organic pollutants in human milk is not an indication for avoiding breastfeeding. The implications of xenobiotics in human and dietary milk is a matter of growing importance and warrants future work given its important health effects.

  6. Field monitoring of toxic organic pollution in the sediments of Pearl River estuary and its tributaries.

    PubMed

    Fu, J; Wang, Z; Mai, B; Kang, Y

    2001-01-01

    Field monitoring of the toxic organic compounds (PCBs, PAHs, organochlorine pesticides) in the top sediments of Pearl River Estuary and its up-streams were made. It was found that the highest concentrations of these toxic organic compounds occurred in the sediment sampled at Macau inner harbor (ZB013), which is a sink of suspended fine particles transported from the upstream waterways. Because of the affinity of the hydrophobic organic compounds (PAHs, PCBs) for the solid phase, these fine particle depositions led to accumulation of these compounds in the sediment of Macau. The atmospheric dry deposition may be another source of the toxic organic pollution in the sediment.

  7. Relationship between bioenergetics responses and organic pollutants in the giant mussel, Choromytilus chorus (Mollusca: Mytilidae).

    PubMed

    Toro, Beatriz; Navarro, Jorge M; Palma-Fleming, Hernán

    2003-05-08

    Samples of Choromytilus chorus (giant mussel) were collected at three sampling stations exposed to different degrees of pollution along the south-central portion of the Chilean coast in spring 1998 and summer 1999. Measurements were carried out on clearance rate, absorption efficiency, and oxygen consumption of the mussels under controlled laboratory conditions, and related to analytical data on organic pollutants in their tissues. Scope for growth (SFG) was employed as a physiological index to evaluate stress produced by pollutants existing at each sampling site. Individuals from San Vicente bay (highly polluted) showed negative SFG values in spring (-4.6 J/h per g) and summer (-3.5 J/h per g). These results indicated severe stress related to the accumulation of toxic compounds in their tissues. Specimens from Corral bay (medium level of pollution) gave a SFG of 15.5 J/h per g in spring and 6.5 J/h per g in summer, while those from Yaldad bay (low pollution) presented an inverse situation was observed with SFG values of 6.2 J/h per g in spring which was lower than the summer value of 25.7 J/h per g. There was a significant negative correlation between the SFG of the different populations of C. chorus and the concentrations of organochlorines (OChs) and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in their tissues.

  8. Resident fishes display elevated organic pollutants in salmon spawning streams of the great lakes.

    PubMed

    Janetski, David J; Chaloner, Dominic T; Moerke, Ashley H; Rediske, Richard R; O'Keefe, James P; Lamberti, Gary A

    2012-08-07

    Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) can transport bioaccumulated organic pollutants to stream ecosystems where they spawn and die. We quantified PCBs, DDE, and PBDEs in resident fishes from 13 Great Lakes tributaries to assess biotransport of pollutants associated with introduced Pacific salmon. Resident fishes sampled from salmon spawning reaches had higher mean pollutant concentrations than those from upstream reaches lacking salmon (93.5 and 4.1 μg x kg(-1) [PCB], 24.0 and 3.1 μg x kg(-1) [DDE], 8.5 and 1.0 μg x kg(-1) [PBDE], respectively), but differences varied substantially among lake basins. In Lake Michigan tributaries, PCB concentrations in resident fishes from salmon reaches were over four times higher than those from salmon reaches in Lake Huron and over 30 times higher than those from Lake Superior. Moreover, resident fish pollutant concentrations were better explained by pollutant inputs from salmon (μg x m(-2); R(2) = 0.76 [PCB], 0.64 [DDE], 0.64 [PBDE]) than by land development/agriculture, watershed area, resident fish species, body length, or lipid content. These results suggest that pollutant dispersal to stream ecosystems via biotransport is an often overlooked consequence of salmon stocking and historical food web contamination in the Great Lakes. Our findings have implications for Great Lakes management, including dam removal and wildlife conservation.

  9. Natural attenuation of contaminated marine sediments from an old floating dock - Part I: Spatial and temporal changes of organic and inorganic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ya-Fen; Tam, Nora Fung-Yee

    2012-03-15

    Temporal and spatial changes of mixed pollutants, including eight heavy metals, 16 US EPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and tributyltin (TBT) in surface marine sediments were examined for a one-year period after the removal of an old floating dock in Hong Kong SAR, South China. The sediments from the impacted stations close to the dock were highly polluted with zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu), and were moderately polluted with TBT and total PAHs, based on their effects range-low (ERL) guideline values, while those collected in the reference stations away from the dock were lower than the ERL. Strong, positive correlations were found between the organic pollutants and heavy metals only in the impacted stations, suggesting that the old floating dock was a significant source of mixed pollutants. There was no significant decline in the levels of total PAHs, TBT and heavy metals and "hot spots" of contamination were still detected a year after the removal of the dock. However, the profiles of 16 PAHs in the impacted stations changed 6 months after the removal of the dock, with decreases of certain low-molecular-weight PAHs, especially fluorene, as a sign of biodegradation in situ. Further, principal component analysis (PCA) based on an integrated dataset of the pollutants together with general sediment properties showed that the temporal changes of the biodegradable low-molecular-weight PAHs were highly associated with the pH value and total Kjeldahl nitrogen, while heavy metals were independent of time and other sediment properties during natural attenuation in the dock area. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Long-term monitoring of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) at the Norwegian Troll station in Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallenborn, R.; Breivik, K.; Eckhardt, S.; Lunder, C. R.; Manø, S.; Schlabach, M.; Stohl, A.

    2013-07-01

    A first long-term monitoring of selected persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in Antarctic air has been conducted at the Norwegian research station Troll (Dronning Maud Land). As target contaminants 32 PCB congeners, α- and γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), trans- and cis-chlordane, trans- and cis-nonachlor, p,p'- and o,p-DDT, DDD, DDE as well as hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were selected. The monitoring program with weekly samples taken during the period 2007-2010 was coordinated with the parallel program at the Norwegian Arctic monitoring site (Zeppelin mountain, Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard) in terms of priority compounds, sampling schedule as well as analytical methods. The POP concentration levels found in Antarctica were considerably lower than Arctic atmospheric background concentrations. Similar to observations for Arctic samples, HCB is the predominant POP compound, with levels of around 22 pg m-3 throughout the entire monitoring period. In general, the following concentration distribution was found for the Troll samples analyzed: HCB > Sum HCH > Sum PCB > Sum DDT > Sum chlordanes. Atmospheric long-range transport was identified as a major contamination source for POPs in Antarctic environments. Several long-range transport events with elevated levels of pesticides and/or compounds with industrial sources were identified based on retroplume calculations with a Lagrangian particle dispersion model (FLEXPART).

  11. Persistent Organic Pollutants in gull eggs of two species (Larus michahellis and Larus audouinii) from the Ebro delta Natural Park.

    PubMed

    Morales, Laura; Martrat, Maria Generosa; Olmos, Jorge; Parera, Jordi; Vicente, Joana; Bertolero, Albert; Abalos, Manuela; Lacorte, Silvia; Santos, Francisco Javier; Abad, Esteban

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the impact of priority and emerging Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in gull eggs from two species, the scavenger Larus michahellis and the protected species, Larus audouinii. These two species share habitat in the Natural Park of the Ebro delta (Catalonia, Spain). Compounds studied are included or under consideration in the Stockholm Convention and comprise polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorinated compounds (OCs), perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) and short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs). Four methods based in selective extraction and gas or liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry were used and quality parameters are provided. OC pesticides and marker PCBs were the most abundant chemical families detected in eggs from the two species, followed by PFCs, PBDEs (especially BDE 209) and SCCPs. Dioxin-like PCBs and PCDD/Fs were also detected in all samples. The overall widespread presence of POPs is discussed in terms of feeding habits, bird ecology and anthropogenic pressures in the protected Ebro delta breeding area. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Preliminary studies using hybrid mediated electrochemical oxidation (HMEO) for the removal of persistent organic pollutants (POPs).

    PubMed

    Chung, S J; Balaji, S; Matheswaran, M; Ramesh, T; Moon, I S

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the hybrid mediated electrochemical oxidation (HMEO) technology, which is a newly developed non thermal electrochemical oxidation process for organic destruction. A combination of ozone and ultrasonication processes to the mediated electrochemical oxidation (MEO) process is termed as hybrid mediated electrochemical oxidation. The electrochemical cell was developed in this laboratory. In the present study, several organic compounds, such as phenol, benzoquinone and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), were chosen as the model organic pollutants to be destructed by the hybrid process. The organic destruction was monitored based on the CO2 generation and total organic carbon (TOC) reduction. The HMEO process was found to be extremely effective in the destruction of all the target organics chosen in this study. The information obtained from this study will provide an insight in adopting this technique for dealing with more recalcitrant organics (POPs).

  13. The origin of organic pollutants from the combustion of alternative fuels: Phase 5/6 report

    SciTech Connect

    Sidhu, S.; Graham, J.; Taylor, P.; Dellinger, B.

    1998-05-01

    As part of the US Department of Energy National Renewable Energy Laboratory program on alternative automotive fuels, the subcontractor has been conducting studies on the origin and fate of organic pollutants from the combustion of alternative fuels. Laboratory experiments were conducted simulating cold start of four alterative fuels (compressed natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, methanol-gasoline mix, and ethanol-gasoline mix) using a commercial three-way catalyst under fuel-lean conditions. This report summarizes the results of these experiments. It appears that temperature of the catalyst is a more important parameter for fuel conversion and pollutant formation than oxygen concentration or fuel composition.

  14. Frequency and distribution of natural and pollutant organic sea slicks. Memorandum report

    SciTech Connect

    Garrett, W.D.

    1983-04-29

    Organic sea surface films, both natural and pollutant, modify numerous physical, chemical and biological processes at the air-sea interface. Physical and hydrodynamic effects caused by such surface films influence the signals received by both active and passive remote sensing systems. Thus, knowledge of the frequency and distribution of organic slicks is essential to identify ocean regions where oil and natural organic films are prevalent, especially when remotely sensed data from such areas are to be interpreted. The most influential factors which influence the existence and persistence of natural films at sea include wind velocity and oceanic primary productivity. Global charts of these parameters are presented, and the seasonal variabilities are discussed. The distribution of pollutant petroleum slicks is based on results of a United Nations marine pollution monitoring project, and figures of both global and regional oil spill data are included. In general, natural slicks are mostly likely in biologically rich coastal areas under relatively calm conditions, although visible slicks can occur at any oceanic location if winds are sufficiently calm. Petroleum slicks are most prevalent in regions affected by significant oil tanker and shipping activity. High wind-wave dynamics reduce the probability of the existence of both natural and pollutant films, and such conditions predominate over strong source strengths of the film-forming material in determining the likelihood of slick formation and persistence.

  15. Occurrence, composition and ecological restoration of organic pollutants in water environment of South Canal, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y. Z.; Lin, C.; Zhou, X. S.; Zhang, Y.; Han, C. G.

    2017-08-01

    Ecological restoration of polluted river water was carried out in South Canal by adding microbial water purifying agents and biological compound enzymes. The objective of present study was to investigate the ecological restoration effect of organic pollutants by this efficient immobilized microbial technologies, analysis the occurrence and composition of organic pollutants including fifteen persistent organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), seventeen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and eighteen organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) both in natural water environment and ecological restoration area of South Canal, China. Results showed that the total concentrations of OCPs ranged from 1.11 to 1.78 ng·L-1, PAHs from 52.76 to 60.28 ng·L-1, and OPPs from 6.51 to 17.50 ng·L-1. Microbial water purifying agents and biological compound enzymes essentially had no effects on biological degradation of OCPs and PAHs in the river, but could remove OPPs with degradation rates ranging from 19.6% to 62.8% (35.2% in average). Degradation mechanisms of microbial water purifying agents and biological compound enzymes on OCPs, PAHs and OPPs remained to be further studied. This technology has a certain value in practical ecological restoration of organic pollutants in rivers and lakes.

  16. Concentrations and geographic distribution of selected organic pollutants in Scottish surface soils.

    PubMed

    Rhind, S M; Kyle, C E; Kerr, C; Osprey, M; Zhang, Z L; Duff, E I; Lilly, A; Nolan, A; Hudson, G; Towers, W; Bell, J; Coull, M; McKenzie, C

    2013-11-01

    Concentrations of selected persistent organic pollutants (POPs) representing three chemical classes (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and the organic pollutant diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), were determined in surface soil samples (0-5 cm) collected at 20 km grid intersects throughout Scotland over a three-year period. Detectable amounts of all chemical classes and most individual congeners were present in all samples. There were no consistent effects of soil or vegetation type, soil carbon content, pH, altitude or distance from centres of population on concentrations which exhibited extreme variation, even in adjacent samples. It is concluded that soil POPs and DEHP concentrations and associated rates of animal and human exposure were highly variable, influenced by multiple, interacting factors, and not clearly related to local sources but possibly related to wet atmospheric deposition and the organic carbon content of the soil. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Persistent organic pollutants and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in mosses after fire at the Brazilian Antarctic Station.

    PubMed

    Colabuono, Fernanda Imperatrice; Taniguchi, Satie; Cipro, Caio Vinícius Zecchin; da Silva, Josilene; Bícego, Márcia Caruso; Montone, Rosalinda Carmela

    2015-04-15

    A fire at the Brazilian Antarctic Station on February 25th, 2012 led to the burning of material that produced organic pollutants. To evaluate the impact in the surrounding area, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were analyzed in moss samples collected in the vicinities of the station before and after the incident and compared to findings from previous studies in the same region. PCBs were on the same magnitude as that reported in previous studies, which could be associated to the global dispersion of these compounds and may not be related to the local fire. In contrast, concentrations of HCB and PAHs were higher than those reported in previous studies. No PBDEs were found above the method detection limit. Organic contaminant concentrations in mosses decreased a few months after the fire, which is an important characteristic when considering the use of mosses for monitoring recent exposure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Toxicity testing of organic chemicals in groundwater polluted with landfill leachate

    SciTech Connect

    Baun, A.; Kloeft, L.; Bjerg, P.L.; Nyholm, N.

    1999-09-01

    A method for assessment of toxicity of nonvolatile organic chemicals contaminants in groundwater polluted with landfill leachate has been evaluated. The biotests utilized were composed of an algal growth inhibition test (Selenastrum capricornutum), a daphnia immobilization test (Daphnia magna), and a bacterial genotoxicity test (umuC, Salmonella typhimurium). The feasibility of the selected biotests was investigated for a series of groundwater samples collected along pollution gradients downstreams of two landfills in Jutland, Denmark. Two different approaches were used, direct toxicity testing of whole groundwater samples, and toxicity testing of concentrates obtained by solid-phase extraction. Direct testing of whole groundwater samples produced toxic responses, but the complex sample matrix masked the toxicity of the organic chemical contaminants of interest. Solid-phase extraction was used successfully as an on-site method that eliminated ion toxicity and produced biotest responses that reflected the toxicity of the nonvolatile organic chemical contaminants in the groundwater.

  19. From organic pollutants to bioplastics: insights into the bioremediation of aromatic compounds by Cupriavidus necator.

    PubMed

    Berezina, Nathalie; Yada, Bopha; Lefebvre, Rodrigue

    2015-01-25

    Organic pollution by aromatic compounds is of increasing concern to our environment. Therefore, the transformation of aromatic pollutants into valuable aliphatic and biodegradable bioplastics was studied. Since benzoic acid was found to be the key compound for such bioremediation processes, its transformation, and metabolic pathways of digestion, by Cupriavidus necator were specifically analysed. It was found that the degradation of aromatic compounds follows the 2,3-dioxygenase pathway in this strain and that the batch transformations of benzoic acid with either fresh or adapted cells were limited to an initial concentration of 2.5 g/L of pollutant. The repeated fed-batch with partial withdrawal process, however, showed a 17.5-fold improvement, thus allowing the transformation of a total of 43.7 g/L in 12 weeks. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Persistent organic pollutants and diabetes: a review of the epidemiological evidence.

    PubMed

    Magliano, D J; Loh, V H Y; Harding, J L; Botton, J; Shaw, J E

    2014-02-01

    The prevalence of diabetes and obesity has increased rapidly over the last few decades in both developed and developing countries. While it is intuitively appealing to suggest that lifestyle risk factors such as decreased physical activity and adoption of poor diets can explain much of the increase, the evidence to support this is poor. Given this, there has been an impetus to look more widely than traditional lifestyle and biomedical risk factors, especially those risk factors, which arise from the environment. Since the industrial revolution, there has been an introduction of many chemicals into our environment, which have now become environmental pollutants. There has been growing interest in one key class of environmental pollutants known as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and their potential role in the development of diabetes. This review will summarise and appraise the current epidemiological evidence relating POPs to diabetes and highlight gaps and flaws in this evidence. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Heterogeneous catalytic wet air oxidation of refractory organic pollutants in industrial wastewaters: a review.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyoung-Hun; Ihm, Son-Ki

    2011-02-15

    Catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO) is one of the most economical and environmental-friendly advanced oxidation process. It makes a promising technology for the treatment of refractory organic pollutants in industrial wastewaters. Various heterogeneous catalysts including noble metals and metal oxides have been extensively studied to enhance the efficiency of CWAO. The present review is concerned about the literatures published in this regard. Phenolics, carboxylic acids, and nitrogen-containing compounds were taken as model pollutants in most cases, and noble metals such as Ru, Rh, Pd, Ir, and Pt as well as oxides of Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mo, and Ce were applied as heterogeneous catalysts. Reports on their characterization and catalytic performances for the CWAO of aqueous pollutants are reviewed. Discussions are also made on the reaction mechanisms and kinetics proposed for heterogeneous CWAO and also on the typical catalyst deactivations in heterogeneous CWAO, i.e. carbonaceous deposits and metal leaching.

  2. Guidelines for biomonitoring persistent organic pollutants (POPs), using lichens and aquatic mosses--a review.

    PubMed

    Augusto, Sofia; Máguas, Cristina; Branquinho, Cristina

    2013-09-01

    During the last decades, awareness regarding persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), has become a cutting-edge topic, due to their toxicity, bioaccumulation and persistency in the environment. Monitoring of PCDD/Fs and PAHs in air and water has proven to be insufficient to capture deposition and effects of these compounds in the biota. To overcome this limitation, environmental biomonitoring using lichens and aquatic mosses, have aroused as promising tools. The main aim of this work is to provide a review of: i) factors that influence the interception and accumulation of POPs by lichens; ii) how lichens and aquatic bryophytes can be used to track different pollution sources and; iii) how can these biomonitors contribute to environmental health studies. This review will allow designing a set of guidelines to be followed when using biomonitors to assess environmental POP pollution. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Modelling the bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants in agricultural food chains for regulatory exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Takaki, Koki; Wade, Andrew J; Collins, Chris D

    2017-02-01

    New models for estimating bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants in the agricultural food chain were developed using recent improvements to plant uptake and cattle transfer models. One model named AgriSim was based on K OW regressions of bioaccumulation in plants and cattle, while the other was a steady-state mechanistic model, AgriCom. The two developed models and European Union System for the Evaluation of Substances (EUSES), as a benchmark, were applied to four reported food chain (soil/air-grass-cow-milk) scenarios to evaluate the performance of each model simulation against the observed data. The four scenarios considered were as follows: (1) polluted soil and air, (2) polluted soil, (3) highly polluted soil surface and polluted subsurface and (4) polluted soil and air at different mountain elevations. AgriCom reproduced observed milk bioaccumulation well for all four scenarios, as did AgriSim for scenarios 1 and 2, but EUSES only did this for scenario 1. The main causes of the deviation for EUSES and AgriSim were the lack of the soil-air-plant pathway and the ambient air-plant pathway, respectively. Based on the results, it is recommended that soil-air-plant and ambient air-plant pathway should be calculated separately and the K OW regression of transfer factor to milk used in EUSES be avoided. AgriCom satisfied the recommendations that led to the low residual errors between the simulated and the observed bioaccumulation in agricultural food chain for the four scenarios considered. It is therefore recommended that this model should be incorporated into regulatory exposure assessment tools. The model uncertainty of the three models should be noted since the simulated concentration in milk from 5th to 95th percentile of the uncertainty analysis often varied over two orders of magnitude. Using a measured value of soil organic carbon content was effective to reduce this uncertainty by one order of magnitude.

  4. Priority Rules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slear, Tom

    1993-01-01

    Whether speaking of health clinics, budget shortfalls, or discipline issues, Wicomico County (Maryland) School Superintendent Evelyn Holman invariably encases discussions in her own set of priorities. Building student self-esteem through mental health clinics is laudable, but preparing students for college and future employment is foremost.…

  5. Modulation of persistent organic pollutant toxicity through nutritional intervention: emerging opportunities in biomedicine and environmental remediation

    PubMed Central

    Petriello, Michael C.; Newsome, Bradley J.; Dziubla, Thomas D.; Hilt, J. Zach; Bhattacharyya, Dibakar; Hennig, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    Environmental pollution is increasing worldwide, and there is evidence that exposure to halogenated persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls can contribute to the pathology of inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, and cancer. Pollutant removal from contaminated sites and subsequent pollutant degradation are critical for reducing the long-term health risks associated with exposure. However, complete remediation of a toxicant from the environment is very difficult and cost-prohibitive. Furthermore, remediation technologies often result in the generation of secondary toxicants. Considering these circumstances, environmentally-friendly and sustainable remediation technologies and biomedical solutions to reduce vulnerability to environmental chemical insults need to be explored to reduce the overall health risks associate with exposure to environmental pollutants. We propose that positive lifestyle changes such as healthful nutrition and consumption of diets rich in fruits and vegetables or bioactive nutrients with antioxidant and/or anti-inflammatory properties will reduce the body’s vulnerability to environmental stressors and thus reduce toxicant-mediated disease pathologies. Interestingly, emerging evidence now implicates the incorporation of bioactive nutrients, such as plant-derived polyphenols, in technologies focused on the capture, sensing and remediation of halogenated POPs. We propose that human nutritional intervention in concert with the use of natural polyphenol sensing and remediation platforms may provide a sensible means to develop primary and long-term prevention strategies of diseases associated with many environmental toxic insults including halogenated POPs. PMID:24530186

  6. Biomonitoring persistent organic pollutants in the atmosphere with mosses: performance and application.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qimei; Wang, Xin; Zhou, Qixing

    2014-05-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have aroused environmentalists and public concerns due to their toxicity, bioaccumulation and persistency in the environment. However, monitoring atmospheric POPs using conventional instrumental methods is difficult and expensive, and POP levels in air samples represent an instantaneous value at a sampling time. Biomonitoring methods can overcome this limitation, because biomonitors can accumulate POPs, serve as long-term integrators of POPs and provide reliable information to assess the impact of pollutants on the biota and various ecosystems. Recently, mosses are increasingly employed to monitor atmospheric POPs. Mosses have been applied to indicate POP pollution levels in the remote continent of Antarctica, trace distribution of POPs in the vicinity of pollution sources, describe the spatial patterns at the regional scale, and monitor the changes in the pollution intensity along time. In the future, many aspects need to be improved and strengthened: (i) the relationship between the concentrations of POPs in mosses and in the atmosphere (different size particulates and vapor phases); and (ii) the application of biomonitoring with mosses in human health studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Modeling the selectivity of indoor pollution gases over N2 on covalent organic frameworks.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenliang; Pang, Yujia; Zhang, Jingping

    2014-07-01

    The selectivity of indoor pollution gases (including formaldehyde, benzene, and toluene) over N2 on a set of 37 covalent organic frameworks (COFs) was modeled by combining classical grand canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) methods and periodic density functional theory with dispersion correction (DFT-D2). The pore volume, pore size, and the isosteric heat (Q st) of gases on COFs were investigated to explore the origin of the high selectivity of pollution gases over N2. We found that the size match between the pore of the COFs and the corresponding pollution gases is the key factor for high selectivity. Additionally, the Q st for the investigated four gases follows the order of toluene > benzene > formaldehyde > N2, which is consistent with the order of selectivity. Furthermore, the favorite sites and interaction energies of pollution gases on COFs were calculated by the periodic DFT-D2 method. Our simulation procedure offers an alternative approach with which to evaluate or design the best candidate porous materials in capture pollution gases.

  8. For a healthier future: a virtuous cycle for reducing exposure to persistent organic pollutants

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Chisato; Todaka, Emiko

    2017-01-01

    In the modern society, people are exposed to various pollutants during their lifetime. Worldwide, the status of children's health has changed in recent decades. Some studies have attempted to identify the causes of these changes and whether they relate to pollutant exposure; however, such attempts have faced major challenges because human life is complex, involving many social and environmental factors. Several long-term cohort studies are being conducted to determine the relationship between diseases and social and environmental factors in children. Even before we establish complete proof of adverse effects, we should attempt to decrease risk to future generations by adopting precautionary principles. Environmental exposure to persistent organic pollutants can be reduced throughout the stages of life—the fetal period, newborn and infant periods, childhood, adolescence and adulthood (preconception) by individuals as well as by society as a whole. Through reducing environmental exposure to pollutants, adverse health effects can also be reduced, which will contribute to healthier future generations. Here, we suggest a virtuous cycle for improving the health of future generations through reduced exposure to persistent pollutants. PMID:28515209

  9. Degradation of organic pollutants in a photoelectrocatalytic system enhanced by a microbial fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Shi-Jie; Sheng, Guo-Ping; Li, Wen-Wei; Lin, Zhi-Qi; Zeng, Raymond J; Tong, Zhong-Hua; Yu, Han-Qing

    2010-07-15

    Photocatalytic oxidation mediated by TiO(2) is a promising oxidation process for degradation of organic pollutants, but suffers from the decreased photocatalytic efficiency attributed to the recombination of photogenerated electrons and holes. Thus, a cost-effective supply of external electrons is an effective way to elevate the photocatalytic efficiency. Here we report a novel bioelectrochemical system to effectively reduce p-nitrophenol as a model organic pollutant with utilization of the energy derived from a microbial fuel cell. In such a system, there is a synergetic effect between the electrochemical and photocatalytic oxidation processes. Kinetic analysis shows that the system exhibits a more rapid p-nitrophenol degradation at a rate two times the sum of rates by the individual photocatalytic and electrochemical methods. The system performance is influenced by both external resistor and electrolyte concentration. Either a lower external resistor or a lower electrolyte concentration results in a higher p-nitrophenol degradation rate. This system has a potential for the effective degradation of refractory organic pollutants and provides a new way for utilization of the energy generated from conversion of organic wastes by microbial fuel cells.

  10. The Influence of Electromagnetic Pollution on Living Organisms: Historical Trends and Forecasting Changes

    PubMed Central

    Żak, Arkadiusz; Koncicki, Andrzej; Piechocki, Janusz; Jakubiuk, Kazimierz; Tojza, Piotr; Jaworski, Jacek; Ambroziak, Dominik; Skarbek, Łukasz

    2015-01-01

    Current technologies have become a source of omnipresent electromagnetic pollution from generated electromagnetic fields and resulting electromagnetic radiation. In many cases this pollution is much stronger than any natural sources of electromagnetic fields or radiation. The harm caused by this pollution is still open to question since there is no clear and definitive evidence of its negative influence on humans. This is despite the fact that extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields were classified as potentially carcinogenic. For these reasons, in recent decades a significant growth can be observed in scientific research in order to understand the influence of electromagnetic radiation on living organisms. However, for this type of research the appropriate selection of relevant model organisms is of great importance. It should be noted here that the great majority of scientific research papers published in this field concerned various tests performed on mammals, practically neglecting lower organisms. In that context the objective of this paper is to systematise our knowledge in this area, in which the influence of electromagnetic radiation on lower organisms was investigated, including bacteria, E. coli and B. subtilis, nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, land snail, Helix pomatia, common fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, and clawed frog, Xenopus laevis. PMID:25811025

  11. The influence of electromagnetic pollution on living organisms: historical trends and forecasting changes.

    PubMed

    Redlarski, Grzegorz; Lewczuk, Bogdan; Żak, Arkadiusz; Koncicki, Andrzej; Krawczuk, Marek; Piechocki, Janusz; Jakubiuk, Kazimierz; Tojza, Piotr; Jaworski, Jacek; Ambroziak, Dominik; Skarbek, Łukasz; Gradolewski, Dawid

    2015-01-01

    Current technologies have become a source of omnipresent electromagnetic pollution from generated electromagnetic fields and resulting electromagnetic radiation. In many cases this pollution is much stronger than any natural sources of electromagnetic fields or radiation. The harm caused by this pollution is still open to question since there is no clear and definitive evidence of its negative influence on humans. This is despite the fact that extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields were classified as potentially carcinogenic. For these reasons, in recent decades a significant growth can be observed in scientific research in order to understand the influence of electromagnetic radiation on living organisms. However, for this type of research the appropriate selection of relevant model organisms is of great importance. It should be noted here that the great majority of scientific research papers published in this field concerned various tests performed on mammals, practically neglecting lower organisms. In that context the objective of this paper is to systematise our knowledge in this area, in which the influence of electromagnetic radiation on lower organisms was investigated, including bacteria, E. coli and B. subtilis, nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, land snail, Helix pomatia, common fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, and clawed frog, Xenopus laevis.

  12. Microalga Euglena as a bioindicator for testing genotoxic potentials of organic pollutants in Taihu Lake, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Mei; Gao, Xiangyu; Wu, Bing; Qian, Xin; Giesy, John P; Cui, Yibin

    2014-05-01

    The microalga Euglena was selected as a bioindicator for determining genotoxicity potencies of organic pollutants in Meiliang Bay of Taihu Lake, Jiangsu, China among seasons in 2008. Several methods, including the comet assay to determine breaks in DNA and quantification of antioxidant enzymes were applied to characterize genotoxic effects of organic extracts of water from Taihu Lake on the flagellated, microalga Euglena gracilis. Contents of photosynthetic pigments, including Chl a, Chl b and carotenoid pigments were inversely proportion to concentrations of organic extracts to which E. gracilis was exposed. Organic extracts of Taihu Lake water also affected activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) of E. gracilis. There were no statistically significant differences in SOD activities among seasons except in June but significant differences in POD activities were observed among all seasons. The metrics of DNA fragmentation in the alkaline unwinding assay (Comet assay), olive tail moment (OTM) and tail moment (TM), used as measurement endpoints during the genotoxicity assay were both greater when E. gracilis was exposed to organic of water collected from Taihu Lake among four seasons. It is indicated that the comet assay was useful for determining effects of constituents of organic extracts of water on E. gracilis and this assay was effective as an early warning to organic pollutants.

  13. Can mussels be used as sentinel organisms for characterization of pollution in urban water systems?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichwaldt, Elke S.; Ghadouani, Anas

    2016-07-01

    Urbanization strongly impacts aquatic ecosystems by decreasing water quality and altering water cycles. Today, much effort is put towards the restoration and conservation of urban waterbodies to enhance ecosystem service provision, leading to liveable and sustainable cities. To enable a sustainable management of waterbodies, the quantification of the temporal and spatial variability of pollution levels and biogeochemical processes is essential. Stable isotopes have widely been used to identify sources of pollution in ecosystems. For example, increased nitrogen levels in waterbodies are often accompanied with a higher nitrogen stable isotope signature (δ15N), which can then be detected in higher trophic levels such as mussels. The main aim of this study was to assess the suitability of nitrogen stable isotopes as measured in mussels (Mytilus edulis), as an indicator able to resolve spatial and temporal variability of nitrogen pollution in an urban, tidally influenced estuary (Swan River estuary in Western Australia). Nitrogen concentrations were generally low and nitrogen stable isotope values of nitrate throughout the estuary were well within natural values of uncontaminated groundwater, organic nitrate from soils, or marine-derived sources, indicating groundwater inflow rather than pollution by human activity was responsible for differences between sites. The δ15N signature in mussels was very stable over time within each site which indicated that mussels can be used as time-integrated sentinel organisms in urban systems. In addition, our study shows that the nature of the relationship between δ15N in the mussels and the nitrate in the water can provide insights into site-specific biogeochemical transformation of nutrients. We suggest that mussels and other sentinel organisms can become a robust tool for the detection and characterization of the dynamics of a number of emerging anthropogenic pollutants of concern in urban water systems.

  14. An overview on the organic pollution around the Qinghai-Tibet plateau: The thought-provoking situation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jun; Lu, Jian; Luo, Yongming; Duan, Dongping; Zhang, Zhenhua; Wen, Xiaohu; Min, Xiuyun; Guo, Xiaoying; Boman, Brian J

    2016-12-01

    The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau plays an important role in the ecological safety and human health of the surroundings due to its unique geographical position and function. Therefore, it is necessary to study the pollution status and potential risk in this area. This study summarizes the distribution of different organic pollutants in biota and environmental media of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Moreover, it also pays attention to the potential health risks of these organic pollutants. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were the most frequently detected in different matrices. In general, the carcinogenic risks of organic pollutants were ranked in the very-low to moderate range for both children and adults. The carcinogenic risks of organic pollutants in fish, food, and water for children were 1-2 times higher than those for adults, while risks of organic pollutants in soil/sediment and in air for children were generally 10.6-16.5 and 2.6-2.8 times higher than those for adults, respectively. The maximal hazard quotient for non-carcinogenic risk was 0.95 (potential risk for children posed by organic pollutants in yak milk of Ruoergai), almost reaching an unacceptable level. Therefore, the potential health risks could not be neglected, especially for children who were more likely to be affected by the pollutants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Importance of soil organic matter for the diversity of microorganisms involved in the degradation of organic pollutants

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Dominik; Heuer, Anke; Hemkemeyer, Michael; Martens, Rainer; Tebbe, Christoph C

    2014-01-01

    Many organic pollutants are readily degradable by microorganisms in soil, but the importance of soil organic matter for their transformation by specific microbial taxa is unknown. In this study, sorption and microbial degradation of phenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol (DCP) were characterized in three soil variants, generated by different long-term fertilization regimes. Compared with a non-fertilized control (NIL), a mineral-fertilized NPK variant showed 19% and a farmyard manure treated FYM variant 46% more soil organic carbon (SOC). Phenol sorption declined with overall increasing SOC because of altered affinities to the clay fraction (soil particles <2 mm in diameter). In contrast, DCP sorption correlated positively with particulate soil organic matter (present in the soil particle fractions of 63–2000 μm). Stable isotope probing identified Rhodococcus, Arthrobacter (both Actinobacteria) and Cryptococcus (Basidiomycota) as the main degraders of phenol. Rhodococcus and Cryptococcus were not affected by SOC, but the participation of Arthrobacter declined in NPK and even more in FYM. 14C-DCP was hardly metabolized in the NIL variant, more efficiently in FYM and most in NPK. In NPK, Burkholderia was the main degrader and in FYM Variovorax. This study demonstrates a strong effect of SOC on the partitioning of organic pollutants to soil particle size fractions and indicates the profound consequences that this process could have for the diversity of bacteria involved in their degradation. PMID:24430482

  16. Importance of soil organic matter for the diversity of microorganisms involved in the degradation of organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Dominik; Heuer, Anke; Hemkemeyer, Michael; Martens, Rainer; Tebbe, Christoph C

    2014-06-01

    Many organic pollutants are readily degradable by microorganisms in soil, but the importance of soil organic matter for their transformation by specific microbial taxa is unknown. In this study, sorption and microbial degradation of phenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol (DCP) were characterized in three soil variants, generated by different long-term fertilization regimes. Compared with a non-fertilized control (NIL), a mineral-fertilized NPK variant showed 19% and a farmyard manure treated FYM variant 46% more soil organic carbon (SOC). Phenol sorption declined with overall increasing SOC because of altered affinities to the clay fraction (soil particles <2 mm in diameter). In contrast, DCP sorption correlated positively with particulate soil organic matter (present in the soil particle fractions of 63-2000 μm). Stable isotope probing identified Rhodococcus, Arthrobacter (both Actinobacteria) and Cryptococcus (Basidiomycota) as the main degraders of phenol. Rhodococcus and Cryptococcus were not affected by SOC, but the participation of Arthrobacter declined in NPK and even more in FYM. (14)C-DCP was hardly metabolized in the NIL variant, more efficiently in FYM and most in NPK. In NPK, Burkholderia was the main degrader and in FYM Variovorax. This study demonstrates a strong effect of SOC on the partitioning of organic pollutants to soil particle size fractions and indicates the profound consequences that this process could have for the diversity of bacteria involved in their degradation.

  17. Study of the influence of different organic pollutants on Cu accumulation by Halimione portulacoides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, C. Marisa R.; Claúdia Dias, A.; Mucha, Ana P.; Bordalo, A. A.; Vasconcelos, M. Teresa S. D.

    2009-12-01

    The influence of each of four organic pollutants selected from among those commonly found in coastal areas, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethylene (DDE), monobutyltin (MBT), Triton X-100 and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), on Cu accumulation by Halimione portulacoides was investigated. Experiments were carried out in a laboratory setting, either in hydroponics (sediment elutriate) or in a salt marsh sediment ( Cávado River, NW Portugal) soaked in elutriate. Groups of H. portulacoides were exposed to media for 6 days spiked with 10 mg/L Cu(II) and with one of the selected pollutants, at an environmentally realistic concentration. DDE and MBT did not cause any major change on Cu accumulation by H. portulacoides, whereas PAHs slightly increased accumulation only in hydroponics i.e. in the absence of sediment. On the other hand, the non-ionic surfactant Triton X-100 markedly favoured Cu accumulation on plant roots both in the presence and absence of sediment. The addition of DDE, MBT and Triton X-100 also favoured Cu solubility from sediments. Therefore, the simultaneous presence of pollutants from different nature (inorganic and organic) in the estuarine environment may result in a composition of water column, pore water, sediment or biota different of that expected considering the effect of each individual pollutant.

  18. Relationship between organic pollution and the occurrence of toxic Phytoplankton species in the Lebanese coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Rahman Hassoun, Abed

    2017-04-01

    Aiming to evaluate the effects of organic pollution, environmental parameters and phytoplankton community were monitored during a two-year period (from April 2010 till March 2012) in the central coast of Lebanon in the Levantine Sub-basin. Data were collected for hydrological (temperature and salinity), chemical (nitrites, nitrates and phosphates), and biological (chlorophyll-a and phytoplankton populations) parameters. Our results show that temperature follows its normal seasonal and annual cycles, usually noted in the Lebanese coastal waters. Salinity presents spatial and temporal variations with low values (19.07 - 39.6) in the areas affected by continental inputs. Significant fluctuations (P < 0.05) of nutrients, Chl-a concentrations and density of total phytoplanktonic cells were observed between the sites and through the years. Moreover, a perturbation of the natural phytoplanktonic succession and an occurrence of toxic or potentially harmful algae were noticed in the polluted sites, reflecting the influence of wastewater effluents on the coastal seawater equilibrium and thus on the Lebanese marine biodiversity. This study sheds the light on the current environmental condition of few coastal areas which could facilitate the management of their pollution sources. Keywords: Organic pollution, phytoplankton community, toxic algae, coastal water quality, Lebanon, Mediterranean Sea.

  19. Accumulation of toxic organic pollutants in the blue crab Callinectes sapidus

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, R.C.

    1983-01-01

    Levels of toxic organic pollutants (TOP) were examined in the blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus, of Virginia waters. Alkyl substituted polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (ASPAH), thought derived from weathered petroleum, were the most common organic pollutants present. Unsubstituted aromatics, heterosubstituted aromatics, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), and DDT metabolites were also detected by the analytical procedure employed. Highest levels of ASPAH were found in crabs from the heavily industrialized Hampton Roads area of the James River. Lower concentrations were detected in crabs from the Pocomoke Sound, the upper James and the Rappahannock River sampling sites. PCB levels were elevated in samples taken from both James River stations. Levels of TOP were generally higher in crabs sampled in June than in September of 1981. Concentrations of pollutants in the tissues and tissue lipid content were correlated. Highest levels of both were detected in the hepatopancreas, followed by egg, ovary and muscle. TOP levels in field samples in in-vivo biotransformation of the model compound benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) in the hepatopancreas, during in-laboratory experiments, suggested that differences may exist in the uptake and elimination of pollutants as a function of the sex and maturity of the crabs. It appeared that the metabolism of aromatic hydrocarbons varied with the molt stage of the crabs.

  20. [Analysis and research on the degradation and migration of organic pollutants in textile wastewater treatment process by GC-MS].

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei-jing; Zhang, Long; Wu, Wei; Tu, Yong

    2010-04-01

    In order to analyze the advantages/disadvantages of the combined treatment process between "physicochemical + biochemical" and "biochemical + physicochemical" in treatment of textile wastewater, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to determine the degradation process of organic pollutants in this two totally different treatment processes. The same analysis was also conducted to the sludge and discharged water. The results showed that the "physicochemical + biochemical" process displayed a poorer effect than "biochemical + physicochemical" in degrading the organic pollutants. The latter was 6.2% higher than the former in removing the organic pollutants averagely. The difference was mainly manifested in the efficiency of anaerobic hydrolysis in the two coupled processes. Moreover, the implement of "physicochemical + biochemical" process resulted in the migration of plenty of typical organic pollutants to sludge from primary coagulation sedimentation process and to the discharged water, which would cause secondary pollution easily.

  1. Investigation of spatial distributions and sources of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in a heavily polluted industrial region using tree components.

    PubMed

    Odabasi, Mustafa; Dumanoglu, Yetkin; Ozgunerge Falay, Ezgi; Tuna, Gizem; Altiok, Hasan; Kara, Melik; Bayram, Abdurrahman; Tolunay, Doganay; Elbir, Tolga

    2016-10-01

    Spatial distributions of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were investigated in Iskenderun industrial region in Turkey. POP concentrations were measured in different tree components (i.e., pine needle, branch, bark, and stem) collected at several industrial and background sites (n = 27). Also, air, litter, and soil samples were analyzed to determine the relationship of atmospheric pollutants with tree components, litter, and soil. Spatial variation of measured concentrations and factor analysis showed that the iron-steel plants are the most important POP sources in Iskenderun area. Correlations of ambient air levels to those measured in soil, litter, and tree components were significant showing that POPs are exchanged between atmosphere and these compartments. Results have suggested that tree components, litter and soil could be used to determine the spatial distributions and sources of atmospheric POPs in a region. POP quantities (mg/ha) accumulated in different tree components, litter, and soil were also predicted. Generally, the highest quantities were accumulated by stem and needles. In terms of overall inventory, including trees, litter and soil, the highest accumulated quantities were found in soil followed by trees and litter, indicating that in addition to soil, vegetation is a notable reservoir accumulating POPs. Ambient air POP concentrations were also estimated using a bark/air partitioning model. The estimated/measured ratios were close to 1.0 for several compounds and the results showed that the atmospheric POP concentrations could be estimated from the bark measurements within factors of 0.23-3.07, 1.02-6.67, 0.63-7.44, 1.07-3.37 for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated naphthalenes, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. From Now to Net-Centric: How an Army IT Organization Repositioned Itself to Support Changing Defense Priorities and Objectives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-01

    that the Army needs to function in both peace and war are requisitioned, processed, and tracked by STAMIS. SEC director, Ned Keeler , noted that the SEC...remain static and expect to keep pace with technological advancements and changing defense priorities,” Keeler said. “Through new partnerships with...Ned Keeler , SEC director 49 Defense AT&L: July-August 2010 has shortened SEC-Lee’s development cycles, and it also brings a level of

  3. Plant-bacteria partnerships for the remediation of persistent organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Muhammad; Imran, Asma; Khan, Qaiser Mahmood; Afzal, Muhammad

    2017-02-01

    High toxicity, bioaccumulation factor and widespread dispersal of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) cause environmental and human health hazards. The combined use of plants and bacteria is a promising approach for the remediation of soil and water contaminated with POPs. Plants provide residency and nutrients to their associated rhizosphere and endophytic bacteria. In return, the bacteria support plant growth by the degradation and detoxification of POPs. Moreover, they improve plant growth and health due to their innate plant growth-promoting mechanisms. This review provides a critical view of factors that affect absorption and translocation of POPs in plants and the limitations that plant have to deal with during the remediation of POPs. Moreover, the synergistic effects of plant-bacteria interactions in the phytoremediation of organic pollutants with special reference to POPs are discussed.

  4. Refractory organic pollutants and toxicity in pulp and paper mill wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Lindholm-Lehto, Petra C; Knuutinen, Juha S; Ahkola, Heidi S J; Herve, Sirpa H

    2015-05-01

    This review describes medium and high molecular weight organic material found in wastewaters from pulp and paper industry. The aim is to review the versatile pollutants and the analysis methods for their determination. Among other pollutants, biocides, extractives, and lignin-derived compounds are major contributors to harmful effects, such as toxicity, of industrial wastewaters. Toxicity of wastewaters from pulp and paper mills is briefly evaluated including the methods for toxicity analyses. Traditionally, wastewater purification includes mechanical treatment followed by chemical and/or biological treatment processes. A variety of methods are available for the purification of industrial wastewaters, including aerobic and anaerobic processes. However, some fractions of organic material, such as lignin and its derivatives, are difficult to degrade. Therefore, novel chemical methods, including electrochemical and oxidation processes, have been developed for separate use or in combination with biological treatment processes.

  5. Statistical modelling of organic matter and emerging pollutants removal in constructed wetlands.

    PubMed

    Hijosa-Valsero, María; Sidrach-Cardona, Ricardo; Martín-Villacorta, Javier; Cruz Valsero-Blanco, M; Bayona, Josep M; Bécares, Eloy

    2011-04-01

    Multiple regression models, clustering tree diagrams, regression trees (CHAID) and redundancy analysis (RDA) were applied to the study of the removal of organic matter and pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) from urban wastewater by means of constructed wetlands (CWs). These four statistical analyses pointed out the importance of physico-chemical parameters, plant presence and chemical structure in the elimination of most pollutants. Temperature, pH values, dissolved oxygen concentration, redox potential and conductivity were related to the removal of the studied substances. Plant presence (Typha angustifolia and Phragmites australis) enhanced the removal of organic matter and some PPCPs. Multiple regression equations and CHAID trees provided numerical estimations of pollutant removal efficiencies in CWs. These models were validated and they could be a useful and interesting tool for the quick estimation of removal efficiencies in already working CWs and for the design of new systems which must fulfil certain quality requirements.

  6. The organic air pollutant cumene hydroperoxide interferes with NO antioxidant role in rehydrating lichen.

    PubMed

    Catalá, M; Gasulla, F; Pradas Del Real, A E; García-Breijo, F; Reig-Armiñana, J; Barreno, E

    2013-08-01

    Organic pollutants effects on lichens have not been addressed. Rehydration is critical for lichens, a burst of free radicals involving NO occurs. Repeated dehydrations with organic pollutants could increase oxidative damage. Our aim is to learn the effects of cumene hydroperoxide (CP) during lichen rehydration using Ramalina farinacea (L.) Ach., its photobiont Trebouxia spp. and Asterochloris erici. Confocal imaging shows intracellular ROS and NO production within myco and phycobionts, being the chloroplast the main source of free radicals. CP increases ROS, NO and lipid peroxidation and reduces chlorophyll autofluorescence, although photosynthesis remains unaffected. Concomitant NO inhibition provokes a generalized increase of ROS and a decrease in photosynthesis. Our results suggest that CP induces a compensatory hormetic response in Ramalina farinacea that could reduce the lichen's antioxidant resources after repeated desiccation-rehydration cycles. NO is important in the protection from CP.

  7. Differential response of marine organisms to certain metal and agrichemical pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, H.H.; Xu, C.H.

    1984-10-01

    Oocyte maturation of the starfish, fertilization and embryogenesis of sea urchins, and the development of amphioxus and brine shrimps were used to assay the effects of several common metals and agrichemicals frequently found in marine environments. While brine shrimp embryos were tolerant to metals and agrichemicals used here, sea urchins and amphioxus showed a differential response to the common metal pollutants. Starfish oocyte maturation process was affected by agrichemicals. The results show that no one single organism, or its embryonic form, or a particular stage of development, can be used as the indicator for a particular pollutant. However, the use of lower forms of marine organisms can be useful collectively for environmental investigations and the management of waste disposal.

  8. Detection of persistent organic pollutants in the Mississippi Delta using semipermeable membrane devices

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zimmerman, L.R.; Thurman, E.M.; Bastian, K.C.

    2000-01-01

    From semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) placed in five Mississippi Delta streams in 1996 and 1997, the persistent organic pollutants (POPs) aldrin, chlordane, DCPA, DDT, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor, mirex, nonachlor, and toxaphene were detected. In addition, the insecticides chlorpyriphos, endosulfan, and hexachlorocyclohexanes were detected. Two low-solubility herbicides not detected commonly in surface water, pendimethalin and trifluralin, were also detected. Copyright (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V.

  9. Interaction of polar and nonpolar organic pollutants with soil organic matter: sorption experiments and molecular dynamics simulation.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Ashour A; Thiele-Bruhn, Sören; Aziz, Saadullah G; Hilal, Rifaat H; Elroby, Shaaban A; Al-Youbi, Abdulrahman O; Leinweber, Peter; Kühn, Oliver

    2015-03-01

    The fate of organic pollutants in the environment is influenced by several factors including the type and strength of their interactions with soil components especially SOM. However, a molecular level answer to the question "How organic pollutants interact with SOM?" is still lacking. In order to explore mechanisms of this interaction, we have developed a new SOM model and carried out molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in parallel with sorption experiments. The new SOM model comprises free SOM functional groups (carboxylic acid and naphthalene) as well as SOM cavities (with two different sizes), simulating the soil voids, containing the same SOM functional groups. To examine the effect of the hydrophobicity on the interaction, the organic pollutants hexachlorobenzene (HCB, non-polar) and sulfanilamide (SAA, polar) were considered. The experimental and theoretical investigations explored four major points regarding sorption of SAA and HCB on soil, yielding the following results. 1--The interaction depends on the SOM chemical composition more than the SOM content. 2--The interaction causes a site-specific adsorption on the soil surfaces. 3--Sorption hysteresis occurs, which can be explained by inclusion of these pollutants inside soil voids. 4--The hydrophobic HCB is adsorbed on soil stronger than the hydrophilic SAA. Moreover, the theoretical results showed that HCB forms stable complexes with all SOM models in the aqueous solution, while most of SAA-SOM complexes are accompanied by dissociation into SAA and the free SOM models. The SOM-cavity modeling had a significant effect on binding of organic pollutants to SOM. Both HCB and SAA bind to the SOM models in the order of models with a small cavity>a large cavity>no cavity. Although HCB binds to all SOM models stronger than SAA, the latter is more affected by the presence of the cavity. Finally, HCB and SAA bind to the hydrophobic functional group (naphthalene) stronger than to the hydrophilic one (carboxylic acid

  10. Seasonal input of regulated and emerging organic pollutants through surface watercourses to a Mediterranean coastal lagoon.

    PubMed

    Moreno-González, R; Campillo, J A; García, V; León, V M

    2013-07-01

    Seasonal input of organic pollutants through El Albujón Watercourse to the Mar Menor lagoon was estimated from Spring 2009 to Winter 2010, including regular periods and two flash flood events. 82 semivolatile organic pollutants (persistent organic pollutants, different groups of pesticides and others) were determined by stir bar sorptive extraction and thermal desorption followed by capillary gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry from surface waters with quantification limits of a few ngL(-1). Pesticide concentrations varied significantly along the watercourse due to the presence of different sources (groundwaters, wastewater effluent, tributary contributions, brackish waters, etc.) and physicochemical/biological processes that take place simultaneously. The most commonly detected analytes were propyzamide, triazine compounds and chlorpyrifos. A clear seasonal pattern has been detected, with a predominance of insecticides during Summer and of herbicides during Winter. The input of pesticides through this watercourse is particularly relevant during periods of heavy rain, representing more than 70% of total yearly input for many of them.

  11. 'Towards a unified approach for the determination of the bioaccessibility of organic pollutants'.

    PubMed

    Collins, Chris D; Craggs, Mark; Garcia-Alcega, Sonia; Kademoglou, Katerina; Lowe, Stephen

    2015-05-01

    Bioaccessibility studies have been widely used as a research tool to determine the potential human exposure to ingested contaminants. More recently they have been practically applied for soil borne toxic elements. This paper reviews the application of bioaccessibility tests across a range of organic pollutants and contaminated matrices. Important factors are reported to be: the physiological relevance of the test, the components in the gut media, the size fraction chosen for the test and whether it contains a sorptive sink. The bioaccessibility is also a function of the composition of the matrix (e.g. organic carbon content of soils) and the physico-chemical characteristics of the pollutant under test. Despite the widespread use of these tests, there are a large number of formats used and very few validation studies with animal models. We propose a unified format for a bioaccessibility test for organic pollutants. The robustness of this test should first be confirmed through inter laboratory comparison, then tested in-vivo. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Microwave-induced carbon nanotubes catalytic degradation of organic pollutants in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Xue, Shuang; Song, Youtao; Shen, Manli; Zhang, Zhaohong; Yuan, Tianxin; Tian, Fangyuan; Dionysiou, Dionysios D

    2016-06-05

    In this study, a new catalytic degradation technology using microwave induced carbon nanotubes (MW/CNTs) was proposed and applied in the treatment of organic pollutants in aqueous solution. The catalytic activity of three CNTs of 10-20nm, 20-40nm, and 40-60nm diameters were compared. The results showed that organic pollutants such as methyl orange (MO), methyl parathion (MP), sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS), bisphenol A (BPA), and methylene blue (MB) in aqueous solution could be degraded effectively and rapidly in MW/CNTs system. CNTs with diameter of 10-20nm exhibited the highest catalytic activity of the three CNTs under MW irradiation. Further, complete degradation was obtained using 10-20nm CNTs within 7.0min irradiation when 25mL MO solution (25mg/L), 1.2g/L catalyst dose, 450W, 2450MHz, and pH=6.0 were applied. The rate constants (k) for the degradation of SDBS, MB, MP, MO and BPA using 10-20nm CNTs/MW system were 0.726, 0.679, 0.463, 0.334 and 0.168min(-1), respectively. Therefore, this technology may have potential application for the treatment of targeted organic pollutants in wastewaters.

  13. Organic Pollutant Penetration through Fruit Polyester Skin: A Modified Three-compartment Diffusion Model

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yungui; Li, Qingqing; Chen, Baoliang

    2016-01-01

    The surface of plants is covered by a continuous but heterogeneous cuticular membrane (CM). Serving as the first protective barrier, the uptake and transport behavior of organic pollutants at this interface continue to engage the research efforts of environmental chemist. To date, the contributions of cuticular components as a defense against the organic pollutants penetration remain unresolved. In this study, the unsteady-state penetration characteristics of phenanthrene (PHE) through isolated fruit CM was investigated. PHE penetration was differentiated by three cuticular compartments: epicuticular waxes (EW), cuticle proper (CP) and cuticular layer (CL). The driving force for PHE penetration was ascribed to the sharp concentration gradient built up endogenously by cuticular compartments with different lipophilic affinities. A modified penetration model was established and verified in terms of its general suitability for the hydrophobic chemicals and CMs of various plant species (apple, tomato and potato). The new three-compartment model demonstrates much higher accuracy in characterizing the uptake and transport behavior of semivolatile chemicals with fewer limitations in terms of environmental conditions and complexity (e.g., coexisting contaminants and temperature). This model could contribute to a more comprehensive understanding on the role of polymeric lipids in the organic pollutant sorption and transport into plants. PMID:27009902

  14. Organic Pollutant Penetration through Fruit Polyester Skin: A Modified Three-compartment Diffusion Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yungui; Li, Qingqing; Chen, Baoliang

    2016-03-01

    The surface of plants is covered by a continuous but heterogeneous cuticular membrane (CM). Serving as the first protective barrier, the uptake and transport behavior of organic pollutants at this interface continue to engage the research efforts of environmental chemist. To date, the contributions of cuticular components as a defense against the organic pollutants penetration remain unresolved. In this study, the unsteady-state penetration characteristics of phenanthrene (PHE) through isolated fruit CM was investigated. PHE penetration was differentiated by three cuticular compartments: epicuticular waxes (EW), cuticle proper (CP) and cuticular layer (CL). The driving force for PHE penetration was ascribed to the sharp concentration gradient built up endogenously by cuticular compartments with different lipophilic affinities. A modified penetration model was established and verified in terms of its general suitability for the hydrophobic chemicals and CMs of various plant species (apple, tomato and potato). The new three-compartment model demonstrates much higher accuracy in characterizing the uptake and transport behavior of semivolatile chemicals with fewer limitations in terms of environmental conditions and complexity (e.g., coexisting contaminants and temperature). This model could contribute to a more comprehensive understanding on the role of polymeric lipids in the organic pollutant sorption and transport into plants.

  15. Physical insights into the sonochemical degradation of recalcitrant organic pollutants with cavitation bubble dynamics.

    PubMed

    Sivasankar, Thirugnanasambandam; Moholkar, Vijayanand S

    2009-08-01

    This paper tries to discern the mechanistic features of sonochemical degradation of recalcitrant organic pollutants using five model compounds, viz. phenol (Ph), chlorobenzene (CB), nitrobenzene (NB), p-nitrophenol (PNP) and 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP). The sonochemical degradation of the pollutant can occur in three distinct pathways: hydroxylation by ()OH radicals produced from cavitation bubbles (either in the bubble-bulk interfacial region or in the bulk liquid medium), thermal decomposition in cavitation bubble and thermal decomposition at the bubble-liquid interfacial region. With the methodology of coupling experiments under different conditions (which alter the nature of the cavitation phenomena in the bulk liquid medium) with the simulations of radial motion of cavitation bubbles, we have tried to discern the relative contribution of each of the above pathway to overall degradation of the pollutant. Moreover, we have also tried to correlate the predominant degradation mechanism to the physico-chemical properties of the pollutant. The contribution of secondary factors such as probability of radical-pollutant interaction and extent of radical scavenging (or conservation) in the medium has also been identified. Simultaneous analysis of the trends in degradation with different experimental techniques and simulation results reveals interesting mechanistic features of sonochemical degradation of the model pollutants. The physical properties that determine the predominant degradation pathway are vapor pressure, solubility and hydrophobicity. Degradation of Ph occurs mainly by hydroxylation in bulk medium; degradation of CB occurs via thermal decomposition inside the bubble, degradation of PNP occurs via pyrolytic decomposition at bubble interface, while hydroxylation at bubble interface contributes to degradation of NB and 2,4-DCP.

  16. Direct and indirect exposure to air pollution.

    PubMed

    Thron, R W

    1996-02-01

    Hazardous substances that originally are discharged as air pollutants may find their pathway to human exposure through multiple routes, including ingestion and dermal contact, as well as direct inhalation. The mechanisms for modeling and understanding the fate of air pollutants through atmospheric transport, deposition into water and soil, bioaccumulation, and ultimate uptake to receptor organs and systems in the human body are complex. Pollution prevention programs can be better engineered, pollution priorities can be identified, and greater environmental public health gains (attributable to pollution prevention) can be achieved by evaluating the multiple pathways to human exposure and through improved dosage calculations. A single contaminant source often may represent only a fraction of a total body pollutant burden. Further research is needed on source culpability and attributable risk, long-range transport of air pollutants, human dose contributions by various pathways, better techniques for health risk assessment, and an identification of human behavior patterns that affect exposure and dose.

  17. Setting priorities in health research using the model proposed by the World Health Organization: development of a quantitative methodology using tuberculosis in South Africa as a worked example.

    PubMed

    Hacking, Damian; Cleary, Susan

    2016-02-09

    Setting priorities is important in health research given the limited resources available for research. Various guidelines exist to assist in the priority setting process; however, priority setting still faces significant challenges such as the clear ranking of identified priorities. The World Health Organization (WHO) proposed a Disability Adjusted Life Year (DALY)-based model to rank priorities by research area (basic, health systems and biomedical) by dividing the DALYs into 'unavertable with existing interventions', 'avertable with improved efficiency' and 'avertable with existing but non-cost-effective interventions', respectively. However, the model has conceptual flaws and no clear methodology for its construction. Therefore, the aim of this paper was to amend the model to address these flaws, and develop a clear methodology by using tuberculosis in South Africa as a worked example. An amended model was constructed to represent total DALYs as the product of DALYs per person and absolute burden of disease. These figures were calculated for all countries from WHO datasets. The lowest figures achieved by any country were assumed to represent 'unavertable with existing interventions' if extrapolated to South Africa. The ratio of 'cost per patient treated' (adjusted for purchasing power and outcome weighted) between South Africa and the best country was used to calculate the 'avertable with improved efficiency section'. Finally, 'avertable with existing but non-cost-effective interventions' was calculated using Disease Control Priorities Project efficacy data, and the ratio between the best intervention and South Africa's current intervention, irrespective of cost. The amended model shows that South Africa has a tuberculosis burden of 1,009,837.3 DALYs; 0.009% of DALYs are unavertable with existing interventions and 96.3% of DALYs could be averted with improvements in efficiency. Of the remaining DALYs, a further 56.9% could be averted with existing but non

  18. Organic and inorganic components in estuarine colloids: Implications for sorption and transport of pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Sigleo, A.C.; Means, J.C. )

    1990-01-01

    In colloids isolated from Chesapeake Bay and its subestuaries the concentrations of Al, Fe, and a number of trace elements were determined to vary with the clay mineral fraction that was most abundant in freshwater samples collected during the winter. The elements As, Ba, Sb, and Zn, however, increased with increasing organic content, indicating a covariance with the organic component. Organic analyses for amino acids, carbohydrates, and lipids indicate that these biopolymers comprised 4 to 22%, 20 to 60%, and less than 1%, respectively, of the colloidal organic carbon in these samples. The results are significant because amino acids and carbohydrates contain oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur functional groups capable of reacting with trace metals and organic pollutants. The sorption properties of several neutral hydrophobic organic compounds, including PAHs and herbicides, and several aromatic amines were investigated using the estuarine colloidal material. The effects of several environmental variables on these sorption properties were determined. The results indicate that colloids have the capacity to sorb and transport relatively insoluble pollutants that otherwise might remain immobile in the environment. Colloidal organic matter in natural water systems may serve as substrates for the sorption or binding of organic contaminants. Although most of the data has been developed using neutral hydrophobic organic compounds, data also exist for selected polar compound groups such as aromatic amines. The chemical behavior of these compound groups in interaction with DOM appears to have some similarity to their chemical interaction with sediments and soils. Partitioning constants are linear, except for polar compounds, and appear to be closely correlated to fundamental compound properties such as solubilities and octanol-water partition coefficients. 84 references.

  19. Review: In situ and bioremediation of organic pollutants in aquatic sediments.

    PubMed

    Perelo, Louisa Wessels

    2010-05-15

    Organic pollutants in sediments are a worldwide problem because sediments act as sinks for hydrophobic, recalcitrant and hazardous compounds. Depending on biogeochemical processes these hydrocarbons are involved in adsorption, desorption and transformation processes and can be made available to benthic organisms as well as organisms in the water column through the sediment-water interface. Most of these recalcitrant hydrocarbons are toxic and carcinogenic, they may enter the food-chain and accumulate in biological tissue. Several approaches are being investigated or have been already used to remove organic hydrocarbons from sediments. This paper provides a review on types and sources of organic pollutants as well as their behavior in sediments. It presents the advantages and disadvantages of traditional sediment remediation techniques in use, such as dredging, capping and monitored natural attenuation. Furthermore, it describes new approaches with emphasis on bioremediation, like biostimulation, bioaugmentation and phytoremediation applied to sediments. These new techniques promise to be of lower impact and more cost efficient than traditional management strategies.

  20. Evidence of the return of past organic pollution in the ocean - a model study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammel, Gerhard; Stemmler, Irene

    2013-04-01

    Persistent organic pollutants are of great concern because of their long residence time and long-range transport potential in the environment and because they are readily bioaccumulated along food chains and toxic for wildlife and humans. Recovery of the environment from exposure to widespread and persistent chemical pollution is determined by the spatiotemporal emission pattern and storage capacity and transports in environmental compartments. We studied the 3D exposure of the global ocean changing over time in response to historic emissions of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and dichlorodimephenyltrichloromethane (DDT), 1950-2010 using the multicompartment chemistry-transport model MPI-MCTM, which encompasses atmosphere (ECHAM5) and ocean general circulation models (MPIOM), dynamic sub-models for atmospheric aerosols and the marine biogeochemistry, two-dimensional surface compartments (topsoil, vegetation surfaces, ice, and temporal snow cover) and intercompartmental mass exchange process parameterisations [1-3]. The pollution wave received by the surface waters through atmospheric deposition is propagating downward. Besides considerable time lags with respect to the year of peak emission, temporal bimodal exposure to the pollutants is found in mid level and deep waters (200-1500 m) in some areas, e.g. in the western and eastern North Atlantic. This is a consequence of the combination of downward pollution transport by advection, diffusion, and particle settling. It is suggested that the combination of the same processes will lead to re-rise of pollutant concentrations in seawater in other regions in the future. References [1] Guglielmo F, Lammel G, Maier-Reimer E: Global environmental cycling of DDT and gamma-HCH in the 1980s - a study using a coupled atmosphere and ocean general circulation model. Chemosphere 76 (2009) 1509-1517 [2] Stemmler I, Lammel G: Cycling of DDT in the global oceans 1950-2002: World ocean returns the pollutant. Geophys. Res. Lett. 36

  1. Diagnosis of air quality through observation and modeling of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as pollution tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wen-Tzu; Hsieh, Hsin-Cheng; Chen, Sheng-Po; Chang, Julius S.; Lin, Neng-Huei; Chang, Chih-Chung; Wang, Jia-Lin

    2012-08-01

    This study used selected ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as pollution tracers to study the effects of meteorology on air quality. A remote coastal site was chosen as a receptor to monitor pollutants transported upwind from urban traffic and industrial sources. Large concentration variability in VOC concentrations was observed at the coastal site due to rapid changes in meteorology, which caused periodic land-sea exchange of air masses. To assure the quality of the on-line measurements, uniform concentrations of chlorofluorocarbon-113 (CFC-113) were exploited as an internal check of the instrument's stability and the resulting data quality. A VOC speciated air quality model was employed to simulate both temporal and spatial distributions of VOC plumes. The model successfully captured the general features of the variations of toluene as a pollution tracer, which suggests that emissions and meteorology were reasonably well simulated in the model. Through validation by observation, the model can display both the temporal and spatial distribution of air pollutants in a dynamic manner. Thus, a more insightful understanding of how local air quality is affected by meteorology can be obtained.

  2. Efficient degradation of organic pollutants in aqueous solution with bicarbonate-activated hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Xu, Aihua; Li, Xiaoxia; Xiong, Hui; Yin, Guochuan

    2011-02-01

    Bicarbonate anion is an efficient activator for hydrogen peroxide to generate many active oxygen species including peroxymonocarbonate (HCO(4)(-)), superoxide ion (O(2)(-)) and singlet oxygen ((1)O(2)). This study aims to understand the oxidative degradation of organic pollutants including methyl blue, methyl orange, rhodamine B, and 4-chlorophenol, with H(2)O(2) activated by sodium bicarbonate at room temperature. The obtained results indicate that such a method is apparently efficient in versatile pollutant degradation. Compared with using H(2)O(2) alone under similar pH conditions, the degradation rates of the pollutants were greatly enhanced through adding NaHCO(3). Through LC-MS, FT-IR and the TOC analysis, the degradation of methylene blue was revealed to proceed by the transformation of dimethylamino group in methylene blue to methylamino, aldehyde and nitro group, and the opening of phenyl ring into small molecular compounds and CO(2). The studies using the (1)O(2) scavenger sodium azide and the O(2)(-) indicator nitro blue tetrazolium suggest that the active O(2)(-) intermediate, generated from HCO(4)(-) decomposition, rather than (1)O(2) was involved in the pollutant degradation.

  3. ANALYTICAL METHODS DEVELOPED FOR THE CHILDREN'S TOTAL EXPOSURES TO PERSISTENT PESTICIDES AND OTHER PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (CTEPP) STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Children's Total Exposure to Persistent Pesticides and Other Persistent Organic Pollutants (CTEPP) study was designed by the U.S. EPA to collect data on young children's exposures to pesticides and other pollutants in their everyday environments in support of the Food Quality...

  4. ANALYTICAL METHODS DEVELOPED FOR THE CHILDREN'S TOTAL EXPOSURES TO PERSISTENT PESTICIDES AND OTHER PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (CTEPP) STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Children's Total Exposure to Persistent Pesticides and Other Persistent Organic Pollutants (CTEPP) study was designed by the U.S. EPA to collect data on young children's exposures to pesticides and other pollutants in their everyday environments in support of the Food Quality...

  5. Organic pollutants profiling of wood ashes from biomass power plants linked to the ash characteristics.

    PubMed

    Rey-Salgueiro, Ledicia; Omil, Beatriz; Merino, Agustín; Martínez-Carballo, Elena; Simal-Gándara, Jesús

    2016-02-15

    Wood ash, characterized by high content of certain nutrients and charcoal, can be applied to soils as a means of managing this waste product improving the soil quality. The associated environmental risk must be assessed. The objective of this study was to characterize the bottom and fly ash collected from 15 biomass power plants in Spain by determining the benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene and styrene (BTEX+S), PAHs and aliphatic hydrocarbon contents of both types of ash. Biochar was also used for comparison purposes. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometric methods were used for the identification and determination of both BTEX+S and aliphatic hydrocarbon contents in bottom and fly ashes, as well as biochar. High performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection was used for PAHs measurements. Multivariate correlation analysis was used to determine the relationship between sample characteristics and pollutants identified by partial least squares regression analysis. In general, the degree to which organic matter in the sample is burned increases with T50 or the "50% burn off" temperature (possibly due to the addition of fuel), and the BTEX+S also tended to increase. However, as the Q/MO (the heat of combustion divided by organic matter mass) increased, the combustion decreased or proceeded with less oxygen, which appears to be related to an increased presence of PAHs. The results confirm that the amounts of organic pollutants (PAHs and BTEX+S, together with total aliphatic hydrocarbons) in the wood ash do not exceed limits established for different soil or industrial uses. Both types of ash, together with biochar, may therefore be suitable for application to soil as a fertilizer and an organic amendment, taking into account the target organic pollutants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Fate of organic contaminants in the redox zones of a landfill leachate pollution plume (Vejen, Denmark)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyngkilde, John; Christensen, Thomas H.

    1992-09-01

    Samples from 75 sample locations in a landfill leachate pollution plume reveal a significant disappearance of specific organic compounds (SOC's) within the first 100 m of the plume. Only the herbicide Mecoprop® (MCPP) migrates further. Since sorption and dilution cannot account for the decreasing concentrations, degradation is considered to be the governing process. Non-volatile organic carbon shows a corresponding fate probably acting as a substrate for the microbial processes. The first 20 m of the plume are methanogenic/sulfidogenic, judged on the chemistry of the groundwater, followed by a significant ferrogenic zone exhibiting a substantial capacity to degrade the SOC's. The presence of intermediary products (here an oxidized camphor compound) supports the concept of degradation within the ferrogenic zone. This investigation draws the attention to the significant natural attenuation of organic contaminants and to the so far neglected ferrogenic zone in controlling the fate of organic contaminants in leachate plumes.

  7. Noncommunicable diseases: global health priority or market opportunity? An illustration of the World Health Organization at its worst and at its best.

    PubMed

    Katz, Alison Rosamund

    2013-01-01

    The promotion of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) as a global health priority started a decade ago and culminated in a 2011 United Nations high-level meeting. The focus is on four diseases (cardiovascular and chronic respiratory diseases, cancers, and diabetes) and four risk factors (tobacco use, unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, and harmful alcohol use). The message is that disease and death are now globalized, risk factors are overwhelmingly behavioral, and premature NCD deaths, especially in low- and middle-income countries, are the concern. The NCD agenda is promoted by United Nations agencies, foundations, institutes, and organizations in a style that suggests a market opportunity. This "hard sell" of NCDs contrasts with the sober style of the World Health Organization's Global Burden of Disease report, which presents a more nuanced picture of mortality and morbidity and different implications for global health priorities. This report indicates continuing high levels of premature death from infectious disease and from maternal, perinatal, and nutritional conditions in low-income countries and large health inequalities. Comparison of the reports offers an illustration of the World Health Organization at its worst, operating under the influence of the private sector, and at its best, operating according to its constitutional mandate.

  8. Organic-inorganic hybrid fluorous monolithic capillary column for selective solid-phase microextraction of perfluorinated persistent organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Xiyue; Yang, Zihui; Huang, Yongbin; Jiang, Linbo; Chen, Yingzhuang; Shen, Yao; Chen, Bo

    2013-03-01

    A novel construction strategy of monolithic capillary column for selectively enriching perfluorinated persistent organic pollutants was proposed. The organic-inorganic hybrid fluorous monolithic capillary column was synthesized by a "one-pot" approach via the polycondensation of γ-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxy-silane, then in situ copolymerization of 1H,1H,7H-dodecafluoroheptyl methacrylate and vinyl group on the precondensed siloxanes. The obtained monolithic columns were systematically characterized. The results demonstrated that the optimal column possessed good mechanical stability and high permeability. The adsorption capacities of the optimized monolithic column for perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonate were 0.257 and 0.513 μg/mg, respectively. Adsorption capacities of the monoliths were proved to increasing with increasing the amounts of fluorinated monomers in the fluorous monoliths. Sodium 1-octanesulfonate, as a comparison compound, was hardly adsorbed on the fluorous monolith. In addition, the trace amounts of perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonate in water samples can be successfully concentrated about 160 times to their original concentrations by this monolithic column. These results demonstrated that the capacity and selectivity of the affinity fluorous column is high and can be applied to the selective enrichment for the perfluorinated persistent organic pollutants from environmental samples.

  9. Comparative evaluation of liquid-liquid extraction, solid-phase extraction and solid-phase microextraction for the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry determination of multiclass priority organic contaminants in wastewater.

    PubMed

    Robles-Molina, José; Gilbert-López, Bienvenida; García-Reyes, Juan F; Molina-Díaz, Antonio

    2013-12-15

    The European Water Framework Directive (WFD) 2000/60/EC establishes guidelines to control the pollution of surface water by sorting out a list of priority substances that involves a significant risk to or via the aquatic systems. In this article, the analytical performance of three different sample preparation methodologies for the GC-MS/MS determination of multiclass organic contaminants-including priority comprounds from the WFD-in wastewater samples using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was evaluated. The methodologies tested were: (a) liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) with n-hexane; (b) solid-phase extraction (SPE) with C18 cartridges and elution with ethyl acetate:dichloromethane (1:1 (v/v)), and (c) headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) using two different fibers: polyacrylate and polydimethylsiloxane/carboxen/divinilbenzene. Identification and confirmation of the selected 57 compounds included in the study (comprising polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), pesticides and other contaminants) were accomplished using gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) with a triple quadrupole instrument operated in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. Three MS/MS transitions were selected for unambiguous confirmation of the target chemicals. The different advantages and pitfalls of each method were discussed. In the case of both LLE and SPE procedures, the method was validated at two different concentration levels (15 and 150 ng L(-1)) obtaining recovery rates in the range 70-120% for most of the target compounds. In terms of analyte coverage, results with HS-SPME were not satisfactory, since 14 of the compounds tested were not properly recovered and the overall performance was worse than the other two methods tested. LLE, SPE and HS-SPME (using polyacrylate fiber) procedures also showed good linearity and precision. Using any of the three methodologies tested, limits of quantitation obtained for most of the detected compounds were in

  10. Spatial And Temporal Trends Of Organic Pollutants In Vegetation From Remote And Rural Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartrons, Mireia; Catalan, Jordi; Penuelas, Josep

    2016-05-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) used in agricultural, industrial, and domestic applications are widely distributed and bioaccumulate in food webs, causing adverse effects to the biosphere. A review of published data for 1977-2015 for a wide range of vegetation around the globe indicates an extensive load of pollutants in vegetation. On a global perspective, the accumulation of POPs and PAHs in vegetation depends on the industrialization history across continents and distance to emission sources, beyond organism type and climatic variables. International regulations initially reduced the concentrations of POPs in vegetation in rural areas, but concentrations of HCB, HCHs, and DDTs at remote sites did not decrease or even increased over time, pointing to a remobilization of POPs from source areas to remote sites. The concentrations of compounds currently in use, PBDEs and PAHs, are still increasing in vegetation. Differential congener specific accumulation is mostly determined by continent—in accordance to the different regulations of HCHs, PCBs and PBDEs in different countries—and by plant type (PAHs). These results support a concerning general accumulation of toxic pollutants in most ecosystems of the globe that for some compounds is still far from being mitigated in the near future.

  11. A quantitative speciation model for the adsorption of organic pollutants on activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Grivé, M; García, D; Domènech, C; Richard, L; Rojo, I; Martínez, X; Rovira, M

    2013-01-01

    Granular activated carbon (GAC) is commonly used as adsorbent in water treatment plants given its high capacity for retaining organic pollutants in aqueous phase. The current knowledge on GAC behaviour is essentially empirical, and no quantitative description of the chemical relationships between GAC surface groups and pollutants has been proposed. In this paper, we describe a quantitative model for the adsorption of atrazine onto GAC surface. The model is based on results of potentiometric titrations and three types of adsorption experiments which have been carried out in order to determine the nature and distribution of the functional groups on the GAC surface, and evaluate the adsorption characteristics of GAC towards atrazine. Potentiometric titrations have indicated the existence of at least two different families of chemical groups on the GAC surface, including phenolic- and benzoic-type surface groups. Adsorption experiments with atrazine have been satisfactorily modelled with the geochemical code PhreeqC, assuming that atrazine is sorbed onto the GAC surface in equilibrium (log Ks = 5.1 ± 0.5). Independent thermodynamic calculations suggest a possible adsorption of atrazine on a benzoic derivative. The present work opens a new approach for improving the adsorption capabilities of GAC towards organic pollutants by modifying its chemical properties.

  12. Analysis of marine sediment, water and biota for selected organic pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, H.E.; Ray, L.E.; Giam, C.S.

    1981-12-01

    The concentrations of various organic pollutants (benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and pentachlorophenol (PCP) were determined in samples of water, sediment and biota (flounder, killifish, shrimp, crabs, and squid) from San Luis Pass, Texas. Sediment was also analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), phthalic acid esters (PAEs) and various pesticides. Only PCP was detectable in water. In sediment, the relative concentrations were PAEs >> BaP > (PCBs approx. HCB) > PCP. In biota, BaP was not detectable in any animal; HCB was highest in crabs and PCP was highest in all others (flounder, killifish, shrimp and squid). The relative concentrations of HCB and PCP were different in the different organisms. The differences between the relative concentrations in the biota and in sediment are discussed. The results of this study are compared to values measured at other sites. This study is part of a larger effort to identify and quantitate pollutants in various Texas estuaries and to serve as a basis for monitoring marine pollution.

  13. Activation of peroxymonosulfate by graphitic carbon nitride loaded on activated carbon for organic pollutants degradation.

    PubMed

    Wei, Mingyu; Gao, Long; Li, Jun; Fang, Jia; Cai, Wenxuan; Li, Xiaoxia; Xu, Aihua

    2016-10-05

    Graphitic carbon nitride supported on activated carbon (g-C3N4/AC) was prepared through an in situ thermal approach and used as a metal free catalyst for pollutants degradation in the presence of peroxymonosulfate (PMS) without light irradiation. It was found that g-C3N4 was highly dispersed on the surface of AC with the increase of surface area and the exposition of more edges and defects. The much easier oxidation of C species in g-C3N4 to CO was also observed from XPS spectra. Acid Orange 7 (AO7) and other organic pollutants could be completely degraded by the g-C3N4/AC catalyst within 20min with PMS, while g-C3N4+PMS and AC+PMS showed no significant activity for the reaction. The performance of the catalyst was significantly influenced by the amount of g-C3N4 loaded on AC; but was nearly not affected by the initial solution pH and reaction temperature. In addition, the catalysts presented good stability. A nonradical mechanism accompanied by radical generation (HO and SO4(-)) in AO7 oxidation was proposed in the system. The CO groups play a key role in the process; while the exposure of more N-(C)3 group can further increase its electron density and basicity. This study can contribute to the development of green materials for sustainable remediation of aqueous organic pollutants.

  14. Spatial And Temporal Trends Of Organic Pollutants In Vegetation From Remote And Rural Areas

    PubMed Central

    Bartrons, Mireia; Catalan, Jordi; Penuelas, Josep

    2016-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) used in agricultural, industrial, and domestic applications are widely distributed and bioaccumulate in food webs, causing adverse effects to the biosphere. A review of published data for 1977–2015 for a wide range of vegetation around the globe indicates an extensive load of pollutants in vegetation. On a global perspective, the accumulation of POPs and PAHs in vegetation depends on the industrialization history across continents and distance to emission sources, beyond organism type and climatic variables. International regulations initially reduced the concentrations of POPs in vegetation in rural areas, but concentrations of HCB, HCHs, and DDTs at remote sites did not decrease or even increased over time, pointing to a remobilization of POPs from source areas to remote sites. The concentrations of compounds currently in use, PBDEs and PAHs, are still increasing in vegetation. Differential congener specific accumulation is mostly determined by continent—in accordance to the different regulations of HCHs, PCBs and PBDEs in different countries—and by plant type (PAHs). These results support a concerning general accumulation of toxic pollutants in most ecosystems of the globe that for some compounds is still far from being mitigated in the near future. PMID:27146722

  15. Low cost adsorbents for the removal of organic pollutants from wastewater.

    PubMed

    Ali, Imran; Asim, Mohd; Khan, Tabrez A

    2012-12-30

    Water pollution due to organic contaminants is a serious issue because of acute toxicities and carcinogenic nature of the pollutants. Among various water treatment methods, adsorption is supposed as the best one due to its inexpensiveness, universal nature and ease of operation. Many waste materials used include fruit wastes, coconut shell, scrap tyres, bark and other tannin-rich materials, sawdust and other wood type materials, rice husk, petroleum wastes, fertilizer wastes, fly ash, sugar industry wastes blast furnace slag, chitosan and seafood processing wastes, seaweed and algae, peat moss, clays, red mud, zeolites, sediment and soil, ore minerals etc. These adsorbents have been found to remove various organic pollutants ranging from 80 to 99.9%. The present article describes the conversion of waste products into effective adsorbents and their application for water treatment. The possible mechanism of adsorption on these adsorbents has also been included in this article. Besides, attempts have been made to discuss the future perspectives of low cost adsorbents in water treatment.

  16. Oxygen as a promoter for efficient degradation of organic pollutants by high-temperature and high-pressure electrochemistry.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Minghua; Lei, Lecheng; Dai, Qizhou

    2007-07-07

    The introduction of oxygen in electrochemical oxidation at relatively high temperature and pressure as a promoter resulting in synergetic effects, greatly improves the mineralization of high-concentrated organic pollutants.

  17. CTEPP OVERVIEW: A PILOT STUDY OF CHILDREN'S TOTAL EXPOSURE TO PERSISTENT PESTICIDES AND OTHER PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The research study, "Children's Total Exposure to Persistent Pesticides and Other Persistent Organic Pollutants," (CTEPP) is a pilot-scale project involving about 260 children in their everyday surroundings. The objectives of CTEPP are twofold: (1) To measure the agg...

  18. CTEPP OVERVIEW: A PILOT STUDY OF CHILDREN'S TOTAL EXPOSURE TO PERSISTENT PESTICIDES AND OTHER PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The research study, "Children's Total Exposure to Persistent Pesticides and Other Persistent Organic Pollutants," (CTEPP) is a pilot-scale project involving about 260 children in their everyday surroundings. The objectives of CTEPP are twofold: (1) To measure the agg...

  19. Do persistent organic pollutants reach a thermodynamic equilibrium in the global environment?

    PubMed

    Schenker, Sebastian; Scheringer, Martin; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2014-05-06

    Equilibrium partitioning between different environmental media is one of the main driving forces that govern the environmental fate of organic chemicals. In the global environment, equilibrium partitioning is in competition with long-range transport, advective phase transfer processes such as wet deposition, and degradation. Here we investigate under what conditions equilibrium partitioning is strong enough to control the global distribution of organic chemicals. We use a global multimedia mass-balance model to calculate the Globally Balanced State (GBS) of organic chemicals. The GBS is the state where equilibrium partitioning is in balance with long-range transport; it represents the maximum influence of thermodynamic driving forces on the global distribution of a chemical. Next, we compare the GBS with the Temporal Remote State, which represents the long-term distribution of a chemical in the global environment when the chemical's distribution is influenced by all transport and degradation processes in combination. This comparison allows us to identify the chemical properties required for a substance to reach the GBS as a stable global distribution. We find that thermodynamically controlled distributions are rare and do not occur for most Persistent Organic Pollutants. They are only found for highly volatile and persistent substances, such as chlorofluorocarbons. Furthermore, we find that the thermodynamic cold-trap effect (i.e., accumulation of pollutants at the poles because of reduced vapor pressure at low temperatures) is often strongly attenuated by atmospheric and oceanic long-range transport.

  20. Characterization and control of organic compounds emitted from air pollution sources. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Schauer, J.J.; Kleeman, M.J.; Cass, G.R.; Simoneit, B.R.T.

    1998-04-01

    A dilution source sampling system is used to quantify the air pollutant emissions from major urban air pollution sources. The emissions from catalyst-equipped gasoline powered-motor vehicles, noncatalyst gasoline-powered motor vehicls, diesel trucks, meat charbroiling, the cooking of vegetables with seed oils, fireplace combustion of softwood and hardwood, cigarette combustion, and paint spray coating operations are characterized. Semi-volatile and particle-phase organic compounds in the diluted source emissions are collected simultaneously by both a traditional filter/PUF (polyurethane foam) sampling train and by an advanced organic compound-based denuder/filter/PUF sampling train to provide information on the gas/particle phase distribution of the semi-volatile organic compounds. Emission rates of hundreds of organic compounds, spanning carbon number from C1 to C29 are determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. Fine partile mass emission rates and fine particle elemental chemical composition are measured as well.

  1. CORAL: QSPR modeling of rate constants of reactions between organic aromatic pollutants and hydroxyl radical.

    PubMed

    Toropov, A A; Toropova, A P; Rasulev, B F; Benfenati, E; Gini, G; Leszczynska, D; Leszczynski, J

    2012-09-05

    The rate constants (K(OH)) of reactions between 78 organic aromatic pollutants and hydroxyl radical were examined. Simplified molecular input line entry system was used as representation of the molecular structure of the pollutants. Quantitative structure-property relationships was developed using CORAL software (http://www.insilico.eu/CORAL) for four random splits of the data into the subtraining, calibration, and test sets. The obtained results reveal good predictive potential of the applied approach: correlation coefficients (r(2)) for the test sets of the four random splits are 0.75, 0.91, 0.84, and 0.80. Using the Monte Carlo method CORAL software generated the optimal descriptors for one-variable models. The reproducibility of each model was tested performing three runs of the Monte Carlo optimization. The current data were compared to previous results and discussed. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Are marine plastic particles transport vectors for organic pollutants to the Arctic?

    PubMed

    Zarfl, Christiane; Matthies, Michael

    2010-10-01

    Plastic litter accounts for 50-80% of waste items stranded on beaches, floating on the ocean surface and lodged in the seabed. Organic pollutants can be absorbed onto plastic particles from sea water, attached to their surfaces or included in the plastic matrix as additives. Such chemicals may be transported to remote regions by buoyant plastics and ocean currents. We have estimated mass fluxes of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) to the Arctic via the main ocean currents and compared them to those in the dissolved state and in air. Substance fluxes with atmospheric or sea water currents account for several tons per year, whereas those mediated by plastics are four to six orders of magnitude smaller. However, the significance of various pollutant transport routes does not depend only on absolute mass fluxes but also on bioaccumulation in marine food chains.

  3. An efficient recyclable magnetic material for the selective removal of organic pollutants

    PubMed Central

    Monteil, Clément; Bar, Nathalie; Bee, Agnès

    2016-01-01

    Summary Wastewater cleaning strategies based on the adsorption of materials are being increasingly considered, but the wide variety of organic pollutants at low concentrations still makes their removal a challenge. The hybrid material proposed here consists of a zwitterionic polyethylenimine polymer coating a magnetic core. Polyethylenimine is phosphonated at different percentages by a one-step process and used to coat maghemite nanoparticles. It selectively extracts high amounts of cationic and anionic contaminants over a wide range of pH values, depending on the adjustable number of phosphonate groups introduced on the polymer. After recovering the nanoparticles with a magnet, pollutants are quantitatively released by repeated washing with low amounts of pH-adjusted water. The material can be reused many times without noticeable loss of efficiency and is designed to resist high temperatures, oxidation and harsh conditions. PMID:27826519

  4. Persistent organic pollutants in selected fishes of the Gulf of Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Järv, Leili; Kiviranta, Hannu; Koponen, Jani; Rantakokko, Panu; Ruokojärvi, Päivi; Radin, Maia; Raid, Tiit; Roots, Ott; Simm, Mart

    2017-07-01

    Fish samples of Baltic herring, sprat, flounder, perch, salmon, and river lamprey were collected from the Gulf of Finland in 2013 and 2014 with the aim to get an overview of the occurrence of pollutants in fish caught in Estonian waters. The content of non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (ndl PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), organic tin (OT) and perfluorocompounds (PFAS) are examined and discussed in the study. The results revealed that potentially higher content of organo-tin compounds, perfluorocompounds and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in Baltic herring, salmon and river lamprey may cause concern regarding human exposure. It is important to link pollutant content to lipid content of fish taking into account their seasonal variation in different age classes.

  5. Microbial adaptation to biodegrade toxic organic micro-pollutants in membrane bioreactor using different sludge sources.

    PubMed

    Boonnorat, Jarungwit; Chiemchaisri, Chart; Chiemchaisri, Wilai; Yamamoto, Kazuo

    2014-08-01

    Biodegradation of toxic organic micro-pollutants in municipal solid waste (MSW) leachate by membrane bioreactor (MBR) was investigated. The MBR systems were seeded with different sludge sources, one was from a pilot-scale MBR system treating MSW leachate and the other was from an activated sludge sewage treatment plant. The biodegradation of BPA, 2,6-DTBP, BHT, DEP, DBP and DEHP, DCP and BBzP, by sludge from both reactors were found improved with time. However, enhanced biodegradation of micro-pollutants was observed in MBR operated under long sludge age condition. Bacterial population analyses determined by PCR-DGGE revealed the development of phenol and phthalate degrading bacteria consortium in MBR sludge during its operation.

  6. A biomimetic absorbent for removal of trace level persistent organic pollutants from water.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huijuan; Qu, Jiuhui; Dai, Ruihua; Ru, Jia; Wang, Zijian

    2007-05-01

    A novel biomimetic absorbent containing the lipid triolein was developed for removing persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from water. The structural characteristics of the absorbent were obtained by SEM and a photoluminescence method. Under optimum preparation conditions, triolein was perfectly embedded in the cellulose acetate (CA) spheres, the absorbent was stable and no triolein leaked into the water. Dieldrin, endrin, aldrin and heptachlor epoxide were effectively removed by the CA--triolein absorbent in laboratory batch experiments. This suggests that CA-triolein absorbent may serve as a good absorbent for those selected POPs. Triolein in the absorbent significantly increased the absorption capacity, and lower residual concentrations of POPs were achieved when compared to the use of cellulose acetate absorbent. The absorption rate for lipophilic pollutants was very fast and exhibited some relationship with the octanol--water partition coefficient of the analyte. The absorption mechanism is discussed in detail.

  7. Long-term monitoring of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) at the Norwegian Troll station in Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallenborn, R.; Breivik, K.; Eckhardt, S.; Lunder, C. R.; Manø, S.; Schlabach, M.; Stohl, A.

    2013-03-01

    A first long-term monitoring of selected persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in Antarctic air has been conducted at the Norwegian Research station Troll (Dronning Maud Land). As target contaminants 32 PCB congeners, a- and g-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), trans- and cis-chlordane, trans- and cis-nonachlor, p,p'- and o,p-DDT, DDD, DDE as well as hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were selected. The monitoring program with weekly samples taken during the period 2007-2010 was coordinated with the parallel program at the Norwegian Arctic monitoring site (Zeppelin mountain, Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard) in terms of priority compounds, sampling schedule as well as analytical methods. The POP concentration levels found in Antarctica were considerably lower than Arctic atmospheric background concentrations. Similar as observed for Arctic samples, HCB is the predominant POP compound with levels of around 22 pg m-3 throughout the entire monitoring period. In general, the following concentration distribution was found for the Troll samples analyzed: HCB > Sum HCH > Sum PCB > Sum DDT > Sum chlordanes. Atmospheric long-range transport was identified as a major contamination source for POPs in Antarctic environments. Several long-range transport events with elevated levels of pesticides and/or compounds with industrial sources were identified based on retroplume calculations with a Lagrangian particle dispersion model (FLEXPART). The POP levels determined in Troll air were compared with 1 concentrations found in earlier measurement campaigns at other Antarctic research stations from the past 18 yr. Except for HCB for which similar concentration distributions were observed in all sampling campaigns, concentrations in the recent Troll samples were lower than in samples collected during the early 1990s. These concentration reductions are obviously a direct consequence of international regulations restricting the usage of POP-like chemicals on a worldwide scale.

  8. Forty-seven days of decay does not change persistent organic pollutant levels in loggerhead sea turtle eggs.

    PubMed

    Keller, Jennifer M

    2013-04-01

    Reptile and bird eggs are priority samples for specimen banking programs that assess spatial and temporal trends of environmental contaminants. From endangered species, such as sea turtles, nonlethal sampling is required (e.g., unhatched eggs collected postemergence). Previous contaminant monitoring studies have used unhatched sea turtle eggs, but no study has tested whether their concentrations represent levels found in fresh eggs (e.g., eggs collected within 24 h of oviposition). The author analyzed three fresh eggs from different nest depths and up to three unhatched eggs from 10 loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) nests in South Carolina, USA, for a suite of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Lipid-normalized POP concentrations were not significantly different (p > 0.05) between fresh and unhatched eggs or among different depths from the same nest. The POP concentrations in loggerhead eggs from South Carolina were higher than previously measured concentrations in eggs from Florida and slightly lower than concentrations in eggs from North Carolina. This pattern agrees with previously observed trends of increasing POP concentrations in loggerhead turtles inhabiting northern latitudes along the U.S. East Coast. Contaminant profiles are discussed, including a higher chlorinated pattern of polychlorinated biphenyls possibly associated with a Superfund site in nearby Brunswick, Georgia, USA, and unusual polybrominated diphenylether patterns seen in this and previous sea turtle studies. Concentrations correlated with one of eight measurements of reproductive success; levels were negatively correlated with egg mass (p < 0.05), which may have implications for hatchling fitness. The present study suggests that unhatched eggs can be used for POP-monitoring projects.

  9. Implications of biological factors on accumulation of persistent organic pollutants in Antarctic notothenioid fish.

    PubMed

    Ríos, J M; Lana, N B; Ciocco, N F; Covaci, A; Barrera-Oro, E; Moreira, E; Altamirano, J C

    2017-11-01

    In the present study, the possible associations between selected persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and biological factors were assessed in different tissues of two Antarctic notothenioid fish: Notothenia rossii (NOR) and Trematomus newnesi (TRN) collected at Potter Cove, King George Island/Isla 25 de Mayo, South Shetland Islands. Specifically, association patterns between biological factors (body size, lipid content, body condition) and POP concentrations (polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and metabolites, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), chlordanes (CHLs) and methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs)), were explored by using two approaches: multivariate analyses (principal component analysis: PCA) and intraspecific correlations. Integrating results suggest that biological factors such as size, KI and tissue type seemed to be associated to selective accumulation of POPs for immature specimens of N. rossii, and KI and tissue type for mature specimens of T. newnesi. Each particular factor should be considered when choosing N. rossii or T. newnesi as sentinels for POPs pollution in Antarctic marine environments. Further, both nototheniids showed a selective accumulation pattern in their gonads of penta-chlorinated biphenyls (penta-CBs; 55.5 and 29ngg(-1) lw for N. rossii and T. newnesi, respectively) and organochlorine pesticides such as DDTs (199 and 13.3ngg(-1) lw, for N. rossii and T. newnesi respectively), and of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in gills (97.2 and 22.1 for ngg(-1) lw, for N. rossii and T. newnesi, respectively), highlighting the importance of these tissues in monitoring studies of pollution in fish. The current study expands the knowledge concerning the biological factors to be investigated when specific pollutants are monitored and supports the importance of tissue type for the selective accumulation of POPs in Antarctic

  10. Sources of persistent organic pollutants emission on the territory of Belarus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakareka, Sergey V.

    The paper considers selected persistent organic pollutants (POPs) atmospheric emission evaluation on the territory of Belarus for main source categories. The procedure applied was based on the UNECE EMEP methodology. Data of industrial statistics, production processes analysis and relevant emission factors were used. For a number of sources, only quality and semi-quality emission evaluation was conducted, due to the lack of information for the selection of emission factors or statistical data relevant. In the paper, emissions of the following groups of pollutants are discussed: dioxins/furans (PCDD/PCDF) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) as requested for EMEP database (Protocol on Persistent Organic Pollutants to the convention of 1979 on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution in Europe and Annexes I, II, or III to the Protocol, 1998). PAH emission and selected chlorinated pesticides input also requested by EMEP will be described in other issues. Estimations have showed that Belarus as a whole is not a large emission source of such POPs as dioxins. Its share in European emissions is significantly below 1%. This can be explained by the fact that in Belarus there are no such large dioxin emission sources like sintering, waste incineration, non-ferrous industry. But some important sources of dioxins/furans for instance, open burning are not included in quantitative estimation now. The main contribution to dioxin emissions is by firewood and peat combustion. Only electric steel smelting plant can be considered as a large emission point source. Leakage from transformers and damaged capacitors was estimated as the main source of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) discharged into the environment: dielectric fluids with PCB are still in use in electrical equipment.

  11. Levels and predictors of persistent organic pollutants in an adult population from four Spanish regions.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Rodríguez, M; Arrebola, J P; Artacho-Cordón, F; Amaya, E; Aragones, N; Llorca, J; Perez-Gomez, B; Ardanaz, E; Kogevinas, M; Castano-Vinyals, G; Pollan, M; Olea, N

    2015-12-15

    This research aimed to assess serum concentrations of a group of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in a sample of adults recruited in four different regions from Spain and to assess socio-demographic, dietary, and lifestyle predictors of the exposure. The study population comprised 312 healthy adults selected from among controls recruited in the MCC-Spain multicase-control study. Study variables were collected using standardized questionnaires, and pollutants were analyzed by means of gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Multivariable analyses were performed to identify predictors of log-transformed pollutant concentrations, using combined backward and forward stepwise multiple linear regression models. Detection rates ranged from 89.1% (hexachlorobenzene, HCB) to 93.6% (Polychlorinated biphenyl-153 [PCB-153]); p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) showed the highest median concentrations (1.04ng/ml), while HCB showed the lowest (0.24ng/ml). In the multivariable models, age was positively associated with HCB, p,p'-DDE, and PCB-180. BMI was associated positively with p,p'-DDE but negatively with PCB-138. Total accumulated time residing in an urban area was positively associated with PCB-153 concentrations. The women showed higher HCB and lower p,p'-DDE concentrations versus the men. Notably, POP exposure in our study population was inversely associated with the breastfeeding received by participants and with the number of pregnancies of their mothers but was not related to the participants' history of breastfeeding their children or parity. Smoking was negatively associated with HCB and PCB-153 concentrations. Consumption of fatty foods, including blue fish, was in general positively associated with POP levels. Although POP environmental levels are declining worldwide, there is a need for the continuous monitoring of human exposure in the general population. The results of the present study confirm previous findings and point to novel

  12. Organic trace pollutants in the aquatic environment--regulatory and technical problem-solving approaches in Germany and China.

    PubMed

    Koester, Stephan; Beier, Silvio; Zhao, Fang Fang; Sui, Qian; Yu, Gang; Pinnekamp, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, worldwide awareness of an aquatic environment polluted by organic trace pollutants, e.g. pharmaceutical residues and industrial chemicals, has risen tremendously. The present paper outlines similarities and differences in how to face the organic trace pollutants occurring in the natural and urban water cycles in Germany and China. Our joint review clearly shows that this emerging environmental problem is in both countries being widely discussed on a scientific level and it is evidently perceived in a comparable way. However, while the state of knowledge, which is still unsatisfactory, induces further investigations in China, the research activities in Germany have already led to first full-scale applications to remove trace pollutants. While Germany seems to be one step ahead, China possibly is in a better position for a later trace pollutants removal due to the massively increasing use of membrane bioreactors as a key technology for the necessary expansion of wastewater treatment capacities.

  13. Preparation and selective adsorption of organic pollutants by an inorganic molecular imprinted polymer.

    PubMed

    Shang, Jiaobo; Song, Yanqun; Rong, Chuan; Wang, Yinghui; Wang, Liwei; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Yu, Kefu

    A novel inorganic molecular imprinted polymer (MIP) was synthesized by adding Al(3+) to the Fe/SiO2 gel with Acid Orange II (AO II) as the template. The MIP was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and nitrogen adsorption-desorption measurement. Compared with the non-imprinted polymer (NIP), the MIP enhanced the adsorption capacity of the target pollutants AO II. The selective adsorption capacity study indicated that the MIP adsorbed more AO II than the interferent Bisphenol A (BPA), which also has the structure of a benzene ring, thus proving the selective adsorption capacity of the MIP for template molecules AO II. In addition, the adsorption of AO II over MIP belonged to the Langmuir type and pseudo-second adsorption kinetics, and Dubinin-Radushkevich model indicates that the adsorption process of AO II over MIP and NIP are both given priority to chemical adsorption. The MIP reusability in performance was demonstrated in at least six repeated cycles.

  14. Ultra performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure photoionization-tandem mass spectrometry for high-sensitivity and high-throughput analysis of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 16 priority pollutants polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Cai, Sheng-Suan; Syage, Jack A; Hanold, Karl A; Balogh, Michael P

    2009-03-15

    In this work, we demonstrate the utility of ultra performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure photoionization-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-APPI-MS/MS) for high-sensitivity and high-throughput analysis of United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) 16 priority pollutants polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Analyses were performed on a Waters Acquity-TQD equipped with Syagen's PhotoMate APPI source. All 16 PAHs were analyzed on column in approximately 3.5 min with excellent chromatographic separation for all PAH isomers and with low picogram detection limits on column for all analytes using chlorobenzene as a dopant. Dynamic linear ranges were evaluated and found to cover at least 3-4 orders of magnitude. In comparison with the existing U.S. EPA methods, this approach improves instrument sample throughput by at least 10-fold.

  15. Contamination by persistent organic pollutants in dumping sites of Asian developing countries: implication of emerging pollution sources.

    PubMed

    Minh, N H; Minh, T B; Kajiwara, N; Kunisue, T; Subramanian, A; Iwata, H; Tana, T S; Baburajendran, R; Karuppiah, S; Viet, P H; Tuyen, B C; Tanabe, S

    2006-05-01

    In Asian developing countries, large amounts of municipal wastes are dumped daily in open dumping sites without proper management. This practice may cause several adverse environmental consequences and increased health risk to local communities. To elucidate contamination by persistent organic pollutants (POPs)--including dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), chlordanes, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)--in such dumping sites, soil samples were collected from open dumping sites and respective control sites in Cambodia, India, and Vietnam from 1999 through 2001. Our results demonstrated that DDTs, PCBs, and HCHs were dominant contaminants in the dumping sites. However, the contamination pattern was not consistent, showing higher HCHs in India than in Cambodia and Vietnam. Interestingly, in all of the countries, extremely higher levels of POPs were observed in the dumping sites compared with those in the respective control sites, suggesting significant amplification of POP contamination in the dumping sites of Asian developing countries. Mean concentrations of DDTs and PCBs were 350 and 140 ng/g dry weight, respectively, in the dumping sites of Cambodia and 26 and 210 ng/g, respectively, in India. These residue levels were hundreds to thousands times higher than those in general soils, implying possible risk to human health of the local communities, especially to the rag pickers, including children who work in these sites to collect recyclable materials. Composition of DDT compounds suggested their recent use in populated areas, which in turn might have caused increased levels of DDTs in the open dumping sites. In addition, composition of HCH isomers revealed their different use pattern in different countries.

  16. Case Studies in the Electrochemical Treatment of Wastewater Containing Organic Pollutants Using BDD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polcaro, Anna Maria; Mascia, M.; Palmas, S.; Vacca, A.

    A critical review is presented in this chapter on the possible applications of boron-doped diamond (BDD) as anode material to perform oxidation of organic compounds in aqueous solution. The oxidation of model substances is studied as well as that of the main classes of pollutants, such as phenols, dyes, pesticides and drugs, surfactants, which make some problems of degradation with the traditional wastewater treatments. The presented results indicate that organic compounds refractory to other oxidation techniques are successfully oxidized at BDD, even if the reaction mechanism is differently dependent on the organic compound and the electrolyte composition. Economic considerations reveal that electrochemical oxidations at BDD are less expensive than other advanced oxidation processes, indicating that in the near future this technology can become a competitive treatment for the removal of refractory compounds from wastewater.

  17. Typical low cost biosorbents for adsorptive removal of specific organic pollutants from water.

    PubMed

    Tran, Van Son; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan; Zhang, Jian; Liang, Shuang; Ton-That, Cuong; Zhang, Xinbo

    2015-04-01

    Specific organic pollutants (SOPs) such as phenolic compounds, PAHs, organic pesticides, and organic herbicides cause health and environmental problems due to their excessive toxic properties and poor biodegradability. Low-cost biosorbents are considered as a promising alternative for conventional adsorbents to remove SOPs from water. These materials have several advantages such as high sorption capacities, good modifiability and recoverability, insensitivity to toxic substances, simple operation in the treatment processes. However, previous reports on various types of biosorbents for removing SOPs are still moderately fragmented. Hence, this paper provides a comprehensive review on using typical low-cost biosorbents obtained from lignocellulose and chitin/chitosan for SOPs adsorption. Especially, their characteristics, biosorption mechanism together with utilization for eliminating SOPs are presented and discussed. The paper also gives a critical view regarding future applications of low-cost biosorbents in SOPs-contaminated water treatment.

  18. Removal of triazine-based pollutants from water by carbon nanotubes: Impact of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and solution chemistry.

    PubMed

    Engel, Maya; Chefetz, Benny

    2016-12-01

    Adsorption of organic pollutants by carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in the environment or removal of pollutants during water purification require deep understanding of the impacts of the presence of dissolved organic matter (DOM). DOM is an integral part of environmental systems and plays a key role affecting the behavior of organic pollutants. In this study, the effects of solution chemistry (pH and ionic strength) and the presence of DOM on the removal of atrazine and lamotrigine by single-walled CNTs (SWCNTs) was investigated. The solubility of atrazine slightly decreased (∼5%) in the presence of DOM, whereas that of lamotrigine was significantly enhanced (by up to ∼70%). Simultaneous introduction of DOM and pollutant resulted in suppression of removal of both atrazine and lamotrigine, which was attributed to DOM-pollutant competition or blockage of adsorption sites by DOM. However the decrease in removal of lamotrigine was also a result of its complexation with DOM. Pre-introduction of DOM significantly reduced pollutant adsorption by the SWCNTs, whereas introduction of DOM after the pollutant resulted in the release of adsorbed atrazine and lamotrigine from the SWCNTs. These data imply that DOM exhibits higher affinity for the adsorption sites than the triazine-based pollutants. In the absence of DOM atrazine was a more effective competitor than lamotrigine for adsorption sites in SWCNTs. However, competition between pollutants in the presence of DOM revealed lamotrigine as the better competitor. Our findings help unravel the complex DOM-organic pollutant-CNT system and will aid in CNT-implementation in water-purification technologies.

  19. Organics in the atmosphere: From air pollution to biogeochemical cycles and climate (Vilhelm Bjerknes Medal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanakidou, Maria

    2016-04-01

    Organics are key players in the biosphere-atmosphere-climate interactions. They have also a significant anthropogenic component due to primary emissions or interactions with pollution. The organic pool in the atmosphere is a complex mixture of compounds of variable reactivity and properties, variable content in C, H, O, N and other elements depending on their origin and their history in the atmosphere. Multiphase atmospheric chemistry is known to produce organic acids with high oxygen content, like oxalic acid. This water soluble organic bi-acid is used as indicator for cloud processing and can form complexes with atmospheric Iron, affecting Iron solubility. Organics are also carriers of other nutrients like nitrogen and phosphorus. They also interact with solar radiation and with atmospheric water impacting on climate. In line with this vision for the role of organics in the atmosphere, we present results from a global 3-dimensional chemistry-transport model on the role of gaseous and particulate organics in atmospheric chemistry, accounting for multiphase chemistry and aerosol ageing in the atmosphere as well as nutrients emissions, atmospheric transport and deposition. Historical simulations and projections highlight the human impact on air quality and atmospheric deposition to the oceans. The results are put in the context of climate change. Uncertainties and implications of our findings for biogeochemical and climate modeling are discussed.

  20. Impacts of ozonation on the competition between organic micro-pollutants and effluent organic matter in powdered activated carbon adsorption.

    PubMed

    Zietzschmann, F; Mitchell, R-L; Jekel, M

    2015-11-01

    This study investigates if ozonation of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent can reduce the negative impacts of effluent organic matter (EfOM) on the adsorption of organic micro-pollutants (OMP) onto powdered activated carbon (PAC). Pre-treatment of the water included membrane filtration for the removal of suspended/colloidal organics, ozonation with various specific ozone consumptions, and subsequent OMP spiking to comparable initial concentrations in all of the ozonated waters. This approach allowed for comparative PAC adsorption tests. Adsorption analyses show that the adsorbability of EfOM decreases with increasing specific ozone consumptions. This is also reflected by liquid chromatography with online carbon and UV254 detection (LC-OCD) which shows the ozone-induced disintegration of large EfOM into smaller fragments. Also, small organic neutrals are decreased while the small organic acids peak continuously increases with rising specific ozone consumptions. UV254 demonstrates that the aromaticity of all LC-OCD fractions continuously declines together with increasing specific O3 consumptions. This explains the varying EfOM adsorbabilities that occur due to ozonation. The ozone-induced decrease of EfOM adsorbability directly translates into reduced adsorption competition against the adsorption of OMP. With higher specific ozone consumptions, OMP removal and OMP loadings increase. The reduced adsorption competition is reflected in the outputs from equivalent background compound (EBC) modeling. In each of the ozonated waters, correlations between the OMP removals and the UV254 removal were found.